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Sample records for vibratory finishing process

  1. Optimization of vibratory welding process parameters using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Pravin Kumar; Kumar, S. Deepak; Patel, D.; Prasad, S. B. [National Institute of Technology Jamshedpur, Jharkhand (India)

    2017-05-15

    The current investigation was carried out to study the effect of vibratory welding technique on mechanical properties of 6 mm thick butt welded mild steel plates. A new concept of vibratory welding technique has been designed and developed which is capable to transfer vibrations, having resonance frequency of 300 Hz, into the molten weld pool before it solidifies during the Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process. The important process parameters of vibratory welding technique namely welding current, welding speed and frequency of the vibrations induced in molten weld pool were optimized using Taguchi’s analysis and Response surface methodology (RSM). The effect of process parameters on tensile strength and hardness were evaluated using optimization techniques. Applying RSM, the effect of vibratory welding parameters on tensile strength and hardness were obtained through two separate regression equations. Results showed that, the most influencing factor for the desired tensile strength and hardness is frequency at its resonance value, i.e. 300 Hz. The micro-hardness and microstructures of the vibratory welded joints were studied in detail and compared with those of conventional SMAW joints. Comparatively, uniform and fine grain structure has been found in vibratory welded joints.

  2. The Numerical FEM Model of the Kinematics of the Vibratory Shot Peening Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Bławucki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of numerical calculations, with the finite element method in the ABAQUS program environment, of the vibratory shot peening process with loose peening elements. The behaviour of shot peening elements was analysed in the kinematic aspect. The impact of the initial deployment of vibratory shot peening elements on their behaviour during processing was investigated, including the displacement, velocity, acceleration and the number of collisions. The way of determining the effectiveness of the processing with the vibratory shot peening was illustrated.

  3. Processing and finishing of granite surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Klich, J. (Jiří); Hlaváček, P. (Petr); Ščučka, J. (Jiří); Sitek, L. (Libor); Foldyna, J. (Josef); Georgiovská, L. (Lucie); Souček, K. (Kamil); Staš, L. (Lubomír); Bortolussi, A.

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with granite surface processing and finishing by various methods including bush hammering, flaming, polishing, continuous and pulsating water jetting. Both optical and CT X-ray methods are used for analysis of surface and subsurface areas of tested samples. Advantages of pulsating water jetting compared to other techniques are discussed.

  4. Vibratory shear enhanced membrane process and its application in starch wastewater recycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Sarwar Hasan

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Membrane application in wastewater is gaining significant popularity. Selecting the right membrane and filtration technique is an important consideration to ensure a successful system development and long term performance. A new type of membrane filtration technology known as ‘Vibratory Shear Enhanced Process’ (VSEP is introduced in this paper with some test results that has been conducted with VSEP pilot unit to recycle starch wastewater. Conventional cross flow membrane process used in wastewater application always led to rapid fouling. This loss in throughput capacity is primarily due to the formation of a layer that builds up naturally on the membranes surface during the filtration process. In addition to cutting down on the flux performance of the membrane, this boundary or gel layer acts as a secondary membrane reducing the native design selectivity of the membrane in use. This inability to handle the buildup of solids has also limited the use of membranes to low-solids feed streams. In a VSEP system, an additional shear wave produced by the membrane’s vibration cause solids and foulants to be lifted off the membrane surface and remixed with the bulk material flowing through the membrane stack. This high shear processing exposes the membrane pores for maximum throughput that is typically between 3 to10 times the throughput of conventional cross-flow systems. The short term results with raw starch wastewater shows very stable flux rate of 110 lmh using the VSEP system and selecting the PVDF ultrafiltration membrane with no pre-filtration.

  5. Development and assessment of two decontamination processes: closed electropolishing system for decontamination of underwater surfaces -vibratory decontamination with abrasives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benavides, E.; Fajardo, M.

    1992-01-01

    Two decontamination processes have been developed to decontaminate the stainless steel components of nuclear power plants. The first process uses an underwater closed electropolishing system for the decontamination of large stainless steel surfaces in flooded systems without loss of electrolyte. Large underwater contaminated areas can be treated with an electropolishing head covering an area of 2 m 2 in one step. The decontamination factors achieved with this technique range between 100 and 1000. The second process consists in the decontamination of nuclear components using vibratory equipment with self-cleaning abrasives generating a minimum quantity of waste. This technique may reach contamination factors similar to those obtained with other abrasive methods (brush abrasion, abrasive blasting, etc...). The obtained decontamination factors range between 5 and 50. Only a small quantity of waste is generated, which is treated and reduced in volume by filtration and evaporation

  6. Hybrid machining processes perspectives on machining and finishing

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Kapil; Laubscher, R F

    2016-01-01

    This book describes various hybrid machining and finishing processes. It gives a critical review of the past work based on them as well as the current trends and research directions. For each hybrid machining process presented, the authors list the method of material removal, machining system, process variables and applications. This book provides a deep understanding of the need, application and mechanism of hybrid machining processes.

  7. Monitoring and control of fine abrasive finishing processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarev, Ruslan

    In engineering, surfaces with specified functional properties are of high demand in various applications. Desired surface finish can be obtained using several methods. Abrasive finishing is one of the most important processes in the manufacturing of mould and dies tools. It is a principal method ...... was segmented using discretization methods. The applied methodology was proposed for implementation as an on-line system and is considered to be a part of the next generation of STRECON NanoRAP machine....... to remove unwanted material, obtain desired geometry, surface quality and surface functional properties. The automation and computerization of finishing processes involves utilisation of robots, specialized machines with several degrees of freedom, sensors and data acquisition systems. The focus...... of this work was to investigate foundations for process monitoring and control methods in application to semi-automated polishing machine based on the industrial robot. The monitoring system was built on NI data acquisition system with two sensors, acoustic emission sensor and accelerometer. Acquired sensory...

  8. Improvement of hydroforming processes using tailored semi-finished tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goebel, R.; Chatti, S.; Homberg, W.; Kleiner, M.; Shankar, R. [Dortmund Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Forming Technology and Lightweight Construction

    2005-07-01

    The manufacturing of curved tubular workpieces with complex geometry by hydroforming is a well known process. The formability of workpieces is limited by the overall amount of expansion, which always has to start with the smallest perimeter. Especially workpieces with a high ratio between the smallest and widest diameter are critical with regard to their manufacture. To improve the capability the hydroforming process, a new concept using tailored semi-finished tubes with a variable cross-section has been developed. Instead of only expanding a tube with the smallest diameter, the diameter of a tube with middle-sized cross-section is reduced locally by a spinning process so that only the critical regions left have to be expanded. Due to the fact that usually the pre-form has to be bent to assure that it fits into the tool, an additional specialized tube-bending process has been developed to realize the bending of tubes with variable diameter. In this article, the investigation and optimization of this process chain is presented. The capabilities of the process have been improved regarding the behavior of the workpieces in the hydroforming process by manufacturing a complex structural part originating from automotive industry. (orig.)

  9. Design Process Control for Improved Surface Finish of Metal Additive Manufactured Parts of Complex Build Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikdam Jamal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Metal additive manufacturing (AM is increasingly used to create complex 3D components at near net shape. However, the surface finish (SF of the metal AM part is uneven, with surface roughness being variable over the facets of the design. Standard post-processing methods such as grinding and linishing often meet with major challenges in finishing parts of complex shape. This paper reports on research that demonstrated that mass finishing (MF processes are able to deliver high-quality surface finishes (Ra and Sa on AM-generated parts of a relatively complex geometry (both internal features and external facets under select conditions. Four processes were studied in this work: stream finishing, high-energy (HE centrifuge, drag finishing and disc finishing. Optimisation of the drag finishing process was then studied using a structured design of experiments (DOE. The effects of a range of finishing parameters were evaluated and optimal parameters and conditions were determined. The study established that the proposed method can be successfully applied in drag finishing to optimise the surface roughness in an industrial application and that it is an economical way of obtaining the maximum amount of information in a short period of time with a small number of tests. The study has also provided an important step in helping understand the requirements of MF to deliver AM-generated parts to a target quality finish and cycle time.

  10. Wavelet theory and belt finishing process, influence of wavelet shape on the surface roughness parameter values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khawaja, Z; Mazeran, P-E; Bigerelle, M; Guillemot, G; Mansori, M El

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a multi-scale theory based on wavelet decomposition to characterize the evolution of roughness in relation with a finishing process or an observed surface property. To verify this approach in production conditions, analyses were developed for the finishing process of the hardened steel by abrasive belts. These conditions are described by seven parameters considered in the Tagushi experimental design. The main objective of this work is to identify the most relevant roughness parameter and characteristic length allowing to assess the influence of finishing process, and to test the relevance of the measurement scale. Results show that wavelet approach allows finding this scale.

  11. Radiation technology in finishing process improves health, safety and environment (HSE) in the furniture manufacturing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Shakri Mat Seman

    1999-01-01

    In furniture manufacturing, processes like cross cutting, molding, planning, shaping, turning, assembling and finishing are involved. The most significant types of negative impact of these processes are such as dust emission, noise, hazardous work, health risk, emission of organic solvent, toxic chemicals emission and chemical waste. In the finishing process, a number of negative effects that will cause health, safety and environmental (HSE) performance. This article highlights the environmental problems in the furniture finishing processes and how the radiation technology can reduce these negative impacts. The drawbacks that hamper the manufacturers from adopting this technology are also discussed. The objective of the paper is to create the awareness among the industrialist and consumers on the HSE hazardous in furniture finishing and steps can be taken to improve

  12. Settlement during vibratory sheet piling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, P.

    2007-01-01

    During vibratory sheet piling quite often the soil near the sheet pile wall will settle. In many cases this is not a problem. For situations with houses, pipelines, roads or railroads at relative short distance these settlements may not be acceptable. The purpose of the research described in this

  13. Pose-varied multi-axis optical finishing systems theory and process validation

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Haobo

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on advanced optical finishing techniques and design for high-performance manufacturing systems. It provides numerous detailed examples of how advanced automation techniques have been applied to optical fabrication processes. The simulations, removal rate and accurate experimental results offer useful resources for engineering practice. Researchers, engineers and graduate students working in optical engineering and precision manufacture engineering will benefit from this book.

  14. PCBs with immersion tin finish - some experiences with lead-free reflow process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukat, K.; Koziol, G.; Sitek, J.; Borecki, J.; Hackiewicz, H. [Tele and Radio Research Inst., Warsaw (Poland); Merkle, H.; Schroeder, S. [Ormecon Chemie GmbH and Co. KG, Ammersbek (Germany); Girulska, A.; Gardela, K. [Eldos Sp. z o.o., Wroclaw (Poland)

    2004-07-01

    Substitution of lead-free solders in electronic assemblies requires changes in the conventional SnPb finishes of PCBs. The Craft project ''PRINT'' objectives respond to this challenge. Its main goal is to develop and implement the new technology of high solderability immersion tin for printed circuit boards at small and medium enterprises. The subject of the research was organic based immersion tin coating which would fulfil demands of SMT. In the paper the results of reflow soldering process on PCBs covered by Ormecon registered immersion tin finish with using lead-free solder pastes will be described. Solderability of tin coating as well as wettability of lead-free solder paste will be presented. (orig.)

  15. Fresh meat and further processing characteristics of ham muscles from finishing pigs fed ractopamine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boler, D D; Holmer, S F; Duncan, D A; Carr, S N; Ritter, M J; Stites, C R; Petry, D B; Hinson, R B; Allee, G L; McKeith, F K; Killefer, J

    2011-01-01

    Ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) has consistently led to an advantage in carcass cutting yields of finishing pigs and remains a common feed additive in US finishing pig diets. Less is known about the effect of RAC on further processing characteristics. Some researchers have reported advantages in ultimate pH of the LM in pigs fed RAC. If a greater ultimate pH was also observed in hams, the increased pH could affect further processing characteristics and lead to better protein interaction and improved textural properties. The objective of this experiment was to determine if RAC-fed pigs yielded hams with a greater ultimate pH, and if so, whether or not that advantage improves textural properties and water retention of further processed hams. Two hundred hams from barrows and gilts fed RAC or control diets were selected based on HCW. Hams were fabricated into 5 separate pieces to determine cutting yields, and 6 muscles were evaluated for ultimate pH. Hams were processed to make cured and smoked hams. Ractopamine increased cutting yields of the whole ham (P processed ham characteristics.

  16. Field Tests to Investigate the Penetration Rate of Piles Driven by Vibratory Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohui Qin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Factors directly affecting the penetration rate of piles installed by vibratory driving technique are summarized and classified into seven aspects which are driving force, resistance, vibratory amplitude, energy consumption, speeding up at the beginning, pile plumbness keeping, and slowing down at the end, from the mechanism and engineering practice of the vibratory pile driving. In order to find out how these factors affect the penetration rate of the pile in three major actors of vibratory pile driving: (i the pile to be driven, (ii the selected driving system, and (iii the imposed soil conditions, field tests on steel sheet piles driven by vibratory driving technique in different soil conditions are conducted. The penetration rates of three different sheet pile types having up to four different lengths installed using two different vibratory driving systems are documented. Piles with different lengths and types driven with or without clutch have different penetration rates. The working parameters of vibratory hammer, such as driving force and vibratory amplitude, have great influences on the penetration rate of the pile, especially at the later stages of the sinking process. Penetration rate of piles driven in different soil conditions is uniform because of the different penetration resistance including shaft friction and toe resistance.

  17. Vibratory Machining Effect on the Properties of the Aaluminum Alloys Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bańkowski D.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an example of finishing treatment for aluminum alloys with the use of vibration machining, with loose abrasive media in a closed tumbler. For the analysis of selected properties of the surface layer prepared flat samples of aluminum alloy PA6/2017 in the state after recrystallization. The samples in the first stage were subjected to a treatment of deburring using ceramic media. In a second step polishing process performed with a strengthening metal media. In addition, for comparative purposes was considered. only the case of metal polishing. The prepared samples were subjected to hardness tests and a tangential tensile test. As a result of finishing with vibratory machining, it was possible to remove burrs, flash, rounding sharp edges, smoothing and lightening the surface of objects made. The basic parameters of the surface geometry were obtained using the Talysurf CCI Lite - Taylor Hobson optical profiler. As a result of the tests it can be stated that the greatest reduction of surface roughness and mass loss occurs in the first minutes of the process. Mechanical tests have shown that the most advantageous high values of tensile strength and hardness are obtained with two-stage vibration treatment, - combination of deburring and polishing. Moreover the use of metal media resulted in the strengthening of the surface by pressure deburring with metal media.

  18. Auto-recognition of surfaces and auto-generation of material removal volume for finishing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataraki, Pramod S.; Salman Abu Mansor, Mohd

    2018-03-01

    Auto-recognition of a surface and auto-generation of material removal volumes for the so recognised surfaces has become a need to achieve successful downstream manufacturing activities like automated process planning and scheduling. Few researchers have contributed to generation of material removal volume for a product but resulted in material removal volume discontinuity between two adjacent material removal volumes generated from two adjacent faces that form convex geometry. The need for limitation free material removal volume generation was attempted and an algorithm that automatically recognises computer aided design (CAD) model’s surface and also auto-generate material removal volume for finishing process of the recognised surfaces was developed. The surfaces of CAD model are successfully recognised by the developed algorithm and required material removal volume is obtained. The material removal volume discontinuity limitation that occurred in fewer studies is eliminated.

  19. The chemistry of tributyl phosphate at elevated temperatures in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Process Vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barney, G.S.; Cooper, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    Potentially violent chemical reactions of the tributyl phosphate solvent used by the Plutonium Finishing Plant at the Hanford Site were investigated. There is a small probability that a significant quantity of this solvent could be accidental transferred to heated process vessels and react there with nitric acid or plutonium nitrate also present in the solvent extraction process. The results of laboratory studies of the reactions show that exothermic oxidation of tributyl phosphate by either nitric acid or actinide nitrates is slow at temperatures expected in the heated vessels. Less than four percent of the tributyl phosphate will be oxidized in these vented vessels at temperatures between 125 degrees C and 250 degrees C because the oxidant will be lost from the vessels by vaporization or decomposition before the tributyl phosphate can be extensively oxidized. The net amounts of heat generated by oxidation with concentrated nitric acid and with thorium nitrate (a stand-in for plutonium nitrate) were determined to be about -150 and -220 joules per gram of tributyl phosphate initially present, respectively. This is not enough heat to cause violent reactions in the vessels. Pyrolysis of the tributyl phosphate occurred in these mixtures at temperatures of 110 degrees C to 270 degrees C and produced mainly 1-butene gas, water, and pyrophosphoric acid. Butene gas generation is slow at expected process vessel temperatures, but the rate is faster at higher temperatures. At 252 degrees C the rate of butene gas generated was 0.33 g butene/min/g of tributyl phosphate present. The measured heat absorbed by the pyrolysis reaction was 228 J/g of tributyl phosphate initially present (or 14.5 kcal/mole of tributyl phosphate). Release of flammable butene gas into process areas where it could ignite appears to be the most serious safety consideration for the Plutonium Finishing Plant

  20. The chemistry of tributyl phosphate at elevated temperatures in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Process Vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barney, G.S.; Cooper, T.D.

    1994-06-01

    Potentially violent chemical reactions of the tributyl phosphate solvent used by the Plutonium Finishing Plant at the Hanford Site were investigated. There is a small probability that a significant quantity of this solvent could be accidental transferred to heated process vessels and react there with nitric acid or plutonium nitrate also present in the solvent extraction process. The results of laboratory studies of the reactions show that exothermic oxidation of tributyl phosphate by either nitric acid or actinide nitrates is slow at temperatures expected in the heated vessels. Less than four percent of the tributyl phosphate will be oxidized in these vented vessels at temperatures between 125{degrees}C and 250{degrees}C because the oxidant will be lost from the vessels by vaporization or decomposition before the tributyl phosphate can be extensively oxidized. The net amounts of heat generated by oxidation with concentrated nitric acid and with thorium nitrate (a stand-in for plutonium nitrate) were determined to be about -150 and -220 joules per gram of tributyl phosphate initially present, respectively. This is not enough heat to cause violent reactions in the vessels. Pyrolysis of the tributyl phosphate occurred in these mixtures at temperatures of 110{degrees}C to 270{degrees}C and produced mainly 1-butene gas, water, and pyrophosphoric acid. Butene gas generation is slow at expected process vessel temperatures, but the rate is faster at higher temperatures. At 252{degrees}C the rate of butene gas generated was 0.33 g butene/min/g of tributyl phosphate present. The measured heat absorbed by the pyrolysis reaction was 228 J/g of tributyl phosphate initially present (or 14.5 kcal/mole of tributyl phosphate). Release of flammable butene gas into process areas where it could ignite appears to be the most serious safety consideration for the Plutonium Finishing Plant.

  1. Coriolis vibratory gyroscopes theory and design

    CERN Document Server

    Apostolyuk, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    This book provides the latest theoretical analysis and design methodologies of different types of Coriolis vibratory gyroscopes (CVG). Together, the chapters analyze different types of sensitive element designs and their kinematics, derivation of motion equations, analysis of sensitive elements dynamics in modulated and demodulated signals, calculation and optimization of main performance characteristics, and signal processing and control. Essential aspects of numerical simulation of CVG using Simulink® are also covered. This is an ideal book for graduate students, researchers, and engineers working in fields that require gyroscope application, including but not limited to: inertial sensors and systems, automotive and consumer electronics, small unmanned aircraft control systems, personal mobile navigation systems and related software development, and augmented and virtual reality systems.

  2. GEC Ferranti piezo vibratory gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, J. D.

    1993-01-01

    Prototypes of a piezo-electric vibratory angular rate transducer (gyroscope) (PVG) have been constructed and evaluated. The construction is on the lines suggested by Burdess. The sensitive element is a cylinder of radially poled piezo-electric ceramic. The cylinder is metallized inside and out, and the outer metallization is divided into eight electrodes. The metallization on the inside is earthed. A phase locked loop, using pairs of the electrodes, causes the cylinder to vibrate in one of its two fundamental, degenerate modes. In the presence of rotation, some of the vibration is coupled into the outer mode. This can be detected, or suppressed with a closed-up technique and provides a measure of rotation rate. The gyroscope provides a number of advantages over rotating mass and optical instruments: low size and mass, lower power consumption, potentially high reliability, potentially good dormancy, low cost and high maximum rate.

  3. Repairing the vibratory vocal fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jennifer L

    2018-01-01

    A vibratory vocal fold replacement would introduce a new treatment paradigm for structural vocal fold diseases such as scarring and lamina propria loss. This work implants a tissue-engineered replacement for vocal fold lamina propria and epithelium in rabbits and compares histology and function to injured controls and orthotopic transplants. Hypotheses were that the cell-based implant would engraft and control the wound response, reducing fibrosis and restoring vibration. Translational research. Rabbit adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC) were embedded within a three-dimensional fibrin gel, forming the cell-based outer vocal fold replacement (COVR). Sixteen rabbits underwent unilateral resection of vocal fold epithelium and lamina propria, as well as reconstruction with one of three treatments: fibrin glue alone with healing by secondary intention, replantation of autologous resected vocal fold cover, or COVR implantation. After 4 weeks, larynges were examined histologically and with phonation. Fifteen rabbits survived. All tissues incorporated well after implantation. After 1 month, both graft types improved histology and vibration relative to injured controls. Extracellular matrix (ECM) of the replanted mucosa was disrupted, and ECM of the COVR implants remained immature. Immune reaction was evident when male cells were implanted into female rabbits. Best histologic and short-term vibratory outcomes were achieved with COVR implants containing male cells implanted into male rabbits. Vocal fold cover replacement with a stem cell-based tissue-engineered construct is feasible and beneficial in acute rabbit implantation. Wound-modifying behavior of the COVR implant is judged to be an important factor in preventing fibrosis. NA. Laryngoscope, 128:153-159, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  4. Agricultural Construction Volume II. Oxy-Gas and Other Cutting/Welding Processes. Woodworking, Metals, Finishing. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admire, Myron; Maricle, Gary

    This guide contains instructor's materials for teaching a secondary agricultural construction course consisting of instructional units on oxy-gas and other cutting and welding processes (10 lessons), woodworking (6 lessons), metals (10 lessons), and finishing (4 lessons). The materials for each unit include student objectives, a list of…

  5. Vocal Fold Vibratory Changes Following Surgical Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenli; Woo, Peak; Murry, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    High-speed videoendoscopy (HSV) captures direct cycle-to-cycle visualization of vocal fold movement in real time. This ultrafast recording rate is capable of visualizing the vibratory motion of the vocal folds in severely disordered phonation and provides a direct method for examining vibratory changes after vocal fold surgery. The purpose of this study was to examine the vibratory motion before and after surgical intervention. HSV was captured from two subjects with identifiable midvocal fold benign lesions and six subjects with highly aperiodic vocal fold vibration before and after phonosurgery. Digital kymography (DKG) was used to extract high-speed kymographic vocal fold images sampled at the midmembranous, anterior 1/3, and posterior 1/3 region. Spectral analysis was subsequently applied to the DKG to quantify the cycle-to-cycle movements of the left and the right vocal fold, expressed as a spectrum. Before intervention, the vibratory spectrum consisted of decreased and flat-like spectral peaks with robust power asymmetry. After intervention, increases in spectral power and decreases in power symmetry were noted. Spectral power increases were most remarkable in the midmembranous region of the vocal fold. Surgical modification resulted in improved lateral excursion of the vocal folds, vibratory function, and perceptual measures of Voice Handicap Index-10. These changes in vibratory behavior trended toward normal vocal fold vibration. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 3D printed glass: surface finish and bulk properties as a function of the printing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Susanne; Avery, Michael P.; Richardson, Robert; Bartlett, Paul; Frei, Regina; Simske, Steven

    2015-03-01

    It is impossible to print glass directly from a melt, layer by layer. Glass is not only very sensitive to temperature gradients between different layers but also to the cooling process. To achieve a glass state the melt, has to be cooled rapidly to avoid crystallization of the material and then annealed to remove cooling induced stress. In 3D-printing of glass the objects are shaped at room temperature and then fired. The material properties of the final objects are crucially dependent on the frit size of the glass powder used during shaping, the chemical formula of the binder and the firing procedure. For frit sizes below 250 μm, we seem to find a constant volume of pores of less than 5%. Decreasing frit size leads to an increase in the number of pores which then leads to an increase of opacity. The two different binders, 2- hydroxyethyl cellulose and carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt, generate very different porosities. The porosity of samples with 2-hydroxyethyl cellulose is similar to frit-only samples, whereas carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt creates a glass foam. The surface finish is determined by the material the glass comes into contact with during firing.

  7. Control of formaldehyde and TVOC emission from wood-based flooring composites at various manufacturing processes by surface finishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sumin

    2010-04-15

    This paper assesses the reproducibility of testing formaldehyde and TVOC emission behavior from wood flooring composites bonded by urea-formaldehyde resin at various manufacturing steps for surface finishing materials. The surface adhesion step of laminate flooring for this research was divided into two steps; HDF only and HDF with LPMs. In the case of engineered flooring, the manufacturing steps were divided into three steps; plywood only, fancy veneer bonded on plywood and UV coated on fancy veneer with plywood. Formaldehyde and VOCs emission decreased at the process of final surface finishing materials; LPMs were applied on the surface of HDF for laminate flooring. Although emissions increased when fancy veneer was bonded onto plywood in the case of engineered flooring, emission was dramatically reduced up to similar level with plywood only when final surface finishing; UV-curable coating was applied on fancy veneer. This study suggests that formaldehyde and VOCs emission from floorings can be controlled at manufacturing steps for surface finishing. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization of the Bell-Shaped Vibratory Angular Rate Gyro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfang Fan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro (abbreviated as BVG is a novel shell vibratory gyroscope, which is inspired by the Chinese traditional bell. It sensitizes angular velocity through the standing wave precession effect. The bell-shaped resonator is a core component of the BVG and looks like the millimeter-grade Chinese traditional bell, such as QianLong Bell and Yongle Bell. It is made of Ni43CrTi, which is a constant modulus alloy. The exciting element, control element and detection element are uniformly distributed and attached to the resonator, respectively. This work presents the design, analysis and experimentation on the BVG. It is most important to analyze the vibratory character of the bell-shaped resonator. The strain equation, internal force and the resonator's equilibrium differential equation are derived in the orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. When the input angular velocity is existent on the sensitive axis, an analysis of the vibratory character is performed using the theory of thin shells. On this basis, the mode shape function and the simplified second order normal vibration mode dynamical equation are obtained. The coriolis coupling relationship about the primary mode and secondary mode is established. The methods of the signal processing and control loop are presented. Analyzing the impact resistance property of the bell-shaped resonator, which is compared with other shell resonators using the Finite Element Method, demonstrates that BVG has the advantage of a better impact resistance property. A reasonable means of installation and a prototypal gyro are designed. The gyroscopic effect of the BVG is characterized through experiments. Experimental results show that the BVG has not only the advantages of low cost, low power, long work life, high sensitivity, and so on, but, also, of a simple structure and a better impact resistance property for low and medium angular velocity measurements.

  9. Improved laboratory assays of Pu and U for SRP purification and finishing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.K.; Dorsett, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Significant improvements have been made in routine assay techniques for uranium and plutonium as part of an effort to improve accountability at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Emphasis was placed on input/output accountability points and key physical inventory tanks associated with purification and finishing processes. Improvements were made in existing assay methods; new methods were implemented; and the application of these methods was greatly expanded. Prior to assays, samples were validated via density measurements. Digital density meters precise to four, five, and six decimal places were used to meet specific requirements. Improved plutonium assay techniques are now in routine use: controlled-potential coulometry, ion-exchange coulometry, and Pu(III) diode-array spectrophotometry. A new state-of-the-art coulometer was fabricated and used to ensure maximum accuracy in verifying standards and in measuring plutonium in product streams. The diode-array spectrophotometer for Pu(III) measurements was modified with fiber optics to facilitate remote measurements; rapid, precise measurements made the technique ideally suited for high-throughput assays. For uranium assays, the isotope-dilution mass spectrometric (IDMS) method was converted to a gravimetric basis. The IDMS method and the existing Davies-Gray titration (gravimetric basis) have met accountability requirements for uranium. More recently, a Pu(VI) diode-array spectrophotometric method was used on a test basis to measure plutonium in shielded-cell input accountability samples. In addition, tests to measure uranium via diode-array spectrophotometry were initiated. This rapid, precise method will replace IDMS for certain key sample points

  10. Innovative decontamination technology by abrasion in vibratory vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbri, Silvio; Ilarri, Sergio

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The possibility of using conventional vibratory vessel technology as a decontamination technique is the motivation for the development of this project. The objective is to explore the feasibility of applying the vibratory vessel technology for decontamination of radioactively-contaminated materials such as pipes and metal structures. The research and development of this technology was granted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Abrasion processes in vibratory vessels are widely used in the manufacture of metals, ceramics, and plastics. Samples to be treated, solid abrasive media and liquid media are set up into a vessel. Erosion results from the repeated impact of the abrasive particles on the surface of the body being treated. A liquid media, generally detergents or surfactants aid the abrasive action. The amount of material removed increases with the time of treatment. The design and construction of the machine were provided by Vibro, Argentina private company. Tests with radioactively-contaminated aluminum tubes and a stainless steel bar, were performed at laboratory level. Tests showed that it is possible to clean both the external and the internal surface of contaminated tubes. Results show a decontamination factor around 10 after the first 30 minutes of the cleaning time. (authors)

  11. Water and Oil Repellent Finishing of Textiles by UV Curing: Evaluation of the Influence of Scaled-Up Process Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Ferrero

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, various textile fabrics were coated with silicone and fluorocarbon-based resins by photo-curing using ultraviolet irradiation. A great number of large fabric samples were impregnated by padding with commercial finishing agents and then irradiated in air with a high power, semi-industrial UV source. The add-on of various finishing agents was kept low to reduce the treatment cost. White and dyed samples of different textile composition were treated and evaluated in terms of conferred repellency, yellowing, or color changes. Most relevant process parameters were investigated, utilizing the thermal process normally adopted at industrial level as reference. The results were statistically evaluated by ANOVA using Minitab 16 software, in order to identify the most influential parameters and to evaluate the real possibility of replacing the thermal treatment with UV curing.

  12. Automation Selection and Sequencing of Traps for Vibratory Feeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Simon; Ellekilde, Lars-Peter

    2017-01-01

    Vibratory parts feeders with mechanical orienting devices are used extensively in the assembly automation industry. Even so, the design process is based on trial-and-error approaches and is largely manual. In this paper, a methodology is presented for automatic design of this type of feeder....... The approach uses dynamic simulation for generating the necessary data for configuring a feeder with a sequence of mechanical orienting devices called traps, with the goal of reorienting all parts from a random to fixed orientation. Then, a fast algorithm for facilitating this configuration task automatically...

  13. Designing Process Improvement of Finished Good On Time Release and Performance Indicator Tool in Milk Industry Using Business Process Reengineering Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachyar, M.; Christy, E.

    2014-04-01

    To maintain position as a major milk producer, the Indonesian milk industry should do some business development with the purpose of increasing customer service level. One strategy is to create on time release conditions for finished goods which will be distributed to customers and distributors. To achieve this condition, management information systems of finished goods on time release needs to be improved. The focus of this research is to conduct business process improvement using Business Process Reengineering (BPR). The deliverable key of this study is a comprehensive business strategy which is the solution of the root problems. To achieve the goal, evaluation, reengineering, and improvement of the ERP system are conducted. To visualize the predicted implementation, a simulation model is built by Oracle BPM. The output of this simulation showed that the proposed solution could effectively reduce the process lead time and increase the number of quality releases.

  14. Assessing the most suitable floor system for growing-finishing piggery under tropical conditions using the analytic hierarchy process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Ribeiro Caldara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out worldwide for evaluating different types of floor systems for growing-finishing pigs, specifically for assessing their effectiveness on pig performance, health and behaviour, leaving the opportunity for using multi-criteria analysis in decisionmaking towards the selection of flooring type. This study aimed to select the most suitable floor system for growing-finishing pigs under tropical conditions, considering performance traits and farmers management aspects. The analytic hierarchy process was applied for seeking the best solution considering both the farmers’ goals and the pigs’ welfare. Aspects considered in the analysis were: economic feasibility, rearing thermal and aerial ambient, animal behaviour, performance, and health status. The input used in the calculation was based on the results of a field trial using three treatments: whole concrete floor, coffee and rice husk bedding, and wood shavings deepbedding. Rearing conditions and pigs’ physiological parameters, performance, behaviour, and health status were analysed. When the floor system was considered, the most significant criteria were economic feasibility (0.31 and overall pig performance (0.31 leading to a final deep-bedding selection ranking of coffee and rice husks (1st, concrete floor (2nd, and wood shavings (3rd. Conversely, when the animal welfare was considered, the most decisive criterion was health status (0.32, followed by physiological parameters (0.25, and behaviour (0.23 leading to a final bedding selection ranking of coffee and rice husks (1st, wood shavings (2nd, and concrete floor (3rd. Results indicate that the deep-bedding of coffee and rice husks provided the best choice for both the farmer and the growing-finishing pigs.

  15. Statistical modeling of tear strength for one step fixation process of reactive printing and easy care finishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asim, F.; Mahmood, M.

    2017-01-01

    Statistical modeling imparts significant role in predicting the impact of potential factors affecting the one step fixation process of reactive printing and easy care finishing. Investigation of significant factors on tear strength of cotton fabric for single step fixation of reactive printing and easy care finishing has been carried out in this research work using experimental design technique. The potential design factors were; concentration of reactive dye, concentration of crease resistant, fixation method and fixation temperature. The experiments were designed using DoE (Design of Experiment) and analyzed through software Design Expert. The detailed analysis of significant factors and interactions including ANOVA (Analysis of Variance), residuals, model accuracy and statistical model for tear strength has been presented. The interaction and contour plots of vital factors has been examined. It has been found from the statistical analysis that each factor has an interaction with other factor. Most of the investigated factors showed curvature effect on other factor. After critical examination of significant plots, quadratic model of tear strength with significant terms and their interaction at alpha = 0.05 has been developed. The calculated correlation coefficient, R2 of the developed model is 0.9056. The high values of correlation coefficient inferred that developed equation of tear strength will precisely predict the tear strength over the range of values. (author)

  16. Analysis of the influence of process conditions on the surface finish of ceramic materials manufactured by EDM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puertas-Arbizu, I.; Luis-Perez, C. J.

    2004-01-01

    Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is an emerging alternative versus some other manufacturing processes of conductive ceramic materials, such as: laser machining, electrochemical machining, abrasive water jet, ultrasonic machining and diamond wheel grinding. Due to its interest in the industrial field, in this work a study of the influence of process conditions on the surface aspect of three conductive ceramic materials: hot-pressed boron carbide (B 4 C), reaction-bonded silicon carbide (SiSiC) and cobalt-bonded tungsten carbide (WC-Co) is carried out. These materials are to be electrical discharge machined under different machining conditions and in the particular case of finish stages (Ra≤ 1 μm). (Author)

  17. The Tiger Team Process in the Rebaselining of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAILEY, R.W.

    2000-01-01

    This paper will describe the integrated, teaming approach and planning process utilized by the Tiger Team in the development of the IPMP. This paper will also serve to document the benefits derived from this implementation process

  18. Learning during Processing: Word Learning Doesn't Wait for Word Recognition to Finish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfelbaum, Keith S.; McMurray, Bob

    2017-01-01

    Previous research on associative learning has uncovered detailed aspects of the process, including what types of things are learned, how they are learned, and where in the brain such learning occurs. However, perceptual processes, such as stimulus recognition and identification, take time to unfold. Previous studies of learning have not addressed…

  19. Effect of finishing process on the surface quality of Co-Cr-Mo dental alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Klimecka -Tatar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Preparatory procedures for the material have a significant influence on the surface stereometry of the material. This study investigated the effect of the electropolishing process on the surface quality of metallic prosthetic constructions based on Co-Cr-Mo alloys. It has been found that the process of electropolishing prevents to excessive development of the surface of a material and consequently improves surface quality.

  20. Learning during processing Word learning doesn’t wait for word recognition to finish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfelbaum, Keith S.; McMurray, Bob

    2017-01-01

    Previous research on associative learning has uncovered detailed aspects of the process, including what types of things are learned, how they are learned, and where in the brain such learning occurs. However, perceptual processes, such as stimulus recognition and identification, take time to unfold. Previous studies of learning have not addressed when, during the course of these dynamic recognition processes, learned representations are formed and updated. If learned representations are formed and updated while recognition is ongoing, the result of learning may incorporate spurious, partial information. For example, during word recognition, words take time to be identified, and competing words are often active in parallel. If learning proceeds before this competition resolves, representations may be influenced by the preliminary activations present at the time of learning. In three experiments using word learning as a model domain, we provide evidence that learning reflects the ongoing dynamics of auditory and visual processing during a learning event. These results show that learning can occur before stimulus recognition processes are complete; learning does not wait for ongoing perceptual processing to complete. PMID:27471082

  1. Model of the material removal function and an experimental study on a magnetorheological finishing process using a small ball-end permanent-magnet polishing head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingjun; Liu, Henan; Cheng, Jian; Yu, Bo; Fang, Zhen

    2017-07-01

    In order to achieve the deterministic finishing of optical components with concave surfaces of a curvature radius less than 10 mm, a novel magnetorheological finishing (MRF) process using a small ball-end permanent-magnet polishing head with a diameter of 4 mm is introduced. The characteristics of material removal in the proposed MRF process are studied. The model of the material removal function for the proposed MRF process is established based on the three-dimensional hydrodynamics analysis and Preston's equation. The shear stress on the workpiece surface is calculated by means of resolving the presented mathematical model using a numerical solution method. The analysis result reveals that the material removal in the proposed MRF process shows a positive dependence on shear stress. Experimental research is conducted to investigate the effect of processing parameters on the material removal rate and improve the surface accuracy of a typical rotational symmetrical optical component. The experimental results show that the surface accuracy of the finished component of K9 glass material has been improved to 0.14 μm (PV) from the initial 0.8 μm (PV), and the finished surface roughness Ra is 0.0024 μm. It indicates that the proposed MRF process can be used to achieve the deterministic removal of surface material and perform the nanofinishing of small curvature radius concave surfaces.

  2. Grinding Parameter Optimization of Ultrasound-Aided Electrolytic in Process Dressing for Finishing Nanocomposite Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve the precision and efficient processing of nanocomposite ceramics, the ultrasound-aided electrolytic in process dressing method was proposed. But how to realize grinding parameter optimization, that is, the maximum processing efficiency, on the premise of the assurance of best workpiece quality is a problem that needs to be solved urgently. Firstly, this research investigated the influence of grinding parameters on material removal rate and critical ductile depth, and their mathematic models based on the existing models were developed to simulate the material removal process. Then, on the basis of parameter sensitivity analysis based on partial derivative, the sensitivity models of material removal rates on grinding parameter were established and computed quantitatively by MATLAB, and the key grinding parameter for optimal grinding process was found. Finally, the theoretical analyses were verified by experiments: the material removal rate increases with the increase of grinding parameters, including grinding depth (ap, axial feeding speed (fa, workpiece speed (Vw, and wheel speed (Vs; the parameter sensitivity of material removal rate was in a descending order as ap>fa>Vw>Vs; the most sensitive parameter (ap was optimized and it was found that the better machining result has been obtained when ap was about 3.73 μm.

  3. Development of an alternating magnetic-field-assisted finishing process for microelectromechanical systems micropore x-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riveros, Raul E.; Yamaguchi, Hitomi; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Takagi, Utako; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Kato, Fumiki; Sugiyama, Susumu; Yamasaki, Noriko; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa

    2010-01-01

    X-ray astronomy research is often limited by the size, weight, complexity, and cost of functioning x-ray optics. Micropore optics promises an economical alternative to traditional (e.g., glass or foil) x-ray optics; however, many manufacturing difficulties prevent micropore optics from being a viable solution. Ezoe et al. introduced microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) micropore optics having curvilinear micropores in 2008. Made by either deep reactive ion etching or x-ray lithography, electroforming, and molding (LIGA), MEMS micropore optics suffer from high micropore sidewall roughness (10-30nmrms) which, by current standards, cannot be improved. In this research, a new alternating magnetic-field-assisted finishing process was developed using a mixture of ferrofluid and microscale abrasive slurry. A machine was built, and a set of working process parameters including alternating frequency, abrasive size, and polishing time was selected. A polishing experiment on a LIGA-fabricated MEMS micropore optic was performed, and a change in micropore sidewall roughness of 9.3±2.5nmrms to 5.7±0.7nmrms was measured. An improvement in x-ray reflectance was also seen. This research shows the feasibility and confirms the effects of this new polishing process on MEMS micropore optics.

  4. Development of an alternating magnetic-field-assisted finishing process for microelectromechanical systems micropore x-ray optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, Raul E; Yamaguchi, Hitomi; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Takagi, Utako; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Kato, Fumiki; Sugiyama, Susumu; Yamasaki, Noriko; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa

    2010-06-20

    X-ray astronomy research is often limited by the size, weight, complexity, and cost of functioning x-ray optics. Micropore optics promises an economical alternative to traditional (e.g., glass or foil) x-ray optics; however, many manufacturing difficulties prevent micropore optics from being a viable solution. Ezoe et al. introduced microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) micropore optics having curvilinear micropores in 2008. Made by either deep reactive ion etching or x-ray lithography, electroforming, and molding (LIGA), MEMS micropore optics suffer from high micropore sidewall roughness (10-30nmrms) which, by current standards, cannot be improved. In this research, a new alternating magnetic-field-assisted finishing process was developed using a mixture of ferrofluid and microscale abrasive slurry. A machine was built, and a set of working process parameters including alternating frequency, abrasive size, and polishing time was selected. A polishing experiment on a LIGA-fabricated MEMS micropore optic was performed, and a change in micropore sidewall roughness of 9.3+/-2.5nmrms to 5.7+/-0.7nmrms was measured. An improvement in x-ray reflectance was also seen. This research shows the feasibility and confirms the effects of this new polishing process on MEMS micropore optics.

  5. Development of an alternating magnetic-field-assisted finishing process for microelectromechanical systems micropore x-ray optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riveros, Raul E.; Yamaguchi, Hitomi; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Takagi, Utako; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Kato, Fumiki; Sugiyama, Susumu; Yamasaki, Noriko; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa

    2010-06-20

    X-ray astronomy research is often limited by the size, weight, complexity, and cost of functioning x-ray optics. Micropore optics promises an economical alternative to traditional (e.g., glass or foil) x-ray optics; however, many manufacturing difficulties prevent micropore optics from being a viable solution. Ezoe et al. introduced microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) micropore optics having curvilinear micropores in 2008. Made by either deep reactive ion etching or x-ray lithography, electroforming, and molding (LIGA), MEMS micropore optics suffer from high micropore sidewall roughness (10-30nmrms) which, by current standards, cannot be improved. In this research, a new alternating magnetic-field-assisted finishing process was developed using a mixture of ferrofluid and microscale abrasive slurry. A machine was built, and a set of working process parameters including alternating frequency, abrasive size, and polishing time was selected. A polishing experiment on a LIGA-fabricated MEMS micropore optic was performed, and a change in micropore sidewall roughness of 9.3{+-}2.5nmrms to 5.7{+-}0.7nmrms was measured. An improvement in x-ray reflectance was also seen. This research shows the feasibility and confirms the effects of this new polishing process on MEMS micropore optics.

  6. ALARA Design Review for the Resumption of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Cementation Process Project Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Dayley, L

    2000-01-01

    The requirements for the performance of radiological design reviews are codified in 10CFR835, Occupational Radiation Protection. The basic requirements for the performance of ALARA design reviews are presented in the Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM). The HSRCM has established trigger levels requiring radiological reviews of non-routine or complex work activities. These requirements are implemented in site procedures HNF-PRO-1622 and 1623. HNF-PRO-1622 Radiological Design Review Process requires that ''radiological design reviews [be performed] of new facilities and equipment and modifications of existing facilities and equipment''. In addition, HNF-PRO-1623 Radiological Work Planning Process requires a formal ALARA Review for planned activities that are estimated to exceed 1 person-rem total Dose Equivalent (DE). The purpose of this review is to validate that the original design for the PFP Cementation Process ensures that the principles of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) were included...

  7. CONTAMINATED PROCESS EQUIPMENT REMOVAL FOR THE DECOMMISSIONG AND DECONTAMINATION OF THE 232-Z CONTAMINATED WASTE RECOVERY PROCESS FACILITY AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOPKINS, A.M.; MINETTE, M.J.; KLOS, D.B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the unique challenges encountered and subsequent resolutions to accomplish the deactivation and decontamination of a plutonium ash contaminated building. The 232-Z Contaminated Waste Recovery Process Facility at the Plutonium Finishing Plant was used to recover plutonium from process wastes such as rags, gloves, containers and other items by incinerating the items and dissolving the resulting ash. The incineration process resulted in a light-weight plutonium ash residue that was highly mobile in air. This light-weight ash coated the incinerator's process equipment, which included gloveboxes, blowers, filters, furnaces, ducts, and filter boxes. Significant airborne contamination (over 1 million derived air concentration hours [DAC]) was found in the scrubber cell of the facility. Over 1300 grams of plutonium held up in the process equipment and attached to the walls had to be removed, packaged and disposed. This ash had to be removed before demolition of the building could take place

  8. Utilization and application of wet potato processing coproducts for finishing cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M L

    2010-04-01

    Wet coproducts fed to beef cattle include processing coproducts of the fruit, vegetable, juice, and brewing industries. Considerations for their utilization in beef cattle diets include quantity available, feeding value, quality of animal products produced, economics (e.g., transportation of water), storage and preservation, consumer perception, nuisance concerns, contaminants, and interactions with other diet ingredients. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) coproducts from processing for frozen food products may be quantitatively most important because the 11.3 million t of potatoes (fresh weight) processed in the United States and Canada in 2008 resulted in an estimated 4.3 million t (as-is basis) of coproduct. Chemical composition and feeding value of potato coproducts depends on the coproduct type. The names of coproducts vary among potato processors and some processors combine the different coproducts into one product commonly called slurry. The 4 main potato coproducts are 1) potato peels; 2) screen solids (small potatoes and pieces); 3) fried product (fries, hash browns, batter, crumbles); and 4) material from the water recovery systems (oxidation ditch, belt solids, filter cake). The coproducts, except the fried products, ensile rapidly, reaching pH 5 in 7 d or less. Dry matter content varies from 10 to 30% and on a DM basis varies in CP (5 to 27%), starch (3 to 56%), NDF (4 to 41%), and ether extract (3 to 37%) content among potato coproducts. Type of coproduct and frying greatly affect the energy value (0.6 to 1.6 Mcal of NE(g)/kg of DM). Composition, quality, and shelf life of beef was not affected by potato coproduct feeding in contrast to perceptions of some purveyors and chefs. Potato coproducts are quantitatively important energy sources in beef cattle diets, which, in turn, solve a potentially massive disposal problem for the food processing industry.

  9. On The Generation of Interferometric Colors in High Purity and Technical Grade Aluminum: An Alternative Green Process for Metal Finishing Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yuting; Santos, Abel; Ho, Daena; Wang, Ye; Kumeria, Tushar; Li, Junsheng; Wang, Changhai; Losic, Dusan

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Toward green processes in metal finishing industry by rationally designed electrochemical anodization. Biomimetic photonic films based on nanoporous anodic alumina produced in high purity and technical grade aluminum foils display vivid colors that can be precisely tuned across the visible spectrum. The presented method is a solid rationale aimed toward green processes for metal finishing industry. - Highlights: • Environmentally friendly approach to color aluminum through biomimetic photonic films. • Nanoporous anodic alumina distributed Bragg Reflectors (NAA-DBRs). • Rationally designed galvanostatic pulse anodization approach. • Macroscopic and microscopic differences in high purity and technical grade aluminum. • Substitute method for conventional coloring processes in metal finishing industry. - Abstract: Metal finishing industry is one of the leading pollutants worldwide and green approaches are urgently needed in order to address health and environmental issues associated with this industrial activity. Herein, we present an environmentally friendly approach aimed to overcome some of these issues by coloring aluminum through biomimetic photonic films based on nanoporous anodic alumina distributed Bragg Reflectors (NAA-DBRs). Our study aims to compare the macroscopic and microscopic differences between the resulting photonic films produced in high purity and technical grade aluminum in terms of color features, appearance, electrochemical behavior and internal nanoporous structure in order to establish a solid rationale toward optimal fabrication processes that can be readily incorporated into industrial methodologies. The obtained results reveal that our approach, based on a rational galvanostatic pulse anodization approach, makes it possible to precisely generate a complete palette of colors in both types of aluminum substrates. As a result of its versatility, this method could become a promising alternative to substitute

  10. Improving Efficiency with 3-D Imaging: Technology Essential in Removing Plutonium Processing Equipment from Plutonium Finishing Plant Gloveboxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crow, Stephen H.; Kyle, Richard N.; Minette, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant at Hanford, Washington began operations in 1949 to process plutonium and plutonium products. Its primary mission was to produce plutonium metal, fabricate weapons parts, and stabilize reactive materials. These operations, and subsequent activities, were performed in remote production lines, consisting primarily of hundreds of gloveboxes. Over the years these gloveboxes and processes have been continuously modified. The plant is currently inactive and Fluor Hanford has been tasked to clean out contaminated equipment and gloveboxes from the facility so it can be demolished in the near future. Approximately 100 gloveboxes at PFP have been cleaned out in the past four years and about 90 gloveboxes remain to be cleaned out. Because specific commitment dates for this work have been established with the State of Washington and other entities, it is important to adopt work practices that increase the safety and speed of this effort. The most recent work practice to be adopted by Fluor Hanford D and D workers is the use of 3-D models to improve the efficiency of cleaning out radioactive gloveboxes at the plant. The use of 3-D models has significantly improved the work planning process by providing workers with a clear image of glovebox construction and composition, which is then used to determine cleanout methods and work sequences. The 3-D visual products enhance safety by enabling workers to more easily identify hazards and implement controls. In addition, the ability to identify and target the removal of radiological materials early in the D and D process provides substantial dose reduction for the workers

  11. Process Optimization of Eco-Friendly Flame Retardant Finish for Cotton Fabric: a Response Surface Methodology Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Sohail; Curti, Massimo; Behary, Nemeshwaree; Perwuelz, Anne; Giraud, Stephane; Rovero, Giorgio; Guan, Jinping; Chen, Guoqiang

    The n-methylol dimethyl phosphono propionamide (MDPA) flame retardant compounds are predominantly used for cotton fabric treatments with trimethylol melamine (TMM) to obtain better crosslinking and enhanced flame retardant properties. Nevertheless, such treatments are associated with a toxic issue of cancer-causing formaldehyde release. An eco-friendly finishing was used to get formaldehyde-free fixation of flame retardant to the cotton fabric. Citric acid as a crosslinking agent along with the sodium hypophosphite as a catalyst in the treatment was utilized. The process parameters of the treatment were enhanced for optimized flame retardant properties, in addition, low mechanical loss to the fabric by response surface methodology using Box-Behnken statistical design experiment methodology was achieved. The effects of concentrations on the fabric’s properties (flame retardancy and mechanical properties) were evaluated. The regression equations for the prediction of concentrations and mechanical properties of the fabric were also obtained for the eco-friendly treatment. The R-squared values of all the responses were above 0.95 for the reagents used, indicating the degree of relationship between the predicted values by the Box-Behnken design and the actual experimental results. It was also found that the concentration parameters (crosslinking reagents and catalysts) in the treatment formulation have a prime role in the overall performance of flame retardant cotton fabrics.

  12. IMPACT OF VIBRATORY AND ROTATIONAL SHOT PEENING ONTO SELECTED PROPERTIES OF TITANIUM ALLOY SURFACE LAYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Zaleski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of tests on impact of vibratory and rotational shot peening of the Ti6A12Mo2Cr titanium alloy onto the processed object surface roughness and surface layer microhardness. The external surfaces of ring-shaped samples were shot peened. The preceding process consisted of turning with a cubic boron nitride blade knife. Steel beads, having a diameter of 6 mm, were used as a processing medium. The variable parameters of shot peening were vibrator amplitude and shot peening time. The range of recommended technological parameters for vibratory and rotational shot peening was determined. As a result of shot peening, the surface roughness could be reduced by approximately 4 times and the surface layer could be hardened to the depth of approximately 0.4 mm.

  13. Vibratory gyroscopes : identification of mathematical model from test data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shatalov, MY

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Simple mathematical model of vibratory gyroscopes imperfections is formulated, which includes anisotropic damping and variation of mass-stiffness parameters and their harmonics. The method of identification of parameters of the mathematical model...

  14. Radioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction for the Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation Process at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JANSKY, M.T.

    1999-01-01

    The following description and any attachments and references are provided to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH), Division of Radiation Protection, Air Emissions and Defense Waste (WAC) 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The WAC 246-247-060, ''Applications, registration, and licensing'', states ''This section describes the information requirements for approval to construct, modify, and operate an emission unit. Any NOC requires the submittal of information listed in Appendix A.'' Appendix A (WAC 246-247-1 10) lists the requirements that must be addressed. Additionally, the following description, attachments and references are provided to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an NOC, in accordance with Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants.'' The information required for submittal to the EPA is specified in 40 CFR 61.07. The potential emissions from this activity are estimated to provide greater than 0.1 millirem per year total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the hypothetical offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI), and commencement is needed within a short time. Therefore, this application also is intended to provide notification of the anticipated date of initial startup in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1), and it is requested that approval of this application also will constitute EPA acceptance of this initial startup notification. Written notification of the actual date of initial startup, in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(2) will be provided at a later date. This NOC covers the activities associated with the Construction and operation activities involving the magnesium hydroxide precipitation process of plutonium solutions within the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

  15. Application of vibratory-percussion crusher for disintegration of supertough materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkin, E. V.; Kazakov, S. V.

    2017-10-01

    This article describes the results of theoretical and experimental studies of a vibratory-percussion crusher, which is driven from a pair of self-synchronizing vibration exciters, attached to the shell symmetrically about its vertical axis. In addition to that, crusher’s dynamic model is symmetrical and balanced. Forced oscillation laws for crusher working members and their amplitude-frequency characteristics have been inducted. Domains of existence of synchronous opposite-phase oscillations of crusher working members (crusher’s operating mode) and crusher capabilities have been identified. The results of mechanical and technological tests of a pilot crusher presented in the article show that this crusher may be viewed as an advanced machine for disintegration of supertough materials with minimum regrinding of finished products.

  16. Complex vibratory patterns in an elephant larynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Christian T; Svec, Jan G; Lohscheller, Jörg; Frey, Roland; Gumpenberger, Michaela; Stoeger, Angela S; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2013-11-01

    Elephants' low-frequency vocalizations are produced by flow-induced self-sustaining oscillations of laryngeal tissue. To date, little is known in detail about the vibratory phenomena in the elephant larynx. Here, we provide a first descriptive report of the complex oscillatory features found in the excised larynx of a 25 year old female African elephant (Loxodonta africana), the largest animal sound generator ever studied experimentally. Sound production was documented with high-speed video, acoustic measurements, air flow and sound pressure level recordings. The anatomy of the larynx was studied with computed tomography (CT) and dissections. Elephant CT vocal anatomy data were further compared with the anatomy of an adult human male. We observed numerous unusual phenomena, not typically reported in human vocal fold vibrations. Phase delays along both the inferior-superior and anterior-posterior (A-P) dimension were commonly observed, as well as transverse travelling wave patterns along the A-P dimension, previously not documented in the literature. Acoustic energy was mainly created during the instant of glottal opening. The vestibular folds, when adducted, participated in tissue vibration, effectively increasing the generated sound pressure level by 12 dB. The complexity of the observed phenomena is partly attributed to the distinct laryngeal anatomy of the elephant larynx, which is not simply a large-scale version of its human counterpart. Travelling waves may be facilitated by low fundamental frequencies and increased vocal fold tension. A travelling wave model is proposed, to account for three types of phenomena: A-P travelling waves, 'conventional' standing wave patterns, and irregular vocal fold vibration.

  17. Improvement of finishing antifriction treatment without abrasive of the rubbing parts surfaces of agricultural machineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Shepelenk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The wear of machines and mechanisms after rubbing is a major concern. The costs of manufacturing and restoration parts for agricultural machinery are enormous such as the trunnions pinions of hydraulic pumps. Finishing treatment antifriction without abrasive (FTAA is the existing method of manufacturing and restoration, but it has disadvantages like low work efficiency and the frequent replacement of the instrument. That is why a new method of FTAA parts type ''tree'' has been developed called vibratory finishing treatment antifriction without abrasive, (VFTAA method. The study was conducted at the laboratory of the State Technical University of Kirovograd (Ukraine where turn 16K20, the profilograph-profilometer "Talysurf-5", the scanning electron microscope REM-106I, friction machine MI-1M and the stand KI-28097-02M were used respectively for machining, study of micro relief before and after the VFTAA, microstructure, wear resistance and the determination of the break-in period of parts. The results showed that the VFTAA helped reduce the roughness Ra of the samples studied by half compared to the samples processed by polishing and 1.3 times compared to those treated with the FTAA, the break-in period has been reduced four times , this leads to an increase in the life of the hydraulic pump. This technology can be recommended for manufacturing and repair of hydraulic units of agricultural machineries.

  18. THE DEACTIVATION, DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING OF THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT, A FORMER PLUTONIUM PROCESSING FACILITY AT DOE'S HANFORD SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHARBONEAU, S.L.

    2006-01-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) was constructed as part of the Manhattan Project during World War II. The Manhattan Project was developed to usher in the use of nuclear weapons to end the war. The primary mission of the PFP was to provide plutonium used as special nuclear material (SNM) for fabrication of nuclear devices for the war effort. Subsequent to the end of World War II, the PFP's mission expanded to support the Cold War effort through plutonium production during the nuclear arms race and later the processing of fuel grade mixed plutonium-uranium oxide to support DOE's breeder reactor program. In October 1990, at the close of the production mission for PFP, a shutdown order was prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) in Washington,; DC--and issued to the Richland DOE field office. Subsequent to the shutdown order, a team from the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) analyzed the hazards at PFP associated with the continued storage of certain forms of plutonium solutions and solids. The assessment identified many discrete actions that were required to stabilize the different plutonium forms into stable form and repackage the material in high integrity containers. These actions were technically complicated and completed as part of the PFP nuclear material stabilization project between 1995 and early 2005. The completion of the stabilization project was a necessary first step in deactivating PFP. During stabilization, DOE entered into negotiations with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the State of Washington and established milestones for the Deactivation and Decommissioning (DandD) of the PFP. The DOE and its contractor, Fluor Hanford (Fluor), have made great progress in deactivating, decontaminating and decommissioning the PFP at the Hanford Site as detailed in this paper. Background information covering the PFP DandD effort includes descriptions of negotiations with the State of Washington concerning consent

  19. Configuration System for Simulation Based Design of Vibratory Bowl Feeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Michael Natapon; Mathiesen, Simon; Ellekilde, Lars-Peter

    2017-01-01

    Vibratory bowl feeders are still among the most commonly used production equipment for automated part feeding, where parts are correctly oriented for further manipulation by being conveyed through a set of orienting devices. Designing vibratory bowl feeders involves selecting and sequencing...... a number of these devices that either reorients or rejects the part until a desirable orientation is achieved. To aid the designer in this task, this work presents a configuration system where knowledge of the behaviour for each device is acquired through dynamic simulation, and used to solve...

  20. General problems of dynamics and control of vibratory gyroscopes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shatalov, MY

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A general model of operation of vibratory gyroscopes, which is applicable to a broad class of instruments, including cylindrical, disc and micro-machined gyros, is formulated on the basis of analysis of dynamics and control of a hemispherical...

  1. Dynamics and control of vibratory gyroscopes with special spherical symmetry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shatalov, M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available It was shown in 1985 by Acad. V. Zhuravlev that the angular rate of a pure vibrating mode excited in a vibratory gyroscope with spherical symmetry is proportional to an inertial angular rate of the gyroscope. The effect is three dimensional...

  2. Optimisation of Trap Design for Vibratory Bowl Feeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Simon; Sørensen, Lars Carøe; Kraft, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    Vibratory bowl feeders (VBFs) are a widely used option for industrial part feeding, but their design is still largely manual. A subtask of VBF design is determining an optimal parameter set for the passive devices, called traps, which the VBF uses to ensure correct part orientation. This paper...

  3. Evaluation of vibratory ground motion at nuclear power plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, R.B.; Greeves, J.T.

    1978-01-01

    The evaluation of vibratory ground motion at nuclear power plant sites requires the cooperative effort of scientists and engineers in several disciplines. These include seismology, geology, geotechnical engineering and structural engineering. The Geosciences Branch of the NRC Division of Site Safety and Environmental Analysis includes two sections, the Geology/Seismology Section and the Geotechnical Engineering Section

  4. Experimental investigation on shore hardness of barrel-finished ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rupinder Singh

    2017-08-02

    Aug 2, 2017 ... Barrel finishing (BF) process is widely used to improve the surface finish and dimensional features of metallic and ... plastic-based waste can be easily recycled. However .... The pattern prepared with solid density has a dense.

  5. Finishing of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam Williams

    1999-01-01

    The primary function of any wood finish (paint, varnish, and stain, for example) is to protect the wood surface, help maintain a certain appearance, and provide a cleanable surface. Although wood can be used both outdoors and indoors without finishing, unfinished wood surfaces exposed to the weather change color, are roughened by photodegradation and surface checking,...

  6. 40 CFR 425.90 - Applicability; description of the retan-wet finish-splits subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE... resulting from any tannery which processes previously unhaired and tanned splits into finished leather by...

  7. Mechanical Assessment of the Waste Package Subject to Vibratory Motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Gross

    2004-10-14

    The purpose of this document is to provide an integrated overview of the calculation reports that define the response of the waste package and its internals to vibratory ground motion. The calculation reports for waste package response to vibratory ground motion are identified in Table 1-1. Three key calculation reports describe the potential for mechanical damage to the waste package, fuel assemblies, and cladding from a seismic event. Three supporting documents have also been published to investigate sensitivity of damage to various assumptions for the calculations. While these individual reports present information on a specific aspect of waste package and cladding response, they do not describe the interrelationship between the various calculations and the relationship of this information to the seismic scenario class for Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA). This report is designed to fill this gap by providing an overview of the waste package structural response calculations.

  8. Mechanical Assessment of the Waste Package Subject to Vibratory Motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Gross

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an integrated overview of the calculation reports that define the response of the waste package and its internals to vibratory ground motion. The calculation reports for waste package response to vibratory ground motion are identified in Table 1-1. Three key calculation reports describe the potential for mechanical damage to the waste package, fuel assemblies, and cladding from a seismic event. Three supporting documents have also been published to investigate sensitivity of damage to various assumptions for the calculations. While these individual reports present information on a specific aspect of waste package and cladding response, they do not describe the interrelationship between the various calculations and the relationship of this information to the seismic scenario class for Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA). This report is designed to fill this gap by providing an overview of the waste package structural response calculations

  9. Vibratory Urticaria Associated with a Missense Variant in ADGRE2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyden, Steven E; Desai, Avanti; Cruse, Glenn; Young, Michael L; Bolan, Hyejeong C; Scott, Linda M; Eisch, A Robin; Long, R Daniel; Lee, Chyi-Chia R; Satorius, Colleen L; Pakstis, Andrew J; Olivera, Ana; Mullikin, James C; Chouery, Eliane; Mégarbané, André; Medlej-Hashim, Myrna; Kidd, Kenneth K; Kastner, Daniel L; Metcalfe, Dean D; Komarow, Hirsh D

    2016-02-18

    Patients with autosomal dominant vibratory urticaria have localized hives and systemic manifestations in response to dermal vibration, with coincident degranulation of mast cells and increased histamine levels in serum. We identified a previously unknown missense substitution in ADGRE2 (also known as EMR2), which was predicted to result in the replacement of cysteine with tyrosine at amino acid position 492 (p.C492Y), as the only nonsynonymous variant cosegregating with vibratory urticaria in two large kindreds. The ADGRE2 receptor undergoes autocatalytic cleavage, producing an extracellular subunit that noncovalently binds a transmembrane subunit. We showed that the variant probably destabilizes an autoinhibitory subunit interaction, sensitizing mast cells to IgE-independent vibration-induced degranulation. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health.).

  10. Background matters: Minor vibratory stimulation during motor skill acquisition selectively reduces off-line memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Maria; Herling, Zohar; Levy, Ishay; Egbarieh, Nebal; Engel-Yeger, Batya; Karni, Avi

    2017-04-01

    Although a ubiquitous situation, it is not clear how effective is a learning experience when task-irrelevant, sensory noise occurs in the background. Here, young adults were trained on the finger opposition sequence task, in a well-established training and testing protocol affording measures for online as well as off-line learning. During the training session, one group experienced a minor background vibratory stimulation to the trunk by the means of vibrating cushion, while the second group experienced recorded sound vibrations. A control group was trained with no extra sensory stimulation. Sensory stimulation during training had no effect on the online within-session gains, but dampened the expression of the off-line, consolidation phase, gains in the two sensory stimulation groups. These results suggest that background sensory stimulation can selectively modify off-line, procedural memory consolidation processes, despite well-preserved on-line learning. Classical studies have shown that neural plasticity in sensory systems is modulated by motor input. The current results extend this notion and suggest that some types of task-irrelevant sensory stimulation, concurrent with motor training, may constitute a 'gating' factor - modulating the triggering of long-term procedural memory consolidation processes. Thus, vibratory stimulation may be considered as a behavioral counterpart of pharmacological interventions that do not interfere with short term neural plasticity but block long-term plasticity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Two Novel Measurements for the Drive-Mode Resonant Frequency of a Micromachined Vibratory Gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancheng Wang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the drive-mode resonance frequency of a micromachined vibratory gyroscope (MVG, one needs to measure it accurately and efficiently. The conventional approach to measure the resonant frequency is by performing a sweep frequency test and spectrum analysis. The method is time-consuming and inconvenient because of the requirements of many test points, a lot of data storage and off-line analyses. In this paper, we propose two novel measurement methods, the search method and track method, respectively. The former is based on the magnitude-frequency characteristics of the drive mode, utilizing a one-dimensional search technique. The latter is based on the phase-frequency characteristics, applying a feedback control loop. Their performances in precision, noise resistivity and efficiency are analyzed through detailed simulations. A test system is implemented based on a field programmable gate array (FPGA and experiments are carried out. By comparing with the common approach, feasibility and superiorities of the proposed methods are validated. In particular, significant efficiency improvements are achieved whereby the conventional frequency method consumes nearly 5,000 s to finish a measurement, while only 5 s is needed for the track method and 1 s for the search method.

  12. Plutonium Finishing Plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Plutonium Finishing Plant, also known as PFP, represented the end of the line (the final procedure) associated with plutonium production at Hanford.PFP was also...

  13. Very high expander processing of maize on animal performance, digestibility and product quality of finishing pigs and broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puntigam, R; Schedle, K; Schwarz, C; Wanzenböck, E; Eipper, J; Lechner, E-M; Yin, L; Gierus, M

    2017-11-06

    The present study investigated the effect of hydrothermic maize processing and supplementation of amino acids (AA) in two experiments. In total, 60 barrows and 384 broilers were fed four diets including either unprocessed (T1), or hydrothermically processed maize, that is short- (T2), or long-term conditioned (LC) (T3), and subsequently expanded maize of the same batch. Assuming a higher metabolizable energy (ME) content after processing, the fourth diet (T4) contains maize processed as treatment T3, but AA were supplemented to maintain the ideal protein value. Performance, digestibility and product quality in both species were assessed. Results show that in pigs receiving T4 the average daily feed intake was lower compared with the other treatments, whereas no difference was observed in broilers. The T3 improved the feed conversion rate compared with T1 (Panimal species, suggesting a higher ME content in diets with processed maize. The higher ME content of diets with processed maize is supported also by measurements of product quality. Supplementation of AA in T4 enhanced the loin depth in pigs as well as the amount of breast meat in broilers. Further effects of processing maize on meat quality were the reduced yellowness and antioxidative capacity (Panimal performance and digestibility in both species. However, effects on carcass characteristics and product quality differed. The negative effects on product quality could be partly compensated with the AA supplementation, whereas a change in meat colour and reduced antioxidative capacity was observed in all groups fed hydrothermic maize processing.

  14. Post Processing Methods used to Improve Surface Finish of Products which are Manufactured by Additive Manufacturing Technologies: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhar, N. N.; Mulay, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    The Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes open the possibility to go directly from Computer-Aided Design (CAD) to a physical prototype. These prototypes are used as test models before it is finalized as well as sometimes as a final product. Additive Manufacturing has many advantages over the traditional process used to develop a product such as allowing early customer involvement in product development, complex shape generation and also save time as well as money. Additive manufacturing also possess some special challenges that are usually worth overcoming such as Poor Surface quality, Physical Properties and use of specific raw material for manufacturing. To improve the surface quality several attempts had been made by controlling various process parameters of Additive manufacturing and also applying different post processing techniques on components manufactured by Additive manufacturing. The main objective of this work is to document an extensive literature review in the general area of post processing techniques which are used in Additive manufacturing.

  15. Ductile Damage and Fatigue Behavior of Semi-Finished Tailored Blanks for Sheet-Bulk Metal Forming Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besserer, Hans-Bernward; Hildenbrand, Philipp; Gerstein, Gregory; Rodman, Dmytro; Nürnberger, Florian; Merklein, Marion; Maier, Hans Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    To produce parts from sheet metal with thickened functional elements, bulk forming operations can be employed. For this new process class, the term sheet-bulk metal forming has been established recently. Since sheet-bulk metal forming processes such as orbital forming generates triaxial stress and strain states, ductile damage is induced in the form of voids in the microstructure. Typical parts will experience cyclic loads during service, and thus, the influence of ductile damage on the fatigue life of parts manufactured by orbital forming is of interest. Both the formation and growth of voids were characterized following this forming process and then compared to the as-received condition of the ferritic deep drawing steel DC04 chosen for this study. Subsequent to the forming operation, the specimens were fatigued and the evolution of ductile damage and the rearrangement of the dislocation networks occurring during cyclic loading were determined. It was shown, that despite an increased ductile damage due to the forming process, the induced strain hardening has a positive effect on the fatigue life of the material. However, by analyzing the fatigued specimens a development of the ductile damage by an increasing number of voids and a change in the void shape were detected.

  16. Influence of feeding thermally peroxidized soybean oil to finishing barrows on processing characteristics and shelf life of commercially manufactured bacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, M F; Lowell, J E; Kim, G D; Boler, D D; Kerr, B J; Dilger, A C

    2018-05-12

    Objectives were to evaluate effects of feeding soybean oil (SO) with varying levels of peroxidation on fresh belly characteristics, processing yields, and shelf life of commercially manufactured bacon stored under food-service style conditions. Fifty-six barrows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 diets containing 10% fresh SO (22.5°C) or thermally processed SO (45°C for 288 h, 90°C for 72 h, or 180°C for 6 h), each infused with air at a rate of 15L/min. Individually housed pigs were provided ad libitum access to feed for 81 d. On d 82 pigs were slaughtered and on d 83 carcasses were fabricated and bellies collected for recording of weight, dimensions, and flop distance. Belly adipose tissue cores were collected for analysis of iodine value (IV) by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR-IV). Bacon was manufactured at a commercial processing facility and sliced bacon was subsequently transferred to food-service style packaging and subjected to 0, 30, 60, or 90 d storage at -20°C. Stored bacon was evaluated for thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and trained sensory evaluation of oxidized odor and flavor. Fresh belly and bacon processing traits were analyzed as a one-way ANOVA with the fixed effect of SO; whereas, shelf life traits were analyzed as a one-way ANOVA repeated in time. There was no effect (P ≥ 0.30) of SO on belly weight, length, width, or thickness; but bellies of pigs fed 90°C SO had greater (P ≤ 0.04) flop distance (more firm) than all other SO treatments. Belly fat NIR-IV of pigs fed 90°C SO were 10.22 units less (P processed at 90°C and 180°C reduced belly adipose tissue IV, but feeding peroxidized SO did not affect processing yields or shelf life characteristics of commercially manufactured bacon.

  17. Water pollution control. High performances finishing processing; Lutte contre la pollution des eaux. Finitions a haute performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilles, P.

    1999-04-01

    The sewage recovery or recycling is an efficient way to control the water resources conservation. This paper characterizes in a first part the residual pollutants of an effluent rejected in the natural medium. It deals then the recycling and the water recovery objectives to present the possible processing. The author emphasizes some modern high performances engineering as, granular material filtration, membrane filtration, osmosis, UV disinfection, flocculation activated carbon or chemical oxidation. (A.L.B.)

  18. The influence of Chromium supplied by tanning and wet finishing processes on the formation of cr(vi in leather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Fuck

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Chromium used in leather manufacturing can be oxidized from the trivalent to the hexavalent state, causing environmental concerns. In this study, the influence of Cr(III from tanning, deacidification pH, fatliquors, chrome retanning and vegetable retanning on the formation of Cr(VI in leather was analyzed by comparing natural and aged samples. In wet-blue leather, even after aging and in fatliquored leathers that did not suffer the aging process, the presence of Cr(VI was always below the detection limit of 3 mg/kg. Considering the presence of Cr(VI, the supply of chromium during the retanning step had a more significant effect than during the tanning. In the fatliquoring process with sulfites, fish and synthetic fatliquor leather samples contained Cr(VI when aged, and the highest concentration detected was 26.7 mg/kg. The evaluation of Cr(VI formation led to recommendations for regulation in the leather industry.

  19. Used Furan Sand Reclamation in REGMAS Vibratory Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dańko J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper, especially dealt with problems of reclamation of used furan sand, carried out in new, vibratory sand reclamation unit REGMAS developed by researches from AGH-University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Foundry Engineering in Cracow (Poland. Functional characteristics of reclamation unit as well as the results of reclamation of used sand with furfuryl resin are discussed in the paper. The quality of reclaim was tested by means of the LOI and pH value, dust content in the reclaim and at least by the the quality of the castings produced in moulds prepared with the use of reclaimed matrix.

  20. An atomic-scale and high efficiency finishing method of zirconia ceramics by using magnetorheological finishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hu; Guo, Meijian; Yin, Shaohui; Chen, Fengjun; Huang, Shuai; Lu, Ange; Guo, Yuanfan

    2018-06-01

    Zirconia ceramics is a valuable crucial material for fabricating functional components applied in aerospace, biology, precision machinery, military industry and other fields. However, the properties of its high brittleness and high hardness could seriously reduce its finishing efficiency and surface quality by conventional processing technology. In this work, we present a high efficiency and high-quality finishing process by using magnetorheological finishing (MRF), which employs the permanent magnetic yoke with straight air gap as excitation unit. The sub-nanoscale surface roughness and damage free surface can be obtained after magnetorheological finishing. The XRD results and SEM morphologies confirmed that the mechanical shear removal with ductile modes are the dominant material removal mechanism for the magnetorheological finishing of zirconia ceramic. With the developed experimental apparatus, the effects of workpiece speed, trough speed and work gap on material removal rate and surface roughness were systematically investigated. Zirconia ceramics finished to ultra-smooth surface with surface roughness less than Ra 1 nm was repeatedly achieved during the parametric experiments. Additionally, the highest material removal rate exceeded 1 mg/min when using diamond as an abrasive particle. Magnetorheological finishing promises to be an adaptable and efficient method for zirconia ceramics finishing.

  1. Use of residues proceeding from marbles and granites finishing and manufacturing processes as raw material for structural ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, Roberta Monteiro de

    2006-01-01

    In order to decrease environmental impact, caused by mud discarding and clay extraction in the ceramic industry, it was used residual mud from marble and granite companies for structural ceramic. Samples were collected in twelve different marble companies located at the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo. However, only four samples were selected, based on its different characteristics. Clay stone was the raw material chosen to prepare the structural ceramic, considering its high use in this segment. Samples and clay stone were both analysed by the following procedures: granulometric analysis, x-rays fluorescent chemical analysis and x-rays diffraction mineralogical analysis, besides, tests in the samples were conducted following NBR 10004 standards. Once raw materials were characterized, the plasticity test was conducted. Test specimen were molded with different levels of mud, then burned and submitted to technological tests, such as: mechanical resistance, water absorption, porosity, specific gravity and retraction, material dilation before burning process and scanning electron microscopy. The final results have shown the viability of using this kind of mud, and pointed some advantages on its usage, but taking in consideration some previous conditions to be adopted. (author)

  2. Characterization of vibratory turning in cutting zone using a pneumatic quick-stop device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Amini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Shear angle and sticking length are two crucial parameters in mechanics of metal cutting. These two parameters directly influence machinability factors such as cutting forces. Thus, shear angle and sticking length were investigated in vibratory turning process by using a pneumatic quick-stop device which was designed and fabricated, in this study. After preparation of ultrasonic assisted turning set-up, experimental tests have been carried out on two types of steel: AISI-1060 and AISI 304. Accordingly, the process of chip formation in each particular cutting test was quickly stopped when deformed chip was still in contact with workpiece. As a result, it was revealed that added linear vibration leads the turning operation to be improved by increase of shear angle and decrease of sticking length. Moreover, the effect of ultrasonic vibration on cutting force and chip micro-hardness is evaluated.

  3. Wall Finishes; Carpentry: 901895.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course outline is designed to provide instruction in selecting, preparing, and installing wall finishing materials. Prerequisites for the course include mastery of building construction plans, foundations and walls, and basic mathematics. Intended for use in grades 11 and 12, the course contains five blocks of study totaling 135 hours of…

  4. Specific modes of vibratory technological machines: mathematical models, peculiarities of interaction of system elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliseev, A. V.; Sitov, I. S.; Eliseev, S. V.

    2018-03-01

    The methodological basis of constructing mathematical models of vibratory technological machines is developed in the article. An approach is proposed that makes it possible to introduce a vibration table in a specific mode that provides conditions for the dynamic damping of oscillations for the zone of placement of a vibration exciter while providing specified vibration parameters in the working zone of the vibration table. The aim of the work is to develop methods of mathematical modeling, oriented to technological processes with long cycles. The technologies of structural mathematical modeling are used with structural schemes, transfer functions and amplitude-frequency characteristics. The concept of the work is to test the possibilities of combining the conditions for reducing loads with working components of a vibration exciter while simultaneously maintaining sufficiently wide limits in variating the parameters of the vibrational field.

  5. Optimal Draft requirement for vibratory tillage equipment using Genetic Algorithm Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Gowripathi; Chaudhary, Himanshu; Singh, Prem

    2018-03-01

    Agriculture is an important sector of Indian economy. Primary and secondary tillage operations are required for any land preparation process. Conventionally different tractor-drawn implements such as mouldboard plough, disc plough, subsoiler, cultivator and disc harrow, etc. are used for primary and secondary manipulations of soils. Among them, oscillatory tillage equipment is one such type which uses vibratory motion for tillage purpose. Several investigators have reported that the requirement for draft consumption in primary tillage implements is more as compared to oscillating one because they are always in contact with soil. Therefore in this paper, an attempt is made to find out the optimal parameters from the experimental data available in the literature to obtain minimum draft consumption through genetic algorithm technique.

  6. Finishing with invisalign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Trang; Kuo, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Finishing in orthodontics can be challenging and can involve use of various techniques and armamentarium. This article reports a study that evaluates a procedure for using a thicker Aligner at the end of treatment to aide in finishing and also to determine if this would reduce the need for additional "case refinement" Aligners at the end of treatment. Align Technology has developed the Invisalign System, which is a series of clear plastic appliances ("aligners") that move the patient's teeth in small increments from their original state to a final, treated state. The Invisalign System uses a computer as a tool to assist in creating a series of sequential movements to assure light and consistent forces on the patient's teeth.

  7. Designing and testing a laser-based vibratory sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, G.

    2018-04-01

    Sensor technology has proved its importance, not only in the range of few-meter applications in different fields, but in micro, nano, atomic and sub-atomic-sized objects. The present work describes the designing of a laser-based vibratory sensor using a He-Ne laser as the signal source. The received characteristics of the signal are mainly the frequency and amplitude of the vibration from which the physical parameters such as energy, power and absorption coefficients of the material are determined, which enables us to provide information of the hidden target or object. This laboratory-designed sensor finds application in different local phenomena as well as laboratory practical activity for students.

  8. Microstructure, mechanical properties and stretch formability of Mg-3Al-0.5Ca-0.2Gd alloy processed at various finish rolling temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Qiang; Jiang, Haitao; Zhang, Yun

    2018-04-01

    Effects of various finish rolling temperatures on the microstructure, texture, mechanical properties and stretch formability of rolled and annealed Mg-3Al-0.5Ca-0.2Gd (wt%) alloy were investigated in this paper, and it was found that compared with grain size and second phase particles, the basal textures, tensile properties and stretch formability Mg-3Al-0.5Ca-0.2Gd alloy are more sensitive to the increasing finishing rolling temperature. For the rolled and annealed Mg-3Al-0.5Ca-0.2Gd alloy, their grains barely grow up and second phase particles are slightly coarsened, while their basal poles are obviously weakened and tilted with increasing finish rolling temperature. Consequently, the weakened and RD-tilted basal textures are beneficial to the gradually improved elongation and stretch formability of Mg-3Al-0.5Ca-0.2Gd alloy. It is investigated that the gradually activated non-basal slips, e. g. 〈c 〉, 〈c + a〉 dislocations due to the increasing finish rolling temperature could contribute to the weakened RD-tilted textures in rolled and annealed Mg-3Al-0.5Ca-0.2Gd alloy.

  9. Implementation of the resonant vibratory feeders control algorithm on Simatic S7-1200 from MATLAB Simulink enviroment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Radomir B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulink is an important tool for modeling and simulation of process and control algorithms. It's expansion, PLC Coder, enables direct conversion of model subsystem into SCL, structured text code, which is then used by PLC IDE to create function blocks. This shortens developing time of algorithms for PLC controller. Also, this reduces possibility for a coding error. This paper describes Simulink PLC Coder and workflow for developing PID control algorithm for Siemens Simatic S7-1200 PLC. Control object used here is resonant vibratory feeder having electromagnetic drive.

  10. Economics of finishing Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu cattle in feedlot and optimum finishing period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asimwe, L.; Kimambo, A E; Laswai, G. H.

    2016-01-01

    finishing for TSZ cattle. The biological data collected from the two experiments were used as basis for deriving the economic scenarios. The range of days steers were kept in feedlot was set at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 days. The dietary metabolisable energy intake (MEI) levels used in the study were 55 MJ......Economic potential of finishing Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu (TSZ) cattle in feedlot was analysed using data obtained from two feedlot experiments carried out at Kongwa ranch in Tanzania. The experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of feeding agro-processing by products and length of feedlot...... length of 25 days, higher profit per animal carcass was realized with long stays (100 days, 238,000 TSh.) than short stays (25 days, 37,600 TSh.). It was concluded that the high feeding level is the most profitable irrespective of meat price and finishing length. The optimum finishing length is between...

  11. A Review on Solidification and Change in Mechanical Properties Under Vibratory Welding Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti Prakash; Dr. S.P. Tewari; Bipin Kumar Srivastava

    2010-01-01

    Welding has been applied to various industries in particular, automotive, aerospace and microelectronics. Thermal cycle produced near weld line generates residual stress and inhomogeneous plastic deformation in weldments. However there are many methods for welding the workpieces and one of the method among these is vibratory welding. It has the advantages of less investment, more convenient operation, less pollution and shorter manufacturing period. In vibratory welding, workpiece vibrates in...

  12. PROCESSING OATS GRAIN FOR CULL COWS FINISHED IN FEEDLOT PROCESSAMENTO DO GRÃO DE AVEIA PARA ALIMENTAÇÃO DE VACAS DE DESCARTE TERMINADAS EM CONFINAMENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Restle

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The processing of oats grain (entire or grounded on the performance of feedlot finished cull cows was studied. Cows were fed with 60% of corn silage and 40% of concentrate, composed by oats grain, urea, limestone and salt.  The treatments were Treatment 1 with whole oats grain, Treatment 2 with 50% grounded grain, e Treatment 3 with 100% grounded grain. The data were analyzed by regression. Grinding did not affect dry matter intake, being the average values 10.563 kg/animal/day, 2.2% when expressed per 100 kg of live weight and 102.94 g when expressed per metabolic weight. Average daily weight gain increased linearly with the inclusion of grounded oats in the diet (Y=.79976+.0033X, while feed conversion declined linearly (Y=13.21155-.04021X. Subcutaneous fat thickness increased lenarly with the increase of grounded oats in the diet. The better use of the grounded oats resulted in higher weight gain and slaughter weight, which explains the higher fat deposition of cows fed with grounded oats.

    KEY WORDS: Feed conversion, intake, weight gain.
    Foi estudado o efeito do processamento do grão de aveia-preta sobre o desempenho de vacas de descarte em confinamento. As vacas foram alimentadas com 60% de silagem de milho e 40% de concentrado, composto por grãos de aveia-preta, ureia, calcário calcítico e cloreto de sódio. A forma como se forneceram os grãos aos animais representaram os tratamentos, ou seja, Tratamento 1 com grãos de aveia fornecidos inteiros, Tratamento 2 com 50% dos grãos fornecidos moídos, e Tratamento 3 com 100% dos grãos fornecidos moídos. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de regressão polinomial a 5% de significância. A moagem da aveia não influenciou o consumo dos animais, que apresentaram consumo de 10,563 kg/dia, ou 2,2% quando ajustado para peso vivo e 102,94 g por unidade de tamanho metabólico. O ganho de peso apresentou comportamento linear com a substituição do grão inteiro por grão mo

  13. 40 CFR 425.40 - Applicability; description of the retan-wet finish-sides subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE... resulting from any tannery which processes previously tanned hides and skins (grain side only) into finished...

  14. Assessment of Real-Time Compaction Quality Test Indexes for Rockfill Material Based on Roller Vibratory Acceleration Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianbo Hua

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Compaction quality is directly related to the structure and seepage stability of a rockfill dam. To timely and accurately test the compaction quality of the rockfill material, four real-time test indexes were chosen to characterize the soil compaction degree based on the analysis of roller vibratory acceleration, including acceleration peak value (ap, acceleration root mean square value (arms, crest factor value (CF, and compaction meter value (CMV. To determine which of these indexes is the most appropriate, a two-part field compaction experiment was conducted using a vibratory roller in different filling zones of the dam body. Data on rolling parameters, real-time test indexes, and compaction quality indexes were collected to perform statistical regression analyses. Combined with the spectrum analysis of the acceleration signal, it was found that the CF index best characterizes the compaction degree of the rockfill material among the four indexes. Furthermore, the quantitative relations between the real-time index and compaction quality index were established to determine the control criterion of CF, which can instruct the site work of compaction quality control in the rockfill rolling process.

  15. Segmentation of turbo generator and reactor coolant pump vibratory patterns: a syntactic pattern recognition approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tira, Z.

    1993-02-01

    This study was undertaken in the context of turbogenerator and reactor coolant pump vibration surveillance. Vibration meters are used to monitor equipment condition. An anomaly will modify the signal mean. At the present time, the expert system DIVA, developed to automate diagnosis, requests the operator to identify the nature of the pattern change thus indicated. In order to minimize operator intervention, we have to automate on the one hand classification and on the other hand, detection and segmentation of the patterns. The purpose of this study is to develop a new automatic system for the segmentation and classification of signals. The segmentation is based on syntactic pattern recognition. For the classification, a decision tree is used. The signals to process are the rms values of the vibrations measured on rotating machines. These signals are randomly sampled. All processing is automatic and no a priori statistical knowledge on the signals is required. The segmentation performances are assessed by tests on vibratory signals. (author). 31 figs

  16. Research on the use of particles coming from almond husk as fillers for vinyl plastisols to manufacture hollow pieces with similar surface finishing than wood by using a rotational moulding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo Amoros, Jose Enrique

    PVC pastes or plasticized PVC offer great possibilities in the industrial field in which this research work has been developed since they show great relevance in plastic processing. On one hand, it is important to study these materials from different points of view: quality improvement, wide range of performance, high versatility, low costs,.... On the other hand, most of the industrial fields that usually employ these polymeric materials are characterized by developing products on which aesthetic considerations and surface finishing acquire special relevance. These industrial fields include all those on which new designs require complex shapes and new and novelty surface finishing such as interior design (furniture, wood products,...) toys industry, houseware, shoe industry,.... The main aim of this work is to improve the use of PVC plastisols in these industrial fields by optimizing formulations with new additives (low toxicity plasticizers) and fillers (lignocellulosic wastes) to obtain new materials that minimize damages to environment. In this work, we have developed new plastisol formulations based on the use of low toxicity plasticizers to obtain more ecological plastisols. We have used a biodegradable plasticizer DINCH which is a derivative of a dicarboxilate as substitute of traditional plasticizers based on phthalates. As we are working with relatively new plasticizers (specially at industrial level) we have performed a whole study of its properties by using different experimental analysis techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamical-mechanical analysis (DMA) and espectrofotometric techniques (visible and infrared). Furthermore a complete mechanical characterization has been carried out to analyze the most important parameters that influence on materials properties such as processing parameters (temperature and time) and plastisol formulations (mainly plasticizer content). We have also performed a

  17. Automation in tube finishing bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, Prateek; Satyadev, B.; Raghuraman, S.; Syama Sundara Rao, B.

    1997-01-01

    Automation concept in tube finishing bay, introduced after the final pass annealing of PHWR tubes resulted in integration of number of sub-systems in synchronisation with each other to produce final cut fuel tubes of specified length, tube finish etc. The tube finishing bay which was physically segregated into four distinct areas: 1. tube spreader and stacking area, 2. I.D. sand blasting area, 3. end conditioning, wad blowing, end capping and O.D. wet grinding area, 4. tube inspection, tube cutting and stacking area has been studied

  18. 77 FR 12227 - Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: Uncovered Finished Water Reservoirs; Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... Water Treatment Rule: Uncovered Finished Water Reservoirs; Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental... review of the uncovered finished water reservoir requirement in the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water... uncovered finished water reservoir requirement and the agency's Six Year Review process. EPA also plans to...

  19. Development of Cell Culture Microdevice Actuated by Piezoelectric Thin Films for Delivering Mechanical Vibratory Stimuli to Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Y; Umegaki, G; Kawashima, T; Nagai, M; Shibata, T; Masuzawa, T; Kimura, T; Kishida, A

    2012-01-01

    In order to realize a cell culture microdevice actuated by piezoelectric thin films for on-chip regulation of cell functions, this paper reported on a feasibility study by using the microdevice with KOH-etched cavities surrounded by four (111) sidewalls as microchambers in order to introduce cells to be cultured. As a result, the vibration characteristic of the PZT actuator was improved by using an electric field -150 kV/cm at 70 C for 30 min in poling process. A feasibility study on cell culture for delivering mechanical vibratory stimuli to cells revealed the microdevice could be applicable to the culture with actual biological cells. In addition, it was found that O 2 -plasma treated parylene-C process could be applicable for obtaining homogeneous surface of cell culture microdevice.

  20. Corrosion protection and finishing of automobiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, S.T.

    2005-01-01

    finishing of automobiles is an important aspect. There have been considerable reductions of weight in automobiles by the use of composites components replacing heavy metallic components. Fenders previously based on metal have been replaced with plastic and painted with the same colour shade as of the metallic body, this has eps for proper adhesion of the paints on the plastic fender to avoid chipping off the paint form it. This paper discusses the necessary processes required for finishing of an automobile along with the corrosion protection measures. Automobiles contains a variety of engineering materials, engine main body fuel tanks connecting rods heat radiators and other mechanical parts are made from different types of engineering alloys having varying chemical compositions. Other parts like dashboard, front panel and other are made from composites. The main body made from cold roll ed steel having various contours 'c' it due to the different designs is the potential site for corrosion attack, The main body is exposed to the hostile environment through out its life period. An automobile is given a particular finish with a view to counter the hostile environments as they are not limited for plying in a limiting conditions and are taken to different weather conditions in one day thus facing severe stresses and strain. Thus it is essential that an automobile before rolling 'out of the assembly line should properly corrosion resistant and aesthetically pleasant also. Finishing for automobiles being very specialized, the main requirement being maximum durability with minimum numbers of coats baked, at the fastest possible schedule. High gloss and range of good eye catching colours being important to increase sales appeal. In the near past the car finishes were based on alkyd-amino resins baking materials and force drying lacquers, which have excellent appearance originally and maintain it on aging. The finishing system for the synthetic baking type may consist of

  1. Technology of magnetic abrasive finishing in machining of difficult-to-machine alloy complex surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujian MA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The technology of magnetic abrasive finishing is one of the important finishing technologies. Combining with low-frequency vibration and ultrasonic vibration, it can attain higher precision, quality and efficiency. The characteristics and the related current research of magnetic abrasive finishing, vibration assisted magnetic abrasive finishing and ultrasonic assisted magnetic abrasive finishing are introduced. According to the characteristics of the difficult-to-machine alloy's complex surface, the important problems for further study are presented to realize the finishing of complex surface with the technology of magnetic abrasive finishing, such as increasing the machining efficiency by enhancing the magnetic flux density of machining gap and compounding of magnetic energy and others, establishing of the control function during machining and the process planning method for magnetic abrasive finishing of complex surface under the space geometry restraint of complex surface on magnetic pole, etc.

  2. FON: From Start to Finish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakuliak, L. K.; Andruk, V. M.; Golovnia, V. V.; Shatokhina, S. V.; Yizhakevych, O. M.; Ivanov, G. A.; Yatsenko, A. I.; Sergeeva, T. P.

    Almost 40-year history of FON project ended with the creation of the whole northern sky catalog of objects down to B ≤ 16.5m. The idea of 4-fold overlapping of the northern sky with 6 wide-field astrographs has not been realized in full. For historical reasons it has been transformed into the 2-fold overlapping observational program of MAO NAS of Ukraine, resulted in three versions of the multimillion catalog of positions, proper motions, and B-magnitudes of stars. The first version of 1.2 million stars had been finished before the 2000s and is based on the AC object list. The measurements of plates were made by automatic measuring complex PARSEC, specially developed for massive photographic reviews. As the input list was limited by AC objects, the most part of stars on the FON plates remained unmeasured. Principles of workflow organization of such works formed the basis for the further development of the project using the latest IT-technologies. For the creation of the second and the third versions of the catalog, the list of objects was obtained as a result of total digitizing of plates and their image processing. The final third version contains 19.5 million stars and galaxies with the maximum possible for the photographic astrometry accuracy. The collection of plates, obtained in other observatories - participants of the project, are partially safe and can be used for the same astrometric tasks.

  3. Analysis of the influence of process conditions on the surface finish of ceramic materials manufactured by EDM; Analisis de la influencia de las condiciones de proceso sobre el acabado superficial de materiales ceramicos fabricados por electroerosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puertas-Arbizu, I.; Luis-Perez, C. J.

    2004-07-01

    Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is an emerging alternative versus some other manufacturing processes of conductive ceramic materials, such as: laser machining, electrochemical machining, abrasive water jet, ultrasonic machining and diamond wheel grinding. Due to its interest in the industrial field, in this work a study of the influence of process conditions on the surface aspect of three conductive ceramic materials: hot-pressed boron carbide (B{sub 4}C), reaction-bonded silicon carbide (SiSiC) and cobalt-bonded tungsten carbide (WC-Co) is carried out. These materials are to be electrical discharge machined under different machining conditions and in the particular case of finish stages (Ra{<=} 1 {mu}m). (Author)

  4. ANALYSIS OF VIBRATORY PROTECTION SYSTEM VIBRATION DURING HARMONIC AND POLYHARMONIC EXCITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Mikulik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a mathematical model of local «driver-seat» system and an algorithm for vibratory loading formation at external actions. Results of the investigations on the system vibration according to minimum vibration acceleration depending on transfer force factor acting on the seat and a vibration isolation factor are presented in the paper.

  5. Penile vibratory stimulation in the treatment of post-prostatectomy incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Sønksen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To examine penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) in the treatment of post-prostatectomy urinary incontinence (UI). METHODS: Patients with post-prostatectomy UI were included in a 12-week trial. A 24-hr pad test and a 72-hr voiding diary were collected at baseline. Participants were randomized ...

  6. Procedures for evaluation of vibratory ground motions of soil deposits at nuclear power plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    According to USNRC requirements set forth in Appendix A, 10 CFR, Part 100, vibratory ground motion criteria for a nuclear plant must be based on local soil conditions, as well as on the seismicity, geology, and tectonics of the region. This report describes how such criteria can be developed by applying the latest technology associated with analytical predictions of site-dependent ground motions and with the use of composite spectra obtained from the current library of strong motion records. Recommended procedures for defining vibratory ground motion criteria contain the following steps: (1) geologic and seismologic studies; (2) site soils investigations; (3) site response sensitivity studies; (4) evaluation of local site response characteristics; (5) selection of site-matched records; and (6) appraisal and selection of seismic input criteria. An in-depth discussion of the engineering characteristics of earthquake ground motions including parameters used to characterize earthquakes and strong motion records, geologic factors that influence ground shaking, the current strong motion data base, and case histories of the effects of past earthquake events is presented. Next, geotechnical investigations of the seismologic, geologic, and site soil conditions required to develop vibratory motion criteria are briefly summarized. The current technology for establishing vibratory ground motion criteria at nuclear plant sites, including site-independent and site-dependent procedures that use data from strong motion records and from soil response analyses is described. (auth)

  7. On dynamics and control of vibratory gyroscopes with special spherical symmetry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shatalov, M

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available It was shown in 1985 by Acad. V. Zhuravlev that the angular rate of a pure vibrating mode excited in a vibratory gyroscope with spherical symmetry is proportional to an inertial angular rate of the gyroscope. The effect is three dimensional...

  8. Can vibratory feedback be used to improve postural stability in persons with transtibial limb loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusaw, David; Hagberg, Kerstin; Nolan, Lee; Ramstrand, Nerrolyn

    2012-01-01

    The use of vibration as a feedback modality to convey motion of the body has been shown to improve measures of postural stability in some groups of patients. Because individuals using transtibial prostheses lack sensation distal to the amputation, vibratory feedback could possibly be used to improve their postural stability. The current investigation provided transtibial prosthesis users (n = 24, mean age 48 yr) with vibratory feedback proportional to the signal received from force transducers located under the prosthetic foot. Postural stability was evaluated by measuring center of pressure (CoP) movement, limits of stability, and rhythmic weight shift while participants stood on a force platform capable of rotations in the pitch plane (toes up/toes down). The results showed that the vibratory feedback increased the mediolateral displacement amplitude of CoP in standing balance and reduced the response time to rapid voluntary movements of the center of gravity. The results suggest that the use of vibratory feedback in an experimental setting leads to improvements in fast open-loop mechanisms of postural control in transtibial prosthesis users.

  9. Automated Measurement of Vocal Fold Vibratory Asymmetry from High-Speed Videoendoscopy Recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Daryush D.; Deliyski, Dimitar D.; Quatieri, Thomas F.; Hillman, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In prior work, a manually derived measure of vocal fold vibratory phase asymmetry correlated to varying degrees with visual judgments made from laryngeal high-speed videoendoscopy (HSV) recordings. This investigation extended this work by establishing an automated HSV-based framework to quantify 3 categories of vocal fold vibratory…

  10. Wave radiation from vibratory and impact pile driving in a layered acousto-elastic medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsouvalas, A.; Metrikine, A.

    2014-01-01

    A steel monopile is the most common foundation type of a wind turbine installed offshore and is driven into place with the help of vibratory or impact hammers. Underwater noise generated during the installation of steel monopiles has recently received considerable attention from international

  11. Deceptive vibratory communication: pupae of a beetle exploit the freeze response of larvae to protect themselves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Wataru; Ishikawa, Yukio; Takanashi, Takuma

    2012-10-23

    It is argued that animal signals may have evolved so as to manipulate the response of receivers in a way that increases the fitness of the signallers. In deceptive communication, receivers incur costs by responding to false signals. Recently, we reported that pupae of the soil-inhabiting Japanese rhinoceros beetle Trypoxylus dichotoma produce vibratory signals to deter burrowing larvae, thereby protecting themselves. In the present study, monitoring of vibrations associated with larval movement revealed that T. dichotoma larvae remained motionless for ca 10 min when pupal vibratory signals were played back transiently (freeze response). Furthermore, pupal signals of T. dichotoma elicited a freeze response in three other scarabaeid species, whose pupae do not produce vibratory signals. This indicates that the freeze response to certain types of vibration evolved before the divergence of these species and has been evolutionarily conserved, presumably because of the fitness advantage in avoiding predators. Pupae of T. dichotoma have probably exploited pre-existing anti-predator responses of conspecific larvae to protect themselves by emitting deceptive vibratory signals.

  12. Relevance of microbial finished product testing in food safety management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwietering, Marcel H.; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Membré, Jeanne Marie

    2016-01-01

    Management of microbiological food safety is largely based on good design of processes, products and procedures. Finished product testing may be considered as a control measure at the end of the production process. However, testing gives only very limited information on the safety status of a food......-active way by implementing an effective food safety management system. For verification activities in a food safety management system, finished product testing may however be useful. For three cases studies; canned food, chocolate and cooked ham, the relevance of testing both of finished products....... If a hazardous organism is found it means something, but absence in a limited number of samples is no guarantee of safety of a whole production batch. Finished product testing is often too little and too late. Therefore most attention should be focussed on management and control of the hazards in a more pro...

  13. Control of Vibratory Energy Harvesters in the Presence of Nonlinearities and Power-Flow Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Ian L.

    Over the past decade, a significant amount of research activity has been devoted to developing electromechanical systems that can convert ambient mechanical vibrations into usable electric power. Such systems, referred to as vibratory energy harvesters, have a number of useful of applications, ranging in scale from self-powered wireless sensors for structural health monitoring in bridges and buildings to energy harvesting from ocean waves. One of the most challenging aspects of this technology concerns the efficient extraction and transmission of power from transducer to storage. Maximizing the rate of power extraction from vibratory energy harvesters is further complicated by the stochastic nature of the disturbance. The primary purpose of this dissertation is to develop feedback control algorithms which optimize the average power generated from stochastically-excited vibratory energy harvesters. This dissertation will illustrate the performance of various controllers using two vibratory energy harvesting systems: an electromagnetic transducer embedded within a flexible structure, and a piezoelectric bimorph cantilever beam. Compared with piezoelectric systems, large-scale electromagnetic systems have received much less attention in the literature despite their ability to generate power at the watt--kilowatt scale. Motivated by this observation, the first part of this dissertation focuses on developing an experimentally validated predictive model of an actively controlled electromagnetic transducer. Following this experimental analysis, linear-quadratic-Gaussian control theory is used to compute unconstrained state feedback controllers for two ideal vibratory energy harvesting systems. This theory is then augmented to account for competing objectives, nonlinearities in the harvester dynamics, and non-quadratic transmission loss models in the electronics. In many vibratory energy harvesting applications, employing a bi-directional power electronic drive to actively

  14. DEVELOPING A CAPE-OPEN COMPLIANT METAL FINISHING FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL (CO-MFFP2T)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA is developing a Computer Aided Process Engineering (CAPE) software tool for the metal finishing industry that helps users design efficient metal finishing processes that are less polluting to the environment. Metal finishing process lines can be simulated and evaluated...

  15. Development and evaluation of a vibratory-pneumatic pomegranate arils extractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M Nassiri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Iran is a frontier of pomegranate fruit production in the world (with almost 40 % of the world`s production. However due to traditional processing operations is not ranked as the largest pomegranate exporter. Saveh, Neyriz and Ferdows are the top pomegranate producing cities in Iran. Pomegranate is consumed as a fresh fruit as well as processed product as food additive, paste, syrup, jelly, pectin, jam, beverage, essence, vinegar and concentrate. Aril extraction is the first and essential postharvest operation for pomegranate processing. Arils are mostly extracted manually even in large scales for fresh and processed consumption. This labor intensive operation is rational when aril quality is an important index for consumer. But whenever pomegranate juice is desired, the aril quality has no priority for consumer, and therefore arils can be extracted with less care. Sarig (1985 was the first inventor of a pomegranate aril extractor who employed air jet force to extract the arils. Later, other researchers employed the same method as well as water jet to extract fruit juice and sac. In the present study, fabrication and evaluation of vibratory aril extractor augmented with air system was conducted. Materials and Methods The study was conducted using Rabab cultivar samples which were manually harvested from an orchard in Neyriz town, Fars province. Samples were kept in refrigerator at 5 0C till experimental trials. Initial moisture content of fruit skin, arils and internal fleshes were measured by gravimetric method as 31.7±2.6 %, 61.5±1.8 % and 42.8±1.4 %, respectively and for a whole fruit was measured 45.3±11.5 % (w.b.. For conducting laboratory tests, an aril extraction unit was designed and fabricated. It comprised a steel main frame, a 746 W electric motor, drive mechanism (eccentric and shaft, sample retentive unit, air jet unit, aril tank, and an air compressor-tank assembly. Sample retentive unit was designed in such a

  16. SURFACE FINISHES ON STAINLESS STEEL REDUCE BACTERIAL ATTACHMENT AND EARLY BIOFILM FORMATION: SCANNING ELECTRON AND ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three common finishing treatments of stainless steel that are used for equipment during poultry processing were tested for resistance to bacterial contamination. Methods were developed to measure attached bacteria and to identify factors that make surface finishes susceptible or ...

  17. Enhancing Surface Finish of Additively Manufactured Titanium and Cobalt Chrome Elements Using Laser Based Finishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gora, Wojciech S.; Tian, Yingtao; Cabo, Aldara Pan; Ardron, Marcus; Maier, Robert R. J.; Prangnell, Philip; Weston, Nicholas J.; Hand, Duncan P.

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers the possibility of creating a complex free form object as a single element, which is not possible using traditional mechanical machining. Unfortunately the typically rough surface finish of additively manufactured parts is unsuitable for many applications. As a result AM parts must be post-processed; typically mechanically machined and/or and polished using either chemical or mechanical techniques (both of which have their limitations). Laser based polishing is based on remelting of a very thin surface layer and it offers potential as a highly repeatable, higher speed process capable of selective area polishing, and without any waste problems (no abrasives or liquids). In this paper an in-depth investigation of CW laser polishing of titanium and cobalt chrome AM elements is presented. The impact of different scanning strategies, laser parameters and initial surface condition on the achieved surface finish is evaluated.

  18. CAPSULE REPORT - MANAGING CYANIDE IN METAL FINISHING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance to surface finishing manufacturers, metal finishing decision maker and regulators on management practices and control technologies for managing cyanide in the workplace. This information can benefit key industry stakeholder gro...

  19. Vibratory-compacted (vipac/sphere-pac) nuclear fuels - a comparison with pelletized nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidester, K.; Rubin, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Thompson, M

    2001-07-01

    In order to achieve the packing densities required for nuclear fuel stability, economy and performance, the fuel material must be densified. This has traditionally been performed by high-temperature sintering. (At one time, fuel densification was investigated using cold/hot swaging. However, this fabrication method has become uncommon.) Alternatively, fuel can be densified by vibratory compaction (VIPAC). During the late 1950's and into the 1970's, in the U.S., vibratory compaction fuel was fabricated and test irradiated to evaluate its applicability compared to the more traditional pelletized fuel for nuclear reactors. These activities were primarily focused on light water reactors (LWR) but some work was performed for fast reactors. This paper attempts to summarize these evaluations and proposes to reconsider VIPAC fuel for future use. (author)

  20. Vibratory-compacted (vipac/sphere-pac) nuclear fuels - a comparison with pelletized nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidester, K.; Rubin, J.; Thompson, M.

    2001-01-01

    In order to achieve the packing densities required for nuclear fuel stability, economy and performance, the fuel material must be densified. This has traditionally been performed by high-temperature sintering. (At one time, fuel densification was investigated using cold/hot swaging. However, this fabrication method has become uncommon.) Alternatively, fuel can be densified by vibratory compaction (VIPAC). During the late 1950's and into the 1970's, in the U.S., vibratory compaction fuel was fabricated and test irradiated to evaluate its applicability compared to the more traditional pelletized fuel for nuclear reactors. These activities were primarily focused on light water reactors (LWR) but some work was performed for fast reactors. This paper attempts to summarize these evaluations and proposes to reconsider VIPAC fuel for future use. (author)

  1. Meat yield and quality of Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu cattle finished on molasses/maize grain with agro-processing by-products in 90 days feedlot period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asimwe, L.; Kimambo, A E; Laswai, G

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding molasses or maize grain with agro-processing by-products on yield and quality of meat from Tanzania shorthorn zebu (TSZ) cattle. Forty five steers aged 2.5 to 3.0 years with 200 +/- 5.4 kg body weight were allocated into five dietary...

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF THE U.S. EPA'S METAL FINISHING FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metal finishing processes are a type of chemical processes and can be modeled using Computer Aided Process Engineering (CAPE). Currently, the U.S. EPA is developing the Metal Finishing Facility Pollution Prevention Tool (MFFP2T), a pollution prevention software tool for the meta...

  3. Mechanical Assessment of the Drip Shield Subject to Vibratory Motion and Dynamic and Static Rock Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.C. Quittmeyer

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the drip shield (DS) is to divert water that may seep into emplacement drifts from contacting the waste packages, and to protect the waste packages from impact or static loading from rockfall. The objective of this document is to summarize, into one location, the results of a series of supporting engineering calculations that were developed to study the effect of static and dynamic loads on the mechanical performance of the DS. The potential DS loads are a result of: (1) Potential earthquake vibratory ground motion, and resulting interaction of the DS, waste package and pallet, and drift invert; (2) Dynamic impacts of rockfall resulting from emplacement drift damage as a result of earthquake vibratory motion; and (3) Static load of the caved rock rubble that may come to rest on the DS as a result of vibratory motion or from time-dependent yielding of the rock mass surrounding the emplacement drift. The potential mechanical failure mechanisms that may result from these loads include: (1) Overturning and/or separation of the interlocking DS segments; (2) Loss of structural integrity and stability of the DS, including excessive deformation or buckling; and (3) Localized damage to the top and side-wall plates of the DS. The scope of this document is limited to summarizing results presented in the supporting calculations in the areas of analysis of the potential for DS collapse, and determination of the damaged surface area of the DS plates. New calculations are presented to determine whether or not separation of DSs occur under vibratory motion

  4. 27 CFR 25.231 - Finished beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finished beer. 25.231... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Purchased From Another Brewer § 25.231 Finished beer. (a) A brewer may obtain beer in barrels and kegs, finished and ready for sale from another brewer. The purchasing...

  5. Teleoperation of steerable flexible needles by combining kinesthetic and vibratory feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacchierotti, Claudio; Abayazid, Momen; Misra, Sarthak; Prattichizzo, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Needle insertion in soft-tissue is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that demands high accuracy. In this respect, robotic systems with autonomous control algorithms have been exploited as the main tool to achieve high accuracy and reliability. However, for reasons of safety and responsibility, autonomous robotic control is often not desirable. Therefore, it is necessary to focus also on techniques enabling clinicians to directly control the motion of the surgical tools. In this work, we address that challenge and present a novel teleoperated robotic system able to steer flexible needles. The proposed system tracks the position of the needle using an ultrasound imaging system and computes needle's ideal position and orientation to reach a given target. The master haptic interface then provides the clinician with mixed kinesthetic-vibratory navigation cues to guide the needle toward the computed ideal position and orientation. Twenty participants carried out an experiment of teleoperated needle insertion into a soft-tissue phantom, considering four different experimental conditions. Participants were provided with either mixed kinesthetic-vibratory feedback or mixed kinesthetic-visual feedback. Moreover, we considered two different ways of computing ideal position and orientation of the needle: with or without set-points. Vibratory feedback was found more effective than visual feedback in conveying navigation cues, with a mean targeting error of 0.72 mm when using set-points, and of 1.10 mm without set-points.

  6. Effects of vibratory stimulation-induced kinesthetic illusions on the neural activities of patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Takayuki; Nakano, Hideki; Ohsugi, Hironori; Murata, Shin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the influence of vibratory stimulation-induced kinesthetic illusion on brain function after stroke. [Subjects] Twelve healthy individuals and 13 stroke patients without motor or sensory loss participated. [Methods] Electroencephalograms were taken at rest and during vibratory stimulation. As a neurophysiological index of brain function, we measured the μ-rhythm, which is present mainly in the kinesthetic cortex and is attenuated by movement or motor imagery and compared the data using source localization analyses in the Standardized Low Resolution Brain Electromagnetic Tomography (sLORETA) program. [Results] At rest, μ-rhythms appeared in the sensorimotor and supplementary motor cortices in both healthy controls and stroke patients. Under vibratory stimulation, no μ-rhythm appeared in the sensorimotor cortex of either group. Moreover, in the supplementary motor area, which stores the motor imagery required for kinesthetic illusions, the μ-rhythms of patients were significantly stronger than those of the controls, although the μ-rhythms of both groups were reduced. Thus, differences in neural activity in the supplementary motor area were apparent between the subject groups. [Conclusion] Kinesthetic illusions do occur in patients with motor deficits due to stroke. The neural basis of the supplementary motor area in stroke patients may be functionally different from that found in healthy controls.

  7. Gearbox fault diagnosis based on deep random forest fusion of acoustic and vibratory signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan; Sanchez, René-Vinicio; Zurita, Grover; Cerrada, Mariela; Cabrera, Diego; Vásquez, Rafael E.

    2016-08-01

    Fault diagnosis is an effective tool to guarantee safe operations in gearboxes. Acoustic and vibratory measurements in such mechanical devices are all sensitive to the existence of faults. This work addresses the use of a deep random forest fusion (DRFF) technique to improve fault diagnosis performance for gearboxes by using measurements of an acoustic emission (AE) sensor and an accelerometer that are used for monitoring the gearbox condition simultaneously. The statistical parameters of the wavelet packet transform (WPT) are first produced from the AE signal and the vibratory signal, respectively. Two deep Boltzmann machines (DBMs) are then developed for deep representations of the WPT statistical parameters. A random forest is finally suggested to fuse the outputs of the two DBMs as the integrated DRFF model. The proposed DRFF technique is evaluated using gearbox fault diagnosis experiments under different operational conditions, and achieves 97.68% of the classification rate for 11 different condition patterns. Compared to other peer algorithms, the addressed method exhibits the best performance. The results indicate that the deep learning fusion of acoustic and vibratory signals may improve fault diagnosis capabilities for gearboxes.

  8. 40 CFR 425.10 - Applicability; description of the hair pulp, chrome tan, retan-wet finishing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING... addition to other unhairing and tanning operation, processes raw or cured cattle or cattle-like hides into finished leather by chemically dissolving the hide hair, chrome tanning, and retan-wet finishing. ...

  9. Relevance of microbial finished product testing in food safety management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwietering, M.H.; Jacxsens, L.; Membre, J.M.; Nauta, M.; Peterz, M.

    2016-01-01

    Management of microbiological food safety is largely based on good design of processes, products and procedures. Finished product testing may be considered as a control measure at the end of the production process. However, testing gives only very limited information on the safety status of a food.

  10. A preliminary study on growth response of broiler finishers fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary study on growth response of broiler finishers fed processed mottle Mucuna beans ( Mucuna pruriens var. utilis ) ... They were fed diets (20% CP, 13 MJME/kg) incorporating 0%, 5% and 10% processed mottle “Mucuna” beans. A completely randomized design was used. Feed and water were supplied and ...

  11. Approaches for in silico finishing of microbial genome sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Schmitt Kremer

    Full Text Available Abstract The introduction of next-generation sequencing (NGS had a significant effect on the availability of genomic information, leading to an increase in the number of sequenced genomes from a large spectrum of organisms. Unfortunately, due to the limitations implied by the short-read sequencing platforms, most of these newly sequenced genomes remained as “drafts”, incomplete representations of the whole genetic content. The previous genome sequencing studies indicated that finishing a genome sequenced by NGS, even bacteria, may require additional sequencing to fill the gaps, making the entire process very expensive. As such, several in silico approaches have been developed to optimize the genome assemblies and facilitate the finishing process. The present review aims to explore some free (open source, in many cases tools that are available to facilitate genome finishing.

  12. Approaches for in silico finishing of microbial genome sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Frederico Schmitt; McBride, Alan John Alexander; Pinto, Luciano da Silva

    The introduction of next-generation sequencing (NGS) had a significant effect on the availability of genomic information, leading to an increase in the number of sequenced genomes from a large spectrum of organisms. Unfortunately, due to the limitations implied by the short-read sequencing platforms, most of these newly sequenced genomes remained as "drafts", incomplete representations of the whole genetic content. The previous genome sequencing studies indicated that finishing a genome sequenced by NGS, even bacteria, may require additional sequencing to fill the gaps, making the entire process very expensive. As such, several in silico approaches have been developed to optimize the genome assemblies and facilitate the finishing process. The present review aims to explore some free (open source, in many cases) tools that are available to facilitate genome finishing.

  13. Tool steel quality and surface finishing of plastic molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Agnelli Mesquita

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic industry is today in a constant growth, demanding several products from other segments, which includes the plastic molds, mainly used in the injection molding process. Considering all the requirements of plastic molds, the surface finishing is of special interest, as the injected plastic part is able to reproduce any details (and also defects from the mold surface. Therefore, several aspects on mold finishing are important, mainly related to manufacturing conditions - machining, grinding, polishing and texturing, and also related to the tool steel quality, in relation to microstructure homogeneity and non-metallic inclusions (cleanliness. The present paper is then focused on this interrelationship between steel quality and manufacturing process, which are both related to the final quality of plastic mold surfaces. Examples are discussed in terms of surface finishing of plastic molds and the properties or the microstructure of mold steels.

  14. Flexibility of production systems and prepare-finish time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukićević Milan R.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the specificities of the large-serial and mass production is the almost neglected percentage of prepare-finish time in the production cycle. In the conditions of today dominant discontinuous production, it becomes a significant element of the production cycle. The eastern (Japan doctrine of increasing the flexibility of the production systems, is based inter alia also on the extreme reduction of the prepare-finish time. For this reason, the aim of this study was to identify the types and percentages of individual jobs within the group of prepare-finish jobs. The sample consisted of 3 (three production systems for the production of joinery, with the discontinuous production system. The research shows that the percentage of time of the jobs installation of work instruments, regulation of processing regime, and removal of work instruments is extremely long and that it ranges between 11.83% and 18.93% of the shift time. The reasons of the high percentage of these jobs are the wide range of products and the absence of the rationalisation of prepare-finish jobs. Within the efforts to minimize the effects of disruption and to increase the flexibility of the production systems, the rationalisation of prepare-finish jobs is the unavoidable condition.

  15. New trends for PWB surface finishes in mobile phone applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus Würtz; Ambat, Rajan; Rasmussen, Anette Alsted

    2005-01-01

    Immersion Ni/Au has been the overall dominant surface finish on PWB's for the last 10 years. During the last 5 years Mobile Phones have been extremely popular and spread all over the world in different climate zones in very high volumes. At the same time the Mobile Phone terminal for many people...... use of Imm. Ni/Au unnecessary in the near future. The end result is higher reliability with less expensive and simpler processes. This paper will discuss the various considerations for choice of surface finish and results from the extensive feasibility studies performed by Nokia Mobile Phones...

  16. Print Finishing: From Manual to Automated Print Finishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Ward

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Meeting the demand for faster turnrounds and shorter print runs goes beyond making the printing press easier to set up and change. There is little point in producing plates and then sheets from a press if the post press area does not change to keep abreast of developments in prepress and the print room. The greatest impact is going to come from JDF, the end to end production data format which is finding wide spread acceptance in print areas. To date finishing equipment manufacturers are not as well represented within the CIP4 organisation as prepress and press vendors, but the major manufacturers are members. All are working to the goal of complete connectivity.The idea of JDF is that if the format of a print product like a magazine is known during the creation phases, the information can be used to preset machinery that is going to be used to produce it, so avoiding input errors and saving manufacturing time.A second aspect to JDF is that information about performance and progress is gathered and can be retrieved from a central point or made available to a customer. Production scheduling and costing becomes more accurate and customer relationships are deepened. However JDF to its fullest extent is not yet in use in connecting the finishing area to the rest of the printing plant. Around the world different companies are testing the idea of JDF to connect saddle stitchers, guillotines and binders with frantic work underway to be able to show results soon.

  17. [The impact of vibratory stimulation therapy on voice quality in hyperfunctional occupational dysphonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosztyła-Hojna, Bożena; Kuryliszyn-Moskal, Anna; Rogowski, Marek; Moskal, Diana; Dakowicz, Agnieszka; Falkowski, Dawid; Kasperuk, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Hyperfunctional dysphonia is the most frequent type of occupational functional dysphonia. Pharmacotherapy, physiotherapy and psychotherapy are used in the treatment of occupational dysphonia. Vibratory massages of the regions of the larynx relax the external muscles of neck, which have an indirect impact on the tension of the vocal folds. The aim of the study is to assess the impact of vibratory stimulation therapy on voice quality in patients with hyperfunctional occupational dysphonia treated pharmacologically. Forty patients with hyperfunctional occupational dysphonia treated phoniatrically in the Phoniatric Outpatient Clinic were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups. Group I consisted of 20 patients treated pharmacologically. In group II, including 20 patients, apart from pharmacotherapy the vibratory stimulation therapy by the device of VR type (CyberBioMed LLC) was used. In the analysis of voice quality the evaluation of the vocal folds vibration using videolaryngostroboscopy and acoustic assessment of voice were conducted. The perceptual assessment of voice, the visualization of the vocal folds vibration in stroboscopic examination of the larynx and the acoustic assessment of voice enable the appropriate diagnostics of the clinical type and voice quality in hyperfunctional dysphonia. The tension of superficial and deep muscles of neck has the impact on the phonatory function of the larynx. Pharmacological treatment improves the voice quality in hyperfunctional occupational dysphonia. Pharmacological treatment combines with the relaxation of muscles of neck using the device of VR type significantly improve voice quality in hyperfunctional occupational dysphonia. Copyright © 2012 Polish Otolaryngology Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z.o.o. All rights reserved.

  18. Research on Bell-Shaped Vibratory Angular Rate Gyro’s Character of Resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Liu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro (abbreviated as BVG is a new type Coriolis vibratory gyro that was inspired by Chinese traditional clocks. The resonator fuses based on a variable thickness axisymmetric multicurved surface shell. Its characteristics can directly influence the performance of BVG. The BVG structure not only has capabilities of bearing high overload, high impact and, compared with the tuning fork, vibrating beam, shell and a comb structure, but also a higher frequency to overcome the influence of the disturbance of the exterior environment than the same sized hemispherical resonator gyroscope (HRG and the traditional cylinder vibratory gyroscope. It can be widely applied in high dynamic low precision angular rate measurement occasions. The main work is as follows: the issue mainly analyzes the structure and basic principle, and investigates the bell-shaped resonator’s mathematical model. The reasonable structural parameters are obtained from finite element analysis and an intelligent platform. Using the current solid vibration gyro theory analyzes the structural characteristics and principles of BVG. The bell-shaped resonator is simplified as a paraboloid of the revolution mechanical model, which has a fixed closed end and a free opened end. It obtains the natural frequency and vibration modes based on the theory of elasticity. The structural parameters are obtained from the orthogonal method by the research on the structural parameters of the resonator analysis. It obtains the modal analysis, stress analysis and impact analysis with the chosen parameters. Finally, using the turntable experiment verifies the gyro effect of the BVG.

  19. Serum biochemical indices of Finisher Broiler Chickens fed diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 4 week feeding trial was conducted using 180 five-week old Hubbard broiler chickens to determine the effect of feeding variously processed roselle(Hibiscus sabdariffa) seeds on serum biochemical indices with a view to determining the potential of roselle seed as an alternative to soybeans. Five broiler finisher diets were ...

  20. Theory of vibratory mobilization and break-up of non-wetting fluids entrapped in pore constrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresnev, I.; Li, W.; Vigil, D.

    2006-12-01

    Quantitative dynamics of a non-wetting (e. g., NAPL) ganglion entrapped in a pore constriction and subjected to vibrations can be approximated by the equation of motion of an oscillator moving under the effect of the external pressure gradient, inertial oscillatory force, and restoring capillary force. The solution of the equation provides the conditions under which the droplet experiences forced oscillations without being mobilized or is liberated upon the acceleration of the wall exceeding an "unplugging" threshold. This solution provides a quantitative tool for the estimation of the parameters of vibratory fields needed to liberate entrapped non-wetting fluids. For typical pore sizes encountered in reservoirs and aquifers, wall accelerations must exceed at least several m/sec2 and even higher levels to mobilize the droplets of NAPL; however, in the populations of ganglia entrapped in natural porous environments, many may reside very near their mobilization thresholds and may be mobilized by extremely low accelerations as well. For given acceleration, lower seismic frequencies are more efficient. The ganglia may also break up into smaller pieces when passing through pore constrictions. The snap-off is governed by the geometry only; for constrictions with sinusoidal profile (spatial wavelength of L and maximum and minimum radii of rmax and rmin, the break-up occurs if L > 2π(rmin rmax)1/2. Computational fluid dynamics shows the details of the break-up process.

  1. Effects of roughage inclusion and particle size on performance and rumination behavior of finishing beef steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roughage is mechanically processed to increase digestibility, and handling and mixing characteristics in finishing diets. Roughage is fed to promote rumen health and decrease digestive upset, but inclusion in finishing diets is limited due to the cost per unit of energy. Rumination behavior may be a...

  2. Obtention of hydroxyapatite submicrometric of bovine origin by vibratory grinding for rapid prototyping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meira, C.R.; Purquerio, B.M.; Fortulan, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Submicron bovine hydroxyapatite was obtained for rapid prototyping. Hydroxyapatite structure originated from bovine mineral bone has great importance among the biomaterials and biocompatibility due to its great similarity with the human bone structure. This study aims to obtain powder for manufacture by rapid prototyping of scaffolds. This technique manufacture requires highly reactive powders to compensate for the absence of pressure forming. Hydroxyapatite was milled in a ball mill and vibratory mill, and analyzed for their average equivalent spherical diameter and surface area. Test specimens were isostatically pressed at 100 MPa and machined into cylindrical test specimens. These specimens were sintered at several temperatures to determine the optimal sintering temperature based on densification and chemistry stability. In grinding ball mill was obtained particles of equivalent diameter of 0.74 micron in vibratory mill of 0.46 micrometers. An average flexural strength of 100 MPa and 99,8% of real density was attained for the sample sintered at 1300 deg C/2h, signaling potential for use in rapid prototyping. (author)

  3. Structural-acoustic coupling effects on the non-vacuum packaging vibratory cylinder gyroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xiang; Wu, Xuezhong; Wu, Yulie; Zhang, Yongmeng; Tao, Yi; Zheng, Yu; Xiao, Dingbang

    2013-12-13

    The resonant shells of vibratory cylinder gyroscopes are commonly packaged in metallic caps. In order to lower the production cost, a portion of vibratory cylinder gyroscopes do not employ vacuum packaging. However, under non-vacuum packaging conditions there can be internal acoustic noise leading to considerable acoustic pressure which is exerted on the resonant shell. Based on the theory of the structural-acoustic coupling, the dynamical behavior of the resonant shell under acoustic pressure is presented in this paper. A finite element (FE) model is introduced to quantitatively analyze the effect of the structural-acoustic coupling. Several main factors, such as sealing cap sizes and degree of vacuum which directly affect the vibration of the resonant shell, are studied. The results indicate that the vibration amplitude and the operating frequency of the resonant shell will be changed when the effect of structural-acoustic coupling is taken into account. In addition, an experiment was set up to study the effect of structural-acoustic coupling on the sensitivity of the gyroscope. A 32.4 mV/°/s increase of the scale factor and a 6.2 Hz variation of the operating frequency were observed when the radial gap size between the resonant shell and the sealing cap was changed from 0.5 mm to 20 mm.

  4. Structural-Acoustic Coupling Effects on the Non-Vacuum Packaging Vibratory Cylinder Gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Xi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The resonant shells of vibratory cylinder gyroscopes are commonly packaged in metallic caps. In order to lower the production cost, a portion of vibratory cylinder gyroscopes do not employ vacuum packaging. However, under non-vacuum packaging conditions there can be internal acoustic noise leading to considerable acoustic pressure which is exerted on the resonant shell. Based on the theory of the structural-acoustic coupling, the dynamical behavior of the resonant shell under acoustic pressure is presented in this paper. A finite element (FE model is introduced to quantitatively analyze the effect of the structural-acoustic coupling. Several main factors, such as sealing cap sizes and degree of vacuum which directly affect the vibration of the resonant shell, are studied. The results indicate that the vibration amplitude and the operating frequency of the resonant shell will be changed when the effect of structural-acoustic coupling is taken into account. In addition, an experiment was set up to study the effect of structural-acoustic coupling on the sensitivity of the gyroscope. A 32.4 mV/°/s increase of the scale factor and a 6.2 Hz variation of the operating frequency were observed when the radial gap size between the resonant shell and the sealing cap was changed from 0.5 mm to 20 mm.

  5. 7 CFR 29.2518 - Finish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2518 Finish. The reflectance factor in color perception. Finish indicates the sheen or shine of the surface of a tobacco leaf. (See chart, § 29.2601.) ...

  6. Finishability of CCA pressure-treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan Ross; Richard Carlson; William Feist; Steven Bussjaeger

    2000-01-01

    Thus, a need arose for the development of surface finishes for CCA-treated wood that could address the special requirements of this substrate and provide protection against the ravages of water, sunlight, mildew, and other aspects of weathering and wear. Initially, this need was not addressed, most wood preserving companies had little expertise in surface finishes and...

  7. Vibratory perception threshold in young and middle-aged patients at high risk of knee osteoarthritis compared to controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Shakoor, Najia; Ageberg, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Vibratory perception threshold (VPT) is impaired in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). It is, however, not known if sensory deficits precede or follow as a consequence of OA. The aim of this study was to investigate VPT in 2 independent groups of patients with high risk of future OA (young a...

  8. Modal Damping Ratio and Optimal Elastic Moduli of Human Body Segments for Anthropometric Vibratory Model of Standing Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Manoj; Gupta, T C

    2017-10-01

    The present study aims to accurately estimate inertial, physical, and dynamic parameters of human body vibratory model consistent with physical structure of the human body that also replicates its dynamic response. A 13 degree-of-freedom (DOF) lumped parameter model for standing person subjected to support excitation is established. Model parameters are determined from anthropometric measurements, uniform mass density, elastic modulus of individual body segments, and modal damping ratios. Elastic moduli of ellipsoidal body segments are initially estimated by comparing stiffness of spring elements, calculated from a detailed scheme, and values available in literature for same. These values are further optimized by minimizing difference between theoretically calculated platform-to-head transmissibility ratio (TR) and experimental measurements. Modal damping ratios are estimated from experimental transmissibility response using two dominant peaks in the frequency range of 0-25 Hz. From comparison between dynamic response determined form modal analysis and experimental results, a set of elastic moduli for different segments of human body and a novel scheme to determine modal damping ratios from TR plots, are established. Acceptable match between transmissibility values calculated from the vibratory model and experimental measurements for 50th percentile U.S. male, except at very low frequencies, establishes the human body model developed. Also, reasonable agreement obtained between theoretical response curve and experimental response envelop for average Indian male, affirms the technique used for constructing vibratory model of a standing person. Present work attempts to develop effective technique for constructing subject specific damped vibratory model based on its physical measurements.

  9. Plutonium Finishing Plant safety evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) previously known as the Plutonium Process and Storage Facility, or Z-Plant, was built and put into operation in 1949. Since 1949 PFP has been used for various processing missions, including plutonium purification, oxide production, metal production, parts fabrication, plutonium recovery, and the recovery of americium (Am-241). The PFP has also been used for receipt and large scale storage of plutonium scrap and product materials. The PFP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) was prepared by WHC to document the hazards associated with the facility, present safety analyses of potential accident scenarios, and demonstrate the adequacy of safety class structures, systems, and components (SSCs) and operational safety requirements (OSRs) necessary to eliminate, control, or mitigate the identified hazards. Documented in this Safety Evaluation Report (SER) is DOE's independent review and evaluation of the PFP FSAR and the basis for approval of the PFP FSAR. The evaluation is presented in a format that parallels the format of the PFP FSAR. As an aid to the reactor, a list of acronyms has been included at the beginning of this report. The DOE review concluded that the risks associated with conducting plutonium handling, processing, and storage operations within PFP facilities, as described in the PFP FSAR, are acceptable, since the accident safety analyses associated with these activities meet the WHC risk acceptance guidelines and DOE safety goals in SEN-35-91

  10. Bifurcation Analysis and Spatiotemporal Patterns in Unidirectionally Delay-Coupled Vibratory Gyroscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Xu, Jian

    Time delay is inevitable in unidirectionally coupled drive-free vibratory gyroscope system. The effect of time delay on the gyroscope system is studied in this paper. To this end, amplitude death and Hopf bifurcation induced by small time delay are first investigated by analyzing the related characteristic equation. Then, the direction of Hopf bifurcations and stability of Hopf-bifurcating periodic oscillations are determined by calculating the normal form on the center manifold. Next, spatiotemporal patterns of these Hopf-bifurcating periodic oscillations are analyzed by using the symmetric bifurcation theory of delay differential equations. Finally, it is found that numerical simulations agree with the associated analytic results. These phenomena could be induced although time delay is very small. Therefore, it is shown that time delay is an important factor which influences the sensitivity and accuracy of the gyroscope system and cannot be neglected during the design and manufacture.

  11. Anti-control of chaos of a permanent magnet DC motor system for vibratory compactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zheng; Chau, K.T.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to employ time-delay feedback to anti-control a permanent magnet DC (PMDC) motor system for vibratory compactors, and hence implement a new electrically chaotic compactor. Firstly, the dynamic model of the anti-controlled PMDC motor system and the proposed electrically chaotic compactor are formulated. Secondly, a nonlinear map is derived to analyze the chaotic criterion of the anti-controlled PMDC motor system. Then, numerical computations are used to investigate the dynamics of the proposed electrically chaotic compactor. Finally, a series of simulations are conducted to verify that the proposed electrically chaotic compactor not only offers better compaction effects than the conventional one, but also provides higher flexibility than the mechanically chaotic compactor

  12. Understanding the role of nonlinearities in the transduction of vibratory energy harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masana, Ravindra Shiva Charan

    The last two decades have witnessed several advances in micro-fabrication technologies and electronics, leading to the development of small, low-power devices for wireless sensing, data transmission, actuation, and medical implants. Unfortunately, the actual implementation of such devices in their respective environment has been hindered by the lack of scalable energy sources that are necessary to power and maintain them. Batteries, which remain the most commonly used power source, have not kept pace with the demands of these devices, especially in terms of energy density. In light of this challenge, the concept of vibratory energy harvesting has flourished in recent years as a possible alternative to power and maintain low-power electronics. While linear vibratory energy harvesters have received the majority of the literature's attention, a significant body of the current research activity is focused on the concept of purposeful inclusion of nonlinearities for broadband transduction. When compared to their linear resonant counterparts, nonlinear energy harvesters have a wider steady-state frequency bandwidth, leading to the common belief that they can be utilized to improve performance especially in random and non-stationary vibratory environments. This dissertation aims to critically investigate this belief by drawing a clearer picture of the role of nonlinearities in the transduction of energy harvesters and by defining the conditions under which nonlinearities can be used to enhance performance. To achieve this goal, the Thesis is divided into three parts. The first part investigates the performance of mono- and bi-stable energy harvesters under harmonic excitations and carries a detailed analysis of their relative performance. The second part investigates their response to broadband and narrowband random excitations and again analyzes their relative behavior. The third part exploits the super-harmonic resonance bands of bi-stable energy harvesters for the

  13. Study on the Effect of Steel Wheel and Ground on Single Steel Vibratory Roller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiabo; You, Guanghui; Qiao, Jiabin; Ye, Min; Guo, Jin; Zhang, Hongyang

    2018-03-01

    In the compacting operation of single drum vibratory roller, the forces acting on the foundation of drum include the weight of the drum, the weight of the frame, the exciting force and so on. Based on the theoretical study of ground mechanics, this paper analyzes and calculates the forces acting on the steel wheel and the ground, and obtains the distribution of the laminar stress in the ground when the working plane vibrates. Derive the formula of dynamic compressive stress and static compressive stress in the foundation during vibration compaction. Through the compaction test of the soil trough of 20T single drum roller, the compressive stress data of the soil hydraulic field are obtained. The data of the dynamic compressive stress and the static compressive stress of each layer during the third compaction are obtained, and the theoretical research is verified.

  14. Vibratory synchronization transmission of a cylindrical roller in a vibrating mechanical system excited by two exciters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueliang; Wen, Bangchun; Zhao, Chunyu

    2017-11-01

    In present work vibratory synchronization transmission (VST) of a cylindrical roller with dry friction in a vibrating mechanical system excited by two exciters, is studied. Using the average method, the criterion of implementing synchronization of two exciters and that of ensuring VST of a roller, are achieved. The criterion of stability of the synchronous states satisfies the Routh-Hurwitz principle. The influences of the structural parameters of the system to synchronization and stability, are discussed numerically, which can be served as the theoretical foundation for engineering designs. An experiment is carried out, which approximately verify the validity of the theoretical and numerical results, as well as the feasibility of the method used. Utilizing the VST theory of a roller, some types of vibrating crushing or grinding equipments, etc., can be designed.

  15. A novel oscillation control for MEMS vibratory gyroscopes using a modified electromechanical amplitude modulation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Wei; Lin, Yiyu; Liu, Siqi; Zheng, Xudong; Jin, Zhonghe

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports a novel oscillation control algorithm for MEMS vibratory gyroscopes using a modified electromechanical amplitude modulation (MEAM) technique, which enhances the robustness against the frequency variation of the driving mode, compared to the conventional EAM (CEAM) scheme. In this approach, the carrier voltage exerted on the proof mass is frequency-modulated by the drive resonant frequency. Accordingly, the pick-up signal from the interface circuit involves a constant-frequency component that contains the amplitude and phase information of the vibration displacement. In other words, this informational detection signal is independent of the mechanical resonant frequency, which varies due to different batches, imprecise micro-fabrication and changing environmental temperature. In this paper, the automatic gain control loop together with the phase-locked loop are simultaneously analyzed using the averaging method and Routh–Hurwitz criterion, deriving the stability condition and the parameter optimization rules of the transient response. Then, a simulation model based on the real system is set up to evaluate the control algorithm. Further, the proposed MEAM method is tested using a field-programmable-gate-array based digital platform on a capacitive vibratory gyroscope. By optimizing the control parameters, the transient response of the drive amplitude reveals a settling time of 45.2 ms without overshoot, according well with the theoretical prediction and simulation results. The first measurement results show that the amplitude variance of the drive displacement is 12 ppm in an hour while the phase standard deviation is as low as 0.0004°. The mode-split gyroscope operating under atmospheric pressure demonstrates an outstanding performance. By virtue of the proposed MEAM method, the bias instability and angle random walk are measured to be 0.9° h −1 (improved by 2.4 times compared to the CEAM method) and 0.068° (√h) −1 (improved by 1

  16. Vibratory function and healing outcomes after small intestinal submucosa biomaterial implantation for chronic vocal fold scar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Michael J; Kurita, Takashi; Powell, Maria E; Kimball, Emily E; Mizuta, Masanobu; Chang, Siyuan; Garrett, C Gaelyn; Rousseau, Bernard

    2018-04-01

    Vocal fold scar is a major cause of dysphonia, and optimal treatments do not currently exist. Small intestinal submucosa (SIS) is a biomaterial developed for the treatment of a variety of pathologies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of SIS implantation on tissue remodeling in scarred vocal folds using routine staining, immunohistochemistry, and high-speed videoendoscopy (HSV). Prospective, blinded group analysis. Thirteen New Zealand White rabbits underwent a vocal fold scarring procedure followed by microflap elevation with or without SIS implantation. Seven months later, they underwent a phonation procedure with HSV and laryngeal harvest. Alcian blue and elastica van Gieson staining and immunohistochemistry for collagen types I and III were used to evaluate histological healing outcomes. Dynamic functional remodeling of the scarred vocal fold in the presence of SIS implants was evaluated using HSV imaging to capture restoration of vibratory amplitude, amplitude ratio, and left-right phase symmetry. Density of collagen I was significantly decreased in SIS versus microflap-treated vocal folds. No differences were found between groups for hyaluronic acid, elastin, or collagen type III. Organization of elastin in the subepithelial region appeared to affect amplitude of vibration and the shape of the vocal fold edge. SIS implantation into chronic scar reduced the density of collagen I deposits. There was no evidence of a negative impact or complication from SIS implantation. Regardless of treatment type, organization of elastin in the subepithelial region may be important to vibratory outcomes. NA. Laryngoscope, 128:901-908, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. Plutonium finishing plant dangerous waste training plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ENTROP, G.E.

    1999-01-01

    This training plan describes general requirements, worker categories, and provides course descriptions for operation of the Plutonium Finish Plant (PFP) waste generation facilities, permitted treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) units, and the 90-Day Accumulation Areas

  18. The Adolescent Who Does Not Finish Anything.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiner, Sander J.

    1985-01-01

    Practical information for therapists who deal with adolescents who do not finish tasks is presented. The relationship of task incompletion to neurosis, psychosis, depression, homosexuality, and drug abuse is described, and techniques and guidelines for treatment are provided. (Author)

  19. The Affordable Pre-Finishing of Silicon Carbide for Optical Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Creare proposes to develop a novel, laser-assisted, pre-finishing process for chemical vapor deposition (CVD) coated silicon-carbide ceramics. Our innovation will...

  20. Surface Finish after Laser Metal Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombouts, M.; Maes, G.; Hendrix, W.; Delarbre, E.; Motmans, F.

    Laser metal deposition (LMD) is an additive manufacturing technology for the fabrication of metal parts through layerwise deposition and laser induced melting of metal powder. The poor surface finish presents a major limitation in LMD. This study focuses on the effects of surface inclination angle and strategies to improve the surface finish of LMD components. A substantial improvement in surface quality of both the side and top surfaces has been obtained by laser remelting after powder deposition.

  1. Sampling of Stochastic Input Parameters for Rockfall Calculations and for Structural Response Calculations Under Vibratory Ground Motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Gross

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this scientific analysis is to define the sampled values of stochastic (random) input parameters for (1) rockfall calculations in the lithophysal and nonlithophysal zones under vibratory ground motions, and (2) structural response calculations for the drip shield and waste package under vibratory ground motions. This analysis supplies: (1) Sampled values of ground motion time history and synthetic fracture pattern for analysis of rockfall in emplacement drifts in nonlithophysal rock (Section 6.3 of ''Drift Degradation Analysis'', BSC 2004 [DIRS 166107]); (2) Sampled values of ground motion time history and rock mechanical properties category for analysis of rockfall in emplacement drifts in lithophysal rock (Section 6.4 of ''Drift Degradation Analysis'', BSC 2004 [DIRS 166107]); (3) Sampled values of ground motion time history and metal to metal and metal to rock friction coefficient for analysis of waste package and drip shield damage to vibratory motion in ''Structural Calculations of Waste Package Exposed to Vibratory Ground Motion'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167083]) and in ''Structural Calculations of Drip Shield Exposed to Vibratory Ground Motion'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 163425]). The sampled values are indices representing the number of ground motion time histories, number of fracture patterns and rock mass properties categories. These indices are translated into actual values within the respective analysis and model reports or calculations. This report identifies the uncertain parameters and documents the sampled values for these parameters. The sampled values are determined by GoldSim V6.04.007 [DIRS 151202] calculations using appropriate distribution types and parameter ranges. No software development or model development was required for these calculations. The calculation of the sampled values allows parameter uncertainty to be incorporated into the rockfall and structural response calculations that support development of the seismic scenario for the

  2. Electroglottographic parameterization of the effects of gender, vowel and phonatory registers on vocal fold vibratory patterns: an Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Nilanjan; Kumar, Suman; Chatterjee, Indranil; Mukherjee, Biswarup

    2011-01-01

    In-depth study on laryngeal biomechanics and vocal fold vibratory patterns reveal that a single vibratory cycle can be divided into two major phases, the closed and open phase, which is subdivided into opening and closing phases. Studies reveal that the relative time course of abduction and adduction, which in turn is dependent on the relative relaxing and tensing of the vocal fold cover and body, to be the determining factor in production of a particular vocal register like the modal (or chest), falsetto, glottal fry registers. Studies further point out Electroglottography to be particularly suitable for the study of vocal vibratory patterns during register changes. However, to date, there has been limited study on quantitative parameterization of EGG wave form in vocal fry register. Moreover, contradictory findings abound in literature regarding effects of gender and vowel types on vocal vibratory patterns, especially during phonation at different registers. The present study endeavors to find out the effects of vowel and gender differences on the vocal fold vibratory patterns in different registers and how these would be reflected in standard EGG parameters of Contact Quotient (CQ) and Contact Index (CI), taking into consideration the Indian sociolinguistic context. Electroglottographic recordings of 10 young adults (5 males and 5 females) were taken while the subjects phonated the three vowels /a/,/i/,/u/ each in two vocal registers, modal and vocal fry. Obtained raw EGG were further normalized using the Derived EGG algorithm and theCQ and CI values were derived. Obtained data were subject to statistical analysis using the 3-way ANOVA with gender, vowel and vocal register as the three variables. Post-hoc Dunnett C multiple comparison analysis were also performed. Results reveal that CQ values are significantly higher in vocal fry than modal phonation for both males and females, indicating a relatively hyperconstricted vocal system during vocal fry. The males

  3. Finishing procedures action on mechanical characteristics of pressed ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdel Moniem Ahmed

    2018-06-01

    Conclusions& significance: Grinding & finishing procedures of pressed ceramics showed significant effect Of drill speed and polishing technique over flexural strength, As Grinding with no finishing and polishing procedure showed lowest flexural Strength values followed by finishing and polishing procedure followed by finishing and polishing with polishing paste procedure.

  4. Marketing Strategy Formulation for the Introduction of Eukula Strato German Wood Finishes in Local Market of Emerging Indian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Kushe Shekhar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wood finishing relates to the process of embellishing or protecting the surface of the wood. The paper aimed at formulating a marketing strategy for introducing water borne German based Wood Finishes named Eukula Strato into local market of northern Kerala, India. Multiple cross sectional descriptive research with judgmental sampling technique elicited responses from Finishers, Furniture manufacturers and Interior designers. Findings revealed that Eukula Strato had a distinct advantage when compared to any other Wood Finish that was available in the local market. Findings and suggestions were reported as per 4P’s of marketing mix. Percentage analysis, Chi square analysis etc were used to interpret the results

  5. Glazed Tiles as Floor Finish in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyin Emmanuel AKINDE

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tile is no doubt rich in antiquity; its primordial  show, came as mosaic with primary prospect in sacred floor finish before its oblivion, courtesy of, later consciousness towards wall finish in banquets, kitchens, toilets, restaurants and even bars. Today, its renaissance as floor finish is apparent in private and public architectural structures with prevalence in residential, recreational, commercial, governmental and other spaces. In Nigeria, the use of glazed tiles as floor finish became apparent, supposedly in mid-twentieth century; and has since, witnessed ever increasing demands from all sundry; a development that is nascent and has necessitated its mass  production locally with pockets of firms in the country. The latter however, is a resultant response to taste cum glazed tiles affordability, whose divergent sophistication in design, colour, size and shape is believed preferred to terrazzo, carpet and floor flex tile. Accessible as glazed tile and production is, in recent times; its dearth of a holistic literature in Nigeria is obvious. In the light of the latter, this paper examine glazed tiles as floor finish in Nigeria, its advent, usage, production, challenge, benefit and prospect with the hope of opening further frontier in discipline specifics.

  6. Characterizing the Effective Bandwidth of Nonlinear Vibratory Energy Harvesters Possessing Multiple Stable Equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyam Mohan Ram, Meghashyam

    In the last few years, advances in micro-fabrication technologies have lead to the development of low-power electronic devices spanning critical fields related to sensing, data transmission, and medical implants. Unfortunately, effective utilization of these devices is currently hindered by their reliance on batteries. In many of these applications, batteries may not be a viable choice as they have a fixed storage capacity and need to be constantly replaced or recharged. In light of such challenges, several novel concepts for micro-power generation have been recently introduced to harness, otherwise, wasted ambient energy from the environment and maintain these low-power devices. Vibratory energy harvesting is one such concept which has received significant attention in recent years. While linear vibratory energy harvesters have been well studied in the literature and their performance metrics have been established, recent research has focused on deliberate introduction of stiffness nonlinearities into the design of these devices. It has been shown that, nonlinear energy harvesters have a wider steady-state frequency bandwidth as compared to their linear counterparts, leading to the premise that they can used to improve performance, and decrease sensitivity to variations in the design and excitation parameters. This dissertation aims to investigate this premise by developing an analytical framework to study the influence of stiffness nonlinearities on the performance and effective bandwidth of nonlinear vibratory energy harvesters. To achieve this goal, the dissertation is divided into three parts. The first part investigates the performance of bi-stable energy harvesters possessing a symmetric quartic potential energy function under harmonic excitations and carries out a detailed analysis to define their effective frequency bandwidth. The second part investigates the relative performance of mono- and bi-stable energy harvesters under optimal electric loading

  7. Analysis of rabbit intervertebral disc physiology based on water metabolism. II. Changes in normal intervertebral discs under axial vibratory load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, N.; Tsuji, H.; Ohshima, H.; Kitano, S.; Itoh, T.; Sano, A.

    1988-01-01

    Metabolic changes induced by axial vibratory load to the spine were investigated based on water metabolism in normal intervertebral discs of rabbits with or without pentobarbital anesthesia. Tritiated water concentration in the intervertebral discs of unanesthetized rabbits was reduced remarkably by axial vibration for 30 minutes using the vibration machine developed for this study. Repeated vibratory load for 18 and 42 hours duration showed the recovery of 3 H 2 O concentration of the intervertebral disc without anesthesia. Computer simulation suggested a reduction of blood flow surrounding the intervertebral disc following the vibration stress. However, no reduction of the 3 H 2 O concentration in the intervertebral disc was noted under anesthesia. Emotional stress cannot be excluded as a factor in water metabolism in the intervertebral disc

  8. Finishing touch to joint venture

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "A new process for polishing titanium and its alloys has been announced following an agreement between Bripol (an Anopol/Delmet joint venture) of Birmingham and the European Organisation for Nuclear Reseach (CERN) in Geneva" (1 paragraph).

  9. SAVIT: a dymanic model to predict vibratory motion within a spent fuel shipping cask; rail car system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, S.R.

    1978-03-01

    A dynamic model of a spent fuel shipping cask-rail car system has been developed to provide estimates of the vibratory motion of LWR spent fuel assemblies during transport and to estimate the effects of this motion on the condition of the assemblies when they arrive at receiving and storage facilities. Results of preliminary test computations are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the model

  10. Psychomotor Battery Approaches to Performance Prediction and Evaluation in Hyperbaric, Thermal and Vibratory Environments: Annotated Bibliographies and Integrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    W77-Mar78 and Vibratory Environments: Annotated Biblia - 4.-EFRIGOO EOT*_1 graphies and Integrative Review. I. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMSER(a) David J...Papers In the third phase of the effort, the final version of the three speciai-environrneni performance battery bibliographies was corriiled and the...performance at much lower pressu. (e.g. 3 to 4 ATA when nitrogen is involved). The following sections will integrate the available liter - ature on the effects

  11. Finishing of the cold mass assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    Photo 1 Technicians are putting in order the instrumentation wires. The prototype magnets were equipped with numerous sensors to monitor key parameters during the performance tests at cold conditions. Photo 2 The cold mass assembly is resting on special supports in order to allow the finishing operations. Technicians are putting in order the instrumentation wires. The prototype magnets were equipped with numerous sensors to monitor key parameters during the performance tests at cold conditions. Photo 3 View of the lyre-side end of the active part assembly. The extremity of the shrinking cylinder has been bevelled in view of welding the end cover. Photo 4 General view of the finishing station showing the special supporting structures (blue and yellow structures) needed for the geometric measurements and for the alignment operations. One can also see the light building surrounding the finishing station, which purpose is to isolate the laser measuring machines from disturbances. Photo 5 The extremity of the shri...

  12. Vibratory response of a mirror support/positioning system for the Advanced Photon Source project at Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basdogan, I.; Shu, Deming; Kuzay, T.M.; Royston, T.J.; Shabana, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    The vibratory response of a typical mirror support/positioning system used at the experimental station of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) project at Argonne National Laboratory is investigated. Positioning precision and stability are especially critical when the supported mirror directs a high-intensity beam aimed at a distant target. Stability may be compromised by low level, low frequency seismic and facility-originated vibrations traveling through the ground and/or vibrations caused by flow-structure interactions in the mirror cooling system. The example case system has five positioning degrees of freedom through the use of precision actuators and rotary and linear bearings. These linkage devices result in complex, multi-dimensional vibratory behavior that is a function of the range of positioning configurations. A rigorous multibody dynamical approach is used for the development of the system equations. Initial results of the study, including estimates of natural frequencies and mode shapes, as well as limited parametric design studies, are presented. While the results reported here are for a particular system, the developed vibratory analysis approach is applicable to the wide range of high-precision optical positioning systems encountered at the APS and at other comparable facilities

  13. Ageing of Dry Cement Mixes for Finishing Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronius VEKTARIS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dry building mixes, stored in the air, absorb water vapor and CO2 gas and ageing because properties of binding materials, mostly Portland cement, deteriorate after its prehydration and carbonation. In this paper the ageing singularities of dry cement mixes for finishing purposes and additives for retarding this process has been determinated. Ordinary and quickly hardening Portland cements absorb H2O and CO2 more than white cement – about 70 % – 75 % and 30 % – 38 % per month of innitial mass, respectively. White cement is more resistant to prehydration and carbonation, because it contains less C3A, C4AF and alkali, characterized initial activity. Dry mixes with white cement, although slower, but still worse after stored. Influence of routine dry mortar mixes ingredients and additives (methyl cellulose, pigments, sand and lime on prehydration properties of the mixes for finishing purpose is not substantial. Significant positive influence comes from the addition of fatty acid salts (zinc stearate or sodium oleate. The dry cement mixes for finishing purpose has been recomended to hydrophobisate with one of these additives, adding about 1 % by weight of cement during preducing mixes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.3.5243

  14. Ageing of Dry Cement Mixes for Finishing Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronius VEKTARIS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dry building mixes, stored in the air, absorb water vapor and CO2 gas and ageing because properties of binding materials, mostly Portland cement, deteriorate after its prehydration and carbonation. In this paper the ageing singularities of dry cement mixes for finishing purposes and additives for retarding this process has been determinated. Ordinary and quickly hardening Portland cements absorb H2O and CO2 more than white cement – about 70 % – 75 % and 30 % – 38 % per month of innitial mass, respectively. White cement is more resistant to prehydration and carbonation, because it contains less C3A, C4AF and alkali, characterized initial activity. Dry mixes with white cement, although slower, but still worse after stored. Influence of routine dry mortar mixes ingredients and additives (methyl cellulose, pigments, sand and lime on prehydration properties of the mixes for finishing purpose is not substantial. Significant positive influence comes from the addition of fatty acid salts (zinc stearate or sodium oleate. The dry cement mixes for finishing purpose has been recomended to hydrophobisate with one of these additives, adding about 1 % by weight of cement during preducing mixes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.3.5243

  15. Numerical simulation of the combination effect of external magnetic field and rotating workpiece on abrasive flow finishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kheradmand, Saeid; Esmailian, Mojtaba; Fatahy, A. [Malek-Ashtar University of Technology (MUT), Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Finishing of a workpiece is a main process in the production. This affects the quality and lifetime. Finishing in order of nanometer, nowadays, is a main demand of the industries. Thus, some new finishing process, such as abrasive flow finishing, is introduced to respond this demand. This may be aided by rotating workpiece and imposing a magnetic field. Numerical simulation of this process can be beneficial to reduce the expense and predict the result in a minimum time. Accordingly, in this study, magnetorheological fluid finishing is numerically simulated. The working medium contains magnetic and abrasive particles, blended in a base fluid. Some hydrodynamic parameters and surface roughness variations are studied. It is found that combination of rotating a workpiece and imposing a magnetic field can improve the surface roughness up to 15 percent.

  16. The diagnostic role of high-speed vocal fold vibratory imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, Abie H; Remacle, Marc; Courey, Mark S; Gerhard, Friedrich; Postma, Gregory N

    2013-09-01

    Although high-speed imaging (HSI) has been identified as a valuable tool in phonatory biomechanics research, to date, there have only been a selected number of reports investigating the clinical utility of HSI. We aim to elucidate the role of HSI in the diagnosis of the dysphonic patient. The video files from 28 consecutive dysphonic patients with concurrently acquired videostroboscopy and HSI were retrospectively collected. Stroboscopy video files were edited to include vibratory motion only. Videos were then anonymously and randomly presented to four academic laryngologists. Experts were asked to assign a single best diagnosis for each video file. Assigned diagnoses were then compared with treatment diagnoses conferred based on medical history, phonatory evaluation, laryngeal examination, and response to treatment. Interrater analysis for the four laryngologists demonstrated significant and meaningful correlations for the diagnoses of polyps, cysts, nodules, and normal examination using stroboscopy (kappa > 0.40, P 0.40, P diagnostic accuracy above stroboscopy alone. Although specific laryngeal states such as presbyphonia may be better diagnosed with HSI, further studies are required to define HSI's precise role in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  17. A high-efficiency self-powered wireless sensor node for monitoring concerning vibratory events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dacheng; Li, Suiqiong; Li, Mengyang; Xie, Danpeng; Dong, Chuan; Li, Xinxin

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a self-powered wireless alarming sensor node (SWASN), which was designed to monitor the occurrence of concerning vibratory events. The major components of the sensor node include a vibration-threshold-triggered energy harvester (VTTEH) that powers the sensor node, a dual threshold voltage control circuit (DTVCC) for power management and a radio frequency (RF) signal transmitting module. The VTTEH generates significant electric energy only when the input vibration reaches certain amplitude. Thus, the VTTEH serves as both the power source and the vibration-event-sensing element for the sensor node. The DTVCC was specifically designed to utilize the limited power supply from the VTTEH to operate the sensor node. Constructed with only voltage detectors and MOSFETs, the DTVCC achieved low power consumption, which was 65% lower compared with the power management circuit designed in our previous work. Meanwhile, a RF transmit circuit was constructed based on the commercially available CC1110-F32 wireless transceiver chip and a compact planar antenna was designed to improve the signal transmission distance. The sensor node was fabricated and was characterized both in the laboratory and in the field. Experimental results showed that the SWASN could automatically send out alarming signals when the simulated concerning event occurred. The waiting time between two consecutive transmission periods is less than 125 s and the transmission distance can reach 1.31 km. The SWASN will have broad applications in field surveillances.

  18. Preduction of the vibratory behaviour of a multistage gaseous diffusion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descleve, P.; Bertaut, C.; Briot, P.

    1979-01-01

    A study has been made to predict the vibratory behaviour of the rotating machinery of a gaseous diffusion plant starting from the results obtained for a single machine. TRICASTIN gaseous diffusion plant uses several hundred of enrichment stages but only three different sizes of machine are used. Each individual machine is a vertical assembly of a compressor heat exchanger and diffusion barriers, this column is supported on four lugs on a concrete slab. This slab must accomodate thermal expansion and is placed on neoprene pads. Due to the compactness of the system the mass of concrete is relatively small. Typically the mass of a machine of the intermediate size is 84 T, the mass of associated concrete is 55 T. Furthermore this supporting slab is flexible, meaning that a dynamic analysis of the slab shows several frequencies below the compressor rotational speed. Extensive dynamic tests have been conducted on a machine supported on a rigid foundation. These tests have shown that the main source of mechanical excitation was caused at 50 Hz by the unbalance of the electrical motor rotor. Then the problem remained to predict the behaviour of a group of twenty machines in the plant itself. (orig.)

  19. Additive manufacturing of reflective optics: evaluating finishing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuteritz, G.; Lachmayer, R.

    2018-02-01

    Individually shaped light distributions become more and more important in lighting technologies and thus the importance of additively manufactured reflectors increases significantly. The vast field of applications ranges from automotive lighting to medical imaging and bolsters the statement. However, the surfaces of additively manufactured reflectors suffer from insufficient optical properties even when manufactured using optimized process parameters for the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process. Therefore post-process treatments of reflectors are necessary in order to further enhance their optical quality. This work concentrates on the effectiveness of post-process procedures for reflective optics. Based on already optimized aluminum reflectors, which are manufactured with a SLM machine, the parts are differently machined after the SLM process. Selected finishing methods like laser polishing, sputtering or sand blasting are applied and their effects quantified and compared. The post-process procedures are investigated on their impact on surface roughness and reflectance as well as geometrical precision. For each finishing method a demonstrator will be created and compared to a fully milled sample and among themselves. Ultimately, guidelines are developed in order to figure out the optimal treatment of additively manufactured reflectors regarding their optical and geometrical properties. Simulations of the light distributions will be validated with the developed demonstrators.

  20. Pneumonia outbreaks in calves and finishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-19

    Pneumonia in calves and finishers. Ovarian tumour in a calf . Abortion associated with bovine herpesvirus 1 in a suckler herd. Parasitic gastroenteritis causing illthrift and death in sheep. Outbreaks of acute fasciolosis in sheep. These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for December 2015 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). British Veterinary Association.

  1. Explosion hazards of aluminum finishing operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taveau, J.R.; Hochgreb, Simone; Lemkowitz, S.M.; Roekaerts, D.J.E.M.

    2018-01-01

    Metal dust deflagrations have become increasingly common in recent years. They are also more devastating than deflagrations involving organic materials, owing to metals' higher heat of combustion, rate of pressure rise, explosion pressure and flame temperature. Aluminum finishing operations offer

  2. Explosion hazards of aluminum finishing operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taveau, J.; Hochgreb, S.; Lemkowitz, S.M.; Roekaerts, D.J.E.M.

    2018-01-01

    Metal dust deflagrations have become increasingly common in recent years. They are also more devastating than deflagrations involving organic materials, owing to metals' higher heat of combustion, rate of pressure rise, explosion pressure and flame temperature. Aluminum finishing operations offer a

  3. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, L.R.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for the PFP. DOE Orders require an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification

  4. On the improving of finishing works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzamaskov, V.N.; Bondarenko, I.Ya.; Pogozhev, I.M.

    1986-01-01

    Problems of the improvement of finishing works performed during the construction of power installations are considered. Recommendations on the improvement of the quality of these works, increase of labour productivity and decrease of a manual labour share on their implementation are given

  5. Angular circulation speed of tablets in a vibratory tablet coating pan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rahul; Wassgren, Carl

    2013-03-01

    In this work, a single tablet model and a discrete element method (DEM) computer simulation are developed to obtain the angular circulation speed of tablets in a vibratory tablet coating pan for range of vibration frequencies and amplitudes. The models identify three important dimensionless parameters that influence the speed of the tablets: the dimensionless amplitude ratio (a/R), the Froude number (aω2/g), and the tablet-wall friction coefficient, where a is the peak vibration amplitude at the drum center, ω is the vibration angular frequency, R is the drum radius, and g is the acceleration due to gravity. The models predict that the angular circulation speed of tablets increases with an increase in each of these parameters. The rate of increase in the angular circulation speed is observed to decrease for larger values of a/R. The angular circulation speed reaches an asymptote beyond a tablet-wall friction coefficient value of about 0.4. Furthermore, it is found that the Froude number should be greater than one for the tablets to start circulating. The angular circulation speed increases as Froude number increases but then does not change significantly at larger values of the Froude number. Period doubling, where the motion of the bed is repeated every two cycles, occurs at a Froude number larger than five. The single tablet model, although much simpler than the DEM model, is able to predict the maximum circulation speed (the limiting case for a large value of tablet-wall friction coefficient) as well as the transition to period doubling.

  6. Alternate rhythmic vibratory stimulation of trunk muscles affects walking cadence and velocity in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nunzio, Alessandro M; Grasso, Margherita; Nardone, Antonio; Godi, Marco; Schieppati, Marco

    2010-02-01

    During the administration of timed bilateral alternate vibration to homonymous leg or trunk muscles during quiet upright stance, Parkinsonian (PD) patients undergo cyclic antero-posterior and medio-lateral transfers of the centre of foot pressure. This event might be potentially exploited for improving gait in these patients. Here, we tested this hypothesis by applying alternate muscle vibration during walking in PD. Fifteen patients and 15 healthy subjects walked on an instrumented walkway under four conditions: no vibration (no-Vib), and vibration of tibialis anterior (TA-Vib), soleus (Sol-Vib) and erector spinae (ES-Vib) muscles of both sides. Trains of vibration (internal frequency 100 Hz) were delivered to right and left side at alternating frequency of 10% above preferred step cadence. During vibration, stride length, cadence and velocity increased in both patients and healthy subjects, significantly so for ES-Vib. Stance and swing time tended to decrease. Width of support base increased with Sol-Vib or TA-Vib, but was unaffected by ES-Vib. Alternate ES vibration enhances gait velocity in PD. The stronger effect of ES over leg muscle vibration might depend on the relevance of the proprioceptive inflow from the trunk muscles and on the absence of adverse effects on the support base width. Trunk control is defective in PD. The effect of timed vibratory stimulation on gait suggests the potential use of trunk proprioceptive stimulation for tuning the central pattern generators for locomotion in PD. Copyright (c) 2009 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sequence finishing and mapping of Drosophila melanogasterheterochromatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoskins, Roger A.; Carlson, Joseph W.; Kennedy, Cameron; Acevedo,David; Evans-Holm, Martha; Frise, Erwin; Wan, Kenneth H.; Park, Soo; Mendez-Lago, Maria; Rossi, Fabrizio; Villasante, Alfredo; Dimitri,Patrizio; Karpen, Gary H.; Celniker, Susan E.

    2007-06-15

    Genome sequences for most metazoans are incomplete due tothe presence of repeated DNA in the pericentromeric heterochromatin. Theheterochromatic regions of D. melanogaster contain 20 Mb of sequenceamenable to mapping, sequence assembly and finishing. Here we describethe generation of 15 Mb of finished or improved heterochromatic sequenceusing available clone resources and assembly and mapping methods. We alsoconstructed a BAC-based physical map that spans approximately 13 Mb ofthe pericentromeric heterochromatin, and a cytogenetic map that positionsapproximately 11 Mb of BAC contigs and sequence scaffolds in specificchromosomal locations. The integrated sequence assembly and maps greatlyimprove our understanding of the structure and composition of this poorlyunderstood fraction of a metazoan genome and provide a framework forfunctional analyses.

  8. Clear exterior finishes : finding the balance between aesthetics and durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Daniel; Marc S. Hirsch; Ken McClelland; Alan S. Ross; R. Sam Williams

    2004-01-01

    Consumers can easily be confused by the abundance of choices to make when selecting a clear wood finish. There are many types of clear finishes with different characteristics and product claims. This article is designed to help consumers sort out the different finishes and effectively choose which product would be best for their purpose. First, we cover the causes and...

  9. Lathe Attachment Finishes Inner Surface of Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancki, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    Extremely smooth finishes are machined on inside surfaces of tubes by new attachment for a lathe. The relatively inexpensive accessory, called a "microhone," holds a honing stone against workpiece by rigid tangs instead of springs as in conventional honing tools. Inner rod permits adjustment of microhoning stone, while outer tube supports assembly. Outer tube is held between split blocks on lathe toolpost. Microhoning can be done with either microhone or workpiece moving and other member stationary.

  10. Nearly Finished Genomes Produced Using Gel Microdroplet Culturing (Seventh Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting 2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzsimmons, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Michael Fitzsimmons from Los Alamos National Laboratory gives a talk titled "Nearly Finished Genomes Produced Using Gel Microdroplet Culturing" at the 7th Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting held in June, 2012 in Santa Fe, NM.

  11. Static-transmission-error vibratory-excitation contributions from plastically deformed gear teeth caused by tooth bending-fatigue damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, W. D.; Reagor, C. P.

    2007-02-01

    To assess gear health and detect gear-tooth damage, the vibratory response from meshing gear-pair excitations is commonly monitored by accelerometers. In an earlier paper, strong evidence was presented suggesting that, in the case of tooth bending-fatigue damage, the principal source of detectable damage is whole-tooth plastic deformation; i.e. yielding, rather than changes in tooth stiffness caused by tooth-root cracks. Such plastic deformations are geometric deviation contributions to the "static-transmission-error" (STE) vibratory excitation caused by meshing gear pairs. The STE contributions caused by two likely occurring forms of such plastic deformations on a single tooth are derived, and displayed in the time domain as a function of involute "roll distance." Example calculations are provided for transverse contact ratios of Qt=1.4 and 1.8, for spur gears and for helical-gear axial contact ratios ranging from Qa=1.2 to Qa=3.6. Low-pass- and band-pass-filtered versions of these same STE contributions also are computed and displayed in the time domain. Several calculations, consisting of superposition of the computed STE tooth-meshing fundamental harmonic contribution and the band-pass STE contribution caused by a plastically deformed tooth, exhibit the amplitude and frequency or phase modulation character commonly observed in accelerometer-response waveforms caused by damaged teeth. General formulas are provided that enable computation of these STE vibratory-excitation contributions for any form of plastic deformation on any number of teeth for spur and helical gears with any contact ratios.

  12. Electropolishing as a decontamination process: progress and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.P.; Arrowsmith, H.W.; Charlot, L.A.; Hooper, J.L.

    1978-04-01

    Research studies demonstrated the ability of electropolishing to reduce the radiation levels of steel tools and stainless steel vacuum system components, which were heavily contaminated with plutonium oxide, from 1 million dis/min x 100 cm 2 to background in less than 10 min. Other examples of objects that have been decontaminated within minutes using electropolishing include hot cell manipulator assemblies, analytical instrument components, laboratory transfer containers, offsite shipping containers, fission product storage capsules, laboratory animal cages, and nuclear reactor process tube components. One of the major activities of this research has been the establishment and intensive operation of a 400-gal immersion electropolishing system. Progress has also been made in developing in situ electropolishing techniques that can be used to decontaminate metallic surfaces that cannot readily be transported to or immersed in a conventional electropolishing tank. Sectioning/pretreatment studies are under way to develop and demonstrate optimum disassembly, sectioning, surface preparation, and gross contamination removal procedures. Arc saw, plasma arc torch, and explosive cutting techniques are being evaluated in terms of the thickness and characteristics of the disturbed metal layer. Some of the pretreatment methods under consideration for removal of paint, grease, corrosion layers, and gross contamination include vibratory finishing, ultrasonics, dry and liquid abrasive blasting, and high-pressure spray systems. Other supporting studies are also in progress to provide a sound technical basis for scale-up and widespread application of this new decontamination process. 44 figures

  13. Plutonium Finishing Plant. Interim plutonium stabilization engineering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevigny, G.J.; Gallucci, R.H.; Garrett, S.M.K.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Goheen, R.S.; Molton, P.M.; Templeton, K.J.; Villegas, A.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Nass, R. [Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This report provides the results of an engineering study that evaluated the available technologies for stabilizing the plutonium stored at the Plutonium Finishing Plant located at the hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Further processing of the plutonium may be required to prepare the plutonium for interim (<50 years) storage. Specifically this document provides the current plutonium inventory and characterization, the initial screening process, and the process descriptions and flowsheets of the technologies that passed the initial screening. The conclusions and recommendations also are provided. The information contained in this report will be used to assist in the preparation of the environmental impact statement and to help decision makers determine which is the preferred technology to process the plutonium for interim storage.

  14. Plutonium Finishing Plant. Interim plutonium stabilization engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevigny, G.J.; Gallucci, R.H.; Garrett, S.M.K.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Goheen, R.S.; Molton, P.M.; Templeton, K.J.; Villegas, A.J.; Nass, R.

    1995-08-01

    This report provides the results of an engineering study that evaluated the available technologies for stabilizing the plutonium stored at the Plutonium Finishing Plant located at the hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Further processing of the plutonium may be required to prepare the plutonium for interim (<50 years) storage. Specifically this document provides the current plutonium inventory and characterization, the initial screening process, and the process descriptions and flowsheets of the technologies that passed the initial screening. The conclusions and recommendations also are provided. The information contained in this report will be used to assist in the preparation of the environmental impact statement and to help decision makers determine which is the preferred technology to process the plutonium for interim storage

  15. The effect of residual stress relaxation by the vibratory stress relief technique on the textures of grains in AA 6061 aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jia-Siang; Hsieh, Chih-Chun; Lin, Chi-Ming; Chen, Erh-Chiang; Kuo, Che-Wei; Wu, Weite, E-mail: wwu@dragon.nchu.edu.tw

    2014-05-01

    The textures and crystallographic orientations beneath the treatment area in AA 6061 aluminum alloy after vibratory stress relief (VSR) process were investigated by combining the electron backscatter diffraction analysis of the misoriented low- or high-angle boundaries, the (inverse) pole figures, the line scans and the various grain orientations. The relaxation effect caused by compressive residual stress in the intermediate region is superior to that of tensile residual stress on both sides of the cantilever by means of X-ray diffraction techniques. The residual stress relaxation that occurs due to vibrational stress excitation accompanies the “orientation of banding” disintegration, the decreases in the dislocation density, the strain energy, and the fraction of low-angle boundaries within each type of grain orientation, such as Copper {112} 〈111〉, S {123} 〈634〉, Goss {110} 〈001〉, and Brass {110} 〈112〉, excepting the Cube (or near-Cube) {100} 〈001〉 grain orientation. The maintained invariance in the Cube texture can be attributed to the maximum number of active primary slip systems, resulting in an interaction that results from hindered slip on intersecting families of the planes.

  16. The effect of residual stress relaxation by the vibratory stress relief technique on the textures of grains in AA 6061 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jia-Siang; Hsieh, Chih-Chun; Lin, Chi-Ming; Chen, Erh-Chiang; Kuo, Che-Wei; Wu, Weite

    2014-01-01

    The textures and crystallographic orientations beneath the treatment area in AA 6061 aluminum alloy after vibratory stress relief (VSR) process were investigated by combining the electron backscatter diffraction analysis of the misoriented low- or high-angle boundaries, the (inverse) pole figures, the line scans and the various grain orientations. The relaxation effect caused by compressive residual stress in the intermediate region is superior to that of tensile residual stress on both sides of the cantilever by means of X-ray diffraction techniques. The residual stress relaxation that occurs due to vibrational stress excitation accompanies the “orientation of banding” disintegration, the decreases in the dislocation density, the strain energy, and the fraction of low-angle boundaries within each type of grain orientation, such as Copper {112} 〈111〉, S {123} 〈634〉, Goss {110} 〈001〉, and Brass {110} 〈112〉, excepting the Cube (or near-Cube) {100} 〈001〉 grain orientation. The maintained invariance in the Cube texture can be attributed to the maximum number of active primary slip systems, resulting in an interaction that results from hindered slip on intersecting families of the planes

  17. Population dynamics of swine influenza virus in farrow-to-finish and specialised finishing herds in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeffen, W.L.A.; Hunneman, W.A.; Quak, J.; Verheijden, J.H.M.; Stegeman, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Influenza virus infections with subtypes H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2 are very common in domestic pigs in Europe. Data on possible differences of population dynamics in finishing pigs in farrow-to-finish herds and in specialised finishing herds are, however, scarce. The presence of sows and weaned piglets on

  18. Best of both worlds : clear exterior finishes : in search of finishes that protect wood without hiding its natural beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Daniels; Marc Hirsch; Ken McClelland; Alan Ross; Sam Williams

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, a number of clear wood finishes have been developed that protect wood while accentuating its natural beauty. The focus of this publication is on those finishes having little visible pigment. In some cases, the pigments are included but are finely ground to create a coating that is transparent to visible light. Most natural clear wood finishes are...

  19. Establishing Trailer Ventilation (Boarding) Requirements for Finishing Pigs during Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlone, John; Sapkota, Avi; Johnson, Anna; Kephart, Rebecca

    2014-08-19

    Specifically, this study aimed to establish the effects on mortality and morbidity of boarding levels (amount of side-wall trailer ventilation) for finishing pigs in mild weather (8.80 ± 0.30 °C, 71.70% ± 1.12% humidity). Pigs from commercial finishing sites were transported in 302 pot-bellied trailers to commercial processing plants. Measures collected at the processing plant were rates of dead on arrival (DOA), non-ambulatory, non-injured (NANI), non-ambulatory, injured (NAI), and total dead and down (D&D). Boarding levels (% that side walls were closed off with inserted boards) were divided into 3 bins: low, medium, and high, and outside temperature was divided into 4 bins 15 °C. Average rates of DOA, NANI, NAI, and D&D were approximately 0.30%, 0.12%, 0.04%, and 0.46%, respectively. The D&D was highest when boarding level was low with temperatures boarding level (medium and high boarding) in the temperature range of 5.10 °C to 23.30 °C did not affect pig losses.

  20. A study on the contribution of body vibrations to the vibratory sensation induced by high-level, complex low-frequency noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukio Takahashi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the contribution of body vibrations to the vibratory sensation induced by high-level, complex low-frequency noise, we conducted two experiments. In Experiment 1, eight male subjects were exposed to seven types of low-frequency noise stimuli: two pure tones [a 31.5-Hz, 100-dB(SPL tone and a 50-Hz, 100-dB(SPL tone] and five complex noises composed of the pure tones. For the complex noise stimuli, the sound pressure level of one tonal component was 100 dB(SPL and that of another one was either 90, 95, or 100 dB(SPL. Vibration induced on the body surface was measured at five locations, and the correlation with the subjective rating of the vibratory sensation at each site of measurement was examined. In Experiment 2, the correlation between the body surface vibration and the vibratory sensation was similarly examined using seven types of noise stimuli composed of a 25-Hz tone and a 50-Hz tone. In both the experiments, we found that at the chest and the abdomen, the rating of the vibratory sensation was in close correlation with the vibration acceleration level (VAL of the body surface vibration measured at each corresponding location. This was consistent with our previous results and suggested that at the trunk of the body (the chest and the abdomen, the mechanoreception of body vibrations plays an important role in the experience of the vibratory sensation in persons exposed to high-level low-frequency noise. At the head, however, no close correlation was found between the rating of the vibratory sensation and the VAL of body surface vibration. This suggested that at the head, the perceptual mechanisms of vibration induced by high-level low-frequency noise were different from those in the trunk of the body.

  1. Sleep improvement for restless legs syndrome patients. Part IV: meta-analysis comparison of effect sizes of vibratory stimulation sham pads and placebo pills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burbank F

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fred Burbank Salt Creek International Women's Health Foundation, San Clemente, CA, USA Purpose: To determine whether sham pads used as controls in randomized clinical trials of vibratory stimulation to treat patients with sleep loss associated with restless legs syndrome perform differently than placebo pills used in comparable restless legs syndrome drug trials. Patients and methods: Sham pad effect sizes from 66 control patients in two randomized clinical trials of vibratory stimulation were compared with placebo responses from 1,024 control patients in 12 randomized clinical drug trials reporting subjective sleep measurement scales. Control patient responses were measured as the standardized difference in means corrected for correlation between beginning and ending scores and for small sample sizes. Results: For parallel randomized clinical trials, sham effects in vibratory stimulation trials were not significantly different from placebo effects in drug trials (0.37 and 0.31, respectively, Qbetween subgroups =0.25, PQ≥0.62. Placebo effect sizes were significantly smaller in crossover drug trials than sham effect sizes in parallel vibratory stimulation trials (0.07 versus 0.37, respectively, Qbetween subgroups =4.59, PQ≤0.03 and placebo effect sizes in parallel drug trials (0.07 versus 0.31, respectively, Qbetween subgroups =5.50, PQ≤0.02. Conclusion: For subjective sleep loss assessments in parallel trials, sham pads in vibratory stimulation trials performed similarly to placebo pills in drug trials. Trial design (parallel versus crossover had a large influence on control effect sizes. Placebo pills in crossover drug trials had significantly smaller effect sizes than sham pads in parallel vibratory stimulation trials or placebo pills in parallel drug trials. Keywords: sham effect, placebo effect, trial design, crossover study, parallel study, counterstimulation

  2. Advantages of modern collapsible systems for exterior finishing of buildings in urban areas in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolstova Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the method of finishing interior spaces, as well as exterior surfaces and architectural and structural elements of buildings and structures is widely used, when layers of building materials or finishing structures are applied in a strict sequence, allowing them to eventually form an unbroken whole - a “monolith”. This method of finishing, its technology and results not only depend significantly on the quality of the materials used and the mechanization of processes, but also require high qualification and specialization of construction workers. The execution of such a finish is more an art than a reproduced with a given level of quality of results by a technological process. An alternative to “monolith” is a variety of collapsible (they are also called “hinged” systems for finishing urban buildings, the elements of which are manufactured in the construction industry, requiring, as a rule, only installation and assembly in internal premises (the so-called “evroremont”, Or on the external surfaces of a building or structure.

  3. Offshore wind turbine foundations. Development of a special vibratory hammer with enhanced function; Gruendung von Offshore Windenergieanlagen. Entwicklung einer speziellen Vibrationsramme mit erweiterter Funktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koecher, Johannes; Ulrich, Dirk [ThyssenKrupp Tiefbautechnik GmbH, Alsfeld (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    To ensure that steel jacket foundations for offshore wind turbines are securely anchored, they are fixed to the seabed by means of ''pins''. The pins consist of pipe piles weighing up to 140 metric tons, and are driven into the seabed by a vibratory hammer and then anchored by impact driving. ThyssenKrupp Tiefbautechnik has modified a vibratory hammer so that it can pick up the piles horizontally directly from the working ship or pontoon and then vibrate them vertically into the ground. This significantly reduces installation times and foundation costs. (orig.)

  4. Finishing of additively manufactured titanium alloy by shape adaptive grinding (SAG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaucamp, Anthony T.; Namba, Yoshiharu; Charlton, Phillip; Jain, Samyak; Graziano, Arthur A.

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, rapid prototyping of titanium alloy components for medical and aeronautics application has become viable thanks to advances in technologies such as electron beam melting (EBM) and selective laser sintering (SLS). However, for many applications the high surface roughness generated by additive manufacturing techniques demands a post-finishing operation to improve the surface quality prior to usage. In this paper, the novel shape adaptive grinding process has been applied to finishing titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) additively manufactured by EBM and SLS. It is shown that the micro-structured surface layer resulting from the melting process can be removed, and the surface can then be smoothed down to less than 10 nm Ra (starting from 4-5 μm Ra) using only three different diamond grit sizes. This paper also demonstrates application of the technology to freeform shapes, and documents the dimensional accuracy of finished artifacts.

  5. Finishing of additively manufactured titanium alloy by shape adaptive grinding (SAG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaucamp, Anthony T; Namba, Yoshiharu; Charlton, Phillip; Jain, Samyak; Graziano, Arthur A

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, rapid prototyping of titanium alloy components for medical and aeronautics application has become viable thanks to advances in technologies such as electron beam melting (EBM) and selective laser sintering (SLS). However, for many applications the high surface roughness generated by additive manufacturing techniques demands a post-finishing operation to improve the surface quality prior to usage. In this paper, the novel shape adaptive grinding process has been applied to finishing titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) additively manufactured by EBM and SLS. It is shown that the micro-structured surface layer resulting from the melting process can be removed, and the surface can then be smoothed down to less than 10 nm Ra (starting from 4–5 μm Ra) using only three different diamond grit sizes. This paper also demonstrates application of the technology to freeform shapes, and documents the dimensional accuracy of finished artifacts. (paper)

  6. TECHNOLOGY FORMING PRICE DISTRIBUTION OF FINISHED GOODS OF LOGISTICS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novikova T. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern economics has developed a number of areas of the system for controlling the distribution of finished products. However, in domestic and foreign economic literature the mechanisms of logistics approach are not sufficient to provide higher sales of enterprise-producers, that have sales in remote areas. In this study, first, the importance of company-producers and end-users the methods of rational delivery of finished products is considered, and secondly, the approaches to defining the essence and content of the concept of «distribution» are given, in the third, the logistics processes of the distribution system ready products of a particular company-producer are described, fourthly, the technology of one price product delivery was developed and it was shown the economic efficiency (the possible results of the solution of the problem of distribution logistics of its application in the target company. The study showed that there is an opportunity, based on the development and implementation of technologies to reduce the final price of the goods, to develop the company and increase its competitiveness by minimizing costs and increasing return on investment. The results of research extend the knowledge of methodology of system logistics management in the enterprise.

  7. Implementation of Lean Warehouse to Minimize Wastes in Finished Goods Warehouse of PT Charoen Pokphand Indonesia Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nia Budi Puspitasari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available PT. Charoen Pokphand Indonesia Semarang is one of the largest poultry feed companies in Indonesia. To store the finished products that are ready to be distributed, it needs a finished goods warehouse. To minimize the wastes that occur in the process of warehousing the finished goods, the implementation of lean warehouse is required. The core process of finished goods warehouse is the process of putting bag that has been through the process of pallets packing, and then transporting the pallets contained bags of feed at finished goods warehouses and the process of unloading food from the finished goods warehouse to the distribution truck. With the implementation of the lean warehouse, we can know whether the activities are value added or not, to be identified later which type of waste happened. Opinions of stakeholders regarding the waste that must be eliminated first need to be determined by questionnaires. Based on the results of the questionnaires, three top wastes are selected to be identified the cause by using fishbone diagram. They can be repaired by using the implementation of 5S, namely Seiri, Seiton, Seiso, Seiketsu, and Shitsuke. Defect waste can be minimized by selecting pallet, putting sack correctly, forklift line clearance, applying working procedures, and creating cleaning schedule. Next, overprocessing waste is minimized by removing unnecessary items, putting based on the date of manufacture, and manufacture of feed plan. Inventory waste is minimized by removing junks, putting feed based on the expired date, and cleaning the barn

  8. Research on reducing the edge effect in magnetorheological finishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Dai, Yifan; Peng, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Jianmin

    2011-03-20

    The edge effect could not be avoided in most optical manufacturing methods based on the theory of computer controlled optical surfacing. The difference between the removal function at the workpiece edge and that inside it is also the primary cause for edge effect in magnetorheological finishing (MRF). The change of physical dimension and removal ratio of the removal function is investigated through experiments. The results demonstrate that the situation is different when MRF "spot" is at the leading edge or at the trailing edge. Two methods for reducing the edge effect are put into practice after analysis of the processing results. One is adopting a small removal function for dealing with the workpiece edge, and the other is utilizing the removal function compensation. The actual processing results show that these two ways are both effective on reducing the edge effect in MRF.

  9. Pengaruh berbagai jenis penyamakan dan tipe finish terhadap morfologi, sifat organoleptis dan mekanis kulit biawak (Varanus salvator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Kasmudjiastuti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Monitor lizard (Varanus salvator skin is exotic leather because it has a unique grain. Therefore, the original grain of the animal needs to be maintained in the finishing process so that its performances look likes natural. This research aimed to study the effect of tanning materials (vegetable and chrome and the type of finish (natural, aniline, semi-aniline and two tone on morphology, organoleptic and mechanical properties of lizard skin. The materials used in this study were dry preserved lizard skins. The research varied on the types of tanning (vegetable and chrome and the type of finish (natural, aniline, semi-aniline and two tone each by varying the finishing materials (casein and protein binders. The tests were conducted on the observation of the structure using photomicrographs, rub fastness, adhesion of finish strength, tensile strength, elongation at break and organoleptic. The results showed that the best result was vegetable tanned lizard skin using natural finish with casein and met the requirements of SNI 06-4362-1996, lizard skin for shoe upper. This gave dry and wet rub fastness of 5 and 5 respectively; dry and wet adhesion of finish strength of 650 and 100 g/cm respectively; tensile strength of 207.43 kg/cm2; elongation at break of 37.52% and organoleptic value of panelists observations of 87.9 (good.

  10. Multi-Parameter Analysis of Surface Finish in Electro-Discharge Machining of Tool Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Victoria Anghel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a multi- parameter analysis of surface finish imparted to tool-steel plates by electro-discharge machining (EDM is presented. The interrelationship between surface texture parameters and process parameters is emphasized. An increased number of parameters is studied including amplitude, spacing, hybrid and fractal parameters,, as well. The correlation of these parameters with the machining conditions is investigated. Observed characteristics become more pronounced, when intensifying machining conditions. Close correlation exists between certain surface finish parameters and EDM input variables and single and multiple statistical regression models are developed.

  11. Control software development for magnetorheological finishing of large aperture optical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Nan; Li Haibo; Yuan Zhigang; Zhong Bo

    2011-01-01

    Based on the mechanism of magnetorheological finishing, the dwell time function was solved by Jansson-Van Cit-tert algorithm to accomplish the kernel module design. Then the software modularization programming, modular testing and integration testing were conducted. A verification experiment was carried out on a crystal element with full aperture of 500 mm and the element's surface achieved rapid and efficient convergence after the software controlled magnetorheological finishing. It is proved that the software could control the whole polishing process accurately. (authors)

  12. Digital Restoration from Start to Finish How to repair old and damaged photographs

    CERN Document Server

    Ctein,

    2010-01-01

    Digital Restoration: Start to Finish 2nd edition guides you step-by-step through the entire process of restoring old photographs and repairing new ones using Adobe Photoshop, Picture Window, and now Elements. Nothing is left out, from choosing the right hardware and software and getting the photographs into the computer, to getting the finished photo out of the computer and preserving it for posterity.  LEARN HOW TO: Scan faded and damaged prints or films Improve snapshots with Shadow/Highlight adjustment Correct uneven exposure Fix color and skin tones quickly with Curves, plug-ins, a

  13. WOOD PROPERTIES AND EFFECT OF WOOD PROPERTIES ON THE WOOD FINISHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkadir Malkoçoğlu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Wood is basic raw material for furniture and joinery industries with wood structures. Wood is a biological material that has widely different properties depending on species, geographic area where the tree grew, the growth condition, size of the tree at harvest, sawing, and other manufacturing processes. Wood properties have been characterized within two groups as natural and manufacturing factors that effects finishing performance. Grow rate, density, knots, moisture content, extractives and juvenile wood are natural characteristics. Grain orientation, texture, drying and performance expectations are manufacturing characteristics. In this review, the effects of natural and manufacturing characteristics are discussed on the surface finishing performance of wood.

  14. Estimation and characterization of decontamination and decommissioning solid waste expected from the Plutonium Finishing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, J.S.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; Stratton, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose of the study was to estimate the amounts of equipment and other materials that are candidates for removal and subsequent processing in a solid waste facility when the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant is decontaminated and decommissioned. (Building structure and soil are not covered.) Results indicate that ∼5,500 m 3 of solid waste is expected to result from the decontamination and decommissioning of the Pu Finishing Plant. The breakdown of the volumes and percentages of waste by category is 1% dangerous solid waste, 71% low-level waste, 21% transuranic waste, 7% transuranic mixed waste

  15. Environmental-friendly wool fabric finishing by some water plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šmelcerović Miodrag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, environmental-friendly finishing of wool fabric were processed with several water extract plants, such as hibiscus, St. John's wort, and marigold. The plant extracts have good basis in the commercial dyeing of wool, for garment and carpet industry. At the same time, the environmental-friendly finishing by water extracts plants shows very good fastness of the antimicrobial properties and coloration of wool fabric. From an ecological viewpoint, the substitution of chemical dyes with "natural products" may represent not only a strategy to reduce risk and pollutants but also an opportunity for new markets and new businesses, which can expend involving of ecology in trade policy.

  16. Surface Finish Effects Using Coating Method on 3D Printing (FDM) Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidiezul, AHM; Aiman, AF; Bakar, B.

    2018-03-01

    One of three-dimensional (3-D) printing economical processes is by using Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM). The 3-D printed object was built using layer-by-layer approach which caused “stair stepping” effects. This situation leads to uneven surface finish which mostly affect the objects appearance for product designers in presenting their models or prototypes. The objective of this paper is to examine the surface finish effects from the application of XTC-3D coating developed by Smooth-On, USA on the 3D printed parts. From the experimental works, this study shows the application of XTC-3D coating to the 3-D printed parts has improve the surface finish by reducing the gap between the layer

  17. Disassembly Properties of Cementitious Finish Joints Using an Induction Heating Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jaecheol; Noguchi, Takafumi; Kitagaki, Ryoma

    2015-01-01

    Efficient maintenance and upgrading of a building during its lifecycle are difficult because a cementitious finish uses materials and parts with low disassembly properties. Additionally, the reuse and recycling processes during building demolition also present numerous problems from the perspective of environmental technology. In this study, an induction heating (IH) method was used to disassemble cementitious finish joints, which are widely used to join building members and materials. The IH rapidly and selectively heated and weakened these joints. The temperature elevation characteristics of the cementitious joint materials were measured as a function of several resistor types, including wire meshes and punching metals, which are usually used for cementitious finishing. The disassembly properties were evaluated through various tests using conductive resistors in cementitious joints such as mortar. When steel fiber, punching metal, and wire mesh were used as conductive resistors, the cementitious modifiers could be weakened within 30 s. Cementitious joints with conductive resistors also showed complete disassembly with little residual bond strength.

  18. Effects of repeated vibratory stimulation of wrist and elbow flexors on hand dexterity, strength, and sensory function in patients with chronic stroke: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Ho

    2017-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of repeated vibratory stimulation to muscles related to hand functions on dexterity, strength, and sensory function in patients with chronic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 10 stroke patients with hemiplegia participated in this study. They were divided into two groups: a) Experimental and b) Control, with five randomly selected subjects for each group. The experimental group received vibratory stimulation, while the control group received the traditional physical therapy. Both interventions were performed for 30 minutes each session, three times a week for four weeks. [Results] There was a significant within-group improvement in the box and block test results in both groups for dexterity. Grip strength improved in both groups but the improvement was not statistically significant. [Conclusion] The vibratory stimulation activated the biceps brachii and flexor carpi radialis, which increased dexterity to grasp and lift the box and block from the surface. Therefore, repeated vibratory stimulation to muscles related to hand functions improved hand dexterity equality to the traditional physical therapy in patients with chronic stroke.

  19. [Experimental analysis of finishing lines in ceramometal restorations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascón, F; Gil, J A; Fons, A; Badal, R

    1990-11-01

    The preparation is the first step of any tooth reconstruction. The biological integration of the protesis is depending on the marginal adaptation (finish line of the preparation), occlusal adaptation (occlusal reduction), longevity of the restoration (retention and luting) and esthetics. The effect the two finish line of the preparation is studied using experimental design. In porcelain-fused-to-metal the finish line of the preparation in chanfer is superior at the beveled shoulder, because proportioning better marginal adaptation.

  20. Finishing of the cold mass assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2001-01-01

    Photo 1 Zoom of the lyre-side end of the active part assembly. The extremity of the shrinking cylinder has been bevelled in view of welding the end cover. Photo 2 General view of the finishing station showing the special supporting structures (blue and yellow structures) needed for the geometric measurements and for the alignment operations. Photo 3 Zoom of the lyre-side end of the active part assembly. One can also see the auxiliary bus bars needed to power the corrector magnets that are installed in the dipole cold mass assembly. Photo 4 Technicians are putting in order the instrumentation wires. The prototype magnets were equipped with numerous sensors to monitor key parameters during the performance tests at cold conditions.

  1. Finishing of precision generated metal optical components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, P.C.; Sonderman, J.B.

    1975-08-01

    Diamond turning and precision generation of aspheric metal surfaces has promoted a change in lapping techniques due to the extremely close figure tolerances and surface finishes that have been achieved. Special tooling, diamond abrasive, silicon oil and special techniques used to polish the unusual aspheric figures are described. The studies include small flat diamond turned samples of copper, electroplated copper, electroplated silver, electroplated nickel and silver as well as large aspheres such as an f/0.75, 35 cm dia copper ellipse. Results from cleaning studies on flat samples using ultrasonics and vapor degreasers are also summarized. Interferograms of wavefront distortion and analysis of focal volume are included as well as 10.6 μm reflectivity and a summary of laser damage experiments. (TFD)

  2. Finishing of the cold mass assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2001-01-01

    Photo 1 The connection-side end of the active part assembly. This view shows the electrical connections between the poles and the curved bus ended with flanges for the connection with the protection diode. Photo 2 The connection-side end of the active part assembly. This view shows the electrical connections between the poles, the auxiliary bus bars and the instrumentation wires. Photo 3 Lyre-side end of the active part assembly. One can see the mechanical support of the corretor magnets that are to be installed around the cold bore tubes. Photo 4 General view of the finishing station showing the special supporting structures (blue and yellow structures) needed for the geometric measurements and for the alignment operations. Around the magnet, there are datum points (on the tripodes) needed to build up the coordinates system for the measurements.

  3. Figure and finish of grazing incidence mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, P.Z.; Church, E.L.

    1989-08-01

    Great improvement has been made in the past several years in the quality of optical components used in synchrotron radiation (SR) beamlines. Most of this progress has been the result of vastly improved metrology techniques and instrumentation permitting rapid and accurate measurement of the surface finish and figure on grazing incidence optics. A significant theoretical effort has linked the actual performance of components used as x-ray wavelengths to their topological properties as measured by surface profiling instruments. Next-generation advanced light sources will require optical components and systems to have sub-arc second surface figure tolerances. This paper will explore the consequences of these requirements in terms of manufacturing tolerances to see if the present manufacturing state-of-the-art is capable of producing the required surfaces. 15 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  4. 40 CFR 425.30 - Applicability; description of the hair save or pulp, non-chrome tan, retan-wet finish subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND... processes raw or cured cattle or cattle-like hides into finished leather by hair save or pulp unhairing, vegetable tanning or alum, syntans, oils and other agents for tanning, and retan-wet finishing. ...

  5. Thermal Properties of Anionic Polyurethane Composition for Leather Finishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga KOVTUNENKO

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal properties of anionic polyurethane composition mixed with collagen product and hydrophilic sodium form of montmorillonite for use in the finishing of leather were studied by thermogravimetric method. The thermal indices of processes of thermal and thermo-oxidative destruction depending on the polyurethane composition were determined. The influence of anionic polyurethane composition on thermal behavior of chromium tanned gelatin films that imitate the leather were studied. APU composition with natural compounds increases their thermal stability both in air and in nitrogen atmosphere due to the formation of additional bonds between active groups of APU, protein and chrome tanning agent as the result of chemical reactions between organic and inorganic parts with the new structure formation.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.3.10043

  6. Penile vibratory stimulation in the recovery of urinary continence and erectile function after nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Borre, Michael; Ohl, Dana A

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) in the preservation and restoration of erectile function and urinary continence in conjunction with nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (RP). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The present study was conducted between July 2010 and March 2013...... were instructed in using a PVS device (FERTI CARE(®) vibrator). Stimulation was performed at the frenulum once daily by the patients in their own homes for at least 1 week before surgery. After catheter removal, daily PVS was re-initiated for a period of 6 weeks. Participants were evaluated at 3, 6...... for analyses (30 patients randomized to PVS and 38 patients randomized to the control group). The IIEF-5 score was highest in the PVS group at all time points after surgery with a median score of 18 vs 7.5 in the control group at 12 months (P = 0.09), but the difference only reached borderline significance...

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF GLUTEN - FREE FLOURS ON THE QUALITY INDICATORS OF BISCUIT SEMI - FINISHED PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К. G. IORGACHOVA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research of applicability of gluten-free flours from cereal crops and from by-products of cereal crop processing - ground crumbs sifted out in a process of flake production from rice, corn and millet during the production of biscuit semi-finished products. Taking into account that viscosity is an important technological characteristic of foam-like biscuit dough, as it determines foam strength and dispersed medium stability, the influence of gluten-free flours on the structural and rheological properties of biscuit dough was studied. It is determined that the substitution of wheat flour for cereal flours leads to viscosity reduction of the dough as a consequence of absence of gluten-forming proteins in them. A comparative analysis of changes in viscous properties of biscuit dough based on flour from flakes crumb while warming it up to 60°C with dough based on cereal flours and dough based on wheat flour was held. It is shown that the presence of partially gelatinized starch granules in flour from flake crumb, as a result of technological peculiarities of their extraction, promotes greater demonstration of thickening properties already at the initial stage of baking than in cereal flours. This leads to an increase of dough viscosity and formation of desired rheological characteristics, which provide the porous structure of finished products. To provide the high quality of gluten-free biscuit semi-finished products, the recipe composition of gluten-free biscuit semi-finished product, based on flour mixture from millet flakes crumb, corn and rice flour, was optimized by using the method of mathematical design of experiments.  The porosity indicator was chosen as the criteria for the evaluation of influence of proportion of gluten-free flours on the quality of biscuit semi-finished products. The response surfaces of dependency of biscuit porosity from mass ratio of recipe components in the composite mixture were

  8. 9 CFR 318.309 - Finished product inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 318.309 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Canning and Canned Products § 318.309 Finished product inspection. (a) Finished product inspections must...

  9. Population dynamics of swine influenza virus in finishing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeffen, W.L.A.

    2008-01-01

    Influenza virus infections in swine were first noticed in the US in 1918, during the human pandemic of the Spanish flu. In Europe, seroprevalences for the three most common swine influenza strains at the moment, H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2, range from 20-80% in finishing pigs at the end of the finishing

  10. Assessment of the Nutrient Contents of Finished Broiler Starter and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to assess and compare the proximate composition and amino acid profile of six (6) finished broiler starter and finisher diets with recommendations of National Research Council (NRC) nutrient requirements table for the different physiological age growth stage. Four samples of each feed type were ...

  11. Performance and cost implication of finisher turkeys fed varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 28-day experiment was conducted to determine the effect of feeding varying levels of rice milling waste as a substitute on maize on the performance, nutrient utilization and the economics implication on finisher turkeys. Five turkey finisher diets were formulated by substituting maize with rice milling waste at 0%, 25%, 50%, ...

  12. 16 CFR 1509.8 - Construction and finishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1509.8 Construction and finishing. (a) All wood surfaces of non-full-size baby cribs shall be smooth and free from splinters. (b) All wood parts of non... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Construction and finishing. 1509.8 Section...

  13. 16 CFR 1508.7 - Construction and finishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1508.7 Construction and finishing. (a) All wood surfaces shall be smooth and free from splinters. (b) All wood parts shall be free from splits, cracks, or other... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Construction and finishing. 1508.7 Section...

  14. Effect of Hoodia gordonii leaf meal supplementation at finisher stage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A nutritional experiment was conducted to determine the effect of Hoodia gordonii leaf meal supplementation at finisher stage (30 to 42 days old) on productivity, carcass characteristics and meat sensory attributes of Ross 308 broiler chickens. The chickens were fed a finisher diet supplemented with 0 (H0), 200 (H200), 300 ...

  15. Plutonium finishing plant safety systems and equipment list

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergquist, G.G.

    1995-01-01

    The Safety Equipment List (SEL) supports Analysis Report (FSAR), WHC-SD-CP-SAR-021 and the Plutonium Finishing Plant Operational Safety Requirements (OSRs), WHC-SD-CP-OSR-010. The SEL is a breakdown and classification of all Safety Class 1, 2, and 3 equipment, components, or system at the Plutonium Finishing Plant complex

  16. Use of residues proceeding from marbles and granites finishing and manufacturing processes as raw material for structural ceramic; Utilizacao do residuo proveniente do acabamento e manufatura de marmores e granitos como materia-prima em ceramica vermelha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Roberta Monteiro de

    2006-07-01

    In order to decrease environmental impact, caused by mud discarding and clay extraction in the ceramic industry, it was used residual mud from marble and granite companies for structural ceramic. Samples were collected in twelve different marble companies located at the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo. However, only four samples were selected, based on its different characteristics. Clay stone was the raw material chosen to prepare the structural ceramic, considering its high use in this segment. Samples and clay stone were both analysed by the following procedures: granulometric analysis, x-rays fluorescent chemical analysis and x-rays diffraction mineralogical analysis, besides, tests in the samples were conducted following NBR 10004 standards. Once raw materials were characterized, the plasticity test was conducted. Test specimen were molded with different levels of mud, then burned and submitted to technological tests, such as: mechanical resistance, water absorption, porosity, specific gravity and retraction, material dilation before burning process and scanning electron microscopy. The final results have shown the viability of using this kind of mud, and pointed some advantages on its usage, but taking in consideration some previous conditions to be adopted. (author)

  17. Protein requirements of finishing paca (Cuniculus paca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira-Filho, Sérgio Luiz Gama; Bastos, Ivanise da Hora; Mendes, Alcester; Nogueira, Selene Siqueira da Cunha

    2016-06-01

    We conducted a nitrogen balance digestion trial to determine the crude protein requirements of paca (Cuniculus paca) during the last growth phase. In a 4 × 4 Latin square design, four young captive male pacas, aged 5 months, were fed four isoenergetic diets containing four different levels of nitrogen (N) (11.3, 16.6, 21.4, and 26.6 g N/kg of dry matter). After 15 days of adaptation, we collected all feces and urine for five consecutive days. By regression analysis between N intake and N in feces and urine, the metabolic fecal nitrogen (MFN = 4.2 g/kg of dry matter intake) and daily endogenous urinary N (EUN = 91.6 mg/kg(0.75)) were determined. Likewise, by regression analyses between nitrogen intake and nitrogen retention [NR = N intake-(fecal N + urine N)], we estimated the daily requirement of 280.5 mg N/kg(0.75). Therefore, a minimum of 55 g crude protein per kilogram dry matter and 13 MJ/kg of digestible energy are required by finishing paca on unrestricted diets. Such values are similar to those of other wild frugivores and below those of growing rabbits. The data confirm that farmers overfeed protein, and similar growth can be more economically achieved on lower protein diets.

  18. Finishing of the cold mass assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2001-01-01

    Photo 1 General view of the finishing station showing the special supporting structures (blue and yellow structures) needed for the geometric measurements and for the alignment operations. Around the magnet, there are datum points (on the tripodes) needed to build up the coordinates system for the measurements. Photo 2 The corrector magnets that are sextupoles are prepared for a plug-in fixation on their mechanical support. Photo 3 A corretor magnet has been installed on the left cold bore tube. The second one is waiting on the table for installation. Photo 4 The mechanical mole holding the corner cube reflector of the 3-D measuring machine is introduced in the cold bore tube (the right one on the picture). This will allow to pick up the X-Y-Z coordinates of the centre of the cold bore tube on its entire length. Photo 5 This picture shows the driving system that is completely computer controlled to pull the mechanical mole inside the cold bore tube. Photo 6 This picture shows details of the driving system...

  19. Effect of surface finishing on the oxidation behaviour of a ferritic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardigo-Besnard, M.R., E-mail: maria-rosa.ardigo-besnard@u-bourgogne.fr [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne (ICB), UMR 6303 CNRS—Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Popa, I.; Heintz, O.; Chassagnon, R. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne (ICB), UMR 6303 CNRS—Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Vilasi, M. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS—Université de Lorraine, Parc de Saurupt, 54011 Nancy (France); Herbst, F. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne (ICB), UMR 6303 CNRS—Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Girardon, P. [APERAM, Centre de Recherche, BP15, 62330 Isbergues (France); Chevalier, S. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne (ICB), UMR 6303 CNRS—Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Study of surface finishing effect on the corrosion behaviour of a stainless steel. • Mirror polished samples were compared to as-rolled material. • Two oxidation mechanisms were identified depending on the surface finishing. • Before oxidation, native chemical phases are identical for both samples. • Subsurface dislocations generated by the polishing process promote Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} formation. - Abstract: The corrosion behaviour and the oxidation mechanism of a ferritic stainless steel, K41X (AISI 441), were evaluated at 800 °C in water vapour hydrogen enriched atmosphere. Mirror polished samples were compared to as-rolled K41X material. Two different oxidation behaviours were observed depending on the surface finishing: a protective double (Cr,Mn){sub 3}O{sub 4}/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale formed on the polished samples whereas external Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and (Cr,Fe){sub 2}O{sub 3} oxides grew on the raw steel. Moreover, isotopic marker experiments combined with SIMS analyses revealed different growth mechanisms. The influence of surface finishing on the corrosion products and growth mechanisms was apprehended by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and residual stress analyses using XRD at the sample surfaces before ageing.

  20. Effect of tomato cultivars, honey finisher and processing methods on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chemical, microbiological and sensory qualities of the ketchup. Also, honey concentration treatment improved the quality of ketchup. Addition of honey at 500 ml level resulted in higher reducing sugar, total sugar, titratable acidity and total soluble ...

  1. Effect of tomato cultivars, honey finisher and processing methods on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... microbiological and sensory quality of tomato ketchup that was prepared using low-cost ... The color of tomato ketchup samples were measured by comparing it with standard color chart .... multiple rage tests. RESULTS AND ...

  2. [Skull vibratory test in partial vestibular lesions--influence of the stimulus frequency on the nystagmus direction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, G; Perrin, P; Morel, N; N'Guyen, D Q; Schmerber, S

    2005-01-01

    Results of the skull vibratory test (SVT) in partial unilateral vestibular peripheral lesions (PUVL) are different from the results in total vestibular lesions (TUVL). To reveal a correlation between the results of the analysis of the skull vibratory nystagmus (SVN) horizontal component and the side of the lesion; to correlate these results with the stimulus frequency. To find out a predictive correlation between the SVN horizontal and vertical components and the topography of a vestibular lesion. To appreciate the degree of vestibular deafferentation (extended to high frequencies) provoked by gentamicin labyrinthectomy and its efficiency in Meniere's disease. 53 patients with a SVN and a PUVL were included and compared with 10 TUVL and 10 normal subjects. Protocol included a HST (2 Hz), a SVT at 30, 60 and 100 Hz and a caloric test. Recordings were performed with a 2D and 3D VNG device. In PUVL, SVN at 30, 60 and 100 Hz was obtained in 80, 90 and 90% of cases respectively. SVN is correlated with the side of the lesion at 30, 60 and 100 Hz respectively in 65%, 63%, 80% of cases. SVN is not correlated with the side of the lesion in 20% of Meniere's disease, in 8% of vestibular neuritis and in 6% of vestibular schwannoma. In PUVL HSN is correlated with the side of the lesion in 69% of cases. The direction of the HSN and of the SVN was different in 23% when the nystagmus attended at the same time for both tests. In PUVL the direction of the SVN is different at 100 Hz and 30 Hz in 16% of cases when they are concomittant on the same patient. After Gentamicine labyrinthectomy, the coherence of the results in caloric test, HSN and SVN (areflexy and lesional nystagmus beating toward the safe side) was correlated with the efficiency of the therapy. A SVN vertical component was met in 10% of PUVL (essentially in anterior canal dehiscence and few cases of partial labyrinthitis). The horizontal SVN SPV is significantly slower in PUVL than in TUVL patients (p=0.0004). The SVT

  3. Neutron Measurements At Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrady, Matthew M.; Berg, Randal K.; Scherpelz, Robert I.; Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2009-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted neutron measurements at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The measurements were performed to evaluate the performance of the Hanford Standard Dosimeter (HSD) and the 8816 TLD component of the Hanford Combination Neutron Dosimeter (HCND) in the neutron fields responsible for worker neutron exposures. For this study, TEPC detectors and multisphere spectrometers were used to measure neutron dose equivalent rate, and multispheres were used to measure average neutron energy. Water-filled phantoms holding Hanford dosimeters were positioned at each measurement location. The phantoms were positioned in the same location where a multisphere measurement was taken and TEPCs were also positioned there. Plant survey meters were also used to measure neutron dose rates at all locations. Three measurement locations were chose near the HC-9B glovebox in room 228A of Building 234-5. The multisphere spectrometers measured average neutron energies in the range of 337 to 555 keV at these locations. Personal dose equivalent, Hp(10)n, as measured by the multisphere and TEPC, ranged from 2.7 to 9.7 mrem/h in the three locations. Effective dose assuming a rotational geometry (EROT) was substantially lower than Hp(10), ranging from 1.3 to 3.6 mrem/h. These values were lower than the reported values from dosimeters exposed on a rotating phantom. Effective dose assuming an AP geometry (EAP) was also substantially lower than Hp(10), ranging from 2.3 to 6.5 mrem/h. These values were lower than the reported values from the dosimeters on slab phantoms. Since the effective dose values were lower than reported values from dosimeters, the dosimeters were shown to be conservative estimates of the protection quantities.

  4. Comparison of vitality states of finishers and withdrawers in trail running: An enactive and phenomenological perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadège Rochat

    Full Text Available Studies on ultra-endurance suggest that during the races, athletes typically experience three vitality states (i.e., preservation, loss, and revival at the phenomenological level. Nevertheless, how these states contribute to the management and outcome of performance remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether and how the vitality states experienced by runners and their evolution during a trail race can be used to distinguish finishers from withdrawers. From an enactive and phenomenological framework, we processed enactive interviews and blog posts of race narratives. We distinguished units of meaning, which were grouped into sequences of experience; each sequence was then categorized as one of the three vitality states: state of vitality preservation (SVP, state of vitality loss (SVL or state of vitality revival (SVR. We analyzed the distribution of these vitality states and their temporal organization at the beginning, in the second and third quarters, and at the end of the races, and we qualitatively characterized runners' adaptations to SVL. Results showed that finishers completed the race in SVP, with overall significantly more sequences in SVP and significantly fewer sequences in SVL than withdrawers. SVR did not discriminate finishers from withdrawers. The temporal organization of the vitality states showed a significant difference in the emergence of SVP from the second quarter of the race, as well as a significant difference in the emergence of SVL from the third quarter of the race. The analysis of adaptations to SVL confirmed that finishers were more capable of exiting SVL by enacting a preservation world when they felt physical or psychological alerts, whereas withdrawers remained in SVL. Our results showed that finishers and withdrawers did not enact the same phenomenological worlds in the race situation, especially in the organization of vitality adaptations and their relationships to difficulties; the cumulative

  5. High Speed Finish Turning of Inconel 718 Using PCBN Tools under Dry Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Cantero

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Inconel 718 is a superalloy, considered one of the least machinable materials. Tools must withstand a high level of temperatures and pressures in a very localized area, the abrasiveness of the hard carbides contained in the Inconel 718 microstructure and the adhesion tendency during its machining. Mechanical properties along with the low thermal conductivity become an important issue for the tool wear. The finishing operations for Inconel 718 are usually performed after solution heat treatment and age hardening of the material to give the superalloy a higher level of hardness. Carbide tools, cutting fluid (at normal or high pressures and low cutting speed are the main recommendations for finish turning of Inconel 718. However, dry machining is preferable to the use of cutting fluids, because of its lower environmental impact and cost. Previous research has concluded that the elimination of cutting fluid in these processes is feasible when using hard carbide tools. Recent development of new PCBN (Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride grades for cutting tools with higher tenacity has allowed the application of these tool grades in the finishing operations of Inconel 718. This work studies the performance of commercial PCBN tools from four different tool manufacturers as well as an additional grade with equivalent performance during finish turning of Inconel 718 under dry conditions. Wear tests were carried out with different cutting conditions, determining the evolution of machining forces, surface roughness and tool wear. It is concluded that it is not industrially viable the high-speed finishing of Inconel 718 in a dry environment.

  6. Implementing Cleaner Printed Wiring Board Technologies: Surface Finishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the problems, solutions, and time and effort involved in implementing alternative surface finish technologies, and this guide is produced as part of the DfE Printed Wiring Board Project

  7. Portable flooring protects finished surfaces, is easily moved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, R. J.

    1964-01-01

    To protect curved, finished surface and provide support for workmen, portable flooring has been made from rigid plastic foam blocks, faced with aluminum strips. Held together by nylon webbing, the flooring can be rolled up for easy carrying.

  8. Effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal on finisher pig growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal on finisher pig growth performance, meat ... pig growth performance, meat quality, shelf life and fatty acid composition of pork ... negative effect on feed conversion efficiency, carcass and meat quality traits, ...

  9. A method for assessing the regional vibratory pattern of vocal folds by analysing the video recording of stroboscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J S; Kim, E; Sung, M W; Kim, K H; Sung, M Y; Park, K S

    2001-05-01

    Stroboscopy and kymography have been used to examine the motional abnormality of vocal folds and to visualise their regional vibratory pattern. In a previous study (Laryngoscope, 1999), we introduced the conceptual idea of videostrobokymography, in which we applied the concept of kymography on the pre-recorded video images using stroboscopy, and showed its possible clinical application to various disorders in vocal folds. However, a more detailed description about the software and the mathematical formulation used in this system is needed for the reproduction of similar systems. The composition of hardwares, user-interface and detail procedures including mathematical equations in videostrobokymography software is presented in this study. As an initial clinical trial, videostrobokymography was applied to the preoperative and postoperative videostroboscopic images of 15 patients with Reinke's edema. On preoperative examination, videostrobokymograms showed irregular pattern of mucosal wave and, in some patients, a relatively constant glottic gap during phonation. After the operation, the voice quality of all patients was improved in acoustic and aerodynamic assessments, and videostrobokymography showed clearly improved mucosal waves (change in open quotient: mean +/- SD= 0.11 +/- 0.05).

  10. Further Examination of the Vibratory Loads Reduction Results from the NASA/ARMY/MIT Active Twist Rotor Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, Matthew L.; Yeager, William T., Jr.; Sekula, Martin K.

    2002-01-01

    The vibration reduction capabilities of a model rotor system utilizing controlled, strain-induced blade twisting are examined. The model rotor blades, which utilize piezoelectric active fiber composite actuators, were tested in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel using open-loop control to determine the effect of active-twist on rotor vibratory loads. The results of this testing have been encouraging, and have demonstrated that active-twist rotor designs offer the potential for significant load reductions in future helicopter rotor systems. Active twist control was found to use less than 1% of the power necessary to operate the rotor system and had a pronounced effect on both rotating- and fixed-system loads, offering reductions in individual harmonic loads of up to 100%. A review of the vibration reduction results obtained is presented, which includes a limited set of comparisons with results generated using the second-generation version of the Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics (CAMRAD II) rotorcraft comprehensive analysis.

  11. [Relationship between vibratory sense threshold and blood lead concentration in ceramic color workers and transfer printing manufacturers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukaya, Y; Matsumoto, T; Fujiwara, N; Tokudome, S

    1995-08-01

    We measured vibratory sense thresholds (VSTs) at 63Hz and 125Hz on the third fingertip of the right hand and on the third toe of the right foot of 74 male workers. The subjects were workers engaged in manufacturing ceramic color and transfer printing paper, whose blood lead (Pb-B) levels were 2-58 micrograms/dl. They were divided into three groups according to the Pb-B levels, namely, below 9, 10-19, and 20 micrograms/dl or more. For statistical analysis, simple and partial correlations, and Scheffé's multiple comparison between the least squares means were used. The VSTs on the fingertip as well as on the toe showed a significant correlation with age. The VSTs at 125Hz on the fingertip were also significantly correlated with alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Controlling for age, systolic blood pressure, alcohol consumption and smoking habit, a significant dose-effect relationship was observed between the VSTs at not only 63Hz but at 125Hz on the fingertip, and each of the corresponding Pb-B levels. A similar tendency was also observed at the two frequencies on the toe. The measurement of VSTs was considered to be an effective screening test for sensory nerve disorders caused by lead poisoning.

  12. Polishing Metal Mirrors to 0,025 Micron Surface Finish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, P. E.

    1978-01-01

    A research program undertaken by the Danish Atomic Energy Commission required the fabrication of metal mirrors measuring 1 m long by 53 mm wide, which had to be finished to extremely tight tolerances on thickness, plane-parallelism and surface characteristics. Progressively finer diamond compound...... are employed to achieve a high gloss finish on the metal mirrors, which are used in polarized neutron experiments. This article describes the fabrication techniques developed at the Commission's Ris phi Central Workshop....

  13. Development and validation of an rDNA operon based primer walking strategy applicable to de novo bacterial genome finishing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander William Eastman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in sequencing technology have drastically increased the depth and feasibility of bacterial genome sequencing. However, little information is available that details the specific techniques and procedures employed during genome sequencing despite the large numbers of published genomes. Shotgun approaches employed by second-generation sequencing platforms has necessitated the development of robust bioinformatics tools for in silico assembly, and complete assembly is limited by the presence of repetitive DNA sequences and multi-copy operons. Typically, re-sequencing with multiple platforms and laborious, targeted Sanger sequencing are employed to finish a draft bacterial genome. Here we describe a novel strategy based on the identification and targeted sequencing of repetitive rDNA operons to expedite bacterial genome assembly and finishing. Our strategy was validated by finishing the genome of Paenibacillus polymyxa strain CR1, a bacterium with potential in sustainable agriculture and bio-based processes. An analysis of the 38 contigs contained in the P. polymyxa strain CR1 draft genome revealed 12 repetitive rDNA operons with varied intragenic and flanking regions of variable length, unanimously located at contig boundaries and within contig gaps. These highly similar but not identical rDNA operons were experimentally verified and sequenced simultaneously with multiple, specially designed primer sets. This approach also identified and corrected significant sequence rearrangement generated during the initial in silico assembly of sequencing reads. Our approach reduces the required effort associated with blind primer walking for contig assembly, increasing both the speed and feasibility of genome finishing. Our study further reinforces the notion that repetitive DNA elements are major limiting factors for genome finishing. Moreover, we provided a step-by-step workflow for genome finishing, which may guide future bacterial genome finishing

  14. Maintenance implementation plan for the Plutonium Finishing Plant. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meldrom, C.A.

    1996-03-01

    This document outlines the Maintenance Implementation Plan (MIP) for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) located at the Hanford site at Richland, Washington. This MIP describes the PFP maintenance program relative to DOE order 4330.4B. The MIP defines the key actions needed to meet the guidelines of the Order to produce a cost-effective and efficient maintenance program. A previous report identified the presence of significant quantities of Pu-bearing materials within PFP that pose risks to workers. PFP's current mission is to develop, install and operate processes which will mitigate these risks. The PFP Maintenance strategy is to equip the facility with systems and equipment able to sustain scheduled PFP operations. The current operating run is scheduled to last seven years. Activities following the stabilization operation will involve an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to determine future plant activities. This strategy includes long-term maintenance of the facility for safe occupancy and material storage. The PFP maintenance staff used the graded approach to dictate the priorities of the improvement and upgrade actions identified in Chapter 2 of this document. The MIP documents PFP compliance to the DOE 4330.4B Order. Chapter 2 of the MIP follows the format of the Order in addressing the eighteen elements. As this revision is a total rewrite, no sidebars are included to highlight changes

  15. Classification and storage of wastewater from floor finish removal operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, Charles E. [Univ. of San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This study evaluates the wastewater generated from hard surface floor finish removal operations at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in order to determine if this wastewater is a hazardous waste, either by statistical evaluation, or other measurable regulatory guidelines established in California Regulations. This research also comparatively evaluates the 55 gallon drum and other portable tanks, all less than 1,000 gallons in size in order to determine which is most effective for the management of this waste stream at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The statistical methods in SW-846 were found to be scientifically questionable in their application to hazardous waste determination. In this statistical evaluation, the different data transformations discussed in the regulatory guidance document were applied along with the log transformation to the population of 18 samples from 55 gallon drums. Although this statistical evaluation proved awkward in its application, once the data is collected and organized on a spreadsheet this statistical analysis can be an effective tool which can aid the environmental manager in the hazardous waste classification process.

  16. Orthodontic treatment outcomes obtained by application of a finishing protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Carvajal-Flórez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the results of a finishing protocol implemented in patients treated in the Orthodontics graduate program at Universidad de Antioquia. Evaluation was carried out by means of the criteria set by the Objective Grading System (OGS of the American Board of Orthodontics (ABO. Methods: Cast models and panoramic radiographs of 34 patients were evaluated. The intervention group (IG consisted of 17 patients (19.88 ± 4.4 years old treated under a finishing protocol. This protocol included training in finishing, application of a finishing guide, brackets repositioning and patient's follow-up. Results of the IG were compared to a control group of 17 patients (21.88 ± 7.0 years old selected by stratified randomization without finishing intervention (CG. Results: The scores for both CG and IG were 38.00 ± 9.0 and 31.41 ± 9.6 (p = 0.048, respectively. The score improved significantly in the IG group, mainly regarding marginal ridges (CG: 5.59 ± 2.2; IG: 3.65 ± 1.8 (p = 0.009 and root angulation (CG: 7.59 ± 2.8; IG: 4.88 ± 2.6 (p = 0.007. Criteria that did not improve, but had the highest scores were: alignment (CG: 6.35 ± 2.7; IG: 6.82 ± 2.8 (p = 0.62 and buccolingual inclination (CG: 3.6 ± 5.88; IG: 5.29 ± 3.9 (p = 0.65. Conclusions: Standardization and implementation of a finishing protocol contributed to improve clinical performance in the Orthodontics graduate program, as expressed by occlusal outcomes. Greater emphasis should be given on the finishing phase to achieve lower scores in the ABO grading system.

  17. Project Plan For Remove Special Nuclear Material (SNM) from Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BARTLETT, W.D.

    1999-01-01

    This plan presents the overall objectives, description, justification and planning for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Remove SNM Materials. The intent of this plan is to describe how this project will be managed and integrated with other facility stabilization and deactivation activities. This plan supplements the overall integrated plan presented in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Integrated Project Management Plan (IPMP), HNF-3617. This project plan is the top-level definitive project management document for the PFP Remove SNM Materials project. It specifies the technical, schedule, requirements and the cost baseline to manage the execution of the Remove SNM Materials project. Any deviation to the document must be authorized through the appropriate change control process. The Remove SNM Materials project provides the necessary support and controls required for DOE-HQ, DOE-RL, BWHC, and other DOE Complex Contractors the path forward to negotiate shipped/receiver agreements, schedule shipments, and transfer material out of PFP to enable final deactivation

  18. Project plan remove special nuclear material from PFP project plutonium finishing plant; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BARTLETT, W.D.

    1999-01-01

    This plan presents the overall objectives, description, justification and planning for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Remove Special Nuclear Material (SNM) Materials. The intent of this plan is to describe how this project will be managed and integrated with other facility stabilization and deactivation activities. This plan supplements the overall integrated plan presented in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Integrated Project Management Plan (IPMP), HNF-3617,Rev. 0. This project plan is the top-level definitive project management document for PFP Remove SNM Materials project. It specifies the technical, schedule, requirements and the cost baselines to manage the execution of the Remove SNM Materials project. Any deviations to the document must be authorized through the appropriate change control process

  19. Effect of machining parameters on surface finish of Inconel 718 in end milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Bapi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface finish is an important criteria in machining process and selection of proper machining parameters is important to obtain good surface finish. In the present work effects of the machining parameters in end milling of Inconel 718 were investigated. Central composite design was used to design the total number of experiments. A Mathematical model for surface roughness has been developed using response surface methodology. In this study, the influence of cutting parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut on surface roughness was analyzed. The study includes individual effect of cutting parameters on surface roughness as well as their interaction. The analysis of variance (ANOVA was employed to find the validity of the developed model. The results show that depth of cut mostly affected the surface roughness. It is also observed that surface roughness values are comparable in both dry and wet machining conditions.

  20. Presence of toxic metals and their effects in finished leather goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, B.B.; Ehsan, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the presence of heavy metals in different types of leather finished goods. Various leather items like gloves, shoe soles and leather pieces for jackets were tested using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry and their toxic effects in our environment are discussed. Cadmium, lead and chromium are the most common heavy metals present in leather finished goods and are a cause for concern. Many countries in Europe and America have banned or limited their use in leather processing. This study reveals that the levels of heavy metals in most of the leather goods manufactured by different companies in Pakistan are within permissible limits. However, in some of the samples tested in this study, the amounts of cadmium, lead and chromium are considerably high which requires special attention from all stakeholders to bring it down to acceptable level. Failing to do so will be detrimental for export of these leather goods to Europe and America. (author)

  1. Project plan remove special nuclear material from PFP project plutonium finishing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BARTLETT, W.D.

    1999-01-01

    This plan presents the overall objectives, description, justification and planning for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Remove Special Nuclear Material (SNM) Materials. The intent of this plan is to describe how this project will be managed and integrated with other facility stabilization and deactivation activities. This plan supplements the overall integrated plan presented in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Integrated Project Management Plan (IPMP), HNF-3617, Rev. 0. This project plan is the top-level definitive project management document for PFP Remove SNM Materials project. It specifies the technical, schedule, requirements and the cost baselines to manage the execution of the Remove SNM Materials project. Any deviations to the document must be authorized through the appropriate change control process

  2. Kinetic model for the formation of acrylamide during the finish-frying of commercial french fries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jane K; Balagiannis, Dimitrios P; Higley, Jeremy; Smith, Gordon; Wedzicha, Bronislaw L; Mottram, Donald S

    2012-09-12

    Acrylamide is formed from reducing sugars and asparagine during the preparation of French fries. The commercial preparation of French fries is a multistage process involving the preparation of frozen, par-fried potato strips for distribution to catering outlets, where they are finish-fried. The initial blanching, treatment in glucose solution, and par-frying steps are crucial because they determine the levels of precursors present at the beginning of the finish-frying process. To minimize the quantities of acrylamide in cooked fries, it is important to understand the impact of each stage on the formation of acrylamide. Acrylamide, amino acids, sugars, moisture, fat, and color were monitored at time intervals during the frying of potato strips that had been dipped in various concentrations of glucose and fructose during a typical pretreatment. A mathematical model based on the fundamental chemical reaction pathways of the finish-frying was developed, incorporating moisture and temperature gradients in the fries. This showed the contribution of both glucose and fructose to the generation of acrylamide and accurately predicted the acrylamide content of the final fries.

  3. Atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization of 1,3-butadiene for hydrophobic finishing of textile substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, Kartick K; Jassal, Manjeet; Agrawal, Ashwini K

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma processing of textile has both ecological and economical advantages over the wet-chemical processing. However, reaction in atmospheric pressure plasma has important challenges to be overcome before it can be successfully used for finishing applications in textile. These challenges are (i) generating stable glow plasma in presence liquid/gaseous monomer, and (ii) keeping the generated radicals active in the presence of contaminants such as oxygen and air. In this study, a stable glow plasma was generated at atmospheric pressure in the mixture of gaseous reactive monomer-1,3-butadiene and He and was made to react with cellulosic textile substrate. After 12 min of plasma treatment, the hydrophilic surface of the cellulosic substrate turned into highly hydrophobic surface. The hydrophobic finish was found to be durable to soap washing. After soap washing, a water drop of 37 μl took around 250 s to get absorbed in the treated sample compared to 0 . Both top and bottom sides of the fabric showed similar hydrophobic results in terms of water absorbency and contact angle. The results may be attributed to chemical reaction of butadiene with the cellulosic textile substrate. The surface characterization of the plasma modified samples under SEM and AFM revealed modification of the surface under <100 nm. The results showed that atmospheric pressure plasma can be successfully used for carrying out reaction of 1,3-butadiene with cellulosic textile substrates for producing hydrophobic surface finish.

  4. Legume finishing provides beef with positive human dietary fatty acid ratios and consumer preference comparable with grain-finished beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chail, A; Legako, J F; Pitcher, L R; Griggs, T C; Ward, R E; Martini, S; MacAdam, J W

    2016-05-01

    Consumer liking, proximate composition, pH, Warner-Bratzler shear force, fatty acid composition, and volatile compounds were determined from the LM (longissimus thoracis) of cattle ( = 6 per diet) finished on conventional feedlot (USUGrain), legume, and grass forage diets. Forage diets included a condensed tannin-containing perennial legume, birdsfoot trefoil (; USUBFT), and a grass, meadow brome ( Rehmann; USUGrass). Moreover, representative retail forage (USDA Certified Organic Grass-fed [OrgGrass]) and conventional beef (USDA Choice, Grain-fed; ChGrain) were investigated ( = 6 per retail type). The ChGrain had the greatest ( 0.05) to that of both USUGrain and USUGrass. Both grain-finished beef treatments were rated greater ( Consumer liking of USUBFT beef tenderness, fattiness, and overall liking were comparable ( > 0.05) with that of USUGrain and ChGrain. Flavor liking was rated greatest ( 0.05) to those of ChGrain, USUGrass, and OrgGrass. Cumulative SFA and MUFA concentrations were greatest ( 0.05) to those of USUGrain and USUGrass. Each forage-finished beef treatment, USUGrass, OrgGrass, and USUBFT, had lower ( < 0.001) ratios of -6:-3 fatty acids. Hexanal was the most numerically abundant volatile compound. The concentration of hexanal increased with increasing concentrations of total PUFA. Among all the lipid degradation products (aldehydes, alcohols, furans, carboxylic acids, and ketones) measured in this study, there was an overall trend toward greater quantities in grain-finished products, lower quantities in USUGrass and OrgGrass, and intermediate quantities in USUBFT. This trend was in agreement with IMF content, fatty acid concentrations, and sensory attributes. These results suggest an opportunity for a birdsfoot trefoil finishing program, which results in beef comparable in sensory quality with grain-finished beef but with reduced -6 and SFA, similar to grass-finished beef.

  5. Bonding of radioactive contamination. IV. Effect of surface finish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.N.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanisms by which radioactive contamination would be bonded to a DWPF canister are being investigated. Previous investigations in this series have examined the effects of temperature, oxidation before contamination, and atmosphere composition control on the bonding of contamination. This memorandum describes the results of tests to determine the effect of special surface finishes on the bonding of contamination to waste glass canisters. Surface pretreatments which produce smoother canister surfaces actually cause radioactive contamination to be more tightly bonded to the metal surface than on an untreated surface. Based on the results of these tests it is recommended that the canister surface finish be specified as having a bright cold rolled mill finish equivalent to ASTM No. 2B. 7 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  6. Analytical methods for the characterization of surface finishing in bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardini, I.; Zendri, E.; Biscontin, G.; Brunetin, A.

    2006-01-01

    The recent restoration works of Santo Stefano Church Facade (XV century) in Venice have shown traces variously saved of different kind of surface finishes. These finishes were found on the brick's surface both in the masonry and in the decorative elements. Different brick's surface and decorative tile samples were investigated using several techniques: optical microscopy, scanning electron-microscopy, thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy and reflectance Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. The evaluation of the reached results was used to understand the decorative techniques and to recognize the material employed

  7. Persistence of antimicrobial resistance genes from sows to finisher pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkegård, Anna Camilla; Halasa, Tariq; Folkesson, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in pigs has been under scrutiny for many years. However, many questions remain unanswered, including whether the initial antimicrobial resistance level of a pig will influence the antimicrobial resistance found at slaughter. Faecal samples from finishers pigs from 681 farms...... and from sows from 82 farms were collected, and levels of seven antimicrobial resistance genes, ermB, ermF, sulI, sulII, tet(M), tet(O), and tet(W), were quantified by high-capacity qPCR. There were 40 pairs of observations where the finishers were born in the farms of the sows. The objective of this study...

  8. Numerical experiment designs. Study of vibratory behaviour of PWR'S control rod clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosselut, D.; Soulier, B.; Regnier, G.

    1997-01-01

    The application of Experiment Design method to Finite Element Model (FEM) calculations is an original way of performing parametric studies. It has been used at EDF to simulate on a large parametric domain the vibrations of PWR's control rod cluster and to analyse the rod wear process. In the first part the FEM and the location of excitation sources are described. The calculated values are: rod displacement in the guiding cards, shock forces on the guiding cards and the wear power produced. In the second part, the computed Experiment Domain is described. This method approaches the response surface by a second degree polynomial. The retained model is composed for every parameters of all linear, quadratic and interaction terms (26 coefficients). In all, 34 polynomials have been built to approach the effective shock forces and the mean wear power at each of the 17 guiding points. In the third part the building of the computer Experiment Design is detailed: by Doehlert design adaptation to take into account a qualitative parameter, design optimization by adding four well chosen experiments and finally, design extension by passing from 4 to 6 parameters. In the last part, all the information deduced from application of this method are presented. The influence of parameters on calculated effective shock forces has been determined along rods and response surface have been easily approximated. The systematism and closeness of Experiment Design technique is underlined. Easy simulation of all the response domain by polynomial approach allows comparison with experimental results. (authors)

  9. Interaction of dispersed polyvynil acetate with silicate in finishing materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runova, R. F.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the processes of interaction between calcium silicate hydrates and dispersed polyvinyl acetate in tight films with the aim of developing compounds meant for restoration and finishing works. The basis of this development relies on the concept concerning the determining role of the crystal-chemical factor of the silicate phase in the formation of organic-mineral compounds of increased durability. The characteristics of dispersed calcium silicate hydrates are portrayed. The preparation conditions, accounting for the synthesis of the product of submicrocrystalline structure, conforming with the stoichiometry CaO∙SiO2 =0.8-2.0 have been determined. The interaction has been studied for compounds achieved by mixing ingredients in a rapid whirling mixer, and subjected to hardening at T=20+2 T. With the aid of XRD, DTA and Infra-Red Spectrometry methods the formation process of the sophisticated polymer silicate phase in the material was observed for a period of 90 days. The properties of the film were investigated and its high resistance against the influence of external factors was established. On this basis a conclusion concerning the quite high effectiveness of substituting portland cement with dispersed calcium silicate hydrate in polymer cement compounds has been made. White colour and other various special properties determine the suitability for repair and finishing works on facades of buildings.

    Este artículo está orientado a estudiar los procesos de interacción entre los silicatos cálcicos hidratados y el acetato de polivinilo disperso en capas impermeables, con el objeto de desarrollar compuestos destinados para la restauración. El fundamento de estos estudios es determinar el papel que los factores cristaloquímicos de las fases silicato tienen en la formación de compuestos órganominerales de elevada durabilidad. Se han descrito las características de los silicatos cálcicos hidratados

  10. Surface finish and subsurface damage in polycrystalline optical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafrir, Shai Negev

    We measure and describe surface microstructure and subsurface damage (SSD) induced by microgrinding of hard metals and hard ceramics used in optical applications. We examine grinding of ceramic materials with bonded abrasives, and, specifically, deterministic microgrinding (DMG). DMG, at fixed nominal infeed rate and with bound diamond abrasive tools, is the preferred technique for optical fabrication of ceramic materials. In DMG material removal is by microcracking. DMG provides cost effective high manufacturing rates, while attaining higher strength and performance, i.e., low level of subsurface damage (SSD). A wide range of heterogeneous materials of interest to the optics industry were studied in this work. These materials include: A binderless tungsten carbide, nonmagnetic Ni-based tungsten carbides, magnetic Co-based tungsten carbides, and, in addition, other hard optical ceramics, such as aluminum oxynitride (Al23O27N5/ALON), polycrystalline alumina (Al2O3/PCA), and chemical vapor deposited (CVD) silicon carbide (Si4C/SiC). These materials are all commercially available. We demonstrate that spots taken with magnetorheological finishing (MRF) platforms can be used for estimating SSD depth induced by the grinding process. Surface morphology was characterized using various microscopy techniques, such as: contact interferometer, noncontact white light interferometer, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The evolution of surface roughness with the amount of material removed by the MRF process, as measured within the spot deepest point of penetration, can be divided into two stages. In the first stage the induced damaged layer and associated SSD from microgrinding are removed, reaching a low surface roughness value. In the second stage we observe interaction between the MRF process and the material's microstructure as MRF exposes the subsurface without introducing new damage. Line scans taken parallel to the MR

  11. Performance Of Growing Pigs And Finisher Broilers Housed Together

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance and cost of feeding young growing pigs and finisher broilers under integrated broiler/pig production system were investigated. Four young growing pigs (the control) were housed in pen A and fed 4% of their body weight as commercial growers feed. Another 4 were housed in pen B with broilers in ...

  12. Surface finishing and levelling of thermomechanically hardened rolled steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosval'd, V.G.; Bashchenko, A.P.; Grishkov, A.I.; Gutnik, M.V.; Kanevskij, B.L.; Nikozov, A.I.; Sedov, N.D.; Prosin, K.A.; Safonov, L.I.

    1975-01-01

    The finishing of high-strength merchant shapes from alloy steel was tried out under industrial conditions with the equipment of metallurgical plants. After thermomechanical hardening in the production line of the rolling mill, 30KhGSN2A and 40Kh1NVA steel rounds 32 and 31 mm in diameter were straightened on a two-roller straightening machine designed by the All-Union Scientific Research Institute for Metallurgical Machinery (VNII Metmash). This made possible subsequent turning and grinding of the rods. The conditions of straightening, turning and grinding have been worked so as to obtain thermomechanically strengthened and ground rolled products approximating the gauged and ground metal in shape geometry and surface finish. It is shown that the labour-consuming operation of turning can be eliminated by reducing the machining pass of the rolled product, and this lowers the labour required for the finishing operations by 75%. After grinding with 40- and 25-grain abrasive wheels, high strength rolled shapes were obtained with a diameter of 30-0.20 mm and a surface finish of class 6-5 satisfying the technical specifications. (author)

  13. Effect of finishing system on carcass characteristics and composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of finishing system on carcass characteristics and composition of Mubende goats and their Boer goat crossbreds. ... Dissectible lean and fat percentages varied in an ascending order of 66%, 72%, 72.6% and 8%, 14% and 16.5% for T1, T2 and T3, respectively. A reverse trend was observed for bone percentages with ...

  14. Comparison of triticale cultivars with maize grain for finishing lambs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of triticale cultivars with maize grain for finishing lambs. TS Brand, GD van der Merwe. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  15. 78 FR 23591 - Certain Prepregs, Laminates, and Finished Circuit Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-659 (Enforcement)] Certain Prepregs... United States after importation of certain prepregs, laminates, and finished circuit boards that infringe... prepregs and laminates that are the subject of the investigation or that otherwise infringe, induce, and/or...

  16. Carpentry and Finishing Procedures. Building Maintenance. Module II. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Sam; Brunk, Art

    This curriculum guide, keyed to the building maintenance competency profile developed by industry and education professionals, provides three units on carpentry and finishing procedures. The first unit, Exterior Carpentry, contains the following lessons: carpentry safety procedures, ladder and scaffolding safety, door installation/repair,…

  17. Response of finishing broiler chickens to diets containing rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and fifty Arbor acres broiler chickens aged four weeks were used in determining the effect of fermented rice husk meal diets on the performance and nutrient digestibility of finisher broiler chickens. They were allotted into five dietary treatments containing 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 % rumen liquor fermented rice husk ...

  18. Performance and nutrient utilization of cockerel finishers fed graded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RMW) on performance and nutrient utilization of cockerel finishers. One hundred and fifty 9-week old Black Harco cockerels were raised on five experimental diets where RMW replaced maize at graded levels and designated diet 1 (0% RMW); diet ...

  19. Response of finishing broiler chickens to supplemental Neem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An eight weeks feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding diets containing Neem Leaf Meal (NLM), Garlic Meal (GM) and their combinations (NLM +GM) on oocyst count, bacteria count and gut morphology of finishing broiler chickens. A total of 180 day-old Cobb broiler chickens were divided into twelve ...

  20. A survey of grass-finished beef producers in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    To meet our goal of quantifying the environmental impacts of grass-finished beef production, data on production practices in Pennsylvania were collected at the farm level via visits and online surveys. Twenty-three responses represented a total of 1,055 animals on 2,155 acres of land. Farms were rel...

  1. Effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal on finisher pig growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Felistus

    2014-12-12

    Dec 12, 2014 ... (FCR) of finisher pigs, physico-chemical meat quality, fatty acid (FA) composition and shelf life of pork was .... 5.2 mg manganese; 2.6 mg copper; 0.05 mg selenium. ... indicating redness (red-green spectrum) and b*, indicating ...

  2. Fungal biodegradation of plantain peel for broiler finisher feeding: In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... protein, cholesterol and glucose were significantly (P<0.05) affected by the treatments. Fungal biodegradation of PPL using A.niger has the potential of enhancing feed intake, nutrient digestibility and the body weight gain of broiler finisher. Keywords: Aspergillus niger, biodegradation, nutrient enhancement and broilers.

  3. Finished Genome Sequence of Collimonas arenae Cal35

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Je-Jia; de Jager, Victor; Deng, Wen-ling; Leveau, Johan

    2015-01-01

    We announce the finished genome sequence of soil forest isolate Collimonas arenae Cal35, which comprises a 5.6-Mbp chromosome and 41-kb plasmid. The Cal35 genome is the second one published for the bacterial genus Collimonas and represents the first opportunity for high-resolution comparison of

  4. Investigation of Floor Surface Finishes for Optimal Slip Resistance Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Ju Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing the slip resistance of floor surfaces would be desirable, but there is a lack of evidence on whether traction properties are linearly correlated with the topographic features of the floor surfaces or what scales of surface roughness are required to effectively control the slipperiness of floors. Objective: This study expands on earlier findings on the effects of floor surface finishes against slip resistance performance and determines the operative ranges of floor surface roughness for optimal slip resistance controls under different risk levels of walking environments. Methods: Dynamic friction tests were conducted among three shoes and nine floor specimens under wet and oily environments and compared with a soapy environment. Results: The test results showed the significant effects of floor surface roughness on slip resistance performance against all the lubricated environments. Compared with the floor-type effect, the shoe-type effect on slip resistance performance was insignificant against the highly polluted environments. The study outcomes also indicated that the oily environment required rougher surface finishes than the wet and soapy ones in their lower boundary ranges of floor surface roughness. Conclusion: The results of this study with previous findings confirm that floor surface finishes require different levels of surface coarseness for different types of environmental conditions to effectively manage slippery walking environments. Collected data on operative ranges of floor surface roughness seem to be a valuable tool to develop practical design information and standards for floor surface finishes to efficiently prevent pedestrian fall incidents. Keywords: floor surface finishes, operational levels of floor surface roughness, slip resistance, wet, soapy and oily environments

  5. An Overview of Surface Finishes and Their Role in Printed Circuit Board Solderability and Solder Joint Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianco, P.T.

    1998-10-15

    A overview has been presented on the topic of alternative surface finishes for package I/Os and circuit board features. Aspects of processability and solder joint reliability were described for the following coatings: baseline hot-dipped, plated, and plated-and-fused 100Sn and Sn-Pb coatings; Ni/Au; Pd, Ni/Pd, and Ni/Pd/Au finishes; and the recently marketed immersion Ag coatings. The Ni/Au coatings appear to provide the all-around best option in terms of solderability protection and wire bondability. Nickel/Pal ftishes offer a slightly reduced level of performance in these areas that is most likely due to variable Pd surface conditions. It is necessmy to minimize dissolved Au or Pd contents in the solder material to prevent solder joint embrittlement. Ancillary aspects that included thickness measurement techniques; the importance of finish compatibility with conformal coatings and conductive adhesives; and the need for alternative finishes for the processing of non-Pb bearing solders were discussed.

  6. The effects of vibratory stimulation employed to forearm and arm flexor muscles on upper limb function in patients with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sang-Mi

    2017-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate not only the effects of stimulatory vibration but also the retained effects 2 weeks after the last session of the intervention. [Subjects and Methods] Ten subjects with post-stroke hemiplegia were recruited in this study. The experimental group (EG) received vibratory stimulation for 30 minutes in each session, three times a week for 2 weeks. Grip strength (GS), box-and-block test (BBT), and Weinstein monofilament were used to assess hand strength, dexterity, and sensory in the affected hand, respectively. [Results] A significant difference was found between the pre- and post-follow-up BBT. Significant differences were found among the pre-posttest, post-follow-up test, and pre-follow-up test results for GS and BBT. [Conclusion] This study was conducted with 10 subjects, without a control group, to verify the pure effect of the intervention. As a result, significant positive effects were observed in the post-test and follow-up test of GS and BBT. Therefore, repeated vibratory stimulation influenced GS and BBT after the 2-week intervention and retained the effect for 2 more weeks.

  7. Obtention of hydroxyapatite submicrometric of bovine origin by vibratory grinding for rapid prototyping; Obtencao de hidroxiapatita submicrometrica de origem bovina por moagem vibratoria visando prototipagem rapida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meira, C.R.; Purquerio, B.M.; Fortulan, C.A., E-mail: camilameira@sc.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Braga, F.J.C. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Submicron bovine hydroxyapatite was obtained for rapid prototyping. Hydroxyapatite structure originated from bovine mineral bone has great importance among the biomaterials and biocompatibility due to its great similarity with the human bone structure. This study aims to obtain powder for manufacture by rapid prototyping of scaffolds. This technique manufacture requires highly reactive powders to compensate for the absence of pressure forming. Hydroxyapatite was milled in a ball mill and vibratory mill, and analyzed for their average equivalent spherical diameter and surface area. Test specimens were isostatically pressed at 100 MPa and machined into cylindrical test specimens. These specimens were sintered at several temperatures to determine the optimal sintering temperature based on densification and chemistry stability. In grinding ball mill was obtained particles of equivalent diameter of 0.74 micron in vibratory mill of 0.46 micrometers. An average flexural strength of 100 MPa and 99,8% of real density was attained for the sample sintered at 1300 deg C/2h, signaling potential for use in rapid prototyping. (author)

  8. [To finish with fear of dental care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, J B; Bracconi, M; Herve, C; Pirnay, P

    2015-06-01

    The patient facing the dentist knows fear, anxiety. The symbolism of the mouth and teeth from childhood is an entirely specific nature of the human body. The terrifying image of dental treatment and dentist that has long been stigmatized through painting, literature, theater and cinema can change today. Many therapeutic options to the management of anxiety in dental phobia; anesthesia, conscious sedation, combined with a soothing cabinet, a caring dentist, targeted use of medications or milder alternative methods; homeopathy, herbal medicine, acupuncture, psychotherapy, places the patient's interests at the center of the caregiving relationship. But this treatment panel is also offered him the difficulty of the choice. This exercise without systematization, according to the patient with competence and kindness. Some patients may be sent or processed in collaboration with other health professionals.

  9. The effects of finishing diet and postmortem ageing on the eating quality of the M. longissimus thoracis of electrically stimulated Brahman steer carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, H L; Stark, J L; Beilken, S L

    2004-06-01

    Beef from cattle finished on grass will be of similar quality to that from cattle finished on grain when their carcasses are processed using best practice protocols. To test this hypothesis, carcasses of twenty Brahman steers, finished to 400 kg live weight on either Buffel grass pasture (n=10) or grain (n=10), were electrically stimulated with 400 V for 50 s 45 min postmortem, and their beef quality assessed 1 and 14 days postmortem. Hot weight, rump subcutaneous fat thickness and animal rate of growth in the 205 days preceding slaughter were recorded for each carcass as potential influences on beef quality. Quality of the M. longissimus thoracis (LT) at 1 and 14 days postmortem was evaluated using peak Warner-Bratzler shear force, compression, pH, cooking loss and taste panel acceptability, as well as by moisture and crude fat contents measured at 1 day postmortem. Results showed that steers finished on pasture grew the slowest and had the least subcutaneous fat at the same carcass weight. LT from carcasses of steers finished on pasture also had the shortest mean sarcomere lengths, suggesting these muscles may have been cold-affected, but there was no effect of diet on peak shear force. LT from carcasses of steers finished on pasture had the highest mean compression value, possibly because of increased collagen cross-linking associated with slow growth or increased exercise. Ageing significantly decreased LT peak shear force and compression values and increased cooking loss, L (∗), a (∗) and b (∗) values. Taste panellists rated the aged, grass-finished beef the most tender and the best quality; however, the taste panel in this study may have favoured LT from grass-finished steers because it was significantly juicier than LT from the grain-finished steer carcasses. These results indicated that carcass composition and processing conditions interact to exert a greater effect on LT toughness and sensory acceptability than finishing diet. Ageing LT from steers

  10. Proceedings of national executive management seminar on surface finishing by radiation curing technology: radiation curing for better finishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This book compiled the paper presented at this seminar. The papers discussed are 1. Incentives for investment in the manufacturing sector (in Malaysia) 2.Trends and prospect of surface finishing by radiation curing technology in Malaysia 3. Industrial application of radiation curing.

  11. Proceedings of national executive management seminar on surface finishing by radiation curing technology: radiation curing for better finishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This book compiled the paper presented at this seminar. The papers discussed are 1. Incentives for investment in the manufacturing sector (in Malaysia) 2.Trends and prospect of surface finishing by radiation curing technology in Malaysia 3. Industrial application of radiation curing

  12. Finishing and upgrading of heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, J.P.; Hammerli, M.

    1981-01-01

    This invention provides a process and apparatus for deuterium enrichment as a final stage in a heavy water plant, for continuous on-line enrichment of the heavy water in moderator and heat transfer systems in heavy water nuclear reactors, and for enrichment of hevy water that has been downgraded with natural water during the course of operating a heavy water nuclear reactor. The method comprises contacting partially-enriched heavy water feed in a catalyst column with hydrogen gas (essentially D 2 ) orginating in an electrolysis cell so as to enrich the feed water with deuterium extracted from the electrolytic hydrogen gas and passing the deuterium-enriched water to the electrolysis cell. The apparatus comprises a catalyst isotope exchange column with hydrogen gas and liquid water passing through in countercurrent isotope exchange, an electrolysis cell, a dehumidifer-scrubber; and means for passing the liquid water enriched in deuterium from the catalyst column through the dehumidifer-scrubber to the electrolysis cell, for passing the hydrogen gas evolved in the cathode side of the cell through the dehumidifier-scrubber to the catalyst column, for passing the hydrogen gas from the catalyst column to an output, for introducing an input water feed to the upper portion of the catalyst column, and for taking a product enriched in deuterium from the system. (LL)

  13. Finish your film! tips and tricks for making an animated short in Maya

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Kenny

    2014-01-01

    Finish Your Film! Tips and Tricks for Making an Animated Short in Maya is a first-of-its-kind book that walks the reader step-by-step through the actual production processes of creating a 3D Short film with Maya. Other books focus solely on the creative decisions of 3D Animation and broadly cover the multiple phases of animation production with no real applicable methods for readers to employ. This book shows you how to successfully manage the entire Maya animation pipeline. This book blends together valuable technical tips on film production and real-world shortcuts in a step-by-step approach

  14. ASSESSMENT OF SURFACE FINISH AND DIMENSIONAL ACCURACY OF TOOLS MANUFACTURED BY METAL CASTING IN RAPID PROTOTYPING SAND MOULDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyembwe, K.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an initial assessment of the quality parameters of the surface finish and dimensional accuracy of tools made by metal casting in rapid prototyping (RP sand moulds is undertaken. A case study from a local tool room, dealing with the manufacturing of an aluminium die for the lost wax process, is employed. Modern techniques, including surface roughness analysis and three dimensional scanning, are used to determine and understand how each manufacturing step influences the final quality of the cast tool. The best surface finish obtained for the cast die had arithmetic average roughness (Ra and mean average roughness (Rz respectively equal to 3.23m and 11.38m. In terms of dimensional accuracy, 82% of cast-die points coincided with the Computer Aided Design (CAD data, which is within the typical tolerances of sand cast products. The investigation shows that mould coating contributes slightly to the improvement of the cast tool surface finish. The study also found that the additive manufacturing of the sand mould was the chief factor responsible for the loss of dimensional accuracy. These findings indicate that machining will always be required to improve the surface finish and the dimensional accuracy of cast tools in RP sand moulds.

  15. Atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization of 1,3-butadiene for hydrophobic finishing of textile substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samanta, Kartick K; Jassal, Manjeet; Agrawal, Ashwini K, E-mail: ashwini@smita-iitd.co, E-mail: manjeet.jassal@smita-iitd.co [Smart and Innovative Textile Materials Group (SMITA), Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016 (India)

    2010-02-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma processing of textile has both ecological and economical advantages over the wet-chemical processing. However, reaction in atmospheric pressure plasma has important challenges to be overcome before it can be successfully used for finishing applications in textile. These challenges are (i) generating stable glow plasma in presence liquid/gaseous monomer, and (ii) keeping the generated radicals active in the presence of contaminants such as oxygen and air. In this study, a stable glow plasma was generated at atmospheric pressure in the mixture of gaseous reactive monomer-1,3-butadiene and He and was made to react with cellulosic textile substrate. After 12 min of plasma treatment, the hydrophilic surface of the cellulosic substrate turned into highly hydrophobic surface. The hydrophobic finish was found to be durable to soap washing. After soap washing, a water drop of 37 {mu}l took around 250 s to get absorbed in the treated sample compared to < 1 s in the untreated samples. The plasma modified samples showed water contact angle of around 134{sup 0}. Both top and bottom sides of the fabric showed similar hydrophobic results in terms of water absorbency and contact angle. The results may be attributed to chemical reaction of butadiene with the cellulosic textile substrate. The surface characterization of the plasma modified samples under SEM and AFM revealed modification of the surface under <100 nm. The results showed that atmospheric pressure plasma can be successfully used for carrying out reaction of 1,3-butadiene with cellulosic textile substrates for producing hydrophobic surface finish.

  16. Fabrication of high precision metallic freeform mirrors with magnetorheological finishing (MRF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Matthias; Scheiding, Sebastian; Gebhardt, Andreas; Loose, Roman; Risse, Stefan; Eberhardt, Ramona; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2013-09-01

    The fabrication of complex shaped metal mirrors for optical imaging is a classical application area of diamond machining techniques. Aspherical and freeform shaped optical components up to several 100 mm in diameter can be manufactured with high precision in an acceptable amount of time. However, applications are naturally limited to the infrared spectral region due to scatter losses for shorter wavelengths as a result of the remaining periodic diamond turning structure. Achieving diffraction limited performance in the visible spectrum demands for the application of additional polishing steps. Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) is a powerful tool to improve figure and finish of complex shaped optics at the same time in a single processing step. The application of MRF as a figuring tool for precise metal mirrors is a nontrivial task since the technology was primarily developed for figuring and finishing a variety of other optical materials, such as glasses or glass ceramics. In the presented work, MRF is used as a figuring tool for diamond turned aluminum lightweight mirrors with electroless nickel plating. It is applied as a direct follow-up process after diamond machining of the mirrors. A high precision measurement setup, composed of an interferometer and an advanced Computer Generated Hologram with additional alignment features, allows for precise metrology of the freeform shaped optics in short measuring cycles. Shape deviations less than 150 nm PV / 20 nm rms are achieved reliably for freeform mirrors with apertures of more than 300 mm. Characterization of removable and induced spatial frequencies is carried out by investigating the Power Spectral Density.

  17. 40 CFR 425.20 - Applicability; description of the hair save, chrome tan, retan-wet finish subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING... cattle-like hides into finished leather by hair save unhairing, chrome tanning, and retan-wet finishing. ...

  18. Pricing for finished products of the enterprise: accounting and analytical aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.L. Pravdyuk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The pricing policy chosen by the enterprise in respect of goods and finished products of own production, has a decisive influence on the formation of financial results. In modern economic conditions we need to strengthen managerial decisions on the choice and carrying out price policy and a means of solving this problem is accounting. To determine the boundaries and competence of decision-making we analyzed the regulation of these terms and processes, as well as the dynamics of the stocks across sectors of the economy, the consumer price index, producer price index, the price index of realization of industrial products. Widely used data analytical reviews of the national Bank of Ukraine, enterprises' expectations regarding efficiency, the analysis of financial market indicators, etc. Established that the provision of information management pricing of goods shall conform to the requirements of the economy, by deepening complexity of accounting, to ensure the needs of consumers. According to the study substantiates the basics of accounting and analytical aspect of the pricing policy for finished products businesses. In the study of pricing policies in respect of goods in accounting and analytical aspect, we have established the following. The existing normative-legal acts and definitions of researchers on economic and accounting analysis of the concept give a sufficiently wide interpretation, which depends on the orientation and activity of the enterprise. Factors and points of influence on the efficiency of the pricing policy are: information support of process of pricing assessment of pricing factors, establish the objectives of price policy, assessment of customer demand, cost analysis, competition analysis, selecting a pricing method that measures the price adjustment, the evaluation price risk. The economic impact of the market environment is the most significant to the pricing policy of agricultural enterprises, which revealed the analysis

  19. Preliminary design and thermal analysis of device for finish cooling Jaffa biscuits in a.d. 'Jaffa'- Crvenka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salemović Duško R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper preliminary design of device for finish cooling chocolate topping of biscuits in A.D. 'Jaffa'- Crvenka was done. The proposed preliminary design followed by the required technological process of finish cooling biscuits and required parameters of process which was supposed to get and which represented part of project task. Thermal analysis was made and obtained percentage error between surface contact of the air and chocolate topping, obtained from heat balance and geometrical over proposed preliminary design, wasn't more than 0.67%. This is a preliminary design completely justified because using required length of belt conveyor receive required temperature of chocolate topping at the end of the cooling process.

  20. 76 FR 79221 - Penske Logistics, LLC, Customer Service Department General Motors and Tier Finished Goods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ..., Customer Service Department General Motors and Tier Finished Goods/Finished Goods Division; a Subsidiary of... Manpower El Paso, TX; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance... should read Penske Logistics, LLC, Customer Service Department, General Motors and Tier Finished Goods...

  1. 21 CFR 181.26 - Drying oils as components of finished resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Drying oils as components of finished resins. 181... Prior-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.26 Drying oils as components of finished resins. Substances classified as drying oils, when migrating from food-packaging material (as components of finished resins...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1347 - Standards for raw and finish mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards for raw and finish mills. 63... and Operating Limits § 63.1347 Standards for raw and finish mills. The owner or operator of each new or existing raw mill or finish mill at a facility which is a major source subject to the provisions...

  3. The importance of surface finish to energy performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Geoff B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Power generation in solar energy systems, thermal control in buildings and mitigation of the Urban Heat Island problem, are all sensitive to directional response to incoming radiation. The radiation absorption and emission profile also plays a crucial role in each system's response and depends strongly on surface finish. This important sensitivity needs wider recognition in materials data sheets, system modeling, plus in materials and environmental engineering. The impact of surface roughness on thermal response of natural and man-made external environments is examined. Important examples will be given of the role of surface finish within each class. Total emittance links to the way surface finish influences directional emittance E(θ. Smooth surface thermal emittance on PV module covers, many solar absorbers, some roof paints, polished concrete, and glass windows can be up to 15% different from insulator results based on fully diffuse models of the same material. Widespread evidence indicates smooth metals and low-E solar absorber surfaces cool faster, and smooth insulators slower than previously thought. Matt paint is cooler than low sheen paint under the same solar heating impacts and normal concrete cooler than polished. Emittance for water is the prime environmental example of oblique impacts as it reflects strongly at oblique incidence, which leads to a significant drop in E(θ. Ripples or waves however raise water's average emittance. A surprise in this work was the high sensitivity of total E and its angular components to roughness in the depth range of 0.1–0.8 μm, which are well under ambient thermal IR wavelengths of 3–30 μm but common in metal finishing. Parallel energy flows such as evaporation and convective cooling vary if emittance varies. Thermal image analysis can provide insights into angular radiative effects.

  4. Response of finishing broiler chickens fed three energy/protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the response of finishing broiler chicken to diets containing three metabolizable energy (ME)/crude protein (CP) combinations ( 3203.76 ME vs 19.90 %CP, 2884.15 ME vs 18.10%CP and 2566.42 ME vs 18.10 %CP) at fixed ME:CP ratio of 160:1. A total of 126 four weeks ...

  5. Effect of cleaning products on upholstery leather finishes

    OpenAIRE

    Lara López, Mercedes

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of the project is to investigate the effects of cleaning products on upholstery leather finishes. Focusing on products applicable to upholstery leather cleaning, non-typical leather cleaners (and possible contaminants) or ink removers, in order to find out their behaviour, understanding how they work and if they are suitable for their purpose. Moreover an initial investigation about mechanism of soiling is proposed, in order, in the future, to avoid the soiling or develop a...

  6. Productive performance of Holstein calves finished in feedlot or pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA MARIA O. DIAS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of animals from dairy farms is an alternative to meat production since it provides an increment of total income for farmers. This study aims to evaluate the performance of Holstein calves finished in two feeding systems (feedlot or pasture. Forty-three animals with 58 days old and 57 kg were divided in two treatments: 23 animals finished in feedlot with corn silage plus concentrate based on corn and soybean meal (40:60; 20 animals kept in cultivated pastures according to the period of the year: Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum and pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum with supplementation with the same feedlot-concentrate at 1% body weight. Animals were slaughtered with 200 kg. Dry matter and nutrient intake were determined, with the use of chromium oxide for estimating pasture intake. Feedlot animals had greater total intake and total digestible nutrients, resulting in higher average daily gain (0.949 vs 0.694 kg day-1. Crude protein intake, neutral detergent fiber and feed conversion did not show significant differences. Holstein calves have improved performance when finished in feedlot.

  7. Characterization of past and present solid waste streams from the plutonium finishing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, D.R.; Mayancsik, B.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Pottmeyer, J.A.; Vejvoda, E.J.; Reddick, J.A.; Sheldon, K.M.; Weyns, M.I. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Kennewick, WA (United States)

    1993-02-01

    During the next two decades the transuranic (TRU) wastes now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Over 50% of the TRU waste to be retrieved for shipment to the WIPP has been generated at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP), also known as the Plutonium Processing and Storage Facility and Z Plant. The purpose of this report is to characterize the radioactive solid wastes generated by the PFP since its construction in 1947 using process knowledge, existing records, and history-obtained from interviews. The PFP is currently operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the US Department of Energy (DOE).

  8. Characterization of past and present solid waste streams from the plutonium finishing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, D.R.; Mayancsik, B.A.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; Vejvoda, E.J.; Reddick, J.A.; Sheldon, K.M.; Weyns, M.I.

    1993-02-01

    During the next two decades the transuranic (TRU) wastes now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Over 50% of the TRU waste to be retrieved for shipment to the WIPP has been generated at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP), also known as the Plutonium Processing and Storage Facility and Z Plant. The purpose of this report is to characterize the radioactive solid wastes generated by the PFP since its construction in 1947 using process knowledge, existing records, and history-obtained from interviews. The PFP is currently operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the US Department of Energy (DOE)

  9. Nice Guys Finish Fast and Bad Guys Finish Last: Facilitatory vs. Inhibitory Interaction in Parallel Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidels, Ami; Houpt, Joseph W; Altieri, Nicholas; Pei, Lei; Townsend, James T

    2011-04-01

    Systems Factorial Technology is a powerful framework for investigating the fundamental properties of human information processing such as architecture (i.e., serial or parallel processing) and capacity (how processing efficiency is affected by increased workload). The Survivor Interaction Contrast (SIC) and the Capacity Coefficient are effective measures in determining these underlying properties, based on response-time data. Each of the different architectures, under the assumption of independent processing, predicts a specific form of the SIC along with some range of capacity. In this study, we explored SIC predictions of discrete-state (Markov process) and continuous-state (Linear Dynamic) models that allow for certain types of cross-channel interaction. The interaction can be facilitatory or inhibitory: one channel can either facilitate, or slow down processing in its counterpart. Despite the relative generality of these models, the combination of the architecture-oriented plus the capacity oriented analyses provide for precise identification of the underlying system.

  10. Nice Guys Finish Fast and Bad Guys Finish Last: Facilitatory vs. Inhibitory Interaction in Parallel Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Eidels, Ami; Houpt, Joseph W.; Altieri, Nicholas; Pei, Lei; Townsend, James T.

    2011-01-01

    Systems Factorial Technology is a powerful framework for investigating the fundamental properties of human information processing such as architecture (i.e., serial or parallel processing) and capacity (how processing efficiency is affected by increased workload). The Survivor Interaction Contrast (SIC) and the Capacity Coefficient are effective measures in determining these underlying properties, based on response-time data. Each of the different architectures, under the assumption of indepe...

  11. Transport losses in finisher pigs: impact of transport distance and season of the year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Voslarova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective The death of animals during transport for slaughter is a major factor indicating the level of welfare in transported animals. The aim of this study was to assess mortality related to the commercial transport of finisher pigs for slaughter in the Czech Republic. Methods The inspectors of the State Veterinary Administration of the Czech Republic recorded the numbers of finisher pigs transported to processing plants in the Czech Republic for slaughter and the mortality in these pigs in relation to transport in the period from 2009 to 2014. Results Our results show that the likelihood of death losses in transported pigs increases with increasing transport distance. The transport-related mortality ranged from 0.049% in pigs transported for distances below 50 km to 0.145% in pigs transported for distances exceeding 300 km. The impact of external air temperature on the transport-related mortality found in our study clearly shows that current transport practices fail to ensure the welfare of pigs transported under other than moderate weather. Particularly cold temperatures below −2°C were associated with increased death losses in winter transport. Conclusion Despite a decreasing trend in the mortality of finisher pigs transported for slaughter in Europe, our study suggests that current transport conditions are not efficient at ensuring the welfare of pigs during transport for longer distances and the protection of pigs against the negative impact of extreme ambient temperatures. Further research should focus on developing practical guidelines to improve the welfare of pigs in transit accordingly.

  12. Technical Work Plan For: Calculation of Waste Package and Drip Shield Response to Vibratory Ground Motion and Revision of the Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Gross

    2006-01-01

    The overall objective of the work scope covered by this technical work plan (TWP) is to develop new damage abstractions for the seismic scenario class in total system performance assessment (TSPA). The new abstractions will be based on a new set of waste package and drip shield damage calculations in response to vibratory ground motion and fault displacement. The new damage calculations, which are collectively referred to as damage models in this TWP, are required to represent recent changes in waste form packaging and in the regulatory time frame. The new damage models also respond to comments from the Independent Validation Review Team (IVRT) postvalidation review of the draft TSPA model regarding performance of the drip shield and to an Additional Information Need (AIN) from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)

  13. Technical Work Plan For: Calculation of Waste Packave and Drip Shield Response to Vibratory Ground Motion and Revision of the Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Gross

    2006-12-08

    The overall objective of the work scope covered by this technical work plan (TWP) is to develop new damage abstractions for the seismic scenario class in total system performance assessment (TSPA). The new abstractions will be based on a new set of waste package and drip shield damage calculations in response to vibratory ground motion and fault displacement. The new damage calculations, which are collectively referred to as damage models in this TWP, are required to represent recent changes in waste form packaging and in the regulatory time frame. The new damage models also respond to comments from the Independent Validation Review Team (IVRT) postvalidation review of the draft TSPA model regarding performance of the drip shield and to an Additional Information Need (AIN) from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).

  14. Spectroscopic Analysis to Characterize Finishing Treatments of Ancient Bowed String Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocco, Giacomo; Rovetta, Tommaso; Gulmini, Monica; Piccirillo, Anna; Licchelli, Maurizio; Malagodi, Marco

    2017-11-01

    Historical bowed string instruments exhibit acoustic features and aesthetic appeal that are still considered inimitable. These characteristics seem to be in large part determined by the materials used in the ground and varnishing treatments after the assembly of the instrument. These finishing processes were kept secret by the violinmakers and the traditional methods were handed down orally from master craftsmen to apprentices. Today, the methods of the past can represent a secret to be revealed through scientific investigations. The "Cremonese" methods used in the 17th and 18th centuries were lost as the last Great Masters from the Amati, Guarneri, and Stradivari families passed away. In this study, we had the chance of combining noninvasive and microinvasive techniques on six fragments of historical musical instruments. The fragments were detached from different instruments during extraordinary maintenance and restoration treatments, which involved the substitution of severely damaged structural parts like top plates, back plates, or ribs. Therefore, the fragments can offer to the scientists a valuable overview on the materials and techniques used by the violinmakers. The results obtained by portable X-ray fluorescence, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared microscopy allowed us to: (1) determine the stratigraphy of six instruments; (2) obtain new information about the materials involved in the finishing processes employed in Cremona; and (3) elucidate the technological relationship among the procedures adopted in the violin making workshops during the considered period.

  15. The effects of stainless steel finish on Salmonella Typhimurium attachment, biofilm formation and sensitivity to chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlisselberg, Dov B; Yaron, Sima

    2013-08-01

    Bacterial colonization and biofilm formation on stainless steel (SS) surfaces can be sources for cross contamination in food processing facilities, possessing a great threat to public health and food quality. Here the aim was to demonstrate the influence of surface finish of AISI 316 SS on colonization, biofilm formation and susceptibility of Salmonella Typhimurium to disinfection. Initial attachment of S. Typhimurium on surfaces of SS was four times lower, when surface was polished by Bright-Alum (BA) or Electropolishing (EP), as compared to Mechanical Sanded (MS) or the untreated surface (NT). The correlation between roughness and initial bacterial attachment couldn't account on its own to explain differences seen. Biofilms with similar thickness (15-18 μm) were developed on all surfaces 1-day post inoculation, whereas EP was the least covered surface (23%). Following 5-days, biofilm thickness was lowest on EP and MS (30 μm) and highest on NT (62 μm) surfaces. An analysis of surface composition suggested a link between surface chemistry and biofilm development, where the higher concentrations of metal ions in EP and MS surfaces correlated with limited biofilm formation. Interestingly, disinfection of biofilms with chlorine was up to 130 times more effective on the EP surface (0.005% surviving) than on the other surfaces. Overall these results suggest that surface finish should be considered carefully in a food processing plant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. IMPLEMENTATION OF A CAPE-OPEN COMPLIANT PROCESS SIMULATOR USING MICROSOFT'S VISUAL STUDIO.NET AND THE .NET FRAMEWORK

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency is developing a ComputerAided Process Engineering (CAPE) software tool for the metal finishingindustry that helps users design efficient metal finishing processes thatare less polluting to the environment. Metal finish...

  17. Advancements in the Interferometric Measurements of Real Time Finishing Birefringent Filter's Crystal Plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, Ma; Kushtal, Gi; Skomorovsky, Vi; Domyshev, Gn; Sadokhin, Vp

    2006-01-01

    The finishing of birefringent plates consists of two processes: polishing and evaluation of a surface, which have been performed separately till now. The purpose of this work is achieving of high accuracy of the evaluation and machining of the plane-parallel plates from birefringent crystals, in particular of crystal plates of birefringent filters during their finishing. The developed process combines evaluation and polishing in an interactive way. We have found modes of treatment, shape of polisher, have designed interferometer, with a mirror arranged in polisher. Visual checking of optical thickness comparatively with reference plate was carried out using the interference fringes of equal birefringence, and checking of an optical wedge - by interference rings of an equal inclination. The automated processing of TV camera interference fringes was impossible, because of gaps of interference fringes on polishing cells above the mirror. Therefore a special software was developed for processing of a complex fringe pattern interferogram. Software FastInterf uses furrier analysis technique which allows to process an interferogram with multiply gaps. Interferograms are registered by a high resolution TV camera (1280 x1024). Automatic processing of a fringe interferogram using FastInterf software takes less then one second. The influence of gaps is excluded, and the flat field is taken into account. Software provides full 3D surface and wavefront maps. Aberration analysis of a wavefront gives information on thickness of a plate comparatively with a reference one, optical wedge of plate and azimuth of an inclination of wave front. Moreover, software provides a control of surface quality. The measuring device, features of the software are described and process of interferometric evaluation during polishing is illustrated

  18. Advancements in the Interferometric Measurements of Real Time Finishing Birefringent Filter's Crystal Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Ma [State Optical Institute, Birzhevaya linia, 12 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kushtal, Gi; Skomorovsky, Vi; Domyshev, Gn; Sadokhin, Vp [Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 126 Lermontova Str., PO 4026, 664033, Irkutsk (Russian Federation)

    2006-10-15

    The finishing of birefringent plates consists of two processes: polishing and evaluation of a surface, which have been performed separately till now. The purpose of this work is achieving of high accuracy of the evaluation and machining of the plane-parallel plates from birefringent crystals, in particular of crystal plates of birefringent filters during their finishing. The developed process combines evaluation and polishing in an interactive way. We have found modes of treatment, shape of polisher, have designed interferometer, with a mirror arranged in polisher. Visual checking of optical thickness comparatively with reference plate was carried out using the interference fringes of equal birefringence, and checking of an optical wedge - by interference rings of an equal inclination. The automated processing of TV camera interference fringes was impossible, because of gaps of interference fringes on polishing cells above the mirror. Therefore a special software was developed for processing of a complex fringe pattern interferogram. Software FastInterf uses furrier analysis technique which allows to process an interferogram with multiply gaps. Interferograms are registered by a high resolution TV camera (1280 x1024). Automatic processing of a fringe interferogram using FastInterf software takes less then one second. The influence of gaps is excluded, and the flat field is taken into account. Software provides full 3D surface and wavefront maps. Aberration analysis of a wavefront gives information on thickness of a plate comparatively with a reference one, optical wedge of plate and azimuth of an inclination of wave front. Moreover, software provides a control of surface quality. The measuring device, features of the software are described and process of interferometric evaluation during polishing is illustrated.

  19. Effects of Fiber Finish on the Performance of Asphalt Binders and Mastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J. Putman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of finishes applied to polyester fibers on the properties of asphalt binders and mastics. Asphalt binders were mixed with finishes that were extracted from the fibers, and mastics were also made with binder and fibers (with and without finish to isolate the effects of the finish. The results indicated that crude source plays a significant role in how the fiber finish affects the binders and mastics. Additionally different finishes had different effects on binder properties. The major finding of this study is that different polyester fibers, even from the same manufacturer, may not necessarily perform the same in an asphalt mixture. It is important to use fibers that are compatible with the particular asphalt binder that is being used because of the significance of the binder source on the interaction between the finish and the binder.

  20. Finishing aeronautical planetary herringbone gear wheels in container vibrating smoothing machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek MICHALSKI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the technological process of abrasive-chemical machining wheel bearing surface of the cylindrical herringbone gears planetary gear in vibrating container smoothing machine according to Isotropic Finishing ISF® technology of the REM Chemicals Inc. company. Gear wheels are made of stainless Pyrowear 53 and subjected to carburizing, hardening, cold working and low tempering. The change in value of deviation indicators for the kinematic accuracy, smoothness and geometric structure of the machined surfaces of the gear teeth after smoothing compared with the contoured grinding were analyzed. The findings are different a characteristic performance on the surface of the tooth side along the outline, especially with a higher value at the head of the tooths. This creates a need for appropriate modification of the lateral surface of the teeth in the process of contoured grinding. The results of the mechanical strength of the samples gear wheel after the smoothing process and evaluating the hydrogen embrittlement are presented.

  1. ASSESSMENT OF SURFACE FINISH AND DIMENSIONAL ACCURACY OF TOOLS MANUFACTURED BY METAL CASTING IN RAPID PROTOTYPING SAND MOULDS

    OpenAIRE

    Nyembwe, K.; De Beer, D. J.; Van der Walt, J. G.; Bhero, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an initial assessment of the quality parameters of the surface finish and dimensional accuracy of tools made by metal casting in rapid prototyping (RP) sand moulds is undertaken. A case study from a local tool room, dealing with the manufacturing of an aluminium die for the lost wax process, is employed. Modern techniques, including surface roughness analysis and three dimensional scanning, are used to determine and understand how each manufacturing step influences the final qu...

  2. Progress in Implementing Non-Cr6+ Surface Finishes for U.S. Navy and Marine Corps Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Type II excludes hexavalent chromium (8 qualified products from 4 companies) • Includes products for immersion, spray, wipe and applicator pen...Type 3 (electrical applications/unpainted) • Type II excludes hexavalent chromium (7 qualified products from 5 companies) • Qualified products to...Inorganic Metal Finishing Coatings and Processes – Alternatives authorized and used for • Aluminum and magnesium anodizing • Hard Chrome Plating

  3. Study on effect of tool electrodes on surface finish during electrical discharge machining of Nitinol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Anshuman Kumar; Chatterjee, Suman; Nayak, Praveen Kumar; Sankar Mahapatra, Siba

    2018-03-01

    Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a non-traditional machining process which is widely used in machining of difficult-to-machine materials. EDM process can produce complex and intrinsic shaped component made of difficult-to-machine materials, largely applied in aerospace, biomedical, die and mold making industries. To meet the required applications, the EDMed components need to possess high accuracy and excellent surface finish. In this work, EDM process is performed using Nitinol as work piece material and AlSiMg prepared by selective laser sintering (SLS) as tool electrode along with conventional copper and graphite electrodes. The SLS is a rapid prototyping (RP) method to produce complex metallic parts by additive manufacturing (AM) process. Experiments have been carried out varying different process parameters like open circuit voltage (V), discharge current (Ip), duty cycle (τ), pulse-on-time (Ton) and tool material. The surface roughness parameter like average roughness (Ra), maximum height of the profile (Rt) and average height of the profile (Rz) are measured using surface roughness measuring instrument (Talysurf). To reduce the number of experiments, design of experiment (DOE) approach like Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array has been chosen. The surface properties of the EDM specimen are optimized by desirability function approach and the best parametric setting is reported for the EDM process. Type of tool happens to be the most significant parameter followed by interaction of tool type and duty cycle, duty cycle, discharge current and voltage. Better surface finish of EDMed specimen can be obtained with low value of voltage (V), discharge current (Ip), duty cycle (τ) and pulse on time (Ton) along with the use of AlSiMg RP electrode.

  4. CAPSULE REPORT: EVAPORATION PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaporation has been an established technology in the metal finishing industry for many years. In this process, wastewaters containing reusable materials, such as copper, nickel, or chromium compounds are heated, producing a water vapor that is continuously removed and condensed....

  5. Evaluation of Parameters Affecting Magnetic Abrasive Finishing on Concave Freeform Surface of Al Alloy via RSM Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Vahdati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The attempts of researchers in industries to obtain accurate and high quality surfaces led to the invention of new methods of finishing. Magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF is a relatively new type of finishing in which the magnetic field is used to control the abrasive tools. Applications such as the surface of molds are ones of the parts which require very high surface smoothness. Usually this type of parts has freeform surface. In this study, the effect of magnetic abrasive process parameters on freeform surfaces of parts made of aluminum is examined. This method is obtained through combination of magnetic abrasive process and Control Numerical Computer (CNC. The use of simple hemisphere for installation on the flat area of the magnets as well as magnets’ spark in curve form is a measure done during testing the experiments. The design of experiments is based on response surface methodology. The gap, the rotational speed of the spindle, and the feed rate are found influential and regression equations governing the process are also determined. The impact of intensity of the magnetic field is obtained using the finite element software of Maxwell. Results show that in concave areas of the surface, generally speaking, the surface roughness decreases to 0.2 μm from its initial 1.3 μm roughness. However, in some points the lowest surface roughness of 0.08 μm was measured.

  6. Sludge stabilization at the Plutonium Finishing Plant, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This Environmental Assessment evaluates the proposed action to operate two laboratory-size muffle furnaces in glovebox HC-21C, located in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP), Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The muffle furnaces would be used to stabilize chemically reactive sludges that contain approximately 25 kilograms (55 pounds) of plutonium by heating to approximately 500 to 1000 degrees C (900 to 1800 degrees F). The resulting stable powder, mostly plutonium oxide with impurities, would be stored in the PFP vaults. The presence of chemically reactive plutonium-bearing sludges in the process gloveboxes poses a risk to workers from radiation exposure and limits the availability of storage space for future plant cleanup. Therefore, there is a need to stabilize the material into a form suitable for long-term storage. This proposed action would be an interim action, which would take place prior to completion of an Environmental Impact Statement for the PFP which would evaluate stabilization of all plutonium-bearing materials and cleanout of the facility. However, only 10 percent of the total quantity of plutonium in reactive materials is in the sludges, so this action will not limit the choice of reasonable alternatives or prejudice the Record of Decision of the Plutonium Finishing Plant Environmental Impact Statement

  7. Effect of surface finishing and heat treatments on the mechanical strength of sintered alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lino, U.R.A.

    1982-04-01

    The effect of surface finishing on the mechanical strength of two pure aluminas, one of self-production and another a commercial one, is studied. Three types of finishings: as-sintered, as machined and as-machined with thermal treatment were studied. It was verified that the as-machined alumina is about 50 percent stronger than the as-sintered one, and that a thermal treatment increases even more the mechanical strength of the sintered alumina. The effect of the volume and pressing direction on mechanical strength was studied. The kinetics of crack healing was determined from a series of systematically selected thermal treatments with annealing temperatures between 1200 0 C and 1600 0 C. It was verified that a recently developed theoretical model for crack healing can describe the experimental results; using this model a value for the activation energy of the process of 715 kJ/mcl was obtained, which suggests that crack healing is promoted by volume diffusion. The material behavior under subcritical crack growth action was also studied, and a value of about 40 for the subcritical crack growth exponent N from dynamic loading tests in water was found. A fractographic study intended to localize and measure the flaws that originated the fracture of the tested specimens was performed; the measured flaw sizes were compared with the flaw size calculated from the values of the measured mechanical strength; in this comparison an excellent agreement was observed. (Author) [pt

  8. Activated sludge respirometry to assess solar detoxification of a metal finishing effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Juanes, L.; Amat, A.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, Escuela Politecnica Superior de Alcoy, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, E-03801 Alcoy (Spain); Arques, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, Escuela Politecnica Superior de Alcoy, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, E-03801 Alcoy (Spain)], E-mail: aarques@txp.upv.es; Bernabeu, A.; Silvestre, M.; Vicente, R. [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, Escuela Politecnica Superior de Alcoy, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, E-03801 Alcoy (Spain); Ano, E. [Departamento de Gestion e Innovacion, Area de producto y desarrollo sostenible, Asociacion de Investigacion de la Industria del Juguete, Conexas y Afines (AIJU), Avda. de la industria, 23, 03440 Ibi (Spain)], E-mail: m.ambiente@aiju.info

    2008-05-30

    Inhibition of the respiration of activated sludge has been tested as a convenient method to estimate toxicity of aqueous solutions containing copper and cyanide, such as metal finishing effluents; according to this method, an EC{sub 50} of 0.5 mg/l was determined for CN{sup -} and 3.0 mg/l for copper. Solar detoxification of cyanide-containing solutions was studied using TiO{sub 2}, but this process was unfavourable because of the inhibitory role that plays the copper ions present in real effluents on the oxidation of cyanide. On the other hand, the oxidative effect of hydrogen peroxide was greatly enhanced by Cu{sup 2+} and solar irradiation, as complete elimination of free and complexed cyanide could be accomplished, together with precipitation of copper, in experiments carried out at pilot plant scale with real metal finishing effluents. Under these conditions, total detoxification was achieved according to respirometric measurements although some remaining toxicity was determined by more sensitive Vibrio fischeri luminescent assay.

  9. Plutonium Finishing Plant Treatment and Storage Unit Dangerous Waste Training Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ENTROP, G.E.

    2000-01-01

    The training program for personnel performing waste management duties pertaining to the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Treatment and Storage Unit is governed by the general requirements established in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Dangerous Waste Training Plan (PFP DWTP). The PFP Treatment and Storage Unit DWTP presented below incorporates all of the components of the PFP DWTP by reference. The discussion presented in this document identifies aspects of the training program specific to the PFP Treatment and Storage Unit. The training program includes specifications for personnel instruction through both classroom and on-the-job training. Training is developed specific to waste management duties. Hanford Facility personnel directly involved with the PFP Treatment and Storage Unit will receive training to container management practices, spill response, and emergency response. These will include, for example, training in the cementation process and training pertaining to applicable elements of WAC 173-303-330(1)(d). Applicable elements from WAC 173-303-330(1)(d) for the PFP Treatment and Storage Unit include: procedures for inspecting, repairing, and replacing facility emergency and monitoring equipment; communications and alarm systems; response to fires or explosions; and shutdown of operations

  10. Activated sludge respirometry to assess solar detoxification of a metal finishing effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos-Juanes, L.; Amat, A.M.; Arques, A.; Bernabeu, A.; Silvestre, M.; Vicente, R.; Ano, E.

    2008-01-01

    Inhibition of the respiration of activated sludge has been tested as a convenient method to estimate toxicity of aqueous solutions containing copper and cyanide, such as metal finishing effluents; according to this method, an EC 50 of 0.5 mg/l was determined for CN - and 3.0 mg/l for copper. Solar detoxification of cyanide-containing solutions was studied using TiO 2 , but this process was unfavourable because of the inhibitory role that plays the copper ions present in real effluents on the oxidation of cyanide. On the other hand, the oxidative effect of hydrogen peroxide was greatly enhanced by Cu 2+ and solar irradiation, as complete elimination of free and complexed cyanide could be accomplished, together with precipitation of copper, in experiments carried out at pilot plant scale with real metal finishing effluents. Under these conditions, total detoxification was achieved according to respirometric measurements although some remaining toxicity was determined by more sensitive Vibrio fischeri luminescent assay

  11. Effects of mould on electrochemical migration behaviour of immersion silver finished printed circuit board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Pan; Xiao, Kui; Dong, Chaofang; Zou, Shiwen; Li, Xiaogang

    2018-02-01

    The role played by mould in the electrochemical migration (ECM) behaviour of an immersion silver finished printed circuit board (PCB-ImAg) under a direct current (DC) bias was investigated. An interesting phenomenon is found whereby mould, especially Aspergillus niger, can preferentially grow well on PCB-ImAg under electrical bias and then bridge integrated circuits and form a migration path. The cooperation of the mould and DC bias aggravates the ECM process occurring on PCB-ImAg. When the bias voltage is below 15V, ECM almost does not occur for Ag coating. Mechanisms that explain the ECM processes of PCB-ImAg in the presence of mould and DC bias are proposed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Five-Axis Milling of Large Spiral Bevel Gears: Toolpath Definition, Finishing, and Shape Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Álvarez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a five-axis machining process is analyzed for large spiral-bevel gears, an interesting process for one-of-kind manufacturing. The work is focused on large sized spiral bevel gears manufacturing using universal multitasking machines or five-axis milling centers. Different machining strategies, toolpath patterns, and parameters are tested for both gear roughing and finishing operations. Machining time, tools’ wear, and gear surface are analyzed in order to determine which are the best strategies and parameters for large modulus gear manufacturing on universal machines. The case study results are discussed in the last section, showing the capacity of a universal five-axis milling for this niche. Special attention was paid to the possible affectations of the metal surfaces, since gear durability is very sensitive to thermo-mechanical damage, affected layers, and flank gear surface state.

  13. Additives aided composting of green waste: effects on organic matter degradation, compost maturity, and quality of the finished compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabhane, Jagdish; William, S P M Prince; Bidyadhar, Rajnikant; Bhilawe, Priya; Anand, Duraisamy; Vaidya, Atul N; Wate, Satish R

    2012-06-01

    The effect of various additives such as fly ash, phosphogypsum, jaggery, lime, and polyethylene glycol on green waste composting was investigated through assessing their influence on microbial growth, enzymatic activities, organic matter degradation, bulk density, quality of finished compost including gradation test, heavy metal analysis, etc. A perusal of results showed that addition of jaggery and polyethylene glycol were helpful to facilitate composting process as they significantly influenced the growth of microbes and cellulase activity. The quality of finished compost prepared from jaggery and polyethylene glycol added treatments were superior to other composts, wherein reduction in C/N ratio was more than 8% in jaggery treatment. All other parameters of compost quality including gradation test also favored jaggery and polyethylene glycol as the best additives for green waste composting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sensory quality of beef from different finishing diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resconi, V C; Campo, M M; Font i Furnols, M; Montossi, F; Sañudo, C

    2010-11-01

    Beef production under different local husbandry systems might have meat sensory quality implications for the marketing of these products abroad. In order to assess the effect of finishing diet systems on beef quality, a trained sensory taste panel assessed meat aged for 20 days from 80 Uruguayan Hereford steers that were finished on one of the following diets: T1=Pasture [4% of animal live weight (LW)], T2=Pasture [3% LW plus concentrate (0.6% LW)], T3=Pasture [3% LW plus concentrate (1.2% LW)], or T4=Concentrate plus hay ad libitum. Beef odour and flavour intensities decreased with an increase in the energy content of the diet. The meat from T2 had the lowest acid flavour and strange odours intensities. In general, steers fed only concentrate plus hay (T4) produced meat that had an inferior sensory quality because they had more pronounced off-flavours and was tougher. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. ASSESSING CHEMICAL HAZARDS AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT FOR PLANNING FUTURE DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOPKINS, A.M.; KLOS, D.B.; MINETT, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper documents the fiscal year (FY) 2006 assessment to evaluate potential chemical and radiological hazards associated with vessels and piping in the former plutonium process areas at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Evaluations by PFP engineers as design authorities for specific systems and other subject-matter experts were conducted to identify the chemical hazards associated with transitioning the process areas for the long-term layup of PFP before its eventual final decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). D and D activities in the main process facilities were suspended in September 2005 for a period of between 5 and 10 years. A previous assessment conducted in FY 2003 found that certain activities to mitigate chemical hazards could be deferred safely until the D and D of PFP, which had been scheduled to result in a slab-on-grade condition by 2009. As a result of necessary planning changes, however, D and D activities at PFP will be delayed until after the 2009 time frame. Given the extended project and plant life, it was determined that a review of the plant chemical hazards should be conducted. This review to determine the extended life impact of chemicals is called the ''Plutonium Finishing Plant Chemical Hazards Assessment, FY 2006''. This FY 2006 assessment addresses potential chemical and radiological hazard areas identified by facility personnel and subject-matter experts who reevaluated all the chemical systems (items) from the FY 2003 assessment. This paper provides the results of the FY 2006 chemical hazards assessment and describes the methodology used to assign a hazard ranking to the items reviewed

  16. Surface texture of resin-modified glass ionomer cements: effects of finishing/polishing time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, A U J; Ong, S B; Yap, W Y; Tan, W S; Yeo, J C

    2002-01-01

    This study compared the surface texture of resin-modified glass ionomer cements after immediate and delayed finishing with different finishing/polishing systems. Class V preparations were made on the buccal and lingual/palatal surfaces of 64 freshly extracted teeth. The cavities on each tooth were restored with Fuji II LC (GC) and Photac-Fil Quick (3M-ESPE) according to manufacturers' instructions. Immediately after light-polymerization, gross finishing was done with 8-fluted tungsten carbide burs. The teeth were then randomly divided into four groups of 16 teeth. Half of the teeth in each group were finished immediately, while the remaining half were finished after one-week storage in distilled water at 37 degrees C. The following finishing/polishing systems were employed: (a) Robot Carbides; (b) Super-Snap system; (c) OneGloss and (d) CompoSite Polishers. The mean surface roughness (microm; n=8) in vertical (RaV) and horizontal (RaH) axis was measured using a profilometer. Data was subjected to ANOVA/Scheffe's tests and Independent Samples t-test at significance level 0.05. Ra values were generally lower in both vertical and horizontal axis with delayed finishing/polishing. Although significant differences in RaV and RaH values were observed among several systems with immediate finishing/polishing, only one (Fuji II LC: RaH - Super-Snap < Robot Carbides) was observed with delayed finishing.

  17. Radon Exhalation from some Finishing Materials Frequently used in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shweikani, R.; Raja, G.

    2011-01-01

    Building materials are one of the main radon sources in dwellings. Therefore, the determination of radon exhalation from these materials will help in prediction the existence of dwelling with potential radon risk. Ceramic tiles and marble samples were collected from Syrian local market. The correlation between radon exhalation from these materials and radium-226 content was studied. Results showed that there is no clear relation between radium content and radon exhalation rate, and the exhalation of radon did not exceed the permissible limits of American Environment Protection Agency (EPA). In addition, the additional annual dose from radon and gamma of the natural radioactivity in ceramic and marble when used as finishing materials in houses was also estimated and found to be not exceeding 20 μSv and 35 μSv from radon and gamma respectively. (author)

  18. Plutonium Finishing Plant Transition Project mission analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courson, D.B.

    1994-01-01

    This report defines the mission for the Plutonium Finishing Plant Transition Project (PFPTP) using a systems engineering approach. This mission analysis will be the basis for the functional analysis which will further define and break down the mission statement into all of the detailed functions required to accomplish the mission. The functional analysis is then used to develop requirements, allocate those requirements to functions, and eventually be used to design the system. This report: presents the problem which will be addressed, defines PFP Transition Project, defines the overall mission statement, describes the existing, initial conditions, defines the desired, final conditions, identifies the mission boundaries and external interfaces, identifies the resources required to carry out the mission, describes the uncertainties and risks, and discusses the measures which will be used to determine success

  19. Radon exhalation from some Finishing Materials frequently used in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shweikani, R.; Raja, G.

    2009-02-01

    Building materials are one of the main radon sources in dwellings. Therefore, the determination of radon exhalation from these materials will help in prediction the existence of dwelling with potential radon risk. Ceramic tiles and marble samples were collected from Syrian local market. The correlation between radon exhalation from these materials and radium-226 content were studied. Results showed that there is no clear relation between radium content and radon exhalation rate, and the exhalation of radon did not exceed the permissible limits of American Environment Protection Agency (EPA). In addition, the additional annual dose from radon and gamma of the natural radioactivity in ceramic and marble when used as finishing materials in houses were also estimated and found to be not exceeding 20 μSv and μ35 Sv from radon and gamma respectively. (author)

  20. Risk factors for intestinal pathogens in Danish finishing pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stege, H.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Møller, Kristian

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to identify risk factors for infection with the intestinal bacteria: Lawsonia intracellularis, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, Serpulina intermedia, Brachyspira innocens, Brachyspira pilosicoli and swine-pathogenic Escherichia coli (serogroups O138, O139, O141....... intermedia, B. innocens, B. pilosicoli) (OR's = 0.43 and 0.06, respectively). 2. Home-mixed (and/or non-pelleted) feed was associated with reduced prevalences of L. intracellularis and weakly beta -haemolytic spirochetes (OR's = 0.6 and 0.4, respectively). 3. Providing straw to finishers was associated...... with a reduced prevalence of weakly beta -haemolytic spirochetes (OR = 0.28-0.32). 4. Not using antimicrobial growth promoters for piglets was associated with an increased prevalence of S. intermedia (OR = 11.11). 5. Rare occurrence of post-weaning diarrhoea (as opposed to common) was associated...

  1. Catalytic aided electrical discharge machining of polycrystalline diamond - parameter analysis of finishing condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haikal Ahmad, M. A.; Zulafif Rahim, M.; Fauzi, M. F. Mohd; Abdullah, Aslam; Omar, Z.; Ding, Songlin; Ismail, A. E.; Rasidi Ibrahim, M.

    2018-01-01

    Polycrystalline diamond (PCD) is regarded as among the hardest material in the world. Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) typically used to machine this material because of its non-contact process nature. This investigation was purposely done to compare the EDM performances of PCD when using normal electrode of copper (Cu) and newly proposed graphitization catalyst electrode of copper nickel (CuNi). Two level full factorial design of experiment with 4 center points technique was used to study the influence of main and interaction effects of the machining parameter namely; pulse-on, pulse-off, sparking current, and electrode materials (categorical factor). The paper shows interesting discovery in which the newly proposed electrode presented positive impact to the machining performance. With the same machining parameters of finishing, CuNi delivered more than 100% better in Ra and MRR than ordinary Cu electrode.

  2. PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) SUB-GRADE EE/CA EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVES: A NEW MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOPKINS, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    An engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) was performed at the Hanford Site's Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The purpose of the EVCA was to identify the sub-grade items to be evaluated; determine the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) hazardous substances through process history and available data; evaluate these hazards; and as necessary, identify the available alternatives to reduce the risk associated with the contaminants. The sub-grade EWCA considered four alternatives for an interim removal action: (1) No Action; (2) Surveillance and Maintenance (S and M); (3) Stabilize and Leave in Place (Stabilization); and (4) Remove, Treat and Dispose (RTD). Each alternative was evaluated against the CERCLA criteria for effectiveness, implementability, and cost

  3. Nutritional plans of digestible lysine for growing-finishing gilts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Cipriano Rocha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate nutritional plans of digestible lysine (DLys for growing-finishing gilts. Eighty gilts with 63 days of age and an initial weight of 24.2±1.52 kg were distributed in a completely randomized block design, with five nutritional plans of DLys (9-8-7, 10-9-8, 11-10-9, 12-11-10, and 13-12-11 g/kg, from 63 to 103, 104 to 133, and 134 to 153 days of age, respectively and eight replicates. Pigs were housed in pairs and fed their respective diets ad libitum throughout the experimental period (90 days. To monitor the animal development along the experiment at 103 and 133 days, gilts were weighed and subjected to analysis of ultrasound for evaluation of loin depth (longissimus dorsi and backfat thickness. At the end of the experiment (153 days of age the animals were weighed, and after slaughter carcasses were evaluated individually using a typifying pistol to evaluate the percentage and the content of carcass meat, loin depth and backfat thickness. From 63 to 133 days, there was no effect of the nutritional plans on daily feed intake, performance, or backfat thickness; however the loin depth was greater in the gilts that received plans with high levels of DLys (12-11; 13-12 g/kg compared with the plan with the lowest level (8-7 g/kg. For the entire period (63 to 153 days, no influence of the nutritional plans was observed on the daily feed intake, performance variables, or carcass characteristics. A nutritional plan containing 9-8-7 g/kg of digestible lysine fed from 63 to 103, 104 to 133 and 134 to 153 days, respectively, meets the requirements for performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing gilts.

  4. Analysis of Failure to Finish a Race in a Cohort of Thoroughbred Racehorses in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Tanner

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to describe the incidence of failure to finish a race in flat-racing Thoroughbreds in New Zealand as these are summary indicators of falls, injuries and poor performance. Retrospective data on six complete flat racing seasons (n = 188,615 race starts of all Thoroughbred flat race starts from 1 August 2005 to 31 July 2011 were obtained. The incidence of failure to finish events and binomial exact 95% confidence intervals were calculated per 1000 horse starts. The association between horse-, rider- and race-level variables with the outcomes failure to finish, pulled-up/fell and lost rider were examined with a mixed effects Poisson regression model. A total of 544 horses failed to finish in 188,615 race starts with an overall incidence of 2.88 per 1000 horse starts (95% CI 2.64–3.12. The incidence of failure to finish horses across each race year showed little variability. In the univariable analysis race distance, larger field size, season, and ratings bands showed association with failing to finish a race. The overall failure to finish outcome was associated with season, race distance and ratings bands (horse experience and success ranking criteria. In the multivariable analysis, race distance and ratings bands were associated with horses that pulled-up/fell; season, apprentice allowances and ratings bands were associated with the outcome lost rider. The failure to finish rate was lower than international figures for race day catastrophic injury. Racing and environmental variables were associated with failure to finish a race highlighting the multifactorial nature of race-day events. Further investigation of risk factors for failure to finish is required to better understand the reasons for a low failure to finish rate in Thoroughbred flat races in New Zealand.

  5. Numerical simulation of the induction heating of hybrid semi-finished materials into the semi-solid state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyboldt, Christoph; Liewald, Mathias

    2017-10-01

    Current research activities at the Institute for Metal Forming Technology (IFU) of the University of Stuttgart are focusing on the manufacturing of hybrid components using semi-solid forming strategies. As part of the research project "Hybrid interaction during and after thixoforging of multi-material systems", which is founded by the German Research Foundation (DFG), a thixoforging process for producing hybrid components with cohesive metal-to-metal connections is developed. In this context, this paper deals with the numerical simulation of the inductive heating process of hybrid semi-finished materials, consisting of two different aluminium alloys. By reason of the skin effect that leads to inhomogeneous temperature distributions during inductive heating processes, the aluminium alloy with the higher melting point is thereby assembled in the outer side and the alloy with the lower melting point is assembled in the core of the semi-finished material. In this way, the graded heat distribution can be adapted to the used materialś flow properties that are heavily heat dependent. Without this graded heat distribution a proper forming process in the semi-solid state will not be possible. For numerically modelling the inductive heating system of the institute, a coupling of the magnetostatic and the thermal solver was realized by using Ansys Workbench. While the electromagnetic field and its associated heat production rate were solved in a frequency domain, the temperature development was solved in the time based domain. The numerical analysis showed that because of the high thermal conductivity of the aluminium, which leads to a rapid temperature equalization in the semi-finished material, the heating process has to be fast and with a high frequency for produce most heat in the outer region of the material. Finally, the obtained numerical results were validated with experimental heating tests.

  6. A European longitudinal study in Salmonella seronegative and seropositive-classified finishing pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Dahl, J.; Wingstrand, Anne

    2004-01-01

    and was performed between October 1996 and May 1999. The Salmonella status of finishing pig herds was determined by an initial blood sampling of approximately 50 finishing pigs close to market weight per herd. The development of the Salmonella status of the selected herds was assessed at seven subsequent sampling...

  7. Fatty acid metabolism and deposition in subcutaneous adipose tissue of pasture and feedlot finished cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of pasture finishing versus high-concentrate finishing, over time, on fatty acid metabolism in Angus crossbred (n = 24) steers. Ruminal fluid, serum, and adipose tissue biopsies were obtained on d 0, 28, 84, and 140. Pasture forages and diet ingr...

  8. 40 CFR 63.5390 - How do I measure the HAP content of a finish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true How do I measure the HAP content of a... Initial Compliance Requirements § 63.5390 How do I measure the HAP content of a finish? (a) To determine the HAP content of a finish, the reference method is EPA Method 311 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 63...

  9. 77 FR 61025 - Certain Prepregs, Laminates, and Finished Circuit Boards: Notice of Institution of Formal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-659] Certain Prepregs, Laminates, and Finished..., and the sale within the United States after importation of certain prepregs, laminates, and finished... for sale, and selling for importation into the United States prepregs and laminates that are the...

  10. "Miss! I'm Done!" Finishing Craft Assignments as a Situated Activity System in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deunk, Marjolein; Berenst, Jan; de Glopper, Kees

    2010-01-01

    We describe the Situated Activity System of finishing craft assignments in preschool: the specific, routinized way that child and teacher jointly close the child's craft assignment, employing a specific discourse pattern. We analyzed the interactions of 14 Dutch children between 2.1 and 3.10 years old while they were finishing their craft…

  11. Surface morphology changes of acrylic resins during finishing and polishing phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucio Serra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The finishing and polishing phases are essential to improve smoothness and shining on the surface of acrylic resins used to make removable orthodontic appliances. A good surface finishing reduces roughness, which facilitates hygiene, prevents staining and provides greater comfort to the patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to analyze the changes on surface morphology of acrylic resins during finishing and polishing phases. METHODS: Thirty discs (10 mm in diameter and 5 mm in length were made with acrylic resin and randomly divided into ten groups. The control group did not receive any treatment while the other groups received gradual finishing and polishing. The last group received the entire finishing and polishing procedures. Surface morphology was qualitatively analyzed through scanning electron microscopy and quantitatively analyzed through a laser profilometer test. RESULTS: The acrylic resin surfaces without treatment showed bubbles which were not observed in the subsequent phases. Wearing out with multilaminated burs, finishing with wood sandpaper and finishing with water sandpaper resulted in surfaces with decreasing irregularities. The surfaces that were polished with pumice and with low abrasive liquids showed high superficial smoothness. CONCLUSION: Highly smooth acrylic resin surfaces can be obtained after mechanical finishing and polishing performed with multilaminated burs, wood sandpaper, water sandpaper, pumice and low abrasive liquids.

  12. Effects of time of change from broiler starter to broiler finisher diet on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of time of change from broiler starter ration (BSR) to broiler finisher ration (BFR) on growth performance and economy of gain of meat- type chickens. Six hundred Abor Acres broiler chickens were used in an 8-week study in which same starter and finisher diets were fed but at ...

  13. Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover or orchardgrass pastures: carcass merit and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, K E; Cassida, K A; Zerby, H N

    2014-12-01

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and chevon (goat meat) quality parameters when meat-goat kids (n=72) were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pratense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.; OGR) pastures. Carcass conformation score was greater (P=0.08) when meat-goat kids were finished on ALF compared to OGR with RCG intermediate. Chevon meat samples from goats finished on the three pasture treatments did not differ in ash, intramuscular fat, or crude protein content or in concentrations of omega6 and omega3 fatty acids, or the omega6 to omega3 ratio. Goats finished on OGR had higher (Pmeat-goat kids finished on ALF, RCG, or ORG produced desirable carcass weights for most niche markets in the USA. Chevon is a low-fat meat option with high desirable fatty acids for human diets. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Occurrence of 1,4-dioxane in cosmetic raw materials and finished cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, R E; Hurley, F J; Havery, D C

    2001-01-01

    Surveys of cosmetic raw materials and finished products for the presence of the carcinogen 1,4-dioxane have been conducted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration since 1979. Analytical methods are described for the determination of 1,4-dioxane in ethoxylated cosmetic raw materials and cosmetic finished products. 1,4-Dioxane was isolated by azeotropic atmospheric distillation and determined by gas chromatography using n-butanol as an internal standard. A solid-phase extraction procedure based on a previously published method for the determination of 1,4-dioxane in cosmetic finished products was also used. 1,4-Dioxane was found in ethoxylated raw materials at levels up to 1410 ppm, and at levels up to 279 ppm in cosmetic finished products. Levels of 1,4-dioxane in excess of 85 ppm in children's shampoos indicate that continued monitoring of raw materials and finished products is warranted.

  15. Comparison of gene expression and fatty acid profiles in concentrate and forage finished beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, J W; Garmyn, A J; Hilton, G G; VanOverbeke, D L; Duan, Q; Beitz, D C; Mateescu, R G

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid profiles and intramuscular expression of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism were characterized in concentrate- (CO) and forage- (FO) based finishing systems. Intramuscular samples from the adductor were taken at slaughter from 99 heifers finished on a CO diet and 58 heifers finished on a FO diet. Strip loins were obtained at fabrication to evaluate fatty acid profiles of LM muscle for all 157 heifers by using gas chromatography fatty acid methyl ester analysis. Composition was analyzed for differences by using the General Linear Model (GLM) procedure in SAS. Differences in fatty acid profile included a greater atherogenic index, greater percentage total MUFA, decreased omega-3 to omega-6 ratio, decreased percentage total PUFA, and decreased percentage omega-3 fatty acids in CO- compared with FO-finished heifers (P0.05). Upregulation was observed for PPARγ, fatty acid synthase (FASN), and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) in FO-finished compared with CO-finished heifers in both atherogenic index categories (P<0.05). Upregulation of diglyceride acyl transferase 2 (DGAT2) was observed in FO-finished heifers with a HAI (P<0.05). Expression of steroyl Co-A desaturase (SCD) was upregulated in CO-finished heifers with a LAI, and downregulated in FO-finished heifers with a HAI (P<0.05). Expression of adiponectin (ADIPOQ) was significantly downregulated in CO-finished heifers with a HAI compared with all other categories (P<0.05). The genes identified in this study which exhibit differential regulation in response to diet or in animals with extreme fatty acid profiles may provide genetic markers for selecting desirable fatty acid profiles in future selection programs.

  16. History and stabilization of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) complex, Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, M.S., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-18

    The 231-Z Isolation Building or Plutonium Metallurgy Building is located in the Hanford Site`s 200 West Area, approximately 300 yards north of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) (234-5 Building). When the Hanford Engineer Works (HEW) built it in 1944 to contain the final step for processing plutonium, it was called the Isolation Building. At that time, HEW used a bismuth phosphate radiochemical separations process to make `AT solution,` which was then dried and shipped to Los Alamos, New Mexico. (AT solution is a code name used during World War II for the final HEW product.) The process was carried out first in T Plant and the 224-T Bulk Reduction Building and B Plant and the 224-B Bulk Reduction Building. The 224-T and -B processes produced a concentrated plutonium nitrate stream, which then was sent in 8-gallon batches to the 231-Z Building for final purification. In the 231-Z Building, the plutonium nitrate solution underwent peroxide `strikes` (additions of hydrogen peroxide to further separate the plutonium from its carrier solutions), to form the AT solution. The AT solution was dried and shipped to the Los Alamos Site, where it was made into metallic plutonium and then into weapons hemispheres.` The 231-Z Building began `hot` operations (operations using radioactive materials) with regular runs of plutonium nitrate on January 16, 1945.

  17. Plutonium vulnerability issues at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldt, E.; Templeton, D.W.; Tholen, E.

    1995-01-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) at the Hanford, Washington Site was operated to produce plutonium (Pu) metal and oxide for national defense purposes. Due to the production requirements and methods utilized to meet national needs and the abrupt shutdown of the plant in the late 1980s, the plant was left in a condition that poses a risk of radiation exposure to plant workers, of accidental radioactive material release to the environment, and of radiation exposure to the public. In early 1994, an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to determine the best methods for cleaning out and stabilizing Pu materials in the PFP was started. While the EIS is being prepared, a number of immediate actions have been completed or are underway to significantly reduce the greatest hazards in the PFP. Recently, increased attention his been paid to Pu risks at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities resulting in the Department-wide Plutonium Vulnerability Assessment and a recommendation by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) for DOE to develop integrated plans for managing its nuclear materials

  18. Fire hazard analysis for Plutonium Finishing Plant complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCKINNIS, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    A fire hazards analysis (FHA) was performed for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Complex at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The scope of the FHA focuses on the nuclear facilities/structures in the Complex. The analysis was conducted in accordance with RLID 5480.7, [DOE Directive RLID 5480.7, 1/17/94] and DOE Order 5480.7A, ''Fire Protection'' [DOE Order 5480.7A, 2/17/93] and addresses each of the sixteen principle elements outlined in paragraph 9.a(3) of the Order. The elements are addressed in terms of the fire protection objectives stated in paragraph 4 of DOE 5480.7A. In addition, the FHA also complies with WHC-CM-4-41, Fire Protection Program Manual, Section 3.4 [1994] and WHC-SD-GN-FHA-30001, Rev. 0 [WHC, 1994]. Objectives of the FHA are to determine: (1) the fire hazards that expose the PFP facilities, or that are inherent in the building operations, (2) the adequacy of the fire safety features currently located in the PFP Complex, and (3) the degree of compliance of the facility with specific fire safety provisions in DOE orders, related engineering codes, and standards

  19. HEU/LEU-conversion of BER II successfully finished

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, K.; Fischer, C.-O.; Krohn, H.

    2000-01-01

    The BER II (Berliner Experimental Reactor) research reactor is a swimming pool type reactor located in Berlin, Germany. The reactor operates with a thermal power of 10 MW and is primarily used to produce neutrons for neutron scattering experiments. The conversion from HEU- to LEU-fuel elements began in August, 1997. At the last RERTR Meeting 1999 in Budapest, Hungary, Hahn-Meitner-Institut (HMI) presented a 'Status Report' on the conversion of 10 HEU/LEU mixed cores. In February 2000, HMI finished the HEU/LEU-conversion. Hereby, the first pure LEU-standard-core went into operation. Our second LEU-core just ends its operation at the end of July. The third LEU-core will be built up in the beginning of August. The average burn-up rate was improved from 50 - 55% (HEU) to 60 - 65% (LEU). Therefore, only 14 elements/year are now used instead of 28/year. The following report describes our first steps in building pure LEU-cores from mixed HEU/LEU-cores, as well as our initial experience using the pure LEU-cores. (author)

  20. Finishing procedures in Orthodontics: dental dimensions and proportions (microesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Carlos Bodart Brandão

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present article is to describe procedures that can be performed to achieve excellence in orthodontic treatment finishing. The content is limited to microesthetics, which comprises the concept of ideal dental dimensions and proportions (white esthetics and its correlation with the periodontium (pink esthetics. Standards of normality are described both in their real dimensions (dental height and width, and in those effectively perceived by the observer, the virtual dimensions. METHODS: The best scientific evidence was sought in the literature to support the clinical procedures that must guide the professional to obtain maximum esthetic quality on their treatments. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate what the other specialties in Dentistry expect from Orthodontics and, specially, what they have to offer. Clinical cases will be used to illustrate the dental movement that might maximize treatment outcome and to confront the ideal standards with the current state of the art. CONCLUSION: Treatment quality is directly related to the amount of procedures implemented by the orthodontist, associated with concepts and resources from Periodontics and Dental Prosthesis. Microesthetics cannot be seen in isolation, but rather as the key to establish a pleasant smile (miniesthetics in addition to a harmonious face (macroesthetics and a human being with high self-esteem (hyper-esthetics.

  1. Evaluation of different finish line designs in base metal alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghandeh R

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was performed according to the widespread application of base metal alloys"nand few articles published about the marginal integrity of restorations fabricated by these metals."nThree standard dies of a maxillary first premolar were prepared with a flat shoulder finish line in buccal"naspect and chamfer in palatal. One of them left with no change. On the buccal aspect of the second and"nthird dies 135?and 1607 bevel were added respectively"nUsing dual wax technique, nine wax patterns were formed on each die and casting procedure of selected"nnon precious alloy was performed by centrifugal method. Marginal gaps of each copping seated on dies"nwere measured by scanning electron microscope (SEM with X500 magnification. Measurements were"ndone on three areas of marked dies on buccal aspect. Measurement son palatal aspect was done on"nmarked midpalatal point as control."nResults and statistical analysis showed no significant difference among marginal gaps in lingual aspect."nBut on the buccal aspect there were statistically significant differences among the groups (P<0.001. Flat"nshoulder had the best marginal integrity (mean 4 micron. Shoulder with 160' bevel had the most marginal"ngap (mean 26.5 micron and shoulder with 1357 bevel was between two other groups (mean 15.7 micron.

  2. Fire hazard analysis for Plutonium Finishing Plant complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCKINNIS, D.L.

    1999-02-23

    A fire hazards analysis (FHA) was performed for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Complex at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The scope of the FHA focuses on the nuclear facilities/structures in the Complex. The analysis was conducted in accordance with RLID 5480.7, [DOE Directive RLID 5480.7, 1/17/94] and DOE Order 5480.7A, ''Fire Protection'' [DOE Order 5480.7A, 2/17/93] and addresses each of the sixteen principle elements outlined in paragraph 9.a(3) of the Order. The elements are addressed in terms of the fire protection objectives stated in paragraph 4 of DOE 5480.7A. In addition, the FHA also complies with WHC-CM-4-41, Fire Protection Program Manual, Section 3.4 [1994] and WHC-SD-GN-FHA-30001, Rev. 0 [WHC, 1994]. Objectives of the FHA are to determine: (1) the fire hazards that expose the PFP facilities, or that are inherent in the building operations, (2) the adequacy of the fire safety features currently located in the PFP Complex, and (3) the degree of compliance of the facility with specific fire safety provisions in DOE orders, related engineering codes, and standards.

  3. Study on interfacial reaction between lead-free solders and alternative surface finishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Rabiatul Aisha; Ourdjini, A.; Saliza Osman

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the interfacial reactions occurring during reflow soldering between Sn-Ag-Cu lead-free solder and two surface finishes: electroless nickel/ immersion gold (ENIG) and immersion silver (IAg). The study focuses on interfacial reactions evolution and growth kinetics of intermetallic compounds (IMC) formed during soldering and isothermal ageing at 150 degree Celsius for up to 2000 hours. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to measure IMC thickness and examine the morphology of IMC respectively, whereas the IMC phases were identified by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The results showed that the IMC formed on ENIG finish is thinner compared to that formed on IAg finish. For IAg surface finish, Cu 6 Sn 5 IMCs with scallop morphology are formed at the solder/ surface finish interface after reflow while a second IMC, Cu 3 Sn was formed between the copper and Cu 6 Sn 5 IMC after the isothermal ageing treatment. For ENIG surface finish both (Cu,Ni) 6 Sn 5 and (Ni,Cu) 3 Sn 4 are formed after soldering. Isothermal aging of the solder joints formed on ENIG finish was found to have a significant effect on the morphology of the intermetallics by transforming to more spherical and denser morphology in addition to increase i their thickness with increased ageing time. (author)

  4. Artificial evolutionary approaches to produce smoother surface in magnetic abrasive finishing of hardened AISI 52100 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teimouri, Reza; Baseri, Hamid [Babol University of Technology, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    In this work, two models of feed forward back-propagation neural network (FFBP-NN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) have been developed to predict the performance of magnetic abrasive finishing process, based on experimental data of literature. Input parameters of process are electromagnet's voltage, mesh number of abrasive particles, poles rotational speed and weight percent of abrasive particles, and also the output is percentage of surface roughness variation. In order to select the best model, a comparison between developed models has been done based on their mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean square error (RMSE). Moreover, optimization methods based on simulated annealing (SA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithms were used to maximize the percent of surface roughness variation and select the optimal process parameters. Results indicated that the models based on artificial intelligence predict much more precise values with respect to predictive regression model developed in main literature. Also, the ANFIS model had a lowest value of MAE and RMSE with respect to others. So it was used as an objective function to maximize the surface roughness variation by using SA and PSO. Comparison between the obtained optimal solutions and analysis of results in main literature indicated that SA and PSO could find the optimal answers logically and precisely.

  5. Design and Feasibility Testing of the truth FinishIt Tobacco Countermarketing Brand Equity Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; Rath, Jessica; Pitzer, Lindsay; Hair, Elizabeth C; Snider, Jeremy; Cantrell, Jennifer; Vallone, Donna

    2016-07-01

    The original truth campaign was a branded, national smoking prevention mass media effort focused on at-risk youth ages 12-17. Today the truth brand focuses on the goal of finishing tobacco (truth FinishIt). There have been significant changes in the tobacco control landscape, leading FinishIt to focus on 15- to 21-year-olds. The present article reports on formative research and media monitoring data collected to pilot test a new truth FinishIt brand equity scale. The goals of this study were to (a) content analyze truth FinishIt mass media ads, (b) assess truth's social media and followers' perceptions of truth's digital brand identity, and (c) develop and feasibility test a new version of the truth FinishIt brand equity scale using data from an existing Truth Initiative media monitoring study. Through factor analysis, we identified a brand equity scale, as in previous research, consisting of 4 main constructs: brand loyalty, leadership/satisfaction, personality, and awareness. Targeted truth attitudes and beliefs about social perceptions, acceptability, and industry-related beliefs were regressed on the higher order factor and each of the 4 individual brand equity factors. Ordinary least squares regression models generally showed associations in the expected directions (positive for anti-tobacco and negative for pro-tobacco) between targeted attitudes/beliefs and truth FinishIt brand equity. This study succeeded in developing and validating a new truth FinishIt brand equity scale. The scale may be a valuable metric for future campaign evaluation. Future studies should examine the effects of truth FinishIt brand equity on tobacco use behavioral outcomes over time.

  6. Efficacy of 2 finishing protocols in the quality of orthodontic treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Gregory J; McNamara, James A; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2011-11-01

    The objectives of this prospective clinical study were to evaluate the quality of treatment outcomes achieved with a complex orthodontic finishing protocol involving serpentine wires and a tooth positioner, and to compare it with the outcomes of a standard finishing protocol involving archwire bends used to detail the occlusion near the end of active treatment. The complex finishing protocol sample consisted of 34 consecutively treated patients; 1 week before debonding, their molar bands were removed, and serpentine wires were placed; this was followed by active wear of a tooth positioner for up to 1 month after debonding. The standard finishing protocol group consisted of 34 patients; their dental arches were detailed with archwire bends and vertical elastics. The objective grading system of the American Board of Orthodontics was used to quantify the quality of the finish at each time point. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare changes in the complex finishing protocol; the Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare changes between groups. The complex finishing protocol group experienced a clinically significant improvement in objective grading system scores after treatment with the positioner. Mild improvement in posterior space closure was noted after molar band removal, but no improvement in the occlusion was observed after placement of the serpentine wires. Patients managed with the complex finishing protocol also had a lower objective grading system score (14.7) at the end of active treatment than did patients undergoing the standard finishing protocol (23.0). Tooth positioners caused a clinically significant improvement in interocclusal contacts, interproximal contacts, and net objective grading system score; mild improvement in posterior band space was noted after molar band removal 1 week before debond. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Surface integrity of GH4169 affected by cantilever finish grinding and the application in aero-engine blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xun

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available GH4169 is the main material for aero-engine blades and integrated blisks. Because GH4169 has a poor milling performance, the profile precision and surface integrity of blades and integrated blisks are difficult to be met by utilizing the conventional milling process, which directly influence the global performance and reliability of aero-engines. Through grinding experiments on parameters and surface integrity optimization, the helical cantilever grinding process utilizing a 300# CBN RB wheel is presented and applied in finish machining of GH4169 blades. The profile errors of the blade surface are within ±0.01 mm, the roughness is less than 0.4 μm, the residual compressive stresses and the hardening rate are appropriate, there are no phenomena of burr and smearing with the grinding chips, and the leading/trailing edge can be smoothly connected with the suction/pressure surface. All the experimental results indicate that this grinding process is greatly suitable for the profile finish machining of GH4169 blades.

  8. SEM Evaluation of Surrounding Enamel after Finishing of Composite Restorations- Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovan, G.; Stoleriu, S.; Solomon, S.; Ghiorghe, A.; Sandu, A. V.; Andrian, S.

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the surface characteristics of the enamel adjacent to composite resin after finishing the restoration with different diamond and tungsten carbide burs. The topography of enamel was observed by using a scanning electron microscope. Finishing with extra-/ultra-fine carbide burs, and extra-fine diamond burs resulted in smooth surfaces. In few areas some superficial scratches with no clinical relevance were observed. Deep grooves were observed on the surface of enamel when fine diamond burs were used. Finishing of composite restorations with coarse burs should be avoided when there is a high risk of touching and scratching adjacent enamel during the procedure.

  9. Study on waste waters of metal finishing industries around Lahore metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Izhar-ul-Haq; Mahmood, F.; Tufail, S.; Naeem, M.

    2002-01-01

    Study was undertaken on the waste water samples from metal finishing industries of Lahore metropolitan area for the evaluation of metallic impurities. The metal finishing industry was classified into three categories i. e. medium scale, small scale and cottage scale industry. About 93 wastewater samples were collected from various metal finishing industries around Lahore metropolitan area. In addition to toxic elements like cadmium, nickel and zinc the other parameters such as hydrogen ion concentration (pH), Electrical conductivity (EC) and Total Dissolved Salts (TDS) were also determined. (author)

  10. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) [SEC 1 THRU 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ULLAH, M K

    2001-02-26

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) is located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in south central Washington State. The DOE Richland Operations (DOE-RL) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) is with Fluor Hanford Inc. (FH). Westinghouse Safety Management Systems (WSMS) provides management support to the PFP facility. Since 1991, the mission of the PFP has changed from plutonium material processing to preparation for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). The PFP is in transition between its previous mission and the proposed D and D mission. The objective of the transition is to place the facility into a stable state for long-term storage of plutonium materials before final disposition of the facility. Accordingly, this update of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) reflects the current status of the buildings, equipment, and operations during this transition. The primary product of the PFP was plutonium metal in the form of 2.2-kg, cylindrical ingots called buttoms. Plutonium nitrate was one of several chemical compounds containing plutonium that were produced as an intermediate processing product. Plutonium recovery was performed at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) and plutonium conversion (from a nitrate form to a metal form) was performed at the Remote Mechanical C (RMC) Line as the primary processes. Plutonium oxide was also produced at the Remote Mechanical A (RMA) Line. Plutonium processed at the PFP contained both weapons-grade and fuels-grade plutonium materials. The capability existed to process both weapons-grade and fuels-grade material through the PRF and only weapons-grade material through the RMC Line although fuels-grade material was processed through the line before 1984. Amounts of these materials exist in storage throughout the facility in various residual forms left from previous years of operations.

  11. Experimental and theoretical analysis of defocused CO2 laser microchanneling on PMMA for enhanced surface finish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Shashi; Kumar, Subrata

    2017-02-01

    The poor surface finish of CO2 laser-micromachined microchannel walls is a major limitation of its utilization despite several key advantages, like low fabrication cost and low time consumption. Defocused CO2 laser beam machining is an effective solution for fabricating smooth microchannel walls on polymer and glass substrates. In this research work, the CO2 laser microchanneling process on PMMA has been analyzed at different beam defocus positions. Defocused processing has been investigated both theoretically and experimentally, and the depth of focus and beam diameter have been determined experimentally. The effect of beam defocusing on the microchannel width, depth, surface roughness, heat affected zone and microchannel profile were examined. A previously developed analytical model for microchannel depth prediction has been improved by incorporating the threshold energy density factor. A semi-analytical model for predicting the microchannel width at different defocus positions has been developed. A semi-empirical model has also been developed for predicting microchannel widths at different defocusing conditions for lower depth values. The developed models were compared and verified by performing actual experiments. Multi-objective optimization was performed to select the best optimum set of input parameters for achieving the desired surface roughness.

  12. Environmental impact of replacing soybean meal with rapeseed meal in diets of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zanten, H H E; Bikker, P; Mollenhorst, H; Meerburg, B G; de Boer, I J M

    2015-11-01

    The major impact of the livestock sector on the environment may be reduced by feeding agricultural co-products to animals. Since the last decade, co-products from biodiesel production, such as rapeseed meal (RSM), became increasingly available in Europe. Consequently, an increase in RSM content in livestock diets was observed at the expense of soybean meal (SBM) content. Cultivation of SBM is associated with high environmental impacts, especially when emissions related to land use change (LUC) are included. This study aims to assess the environmental impact of replacing SBM with RSM in finishing pig diets. As RSM has a lower nutritional value, we assessed the environmental impact of replacing SBM with RSM using scenarios that differed in handling changes in nutritional level. Scenario 1 (S1) was the basic scenario containing SBM. In scenario 2 (S2), RSM replaced SBM based on CP content, resulting in reduced energy and amino acid content, and hence an increased feed intake to realize the same growth rate. The diet of scenario 3 (S3) was identical to S2; however, we assumed that pigs were not able to increase their feed intake, leading to reduced growth performance. In scenario 4 (S4), the energy and amino acid content were increased to the same level of S1. Pig performances were simulated using a growth model. We analyzed the environmental impact of each scenario using life-cycle assessment, including processes of feed production, manure management, piglet production, enteric fermentation and housing. Results show that, expressed as per kg of BW, replacing SBM with RSM in finishing pig diets marginally decreased global warming potential (GWP) and energy use (EU) but decreased land use (LU) up to 12%. Between scenarios, S3 had the maximum potential to reduce the environmental impact, due to a lower impact per kg of feed and an increased body protein-to-lipid ratio of the pigs, resulting in a better feed conversion ratio. Optimization of the body protein

  13. Development, design, and preliminary operation of a resin-feed processing facility for resin-based HTGR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.A.; Drago, J.P.; Million, D.L.; Spence, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    Fuel kernels for recycle of 233 U to High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors are prepared by loading carboxylic acid cation exchange resins with uranium and carbonizing at controlled conditions. Resin-feed processing was developed and a facility was designed, installed, and operated to control the kernel size, shape, and composition by processing the resin before adding uranium. The starting materials are commercial cation exchange resins in the sodium form. The size separations are made by vibratory screening of resin slurries in water. After drying in a fluidized bed, the nonspherical particles are separated from spherical particles on vibratory plates of special design. The sized, shape-separated spheres are then rewetted and converted to the hydrogen form. The processing capacity of the equipment tested is equivalent to about 1 kg of uranium per hour and could meet commercial recycle plant requirements without scale-up of the principal process components

  14. Fiber Finishes for Improving Galvanic Resistance of Imide-Based Composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allred, R. E

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this program is the development and demonstration of galvanic corrosion resistant carbon/ BMI composites through the use of reactive finishes to form coatings that isolate the carbon...

  15. DESIGN OF FILL AND FINISH FACILITY FOR ACTIVE PHARMACEUTICAL INGREDIENTS (API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUUR LAILA KHAIRUDDIN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fill and finish operations continue to be one of the most heavily outsourced activities in the biopharmaceutical manufacturing market today. There are a few aspects that need to be consider in outsource activities like logistic, storage condition, facility certification and audit as regulations and standards which the manufacturer should adhere. Risk would be greater and extra care should be taken when outsource from foreign fill and finish facility. Thus, the internal aseptic fill and finish facility with audit checklist will help to minimize the risk during logistic and storage and also minimize the cost for outsource fill and finish facility. The data collections are through survey and conceptual design with simulation as the execution part.

  16. Conservation of filtering in manufacturing systems with unreliable machines and finished goods buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshan Li

    2006-01-01

    nature of manufacturing systems, this law offers a tool for selecting the smallest, that is, lean, finished goods buffering, which is necessary and sufficient to ensure the desired level ofcustomer demand satisfaction.

  17. Reliability of lead-free solder joints with different PCB surface finishes under thermal cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia Yanghua [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)], E-mail: xia_yanghua@hotmail.com; Xie Xiaoming [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2008-04-24

    The reliability of lead-free electronic assemblies under thermal cycling was investigated. Thin small outline package (TSOP) devices with FeNi leads were reflow soldered on FR4 PCB (printed circuit board) with Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu (wt%) solder. The effects of different PCB finishes (organic solderability preservative (OSP) and electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG)) were studied. The results show that OSP finish reveals better performance than its ENIG counterparts. The crack originates at the fringe of heel fillet in both cases. The propagation of crack in the ENIG case is along the device/solder interface, while in the case of OSP, the crack extends parallel to the solder/PCB interface. When the OSP finishes are employed, many Cu6Sn5 precipitates form inside the bulk solder and have a strengthening effect on the solder joint, resulting in better reliability performance as compared to those with ENIG finishes.

  18. Drivers of Finished-Goods Inventory in the U.S. Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Gérard P. Cachon; Marcelo Olivares

    2010-01-01

    Automobile manufacturers in the U.S. supply chain exhibit significant differences in their days of supply of finished vehicles (average inventory divided by average daily sales rate). For example, from 1995 to 2004, Toyota consistently carried approximately 30 fewer days of supply than General Motors. This suggests that Toyota's well-documented advantage in manufacturing efficiency, product design, and upstream supply chain management extends to their finished-goods inventory in their downstr...

  19. Effects of the truth FinishIt brand on tobacco outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, W. Douglas; Rath, Jessica M.; Hair, Elizabeth C.; Snider, Jeremy Williams; Pitzer, Lindsay; Greenberg, Marisa; Xiao, Haijun; Cantrell, Jennifer; Vallone, Donna

    2017-01-01

    Since 2000, the truth campaign has grown as a social marketing brand. Back then, truth employed branding to compete directly with the tobacco industry. In 2014, the launch of truth FinishIt reflected changes in the brand's strategy, the tobacco control environment, and youth/young adult behavior.Building on a previous validation study, the current study examined brand equity in truth FinishIt, as measured by validated multi-dimensional scales, and tobacco related attitudes, beliefs, and behav...

  20. DESIGN OF FILL AND FINISH FACILITY FOR ACTIVE PHARMACEUTICAL INGREDIENTS (API)

    OpenAIRE

    NUUR LAILA KHAIRUDDIN; NORLIZA ABD. RAHMAN; NUR SYAFIQAH KAMARUDIN

    2016-01-01

    Fill and finish operations continue to be one of the most heavily outsourced activities in the biopharmaceutical manufacturing market today. There are a few aspects that need to be consider in outsource activities like logistic, storage condition, facility certification and audit as regulations and standards which the manufacturer should adhere. Risk would be greater and extra care should be taken when outsource from foreign fill and finish facility. Thus, the internal aseptic fill and fin...

  1. Study on mycoflora of poultry feed ingredients and finished feed in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Soheil Ghaemmaghami; Mehrdad Modirsaneii; Alireza Khosravi; Mehdi Razzaghi-Abyaneh

    2016-01-01

     Background and Objectives: Unhygienic poultry feedstuffs can lead to nutrient losses and detrimental effect on poultry production and public health. In the present study, mycobiota and colony-forming units per gram in ingredients and finish poultry feed was evaluated with special reference to potentially mycotoxigenic fungi.Materials and Methods: Eighty five samples of corn, soybean meal and poultry finished feed were collected from nine poultry feed factories located in three provinces i.e....

  2. Effects of finishing/polishing techniques on microleakage of resin-modified glass ilonomer cement restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Adrian U J; Yap, W Y; Yeo, Egwin J C; Tan, Jane W S; Ong, Debbie S B

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of finishing/polishing techniques on the microleakage of resin-modified glass ionomer restorations. Class V preparations were made on the buccal and lingual/palatal surfaces of freshly extracted teeth. The cavities on each tooth were restored with Fuji II LC (FT [GC]) and Photac-Fil Quick (PF [3M-ESPE]) according to manufacturers' instructions. Immediately after light-polymerization, gross finishing was done with eight-fluted tungsten carbide burs. The teeth were then randomly divided into four groups and finishing/polishing was done with one of the following systems: (a) Robot Carbides (RC); (b) Super-Snap system (SS); (c) OneGloss (OG) and (d) CompoSite Polishers (CS). The sample size for each material-finishing/polishing system combination was eight. After finishing/polishing, the teeth were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for one week. The root apices were then sealed with acrylic and two coats of varnish was applied 1 mm beyond the restoration margins. The teeth were subsequently subjected to dye penetration testing (0.5% basic fuchsin), sectioned and scored. Data was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests at a significance level of 0.05. Results of statistical analysis were as follows: Enamel margins: PF-OGfinishing/polishing technique, leakage at dentin margins was significantly greater than at enamel margins for FT. For PF, no significant difference in leakage scores was observed between dentin and enamel with the exception of finishing/polishing with OG. FT restorations had significantly less enamel and dentin leakage than PF restorations when treated with OG. The effect of finishing/polishing techniques on microleakage was both tissue and material dependent.

  3. Cementation process study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.H.; Han, K.W.; Ahn, S.J.; Choi, K.S.; Lee, M.W.; Ryu, Y.K.

    1985-01-01

    In the cementation process study, in 1984, design of the waste treatment simulator was finished for the first step. We can experience not only the operation of solidification system but the design and construction of comming large scale plant through the design of cementation process. (Author)

  4. Interface Control Document Between the Double Shell Tanks (DST) System and the Plutonium Finishing Plan (PFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAY, T.H.

    1999-01-01

    This document identifies the requirements and responsibilities for all parties to support waste transfer from the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) facility to the Double-Shell Tank (DST) System of the River Protection Project (RPP). This Interface Control Document (ICD) will not attempt to control the physical portion of this interface because the physical equipment making up this interface, and any associated interface requirements, are already in place, operational and governed by existing operating specifications and other documentation. The PFP and DST Systems have a direct physical interface (the waste transfer pipeline) that travels between the 241-2 Building (TK-D5) and DST SY-102 via 244-TX double-contained receiver tank (DCRT). The purpose of the ICD process is to formalize working agreements between the RPP DST System and organization/companies internal and external to RPP. This ICD has been developed as part of the requirements basis for design of the DST System to support the Phase I Privatization effort

  5. Functional parameter screening for predicting durability of rolling sliding contacts with different surface finishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimkovski, Z.; Lööf, P.-J.; Rosén, B.-G.; Nilsson, P. H.

    2018-06-01

    The reliability and lifetime of machine elements such as gears and rolling bearings depend on their wear and fatigue resistance. In order to screen the wear and surface damage, three finishing processes: (i) brushing, (ii) manganese phosphating and (iii) shot peening were applied on three disc pairs and long-term tested on a twin-disc tribometer. In this paper, the elastic contact of the disc surfaces (measured after only few revolutions) was simulated and a number of functional and roughness parameters were correlated. The functional parameters consisted of subsurface stresses at different depths and a new parameter called ‘pressure spikes’ factor’. The new parameter is derived from the pressure distribution and takes into account the proximity and magnitude of the pressure spikes. Strong correlations were found among the pressure spikes’ factor and surface peak/height parameters. The orthogonal shear stresses and Von Mises stresses at the shallowest depths under the surface have shown the highest correlations but no good correlations were found when the statistics of the whole stress fields was analyzed. The use of the new parameter offers a fast way to screen the durability of the contacting surfaces operating at similar conditions.

  6. A study on the applications of AI in finishing of additive manufacturing parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathima Patham, K.

    2017-06-01

    Artificial intelligent and computer simulation are the technological powerful tools for solving complex problems in the manufacturing industries. Additive Manufacturing is one of the powerful manufacturing techniques that provide design flexibilities to the products. The products with complex shapes are directly manufactured without the need of any machining and tooling using Additive Manufacturing. However, the main drawback of the components produced using the Additive Manufacturing processes is the quality of the surfaces. This study aims to minimize the defects caused during Additive Manufacturing with the aid of Artificial Intelligence. The developed AI system has three layers, each layer is trying to eliminate or minimize the production errors. The first layer of the AI system optimizes the digitization of the 3D CAD model of the product and hence reduces the stair case errors. The second layer of the AI system optimizes the 3D printing machine parameters in order to eliminate the warping effect. The third layer of AI system helps to choose the surface finishing technique suitable for the printed component based on the Degree of Complexity of the product and the material. The efficiency of the developed AI system was examined on the functional parts such as gears.

  7. MODIFICATION OF RECIPES USED IN THE BLEACHING SECTION OF THE FINISHING PLANT OF THE TEXTILE UNIT "DESEMBARCO DEL GRANMA”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cabrera Estada

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Textile Basic Unit (BU “Desembarco del Granma” of Villa Clara is one of the most important textile industries in Cuba, it is responsible for the provision of a wide variety of fabrics, threads and surgical gauze to various sectors of the country. In the finishing plant of the BU "Desembarco del Granma" a production that meets the parameters set is achieved, but this requires the use of large volumes of costly chemicals and with negative impacts on the environment. To solve this problem an investigation was carried out to evaluate the modification of some of the recipes used in the bleaching section of the finishing plant of the BU "Desembarco del Granma". The results obtained were processed with the Statgraphics software. When the caustic soda is decreased from 60g/L to 40g/L, and it is analyzed the capillarity of warp, it was confirmed that there is no significant difference between the average of the two samples, for a 95,0 % of confidence level; but there were differences between the variances; when analyzing the fabric capillarity it was found that there is no significant difference between the average and the variance of the two samples for a 95,0 % of confidence level. With such modification it is saved 241,4 $/day, by concept of decrease of soda used. The hydrogen peroxide cannot be reduced because it affects the white degree of the fabric.

  8. Effect of surface finishing on friction and wear of Poly-Ether-Ether-Ketone (PEEK under oil lubrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Fontoura de Andrade

    Full Text Available Abstract The tribological properties of poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK containing 30% of carbon fiber were studied in an oil-lubricated environment and different surface finishing of the metallic counterbody. Four different finishing processes, commonly used in the automotive industry, were chosen for this study: turning, grinding, honing and polishing. The test system used was tri-pin on disc with pins made of PEEK and counterbody made of steel; they were fully immersed in ATF Dexron VI oil. Some test parameters were held constant, such as the apparent pressure of 2 MPa, linear velocity of 2 m/s, oil temperature at 85 °C, and the time - 120 minutes. The lubrication regime for the apparent pressure of 1 MPa to 7 MPa range was also studied at different sliding speeds. A direct correlation was found between the wear rate, friction coefficient and the lubrication regime, wherein wear under hydrodynamic lubrication was, on average, approximately 5 times lower, and the friction coefficient 3 times lower than under boundary lubrication.

  9. Influence of way of finishing furniture segments on amount emissions VOCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Čech

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the influence of way of finishing furniture segments on amount emissions VOCs (volatile organic compounds. The so-called Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC are among the largest pollution sources of both the internal and external environments.VOC is defined as emission of any organic compound or a mixture thereof, with the exception of methane, whereby the compound exerts the pressure of 0.01 kPa or more at the temperature of 20 °C (293.15 K and reaches the corresponding volatility under the specific conditions of its use and can undergo photochemical reactions with nitrogen oxides when exposed to solar radiation. The effects of VOC upon environment can be described by equation: VOC + NOx + UV radiation + heat = tropospheric ozone (O3In this work there were tested MDF (medium density fibreboard coated by resin impregnated paper was used for the furniture components’ production. Next were tested compressed wood, which was used as a second material of furniture components. These both chosen materials was covered by resin impregnated paper and than sequentially finished by regular coat of finish.An attention of this study is especially put on mentioned factors and on quantity of instant and long-term VOCs emissions emitted from furniture components.The amount of emissions from furniture components, in different phases of the preparation including the resin impregnated paper coating finish, was monitored within the time intervals of 24 hours and 720 hours starting after the time of the finish preparation.The MDF (medium density fibreboard coated by resin impregnated paper was used for the furniture components´ production.A compressed wood was used as a second material of furniture components. This alternative material was covered by resin impregnated paper and than sequentially finished by regular coat of finish.

  10. Evaluation of the Effect of Surface Finish on High-Cycle Fatigue of SLM-IN718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, D. M.

    2016-01-01

    The surface finish of parts produced by additive manufacturing processes is much rougher than the surface finish generated by machining processes, and a rougher surface can reduce the fatigue strength of a part. This paper discusses an effort to quantify that reduction of strength in high-cycle fatigue for selective laser melt (SLM) coupons. A high-cycle fatigue (HCF) knockdown factor was estimated for Inconel 718, manufactured with the SLM process. This factor is the percentage reduction from the maximum stress in fatigue for low-stress ground (LSG) specimens to the maximum stress of those left with the original surface condition at the same fatigue life. Specimens were provided by a number of vendors, free to use their "best practice"; only one heat treat condition was considered; and several test temperatures were characterized, including room temperature, 800F, 1000F, and 1200F. The 1000F data had a large variance, and was omitted from consideration in this document. A first method used linear approximations extracted from the graphs, and only where data was available for both. A recommended knockdown factor of the as-built surface condition (average roughness of approximately 245 micro-inches/inch) versus low-stress ground condition (roughness no more than 4 micro-inches/inch) was established at approximately 1/3 or 33%. This is to say that for the as-built surface condition, a maximum stress of 2/3 of the stress for LSG can be expected to produce a similar life in the as-built surface condition. In this first evaluation, the knockdown factor did not appear to be a function of temperature. A second approach, the "KP method", incorporated the surface finish measure into a new parameter termed the pseudo-stress intensity factor, Kp, which was formulated to be similar to the fracture mechanics stress intensity factor. Using Kp, the variance seemed to be reduced across all sources, and knockdown factors were estimated using Kp over the range where data occurred. A

  11. Experimental analysis on semi-finishing machining of Ti6Al4V additively manufactured by direct melting laser sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbrogno, Stano; Bordin, Alberto; Bruschi, Stefania; Umbrello, Domenico

    2016-10-01

    The Additive Manufacturing (AM) techniques are particularly appealing especially for titanium aerospace and biomedical components because they permit to achieve a strong reduction of the buy-to-fly ratio. However, finishing machining operations are often necessary to reduce the uneven surface roughness and geometrics because of local missing accuracy. This work shows the influence of the cutting parameters, cutting speed and feed rate, on the cutting forces as well as on the thermal field observed in the cutting zone, during a turning operation carried out on bars made of Ti6Al4V obtained by the AM process called Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS). Moreover, the sub-surface microstructure alterations due to the process are also showed and commented.

  12. Study of strength properties of semi-finished products from economically alloyed high-strength aluminium-scandium alloys for application in automobile transport and shipbuilding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, Vladimir; Sidelnikov, Sergey; Zenkin, Evgeny; Frolov, Viktor; Voroshilov, Denis; Yakivyuk, Olga; Konstantinov, Igor; Sokolov, Ruslan; Belokonova, Irina

    2018-04-01

    The results of a study on the strength of rolled products from aluminium alloys doped with scandium under various processing conditions of hot and cold rolling are presented. The regularities of metal flow and the level of strength of deformed semi-finished products from aluminum-scandium alloys are established, depending on the total degree of deformation and the various modes of single reduction during rolling. It is shown that when using one heating of a cast billet to obtain high-quality semi-finished products, the temperature during the rolling process should not be lower than 350-370°, and the total degree of deformation does not exceed 50-60%. It was found that the semi-finished products from alloys with a content of scandium in the range 0.11-0.12% in the deformed state had elevated values of ultimate tensile strength and yield strength of the metal, which allows them to be recommended for industrial production of sheet metal products.

  13. Cross-Cultural Consumer Acceptability and Purchase Intent of Forage-Finished Rib-Eye Steaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrico, Damir Dennis; Wardy, Wisdom; Pujols, Kairy Dharali; Carabante, Kennet Mariano; Jirangrat, Wannita; Scaglia, Guillermo; Janes, Marlene E; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon

    2015-10-01

    Rib-eye steaks, from 3 forage-finished systems (S1, S2, and S3) and 1 commercial steak (C), either cooked by 1-sided-grilling or 2-sided-grilling, were evaluated for sensory acceptability [overall appearance (ORA) and overall appearance of fat (OAF) for raw steaks; overall appearance (OCA), overall beef aroma (OBA), overall beef flavor (OBF), juiciness, tenderness and overall liking (OL) for cooked steaks] and purchase intent by Hispanic, Asian and U.S. consumers. They also indicated preferred degree of doneness and cooking methods. Cross-cultural differences in preferences and consumer acceptability of rib-eye steaks were observed. Grilling was the most preferred cooking method. Hispanics and Asians preferred medium and/or medium well, while U.S. consumers preferred medium and/or medium rare. For cooked steaks, the population effect was significant for all sensory attributes; Asians generally scored lower than did Hispanics and U.S. consumers. C and S3 generally had higher scores for all sensory attributes across 3 populations. Purchase intent for all forage-finished steaks was higher for Hispanics and U.S. consumers compared to Asians (50.0% to 77.8% compared with 43.2% to 65.9%). Attributes influencing purchase intent of forage-finished steaks differed among populations: tenderness (odds ratio = 1.4) for Hispanics, OCA (odds ratio = 1.5) for Asians, and OBF (odds ratio = 1.3) for U.S. consumers. Overall, this study demonstrated that the type of forage-finished system and ethnic differences influenced sensory acceptability and purchase intent of forage-finished rib-eye steaks. Demand for forage-finished beef has increased worldwide due to its potential health benefits. Little is known regarding the cross-cultural effects on the consumer acceptance of forage-finished beef. We evaluated sensory acceptance and purchase intent of raw and cooked forage-finished rib-eye steaks using Hispanic, Asian, and U.S. (White and African American) populations. This study

  14. Flame retardant finishing of cotton fabric based on synergistic compounds containing boron and nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kongliang; Gao, Aiqin; Zhang, Yongsheng

    2013-10-15

    Boric acid and compound containing nitrogen, 2,4,6-tri[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethyl-ammonium)propyl]-1,3,5-triazine chloride (Tri-HTAC) were used to finish cotton fabric. The flame retardant properties of the finished cotton fabrics and the synergetic effects of boron and nitrogen elements were investigated and evaluated by limited oxygen index (LOI) method. The mechanism of cross-linking reaction among cotton fiber, Tri-HTAC, and boric acid was discussed by FTIR and element analysis. The thermal stability and surface morphology of the finished cotton fabrics were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The finishing system of the mixture containing boron and nitrogen showed excellent synergistic flame retardancy for cotton fabric. The cotton fabric finished with mixture system had excellent flame retardancy. The LOI value of the treated cotton fabric increased over 27.5. Tri-HTAC could form covalent bonds with cellulose fiber and boric acid. The flame retardant cotton fabric showed a slight decrease in tensile strength and whiteness. The surface morphology of flame retardant cotton fiber was smooth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Meat quality of buffaloes finished in traditional or silvopastoral system in the Brazilian Eastern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joele, Maria Rsp; Lourenço, Lúcia Fh; Lourenço Júnior, José B; Araújo, Geisielly S; Budel, Juliana Cc; Garcia, Alexandre R

    2017-04-01

    The present study aimed to assess the physical, chemical and sensory characteristics of meat from buffaloes finished in a Traditional System (TS) or Traditional + Silvopastoral System (TSPS) with dietary supplementation. Crossbred Murrah × Mediterranean buffaloes were raised from weaning to slaughter in the TS (n = 15) or were raised in the traditional system and finished in the TSPS (n = 15). After finishing, animals were slaughtered and their carcasses refrigerated for 24 h. The right side of each half-carcass was cut between the 12th and 13th ribs and the Longissimus thoracis muscle was removed. The cranial part underwent analyses of pH, color, weight loss as a result of cooking, water holding capacity, texture and sensory characteristics, whereas the rest of the muscle underwent microbiological analyses and determination of the chemical composition, fatty acid profile and mineral content. No major difference between finishing systems was found (P > 0.05) in the physical analyses and chemical composition of meat. The percentage of myristic acid (C14:0) and the sum of polyunsaturated fatty acids differed between treatments. The TS meat had the best 'characteristic meat aroma'. Considering the quality of meat produced in the TS or TSPS, it is concluded that finishing buffaloes in the pasture still represents the best alternative. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Surface roughness of microparticulated and nanoparticulated composites after finishing and polishing procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Arai Sadami Shinkai

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluated the surface roughness of one microparticulate resin composite Durafill (Heraeus Kulzer Weihrheim, Germany andfour nanoparticulate resins 4 Seasons (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein Esthet x (Dentsply, Milford, DE, USA, Point 4 and Supreme (3M-ESPE, Dental Products,St. Paul, MN, USA. Methods: After finishing with a diamond bur point (F, and polishing with silicone points of gray, green and pink color Politipit (Ivoclar Vivadent,Schaan, Liechtenstein, four stages of completion were performed, simulating one of finishing and three of polishing a resin restoration. Ten samples of each composite resin were measured for surface roughness with surface profilometer (Mitutoyo Corporation, Tokyo, Japan after each of finishing and polishing sequence.Results: The results showed that nanoparticulate and microparticulate resins presented a significant difference in the surface roughness values, in all finishing and polishing steps. Conclusion: Of the the nanoparticulate resins 4 Seasons (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein, Point 4 (Kerr CO, Orange, CA, USA, and also microparticulate Durafill (Heraeus Kulzer Weihrheim, Germany presented significantly lower surface roughness values after completing all the finishing and polishing stages.

  17. THE CONCEPTUAL APPARATUS OF THE TERM "FINISHED GOODS" AS AN OBJECT OF ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kasich

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article studies scientific approaches to the definition of "finished goods"; properties and various characteristics of the finished goods, which, in the author’s opinion, affect to the term’s wording. identified generalized features of the concept and differences from the executed works and the rendered services. Described the features and the main differences the ways of production of finished goods in certain economy’s sectors and proved the necessity of taking into account the specific features during the approach to the concept of "finished goods" in various industries. Analyzed the common and distinctive features of international and national standards for the accounting of inventory, because in the conditions of globalization becomes important the necessity of their identity. investigated the components of enterprise accounting policies, such as evaluation of reserves and write-offs on trade, applied in different countries of the world, revealed a basic discrepancy, namely, the use of LiFO method, which is prohibited for use in Ukraine, which, however, is used almost in all the considered countries. On the basis of the conducted research the author’s definition of "finished goods".

  18. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, October 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J. F.; Johnson, W. E.; Reinker, P. H.; Warren, J. H.; McCullugh, R. W.; Harmon, M. K.; Gartin, W. J.; LaFollette, T. G.; Shaw, H. P.; Frank, W. S.; Grim, K. G.; Warren, J. H.

    1963-11-21

    This report, for October 1963 from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; employee relations; weapons manufacturing operation; and safety and security.

  19. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, June 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-07-22

    This report for June 1958, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; and employee relations.

  20. Chemical Processing Division monthly report, November 1966

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, P.E.

    1966-12-21

    This report, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO for November 1966, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; and employee-relations, and waste management.

  1. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, March 1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1961-04-21

    This report for March 1961, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance: Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; and employee relations.

  2. Chemical Processing Division monthly report, January 1966

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, P.E.

    1966-02-21

    This report, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO for January 1966, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; and employee relations.

  3. DEACTIVATION AND DECOMMISSIONING ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY FOR THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT COMPLEX, HANFORD NUCLEAR RESERVATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, A.M.; Heineman, R.; Norton, S.; Miller, M.; Oates, L.

    2003-01-01

    Maintaining compliance with environmental regulatory requirements is a significant priority in successful completion of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Nuclear Material Stabilization (NMS) Project. To ensure regulatory compliance throughout the deactivation and decommissioning of the PFP complex, an environmental regulatory strategy was developed. The overall goal of this strategy is to comply with all applicable environmental laws and regulations and/or compliance agreements during PFP stabilization, deactivation, and eventual dismantlement. Significant environmental drivers for the PFP Nuclear Material Stabilization Project include the Tri-Party Agreement; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA); the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA); the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA); the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA); the Clean Air Act (CAA), and the Clean Water Act (CWA). Recent TPA negotiation s with Ecology and EPA have resulted in milestones that support the use of CERCLA as the primary statutory framework for decommissioning PFP. Milestones have been negotiated to support the preparation of Engineering Evaluations/Cost Analyses for decommissioning major PFP buildings. Specifically, CERCLA EE/CA(s) are anticipated for the following scopes of work: Settling Tank 241-Z-361, the 232-Z Incinerator, , the process facilities (eg, 234-5Z, 242, 236) and the process facility support buildings. These CERCLA EE/CA(s) are for the purpose of analyzing the appropriateness of the slab-on-grade endpoint Additionally, agreement was reached on performing an evaluation of actions necessary to address below-grade structures or other structures remaining after completion of the decommissioning of PFP. Remaining CERCLA actions will be integrated with other Central Plateau activities at the Hanford site

  4. Characterisation of the joining zone of serially arranged hybrid semi-finished components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, B.-A.; Chugreev, A.; Matthias, T.

    2018-05-01

    Forming of already joined semi-finished products is an innovative approach to manufacture components which are well-adapted to external loads. This approach results in an economically and ecologically improved production by the targeted use of high-quality materials in component areas, which undergo high stresses. One possible production method for hybrid semi-finished products is friction welding. This welding method allows for the production of hybrid semi-finished products made of aluminium and steel as well as steel and steel. In this paper, the thermomechanical tensile and shear stresses causing a failure of the joined zone are experimentally determined through tension tests. These tests are performed with specimens whose joint zones are aligned with different angles to the load direction.

  5. EFFECT OF ARTIFICIAL WEATHERING ON WOOD LAMINATES COLOR TREATED WITH TWO FINISHING PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Jacob Mendes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Weathering is one of the main reasons for the degradation of wood, especially its color. The application of finishes minimizes these effects. This study aimed to monitor the effect of artificial weathering on wood veneer of the species cumaru (Dipteryx odorata and pau marfim (Balfourodendron riedelianum with two finishes, the marine varnish and Cetol, with monitoring using a spectrophotometer. The samples were subjected to cycles of exposure to weathering for 20, 40, 52, 76, 124, 226, 430, 838 and 960 hours. The colorimetric parameters (L*, a*, b*, C and h* were measured before treatment, after application of the products and during the weathering time intervals. The application of finishes darkened veneer of cumaru wood and pau marfim in nature. However, in higher weathering times, both species returned to a lighter color, and even became lighter than the natural wood. The use of Cetol was more efficient, giving greater stability in the conservation of wood color of the species studied.

  6. Demonstration of acid and water recovery systems: Applicability and operational challenges in Indian metal finishing SMEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, M; Batra, R; Batra, V S; Chandramouli, G; Choudhury, D; Hälbig, T; Ivashechkin, P; Jain, J; Mandava, K; Mense, N; Nehra, V; Rögener, F; Sartor, M; Singh, V; Srinivasan, M R; Tewari, P K

    2018-07-01

    Diffusion dialysis, acid retardation and nanofiltration plants were acquired from Europe and demonstrated in several Indian metal finishing companies over a three year period. These companies are primarily small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Free acid recovery rate from spent pickling baths using diffusion dialysis and retardation was in the range of 78-86% and 30-70% respectively. With nanofiltration, 80% recovery rate of rinse water was obtained. The demonstrations created awareness among the metal finishing companies to reuse resources (acid/water) from the effluent streams. However, lack of efficient oil separators, reliable chemical analysis and trained personnel as well as high investment cost limit the application of these technologies. Local manufacturing, plant customization and centralized treatment are likely to encourage the uptake of such technologies in the Indian metal finishing sector. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The association between disease and profitability in individual finishing boars at a test station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Birk; Baadsgaard, Niels Peter; Houe, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Endemic diseases in finisher herds are considered to be costly for the pig producer. We investigated the effect of diseases on the profit margin using data from a Danish boar test station (n = 5777) collected from July 2002 to December 2004. Boars reaching a target slaughter weight of at least 80...... kg were included in the study. Oral and parenteral treatments were used as indicator of disease in the finishing period and, pathological lesions were used as indicator of disease at slaughter. Profit margin was calculated individually for each boar as the difference between the total revenue......: profit margin. The results showed that treatment in the finishing period had a negative effect on the profit margin. According to the least square means estimates, boars that were treated parenterally had a reduction in the profit margin of 2.24 €. This corresponded to a reduction in the profit margin...

  8. Improvements in Sand Mold/Core Technology: Effects on Casting Finish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prof. John J. Lannutti; Prof. Carroll E. Mobley

    2005-08-30

    In this study, the development and impact of density gradients on metal castings were investigated using sand molds/cores from both industry and from in-house production. In spite of the size of the castings market, almost no quantitative information about density variation within the molds/cores themselves is available. In particular, a predictive understanding of how structure and binder content/chemistry/mixing contribute to the final surface finish of these products does not exist. In this program we attempted to bridge this gap by working directly with domestic companies in examining the issues of surface finish and thermal reclamation costs resulting from the use of sand molds/cores. We show that these can be substantially reduced by the development of an in-depth understanding of density variations that correlate to surface finish. Our experimental tools and our experience with them made us uniquely qualified to achieve technical progress.

  9. Effects of surface finish and mechanical training on Ni-Ti sheets for elastocaloric cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Engelbrecht

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Elastocaloric cooling has emerged as a promising alternative to vapor compression in recent years. Although the technology has the potential to be more efficient than current technologies, there are many technical challenges that must be overcome to realize devices with high performance and acceptable durability. We study the effects of surface finish and training techniques on dog bone shaped polycrystalline samples of NiTi. The fatigue life of several samples with four different surface finishes was measured and it was shown that a smooth surface, especially at the edges, greatly improved fatigue life. The effects of training both on the structure of the materials and the thermal response to an applied strain was studied. The load profile for the first few cycles was shown to change the thermal response to strain, the structure of the material at failure while the final structure of the material was weakly influenced by the surface finish.

  10. Effects of Wet and Dry Finishing and Polishing on Surface Roughness and Microhardness of Composite Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasoohi, Negin; Hoorizad, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to assess the effect of wet and dry finishing and polishing on microhardness and roughness of microhybrid and nanohybrid composites. Materials and Methods: Thirty samples were fabricated of each of the Polofil Supra and Aelite Aesthetic All-Purpose Body microhybrid and Grandio and Aelite Aesthetic Enamel nanohybrid composite resins. Each group (n=30) was divided into three subgroups of D, W and C (n=10). Finishing and polishing were performed dry in group D and under water coolant in group W. Group C served as the control group and did not receive finishing and polishing. Surface roughness of samples was measured by a profilometer and their hardness was measured by a Vickers hardness tester. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA (Pcomposites (Pcomposites (Pcomposites (Pcomposite resins. PMID:29104597

  11. Comparison of two feeding finishing treatments on production and quality of organic beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Cozzi

    Full Text Available The study compared growth and slaughter performance and meat quality of organic beef cattle finished with or without pasture grazing. One group of 10 Limousin heifers was finished under confined conditions and fed ad libitum a total mixed ration based on maize silage, hay and cereal grains. A second group of 10 Limousin heifers rotationally grazed two contiguous pasture plots of 1.5 ha each with a daily supplementation of a concentrate mix based on cereal grains and roasted soybeans. Heifers were slaughtered at commercial finishing and meat quality traits were assessed on Longissimus thoracis muscle. The grazing group, due to a lower average daily gain (0.74 vs. 0.95 kg/day; P<0.05, required a prolonged finishing period (172 vs. 155 days; P<0.05 than the confined animals. Meat samples from grazing cattle were less tender (shear force: 3.92 vs. 3.24 kg/cm2; P<0.05 and showed a lower lightness (L*: 33.0 vs. 35.8; P<0.001 and a higher redness (15.4 vs. 13.7; P<0.01 and yellowness (15.6 vs. 14.6; P<0.05. Fatty acid composition of the intramuscular fat was significantly affected by the finishing system. Grazing heifers had a higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (4.06 vs. 3.66% of total fatty acids; P<0.05, conjugated linoleic acids (0.16 vs. 0.10% of total fatty acids; P<0.01 and ω-3 (0.44 vs. 0.30% of total fatty acids; P<0.001 than confined animals. The detrimental effects of pasture grazing on growth performance and on some important meat quality traits explain the limited adoption of this finishing system in organic beef production.

  12. Influence of Finishing and Polishing Techniques and Abrasion on Transmittance and Roughness of Composite Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Pma; Ramos, T M; de Azevedo, C S; de Lima, E; de Souza, Shj; Turbino, M L; Cesar, P F; Matos, A B

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of finishing and polishing systems and toothbrush abrasion on transmittance (T) and surface roughness (Ra) of three composite resins (Filtek Z350 XT, Tetric N-Ceram, and IPS Empress Direct). Eighteen resin disks (10 mm diameter × 2 mm thick) finished by polyester strips had initial surface smoothness recorded, representing phase 1 (P1). Specimens were divided into three groups (n=6) according to the finishing/polishing instrument used (OneGloss, TopGloss, and Sof-Lex) to compose phase 2 samples (P2). Then specimens were subjected to 514 cycles of toothbrush simulation using a toothpaste slurry, with a constant load applied to soft bristles, and were then washed (phase 3=P3). After each phase, the specimens were examined by an optical profiler and spectrophotometer to measure Ra and T. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance, Tukey and Pearson tests. T values were statistically influenced by composite resin ( p=0.000) and phase of measurement ( p=0.000) factors, while the finishing/polishing system used ( p=0.741) did not affect T. On the other hand, Ra values were statistically affected by the factor finishing/polishing system ( p=0.000), but not by composite resin ( p=0.100) and phase of measurement ( p=0.451). Tetric N-Ceram and Empress Direct presented higher values of roughness when polished by OneGloss, while TopGloss and Sof-Lex showed a lower roughness. It can be concluded that composite resins transmitted more light after dental abrasion. Transmittance of composite resins was not modified by the distinct roughness created by finishing/polishing instruments.

  13. Surface texture of resin-modified glass ionomer cements: effects of finishing/polishing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Adrian U J; Tan, W S; Yeo, J C; Yap, W Y; Ong, S B

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the surface texture of two resin-modified glass ionomer cements (RMGICs) in the vertical and horizontal axis after treatment with different finishing/polishing systems. Class V preparations were made on the buccal and lingual/palatal surfaces of freshly extracted teeth. The cavities on each tooth were restored with Fuji II LC (GC) and Photac-Fil Quick (ESPE) according to manufacturers' instructions. Immediately after light-polymerization, gross finishing was done with 8-flute tungsten carbide burs. The teeth were then randomly divided into four groups and finished/polished with (a) Robot Carbides (RC); (b) Super-Snap system (SS); (c) OneGloss (OG) and (d) CompoSite Points (CS). The sample size for each material-finishing/polishing system combination was eight. The mean surface roughness (microm) in vertical (RaV) and horizontal (RaH) axis was measured using a profilometer. Data was subjected to ANOVA/Scheffe's tests and Independent Samples t-test at significance level 0.05. Mean RaV ranged from 0.59-1.31 and 0.83-1.52, while mean RaH ranged from 0.80-1.43 and 0.85-1.58 for Fuji II LC and Photac-Fil, respectively. Results of statistical analysis were as follows: Fuji II LC: RaV-RC, SSfinished with RC. The use of carbides (RC) and one-step rubber abrasive system (OG) for finishing/polishing of RMGICs is not recommended. Graded abrasive disk (SS) or two-step rubber abrasive (CS) systems should be used instead.

  14. Effects of finishing diet and pre-slaughter fasting time on meat quality in crossbred pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. PARTANEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the carbohydrate composition of finishing diet (fed from 80 to 107 kg of body weight and the length of pre-slaughter fasting on pork quality were studied in a 2 × 2 factorial experiment with 80 crossbred pigs. The control finishing diet was based on barley and soybean meal, and the fibrous finishing diet was based on barley, barley fibre, faba beans, and rapeseed cake. These diets contained 465 and 362 g starch and 177 and 250 g dietary fibre per kg, respectively. The fasting times of 25 and 41 h were obtained by giving the pigs their last meal at different times. Longer fasting lowered the glycolytic potential of the longissimus lumborum muscle (P = 0.01, whereas the finishing diet had no effect. Different muscles responded differently to the treatments. Longer fasting increased the ultimate pH of the semimembranosus muscle (P = 0.02, but did not affect that of the longissimus lumborum and semispinalis capitis muscles. The finishing diets did not affect the ultimate pH of the investigated muscles. A diet × fasting time interaction was seen in the lightness of the semimembranosus muscle (P = 0.05. The fibrous diet resulted in darker meat than the control diet did in pigs that were fasted for 25 h (P < 0.05. Longer fasting darkened the meat colour in pigs fed the fibrous diet (P < 0.05 but not in those fed the control diet. The meat from the semispinalis capitis muscle was darker in pigs fed the fibrous than those fed the control diet (P = 0.04. The treatments did not affect the colour of the longissimus lumborum muscle. Longer fasting decreased drip loss from the meat of pigs fed the control diet (P < 0.05. The eating quality of the pork was not influenced by the finishing diets or the fasting time. The pigs also grew equally fast on both finishing diets. In conclusion, a moderate alteration in the carbohydrate composition of a finishing diet or longer pre-slaughter fasting can have some effects on pork quality in crossbred pigs

  15. IAQ performance of interior finishing products and the role of LCA

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ampofo-Anti, N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available of interior finishing products to be more performance-oriented, where performance is defined in terms of the life cycle human health effects 4 . 3.0 LCA – the science-based tool Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a science-based tool which is designed... of interior finishing products and the role of LCA Naalamkai Ampofo-Anti, Senior Researcher, CSIR 1.0 Introduction The environmental rating and certification of products is a voluntary, market-based response by industry and business to the consumer’s...

  16. Pengaruh Berbagai Jenis Bahan Litter terhadap Kualitas Litter Broiler Fase Finisher di Closed House

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwi Metasari; Dian Septinova; Veronica Wanniatie

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to 1) determine the effect of the use of rice husk, wood shavings,rice straw as litter material on litter quality for broiler during the finisher phase in closed house, 2)determine the best type of litter material on litter quality for broiler during the finisher phase in closedhouse. The duration of the research was 26 days. The research was started from 15 April to 10 May2014 in the closed house owned by PT. Rama Jaya Lampung Krawang Sari Village, the District o...

  17. Effects of surface finish and mechanical training on Ni-Ti sheets for elastocaloric cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrecht, Kurt; Tusek, Jaka; Sanna, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Elastocaloric cooling has emerged as a promising alternative to vapor compression in recent years. Although the technology has the potential to be more efficient than current technologies, there are many technical challenges that must be overcome to realize devices with high performance...... and acceptable durability. We study the effects of surface finish and training techniques on dog bone shaped polycrystalline samples of NiTi. The fatigue life of several samples with four different surface finishes was measured and it was shown that a smooth surface, especially at the edges, greatly improved...

  18. Study of the effect of tribo-materials and surface finish on the lubricant performance of new halogen-free room temperature ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurín, N.; Minami, I.; Sanes, J.; Bermúdez, M. D.

    2016-03-01

    The present work evaluates different materials and surface finish in the presence of newly designed, hydrophobic halogen-free room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) as lubricants. A reciprocating tribo-tester was employed with steel-ceramic and steel-thermosetting epoxy resin contacts under boundary lubrication conditions. Four different tetraalkylphosphonium organosilanesulfonate RTILs provided excellent lubricating performance, with friction coefficients as low as 0.057, and non-measurable wear for the higher roughness machine-finish stainless steel flat against sapphire balls, in the case of the lubricants containing the 2-trimethylsilylethanesulfonate anion. Higher friction coefficients of the order of 0.1 and wear volumes of the order of 10-4 mm3 were observed for the lower roughness fine-finished flat stainless steel surface. All RTILs prevent wear of epoxy resin against stainless steel balls, with friction coefficients in the range of 0.03-0.06. EDX analysis shows the presence of RTILs on the stainless steel surfaces after the tribological tests. Under the experimental conditions, no corrosive processes were observed.

  19. Effects of PCB Pad Metal Finishes on the Cu-Pillar/Sn-Ag Micro Bump Joint Reliability of Chip-on-Board (COB) Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngsoon; Lee, Seyong; Shin, Ji-won; Paik, Kyung-Wook

    2016-06-01

    While solder bumps have been used as the bump structure to form the interconnection during the last few decades, the continuing scaling down of devices has led to a change in the bump structure to Cu-pillar/Sn-Ag micro-bumps. Cu-pillar/Sn-Ag micro-bump interconnections differ from conventional solder bump interconnections in terms of their assembly processing and reliability. A thermo-compression bonding method with pre-applied b-stage non-conductive films has been adopted to form solder joints between Cu pillar/Sn-Ag micro bumps and printed circuit board vehicles, using various pad metal finishes. As a result, various interfacial inter-metallic compounds (IMCs) reactions and stress concentrations occur at the Cu pillar/Sn-Ag micro bumps joints. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the influence of pad metal finishes on the structural reliability of fine pitch Cu pillar/Sn-Ag micro bumps flip chip packaging. In this study, four different pad surface finishes (Thin Ni ENEPIG, OSP, ENEPIG, ENIG) were evaluated in terms of their interconnection reliability by thermal cycle (T/C) test up to 2000 cycles at temperatures ranging from -55°C to 125°C and high-temperature storage test up to 1000 h at 150°C. The contact resistances of the Cu pillar/Sn-Ag micro bump showed significant differences after the T/C reliability test in the following order: thin Ni ENEPIG > OSP > ENEPIG where the thin Ni ENEPIG pad metal finish provided the best Cu pillar/Sn-Ag micro bump interconnection in terms of bump joint reliability. Various IMCs formed between the bump joint areas can account for the main failure mechanism.

  20. Effect of Binder and Mold parameters on Collapsibility and Surface Finish of Gray Cast Iron No-bake Sand Molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasulu Reddy, K.; Venkata Reddy, Vajrala; Mandava, Ravi Kumar

    2017-08-01

    Chemically bonded no-bake molds and cores have good mechanical properties and produce dimensionally accurate castings compared to green sand molds. Poor collapsibility property of CO2 hardened sodium silicate bonded sand mold and phenolic urethane no-bake (PUN) binder system, made the reclamation of the sands more important. In the present work fine silica sand is mixed with phenolic urethane no-bake binder and the sand sets in a very short time within few minutes. In this paper it is focused on optimizing the process parameters of PUN binder based sand castings for better collapsibility and surface finish of gray cast iron using Taguchi design. The findings were successfully verified through experiments.

  1. Metal finishing and vacuum processes groups, Materials Fabrication Division progress report, March-May 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Romo, J.G.; Jones, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    Progress is reported in fabrication and coating activities being conducted for the weapons program, nuclear test program, nuclear design program, magnetic fusion program, and miscellaneous applications

  2. Nano finish grinding of brittle materials using electrolytic in-process ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Recent developments in grinding have opened up new avenues for finishing of hard and brittle materials with nano-surface finish, high tolerance and accuracy. Grinding with superabrasive wheels is an excellent way to produce ultraprecision surface finish. However, superabrasive diamond grits need ...

  3. Combined advanced finishing and UV laser conditioning process for producing damage resistant optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menapace, Joseph A.; Peterson, John E.; Penetrante, Bernardino M.; Miller, Philip E.; Parham, Thomas G.; Nichols, Michael A.

    2005-07-26

    A method for reducing the density of sites on the surface of fused silica optics that are prone to the initiation of laser-induced damage, resulting in optics which have far fewer catastrophic defects, and are better capable of resisting optical deterioration upon exposure to a high-power laser beam.

  4. 21 CFR 106.30 - Finished product evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... degradation; and (ii) All nutrients not previously analyzed for by the manufacturers, unless each in-process... specified in § 106.20(b). No analyses are needed for linoleic acid, vitamin D, vitamin K, choline, inositol... maintenance of nutrient content throughout the shelf life of the product. (c) The manufacturer shall evaluate...

  5. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Carpentry. Course: Finish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland, Lyle

    One of two individualized courses included in a carpentry curriculum, this course is structured to provide the information, procedures, and experiences to complete the carpentry requirements following the framing operation. The course is comprised of five units: (1) Machine Processes, (2) Exterior Wall Coverings and Cornice, (3) Windows and Trim,…

  6. Thecomposition of semi finished inventories at a solid board plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, Henrico L.T.; Gaalman, Gerard J.C.; Sierksma, Gerard

    2001-01-01

    A solid board factory produces rectangular sheets of cardboard in two different formats, namely large formats and small formats. The production process consists of two stages separated by an inventory point. In the first stage a cardboard machine produces the large formats. In the second stage a

  7. Poultry offal ensiled with lactobacillus acidophilus for growing and finishing swine diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbetts, G W; Seerley, R W; McCampbell, H C

    1987-01-01

    Poultry offal (heads, feet, viscera) from a broiler processing plant was ground and mixed with corn, dried molasses and a Lactobacillus acidophilus culture. Fermentation was shown to be effective in batch sizes of 3.8, 75.7 and 208.1 liters, as well as a 1,360-kg silo. It was generally complete at 72 h. In trial 1, rats were fed silage mixtures of 60:30:5:5, 45:45:5:5 and 30:60:5:5, offal, corn, molasses and inoculant, respectively. Rats did not gain as well when fed the silage diets (P less than .05) as when fed the basal diet; however, the ranking of silages was 45:45, 60:30 and 30:60, offal-to-corn ratio for rat daily gains and feed conversions. In trial 2, growing-finishing pigs were fed the 60:30:5:5 silage at rates of 0, 10, 20 and 30% of the diet. Average daily gains and feed-to-gain ratios were not affected by including offal silage at up to 20% of the diet, but 30% offal silage in diets resulted in depressed gains (P less than .05) and increased feed-to-gain ratios. Carcasses were not different among treatments for dressing percentage, length, average backfat and percentage of ham, loin, shoulder, lean cuts and primal cuts. Carcasses from pigs fed 20 and 30% offal silage had significantly darker and firmer loin-eyes than those from control fed pigs. Marbling was higher (P less than .05) in loin-eyes from pigs fed 30% offal silage as compared with those from pigs fed 0% offal silage.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Study of plaster finishes on San Pedro de los Francos church at Calatayud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez de Rojas, Mª I

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study of the plaster finishes on San Pedro de los Francos Church at Calatayud revealed, firstly, the stratigraphic sequence based on the interpretation of the bonding interfaces; and secondly, the evolution of placement techniques from mudéjar style textured and painted false stonework (15th century to the smooth plastering and paint typical of later phases. Finally, scanning electron microscope (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX and X-ray diffraction (XRD studies showed that gypsum and anhydrite are the main components of both binder and aggregate in these mortars. In other words, they constitute traditional multiphase plasters whose coarser particles or aggregate were a byproduct of the artisanal manufacturing process.El estudio de los enlucidos de la iglesia de San Pedro de los Francos de Calatayud ha permitido demostrar, en primer lugar, la secuencia estratigráfica mediante la lectura de la interfase de adherencia; en segundo lugar, la evolución de las técnicas de aplicación, desde el enlucido mudéjar, un fingido de piedra agramilado y pintado (siglo XV, hasta los enlucidos lisos y pinturas aplicados posteriormente. Y, finalmente, a través de los estudios de microscopía electrónica de barrido (SEM, microanálisis por energía dispersiva de rayos X (EDX y de difracción de rayos X (DRX, se ha determinado que son morteros en los que tanto el conglomerante como el árido son yeso y anhidrita, que correspondería a un yeso tradicional multifase, cuyos granos más gruesos analizados como áridos proceden del producto obtenido artesanalmente.

  9. The association between measurements of antimicrobial use and resistance in the faeces microbiota of finisher batches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, V D; DE Knegt, L V; Munk, P; Jensen, M S; Agersø, Y; Aarestrup, F M; Vigre, H

    2017-10-01

    The objectives were to present three approaches for calculating antimicrobial (AM) use in pigs that take into account the rearing period and rearing site, and to study the association between these measurements and phenotypical resistance and abundance of resistance genes in faeces samples from 10 finisher batches. The AM use was calculated relative to the rearing period of the batches as (i) 'Finisher Unit Exposure' at unit level, (ii) 'Lifetime Exposure' at batch level and (iii) 'Herd Exposure' at herd level. A significant effect on the occurrence of tetracycline resistance measured by cultivation was identified for Lifetime Exposure for the AM class: tetracycline. Furthermore, for Lifetime Exposure for the AM classes: macrolide, broad-spectrum penicillin, sulfonamide and tetracycline use as well as Herd Unit Exposure for the AM classes: aminoglycoside, lincosamide and tetracycline use, a significant effect was observed on the occurrence of genes coding for the AM resistance classes: aminoglycoside, lincosamide, macrolide, β-lactam, sulfonamide and tetracycline. No effect was observed for Finisher Unit Exposure. Overall, the study shows that Lifetime Exposure is an efficient measurement of AM use in finisher batches, and has a significant effect on the occurrence of resistance, measured either by cultivation or metagenomics.

  10. 46 CFR 116.422 - Ceilings, linings, trim, interior finish and decorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... specified by the Commandant; or (2) Listed by Underwriters Laboratories, does not exceed 2 millimeters (.075...) or UL 723 by an independent laboratory. (c) Bulkheads, linings, and ceilings in high risk... reasonable number of coats of paint or with a marine finish meeting the requirements of § 164.012 in...

  11. Microgel-based surface modifying system for stimuli-responsive functional finishing of cotton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulkarni, A.N.; Tourrette, A.; Warmoeskerken, Marinus; Jocic, D.

    2010-01-01

    An innovative strategy for functional finishing of textile materials is based on the incorporation of a thin layer of surface modifying systems (SMS) in the form of stimuli-sensitive microgels or hydrogels. Since the copolymerization of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) with an ionizable polymer, such as

  12. Wheat-straw as roughage component in finishing diets of growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wheat-straw as roughage component in finishing diets of growing lambs. TS Brand, SWP Cloete, F Franck, GD van der Merwe. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  13. Heterogeneity among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Italian pig finishing holdings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battisti, A.; Franco, A.; Merialdi, G.

    2010-01-01

    A survey for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in finishing pig holdings was carried out in Italy in 2008. MRSA isolates were characterised by spa-. SCCmec- and antimicrobial susceptibility typing. A prevalence of 38% (45/118, 95% CI 29.4-46.9%) positive holdings was observed...

  14. Evaluation of marginal fit of two all-ceramic copings with two finish lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasi, Gulce; Ozturk, Nilgun; Inan, Ozgur; Bozogullari, Nalan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This in-vitro study investigated the marginal fit of two all-ceramic copings with 2 finish line designs. Methods: Forty machined stainless steel molar die models with two different margin designs (chamfer and rounded shoulder) were prepared. A total of 40 standardized copings were fabricated and divided into 4 groups (n=10 for each finish line-coping material). Coping materials tested were IPS e.max Press and Zirkonzahn; luting agent was Variolink II. Marginal fit was evaluated after cementation with a stereomicroscope (Leica MZ16). Two-way analysis of variance and Tukey-HSD test were performed to assess the influence of each finish line design and ceramic type on the marginal fit of 2 all-ceramic copings (α =.05). Results: Two-way analysis of variance revealed no statistically significant differences for marginal fit relative to finish lines (P=.362) and ceramic types (P=.065). Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, both types of all-ceramic copings demonstrated that the mean marginal fit was considered acceptable for clinical application (⩽120 μm). PMID:22509119

  15. Fungi as the main factor in the degradation of the floor finish „Lentex"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Milewska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The mycological analysis of samples of the floor finish Lentex was performed. The isolation layer from natural fibers and the outer layer of polyvinyl chloride (PVC were analyzed. The mechanism of infection of this material by soil fungi was determined and a considerable risk to human health from thc isolated species was found.

  16. A transcript finishing initiative for closing gaps in the human transcriptome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sogayar, Mari Cleide; Camargo, Anamaria A; Bettoni, Fabiana

    2004-01-01

    We report the results of a transcript finishing initiative, undertaken for the purpose of identifying and characterizing novel human transcripts, in which RT-PCR was used to bridge gaps between paired EST clusters, mapped against the genomic sequence. Each pair of EST clusters selected...

  17. Energy costs of feeding excess protein from corn-based byproducts to finishing cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increased use of byproducts in finishing diets leads to diets that contain greater concentrations of CP and MP than required by cattle. The hypothesis was that excess dietary CP and MP would increase maintenance energy requirments due to the energy costs of removing excess N as urea in urine. ...

  18. POTENTIAL USE OF COLLAGEN HYDROLYSATES FROM CHAMOIS LEATHER WASTE AS INGREDIENT IN LEATHER FINISHING FORMULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPA Emil

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the obtaining of value-added products from the dust resulted from chamois leather buffering, a solid waste that raises serious disposal problems, due to its physical state and complex chemical composition. Starting from leather waste, an alkaline hydrolysis was performed followed by the chemical modification of the polypeptyde hydrolysate by polycondensation with dispersions of copolymers of vinyl acetate with acrylic esters and reticulation with glutaraldehyde in order to improve its hydrophobicity. The resulted product can be used/was tested as an ingredient in leather finishing formulations, as binder or carrier agent. In this paper, new finishing mixtures were prepared using pigments and obtained polypeptide hydrolysates as a substitute for casein in pigment pastes. By this method, there were obtained two experimental variants of brown and black pigment pastes which were compared to the pigment pastes with casein binder. Natural grain Box bovine leather samples coated with such admixtures were subjected to physico-mechanical resistance tests, in accordance with the standardized methods. Specific tests carried on finished leather – tensile strength, tear resistance, resistance to grain cracking, dry and wet rubbing fastness, flexural fatigue strength test, etc – showed values of this characteristics comparable to those obtained with casein conventional finishing.

  19. Effects of surface finishing conditions on the biocompatibility of a nickel-chromium dental casting alloy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGinley, Emma Louise

    2011-07-01

    To assess the effects of surface finishing condition (polished or alumina particle air abraded) on the biocompatibility of direct and indirect exposure to a nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) d.Sign®10 dental casting alloy on oral keratinocytes. Biocompatibility was performed by assessing cellular viability and morphology, metabolic activity, cellular toxicity and presence of inflammatory cytokine markers.

  20. Evaluation of Kola-Pod Husk Meal in Broiler Finisher Diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria is the world's largest producer of kola nut. The pod husk, which constitutes over 50% of the kola fruit, has been a farm waste to date. Its crude protein content which is similar to that of maize suggests that it is possible to partially replace maize with pod husk meal (KPHM) in broiler finisher diets. In this study, KPHM ...

  1. The performance of broiler finisher birds fed varying levels of feather ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of broiler finisher birds fed varying levels of feather meal as replacement for soya bean meal. ... meal increased, feed cost/ kg weight gain increased and both differed significantly (P<0.05) between treatment means, while the birds tolerated feather meal up to 7.5% inclusion level, 2.5% was the optimal.

  2. Efficacy of XP-endo Finisher File in Removing Calcium Hydroxide from Simulated Internal Resorption Cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Cangül; Sariyilmaz, Evren; Sariyilmaz, Öznur

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementary use of XP-endo Finisher file, passive ultrasonic activation (PUI), EndoActivator (EA), and CanalBrush (CB) on the removal of calcium hydroxide (CH) paste from simulated internal resorption cavities. The root canals of 110 extracted single-rooted teeth with straight canals were prepared up to size 50. The specimens were split longitudinally, and standardized internal resorption cavities were prepared with burs. The cavities and root canals were filled with CH paste. The specimens were divided into 5 groups as follows: XP-endo Finisher, EA, PUI, CB, and syringe irrigation (SI). The root canals were irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA for 2 minutes, respectively. Apart from the SI group, both solutions were activated by using tested techniques for 1 minute. The quantity of CH remnants on resorption cavities was scored. Data were analyzed by using Kruskal-Wallis H and Mann-Whitney U tests. XP-endo Finisher and PUI removed significantly more CH than SI, EA, and CB (P  .05). Differences among SI, EA, and CB were also non-significant (P > .05). None of the tested techniques render the simulated internal resorption cavities free of CH debris. XP-endo Finisher and PUI were superior to SI, CB, and EA. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. ANTIMICROBIAL REAGENTS AS FUNCTIONAL FINISHING FOR TEXTILES INTENDED FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS. I. SYNTHETIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Zanoaga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article offers an overview of some contemporary antimicrobial (biocides and biostatics agents used as functional finishing for textiles intended for biomedical applications. It reviews only synthetic agents, namely quaternary ammonium compounds, halogenated phenols, polybiguanides, N-halamines, and renewable peroxides, as a part of an extensive study currently in progress.

  4. Wheat-straw as roughage component in finishing diets of growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to use wheat-straw in diets, this study was conducted (i) to determine the degree whereto the inclusion of wheat-straw in finishing diets for lambs affected digestibility, N retention and animal performance, and (ii) to evaluate ammoniated wheat straw as roughage component in a balanced diet, containing. >60% concentrates ...

  5. Surface-finish effects on the high-cycle fatigue of Alloy 718

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korth, G.E.

    1981-06-01

    Alloy 718 us a precipitation-hardening nickel-base superalloy that is being specified for various components for liquid-meal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs). This alloy maintains high strength at elevated temperatures making it a desirable structural material. But the property that justifies most LMFBR applications is the alloy's resistance to thermal striping damage due to its high fatigue endurance strength. Thermal striping is a high-cycle fatigue phenomenon caused by thermal stresses from the fluctuating mixing action of sodium streams of differing temperatures impinging on the metal surfaces. Most of the design data is generated from laboratory fatigue specimens with carefully controlled surface finishes prepared with a low-stress grind and buffed to a surface finish 8--12 in. Since Alloy 718 has been shown to be quite notch sensitive under cyclic loading, the detrimental effect on the high-cycle fatigue properties caused by shop surface finishes of actual components has been questioned. This report examines some of the surface finishes that could be produced in a commercial shop on an actual component

  6. Dietary protein affects nitrogen excretion and ammonia emission from slurry of growing-finishing pigs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canh, T.T.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Schutte, J.B.; Sutton, A.L.; Langhout, D.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of dietary protein on nitrogen excretion and ammonia emission from slurry of growing–finishing pigs were studied both in vitro and in a pig house. The three diets had similar contents of NE, minerals, vitamins and ileal digestible lysine, methionine cystine, threonine and tryptophan, but

  7. Dietary protein affects nitrogen excretion and ammonia emission from slurry of growing-finishing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canh, T.T.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Schutte, J.B.; Sutton, A.; Langhout, D.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of dietary protein on nitrogen excretion and ammonia emission from slurry of growing-finishing pigs were studied both in vitro and in a pig house. The three diets had similar contents of NE, minerals, vitamins and ileal digestible lysine, methionine + cystine, threonine and tryptophan,

  8. Management Characteristics of Grass-finished Beef Operations in the Northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    An online survey of self-identified grass-finished beef producers was conducted throughout the Northeast region along with several farm visits. Seventy acceptable records from producers in Delaware, Maine, Massachusetts, Maryland, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Vermont, and West ...

  9. Surface roughness and hardness of a composite resin: influence of finishing and polishing and immersion methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luísa Botta Martins de Oliveira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the finishing and polishing effect on the surface roughness and hardness of the Filtek Supreme XT, in fluoride solutions. Specimens were prepared (n = 140 with half of the samples finished and polished with Super-Snap® disks. The experimental groups were divided according to the presence or absence of finishing and polishing and immersion solutions (artificial saliva, sodium fluoride solution at 0.05% - manipulated, Fluordent Reach, Oral B, Fluorgard. The specimens remained immersed in artificial saliva for 24 hours and were then subjected to initial analysis (baseline of surface roughness and Vickers microhardness. Next, they were immersed in different fluoride solutions for 1 min/day, for 60 days. Afterwards, a new surface roughness and microhardness reading was conducted. The data were submitted to a two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (5% significance level. For the comparison of mean roughness and hardness at baseline and after 60 days, the paired Student t test was used. The results showed that the surface roughness and microhardness of the Filtek Supreme XT were influenced by the finishing and polishing procedure, independently of the immersion methods.

  10. 29 CFR 1910.107 - Spray finishing using flammable and combustible materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... drying apparatus and electrical connections and wiring thereto shall not be located within spray... apparatus, the drying apparatus, and the ventilating system of the spray enclosure shall be equipped with... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Spray finishing using flammable and combustible materials...

  11. Finishes checklist : a guide to achieving optimum coating performance on exterior wood surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony Bonura; Steve Bussjeager; Lynne Christensen; George Daisey; Tom Daniels; Mark Hirsch; Charles J. Jourdain; D. Douglas Mall; Bob Springate; Louis E. Wagner; Warren Harry; R. Sam Williams

    2004-01-01

    When the time comes for a consumer to select the wood and finish types for a given outdoor project, there is a wide variety of sources of information, articles, and opinions available. Occasionally, these sources will conflict, mostly due to the data available at the time of publication, or practical experience based on a snapshot of conditions at a given time period....

  12. Occurrence of neonicotinoid insecticides in finished drinking water and fate during drinking water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarich, Kathryn L.; Pflug, Nicholas C.; DeWald, Eden M.; Hladik, Michelle L.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Cwiertny, David M.; LeFevre, Gergory H.

    2017-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are widespread in surface waters across the agriculturally-intensive Midwestern US. We report for the first time the presence of three neonicotinoids in finished drinking water and demonstrate their general persistence during conventional water treatment. Periodic tap water grab samples were collected at the University of Iowa over seven weeks in 2016 (May-July) after maize/soy planting. Clothianidin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam were ubiquitously detected in finished water samples and ranged from 0.24-57.3 ng/L. Samples collected along the University of Iowa treatment train indicate no apparent removal of clothianidin and imidacloprid, with modest thiamethoxam removal (~50%). In contrast, the concentrations of all neonicotinoids were substantially lower in the Iowa City treatment facility finished water using granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration. Batch experiments investigated potential losses. Thiamethoxam losses are due to base-catalyzed hydrolysis at high pH conditions during lime softening. GAC rapidly and nearly completely removed all three neonicotinoids. Clothianidin is susceptible to reaction with free chlorine and may undergo at least partial transformation during chlorination. Our work provides new insights into the persistence of neonicotinoids and their potential for transformation during water treatment and distribution, while also identifying GAC as an effective management tool to lower neonicotinoid concentrations in finished drinking water.

  13. [Comparative study of microleakage by using different finished lines in selective laser melting metal crowns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yan; Zhong, Qun; Wu, Xue-Ying; Weng, Jia-Wei

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate microleakage of SLM Co -Cr alloy metal crown with two types finished line (chamfer and shoulder), compared with conventional fabrication of Co -Cr alloy metal crowns. Thirty healthy non-carious human molars were selected and randomly assigned to 3 groups, 10 in each. Teeth in group A and C received a chamfer finish line preparation, whereas teeth in group C received a shoulder finish line. Conventional Co -Cr alloy metal crowns were fabricated for group A when SLM metal crowns were made for group B and group C. Glass ionomer was applied for bonding. After 5000 thermocycles ranging from 5degrees centigrade to 55degrees centigrade,all the specimens were evaluated by dye penetration and then microleakage was examined under light microscope. The data were analyzed statistically with SPSS 20.0 software package. Microleakage in group A was significantly higher than the other two groups, group B and group C showed no significant difference in microleakage while microleakage in group B was higher than that in group C. Microleakage of SLM metal crowns was significantly less than that of conventional Co-Cr alloy metal crowns; chamfer finish line designs was recommended for SLM metal crowns in consideration of reducing microleakage and protecting tooth.

  14. The First Amendment: The Finished Mystery Case and World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jean West; Schamel, Wynell Burroughs

    1990-01-01

    Introduces the censorship, and imprisonment of Jehovah's Witnesses who distributed, "The Finished Mystery," which contained antiwar statements deemed seditious during World War I. Asks students to examine a Justice Department document pertaining to the case. Helps students decide whether national security needs should override First…

  15. Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover, or orchardgrass pastures: Carcass merit and meat quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and meat quality parameters when meat goat kids were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pretense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L; OGR) pastures. Final shrunk body weights were similar whe...

  16. Administration of acidified drinking water to finishing pigs in order to prevent Salmonella infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der P.J.; Schie, van F.W.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Engel, B.; Heijden, van der H.; Hunneman, W.A.; Tielen, M.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test whether acidified drinking water, with two millilitres of an acid mixture per litre, was able to reduce the number of Salmonella infections in finishing pig herds. In each compartment, half of the pens were supplied with acidified water and the other pens served as

  17. Appearance of anodised aluminium: Effect of alloy composition and prior surface finish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggerbeck, Martin; Canulescu, Stela; Dirscherl, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Effect of alloy composition and prior surface finish on the optical appearance of the anodised layer on aluminium alloys was investigated. Four commercial alloys namely AA1050, Peraluman 706, AA5754, and AA6082 were used for the investigation. Microstructure and surface morphology of the substrat...

  18. Novel Mycoplasma hyosynoviae vaccination of one herd failed to prevent lameness in finishing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Klara Tølbøll; Nielsen, Elisabeth Okholm; Christensen, Dennis

    Infection with Mycoplasma hyosynoviae (M. hyosynoviae) is a known cause of arthritis and lameness in finishing pigs. Although antibiotic therapy will cure many cases, other ways of preventing M. hyosynoviae arthritis are warranted. The National Veterinary Institute has recently developed a M...

  19. Inspection of panel paintings beneath gilded finishes using terahertz time-domain imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Cosentino, Antonino; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2014-01-01

    the transmission of electromagnetic waves through metallic films. Therefore, imaging of subsurface features below gilded finishes may be regarded as Very challenging. A small but non-negligible direct transmission through metal films occurs if the film thickness is of the order of the skin depth of the metal...

  20. Vibration-processing interneurons in the honeybee brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Ai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The afferents of the Johnston’s organ (JO in the honeybee brain send their axons to three distinct areas, the dorsal lobe, the dorsal subesophageal ganglion (DL-dSEG, and the posterior protocerebral lobe (PPL, suggesting that vibratory signals detected by the JO are processed differentially in these primary sensory centers. The morphological and physiological characteristics of interneurons arborizing in these areas were studied by intracellular recording and staining. DL-Int-1 and DL-Int-2 have dense arborizations in the DL-dSEG and respond to vibratory stimulation applied to the JO in either tonic excitatory, on-off-phasic excitatory, or tonic inhibitory patterns. PPL-D-1 has dense arborizations in the PPL, sends axons into the ventral nerve cord (VNC, and responds to vibratory stimulation and olfactory stimulation simultaneously applied to the antennae in long-lasting excitatory pattern. These results show that there are at least two parallel pathways for vibration processing through the DL-dSEG and the PPL. In this study, Honeybee Standard Brain was used as the common reference, and the morphology of two types of interneurons (DL-Int-1 and DL-Int-2 and JO afferents was merged into the standard brain based on the boundary of several neuropiles, greatly supporting the understanding of the spatial relationship between these identified neurons and JO afferents. The visualization of the region where the JO afferents are closely appositioned to these DL interneurons demonstrated the difference in putative synaptic regions between the JO afferents and these DL interneurons (DL-Int-1 and DL-Int-2 in the DL. The neural circuits related to the vibration-processing interneurons are discussed.

  1. Blender production creating short animations from start to finish

    CERN Document Server

    Hess, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Blender has become one of the most popular 3D animation tools on the market because it is robust and absolutely free. Blender Production is the definitive resource for anyone who wants to create short animations from scratch. With this book, and Blender, you have the ideal platform to make it happen.  Blender expert and author Roland Hess walks you through the entire process of creating a short animation including: writing, storyboarding, blocking, character creation, animation, rendering, and production. The associated web site includes the full Blender software kit and a compl

  2. Axial diagnostic system of finished rods BWR type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivero G, T.; Rojas C, E.L.

    1996-01-01

    This system is employed as a final non destructive diagnostic system to verify the adequate distribution of the different enrichment through the can of nuclear fuel. The system is framed of traction mechanisms, a personal computer, a counting card and another card for the pass motor control, the nuclear electronics and the control program. The performance is based on the gamma radiation counting of the natural decay of uranium 235, this radiation is processed by the nuclear instrumentation for delivering a pulse by each gamma detected. (Author)

  3. Effects of forage species or concentrate finishing on animal performance, carcass and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckett, S K; Neel, J P S; Lewis, R M; Fontenot, J P; Clapham, W M

    2013-03-01

    Angus-cross steers (n = 128; initial BW = 270 ± 3.8 kg) were used in a 3-yr study to assess effects of forage species grazed before slaughter versus concentrate finishing on carcass and meat quality. At the completion of the stockering phase, steers were randomly allotted to mixed pasture (MP; n = 36/yr) or corn-silage concentrate (CON; n = 12/yr) finishing treatments. At 40 d before harvest, MP steers were randomly divided into 3 forage species treatments: alfalfa (AL), pearl millet (PM), or mixed pasture (MP). Average daily BW gain was greater (P = 0.001) for CON than for forage-finished (FOR) steers during the early and overall finishing phase. During the late finishing phase when FOR steers were grazing difference forage species, ADG was greater (P = 0.03) for PM than MP or AL. Harvest weight and HCW were greater (P animal performance. Total fat percentage of the 9th to 11th rib section was 46% less(P = 0.028) for FOR than CON due to reductions (P 0.78) between CON and FOR and were not altered (P > 0.40) by forage species. Trained sensory panel juiciness, initial tenderness, and overall tenderness scores did not differ (P > 0.17) by finishing treatment or forage species. Beef flavor intensity was greater (P 0.05) total lipid content of the LM. Oleic acid concentration and total MUFA of the LM were 21% and 22% less (P = 0.001) for FOR than CON. Concentrations of all individual [linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic (EPA), docosapentaenoic (DPA), and docosadexaenoic (DHA) acids] and total n-3 fatty acids were greater (P carcass weight with same time endpoints and accelerates deposition of MUFA in comparison with FOR, which reduces carcass weight and fat deposition but maintains high concentrations of n-3 and CLA fatty acids. Finishing system or forage species grazed 40 d before slaughter did not alter beef tenderness but FOR had greater off-flavors according to both trained and descriptive sensory panelists.

  4. 40 CFR Figure 1 to Subpart Tttt of... - Example Logs for Recording Leather Finish Use and HAP Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Example Logs for Recording Leather Finish Use and HAP Content 1 Figure 1 to Subpart TTTT of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Finishing Operations Part 63, Subpt. TTTT, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Subpart TTTT of Part 63—Example Logs for...

  5. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Tttt of... - Leather Finishing HAP Emission Limits for Determining the Allowable HAP Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Leather Finishing HAP Emission Limits for Determining the Allowable HAP Loss 1 Table 1 to Subpart TTTT of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Finishing HAP Emission Limits for Determining the Allowable HAP Loss As required in §§ 63.5305 and 63.5340(b...

  6. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Tttt of... - Leather Finishing HAP Emission Limits for Determining the Allowable HAP Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Leather Finishing HAP Emission Limits for Determining the Allowable HAP Loss 2 Table 2 to Subpart TTTT of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Finishing HAP Emission Limits for Determining the Allowable HAP Loss As required in § 63.5450, you must meet...

  7. 77 FR 2031 - Tapered Roller Bearings and Parts Thereof, Finished and Unfinished From the People's Republic of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... Parts Thereof, Finished and Unfinished From the People's Republic of China: Extension of the Time Limit..., International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 14th Street and Constitution Avenue NW..., finished and unfinished from the People's Republic of China. See Tapered Roller Bearings and Parts Thereof...

  8. 21 CFR 212.70 - What controls and acceptance criteria must I have for my finished PET drug products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What controls and acceptance criteria must I have... POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY DRUGS (Eff. 12-12-2011) Finished Drug Product Controls and Acceptance § 212.70 What controls and acceptance criteria must I have for my finished PET drug products? (a) Specifications...

  9. Fundamentals of figure control and fracture-'free' finishing for high aspect ratio laser optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suratwala, Tayyab [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The high level objectives of the this work were to: 1) scientifically understand critical phenomena affecting the surface figure during full aperture finishing; 2) utilize these fundamentals to more deterministically control the surface figure during finishing; 3) successfully polish under rogue particle-‘free’ environments during polishing by understanding/preventing key sources of rogue particles.

  10. Study on mycoflora of poultry feed ingredients and finished feed in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemmaghami, Seyed Soheil; Modirsaneii, Mehrdad; Khosravi, Ali Reza; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi

    2016-02-01

    Unhygienic poultry feedstuffs can lead to nutrient losses and detrimental effect on poultry production and public health. In the present study, mycobiota and colony-forming units per gram in ingredients and finish poultry feed was evaluated with special reference to potentially mycotoxigenic fungi. Eighty five samples of corn, soybean meal and poultry finished feed were collected from nine poultry feed factories located in three provinces i.e. Tehran, Alborz and Qom in Iran from October 2014 to January 2015. Samples were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA), Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus agar (AFPA) and dichloran rosebengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC) and incubated at 28 °C for 7-10 days. Purified fungal colonies were identified by a combination of macro- and microscopic morphological criteria. For determining the rate of fungal contamination, samples were cultured on SDA and colony forming units (CFUs) were calculated. A total of 384 fungal isolates belonging to 7 genera of filamentous fungi and yeasts were obtained from corn (124 isolates), soybean meal (92 isolates), and feed before (72 isolates), and after pelleting (96 isolates). The most prominent fungal isolate in corn, soybean meal and feed before pelleting (feed as mash form) was Fusarium but in feed after pelleting was Aspergillus. Among 5 Aspergillus species isolated, potentially aflatoxigenic A. flavus isolates was predominant in corn (46.6%), soybean meal (72.7%) and poultry finished feed (75%). CFUs results indicated that 9/22 corn samples (40.9%), none of 22 soybean meal samples, 19/41 finished feed (46.3%) were contaminated higher than the standard limit. Our results indicated that corn, soybean meal and finished feed of poultry feed mill are contaminated with various fungal genera by different levels sometimes higher that the standard limits. Contamination with potentially mycotoxigenic fungi especially Aspergillus species may be considered as a human public health hazard.

  11. Effect of finishing and polishing on color stability of a nanofilled resin immersed in different media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luísa Botta Martins de OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of finishing and polishing on color stability of a nanofilled composite resin (Filtek Z350 XT according to different immersion media.MATERIAL AND METHOD: Composite disks (10 mm diameter, 2 mm thickness were prepared for each group (n = 6 using a stainless steel mold. The groups were divided according to the presence or absence of finishing and polishing procedure and immersion media (artificial saliva, artificial juice- KAPO(r Coca-Cola(rflavors: pineapple, orange, strawberry and grape. The finishing and polishing procedures were performed using Super -Snap(r disks. The specimens were stored in artificial saliva for 24 hours (baseline and were analyzed using a color spectrophotometer by CIELab system. Then, they were immersed in different media for 5 minutes, 3 times a day, every 4 hours during 60 days. They were stored in artificial saliva at 37 ± 1°C during the immersion intervals. After this time, new measure of color was performed. The data were analyzed using Kruskall-Wallis test and Mann- Whitney test. The significance level was 5%.RESULT: The results showed that the finishing/polishing not significantly influence the color stability of resin composite (p > 0.05. There was no statistically significant difference in the color stability of the studied resin after immersion in different media (p > 0.05.CONCLUSION: The finishing and polishing procedures and the immersion media did not have influence on color stability of nanofilled resin Filtek Z350 XT.

  12. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the Plutonium Finishing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FRAZIER, T.P.

    1999-01-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U. S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether these systems are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. To ensure the long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems, an update to this facility effluent monitoring plan is required whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document is reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and is updated, at a minimum, every 3 years

  13. Performance Improvement of Friction Stir Welds by Better Surface Finish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Sam; Nettles, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    The as-welded friction stir weld has a cross section that may act as a stress concentrator. The geometry associated with the stress concentration may reduce the weld strength and it makes the weld challenging to inspect with ultrasound. In some cases, the geometry leads to false positive nondestructive evaluation (NDE) indications and, in many cases, it requires manual blending to facilitate the inspection. This study will measure the stress concentration effect and develop an improved phased array ultrasound testing (PAUT) technique for friction stir welding. Post-welding, the friction stir weld (FSW) tool would be fitted with an end mill that would machine the weld smooth, trimmed shaved. This would eliminate the need for manual weld preparation for ultrasonic inspections. Manual surface preparation is a hand operation that varies widely depending on the person preparing the welds. Shaving is a process that can be automated and tightly controlled.

  14. Anticoagulant and antimicrobial finishing of non-woven polypropylene textiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degoutin, S; Jimenez, M; Casetta, M; Bellayer, S; Chai, F; Blanchemain, N; Neut, C; Kacem, I; Traisnel, M; Martel, B

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to prepare non-woven polypropylene (PP) textile functionalized with bioactive molecules in order to improve its anticoagulation and antibacterial properties. This paper describes the optimization of the grafting process of acrylic acid (AA) on low-pressure cold-plasma pre-activated PP, the characterization of the modified substrates and the effect of these modifications on the in vitro biological response towards cells. Then, the immobilization of gentamicin (aminoglycoside antibiotic) and heparin (anticoagulation agent) has been carried out on the grafted samples by either ionic interactions or covalent linkages. Their bioactivity has been investigated and related to the nature of their interactions with the substrate. For gentamicin-immobilized AA-grafted samples, an inhibition radius and a reduction of 99% of the adhesion of Escherichia coli have been observed when gentamicin was linked by ionic interactions, allowing the release of the antibiotic. By contrast, for heparin-immobilized AA-grafted PP samples, a strong increase of the anticoagulant effect up to 35 min has been highlighted when heparin was covalently bonded on the substrate, by contact with the blood drop. (paper)

  15. R.4. Innovative concept for plutonium finishing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolotti, G.; Laguerie, I.V. de; Richter, R.; Gillet, B.

    1998-01-01

    After complete shutdown of the units of the previous UP2 plant, the new R4 facility will ensure the purification of Plutonium of the UP2-800 plant for the whole range of fuel to be reprocessed in the years to come. This facility features four main units: - Purification of plutonium nitrate; - Conversion into plutonium oxide; - PuO 2 conditioning into cans; Acid recovery. An extensive R and D program resulted in significant innovations. From a technological aspect the centrifugal extractor and the sub-critical tube bundle tank contributed to the reduction of the building dimensions. The extensive use of on-line analyses enables a more efficient follow-up of the process while minimizing the effluent production. On the other hand, the organization of the building which consists in grouping the rooms presenting the same risk of dispersal of nuclear materials also contributed to reduce the active zone volume. This facility, as any other facilities on the LA HAGUE site, will be remotely operated. (author)

  16. Plutonium Finishing Plan (PFP) Treatment and Storage Unit Interim Status Closure Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PRIGNANO, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    This document describes the planned activities and performance standards for closing the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Treatment and Storage Unit. The PFP Treatment and Storage Unit is located within the 234-52 Building in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility. Although this document is prepared based upon Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 265, Subpart G requirements, closure of the unit will comply with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 regulations pursuant to Section 5.3 of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Action Plan (Ecology et al. 1996). Because the PFP Treatment and Storage Unit manages transuranic mixed (TRUM) waste, there are many controls placed on management of the waste. Based on the many controls placed on management of TRUM waste, releases of TRUM waste are not anticipated to occur in the PFP Treatment and Storage Unit. Because the intention is to clean close the PFP Treatment and Storage Unit, postclosure activities are not applicable to this closure plan. To clean close the unit, it will be demonstrated that dangerous waste has not been left onsite at levels above the closure performance standard for removal and decontamination. If it is determined that clean closure is not possible or is environmentally impractical, the closure plan will be modified to address required postclosure activities. The PFP Treatment and Storage Unit will be operated to immobilize and/or repackage plutonium-bearing waste in a glovebox process. The waste to be processed is in a solid physical state (chunks and coarse powder) and will be sealed into and out of the glovebox in closed containers. The containers of immobilized waste will be stored in the glovebox and in additional permitted storage locations at PFP. The waste will be managed to minimize the potential for spills outside the glovebox, and to preclude spills from reaching soil. Containment surfaces will be maintained to ensure

  17. Finishing high school: alternative pathways and dropout recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, John H; Lofstrom, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    John Tyler and Magnus Lofstrom take a close look at the problems posed when students do not complete high school. The authors begin by discussing the ongoing, sometimes heated, debate over how prevalent the dropout problem is. They note that one important reason for discrepancies in reported dropout rates is whether holders of the General Educational Development (GED) credential are counted as high school graduates. The authors also consider the availability of appropriate student data. The overall national dropout rate appears to be between 22 and 25 percent, but the rate is higher among black and Hispanic students, and it has not changed much in recent decades. Tyler and Lofstrom conclude that schools are apparently doing about as well now as they were forty years ago in terms of graduating students. But the increasingly competitive pressures associated with a global economy make education ever more important in determining personal and national well-being. A student's decision to drop out of school, say the authors, is affected by a number of complex factors and is often the culmination of a long process of disengagement from school. That decision, not surprisingly, carries great cost to both the student and society. Individual costs include lower earnings, higher likelihood of unemployment, and greater likelihood of health problems. Because minority and low-income students are significantly more likely than well-to-do white students to drop out of school, the individual costs fall unevenly across groups. Societal costs include loss of tax revenue, higher spending on public assistance, and higher crime rates. Tyler and Lofstrom go on to survey research on programs designed to reduce the chances of students' dropping out. Although the research base on this question is not strong, they say, close mentoring and monitoring of students appear to be critical components of successful programs. Other dropout-prevention approaches associated with success are family

  18. Pengaruh Suhu dan Metode Perlakuan Panas terhadap Sifat Fisika dan Kualitas Finishing Kayu Mahoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragil Widyorini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Perlakuan panas dikenal sebagai metode yang dapat digunakan untuk meningkatkan stabilitas dimensi dan menurunkan higroskopisitas. Di sisi lain, perlakuan panas dapat membuat warna kayu menjadi lebih gelap, penurunan sifat mekanika kayu, dan sifat wetabilitas kayu. Oleh karena itu, penelitian mengenai perlakuan panas pada kondisi yang optimum sangat menarik untuk dilakukan agar menghasilkan kayu dengan kualitas yang lebih baik. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui pengaruh interaksi suhu dan metode perlakuan panas terhadap sifat fisika dan kualitas finishing kayu mahoni. Contoh uji perlakuan dibuat dari kayu mahoni yang berasal dari industri penggergajian kayu rakyat. Penelitian ini menggunakan 2 metode perlakuan panas yaitu metode oven dan penguapan (steaming pada variasi suhu 90°C, 120°C, dan 150°C selama 2 jam waktu efektif. Pengujian sifat fisika diuji berdasarkan standar ASTM, yang meliputi : kadar air seimbang, perubahan dimensi, perubahan warna, dan wetabilitas. Pengujian finishing meliputi cross cut test, uji delaminasi, dan uji kekilapan (glossy test. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa interaksi antara suhu dan metode perlakuan panas berpengaruh sangat nyata terhadap perubahan warna, serta berpengaruh nyata terhadap penyusutan radial, cross cut test, dan uji delaminasi. Metode oven menghasilkan contoh uji dengan kadar air dan pengembangan radial yang lebih rendah, warna yang lebih terang, serta uji delaminasi yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan metode penguapan. Kata kunci: perlakuan panas, metode oven, metode penguapan, suhu, finishing   Effect of temperature and heat treatment on physical properties and finishing quality of mahagony wood Abstract Heat treatment is well known as a method for increasing dimensional stability and reducing hygroscopicity of wood. However, heat tratment can cause the color of wood become darker and reduce the wettability, as well as its mechanical properties. Therefore, the optimum condition of heat

  19. Finishing and Special Motifs: Lessons Learned from CRISPR Analysis Using Next-Generation Draft Sequences (7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Catherine

    2012-06-01

    Catherine Campbell on "Finishing and Special Motifs: Lessons learned from CRISPR analysis using next-generation draft sequences" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  20. Applications of a Hybrid Manufacturing Process for Fabrication and Repair of Metallic Structures (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liou, Frank; Slattery, Kevin; Kinsella, Mary; Newkirk, Joseph; Chou, Hsin-Nan; Landers, Robert

    2006-01-01

    .... Coupled between the additive and the subtractive processes into a single workstation, the integrated process, or hybrid process, can produce a metal part with machining accuracy and surface finish...

  1. Occurrence of anthropogenic organic compounds and nutrients in source and finished water in the Sioux Falls area, South Dakota, 2009-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogestraat, Galen K.

    2012-01-01

    -water samples from surface water and groundwater. In the Big Sioux River, nitrite plus nitrate concentrations were typically less than 1 milligram per liter as nitrogen, and reached a maximum of 4.06 milligrams per liter as nitrogen following a June 2010 storm. Nitrite plus nitrate concentrations in groundwater ranged from less than 0.1 to 0.701 milligram per liter as nitrogen. Eight of the AOCs detected have a human-health benchmark that could be used to evaluate the concentrations in a human-health context. Four AOCs had maximum concentrations within an order of magnitude of the benchmark, indicating that additional monitoring of the compound may be warranted. Three herbicides (atrazine, metolachlor, and prometon) and one degradate (deethylatrazine) were detected in finished-water samples as frequently as in source-water samples. The concentrations of herbicides in source water varied by an order of magnitude from the period of peak use (early summer) to the winter months. Groundwater and finished-water concentrations of atrazine were similar for the six sampling dates when groundwater was the only source water used. Upstream wastewater discharges contributed a fairly small percentage of the flow to the Big Sioux River near Sioux Falls, but several AOCs associated with wastewater were frequently detected. The interpretation of all potential sources of nitrogen cannot be accomplished by use of nitrogen and oxygen isotopes in nitrate alone, but provides a qualitative indication that very little nitrate originates from excess fertilizer runoff, and most nitrate originates from municipal wastewater effluent, manure runoff (either from field application or feeding operations), or fertilizers mineralized by processes in the soil.

  2. Application of eco-friendly antimicrobial finish butea monosperma leaves on fabric properties of polyester and cotton/polyester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadaf, S.; Saeed, M.; Kalsoom, S.; Saeed, M.

    2017-01-01

    The study was aimed to check the effect of eco-friendly antimicrobial finish on 100% polyester and 50/50 cotton/polyester woven fabrics. The leaves' extract of Butea monosperma was used as an eco-friendly antimicrobial finish. The fabric was first desized, scoured, bleached and washed then antimicrobial finish was applied by using pad dry cure method. The aesthetic, comfort and mechanical fabrics properties were checked before and after applying antimicrobial finish. Under aesthetic property stiffness and smoothness appearance was checked, under comfort related property absorbency and air permeability was checked and under mechanical property tear and tensile strength was checked. The antimicrobial finish was checked by using ASTEM E2149 Shake Flask method. The AATCC and ISO standard testing methods were used for checking fabric properties. One way ANOVA statistical test was applied for analysis of results. Antimicrobial finish has increased aesthetic (stiffness, smoothness appearance), comfort (absorbency, air permeability) and mechanical (tensile and tear strengths) properties of polyester and cotton/polyester fabrics. The antimicrobial finish was effective on both 100% polyester and 50/50 cotton/polyester fabrics up to 25 washes. This study is beneficial to medical industry, paramedical staff, sports wears, home furnishing as well as common people. (author)

  3. Effects of delayed finishing/polishing on surface roughness, hardness and gloss of tooth-coloured restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, A Ruya; Tuncer, Duygu; Antonson, Sibel; Onen, Alev; Kilinc, Evren

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of delayed finishing/polishing on the surface roughness, hardness and gloss of tooth-coloured restorative materials. Four different tooth-coloured restoratives: a flowable resin composite- Tetric Flow, a hybrid resin composite- Venus, a nanohybrid resin composite- Grandio, and a polyacid modified resin composite- Dyract Extra were used. 30 specimens were made for each material and randomly assigned into three groups. The first group was finished/polished immediately and the second group was finished/polished after 24 hours. The remaining 10 specimens served as control. The surface roughness of each sample was recorded using a laser profilometer. Gloss measurements were performed using a small-area glossmeter. Vickers microhardness measurements were performed from three locations on each specimen surface under 100g load and 10s dwell time. Data for surface roughness and hardness were analyzed by Kruskal Wallis test and data for gloss were subjected to one-way ANOVA and Tukey test (P gloss values were recorded under Mylar strip for all materials. While delayed finishing/polishing resulted in a significantly higher gloss compared to immediate finishing/polishing in Venus samples (P .05). The lowest hardness values were found under Mylar strip. Delayed finishing/polishing significantly increased the hardness of all materials. The effect of delayed finishing/polishing on surface roughness, gloss and hardness appears to be material dependent.

  4. The Integrated Safety Management System Verification Enhancement Review of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRIGGS, C.R.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of the verification enhancement review was for the DOE Richland Operations Office (RL) to verify contractor readiness for the independent DOE Integrated Safety Management System Verification (ISMSV) on the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Secondary objectives included: (1) to reinforce the engagement of management and to gauge management commitment and accountability; (2) to evaluate the ''value added'' benefit of direct public involvement; (3) to evaluate the ''value added'' benefit of direct worker involvement; (4) to evaluate the ''value added'' benefit of the panel-to-panel review approach; and, (5) to evaluate the utility of the review's methodology/adaptability to periodic assessments of ISM status. The review was conducted on December 6-8, 1999, and involved the conduct of two-hour interviews with five separate panels of individuals with various management and operations responsibilities related to PFP. A semi-structured interview process was employed by a team of five ''reviewers'' who directed open-ended questions to the panels which focused on: (1) evidence of management commitment, accountability, and involvement; and, (2) consideration and demonstration of stakeholder (including worker) information and involvement opportunities. The purpose of a panel-to-panel dialogue approach was to better spotlight: (1) areas of mutual reinforcement and alignment that could serve as good examples of the management commitment and accountability aspects of ISMS implementation, and, (2) areas of potential discrepancy that could provide opportunities for improvement. In summary, the Review Team found major strengths to include: (1) the use of multi-disciplinary project work teams to plan and do work; (2) the availability and broad usage of multiple tools to help with planning and integrating work; (3) senior management presence and accessibility; (4) the institutionalization of worker involvement; (5) encouragement of self-reporting and self

  5. Durable flame retardant finish for silk fabric using boron hybrid silica sol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qiang-hua; Gu, Jiali; Chen, Guo-qiang [National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, Soochow University (China); Xing, Tie-ling, E-mail: xingtieling@suda.edu.cn [National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, Soochow University (China); Jiangsu HuaJia Group (China)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Highly homogeneous boron hybrid silica sol flame retardant system was prepared through sol-gel method. • The silk samples treated and cross-linked by this hybrid sol and BTCA solution showed a higher limiting oxygen index (LOI) more than 31.0% and a better washing durability for more than 30 times washing. • The smoke suppression, combustion performance and thermal stability properties of the treated samples have a significant improvement. - Abstract: A hybrid silica sol was prepared via sol gel method using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as a precursor and boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}) as flame retardant additive and then applied to silk fabric. In order to endow silk fabric with durable flame retardancy, 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) was used as cross-linking agent for the sake of strong linkage formation between the hybrid silica sol and silk fabric. The FT-IR and XPS analysis demonstrated the Si-O-B formation in the sol system, as well as the linkage between the sol and silk after the treatment. The limiting oxygen index (LOI) and smoke density test indicated good flame retardancy and smoke suppression of the treated silk fabrics. The micro calorimeter combustion (MCC) test and thermo gravimetric (TG) analysis showed that the treated samples had less weight loss in the high temperature and lower heat release rate when burning. The washing durability evaluation results indicated that there was a distinct improvement for the silk samples treated with BTCA even after 30 times washing. In addition, the influence of the processing order of BTCA and silica sol treatment on the limiting oxygen index (LOI) of the finished silk fabric was also investigated. And the results demonstrated that the sample treated with BTCA first and then with the silica sol exhibited better LOI value (32.3%) than that of the sample by the conversed treatment order. Moreover the tensile property of treated samples was nearly unchanged, but the handle of sol treated

  6. Plan for the Startup of HA-21I Furnace Operations at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WILLIS, H.T.

    2000-01-01

    Achievement of Thermal Stabilization mission elements require the installation and startup of three additional muffle furnaces for the thermal stabilization of plutonium and plutonium bearing materials at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The release to operate these additional furnaces will require an Activity Based Startup Review. The conduct of the Activity Based Startup Review (ABSR) was approved by Fluor Daniel Hanford on October 15, 1999. This plan has been developed with the objective of identifying those activities needed to guide the controlled startup of five furnaces from authorization to unrestricted operations by adding the HA-211 furnaces in an orderly and safe manner after the approval to Startup has been given. The Startup Plan provides a phased approach that bridges the activities between the completion of the Activity Based Startup Review authorizing the use of the three additional furnaces and the unrestricted operation of the five thermal stabilization muffle furnaces. The four phases are: (1) the initiation of five furnace operations using three empty (simulated full) boat charges from HA-211 and two full charges from HC-21C; (2) three furnace operations (one full charge from HA-211 and two full charges from HC-21C); (3) four furnace operations (two full charges from HA-211 and two full charges from HC-21C); and (4) integrated five furnace operations and unrestricted operations. Phase 1 of the Plan will be considered as the cold runs. This Plan also provides management oversight and administrative controls that are to be implemented until unrestricted operations are authorized. It also provides a formal review process for ensuring that all preparations needed for full five furnace operations are completed and formally reviewed prior to proceeding to the increased activity levels associated with five furnace operations. Specific objectives include: (1) To ensure that activities are conducted in a safe manner. (2) To provide supplemental

  7. Performance, profitability and greenhouse gas emissions of alternative finishing strategies for Holstein-Friesian bulls and steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, B; Crosson, P; Kelly, A K; Prendiville, R

    2018-02-06

    Modifying finishing strategies within established production systems has the potential to increase beef output and farm profit while reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Thus, the objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of finishing duration on animal performance of Holstein-Friesian (HF) bulls and steers and evaluate the profitability and GHG emissions of these finishing strategies. A total of 90 HF calves were assigned to a complete randomised block design; three bull and three steer finishing strategies. Calves were rotationally grazed in a paddock system for the first season at pasture, housed and offered grass silage ad libitum plus 1.5 kg DM of concentrate per head daily for the first winter and returned to pasture for a second season. Bulls were slaughtered at 19 months of age and either finished indoors on concentrates ad libitum for 100 days (19AL), finished at pasture supplemented with 5 kg DM of concentrate per head daily for 100 (19SP) or 150 days (19LP). Steers were slaughtered at 21 months of age and finished at pasture, supplemented with 5 kg DM of concentrate per head daily for 60 (21SP) and 110 days (21LP) or slaughtered at 24 months of age and finished indoors over the second winter on grass silage ad libitum plus 5 kg DM of concentrate per head daily (24MO). The Grange Dairy Beef Systems Model and the Beef Systems Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model were used to evaluate profitability and GHG emissions, respectively. Average daily gain during the finishing period (Pprofit.

  8. Genotype x environment interactions for fatty acid profiles in Bos indicus and Bos taurus finished on pasture or grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, M C; Rossato, L V; Rodrigues, E C; Alves, S P; Bessa, R J B; Ramos, E M; Gama, L T

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to characterize lipid profiles in the M. longissimus thoracis of commercial Brazilian beef and to assess how those profiles are influenced by finishing system, genetic group, and their interaction. Intramuscular fat (IMF) and fatty acid (FA) profiles were determined in 160 bulls of the Bos taurus (n = 75) and Bos indicus (n = 85) genetic groups, finished on pasture (n = 46) or with grain supplementation (n = 114) and slaughtered in a commercial abattoir. Finishing system had a major impact on the deposition of IMF, as well as on the concentration of SFA, PUFA, and their ratio, but genetic groups showed important differences in the ability to convert SFA into cis-9 MUFA and to convert 16:0 into 18:0. When compared with pasture-finished animals, those finished with grain had greater content of IMF and SFA (P 0.05), and about one-half the amount of PUFA (P 0.05). With pasture-finishing, no differences were observed among the 2 genetic groups in SFA and MUFA (P > 0.05), but PUFA were decreased in B. taurus (P genetic groups were compared in grain-finishing, B. taurus had a decreased ability for elongation and B. indicus had a decreased aptitude for desaturation of FA. On the other hand, with pasture-finishing a greater deposition of intermediate FA from ruminal biohydrogenation was observed in B. indicus than in B. taurus. Overall, FA profiles were affected more by finishing system in B. indicus than in B. taurus.

  9. Eco-friendly finishing agent for cotton fabrics to improve flame retardant and antibacterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shafei, A; ElShemy, M; Abou-Okeil, A

    2015-03-15

    This research work deals with flame retardant and antibacterial finishing agent for cellulosic fabrics using TiO2 nanoparticles and chitosan phosphate. TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by sol-gel method using titanium tetraisopropoxide. The size of TiO2 nanoparticles was characterized using transmission electron microscope (TEM). The application of nano TiO2 onto cellulosic fabrics (cotton 100%) was achieved in presence of polycarboxylic acid [1,2,3,4-butane tetracarboxylic acid (BTCA)] with sodium hypophosphite (SHP) as catalyst and chitosan phosphate through conventional pad-dry-cure method. The effect of the finishing on the physical properties, flammability and antibacterial properties of cross-linked fabrics are investigated. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) was employed to investigate the thermal decomposition behaviour of the treated samples. Limited oxygen indexes (LOI) of the treated cotton fabrics were investigated. The treated cotton fabric also reveals excellent antibacterial properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pengaruh jumlah Cr2O3 terhadap kelemasan kulit atasan sepatu dari kulit biawak finish natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochtar Lutfie

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed at detecting the amount of Cr2O3 in percent added in the tanning of lizard skins for natural finished shoe upper leather. The materials used in this study are 36 pieces of dry preservated lizard skins which are tanned to natural finished shoe upper leather, while the tanning agent used are Cr2O3 that added in veried amount as 0,5 %; 1,0 %; 1,5 % and 15 % Basyntan DLX. Using varian’s analysis, it is found that there is a significant difference in the softness of the leather caused by the amount of Cr2O3 added. The use of 1,5% Cr2O3 obviously shows the best result.

  11. A Study on Salt Attack Protection of Structural and Finishing Materials in Power Plant Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, W B; Kweon, K J; Suh, Y P; Nah, H S; Lee, K J; Park, D S; Jo, Y K [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    This is a final report written by both KEPRI and KICT as a co-operative research titled {sup A} study on Salt Protection of Structural and Finishings in Power Plant Structures{sup .} This study presented the methods to prevent the chloride-induced corrosion of power plant structures through collection and analysis of research datum relating to design, construction and maintenance for the prevention of structural and finishing materials, thru material performance tests for anti-corrosion under many kinds of chloride-induced corrosion environments. As a result, this study proposed the guidelines for design, construction and maintenance of power plant structures due to chloride-induced corrosion. (author). 257 refs., 111 figs., 86 tabs.

  12. Conservation of filtering in manufacturing systems with unreliable machines and finished goods buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of reliable satisfaction of customer demand by unreliable production systems. In the framework of a simple production-storage-customer model, we show that this can be accomplished by using an appropriate level of filtering of production randomness. The filtering is ensured by finished goods buffers (filtering in space and shipping periods (filtering in time. The following question is considered: how are filtering in space and filtering in time interrelated? As an answer, we show that there exists a conservation law: in lean manufacturing systems, the amount of filtering in space multiplied by the amount of filteringin time (both measured in appropriate dimensionless units ispractically constant. Along with providing an insight into the nature of manufacturing systems, this law offers a tool for selecting the smallest, that is, lean, finished goods buffering, which is necessary and sufficient to ensure the desired level ofcustomer demand satisfaction.

  13. Estimation of tool wear length in finish milling using a fuzzy inference algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Tae Jo; Cho, Dong Woo

    1993-10-01

    The geometric accuracy and surface roughness are mainly affected by the flank wear at the minor cutting edge in finish machining. A fuzzy estimator obtained by a fuzzy inference algorithm with a max-min composition rule to evaluate the minor flank wear length in finish milling is introduced. The features sensitive to minor flank wear are extracted from the dispersion analysis of a time series AR model of the feed directional acceleration of the spindle housing. Linguistic rules for fuzzy estimation are constructed using these features, and then fuzzy inferences are carried out with test data sets under various cutting conditions. The proposed system turns out to be effective for estimating minor flank wear length, and its mean error is less than 12%.

  14. A Study on Salt Attack Protection of Structural and Finishing Materials in Power Plant Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, W.B.; Kweon, K.J.; Suh, Y.P.; Nah, H.S.; Lee, K.J.; Park, D.S.; Jo, Y.K. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    This is a final report written by both KEPRI and KICT as a co-operative research titled {sup A} study on Salt Protection of Structural and Finishings in Power Plant Structures{sup .} This study presented the methods to prevent the chloride-induced corrosion of power plant structures through collection and analysis of research datum relating to design, construction and maintenance for the prevention of structural and finishing materials, thru material performance tests for anti-corrosion under many kinds of chloride-induced corrosion environments. As a result, this study proposed the guidelines for design, construction and maintenance of power plant structures due to chloride-induced corrosion. (author). 257 refs., 111 figs., 86 tabs.

  15. Owner and Contractor Perceptions Toward Factors Causing Delays in Structural and Finishing Works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loanata V.R.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A construction project comprises of a number of work packages, which are subjected to delays. These delays may be caused by many on-site factors. The aim of this research is to represent owner and contractors perceptions towards delay factors that frequently occur in structural and finishing works. Data for analysis were gathered by distributing questionnaire. A total of 198 sets of questionnaire were gathered and used for subsequent analyses. In general, design changes during construction are perceived by respondents as the most frequent factor to cause delay in all structural and finishing works. The results also show that there are a number of differences between owner’s and contractor’s perceptions towards the occurrences of the factors. Whilst most contractors concern that information factors related to project design and scope frequently causing delays in construction works, owners consider many contractor originated factors, as most frequent delay causes.

  16. Influence of surface finish on the plasma formation at the skin explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datsko, I M; Chaikovsky, S A; Labetskaya, N A; Rybka, D V; Oreshkin, V I; Khishchenko, K V

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports on experiments to investigate how the quality of surface finish, i.e., surface roughness, influences the plasma formation in a skin explosion of conductors. The experiments were performed on a MIG terawatt generator with a current amplitude of up to 2.5 MA and current rise time of 100 ns. The plasma formation at the conductor surface and the evolution of the plasma boundary was recorded using a four-frame optical camera with an exposure time of 3 ns per frame. It is shown that the quality of surface finish little affects the onset of plasma formation in a skin explosion of stainless steel and St3 steel conductors at a magnetic field of up to 400 T. (paper)

  17. HEAT INSULATING LIME DRY MORTARS FOR FINISHING OF WALLS MADE OF FOAM CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loganina Valentina Ivanovna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Different aerated mortars are used for pargeting of walls made of aerated concrete. Though the regulatory documents don’t specify the dependence of plaster density from the density grade of gas-concrete blocks. In case of facing of gas-concrete blocks with the grade D500 using plaster mortars with the density 1400…1600 km/m3 there occurs a dismatch in the values of thermal insulation and vapor permeability of the plaster and base. The authors suggest using dry mortars for finishing of gas-concrete block of the grades D500 и D600, which allow obtaining facing thermal insulating coatings. The efficiency of using four different high-porous additives in the lime dry mortar was compared. They were: hollow glass microspheres, aluminosilicate ash microspheres, expanded vermiculite sand, expanded pearlitic sand. The high efficiency of hollow glass microspheres in heat insulating finishing mortars compared to other fillers is proved.

  18. Effect of Gold on the Corrosion Behavior of an Electroless Nickel/Immersion Gold Surface Finish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Q. V.; Nam, N. D.; Yoon, J. W.; Choi, D. H.; Kar, A.; Kim, J. G.; Jung, S. B.

    2011-09-01

    The performance of surface finishes as a function of the pH of the utilized plating solution was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization tests in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. In addition, the surface finishes were examined by x-ray diffraction (XRD), and the contact angle of the liquid/solid interface was recorded. NiP films on copper substrates with gold coatings exhibited their highest coating performance at pH 5. This was attributed to the films having the highest protective efficiency and charge transfer resistance, lowest porosity value, and highest contact angle among those examined as a result of the strongly preferred Au(111) orientation and the improved surface wettability.

  19. Evaluation of two herbal spices as feed additives for finisher broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Onu P.N.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two herbal spices as feed additives for finisher broilers. 120 5-week old birds were randomly assigned to four treatments in a completely randomized design. Each group was further subdivided into three replicates of 10 birds per replicate. Four experimental diets were formulated such that diet I (T1) which served as the control contained neither ginger nor garlic. Diets 2 (T2) and 3 (T3) contained 0.25% ga...

  20. Finishing occlusion in Class II or Class III molar relation: therapeutic Class II and III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangia, A; Darendeliler, M A

    2001-11-01

    The most frequent extraction regime consists of the removal of upper and lower premolars. Depending on anchorage requirements, camouflage treatment options, surgical intervention, or the absence of teeth in only one arch, it may become necessary to finalize the occlusion with a one-dental-unit discrepancy between the upper and lower dental arches. Guidelines are presented for finishing occlusions in Class II or Class III molar relation.