WorldWideScience

Sample records for vibrationally excited naphthalene

  1. Portable vibration exciter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecher, L. C.; Williams, F. T.

    1970-01-01

    Gas-driven vibration exciter produces a sinusoidal excitation function controllable in frequency and in amplitude. It allows direct vibration testing of components under normal loads, removing the possibility of component damage due to high static pressure.

  2. Dispersion of low frequency vibrations in the deuterated naphthalene crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokhenkov, E.L.; Sheka, E.; Natkaniec, I.

    1977-01-01

    The dispersion curves of the lattice vibrations and of the two lowest intramolecular vibrations in d 8 -naphthalene (C 10 D 8 ) crystal have been measured by coherent inelastic neutron scattering for the [010] and the [100] directions at the temperature of 98 K and partially at 5 K. The results are compared with calculations based on the Kitaigorodskii parameters for C-C, C-H and H-H interactions in organic molecular crystals. (author)

  3. Vibrational excitation from heterogeneous catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purvis, G.D. III; Redmon, M.J.; Woken, G. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Classical trajectories have been used by numerous researchers to investigate the dynamics of exothermic chemical reactions (atom + diatom) with a view toward understanding what leads to vibrational excitation of the product molecule. Unlike these studies, the case where the reaction is catalyzed by a solid surface is considered. The trajectory studies indicate that there should be conditions under which considerable vibrational energy appears in the product molecules without being lost to the solid during the course of the reaction. 2 figures, 3 tables

  4. Isotope separation using vibrationally excited molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to isotope separation employing isotopically selective vibrational excitation and vibration-translation reactions of the excited particles. Uranium enrichment, using uranium hexafluoride, is a particular embodiment. (U.K.)

  5. Controlling flexible rotor vibrations using parametric excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atepor, L, E-mail: katepor@yahoo.co [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents both theoretical and experimental studies of an active vibration controller for vibration in a flexible rotor system. The paper shows that the vibration amplitude can be modified by introducing an axial parametric excitation. The perturbation method of multiple scales is used to solve the equations of motion. The steady-state responses, with and without the parametric excitation terms, is investigated. An experimental test machine uses a piezoelectric exciter mounted on the end of the shaft. The results show a reduction in the rotor response amplitude under principal parametric resonance, and some good correlation between theory and experiment.

  6. Studies of interstellar vibrationally-excited molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziurys, L.M.; Snell, R.L.; Erickson, N.R.

    1986-01-01

    Several molecules thus far have been detected in the ISM in vibrationally-excited states, including H 2 , SiO, HC 3 N, and CH 3 CN. In order for vibrational-excitation to occur, these species must be present in unusually hot and dense gas and/or where strong infrared radiation is present. In order to do a more thorough investigation of vibrational excitation in the interstellar medium (ISM), studies were done of several mm-wave transitions originating in excited vibrational modes of HCN, an abundant interstellar molecule. Vibrationally-excited HCN was recently detected toward Orion-KL and IRC+10216, using a 12 meter antenna. The J=3-2 rotational transitions were detected in the molecule's lowest vibrational state, the bending mode, which is split into two separate levels, due to l-type doubling. This bending mode lies 1025K above ground state, with an Einstein A coefficient of 3.6/s. The J=3-2 line mode of HCN, which lies 2050K above ground state, was also observed toward IRC+10216, and subsequently in Orion-KL. Further measurements of vibrationally-excited HCN were done using a 14 meter telescope, which include the observations of the (0,1,0) and (0,2,0) modes towards Orion-KL, via their J=3-2 transitions at 265-267 GHz. The spectrum of the J=3-2 line in Orion taken with the 14 meter telescope, is shown, along with a map, which indicates that emission from vibrationally-excited HCN arises from a region probably smaller than the 14 meter telescope's 20 arcsec beam

  7. Vibrational-rotational excitation: chemical reactions of vibrationally excited molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, C.B.; Smith, I.W.M.

    1979-03-01

    This review considers a limited number of systems, particularly gas-phase processes. Excited states and their preparation, direct bimolecular reactions, reactions of highly excited molecules, and reactions in condensed phases are discussed. Laser-induced isotope separation applications are mentioned briefly. 109 references

  8. Impact self-excited vibrations of linear motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravlev, V. Ph.

    2010-08-01

    Impact self-exciting vibration modes in a linear motor of a monorail car are studied. Existence and stability conditions of self-exciting vibrations are found. Ways of avoiding the vibrations are discussed.

  9. Characterization of excited electronic states of naphthalene by resonance Raman and hyper-Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonang, C.C.; Cameron, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    The first resonance Raman and hyper-Raman scattering from naphthalene are reported. Fourth harmonic of a mode-locked Nd:YAG laser is used to resonantly excite the 1 B 1u + transition, producing Raman spectra that confirm the dominance of the vibronically active ν 28 (b 3g ) mode and the Franck--Condon active a g modes, ν 5 and ν 3 . A synchronously pumped stilbene dye laser and its second harmonic are employed as the excitation sources for hyper-Raman and Raman scattering from the overlapping 1 B 2 u + and 1 A g - states. The Raman spectra indicate that the equilibrium geometry of naphthalene is distorted primarily along ν 5 , ν 8 , and ν 7 normal coordinates upon excitation to 1 B 2 u + . The hyper-Raman spectrum shows that ν 25 (b 2u ) is the mode principally responsible for vibronic coupling between the 1 A g - and 1 B 2u + states. The results demonstrate the advantageous features of resonance hyper-Raman scattering for the case of overlapping one- and two-photon allowed transitions. Calculations based on simple molecular orbital configurations are shown to qualitatively agree with the experimental results

  10. Isotope separation using vibrationally excited molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodroffe, J.A.; Keck, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Vibrational excitation of molecules having components of a selected isotope type is used to produce a conversion from vibrational to translational excitation of the molecules by collision with the molecules of a heavy carrier gas. The resulting difference in translaton between the molecules of the selected isotope type and all other molecules of the same compound permits their separate collection. When applied to uranium enrichment, a subsonic cryogenic flow of molecules of uranium hexafluoride in combination with an argon carrier gas is directed through a cooled chamber that is illuminated by laser radiaton tuned to vibrationally excite the uranium hexafluoride molecules of a specific uranium isotope. The excited molecules collide with carrier gas molecules, causing a conversion of the excitation energy into a translation of the excited molecule, which results in a higher thermal energy or diffusivity than that of the other uranium hexafluoride molecules. The flowing molecules including the excited molecules directly enter a set of cryogenically cooled channels. The higher thermal velocity of the excited molecules increases the probability of their striking a collector surface. The molecules which strike this surface immediately condense. After a predetermined thickness of molecules is collected on the surface, the flow of uranium hexafluoride is interrupted and the chamber heated to the point of vaporization of the collected hexafluoride, permitting its removal. (LL)

  11. Vibrational excitation in a hydrogen volume source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eenshuistra, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    In this thesis the complex of processes which determines the D - or H - density in a volume source, a hydrogen discharge, is studied. D - beams are of interest for driving the current of a fusion plasma in a TOKAMAK. Densities of vibrationally excited molecules, of H atoms, and of metastable hydrogen molecules were determined using Resonance-Enhanced MultiPhoton Ionization (REMPI). An experiment in which vibrationally highly excited molecules are formed by recombination of atoms in a cold metal surface, is described. The production and destruction of vibrationally excited molecules and atoms in the discharge is discussed. The vibrational distribution for 3≤ν≤5 (ν = vibrational quantumnumber) is strongly super-thermal. This effect is more apparent at higher discharge current and lower gas pressure. The analysis with a model based on rate equations, which molecules are predominantly produced by primary electron excitation of hydrogen molecules and deexcited upon one wall collision. The atom production is compatible with dissociation of molecules by primary electrons, dissociation of molecules on the filaments, and collisions between positive ions and electrons. The electrons are predominantly destroyed by recombination on the walls. Finally the production and destruction of H - in the discharge are discussed. The density of H - in the plasma, the electron density and temperature were determined. H - extraction was measured. The ratio of the extracted H - current and the H - density in the plasma gives an indication of the drift velocity of H - in the plasma. This velocity determines the emittance of the extracted beam. It was found that the H - velocity scales with the square root of the electron temperature. The measured H - densities are compatible with a qualitative model in which dissociative attachment of plasma electrons to vibrationally excited molecules is the most important process. (author). 136 refs.; 39 figs.; 10 tabs

  12. Isotope separation using vibrationally excited molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodroffe, J.A.; Keck, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    A system for isotope separation or enrichment wherein molecules of a selected isotope type in a flow of molecules of plural isotope types are vibrationally excited and collided with a background gas to provide enhanced diffusivity for the molecules of the selected isotope type permitting their separate collection. The system typically is for the enrichment of uranium using a uranium hexafluoride gas in combination with a noble gas such as argon. The uranium hexafluoride molecules having a specific isotope of uranium are vibrationally excited by laser radiation. The vibrational energy is converted to a translation energy upon collision with a particle of the background gas and the added translation energy enhances the diffusivity of the selected hexafluoride molecules facilitating its condensation on collection surfaces provided for that purpose. This process is periodically interrupted and the cryogenic flow halted to permit evaporation of the collected molecules to provide a distinct, enriched flow

  13. The photodissociation and reaction dynamics of vibrationally excited molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crim, F.F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research determines the nature of highly vibrationally excited molecules, their unimolecular reactions, and their photodissociation dynamics. The goal is to characterize vibrationally excited molecules and to exploit that understanding to discover and control their chemical pathways. Most recently the author has used a combination of vibrational overtone excitation and laser induced fluorescence both to characterize vibrationally excited molecules and to study their photodissociation dynamics. The author has also begun laser induced grating spectroscopy experiments designed to obtain the electronic absorption spectra of highly vibrationally excited molecules.

  14. Detection of interstellar vibrationally excited HCN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziurys, L.M.; Turner, B.E.

    1986-01-01

    Vibrationally excited HCN has been observed for the first time in the interstellar medium. The J = 3-2 rotational transitions of the l-doubled (0,1/sup 1d/,1c, 0) bending mode of HCN have been detected toward Orion-KL and IRC +10216. In Orion, the overall column density in the (0,1,0) mode, which exclusively samples the ''hot core,'' is 1.7-10 16 cm -2 and can be understood in terms of the ''doughnut'' model for Orion. The ground-state HCN column density implied by the excited-state observations is 2.3 x 10 18 cm -2 in the hot core, at least one order of magnitude greater than the column densities derived for HCN in its spike and plateau/doughnut components. Radiative excitation by 14 μm flux from IRc2 accounts for the (0,1,0) population provided the hot core is approx.6-7 x 10 16 cm distant from IRc2, in agreement with the ''cavity'' model for KL. Toward IRC +10216 we have detected J = 3-2 transitions of both (0,1/sup 1c/,/sup 1d/,0) and (0,2 0 ,0) excited states. The spectral profiles have been modeled to yield abundances and excitation conditions throughout the expanding envelope

  15. Catalytic synthesis of ammonia using vibrationally excited nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Niels Engholm; Billing, Gert D.; Hansen, Flemming Yssing

    1992-01-01

    In a previous study we have considered the catalytic synthesis of ammonia in the presence of vibrationally excited nitrogen. The distribution over vibrational states was assumed to be maintained during the reaction, and it was shown that the yield of ammonia increased considerably compared...... to that from conventional synthesis. In the present study the nitrogen molecules are only excited at the inlet of a plug flow reactor, and the importance of vibrational relaxation is investigated. We show that vibrational excitation can give an enhanced yield of ammonia also in the situation where vibrational...

  16. Spectroscopy and reactions of vibrationally excited transient molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, H.L. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Spectroscopy, energy transfer and reactions of vibrationally excited transient molecules are studied through a combination of laser-based excitation techniques and efficient detection of emission from the energized molecules with frequency and time resolution. Specifically, a Time-resolved Fourier Transform Emission Spectroscopy technique has been developed for detecting dispersed laser-induced fluorescence in the IR, visible and UV regions. The structure and spectroscopy of the excited vibrational levels in the electronic ground state, as well as energy relaxation and reactions induced by specific vibronic excitations of a transient molecule can be characterized from time-resolved dispersed fluorescence in the visible and UV region. IR emissions from highly vibrational excited levels, on the other hand, reveal the pathways and rates of collision induced vibrational energy transfer.

  17. Multi-Exciter Vibroacoustic Simulation of Hypersonic Flight Vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GREGORY, DANNY LYNN; CAP, JEROME S.; TOGAMI, THOMAS C.; NUSSER, MICHAEL A.; HOLLINGSHEAD, JAMES RONALD

    1999-01-01

    Many aerospace structures must survive severe high frequency, hypersonic, random vibration during their flights. The random vibrations are generated by the turbulent boundary layer developed along the exterior of the structures during flight. These environments have not been simulated very well in the past using a fixed-based, single exciter input with an upper frequency range of 2 kHz. This study investigates the possibility of using acoustic ardor independently controlled multiple exciters to more accurately simulate hypersonic flight vibration. The test configuration, equipment, and methodology are described. Comparisons with actual flight measurements and previous single exciter simulations are also presented

  18. Vibration transfers to measure the performance of vibration isolated platforms on site using background noise excitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segerink, Franciscus B.; Korterik, Jeroen P.; Offerhaus, Herman L.

    2011-01-01

    This article demonstrates a quick and easy way of quantifying the performance of a vibration-isolated platform. We measure the vibration transfer from floor to table using background noise excitation from the floor. As no excitation device is needed, our setup only requires two identical sensors (in

  19. Corticospinal excitability changes following prolonged muscle tendon vibration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steyvers, M.; Levin, O.; Baelen, M.G.M. van; Swinnen, S.P.

    2003-01-01

    The present experiment addressed the time course of corticospinal excitability changes following interventional muscle tendon vibration. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation, motor evoked potentials of the flexor carpi radialis and extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle were recorded for a period

  20. Vibration mode and vibration shape under excitation of a three phase model transformer core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Seiji; Ishigaki, Yusuke; Omura, Takeshi

    2018-04-01

    Structural vibration characteristics and vibration shapes under three-phase excitation of a archetype transformer core were investigated to consider their influences on transformer noise. Acoustic noise and vibration behavior were measured in a three-limb model transformer core. Experimental modal analysis by impact test was performed. The vibration shapes were measured by a laser scanning vibrometer at different exciting frequencies. Vibration amplitude of the core in out-of-plane direction were relatively larger than those in other two in-plane directions. It was consistent with the result that the frequency response function of the core in out-of-plane direction was larger by about 20 dB or more than those in in-plane directions. There were many vibration modes having bending deformation of limbs in out-of-plane direction. The vibration shapes of the core when excited at 50 Hz and 60 Hz were almost the same because the fundamental frequencies of the vibration were not close to the resonance frequencies. When excitation frequency was 69 Hz which was half of one of the resonance frequencies, the vibration shape changed to the one similar to the resonance vibration mode. Existence of many vibration modes in out-of-plane direction of the core was presumed to be a reason why frequency characteristics of magnetostriction and transformer noise do not coincide.

  1. Quantum dynamics of vibrational excitations and vibrational charge ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Dedicated to the memory of the late Professor S K Rangarajan ... Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036. # ... likely ways to improve the results are discussed in terms of the inclusion of higher excited ...

  2. New naphthalene polyimide with unusual molar absorption coefficient and excited state properties: Synthesis, photophysics and electrochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozser, Mustafa E. [Girne American University, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Department of Industrial Engineering, Girne, North Cyprus (Cyprus); Yucekan, Ilke; Bodapati, Jagadeesh B. [Eastern Mediterranean University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Famagusta, North Cyprus (Cyprus); Icil, Huriye, E-mail: huriye.icil@emu.edu.tr [Eastern Mediterranean University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Famagusta, North Cyprus (Cyprus)

    2013-11-15

    A high molecular weight 1,4,5,8-naphthalene polyimide (ENPI) by one-step polycondensation mechanism and for comparison its monomeric diimide (ENDI) were synthesized; the photophysical and electrochemical properties were studied in detail for ENPI. Monomer has shown unusual insolubility so that the characterization proven to be difficult, whereas ENPI has shown better solubility. The molecular weight data obtained by GPC for the polymer were M{sub n}=8240 and M{sub w}=34,000 g mol{sup −1} respectively with a polydispersity of 4.13. The polyimide exhibited outstandingly high molar absorption coefficients as 599,000, 1,021,000, and 972,700 M{sup −1} cm{sup −1}, which is first time reported in literature for the characteristic 0–2, 0–1, and 0–0 electronic transitions, respectively. ENPI showed concentration dependent and red shifted excimer emission in 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (TCE). The polymer has undergone multielectron reductions in CHCl{sub 3} solution below 100 mV s{sup −1} scan rates which merged into two reversible one-electron reduction peaks at higher scan rates. In solid-state, similar scan rate dependent reduction peaks were noticed. The LUMO, HOMO and optical band gap values obtained for ENPI were −3.73, −6.91, and 3.18 eV respectively. ENDI polymer with striking features has great potential as new sensitizer for efficient dye sensitized organic cells. Highlights: • A high molecular weight naphthalene polyimide was synthesized (M{sub w}=34,000 g mol{sup −1}). • The oligoether polyimide exhibited outstanding molar absorptivity (972,700 M{sup −1} cm{sup −1}). • A red shifted excimer emission has been observed. • The polymer has undergone multielectron reductions.

  3. Nonlinear Response of Vibrational Conveyers with Nonideal Vibration Exciter: Superharmonic and Subharmonic Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bayıroğlu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrational conveyers with a centrifugal vibration exciter transmit their load based on the jumping method. Common unbalanced-mass driver oscillates the trough. The motion is strictly related to the vibrational parameters. The transition over resonance of a vibratory system, excited by rotating unbalances, is important in terms of the maximum vibrational amplitude produced and the power demand on the drive for the crossover. The mechanical system is driven by the DC motor. In this study, the working ranges of oscillating shaking conveyers with nonideal vibration exciter have been analyzed analytically for superharmonic and subharmonic resonances by the method of multiple scales and numerically. The analytical results obtained in this study agree well with the numerical results.

  4. Vibration-Induced Kinesthetic Illusions and Corticospinal Excitability Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancheva, Kapka; Rollnik, Jens D; Wolf, Werner; Dengler, Reinhard; Kossev, Andon

    2017-01-01

    The authors' aim was to investigate the changes of corticospinal excitability during kinesthetic illusions induced by tendon vibration. Motor-evoked potentials in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation were recorded from the vibrated flexor carpi radialis and its antagonist, extensor carpi radialis. The illusions were evoked under vision conditions without feedback for the position of the wrist (open or closed eyes). In these two conditions motor-evoked potential changes during vibration in the antagonist were not identical. This discrepancy may be a result of 2 simultaneously acting, different and opposite influences and the balance between them depends on visual conditions. Thus, the illusion was accompanied by the facilitation of corticospinal excitability in both vibrated muscle and its antagonist.

  5. Calculations on the vibrational level density in highly excited formaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashev, Svetoslav; Moule, David C.

    2003-01-01

    The object of the present work is to develop a model that provides realistic estimates of the vibrational level density in polyatomic molecules in a given electronic state, at very high (chemically relevant) vibrational excitation energies. For S 0 formaldehyde (D 2 CO), acetylene, and a number of triatomics, the estimates using conventional spectroscopic formulas have yielded densities at the dissociation threshold, very much lower than the experimentally measured values. In the present work we have derived a general formula for the vibrational energy levels of a polyatomic molecule, which is a generalization of the conventional Dunham spectroscopic expansion. Calculations were performed on the vibrational level density in S 0 D 2 CO, H 2 C 2 , and NO 2 at excitation energies in the vicinity of the dissociation limit, using the newly derived formula. The results from the calculations are in reasonable agreement with the experimentally measured data

  6. Robust structural design against self-excited vibrations

    CERN Document Server

    Spelsberg-Korspeter, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    This book studies methods for a robust design of rotors against self-excited vibrations. The occurrence of self-excited vibrations in engineering applications if often unwanted and in many cases difficult to model. Thinking of complex systems such as machines with many components and mechanical contacts, it is important to have guidelines for design so that the functionality is robust against small imperfections. This book discusses the question on how to design a structure such that unwanted self-excited vibrations do not occur. It shows theoretically and practically that the old design rule to avoid multiple eigenvalues points toward the right direction and have optimized structures accordingly. This extends results for the well-known flutter problem in which equations of motion with constant coefficients occur to the case of a linear conservative system with arbitrary time periodic perturbations.

  7. A study of vibrational relaxation of electronically-excited molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datsyuk, V.V.; Izmailov, I.A.; Kochelap, V.A.

    1992-09-01

    The time kinetics of the vibrational relaxation of excimers is studied in the diffusional approximation. Simple formulae for functions of nonstationary vibrational distribution are found for the electronically excited molecules. Some spectral-kinetic dependencies of the excimer luminescence are explained in a new way. The possibilities of the determination of excimer parameters are discussed. The dependence of energetical characteristics of excimer lasers on these parameters is particularly emphasized. (author). 22 refs, 5 figs

  8. Vibrational excitation of D2 by low energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckman, S.J.; Phelps, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    Excitation coefficients for the production of vibrationally exicted D 2 by low energy electrons have been determined from measurements of the intensity of infrared emission from mixtures of D 2 and small concentrations of CO 2 or CO. The measurements were made using the electron drift tube technique and covered electric field to gas density ratios (E/n) from (5 to 80) x 10 -21 V m 2 , corresponding to mean electron energies between 0.45 and 4.5 eV. The CO 2 and CO concentrations were chosen to allow efficient excitation transfer from the D 2 to the carbon containing molecule, but to minimize direct excitation of the CO 2 or CO. The measured infrared intensities were normalized to predicted values for N 2 --CO 2 and N 2 --CO mixtures at E/n where the efficiency of vibrational excitation is known to be very close to 100%. The experimental excitation coefficients are in satisfactory agreement with predictions based on electron--D 2 cross sections at mean electron energies below 1 eV, but are about 50% too high at mean energies above about 2 eV. Application of the technique to H 2 did not yield useful vibrational excitation coefficients. The effective coefficients in H 2 --CO 2 mixtures were a factor of about 3 times the predicted values. For our H 2 --CO mixtures the excitation of CO via excitation transfer from H 2 is small compared to direct electron excitation of CO molecules. Published experiments and theories on electron--H 2 and electron--D 2 collisions are reviewed to obtain the cross sections used in the predictions

  9. Quantum control of vibrational excitations in a heteronuclear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Optimal control theory is applied to obtain infrared laser pulses for selective vibrational exci- tation in a ... introduced in the field prior to evaluation of the cost functional for better field shape. Conjugate ... focused greater attention on optimal control of quan- tum states ... from the ground state to the first excited state in a.

  10. On the nature of highly vibrationally excited states of thiophosgene

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Understanding the nature of the highly excited molecu- lar eigenstates is equivalent to deciphering the mecha- nism of intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution. (IVR) occurring in the molecule.1 However, the assign- ment of eigenstates is far from simple. The existence of and interplay of several strong anharmonic ...

  11. Excitation of blade vibration under rotation by synchronous electromagnet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pešek, Luděk; Vaněk, František; Bula, Vítězslav; Cibulka, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 18, 3/4 (2011), s. 1-9 ISSN 1802-1484 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1166 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : blade * vibration * excitation * electromagnet Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  12. Spectroscopic probes of vibrationally excited molecules at chemically significant energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, T.R. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This project involves the application of multiple-resonance spectroscopic techniques for investigating energy transfer and dissociation dynamics of highly vibrationally excited molecules. Two major goals of this work are: (1) to provide information on potential energy surfaces of combustion related molecules at chemically significant energies, and (2) to test theoretical modes of unimolecular dissociation rates critically via quantum-state resolved measurements.

  13. Energy-dependent collisional deactivation of vibrationally excited azulene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, J.; Barker, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Collisional energy transfer parameters for highly vibrationally excited azulene have been deduced from new infrared fluorescence (IRF) emission lifetime data with an improved calibration relating IRF intensity to vibrational energy [J. Shi, D. Bernfeld, and J. R. Barker, J. Chem. Phys. 88, XXXX (1988), preceding paper]. In addition, data from previous experiments [M. J. Rossi, J. R. Pladziewicz, and J. R. Barker, J. Chem. Phys. 78, 6695 (1983)] have been reanalyzed based on the improved calibration. Inversion of the IRF decay curves produced plots of energy decay, which were analyzed to determine , the average energy transferred per collision. Master equation simulations reproduced both the original IRF decays and the deduced energy decays. A third (simple) method of determination agrees well with the other two. The results show to be nearly directly proportional to the vibrational energy of the excited azulene from ∼8000 to 33 000 cm -1 . At high energies, there are indications that the energy dependence may be slightly reduced

  14. Vibrational motions in rotating nuclei studied by Coulomb excitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Yoshifumi R [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    1998-03-01

    As is well-known Coulomb excitation is an excellent tool to study the nuclear collective motions. Especially the vibrational excitations in rotating nuclei, which are rather difficult to access by usual heavy-ion fusion reactions, can be investigated in detail. Combined with the famous 8{pi}-Spectrometer, which was one of the best {gamma}-ray detector and had discovered some of superdeformed bands, such Coulomb excitation experiments had been carried out at Chalk River laboratory just before it`s shutdown of physics division. In this meeting some of the experimental data are presented and compared with the results of theoretical investigations. (author)

  15. UV dissociation of vibrationally excited UF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre, M.; Clerc, M.; Gagnon, R.; Gilbert, M.; Isnard, P.; Nectoux, P.; Rigny, P.; Weulersse, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Before application of laser photodissociation of UF 6 to the separation of uranium isotopes becomes practical, isotopic selectivity should be optimized. We present here results on the cross sections involved in the irradiation of UF 6 simultaneously with infrared and ultraviolet lasers, as a function of wavelengths, fluence and temperature (at 293 K and 105 K, in an adiabatic expansion). The experiment uses a Nd 3+ YAG pumped lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator as a tunable 16 μ light source. Energies of the order of 1 mJ can be obtained with linewidths smaller than 0.1 cm - . The UV source used is based on ND 3+ YAG pumped dye laser and various frequency mixing schemes. At low temperature the frequency variation of the absorbed infrared energy per molecule depends markedly on the IR fluence phisub(IR) with a maximum value varying as phisub(IR)sup(-1/2) and a frequency extension far beyond the low level absorption spectrum. The absorbed vibrational energy leads to a change in the UV cross section comparable with the effect of a rise in temperature. Using this a model is put forward to express the isotopic selectivity 235 U/ 238 U as a function of UV wavelength and IR irradiation conditions. Experimental results agree with this model, and yield to maximum selectivity close to two [fr

  16. Vibratory synchronization transmission of a cylindrical roller in a vibrating mechanical system excited by two exciters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueliang; Wen, Bangchun; Zhao, Chunyu

    2017-11-01

    In present work vibratory synchronization transmission (VST) of a cylindrical roller with dry friction in a vibrating mechanical system excited by two exciters, is studied. Using the average method, the criterion of implementing synchronization of two exciters and that of ensuring VST of a roller, are achieved. The criterion of stability of the synchronous states satisfies the Routh-Hurwitz principle. The influences of the structural parameters of the system to synchronization and stability, are discussed numerically, which can be served as the theoretical foundation for engineering designs. An experiment is carried out, which approximately verify the validity of the theoretical and numerical results, as well as the feasibility of the method used. Utilizing the VST theory of a roller, some types of vibrating crushing or grinding equipments, etc., can be designed.

  17. Synchronization of Two Asymmetric Exciters in a Vibrating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohui Ren

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate synchronization of two asymmetric exciters in a vibrating system. Using the modified average method of small parameters, we deduce the non-dimensional coupling differential equations of the two exciters (NDDETE. By using the condition of existence for the zero solutions of the NDDETE, the condition of implementing synchronization is deduced: the torque of frequency capture is equal to or greater than the difference in the output electromagnetic torque between the two motors. Using the Routh-Hurwitz criterion, we deduce the condition of stability of synchronization that the inertia coupling matrix of the two exciters is positive definite. A numeric result shows that the structural parameters can meet the need of synchronization stability.

  18. Flow induced vibrational excitation of nuclear reactor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibert, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    The pressure fluctuations generated by disturbed flows, encountered in nuclear reactors induce vibrations in the structures. In order to make forecastings for these vibrational levels, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the random pressure fluctuations induced in the walls by the main flow peculiarities of the circuits. This knowledge is essentially provided by experimentation which shows that most of the energy from these fluctuations is in the low frequency area. It is also necessary to determine the transfer functions of the fluid-structure coupled system. Given the frequency range of the excitations, a calculation of the characteristics of the first eigenmodes is generally sufficient. This calculation is carried out by finite element codes, the modal dampings being assessed separately. In this paper, emphasis is placed mainly on the analysis of the sources of excitation due to flow peculiarities. Some examples will also be given of assessments of vibrations in real structures (pipes, reactor internals, etc.) and of comparisons with the experimental results obtained on models or on a site [fr

  19. Self-excited vibration control for axially fast excited beam by a time delay state feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdi, Mustapha; Belhaq, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    This work examines the control of self-excited vibration of a simply-supported beam subjected to an axially high-frequency excitation. The investigation of the resonant cases are not considered in this paper. The control is implemented via a corrective position feedback with time delay. The objective of this control is to eliminate the undesirable self-excited vibrations with an appropriate choice of parameters. The issue of stability is also addressed in this paper. Using the technique of direct partition of motion, the dynamic of discretized equations is separated into slow and fast components. The multiple scales method is then performed on the slow dynamic to obtain a slow flow for the amplitude and phase. Analysis of this slow flow provides analytical approximations locating regions in parameters space where undesirable self-excited vibration can be eliminated. A numerical study of these regions is performed on the original discretized system and compared to the analytical prediction showing a good agreement.

  20. Dissociative ionization of liquid water induced by vibrational overtone excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natzle, W.C.

    1983-03-01

    Photochemistry of vibrationally activated ground electronic state liquid water to produce H + and OH - ions has been initiated by pulsed, single-photon excitation of overtone and combination transitions. Transient conductivity measurements were used to determine quantum yields as a function of photon energy, isotopic composition, and temperature. The equilibrium relaxation rate following perturbation by the vibrationally activated reaction was also measured as a function of temperature reaction and isotopic composition. In H 2 O, the quantum yield at 283 +- 1 K varies from 2 x 10 -9 to 4 x 10 -5 for wave numbers between 7605 and 18140 cm -1 . In D 2 O, the dependence of quantum yield on wavelength has the same qualitative shape as for H 2 O, but is shifted to lower quantum yields. The position of a minimum in the quantum yield versus hydrogen mole fraction curve is consistent with a lower quantum yield for excitation of HOD in D 2 O than for excitation of D 2 O. The ionic recombination distance of 5.8 +- 0.5 A is constant within experimental error with temperature in H 2 O and with isotopic composition at 25 +- 1 0 C

  1. Dissociative ionization of liquid water induced by vibrational overtone excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natzle, W.C.

    1983-03-01

    Photochemistry of vibrationally activated ground electronic state liquid water to produce H/sup +/ and OH/sup -/ ions has been initiated by pulsed, single-photon excitation of overtone and combination transitions. Transient conductivity measurements were used to determine quantum yields as a function of photon energy, isotopic composition, and temperature. The equilibrium relaxation rate following perturbation by the vibrationally activated reaction was also measured as a function of temperature reaction and isotopic composition. In H/sub 2/O, the quantum yield at 283 +- 1 K varies from 2 x 10/sup -9/ to 4 x 10/sup -5/ for wave numbers between 7605 and 18140 cm/sup -1/. In D/sub 2/O, the dependence of quantum yield on wavelength has the same qualitative shape as for H/sub 2/O, but is shifted to lower quantum yields. The position of a minimum in the quantum yield versus hydrogen mole fraction curve is consistent with a lower quantum yield for excitation of HOD in D/sub 2/O than for excitation of D/sub 2/O. The ionic recombination distance of 5.8 +- 0.5 A is constant within experimental error with temperature in H/sub 2/O and with isotopic composition at 25 +- 1/sup 0/C.

  2. Vibrational excitations in molecular layers probed by ballistic electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajen, Rasanayagam Sivasayan; Chandrasekhar, Natarajan [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, 3 Research Link, 117602 (Singapore); Feng Xinliang; Muellen, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Postfach 3148, D-55021 Mainz (Germany); Su Haibin, E-mail: n-chandra@imre.a-star.edu.sg, E-mail: muellen@mpip-mainz.mpg.de, E-mail: hbsu@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Materials Science, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore)

    2011-10-28

    We demonstrate the information on molecular vibrational modes via the second derivative (d{sup 2}I{sub B}/dV{sup 2}) of the ballistic electron emission spectroscopy (BEES) current. The proposed method does not create huge fields as in the case of conventional derivative spectroscopy and maintains a zero bias across the device. BEES studies carried out on three different types of large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecular layers show that the d{sup 2}I{sub B}/dV{sup 2} spectra consist of uniformly spaced peaks corresponding to vibronic excitations. The peak spacing is found to be identical for molecules within the same PAH family though the BEES onset voltage varies for different molecules. In addition, injection into a particular orbital appears to correspond to a specific vibrational mode as the manifestation of the symmetry principle.

  3. Rotational Spectra in 29 Vibrationally Excited States of Interstellar Aminoacetonitrile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolesniková, L.; Alonso, E. R.; Mata, S.; Alonso, J. L. [Grupo de Espectroscopia Molecular (GEM), Edificio Quifima, Área de Química-Física, Laboratorios de Espectroscopia y Bioespectroscopia, Parque Científico UVa, Unidad Asociada CSIC, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2017-04-01

    We report a detailed spectroscopic investigation of the interstellar aminoacetonitrile, a possible precursor molecule of glycine. Using a combination of Stark and frequency-modulation microwave and millimeter wave spectroscopies, we observed and analyzed the room-temperature rotational spectra of 29 excited states with energies up to 1000 cm{sup −1}. We also observed the {sup 13}C isotopologues in the ground vibrational state in natural abundance (1.1%). The extensive data set of more than 2000 new rotational transitions will support further identifications of aminoacetonitrile in the interstellar medium.

  4. Vibration control in smart coupled beams subjected to pulse excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarski, Dominik; Bajer, Czesław I.; Dyniewicz, Bartłomiej; Bajkowski, Jacek M.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a control method to stabilize the vibration of adjacent structures is presented. The control is realized by changes of the stiffness parameters of the structure's couplers. A pulse excitation applied to the coupled adjacent beams is imposed as the kinematic excitation. For such a representation, the designed control law provides the best rate of energy dissipation. By means of a stability analysis, the performance in different structural settings is studied. The efficiency of the proposed strategy is examined via numerical simulations. In terms of the assumed energy metric, the controlled structure outperforms its passively damped equivalent by over 50 percent. The functionality of the proposed control strategy should attract the attention of practising engineers who seek solutions to upgrade existing damping systems.

  5. Fluorescent vibration-rotation excitation of cometary C2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gredel, R.; Van Dishoeck, E.F.; Black, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    The statistical equilibrium equations that determine the population densities of the energy levels in cometary C2 molecules due to fluorescent excitation are examined in detail. The adopted model and molecular parameters are discussed, and a theoretical estimate is made of the two intercombination transition moments. From the theoretical population densities in the various rotational levels, flux ratios and synthetic emission profiles are calculated as functions of the a 3Pi(u) - X 1Sigma(g)+ and the c 3Sigma(u)+ - X 3Sigma(g)+ intercombination transition moments. The influence of each of these two transitions separately on the vibrational and rotational excitation temperatures is investigated. The observed emission spectra of the (0,0) Swan band in Comet Halley are presented and compared to the synthetic profiles. 70 references

  6. Fluorescent vibration-rotation excitation of cometary C2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gredel, Roland; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Black, John H.

    1989-01-01

    The statistical equilibrium equations that determine the population densities of the energy levels in cometary C2 molecules due to fluorescent excitation are examined in detail. The adopted model and molecular parameters are discussed, and a theoretical estimate is made of the two intercombination transition moments. From the theoretical population densities in the various rotational levels, flux ratios and synthetic emission profiles are calculated as functions of the a 3Pi(u) - X 1Sigma(g)+ and the c 3Sigma(u)+ - X 3Sigma(g)+ intercombination transition moments. The influence of each of these two transitions separately on the vibrational and rotational excitation temperatures is investigated. The observed emission spectra of the (0,0) Swan band in Comet Halley are presented and compared to the synthetic profiles.

  7. Resonances in photoionization. Cross section for vibrationally excited H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezei, J.Zs.; Jungen, Ch.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Diatomic molecular Hydrogen is the most abundant molecule in interstellar molecular clouds. The modeling of these environments relies on accurate cross sections for the various relevant processes. Among them, the photoionization plays a major role in the kinetics and in the energy exchanges involving H 2 . The recent discovery of vibrationally excited molecular hydrogen in extragalactic environments revealed the need for accurate evaluation of the corresponding photoionization cross sections. In the present work we report theoretical photoionization cross sections for excitation from excited vibrational levels of the ground state, dealing with the Q(N = 1) (ΔN = 0, where N is the total angular momentum of the molecule) transitions which account for roughly one third of the total photoabsorption cross section. We will focus on the v' = 1 excited level of the ground electronic state. Our calculations are based on Multichannel Quantum Defect Theory (MQDT), which allows us to take into account of the full manifold of Rydberg states and their interactions with the electronic continuum. We have carried out two types of MQDT calculations. First, we omitted all open channels and calculated energy levels, wave functions and spontaneous emission Einstein coefficients, making use of the theoretical method presented in [2]. In a second set of calculations we included the open ionization channels in the computations getting the continuum phase shifts, channel mixing coefficients and channel dipole moments and finally the photoabsorption/ photoionization cross section. The cross section is dominated by the presence of resonance structures corresponding to excitation of various vibrational levels of bound electronic states which lie above the ionization threshold. In order to assess the importance of the resonances we have calculated for each vibrational interval (the energy interval between two consecutive ionization thresholds) the

  8. Vibronic relaxation in molecular mixed crystals : Pentacene in naphthalene and p-terphenyl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.; Wiersma, Douwe A.

    1981-01-01

    Picosecond photon echo techniques are used to measure directly vibronic relaxation times in the first excited singlet state of pentacene in naphthalene and p-terphenyl. In regions of low (< 300 cm–1) and high (> 1000 cm–1) vibrational energy, relaxation is fast (τ <2 ps) due to direct phonon

  9. The Astrophysical Weeds: Rotational Transitions in Excited Vibrational States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, José L.; Kolesniková, Lucie; Alonso, Elena R.; Mata, Santiago

    2017-06-01

    The number of unidentified lines in the millimeter and submillimeter wave surveys of the interstellar medium has grown rapidly. The major contributions are due to rotational transitions in excited vibrational states of a relatively few molecules that are called the astrophysical weeds. necessary data to deal with spectral lines from astrophysical weeds species can be obtained from detailed laboratory rotational measurements in the microwave and millimeter wave region. A general procedure is being used at Valladolid combining different time and/or frequency domain spectroscopic tools of varying importance for providing the precise set of spectroscopic constants that could be used to search for this species in the ISM. This is illustrated in the present contribution through its application to several significant examples. Fortman, S. M., Medvedev, I. R., Neese, C.F., & De Lucia, F.C. 2010, ApJ,725, 1682 Rotational Spectra in 29 Vibrationally Excited States of Interstellar Aminoacetonitrile, L. Kolesniková, E. R. Alonso, S. Mata, and J. L. Alonso, The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 2017, (in press).

  10. Process and system for isotope separation using the selective vibrational excitation of molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodroffe, J.A.; Keck, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns the separation of isotopes by using the isotopically selective vibrational excitation and the vibration-translation reactions of the excited particles. UF 6 molecular mixed with a carrier gas, such as argon, are directed through a refrigerated chamber lighted by a laser radiation tuned to excite vibrationally the uranium hexafluoride molecules of a particular uranium isotope. The density of the carrier gas is preferably maintained above the density of the uranium hexafluoride to allow a greater collision probability of the vibrationally excited molecules with a carried molecule. In such a case, the vibrationally excited uranium hexafluoride will collide with a carrier gas molecule provoking the conversion of the excitation energy into a translation of the excited molecule, resulting in thermal energy or greater diffusibility than that of the other uranium hexafluoride molecules [fr

  11. Theoretical resonant electron-impact vibrational excitation, dissociative recombination and dissociative excitation cross sections of ro-vibrationally excited BeH"+ ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laporta, V.; Chakrabarti, K.; Celiberto, R.; Janev, R. K.; Mezei, J. Zs.; Niyonzima, S.; Tennyson, J.; Schneider, I.F.

    2017-01-01

    A theoretical study of resonant vibrational excitation, dissociative recombination and dissociative excitation processes of the beryllium monohydride cation, BeH"+ , induced by electron impact, is reported. Full sets of ro-vibrationally-resolved cross sections and of the corresponding Maxwellian rate coefficients are presented for the three processes. Particular emphasis is given to the high-energy behaviour. Potential curves of "2σ"+, "2σ and "2δ symmetries and the corresponding resonance widths, obtained from R-matrix calculations, provide the input for calculations which use a local complex-potential model for resonant collisions in each of the three symmetries. Rotational motion of nuclei and isotopic effects are also discussed. The relevant results are compared with those obtained using a multichannel quantum defect theory method. Full results are available from the Phys4Entry database.

  12. Vibrational energy transfer in selectively excited diatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasch, C.J.

    1978-09-01

    Single rovibrational states of HCl(v=2), HBr(v=2), DCl(v=2), and CO(v=2) were excited with a pulsed optical parametric oscillator (OPO). Total vibrational relaxation rates near - resonance quenchers were measured at 295 0 K using time resolved infrared fluorescence. These rates are attributed primarily to V - V energy transfer, and they generally conform to a simple energy gap law. A small deviation was found for the CO(v) + DCl(v') relaxation rates. Upper limits for the self relaxation by V - R,T of HCl(v=2) and HBr(v=2) and for the two quantum exchange between HCl and HBr were determined. The HF dimer was detected at 295 0 K and 30 torr HF pressure with an optoacoustic spectrometer using the OPO. Pulsed and chopped, resonant and non-resonant spectrophones are analyzed in detail. From experiments and first order perturbation theory, these V - V exchange rates appear to behave as a first order perturbation in the vibrational coordinates. The rotational dynamics are known to be complicated however, and the coupled rotational - vibrational dynamics were investigated theoreticaly in infinite order by the Dillon and Stephenson and the first Magnus approximations. Large ΔJ transitions appear to be important, but these calculations differ by orders of magnitude on specific rovibrational transition rates. Integration of the time dependent semiclassical equations by a modified Gordon method and a rotationally distorted wave approximation are discussed as methods which would treat the rotational motion more accurately. 225 references

  13. Influence of delayed excitation on vibrations of turbine blades couple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Půst L.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the presented paper, the computational model of the turbine blade couple is investigated with the main attention to the influence two harmonic excitation forces, having the same frequency and amplitude but with moderate delay in time. Time delay between the exciting harmonic forces depends on the revolutions of bladed disk, on the number of blades on a rotating disk and on the number of stator blades. The reduction of resonance vibrations realized by means of dry friction between the shroud blade-heads increases roughly proportional to the difference of stator and rotor blade-numbers and also to the magnitude of dry friction force. From the analysis of blade couple with direct contact it was proved that the increase of friction forces causes decrease of resonance peaks, but the influence of elastic micro-deformations in the contact surfaces (modeled e.g. by the modified Coulomb dry friction law is rather small. Analysis of a blade couple with a friction element shows that the lower number of stator blades has negligible influence on the amplitudes of both blades, but decreases amplitudes of the friction element oscillations. Similarly the increase of friction forces causes a decrease of resonance peaks, but an increase of friction element amplitudes.

  14. An inverse method for identification of a distributed random excitation acting on a vibrating structure flow-induced vibration application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perotin, L.; Granger, S.

    1997-01-01

    In order to improve the prediction of wear problems due to flow-induced vibration in PWR components, an inverse method for identifying a distributed random excitation acting on a dynamical system has been developed at EDF. This method, whose applications go far beyond the flow-induced vibration field, has been implemented into the MEIDEE software. This method is presented. (author)

  15. The role of electron-impact vibrational excitation in electron transport through gaseous tetrahydrofuran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duque, H. V. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-330 Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Do, T. P. T. [School of Education, Can Tho University, Campus II, 3/2 Street, Xuan Khanh, Ninh Kieu, Can Tho City (Viet Nam); Lopes, M. C. A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-330 Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Konovalov, D. A.; White, R. D. [College of Science, Technology and Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville (Australia); Brunger, M. J., E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au, E-mail: darryl.jones@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Jones, D. B., E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au, E-mail: darryl.jones@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia)

    2015-03-28

    In this paper, we report newly derived integral cross sections (ICSs) for electron impact vibrational excitation of tetrahydrofuran (THF) at intermediate impact energies. These cross sections extend the currently available data from 20 to 50 eV. Further, they indicate that the previously recommended THF ICS set [Garland et al., Phys. Rev. A 88, 062712 (2013)] underestimated the strength of the electron-impact vibrational excitation processes. Thus, that recommended vibrational cross section set is revised to address those deficiencies. Electron swarm transport properties were calculated with the amended vibrational cross section set, to quantify the role of electron-driven vibrational excitation in describing the macroscopic swarm phenomena. Here, significant differences of up to 17% in the transport coefficients were observed between the calculations performed using the original and revised cross section sets for vibrational excitation.

  16. Off-resonant vibrational excitation: Orientational dependence and spatial control of photofragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machholm, Mette; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    2000-01-01

    Off-resonant and resonant vibrational excitation with short intense infrared (IR) laser pulses creates localized oscillating wave packets, but differs by the efficiency of the excitation and surprisingly by the orientational dependence. Orientational selectivity of the vibrational excitation...... of randomly oriented heteronuclear diatomic molecules can be obtained under simultaneous irradiation by a resonant and an off-resonant intense IR laser pulse: Molecules with one initial orientation will be vibrationally excited, while those with the opposite orientation will be at rest. The orientation-dependent...... distribution. (C) 2000 American Institute of Physics....

  17. Ground vibration test results of a JetStar airplane using impulsive sine excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, Michael W.; Voracek, David F.

    1989-01-01

    Structural excitation is important for both ground vibration and flight flutter testing. The structural responses caused by this excitation are analyzed to determine frequency, damping, and mode shape information. Many excitation waveforms have been used throughout the years. The use of impulsive sine (sin omega t)/omega t as an excitation waveform for ground vibration testing and the advantages of using this waveform for flight flutter testing are discussed. The ground vibration test results of a modified JetStar airplane using impulsive sine as an excitation waveform are compared with the test results of the same airplane using multiple-input random excitation. The results indicated that the structure was sufficiently excited using the impulsive sine waveform. Comparisons of input force spectrums, mode shape plots, and frequency and damping values for the two methods of excitation are presented.

  18. Diamond-like-carbon nanoparticle production and agglomeration following UV multi-photon excitation of static naphthalene/helium gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, A. J.; Ruth, A. A., E-mail: a.ruth@ucc.ie [Physics Department and Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333-CA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2016-07-14

    We report the formation of nanoparticles with significant diamond character after UV multi-photon laser excitation of gaseous naphthalene, buffered in static helium gas, at room temperature. The nanoparticles are identified in situ by their absorption and scattering spectra between 400 and 850 nm, which are modeled using Mie theory. Comparisons of the particles’ spectroscopic and optical properties with those of carbonaceous materials indicate a sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} hybridization ratio of 8:1 of the particles formed. The particle extinction in the closed static (unstirred) gas-phase system exhibits a complex and quasi-oscillatory time dependence for the duration of up to several hours with periods ranging from seconds to many minutes. The extinction dynamics of the system is based on a combination of transport features and particle interaction, predominantly agglomeration. The relatively long period of agglomeration allows for a unique analysis of the agglomeration process of diamond-like carbon nanoparticles in situ.

  19. Amplitude control of the track-induced self-excited vibration for a maglev system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Danfeng; Li, Jie; Zhang, Kun

    2014-09-01

    The Electromagnet Suspension (EMS) maglev train uses controlled electromagnetic forces to achieve suspension, and self-excited vibration may occur due to the flexibility of the track. In this article, the harmonic balance method is applied to investigate the amplitude of the self-excited vibration, and it is found that the amplitude of the vibration depends on the voltage of the power supplier. Based on this observation, a vibration amplitude control method, which controls the amplitude of the vibration by adjusting the voltage of the power supplier, is proposed to attenuate the vibration. A PI controller is designed to control the amplitude of the vibration at a given level. The effectiveness of this method shows a good prospect for its application to commercial maglev systems. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Exciplex ensemble modulated by excitation mode in intramolecular charge-transfer dyad: effects of temperature, solvent polarity, and wavelength on photochemistry and photophysics of tethered naphthalene-dicyanoethene system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Yoshiaki; Matsuki, Nobuo; Mori, Tadashi; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Inoue, Yoshihisa

    2014-09-19

    Solvent, temperature, and excitation wavelength significantly affected the photochemical outcomes of a naphthalene-dicyanoethene system tethered by different number (n) of methylene groups (1-3). The effect of irradiation wavelength was almost negligible for 2a but pronounced for 3a. The temperature dependence and theoretical calculations indicated the diversity of exciplex conformations, an ensemble of which can be effectively altered by changing excitation wavelength to eventually switch the regioselectivity of photoreactions.

  1. The molecular structure and vibrational spectra of N-(2,2-diphenylacetyl)- N'-(naphthalen-1yl)-thiourea by Hartree-Fock and density functional methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Hakan; Mansuroglu, Demet Sezgin; VanDerveer, Don; Binzet, Gun

    2009-04-01

    N-(2,2-Diphenylacetyl)- N'-(naphthalen-1yl)-thiourea (PANT) has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The crystal and molecular structure of the title compound has been determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data. It crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1, Z = 2 with a = 10.284(2) Å, b = 10.790(2) Å, c = 11.305(2) Å, α = 64.92(3)°, β = 89.88(3)°, γ = 62.99(3)°, V = 983.7(3) Å 3 and Dcalc = 1.339 Mg/m 3. The molecular structure, vibrational frequencies and infrared intensities of PANT were calculated by the Hartree-Fock and density functional theory methods (BLYP and B3LYP) using the 6-31G* basis set. The calculated geometric parameters were compared to the corresponding X-ray structure of the title compound. We obtained 22 stable conformers for the title compound; however Conformer 1 is approximately 9.53 kcal/mol more stable than Conformer 22. The comparison of the theoretical and experimental geometry of the title compound shows that the X-ray parameters fairly well reproduce the geometry of Conformer 17. The harmonic vibrations computed for this compound by the B3LYP/6-31G* method are in good agreement with the observed IR spectral data. Theoretical vibrational spectra of the title compound were interpreted by means of PEDs using the VEDA 4 program. A general better performance of the investigated methods was calculated by PAVF 1.0 program.

  2. Kinetics of highly vibrationally excited O2(X) molecules in inductively-coupled oxygen plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annušová, Adriana; Marinov, Daniil; Booth, Jean-Paul; Sirse, Nishant; Lino da Silva, Mário; Lopez, Bruno; Guerra, Vasco

    2018-04-01

    The high degree of vibrational excitation of O2 ground state molecules recently observed in inductively coupled plasma discharges is investigated experimentally in more detail and interpreted using a detailed self-consistent 0D global kinetic model for oxygen plasmas. Additional experimental results are presented and used to validate the model. The vibrational kinetics considers vibrational levels up to v = 41 and accounts for electron impact excitation and de-excitation (e-V), vibration-to-translation relaxation (V-T) in collisions with O2 molecules and O atoms, vibration-to-vibration energy exchanges (V-V), excitation of electronically excited states, dissociative electron attachment, and electron impact dissociation. Measurements were performed at pressures of 10–80 mTorr (1.33 and 10.67 Pa) and radio frequency (13.56 MHz) powers up to 500 W. The simulation results are compared with the absolute densities in each O2 vibrational level obtained by high sensitivity absorption spectroscopy measurements of the Schumann–Runge bands for O2(X, v = 4–18), O(3 P) atom density measurements by two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence (TALIF) calibrated against Xe, and laser photodetachment measurements of the O‑ negative ions. The highly excited O2(X, v) distribution exhibits a shape similar to a Treanor-Gordiets distribution, but its origin lies in electron impact e-V collisions and not in V-V up-pumping, in contrast to what happens in all other molecular gases known to date. The relaxation of vibrational quanta is mainly due to V-T energy-transfer collisions with O atoms and to electron impact dissociation of vibrationally excited molecules, e+O2(X, v)→O(3P)+O(3P).

  3. Millimeterwave spectroscopy of active laser plasmas; the excited vibrational states of HCN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lucia, F.C.; Helminger, P.A.

    1977-01-01

    Millimeter and submillimeter microwave techniques have been used for the spectroscopic study of an HCN laser plasma. Forty-seven rotational transitions in 12 excited vibrational states have been observed. Numerous rotational, vibrational, and perturbation parameters have been calculated from these data. A discussion of experimental techniques is included

  4. Energy harvesting from coherent resonance of horizontal vibration of beam excited by vertical base motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, C. B.; Qin, W. Y. [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2014-09-15

    This letter investigates the energy harvesting from the horizontal coherent resonance of a vertical cantilever beam subjected to the vertical base excitation. The potential energy of the system has two symmetric potential wells. So, under vertical excitation, the system can jump between two potential wells, which will lead to the large vibration in horizontal direction. Two piezoelectric patches are pasted to harvest the energy. From experiment, it is found that the vertical excitation can make the beam turn to be bistable. The system can transform vertical vibration into horizontal vibration of low frequency when excited by harmonic motion. The horizontal coherence resonance can be observed when excited by a vertical white noise. The corresponding output voltages of piezoelectric films reach high values.

  5. selective excitation of vibrational modes of polyatomic molecule

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Mode-selective dynamics of triatomic molecule in the electronic ground state under continuous wave laser pulse is investigated for the discrete vibrational bound states. A non-perturbative approach has been used to analyse the vibrational couplings and dynamics of the molecule. Keywords. Polyatomic molecule ...

  6. Effect of collision energy and vibrational excitation on endothermic ion-molecule reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, T.P.

    1984-07-01

    This thesis is divided into two major parts. In the first part an experimental study of proton and deuteron transfer in H 2 + + He and HD + + He has been carried out as a function of kinetic and vibrational energy. The data gives evidence that at lower kinetic energies, the spectator stripping mechanism indeed plays an important role when H 2 + or HD + is vibrationally excited. The second half of this thesis examines the relative efficiencies between the excitation of C-C stretching vibration and collision energy on the promotion of the H atom transfer reaction of C 2 H 2 + + H 2 → C 2 H 3 + + H

  7. Studies on the substrate mediated vibrational excitation of CO/Si(100) by means of SFG spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Xu; Lass, Kristian; Balgar, Thorsten; Hasselbrink, Eckart [Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Fachbereich Chemie, 45117 Essen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Vibrational excitations of adsorbates play an important role in chemical reaction dynamics. In the past decade CO on solid surfaces was chosen as adequate model system for studying vibrational relaxation dynamics. Our work is focused on the energy dissipation of vibrationally excited CO adsorbed on a silicon surface by means of IR/Vis sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy. Here we present studies on substrate mediated excitation of vibrational modes of CO on Si(100) induced by UV radiation. We suppose the observation of highly excited internal stretch vibrations of CO caused by hot electrons generated within the silicon substrate.

  8. Current Density Distribution on the Perimeter of Waveguide Exciter Cylindrical Vibrator Conductor

    OpenAIRE

    Zakharia, Yosyp

    2010-01-01

    On ground of electrodynamic analysis the surface current distribution nonuniformity on the perimeter of waveguide-exciter cylindrical conductor is found. Considerable influence of current distribution nonuniformity on exciter input reactance is established. It is also showed, that the current distribution on the vibrator perimeter, for conductor radius no greater then 0,07 of waveguide cross section breadth, approximately uniform is.

  9. The millimeter-wave spectrum of highly vibrationally excited SiO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollaaghababa, R.; Gottlieb, C.A.; Vrtilek, J.M.; Thaddeus, P.

    1991-01-01

    The millimeter-wave rotational spectra of SiO in high vibrational states (v = 0-40) in its electronic ground state were measured between 228 and 347 GHz in a laboratory discharge through SiH4 and CO. On ascending the vibrational ladder, populations decline precipitously for the first few levels, with a vibrational temperature of about 1000 K; at v of roughly 3, however, they markedly flatten out, and from there to v of roughly 40 the temperature is of the order of 10,000 K. With the Dunham coefficients determined here, the rotational spectrum of highly vibrationally excited SiO can now be calculated into the far-infrared to accuracies required for radioastronomy. Possible astronomical sources of highly vibrationally excited SiO are certain stellar atmospheres, ultracompact H II regions, very young supernova ejecta, and dense interstellar shocks. 16 refs

  10. Vibrations of a delivery car excited by railway track crossing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litak, Grzegorz; Borowiec, Marek; Hunicz, Jacek; Koszalka, Grzegorz; Niewczas, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Vertical vibrations of a delivery car passing through railway tracks have been investigated in this paper. The application of recurrence plots allows to examine short time series of acceleration non-stationary courses. Recurrence quantification analysis and square deviations estimated in small windows have been used to monitor car vibrations and transient behaviour. Measuring acceleration on the 'sprung' and 'unsprung' masses of a vehicle has enabled also to test the quality of a car suspension.

  11. Submillimeter vibrationally excited water emission from the peculiar red supergiant VY Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menten, K. M.; Philipp, S. D.; Güsten, R.; Alcolea, J.; Polehampton, E. T.; Brünken, S.

    2006-08-01

    Context: .Vibrationally excited emission from the SiO and H2O molecules probes the innermost circumstellar envelopes of oxygen-rich red giant and supergiant stars. VY CMa is the most prolific known emission source in these molecules. Aims: .Observations were made to search for rotational lines in the lowest vibrationally excited state of H2O. Methods: .The APEX telescope was used for observations of H2O lines at frequencies around 300 GHz. Results: .Two vibrationally excited H2O lines were detected, a third one could not be found. In one of the lines we find evidence for weak maser action, similar to known (sub)millimeter ν2 = 1 lines. We find that the other line's intensity is consistent with thermal excitation by the circumstellar infrared radiation field. Several SiO lines were detected together with the H2O lines.

  12. Roles of the Excitation in Harvesting Energy from Vibrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhang

    Full Text Available The study investigated the role of excitation in energy harvesting applications. While the energy ultimately comes from the excitation, it was shown that the excitation may not always behave as a source. When the device characteristics do not perfectly match the excitation, the excitation alternately behaves as a source and a sink. The extent to which the excitation behaves as a sink determines the energy harvesting efficiency. Such contradictory roles were shown to be dictated by a generalized phase defined as the instantaneous phase angle between the velocity of the device and the excitation. An inductive prototype device with a diamagnetically levitated seismic mass was proposed to take advantage of the well established phase changing mechanism of vibro-impact to achieve a broader device bandwidth. Results suggest that the vibro-impact can generate an instantaneous, significant phase shift in response velocity that switches the role of the excitation. If introduced properly outside the resonance zone it could dramatically increase the energy harvesting efficiency.

  13. Vibrationally Excited Carbon Monoxide Produced via a Chemical Reaction Between Carbon Vapor and Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Elijah R.; Eckert, Zakari; Frederickson, Kraig; Rich, Bill; Adamovich, Igor V.

    2017-06-01

    Measurements of the vibrational distribution function of carbon monoxide produced via a reaction between carbon vapor and molecular oxygen has shown a total population inversion on vibrational levels 4-7. Carbon vapor, produced using an arc discharge to sublimate graphite, is mixed with an argon oxygen flow. The excited carbon monoxide is vibrationally populated up to level v=14, at low temperatures, T=400-450 K, in a collision-dominated environment, 15-20 Torr, with total population inversions between v=4-7. The average vibrational energy per CO molecule formed by the reaction is 0.6-1.2 eV/molecule, which corresponds to 10-20% of the reaction enthalpy. Kinetic modeling of the flow reactor, including state specific vibrational processes, was performed to infer the vibrational distribution of the products of the reaction. The results show viability of developing of a new chemical CO laser from the reaction of carbon vapor and oxygen.

  14. Observation of the adsorption and desorption of vibrationally excited molecules on a metal surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirhatti, Pranav R.; Rahinov, Igor; Golibrzuch, Kai; Werdecker, Jörn; Geweke, Jan; Altschäffel, Jan; Kumar, Sumit; Auerbach, Daniel J.; Bartels, Christof; Wodtke, Alec M.

    2018-06-01

    The most common mechanism of catalytic surface chemistry is that of Langmuir and Hinshelwood (LH). In the LH mechanism, reactants adsorb, become thermalized with the surface, and subsequently react. The measured vibrational (relaxation) lifetimes of molecules adsorbed at metal surfaces are in the range of a few picoseconds. As a consequence, vibrational promotion of LH chemistry is rarely observed, with the exception of LH reactions occurring via a molecular physisorbed intermediate. Here, we directly detect adsorption and subsequent desorption of vibrationally excited CO molecules from a Au(111) surface. Our results show that CO (v = 1) survives on a Au(111) surface for 1 × 10-10 s. Such long vibrational lifetimes for adsorbates on metal surfaces are unexpected and pose an interesting challenge to the current understanding of vibrational energy dissipation on metal surfaces. They also suggest that vibrational promotion of surface chemistry might be more common than is generally believed.

  15. The separation of vibrational coherence from ground- and excited-electronic states in P3HT film

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Yin; Hellmann, Christoph; Stingelin, Natalie; Scholes, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC. Concurrence of the vibrational coherence and ultrafast electron transfer has been observed in polymer/fullerene blends. However, it is difficult to experimentally investigate the role that the excited-state vibrational

  16. Deviations from the Boltzmann distribution in vibrationally excited gas flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offenhaeuser, F.; Frohn, A.

    1986-01-01

    A new model for the exchange of vibrational energy in one-dimensional flows of CO 2 -H 2 O-N 2 -O 2 -He gas mixtures is presented. In contrast to previous models, the assumption of local Boltzmann distributions for the vibrational degrees of freedom is not required. This generalization was achieved by the assumption that the molecules are harmonic oscillators with one or more degrees of freedom represented by finite numbers of energy levels. The population densities of these energy levels are coupled by a set of rate equations. It is shown that in some cases of molecular gas flow the Boltzmann distribution for the vibrational degrees of freedom may be disturbed. 12 references

  17. Calculation of Vibrational and Electronic Excited-State Absorption Spectra of Arsenic-Water Complexes Using Density Functional Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-03

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6390--16-9681 Calculation of Vibrational and Electronic Excited -State Absorption Spectra...NUMBER OF PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Calculation of Vibrational and Electronic Excited -State Absorption Spectra of Arsenic-Water Complexes Using...Unclassified Unlimited Unclassified Unlimited 59 Samuel G. Lambrakos (202) 767-2601 Calculations are presented of vibrational and electronic excited -state

  18. Coherent excitation of vibrational levels using ultra short pulses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Clercq, LE

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available population in a specific vibrational level. We used two approaches to do this, in the one model we used Von Neumann’s equations and the other the Optical Bloch equations (OBE’s). In this poster presentation the Optical Bloch model was used to do...

  19. Manipulation of molecular vibrational motions via pure rotational excitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shu, Chuan-Cun; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    2015-01-01

    The coupling between different molecular degrees of freedom plays a decisive role in many quantum phenomena, including electron transfer and energy redistribution. Here, we demonstrate a quantum-mechanical time-dependent simulation to explore how a vibrational motion in a molecule can be affected...

  20. Characterizing human activity induced impulse and slip-pulse excitations through structural vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shijia; Mirshekari, Mostafa; Fagert, Jonathon; Ramirez, Ceferino Gabriel; Chung, Albert Jin; Hu, Chih Chi; Shen, John Paul; Zhang, Pei; Noh, Hae Young

    2018-02-01

    Many human activities induce excitations on ambient structures with various objects, causing the structures to vibrate. Accurate vibration excitation source detection and characterization enable human activity information inference, hence allowing human activity monitoring for various smart building applications. By utilizing structural vibrations, we can achieve sparse and non-intrusive sensing, unlike pressure- and vision-based methods. Many approaches have been presented on vibration-based source characterization, and they often either focus on one excitation type or have limited performance due to the dispersion and attenuation effects of the structures. In this paper, we present our method to characterize two main types of excitations induced by human activities (impulse and slip-pulse) on multiple structures. By understanding the physical properties of waves and their propagation, the system can achieve accurate excitation tracking on different structures without large-scale labeled training data. Specifically, our algorithm takes properties of surface waves generated by impulse and of body waves generated by slip-pulse into account to handle the dispersion and attenuation effects when different types of excitations happen on various structures. We then evaluate the algorithm through multiple scenarios. Our method achieves up to a six times improvement in impulse localization accuracy and a three times improvement in slip-pulse trajectory length estimation compared to existing methods that do not take wave properties into account.

  1. Investigation on method of estimating the excitation spectrum of vibration source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Kun; Sun Lei; Lin Song

    2010-01-01

    In practical engineer area, it is hard to obtain the excitation spectrum of the auxiliary machines of nuclear reactor through direct measurement. To solve this problem, the general method of estimating the excitation spectrum of vibration source through indirect measurement is proposed. First, the dynamic transfer matrix between the virtual excitation points and the measure points is obtained through experiment. The matrix combined with the response spectrum at the measure points under practical work condition can be used to calculate the excitation spectrum acts on the virtual excitation points. Then a simplified method is proposed which is based on the assumption that the vibration machine can be regarded as rigid body. The method treats the centroid as the excitation point and the dynamic transfer matrix is derived by using the sub structure mobility synthesis method. Thus, the excitation spectrum can be obtained by the inverse of the transfer matrix combined with the response spectrum at the measure points. Based on the above method, a computing example is carried out to estimate the excitation spectrum acts on the centroid of a electrical pump. By comparing the input excitation and the estimated excitation, the reliability of this method is verified. (authors)

  2. Measurements of vibrational excitation of N2, CO, and NO by low energy proton impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krutein, J.; Linder, F.

    1979-01-01

    Differential scattering experiments are reported for proton impact on N 2 , CO, and NO in the energy range E/sub lab/=30--80 eV. The measurements include the range of very small scattering angles around 0 0 as well as the rainbow region. The vibrationally resolved energy-loss spectra show a relatively low vibrational inelasticity for all three systems. Differential cross sections, transition probabilities, and the mean vibrational energy transfer are presented. Rotational excitation is indicated by the broadening of the energy-loss peaks which is most significant for H + --NO. The small-angle scattering data for vibrational excitation in CO show good agreement with the impact parameter theory using the known long-range interactions for this system

  3. The effect of vibrationally excited nitrogen on the low-latitude ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jenkins

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available The first five vibrationally excited states of molecular nitrogen have been included in the Sheffield University plasmasphere ionosphere model. Vibrationally excited molecular nitrogen reacts much more strongly with atomic oxygen ions than ground-state nitrogen; this means that more O+ ions are converted to NO+ ions, which in turn combine with the electrons to give reduced electron densities. Model calculations have been carried out to investigate the effect of including vibrationally excited molecular nitrogen on the low-latitude ionosphere. In contrast to mid-latitudes, a reduction in electron density is seen in all seasons during solar maximum, the greatest effect being at the location of the equatorial trough.

  4. Using narrowband excitation to confirm that the S∗ state in carotenoids is not a vibrationally-excited ground state species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jailaubekov, Askat E.; Song, Sang-Hun; Vengris, Mikas; Cogdell, Richard J.; Larsen, Delmar S.

    2010-02-01

    The hypothesis that S∗ is a vibrationally-excited ground-state population is tested and discarded for two carotenoid samples: β-carotene in solution and rhodopin glucoside embedded in the light harvesting 2 protein from Rhodopseudomonas acidophila. By demonstrating that the transient absorption signals measured in both systems that are induced by broadband (1000 cm -1) and narrowband (50 cm -1) excitation pulses are near identical and hence bandwidth independent, the impulsive stimulated Raman scattering mechanism proposed as the primary source for S∗ generation is discarded. To support this conclusion, previously published multi-pulse pump-dump-probe signals [17] are revisited to discard secondary mechanisms for S∗ formation.

  5. Do vibrationally excited OH molecules affect middle and upper atmospheric chemistry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. von Clarmann

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Except for a few reactions involving electronically excited molecular or atomic oxygen or nitrogen, atmospheric chemistry modelling usually assumes that the temperature dependence of reaction rates is characterized by Arrhenius' law involving kinetic temperatures. It is known, however, that in the upper atmosphere the vibrational temperatures may exceed the kinetic temperatures by several hundreds of Kelvins. This excess energy has an impact on the reaction rates. We have used upper atmospheric OH populations and reaction rate coefficients for OH(v=0...9+O3 and OH(v=0...9+O to estimate the effective (i.e. population weighted reaction rates for various atmospheric conditions. We have found that the effective rate coefficient for OH(v=0...9+O3 can be larger by a factor of up to 1470 than that involving OH in its vibrational ground state only. At altitudes where vibrationally excited states of OH are highly populated, the OH reaction is a minor sink of Ox and O3 compared to other reactions involving, e.g., atomic oxygen. Thus the impact of vibrationally excited OH on the ozone or Ox sink remains small. Among quiescent atmospheres under investigation, the largest while still small (less than 0.1% effect was found for the polar winter upper stratosphere and mesosphere. The contribution of the reaction of vibrationally excited OH with ozone to the OH sink is largest in the upper polar winter stratosphere (up to 4%, while its effect on the HO2 source is larger in the lower thermosphere (up to 1.5% for polar winter and 2.5% for midlatitude night conditions. For OH(v=0...9+O the effective rate coefficients are lower by up to 11% than those involving OH in its vibrational ground state. The effects on the odd oxygen sink are negative and can reach −3% (midlatitudinal nighttime lowermost thermosphere, i.e. neglecting vibrational excitation overestimates the odd

  6. Picosecond dynamics of the glutamate receptor in response to agonist-induced vibrational excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Minoru; Shiomitsu, Eiji; Odai, Kei; Sugimoto, Tohru; Suzuki, Hideo; Ito, Etsuro

    2004-02-01

    Conformational changes of proteins are dominated by the excitation and relaxation processes of their vibrational states. To elucidate the mechanism of receptor activation, the conformation dynamics of receptors must be analyzed in response to agonist-induced vibrational excitation. In this study, we chose the bending vibrational mode of the guanidinium group of Arg485 of the glutamate receptor subunit GluR2 based on our previous studies, and we investigated picosecond dynamics of the glutamate receptor caused by the vibrational excitation of Arg485 via molecular dynamics simulations. The vibrational excitation energy in Arg485 in the ligand-binding site initially flowed into Lys730, and then into the J-helix at the subunit interface of the ligand-binding domain. Consequently, the atomic displacement in the subunit interface around an intersubunit hydrogen bond was evoked in about 3 ps. This atomic displacement may perturb the subunit packing of the receptor, triggering receptor activation. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Synthesis of vibration control and health monitoring of building structures under unknown excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Jia; Huang, Qin; Xu, You-Lin

    2014-01-01

    The vibration control and health monitoring of building structures have been actively investigated in recent years but often treated separately according to the primary objective pursued. In this study, a time-domain integrated vibration control and health monitoring approach is proposed based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF) for identifying the physical parameters of the controlled building structures without the knowledge of the external excitation. The physical parameters and state vectors of the building structure are then estimated and used for the determination of the control force for the purpose of the vibration attenuation. The interaction between the health monitoring and vibration control is revealed and assessed. The feasibility and reliability of the proposed approach is numerically demonstrated via a five-story shear building structure equipped with magneto-rheological (MR) dampers. Two types of excitations are considered: (1) the EI-Centro ground excitation underneath of the building and (2) a swept-frequency excitation applied on the top floor of the building. Results show that the structural parameters as well as the unknown dynamic loadings could be identified accurately; and, at the same time, the structural vibration is significantly reduced in the building structure. (paper)

  8. The Nonlinear Behavior of Vibrational Conveyers with Single-Mass Crank-and-Rod Exciters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Füsun Alışverişçi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The single-mass, crank-and-rod exciters vibrational conveyers have a trough supported on elastic stands which are rigidly fastened to the trough and a supporting frame. The trough is oscillated by a common crank drive. This vibration causes the load to move forward and upward. The moving loads jump periodically and move forward with relatively small vibration. The movement is strictly related to vibrational parameters. This is applicable in laboratory conditions in the industry which accommodate a few grams of loads, up to those that accommodate tons of loading capacity. In this study I explore the transitional behavior across resonance, during the starting of a single degree of freedom vibratory system excited by crank-and-rod. A loaded vibratory conveyor is more safe to start than an empty one. Vibrational conveyers with cubic nonlinear spring and ideal vibration exciter have been analyzed analytically for primary and secondary resonance by the Method of Multiple Scales, and numerically. The approximate analytical results obtained in this study have been compared with the numerical results and have been found to be well matched.

  9. Multiple scattering approach to the vibrational excitation of molecules by slow electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drukarev, G.

    1976-01-01

    Another approach to the problem of vibrational excitation of homonuclear two-atomic molecules by slow electrons possibly accompanied by rotational transitions is presented based on the picture of multiple scattering of an electron inside the molecule. The scattering of two fixed centers in the zero range potential model is considered. The results indicate that the multiple scattering determines the order of magnitude of the vibrational excitation cross sections in the energy region under consideration even if the zero range potential model is used. Also the connection between the multiple scattering approach and quasi-stationary molecular ion picture is established. 9 refs

  10. Antibonding intermediate state in the theory of vibrational excitation of diatomic molecules by slow electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazanskii, A.K.

    1982-01-01

    An exactly solvable model is constructed for the description of the processes that take place when a slow electron collides with a diatomic molecule (vibrational excitation, associative detachment, and dissociative attachment). As a particular model of the variant, the case of an antibonding (virtual) state of an intermediate state is considered, and a term of this state is parametrized in a very simple manner. The vibrational excitation and dissociative attachment are calculated for a system corresponding to the HCl molecule. The results are in good qualitative agreement with experiment

  11. Differential cross sections for electron-impact vibrational-excitation of tetrahydrofuran at intermediate impact energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do, T. P. T. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); School of Education, Can Tho University, Campus II, 3/2 Street, Xuan Khanh, Ninh Kieu, Can Tho City (Viet Nam); Duque, H. V. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-330 Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Lopes, M. C. A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-330 Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Konovalov, D. A.; White, R. D. [College of Science, Technology and Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville (Australia); Brunger, M. J., E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au, E-mail: darryl.jones@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Jones, D. B., E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au, E-mail: darryl.jones@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia)

    2015-03-28

    We report differential cross sections (DCSs) for electron-impact vibrational-excitation of tetrahydrofuran, at intermediate incident electron energies (15-50 eV) and over the 10°-90° scattered electron angular range. These measurements extend the available DCS data for vibrational excitation for this species, which have previously been obtained at lower incident electron energies (≤20 eV). Where possible, our data are compared to the earlier measurements in the overlapping energy ranges. Here, quite good agreement was generally observed where the measurements overlapped.

  12. Use of VUK-170 elastic vibration exciter to free instrument from landslide and adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akopov, E A; Dublenich, Y V; Leskovskii, G A

    1981-01-01

    The mechanical institute of Moscow State Univ. and VNIIBT have developed a mechanical long stroke drilling jar named VUK-170M elastic vibration exciter. It is able to function in two modes: percussion and wave-impulse. Tests have established that the VUK-1/0 elastic vibration exciter is an effective means for eliminating tool sticking, such as drill bit wedging, use in permeable deposits, or rockburst in the annulary space after walls of well collapse. In the latter case a number of measures should be undertaken: use of the device in a wave-impulse or percussion mode; oil slug; turn the drilling string by section.

  13. Acoustic and Vibration Control for an Underwater Structure under Mechanical Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Jian Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic and vibration control for an underwater structure under mechanical excitation has been investigated by using negative feedback control algorithm. The underwater structure is modeled with cylindrical shells, conical shells, and circular bulkheads, of which the motion equations are built with the variational approach, respectively. Acoustic property is analyzed by the Helmholtz integration formulation with boundary element method. Based on negative feedback control algorithm, a control loop with a coupling use of piezoelectric sensor and actuator is built, and accordingly some numerical examples are carried out on active control of structural vibration and acoustic response. Effects of geometrical and material parameters on acoustic and vibration properties are investigated and discussed.

  14. Rate coefficients of exchange reactions accounting for vibrational excitation of reagents and products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustova, E. V.; Savelev, A. S.; Kunova, O. V.

    2018-05-01

    Theoretical models for the vibrational state-resolved Zeldovich reaction are assessed by comparison with the results of quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) calculations. An error in the model of Aliat is corrected; the model is generalized taking into account NO vibrational states. The proposed model is fairly simple and can be easily implemented to the software for non-equilibrium flow modeling. It provides a good agreement with the QCT rate coefficients in the whole range of temperatures and reagent/product vibrational states. The developed models are tested in simulations of vibrational and chemical relaxation of air mixture behind a shock wave. The importance of accounting for excitated NO vibrational states and accurate prediction of Zeldovich reactions rates is shown.

  15. Collision dynamics of methyl radicals and highly vibrationally excited molecules using crossed molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, P.M.Y.

    1991-10-01

    The vibrational to translational (V→T) energy transfer in collisions between large highly vibrationally excited polyatomics and rare gases was investigated by time-of-flight techniques. Two different methods, UV excitation followed by intemal conversion and infrared multiphoton excitation (IRMPE), were used to form vibrationally excited molecular beams of hexafluorobenzene and sulfur hexafluoride, respectively. The product translational energy was found to be independent of the vibrational excitation. These results indicate that the probability distribution function for V→T energy transfer is peaked at zero. The collisional relaxation of large polyatomic molecules with rare gases most likely occurs through a rotationally mediated process. Photodissociation of nitrobenzene in a molecular beam was studied at 266 nm. Two primary dissociation channels were identified including simple bond rupture to produce nitrogen dioxide and phenyl radical and isomerization to form nitric oxide and phenoxy radical. The time-of-flight spectra indicate that simple bond rupture and isomerization occurs via two different mechanisms. Secondary dissociation of the phenoxy radicals to carbon monoxide and cyclopentadienyl radicals was observed as well as secondary photodissociation of phenyl radical to give H atom and benzyne. A supersonic methyl radical beam source is developed. The beam source configuration and conditions were optimized for CH 3 production from the thermal decomposition of azomethane. Elastic scattering of methyl radical and neon was used to differentiate between the methyl radicals and the residual azomethane in the molecular beam

  16. Chemical reactions of water molecules on Ru(0001) induced by selective excitation of vibrational modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mugarza, Aitor; Shimizu, Tomoko K.; Ogletree, D. Frank; Salmeron, Miquel

    2009-05-07

    Tunneling electrons in a scanning tunneling microscope were used to excite specific vibrational quantum states of adsorbed water and hydroxyl molecules on a Ru(0 0 0 1) surface. The excited molecules relaxed by transfer of energy to lower energy modes, resulting in diffusion, dissociation, desorption, and surface-tip transfer processes. Diffusion of H{sub 2}O molecules could be induced by excitation of the O-H stretch vibration mode at 445 meV. Isolated molecules required excitation of one single quantum while molecules bonded to a C atom required at least two quanta. Dissociation of single H{sub 2}O molecules into H and OH required electron energies of 1 eV or higher while dissociation of OH required at least 2 eV electrons. In contrast, water molecules forming part of a cluster could be dissociated with electron energies of 0.5 eV.

  17. Fluorescent vibration-rotation excitation of cometary C2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gredel, R.; Dishoeck, van E.F.; Black, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    The statistical equilibrium equations that determine the population densities of the energy levels in cometary C2 molecules due to fluorescent excitation are examined in detail. The adopted model and molecular parameters are discussed, and a theoretical estimate is made of the two intercombination

  18. Exploring the vibrational fingerprint of the electronic excitation energy via molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deyne, Andy Van Yperen-De; Pauwels, Ewald; Ghysels, An; Waroquier, Michel; Van Speybroeck, Veronique; Hemelsoet, Karen; De Meyer, Thierry; De Clerck, Karen

    2014-01-01

    A Fourier-based method is presented to relate changes of the molecular structure during a molecular dynamics simulation with fluctuations in the electronic excitation energy. The method implies sampling of the ground state potential energy surface. Subsequently, the power spectrum of the velocities is compared with the power spectrum of the excitation energy computed using time-dependent density functional theory. Peaks in both spectra are compared, and motions exhibiting a linear or quadratic behavior can be distinguished. The quadratically active motions are mainly responsible for the changes in the excitation energy and hence cause shifts between the dynamic and static values of the spectral property. Moreover, information about the potential energy surface of various excited states can be obtained. The procedure is illustrated with three case studies. The first electronic excitation is explored in detail and dominant vibrational motions responsible for changes in the excitation energy are identified for ethylene, biphenyl, and hexamethylbenzene. The proposed method is also extended to other low-energy excitations. Finally, the vibrational fingerprint of the excitation energy of a more complex molecule, in particular the azo dye ethyl orange in a water environment, is analyzed

  19. Theoretical and experimental study of the vibrational excitations in ethane monolayers adsorbed on graphite (0001) surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Taub, H.

    1987-01-01

    The collective vibrational excitations of two different crystalline monolayer phases of ethane (C2H6) adsorbed on the graphite (0001) surface have been investigated theoretically and experimentally. The monolayer phases studied are the commensurate 7/8 ×4 structure in which the ethane molecules lie...

  20. Bibliography on electron collisions with molecules: rotational and vibrational excitations, 1980-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itikawa, Yukikazu

    2001-04-01

    A list of papers reporting cross sections for electron-impact excitations of rotational and vibrational states of molecules is presented. The list includes both the theoretical and the experimental papers published in 1980-2000. An index by molecular species is provided at the end of the bibliography. (author)

  1. Blades Forced Vibration Under Aero-Elastic Excitation Modeled by Van der Pol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Půst, Ladislav; Pešek, Luděk

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 11 (2017), č. článku 1750166. ISSN 0218-1274 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-04546S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : ade vibration * aero-elastic force * self-excitation * van der Pol Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics OBOR OECD: Applied mechanics Impact factor: 1.329, year: 2016

  2. Intermediate energy electron impact excitation of composite vibrational modes in phenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, R. F. C. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, G.P.O. Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Instituto Federal do Sul de Minas Gerais, Campus Poços de Caldas, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-900, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Jones, D. B. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, G.P.O. Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Lopes, M. C. A.; Nixon, K. L. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-900, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Oliveira, E. M. de; Lima, M. A. P. [Instituto de Física ‘Gleb Wataghin,’ Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Costa, R. F. da [Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, 09210-580 Santo André, São Paulo (Brazil); Varella, M. T. do N. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05315-970 São Paulo (Brazil); Bettega, M. H. F. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, C.P. 19044, 81531-990 Curitiba, Paraná (Brazil); Silva, G. B. da [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso (Brazil); Brunger, M. J., E-mail: Michael.Brunger@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, G.P.O. Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-05-21

    We report differential cross section results from an experimental investigation into the electron impact excitation of a number of the low-lying composite (unresolved) vibrational modes in phenol (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}OH). The measurements were carried out at incident electron energies in the range 15–40 eV and for scattered-electron angles in the range 10–90°. The energy resolution of those measurements was typically ∼80 meV. Calculations, using the GAMESS code, were also undertaken with a B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level model chemistry, in order to enable us to assign vibrational modes to the features observed in our energy loss spectra. To the best of our knowledge, the present cross sections are the first to be reported for vibrational excitation of the C{sub 6}H{sub 5}OH molecule by electron impact.

  3. Study on antilock brake system with elastic membrane vibration generated by controlled solenoid excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wibowo,; Zakaria,; Lambang, Lullus; Triyono,; Muhayat, Nurul

    2016-01-01

    The most effective chassis control system for improving vehicle safety during severe braking is anti-lock braking system (ABS). Antilock effect can be gained by vibrate the pad brake at 7 to 20 cycle per second. The aim of this study is to design a new method of antilock braking system with membrane elastic vibrated by solenoid. The influence of the pressure fluctuations of brake fluid is investigated. Vibration data is collected using a small portable accelerometer-slam stick. The experiment results that the vibration of brake pad caused by controlled solenoid excitation at 10 Hz is obtained by our new method. The result of measurements can be altered by varying brake fluid pressure.

  4. Study on antilock brake system with elastic membrane vibration generated by controlled solenoid excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wibowo,, E-mail: wibowo-uns@yahoo.com; Zakaria,, E-mail: zakaaria27@gmail.com; Lambang, Lullus, E-mail: lulus-l@yahoo.com; Triyono,, E-mail: tyon-bila@yahoo.co.id; Muhayat, Nurul, E-mail: nurulmuhayat@ymail.com [Mechanical Engineering Department, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta 57128 (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    The most effective chassis control system for improving vehicle safety during severe braking is anti-lock braking system (ABS). Antilock effect can be gained by vibrate the pad brake at 7 to 20 cycle per second. The aim of this study is to design a new method of antilock braking system with membrane elastic vibrated by solenoid. The influence of the pressure fluctuations of brake fluid is investigated. Vibration data is collected using a small portable accelerometer-slam stick. The experiment results that the vibration of brake pad caused by controlled solenoid excitation at 10 Hz is obtained by our new method. The result of measurements can be altered by varying brake fluid pressure.

  5. Vibrational excitation of hydrogen molecules by two-photon absorption and third-harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yuki; Hara, Hideaki; Hiraki, Takahiro; Masuda, Takahiko; Sasao, Noboru; Uetake, Satoshi; Yoshimi, Akihiro; Yoshimura, Koji; Yoshimura, Motohiko

    2018-01-01

    We report the coherent excitation of the vibrational state of hydrogen molecules by two-photon absorption and the resultant third-harmonic generation (THG). Parahydrogen molecules cooled by liquid nitrogen are irradiated by mid-infrared nanosecond pulses at 4.8 μm with a nearly Fourier-transform-limited linewidth. The first excited vibrational state of parahydrogen is populated by two-photon absorption of the mid-infrared photons. Because of the narrow linewidth of the mid-infrared pulses, coherence between the ground and excited states is sufficient to induce higher-order processes. Near-infrared photons from the THG are observed at 1.6 μm. The dependence of the intensity of the near-infrared radiation on mid-infrared pulse energy, target pressure, and cell length is determined. We used a simple formula for THG with consideration of realistic experimental conditions to explain the observed results.

  6. Photo-driven electron transfer from the highly reducing excited state of naphthalene diimide radical anion to a CO 2 reduction catalyst within a molecular triad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Jose F. [Department of Chemistry and Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research (ANSER) Center; Northwestern University; Evanston; USA; La Porte, Nathan T. [Department of Chemistry and Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research (ANSER) Center; Northwestern University; Evanston; USA; Mauck, Catherine M. [Department of Chemistry and Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research (ANSER) Center; Northwestern University; Evanston; USA; Wasielewski, Michael R. [Department of Chemistry and Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research (ANSER) Center; Northwestern University; Evanston; USA

    2017-01-01

    The naphthalene-1,4:5,8-bis(dicarboximide) radical anion (NDI-˙), which is easily produced by mild chemical or electrochemical reduction (-0.5 Vvs.SCE), can be photoexcited at wavelengths as long as 785 nm, and has an excited state (NDI-˙*) oxidation potential of -2.1 Vvs.SCE, making it a very attractive choice for artificial photosynthetic systems that require powerful photoreductants, such as CO2 reduction catalysts. However, once an electron is transferred from NDI-˙* to an acceptor directly bound to it, a combination of strong electronic coupling and favorable free energy change frequently make the back electron transfer rapid. To mitigate this effect, we have designed a molecular triad system comprising an NDI-˙ chromophoric donor, a 9,10-diphenylanthracene (DPA) intermediate acceptor, and a Re(dmb)(CO)3carbon dioxide reduction catalyst, where dmb is 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine, as the terminal acceptor. Photoexcitation of NDI-˙ to NDI-˙* is followed by ultrafast reduction of DPA to DPA-˙, which then rapidly reduces the metal complex. The overall time constant for the forward electron transfer to reduce the metal complex is τ = 20.8 ps, while the time constant for back-electron transfer is six orders of magnitude longer, τ = 43.4 μs. Achieving long-lived, highly reduced states of these metal complexes is a necessary condition for their use as catalysts. The extremely long lifetime of the reduced metal complex is attributed to careful tuning of the redox potentials of the chromophore and intermediate acceptor. The NDI-˙–DPA fragment presents many attractive features for incorporation into other photoinduced electron transfer assemblies directed at the long-lived photosensitization of difficult-to-reduce catalytic centers.

  7. Hybrid Vibration Control under Broadband Excitation and Variable Temperature Using Viscoelastic Neutralizer and Adaptive Feedforward Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João C. O. Marra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibratory phenomena have always surrounded human life. The need for more knowledge and domain of such phenomena increases more and more, especially in the modern society where the human-machine integration becomes closer day after day. In that context, this work deals with the development and practical implementation of a hybrid (passive-active/adaptive vibration control system over a metallic beam excited by a broadband signal and under variable temperature, between 5 and 35°C. Since temperature variations affect directly and considerably the performance of the passive control system, composed of a viscoelastic dynamic vibration neutralizer (also called a viscoelastic dynamic vibration absorber, the associative strategy of using an active-adaptive vibration control system (based on a feedforward approach with the use of the FXLMS algorithm working together with the passive one has shown to be a good option to compensate the neutralizer loss of performance and generally maintain the extended overall level of vibration control. As an additional gain, the association of both vibration control systems (passive and active-adaptive has improved the attenuation of vibration levels. Some key steps matured over years of research on this experimental setup are presented in this paper.

  8. Stochastic output error vibration-based damage detection and assessment in structures under earthquake excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, J. S.; Fassois, S. D.

    2006-11-01

    A stochastic output error (OE) vibration-based methodology for damage detection and assessment (localization and quantification) in structures under earthquake excitation is introduced. The methodology is intended for assessing the state of a structure following potential damage occurrence by exploiting vibration signal measurements produced by low-level earthquake excitations. It is based upon (a) stochastic OE model identification, (b) statistical hypothesis testing procedures for damage detection, and (c) a geometric method (GM) for damage assessment. The methodology's advantages include the effective use of the non-stationary and limited duration earthquake excitation, the handling of stochastic uncertainties, the tackling of the damage localization and quantification subproblems, the use of "small" size, simple and partial (in both the spatial and frequency bandwidth senses) identified OE-type models, and the use of a minimal number of measured vibration signals. Its feasibility and effectiveness are assessed via Monte Carlo experiments employing a simple simulation model of a 6 storey building. It is demonstrated that damage levels of 5% and 20% reduction in a storey's stiffness characteristics may be properly detected and assessed using noise-corrupted vibration signals.

  9. Positive photocatalysis of a Diels-Alder reaction by quenching of excited naphthalene-indole charge-transfer complex with cyclohexadiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Béjar, María; Stiriba, Salah-Eddine; Miranda, Miguel A; Pérez-Prieto, Julia

    2007-02-01

    [reaction: see text] Naphthalene photo-catalyzes formation of cyclohexadiene-indole cycloadducts in a wavelength-dependent process. Steady-state irradiation and time-resolved fluorescence studies agree well with NP-InH ground-state charge transfer (CT) complexes as the key species responsible for the photo-catalyzed process.

  10. Directing the path of light-induced electron transfer at a molecular fork using vibrational excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delor, Milan; Archer, Stuart A.; Keane, Theo; Meijer, Anthony J. H. M.; Sazanovich, Igor V.; Greetham, Gregory M.; Towrie, Michael; Weinstein, Julia A.

    2017-11-01

    Ultrafast electron transfer in condensed-phase molecular systems is often strongly coupled to intramolecular vibrations that can promote, suppress and direct electronic processes. Recent experiments exploring this phenomenon proved that light-induced electron transfer can be strongly modulated by vibrational excitation, suggesting a new avenue for active control over molecular function. Here, we achieve the first example of such explicit vibrational control through judicious design of a Pt(II)-acetylide charge-transfer donor-bridge-acceptor-bridge-donor 'fork' system: asymmetric 13C isotopic labelling of one of the two -C≡C- bridges makes the two parallel and otherwise identical donor→acceptor electron-transfer pathways structurally distinct, enabling independent vibrational perturbation of either. Applying an ultrafast UVpump(excitation)-IRpump(perturbation)-IRprobe(monitoring) pulse sequence, we show that the pathway that is vibrationally perturbed during UV-induced electron transfer is dramatically slowed down compared to its unperturbed counterpart. One can thus choose the dominant electron transfer pathway. The findings deliver a new opportunity for precise perturbative control of electronic energy propagation in molecular devices.

  11. Lifetime-vibrational interference effects in resonantly excited x-ray emission spectra of CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skytt, P.; Glans, P.; Gunnelin, K. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The parity selection rule for resonant X-ray emission as demonstrated for O{sub 2} and N{sub 2} can be seen as an effect of interference between coherently excited degenerate localized core states. One system where the core state degeneracy is not exact but somewhat lifted was previously studied at ALS, namely the resonant X-ray emission of amino-substituted benzene (aniline). It was shown that the X-ray fluorescence spectrum resulting from excitation of the C1s at the site of the {open_quotes}aminocarbon{close_quotes} could be described in a picture separating the excitation and the emission processes, whereas the spectrum corresponding to the quasi-degenerate carbons could not. Thus, in this case it was necessary to take interference effects between the quasi-degenerate intermediate core excited states into account in order to obtain agreement between calculations and experiment. The different vibrational levels of core excited states in molecules have energy splittings which are of the same order of magnitude as the natural lifetime broadening of core excitations in the soft X-ray range. Therefore, lifetime-vibrational interference effects are likely to appear and influence the band shapes in resonant X-ray emission spectra. Lifetime-vibrational interference has been studied in non-resonant X-ray emission, and in Auger spectra. In this report the authors discuss results of selectively excited soft X-ray fluorescence spectra of molecules, where they focus on lifetime-interference effects appearing in the band shapes.

  12. Experimental studies of processes with vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules that are important for tokamak edge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadez, I.; Markelj, S.; Rupnik, Z.; Pelicon, P.

    2006-01-01

    We are currently conducting a series of different laboratory experimental studies of processes involving vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules that are relevant to fusion edge plasma. A general overview of our activities is presented together with results of studies of hydrogen recombination on surfaces. This includes vibrational spectroscopy of molecules formed by recombination on metal surfaces exposed to the partially dissociated hydrogen gas and recombination after hydrogen permeation through metal membrane. The goal of these studies is to provide numerical parameters needed for edge plasma modelling and better understanding of plasma wall interaction processes. (author)

  13. Vibrational frequencies and dephasing times in excited electronic states by femtosecond time-resolved four-wave mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Taiha; Albrecht, A. C.

    1993-06-01

    Time-resolved degenerate four-wave mixing (TRDFWM) for an electronically resonant system in a phase-matching configuration that measures population decay is reported. Because the spectral width of input light exceeds the vibrational Bohr frequency of a strong Raman active mode, the vibrational coherence produces strong oscillations in the TRDFWM signal together with the usual population decay from the excited electronic state. The data are analyzed in terms of a four-level system: ground and excited electronic states each split by a vibrational quantum of a Raman active mode. Absolute frequencies and their dephasing times of the vibrational modes at ≈590 cm -1 are obtained for the excited as well as the ground electronic state. The vibrational dephasing rate in the excited electronic state is about an order of magnitude faster than that in the ground state, the origin of which is speculated upon.

  14. Active and passive vibration isolation in piezoelectric phononic rods with external voltage excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qicheng Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Active piezoelectric materials are applied to one-dimensional phononic crystals, for the control of longitudinal vibration propagation both in active and passive modes. Based on the electromechanical coupling between the acoustical vibration and electric field, the electromechanical equivalent method is taken to theoretically predict the transmission spectrum of the longitudinal vibration. It is shown that the phononic rod can suppress the vibration efficiently at the frequencies of interest, by actively optimizing the motions of piezoelectric elements. In an illustrated phononic rod of 11.2cm long, active tunable isolations of more than 20dB at low frequencies (500Hz-14kHz are generated by controlling the excitation voltages of piezoelectric elements. Meanwhile, passive fixed isolation at high frequencies (14k-63kHz are presented by its periodicity characteristics. Finite element simulations and vibration experiments on the rod demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach in terms of its vibration isolation capabilities and tunable characteristics. This phononic rod can be manufactured easily and provides numerous potential applications in designing isolation mounts and platforms.

  15. Can Internal Conversion BE Controlled by Mode-Specific Vibrational Excitation in Polyatomic Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnov, Alexander; Epshtein, Michael; Bar, Ilana

    2017-06-01

    Nonadiabatic processes, dominated by dynamic passage of reactive fluxes through conical intersections (CIs) are considered to be appealing means for manipulating reaction paths. One approach that is considered to be effective in controlling the course of dissociation processes is the selective excitation of vibrational modes containing a considerable component of motion. Here, we have chosen to study the predissociation of the model test molecule, methylamine and its deuterated isotopologues, excited to well-characterized quantum states on the first excited electronic state, S_{1}, by following the N-H(D) bond fission dynamics through sensitive H(D) photofragment probing. The branching ratios between slow and fast H(D) photofragments, the internal energies of their counter radical photofragments and the anisotropy parameters for fast H photofragments, confirm correlated anomalies for predissociation initiated from specific rovibronic states, reflecting the existence of a dynamic resonance in each molecule. This resonance strongly depends on the energy of the initially excited rovibronic states, the evolving vibrational mode on the repulsive S_{1} part during N-H(D) bond elongation, and the manipulated passage through the CI that leads to radicals excited with C-N-H(D) bending and preferential perpendicular bond breaking, relative to the photolyzing laser polarization, in molecules containing the NH_{2} group. The indicated resonance plays an important role in the bifurcation dynamics at the CI and can be foreseen to exist in other photoinitiated processes and to control their outcome.

  16. Synchronisation and general dynamic symmetry of a vibrating system with two exciters rotating in opposite directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun-Yu, Zhao; Yi-Min, Zhang; Bang-Chun, Wen

    2010-01-01

    We derive the non-dimensional coupling equation of two exciters, including inertia coupling, stiffness coupling and load coupling. The concept of general dynamic symmetry is proposed to physically explain the synchronisation of the two exciters, which stems from the load coupling that produces the torque of general dynamic symmetry to force the phase difference between the two exciters close to the angle of general dynamic symmetry. The condition of implementing synchronisation is that the torque of general dynamic symmetry is greater than the asymmetric torque of the two motors. A general Lyapunov function is constructed to derive the stability condition of synchronisation that the non-dimensional inertia coupling matrix is positive definite and all its elements are positive. Numeric results show that the structure of the vibrating system can guarantee the stability of synchronisation of the two exciters, and that the greater the distances between the installation positions of the two exciters and the mass centre of the vibrating system are, the stronger the ability of general dynamic symmetry is

  17. Neutral molecules in tokamak edge plasma - role of vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadez, I.; Cercek, M.; Pelicon, P.; Razpet, A.

    2003-01-01

    The role of neutral molecules in edge plasma is discussed with special emphasis on the vibrationally excited hydrogen. Neutral molecules are formed mostly by surface processes on the walls and then released to the edge plasma where they take part in volumetric reactions with other particles. Typically these molecules are formed in excited states and data are needed for their reactions on the wall and in the volume. Processes in edge plasma determine particle and energy flux what is especially critical issue in tokamak divertor region. Various cross sections and reaction rates are needed for modelling edge plasma and its interaction with walls. (author)

  18. Time delay for resonant vibrational excitation in electron--molecule collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauyacq, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of the time delay associated with vibrational excitation in electron--molecule collision is presented. It consists of a direct study of the time dependence of the process for three model systems. An electron wave packet, that is narrow in time, is sent on the target and the amplitudes in the different inelastic channels are studied as functions of time. The time delay is found to correspond to very different time effects: broadenings, shifts in time of the wave packet, but also complex distortions that cannot be represented by a time delay. The direct analysis of the scattered wave also provides new insights into the vibrational excitation process. It should be a useful tool to analyze complex collision processes

  19. Excitation of vibrational quanta in furfural by intermediate-energy electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D. B.; Neves, R. F. C.; Lopes, M. C. A.; da Costa, R. F.; Varella, M. T. do N.; Bettega, M. H. F.; Lima, M. A. P.; García, G.; Blanco, F.; Brunger, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    We report cross sections for electron-impact excitation of vibrational quanta in furfural, at intermediate incident electron energies (20, 30, and 40 eV). The present differential cross sections are measured over the scattered electron angular range 10°-90°, with corresponding integral cross sections subsequently being determined. Furfural is a viable plant-derived alternative to petrochemicals, being produced via low-temperature plasma treatment of biomass. Current yields, however, need to be significantly improved, possibly through modelling, with the present cross sections being an important component of such simulations. To the best of our knowledge, there are no other cross sections for vibrational excitation of furfural available in the literature, so the present data are valuable for this important molecule.

  20. Excitation of vibrational quanta in furfural by intermediate-energy electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D. B. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Neves, R. F. C. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Instituto Federal do Sul de Minas Gerais, Campus Poços de Caldas, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-900, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Lopes, M. C. A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-900, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Costa, R. F. da [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin,” Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, 13083-859 São Paulo (Brazil); Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo André, 09210-580 São Paulo (Brazil); Varella, M. T. do N. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 66318, 05315-970 São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Bettega, M. H. F. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, CP 19044, 81531-990 Curitiba, Paraná (Brazil); Lima, M. A. P. [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin,” Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, 13083-859 São Paulo (Brazil); García, G. [Instituto de Física Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 113-bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); and others

    2015-12-14

    We report cross sections for electron-impact excitation of vibrational quanta in furfural, at intermediate incident electron energies (20, 30, and 40 eV). The present differential cross sections are measured over the scattered electron angular range 10°–90°, with corresponding integral cross sections subsequently being determined. Furfural is a viable plant-derived alternative to petrochemicals, being produced via low-temperature plasma treatment of biomass. Current yields, however, need to be significantly improved, possibly through modelling, with the present cross sections being an important component of such simulations. To the best of our knowledge, there are no other cross sections for vibrational excitation of furfural available in the literature, so the present data are valuable for this important molecule.

  1. Excitation of vibrational quanta in furfural by intermediate-energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D. B.; Neves, R. F. C.; Lopes, M. C. A.; Costa, R. F. da; Varella, M. T. do N.; Bettega, M. H. F.; Lima, M. A. P.; García, G.

    2015-01-01

    We report cross sections for electron-impact excitation of vibrational quanta in furfural, at intermediate incident electron energies (20, 30, and 40 eV). The present differential cross sections are measured over the scattered electron angular range 10°–90°, with corresponding integral cross sections subsequently being determined. Furfural is a viable plant-derived alternative to petrochemicals, being produced via low-temperature plasma treatment of biomass. Current yields, however, need to be significantly improved, possibly through modelling, with the present cross sections being an important component of such simulations. To the best of our knowledge, there are no other cross sections for vibrational excitation of furfural available in the literature, so the present data are valuable for this important molecule

  2. Probing highly obscured, self-absorbed galaxy nuclei with vibrationally excited HCN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, S.; Martín, S.; Costagliola, F.; González-Alfonso, E.; Muller, S.; Sakamoto, K.; Fuller, G. A.; García-Burillo, S.; van der Werf, P.; Neri, R.; Spaans, M.; Combes, F.; Viti, S.; Mühle, S.; Armus, L.; Evans, A.; Sturm, E.; Cernicharo, J.; Henkel, C.; Greve, T. R.

    2015-12-01

    We present high resolution (0.̋4) IRAM PdBI and ALMA mm and submm observations of the (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies ((U)LIRGs) IRAS 17208-0014, Arp220, IC 860 and Zw049.057 that reveal intense line emission from vibrationally excited (ν2 = 1) J = 3-2 and 4-3 HCN. The emission is emerging from buried, compact (r 5 × 1013 L⊙ kpc-2. These nuclei are likely powered by accreting supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and/or hot (>200 K) extreme starbursts. Vibrational, ν2 = 1, lines of HCN are excited by intense 14 μm mid-infrared emission and are excellent probes of the dynamics, masses, and physical conditions of (U)LIRG nuclei when H2 column densities exceed 1024 cm-2. It is clear that these lines open up a new interesting avenue to gain access to the most obscured AGNs and starbursts. Vibrationally excited HCN acts as a proxy for the absorbed mid-infrared emission from the embedded nuclei, which allows for reconstruction of the intrinsic, hotter dust SED. In contrast, we show strong evidence that the ground vibrational state (ν = 0), J = 3-2and 4-3 rotational lines of HCN and HCO+ fail to probe the highly enshrouded, compact nuclear regions owing to strong self- and continuum absorption. The HCN and HCO+ line profiles are double-peaked because of the absorption and show evidence of non-circular motions - possibly in the form of in- or outflows. Detections of vibrationally excited HCN in external galaxies are so far limited to ULIRGs and early-type spiral LIRGs, and we discuss possible causes for this. We tentatively suggest that the peak of vibrationally excited HCN emission is connected to a rapid stage of nuclear growth, before the phase of strong feedback. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM Plateau de Bure and ALMA Interferometers. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain). ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA), and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada) and NSC and ASIAA

  3. Selective vibrational excitation of the ethylene--fluorine reaction in a nitrogen matrix. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frei, H.

    1983-01-01

    The product branching between 1,2-difluoroethane and vinyl fluoride (plus HF) of the selective vibrationally stimulated reaction of molecular fluorine with C 2 H 4 has been studied in a nitrogen matrix at 12 K and found to be the same for five different vibrational transitions of C 2 H 4 between 1896 and 4209 cm -1 . The HF/DF branching ratio of the reaction of F 2 with CH 2 CD 2 , trans-CHDCHD, and cis-CHDCHD was determined to be 1.1, independent of precursor C 2 H 2 D 2 isomer and particular mode which excited the reaction. These results, as well as the analysis of the mixtures of partially deuterated vinyl fluoride molecules produced by each C 2 H 2 D 2 isomer indicate that the product branching occurs by αβ elimination of HF(DF) from a vibrationally excited, electronic ground state 1,2-difluoroethane intermediate. Selective vibrational excitation of fluorine reactions in isotopically mixed matrices t-CHDCHD/C 2 H 4 /F 2 /N 2 and CH 2 CD 2 /C 2 H 4 /F 2 /N 2 , and in matrices C 2 H 2 /C 2 H 4 /F 2 /N 2 revealed a high degree of isotopic and molecular selectivity. The extent to which intermolecular energy transfer occurred is qualitatively explained in terms of dipole coupled vibrational energy transfer. A study of the loss of absorbance of the C 2 H 4 x F 2 pairs in case of ν 9 as a function of both the laser irradiation frequency within the absorption profile, and the ethylene concentration showed that the C 2 H 4 x F 2 absorption is inhomogeneously broadened. Substantial depletion of reactive pairs which did not absorb laser light is interpreted in terms of Forster transfer

  4. The origin of small and large molecule behavior in the vibrational relaxation of highly excited molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    An explanation is proposed for the qualitatively different types of behavior that have been reported for the vibrational relaxation of highly excited diatomic and polyatomic molecules. It is argued that all of the diatomic molecules that have been studied in bulk relax adiabatically at room temperature. In contrast, large polyatomic molecules have low frequency modes which act at ''doorway'' modes for the rest of the molecules, producing an impulsive relaxation mechanism. The theoretical work of Nesbitt and Hynes showed that impulsive collisions result in an exponential decay of the average vibrational energy of a Morse oscillator, whereas adiabatic collisions produce nonexponential power law behavior. We propose that this result explains a large body of data for the vibrational relaxation of small and large molecules

  5. Control Application of Piezoelectric Materials to Aeroelastic Self-Excited Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin Rashidifar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for application of piezoelectric materials to aeroelasticity of turbomachinery blades is presented. The governing differential equations of an overhung beam are established. The induced voltage in attached piezoelectric sensors due to the strain of the beam is calculated. In aeroelastic self-excited vibrations, the aerodynamic generalized force of a specified mode can be described as a linear function of the generalized coordinate and its derivatives. This simplifies the closed loop system designed for vibration control of the corresponding structure. On the other hand, there is an industrial interest in measurement of displacement, velocity, acceleration, or a contribution of them for machinery condition monitoring. Considering this criterion in quadratic optimal control systems, a special style of performance index is configured. Utilizing the current relations in an aeroelastic case with proper attachment of piezoelectric elements can provide higher margin of instability and lead to lower vibration magnitude.

  6. Vibrational excitation and dissociative recombination of the LiH+ ion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čurík, Roman; Greene, C. H.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 105, 11-12 (2007), s. 1565-1574 ISSN 0026-8976 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100400501; GA AV ČR 1ET400400413 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : dissociative recombination * vibrational excitation * lithium hydride * quantum defect the ory Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; The oretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.568, year: 2007

  7. The separation of vibrational coherence from ground- and excited-electronic states in P3HT film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yin; Hellmann, Christoph; Stingelin, Natalie; Scholes, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    Concurrence of the vibrational coherence and ultrafast electron transfer has been observed in polymer/fullerene blends. However, it is difficult to experimentally investigate the role that the excited-state vibrational coherence plays during the electron transfer process since vibrational coherence from the ground- and excited-electronic states is usually temporally and spectrally overlapped. Here, we performed 2-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2D ES) measurements on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) films. By Fourier transforming the whole 2D ES datasets (S(λ 1 ,T ~ 2 ,λ 3 )) along the population time (T ~ 2 ) axis, we develop and propose a protocol capable of separating vibrational coherence from the ground- and excited-electronic states in 3D rephasing and nonrephasing beating maps (S(λ 1 ,ν ~ 2 ,λ 3 )). We found that the vibrational coherence from pure excited electronic states appears at positive frequency (+ν ~ 2 ) in the rephasing beating map and at negative frequency (−ν ~ 2 ) in the nonrephasing beating map. Furthermore, we also found that vibrational coherence from excited electronic state had a long dephasing time of 244 fs. The long-lived excited-state vibrational coherence indicates that coherence may be involved in the electron transfer process. Our findings not only shed light on the mechanism of ultrafast electron transfer in organic photovoltaics but also are beneficial for the study of the coherence effect on photoexcited dynamics in other systems

  8. The separation of vibrational coherence from ground- and excited-electronic states in P3HT film

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Yin

    2015-06-07

    © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC. Concurrence of the vibrational coherence and ultrafast electron transfer has been observed in polymer/fullerene blends. However, it is difficult to experimentally investigate the role that the excited-state vibrational coherence plays during the electron transfer process since vibrational coherence from the ground- and excited-electronic states is usually temporally and spectrally overlapped. Here, we performed 2-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2D ES) measurements on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) films. By Fourier transforming the whole 2D ES datasets (S (λ 1, T∼ 2, λ 3)) along the population time (T∼ 2) axis, we develop and propose a protocol capable of separating vibrational coherence from the ground- and excited-electronic states in 3D rephasing and nonrephasing beating maps (S (λ 1, ν∼ 2, λ 3)). We found that the vibrational coherence from pure excited electronic states appears at positive frequency (+ ν∼ 2) in the rephasing beating map and at negative frequency (- ν∼ 2) in the nonrephasing beating map. Furthermore, we also found that vibrational coherence from excited electronic state had a long dephasing time of 244 fs. The long-lived excited-state vibrational coherence indicates that coherence may be involved in the electron transfer process. Our findings not only shed light on the mechanism of ultrafast electron transfer in organic photovoltaics but also are beneficial for the study of the coherence effect on photoexcited dynamics in other systems.

  9. A nonlocal, ab initio model of dissociative electron attachment and vibrational excitation of NO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevisan, Cynthia S.; Houfek, Karel; Zhang, Zhiyong; Orel, Ann E.; McCurdy, C. William; Rescigno, Thomas N.

    2005-01-01

    We present the results of an ab initio study of elastic scattering and vibrational excitation of NO by electron impact in the loW--energy (0-2 eV) region where the cross sections are dominated by resonance contributions. The 3Sigma-, 1Delta and 1Sigma+ NO- resonance lifetimes are taken from our earlier study [Phys. Rev. A 69, 062711 (2004)], but the resonance energies used here are obtained from new configuration-interaction studies. Here we employ a more elaborate nonlocal treatment of the nuclear dynamics, which is found to remedy the principal deficiencies of the local complex potential model we employed in our earlier study, and gives cross sections in better agreement with the most recent experiments. We also present cross sections for dissociative electron attachment to NO leading to groundstate products. The calculations show that, while the peak cross sections starting from NO in its ground vibrational state are very small, the cross sections are extremely sensitive to vibrational excitation of the target and should be readily observable for target NO molecules excited to v = 10 and above

  10. THE CHEMISTRY OF VIBRATIONALLY EXCITED H2 IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agundez, M.; Roueff, E.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Cernicharo, J.; Faure, A.

    2010-01-01

    The internal energy available in vibrationally excited H 2 molecules can be used to overcome or diminish the activation barrier of various chemical reactions of interest for molecular astrophysics. In this paper, we investigate in detail the impact on the chemical composition of interstellar clouds of the reactions of vibrationally excited H 2 with C + , He + , O, OH, and CN, based on the available chemical kinetics data. It is found that the reaction of H 2 (v>0) and C + has a profound impact on the abundances of some molecules, especially CH + , which is a direct product and is readily formed in astronomical regions with fractional abundances of vibrationally excited H 2 , relative to the ground state H 2 , in excess of ∼10 -6 , independently of whether the gas is hot or not. The effects of these reactions on the chemical composition of the diffuse clouds ζOph and HD 34078, the dense photon-dominated region (PDR) Orion Bar, the planetary nebula NGC 7027, and the circumstellar disk around the B9 star HD 176386 are investigated through PDR models. We find that formation of CH + is especially favored in dense and highly FUV illuminated regions such as the Orion Bar and the planetary nebula NGC 7027, where column densities in excess of 10 13 cm -2 are predicted. In diffuse clouds, however, this mechanism is found to be not efficient enough to form CH + with a column density close to the values derived from astronomical observations.

  11. Maximizing direct current power delivery from bistable vibration energy harvesting beams subjected to realistic base excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Quanqi; Harne, Ryan L.

    2017-04-01

    Effective development of vibration energy harvesters is required to convert ambient kinetic energy into useful electrical energy as power supply for sensors, for example in structural health monitoring applications. Energy harvesting structures exhibiting bistable nonlinearities have previously been shown to generate large alternating current (AC) power when excited so as to undergo snap-through responses between stable equilibria. Yet, most microelectronics in sensors require rectified voltages and hence direct current (DC) power. While researchers have studied DC power generation from bistable energy harvesters subjected to harmonic excitations, there remain important questions as to the promise of such harvester platforms when the excitations are more realistic and include both harmonic and random components. To close this knowledge gap, this research computationally and experimentally studies the DC power delivery from bistable energy harvesters subjected to such realistic excitation combinations as those found in practice. Based on the results, it is found that the ability for bistable energy harvesters to generate peak DC power is significantly reduced by introducing sufficient amount of stochastic excitations into an otherwise harmonic input. On the other hand, the elimination of a low amplitude, coexistent response regime by way of the additive noise promotes power delivery if the device was not originally excited to snap-through. The outcomes of this research indicate the necessity for comprehensive studies about the sensitivities of DC power generation from bistable energy harvester to practical excitation scenarios prior to their optimal deployment in applications.

  12. Piezoelectric Wind Energy Harvesting from Self-Excited Vibration of Square Cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junlei Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-excited vibration of a square cylinder has been considered as an effective way in harvesting piezoelectric wind energy. In present work, both of the vortex-induced vibration and unstable galloping phenomenon process are investigated in a reduced velocity (Ur=U/ωn·D range of 4≤Ur≤20 with load resistance ranging in 100 Ω≤R≤1 MΩ. The vortex-induced vibration covers presynchronization, synchronization, and postsynchronization branches. An aeroelectromechanical model is given to describe the coupling of the dynamic equation of the fluid-structure interaction and the equation of Gauss law. The effects of load resistance are investigated in both the open-circuit and close-circuit system by a linear analysis, which covers the parameters of the transverse displacement, aerodynamic force, output voltage, and harvested power utilized to measure the efficiency of the system. The highest level of the transverse displacement and the maximum value of harvested power of synchronization branch during the vortex-induced vibration and galloping are obtained. The results show that the large-amplitude galloping at high wind speeds can generate energy. Additionally, energy can be harvested by utilization of the lock-in phenomenon of vortex-induced vibration under low wind speed.

  13. Modelling and Analysis of Automobile Vibration System Based on Fuzzy Theory under Different Road Excitation Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-wen Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A fuzzy increment controller is designed aimed at the vibration system of automobile active suspension with seven degrees of freedom (DOF. For decreasing vibration, an active control force is acquired by created Proportion-Integration-Differentiation (PID controller. The controller’s parameters are adjusted by a fuzzy increment controller with self-modifying parameters functions, which adopts the deviation and its rate of change of the body’s vertical vibration velocity and the desired value in the position of the front and rear suspension as the input variables based on 49 fuzzy control rules. Adopting Simulink, the fuzzy increment controller is validated under different road excitation, such as the white noise input with four-wheel correlation in time-domain, the sinusoidal input, and the pulse input of C-grade road surface. The simulation results show that the proposed controller can reduce obviously the vehicle vibration compared to other independent control types in performance indexes, such as, the root mean square value of the body’s vertical vibration acceleration, pitching, and rolling angular acceleration.

  14. Rate coefficients for dissociative attachment and resonant electron-impact dissociation involving vibrationally excited O{sub 2} molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laporta, V. [Istituto di Metodologie Inorganiche e dei Plasmi, CNR, Bari, Italy and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Celiberto, R. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale, del Territorio, Edile e di Chimica, Politecnico di Bari, Italy and Istituto di Metodologie Inorganiche e dei Plasmi, CNR, Bari (Italy); Tennyson, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-09

    Rate coefficients for dissociative electron attachment and electron-impact dissociation processes, involving vibrationally excited molecular oxygen, are presented. Analytical fits of the calculated numerical data, useful in the applications, are also provided.

  15. Selective excitation of a vibrational level within the electronic ground state of a polyatomic molecule with ultra pulses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    de Clercq, L

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Coherent control of the upper vibrational level populations in the electronic ground state of a polyatomic molecule was simulated. Results indicate that selective excitation of a specific upper state level is possible...

  16. Nonlinear Analysis of Cable Vibration of a Multispan Cable-Stayed Bridge under Transverse Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear vibrations of cable in a multispan cable-stayed bridge subjected to transverse excitation are investigated. The MECS (multielements cable system model, where multielements per cable stay are used, is built up and used to analyze the model properties of the multispan cable-stayed bridges. Then, a simplified two-degrees-of-freedom (2-DOFs model, where the tower or the deck is reduced to a beam, is proposed to analyze the nonlinear dynamic behaviors of the beam and cable. The results of MECS model analysis show that the main tower in the multispan cable-stayed bridge is prone to the transverse vibration, and the local vibration of cables only has a little impact on the frequency values of the global modes. The results of simplified model analysis show that the energy can be transformed between the modes of the beam and cable when the nature frequencies of them are very close. On the other hand, with the transverse excitation changing, the cable can exhibit richer quasi-periodic or chaotic motions due to the nonlinear terms caused by the coupled mode between the beam and cable.

  17. The workings of a molecular thermometer: the vibrational excitation of carbon tetrachloride by a solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Polly B; Matus, Kira J M; Stratt, Richard M

    2004-09-15

    An intriguing energy-transfer experiment was recently carried out in methanol/carbon tetrachloride solutions. It turned out to be possible to watch vibrational energy accumulating in three of carbon tetrachloride's modes following initial excitation of O-H and C-H stretches in methanol, in effect making those CCl(4) modes "molecular thermometers" reporting on methanol's relaxation. In this paper, we use the example of a CCl(4) molecule dissolved in liquid argon to examine, on a microscopic level, just how this kind of thermal activation occurs in liquid solutions. The fact that even the lowest CCl(4) mode has a relatively high frequency compared to the intermolecular vibrational band of the solvent means that the only solute-solvent dynamics relevant to the vibrational energy transfer will be extraordinarily local, so much so that it is only the force between the instantaneously most prominent Cl and solvent atoms that will significantly contribute to the vibrational friction. We use this observation, within the context of a classical instantaneous-pair Landau-Teller calculation, to show that energy flows into CCl(4) primarily via one component of the nominally degenerate, lowest frequency, E mode and does so fast enough to make CCl(4) an excellent choice for monitoring methanol relaxation. Remarkably, within this theory, the different symmetries and appearances of the different CCl(4) modes have little bearing on how well they take up energy from their surroundings--it is only how high their vibrational frequencies are relative to the solvent intermolecular vibrational band edge that substantially favors one mode over another.

  18. Cross sections for the vibrational excitation of the H2 X 1Σ+g(v) levels generated by electron collisional excitation of the higher singlet states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiskes, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    The excitation cross sections, σ(v,v double-prime), for an H 2 molecule initially in any one of the 15 vibrational levels, v belonging to the ground electronic state and excited to a final vibrational level, v double-prime are evaluated for direct excitations via all members of the excited electronic singlet spectrum. Account is taken of predissociation, autoionization, and radiative decay of the excited electronic spectrum that leads to a final population distribution for the ground electronic state, X 1 Σ + g (v double-prime). For v=0, account is taken explicitly of transitions via the B, C, B', and D electronic states in evaluating the cross sections. The additional contribution of excitations via all Rydberg states lying above the D state enhances these cross sections by approximately 10%. For v>0, cross sections are evaluated taking explicit account of transitions through the B and C states; higher singlet excitations enhance these values by 25%. The choice of the reference total cross sections remains a subjective one, causing the values calculated here to have a possible uncertainty of +20% -30% . For excitations occurring within a hydrogen discharge, collisional excitation-ionization events among the intermediate singlet states will effectively quench the v, v double-prime excitation process for discharge densities in excess of the range 10 15 --10 16 electrons/cm -3

  19. Vibration-response due to thickness loss on steel plate excited by resonance frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudus, S. A.; Suzuki, Y.; Matsumura, M.; Sugiura, K.

    2018-04-01

    The degradation of steel structure due to corrosion is a common problem found especially in the marine structure due to exposure to the harsh marine environment. In order to ensure safety and reliability of marine structure, the damage assessment is an indispensable prerequisite for plan of remedial action on damaged structure. The main goal of this paper is to discuss simple vibration measurement on plated structure to give image on overview condition of the monitored structure. The changes of vibration response when damage was introduced in the plate structure were investigated. The damage on plate was simulated in finite element method as loss of thickness section. The size of damage and depth of loss of thickness were varied for different damage cases. The plate was excited with lower order of resonance frequency in accordance estimate the average remaining thickness based on displacement response obtain in the dynamic analysis. Significant reduction of natural frequency and increasing amplitude of vibration can be observed in the presence of severe damage. The vibration analysis summarized in this study can serve as benchmark and reference for researcher and design engineer.

  20. LABORATORY CHARACTERIZATION AND ASTROPHYSICAL DETECTION OF VIBRATIONALLY EXCITED STATES OF ETHYL CYANIDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, A. M.; Bermudez, C.; Alonso, J. L. [Grupo de Espectroscopia Molecular (GEM), Edificio Quifima, Area de Quimica-Fisica, Laboratorios de Espectroscopia y Bioespectroscopia, Unidad Asociada del CSIC, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47005 Valladolid (Spain); Lopez, A.; Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J. [Department of Astrophysics, CAB, INTA-CSIC, Crta Torrejon, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Pearson, J. C. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Padadena, CA 91109 (United States); Marcelino, N., E-mail: adammichael.daly@uva.es, E-mail: cbermu@qf.uva.es, E-mail: jlalonso@qf.uva.es, E-mail: lopezja@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: terceromb@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: jcernicharo@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: John.C.Pearson@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: nmarceli@nrao.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Ethyl cyanide, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CN, is an important interstellar molecule with a very dense rotational-vibrational spectrum. On the basis of new laboratory data in the range of 17-605 GHz and ab initio calculations, two new vibrational states, {nu}{sub 12} and {nu}{sub 20}, have been detected in molecular clouds of Orion. Laboratory data consist of Stark spectroscopy (17-110 GHz) and frequency-modulated spectrometers (GEM laboratory in Valladolid: 17-170, 270-360 GHz; Toyama: 26-200 GHz; Emory: 200-240 GHz; Ohio State: 258-368 GHz; and JPL: 270-318, 395-605 GHz). More than 700 distinct lines of each species were measured in J up to 71 and in K{sub a} up to 25. The states were fitted with Watson's S-reduction Hamiltonian. The two new states have been identified in the interstellar medium toward the Orion Nebula (Orion KL). The ground state, the isotopologues of CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CN, and the vibrationally excited states have been fitted to obtain column densities and to derive vibrational temperatures. All together, ethyl cyanide is responsible for more than 2000 lines in the observed frequency range of 80-280 GHz.

  1. Vibrational response of a rectangular duct of finite length excited by a turbulent internal flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Antoine; Hugues, Florian; Dauchez, Nicolas; Perrey-Debain, Emmanuel

    2018-05-01

    Gas transport ductwork in industrial plants or air conditioning networks can be subject to vibrations induced by the internal flow. Most studies in this matter have been carried out on circular ducts. This paper focuses specifically on the vibratory response of a rectangular duct of finite length excited by an internal turbulent flow. A semi-analytical model taking into account the modal response of the structure due to both aerodynamic and acoustic contributions is derived. The aerodynamic component of the excitation is applied on the basis of Corcos model where the power spectral density of the wall pressure is determined experimentally. The acoustic component is based on the propagating modes in the duct where the acoustic modal contribution are extracted via cross-spectral densities. The vibrational response is given for a 0.2 × 0.1 × 0.5 m3 duct made of 3 mm steel plates excited by 20 m/s or 30 m/s flows. Comparisons between experimental results and numerical predictions show a good agreement. The competition between acoustic and aerodynamic components is highlighted.

  2. Effect of vibrational excitation on the dynamics of ion-molecule reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, S.L.

    1981-11-01

    A new experimental technique for the study of vibrational effects on ion-molecule reaction cross sections is described. Vibrational and collision energy dependent cross sections are presented for proton and H atom transfer, charge transfer and collision induced dissociation reactions in various isotopic H 2 + + H 2 systems. Charge and proton transfer cross sections are presented for the reactions of H 2 + and D 2 + with Ar, N 2 , CO, and O 2 . All the reactions are shown to be highly influenced by avoided crossings between the ground and first excited potential energy surfaces. Because of the nature of the crossings, vibrational motion of the systems can cause both adiabatic and non-adiabatic behavior of the system. This makes the vibrational dependences of the various cross sections a very sensitive probe of the dynamics of the collisions particularly, their behavior in the region of the crossings. Evidence is seen for charge transfer between reagents as they approach each other, transition to and in some cases reactions on excited potential energy surfaces, competition between different channels, and strong coupling of proton and charge transfer channels which occurs only for two of the systems studied (H 2 + + Ar, N 2 ). Oscillatory structure is observed in the collision energy dependence of the endoergic H 2 + (v = 0) + Ar charge transfer reaction for the first time, and a simple model which is commonly used for atom-atom charge transfer is used to fit the peaks. Finally a simple model is used to assess the importance of energy resonance and Franck-Condon effects on molecular charge transfer

  3. Quantum dynamics study on the binding of a positron to vibrationally excited states of hydrogen cyanide molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayanagi, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Kento; Yoshida, Takahiko; Kita, Yukiumi; Tachikawa, Masanori

    2017-05-01

    We present computational results of vibrationally enhanced positron annihilation in the e+ + HCN/DCN collisions within a local complex potential model. Vibrationally elastic and inelastic cross sections and effective annihilation rates were calculated by solving a time-dependent complex-potential Schrödinger equation under the ab initio potential energy surface for the positron attached HCN molecule, [HCN; e+], with multi-component configuration interaction level (Kita and Tachikawa, 2014). We discuss the effect of vibrational excitation on the positron affinities from the obtained vibrational resonance features.

  4. ESR measurement of the concentration of vibrationally excited hydrogen and deuterium molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershenzon, Yu.M.; Ivanov, A.V.; Il'in, S.D.; Kucheryavyi, S.I.; Rozenshtein, V.B.

    1988-01-01

    A method is described for measuring the concentration of vibrationally excited H 2 and D 2 molecules using an ESR microwave spectrometer. The essence of the method is the titration of H 2 (v = 1) and D 2 (v = 1) with D and H atoms and measurement of the concentrations of the titration products H and D, respectively. Stoichiometric titration coefficients were determined in the form of proportionality coefficients between the titration signals Δ[H], Δ[D] and the concentrations of H 2 (v = 1), D 2 (v = 1)

  5. Vibrational excitation of methane by slow electrons revisited: theoretical and experimental study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čurík, Roman; Čársky, Petr; Allan, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 11 (2008), 115203-1--7 ISSN 0953-4075 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 857; GA AV ČR IAA100400501; GA AV ČR 1ET400400413; GA AV ČR KJB400400803; GA ČR GA202/08/0631 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : molecular calculation * vibrational excitation * methane Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.089, year: 2008

  6. Integral cross sections for electron impact excitation of vibrational and electronic states in phenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, R. F. C. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide SA 5001 (Australia); Instituto Federal do Sul de Minas Gerais, Campus Poços de Caldas, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-330 Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Jones, D. B. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide SA 5001 (Australia); Lopes, M. C. A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-330 Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Blanco, F. [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); García, G. [Instituto de Física Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 113-bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Ratnavelu, K. [Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Brunger, M. J., E-mail: Michael.Brunger@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide SA 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-05-21

    We report on measurements of integral cross sections (ICSs) for electron impact excitation of a series of composite vibrational modes and electronic-states in phenol, where the energy range of those experiments was 15–250 eV. There are currently no other results against which we can directly compare those measured data. We also report results from our independent atom model with screened additivity rule correction computations, namely, for the inelastic ICS (all discrete electronic states and neutral dissociation) and the total ionisation ICS. In addition, for the relevant dipole-allowed excited electronic states, we also report f-scaled Born-level and energy-corrected and f-scaled Born-level (BEf-scaled) ICS. Where possible, our measured and calculated ICSs are compared against one another with the general level of accord between them being satisfactory to within the measurement uncertainties.

  7. Intermediate-energy differential and integral cross sections for vibrational excitation in α-tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duque, H. V.; Chiari, L.; Jones, D. B.; Pettifer, Z.; Silva, G. B. da; Limão-Vieira, P.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; White, R. D.; Lopes, M. C. A.; Brunger, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Differential and integral cross section measurements, for incident electron energies in the 20–50 eV range, are reported for excitation of several composite vibrational modes in α-tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol (THFA). Optimisation and frequency calculations, using GAUSSIAN 09 at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level, were also undertaken for the two most abundant conformers of THFA, with results being reported for their respective mode classifications and excitation energies. Those calculations assisted us in the experimental assignments of the composite features observed in our measured energy loss spectra. There are, to the best of our knowledge, no other experimental or theoretical data currently available in the literature against which we can compare the present results

  8. Intermediate-energy differential and integral cross sections for vibrational excitation in α-tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duque, H. V. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Chiari, L.; Jones, D. B.; Pettifer, Z. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Silva, G. B. da [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso (Brazil); Limão-Vieira, P. [Laboratório de Colisões Atómicas e Moleculares, CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Blanco, F. [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); García, G. [Instituto de Física Fundamental, CSIC, Madrid E-28006 (Spain); White, R. D. [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, 4810 Queensland (Australia); Lopes, M. C. A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Brunger, M. J., E-mail: Michael.Brunger@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-06-07

    Differential and integral cross section measurements, for incident electron energies in the 20–50 eV range, are reported for excitation of several composite vibrational modes in α-tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol (THFA). Optimisation and frequency calculations, using GAUSSIAN 09 at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level, were also undertaken for the two most abundant conformers of THFA, with results being reported for their respective mode classifications and excitation energies. Those calculations assisted us in the experimental assignments of the composite features observed in our measured energy loss spectra. There are, to the best of our knowledge, no other experimental or theoretical data currently available in the literature against which we can compare the present results.

  9. Vibrational excitation of methane by positron impact: Computed quantum dynamics and sensitivity tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Tamio; Gianturco, Franco A.

    2002-01-01

    We report the quantum dynamical close-coupling equations relevant for vibrationally inelastic processes in low-energy collisions between a beam of positrons and the CH 4 molecule in the gas phase. The interaction potential is described in detail and we report also our numerical technique for solving the scattering equations. The cross sections are obtained for the excitations of all the modes of the title molecule and are compared both with simpler computational approximations and with the recent experiments for the two distinct energy regions that correspond to the combined symmetric and antisymmetric stretching modes and to twisting and scissoring modes, respectively. Our calculations reproduce well the shape and the values of the experimental findings and give useful insights into the microscopic dynamics for molecular excitation processes activated by low-energy positron scattering

  10. Harmonic pulsed excitation and motion detection of a vibrating reflective target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Matthew W; Greenleaf, James F

    2008-01-01

    Elasticity imaging is an emerging medical imaging modality. Methods involving acoustic radiation force excitation and pulse-echo ultrasound motion detection have been investigated to assess the mechanical response of tissue. In this work new methods for dynamic radiation force excitation and motion detection are presented. The theory and model for harmonic motion detection of a vibrating reflective target are presented. The model incorporates processing of radio frequency data acquired using pulse-echo ultrasound to measure harmonic motion with amplitudes ranging from 100 to 10,000 nm. A numerical study was performed to assess the effects of different parameters on the accuracy and precision of displacement amplitude and phase estimation and showed how estimation errors could be minimized. Harmonic pulsed excitation is introduced as a multifrequency radiation force excitation method that utilizes ultrasound tonebursts repeated at a rate f(r). The radiation force, consisting of frequency components at multiples of f(r), is generated using 3.0 MHz ultrasound, and motion detection is performed simultaneously with 9.0 MHz pulse-echo ultrasound. A parameterized experimental analysis showed that displacement can be measured with small errors for motion with amplitudes as low as 100 nm. The parameterized numerical and experimental analyses provide insight into how to optimize acquisition parameters to minimize measurement errors.

  11. Electron-impact vibrational excitation of the hydroxyl radical in the nighttime upper atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Laurence; Brunger, Michael J.

    2018-02-01

    Chemical processes produce vibrationally excited hydroxyl (OH) in a layer centred at an altitude of about 87 km in the Earth's atmosphere. Observations of this layer are used to deduce temperatures in the mesosphere and to observe the passage of atmospheric gravity waves. Due to the low densities and energies at night of electrons at the relevant altitude, it is not expected that electron-impact excitation of OH would be significant. However, there are unexplained characteristics of OH densities and radiative emissions that might be explained by electron impact. These are measurements of higher than expected densities of OH above 90 km and of emissions at higher energies that cannot be explained by the chemical production processes. This study simulates the role of electron impact in these processes, using theoretical cross sections for electron-impact excitation of OH. The simulations show that electron impact, even in a substantial aurora, cannot fully explain these phenomena. However, in the process of this investigation, apparent inconsistencies in the theoretical cross sections and reaction rates were found, indicating that measurements of electron-impact excitation of OH are needed to resolve these problems and scale the theoretical predictions to allow more accurate simulations.

  12. Trajectory study of supercollision relaxation in highly vibrationally excited pyrazine and CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziman; Sansom, Rebecca; Bonella, Sara; Coker, David F; Mullin, Amy S

    2005-09-01

    Classical trajectory calculations were performed to simulate state-resolved energy transfer experiments of highly vibrationally excited pyrazine (E(vib) = 37,900 cm(-1)) and CO(2), which were conducted using a high-resolution transient infrared absorption spectrometer. The goal here is to use classical trajectories to simulate the supercollision energy transfer pathway wherein large amounts of energy are transferred in single collisions in order to compare with experimental results. In the trajectory calculations, Newton's laws of motion are used for the molecular motion, isolated molecules are treated as collections of harmonic oscillators, and intermolecular potentials are formed by pairwise Lennard-Jones potentials. The calculations qualitatively reproduce the observed energy partitioning in the scattered CO(2) molecules and show that the relative partitioning between bath rotation and translation is dependent on the moment of inertia of the bath molecule. The simulations show that the low-frequency modes of the vibrationally excited pyrazine contribute most to the strong collisions. The majority of collisions lead to small DeltaE values and primarily involve single encounters between the energy donor and acceptor. The large DeltaE exchanges result from both single impulsive encounters and chattering collisions that involve multiple encounters.

  13. Intermediate energy cross sections for electron-impact vibrational-excitation of pyrimidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D. B. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Ellis-Gibbings, L.; García, G. [Instituto de Física Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 113-bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Nixon, K. L. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-330 Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); School of Biology, Chemistry and Forensic Science, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton WV1 1LY (United Kingdom); Lopes, M. C. A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-330 Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Brunger, M. J., E-mail: Michael.Brunger@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-09-07

    We report differential cross sections (DCSs) and integral cross sections (ICSs) for electron-impact vibrational-excitation of pyrimidine, at incident electron energies in the range 15–50 eV. The scattered electron angular range for the DCS measurements was 15°–90°. The measurements at the DCS-level are the first to be reported for vibrational-excitation in pyrimidine via electron impact, while for the ICS we extend the results from the only previous condensed-phase study [P. L. Levesque, M. Michaud, and L. Sanche, J. Chem. Phys. 122, 094701 (2005)], for electron energies ⩽12 eV, to higher energies. Interestingly, the trend in the magnitude of the lower energy condensed-phase ICSs is much smaller when compared to the corresponding gas phase results. As there is no evidence for the existence of any shape-resonances, in the available pyrimidine total cross sections [Baek et al., Phys. Rev. A 88, 032702 (2013); Fuss et al., ibid. 88, 042702 (2013)], between 10 and 20 eV, this mismatch in absolute magnitude between the condensed-phase and gas-phase ICSs might be indicative for collective-behaviour effects in the condensed-phase results.

  14. Possible interaction between thermal electrons and vibrationally excited N2 in the lower E-region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-I. Oyama

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available As one of the tasks to find the energy source(s of thermal electrons, which elevate(s electron temperature higher than neutral temperature in the lower ionosphere E-region, energy distribution function of thermal electron was measured with a sounding rocket at the heights of 93–131 km by the applying second harmonic method. The energy distribution function showed a clear hump at the energy of ~0.4 eV. In order to find the reason of the hump, we conducted laboratory experiment. We studied difference of the energy distribution functions of electrons in thermal energy range, which were measured with and without EUV radiation to plasma of N2/Ar and N2/O2 gas mixture respectively. For N2/Ar gas mixture plasma, the hump is not clearly identified in the energy distribution of thermal electrons. On the other hand for N2/O2 gas mixture, which contains vibrationally excited N2, a clear hump is found when irradiated by EUV. The laboratory experiment seems to suggest that the hump is produced as a result of interaction between vibrationally excited N2 and thermal electrons, and this interaction is the most probable heating source for the electrons of thermal energy range in the lower E-region. It is also suggested that energy distribution of the electrons in high energy part may not be Maxwellian, and DC probe measures the electrons which are non Maxwellian, and therefore "electron temperature" is calculated higher.

  15. Ozone kinetics in low-pressure discharges: vibrationally excited ozone and molecule formation on surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinov, Daniil; Guerra, Vasco; Guaitella, Olivier; Booth, Jean-Paul; Rousseau, Antoine

    2013-10-01

    A combined experimental and modeling investigation of the ozone kinetics in the afterglow of pulsed direct current discharges in oxygen is carried out. The discharge is generated in a cylindrical silica tube of radius 1 cm, with short pulse durations between 0.5 and 2 ms, pressures in the range 1-5 Torr and discharge currents ˜40-120 mA. Time-resolved absolute concentrations of ground-state atoms and ozone molecules were measured simultaneously in situ, by two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence and ultraviolet absorption, respectively. The experiments were complemented by a self-consistent model developed to interpret the results and, in particular, to evaluate the roles of vibrationally excited ozone and of ozone formation on surfaces. It is found that vibrationally excited ozone, O_3^{*} , plays an important role in the ozone kinetics, leading to a decrease in the ozone concentration and an increase in its formation time. In turn, the kinetics of O_3^{*} is strongly coupled with those of atomic oxygen and O2(a 1Δg) metastables. Ozone formation at the wall does not contribute significantly to the total ozone production under the present conditions. Upper limits for the effective heterogeneous recombination probability of O atoms into ozone are established.

  16. Ozone kinetics in low-pressure discharges: vibrationally excited ozone and molecule formation on surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinov, Daniil; Guaitella, Olivier; Booth, Jean-Paul; Rousseau, Antoine; Guerra, Vasco

    2013-01-01

    A combined experimental and modeling investigation of the ozone kinetics in the afterglow of pulsed direct current discharges in oxygen is carried out. The discharge is generated in a cylindrical silica tube of radius 1 cm, with short pulse durations between 0.5 and 2 ms, pressures in the range 1–5 Torr and discharge currents ∼40–120 mA. Time-resolved absolute concentrations of ground-state atoms and ozone molecules were measured simultaneously in situ, by two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence and ultraviolet absorption, respectively. The experiments were complemented by a self-consistent model developed to interpret the results and, in particular, to evaluate the roles of vibrationally excited ozone and of ozone formation on surfaces. It is found that vibrationally excited ozone, O 3 * , plays an important role in the ozone kinetics, leading to a decrease in the ozone concentration and an increase in its formation time. In turn, the kinetics of O 3 * is strongly coupled with those of atomic oxygen and O 2 (a 1 Δ g ) metastables. Ozone formation at the wall does not contribute significantly to the total ozone production under the present conditions. Upper limits for the effective heterogeneous recombination probability of O atoms into ozone are established. (paper)

  17. Effects of phase and coupling between the vibrational modes on selective excitation in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Vishesha; Malinovsky, Vladimir S.; Malinovskaya, Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy has been a major tool of investigation of biological structures as it contains the vibrational signature of molecules. A quantum control method based on chirped pulse adiabatic passage was recently proposed for selective excitation of a predetermined vibrational mode in CARS microscopy [Malinovskaya and Malinovsky, Opt. Lett. 32, 707 (2007)]. The method utilizes the chirp sign variation at the peak pulse amplitude and gives a robust adiabatic excitation of the desired vibrational mode. Using this method, we investigate the impact of coupling between vibrational modes in molecules on controllability of excitation of the CARS signal. We analyze two models of two coupled two-level systems (TLSs) having slightly different transitional frequencies. The first model, featuring degenerate ground states of the TLSs, gives robust adiabatic excitation and maximum coherence in the resonant TLS for positive value of the chirp. In the second model, implying nondegenerate ground states in the TLSs, a population distribution is observed in both TLSs, resulting in a lack of selectivity of excitation and low coherence. It is shown that the relative phase and coupling between the TLSs play an important role in optimizing coherence in the desired vibrational mode and suppressing unwanted transitions in CARS microscopy.

  18. Piezoelectric Shunt Vibration Damping of F-15 Panel under High Acoustic Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Yau; Turner, Travis L.; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2000-01-01

    At last year's SPIE symposium, we reported results of an experiment on structural vibration damping of an F-15 underbelly panel using piezoelectric shunting with five bonded PZT transducers. The panel vibration was induced with an acoustic speaker at an overall sound pressure level (OASPL) of about 90 dB. Amplitude reductions of 13.45 and 10.72 dB were achieved for the first and second modes, respectively, using single- and multiple-mode shunting. It is the purpose of this investigation to extend the passive piezoelectric shunt-damping technique to control structural vibration induced at higher acoustic excitation levels, and to examine the controllability and survivability of the bonded PZT transducers at these high levels. The shunting experiment was performed with the Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus (TAFA) at the NASA Langley Research Center using the same F-15 underbelly panel. The TAFA is a progressive wave tube facility. The panel was mounted in one wall of the TAFA test section using a specially designed mounting fixture such that the panel was subjected to grazing-incidence acoustic excitation. Five PZT transducers were used with two shunt circuits designed to control the first and second modes of the structure between 200 and 400 Hz. We first determined the values of the shunt inductance and resistance at an OASPL of 130 dB. These values were maintained while we gradually increased the OASPL from 130 to 154 dB in 6-dB steps. During each increment, the frequency response function between accelerometers on the panel and the acoustic excitation measured by microphones, before and after shunting, were recorded. Good response reduction was observed up to the 148dB level. The experiment was stopped at 154 dB due to wire breakage from vibration at a transducer wire joint. The PZT transducers, however, were still bonded well on the panel and survived at this high dB level. We also observed shifting of the frequency peaks toward lower frequency when the OASPL

  19. Vibration tests on pile-group foundations using large-scale blast excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hideo; Hijikata, Katsuichirou; Hashimoto, Takayuki; Fujiwara, Kazushige; Kontani, Osamu; Miyamoto, Yuji; Suzuki, Atsushi

    2005-01-01

    Extensive vibration tests have been performed on pile-supported structures at a large-scale mining site. Ground motions induced by large-scale blasting operations were used as excitation forces for vibration tests. The main objective of this research is to investigate the dynamic behavior of pile-supported structures, in particular, pile-group effects. Two test structures were constructed in an excavated 4 m deep pit. One structure had 25 steel tubular piles and the other had 4 piles. The super-structures were exactly the same. The test pit was backfilled with sand of appropriate grain size distributions in order to obtain good compaction, especially between the 25 piles. Accelerations were measured at the structures, in the test pit and in the adjacent free field, and pile strains were measured. The vibration tests were performed six times with different levels of input motions. The maximum horizontal acceleration recorded at the adjacent ground surface varied from 57 cm/s 2 to 1683 cm/s 2 according to the distances between the test site and the blast areas. Maximum strains were 13,400 micro-strains were recorded at the pile top of the 4-pile structure, which means that these piles were subjected to yielding

  20. Behavior of ro-vibrationally excited H2 molecules and H atoms in a plasma expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vankan, P.; Schram, D.C.; Engeln, R.

    2005-01-01

    The behavior in a supersonic plasma expansion of H atom and H2 molecules, both ground-state and ro-vibrationally excited, is studied using various laser spectroscopic techniques. The ground-state H2 molecules expand like a normal gas. The behavior of H atoms and H 2 rv molecules, on the other hand, is considerably influenced, and to some extend even determined, by their reactivity. The H atoms diffuse out of the expansion due to surface association at the walls of the vacuum vessel. Moreover, by reducing the surface area of the nozzle by a factor of two, the amount of H atoms leaving the source is increased by one order of magnitude, due to a decreased surface association of H atoms in the nozzle. The evolution of the ro-vibrational distributions along the expansion axis shows the relaxation of the molecular hydrogen from the high temperature in the up-stream region to the low ambient temperature in the down-stream region. Whereas the vibrational distribution resembles a Boltzmann distribution, the rotational distribution is a non-equilibrium one, in which the high rotational levels (J > 7) are much more populated than what is expected from the low rotational levels (J <5). We observed overpopulations of up to seven orders of magnitude. The production of the high rotational levels is very probably connected to the surface association in the nozzle

  1. Laser selective cutting of biological tissues by impulsive heat deposition through ultrafast vibrational excitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franjic, Kresimir; Cowan, Michael L; Kraemer, Darren; Miller, R J Dwayne

    2009-12-07

    Mechanical and thermodynamic responses of biomaterials after impulsive heat deposition through vibrational excitations (IHDVE) are investigated and discussed. Specifically, we demonstrate highly efficient ablation of healthy tooth enamel using 55 ps infrared laser pulses tuned to the vibrational transition of interstitial water and hydroxyapatite around 2.95 microm. The peak intensity at 13 GW/cm(2) was well below the plasma generation threshold and the applied fluence 0.75 J/cm(2) was significantly smaller than the typical ablation thresholds observed with nanosecond and microsecond pulses from Er:YAG lasers operating at the same wavelength. The ablation was performed without adding any superficial water layer at the enamel surface. The total energy deposited per ablated volume was several times smaller than previously reported for non-resonant ultrafast plasma driven ablation with similar pulse durations. No micro-cracking of the ablated surface was observed with a scanning electron microscope. The highly efficient ablation is attributed to an enhanced photomechanical effect due to ultrafast vibrational relaxation into heat and the scattering of powerful ultrafast acoustic transients with random phases off the mesoscopic heterogeneous tissue structures.

  2. CN molecule vibrational spectra excitation in several LTE plasma sources conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iova, I.; Iova, Floriana; Ionita, I.; Bazavan, M.; Ilie, Gh.; Stanescu, G.

    2001-01-01

    Our interest in CN plasma study steams of the facilities to obtain the CN radicals in a free atmosphere electric discharge where the C of the coal electrodes can to combine in the enough high temperature plasma with the atmospheric nitrogen. Also of much interest is the very important phenomena in which the CN vibrational spectra can be implied and used as a diagnostic tool (plasma chemistry, astrophysics and so on). A peculiar importance presents the CN vibrational spectra in the transient plasmas. It is the reason why we have investigated here some internal processes of a continued and interrupted arc of various pulse lengths. To these purposes we present with enough accuracy the behaviour of the relative band head intensities of the sequences Δ v = +1 and Δ v = 0 belonging to the CN electronic transition (B 2 Σ - X 2 Σ), as a function of the pulse length (50 - 200 ms) as well as a function of the cathode to anode separation. These behaviours give us indications on the vibrational levels of the electronic state populations in several regions of the arc plasma as well on the efficiency of these levels excitation for several plasma pulse lengths. (authors)

  3. Nonlinear vibration behaviors of suspended cables under two-frequency excitation with temperature effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yaobing; Huang, Chaohui; Chen, Lincong; Peng, Jian

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate temperature effects on the nonlinear vibration behaviors of suspended cables under two-frequency excitation. For this purpose, two combination and simultaneous resonances are chosen and studied in detail. First of all, based on the assumptions of the temperature effects, the partial differential equations of the in-plane and out-of-plane motions with thermal effects under multi-frequency excitations are obtained. The Galerkin method is adopted to discretize the nonlinear dynamic equations, and the single-mode planar discretization is considered. Then, in the absence of the primary and internal resonances, the frequency response equations are obtained by using the multiple scales method. The stability analyses are conducted via investigating the nature of the singular points of equations. After that, temperature effects on nonlinear vibration characteristics of the first symmetric mode are studied. Parametric investigations of temperature effects on corresponding non-dimensional factors and coefficients of linear and nonlinear terms are performed. Numerical results are presented to show the temperature effects via the frequency-response curves and detuning-phase curves of four different sag-to-span ratios. It is found out that effects of temperature variations would lead to significant quantitative and/or qualitative changes of the nonlinear vibration properties, and these effects are closely related to the sag-to-span ratio and the degree of the temperature variation. Specifically, the softening/hardening-type spring behaviors, the response amplitude, the range of the resonance, the intersection and number of branches, the number and phase of the steady-state solutions are all affected by the temperature changes.

  4. Laboratory characterization and astrophysical detection of vibrationally excited states of vinyl cyanide in Orion-KL

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, A.; Tercero, B.; Kisiel, Z.; Daly, A. M.; Bermúdez, C.; Calcutt, H.; Marcelino, N.; Viti, S.; Drouin, B. J.; Medvedev, I. R.; Neese, C. F.; Pszczółkowski, L.; Alonso, J. L.; Cernicharo, J.

    2014-12-01

    Context. We perform a laboratory characterization in the 18-1893 GHz range and astronomical detection between 80-280 GHz in Orion-KL with IRAM-30 m of CH2CHCN (vinyl cyanide) in its ground and vibrationally excited states. Aims: Our aim is to improve the understanding of rotational spectra of vibrationally excited vinyl cyanide with new laboratory data and analysis. The laboratory results allow searching for these excited state transitions in the Orion-KL line survey. Furthermore, rotational lines of CH2CHCN contribute to the understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the cloud. Methods: Laboratory measurements of CH2CHCN made on several different frequency-modulated spectrometers were combined into a single broadband 50-1900 GHz spectrum and its assignment was confirmed by Stark modulation spectra recorded in the 18-40 GHz region and by ab-initio anharmonic force field calculations. For analyzing the emission lines of vinyl cyanide detected in Orion-KL we used the excitation and radiative transfer code (MADEX) at LTE conditions. Results: Detailed characterization of laboratory spectra of CH2CHCN in nine different excited vibrational states: ν11 = 1, ν15 = 1, ν11 = 2, ν10 = 1 ⇔ (ν11 = 1,ν15 = 1), ν11 = 3/ν15 = 2/ν14 = 1, (ν11 = 1,ν10 = 1) ⇔ (ν11 = 2,ν15 = 1), ν9 = 1, (ν11 = 1,ν15 = 2) ⇔ (ν10 = 1,ν15 = 1) ⇔ (ν11 = 1,ν14 = 1), and ν11 = 4 are determined, as well as the detection of transitions in the ν11 = 2 and ν11 = 3 states for the first time in Orion-KL and of those in the ν10 = 1 ⇔ (ν11 = 1,ν15 = 1) dyad of states for the first time in space. The rotational transitions of the ground state of this molecule emerge from four cloud components of hot core nature, which trace the physical and chemical conditions of high mass star forming regions in the Orion-KL Nebula. The lowest energy vibrationally excited states of vinyl cyanide, such as ν11 = 1 (at 328.5 K), ν15 = 1 (at 478.6 K), ν11 = 2 (at 657.8 K), the ν10

  5. Origin of enhanced vibrational excitation in N2 by electron impact in the 15--35 eV region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehmer, J.L.; Siegel, J.; Welch, J.; Dill, D.

    1980-01-01

    The authors calculate the integrated vibrational excitation cross section for e-N 2 scattering in the interval 0 --50 eV using the continuum multiple-scattering model with the Hara exchange approximation. Resonant enhancement is observed at 2.4 eV owing to the well-known π/sub g/ shape resonance. In addition, however, enhanced vibrational excitation is found centered at approx.26 eV, arising from a broad shape resonance in the sigma/sub u/ channel. The authors propose this one-electron feature as the main source of the enhanced vibrational excitation observed by Pavlovic et al. in the 15--35 eV region

  6. Parametric and Non-Parametric Vibration-Based Structural Identification Under Earthquake Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentaris, Fragkiskos P.; Fouskitakis, George N.

    2014-05-01

    The problem of modal identification in civil structures is of crucial importance, and thus has been receiving increasing attention in recent years. Vibration-based methods are quite promising as they are capable of identifying the structure's global characteristics, they are relatively easy to implement and they tend to be time effective and less expensive than most alternatives [1]. This paper focuses on the off-line structural/modal identification of civil (concrete) structures subjected to low-level earthquake excitations, under which, they remain within their linear operating regime. Earthquakes and their details are recorded and provided by the seismological network of Crete [2], which 'monitors' the broad region of south Hellenic arc, an active seismic region which functions as a natural laboratory for earthquake engineering of this kind. A sufficient number of seismic events are analyzed in order to reveal the modal characteristics of the structures under study, that consist of the two concrete buildings of the School of Applied Sciences, Technological Education Institute of Crete, located in Chania, Crete, Hellas. Both buildings are equipped with high-sensitivity and accuracy seismographs - providing acceleration measurements - established at the basement (structure's foundation) presently considered as the ground's acceleration (excitation) and at all levels (ground floor, 1st floor, 2nd floor and terrace). Further details regarding the instrumentation setup and data acquisition may be found in [3]. The present study invokes stochastic, both non-parametric (frequency-based) and parametric methods for structural/modal identification (natural frequencies and/or damping ratios). Non-parametric methods include Welch-based spectrum and Frequency response Function (FrF) estimation, while parametric methods, include AutoRegressive (AR), AutoRegressive with eXogeneous input (ARX) and Autoregressive Moving-Average with eXogeneous input (ARMAX) models[4, 5

  7. Supercritical Nonlinear Vibration of a Fluid-Conveying Pipe Subjected to a Strong External Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Lei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear vibration of a fluid-conveying pipe subjected to a transverse external harmonic excitation is investigated in the case with two-to-one internal resonance. The excitation amplitude is in the same magnitude of the transverse displacement. The fluid in the pipes flows in the speed larger than the critical speed so that the straight configuration becomes an unstable equilibrium and two curved configurations bifurcate as stable equilibriums. The motion measured from each of curved equilibrium configurations is governed by a nonlinear integro-partial-differential equation with variable coefficients. The Galerkin method is employed to discretize the governing equation into a gyroscopic system consisting of a set of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The method of multiple scales is applied to analyze approximately the gyroscopic system. A set of first-order ordinary differential equations governing the modulations of the amplitude and the phase are derived via the method. In the supercritical regime, the subharmonic, superharmonic, and combination resonances are examined in the presence of the 2 : 1 internal resonance. The steady-state responses and their stabilities are determined. The various jump phenomena in the amplitude-frequency response curves are demonstrated. The effects of the viscosity, the excitation amplitude, the nonlinearity, and the flow speed are observed. The analytical results are supported by the numerical integration.

  8. Nuclear spin-isospin excitations from covariant quasiparticle-vibration coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Caroline; Litvinova, Elena

    2016-09-01

    Methods based on the relativistic Lagrangian of quantum hadrodynamics and nuclear field theory provide a consistent framework for the description of nuclear excitations, naturally connecting the high- and medium-energy scales of mesons to the low-energy domain of nucleonic collective motion. Applied in the neutral channel, this approach has been quite successful in describing the overall transition strength up to high excitation energies, as well as fine details of the low-lying distribution. Recently, this method has been extended to the description of spin-isospin excitations in open-shell nuclei. In the charge-exchange channel, the coupling between nucleons and collective vibrations generates a time-dependent proton-neutron effective interaction, in addition to the static pion and rho-meson exchange, and introduces complex configurations that induce fragmentation and spreading of the resonances. Such effects have a great impact on the quenching of the strength and on the computing of weak reaction rates that are needed for astrophysics modeling. Gamow-Teller transitions in medium-mass nuclei and associated beta-decay half-lives will be presented. Further developments aiming to include additional ground-state correlations will also be discussed. This work is supported by US-NSF Grants PHY-1404343 and PHY-1204486.

  9. Comparative analysis of the vibrational structure of the absorption spectra of acrolein in the excited ( S 1) electronic state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroleva, L. A.; Tyulin, V. I.; Matveev, V. K.; Pentin, Yu. A.

    2012-04-01

    The assignments of absorption bands of the vibrational structure of the UV spectrum are compared with the assignments of bands obtained by the CRDS method in a supersonic jet from the time of laser radiation damping for the trans isomer of acrolein in the excited ( S 1) electronic state. The ν00 trans = 25861 cm-1 values and fundamental frequencies, including torsional vibration frequency, obtained by the two methods were found to coincide in the excited electronic state ( S 1) for this isomer. The assignments of several absorption bands of the vibrational structure of the spectrum obtained by the CRDS method were changed. Changes in the assignment of (0-v') transition bands of the torsional vibration of the trans isomer in the Deslandres table from the ν00 trans trans origin allowed the table to be extended to high quantum numbers v'. The torsional vibration frequencies up to v' = 5 were found to be close to the frequencies found by analyzing the vibrational structure of the UV spectrum and calculated quantum-mechanically. The coincidence of the barrier to internal rotation (the cis-trans transition) in the one-dimensional model with that calculated quantum-mechanically using the two-dimensional model corresponds to a planar structure of the acrolein molecule in the excited ( S 1) electronic state.

  10. Singlet exciton interactions in crystalline naphthalene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heisel, F.; Miehe, J.A.; Sipp, B.

    1978-01-01

    The decay of prompt fluorescence in crystalline naphthalene at 300 K, excited by picosecond 266 nm pulse, has been studied as a function of excitation intensity. Experimental decay curves can be fitted only when the exponential distribution in depth of excitation and the radial (gaussian) intensity profile of the excitation are both taken into account. From analysis of decay at early time ( -10 cm 3 s -1 . If the reaction is diffusion-limited, this rate implies an average singlet diffusivity Dsub(S)=(2+-1)10 -4 cm 2 s -1

  11. On the O2(a1Δ) quenching by vibrationally excited ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azyazov, V. N.; Mikheyev, P. A.; Heaven, M. C.

    2010-09-01

    The development of a discharge oxygen iodine laser (DOIL) requires efficient production of singlet delta oxygen (O2(a)) in electric discharge. It is important to understand the mechanisms by which O2(a) is quenched in these devices. To gain understanding of this mechanisms quenching of O2(a) in O(3P)/O2/O3/CO2/He/Ar mixtures has been investigated. Oxygen atoms and singlet oxygen molecules were produced by the 248 nm laser photolysis of ozone. The kinetics of O2(a) quenching were followed by observing the 1268 nm fluorescence of the O2 a --> X transition. Fast quenching of O2(a) in the presence of oxygen atoms and molecules was observed. The mechanism of the process has been examined using kinetic models, which indicate that quenching by vibrationally excited ozone is the dominant reaction.

  12. Multi-modal vibration amplitudes of taut inclined cables due to direct and/or parametric excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, J. H. G.

    2016-02-01

    Cables are often prone to potentially damaging large amplitude vibrations. The dynamic excitation may be from external loading or motion of the cable ends, the latter including direct excitation, normally from components of end motion transverse to the cable, and parametric excitation induced by axial components of end motion causing dynamic tension variations. Geometric nonlinearity can be important, causing stiffening behaviour and nonlinear modal coupling. Previous analyses of the vibrations, often neglecting sag, have generally dealt with direct and parametric excitation separately or have reverted to numerical solutions of the responses. Here a nonlinear cable model is adopted, applicable to taut cables such as on cable-stayed bridges, that allows for cable inclination, small sag (such that the vibration modes are similar to those of a taut string), multiple modes in both planes and end motion and/or external forcing close to any natural frequency. Based on the method of scaling and averaging it is found that, for sinusoidal inputs and positive damping, non-zero steady state responses can only occur in the modes in each plane with natural frequencies close to the excitation frequency and those with natural frequencies close to half this frequency. Analytical solutions, in the form of non-dimensional polynomial equations, are derived for the steady state vibration amplitudes in up to three modes simultaneously: the directly excited mode, the corresponding nonlinearly coupled mode in the orthogonal plane and a parametrically excited mode with half the natural frequency. The stability of the solutions is also identified. The outputs of the equations are consistent with previous results, where available. Example results from the analytical solutions are presented for a typical inclined bridge cable subject to vertical excitation of the lower end, and they are validated by numerical integration of the equations of motion and against some previous experimental

  13. Vibrational energy transfer in selectively excited diatomic molecules. [Relaxation rates, self-relaxation, upper limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasch, C.J.

    1978-09-01

    Single rovibrational states of HCl(v=2), HBr(v=2), DCl(v=2), and CO(v=2) were excited with a pulsed optical parametric oscillator (OPO). Total vibrational relaxation rates near - resonance quenchers were measured at 295/sup 0/K using time resolved infrared fluorescence. These rates are attributed primarily to V - V energy transfer, and they generally conform to a simple energy gap law. A small deviation was found for the CO(v) + DCl(v') relaxation rates. Upper limits for the self relaxation by V - R,T of HCl(v=2) and HBr(v=2) and for the two quantum exchange between HCl and HBr were determined. The HF dimer was detected at 295/sup 0/K and 30 torr HF pressure with an optoacoustic spectrometer using the OPO. Pulsed and chopped, resonant and non-resonant spectrophones are analyzed in detail. From experiments and first order perturbation theory, these V - V exchange rates appear to behave as a first order perturbation in the vibrational coordinates. The rotational dynamics are known to be complicated however, and the coupled rotational - vibrational dynamics were investigated theoreticaly in infinite order by the Dillon and Stephenson and the first Magnus approximations. Large ..delta..J transitions appear to be important, but these calculations differ by orders of magnitude on specific rovibrational transition rates. Integration of the time dependent semiclassical equations by a modified Gordon method and a rotationally distorted wave approximation are discussed as methods which would treat the rotational motion more accurately. 225 references.

  14. Stochastic resonance and vibrational resonance in an excitable system: The golden mean barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stan, Cristina; Cristescu, C.P.; Alexandroaei, D.; Agop, M.

    2009-01-01

    We report on stochastic resonance and vibrational resonance in an electric charge double layer configuration as usually found in electrical discharges, biological cell membranes, chemical systems and nanostructures. The experiment and numerical computation show the existence of a barrier expressible in terms of the golden mean above which the two phenomena do not take place. We consider this as new evidence for the importance of the golden mean criticality in the oscillatory dynamics, in agreement with El Naschie's E-infinity theory. In our experiment, the dynamics of a charge double layer generated in the inter-anode space of a twin electrical discharge is investigated under noise-harmonic and harmonic-harmonic perturbations. In the first case, a Gaussian noise can enhance the response of the system to a weak injected periodic signal, a clear mark of stochastic resonance. In the second case, similar enhancement can appear if the noise is replaced by a harmonic perturbation with a frequency much higher than the frequency of the weak oscillation. The amplitude of the low frequency oscillation shows a maximum versus the amplitude of the high frequency perturbation demonstrating vibrational resonance. In order to model these dynamics, we derived an excitable system by modifying a biased van der Pol oscillator. The computational study considers the behaviour of this system under the same types of perturbation as in the experimental investigations and is found to give consistent results in both situations.

  15. An Experimental Validated Control Strategy of Maglev Vehicle-Bridge Self-Excited Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianchun Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses an experimentally validated control strategy of maglev vehicle-bridge vibration, which degrades the stability of the suspension control, deteriorates the ride comfort, and limits the cost of the magnetic levitation system. First, a comparison between the current-loop and magnetic flux feedback is carried out and a minimum model including flexible bridge and electromagnetic levitation system is proposed. Then, advantages and disadvantages of the traditional feedback architecture with the displacement feedback of electromagnet yE and bridge yB in pairs are explored. The results indicate that removing the feedback of the bridge’s displacement yB from the pairs (yE − yB measured by the eddy-current sensor is beneficial for the passivity of the levitation system and the control of the self-excited vibration. In this situation, the signal acquisition of the electromagnet’s displacement yE is discussed for the engineering application. Finally, to validate the effectiveness of the aforementioned control strategy, numerical validations are carried out and the experimental data are provided and analyzed.

  16. Asymptotic theory of neutral stability of the Couette flow of a vibrationally excited gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'ev, Yu. N.; Ershov, I. V.

    2017-01-01

    An asymptotic theory of the neutral stability curve for a supersonic plane Couette flow of a vibrationally excited gas is developed. The initial mathematical model consists of equations of two-temperature viscous gas dynamics, which are used to derive a spectral problem for a linear system of eighth-order ordinary differential equations within the framework of the classical linear stability theory. Unified transformations of the system for all shear flows are performed in accordance with the classical Lin scheme. The problem is reduced to an algebraic secular equation with separation into the "inviscid" and "viscous" parts, which is solved numerically. It is shown that the thus-calculated neutral stability curves agree well with the previously obtained results of the direct numerical solution of the original spectral problem. In particular, the critical Reynolds number increases with excitation enhancement, and the neutral stability curve is shifted toward the domain of higher wave numbers. This is also confirmed by means of solving an asymptotic equation for the critical Reynolds number at the Mach number M ≤ 4.

  17. Linear stochastic evaluation of tyre vibration due to tyre/road excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustighi, E.; Elliott, S. J.; Finnveden, S.; Gulyás, K.; Mócsai, T.; Danti, M.

    2008-03-01

    Tyre/road interaction is recognised as the main source of interior and exterior noise for velocities over the 40 km/h. In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) elemental approach has been adopted to predict the stochastic tyre vibration and hence the interior and exterior noise due to this kind of excitation. The road excitation has been modelled from the spectral density of a common road profile, supposing the road to be an isotropic surface. A linear Winkler bedding connects the 3D model of the tyre with the ground. The exterior noise has been evaluated by an elemental calculation of the radiation matrix of the tyre deformed by the static load on a concrete road. The noise inside the vehicle has also been calculated, using the transfer functions from the force transmitted to the hub and the noise inside the vehicle, which have been computed by a FEM model of a common car body. The simple formulation allows much quicker calculation than traditional nonlinear approaches, and appears to give results consistent with available measurements, although the effects of tyre rotation and of the nonlinearities in the contact model are yet to be quantified, and the method requires further experimental validation before practical application.

  18. Vibrational and electronic excitation of hexatriacontane thin films by low energy electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilar, M.R.; Schott, M.; Pfluger, P.

    1990-01-01

    Thin polycrystalline films of hexatriacontane (HTC) were irradiated with low energy (E=0.5--15 eV) electrons, and off-specular backscattered electron spectra were measured. Below E∼7 eV, single and multiple vibrational excitations only are observed, which relax the electrons down to the bottom of the HTC conduction band. Due to the negative electron affinity of HTC, thermal electrons are emitted into vacuum. Structure in the backscattered electron current at kinetic energies about 1.5 and 4 eV are associated to conduction band density of states. Above E∼7 eV, the dominant losses correspond to electronic excitations, excitons, or above a threshold (energy of the electron inside the HTC film) at 9.2±0.1 eV, electron--hole pair generation. The latter process is very efficient and reaches a yield of the order of one ∼11 eV. Evidence for chemical reaction above E∼4 eV is observed

  19. Damping of vibrational excitations in glasses at terahertz frequency: The case of 3-methylpentane

    KAUST Repository

    Baldi, Giacomo

    2017-10-24

    We report a compared analysis of inelastic X ray scattering (IXS) and of low frequency Raman data of glassy 3-methylpentane. The IXS spectra have been analysed allowing for the existence of two distinct excitations at each scattering wavevector obtaining a consistent interpretation of the spectra. In particular, this procedure allows us to interpret the linewidth of the modes in terms of a simple model which relates them to the width of the first sharp diffraction peak in the static structure factor. In this model, the width of the modes arises from the blurring of the dispersion curves which increases approaching the boundary of the first pseudo-Brillouin zone. The position of the boson peak contribution to the density of vibrational states derived from the Raman scattering measurements is in agreement with the interpretation of the two excitations in terms of a longitudinal mode and a transverse mode, the latter being a result of the mixed character of the transverse modes away from the center of the pseudo-Brillouin zone.

  20. Damping of vibrational excitations in glasses at terahertz frequency: The case of 3-methylpentane

    KAUST Repository

    Baldi, Giacomo; Benassi, Paola; Fontana, Aldo; Giugni, Andrea; Monaco, Giulio; Nardone, Michele; Rossi, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    We report a compared analysis of inelastic X ray scattering (IXS) and of low frequency Raman data of glassy 3-methylpentane. The IXS spectra have been analysed allowing for the existence of two distinct excitations at each scattering wavevector obtaining a consistent interpretation of the spectra. In particular, this procedure allows us to interpret the linewidth of the modes in terms of a simple model which relates them to the width of the first sharp diffraction peak in the static structure factor. In this model, the width of the modes arises from the blurring of the dispersion curves which increases approaching the boundary of the first pseudo-Brillouin zone. The position of the boson peak contribution to the density of vibrational states derived from the Raman scattering measurements is in agreement with the interpretation of the two excitations in terms of a longitudinal mode and a transverse mode, the latter being a result of the mixed character of the transverse modes away from the center of the pseudo-Brillouin zone.

  1. The Modeling and Analysis for the Self-Excited Vibration of the Maglev Vehicle-Bridge Interaction System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhui Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the self-excited vibration problems of maglev vehicle-bridge interaction system which greatly degrades the stability of the levitation control, decreases the ride comfort, and restricts the cost of the whole system. Firstly, two levitation models with different complexity are developed, and the comparison of the energy curves associated with the two models is carried out. We conclude that the interaction model with a single levitation control unit is sufficient for the study of the self-excited vibration. Then, the principle underlying the self-excited vibration is explored from the standpoint of work acting on the bridge done by the levitation system. Furthermore, the influences of the parameters, including the modal frequency and modal damping of bridge, the gain of the controller, the sprung mass, and the unsprung mass, on the stability of the interaction system are carried out. The study provides a theoretical guidance for solving the self-excited vibration problems of the vehicle-bridge interaction systems.

  2. Effects of real and sham whole-body mechanical vibration on spinal excitability at rest and during muscle contraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortobagyi, T.; Rider, P.; DeVita, P.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of whole-body mechanical vibration (WBV) on indices of motoneuronal excitability at rest and during muscle contraction in healthy humans. Real and sham WBV at 30Hz had no effect on reflexes measured during muscle contraction. Real WBV at 30 and 50Hz depressed the H-reflex

  3. An evaluation method of critical velocity for self-excited vibration of cross-shaped tube bundle in cross flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Fumio; Nishihara, Takashi; Yasuo, Akira; Morita, Ryo

    2002-01-01

    The applicability of the cross-shaped tube bundle as a lower plenum component of pressure vessel is examined to develop a next generation LWR in Japanese electric utilities. The flow-induced vibration characteristics are not understood well. Methods to evaluate turbulence induced vibration and vortex induced vibration were proposed by CRIEPI. In this study, vibration response is obtained experimentally to propose a method to evaluate self-excited vibration of cross-shaped tube bundle. The self-excited vibration was found to be generated when nondimensional flow velocity was above a critical value. The nondimensional critical velocity of normal configuration is 15% smaller than that of staggered configuration, which means that the nondimensional critical velocity of normal configuration can give conservative evaluation. The result of Reynolds number Re=6.2 x 10 4 agrees well with that of Re=6.8 x 10 5 , in which region, the effect of Reynolds number on the critical velocity is small. (author)

  4. An inverse method for the identification of a distributed random excitation acting on a vibrating structure. Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granger, S.; Perotin, L.

    1997-01-01

    Maintaining the PWR components under reliable operating conditions requires a complex design to prevent various damaging processes, including fatigue and wear problems due to flow-induced vibration. In many practical situations, it is difficult, if not impossible, to perform direct measurements or calculations of the external forces acting on vibrating structures. Instead, vibrational responses can often be conveniently measured. This paper presents an inverse method for estimating a distributed random excitation from the measurement of the structural response at a number of discrete points. This paper is devoted to the presentation of the theoretical development. The force identification method is based on a modal model for the structure and a spatial orthonormal decomposition of the excitation field. The estimation of the Fourier coefficients of this orthonormal expansion is presented. As this problem turns out to be ill-posed, a regularization process is introduced. The minimization problem associated to this process is then formulated and its solutions is developed. (author)

  5. Self-excited multi-scale skin vibrations probed by optical tracking micro-motions of tracers on arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Chia; Chen, Hsiang-Ying; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Tian, Yong; I, Lin

    2017-07-01

    The self-excited multi-scale mechanical vibrations, their sources and their mutual coupling of different regions on the forearms of supine subjects, are experimentally investigated, using a simple noncontact method, optical video microscopy, which provides 1 μm and 25 ms spatiotemporal resolutions. It is found that, in proximal regions far from the radial artery, the vibrations are the global vibrations of the entire forearm excited by remote sources, propagating through the trunk and the limb. The spectrum is mainly composed of peaks of very low frequency motion (down to 0.05 Hz), low frequency respiration modes, and heartbeat induced modes (about 1 Hz and its harmonics), standing out of the spectrum floor exhibiting power law decay. The nonlinear mode-mode coupling leads to the cascaded modulations of higher frequency modes by lower frequency modes. The nearly identical waveforms without detectable phase delays for a pair of signals along or transverse to the meridian of regions far away from the artery rule out the detectable contribution from the propagation of Qi, some kind of collective excitation which more efficiently propagates along meridians, according to the Chinese medicine theory. Around the radial artery, in addition to the global vibration, the local vibration spectrum shows very slow breathing type vibration around 0.05 Hz, and the artery pulsation induced fundamental and higher harmonics with descending intensities up to the fifth harmonics, standing out of a flat spectrum floor. All the artery pulsation modes are also modulated by respiration and the very slow vibration.

  6. Vibration and acoustic noise emitted by dry-type air-core reactors under PWM voltage excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingsong; Wang, Shanming; Hong, Jianfeng; Yang, Zhanlu; Jiang, Shengqian; Xia, Shichong

    2018-05-01

    According to coupling way between the magnetic field and the structural order, structure mode is discussed by engaging finite element (FE) method and both natural frequency and modal shape for a dry-type air-core reactor (DAR) are obtained in this paper. On the basis of harmonic response analysis, electromagnetic force under PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) voltage excitation is mapped with the structure mesh, the vibration spectrum is gained and the consequences represents that the whole structure vibration predominates in the radial direction, with less axial vibration. Referring to the test standard of reactor noise, the rules of emitted noise of the DAR are measured and analyzed at chosen switching frequency matches the sample resonant frequency and the methods of active vibration and noise reduction are put forward. Finally, the low acoustic noise emission of a prototype DAR is verified by measurement.

  7. The dissociation of vibrationally excited CH3OSO radicals and their photolytic precursor, methoxysulfinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alligood, Bridget W; Womack, Caroline C; Straus, Daniel B; Blase, Frances R; Butler, Laurie J

    2011-05-21

    The dissociation dynamics of methoxysulfinyl radicals generated from the photodissociation of CH(3)OS(O)Cl at 248 nm is investigated using both a crossed laser-molecular beam scattering apparatus and a velocity map imaging apparatus. There is evidence of only a single photodissociation channel of the precursor: S-Cl fission to produce Cl atoms and CH(3)OSO radicals. Some of the vibrationally excited CH(3)OSO radicals undergo subsequent dissociation to CH(3) + SO(2). The velocities of the detected CH(3) and SO(2) products show that the dissociation occurs via a transition state having a substantial barrier beyond the endoergicity; appropriately, the distribution of velocities imparted to these momentum-matched products is fit by a broad recoil kinetic energy distribution extending out to 24 kcal/mol in translational energy. Using 200 eV electron bombardment detection, we also detect the CH(3)OSO radicals that have too little internal energy to dissociate. These radicals are observed both at the parent CH(3)OSO(+) ion as well as at the CH(3)(+) and SO(2)(+) daughter ions; they are distinguished by virtue of the velocity imparted in the original photolytic step. The detected velocities of the stable radicals are roughly consistent with the calculated barriers (both at the CCSD(T) and G3B3 levels of theory) for the dissociation of CH(3)OSO to CH(3) + SO(2) when we account for the partitioning of internal energy between rotation and vibration as the CH(3)OSOCl precursor dissociates. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

  8. Application of Time-Delay Absorber to Suppress Vibration of a Dynamical System to Tuned Excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ganaini, W A A; El-Gohary, H A

    2014-08-01

    In this work, we present a comprehensive investigation of the time delay absorber effects on the control of a dynamical system represented by a cantilever beam subjected to tuned excitation forces. Cantilever beam is one of the most widely used system in too many engineering applications, such as mechanical and civil engineering. The main aim of this work is to control the vibration of the beam at simultaneous internal and combined resonance condition, as it is the worst resonance case. Control is conducted via time delay absorber to suppress chaotic vibrations. Time delays often appear in many control systems in the state, in the control input, or in the measurements. Time delay commonly exists in various engineering, biological, and economical systems because of the finite speed of the information processing. It is a source of performance degradation and instability. Multiple time scale perturbation method is applied to obtain a first order approximation for the nonlinear differential equations describing the system behavior. The different resonance cases are reported and studied numerically. The stability of the steady-state solution at the selected worst resonance case is investigated applying Runge-Kutta fourth order method and frequency response equations via Matlab 7.0 and Maple11. Time delay absorber is effective, but within a specified range of time delay. It is the critical factor in selecting such absorber. Time delay absorber is better than the ordinary one as from the effectiveness point of view. The effects of the different absorber parameters on the system behavior and stability are studied numerically. A comparison with the available published work showed a close agreement with some previously published work.

  9. The Vibration Analysis of Tube Bundles Induced by Fluid Elastic Excitation in Shell Side of Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Minle; Wang, Lu; Li, Wenyao; Gao, Tianze

    2017-09-01

    Fluid elastic excitation in shell side of heat exchanger was deduced theoretically in this paper. Model foundation was completed by using Pro / Engineer software. The finite element model was constructed and imported into the FLUENT module. The flow field simulation adopted the dynamic mesh model, RNG k-ε model and no-slip boundary conditions. Analysing different positions vibration of tube bundles by selecting three regions in shell side of heat exchanger. The results show that heat exchanger tube bundles at the inlet of the shell side are more likely to be failure due to fluid induced vibration.

  10. Low-energy vibrational excitations in carbon nanotubes studied by heat capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasjaunias, J. C.; Biljakovic, K.; Monceau, P.; Sauvajol, J. L.

    2003-09-01

    We present low-temperature heat capacity measurements performed on two different kinds of single-walled carbon nanotube bundles which essentially differ in their mean number of tubes (NT) per bundle. For temperatures below a few kelvin, the vibrational heat capacity can be analysed as the sum of two contributions. The first one is a regular T3 phononic one, characteristic of the three-dimensional (3D) elastic character of the bundle for long-wavelength phonons. A crossover to a lower effective dimensionality appears at a few kelvin. From the 3D contribution, we estimate a mean sound velocity, and hence a mean shear modulus of the bundle. The difference in amplitude of the acoustic term and in the crossover temperature between the two samples is ascribed to the different bundle topology (i.e. NT). The second contribution, of similar amplitude in both kinds of samples, shows a peculiar power law Talpha variation (alpha < 1) indicative of localized excitations, very probably due to intrinsic structural defects of the nanotubes.

  11. Vibrational spectra and boson-like excitations in different amorphous forms of ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolesnikov, A.I.; Li, J.C.; Uffindell, C.H.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Glasses are very interesting objects in the physics of condensed matter, with many universal properties, such as low-energy excitations (LEE) coexisting with the sound waves and giving an excess of vibrational modes with respect to the crystalline spectrum (the so called 'boson' peak) in Raman and inelastic neutron scattering (INS). Recently it was discovered that films of hydrogenated amorphous silicon do not show such LEE, whereas films of amorphous silicon do [1]. Also, the resonant absorption by two-level systems was observed for the high-density amorphous (hda) ice but not for the low-density amorphous (lda) ice in the far infrared spectra [2]. Thus, the nature of these near universal LEE becomes rather puzzling. This report presents the results of INS studies for hda and lda ice produced by high-pressure treatment and for vapor-deposited lda ice. Clear LEE were observed in the spectra for hda and deposited lda ice unlike their crystalline analogues. (author)

  12. ANALYSIS OF VIBRATORY PROTECTION SYSTEM VIBRATION DURING HARMONIC AND POLYHARMONIC EXCITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Mikulik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a mathematical model of local «driver-seat» system and an algorithm for vibratory loading formation at external actions. Results of the investigations on the system vibration according to minimum vibration acceleration depending on transfer force factor acting on the seat and a vibration isolation factor are presented in the paper.

  13. Millimeter-wave and Submillimeter-wave Spectra of Aminoacetonitrile in the Three Lowest Vibrational Excited States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposti, Claudio Degli; Dore, Luca; Melosso, Mattia [Dipartimento di Chimica “Giacomo Ciamician”, Università di Bologna, via Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Kobayashi, Kaori [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Fujita, Chiho; Ozeki, Hiroyuki, E-mail: ozeki@env.sci.toho-u.ac.jp [Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Science, Toho University, 2-2-1 Miyama, Funabashi, 274-8510 (Japan)

    2017-06-01

    It is important to study possible precursors of amino acids such as glycine to enable future searches in interstellar space. Aminoacetonitrile (NH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}CN) is one of the most feasible molecules for this purpose. This molecule was already detected toward Sgr B2(N). Aminoacetonitrile has a few low-lying vibrational excited states, and transitions within these states may be found in space. In this study, the pure-rotational transitions in the three lowest vibrational states in the 80–450 GHz range have been assigned and analyzed. It was found to be very important to include Coriolis coupling between the two lowest vibrational fundamentals, while the third one was unperturbed. The partition function was evaluated considering these new results.

  14. Dissociation pathways of a single dimethyl disulfide on Cu(111): Reaction induced by simultaneous excitation of two vibrational modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motobayashi, Kenta, E-mail: kmotobayashi@cat.hokudai.ac.jp [Catalysis Research Center, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan); Department of Advanced Materials Science, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8561 (Japan); Surface and Interface Science Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Kim, Yousoo [Surface and Interface Science Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Arafune, Ryuichi [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Ohara, Michiaki; Ueba, Hiromu; Kawai, Maki, E-mail: maki@k.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Advanced Materials Science, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8561 (Japan)

    2014-05-21

    We present a novel reaction mechanism for a single adsorbed molecule that proceeds via simultaneous excitation of two different vibrational modes excited by inelastic tunneling electrons from a scanning tunneling microscope. Specifically, we analyze the dissociation of a single dimethyl disulfide (DMDS, (CH{sub 3}S){sub 2}) molecule on Cu(111) by using a versatile theoretical method, which permits us to simulate reaction rates as a function of sample bias voltage. The reaction is induced by the excitation of C-H stretch and S-S stretch modes by a two-electron process at low positive bias voltages. However, at increased voltages, the dissociation becomes a single-electron process that excites a combination mode of these stretches, where excitation of the C-H stretch is the energy source and excitation of the S-S stretch mode enhances the anharmonic coupling rate. A much smaller dissociation yield (few orders of magnitude) at negative bias voltages is understood in terms of the projected density of states of a single DMDS on Cu(111), which reflects resonant excitation through the molecular orbitals.

  15. Use of a magnetic force exciter to vibrate a piezocomposite generating element in a small-scale windmill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luong, Hung Truyen; Goo, Nam Seo

    2012-01-01

    A piezocomposite generating element (PCGE) can be used to convert ambient vibrations into electrical energy that can be stored and used to power other devices. This paper introduces a design of a magnetic force exciter for a small-scale windmill that vibrates a PCGE to convert wind energy into electrical energy. A small-scale windmill was designed to be sensitive to low-speed wind in urban regions for the purpose of collecting wind energy. The magnetic force exciter consists of exciting magnets attached to the device’s input rotor and a secondary magnet fixed at the tip of the PCGE. The PCGE is fixed to a clamp that can be adjusted to slide on the windmill’s frame in order to change the gap between exciting and secondary magnets. Under an applied wind force, the input rotor rotates to create a magnetic force interaction that excites the PCGE. The deformation of the PCGE enables it to generate electric power. Experiments were performed with different numbers of exciting magnets and different gaps between the exciting and secondary magnets to determine the optimal configuration for generating the peak voltage and harvesting the maximum wind energy for the same range of wind speeds. In a battery-charging test, the charging time for a 40 mA h battery was approximately 3 h for natural wind in an urban region. The experimental results show that the prototype can harvest energy in urban regions with low wind speeds and convert the wasted wind energy into electricity for city use. (paper)

  16. The recruiter's excitement--features of thoracic vibrations during the honey bee's waggle dance related to food source profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrncir, Michael; Maia-Silva, Camila; Mc Cabe, Sofia I; Farina, Walter M

    2011-12-01

    The honey bee's waggle dance constitutes a remarkable example of an efficient code allowing social exploitation of available feeding sites. In addition to indicating the position (distance, direction) of a food patch, both the occurrence and frequency of the dances depend on the profitability of the exploited resource (sugar concentration, solution flow rate). During the waggle dance, successful foragers generate pulsed thoracic vibrations that putatively serve as a source of different kinds of information for hive bees, who cannot visually decode dances in the darkness of the hive. In the present study, we asked whether these vibrations are a reliable estimator of the excitement of the dancer when food profitability changes in terms of both sugar concentration and solution flow rate. The probability of producing thoracic vibrations as well as several features related to their intensity during the waggle phase (pulse duration, velocity amplitude, duty cycle) increased with both these profitability variables. The number of vibratory pulses, however, was independent of sugar concentration and reward rate exploited. Thus, pulse number could indeed be used by dance followers as reliable information about food source distance, as suggested in previous studies. The variability of the dancer's thoracic vibrations in relation to changes in food profitability suggests their role as an indicator of the recruiter's motivational state. Hence, the vibrations could make an important contribution to forager reactivation and, consequently, to the organisation of collective foraging processes in honey bees.

  17. Dissociative electron attachment to vibrationally excited H2 molecules involving the 2Σg+ resonant Rydberg electronic state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celiberto, R.; Janev, R.K.; Wadehra, J.M.; Tennyson, J.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Dissociative electron attachment cross sections as a function of the incident electron energy and for the initial vibration levels v i = 0–5, 10 of the H 2 molecule. Highlights: ► We calculated electron–hydrogen dissociative attachment cross sections and rates coefficients. ► Collision processes occurring through a resonant Rydberg state are considered. ► Cross sections and rates were obtained for vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules. ► The cross sections exhibit pronounced oscillatory structures. ► A comparison with the process involving the electron–hydrogen resonant ground state is discussed. - Abstract: Dissociative electron attachment cross sections (DEA) on vibrationally excited H 2 molecule taking place via the 2 Σ g + Rydberg-excited resonant state are studied using the local complex potential (LCP) model for resonant collisions. The cross sections are calculated for all initial vibrational levels (v i = 0–14) of the neutral molecule. In contrast to the previously noted dramatic increase in the DEA cross sections with increasing v i , when the process proceeds via the X 2 Σ u + shape resonance of H 2 , for the 2 Σ g + Rydberg resonance the cross sections increase only gradually up to v i = 3 and then decrease. Moreover, the cross sections for v i ⩾ 6 exhibit pronounced oscillatory structures. A discussion of the origin of the observed behavior of calculated cross sections is given. The DEA rate coefficients for all v i levels are also calculated in the 0.5–1000 eV temperature range.

  18. The role of vibrationally excited nitrogen and oxygen in the ionosphere over Millstone Hill during 16-23 March, 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pavlov

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparison of the observed behavior of the F region ionosphere over Millstone Hill during the geomagnetically quiet and storm period on 16-23 March, 1990, with numerical model calculations from the time-dependent mathematical model of the Earth's ionosphere and plasmasphere. The effects of vibrationally excited N2(v and O2(v on the electron density and temperature are studied using the N2(v and O2(v Boltzmann and non-Boltzmann distribution assumptions. The deviations from the Boltzmann distribution for the first five vibrational levels of N2(v and O2(v were calculated. The present study suggests that these deviations are not significant at vibrational levels v = 1 and 2, and the calculated distributions of N2(v and O2(v are highly non-Boltzmann at vibrational levels v > 2. The N2(v and O2(v non-Boltzmann distribution assumption leads to the decrease of the calculated daytime NmF2 up to a factor of 1.44 (maximum value in comparison with the N2(v and O2(v Boltzmann distribution assumption. The resulting effects of N2(v > 0 and O2(v > 0 on the NmF2 is the decrease of the calculated daytime NmF2 up to a factor of 2.8 (maximum value for Boltzmann populations of N2(v and O2(v and up to a factor of 3.5 (maximum value for non-Boltzmann populations of N2(v and O2(v . This decrease in electron density results in the increase of the calculated daytime electron temperature up to about 1040-1410 K (maximum value at the F2 peak altitude giving closer agreement between the measured and modeled electron temperatures. Both the daytime and nighttime densities are not reproduced by the model without N2(v > 0 and O2(v > 0 , and inclusion of vibrationally excited N2 and O2 brings the model and data into better agreement. The effects of vibrationally excited O2 and N2 on the electron density and temperature are most pronounced during daytime.Key words: Ionosphere (ion chemistry and composition; ionosphere-atmosphere interactions; ionospheric disturbances

  19. Micro-vibration response of a stochastically excited sandwich beam with a magnetorheological elastomer core and mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, Z G; Ni, Y Q

    2009-01-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) elastomers are used to construct a smart sandwich beam for micro-vibration control. The micro-vibration response of a clamped–free sandwich beam with an MR elastomer core and a supplemental mass under stochastic support micro-motion excitation is studied. The dynamic behavior of MR elastomer as a smart viscoelastic material is described by a complex modulus which is controllable by external magnetic field. The sixth-order partial differential equation of motion of the sandwich beam is derived from the dynamic equilibrium, constitutive and geometric relations. A frequency-domain solution method for the stochastic micro-vibration response of the sandwich beam is developed by using the frequency-response function, power spectral density function and spatial eigensolution. The root-mean-square velocity response in terms of the one-third octave frequency band is calculated, and then the response reduction capacity through optimizing the complex modulus of the core is analyzed. Numerical results illustrate the influences of the MR elastomer core parameters on the root-mean-square velocity response and the high response reduction capacity of the sandwich beam. The developed analysis method is applicable to sandwich beams with arbitrary cores described by complex shear moduli under arbitrary stochastic excitations described by power spectral density functions

  20. A Strategy for Magnifying Vibration in High-Energy Orbits of a Bistable Oscillator at Low Excitation Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guang-Qing; Liao Wei-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    This work focuses on how to maintain a high-energy orbit motion of a bistable oscillator when subjected to a low level excitation. An elastic magnifier (EM) positioned between the base and the bistable oscillator is used to magnify the base vibration displacement to significantly enhance the output characteristics of the bistable oscillator. The dimensionless electromechanical equations of the bistable oscillator with an EM are derived, and the effects of the mass and stiffness ratios between the EM and the bistable oscillator on the output displacement are studied. It is shown that the jump phenomenon occurs at a lower excitation level with increasing the mass and stiffness ratios. With the comparison of the displacement trajectories and the phase portraits obtained from experiments, it is validated that the bistable oscillator with an EM can effectively oscillate in a high-energy orbit and can generate a superior output vibration at a low excitation level as compared with the bistable oscillator without an EM. (paper)

  1. Fluorescent aggregates in naphthalene containing poly(urethane-urea)s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simas, E.R.; Akcelrud, Leni

    2003-01-01

    A series of segmented poly(urethane-urea)s containing naphthalene in the hard block and hexamethylene spacers in the soft block was prepared. The hard to soft segment ratio was varied systematically, to afford a series of polymers with various chromophore concentrations and a constant length of the chromophoric block, using a three-step synthetic procedure. The absorption, fluorescence and fluorescence-excitation spectra of solutions and films of the block copolymers provide strong evidence for aggregation. A red-shifted fluorescence spectrum peaking at 420 nm gains in intensity as the naphthalene concentration is increased. The excitation spectrum of this new emission is well to the red of the normal naphthalene absorption spectrum, consistent with the UV spectrum. Formation of a fluorescent ground state dimer (or higher aggregate) is proposed to account for these observations

  2. Application of Piezofilms for Excitation and Active Damping of Blade Flexural Vibration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pešek, Luděk; Půst, Ladislav; Bula, Vítězslav; Cibulka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 1 (2015), s. 59-69 ISSN 0137-5075 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : vibration suppression * parametric antiresonance * active damping * PVDF films Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 0.661, year: 2015

  3. Theoretical and Experimental Study on Synchronization of the Two Homodromy Exciters in a Non-Resonant Vibrating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Liang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we give some theoretical analyses and experimental results on synchronization of the two non-identical exciters. Using the average method of modified small parameters, the dimensionless coupling equation of the two exciters is deduced. The synchronization criterion for the two exciters is derived as the torque of frequency capture being equal to or greater than the absolute value of difference between the residual electromagnetic torques of the two motors. The stability criterion of synchronous state is verified to satisfy the Routh-Hurwitz criterion. The regions of implementing synchronization and that of stability of phase difference for the two exciters are manifested by numeric method. Synchronization of the two exciters stems from the coupling dynamic characteristic of the vibrating system having selecting motion, especially, under the condition that the parameters of system are complete symmetry, the torque of frequency capture stemming from the circular motion of the rigid frame drives the phase difference to approach PI and carry out the swing of the rigid frame; that from the swing of the rigid frame forces the phase difference to near zero and achieve the circular motion of the rigid frame. In the steady state, the motion of rigid frame will be one of three types: pure swing, pure circular motion, swing and circular motion coexistence. The numeric and experiment results derived thereof show that the two exciters can operate synchronously as long as the structural parameters of system satisfy the criterion of stability in the regions of frequency capture. In engineering, the distance between the centroid of the rigid frame and the rotational centre of exciter should be as far as possible. Only in this way, can the elliptical motion of system required in engineering be realized.

  4. Impulsive IR-multiphoton dissociation of acrolein: observation of non-statistical product vibrational excitation in CO ( v=1-12) by time resolved IR fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, P. K.

    2000-10-01

    On IR-multiphoton excitation, vibrationally highly excited acrolein molecules undergo concerted dissociation generating CO and ethylene. The vibrationally excited products, CO and ethylene, are detected immediately following the CO 2 laser pulse by observing IR fluorescence at 4.7 and 3.2 μm, respectively. The nascent CO is formed with significant vibrational excitation, with a Boltzmann population distribution for v=1-12 levels corresponding to T v=12 950±50 K. The average vibrational energy in the product CO is found to be 26 kcal mol -1, in contrast to its statistical share of 5 kcal mol -1, available from the product energy distribution. The nascent vibrationally excited ethylene either dissociates by absorbing further infrared laser photons from the tail of the CO 2 laser pulse or relaxes by collisional deactivation. Ethylene IR-fluorescence excitation spectrum showed a structure in the quasi-continuum, with a facile resonance at 10.53 μm corresponding to the 10P(14) CO 2 laser line, which explains the higher acetylene yield observed at a higher pressure. A hydrogen atom transfer mechanism followed by C-C impulsive break in the acrolein transition state may be responsible for such non-statistical product energy distribution.

  5. Femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy as a tool to detect molecular vibrations in ground and excited electronic states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelin, Maxim F.; Domcke, Wolfgang [Department of Chemistry, Technische Universität München, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Rao, B. Jayachander [Departamento de Química and Centro de Química, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2016-05-14

    We give a detailed theoretical analysis of the simplest variant of femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy, where a picosecond Raman pump pulse and a femtosecond Raman probe pulse are applied resonantly to a chromophore in thermal equilibrium in the ground electronic state. We demonstrate that this technique is capable of the detection of dephasing-free Raman-like lines revealing vibrational modes not only in the electronic ground state but also in the excited electronic state of the chromophore. The analytical results obtained with simplifying assumptions for the shape of the laser pulses are substantiated by numerical simulations with realistic laser pulses, employing the equation-of-motion phase-matching approach.

  6. Observation of Electronic Excitation Transfer Through Light Harvesting Complex II Using Two-Dimensional Electronic-Vibrational Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, NHC; Gruenke, NL; Oliver, TAA; Ballottari, M; Bassi, R; Fleming, GR

    2016-10-05

    Light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) serves a central role in light harvesting for oxygenic photosynthesis and is arguably the most important photosynthetic antenna complex. In this article, we present two-dimensional electronic–vibrational (2DEV) spectra of LHCII isolated from spinach, demonstrating the possibility of using this technique to track the transfer of electronic excitation energy between specific pigments within the complex. We assign the spectral bands via comparison with the 2DEV spectra of the isolated chromophores, chlorophyll a and b, and present evidence that excitation energy between the pigments of the complex are observed in these spectra. Lastly, we analyze the essential components of the 2DEV spectra using singular value decomposition, which makes it possible to reveal the relaxation pathways within this complex.

  7. Vibrational spectroscopy of the electronically excited state. 4. Nanosecond and picosecond time-resolved resonance Raman spectroscopy of carotenoid excited states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallinger, R.F.; Farquharson, S.; Woodruff, W.H.; Rodgers, M.A.J.

    1981-01-01

    Resonance Raman and electronic absorption spectra are reported for the S 0 and T 1 states of the carotenoids β-carotene, zeaxanthin, echinenone, canthaxanthin, dihydroxylycopene, astaxanthin, decapreno(C 50 )-β-carotene, β-apo-8'-carotenal, and ethyl β-apo-8'-carotenoate. The results reveal qualitatively similar ground-state spectra and similar frequency shifts in all observed resonance Raman modes between S 0 and T 1 , regardless of carotenoid structure. Examinations of the relationship of the putative C--C and C==C frequencies in S 0 and T 1 reveals anomalous shifts to lower frequency in the ''single-bond'' mode upon electronic excitation. These shifts may be due to molecular distortions in the excited state which force changes in molecular motions comprising the observed modes. However, another possibility requiring no distortion is that the interaction (off-diagonal) force constants connecting the C--C and C==C modes change sign upon electronic excitation. This latter phenomenon may provide a unitary explanation for the ''anomalous'' frequency shifts in the C--C and C==C modes, both in the T 1 states of carotenoids and in the S 1 states of simpler polyenes, without postulating large, unpredicted structural changes upon excitation or general errors in existing vibrational or theoretical analyses. Resonance Raman and absorbance studies with 35-ps time resolution suggest that S 1 lifetime (of the 1 B/sub u/ and/or the 1 A/sub g/* states) of β-carotene in benzene is less than 1 ps

  8. Electron energy distribution functions and thermalization times in methane and in argon--methane mixtures: An effect of vibrational excitation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajcar-Bronic, I.; Kimura, M.

    1995-01-01

    Electron thermalization in methane and argon--methane mixtures is studied by using the Boltzmann equation. The presence of low-lying vibrational excited states in methane significantly changes electron energy distribution functions and relaxation times. We found that (i) the mean electron energy just below the first vibrational excited state is reached faster by 1000 times when the vibrational states are taken into account, and (ii) electron energy distribution functions have distinct peaks at energy intervals equal to the vibrational threshold energies. Both these effects are due to large vibrational stopping cross section. The thermalization time in mixtures of argon--methane (without vibrational states) smoothly changes as the mixture composition varies, and no significant difference in the electron energy distribution function is observed. When the vibrational excited states are taken into account, thermalization is almost completely defined by CH 4 , even at very low fractional concentrations of CH 4 . The sensitivity of the electron energy distribution functions on the momentum transfer cross sections used in calculation on the thermalization is discussed. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  9. Nonlinear vibrations of thin arbitrarily laminated composite plates subjected to harmonic excitations using DKT elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, C. K.; Xue, David Y.; Mei, Chuh

    1993-04-01

    A finite element formulation is presented for determining the large-amplitude free and steady-state forced vibration response of arbitrarily laminated anisotropic composite thin plates using the Discrete Kirchhoff Theory (DKT) triangular elements. The nonlinear stiffness and harmonic force matrices of an arbitrarily laminated composite triangular plate element are developed for nonlinear free and forced vibration analyses. The linearized updated-mode method with nonlinear time function approximation is employed for the solution of the system nonlinear eigenvalue equations. The amplitude-frequency relations for convergence with gridwork refinement, triangular plates, different boundary conditions, lamination angles, number of plies, and uniform versus concentrated loads are presented.

  10. Sensibility to Changes of Vibrational Modes of Excited Electron: Sum Frequency Signals Versus Difference Frequency Signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Anna; Liang Xianting

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate a two electronic level system with vibrational modes coupled to a Brownian oscillator bath. The difference frequency generation (DFG) signals and sum frequency generation (SFG) signals are calculated. It is shown that, for the same model, the SFG signals are more sensitive than the DFG signals to the changes of the vibrational modes of the electronic two-level system. Because the SFG conversion efficiency can be improved by using the time-delay method, the findings in this paper predict that the SFG spectrum may probe the changes of the microstructure more effectively. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  11. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF SELF-EXCITED VIBRATION OF PIPES CONTAINING MOBILE BOILING FLUID CLOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniy Tolbatov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerical modeling dynamic behavior of a pipe containing inner nonhomogeneous flows of a boiling fluid has been carried out. The system vibrations at different values of the parameters of the flow nonhomogeneity and its velocity are observed. The possibility of forming stable and unstable flows depending on the character ofnonhomogeneity and the velocity of fluid clots has been found.

  12. DETERMINING THE RESPONSE IN CASE OF VIBRATIONS OF STRAIGHT BARS WITH RANDOM EXCITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica BALDEA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available By applying the finite element calculus to the study of bar vibrations, one obtains a system of linear diferential equations. One carries out the determination of the response to random stimulations by calculating the statistical terms as a function of the statistical terms of the stimulation

  13. Automatic vibration mode selection and excitation; combining modal filtering with autoresonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Solomon; Bucher, Izhak

    2018-02-01

    Autoresonance is a well-known nonlinear feedback method used for automatically exciting a system at its natural frequency. Though highly effective in exciting single degree of freedom systems, in its simplest form it lacks a mechanism for choosing the mode of excitation when more than one is present. In this case a single mode will be automatically excited, but this mode cannot be chosen or changed. In this paper a new method for automatically exciting a general second-order system at any desired natural frequency using Autoresonance is proposed. The article begins by deriving a concise expression for the frequency of the limit cycle induced by an Autoresonance feedback loop enclosed on the system. The expression is based on modal decomposition, and provides valuable insight into the behavior of a system controlled in this way. With this expression, a method for selecting and exciting a desired mode naturally follows by combining Autoresonance with Modal Filtering. By taking various linear combinations of the sensor signals, by orthogonality one can "filter out" all the unwanted modes effectively. The desired mode's natural frequency is then automatically reflected in the limit cycle. In experiment the technique has proven extremely robust, even if the amplitude of the desired mode is significantly smaller than the others and the modal filters are greatly inaccurate.

  14. Ultrafast Desorption by Impulsive Vibrational Excitation (DIVE). Applications in laser surgery, mass spectrometry and towards ultimate limits in biodiagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Ling

    2015-07-01

    The prospects for minimally invasive surgery, spatial imaging with mass spectrometry and rapid high throughput biodiagnosis require new means of tissue incision and biomolecule extraction with conserved molecular structure. Towards this aim, a laser ablation process is utilized in this dissertation, which is capable of performing precise tissue incision with minimal collateral damage and extracting intact biological entities with conserved biological functions. The method is based on the recently developed Picosecond Infrared Laser (PIRL) designed to excite selectively the water vibrational modes under the condition of ultrafast Desorption by Impulsive Vibrational Excitation (DIVE). The basic concept is that the selectively excited water molecules act as propellant to ablate whole biological complexes into the plume, faster than any thermal deleterious effect or fragmentation that would mask molecular identities.The PIRL ablation under DIVE condition is applied for the first time to six types of ocular tissues, rendering precise and minimally invasive incisions in a well-controlled and reproducible way. An eminent demonstration is the contact-free and applanation-free corneal trephination with the PIRL. Mass spectrometry and other analytical techniques show that great abundance of proteins with various molecular weights are extracted from the tissue by the PIRL ablation, and that fragmentation or other chemical alternation does not occur to the proteins in the ablation plume. With various microscope imaging and biochemical analysis methods, nano-scale single protein molecules, viruses and cells in the ablation plume are found to be morphologically and functionally identical to their corresponding controls. The PIRL ablation provides a new means to push the frontiers of laser surgery in ophthalmology and can be applied to resolve chemical activities in situ and in vivo. The most important finding is the conserved nature of the extracted biological entities

  15. Ultrafast Desorption by Impulsive Vibrational Excitation (DIVE). Applications in laser surgery, mass spectrometry and towards ultimate limits in biodiagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Ling

    2015-07-15

    The prospects for minimally invasive surgery, spatial imaging with mass spectrometry and rapid high throughput biodiagnosis require new means of tissue incision and biomolecule extraction with conserved molecular structure. Towards this aim, a laser ablation process is utilized in this dissertation, which is capable of performing precise tissue incision with minimal collateral damage and extracting intact biological entities with conserved biological functions. The method is based on the recently developed Picosecond Infrared Laser (PIRL) designed to excite selectively the water vibrational modes under the condition of ultrafast Desorption by Impulsive Vibrational Excitation (DIVE). The basic concept is that the selectively excited water molecules act as propellant to ablate whole biological complexes into the plume, faster than any thermal deleterious effect or fragmentation that would mask molecular identities.The PIRL ablation under DIVE condition is applied for the first time to six types of ocular tissues, rendering precise and minimally invasive incisions in a well-controlled and reproducible way. An eminent demonstration is the contact-free and applanation-free corneal trephination with the PIRL. Mass spectrometry and other analytical techniques show that great abundance of proteins with various molecular weights are extracted from the tissue by the PIRL ablation, and that fragmentation or other chemical alternation does not occur to the proteins in the ablation plume. With various microscope imaging and biochemical analysis methods, nano-scale single protein molecules, viruses and cells in the ablation plume are found to be morphologically and functionally identical to their corresponding controls. The PIRL ablation provides a new means to push the frontiers of laser surgery in ophthalmology and can be applied to resolve chemical activities in situ and in vivo. The most important finding is the conserved nature of the extracted biological entities

  16. Production of a Beam of Highly Vibrationally Excited CO Using Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, N.; Schäfer, T.; Hühnert, J.; Wodtke, A. M.; Field, R. W.

    2012-06-01

    For many experimentalists (especially those, who are not spectroscopists), molecular pertubations are a curse, as they make assignments and analysis of spectral data more difficult. Nevertheless, they can also be a boon! In this talk we will show how a molecular beam of CO in high vibrational states (v=17,18) can be prepared by an optical pumping scheme that we call PUMP-PUMP-PERTURB and DUMP (P^3D). P^3D exploits the loaning, via spin-orbit perturbations, of the large oscillator strength of the 4th positive system, A ^1 π ← X ^1 Σ ^+, to the triplet manifold. This allows some nominally spin-forbidden transitions to be exploited in multistep optical pumping schemes. The ability to {state-selectively} prepare CO in high vibrational states opens up new opportunities for molecular beam scattering experiments.

  17. Active vibration reduction of rigid rotor by kinematic excitation of bushes of journal bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ondrouch

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of active lateral vibration reduction of a symmetric, rigid rotor supported by journal bearings are given. They were obtained by computational modelling. Efficiency of the feedback P and PD controllers in the stable revolution interval was examined. The linearized rotor system model was used. The results of the theoretical analysis are assigned for a testing stand where the bearing bush motions are deactivated by piezoelectric actuators connected to the controllers.

  18. Diode laser probe of CO2 vibrational excitation produced by collisions with hot deuterium atoms from the 193 nm excimer laser photolysis D2S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, J.A.; Cai, J.Y.; Flynn, G.W.; Weston, R.E. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The 193 nm excimer laser photolysis of D 2 S in D 2 S/CO 2 mixtures produces fast deuterium atoms (E/sub TR/approx.2.2 eV) which vibrationally excite CO 2 molecules via inelastic translation--vibration/rotation (T--V/R) energy exchange processes. A high resolution (10 -3 cm -1 ) cw diode laser probe was used to monitor the excitation of ν 3 (antisymmetric stretch) and ν 2 (bend) vibrations in CO 2 . The present results are compared with previous experiments involving hot hydrogen atom excitation of CO 2 in H 2 S/CO 2 mixtures as well as with theoretical calculations of the excitation probability. The probability for excitation of a ν 3 quantum in CO 2 is about 1%--2% per gas kinetic D/CO 2 collision. Bending (ν 2 ) quanta are produced about eight times more efficiently than antisymmetric stretching (ν 3 ) quanta. The thermalization rate for cooling hot D atoms below the threshold for production of a ν 3 vibrational quantum corresponds to less than 2 D*/D 2 S collisions or 15 D*/CO 2 collisions

  19. Single photon excimer laser photodissociation of highly vibrationally excited polyatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiee, J.J.; Wampler, F.B.; Rice, W.W.

    1980-01-01

    The ir + uv photodissociation of SF 6 has been performed using CO 2 and ArF lasers. The two-color photolysis significantly enhances the photodissociation process over ArF irradiation alone and is found to preserve the initial isotopic specificity of the ir excitation process

  20. Absolute vibrational excitation cross sections for 1-18 eV electron scattering from condensed dimethyl phosphate (DMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemelin, V.; Bass, A. D.; Wagner, J. R.; Sanche, L.

    2017-12-01

    Absolute cross sections (CSs) for vibrational excitation by 1-18 eV electrons incident on condensed dimethyl phosphate (DMP) were measured with a high-resolution electron energy loss (EEL) spectrometer. Absolute CSs were extracted from EEL spectra of DMP condensed on multilayer film of Ar held at about 20 K under ultra-high vacuum (˜1 × 10-11 Torr). Structures observed in the energy dependence of the CSs around 2, 4, 7, and 12 eV were compared with previous results of gas- and solid-phase experiments and with theoretical studies on dimethyl phosphate and related molecules. These structures were attributed to the formation of shape resonances.

  1. Generalized vibrating potential model for collective excitations in spherical, deformed and superdeformed systems: (1) atomic nuclei, (2) metal clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterenko, V.O.; Kleinig, W.

    1995-01-01

    The self-consistent vibrating potential model (VPM) is extended for description of Eλ collective excitations in atomic nuclei and metal clusters with practically any kind of static deformation. The model is convenient for a qualitative analysis and provides the RPA accuracy of numerical calculations. The VPM is applied to study Eλ giant resonances in spherical metal clusters and deformed and superdeformed nuclei. It is shown that the deformation splitting of superdeformed nuclei results in a very complicated (''jungle-like'') structure of the resonances, which makes the experimental observation of E2 and E3 giant resonances in superdeformed nuclei quite problematic. Calculations of E1 giant resonance in spherical sodium clusters Na 8 , Na 20 and Na 40 are presented, as a test of the VPM in this field. The results are in qualitative agreement with the experimental data. (orig.)

  2. The dance of molecules: new dynamical perspectives on highly excited molecular vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellman, Michael E; Tyng, Vivian

    2007-04-01

    At low energies, molecular vibrational motion is described by the normal modes model. This model breaks down at higher energy, with strong coupling between normal modes and onset of chaotic dynamics. New anharmonic modes are born in bifurcations, or branchings of the normal modes. Knowledge of these new modes is obtained through the window of frequency-domain spectroscopy, using techniques of nonlinear classical dynamics. It may soon be possible to "watch" molecular rearrangement reactions spectroscopically. Connections are being made with reaction rate theories, condensed phase systems, and motions of electrons in quantum dots.

  3. MODELING OF EQUIVALENT STIFFNESS OF A MAGNETIC SPRING OF VIBRATION EXCITER BASED ON COAXIAL-LINEAR MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Golenkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The research of the influence of value and direction of current on the equivalent spring magnetic force based on coaxial-linear motor (CLM – MS. Methodology. We carried out investigation of the equivalent harshness of magnetic spring with determination of electromechanical propulsion performance characteristics by the methods of computer modeling and experimental research of physical model of CLM – MS. The modeling of magnetic spring of CLM – MS is carried out by the finite-element method. The challenge is met as an axisymmetric challenge in cylindrical co-ordinates in magnetostatic approach. The experimental investigattion of the propulsion performance characteristics of magnetic spring is carried out on the test bench. Results. After the computer modeling and the experimental investigation of the electromechanical propulsion performance characteristics of magnetic spring the expressions of equivalent stiffness coefficient depending on the current in winding are obtained. The results of computer modeling are confirmed experimentally. Originality. The determination of equivalent stiffness coefficient of magnetic spring of vibration exciter based on coaxial-linear motor. Practical value. The obtained determination of equivalent stiffness coefficient of magnetic spring may be used in process of designing of vibration machines with devices for change of natural oscillation frequency.

  4. Generation of interior cavity noise due to window vibration excited by turbulent flows past a generic side-view mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hua-Dong; Davidson, Lars

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the interior noise caused by turbulent flows past a generic side-view mirror. A rectangular glass window is placed downstream of the mirror. The window vibration is excited by the surface pressure fluctuations and emits the interior noise in a cuboid cavity. The turbulent flows are simulated using a compressible large eddy simulation method. The window vibration and interior noise are predicted with a finite element method. The wavenumber-frequency spectra of the surface pressure fluctuations are analyzed. The spectra are identified with some new features that cannot be explained by the Chase model for turbulent boundary layers. The spectra contain a minor hydrodynamic domain in addition to the hydrodynamic domain caused by the main convection of the turbulent boundary layer. The minor domain results from the local convection of the recirculating flow. These domains are formed in bent elliptic shapes. The spanwise expansion of the wake is found causing the bending. Based on the wavenumber-frequency relationships in the spectra, the surface pressure fluctuations are decomposed into hydrodynamic and acoustic components. The acoustic component is more efficient in the generation of the interior noise than the hydrodynamic component. However, the hydrodynamic component is still dominant at low frequencies below approximately 250 Hz since it has low transmission losses near the hydrodynamic critical frequency of the window. The structural modes of the window determine the low-frequency interior tonal noise. The combination of the mode shapes of the window and cavity greatly affects the magnitude distribution of the interior noise.

  5. Response of the rf-extraction-wing balcony and floor, and the storage ring to forced and ambient vibration excitation and coupling to tunnel/basemat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Wambsganss, M.W.; Smith, R.K.; Rosas-Velez, P.

    1993-08-01

    To ensure successful operation of the APS, vibration of the storage ring quadrupole magnets must be limited to very low levels for frequencies >10 Hz. There will be many sources of vibration, such as pumps, fans, compressors, generators, and other rotating and reciprocating machinery when the APS is operational. In general, such vibration sources are isolated from the structural components and base foundations by vibration dampers and isolators. Pumps are typically mounted on seismic isolators, which are massive bases with response frequencies of <10 Hz, and fans are mounted with elastic-type isolators to minimize vibration coupling. The attenuation of expansion/isolation joints is a very important factor in predicting the response of the storage ring basemat to the various excitation sources. Several 75-hp pumps are located on the balcony of the rf extraction wing, which is close to the storage ring basemat. The pumps per se may prove to be a vibration excitation source of concern. Additional pumps will be placed in the RF extraction building and could add to the vibration levels. If the dynamic unbalance force of the pump motor, and the efficiency of the associated expansion joints were known, one could predict the response of the storage ring basemat. This information would also be useful in determining the placement of additional pumps. This report discusses vibration tests and measurements that were performed on July 28, 1993, in the rf extraction building. The purpose of the investigation was to study the efficiency of two specific expansion joints: (1) the joint that separates a structural column pad from the extraction wing floor, and (2) the joint that separates the extraction wing floor from the roof of the storage ring tunnel. A small electrodynamic exciter, with a maximum RMS force output of ∼0.5 lb at the frequencies of interest, was used

  6. Nonlinear Vibration Analysis for a Jeffcott Rotor with Seal and Air-Film Bearing Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuefang Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear coupling vibration and bifurcation of a high-speed centrifugal compressor with a labyrinth seal and two air-film journal bearings are presented in this paper. The rotary shaft and disk are modeled as a rigid Jeffcott rotor. Muszynska's model is used to express the seal force with multiple parameters. For air-film journal bearings, the model proposed by Zhang et al. is adopted to express unsteady bearing forces. The Runge-Kutta method is used to numerically determine the vibration responses of the disk center and the bearings. Bifurcation diagrams for transverse motion of the rotor are presented with parameters of rotation speed and pressure drop of the seal. Multiple subharmonic, periodic, and quasiperiodic motions are presented with two seal-pressure drops. The bifurcation characteristics show inherent interactions between forces of the air-film bearings and the seal, presenting more complicated rotor dynamics than the one with either of the forces alone. Bifurcation diagrams are obtained with parameters of pressure drop and seal length determined for the sake of operation safety.

  7. Intramolecular Dynamics: A Study of Molecules at High Levels of Vibrational Excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-27

    aareemlent stith the photoa.couxueC rexults.,I4 % obintied t r iii pfii ioaCOI it tic tveaxu retntsx." Si ne thle xhoxs xthat Iii the I ott fi nence...t 0 200 400 ns 6000 between pump and probe pulse for CH3 CHF2 at 660 Pa. Infrared excitation: 10.6 pim P(20) line, 0.5 ns pulse with average fluence

  8. A new autogenous mobile system driven by vibration without impacts, excited by an impulse periodic force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duong The-Hung

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a new proposed design for autogenous mobile systems which can move without any external mechanisms such as legs or wheels. A Duffing oscillator with a cubic spring, which is excited by an impulse periodic force, is utilized to drive the whole system. The rectilinear motion of the system is performed employing the periodically oscillation of the internal mass interacting without collisions with the main body. Utilizing the nonlinear restoring force of the cubic spring, the system can move in desired directions. When the ratio between the excitation force and the friction force is smaller than 2.5, backward or forward motion can be easily achieved by applying an excitation force in the same desired direction. Different from other vibro-impact drifting devices, no impact needed to drive the new proposed system. This novel structure allows to miniaturize the device as well as to simplify the control algorithm thus can significantly expand applicability of the proposed system.

  9. Determination of excitation temperature and vibrational temperature of the N2(C 3Πu, ν') state in Ne-N2 RF discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, N U; Naveed, M A; Zakaullah, M; Khan, F U

    2008-01-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy is used to investigate the effect of neon mixing on the excitation and vibrational temperatures of the second positive system in nitrogen plasma generated by a 13.56 MHz RF generator. The excitation temperature is determined from Ne I line intensities, using Boltzmann's plot. The overpopulation of the levels of the N 2 (C 3 Π u , ν') states with neon mixing are monitored by measuring the emission intensities of the second positive system of nitrogen molecules. The vibrational temperature is calculated for the sequence Δν = -2, with the assumption that it follows Boltzmann's distribution. But due to overpopulation of levels, e.g. 1, 4, a linearization process was employed for such distributions allowing us to calculate the vibrational temperature of the N 2 (C 3 Π u , ν') state. It is found that the excitation temperature as well as the vibrational temperature of the second positive system can be raised significantly by mixing neon with nitrogen plasma. It is also found that the vibrational temperature increases with power and pressure up to 0.5 mbar.

  10. The role of vibrationally excited oxygen and nitrogen in the D and E regions of the ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pavlov

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the results of a study of the effect of vibrationally excited oxygen, O*2, and nitrogen, N*2, on the electron density, Ne, and the electron temperature, Te, in the D and E regions. The sources of O*2 are O-atom recombination, the photodissociation of O3, and the reaction of O3 with O at D region altitudes. The first calculations of O*2( j number densities, Nj, are obtained by solving continuity equations for the models of harmonic and anharmonic oscillator energy levels, j=1-22. It is found that day time values of Nj are less than nighttime values. We also show that the photoionization of O*2 ( j ≥ 11 by Lα-radiation has no influence on the D region Ne. In the nighttime D region the photoionization O*2 ( j ≥ 11 by scattered Lα-radiation can be a new source of O+2. We show that the N*2 and O*2 de-excitation effect on the electron temperature is small in the E region of the ionosphere and cannot explain experimentally observed higher electron temperatures.

  11. Influence analysis of electronically and vibrationally excited particles on the ignition of methane and hydrogen under the conditions of a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deminskii, M. A.; Konina, K. M.; Potapkin, B. V.

    2018-03-01

    The vibronic and electronic energy relaxation phenomena in the specific conditions of a gas turbine engine were investigated in this paper. The plasma-chemical mechanism has been augmented with the results of recent investigations of the processes that involve electronically and vibrationally excited species. The updated mechanism was employed for the computer simulation of plasma-assisted combustion of hydrogen-air and methane-air mixtures under high pressure and in the range of initial temperatures T  =  500-900 K. The updated mechanism was verified using the experimental data. The influence of electronically excited nitrogen on the ignition delay time was analyzed. The rate coefficient of the vibration-vibration exchange between N2 and HO2 was calculated as well as the rate coefficient of HO2 decomposition.

  12. Use of CFD to predict trapped gas excitation as source of vibration and noise in screw compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willie, James

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates the source of noise in oil free screw compressors mounted on highway trucks and driven by a power take-off (PTO) transmission system. Trapped gas at the discharge side is suggested as possible source of the excitation of low frequency torsional resonance in these compressors that can lead to noise and vibration. Measurements and lumped mass torsional models have shown low frequency torsional resonance in the drive train of these compressors when they are mounted on trucks. This results in high torque peak at the compressor input shaft and in part to pulsating noise inside the machine. The severity of the torque peak depends on the amplitude of the input torque fluctuation from the drive (electric motor or truck engine). This in turn depends on the prop-shaft angle. However, the source of the excitation of this low torsional resonance inside the machine is unknown. Using CFD with mesh motion at every 1° rotation of the rotors, it is shown that the absence of a pressure equalizing chamber at the discharge can lead to trapped gas creation, which can lead to over-compression, over-heating of the rotors, and to high pressure pulsations at the discharge. Over-compression can lead to shock wave generation at the discharge plenum and the pulsation in pressure can lead to noise generation. In addition, if the frequency of the pressure pulsation in the low frequency range coincides with the first torsional frequency of the drive train the first torsional resonance mode can be excited.

  13. Experimental and analytical study on vibration control effects of eddy-current tuned mass dampers under seismic excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zheng; Huang, Biao; Zhang, Qi; Lu, Xilin

    2018-05-01

    Eddy-current tuned mass dampers (EC-TMDs) are non-contacting passive control devices and are developed on the basis of conventional tuned mass dampers. They comprise a solid mass, a stiffness element, and a damping element, wherein the damping mechanism originates from eddy currents. By relative motion between a non-magnetic conductive metal and a permanent magnet in a dynamic system, a time-varying magnetic field is induced in the conductor, thereby generating eddy currents. The eddy currents induce a magnetic field with opposite polarity, causing repulsive forces, i.e., damping forces. This technology can overcome the drawbacks of conventional tuned mass dampers, such as limited service life, deterioration of mechanical properties, and undesired additional stiffness. The experimental and analytical study of this system installed on a multi-degree-of-freedom structure is presented in this paper. A series of shaking table tests were conducted on a five-story steel-frame model with/without an EC-TMD to evaluate the effectiveness and performance of the EC-TMD in suppressing the vibration of the model under seismic excitations. The experimental results show that the EC-TMD can effectively reduce the displacement response, acceleration response, interstory drift ratio, and maximum strain of the columns under different earthquake excitations. Moreover, an analytical method was proposed on the basis of electromagnetic and structural dynamic theories. A comparison between the test and simulation results shows that the simulation method can be used to estimate the response of structures with an EC-TMD under earthquake excitations with acceptable accuracy.

  14. Synchronization of Two Non-Identical Coupled Exciters in a Non-Resonant Vibrating System of Linear Motion. Part II: Numeric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyu Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the quantitative analysis of the coupling dynamic characteristics of two non-identical exciters in a non-resonant vibrating system. The load torque of each motor consists of three items, including the torque of sine effect of phase angles, that of coupling sine effect and that of coupling cosine effect. The torque of frequency capture results from the torque of coupling cosine effect, which is equal to the product of the coupling kinetic energy, the coefficient of coupling cosine effect, and the sine of phase difference of two exciters. The motions of the system excited by two exciters in the same direction make phase difference close to π and that in opposite directions makes phase difference close to 0. Numerical results show that synchronous operation is stable when the dimensionless relative moments of inertia of two exciters are greater than zero and four times of their product is greater than the square of their coefficient of coupling cosine effect. The stability of the synchronous operation is only dependent on the structural parameters of the system, such as the mass ratios of two exciters to the vibrating system, and the ratio of the distance between an exciter and the centroid of the system to the equivalent radius of the system about its centroid.

  15. Particle excitation, airglow and H2 vibrational disequilibrium in the atmosphere of Jupiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shemansky, D.E.

    1984-09-01

    The extreme ultraviolet EUV emission produced by particle excitation of the hydrogen atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn is examined using model calculations to determine the nature of the energy deposition process and the effect of such processes on atmospheric structure. Tasks ranging from examination of phenomenologically related processes on Saturn and Titan to analysis of experimental laboratory data required to allow accurate modeling of emissions from hydrogenic atmospheres are investigated. An explanation of the hydrogen H Ly(alpha) bulge in Jupiter's emission from the equatorial region is presented. It is proposed that Saturn, rather than Titan is the major source of the extended hydrogen cloud. The atomic hydrogen detected at the rings of Saturn may originate predominantly from the same source. A cross calibration is obtained between the Pioneer 10 EUV photometer and the Voyager EUV spectrometers, thus providing a direct measure of the temporal morphology of Jupiter between a minimum and a maximum in solar activity. Atomic and molecular data required for the research program are analyzed. An extrapolation of conditions in the upper atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn produces a predicted condition at Uranus in terms of excitation and hydrogen escape rates that may be observed at Voyager-Uranus encounter

  16. Modeling and Parameter Identification of the Vibration Characteristics of Armature Assembly in a Torque Motor of Hydraulic Servo Valves under Electromagnetic Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghui Peng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The resonance of the armature assembly is the main problem leading to the fatigue of the spring pipe in a torque motor of hydraulic servo valves, which can cause the failure of servo valves. To predict the vibration characteristics of the armature assembly, this paper focuses on the mathematical modeling of the vibration characteristics of armature assembly in a hydraulic servo valve and the identification of parameters in the models. To build models more accurately, the effect of the magnetic spring is taken into account. Vibration modal analysis is performed to obtain the mode shapes and natural frequencies, which are necessary to implement the identification of damping ratios in the mathematical models. Based on the mathematical models for the vibration characteristics, the harmonic responses of the armature assembly are analyzed using the finite element method and measured under electromagnetic excitations. The simulation results agree well with the experimental studies.

  17. Near-degeneracy in Excited Vibrational States of 207PbF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawhorter, Richard; Nguyen, Alexander; Kim, Yongrak; Biekert, Andreas; Sears, Trevor; Grabow, Jens-Uwe; Kudashov, A. D.; Skripnikov, L. V.; Titov, A. V.; Petrov, A. N.

    2017-04-01

    High-resolution Fourier transform microwave (FTMW) spectroscopy studies of 207PbF have demonstrated the near-degeneracy of two levels of opposite parity. These have attracted attention for the study of parity violation effects and the variation of fundamental constants using 207PbF. Further theoretical work has improved our detailed understanding of both 207PbF and 208PbF, and furthermore recently indicated that the finely split +/- parity levels grow monotonically closer for higher vibrational states. Our experimental results for v = 0-3 confirm this, and are in excellent agreement with our extended theoretical calculations up to v = 4; both will be presented. TJS acknowledges support from Contract No. DE-SC0012704 with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, supported by its Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences within the Office of Basic Energy Sciences., as do RM, AB, YK, & AN from Pomona College & J-UG from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG).

  18. Investigation of a bistable dual-stage vibration isolator under harmonic excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Kai; Huang, Hai; Harne, R L; Wang, K W

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the steady-state performance of a dual-stage vibration isolator, which is configured by a bistable oscillator and a linear oscillator. The potential force of the bistable stage comprises negative linear and positive cubic nonlinear stiffnesses such that the two restoring force contributions may counterbalance to minimize dynamic force transmission. By applying a first-order harmonic balance, it is predicted that the bistable dual-stage isolator may significantly outperform an equivalent pure linear dual-stage isolator. This conclusion is verified through a series of numerical investigations. Following a parametric study, design guidelines are detailed to achieve performance improvements. Then, the ‘valley’ response, which is the special phenomenon of the bistable dual-stage isolator due to the counterbalance of the negative linear and positive nonlinear potential forces, is revealed and quantitatively explained. Numerical studies demonstrate the role of initial conditions, and it is shown that the likelihood of beneficial single periodic valley and intra-well responses for isolation purposes can be increased by greater bistable stage damping. Finally, a bistable dual-stage isolator prototype is developed and tested, and the numerical and experimental results verify the theoretical predictions. (paper)

  19. Wind tunnel experiments on unstable self-excited vibration of sectional girders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Král, Radomil; Pospíšil, Stanislav; Náprstek, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a wind tunnel analysis of two degrees-of-freedom system represented by sectional girders is carried out. Besides an evaluation of the aeroelastic coefficients, the analysis is focused on the influence of the natural frequency ratio on the initiation of unstable vibration, which can be of practical interest. On the phenomenological level, the paper also discusses experimentally ascertained response regimes, with an emphasis on their stability character. The attention is paid to the memory effect in the response described by the hysteresis loop together with the separation curves determining the stability boundaries. The influence of initial disturbance on the stability is examined. Two types of cross-sections were investigated: (i) rectangular one with the aspect ratio 1:5, and (ii) bridge-like cross-section with comparable principal dimensions. For both types of cross-sections, the limits of the stability are significantly affected by an intentionally introduced initial disturbance. This holds especially with regard to the rectangular profile where the separation curves create very narrow sub-domains between a stable and an unstable response, while the bridge-like cross-section demonstrates much stable behaviour.

  20. Non-linear vibrating systems excited by a nonideal energy source with a large slope characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Carbajal, Javier; Domínguez, Jaime

    2017-11-01

    This paper revisits the problem of an unbalanced motor attached to a fixed frame by means of a nonlinear spring and a linear damper. The excitation provided by the motor is, in general, nonideal, which means it is affected by the vibratory response. Since the system behaviour is highly dependent on the order of magnitude of the motor characteristic slope, the case of large slope is considered herein. Some Perturbation Methods are applied to the system of equations, which allows transforming the original 4D system into a much simpler 2D system. The fixed points of this reduced system and their stability are carefully studied. We find the existence of a Hopf bifurcation which, to the authors' knowledge, has not been addressed before in the literature. These analytical results are supported by numerical simulations. We also compare our approach and results with those published by other authors.

  1. Excited-state intramolecular hydrogen transfer (ESIHT) of 1,8-Dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (DHAQ) characterized by ultrafast electronic and vibrational spectroscopy and computational modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Mohammed, Omar F.

    2014-05-01

    We combine ultrafast electronic and vibrational spectroscopy and computational modeling to investigate the photoinduced excited-state intramolecular hydrogen-transfer dynamics in 1,8-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (DHAQ) in tetrachloroethene, acetonitrile, dimethyl sulfoxide, and methanol. We analyze the electronic excited states of DHAQ with various possible hydrogen-bonding schemes and provide a general description of the electronic excited-state dynamics based on a systematic analysis of femtosecond UV/vis and UV/IR pump-probe spectroscopic data. Upon photoabsorption at 400 nm, the S 2 electronic excited state is initially populated, followed by a rapid equilibration within 150 fs through population transfer to the S 1 state where DHAQ exhibits ESIHT dynamics. In this equilibration process, the excited-state population is distributed between the 9,10-quinone (S2) and 1,10-quinone (S1) states while undergoing vibrational energy redistribution, vibrational cooling, and solvation dynamics on the 0.1-50 ps time scale. Transient UV/vis pump-probe data in methanol also suggest additional relaxation dynamics on the subnanosecond time scale, which we tentatively ascribe to hydrogen bond dynamics of DHAQ with the protic solvent, affecting the equilibrium population dynamics within the S2 and S1 electronic excited states. Ultimately, the two excited singlet states decay with a solvent-dependent time constant ranging from 139 to 210 ps. The concomitant electronic ground-state recovery is, however, only partial because a large fraction of the population relaxes to the first triplet state. From the similarity of the time scales involved, we conjecture that the solvent plays a crucial role in breaking the intramolecular hydrogen bond of DHAQ during the S2/S1 relaxation to either the ground or triplet state. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  2. Torsion-inversion tunneling patterns in the CH-stretch vibrationally excited states of the G12 family of molecules including methylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawadi, Mahesh B; Bhatta, Ram S; Perry, David S

    2013-12-19

    Two torsion-inversion tunneling models (models I and II) are reported for the CH-stretch vibrationally excited states in the G12 family of molecules. The torsion and inversion tunneling parameters, h(2v) and h(3v), respectively, are combined with low-order coupling terms involving the CH-stretch vibrations. Model I is a group theoretical treatment starting from the symmetric rotor methyl CH-stretch vibrations; model II is an internal coordinate model including the local-local CH-stretch coupling. Each model yields predicted torsion-inversion tunneling patterns of the four symmetry species, A, B, E1, and E2, in the CH-stretch excited states. Although the predicted tunneling patterns for the symmetric CH-stretch excited state are the same as for the ground state, inverted tunneling patterns are predicted for the asymmetric CH-stretches. The qualitative tunneling patterns predicted are independent of the model type and of the particular coupling terms considered. In model I, the magnitudes of the tunneling splittings in the two asymmetric CH-stretch excited states are equal to half of that in the ground state, but in model II, they differ when the tunneling rate is fast. The model predictions are compared across the series of molecules methanol, methylamine, 2-methylmalonaldehyde, and 5-methyltropolone and to the available experimental data.

  3. An analytical approach for predicting the energy capture and conversion by impulsively-excited bistable vibration energy harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harne, R. L.; Zhang, Chunlin; Li, Bing; Wang, K. W.

    2016-07-01

    Impulsive energies are abundant throughout the natural and built environments, for instance as stimulated by wind gusts, foot-steps, or vehicle-road interactions. In the interest of maximizing the sustainability of society's technological developments, one idea is to capture these high-amplitude and abrupt energies and convert them into usable electrical power such as for sensors which otherwise rely on less sustainable power supplies. In this spirit, the considerable sensitivity to impulse-type events previously uncovered for bistable oscillators has motivated recent experimental and numerical studies on the power generation performance of bistable vibration energy harvesters. To lead to an effective and efficient predictive tool and design guide, this research develops a new analytical approach to estimate the electroelastic response and power generation of a bistable energy harvester when excited by an impulse. Comparison with values determined by direct simulation of the governing equations shows that the analytically predicted net converted energies are very accurate for a wide range of impulse strengths. Extensive experimental investigations are undertaken to validate the analytical approach and it is seen that the predicted estimates of the impulsive energy conversion are in excellent agreement with the measurements, and the detailed structural dynamics are correctly reproduced. As a result, the analytical approach represents a significant leap forward in the understanding of how to effectively leverage bistable structures as energy harvesting devices and introduces new means to elucidate the transient and far-from-equilibrium dynamics of nonlinear systems more generally.

  4. ALMA INVESTIGATION OF VIBRATIONALLY EXCITED HCN/HCO{sup +}/HNC EMISSION LINES IN THE AGN-HOSTING ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY IRAS 20551−4250

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imanishi, Masatoshi [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Nakanishi, Kouichiro [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Izumi, Takuma, E-mail: masa.imanishi@nao.ac.jp [Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan)

    2016-07-01

    We present the results of ALMA Cycle 2 observations of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy IRAS 20551−4250 at HCN/HCO{sup +}/HNC J = 3–2 lines at both vibrational ground ( v = 0) and vibrationally excited ( v {sub 2} = 1) levels. This galaxy contains a luminous buried active galactic nucleus (AGN), in addition to starburst activity, and our ALMA Cycle 0 data revealed a tentatively detected vibrationally excited HCN v {sub 2} = 1f J = 4–3 emission line. In our ALMA Cycle 2 data, the HCN/HCO{sup +}/HNC J = 3–2 emission lines at v = 0 are clearly detected. The HCN and HNC v {sub 2} = 1f J = 3–2 emission lines are also detected, but the HCO{sup +} v {sub 2} = 1f J = 3–2 emission line is not. Given the high energy level of v {sub 2} = 1 and the resulting difficulty of collisional excitation, we compared these results with those of the calculation of infrared radiative pumping, using the available infrared 5–35 μ m spectrum. We found that all of the observational results were reproduced if the HCN abundance was significantly higher than that of HCO{sup +} and HNC. The flux ratio and excitation temperature between v {sub 2} = 1f and v = 0, after correction for possible line opacity, suggests that infrared radiative pumping affects rotational ( J -level) excitation at v = 0 at least for HCN and HNC. The HCN-to-HCO{sup +} v = 0 flux ratio is higher than those of starburst-dominated regions, and will increase even more when the derived high HCN opacity is corrected. The enhanced HCN-to-HCO{sup +} flux ratio in this AGN-hosting galaxy can be explained by the high HCN-to-HCO{sup +} abundance ratio and sufficient HCN excitation at up to J = 4, rather than the significantly higher efficiency of infrared radiative pumping for HCN than HCO{sup +}.

  5. Model of daytime emissions of electronically-vibrationally excited products of O3 and O2 photolysis: application to ozone retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Yankovsky

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The traditional kinetics of electronically excited products of O3 and O2 photolysis is supplemented with the processes of the energy transfer between electronically-vibrationally excited levels O2(a1Δg, v and O2(b1Σ+g, v, excited atomic oxygen O(1D, and the O2 molecules in the ground electronic state O2(X3Σg−, v. In contrast to the previous models of kinetics of O2(a1Δg and O2 (b1Σ+g, our model takes into consideration the following basic facts: first, photolysis of O3 and O2 and the processes of energy exchange between the metastable products of photolysis involve generation of oxygen molecules on highly excited vibrational levels in all considered electronic states – b1Σ+g, a1Δg and X3Σg−; second, the absorption of solar radiation not only leads to populating the electronic states on vibrational levels with vibrational quantum number v equal to 0 – O2(b1Σ+g, v=0 (at 762 nm and O2(a1Δg, v=0 (at 1.27 µm, but also leads to populating the excited electronic–vibrational states O2(b1Σ+g, v=1 and O2(b1Σ+g, v=2 (at 689 nm and 629 nm. The proposed model allows one to calculate not only the vertical profiles of the O2(a1Δg, v=0 and O2(b1Σg, v=0 concentrations, but also the profiles of [O2(a1Δg, v≤5], [O2 (b1Σ+g , v=1, 2] and O2(X3Σg−, v=1–35. In the altitude range 60–125 km, consideration of the electronic-vibrational kinetics significantly changes the calculated concentrations of the metastable oxygen molecules and reduces the discrepancy between the altitude profiles of ozone concentrations retrieved from the 762-nm and 1.27-µm emissions measured simultaneously.

  6. Ab initio calculation of the cross sections for electron impact vibrational excitation of CO via the {sup 2}Π shape resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcetta, Michael F., E-mail: mffalcetta@gcc.edu; Fair, Mark C.; Tharnish, Emily M.; Williams, Lorna M.; Hayes, Nathan J. [Department of Chemistry, Grove City College, Grove City, Pennsylvania 16127 (United States); Jordan, Kenneth D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States)

    2016-03-14

    The stabilization method is used to calculate the complex potential energy curve of the {sup 2}Π state of CO{sup −} as a function of bond length, with the refinement that separate potentials are determined for p-wave and d-wave attachment and detachment of the excess electron. Using the resulting complex potentials, absolute vibrational excitation cross sections are calculated as a function of electron energy and scattering angle. The calculated cross sections agree well with experiment.

  7. Dynamic Model and Vibration Power Flow of a Rigid-Flexible Coupling and Harmonic-Disturbance Exciting System for Flexible Robotic Manipulator with Elastic Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the dynamic of a flexible robotic manipulator (FRM which consists of rigid driving base, flexible links, and flexible joints. With considering the motion fluctuations caused by the coupling effect, such as the motor parameters and mechanism inertias, as harmonic disturbances, the system investigated in this paper remains a parametrically excited system. An elastic restraint model of the FRM with elastic joints (FRMEJ is proposed, which considers the elastic properties of the connecting joints between the flexible arm and the driving base, as well as the harmonic disturbances aroused by the electromechanical coupling effect. As a consequence, the FRMEJ accordingly remains a flexible multibody system which conveys the effects of rigid-flexible couple and electromechanical couple. The Lagrangian function and Hamilton’s principle are used to establish the dynamic model of the FRMEJ. Based on the dynamic model proposed, the vibration power flow is introduced to show the vibration energy distribution. Numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the effect of the joint elasticities and the disturbance excitations, and the influences of the structure parameters and motion parameters on the vibration power flow are studied. The results obtained in this paper contribute to the structure design, motion optimization, and vibration control of FRMs.

  8. Synchronization of Two Non-Identical Coupled Exciters in a Non-Resonant Vibrating System of Linear Motion. Part I: Theoretical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyu Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an analytical approach is proposed to study the feature of frequency capture of two non-identical coupled exciters in a non-resonant vibrating system. The electromagnetic torque of an induction motor in the quasi-steady-state operation is derived. With the introduction of two perturbation small parameters to average angular velocity of two exciters and their phase difference, we deduce the Equation of Frequency Capture by averaging two motion equations of two exciters over their average period. It converts the synchronization problem of two exciters into that of existence and stability of zero solution for the Equation of Frequency Capture. The conditions of implementing frequency capture and that of stabilizing synchronous operation of two motors have been derived. The concept of torque of frequency capture is proposed to physically explain the peculiarity of self-synchronization of the two exciters. An interesting conclusion is reached that the moments of inertia of the two exciters in the Equation of Frequency Capture reduce and there is a coupling moment of inertia between the two exciters. The reduction of moments of inertia and the coupling moment of inertia have an effect on the stability of synchronous operation.

  9. Native Fluorescence Detection Methods and Detectors for Naphthalene and/or Other Volatile Organic Compound Vapors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Bhartia, Rohit (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor); Lane, Arthur L. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Naphthalene, benzene, toluene, xylene, and other volatile organic compounds have been identified as serious health hazards. This is especially true for personnel working with JP8 jet fuel and other fuels containing naphthalene as well as other hazardous volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Embodiments of the invention are directed to methods and apparatus for near-real-time in-situ detection and accumulated dose measurement of exposure to naphthalene vapor and other hazardous gaseous VOCs. The methods and apparatus employ excitation of fluorophors native or endogenous to compounds of interest using light sources emitting in the ultraviolet below 300 nm and measurement of native fluorescence emissions in distinct wavebands above the excitation wavelength. The apparatus of some embodiments are cell-phone-sized sensor/dosimeter "badges" to be worn by personnel potentially exposed to naphthalene or other hazardous VOCs. The badge sensor of some embodiments provides both real time detection and data logging of exposure to naphthalene or other VOCs of interest from which both instantaneous and accumulated dose can be determined. The badges employ a new native fluorescence based detection method to identify and differentiate VOCs. The particular focus of some embodiments are the detection and identification of naphthalene while other embodiments are directed to detection and identification of other VOCs like aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, and xylene.

  10. Naphthalene: Drinking water health advisory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    The Drinking Water Health Advisory, Office of Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has issued its report on the chemical, naphthalene. Naphthalene is used in the manufacture of phthalic and anthranilic acids and other derivatives, and in making dyes; in the manufacture of resins, celluloid, lampblack and smokeless gunpowder; and as moth repellant, insecticide, anthelmintic, vermicide, and intestinal antiseptic. The report covers the following areas: the occurrence of the chemical in the environment; its environmental fate; the chemical's absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in the human body; and its health effects on humans and animals, including its mutagenicity and carcinogenicity characteristics. Also included is the quantification of its toxicological effects.

  11. Process for refining naphthalene, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petroff, G

    1922-05-13

    A process is described for the refining of naphthalene, its distillates, and mineral oils by the use of dilute sulfuric acid, characterized in that the oils are oxidized with oxygen of the air and thereafter are treated with 65 to 75 percent sulfuric acid to separate the unsaturated hydrocarbons in the form of polymerized products whereby, if necessary, heating and application of usual or higher pressure can take place.

  12. Vibrational and rotational excitation effects of the N(2D) + D2(X1Σg +) → ND(X3Σ+) + D(2S) reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ziliang; Wang, Haijie; Wang, Xiquan; Shi, Yanying

    2018-05-01

    The effects of the rovibrational excitation of reactants in the N(2D) + D2(X1Σg+) → ND(X3Σ+) + D(2S) reaction are calculated in a collision energy range from the threshold to 1.0 eV using the time-dependent wave packet approach and a second-order split operator. The reaction probability, integral cross-section, differential cross-section and rate constant of the title reaction are calculated. The integral cross-section and rate constant of the initial states v = 0, j = 0, 1, are in good agreement with experimental data available in the literature. The rotational excitation of the D2 molecule has little effect on reaction probability, integral cross-section and the rate constant, but it increased the sideways and forward scattering signals. The vibrational excitation of the D2 molecule reduced the threshold and broke up the forward-backward symmetry of the differential cross-section; it also increased the forward scattering signals. This may be because the vibrational excitation of the D2 molecule reduced the lifetime of the intermediate complex.

  13. Observation of an energy threshold for large ΔE collisional relaxation of highly vibrationally excited pyrazine (Evib=31 000-41 000 cm-1) by CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elioff, Michael S.; Wall, Mark C.; Lemoff, Andrew S.; Mullin, Amy S.

    1999-03-01

    Energy dependent studies of the collisional relaxation of highly vibrationally excited pyrazine through collisions with CO2 were performed for initial pyrazine energies Evib=31 000-35 000 cm-1. These studies are presented along with earlier results for pyrazine with Evib=36 000-41 000 cm-1. High-resolution transient IR laser absorption of individual CO2 (0000) rotational states (J=56-80) was used to investigate the magnitude and partitioning of energy gain into CO2 rotation and translation, which comprises the high energy tail of the energy transfer distribution function. Highly vibrationally excited pyrazine was prepared by absorption of pulsed UV light at seven wavelengths in the range λ=281-324 nm, followed by radiationless decay to pyrazine's ground electronic state. Nascent CO2 (0000) rotational populations were measured for each UV excitation wavelength and distributions of nascent recoil velocities for individual rotational states of CO2 (0000) were obtained from Doppler-broadened transient linewidth measurements. Measurements of energy transfer rate constants at each UV wavelength yield energy-dependent probabilities for collisions involving large ΔE values. These results reveal that the magnitude of large ΔE collisional energy gain in CO2 (0000) is fairly insensitive to the amount of vibrational energy in pyrazine for Evib=31 000-35 000 cm-1. A comparison with earlier studies on pyrazine with Evib=36 000-41 000 cm-1 indicates that the V→RT energy transfer increases both in magnitude and probability for Evib>36 000 cm-1. Implications of incomplete intramolecular vibrational relaxation, electronic state coupling, and isomerization barriers are discussed in light of these results.

  14. Fluid dynamic forces acting on a circular tube bundle in cross flow. Proposals of generation condition of vortex-induced vibration and correlation equation of turbulence-induced exciting force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Fumio; Yoneda, Kimitoshi; Yasuo, Akira; Nishihara, Takashi

    2000-01-01

    In the circular tube bundle immersed in the crossflow, the exciting force induced by the turbulence and periodically discharged vortices becomes large, and it is necessary to confirm a long-term integrity to the flow induced vibration. In this report, the local fluid exciting force and the correlation length in the direction of tube axis were measured. The exciting force acting on the first row was smaller than that inside the tube bundle, and the exciting force was almost saturated at the third row. As for vortex induced vibration, there could be an influence when a dimensionless frequency was 0.4 or less. When vortex induced vibration did not affect the vibration, a correlation composed of a correlation length and power spectrum density of the local fluid exciting force were proposed, with which we could estimate the amplitude of the vibration. A computer program to estimate the vibration amplitude and maximum stress was made using the flow velocity distribution and the mode of vibration. (author)

  15. Mechanism for Clastogenic Activity of Naphthalene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, Bruce A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-29

    Naphthalene incubations form DNA adducts in vitro in a dose dependent manner in both mouse and rat tissues. Rodent tissue incubations with naphthalene indicate that naphthalene forms as many DNA adducts as Benzo(a)pyrene, a known DNA binding carcinogen. The mouse airway has the greatest number of DNA adducts, corresponding to the higher metabolic activation of naphthalene in this location. Both rat tissues, the rat olfactory (tumor target) and the airways (non-tumor target), have similar levels of NA-DNA adducts, indicating that short term measures of initial adduct formation do not directly correlate with sites of tumor formation in the NTP bioassays.

  16. Mechanism for Clastogenic Activity of Naphthalene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, Bruce A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-06-24

    Naphthalene incubations form DNA adducts in vitro in a dose dependent manner in both mouse and rat tissues. Rodent tissue incubations with naphthalene indicate that naphthalene forms as many DNA adducts as Benzo(a)pyrene, a known DNA binding carcinogen. The mouse airway has the greatest number of DNA adducts, corresponding to the higher metabolic activation of naphthalene in this location. Both rat tissues, the rat olfactory (tumor target) and the airways (non-tumor target), have similar levels of NA-DNA adducts, indicating that short term measures of initial adduct formation do not directly correlate with sites of tumor formation in the NTP bioassays.

  17. Evolution of disturbances in the shock layer on a flat plate in the flow of a mixture of vibrationally excited gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilovskiy, S. V.; Poplavskaya, T. V.; Tsyryulnikov, I. S.; Maslov, A. A.

    2017-05-01

    The results of the numerical and experimental investigations of the evolution of the disturbances in a hypersonic shock layer on a flat plate streamlined by a flow of the mixture of vibrationally excited gases are presented. The experimental study was conducted in the hot-shot high-enthalpy wind tunnel IT-302 of the ITAM SB RAS. The numerical simulation was carried out with the aid of the ANSYS Fluent package using the solution of the unsteady two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations with the incorporation of the user-created modules and enabling the consideration of the vibrational non-equilibrium of the carbon dioxide molecules within the framework of the model of the two-temperature aerodynamics. It was obtained that an increase in the carbon dioxide concentration in the mixture with air leads to a reduction of the intensity of pressure disturbances on the surface. The efficiency (up to 20 %) of the method of sound absorbing coatings in the vibrationally excited flows of the mixture of the carbon dioxide and air has been shown.

  18. Real-time visualization of the vibrational wavepacket dynamics in electronically excited pyrimidine via femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Long, Jinyou; Ling, Fengzi; Wang, Yanmei; Song, Xinli; Zhang, Song; Zhang, Bing

    2017-07-01

    The vibrational wavepacket dynamics at the very early stages of the S1-T1 intersystem crossing in photoexcited pyrimidine is visualized in real time by femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron imaging and time-resolved mass spectroscopy. A coherent superposition of the vibrational states is prepared by the femtosecond pump pulse at 315.3 nm, resulting in a vibrational wavepacket. The composition of the prepared wavepacket is directly identified by a sustained quantum beat superimposed on the parent-ion transient, possessing a frequency in accord with the energy separation between the 6a1 and 6b2 states. The dephasing time of the vibrational wavepacket is determined to be 82 ps. More importantly, the variable Franck-Condon factors between the wavepacket components and the dispersed cation vibrational levels are experimentally illustrated to identify the dark state and follow the energy-flow dynamics on the femtosecond time scale. The time-dependent intensities of the photoelectron peaks originated from the 6a1 vibrational state exhibit a clear quantum beating pattern with similar periodicity but a phase shift of π rad with respect to those from the 6b2 state, offering an unambiguous picture of the restricted intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution dynamics in the 6a1/6b2 Fermi resonance.

  19. Effectiveness of the mechanical excitation applied to the olive paste: possible improving of the oil yield, in malaxation phase, by vibration systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullia Gallina Toschi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical vibrations characterized by a frequency lower than 200 Hz could promote the cells breakage and improve the oil extraction process by avoiding, at the same time, the negative effects on the commercial qualitative parameters due to the use of the heating during malaxation. Vibration tests were conducted by means of an electrodynamic shaker in order to find the optimal frequency levels of excitation, able to put in a resonant condition the olive paste. Sinusoidal accelerations at constant acceleration (120 m/s2, in a range between 5 and 200 Hz were explored. The 50 Hz and 80 Hz frequencies were able to put in resonant condition the olive paste. In the vibrated samples at 50 Hz (15 min of treatment, the maximum increment of the extraction efficiency (about 53% in comparison with the control, was observed. Further studies could be conducted in order to assess the synergic effect of the mechanical vibrations and the malaxation on the oil extraction efficiency, with the aim of reducing the time of the whole phase and avoiding changes in the oil quality traits.

  20. Concept study of a novel energy harvesting-enabled tuned mass-damper-inerter (EH-TMDI) device for vibration control of harmonically-excited structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvi, Jonathan; Giaralis, Agathoklis

    2016-01-01

    A novel dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) configuration is introduced for simultaneous vibration suppression and energy harvesting from oscillations typically exhibited by large-scale low-frequency engineering structures and structural components. The proposed configuration, termed energy harvesting-enabled tuned mass-damper-inerter (EH-TMDI) comprises a mass grounded via an in-series electromagnetic motor (energy harvester)-inerter layout, and attached to the primary structure through linear spring and damper in parallel connection. The governing equations of motion are derived and solved in the frequency domain, for the case of harmonically-excited primary structures, here modelled as damped single-degree- of-freedom (SDOF) systems. Comprehensive parametric analyses proved that by varying the mass amplification property of the grounded inerter, and by adjusting the stiffness and the damping coefficients using simple optimum tuning formulae, enhanced vibration suppression (in terms of primary structure peak displacement) and energy harvesting (in terms of relative velocity at the terminals of the energy harvester) may be achieved concurrently and at nearresonance frequencies, for a fixed attached mass. Hence, the proposed EH-TMDI allows for relaxing the trade-off between vibration control and energy harvesting purposes, and renders a dual-objective optimisation a practically-feasible, reliable task. (paper)

  1. Identification of the excitation source of the pressure vessel vibration in a Soviet built WWER PWR with signal transmission path analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonopoulos-Domis, M.; Mourtzanos, K.; Por, G.

    1996-01-01

    Signal transmission path analysis via multivariate auto-regressive modelling was applied at signals recorded at a WWER power reactor (Paks reactor, Hungary). The core is equipped with strings of self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs). Each string has seven SPNDs. The signals were high pass filtered with cut-off at 0.03 Hz and low pass-filtered with cut-off at 25 Hz. The analysis suggests that the source of excitation of all signals at 25 Hz is due to main coolant pump vibration. It was confirmed that there is vibration of main coolant pumps at this frequency due to a bearing problem. Signal transmission path analysis also suggests direct paths from outlet coolant to inlet coolant pressure and in-core neutron detectors at the upper part of the core. (author)

  2. Coulomb excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowan, F.K.; Stelson, P.H.

    1974-01-01

    The theory of Coulomb excitation and a brief review of pertinent treatments of the Coulomb excitation process that are useful for the analysis of experiments are given. Examples demonstrating the scope of nuclear structure information obtainable from gamma spectroscopy are presented. Direct Elambda excitation of 232 Th is discussed in terms of the one phonon octupole vibrational spectrum. B(MI) reduced transition probabilities resulting from Coulomb excitation of odd-A deformed nuclei with heavy ions are presented as a test of the rotational model. The use of gamma ray coincidence and particle-gamma coincidence as tools for investigating Coulomb excitation is discussed. (U.S.)

  3. A vacuum-UV laser-induced fluorescence experiment for measurement of rotationally and vibrationally excited H2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vankan, P.J.W.; Heil, S.B.S.; Mazouffre, S.; Engeln, R.A.H.; Schram, D.C.; Döbele, H.F.

    2004-01-01

    An experimental setup is built to detect spatially resolved rovibrationally excited hydrogen molecules via laser-induced fluorescence. To excite the hydrogen molecules, laser radiation is produced in the vacuum UV part of the spectrum. The laser radiation is tunable between 120 nm and 230 nm and has

  4. Effect of Various Excitation Conditions on Vibrational Energy in a Multi-Degree-of-Freedom Torsional System with Piecewise-Type Nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Yun Yoon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic behaviors in practical driveline systems for wind turbines or vehicles are inherently affected by multiple nonlinearities such as piecewise-type torsional springs. However, various excitation conditions with different levels of magnitudes also show strong relationships to the dynamic behaviors when system responses are examined in both frequency and time domains. This study investigated the nonlinear responses of torsional systems under various excitations by using the harmonic balance method and numerical analysis. In order to understand the effect of piecewise-type nonlinearities on vibrational energy with different excitations, the nonlinear responses were investigated with various comparisons. First, two different jumping phenomena with frequency up- and down-sweeping conditions were determined under severe excitation levels. Second, practical system analysis using the phase plane and Poincaré map was conducted in various ways. When the system responses were composed of quasi-periodic components, Poincaré map analysis clearly revealed the nonlinear dynamic characteristics and thus it is suggested to investigate complicated nonlinear dynamic responses in practical driveline systems.

  5. ALMA DETECTION OF THE VIBRATIONALLY EXCITED HCN J = 4-3 EMISSION LINE IN THE AGN-HOSTING LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY IRAS 20551–4250

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imanishi, Masatoshi [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, Hawaii, 96720 (United States); Nakanishi, Kouichiro, E-mail: masa.imanishi@nao.ac.jp [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura 763-0355, Santiago de Chile (Chile)

    2013-10-01

    We present results from our ALMA Cycle 0 observations, at the frequencies around the HCN, HCO{sup +}, and HNC J = 4-3 transition lines, of the luminous infrared galaxy IRAS 20551–4250 at z = 0.043, which is known to host an energetically important obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN). In addition to the targeted HCN, HCO{sup +}, and HNC J = 4-3 emission lines, two additional strong emission lines are seen, which we attribute to H{sub 2}S and CH{sub 3}CN(+CCH). The HCN-to-HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 flux ratio (∼0.7) is higher than in the other starburst-dominated galaxy (∼0.2) observed in our ALMA Cycle 0 program. We tentatively (∼5σ) detected the vibrationally excited (v {sub 2} = 1) HCN J = 4-3 (l = 1f) emission line, which is important for testing an infrared radiative pumping scenario for HCN. This is the second detection of this molecular transition in external galaxies. The most likely reason for this detection is not only the high flux of this emission line, but also the small molecular line widths observed in this galaxy, suggesting that vibrational excitation of HCN may be relatively common in AGN-hosting galaxies.

  6. A Patch Density Recommendation based on Convergence Studies for Vehicle Panel Vibration Response resulting from Excitation by a Diffuse Acoustic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; LaVerde, Bruce; Jones, Douglas; Towner, Robert; Waldon, James; Hunt, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Producing fluid structural interaction estimates of panel vibration from an applied pressure field excitation are quite dependent on the spatial correlation of the pressure field. There is a danger of either over estimating a low frequency response or under predicting broad band panel response in the more modally dense bands if the pressure field spatial correlation is not accounted for adequately. It is a useful practice to simulate the spatial correlation of the applied pressure field over a 2d surface using a matrix of small patch area regions on a finite element model (FEM). Use of a fitted function for the spatial correlation between patch centers can result in an error if the choice of patch density is not fine enough to represent the more continuous spatial correlation function throughout the intended frequency range of interest. Several patch density assumptions to approximate the fitted spatial correlation function are first evaluated using both qualitative and quantitative illustrations. The actual response of a typical vehicle panel system FEM is then examined in a convergence study where the patch density assumptions are varied over the same model. The convergence study results illustrate the impacts possible from a poor choice of patch density on the analytical response estimate. The fitted correlation function used in this study represents a diffuse acoustic field (DAF) excitation of the panel to produce vibration response.

  7. Simple systematization of vibrational excitation cross-section calculations for resonant electron-molecule scattering in the boomerang and impulse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Manabendra; Adhikari, S; Mishra, Manoj K

    2007-01-28

    Vibrational excitation (nu(f), where psi(nu(i))(R,t) approximately =e(-iH(A(2))-(R)t/h phi(nu(i))(R) with time evolution under the influence of the resonance anionic Hamiltonian H(A(2) (-))(A(2) (-)=N(2)(-)/H(2) (-)) implemented using Lanczos and fast Fourier transforms. The target (A(2)) vibrational eigenfunctions phi(nu(i))(R) and phi(nu(f))(R) are calculated using Fourier grid Hamiltonian method applied to potential energy (PE) curves of the neutral target. Application of this simple systematization to calculate vibrational structure in e-N(2) and e-H(2) scattering cross-sections provides mechanistic insights into features underlying presence/absence of structure in e-N(2) and e-H(2) scattering cross-sections. The results obtained with approximate PE curves are in reasonable agreement with experimental/calculated cross-section profiles, and cross correlation functions provide a simple demarcation between the boomerang and impulse models.

  8. Mechanisms for naphthalene removal during electrolytic aeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Ramesh K; Flora, Joseph R V; Ferry, John

    2003-02-01

    Batch tests were performed to investigate chemical and physical processes that may result during electrolytic aeration of a contaminated aquifer using naphthalene as a model contaminant. Naphthalene degradation of 58-66% took place electrolytically and occurred at the same rates at a pH of 4 and 7. 1,4-naphthoquinone was identified as a product of the electrolysis. Stripping due to gases produced at the electrodes did not result in any naphthalene loss. Hydrogen peroxide (which may be produced at the cathode) did not have any effect on naphthalene, but the addition of ferrous iron (which may be present in aquifers) resulted in 67-99% disappearance of naphthalene. Chlorine (which may be produced from the anodic oxidation of chloride) can effectively degrade naphthalene at pH of 4, but not at a pH of 7. Mono-, di- and poly chloronaphthalenes were identified as oxidation products. Ferric iron coagulation (due to the oxidation of ferrous iron) did not significantly contribute to naphthalene loss. Overall, electrolytic oxidation and chemical oxidation due to the electrolytic by-products formed are significant abiotic processes that could occur and should be accounted for if bioremediation of PAH-contaminated sites via electrolytic aeration is considered. Possible undesirable products such as chlorinated compounds may be formed when significant amounts of chlorides are present.

  9. Advances of naphthalene degradation in Pseudomonas putida ND6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fu; Shi, Yifei; Jia, Shiru; Tan, Zhilei; Zhao, Huabing

    2018-03-01

    Naphthalene is one of the most common and simple polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Degradation of naphthalene has been greatly concerned due to its economic, free-pollution and its fine effect in Pseudomonas putida ND6. This review summarizes the development history of naphthalene degradation, the research progress of naphthalene degrading gene and naphthalene degradation pathway of Pseudomonas putida ND6, and the researching path of this strain. Although the study of naphthalene degradation is not consummate in Pseudomonas putida ND6, there is a potential capability for Pseudomonas putida ND6 to degrade the naphthalene in the further research.

  10. Symposium on Flow-Induced Vibrations Held in New Orleans, Louisiana on 9-14 December 1984. Volume 1. Excitation and Vibration of Bluff Bodies in Cross Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-14

    i)(w ZZ+mgZ) - (1-6in)Pw(a/4)dv21]z i,k (i<k) 6knPw((/4)d20 " Ai,k(k<i) = o+m A] IAi,i = p /2 + ( nPp Z 2 +M l ) (1si,k-n) (2d) L-Ai,k(i<k) pp^ I...spectrum of spe- cial excitations of the water wave fields (explosive, earthquake, etc.), will be filtered by the structure. Hence, always the resonan

  11. A vacuum-UV laser-induced fluorescence experiment for measurement of rotationally and vibrationally excited H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vankan, P.; Heil, S.B.S.; Mazouffre, S.; Engeln, R.; Schram, D.C.; Doebele, H.F.

    2004-01-01

    An experimental setup is built to detect spatially resolved rovibrationally excited hydrogen molecules via laser-induced fluorescence. To excite the hydrogen molecules, laser radiation is produced in the vacuum UV part of the spectrum. The laser radiation is tunable between 120 nm and 230 nm and has a bandwith of 0.15 cm -1 . The wavelength of the laser radiation is calibrated by simultaneous recording of the two-photon laser induced fluorescence spectrum of nitric oxide. The excited hydrogen populations are calibrated on the basis of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurements. A population distribution is measured in the shock region of a pure hydrogen plasma expansion. The higher rotational levels (J>5) show overpopulation compared to a Boltzmann distribution determined from the lower rotational levels (J≤5)

  12. Multiwavelength excitation Raman scattering of Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1−x)4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) polycrystalline thin films: Vibrational properties of sulfoselenide solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrievska, Mirjana; Xie, Haibing; Fairbrother, Andrew; Fontané, Xavier; Saucedo, Edgardo; Izquierdo-Roca, Victor; Gurieva, Galina; 2UB, Departament d'Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, C. Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain))" data-affiliation=" (Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC), Jardins de les Dones de Negre 1 2pl., 08930 Sant Adrià del Besòs, Barcelona (Spain); IN2UB, Departament d'Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, C. Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain))" >Pérez-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Schorr, Susan

    2014-01-01

    In this work, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were applied together to evaluate the crystal structure and the phonon modes of photovoltaic grade Cu 2 ZnSn(S x Se 1−x ) 4 thin films, leading to a complete characterization of their structural and vibrational properties. Vibrational characterization has been based on Raman scattering measurements performed with different excitation wavelengths and polarization configurations. Analysis of the experimental spectra has permitted identification of 19 peaks, which positions are in good accord with theoretical predictions. Besides, the observation of Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 -like A symmetry peaks related to S vibrations and Cu 2 ZnSnSe 4 -like A symmetry peaks related to Se vibrations, additional Raman peaks, characteristic of the solid solution and previously not reported, are observed, and are attributed to vibrations involving both S and Se anions.

  13. Selective excitation of a vibrational level within the electronic ground state of a polyatomic molecule with ultra short pulses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Clercq, L

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available al lbl d i I e I e dt ω ωρ ρ ρ − = − = −∑h (1) where, , .a b a bω ω ω= − , (2) ρab gives the elements of the density matrix, ωa the frequencies... of the individual vibrational levels, and Iab the matrix elements of the interaction Hamiltonian [2] which include the detailed time dependence of the shaped femtosecond pulse. 2. Simulation results A transform limited 150 femtosecond laser pulse with a...

  14. Analytic description of highly excited vibrational-rotational states of diatomic molecules: II. Application to the hydrogen chloride molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burenin, A.V.; Ryabikin, M.Y.

    1995-01-01

    Processing of the precise experimental data on transition frequencies and energy levels in the ground electronic state of the H 35 Cl molecule was carried out on the basis of the asymptotically correct perturbation series analytically constructed to describe the discrete vibrational-rotational spectrum of a diatomic molecule. The perturbation series was shown to converge rapidly up to the dissociation energy E D , whereas the conventional Dunham series has a distinct limit of applicability equal to 0.39E D . 12 refs., 2 figs

  15. Highly vibrationally excited O2 molecules in low-pressure inductively-coupled plasmas detected by high sensitivity ultra-broad-band optical absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucher, Mickaël; Marinov, Daniil; Carbone, Emile; Chabert, Pascal; Booth, Jean-Paul

    2015-08-01

    Inductively-coupled plasmas in pure O2 (at pressures of 5-80 mTorr and radiofrequency power up to 500 W) were studied by optical absorption spectroscopy over the spectral range 200-450 nm, showing the presence of highly vibrationally excited O2 molecules (up to vʺ = 18) by Schumann-Runge band absorption. Analysis of the relative band intensities indicates a vibrational temperature up to 10,000 K, but these hot molecules only represent a fraction of the total O2 density. By analysing the (11-0) band at higher spectral resolution the O2 rotational temperature was also determined, and was found to increase with both pressure and power, reaching 900 K at 80 mTorr 500 W. These measurements were achieved using a new high-sensitivity ultra-broad-band absorption spectroscopy setup, based on a laser-plasma light source, achromatic optics and an aberration-corrected spectrograph. This setup allows the measurement of weak broadband absorbances due to a baseline variability lower than 2   ×   10-5 across a spectral range of 250 nm.

  16. Determination of excitation temperature and vibrational temperature of the N{sub 2}(C {sup 3}{pi}{sub u}, {nu}') state in Ne-N{sub 2} RF discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehman, N U; Naveed, M A; Zakaullah, M [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Khan, F U [Department of Physics, Gomal University D.I. Khan (Pakistan)

    2008-05-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy is used to investigate the effect of neon mixing on the excitation and vibrational temperatures of the second positive system in nitrogen plasma generated by a 13.56 MHz RF generator. The excitation temperature is determined from Ne I line intensities, using Boltzmann's plot. The overpopulation of the levels of the N{sub 2} (C {sup 3}{pi}{sub u}, {nu}') states with neon mixing are monitored by measuring the emission intensities of the second positive system of nitrogen molecules. The vibrational temperature is calculated for the sequence {delta}{nu} = -2, with the assumption that it follows Boltzmann's distribution. But due to overpopulation of levels, e.g. 1, 4, a linearization process was employed for such distributions allowing us to calculate the vibrational temperature of the N{sub 2} (C {sup 3}{pi}{sub u}, {nu}') state. It is found that the excitation temperature as well as the vibrational temperature of the second positive system can be raised significantly by mixing neon with nitrogen plasma. It is also found that the vibrational temperature increases with power and pressure up to 0.5 mbar.

  17. Nanoscale coupling of photons to vibrational excitation of Ag nanoparticle 2D array studied by scanning tunneling microscope light emission spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katano, Satoshi; Toma, Koji; Toma, Mana; Tamada, Kaoru; Uehara, Yoichi

    2010-11-28

    Scanning tunneling microscope light emission (STM-LE) spectroscopy has been utilized to elucidate the luminescence phenomena of Ag nanoparticles capped with myristate (myristate-capped AgNP) and 2-methyl-1-propanethiolate (C(4)S-capped AgNP) on the dodecanethiol-precovered Au substrate. The STM imaging revealed that myristate-capped AgNPs form an ordered hexagonal array whereas C(4)S-capped AgNPs show imperfect ordering, indicating that a shorter alkyl chain of C(4)S-capped AgNP is not sufficient to form rigid interdigitation. It should be noted that such a nanoparticle ordering affects the luminescence properties of the Ag nanoparticle. We found that the STM-LE is only detected from the Ag nanoparticles forming the two-dimensional superlattice. This indicates that the STM-LE of the Ag nanoparticle is radiated via the collective excitation of the local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spread over the Ag nanoparticles. Note that the STM-LE spectra of the Ag nanoparticles exhibit spike-like peaks superimposed on the broad light emission peak. Using Raman spectroscopy, we concluded that the spike-like structure appearing in the STM-LE spectra is associated with the vibrational excitation of the molecule embedded between Ag nanoparticles.

  18. Interrogating the vibrational relaxation of highly excited polyatomics with time-resolved diode laser spectroscopy: C6H6, C6D6, and C6F6+CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlacek, A.J.; Weston, R.E. Jr.; Flynn, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    The vibrational relaxation of highly excited ground state benzene, benzene d 6 , and hexafluorobenzene by CO 2 has been investigated with high resolution diode laser spectroscopy. The vibrationally hot polyatomics are formed by single photon 248 nm excitation to the S 1 state followed by rapid radiationless transitions. It has been found that in all cases less than 1% of the energy initially present in the polyatomics is deposited into the high frequency mode of CO 2 (ν 3 ). An investigation of the CO 2 (00 0 1) nascent rotational distribution under single collision conditions reveals that very little rotational excitation accompanies vibrational energy transfer to the ν 3 mode. The CO 2 (ν 3 ) rotational states can be described by temperatures, T rot , as follows: C 6 H 6 , T rot =360±30 K; C 6 D 6 , T rot =350±35 K and C 6 F 6 , T rot =340±23 K. An estimate of left-angle ΔE right-angle ν3 , the mean energy transferred to the CO 2 ν 3 mode per collision, suggests that as the availability of low frequency modes in the excited molecule increases, less energy is deposited into the high frequency mode of CO 2 . Finally, evidence is presented suggesting that even at moderate laser fluences, the two-photon ionization of benzene can lead to substantial CO 2 ν 3 excitation via electron+CO 2 inelastic collisions

  19. Search for mode-selective chemistry: The unimolecular dissociation of t-butyl hydroperoxide induced by vibrational overtone excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, D.W.; Farneth, W.E.; Zare, R.N.

    1982-01-01

    The use of optoacoustic spectroscopy permits both the monitoring of the overtone excitation of t-butylhydroperoxide (t-BuOOH) and the in situ detection of the resulting reaction product t-butanol (t-BuOH). The sample is contained in a reaction cell, equipped with a microphone, in which all surfaces have been specially passivated. The cell is placed inside the cavity of a dye laser tuned to excite the 5--0 O--H stretch of the t-BuOOH at 619.0 nm. The dissociation process yields directly xOH and t-BuOx, and the latter readily abstracts a hydrogen atom from a parent molecule to form t-butanol (t-BuOH). The appearance rate of t-BuOH is obtained by ratioing the area under the 5--0 O--H stretch of t-BuOH to that of a combination band of t-BuOOH. At low pressures, below 40 Torr, a plot of the reciprocal of the t-BuOH appearance rate versus total pressure shows near linear behavior. This linearlity can be well described by a statistical model (RRKM) when careful averaging of the dissociation rate over the thermal energy distribution of the photoactivated molecules is included. At pressures above 40 Torr, a marked deviation from linearity appears. This deviation is fit to a kinetic model in which the dissociation rate of an energy nonrandomized molecule competes with the rate of intramolecular energy relaxation. This places a lower bound of > or =5.0 x 10 11 s -1 on the rate of energy randomization. A discussion of this model in the context of other possible kinetic schemes as well as other photoactivated and chemically activated systems is presented

  20. Synthesis and Photophysical Characterizations of Thermal -Stable Naphthalene Benzimidazoles

    OpenAIRE

    Erten Ela, Şule; Özçelik, Serdar; Eren, Ersin

    2011-01-01

    Microwave-assisted synthesis, photophysical and electrochemical properties of thermal-stable naphthalene benzimidazoles and naphthalimides are studied in this paper. Microwave-assisted synthesis of naphthalene benzimidazoles provide higher yields than the conventional thermal synthesis. Comparative photophysical properties of naphthalene benzimidazoles and naphthalimides are revealed that conjugation of electron-donating group onto naphthalimide moiety increases fluorescence ...

  1. Single photon infrared emission spectroscopy: a study of IR emission from UV laser excited PAHs between 3 and 15 micrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D. J.; Schlemmer, S.; Balucani, N.; Wagner, D. R.; Harrison, J. A.; Steiner, B.; Saykally, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    Single-photon infrared emission spectroscopy (SPIRES) has been used to measure emission spectra from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A supersonic free-jet expansion has been used to provide emission spectra of rotationally cold and vibrationally excited naphthalene and benzene. Under these conditions, the observed width of the 3.3-micrometers (C-H stretch) band resembles the bandwidths observed in experiments in which emission is observed from naphthalene with higher rotational energy. To obtain complete coverage of IR wavelengths relevant to the unidentified infrared bands (UIRs), UV laser-induced desorption was used to generate gas-phase highly excited PAHs. Lorentzian band shapes were convoluted with the monochromator-slit function in order to determine the widths of PAH emission bands under astrophysically relevant conditions. Bandwidths were also extracted from bands consisting of multiple normal modes blended together. These parameters are grouped according to the functional groups mostly involved in the vibration, and mean bandwidths are obtained. These bandwidths are larger than the widths of the corresponding UIR bands. However, when the comparison is limited to the largest PAHs studied, the bandwidths are slightly smaller than the corresponding UIR bands. These parameters can be used to model emission spectra from PAH cations and cations of larger PAHs, which are better candidate carriers of the UIRs.

  2. Energy harvesting from vibration of Timoshenko nanobeam under base excitation considering flexoelectric and elastic strain gradient effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managheb, S. A. M.; Ziaei-Rad, S.; Tikani, R.

    2018-05-01

    The coupling between polarization and strain gradients is called flexoelectricity. This phenomenon exists in all dielectrics with any symmetry. In this paper, energy harvesting from a Timoshenko beam is studied by considering the flexoelectric and strain gradient effects. General governing equations and related boundary conditions are derived using Hamilton's principle. The flexoelectric effects are defined by gradients of normal and shear strains which lead to a more general model. The developed model also covers the classical Timoshenko beam theory by ignoring the flexoelectric effect. Based on the developed model, flexoelectricity effect on dielectric beams and energy harvesting from cantilever beam under harmonic base excitation is investigated. A parametric study was conducted to evaluate the effects of flexoelectric coefficients, strain gradient constants, base acceleration and the attaching tip mass on the energy harvested from a cantilever Timoshenko beam. Results show that the flexoelectricity has a significant effect on the energy harvester performance, especially in submicron and nano scales. In addition, this effect makes the beam to behave softer than before and also it changes the harvester first resonance frequency. The present study provides guidance for flexoelectric nano-beam analysis and a method to evaluate the performance of energy harvester in nano-dielectric devices.

  3. Recommended Vapor Pressure of Solid Naphthalen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, K.; Fulem, Michal; Růžička, V.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, - (2005), s. 1956-1970 ISSN 0021-9568 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : solid naphthalene * vapor pressure * enthalpy of vaporization * enthalpy of fusion Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.610, year: 2005

  4. 2-[3-(Naphthalen-2-ylphenyl]naphthaleneCAS 103068–17–3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L. Wolfenden

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C26H18, consists of a benzene ring with meta-substituted 2-naphthalene substituents, which are essentially planar [r.m.s. deviations = 0.022 (1 and 0.003 (1 Å]. The conformation is syn, with equivalent torsion angles about the benzene–naphthalene bonds of −36.04 (13 and +34.14 (13°. The molecule has quasi-Cs molecular symmetry.

  5. Synthesis and photophysical characterizations of thermal-stable naphthalene benzimidazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erten-Ela, Sule; Ozcelik, Serdar; Eren, Esin

    2011-07-01

    Microwave-assisted synthesis, photophysical and electrochemical properties of thermal-stable naphthalene benzimidazoles and naphthalimides are studied in this paper. Microwave-assisted synthesis of naphthalene benzimidazoles provide higher yields than the conventional thermal synthesis. Comparative photophysical properties of naphthalene benzimidazoles and naphthalimides are revealed that conjugation of electron-donating group onto naphthalimide moiety increases fluorescence quantum yields. Fluorophore-solvent interactions are also investigated using Lippert-Mataga equation for naphthalimides and naphthalene benzimidazoles. Thermal stabilities of naphthalene benzimidazoles are better than naphthalimides due to increased aromaticity. The experimental E(LUMO) levels of naphthalene benzimidazoles are found to be between 3.15 and 3.28 eV. Therefore, naphthalene benzimidazole derivatives consisting of anchoring groups are promising materials in organic dye sensitized solar cells. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  6. Recovery of naphthalene, anthracene, etc. , from tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1920-12-25

    A process is described for the recovery of naphthalene, anthracene, and the like from tar oils and similar liquors, characterized in that the oil is treated in a rapidly rotating hammer mill, such as a colloid mill, with water sufficient, in the presence or absence of suitable solvents, for the only portion preferably in the presence of emulsifiers; and is filtered through a filter with fine pores.

  7. Systematics of gamma decay through low-lying vibrational levels of even--even nuclei excited by (p,p') and (n,n') reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koopman, R.P.

    1977-01-01

    A series of experiments was performed in which gamma-ray spectra were measured, using a Ge(Li) detector, for incident 7 to 26-MeV protons on the even-even vibrational nuclei 56 Fe, 62 Ni, 64 Zn, 108 Pd, 110 Cd, 114 Cd, 116 Cd, 116 Sn, 120 Sn, and 206 Pb, and for incident 14-MeV neutrons on natural Fe, Ni, Zn, Cd, Sn, and Pb. These measurements yielded gamma-ray cross sections from which it was inferred that almost all of the gamma cascades from (p,p') and (n,n') reactions passed down through the first 2 + levels. Consequently, the strength of the 2 + → 0 + gamma transitions were found to be an indirect measure of the (p,p') or (n,n') cross sections. Several types of nuclear model calculations were performed and compared with experimental results. These calculations included coupled-channel calculations to reproduce the direct, collective excitation of the low-lying levels, and statistical plus pre-equilibrium model calculations to reproduce the (p,p') and the (n,n') cross sections for comparison with the 2 + → 0 + gamma measurements. The agreement between calculation and experiment was generally good except at high energies, where pre-equilibrium processes dominate (i.e. around 26-MeV). Here discrepancies between calculations from the two different pre-equilibrium models and between the data and the calculations were found. Significant isospin mixing of T/sub greater than/ into T/sub less than/ states was necessary in order to have the calculations match the data for the (p,p') reactions, up to about 18-MeV

  8. Collisional energy transfer between highly excited vibrational levels of K2 (11Σu+, V=46∼61) and H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Liping; Cai Qin; Luan Nannan; Dai Kang; Shen Yifan

    2011-01-01

    Using the CARS (Coherent Anti-stokes Raman Spectroscopy) detection technique, the electronic-to-rovibrational levels energy transfer between electronically excited K 2 (which is in the state of 1 1 ∑ u + , V=46∼61) and H 2 has been investigated. The scanned CARS spectra reveals that H 2 molecules are produced only at the V=1, J=2 and V=2, J=0, 1, 2 rovibrational levels during energy transfer processes. From scanned CARS spectral peaks the population ratios are obtained. The n 1 /n 4 9 n 2 /n 4 , and n 3 /n 4 are 3.3±0.5, 2.2±0.3 and 2.0±0.3, respectively, where n 1 , n 2 , n 3 and n 4 represent the number densities of H 2 at rovibrational levels (2, 0), (2, 1), (2, 2) and (1, 2), respectively. The population ratios indicate that the H 2 molecules produced by the energy transfer process are 88% populated at the V=2 level and 12% at V=1. The relative fractions (, , ) of average energy disposal are derived as (0.53, 0.01, 0.46), having major vibrational and translational energy release. Through simple kinetic model at the experimental conditions of T=573 K and P(H 2 ) =5 X 10 3 Pa, collisional transfer rate coefficients k 12 =(3.3±0.7) X 10 -14 and k 2 =(1.4±0.3) X 10 -14 cm 3 s -1 have been obtained. (authors)

  9. Giant resonances on excited states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besold, W.; Reinhard, P.G.; Toepffer, C.

    1984-01-01

    We derive modified RPA equations for small vibrations about excited states. The temperature dependence of collective excitations is examined. The formalism is applied to the ground state and the first excited state of 90 Zr in order to confirm a hypothesis which states that not only the ground state but every excited state of a nucleus has a giant resonance built upon it. (orig.)

  10. Naphthalene distributions and human exposure in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Rong; Wu, Jun; Turco, Richard P.; Winer, Arthur M.; Atkinson, Roger; Arey, Janet; Paulson, Suzanne E.; Lurmann, Fred W.; Miguel, Antonio H.; Eiguren-Fernandez, Arantzazu

    The regional distribution of, and human exposure to, naphthalene are investigated for Southern California. A comprehensive approach is taken in which advanced models are linked for the first time to quantify population exposure to the emissions of naphthalene throughout Southern California. Naphthalene is the simplest and most abundant of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in polluted urban environments, and has been detected in both outdoor and indoor air samples. Exposure to high concentrations of naphthalene may have adverse health effects, possibly causing cancer in humans. Among the significant emission sources are volatilization from naphthalene-containing products, petroleum refining, and combustion of fossil fuels and wood. Gasoline and diesel engine exhaust, with related vaporization from fuels, are found to contribute roughly half of the daily total naphthalene burden in Southern California. As part of this study, the emission inventory for naphthalene has been verified against new field measurements of the naphthalene-to-benzene ratio in a busy traffic tunnel in Los Angeles, supporting the modeling work carried out here. The Surface Meteorology and Ozone Generation (SMOG) airshed model is used to compute the spatial and temporal distributions of naphthalene and its photooxidation products in Southern California. The present simulations reveal a high degree of spatial variability in the concentrations of naphthalene-related species, with large diurnal and seasonal variations as well. Peak naphthalene concentrations are estimated to occur in the early morning hours in the winter season. The naphthalene concentration estimates obtained from the SMOG model are employed in the Regional Human Exposure (REHEX) model to calculate population exposure statistics. Results show average hourly naphthalene exposures in Southern California under summer and winter conditions of 270 and 430 ng m -3, respectively. Exposure to significantly higher concentrations

  11. HBr Formation from the Reaction between Gas-phase Bromine Atom and Vibrationally Excited Chemisorbed Hydrogen Atoms on a Si(001)-(2 x 1) Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ree, J.; Yoon, S. H.; Park, K. G.; Kim, Y. H.

    2004-01-01

    We have calculated the probability of HBr formation and energy disposal of the reaction exothermicity in HBr produced from the reaction of gas-phase bromine with highly covered chemisorbed hydrogen atoms on a Si (001)-(2 x 1) surface. The reaction probability is about 0.20 at gas temperature 1500 K and surface temperature 300 K. Raising the initial vibrational state of the adsorbate(H)-surface(Si) bond from the ground to v = 1, 2 and 3 states causes the vibrational, translational and rotational energies of the product HBr to increase equally. However, the vibrational and translational motions of product HBr share most of the reaction energy. Vibrational population of the HBr molecules produced from the ground state adsorbate-surface bond (vHSi = 0) follows the Boltzmann distribution, but it deviates seriously from the Boltzmann distribution when the initial vibrational energy of the adsorbate-surface bond increases. When the vibration of the adsorbate-surface bond is in the ground state, the amount of energy dissipated into the surface is negative, while it becomes positive as vHSi increases. The energy distributions among the various modes weakly depends on surface temperature in the range of 0-600 K, regardless of the initial vibrational state of H(ad)-Si(s) bond

  12. Vibration of hydraulic machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yulin; Liu, Shuhong; Dou, Hua-Shu; Qian, Zhongdong

    2013-01-01

    Vibration of Hydraulic Machinery deals with the vibration problem which has significant influence on the safety and reliable operation of hydraulic machinery. It provides new achievements and the latest developments in these areas, even in the basic areas of this subject. The present book covers the fundamentals of mechanical vibration and rotordynamics as well as their main numerical models and analysis methods for the vibration prediction. The mechanical and hydraulic excitations to the vibration are analyzed, and the pressure fluctuations induced by the unsteady turbulent flow is predicted in order to obtain the unsteady loads. This book also discusses the loads, constraint conditions and the elastic and damping characters of the mechanical system, the structure dynamic analysis, the rotor dynamic analysis and the system instability of hydraulic machines, including the illustration of monitoring system for the instability and the vibration in hydraulic units. All the problems are necessary for vibration pr...

  13. Photoinduced Charge Transport Spectra for Porphyrin and Naphthalene Derivative-based Dendrimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. H.; Wu, Y.; Parquette, J. R.; Epstein, A. J.

    2006-03-01

    Dendrimers are important chemical structures for harvesting charge. We prepared model dendrimers using two porphyrin derivatives and a naphthalene derivative. Films of these porphyrin derivatives have a strong Soret band (˜430nm) and four significant Q-bands; the naphthalene derivative has strong absorption at 365 and 383nm. Two kinds of photovoltaic cell structures [ITO/BaytronP/(thick or thin) dendrimer/Al] are constructed to investigate the optical response spectra of dendrimers under electric potential(V) on the cell (range from -1V to 2V). To obtain pure optical responses, incident light is modulated with an optical chopper and a lock-in amplifier is used to measure current (IAC) and phase (θ). For the excitation of the Soret band, IAC and θ do not change substantially with change of sign and amplitude of V. For Q-bands and naphthalene absorption bands, θ nearly follows the polarity of V on the cells and IAC is linear with V. Hence, IAC is nearly ohmic for Q- band although there are shifts due to built-in-potential. IAC for Soret band is almost same for thick and thin active layer cells. In contrast, IAC increases with thickness increase for Q bands. Mechanisms of photogeneration and charge transport will be discussed.

  14. Molecular analysis of manufactured gas plant soils for naphthalene mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanseverino, J.; Werner, C.; Fleming, J.; Applegate, B.M.; King, J.M.H.; Sayler, G.S.; Blackburn, J.

    1991-01-01

    New molecular tools are being developed and tested to ascertain the biodegradability of hazardous wastes by soil bacterial population. The potential for manufactured gas plant (MGP) soil bacterial populations to degrade naphthalene, as a component mixture of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, was evaluated by the detection of a naphthalene biodegradative genotype by DNA probe hybridization with DNA extracts and colonies of cultured bacteria of the MGP soils. The activity of the naphthalene-degrading populations was evaluated by mineralization assays, 14 CO 2 production from 14 C-naphthalene. Direct messenger RNA (mRNA) extraction from MGP soil was evaluated as an instantaneous measure of naphthalene catabolic gene expression in MGP soil. The bioavailability of naphthalene for bacterial degradation within the MGP soils was assessed by measuring the bioluminescent response of a naphthalene-lux catabolic reporter strain Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44 (pUTK21). DNA extracted from 5 MGP soils and 1 creosote-contaminated soil and hybridized with a nahA gene probe indicated that the naphthalene degradative genes were present in all samples in the range of 0.06 to 0.95 ng/100 μl DNA extract which was calculated to represent 3.58 x 10 8 to 1.05 x 10 10 nahA positive cells/g soil. Phenanthrene, anthracene, and benzo(a)pyrene were mineralized also by some of the soils. NAH7 homologous messenger RNA transcripts were detectable in one MGP soil and in the creosote-contaminated soil

  15. Kinetic Evaluation of Naphthalene Removal using Acid - Modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kinetic evaluation of naphthalene onto acid – modified and unmodified bentonite clay mineral was investigated by means of the effects of concentration, contact time and pH. The amount of naphthalene adsorbed was determined spectrophotometrically. The optimum pH value and equilibrium contact time for the adsorption ...

  16. Utilizing dendritic scaffold for feasible formation of naphthalene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the effect of dendritic scaffolds on the feasibility of naphthalene excimer formation has not been reported in the literature. Here, we report synthesis and photophysical study of naphthalene functionalized zero and first genera- tion PAMAM dendrimers in order to understand the mechanism of excimer formation in the system.

  17. Dietary curcumin prevents ocular toxicity of naphthalene in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, U; Saini, M K; Jin, G F; Awasthi, S; Godley, B F; Awasthi, Y C

    2000-06-05

    Administration of naphthalene is known to cause cataract formation in rats and rabbits and naphthalene-initiated cataract is frequently used as a model for studies on senile cataract in humans. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the mechanism of naphthalene-induced cataract. Curcumin, a constituent of turmeric, a spice used in Indian curry dishes, is an effective antioxidant and is known to induce the enzymes of glutathione-linked detoxification pathways in rats. During the present studies, we have examined whether low levels of dietary curcumin could prevent naphthalene-induced opacification of rat lens. The presence of apoptotic cells in lens epithelial cells was also examined by catalytically incorporating labeled nucleotide to DNA with either Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase or by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT), which forms polymeric tail using the principle of TUNEL assay. The results of these studies demonstrated that the rats treated with naphthalene and kept on a diet supplemented with only 0.005% (w/w) curcumin had significantly less opacification of lenses as compared to that observed in rats treated only with naphthalene. Our studies also demonstrate, for the first time, that naphthalene-initiated cataract in lens is accompanied and perhaps preceded by apoptosis of lens epithelial cells and that curcumin attenuates this apoptotic effect of naphthalene.

  18. Synthesis of new derivatives of naphthalene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera Marrero, Suchitil; Sablon Carrazana, Marquiza; Lopez Barroso, Rosa Maria

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and there is no cure for this disease. It is known that it is triggered by the apparition of the senile plaques produced for the agglomeration of β-amyloid peptides. AD's reliable diagnosis is done post-mortem. Recently, non-invasive methods are evaluated for in vivo diagnosis of this disease by means of imaging techniques PET (Positron Emission Tomography), SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) and MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging). In the case of the SPECT technique, new organic compounds labeled with radionuclides 1 23I , 1 25I , and 99 mT c have been described. Epidemiological studies have revealed that the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs decreases the relative risk of AD. In the last years, the search of compounds with similar structures it has increased in order to be used as labels or drugs. The objective of this paper was to synthesize new naphthalene derivatives, for its further use as quelating agents of 99 mT c, for the detection of β-amyloid plaque in the AD. Thus, spacer arms with different lengths were introduced at β-position (or 1-) of naphthalene molecule through various different reactions. The compounds were structurally characterized by IR, 1 H -NMR and 13 C - NMR spectroscopies and mass spectrometry

  19. Naphthalene degradation and biosurfactant activity by Bacillus cereus 28BN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuleva, B.; Christova, N. [Inst. of Microbiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Jordanov, B.; Nikolova-Damyanova, B. [Inst. of Organic Chemistry, Sofia (Bulgaria); Petrov, P. [National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2005-08-01

    Biosurfactant activity and naphthalene degradation by a new strain identified as Bacillus cereus 28BN were studied. The strain grew well and produced effective biosurfactants in the presence of n-alkanes, naphthalene, crude oil and vegetable oils. The biosurfactants were detected by the surface tension lowering of the medium, thin layer chromatography and infrared spectra analysis. With (2%) naphthalene as the sole carbon source, high levels of rhamnolipids at a concentration of 2.3 g l{sup -1} were determined in the stationary growth. After 20 d of incubation 72 {+-} 4% of the initial naphthalene was degraded. This is the first report for a Bacillus cereus rhamnolipid producing strain that utilized naphthalene under aerobic conditions. The strain looks promising for application in environmental technologies. (orig.)

  20. New naphthalene whole-cell bioreporter for measuring and assessing naphthalene in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yujiao; Zhao, Xiaohui; Zhang, Dayi; Ding, Aizhong; Chen, Cheng; Huang, Wei E; Zhang, Huichun

    2017-11-01

    A new naphthalene bioreporter was designed and constructed in this work. A new vector, pWH1274_Nah, was constructed by the Gibson isothermal assembly fused with a 9 kb naphthalene-degrading gene nahAD (nahAa nahAb nahAc nahAd nahB nahF nahC nahQ nahE nahD) and cloned into Acinetobacter ADPWH_lux as the host, capable of responding to salicylate (the central metabolite of naphthalene). The ADPWH_Nah bioreporter could effectively metabolize naphthalene and evaluate the naphthalene in natural water and soil samples. This whole-cell bioreporter did not respond to other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; pyrene, anthracene, and phenanthrene) and demonstrated a positive response in the presence of 0.01 μM naphthalene, showing high specificity and sensitivity. The bioluminescent response was quantitatively measured after a 4 h exposure to naphthalene, and the model simulation further proved the naphthalene metabolism dynamics and the salicylate-activation mechanisms. The ADPWH_Nah bioreporter also achieved a rapid evaluation of the naphthalene in the PAH-contaminated site after chemical spill accidents, showing high consistency with chemical analysis. The engineered Acinetobacter variant had significant advantages in rapid naphthalene detection in the laboratory and potential in situ detection. The state-of-the-art concept of cloning PAHs-degrading pathway in salicylate bioreporter hosts led to the construction and assembly of high-throughput PAH bioreporter array, capable of crude oil contamination assessment and risk management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Field vibration test of a long-span cable-stayed bridge by large exciters. Daishinpuku kashin ni yoru chodai shachokyo no jikkyo shindo jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okauchi, I. (Chuo University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering); Miyata, T. (Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Sasaki, N. (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Tatsumi, M.

    1992-10-15

    Long-span cable-stayed bridge requires indispensably discussions on safety against gale and earthquake, and correct assessment on its inherent vibration characteristics at the design stage is critical. However, theoretical assessment on structural decay is difficult, hence it is desirable to make measurement and verification upon its completion. This paper reports the result of measurements and considerations on a three-span continuous steel cable-stayed bridge with a length of 790 m (185 m + 420 m + 185 m) spanning between Hitsuishi Island and Iwakuro Island in the Kojima-Sakaide route of the Honshu-Shikoku connecting bridge. Large shaking machines were used to give girders vibrations with large amplitudes (10 cm at maximum), and high-accuracy measurements were made. The measurements verified the reasonability of the dynamic design for the bridge. The measured value of the logarithmic decay rate [delta] as the major experimental data presented that bending vibration is large as a whole, with torsional vibration somewhat smaller, and all the design values were on safety side. Confirmation was made on amplitude dependence of the decay rate, the inherent modes of low-order vibrations, and coupled behaviors among the girders, cables, and towers. 16 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Cyclopenta[b]naphthalene cyanoacrylate dyes: synthesis and evaluation as fluorescent molecular rotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, Laura S; Elbel, Kristyna M; Hardigree, Billie A; Brummond, Kay M; Haidekker, Mark A; Theodorakis, Emmanuel A

    2015-03-14

    We describe the design, synthesis and fluorescent profile of a family of environment-sensitive dyes in which a dimethylamino (donor) group is conjugated to a cyanoacrylate (acceptor) unit via a cyclopenta[b]naphthalene ring system. This assembly satisfies the typical D-π-A motif of a fluorescent molecular rotor and exhibits solvatochromic and viscosity-sensitive fluorescence emission. The central naphthalene ring system of these dyes was synthesized via a novel intramolecular dehydrogenative dehydro-Diels-Alder (IDDDA) reaction that permits incorporation of the donor and acceptor groups in variable positions around the aromatic core. A bathochromic shift of excitation and emission peaks was observed with increasing solvent polarity but the dyes exhibited a complex emission pattern with a second red emission band when dissolved in nonpolar solvents. Consistent with other known molecular rotors, the emission intensity increased with increasing viscosity. Interestingly, closer spatial proximity between the donor and the acceptor groups led to decreased viscosity sensitivity combined with an increased quantum yield. This observation indicates that structural hindrance of intramolecular rotation dominates when the donor and acceptor groups are in close proximity. The examined compounds give insight into how excited state intramolecular rotation can be influenced by both the solvent and the chemical structure.

  3. studies on the adsorption of naphthalene and pyrene from aqueous

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    The effectiveness of dried ground orange peels in adsorbing naphthalene and ... which are affordable and readily available have given ... banana pith, coconut husk and saw dust, biogas .... alcohol strength was purchased from Alconi Nigeria.

  4. Enhanced biodegradation of naphthalene in MGP aquifer microcosms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durant, N.D.; Jonkers, C.A.A.; Wilson, L.P.; Bouwer, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    Subsurface sediments collected from a former manufactured-gas-plant (MGP) site contain bacteria capable of mineralizing significant amounts of 14 C-naphthalene in aerobic (8.5 mg/L O 2 ) sediment-water microcosms incubated at 10 C. The extent to which electron-acceptor (O 2 and NO 3 - ) and nutrient (NO 3 - and PO 4 3- ) amendments enhanced naphthalene mineralization in these sediments varied considerably. Oxygen-amended conditions (21 mg/L O 2 ) resulted in the greatest rate and extent of biodegradation for most sediments. Data suggested, however, that some MGP-site sediments prefer mixed NO 3 - /O 2 electron-acceptor conditions for naphthalene biodegradation. Significant denitrification was observed in the nitrate-amended sediments exhibiting naphthalene mineralization. In most cases, PO 4 3- complexed with the sediments either had no effect or inhibited naphthalene mineralization. Sediments unable to mineralize naphthalene over the 6-week incubation period were characterized by low pH ( 4 2- (>500 mg/L) conditions

  5. Biodegradation of naphthalene and phenanthren by Bacillus subtilis 3KP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni'matuzahroh, Trikurniadewi, N.; Pramadita, A. R. A.; Pratiwi, I. A.; Salamun, Fatimah, Sumarsih, Sri

    2017-06-01

    The purposes of this research were to know growth response, degradation ability, and uptake mechanism of naphthalene and phenanthrene by Bacillus subtilis 3KP. Bacillus subtilis 3KP was grown on Mineral Synthetic (MS) medium with addition of 1% yeast extract and naphthalene and phenanthrene respectively 200 ppm in different cultures. Bacillus subtilis 3KP growth response was monitored by Total Plate Count (TPC) method, the degradation ability was monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, and the uptake mechanism of hydrocarbon was monitored by emulsification activity, decrease of surface tension, and activity of Bacterial Adherence to Hydrocarbon (BATH). Bacillus subtilis 3KP was able to grow and show biphasic growth pattern on both of substrates. Naphthalene and phenanthrene were used as a carbon source for Bacillus subtilis 3KP growth that indicated by the reduction of substrate concomitant with the growth. At room temperature conditions (± 30°C) and 90 rpm of agitation for 7 days, Bacillus subtilis 3KP could degrade naphthalene in the amount of 70.5% and phenanthrene in the amount of 24.8%. Based on the analysis of UV-Vis spectrophotometer, three metabolites, 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid, salicylic acid, and pyrocatechol were found in both cultures. The metabolite identification became basis of propose degradation pathway of naphthalene and phenanthrene by Bacillus subtilis 3KP. The results of hydrocarbon uptake mechanism test show that Bacillus subtilis 3KP used all of the mechanism to degrade naphthalene and phenanthrene.

  6. Theoretical Study of Vibrationally Averaged Dipole Moments for the Ground and Excited C=O Stretching States of trans-Formic Acid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paulson, L. O.; Kaminský, Jakub; Anderson, D. T.; Bouř, Petr; Kubelka, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 3 (2010), s. 817-827 ISSN 1549-9618 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/07/0732; GA AV ČR IAA400550702 Grant - others:CAREER(US) 0846140; AV ČR(CZ) M200550902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : dipole moments * theoretical modelling * vibrational averaging Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.138, year: 2010

  7. Fission fragment excited laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, David A.; Tollefsrud, Philip B.

    1976-01-01

    A laser system and method for exciting lasing action in a molecular gas lasing medium which includes cooling the lasing medium to a temperature below about 150 K and injecting fission fragments through the lasing medium so as to preferentially excite low lying vibrational levels of the medium and to cause population inversions therein. The cooled gas lasing medium should have a mass areal density of about 5 .times. 10.sup.-.sup.3 grams/square centimeter, relaxation times of greater than 50 microseconds, and a broad range of excitable vibrational levels which are excitable by molecular collisions.

  8. Multiwavelength excitation Raman scattering of Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S{sub x}Se{sub 1−x}){sub 4} (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) polycrystalline thin films: Vibrational properties of sulfoselenide solid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrievska, Mirjana; Xie, Haibing; Fairbrother, Andrew; Fontané, Xavier; Saucedo, Edgardo; Izquierdo-Roca, Victor, E-mail: vizquierdo@irec.cat [Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC), Jardins de les Dones de Negre 1 2pl., 08930 Sant Adrià del Besòs, Barcelona (Spain); Gurieva, Galina [Helmholtz Centre Berlin for Materials and Energy, Department Crystallography, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Pérez-Rodríguez, Alejandro [Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC), Jardins de les Dones de Negre 1 2pl., 08930 Sant Adrià del Besòs, Barcelona (Spain); IN" 2UB, Departament d' Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, C. Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Schorr, Susan [Helmholtz Centre Berlin for Materials and Energy, Department Crystallography, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Institute of Geological Sciences, Freie Universität Berlin, Malteserstr. 74-100, 12249 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-07-21

    In this work, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were applied together to evaluate the crystal structure and the phonon modes of photovoltaic grade Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S{sub x}Se{sub 1−x}){sub 4} thin films, leading to a complete characterization of their structural and vibrational properties. Vibrational characterization has been based on Raman scattering measurements performed with different excitation wavelengths and polarization configurations. Analysis of the experimental spectra has permitted identification of 19 peaks, which positions are in good accord with theoretical predictions. Besides, the observation of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4}-like A symmetry peaks related to S vibrations and Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4}-like A symmetry peaks related to Se vibrations, additional Raman peaks, characteristic of the solid solution and previously not reported, are observed, and are attributed to vibrations involving both S and Se anions.

  9. Excited-state intramolecular hydrogen transfer (ESIHT) of 1,8-Dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (DHAQ) characterized by ultrafast electronic and vibrational spectroscopy and computational modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Mohammed, Omar F.; Xiao, Dequan; Batista, Victor S.; Nibbering, Erik Theodorus Johannes

    2014-01-01

    of femtosecond UV/vis and UV/IR pump-probe spectroscopic data. Upon photoabsorption at 400 nm, the S 2 electronic excited state is initially populated, followed by a rapid equilibration within 150 fs through population transfer to the S 1 state where DHAQ

  10. Chaos and dynamics on 0.5--300 ps time scales in vibrationally excited acetylene: Fourier transform of stimulated-emission pumping spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pique, J.P.; Chen, Y.; Field, R.W.; Kinsey, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    A recently proposed technique based on the Fourier transform of the spectrum is applied to the stimulated-emission pumping spectrum of acetylene at --26 500 cm/sup -1/ above the vibrational ground state. Correlations on two different time scales (--3 and --45 ps) were found from analysis of low-resolution (0.3 cm/sup -1/) and high-resolution (0.05 cm/sup -1/) spectra, respectively. Additional structure produced dynamic information on a wider (0.5--300 ps) time scale. The results show that acetylene at 26 500 cm/sup -1/ is in the transition from the regular to the chaotic regime

  11. Dynamic quantum crystallography: lattice-dynamical models refined against diffraction data. II. Applications to L-alanine, naphthalene and xylitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoser, Anna A; Madsen, Anders Ø

    2017-03-01

    In the first paper of this series [Hoser & Madsen (2016). Acta Cryst. A72, 206-214], a new approach was introduced which enables the refinement of frequencies of normal modes obtained from ab initio periodic computations against single-crystal diffraction data. In this contribution, the performance of this approach is tested by refinement against data in the temperature range from 23 to 205 K on the molecular crystals of L-alanine, naphthalene and xylitol. The models, which are lattice-dynamical models derived at the Γ point of the Brillouin zone, are able to describe the atomic vibrations of L-alanine and naphthalene to a level where the residual densities are similar to those obtained from the independent atom model. For the more flexible molecule xylitol, larger deviations are found. Hydrogen ADPs (anisotropic displacement parameters) derived from the models are in similar or better agreement with neutron diffraction results than ADPs obtained by other procedures. The heat capacity calculated after normal mode refinement for naphthalene is in reasonable agreement with the heat capacity obtained from calorimetric measurements (to less than 1 cal mol -1  K -1 below 300 K), with deviations at higher temperatures indicating anharmonicity. Standard uncertainties and correlation of the refined parameters have been derived based on a Monte Carlo procedure. The uncertainties are quite small and probably underestimated.

  12. Sub-Doppler spectroscopy of thioformaldehyde: Excited state perturbations and evidence for rotation-induced vibrational mixing in the ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clouthier, D.J.; Huang, G.; Adam, A.G.; Merer, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    High-resolution intracavity dye laser spectroscopy has been used to obtain sub-Doppler spectra of transitions to 350 rotational levels in the 4 1 0 band of the A 1 A 2 --X 1 A 1 electronic transition of thioformaldehyde. Ground state combination differences from the sub-Doppler spectra, combined with microwave and infrared data, have been used to improve the ground state rotational and centrifugal distortion constants of H 2 CS. The upper state shows a remarkable number of perturbations. The largest of these are caused by nearby triplet levels, with matrix elements of 0.05--0.15 cm -1 . A particularly clear singlet--triplet avoided crossing in K a ' = 7 has been shown to be caused by interaction with the F 1 component of the 3 1 6 2 vibrational level of the a 3 A 2 state. At least 53% of the S 1 levels show evidence of very small perturbations by high rovibronic levels of the ground state. The number of such perturbations is small at low J, but increases rapidly beyond J=5 such that 40%--80% of the observed S 1 levels of any given J are perturbed by ground state levels. Model calculations show that the density and J dependence of the number of perturbed levels can be explained if there is extensive rotation-induced mixing of the vibrational levels in the ground state

  13. Excited states rotational effects on the behavior of excited molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Edward C

    2013-01-01

    Excited States, Volume 7 is a collection of papers that discusses the excited states of molecules. The first paper reviews the rotational involvement in intra-molecular in vibrational redistribution. This paper analyzes the vibrational Hamiltonian as to its efficacy in detecting the manifestations of intra-molecular state-mixing in time-resolved and time-averaged spectroscopic measurements. The next paper examines the temporal behavior of intra-molecular vibration-rotation energy transfer (IVRET) and the effects of IVRET on collision, reaction, and the decomposition processes. This paper also

  14. A comment on "Ab initio study: the potential energy curves and ro-vibrational spectrum of low-lying excited states of HCl+ cation"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya-Jun; Cheng, Xin-Lu; Chen, Hua-Jun; Cheng, Jun-Xia; Song, Xiao-Shu

    2018-02-01

    Since the 2Π state in HCl+ is an inverted doublet, the energy of the 2Π1/2 state is higher than the 2Π3/2. Therefore, the larger value of intensity correspond to the transition of 2Π3/2. We calculated the Einstein A coefficients and radiation lifetimes for the A2Σ+-X2Π transition. Our results are in good agreement with the experimental data and theoretical values. Then the ro-vibrational line intensities of the 1-0 band were calculated for the 2Π3/2 and 2Π1/2 states of HCl+. Employing the RKR potential, the predicted band origins for Δν=1-0 are 2569.3 and 2568.55 cm-1 for 2Π3/2 and 2Π1/2, respectively.

  15. Application of R-matrix theory to resonant reactive electron-molecule scattering: Vibrational excitation and dissociative attachment of N2 and F2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.F.; Light, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Based on the R-matrix approach of Schneider et al. [J. Phys. B 12, L 365 (1979)] to reactive electron-molecule scattering, a new propagative R-matrix method (PRMM) is presented which is more appropriate for polyatomic systems. The new method should be useful in other calculations where complicated integrals need to be propagated. We also introduce an effective R-matrix model (ERMM) in which the usual resonance parameters (potential and width) can be used as input in model R-matrix calculations. The PRMM and ERMM have been applied to the electron-N 2 system and the electron-F 2 system. The results agree very well with previous calculations for both vibrationally inelastic scattering and dissociative attachment when identical potentials and parameters are used

  16. Multipole pair vibrations in superfluid 3He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Giansiracusa, G.; Lombardo, U.; Pucci, R.; Petronio, G.

    1978-01-01

    Starting from a path integral formation of the 3 He superfluidity, the authors study the pair vibrations around the BCS solution. For both the BW and ABM states get a set of possible excitations. In particular it is shown that a new type of excitation is present for pure 1 = 2 spin singlet vibration. (Auth.)

  17. Rotation-vibration interactions in the spectra of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Quinoline as a test-case species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirali, O.; Gruet, S.; Kisiel, Z.; Goubet, M.; Martin-Drumel, M. A.; Cuisset, A.; Hindle, F.; Mouret, G.

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are highly relevant for astrophysics as possible, though controversial, carriers of the unidentified infrared emission bands that are observed in a number of different astronomical objects. In support of radio-astronomical observations, high resolution laboratory spectroscopy has already provided the rotational spectra in the vibrational ground state of several molecules of this type, although the rotational study of their dense infrared (IR) bands has only recently become possible using a limited number of experimental set-ups. To date, all of the rotationally resolved data have concerned unperturbed spectra. We presently report the results of a high resolution study of the three lowest vibrational states of quinoline C 9 H 7 N, an N-bearing naphthalene derivative. While the pure rotational ground state spectrum of quinoline is unperturbed, severe complications appear in the spectra of the ν 45 and ν 44 vibrational modes (located at about 168 cm −1 and 178 cm −1 , respectively). In order to study these effects in detail, we employed three different and complementary experimental techniques: Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy, millimeter-wave spectroscopy, and Fourier-transform far-infrared spectroscopy with a synchrotron radiation source. Due to the high density of states in the IR spectra of molecules as large as PAHs, perturbations in the rotational spectra of excited states should be ubiquitous. Our study identifies for the first time this effect and provides some insights into an appropriate treatment of such perturbations

  18. Rotation-vibration interactions in the spectra of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Quinoline as a test-case species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirali, O.; Kisiel, Z.; Goubet, M.; Gruet, S.; Martin-Drumel, M. A.; Cuisset, A.; Hindle, F.; Mouret, G.

    2015-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are highly relevant for astrophysics as possible, though controversial, carriers of the unidentified infrared emission bands that are observed in a number of different astronomical objects. In support of radio-astronomical observations, high resolution laboratory spectroscopy has already provided the rotational spectra in the vibrational ground state of several molecules of this type, although the rotational study of their dense infrared (IR) bands has only recently become possible using a limited number of experimental set-ups. To date, all of the rotationally resolved data have concerned unperturbed spectra. We presently report the results of a high resolution study of the three lowest vibrational states of quinoline C9H7N, an N-bearing naphthalene derivative. While the pure rotational ground state spectrum of quinoline is unperturbed, severe complications appear in the spectra of the ν45 and ν44 vibrational modes (located at about 168 cm-1 and 178 cm-1, respectively). In order to study these effects in detail, we employed three different and complementary experimental techniques: Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy, millimeter-wave spectroscopy, and Fourier-transform far-infrared spectroscopy with a synchrotron radiation source. Due to the high density of states in the IR spectra of molecules as large as PAHs, perturbations in the rotational spectra of excited states should be ubiquitous. Our study identifies for the first time this effect and provides some insights into an appropriate treatment of such perturbations.

  19. Vapor pressures and enthalpies of vaporization of a series of 1- and 2-halogenated naphthalenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verevkin, Sergey P.

    2003-01-01

    Molar enthalpies of vaporization, Δ l g H m 0 , of 1-methyl-naphthalene, 1-chloro-napthalene, 2-chloro-naphthalene, 1-bromo-naphthalene, 2-bromo-naphthalene, and 1-iodo-naphthalene, as well as molar enthalpies of sublimation, Δ s g H m 0 , of 2-chloro-naphthalene and 2-bromo-naphthalene have been obtained from the temperature dependence of the vapor pressure determined with the transpiration method. These values and the correlation gas-chromatography method, based on the Kovat's index, have been used to determine Δ l g H m 0 and Δ s g H m 0 of 2-iodo-naphthalene. Results obtained in this work have been compared with those from the literature and found consistent

  20. Anaerobic degradation of naphthalene by the mixed bacteria under nitrate reducing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou Junfeng; Liu Xiang; Ding Aizhong

    2009-01-01

    Mixed bacteria were enriched from soil samples contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The anaerobic degradation characteristics by the enriched bacteria with different initial naphthalene concentrations were investigated under nitrate reducing conditions. The results showed that the mixed bacteria could degrade nearly all the naphthalene over the incubations of 25 days when the initial naphthalene concentration was below 30 mg/L. The degradation rates of naphthalene increased with increasing initial concentrations. A high naphthalene concentration of 30 mg/L did not inhibit neither on the bacterial growth nor on the naphthalene degradation ability. The accumulation of nitrite was occurred during the reduction of nitrate, and a nitrite concentration of 50 mg/L had no inhibition effect on the degradation of naphthalene. The calculation of electron balances revealed that most of the naphthalene was oxidized whereas a small proportion was used for cell synthesis.

  1. Charmonium non-potential excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borue, V.Y.; Khokhlachev, S.B.

    1990-01-01

    Within the framework of an effective theory of quantum gluodynamics formulated earlier in terms of the glueball degrees of freedom, the excitations of gluon bunch formed by heavy quark and antiquark are considered. It is shown that these excitations correspond to the vibration of the gluon bunch shape and lie nearly 800 MeV higher than the charmonium ground state. The consequences of the existence of these excitations are discussed

  2. Novel active vibration absorber with magnetorheological fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, T; Ehrlich, J; Boese, H [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Silicatforschung ISC, Neunerplatz 2, D-97082 Wuerzburg (Germany)], E-mail: thomas.gerlach@isc.fraunhofer.de

    2009-02-01

    Disturbing vibrations diminish the performance of technical high precision devices significantly. In search of a suitable solution for reducing these vibrations, a novel concept of active vibration reduction was developed which exploits the special properties of magnetorheological fluids. In order to evaluate the concept of such an active vibration absorber (AVA) a demonstrator was designed and manufactured. This demonstrator generates a force which counteracts the motion of the vibrating body. Since the counterforce is generated by a centrifugal exciter, the AVA provides the capability to compensate vibrations even in two dimensions. To control the strength of the force transmitted to the vibrating body, the exciter is based on a tunable MR coupling. The AVA was integrated in an appropriate testing device to investigate its performance. The recorded results show a significant reduction of the vibration amplitudes by an order of magnitude.

  3. Isomerization and self-condensation reactions subsequent the. beta. -decay of tritiated naphthalene in the presence of liquid and gaseous benzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelini, G.; Keheyan, Y.; Lilla, E.; Perez, G. (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Rome (Italy). Ist. di Chimica Nucleare)

    1990-01-01

    Tritiated napththylium ions, generated by spontaneous {beta}-decay of (1,4-{sup 3}H) naphthalene, have been allowed to react with benzene molecules in gaseous and liquid phase. The isomeric phenylnaphthalenes and fluoranthene have been found among the reaction products. The differences between the reactivity pattern of naphthylium ion in the two phases can be explained by the different efficiency of collisional stabilization of the excited reaction intermediates. (orig.).

  4. Full dimensional (15-dimensional) quantum-dynamical simulation of the protonated water-dimer III: Mixed Jacobi-valence parametrization and benchmark results for the zero point energy, vibrationally excited states, and infrared spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrell, Oriol; Brill, Michael; Gatti, Fabien; Lauvergnat, David; Meyer, Hans-Dieter

    2009-06-21

    Quantum dynamical calculations are reported for the zero point energy, several low-lying vibrational states, and the infrared spectrum of the H(5)O(2)(+) cation. The calculations are performed by the multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) method. A new vector parametrization based on a mixed Jacobi-valence description of the system is presented. With this parametrization the potential energy surface coupling is reduced with respect to a full Jacobi description, providing a better convergence of the n-mode representation of the potential. However, new coupling terms appear in the kinetic energy operator. These terms are derived and discussed. A mode-combination scheme based on six combined coordinates is used, and the representation of the 15-dimensional potential in terms of a six-combined mode cluster expansion including up to some 7-dimensional grids is discussed. A statistical analysis of the accuracy of the n-mode representation of the potential at all orders is performed. Benchmark, fully converged results are reported for the zero point energy, which lie within the statistical uncertainty of the reference diffusion Monte Carlo result for this system. Some low-lying vibrationally excited eigenstates are computed by block improved relaxation, illustrating the applicability of the approach to large systems. Benchmark calculations of the linear infrared spectrum are provided, and convergence with increasing size of the time-dependent basis and as a function of the order of the n-mode representation is studied. The calculations presented here make use of recent developments in the parallel version of the MCTDH code, which are briefly discussed. We also show that the infrared spectrum can be computed, to a very good approximation, within D(2d) symmetry, instead of the G(16) symmetry used before, in which the complete rotation of one water molecule with respect to the other is allowed, thus simplifying the dynamical problem.

  5. Anatomy of an Exciton : Vibrational Distortion and Exciton Coherence in H- and J-Aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tempelaar, Roel; Stradomska, Anna; Knoester, Jasper; Spano, Frank C.

    2013-01-01

    In organic materials, coupling of electronic excitations to vibrational degrees of freedom results in polaronic excited states. Through numerical calculations, we demonstrate that the vibrational distortion field accompanying such a polaron scales as the product of the excitonic interaction field

  6. Naphthalene and pyrene degradation in contaminated soil as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of soil particle size distribution and percent organic matter on the degradation rate of naphthalene and pyrene in a water medium of 7.05 ml/min at 27 ± 2oC in a soil reactor was studied. Analysis of the pattern of disappearance of these polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using various particle sizes showed ...

  7. Studies on the adsorption of naphthalene and pyrene from aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of dried ground orange peels in adsorbing naphthalene and pyrene from an aqueous stream has been investigated in terms of variation in concentration, adsorbent dosage, agitation time and particle size. Experimental batch data was correlated by Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models.

  8. Strong eld ionization of naphthalene: angular shifts and molecular potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrovski, Darko; Maurer, Jochen; Christensen, Lauge

    We analyze the photoelectron momentum distributions from strong eld ionization of xed-in-space naphthalene molecules by circularly polarized laser pulses. By direct comparison between experiment and theory, we show that the angular shifts in the photoelectron momentum distributions are very...... sensitive to the exact form of the molecular potential....

  9. Comparative study of electron conduction in azulene and naphthalene

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    tional or electronic devices. Recent advances in experi- mental techniques have allowed ... stimulates us to study the electronic conduction in azulene molecule and to compare that with its isomer, naphthalene. ..... ernment of India, for funding and (SD) acknowledges CSIR,. Government of India, for a research fellowship.

  10. Haemolytic toxicity due to domestic naphthalene ball exposure in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This report presents a 29year-old male, Commercial tricycle driver, Ibo by tribe, Christian and single and was admitted with fatigue , severe abdominal pain , vomiting , yellowish coloration of the eyes and passage of dark urine (cocacola colored) following the use of naphthalene ball for the purpose of repelling mosquitoes ...

  11. Naphthalene Poisoning in Children: a Report of Two

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    emergency ward with a history of ' Gzmphofingestion three days before presentation. He had developed fever ... hospitalization, and had had an uneventful neonatal period. There was no history ofineonatal jaundice. .... and methylthio derivatives which are excreted as glucuronide conjugates in the urine. Naphthalene.

  12. Modern methods for the sythesis of substituted naphthalenes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Koning, CB

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available of methanol afforded the naphthalene product 24 in 82% yield. Frontier molecular orbital calculations may be used to predict the formation of the preferred regioisomer, although experimentally, mixtures of regioisomers may still be formed.41,42 A recent...

  13. Does a concomitant exposure to lead influence unfavorably the naphthalene subchronic toxicity and toxicokinetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsnelson, Boris A; Minigaliyeva, Ilzira A; Degtyareva, Tamara D; Privalova, Larisa I; Beresneva, Tatyana A

    2014-01-01

    Rats were given 20 times during 40 d either naphthalene per gavage or the same and lead acetate intraperitoneally in single doses corresponding to 5% of the respective 50% lethal doses. The concomitant exposure to lead not only added some typical indicators of lead toxicity to the moderate naphthalene intoxication picture but also exaggerated some less specific indices for intoxication. However, a number of such indices testified to attenuation of naphthalene's adverse effects under the impact of lead. Lead also lowered urinary excretion of both total and conjugated naphthalene, while the free- to total naphthalene ratio in urine sharply increased. These results corroborate implicitly the initial hypothesis that lead, being an inhibitor of cytochrome P450, hinders phase I of the naphthalene biotransformation and, thus, the formation of derivates which can be more toxic but are capable of entering into reactions of conjugation with resulting detoxication and elimination of naphthalene from the body. © 2013 SETAC.

  14. Multi-functionalized naphthalene complexes for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalamse, Vijayanand; Wadnerkar, Nitin; Chaudhari, Ajay

    2013-01-01

    A density functional study of hydrogen uptake capacity of multi-functionalized naphthalene with Ti and Li metal atom has been carried out. It is observed that, the naphthalene functionalized with two Ti atoms can interact with total eight hydrogen molecules in which each Ti metal atom interacts with four hydrogen molecules. Naphthalene decorated with two Li atoms can interact with total three H 2 molecules only. First ( 19 Li) and second ( 20 Li) Li atom can interact with only one and two hydrogen molecule respectively. It is observed that, hydrogen molecules bind strongly to the C 10 H 8 Ti 2 complex than C 10 H 8 Li 2 complex. The gravimetric hydrogen uptake capacity of C 10 H 8 Ti 2 and C 10 H 8 Li 2 complex is found to be 6.72 and 3.73 wt% respectively. Moreover, after functionalizing naphthalene with four Li atoms, the uptake capacity is increased to 7.20 wt %. However, the thermochemistry result favors to Ti functionalized naphthalene complex (C 10 H 8 Ti 2 ) for hydrogen storage over Li functionalized naphthalene (both C 10 H 8 Li 2 and C 10 H 8 Li 4 ) complexes. Atom-centered density matrix propagation (ADMP) molecular dynamics simulations have been performed which showed that C 10 H 8 Li 2 and C 10 H 8 Li 4 complex cannot bind single hydrogen molecule at room temperature whereas C 10 H 8 Ti 2 can bind five hydrogen molecules. -- Highlights: ► The gravimetric H 2 uptake capacity of C 10 H 8 Ti 2 complex is 6.72 wt%. ► Uptake capacity of C 10 H 8 Li 2 and C 10 H 8 Li 4 complex is 3.73 and 7.20 wt% respectively. ► C 10 H 8 Ti is more promising material for hydrogen adsorption. ► C 10 H 8 Ti 2 can bind five hydrogen molecules as shown by ADMP-MD results.

  15. Decomposition of naphthalene by dc gliding arc gas discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liang; Li, Xiaodong; Tu, Xin; Wang, Yu; Lu, Shengyong; Yan, Jianhua

    2010-01-14

    Gliding arc discharge has been proved to be effective in treatment of gas and liquid contaminants. In this study, physical characteristics of dc gliding arc discharge and its application to naphthalene destruction are investigated with different external resistances and carrier gases. The decomposition rate increases with increasing of oxygen concentration and decreases with external resistance. This value can be achieved up to 92.3% at the external resistance of 50 kOmega in the oxygen discharge, while the highest destruction energy efficiency reaches 3.6 g (kW h)(-1) with the external resistance of 93 kOmega. Possible reaction pathways and degradation mechanisms in the plasma with different gases are proposed by qualitative analysis of postdestructed products. In the air and oxygen gliding arc discharges, the naphthalene degradation is mainly governed by reactions with oxygen-derived radicals.

  16. Study on the Novel Dicyanate Ester Resin Containing Naphthalene Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Qiang YAN; Hong Yun PENG; Li JI; Guo Rong QI

    2004-01-01

    The novel dicyanate ester resin containing naphthalene unit (DNCY) was synthesized, and characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and elemental analysis (EA).The thermal properties of DNCY resin was studied by thermal degradation analysis at a heating rate of 10 (C /min-1 in N2 and air. The DNCY resin exhibited better thermal and thermal-oxidative stability than bisphenol A dicyanate (BACY) resin.

  17. Crystal structure of bromidobis(naphthalen-1-ylantimony(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar bin Shawkataly

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [SbBr(C10H72], the SbIII atom has a distorted trigonal–pyramidal coordination geometry and the planes of the two naphthalene ring systems make a dihedral angle of 80.26 (18°. An intramolecular C—H...Br hydrogen bond forms an S(5 ring motif. In the crystal, weak C—H...Br interactions link the molecules into helical chains along the b-axis direction.

  18. Effects of benzylaminopurine and naphthalene acetic acid on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the pineapple regeneration and shoot growth as affected by 6- benzylaminopurine (BAP) at 2.0 mg/l and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) at 0.2 mg/l in vitro. BAP and NAA at the concentration of 2.0 and 0.2 mg/l were used in this study. BAP at 2.0 mg/l significantly affected the production ...

  19. Biodegradation of naphthalene from nonaqueous-phase liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoshal, S.; Luthy, R.G.; Ramaswami, A.

    1995-01-01

    Dissolution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a non-aqueous-phase liquid (NAPL) to the aqueous phase renders these compounds bioavailable to microorganisms. Subsequent biodegradation of organic phase PAH then results in a depletion of PAH from the NAPL. This study focuses on identifying the rate-controlling processes affecting naphthalene biomineralization from a complex multicomponent NAPL, coal tar, and a simple two-component NAPL. A simplified dissolution degradation model is presented to identify quantitative criteria to assess whether mass transfer or biokinetic limitations control the overall rate of biotransformation of PAH compounds. Results show that the rate of mass transfer may control the overall rate of biotransformation in certain systems. Mass transfer does not limit biodegradation in slurry systems when coal tar is distributed in the micropores of a large number of small microporous silica particles. The end points of naphthalene degradation from the NAPLs have been evaluated, and results suggest that depletion of a significant mass of naphthalene from the NAPL phase is possible

  20. Isolation of naphthalene-degrading bacteria from tropical marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang, W.-Q.; Tay, J.-H.; Maszenan, A.M.; Tay, S.T.-L.

    2003-01-01

    Oil pollution is a major environmental concern in many countries, and this has led to a concerted effort in studying the feasibility of using oil-degrading bacteria for bioremediation. Although many oil-degrading bacteria have been isolated from different environments, environmental conditions can impose a selection pressure on the types of bacteria that can reside in a particular environment. This study reports the successful isolation of two indigenous naphthalene-degrading bacteria from oil-contaminated tropical marine sediments by enrichment culture. Strains MN-005 and MN-006 were characterized using an extensive range of biochemical tests. The 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) sequence analysis was also performed for the two strains. Their naphthalene degradation capabilities were determined using gas chromatography and DAPI counting of bacterial cells. Strains MN-005 and MN-006 are phenotypically and phylogenetically different from each other, and belong to the genera Staphylococcus and Micrococcus, respectively. Strains MN-005 and MN-006 has maximal specific growth rates (μ max ) of 0.082±0.008 and 0.30±0.02 per hour, respectively, and half-saturation constants (K s ) of 0.79±0.10 and 2.52±0.32 mg per litre, respectively. These physiological and growth studies are useful in assessing the potential of these indigenous isolates for in situ or ex situ naphthalene pollutant bioremediation in tropical marine environments. (author)

  1. Vibration mixer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekhin, S.A.; Chernov, V.S.; Denisenko, V.V.; Gorodnyanskiy, I.F.; Prokopov, L.I.; Tikhonov, Yu.P.

    1983-01-01

    The vibration mixer is proposed which contains a housing, vibration drive with rod installed in the upper part of the mixing mechanism made in the form of a hollow shaft with blades. In order to improve intensity of mixing and dispersion of the mud, the shaft with the blades is arranged on the rod of the vibrator and is equipped with a cam coupling whose drive disc is attached to the vibration rod. The rod is made helical, while the drive disc of the cam coupling is attached to the helical surface of the rod. In addition, the vibration mixer is equipped with perforated discs installed on the ends of the rods.

  2. The mechanisms of Excited states in enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Frederic Nicolas Rønne; Bohr, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Enzyme catalysis is studied on the basis of excited state processes, which are of electronic, vibrational and thermal nature. The ways of achieving the excited state, such as photo-absorption and ligand binding, are discussed and exemplified by various cases of enzymes.......Enzyme catalysis is studied on the basis of excited state processes, which are of electronic, vibrational and thermal nature. The ways of achieving the excited state, such as photo-absorption and ligand binding, are discussed and exemplified by various cases of enzymes....

  3. Cryogenic exciter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, James William [Niskayuna, NY; Garces, Luis Jose [Niskayuna, NY

    2012-03-13

    The disclosed technology is a cryogenic static exciter. The cryogenic static exciter is connected to a synchronous electric machine that has a field winding. The synchronous electric machine is cooled via a refrigerator or cryogen like liquid nitrogen. The static exciter is in communication with the field winding and is operating at ambient temperature. The static exciter receives cooling from a refrigerator or cryogen source, which may also service the synchronous machine, to selected areas of the static exciter and the cooling selectively reduces the operating temperature of the selected areas of the static exciter.

  4. A Thermal Dehydrogenative Diels–Alder Reaction of Styrenes for the Concise Synthesis of Functionalized Naphthalenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, Laura S.; Benedetti, Erica

    2012-01-01

    Functionalized naphthalenes are valuable building blocks in many important areas. A microwave-assisted, intramolecular dehydrogenative Diels-Alder reaction of styrenyl derivatives to provide cyclopenta[b]naphthalene substructures not previously accessible using existing synthetic methods is described. The synthetic utility of these uniquely functionalized naphthalenes was demonstrated by a single-step conversion of one of these cycloadducts to a fluorophore bearing a structural resemblance to Prodan. PMID:22913473

  5. A thermal dehydrogenative Diels-Alder reaction of styrenes for the concise synthesis of functionalized naphthalenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, Laura S; Benedetti, Erica; Brummond, Kay M

    2012-09-07

    Functionalized naphthalenes are valuable building blocks in many important areas. A microwave-assisted, intramolecular dehydrogenative Diels-Alder reaction of styrenyl derivatives to provide cyclopenta[b]naphthalene substructures not previously accessible using existing synthetic methods is described. The synthetic utility of these uniquely functionalized naphthalenes was demonstrated by a single-step conversion of one of these cycloadducts to a fluorophore bearing a structural resemblance to Prodan.

  6. Intramolecular Vibrational Energy Transfer and Bond-Selected Photochemistry in Liquids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crim, F

    2001-01-01

    .... In the gas phase experiments, one pulse excited the first overtone of the O-H stretching vibration in nitric acid and the second pulse probed the excited molecule by excitation to a dissociative...

  7. Exciplex emission and photoinduced energy transfer as a function of cavity dimension in naphthalene-linked aza-crown ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Mailrayee Basu; Samanta, Subhodip; Chattopadhyay, Gautam; Ghosh, Sanjib

    2004-01-01

    We report here the photophysical properties of two derivatives of N-(β-methylnaphthalene) aza-crown systems having different cavity dimensions. The aza-crown moiety is attached to β-position of naphthalene moiety by one >CH 2 unit in both the derivatives. The cavity size is found to have a pronounced effect on exciplex formation as well as energy transfer in the systems at room temperature and low temperature, respectively. Both the systems exhibit photoinduced electron transfer (PET) which is evident from their weaker fluorescence emission and their quenched singlet lifetimes as compared to that of free naphthalene. The systems also show a solvent sensitive red shifted broad structureless emission which is assigned to exciplex formation. The ratio of quantum yields of exciplex to monomer emission (phi (cursive,open) Greek Exp /phi (cursive,open) Greek M ) is lower in the smaller aza-crown (L1) as compared to that in the larger aza-crown (L2) implying a different geometry of the two systems in the excited state. Semi-emperical calculations performed on the systems also corroborate the different geometry of the two systems. Complexation of alkali metals, rare earth ions and protons by the aza-crown moiety results in enhancement of fluorescence emission due to blocking of PET. In the presence of protons, L1 exhibits a new emission due to excimer formation which has not been observed in L2 under similar conditions. The rare earth ion complexes of L1 and L2 at low temperature exhibit energy transfer from the lowest triplet state of naphthalene to the rare earth ion states, the extent of energy transfer being greater in the larger aza-crown (L2) as compared to that in smaller aza-crown system (L1)

  8. Cleaning device for vibrational hose filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, R

    1978-01-05

    Filter hoses out of web in dust separators can be cleaned by enforced vibrations. The efficiency of the cleaning is a maximum if the vibrations are at about the individual frequency of the whole arrangement. In the interior of the hose a cage from bars parallel to the wall of the hose is placed on its total length. The bars are fixed at one end and connected with a vibration exciter at the other end. The unilaterally fixed vibration bars can be adjusted to the individual frequency of the vibration exciter. If the hose filter is flown through from the outer to the inner side the vibration bars serve as a supporting body. In the reverse case the bars are placed on the outer side of the hose filter.

  9. Electron-impact vibrational excitation of cyclopropane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čurík, Roman; Čársky, Petr; Allan, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 142, č. 14 (2015), s. 144312 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD14088; GA ČR GAP208/11/0452 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : CROSS-SECTIONS * C3H6 ISOMERS * SELECTION-RULES Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.894, year: 2015

  10. Ultrafast time-resolved electron diffraction on adsorbate systems on silicon surfaces. Vibrational excitation in monllayers and dynamics of phase transitions; Ultraschnelle zeitaufgeloeste Elektronenbeugung an Adsorbatsystemen auf Siliziumoberflaechen. Vibrationsanregung in Monolagen und Dynamik von Phasenuebergaengen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moellenbeck, Simone

    2011-04-11

    In the present work ultra fast time resolved electron diffraction (TR-RHEED) at various adsorbate systems on silicon (Si) substrates was performed. Using the Debye-Waller-effect, the vibrational amplitude of the excited adsorbate atoms can be directly observed in the experiments as a function of time. For a coverage of 4/3 monolayers Lead (Pb) on Si(1 1 1) forms a ({radical}(3) x {radical}(3))-reconstruction. The transient intensity evolution of the diffraction spots is recorded in a TR-RHEED-experiment. After excitation with a fs-laser pulse the intensity decreases due to the Debye-Waller-effect. The temporal behavior of the de-excitation process can be described with two exponential functions: a short time constant of 100 ps and a long one of 2800 ps. The two time constants can be assigned to two different phonon modes of the Pb-adsorbate. The huge difference between the two time constants and thus difference in the coupling to the substrate is explained by the bonding geometry in the structural model. To confirm this possible explanation, further TR-RHEED-experiments for the ({radical}(7) x {radical}(3))-reconstruction of Pb on Si(1 1 1) were performed. The ({radical}(7) x {radical}(3))-reconstruction with a coverage of 1.2 monolayers shows comparable structural elements. The transient intensity evolution can be described with the identical two time constants. In addition, first experiments on the {beta} ({radical}(3) x {radical}(3))-phase of Pb/Si(1 1 1) are presented. This {beta} ({radical}(3) x {radical}(3))-reconstruction, with a coverage of 1/3 monolayers of Pb, shows a phase transition to a (3 x 3)-reconstruction, which was observed in the experiments. Further investigated adsorbate systems are: ({radical}(3) x {radical}(3))Ag/Si(1 1 1), ({radical}(3) x {radical}(3))In/Si(1 1 1), ({radical}(31) x {radical}(31))In/Si(1 1 1), and ({radical}(3) x {radical}(3))Bi/Si(1 1 1). In the second part of the present work the structural dynamics of strongly driven

  11. SEARCHING FOR NAPHTHALENE CATION ABSORPTION IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searles, Justin M.; Destree, Joshua D.; Snow, Theodore P.; Salama, Farid; York, Donald G.; Dahlstrom, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Interstellar naphthalene cations (C 10 H + 8 ) have been proposed by a study to be the carriers of a small number of diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). Using an archive of high signal-to-noise spectra obtained at the Apache Point Observatory, we used two methods to test the hypothesis. Both methods failed to detect significant absorption at lab wavelengths of interstellar spectra with laboratory spectra. We thereby conclude that C 10 H + 8 is not a DIB carrier in typical reddened sight lines.

  12. Naphthalene and Naphthoquinone: Distributions and Human Exposure in the Los Angeles Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, R.; Wu, J.; Turco, R.; Winer, A. M.; Atkinson, R.; Paulson, S.; Arey, J.; Lurmann, F.

    2003-12-01

    Naphthalene is the simplest and most abundant of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Naphthalene is found primarily in the gas-phase and has been detected in both outdoor and indoor samples. Evaporation from naphthalene-containing products (including gasoline), and during refining operations, are important sources of naphthalene in air. Naphthalene is also emitted during the combustion of fossil fuels and wood, and is a component of vehicle exhaust. Exposure to high concentrations of naphthalene can damage or destroy red blood cells, causing hemolytic anemia. If inhaled over a long period of time, naphthalene may cause kidney and liver damage, skin allergy and dermatitis, cataracts and retinal damage, as well as attack the central nervous system. Naphthalene has been found to cause cancer as a result of inhalation in animal tests. Naphthoquinones are photooxidation products of naphthalene and the potential health effects of exposure to these quinones are a current focus of research. We are developing and applying models that can be used to assess human exposure to naphthalene and its photooxidation products in major air basins such as California South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). The work utilizes the Surface Meteorology and Ozone Generation (SMOG) airshed model, and the REgional Human EXposure (REHEX) model, including an analysis of individual exposure. We will present and discuss simulations of basin-wide distributions of, and human exposures to, naphthalene and naphthoquinone, with emphasis on the uncertainties in these estimates of atmospheric concentrations and human exposure. Regional modeling of pollutant sources and exposures can lead to cost-effective and optimally health-protective emission control strategies.

  13. Naphthalene-based fluorescent probes for glutathione and their applications in living cells and patients with sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Kwon, Younghee; Chung, Kyung Soo; Lim, Chang Su; Lee, Dayoung; Yue, Yongkang; Yoon, Jisoo; Kim, Gyoungmi; Nam, Sang-Jip; Chung, Youn Wook; Kim, Hwan Myung; Yin, Caixia; Ryu, Ji-Hwan; Yoon, Juyoung

    2018-01-01

    Rationale: Among the biothiols-related diseases, sepsis is defined as life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection and can result in severe oxidative stress and damage to multiple organs. In this study, we aimed to develop a fluorescence chemosensor that can both detect GSH and further predict sepsis. Methods: In this study, two new naphthalene dialdehyde compounds containing different functional groups were synthesized, and the sensing abilities of these compounds towards biothiols and its applications for prediction of sepsis were investigated. Results: Our study revealed that the newly developed probe 6-methoxynaphthalene-2, 3-dicarbaldehyde (MNDA) has two-photon is capable of detecting GSH in live cells with two-photon microscopy (TPM) under the excitation at a wavelength of 900 nm. Furthermore, two GSH detection probes naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA) and 6-fluoronaphthalene-2,3-dicarbaldehyde (FNDA) not only can detect GSH in living cells, but also showed clinical significance for the diagnosis and prediction of mortality in patients with sepsis. Conclusions: These results open up a promising direction for further medical diagnostic techniques. PMID:29507630

  14. Ship Vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman

    1997-01-01

    Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board......Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board...

  15. CINE: Comet INfrared Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Val-Borro, Miguel; Cordiner, Martin A.; Milam, Stefanie N.; Charnley, Steven B.

    2017-08-01

    CINE calculates infrared pumping efficiencies that can be applied to the most common molecules found in cometary comae such as water, hydrogen cyanide or methanol. One of the main mechanisms for molecular excitation in comets is the fluorescence by the solar radiation followed by radiative decay to the ground vibrational state. This command-line tool calculates the effective pumping rates for rotational levels in the ground vibrational state scaled by the heliocentric distance of the comet. Fluorescence coefficients are useful for modeling rotational emission lines observed in cometary spectra at sub-millimeter wavelengths. Combined with computational methods to solve the radiative transfer equations based, e.g., on the Monte Carlo algorithm, this model can retrieve production rates and rotational temperatures from the observed emission spectrum.

  16. A new process for the synthesis of naphthalene based tanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahboob, S.J.; Subhopoto, M.I.; Dewani, R.; Pervez, M.K.; Nazir, F.

    2010-01-01

    A new process developed for the preparation of naphthalene catechu tanning agent consisted of sulphonation of naphthalene, condensation with formaldehyde, combining with naturally occurring catechol, followed by neutralization of the reaction mixture. The product was then dried, analyzed and tested for application on wet blue leather which showed excellent tanning properties. (author)

  17. 40 CFR 61.134 - Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers. 61.134 Section 61.134 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers. (a) No (“zero”) emissions are allowed from naphthalene processing, final coolers and final-cooler cooling towers at coke by...

  18. Polychlorinated naphthalenes in human adipose tissue from New York, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Johnson-Restrepo, Boris; Hilker, David R.; Aldous, Kenneth M.; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic contaminants. Prior to this study, the occurrence of PCNs in human adipose tissues from the USA has not been analyzed. Here, we have measured concentrations of PCNs in human adipose tissue samples collected in New York City during 2003-2005. Concentrations of PCNs were in the range of 61-2500 pg/g lipid wt. in males and 21-910 pg/g lipid wt. in females. PCN congeners 52/60 (1,2,3,5,7/1,2,4,6,7) and 66/67 (1,2,3,4,6,7/1,2,3,5,6,7) were predominant, collectively accounting for 66% of the total PCN concentrations. Concentrations of PCNs in human adipose tissues were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than the previously reported concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Concentrations of PCNs were not correlated with PCB concentrations. The contribution of PCNs to dioxin-like toxic equivalents (TEQs) in human adipose tissues was estimated to be <1% of the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F)-TEQs. - Polychlorinated naphthalenes have been measured in human adipose tissues from the USA for the first time

  19. Rotation and diffusion of naphthalene on Pt(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolsbjerg, E. L.; Goubert, G.; McBreen, P. H.; Hammer, B.

    2018-03-01

    The behavior of naphthalene on Pt(111) surfaces is studied by combining insight from scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and van der Waals enabled density functional theory. Adsorption, diffusion, and rotation are investigated by a series of variable temperature STM experiments revealing naphthalene ability to rotate on-site with ease with a rotational barrier of 0.69 eV. Diffusion to neighbouring sites is found to be more difficult. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical investigations which confirm that the barrier for diffusion is slightly higher than the one for rotation. The theoretical barriers for rotation and translation are found to be 0.75 and 0.78 eV, respectively. An automatic mapping of the possible diffusion pathways reveals very detailed diffusion paths with many small local minima that would have been practically impossible to find manually. This automated procedure provides detailed insight into the preferred diffusion pathways that are important for our understanding of molecule-substrate interactions.

  20. Laserlike Vibrational Instability in Rectifying Molecular Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Jing Tao; Hedegård, Per; Brandbyge, Mads

    2011-01-01

    We study the damping of molecular vibrations due to electron-hole pair excitations in donor-acceptor (D-A) type molecular rectifiers. At finite voltage additional nonequilibrium electron-hole pair excitations involving both electrodes become possible, and contribute to the stimulated emission....... We investigate the effect in realistic molecular rectifier structures using first-principles calculations....

  1. Batch study, equilibrium and kinetics of adsorption of naphthalene using waste tyre rubber granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix A. Aisien

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of waste tyre rubber granules (WTRG for the batch adsorption of naphthalene from aqueous solutions was investigated. The effect of various operational variables such as contact time, initial naphthalene concentration, adsorbent dose, size of adsorbent particles, and temperature of solution on the adsorption capacity of WTRG was evaluated. The adsorption of naphthalene by WTRG was a fast kinetic process with an equilibrium contact time of 60 min. A low temperature (5°C, small adsorbent particle size (0.212 mm and higher adsorbent dosage favored the adsorption process. Results of isotherm studies revealed that adsorption of naphthalene was best described by the Langmuir isotherm equation (R2=0.997 while the kinetics of the process was best described by the Lagergren pseudofirst order kinetic equation (R2=0.998. This study has demonstrated the suitability of WTRG for the removal of naphthalene from aqueous solution.

  2. Exciter switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcpeak, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    A new exciter switch assembly has been installed at the three DSN 64-m deep space stations. This assembly provides for switching Block III and Block IV exciters to either the high-power or 20-kW transmitters in either dual-carrier or single-carrier mode. In the dual-carrier mode, it provides for balancing the two drive signals from a single control panel located in the transmitter local control and remote control consoles. In addition to the improved switching capabilities, extensive monitoring of both the exciter switch assembly and Transmitter Subsystem is provided by the exciter switch monitor and display assemblies.

  3. Wideband MEMS Resonator Using Multifrequency Excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Jaber, Nizar; Ramini, Abdallah; Al Hennawi, Qais M.; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the excitation of combination resonances of additive and subtractive types and their exploitations to realize a large bandwidth micro-machined resonator of large amplitude even at higher harmonic modes of vibrations. The investigation is conducted on a Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) clamped-clamped microbeam fabricated using polyimide as a structural layer coated with nickel from top and chromium and gold layers from bottom. The microbeam is excited by a two-source harmonic excitation, where the first frequency source is swept around the targeted resonance (first or third mode of vibration) while the second source frequency is kept fixed. We report for the first time a large bandwidth and large amplitude response near the higher order modes of vibration. Also, we show that by properly tuning the frequency and amplitude of the excitation force, the frequency bandwidth of the resonator is controlled.

  4. Wideband MEMS Resonator Using Multifrequency Excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Jaber, Nizar

    2016-03-09

    We demonstrate the excitation of combination resonances of additive and subtractive types and their exploitations to realize a large bandwidth micro-machined resonator of large amplitude even at higher harmonic modes of vibrations. The investigation is conducted on a Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) clamped-clamped microbeam fabricated using polyimide as a structural layer coated with nickel from top and chromium and gold layers from bottom. The microbeam is excited by a two-source harmonic excitation, where the first frequency source is swept around the targeted resonance (first or third mode of vibration) while the second source frequency is kept fixed. We report for the first time a large bandwidth and large amplitude response near the higher order modes of vibration. Also, we show that by properly tuning the frequency and amplitude of the excitation force, the frequency bandwidth of the resonator is controlled.

  5. Piezoelectric energy harvesting from broadband random vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, S; Friswell, M I; Inman, D J

    2009-01-01

    Energy harvesting for the purpose of powering low power electronic sensor systems has received explosive attention in the last few years. Most works using deterministic approaches focusing on using the piezoelectric effect to harvest ambient vibration energy have concentrated on cantilever beams at resonance using harmonic excitation. Here, using a stochastic approach, we focus on using a stack configuration and harvesting broadband vibration energy, a more practically available ambient source. It is assumed that the ambient base excitation is stationary Gaussian white noise, which has a constant power-spectral density across the frequency range considered. The mean power acquired from a piezoelectric vibration-based energy harvester subjected to random base excitation is derived using the theory of random vibrations. Two cases, namely the harvesting circuit with and without an inductor, have been considered. Exact closed-form expressions involving non-dimensional parameters of the electromechanical system have been given and illustrated using numerical examples

  6. Piezoelectric energy harvesting from broadband random vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, S.; Friswell, M. I.; Inman, D. J.

    2009-11-01

    Energy harvesting for the purpose of powering low power electronic sensor systems has received explosive attention in the last few years. Most works using deterministic approaches focusing on using the piezoelectric effect to harvest ambient vibration energy have concentrated on cantilever beams at resonance using harmonic excitation. Here, using a stochastic approach, we focus on using a stack configuration and harvesting broadband vibration energy, a more practically available ambient source. It is assumed that the ambient base excitation is stationary Gaussian white noise, which has a constant power-spectral density across the frequency range considered. The mean power acquired from a piezoelectric vibration-based energy harvester subjected to random base excitation is derived using the theory of random vibrations. Two cases, namely the harvesting circuit with and without an inductor, have been considered. Exact closed-form expressions involving non-dimensional parameters of the electromechanical system have been given and illustrated using numerical examples.

  7. STABILITY OF HEMOGLOBIN AND ALBUMIN ADDUCTS OF NAPHTHALENE OXIDE, 1,2-NAPHTHOQUINONE, AND 1,4-NAPHTHOQUINONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naphthalene is an important industrial chemical, which has recently been shown to cause tumors of the respiratory tract in rodents. It is thought that one or more reactive metabolites of naphthalene, namely, naphthalene-1,2-oxide (NPO), 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NPQ), and 1,4-na...

  8. Electron-excited molecule interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christophorou, L.G.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the limited but significant knowledge to date on electron scattering from vibrationally/rotationally excited molecules and electron scattering from and electron impact ionization of electronically excited molecules is briefly summarized and discussed. The profound effects of the internal energy content of a molecule on its electron attachment properties are highlighted focusing in particular on electron attachment to vibrationally/rotationally and to electronically excited molecules. The limited knowledge to date on electron-excited molecule interactions clearly shows that the cross sections for certain electron-molecule collision processes can be very different from those involving ground state molecules. For example, optically enhanced electron attachment studies have shown that electron attachment to electronically excited molecules can occur with cross sections 10 6 to 10 7 times larger compared to ground state molecules. The study of electron-excited molecule interactions offers many experimental and theoretical challenges and opportunities and is both of fundamental and technological significance. 54 refs., 15 figs

  9. Rotation-vibration interactions in the spectra of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Quinoline as a test-case species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirali, O.; Gruet, S. [AILES Beamline, Synchrotron SOLEIL, l’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d’Orsay, UMR8214 CNRS – Université Paris-Sud, Bât. 210, 91405 Orsay cedex (France); Kisiel, Z. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Goubet, M. [Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, Atomes et Molécules, UMR 8523 CNRS - Université Lille 1, Bâtiment P5, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Martin-Drumel, M. A.; Cuisset, A.; Hindle, F.; Mouret, G. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie de l’Atmosphère, EA-4493, Université du Littoral – Côte d’Opale, 59140 Dunkerque (France)

    2015-03-14

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are highly relevant for astrophysics as possible, though controversial, carriers of the unidentified infrared emission bands that are observed in a number of different astronomical objects. In support of radio-astronomical observations, high resolution laboratory spectroscopy has already provided the rotational spectra in the vibrational ground state of several molecules of this type, although the rotational study of their dense infrared (IR) bands has only recently become possible using a limited number of experimental set-ups. To date, all of the rotationally resolved data have concerned unperturbed spectra. We presently report the results of a high resolution study of the three lowest vibrational states of quinoline C{sub 9}H{sub 7}N, an N-bearing naphthalene derivative. While the pure rotational ground state spectrum of quinoline is unperturbed, severe complications appear in the spectra of the ν{sub 45} and ν{sub 44} vibrational modes (located at about 168 cm{sup −1} and 178 cm{sup −1}, respectively). In order to study these effects in detail, we employed three different and complementary experimental techniques: Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy, millimeter-wave spectroscopy, and Fourier-transform far-infrared spectroscopy with a synchrotron radiation source. Due to the high density of states in the IR spectra of molecules as large as PAHs, perturbations in the rotational spectra of excited states should be ubiquitous. Our study identifies for the first time this effect and provides some insights into an appropriate treatment of such perturbations.

  10. Urban vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Ann; Knudsen, L.; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    In   this   paper   we   describe   a   field   study   conducted   with   a   wearable   vibration   belt   where   we   test   to   determine   the   vibration   intensity   sensitivity   ranges   on   a   large   diverse   group   of   participants   with   evenly   distributed  ages  and...

  11. Influence of Electron Molecule Resonant Vibrational Collisions over the Symmetric Mode and Direct Excitation-Dissociation Cross Sections of CO2 on the Electron Energy Distribution Function and Dissociation Mechanisms in Cold Pure CO2 Plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietanza, L D; Colonna, G; Laporta, V; Celiberto, R; D'Ammando, G; Laricchiuta, A; Capitelli, M

    2016-05-05

    A new set of electron-vibrational (e-V) processes linking the first 10 vibrational levels of the symmetric mode of CO2 is derived by using a decoupled vibrational model and inserted in the Boltzmann equation for the electron energy distribution function (eedf). The new eedf and dissociation rates are in satisfactory agreement with the corresponding ones obtained by using the e-V cross sections reported in the database of Hake and Phelps (H-P). Large differences are, on the contrary, found when the experimental dissociation cross sections of Cosby and Helm are inserted in the Boltzman equation. Comparison of the corresponding rates with those obtained by using the low-energy threshold energy, reported in the H-P database, shows differences up to orders of magnitude, which decrease with the increasing of the reduced electric field. In all cases, we show the importance of superelastic vibrational collisions in affecting eedf and dissociation rates either in the direct electron impact mechanism or in the pure vibrational mechanism.

  12. Disposition of naphthalene and its metabolites in the brain of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, T.K.; Krahn, M.M.; Malins, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were exposed to orally administered [ 3 H]naphthalene. Another group received naphthyl glucuronic acid and naphthyl sulfate via iv injection. Brain, liver, and blood were assayed for the parent compound and/or total metabolites. Individual naphthalene derivatives were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc) using either radiometric or on-line fluorimetric detection systems. Naphthalene concentrations in brain (8.2 pmol/mg dry wt at 16 hr after feeding) approximated those found at the same time in liver (7.4 pmol/mg dry wt). A nonconjugated naphthalene derivative, 1,2-dihydro-1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene, also accumulated in brain (0.041 pmol/mg dry wt after 16 hr), although to a lesser degree than in liver (0.10 pmol/mg dry wt after 16 hr). Conjugated naphthalene derivatives, 1-naphthyl sulfate and 1-naphthyl glucuronic acid, although present in liver and blood, were largely excluded from the brain. Low naphthalene hydroxylase activity (<2.0 pmol product formed/mg protein/min) indicated that the trout brain has a minimal ability to oxidize aromatic hydrocarbons. These findings suggest that the brain of adult trout is substantially different from other tissues (e.g., liver and blood) with respect to the disposition of naphthalene and its metabolites

  13. Characterization of naphthalene degradation by Streptomyces sp. QWE-5 isolated from active sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Ma, Wencheng; Han, Hongjun; Hou, Baolin; Jia, Shengyong

    2014-01-01

    A bacterial strain, QWE-5, which utilized naphthalene as its sole carbon and energy source, was isolated and identified as Streptomyces sp. It was a Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium with a flagellum, with whole, smooth, convex and wet colonies. The optimal temperature and pH for QWE-5 were 35 °C and 7.0, respectively. The QWE-5 strain was capable of completely degrading naphthalene at a concentration as high as 100 mg/L. At initial naphthalene concentrations of 10, 20, 50, 80 and 100 mg/L, complete degradation was achieved within 32, 56, 96, 120 and 144 h, respectively. Kinetics of naphthalene degradation was described using the Andrews equation. The kinetic parameters were as follows: qmax (maximum specific degradation rate) = 1.56 h⁻¹, Ks (half-rate constant) = 60.34 mg/L, and KI (substrate-inhibition constant) = 81.76 mg/L. Metabolic intermediates were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, allowing a new degradation pathway for naphthalene to be proposed. In this pathway, monooxygenation of naphthalene yielded naphthalen-1-ol. Further degradation by Streptomyces sp. QWE-5 produced acetophenone, followed by adipic acid, which was produced as a combination of decarboxylation and hydroxylation processes.

  14. [Degradation characteristics of naphthalene with a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain isolated from soil contaminated by diesel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Chao; Wu, Bin-Bin; Li, Xiao-Sen; Lu, Dian-Nan; Liu, Yong-Min

    2015-02-01

    Abstract: A naphthalene-degrading bacterium (referred as HD-5) was isolated from the diesel-contaminated soil and was assigned to Pseudomonas aeruginosa according to 16S rDNA sequences analysis. Gene nah, which encodes naphthalene dioxygenase, was identified from strain HD-5 by PCR amplification. Different bioremediation approaches, including nature attenuation, bioaugmentation with strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa, biostimulation, and an integrated degradation by bioaugmentation and biostimulation, were evaluated for their effectiveness in the remediating soil containing 5% naphthalene. The degradation rates of naphthalene in the soil were compared among the different bioremediation approaches, the FDA and dehydrogenase activity in bioremediation process were measured, and the gene copy number of 16S rRNA and nah in soil were dynamically monitored using real-time PCR. It was shown that the naphthalene removal rate reached 71.94%, 62.22% and 83.14% in approaches of bioaugmentation (B), biostimulation(S) and integrated degradation composed of bioaugmentation and biostimulation (BS), respectively. The highest removal rate of naphthalene was achieved by using BS protocol, which also gives the highest FDA and dehydrogenase activity. The gene copy number of 16S rRNA and nah in soil increased by about 2.67 x 10(11) g(-1) and 8.67 x 10(8) g(-1) after 31 days treatment using BS protocol. Above-mentioned results also demonstrated that the screened bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, could grow well in naphthalene-contaminated soil and effectively degrade naphthalene, which is of fundamental importance for bioremediation of naphthalene-contaminated soil.

  15. Voiced Excitations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holzricher, John

    2004-01-01

    To more easily obtain a voiced excitation function for speech characterization, measurements of skin motion, tracheal tube, and vocal fold, motions were made and compared to EM sensor-glottal derived...

  16. Exciting Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Bradford L.

    1975-01-01

    Advocates the creation of swimming pool oscillations as part of a general investigation of mechanical oscillations. Presents the equations, procedure for deriving the slosh modes, and methods of period estimation for exciting swimming pool oscillations. (GS)

  17. Fundamental Vibration of Molecular Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickenson, G. D.; Niu, M. L.; Salumbides, E. J.; Komasa, J.; Eikema, K. S. E.; Pachucki, K.; Ubachs, W.

    2013-05-01

    The fundamental ground tone vibration of H2, HD, and D2 is determined to an accuracy of 2×10-4cm-1 from Doppler-free laser spectroscopy in the collisionless environment of a molecular beam. This rotationless vibrational splitting is derived from the combination difference between electronic excitation from the X1Σg+, v=0, and v=1 levels to a common EF1Σg+, v=0 level. Agreement within 1σ between the experimental result and a full ab initio calculation provides a stringent test of quantum electrodynamics in a chemically bound system.

  18. Excited states

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Edward C

    1974-01-01

    Excited States, Volume I reviews radiationless transitions, phosphorescence microwave double resonance through optical spectra in molecular solids, dipole moments in excited states, luminescence of polar molecules, and the problem of interstate interaction in aromatic carbonyl compounds. The book discusses the molecular electronic radiationless transitions; the double resonance techniques and the relaxation mechanisms involving the lowest triplet state of aromatic compounds; as well as the optical spectra and relaxation in molecular solids. The text also describes dipole moments and polarizab

  19. Adaptive Piezoelectric Absorber for Active Vibration Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Herold

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Passive vibration control solutions are often limited to working reliably at one design point. Especially applied to lightweight structures, which tend to have unwanted vibration, active vibration control approaches can outperform passive solutions. To generate dynamic forces in a narrow frequency band, passive single-degree-of-freedom oscillators are frequently used as vibration absorbers and neutralizers. In order to respond to changes in system properties and/or the frequency of excitation forces, in this work, adaptive vibration compensation by a tunable piezoelectric vibration absorber is investigated. A special design containing piezoelectric stack actuators is used to cover a large tuning range for the natural frequency of the adaptive vibration absorber, while also the utilization as an active dynamic inertial mass actuator for active control concepts is possible, which can help to implement a broadband vibration control system. An analytical model is set up to derive general design rules for the system. An absorber prototype is set up and validated experimentally for both use cases of an adaptive vibration absorber and inertial mass actuator. Finally, the adaptive vibration control system is installed and tested with a basic truss structure in the laboratory, using both the possibility to adjust the properties of the absorber and active control.

  20. Ground test for vibration control demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C.; Prodigue, J.; Broux, G.; Cantinaud, O.; Poussot-Vassal, C.

    2016-09-01

    In the objective of maximizing comfort in Falcon jets, Dassault Aviation is developing an innovative vibration control technology. Vibrations of the structure are measured at several locations and sent to a dedicated high performance vibration control computer. Control laws are implemented in this computer to analyse the vibrations in real time, and then elaborate orders sent to the existing control surfaces to counteract vibrations. After detailing the technology principles, this paper focuses on the vibration control ground demonstration that was performed by Dassault Aviation in May 2015 on Falcon 7X business jet. The goal of this test was to attenuate vibrations resulting from fixed forced excitation delivered by shakers. The ground test demonstrated the capability to implement an efficient closed-loop vibration control with a significant vibration level reduction and validated the vibration control law design methodology. This successful ground test was a prerequisite before the flight test demonstration that is now being prepared. This study has been partly supported by the JTI CleanSky SFWA-ITD.

  1. Fluorescent deep-blue and hybrid white emitting devices based on a naphthalene-benzofuran compound

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaohui; Zheng, Shijun; Chae, HyunSik; Li, Sheng; Mochizuki, Amane; Jabbour, Ghassan E.

    2013-01-01

    We report the synthesis, photophysics and electrochemical properties of naphthalene-benzofuran compound 1 and its application in organic light emitting devices. Fluorescent deep-blue emitting devices employing 1 as the emitting dopant embedded in 4

  2. Hydration of a Large Anionic Charge Distribution - Naphthalene-Water Cluster Anions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J. Mathias; Adams, Christopher L.

    2010-06-01

    We report the infrared spectra of anionic clusters of naphthalene with up to three water molecules. Comparison of the experimental infrared spectra with theoretically predicted spectra from quantum chemistry calculations allow conclusions regarding the structures of the clusters under study. The first water molecule forms two hydrogen bonds with the π electron system of the naphthalene moiety. Subsequent water ligands interact with both the naphthalene and the other water ligands to form hydrogen bonded networks, similar to other hydrated anion clusters. Naphthalene-water anion clusters illustrate how water interacts with negative charge delocalized over a large π electron system. The clusters are interesting model systems that are discussed in the context of wetting of graphene surfaces and polyaromatic hydrocarbons.

  3. Polyaniline nanotubes and their dendrites doped with different naphthalene sulfonic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhiming; Wei Zhixiang; Zhang Lijuan; Wan Meixiang

    2005-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) nanotubes (130-250 nm in average diameter) doped with α-naphthalene sulfonic acid (α-NSA), β-naphthalene sulfonic acid (β-NSA) and 1,5-naphthalene disulfonic acid were synthesized via a self-assembly process. It was found that the formation yield, morphology (hollow or solid), size, crystalline and electrical properties of the nanostructures are affected by the position and number of -SO 3 H groups attached to the naphthalene ring of NSA as well as the synthesis conditions. Moreover, these nanotubes aggregate to form a dendritic morphology when the polymerization is performed at a static state. The micelles composed of dopant or dopant/anilinium cations might act in a template-like fashion in forming self-assembled PANI nanotubes, which was further confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements, while the aggregated morphology of the nanotubes might result from polymer chain interactions including π-π interactions, hydrogen and ionic bonds

  4. Vibration analysis and vibration damage assessment in nuclear and process equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettigrew, M.J.; Taylor, C.E.; Fisher, N.J.; Yetisir, M.; Smith, B.A.W.

    1997-01-01

    Component failures due to excessive flow-induced vibration are still affecting the performance and reliability of process and nuclear components. The purpose of this paper is to discuss flow-induced vibration analysis and vibration damage prediction. Vibration excitation mechanisms are described with particular emphasis on fluid elastic instability. The dynamic characteristics of process and power equipment are explained. The statistical nature of some parameters, in particular support conditions, is discussed. The prediction of fretting-wear damage is approached from several points-of-view. An energy approach to formulate fretting-wear damage is proposed. (author)

  5. Degradation of naphthalene and fluorene by radiolysis using accelerated electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores de Jesus, I.

    2003-01-01

    The volume of the dangerous wastes in global level is causing the poisoning of planet and all of the ecosystems, degrading the life level of millions of humans and causing serious problems in the public health. Since a years ago the volumes of organic effluents generated by the few industry and small populations were so tiny that a natural debugger process in a time and space delimited, acquiring again their natural characteristics and they could be used again. Nowadays these wastes are so numerous and precise in some cases that the capacity of natural purification in the receiving channel is not enough, in addition to the difficulty to treat them in conventional processes, this leads to the decrease in the water's quality making impossible its future use and causing with this a serious ecological problem. This fact has motivated the development of measures that tend to the conservation of the environment and in consequence, the development of debugger technologies with no generation of sub products that often are more dangerous than the originals, due to the previous thing, the treatment by means of radiation of the water is impelled since is a method that allows to degrade or to eliminate in simultaneous form pathogenic microorganisms and organic substances. The radiation by means of electrons beams is a method of advanced treatment who allows to degrade organic compounds, transforming them in compounds with less molecular weight, and in the best of the cases until its oxidation to carbon dioxide and water. In the present thesis the objective is the study of naphthalene and fluorene degradation by means of radiation with electron beams, establishing the operating conditions of the accelerator of Pelletron type. This research is supported by the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, of a joint way with a series of antecedents in this subject, established in previous research with respect to the treatment of residual waters in a great scale, giving

  6. Emission of Polychlorinated Naphthalenes during Thermal Related Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Du, Bing; Liu, Wenbin; Zhang, Bing; Xiao, Ke

    2010-05-01

    Due to the structural similarity of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) to those of dioxins, PCNs exhibit toxicological properties similar to dioxins (Olivero-Verbel et al., 2004). Based on their high toxicity, persistence, bioaccumulation, and long-distance transmission, PCNs were also selected as a candidate POP for the UN-ECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe) POP protocol (Lerche et al., 2002). In addition, some studies suggested that PCNs contributed a greater proportion of the dioxin-like activity than polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) contributed in some locations (Kannan et al., 1998). However, the identification and quantitation for PCN sources are very scarce compared with PCDD/Fs. Understanding the emission levels and developing the emission inventory of PCNs is important for regulatory and source reduction purposes. In this study, several potential sources were preliminarily investigated for PCN release. Coking process (CP), iron ore sintering (IOS), and electric arc furnace steel making units (AF) were selected due to their huge activity level of industrial production in China. Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and medical waste incineration (MWI) were also investigated because of the possible high concentration of PCNs in stack gas. Two plants were investigated for each thermal related process, except for MWI with one incinerator was investigated. The stack gas samples were collected by automatic isokinetic sampling system (Isostack Basic, TCR TECORA, Milan Italy). Isotope dilution high resolution gas chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) technique was used for the identification and quantitation of PCN congeners. The concentrations of PCNs from the selected thermal processes were determined in this study. The average concentrations of total PCNs were 26 ng Nm-3 for CP, 65 ng Nm-3 for IOS, 720 ng Nm-3 for AF, 443 ng Nm-3 for MSWI, and

  7. Vibrating minds

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Ed Witten is one of the leading scientists in the field of string theory, the theory that describes elementary particles as vibrating strings. This week he leaves CERN after having spent a few months here on sabbatical. His wish is that the LHC will unveil supersymmetry.

  8. Vibrational spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Rajai Atalla

    2010-01-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy is an important tool in modern chemistry. In the past two decades, thanks to significant improvements in instrumentation and the development of new interpretive tools, it has become increasingly important for studies of lignin. This chapter presents the three important instrumental methods-Raman spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and...

  9. Simultaneous quantification of multiple urinary naphthalene metabolites by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C Ayala

    Full Text Available Naphthalene is an environmental toxicant to which humans are exposed. Naphthalene causes dose-dependent cytotoxicity to murine airway epithelial cells but a link between exposure and human pulmonary disease has not been established. Naphthalene toxicity in rodents depends on P450 metabolism. Subsequent biotransformation results in urinary elimination of several conjugated metabolites. Glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of naphthols have been used as markers of naphthalene exposure but, as the current studies demonstrate, these assays provide a limited view of the range of metabolites generated from the parent hydrocarbon. Here, we present a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for measurement of the glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of 1-naphthol as well as the mercapturic acids and N-acetyl glutathione conjugates from naphthalene epoxide. Standard curves were linear over 2 log orders. On column detection limits varied from 0.91 to 3.4 ng; limits of quantitation from 1.8 to 6.4 ng. The accuracy of measurement of spiked urine standards was -13.1 to + 5.2% of target and intra-day and inter-day variability averaged 7.2 (± 4.5 and 6.8 (± 5.0 %, respectively. Application of the method to urine collected from mice exposed to naphthalene at 15 ppm (4 hrs showed that glutathione-derived metabolites accounted for 60-70% of the total measured metabolites and sulfate and glucuronide conjugates were eliminated in equal amounts. The method is robust and directly measures several major naphthalene metabolites including those derived from glutathione conjugation of naphthalene epoxide. The assays do not require enzymatic deconjugation, extraction or derivatization thus simplifying sample work up.

  10. Magnetically levitated autoparametric broadband vibration energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurmann, L.; Jia, Y.; Manoli, Y.; Woias, P.

    2016-01-01

    Some of the lingering challenges within the current paradigm of vibration energy harvesting (VEH) involve narrow operational frequency range and the inevitable non-resonant response from broadband noise excitations. Such VEHs are only suitable for limited applications with fixed sinusoidal vibration, and fail to capture a large spectrum of the real world vibration. Various arraying designs, frequency tuning schemes and nonlinear vibratory approaches have only yielded modest enhancements. To fundamentally address this, the paper proposes and explores the potentials in using highly nonlinear magnetic spring force to activate an autoparametric oscillator, in order to realize an inherently broadband resonant system. Analytical and numerical modelling illustrate that high spring nonlinearity derived from magnetic levitation helps to promote the 2:1 internal frequency matching required to activate parametric resonance. At the right internal parameters, the resulting system can intrinsically exhibit semi-resonant response regardless of the bandwidth of the input vibration, including broadband white noise excitation. (paper)

  11. Synthesis of 2-Isopropyl Naphthalene Catalyzed by Et3NHCl-AlCl3 Ionic Liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chenmin; Qi Xin; Tang Xiangyang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, 2-isopropyl naphthalene has been synthesized by the reaction of naphthalene and isopropyl bromide, using triethylamine hydrochloride-aluminum chloride ionic liquid as the catalyst. The effect of the catalyst composition, the reaction time, the reaction temperature, the ionic liquid dosage, as well as the molar ratio of the reagents on the 2-isopropyl naphthalene yield was systematically investigated. The optimal reaction conditions cover:an AlCl3 to Et3NHCl ratio of 2.0, a reaction time of 3 h, a reaction temperature of 15.0℃, a volume fraction of ionic liquid to the mixture (isopropyl bromide, n-dodecane and n-hexane) of 9%, and a naphthalene/isopropyl bromide molar ratio of 4.0. Under the optimal reaction condi-tions, the conversion of isopropyl bromide reached 98%and the selectivity of 2-isopropyl naphthalene was equal to 80%. The test results veriifed good catalytic activity upon using Et3NHCl-AlCl3 ionic liquid as the catalyst for alkylation of naph-thalene with isopropyl bromide. The activity of the ionic liquid remains unchanged after it has been recycled for 4 times.

  12. Simplified MPN method for enumeration of soil naphthalene degraders using gaseous substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenius, Kaisa; Lappi, Kaisa; Mikkonen, Anu; Wickström, Annika; Vaalama, Anu; Lehtinen, Taru; Suominen, Leena

    2012-02-01

    We describe a simplified microplate most-probable-number (MPN) procedure to quantify the bacterial naphthalene degrader population in soil samples. In this method, the sole substrate naphthalene is dosed passively via gaseous phase to liquid medium and the detection of growth is based on the automated measurement of turbidity using an absorbance reader. The performance of the new method was evaluated by comparison with a recently introduced method in which the substrate is dissolved in inert silicone oil and added individually to each well, and the results are scored visually using a respiration indicator dye. Oil-contaminated industrial soil showed slightly but significantly higher MPN estimate with our method than with the reference method. This suggests that gaseous naphthalene was dissolved in an adequate concentration to support the growth of naphthalene degraders without being too toxic. The dosing of substrate via gaseous phase notably reduced the work load and risk of contamination. The result scoring by absorbance measurement was objective and more reliable than measurement with indicator dye, and it also enabled further analysis of cultures. Several bacterial genera were identified by cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from the MPN wells incubated in the presence of gaseous naphthalene. In addition, the applicability of the simplified MPN method was demonstrated by a significant positive correlation between the level of oil contamination and the number of naphthalene degraders detected in soil.

  13. Cometabolic Degradation of Dibenzofuran and Dibenzothiophene by a Naphthalene-Degrading Comamonas sp. JB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiangyu; Xu, Jing; Ning, Shuxiang; Li, Nan; Tan, Liang; Shi, Shengnan

    2017-12-01

    Comamonas sp. JB was used to investigate the cometabolic degradation of dibenzofuran (DBF) and dibenzothiophene (DBT) with naphthalene as the primary substrate. Dehydrogenase and ATPase activity of the growing system with the presence of DBF and DBT were decreased when compared to only naphthalene in the growing system, indicating that the presence of DBF and DBT inhibited the metabolic activity of strain JB. The pathways and enzymes involved in the cometabolic degradation were tested. Examination of metabolites elucidated that strain JB cometabolically degraded DBF to 1,2-dihydroxydibenzofuran, subsequently to 2-hydroxy-4-(3'-oxo-3'H-benzofuran-2'-yliden)but-2-enoic acid, and finally to catechol. Meanwhile, strain JB cometabolically degraded DBT to 1,2-dihydroxydibenzothiophene and subsequently to the ring cleavage product. A series of naphthalene-degrading enzymes including naphthalene dioxygenase, 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene dioxygenase, salicylaldehyde dehydrogenase, salicylate hydroxylase, and catechol 2,3-oxygenase have been detected, confirming that naphthalene was the real inducer of expression the degradation enzymes and metabolic pathways were controlled by naphthalene-degrading enzymes.

  14. Excited fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudjema, F.; Djouadi, A.; Kneur, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    The production of excited fermions with mass above 100 GeV is considered. f→Vf (1) decay widths are calculated where V=γ, Z or W. Excited fermion pair production in e + e - annihilation and in γγ collisions, and single production in e + e - annihilation, eγ and γγ collisions is also discussed. Cross sections are calculated for all these cases. The discovery potential of the NLC at 500 GeV is compared with that of other colliders. (K.A.) 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Actual behaviour of a ball vibration absorber

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pirner, Miroš

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 8 (2002), s. 987-1005 ISSN 0167-6105 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GV103/96/K034 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : TV towers * wind-excited vibrations * vibration absorbers * pendulum absorber Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 0.513, year: 2002 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167610502002155#

  16. Nuclear catalysis mediated by localized anharmonic vibrations

    OpenAIRE

    Dubinko, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    In many-body nonlinear systems with sufficient anharmonicity, a special kind of lattice vibrations, namely, Localized Anharmonic Vibrations (LAVs) can be excited either thermally or by external triggering, in which the amplitude of atomic oscillations greatly exceeds that of harmonic oscillations (phonons) that determine the system temperature. Coherency and persistence of LAVs may have drastic effect on quantum tunneling due to correlation effects discovered by Schrodinger and Robertson in 1...

  17. Few Issues Related to an Electrodynamic Exciter Control

    OpenAIRE

    Čala, M.

    2015-01-01

    There are multiple problems to solve when controlling an electromagnetic exciter for vibrations generation. Main challenge is to straighten a frequency response of an exciter which is normally not uniform due to resonances resulting from the mechanical construction of an exciter, specimen to test, or mounting fixture. This paper describes number of aspects to consider, which arose during implementation of the control system for small electrodynamic exciter on the Department of Control and Ins...

  18. Mechanism for Clastogenic Activity of Naphthalene. Quarterly Technical Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, B. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-02-05

    The project has two main goals: 1) Identify the types of adducts naphthalene (NA) forms with DNA and 2) determine whether adduct formation correlates with site selective tumor formation in defined subcompartments of the respiratory tract (respiratory and olfactory nasal epithelium and airways of mice, rats and rhesus monkeys). Five tasks are associated with the completion of the goals. Task 1: Contracting and Animal Use Approvals. IACUC and ACURO approvals are complete. The subcontract with UC Davis (UCD) was executed in December 2014. Task 2: Perform In Vitro Study for Goal 1. Rat and mouse samples exposures completed. Monkey samples need to be exposed in next quarter. Task 3: Perform In Vitro Study for Goal 2. Mouse and rat ex vivo exposures completed. Monkey samples need to be completed in the next quarter. Task 4: Sample Preparation and Analysis. Mouse and Rat Goal 2 samples completed. Monkey samples remain to be done for Goal 2. Rat samples completed for Goal 1. Mouse and Monkey samples for Goal 1 need to be completed. Task 5: Data Interpretation and Reporting. Poster will be presented at 2016 Society of Toxicology Meeting. Outline for paper on adduct formation complete and similar to poster for SOT meeting.

  19. Issues in vibration energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Corr, Lawrence R.; Ma, Tianwei

    2018-05-01

    In this study, fundamental issues related to bandwidth and nonlinear resonance in vibrational energy harvesting devices are investigated. The results show that using bandwidth as a criterion to measure device performance can be misleading. For a linear device, an enlarged bandwidth is achieved at the cost of sacrificing device performance near resonance, and thus widening the bandwidth may offer benefits only when the natural frequency of the linear device cannot match the dominant excitation frequency. For a nonlinear device, since the principle of superposition does not apply, the ''broadband" performance improvements achieved for single-frequency excitations may not be achievable for multi-frequency excitations. It is also shown that a large-amplitude response based on the traditional ''nonlinear resonance" does not always result in the optimal performance for a nonlinear device because of the negative work done by the excitation, which indicates energy is returned back to the excitation. Such undesired negative work is eliminated at global resonance, a generalized resonant condition for both linear and nonlinear systems. While the linear resonance is a special case of global resonance for a single-frequency excitation, the maximum potential of nonlinear energy harvesting can be reached for multi-frequency excitations by using global resonance to simultaneously harvest energy distributed over multiple frequencies.

  20. Localized Surface Plasmons in Vibrating Graphene Nanodisks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Weihua; Li, Bo-Hong; Stassen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    in graphene disks have the additional benefit to be highly tunable via electrical stimulation. Mechanical vibrations create structural deformations in ways where the excitation of localized surface plasmons can be strongly modulated. We show that the spectral shift in such a scenario is determined...... by a complex interplay between the symmetry and shape of the modal vibrations and the plasmonic mode pattern. Tuning confined modes of light in graphene via acoustic excitations, paves new avenues in shaping the sensitivity of plasmonic detectors, and in the enhancement of the interaction with optical emitters...

  1. Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvesting for Railway Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradai S.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Safe localization of trains via GPS and wireless sensors is essential for railway traffic supervision. Especially for freight trains and because normally no power source is available on the wagons, special solutions for energy supply have to be developed based on energy harvesting techniques. Since vibration is available in this case, it provides an interesting source of energy. Nevertheless, in order to have an efficient design of the harvesting system, the existing vibration needs to be investigated. In this paper, we focus on the characterization of vibration parameters in railway application. We propose an electromagnetic vibration converter especially developed to this application. Vibration profiles from a train traveling between two German cities were measured using a data acquisition system installed on the train’s wagon. Results show that the measured profiles present multiple frequency signals in the range of 10 to 50 Hz and an acceleration of up to 2 g. A prototype for a vibration converter is designed taking into account the real vibration parameters, robustness and integrability requirements. It is based on a moving coil attached to a mechanical spring. For the experimental emulation of the train vibrations, a shaker is used as an external artificial vibration source controlled by a laser sensor in feedback. A maximum voltage of 1.7 V peak to peak which corresponds to a maximum of 10 mW output power where the applied excitation frequency is close to the resonant frequency of the converter which corresponds to 27 Hz.

  2. High Energy Vibration for Gas Piping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gary Y. H.; Chan, K. B.; Lee, Aylwin Y. S.; Jia, ShengXiang

    2017-07-01

    In September 2016, a gas compressor in offshore Sarawak has its rotor changed out. Prior to this change-out, pipe vibration study was carried-out by the project team to evaluate any potential high energy pipe vibration problems at the compressor’s existing relief valve downstream pipes due to process condition changes after rotor change out. This paper covers high frequency acoustic excitation (HFAE) vibration also known as acoustic induced vibration (AIV) study and discusses detailed methodologies as a companion to the Energy Institute Guidelines for the avoidance of vibration induced fatigue failure, which is a common industry practice to assess and mitigate for AIV induced fatigue failure. Such detailed theoretical studies can help to minimize or totally avoid physical pipe modification, leading to reduce offshore plant shutdown days to plant shutdowns only being required to accommodate gas compressor upgrades, reducing cost without compromising process safety.

  3. Interfacial instabilities in vibrated fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Jeff; Laverón-Simavilla, Ana; Tinao Perez-Miravete, Ignacio; Fernandez Fraile, Jose Javier

    2016-07-01

    Vibrations induce a range of different interfacial phenomena in fluid systems depending on the frequency and orientation of the forcing. With gravity, (large) interfaces are approximately flat and there is a qualitative difference between vertical and horizontal forcing. Sufficient vertical forcing produces subharmonic standing waves (Faraday waves) that extend over the whole interface. Horizontal forcing can excite both localized and extended interfacial phenomena. The vibrating solid boundaries act as wavemakers to excite traveling waves (or sloshing modes at low frequencies) but they also drive evanescent bulk modes whose oscillatory pressure gradient can parametrically excite subharmonic surface waves like cross-waves. Depending on the magnitude of the damping and the aspect ratio of the container, these locally generated surfaces waves may interact in the interior resulting in temporal modulation and other complex dynamics. In the case where the interface separates two fluids of different density in, for example, a rectangular container, the mass transfer due to vertical motion near the endwalls requires a counterflow in the interior region that can lead to a Kelvin-Helmholtz type instability and a ``frozen wave" pattern. In microgravity, the dominance of surface forces favors non-flat equilibrium configurations and the distinction between vertical and horizontal applied forcing can be lost. Hysteresis and multiplicity of solutions are more common, especially in non-wetting systems where disconnected (partial) volumes of fluid can be established. Furthermore, the vibrational field contributes a dynamic pressure term that competes with surface tension to select the (time averaged) shape of the surface. These new (quasi-static) surface configurations, known as vibroequilibria, can differ substantially from the hydrostatic state. There is a tendency for the interface to orient perpendicular to the vibrational axis and, in some cases, a bulge or cavity is induced

  4. Vibration Pattern Related to Transverse Cracks in Rotors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolò Bachschmid

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for calculating the breathing behavior of transverse cracks of different types in rotating shafts is described. Thermal effects are included. Some results in terms of vibration excitation related to different shapes of cracks are presented.

  5. Excited baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, N.C.

    1986-01-01

    The status of the theory of the low-energy approach to hadron structure is reviewed briefly by surveying a few relevant models. A few examples of tests needed to sort out the predictions of different models pertaining to the quark-gluon structure of hadrons are discussed, and given the resulting physics objectives, a few experimental options for excited baryon research at CFBAF are suggested

  6. Excited baryons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, N.C.

    1986-01-01

    The status of the theory of the low-energy approach to hadron structure is reviewed briefly by surveying a few relevant models. A few examples of tests needed to sort out the predictions of different models pertaining to the quark-gluon structure of hadrons are discussed, and given the resulting physics objectives, a few experimental options for excited baryon research at CFBAF are suggested. (LEW)

  7. Quantum calculation of dipole excitation in fusion reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simenel, C.; Chomaz, Ph.; De France, G.

    2000-01-01

    The excitation of the giant dipole resonance by fusion is studied with N/Z asymmetry in the entrance channel. The TDHF solution exhibits a strong dipole vibration which can be associated with a giant vibration along the main axis of a fluctuating prolate shape. The consequences on the gamma-ray emission from hot compound nuclei are discussed. (author)

  8. Enhancement of naphthalene tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing the ferredoxin-like protein (ADI1) from rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiao-Yan; Zhu, Bo; Han, Hong-Juan; Zhao, Wei; Tian, Yong-Sheng; Peng, Ri-He; Yao, Quan-Hong

    2016-01-01

    The ADI1 Arabidopsis plants enhanced tolerance and degradation efficiency to naphthalene and had great potential for phytoremediation of naphthalene in the plant material before composting or harvesting and removal. Naphthalene is a global environmental concern, because this substance is assumed to contribute considerably to human cancer risk. Cleaning up naphthalene contamination in the environment is crucial. Phytoremediation is an efficient technology to clean up contaminants. However, no gene that can efficiently degrade exogenous recalcitrant naphthalene in plants has yet been discovered. Ferredoxin (Fd) is a key player of biological electron transfer reaction in the PAH degradation process. The biochemical pathway for bacterial degradation of naphthalene has been well investigated. In this study, a rice gene, ADI1, which codes for a putative photosynthetic-type Fd, has been transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana. The transgenic Arabidopsis plants enhanced tolerance and degradation efficiency of naphthalene. Compared with wild-type plants, transgenic plants assimilated naphthalene from the culture media faster and removed more of this substance. When taken together, our findings suggest that breeding plants with overexpressed ADI1 gene is an effective strategy to degrade naphthalene in the environment.

  9. Analysis of motion of inverted pendulum with vibrating suspension axis at low-frequency excitation as an illustration of a new approach for solving equations without explicit small parameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Vladislav

    2014-01-01

    . Vibration intensity is assumed to be relatively low. A new modification of the method of direct separation of motions (MDSM) is proposed to study the corresponding equation which in the considered case does not contain a small parameter explicitly. The aim is to obtain solutions of this equation...... in the stability domain. It is revealed that in the considered range of parameters not only the effective stiffness of the system changes due to the external loading, but also its effective mass. Applicability of the proposed approach for solving non-linear equations without small parameter is demonstrated...

  10. The high level vibration test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmayer, C.H.; Curreri, J.R.; Park, Y.J.; Kato, W.Y.; Kawakami, S.

    1989-01-01

    As part of cooperative agreements between the US and Japan, tests have been performed on the seismic vibration table at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory of Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center (NUPEC) in Japan. The objective of the test program was to use the NUPEC vibration table to drive large diameter nuclear power piping to substantial plastic strain with an earthquake excitation and to compare the results with state-of-the-art analysis of the problem. The test model was subjected to a maximum acceleration well beyond what nuclear power plants are designed to withstand. A modified earthquake excitation was applied and the excitation level was increased carefully to minimize the cumulative fatigue damage due to the intermediate level excitations. Since the piping was pressurized, and the high level earthquake excitation was repeated several times, it was possible to investigate the effects of ratchetting and fatigue as well. Elastic and inelastic seismic response behavior of the test model was measured in a number of test runs with an increasing excitation input level up to the limit of the vibration table. In the maximum input condition, large dynamic plastic strains were obtained in the piping. Crack initiation was detected following the second maximum excitation run. Crack growth was carefully monitored during the next two additional maximum excitation runs. The final test resulted in a maximum crack depth of approximately 94% of the wall thickness. The HLVT (high level vibration test) program has enhanced understanding of the behavior of piping systems under severe earthquake loading. As in other tests to failure of piping components, it has demonstrated significant seismic margin in nuclear power plant piping

  11. Vibration analysis of a hydro generator for different operating regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haţiegan, C.; Pădureanu, I.; Jurcu, M.; Nedeloni, M. D.; Hamat, C. O.; Chioncel, C. P.; Trocaru, S.; Vasile, O.; Bădescu, O.; Micliuc, D.; (Filip Nedeloni, L.; Băra, A.; (Barboni Haţiegan, L.

    2017-01-01

    Based on experimental measurements, this paper presents the vibration analysis of a hydro generator that equips a Kaplan hydraulic turbine of a Hydropower plant in Romania. This analysis means vibrations measurement to different operating regimes of the hydro generator respectively before installing it and into operation, namely putting off load mode (unexcited and excited) respectively putting on load mode. By comparing, through the experimental results obtained before and after the operation of hydro aggregates are observed vibrations improvements.

  12. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 15, Number 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    three revolute clearances is analyzed to illustrate the procedure. STRINGS AND ROPES 83-1574 Longitudinal Vibrations in Violin Strings A.R, Lee and...Strings, Violins , Mutical instruments. Longi- tudinal vibration The observation of longitudinal vibrations In violin strings excited by bowing it...few existing exam - ples is encouraging but inconclusive. Better overall agreement is demonstrated with fairly comprehensive measurements from a

  13. Vibrational analysis of a shipboard free electron laser beam path

    OpenAIRE

    Gallant, Bryan M.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis explores the deployment of a free electron laser (FEL) weapon system in a shipboard vibration environment. A concept solid model of a shipboard FEL is developed and used as a basis for a finite element model which is subjected to vibration simulation in MATLAB. Vibration input is obtained from ship shock trials data and wave excited motion data from ship motion simulation software. Emphasis is placed on the motion of electron beam path components of the FEL and the feasibility of ...

  14. Criteria for accepting piping vibrations measured during FFTF plant startup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, S.N.

    1981-03-01

    Piping in the Fast Flux Test Facility is subjected to low-amplitude, high cycle vibration over the plant lifetime. Excitation sources include the mechanical vibration induced by main centrifugal pumps, auxiliary reciprocating pumps, EM pumps and possible flow oscillations. Vibration acceptance criteria must be established which will prevent excessive pipe and support fatigue damage when satified. This paper describes the preparation of such criteria against pipe failure used for acceptance testing of the Fast Flux Test Facility main heat transport piping

  15. Floor Vibrations - as Induced and Reduced by Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    . As for dynamic loads focus is placed on heel impact excitation and actions of jumping people causing floor vibrations. As for interaction between stationary humans and the vibrating floor focus is on modelling humans as oscillating spring-mass-damper systems attached to the floor rather than as simple added mass...

  16. Vibrational frame transformation for electron-molecule scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, C.H.; Jungen, C.

    1985-01-01

    The frame-transformation theory of electron interaction with a vibrating diatomic core is extended to allow for energy dependence of its parameters. The Born-Oppenheimer separation of electron and nuclear motion is preserved when the electron penetrates the molecular core. The extended theory reproduces the boomerang-model treatment of vibrational excitation in resonant e-N 2 collisions

  17. Large amplitude forced vibration analysis of cross-beam system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Large amplitude forced vibration behaviour of cross-beam system under harmonic excitation is studied, incorporating the effect of geometric non-linearity. The forced vibration analysis is carried out in an indirect way, in which the dynamic system is assumed to satisfy the force equilibrium condition at peak load value, thus ...

  18. The nongenotoxic carcinogens naphthalene and para-dichlorobenzene suppress apoptosis in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokel, David; Li, Yehua; Qin, Jun; Xue, Ding

    2006-06-01

    Naphthalene (1) and para-dichlorobenzene (PDCB, 2), which are widely used as moth repellents and air fresheners, cause cancer in rodents and are potential human carcinogens. However, their mechanisms of action remain unclear. Here we describe a novel method for delivering and screening hydrophobic chemicals in C. elegans and apply this technique to investigate the ways in which naphthalene and PDCB may promote tumorigenesis in mammals. We show that naphthalene and PDCB inhibit apoptosis in C. elegans, a result that suggests a cellular mechanism by which these chemicals may promote the survival and proliferation of latent tumor cells. In addition, we find that a naphthalene metabolite directly inactivates caspases by oxidizing the active site cysteine residue; this suggests a molecular mechanism by which these chemicals suppress apoptosis. Naphthalene and PDCB are the first small-molecule apoptosis inhibitors identified in C. elegans. The power of C. elegans molecular genetics, in combination with the possibility of carrying out large-scale chemical screens in this organism, makes C. elegans an attractive and economic animal model for both toxicological studies and drug screens.

  19. Phenazine–naphthalene-1,5-diamine–water (1/1/2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gdaniec

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C12H8N2·C10H10N2·2H2O, contains one half-molecule of phenazine, one half-molecule of naphthalene-1,5-diamine and one water molecule. The phenazine and naphthalene-1,5-diamine molecules are located on inversion centers. The water molecules serve as bridges between the naphthalene-1,5-diamine molecules and also between the naphthalene-1,5-diamine and phenazine molecules. The naphthalene-1,5-diamine and water molecules are connected via N—H...O and O—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming a T4(2 motif. They are arranged into a two-dimensional polymeric structure parallel to (10overline{1} in which the water molecule is a single donor and a double acceptor, whereas the amino group is a double donor and a single acceptor in the hydrogen bonding. These two-dimensional assemblies alternate with the layers of phenazine molecules arranged into a herringbone motif. Each phenazine molecule is hydrogen bonded to two water molecules and thus a three-dimensional framework of hydrogen-bonded molecules is generated.

  20. Characterization of model peptide adducts with reactive metabolites of naphthalene by mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie T Pham

    Full Text Available Naphthalene is a volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon generated during combustion and is a ubiquitous chemical in the environment. Short term exposures of rodents to air concentrations less than the current OSHA standard yielded necrotic lesions in the airways and nasal epithelium of the mouse, and in the nasal epithelium of the rat. The cytotoxic effects of naphthalene have been correlated with the formation of covalent protein adducts after the generation of reactive metabolites, but there is little information about the specific sites of adduction or on the amino acid targets of these metabolites. To better understand the chemical species produced when naphthalene metabolites react with proteins and peptides, we studied the formation and structure of the resulting adducts from the incubation of model peptides with naphthalene epoxide, naphthalene diol epoxide, 1,2-naphthoquinone, and 1,4-naphthoquinone using high resolution mass spectrometry. Identification of the binding sites, relative rates of depletion of the unadducted peptide, and selectivity of binding to amino acid residues were determined. Adduction occurred on the cysteine, lysine, and histidine residues, and on the N-terminus. Monoadduct formation occurred in 39 of the 48 reactions. In reactions with the naphthoquinones, diadducts were observed, and in one case, a triadduct was detected. The results from this model peptide study will assist in data interpretation from ongoing work to detect peptide adducts in vivo as markers of biologic effect.

  1. Sound and vibration sensitivity of VIIIth nerve fibers in the grassfrog, Rana temporaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Jørgensen, M B

    1996-01-01

    thresholds from 0.02 cm/s2. The sound and vibration sensitivity was compared for each fiber using the offset between the rate-level curves for sound and vibration stimulation as a measure of relative vibration sensitivity. When measured in this way relative vibration sensitivity decreases with frequency from......We have studied the sound and vibration sensitivity of 164 amphibian papilla fibers in the VIIIth nerve of the grassfrog, Rana temporaria. The VIIIth nerve was exposed using a dorsal approach. The frogs were placed in a natural sitting posture and stimulated by free-field sound. Furthermore......, the animals were stimulated with dorso-ventral vibrations, and the sound-induced vertical vibrations in the setup could be canceled by emitting vibrations in antiphase from the vibration exciter. All low-frequency fibers responded to both sound and vibration with sound thresholds from 23 dB SPL and vibration...

  2. Collective Quadrupole Excitations of Transactinide Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Zajac, K; Pomorski, K; Rohozinski, S G; Srebrny, J

    2003-01-01

    The quadrupole excitations of transuranic nuclei are described in the frame of the microscopic Bohr Hamiltonian modified by adding the coupling with the collective pairing vibrations. The energies of the states from the ground-state bands in U to No even-even isotopes as well as the B(E2) transition probabilities are reproduced within the model containing no adjustable parameters.

  3. Collective excitations in deformed alkali metal clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipparini, E.; Stringari, S.; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Povo

    1991-01-01

    A theoretical study of collective excitations in deformed metal clusters is presented. Sum rules are used to study the splittings of the dipole surface plasma resonance originating from the cluster deformation. The vibrating potential model is developed and used to predict the occurrence of a low lying collective mode of orbital magnetic nature. (orig.)

  4. Excited-state lifetimes of far-infrared collective modes in proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, A.; van der Meer, L.; Austin, R. H.

    2002-01-01

    Vibrational excitations of low frequency collective modes are essential for functionally important conformational transitions in proteins. Here we report the first direct measurement on the lifetime of vibrational excitations of the collective modes at 87 pm (115 cm(-1)) in bacteriorhodopsin, a

  5. Symmetry characterization of electrons and lattice excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schober H.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Symmetry concerns all aspects of a physical system from the electronic orbitals to structural and magnetic excitations. In this article we will try to elaborate the fundamental connection between symmetry and excitations. As excitations are manyfold in physical systems it is impossible to treat them exhaustively. We thus concentrate on the two topics of Bloch electrons and phonons. These two examples are complementary in the sense that Bloch electrons describe single particles in an external periodic potential while phonons exemplify a decoupled system of interacting particles. The way we develop the argument gives as by-product a short account of molecular orbitals and molecular vibrations.

  6. Removal effectiveness and mechanisms of naphthalene and heavy metals from artificially contaminated soil by iron chelate-activated persulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Dickson Y.S.; Lo, Irene M.C.

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness and mechanisms of naphthalene and metal removal from artificially contaminated soil by FeEDTA/FeEDDS-activated persulfate were investigated through batch experiments. Using FeEDTA-activated persulfate, higher naphthalene removal from the soil at 7 h was achieved (89%), compared with FeEDDS-activated persulfate (75%). The removal was mainly via the dissolution of naphthalene partitioned on mineral surfaces, followed by activated persulfate oxidation. Although EDDS is advantageous over EDTA in terms of biodegradability, it is not preferable for iron chelate-activated persulfate oxidation since persulfate was consumed to oxidize EDDS, resulting in persulfate inadequacy for naphthalene oxidation. Besides, 55 and 40% of naphthalene were removed by FeEDTA and FeEDDS alone, respectively. Particularly, 21 and 9% of naphthalene were degraded in the presence of FeEDTA and FeEDDS alone, respectively, which caused by electrons transfer among dissolved organic matter, Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ and naphthalene. Over 35, 36 and 45% of Cu, Pb and Zn were removed using FeEDTA/FeEDDS-activated persulfate. -- Highlights: ► FeEDTA/FeEDDS-activated persulfate oxidation removed PAH and heavy metal from soil. ► More naphthalene was removed by FeEDTA-activated persulfate compared to FeEDDS. ► Persulfate was consumed to oxidize EDDS in FeEDDS-activated persulfate oxidation. ► Metals can be extracted from soil by free EDTA/EDDS dissociated from FeEDTA/FeEDDS. ► Naphthalene oxidation can be induced by e − transfer among Fe 2+ , DOM and naphthalene. -- This study focuses on the potencies and mechanisms of naphthalene and metal removal from contaminated soil by FeEDTA/FeEDDS-activated persulfate

  7. Vibration Analysis of Beam and Block Precast Slab System due to Human Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chik, T. N. T.; Kamil, M. R. H.; Yusoff, N. A.

    2018-04-01

    Beam and block precast slabs system are very efficient which generally give maximum structural performance where their voids based on the design of the unit soffit block allow a significant reduction of the whole slab self-weight. Initially for some combinations of components or the joint connection of the structural slab, this structural system may be susceptible to excessive vibrations that could effects the performance and also serviceability. Dynamic forces are excited from people walking and jumping which produced vibrations to the slab system in the buildings. Few studies concluded that human induced vibration on precast slabs system may be harmful to structural performance and mitigate the human comfort level. This study will investigate the vibration analysis of beam and block precast slab by using finite element method at the school building. Human activities which are excited from jumping and walking will induce the vibrations signal to the building. Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) was used to measure the dynamic responses of slab towards the vibration sources. Five different points were assigned specifically where each of location will determine the behaviour of the entire slabs. The finite element analyses were developed in ABAQUS software and the data was further processed in MATLAB ModalV to assess the vibration criteria. The results indicated that the beam and block precast systems adequate enough to the vibration serviceability and human comfort criteria. The overall vibration level obtained was fell under VC-E curve which it is generally under the maximum permissible level of vibrations. The vibration level on the slab is acceptable within the limit that have been used by Gordon.

  8. MEASUREMENT OF HEMOGLOBIN AND ALBUMIN ADDUCTS OF NAPHTHALENE-1,2-OXIDE, 1,2-NAPHTHOQUINONE AND 1,4-NAPHTHOQUINONE AFTER ADMINISTRATION OF NAPHTHALENE TO F344 RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naphthalene-1,2-oxide (NPO), 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NPQ) and 1,4-naphthoquinone (1,4-NPQ) are the major metabolites of naphthalene that are thought to be responsible for the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of this chemical. We measured cysteinyl adducts of these metabolites in ...

  9. Magnetic excitations in thulium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Baca, J.A.; Nicklow, R.M.; Rhyne, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    We have performed inelastic neutron scattering measurements on a single crystal specimen of Tm at wavevectors rvec κ = (1,1, ζ) and (0,0,2 + ζ) (ζ = 0, hor-ellipsis, 1). Most of the measurements have been made at T = 5K, where Tm exhibits a seven layer ferrimagnetic-antiphase-domain structure (four moments up, parallel to the c-axis, followed by three moments down). At this temperature the excitation spectra consist of three peaks. The two lower energy excitations have been identified as originating from magneto-vibrational scattering from the TA phonon, while the higher energy excitation is magnetic and exhibits only a weak dispersion (between 8.3 and 9.6 meV). At T = 50K, a temperature at which the system exhibits a c-axis sinusoidally modulated structure, the magnetic mode shows significant softening and broadening. The magneto-vibrational scattering vanishes above the Neel temperature (T N = 58.5K) while the magnetic mode persists at least up to T = 70K. These results suggest that the Hamiltonian in this system is dominated by the crystal-field-anistropy energy, and that the exchange interaction is relatively weak. 9 refs., 2 figs

  10. [Characteristics of natural strains of naphthalene-utilizing bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchuk, A A; Vasilenko, S L; Bulyga, I M; Titok, M A; Thomas, K M

    2005-01-01

    Sixty-three strains of bacteria capable of utilizing naphthalene as the sole source of carbon and energy were isolated from 137 samples of soil taken in different sites in Belarus. All isolated bacteria contained extrachromosomal genetic elements of 45 to 150 kb in length. It was found that bacteria of 31 strains contained the IncP-9 incompatibility group plasmids, bacteria of one strain carried a plasmid containing replicons IncP-9 and IncP-7, and bacteria of 31 strains contained unidentified plasmids. Primary identification showed that the hosts of plasmids of naphthalene biodegradation are fluorescent bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas (P. putida and P. aeruginosa; a total of 47 strains) and unidentified nonfluorescent microorganisms (a total of 16 strains). In addition to the ability to utilize naphthalene, some strains exhibited the ability to stimulate the growth and development of the root system of Secale cereale.

  11. Physico-mechanical properties of naphthalene-acenaphthene eutectic system by different modes of solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.L.; Gupta, S.; Tandon, S.; Kant, R.

    2008-01-01

    Anisotropic crystal growth kinetics from compositional melts encompassing the entire naphthalene-acenaphthene eutectic system, evidentially, evinces the dislocation mechanism. Rheological properties of eutectic phase melts at different temperatures explore the occurrence of molecular interactions emanating molecular clusters, rich in one phase or the other, in the eutectic melt. Microscopic studies confirm the crystalline faceted-faceted structure of the naphthalene-acenaphthene eutectic system. Implicit in the present work is the concept of strength-growth relationship that follows an identical form of the Weibull probability distribution curve. The curve exhibits two cut-off points corresponding to a lower strength limit in the slow and fast growth regions, and an upper strength limit in the moderate growth region. Relational essence between microstructural parameters essentially structuring morphology and excess thermodynamic functions implicitly governing molten state of the naphthalene-acenaphthene eutectic system is extracted

  12. Vibrational enhancement of total breakup cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haftel, M.I.; Lim, T.K.

    1984-01-01

    This paper considers the role of multi-two-body bound states, namely vibrational excitations, on total three-body breakup cross-sections. Total cross-sections are usually easy to measure, and they play a fundamental role in chemical kinetics. (orig.)

  13. Design of a nonlinear torsional vibration absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Ammaar Bin

    Tuned mass dampers (TMD) utilizing linear spring mechanisms to mitigate destructive vibrations are commonly used in practice. A TMD is usually tuned for a specific resonant frequency or an operating frequency of a system. Recently, nonlinear vibration absorbers attracted attention of researchers due to some potential advantages they possess over the TMDs. The nonlinear vibration absorber, or the nonlinear energy sink (NES), has an advantage of being effective over a broad range of excitation frequencies, which makes it more suitable for systems with several resonant frequencies, or for a system with varying excitation frequency. Vibration dissipation mechanism in an NES is passive and ensures that there is no energy backflow to the primary system. In this study, an experimental setup of a rotational system has been designed for validation of the concept of nonlinear torsional vibration absorber with geometrically induced cubic stiffness nonlinearity. Dimensions of the primary system have been optimized so as to get the first natural frequency of the system to be fairly low. This was done in order to excite the dynamic system for torsional vibration response by the available motor. Experiments have been performed to obtain the modal parameters of the system. Based on the obtained modal parameters, the design optimization of the nonlinear torsional vibration absorber was carried out using an equivalent 2-DOF modal model. The optimality criterion was chosen to be maximization of energy dissipation in the nonlinear absorber attached to the equivalent 2-DOF system. The optimized design parameters of the nonlinear absorber were tested on the original 5-DOF system numerically. A comparison was made between the performance of linear and nonlinear absorbers using the numerical models. The comparison showed the superiority of the nonlinear absorber over its linear counterpart for the given set of primary system parameters as the vibration energy dissipation in the former is

  14. Hot Ground Vibration Tests

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ground vibration tests or modal surveys are routinely conducted to support flutter analysis for subsonic and supersonic vehicles. However, vibration testing...

  15. Non-linear excitation of gravitational radiation antennae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanism of non-linear excitation is proposed to explain observed excess noise in gravitational radiation antennae, driven by low frequency vibration. The mechanism is analogous to the excitation of a violin string by low frequency bowing. Numerical estimates for Weber bars suspended by cables are in good agreement with observations. (Auth.)

  16. Simple Excitation of Standing Waves in Rubber Bands and Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortel, Adolf

    2004-04-01

    Many methods to excite standing waves in strings, plates, membranes, rods, tubes, and soap bubbles have been described. Usually a loudspeaker or a vibrating reed is driven by the amplified output of an audio oscillator. A novel and simple method consists of using a tuning fork or a singing rod to excite transversal standing waves in stretched rubber membranes sprinkled with fine sand.

  17. Further studies of the thermal and photochemical diels-alder reactions of N-methyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (MeTAD) with naphthalene and some substituted naphthalenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton; Newton

    2000-05-19

    MeTAD thermally reacted with naphthalene (2) and methylated naphthalenes to give equilibrium mixtures of starting materials and [4 + 2] cycloadducts. Methyl substitution on the naphthalene ring generally increased both the amount of cycloadduct formed and the rate of cycloaddition relative to 2. The isolated cycloadducts were all thermally labile and quantitatively reverted to the parent naphthalene in the presence of 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene as a trap for liberated MeTAD. The rates of the cycloreversion reactions were affected by substitution patterns but not appreciably by solvent. A mechanism for the cycloaddition reaction is presented that proposes the involvement of a charge-transfer complex. Photochemically, MeTAD demonstrated lower regioselectivity in its reactions with substituted naphthalenes relative to the corresponding thermal reactions.

  18. Elastic and inelastic vibrational cross sections for positron scattering by carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenfen, W. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul, 85770-000, Realeza, Paraná (Brazil); Arretche, F., E-mail: fartch@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Michelin, S.E.; Mazon, K.T. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil)

    2015-11-01

    The vibrational cross sections of the CO molecule induced by positron impact is the focus of this work. The positron–molecule interaction is represented by the static potential plus a model potential designed to take into account the positron–target correlations. To calculate the vibrational cross sections, we applied the multichannel version of the continued fractions method in the close-coupling scheme. We present vibrational excitation cross sections and elastic ones, for the ground and excited vibrational states. The results are interpreted in terms of the vibrational coupling-scheme used in the scattering model.

  19. Flow-induced vibrations an engineering guide

    CERN Document Server

    Naudascher, Eduard

    2012-01-01

    Despite their variety, the vibration phenomena from many different engineering fields can be classified into a relatively few basic excitation mechanisms. The classification enables engineers to identify all possible sources of excitation in a given system and to assess potential dangers. This graduate-level text presents a synthesis of research results and practical experience from disparate fields in the form of engineering guidelines. It is particularly geared toward assessing the possible sources of excitation in a flow system, in identifying the actual danger spots, and in finding appropr

  20. Naphthalene Diels-Alder in a self-assembled molecular flask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Takashi; Horiuchi, Shinnosuke; Fujita, Makoto

    2010-03-10

    Despite its inertness toward pericyclic reactions under common conditions, naphthalenes readily undergo Diels-Alder reactions when coencapsulated with a suitable dienophile within the cavity of a self-assembled host. Localization of the reactant pair significantly reduces the entropic cost of the reaction, and preorganization within the host cavity controls both the regio- and stereoselectivity of the reaction: electronically disfavored exo adducts were obtained, and with substituted naphthalenes, the reaction takes place on the less electron-rich, unsubstituted ring. Our findings highlight the fact that judicious tuning of substrate size and shape within molecular flasks can unveil new and unusual reactivities for otherwise unreactive molecules.

  1. Synthesis of Optimal Isolation Systems of Hand-Transmitted Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Książek

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article a procedure is presented for the analytical synthesis of optimal vibration isolation for a hand-arm system subjected to stochastic excitation. A general approach is discussed for a selected vibration isolation criterion. The general procedure is illustrated by analytical examples for different hand-arm systems described by their driving-point impedances. The influence of particular forms of excitation and the structure of the vibroisolated hand-arm systems on the resultant vibration isolation is then discussed. Some numerical examples illustrating the procedure have also been included.

  2. Vibration monitoring and fault diagnostics of a thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, T.; Ghani, R.; Chohan, G.Y.; Amir, M.

    2003-01-01

    A thermal power plant was monitored from HP-turbine to the generator end. The vibration data at different plant locations was obtained with the help of a data collector/analyzer. The spectra of-all locations generate the symptoms for different problems of moderate and high vibration levels like bent shaft, misalignment in the exciter rotor and three couplings, mechanical looseness on generator and exciter sides. The possible causes of these faults are discussed on the basis of presented vibration spectra in this paper. The faults were later on rectified on the basis of this diagnostics. (author)

  3. Heavy atom vibrational modes and low-energy vibrational autodetachment in nitromethane anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Michael C.; Weber, J. Mathias; Baraban, Joshua H.; Matthews, Devin A.; Stanton, John F.

    2015-01-01

    We report infrared spectra of nitromethane anion, CH 3 NO 2 − , in the region 700–2150 cm −1 , obtained by Ar predissociation spectroscopy and electron detachment spectroscopy. The data are interpreted in the framework of second-order vibrational perturbation theory based on coupled-cluster electronic structure calculations. The modes in the spectroscopic region studied here are mainly based on vibrations involving the heavier atoms; this work complements earlier studies on nitromethane anion that focused on the CH stretching region of the spectrum. Electron detachment begins at photon energies far below the adiabatic electron affinity due to thermal population of excited vibrational states

  4. The vibrational spectrum of the atoms in the grain boundaries of nanocrystalline Pd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhr, U. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Wipf, H.; Hahn, H. [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany); Natter, H.; Hemperlmann, R. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (Germany); Andersen, K. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-09-01

    The vibrational excitations of the atoms in nanocrystalline Pd was investigated by neutron-time-of-flight spectroscopy. Hydrogen was used as a probe for the vibrations in the grain boundaries. The separation between the H and Pd vibrations was done by spin analysis. The results show that in the grain boundary the density of states of low energy excitations ({<=}5 meV) is drastically increased. (author) 3 figs., 3 refs.

  5. Theory of vibration protection

    CERN Document Server

    Karnovsky, Igor A

    2016-01-01

    This text is an advancement of the theory of vibration protection of mechanical systems with lumped and distributed parameters. The book offers various concepts and methods of solving vibration protection problems, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different methods, and the fields of their effective applications. Fundamental approaches of vibration protection, which are considered in this book, are the passive, parametric and optimal active vibration protection. The passive vibration protection is based on vibration isolation, vibration damping and dynamic absorbers. Parametric vibration protection theory is based on the Shchipanov-Luzin invariance principle. Optimal active vibration protection theory is based on the Pontryagin principle and the Krein moment method. The book also contains special topics such as suppression of vibrations at the source of their occurrence and the harmful influence of vibrations on humans. Numerous examples, which illustrate the theoretical ideas of each chapter, ar...

  6. Stick-Slip Analysis of a Drill String Subjected to Deterministic Excitation and Stochastic Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyuan Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a finite element model, this paper investigates the torsional vibration of a drill string under combined deterministic excitation and random excitation. The random excitation is caused by the random friction coefficients between the drill bit and the bottom of the hole and assumed as white noise. Simulation shows that the responses under random excitation become random too, and the probabilistic distribution of the responses at each discretized time instant is obtained. The two points, entering and leaving the stick stage, are examined with special attention. The results indicate that the two points become random under random excitation, and the distributions are not normal even when the excitation is assumed as Gaussian white noise.

  7. Vibrational and electronic spectroscopic studies of melatonin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurpreet; Abbas, J. M.; Dogra, Sukh Dev; Sachdeva, Ritika; Rai, Bimal; Tripathi, S. K.; Prakash, Satya; Sathe, Vasant; Saini, G. S. S.

    2014-01-01

    We report the infrared absorption and Raman spectra of melatonin recorded with 488 and 632.8 nm excitations in 3600-2700 and 1700-70 cm-1 regions. Further, we optimized molecular structure of the three conformers of melatonin within density functional theory calculations. Vibrational frequencies of all three conformers have also been calculated. Observed vibrational bands have been assigned to different vibrational motions of the molecules on the basis of potential energy distribution calculations and calculated vibrational frequencies. Observed band positions match well with the calculated values after scaling except Nsbnd H stretching mode frequencies. It is found that the observed and calculated frequencies mismatch of Nsbnd H stretching is due to intermolecular interactions between melatonin molecules.

  8. A Miniature Coupled Bistable Vibration Energy Harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, D; Arthur, D C; Beeby, S P

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the design and test of a miniature coupled bistable vibration energy harvester. Operation of a bistable structure largely depends on vibration amplitude rather than frequency, which makes it very promising for wideband vibration energy harvesting applications. A coupled bistable structure consists of a pair of mobile magnets that create two potential wells and thus the bistable phenomenon. It requires lower excitation to trigger bistable operation compared to conventional bistable structures. Based on previous research, this work focused on miniaturisation of the coupled bistable structure for energy harvesting application. The proposed bistable energy harvester is a combination of a Duffing's nonlinear structure and a linear assisting resonator. Experimental results show that the output spectrum of the miniature coupled bistable vibration energy harvester was the superposition of several spectra. It had a higher maximum output power and a much greater bandwidth compared to simply the Duffing's structure without the assisting resonator

  9. Vibrational and Rotational Energy Relaxation in Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jakob

    Vibrational and rotational energy relaxation in liquids are studied by means of computer simulations. As a precursor for studying vibrational energy relaxation of a solute molecule subsequent to the formation of a chemical bond, the validity of the classical Bersohn-Zewail model for describing......, the vibrational energy relaxation of I2 subsequent to photodissociation and recombination in CCl4 is studied using classical Molecular Dynamics simulations. The vibrational relaxation times and the time-dependent I-I pair distribution function are compared to new experimental results, and a qualitative agreement...... is found in both cases. Furthermore, the rotational energy relaxation of H2O in liquid water is studied via simulations and a power-and-work analysis. The mechanism of the energy transfer from the rotationally excited H2O molecule to its water neighbors is elucidated, i.e. the energy-accepting degrees...

  10. Two-phase flow induced parametric vibrations in structural systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Fumio

    1980-01-01

    This paper is divided into two parts concerning piping systems and a nuclear fuel pin system. The significant experimental results concerning the random vibration induced in an L-shaped pipe by air-water two-phase flow and the theoretical analysis of the vibration are described in the first part. It was clarified for the first time that the parametric excitation due to the periodic changes of system mass, centrifugal force and Coriolis force was the mechanism of exciting the vibration. Moreover, the experimental and theoretical analyses of the mechanism of exciting vibration by air-water two-phase flow in a straight, horizontal pipe were carried out, and the first natural frequency of the piping system was strongly related to the dominant frequency of void signals. The experimental results on the vibration of a nuclear fuel pin model in parallel air-water two-phase flow are reported in the latter part. The relations between vibrational strain variance and two-phase flow velocity or pressure fluctuation, and the frequency characteristics of vibrational strain variance were obtained. The theoretical analysis of the dynamic interaction between air-water two-phase flow and a fuel pin structure, and the vibrational instability of fuel pins in alternate air and water slugs or in large bubble flow are also reported. (Kako, I.)

  11. Vibrational lifetimes of protein amide modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, K.A.; Rella, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Measurement of the lifetimes of vibrational modes in proteins has been achieved with a single frequency infrared pump-probe technique using the Stanford Picosecond Free-electron Laser, These are the first direct measurements of vibrational dynamics in the polyamide structure of proteins. In this study, modes associated with the protein backbone are investigated. Results for the amide I band, which consists mainly of the stretching motion of the carbonyl unit of the amide linkage, show that relaxation from the first vibrational excited level (v=1) to the vibrational ground state (v=0) occurs within 1.5 picoseconds with apparent first order kinetics. Comparison of lifetimes for myoglobin and azurin, which have differing secondary structures, show a small but significant difference. The lifetime for the amide I band of myoglobin is 300 femtoseconds shorter than for azurin. Further measurements are in progress on other backbone vibrational modes and on the temperature dependence of the lifetimes. Comparison of vibrational dynamics for proteins with differing secondary structure and for different vibrational modes within a protein will lead to a greater understanding of energy transfer and dissipation in biological systems. In addition, these results have relevance to tissue ablation studies which have been conducted with pulsed infrared lasers. Vibrational lifetimes are necessary for calculating the rate at which the energy from absorbed infrared photons is converted to equilibrium thermal energy within the irradiated volume. The very fast vibrational lifetimes measured here indicate that mechanisms which involve direct vibrational up-pumping of the amide modes with consecutive laser pulses, leading to bond breakage or weakening, are not valid

  12. Laser diagnostics of high vibrational and rotational H2-states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosbach, Th.; Schulz-von der Gathen, V.; Doebele, H.F.

    2002-01-01

    We report on measurements of vibrational and rotational excited electronic-ground-state hydrogen molecules in a magnetic multipole plasma source by LIF with VUV radiation. The measurements are taken after rapid shut-off of the discharge current. Absolute level populations are obtained using Rayleigh scattering calibration with Krypton. The theoretically predicted suprathermal population of the vibrational distribution is clearly identified. We found also non-Boltzmann rotational distributions for the high vibrational states. The addition of noble gases (Argon and Xenon) to hydrogen leads to a decrease of the vibrational population. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Isotope separation process by transfer of vibrational energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelie, C.; Cauchetier, M.; Paris, J.

    1983-01-01

    This process consists in exciting A molecules by absorption of a pulsed light beam, then in exciting until their dissociation X molecules, present in several isotopic forms, by a vibrational transfer between the A molecules and the X molecules, the A molecules having a dissociation energy greater than that of the X molecules, the duration and energy of the light pulses being such that the absorption time by the A molecules is less than the excitation time of the X molecules and the temperature conditions such that the thermal width of the vibration rays is at the most near the isotopic difference between the resonance rays of the two isotopic varieties [fr

  14. Performance Analysis of a Hybrid One-Sided Magnetic Exciter Mounted on a Piezoelectric Stack

    OpenAIRE

    Nandi, A.; Neogy, S.

    2010-01-01

    The present work proposes a non-contact hybrid exciter especially useful for harmonic excitation of lightly damped structures/rotors. In the proposed exciter an electromagnet is placed on a piezoelectric stack and the extension of the piezoelectric stack is made almost equal to the displacement of the structure using a simple tracking control. This largely eliminates stiffness coupling between the structure/rotor and the exciter and non-linearity in the excitation force due to the vibration o...

  15. Effect of additional carbon source on naphthalene biodegradation by Pseudomonas putida G7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kangtaek; Park, Jin-Won; Ahn, Ik-Sung

    2003-01-01

    Addition of a carbon source as a nutrient into soil is believed to enhance in situ bioremediation by stimulating the growth of microorganisms that are indigenous to the subsurface and are capable of degrading contaminants. However, it may inhibit the biodegradation of organic contaminants and result in diauxic growth. The objective of this work is to study the effect of pyruvate as another carbon source on the biodegradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, naphthalene was used as a model PAH, ammonium sulfate as a nitrogen source, and oxygen as an electron acceptor. Pseudomonas putida G7 was used as a model naphthalene-degrading microorganism. From a chemostat culture, the growth kinetics of P. putida G7 on pyruvate was determined. At concentrations of naphthalene and pyruvate giving similar growth rates of P. putida G7, diauxic growth of P. putida G7 was not observed. It is suggested that pyruvate does not inhibit naphthalene biodegradation and can be used as an additional carbon source to stimulate the growth of P. putida G7 that can degrade polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons

  16. Preparation and Biological Properties of Ring-Substituted Naphthalene-1-Carboxanilides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goněc, T.; Kos, J.; Nevin, E.; Govender, R.; Peško, M.; Tengler, J.; Kushkevych, I.; Štastná, V.; Oravec, Michal; Kolař, P.; Mahony, J. O.; Králová, K.; Coffey, A.; Jampílek, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 7 (2014), s. 10386-10409 ISSN 1420-3049 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Naphthalene * lipophilicity * in vitro antimycobacterial activity * in vitro cytotoxicity * photosynthetic electron transport inhibition * spinach chloroplasts Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.416, year: 2014

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of the Model Naphthalene-Utilizing Organism Pseudomonas putida OUS82

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tay, Martin; Roizman, Dan; Cohen, Yehuda

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida OUS82 was isolated from petrol- and oil-contaminated soil in 1992, and ever since, it has been used as a model organism to study the microbial assimilation of naphthalene and phenanthrene. Here, we report the 6.7-Mb draft genome sequence of P. putida OUS82 and analyze its...

  18. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Evaluation of 1-[(2-Substituted phenylcarbamoyl]naphthalen-2-yl Carbamates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Gonec

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Series of thirteen 1-[(2-chlorophenylcarbamoyl]naphthalen-2-yl carbamates and thirteen 1-[(2-nitrophenylcarbamoyl]naphthalen-2-yl carbamates with alkyl/cycloalkyl/arylalkyl chains were prepared and characterized. Primary in vitro screening of the synthesized compounds was performed against Staphylococcus aureus, two methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains, Mycobacterium marinum, and M. kansasii. 1-[(2-Chlorophenylcarbamoyl]naphthalen-2-yl ethylcarbamate and 1-[(2-nitrophenylcarbamoyl]naphthalen-2-yl ethylcarbamate showed antistaphylococcal (MICs = 42 µM against MRSA and antimycobacterial (MICs = 21 µM activity against the tested strains comparable with or higher than that of the standards ampicillin and isoniazid. In the case of bulkier carbamate tails (R > propyl/isopropyl, the activity was similar (MICs ca. 70 µM. Screening of the cytotoxicity of both of the most effective compounds was performed using THP-1 cells, and no significant lethal effect was observed (LD50 >30 µM. The structure-activity relationships are discussed.

  19. Simultaneous solid phase extraction of cobalt, strontium and cesium from liquid radioactive waste using microcrystalline naphthalene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamed, Mostafa Mohamed; Attallah, Mohamed Fathy; Metwally, Sayed Sayed

    2014-01-01

    Most of the procedures developed for the extraction of cobalt, strontium and cesium by solid phase extraction do not employ simultaneous extraction of them. In this study, rapid simultaneous removal of Co 2+ , Sr 2+ and Cs + on microcrystalline naphthalene as solid-phase extractant was investigated. These ions were allowed to form chelates with oxine and then adsorbed on freshly microcrystalline naphthalene from aqueous solutions. The solid phase extraction procedure (SPE) was optimized by using model solution containing Co 2+ , Sr 2+ and Cs + in batch system. The effects of different parameters such as variation in pH, reagent concentration, standing time, naphthalene solution concentration and contact time on the simultaneous removal of these ions was studied. The obtained results indicated that, sorption was found to be rapid, and the percentage removal of Co 2+ , Sr 2+ and Cs + was found to be 98, 79 and 68% within 10 min, respectively. The kinetics of the sorption process was investigated to understand the kinetic characteristics of sorption of metal chelates onto microcrystalline naphthalene. The developed procedure has been successfully applied to the removal and recovery of 60 Co and 134 Cs from liquid radioactive waste. The parameters can be used for designing a plant for treatment of wastewater economically.

  20. Evaluation of Aero Commander sidewall vibration and interior acoustic data: Static operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersol, A. G.; Wilby, E. G.; Wilby, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    Results for the vibration measured at five locations on the fuselage structure during static operations are presented. The analysis was concerned with the magnitude of the vibration and the relative phase between different locations, the frequency response (inertance) functions between the exterior pressure field and the vibration, and the coherent output power functions at interior microphone locations based on sidewall vibration. Fuselage skin panels near the plane of rotation of the propeller accept propeller noise excitation more efficiently than they do exhaust noise.

  1. CRBRP flow induced vibration program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novendstern, E H [Westinghouse Advanced Reactor Division, Madison, PA (United States); Grochowski, F A; Yang, T M [General Electric Co., Fast Breeder Reactor Department, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Ryan, J A; Mulcahy, T M

    1977-12-01

    The program to assure the structural adequacy of Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBRP) components during its planned 30 years of operation is described. The program includes (1) an assessment of reactor components relative to their susceptibility to FIV, (2) designing to minimize component excitation due to Fluid induced vibrations (FIV), (3) scale model tests to measure structural response during simulated operating conditions and (4) preoperational tests. An overview of the CRBRP test program is described. Additionally, details of scale model testing of reactor internals and the steam generator is described in more detail. (author)

  2. Rotational-vibrational states of nonaxial deformable even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porodzinskii, Yu.V.; Sukhovitskii, E.Sh.

    1991-01-01

    The rotational-vibrational excitations of nonaxial even-even nuclei are studied on the basis of a Hamiltonian operator with five dynamical variables. Explicit forms of the wave functions and energies of the rotational-vibrational excitations of such nuclei are obtained. The experimental energies of excited positive-parity states of the 238 U nucleus and those calculated in terms of the model discussed in the article are compared

  3. Vibration of machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Mun Gyu; Na, Sung Su; Baek, Gwang Hyeon; Song, Chul Gi; Han, Sang Bo

    2001-09-01

    This book deals with vibration of machine which gives descriptions of free vibration using SDOF system, forced vibration using SDOF system, vibration of multi-degree of freedom system like introduction and normal form, distribution system such as introduction, free vibration of bar and practice problem, approximate solution like lumped approximations and Raleigh's quotient, engineering by intuition and experience, real problem and experimental method such as technology of signal, fourier transform analysis, frequency analysis and sensor and actuator.

  4. A study of the homogeneous stages in the catalytic oxidation of naphthalene, o-xylene, and benzene over a vibratory-fluidized catalyst bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korneichuk, G P; Stasevich, V P; Shaprinskaya, T M; Girushtin, G G; Gritsenko, V I; Zelenchukova, T G

    1978-01-01

    To identify the conditions for minimizing homogeneous states, the reaction kinetics were studied in a vibrating gradientless quartz reactor both in the presence and absence of the catalyst. A tenfold decrease of the reactional space in the absence of catalyst inhibited the oxidation (e.g., from a 68% conversion to 10% at 500/sup 0/C for o-xylene, and from 100% to 2% at 580/sup 0/C for benzene), whereas increasing the surface-volume ratio of the reactor increased the oxidation rate for benzene, which indicated that noncatalytic oxidation follows a radical-chain mechanism and involves both homogeneous (mainly) and heterogeneous stages. Catalytic oxidation carried out in a small volume (to avoid the homogeneous states) followed a heterogeneous mechanism up to 580/sup 0/C for naphthalene and o-xylene, and up to 550/sup 0/C for benzene. At higher temperatures, however, volume oxidation of benzene to carbon oxides was detected, which was favored by intense reactor vibration (i.e., increasing free space between catalyst grains), constituted 27% at 564/sup 0/C and 40% at 584/sup 0/C, and probably followed a heterogeneous-homogeneous mechanism. The partial oxidation products (i.e., phthalic and (for benzene) maleic anhydride) formed entirely by a heterogeneous mechanism. Tables and graphs.

  5. Enhanced vibration diagnostics using vibration signature analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.; Shehzad, K.; Zahoor, Y.; Mahmood, A.; Bibi, A.

    2001-01-01

    Symptoms will appear in equipment, as well as in human beings. when 'suffering from sickness. Symptoms of abnormality in equipment are vibration, noise, deformation, temperature, pressure, electric current, crack, wearing, leakage etc. these are called modes of failure. If the mode of failure is vibration then the vibration signature analysis can be effectively used in order to diagnose the machinery problems. Much valuable information is contained within these vibration 'Spectra' or 'Signatures' but is only of use if the analyst can unlock its 'Secrets'. This paper documents a vibration problem in the motor of a centrifugal pump (Type ETA). It focuses mainly on the roll of modern vibration monitoring system in problem analysis. The problem experienced was the motor unstability and noise due to high vibration. Using enhanced vibration signature data, the problem was analyzed. which suggested that the rotor eccentricity was the cause of excessive noise and vibration in the motor. In conclusion, advanced electronic monitoring and diagnostic systems provide powerful information for machine's condition assessment and problem analysis. Appropriate interpretation and use of this information is important for accurate and effective vibration analysis. (author)

  6. Free flow electrophoresis separation and AMS quantitation of 14C-naphthalene-protein adducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, Bruce A.; Haack, Kurt W.; Sporty, Jennifer L.; Buckpitt, Alan R.; Morin, Dexter

    2010-01-01

    Naphthalene is a volatile aromatic hydrocarbon to which humans are exposed from a variety of sources including mobile air sources and cigarette smoke. Naphthalene produces dose-(concentration)dependent injury to airway epithelial cells of murine lung which is observed at concentrations well below the current occupational exposure standard. Toxicity is dependent upon the cytochrome P450 mediated metabolic activation of the parent substrate to unstable metabolites which become bound covalently to tissue proteins. Nearly 70 proteins have been identified as forming adducts with reactive naphthalene metabolites using in vitro systems but very little work has been conducted in vivo because reasonably large amounts (100 μCi) of 14 C labeled parent compound must be administered to generate detectable adduct levels on storage phosphor screens following separation of labeled proteins by 2D gel electrophoresis. The work described here was done to provide proof of concept that protein separation by free flow electrophoresis followed by AMS detection of protein fractions containing protein bound reactive metabolites would provide adducted protein profiles in animals dosed with trace quantities of labeled naphthalene. Mice were administered 200 mg/kg naphthalene intraperitoneally at a calculated specific activity of 2 DPM/nmol (1 pCi/nmol) and respiratory epithelial tissue was obtained by lysis lavage 4 h post injection. Free flow electrophoresis (FFE) separates proteins in the liquid phase over a large pH range (2.5-11.5) using low molecular weight acids and bases to modify the pH. The apparatus separates fractions into standard 96-well plates that can be used in other protein analysis techniques. The buffers of the fractions have very high carbon content, however, and need to be dialyzed to yield buffers compatible with 14 C-AMS. We describe the processing techniques required to couple FFE to AMS for quantitation of protein adducts.

  7. Free flow electrophoresis separation and AMS quantitation of 14C-naphthalene-protein adducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Bruce A.; Haack, Kurt W.; Sporty, Jennifer L.; Buckpitt, Alan R.; Morin, Dexter

    2010-04-01

    Naphthalene is a volatile aromatic hydrocarbon to which humans are exposed from a variety of sources including mobile air sources and cigarette smoke. Naphthalene produces dose-(concentration)dependent injury to airway epithelial cells of murine lung which is observed at concentrations well below the current occupational exposure standard. Toxicity is dependent upon the cytochrome P450 mediated metabolic activation of the parent substrate to unstable metabolites which become bound covalently to tissue proteins. Nearly 70 proteins have been identified as forming adducts with reactive naphthalene metabolites using in vitro systems but very little work has been conducted in vivo because reasonably large amounts (100 μCi) of 14C labeled parent compound must be administered to generate detectable adduct levels on storage phosphor screens following separation of labeled proteins by 2D gel electrophoresis. The work described here was done to provide proof of concept that protein separation by free flow electrophoresis followed by AMS detection of protein fractions containing protein bound reactive metabolites would provide adducted protein profiles in animals dosed with trace quantities of labeled naphthalene. Mice were administered 200 mg/kg naphthalene intraperitoneally at a calculated specific activity of 2 DPM/nmol (1 pCi/nmol) and respiratory epithelial tissue was obtained by lysis lavage 4 h post injection. Free flow electrophoresis (FFE) separates proteins in the liquid phase over a large pH range (2.5-11.5) using low molecular weight acids and bases to modify the pH. The apparatus separates fractions into standard 96-well plates that can be used in other protein analysis techniques. The buffers of the fractions have very high carbon content, however, and need to be dialyzed to yield buffers compatible with 14C-AMS. We describe the processing techniques required to couple FFE to AMS for quantitation of protein adducts.

  8. Free flow electrophoresis separation and AMS quantitation of {sup 14}C-naphthalene-protein adducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, Bruce A., E-mail: bbuchholz@llnl.go [Center for AMS, LLNL, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Haack, Kurt W.; Sporty, Jennifer L. [Center for AMS, LLNL, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Buckpitt, Alan R.; Morin, Dexter [Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Naphthalene is a volatile aromatic hydrocarbon to which humans are exposed from a variety of sources including mobile air sources and cigarette smoke. Naphthalene produces dose-(concentration)dependent injury to airway epithelial cells of murine lung which is observed at concentrations well below the current occupational exposure standard. Toxicity is dependent upon the cytochrome P450 mediated metabolic activation of the parent substrate to unstable metabolites which become bound covalently to tissue proteins. Nearly 70 proteins have been identified as forming adducts with reactive naphthalene metabolites using in vitro systems but very little work has been conducted in vivo because reasonably large amounts (100 muCi) of {sup 14}C labeled parent compound must be administered to generate detectable adduct levels on storage phosphor screens following separation of labeled proteins by 2D gel electrophoresis. The work described here was done to provide proof of concept that protein separation by free flow electrophoresis followed by AMS detection of protein fractions containing protein bound reactive metabolites would provide adducted protein profiles in animals dosed with trace quantities of labeled naphthalene. Mice were administered 200 mg/kg naphthalene intraperitoneally at a calculated specific activity of 2 DPM/nmol (1 pCi/nmol) and respiratory epithelial tissue was obtained by lysis lavage 4 h post injection. Free flow electrophoresis (FFE) separates proteins in the liquid phase over a large pH range (2.5-11.5) using low molecular weight acids and bases to modify the pH. The apparatus separates fractions into standard 96-well plates that can be used in other protein analysis techniques. The buffers of the fractions have very high carbon content, however, and need to be dialyzed to yield buffers compatible with {sup 14}C-AMS. We describe the processing techniques required to couple FFE to AMS for quantitation of protein adducts.

  9. Nonlinear Dynamical Analysis for the Cable Excited with Parametric and Forced Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Z. Qian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the deck vibration effect on the cable in cable-stayed bridge, using nonlinear structure dynamics theory, the nonlinear dynamical equation for the stayed cable excited with deck vibration is proposed. Research shows that the vertical vibration of the deck has a combined parametric and forced excitation effect on the cable when the angle of the cable is taken into consideration. Using multiscale method, the 1/2 principle parametric resonance is studied and the bifurcation equation is obtained. Despite the parameters analysis, the bifurcation characters of the dynamical system are studied. At last, by means of numerical method and software MATHMATIC, the effect rules of system parameters to the dynamical behavior of the system are studied, and some useful conclusions are obtained.

  10. Spectroscopic properties of the S1 state of linear carotenoids after excess energy excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Valentyna; Southall, June; Cogdell, Richard J.; Fuciman, Marcel; Polívka, Tomáš

    2017-09-01

    Properties of the S1 state of neurosporene, spheroidene and lycopene were studied after excess energy excitation in the S2 state. Excitation of carotenoids into higher vibronic levels of the S2 state generates excess vibrational energy in the S1 state. The vibrationally hot S1 state relaxes faster when carotenoid is excited into the S2 state with excess energy, but the S1 lifetime remains constant regardless of which vibronic level of the S2 state is excited. The S∗ signal depends on excitation energy only for spheroidene, which is likely due to asymmetry of the molecule, facilitating conformations responsible for the S∗ signal.

  11. Separation of uranium(VI) by liquid-solid extraction with tri-n-octylphosphine oxide diluted with naphthalene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigetomi, Y.; Kojima, T.; Kamba, H.; Yamamoto, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Liquid-liquid distribution with tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) and molten naphthalene has been investigated for the extraction of 20 metals from nitric acid and hydrochloric acid solutions. Uranium is quantitatively extracted from 1 M nitric acid or hydrochloric acid by using 100 mg of TOPO and 200 mg of naphthalene and shaking for 5 min at 80 0 C, and separated from transition metals, alkaline earth metals and rare earth metals (except scandium). Addition of naphthalene increases the extraction efficiency. (Auth.)

  12. Polymers for organic photovoltaics based on 1,5-bis(2-hexyldecyloxy)-naphthalene, thiophene, and benzothiadiazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Jon Eggert; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Krebs, Frederik C

    2011-01-01

    Two new conjugated polymers consisting of the donors 1,5-bis(2-hexyldecyloxy)naphthalene, thiophene, or bithiophene and the acceptor benzothiadiazole has been synthesized and their optical and photovoltaic properties have been characterized. The two polymers were compared with earlier synthesized...... and characterized polymers containing benzene instead of naphthalene. The two polymers absorb light in the visible spectrum (400 to 700 nm). The naphthalene containing polymers had blueshifted absorption spectra compared to the benzene containing polymers and also higher band gaps. In photovoltaic devices...

  13. Ultrafast excited state relaxation in long-chain polyenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antognazza, Maria Rosa; Lueer, Larry; Polli, Dario; Christensen, Ronald L.; Schrock, Richard R.; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Cerullo, Giulio

    2010-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Excited state dynamics of a long-chain polyene studied by femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. - Abstract: We present a comprehensive study, by femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy, of excited state dynamics in a polyene that approaches the infinite chain limit. By excitation with sub-10-fs pulses resonant with the 0-0 S 0 → S 2 transition, we observe rapid loss of stimulated emission from the bright excited state S 2 , followed by population of the hot S 1 state within 150 fs. Vibrational cooling of S 1 takes place within 500 fs and is followed by decay back to S 0 with 1 ps time constant. By excitation with excess vibrational energy we also observe the ultrafast formation of a long-living absorption, that is assigned to the triplet state generated by singlet fission.

  14. Comparative studies of perceived vibration strength for commercial mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heow Pueh; Lim, Siak Piang

    2014-05-01

    A mobile phone, also known as cell phone or hand phone, is among the most popular electrical devices used by people all over the world. The present study examines the vibration perception of mobile phones by co-relating the relevant design parameters such as excitation frequency, and size and mass of mobile phones to the vibration perception survey by volunteers. Five popular commercially available mobile phone models were tested. The main findings for the perception surveys were that higher vibration frequency and amplitude of the peak acceleration would result in stronger vibration perception of the mobile phones. A larger contact surface area with the palms and figures, higher peak acceleration and the associated larger peak inertia force may be the main factors for the relatively higher vibration perception. The future design for the vibration alert of the mobile phones is likely to follow this trend. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Videometrics-based Detection of Vibration Linearity in MEMS Gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhou

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available MEMS gyroscope performs as a sort of sensor to detect angular velocity, with diverse applications in engineering including vehicle and intelligent traffic etc. A balanced vibration of driving module excited by electrostatic driving signal is the base MEMS gyroscope's performance. In order to analyze the linear property of vibration in MEMS Gyroscope, a method of computer vision measuring is applied with the help of high-speed vidicon to obtain video of linear vibration of driving module in gyroscope, under the driving voltage signal of inherent frequency and amplitude linearly increasing. By means of image processing, target identifying, and motion parameter extracting from the obtained video, vibration curve with time variation is acquired. And then, linearity of this vibration system can be analyzed by focusing on the amplitude value of vibration responding to the amplitude variation of driving voltage signal.

  16. [Occupational standing vibration rate and vibrational diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnaukh, N G; Vyshchipan, V F; Haumenko, B S

    2003-12-01

    Occupational standing vibration rate is proposed in evaluating a degree of impairment of an organism activity. It will allow more widely to introduce specification of quality and quantity in assessment of the development of vibrational disease. According out-patient and inpatient obtained data we have established criterial values of functional changes in accordance with accumulated occupational standing vibration rate. The nomogram was worked out for defining a risk of the development of vibrational disease in mine workers. This nomogram more objectively can help in diagnostics of the disease.

  17. Piping vibrations measured during FFTF startup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.

    1981-03-01

    An extensive vibration survey was conducted on the Fast Flux Test Facility piping during the plant acceptance test program. The purpose was to verify that both mechanical and flow induced vibration amplitudes were of sufficiently low level so that pipe and pipe support integrity would not be compromised over the plant design lifetime. Excitation sources included main heat transport sodium pumps, reciprocating auxiliary system pumps, EM pumps, and flow oscillations. Pipe sizes varied from one-inch to twenty-eight-inches in diameter. This paper describes the test plan; the instrumentation and procedures utilized; and the test results

  18. Study on infrared multiphoton excitation of the linear triatomic molecule by the Lie-algebra approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, H.; Zheng, Y.; Ding, S.

    2007-01-01

    Infrared multiphoton vibrational excitation of the linear triatomic molecule has been studied using the quadratic anharmonic Lie-algebra model, unitary transformations, and Magnus approximation. An explicit Lie-algebra expression for the vibrational transition probability is obtained by using a Lie-algebra approach. This explicit Lie-algebra expressions for time-evolution operator and vibrational transition probabilities make the computation clearer and easier. The infrared multiphoton vibrational excitation of the DCN linear tri-atomic molecule is discussed as an example

  19. Electron-impact excitation of molecular ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neufeld, D.A.; Dalgarno, A.

    1989-01-01

    A simple expression is derived that relates the rate coefficient for dipole-allowed electron-impact excitation of a molecular ion in the Coulomb-Born approximation to the Einstein A coefficient for the corresponding radiative decay. Results are given for several molecular ions of astrophysical interest. A general analytic expression is obtained for the equilibrium rotational level populations in the ground vibrational state of any molecular ion excited by collisions with electrons. The expression depends only upon the electron temperature, the electron density, and the rotational constant of the molecular ion. A similar expression is obtained for neutral polar molecules

  20. Low-frequency excitations in zirconium hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radulescu, A.; Padureanu, I.; Rapeanu, S.N.; Beldiman, A.; Kozlov, Zh.A.; Semenov, V.A.

    1999-01-01

    The slow inelastic neutron scattering (INS) on ZrH x systems (x = 0.38, 0.52) revealed new excitations located within the energy range 2-10 MeV. Besides the acoustic vibrations specific to α-HCP Zr and γ-FCO Zr hydride the fine structure of these excitations is clearly observed. The origin of the new observed peaks is not very clear but a proton tunneling or a resonance effect in α-Zr lattice could be taken into account

  1. Broadband Vibration Attenuation Using Hybrid Periodic Rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Asiri

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents both theoretically and experimentally a new kind of a broadband vibration isolator. It is a table-like system formed by four parallel hybrid periodic rods connected between two plates. The rods consist of an assembly of periodic cells, each cell being composed of a short rod and piezoelectric inserts. By actively controlling the piezoelectric elements, it is shown that the periodic rods can efficiently attenuate the propagation of vibration from the upper plate to the lower one within critical frequency bands and consequently minimize the effects of transmission of undesirable vibration and sound radiation. In such a system, longitudinal waves can propagate from the vibration source in the upper plate to the lower one along the rods only within specific frequency bands called the "Pass Bands" and wave propagation is efficiently attenuated within other frequency bands called the "Stop Bands". The spectral width of these bands can be tuned according to the nature of the external excitation. The theory governing the operation of this class of vibration isolator is presented and their tunable filtering characteristics are demonstrated experimentally as functions of their design parameters. This concept can be employed in many applications to control the wave propagation and the force transmission of longitudinal vibrations both in the spectral and spatial domains in an attempt to stop/attenuate the propagation of undesirable disturbances.

  2. Data of piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting of a bridge undergoing vibration testing and train passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Cahill

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article is in relation to the research article “Vibration energy harvesting based monitoring of an operational bridge undergoing forced vibration and train passage” Cahill et al. (2018 [1]. The article provides data on the full-scale bridge testing using piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters on Pershagen Bridge, Sweden. The bridge is actively excited via a swept sinusoidal input. During the testing, the bridge remains operational and train passages continue. The test recordings include the voltage responses obtained from the vibration energy harvesters during these tests and train passages. The original dataset is made available to encourage the use of energy harvesting for Structural Health Monitoring.

  3. Nicholas reactions in the construction of cyclohepta[de]naphthalenes and cyclohepta[de]naphthalenones. The total synthesis of microstegiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taj, Rafiq A; Green, James R

    2010-12-03

    The application of the Nicholas reaction chemistry of 2,7-dioxygenated naphthalenes in the synthesis of cyclohepta[de]napthalenes and in the synthesis of (±)-microstegiol (1) is presented. The substitution profile of Nicholas monosubstitution (predominantly C-1) and disubstitution reactions (predominantly 1,6-) on 2,7-dioxygenated napthalenes is reported. Application of a 1,8-dicondensation product and selected C-1 monocondensation products to the construction of cyclohepta[de]naphthalenes by way of ring closing metathesis and intramolecular Friedel-Crafts reactions, respectively, is described. Deprotection of the C-7 oxygen function to the corresponding naphthol allows tautomerization to cyclohepta[de]naphthalene-1-ones upon seven-membered-ring closure in most cases, and replacement of the C-2 oxygen function in the naphthalene by a methyl group ultimately allows the synthesis of (±)-microstegiol.

  4. Enhancement of the vibration stability of a microdiffraction goniometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. H.; Preissner, C.; Lai, B.; Cai, Z.; Shu, D.

    2002-01-01

    High-precision instrumentation, such as that for x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopy, and other optical micropositioning systems, requires the stability that comes from vibration-isolated support structures. Structure-born vibrations impede the acquisition of accurate experimental data through such high-precision instruments. At the Advanced Photon Source, a multiaxis goniometer is installed in the 2-ID-D station for synchrotron microdiffraction investigations. However, ground vibration can excite the kinematic movements of the goniometer linkages, resulting in critically contaminated experimental data. In this paper, the vibration behavior of the goniometer has been considered. Experimental vibration measurements were conducted to define the present vibration levels and determine the threshold sensitivity of the equipment. In addition, experimental modal tests were conducted and used to guide an analytical finite element analysis. Both results were used for finding the best way to reduce the vibration levels and to develop a vibration damping/isolation structure for the 2-ID-D goniometer. The device that was designed and tested could be used to reduce local vibration levels for the vibration isolation of similar high-precision instruments

  5. Nonlinear dynamic analysis of 2-DOF nonlinear vibration isolation floating raft systems with feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yingli; Xu Daolin; Fu Yiming; Zhou Jiaxi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the average method is adopted to analysis dynamic characteristics of nonlinear vibration isolation floating raft system with feedback control. The analytic results show that the purposes of reducing amplitude of oscillation and complicating the motion can be achieved by adjusting properly the system parameters, exciting frequency and control gain. The conclusions can provide some available evidences for the design and improvement of both the passive and active control of the vibration isolation systems. By altering the exciting frequency and control gain, complex motion of the system can be obtained. Numerical simulations show the system exhibits period vibration, double period vibration and quasi-period motion.

  6. Flow-induced vibration of helical coil compression springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, F.E.; King, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Helical coil compression springs are used in some nuclear fuel assembly designs to maintain holddown and to accommodate thermal expansion. In the reactor environment, the springs are exposed to flowing water, elevated temperatures and pressures, and irradiation. Flow parallel to the longitudinal axis of the spring may excite the spring coils and cause vibration. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the flow-induced vibration (FIV) response characteristics of the helical coil compression springs. Experimental tests indicate that a helical coil spring responds like a single circular cylinder in cross-flow. Two FIV excitation mechanisms control spring vibration. Namely: 1) Turbulent Buffeting causes small amplitude vibration which increases as a function of velocity squared. 2) Vortex Shedding causes large amplitude vibration when the spring natural frequency and Strouhal frequency coincide. Several methods can be used to reduce or to prevent vortex shedding large amplitude vibrations. One method is compressing the spring to a coil pitch-to-diameter ratio of 2 thereby suppressing the vibration amplitude. Another involves modifying the spring geometry to alter its stiffness and frequency characteristics. These changes result in separation of the natural and Strouhal frequencies. With an understanding of how springs respond in the flowing water environment, the spring physical parameters can be designed to avoid large amplitude vibration. (orig.)

  7. Dynamical analysis of highly excited molecular spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellman, M.E. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is new methods for analysis of spectra and dynamics of highly excited vibrational states of molecules. In these systems, strong mode coupling and anharmonicity give rise to complicated classical dynamics, and make the simple normal modes analysis unsatisfactory. New methods of spectral analysis, pattern recognition, and assignment are sought using techniques of nonlinear dynamics including bifurcation theory, phase space classification, and quantization of phase space structures. The emphasis is chaotic systems and systems with many degrees of freedom.

  8. Controlled shift in the tautomeric equilibrium of 4-​((phenylimino)​methyl)​naphthalen-​1-​ol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamounah, Fadhil S.; Deneva, V; Manolova, y

    2013-01-01

    -​((Phenylimino)​methyl)​naphthalen-​1-​ol and 4-​((phenylimino)​methyl)​-​2-​(piperidin-​1-​ylmethyl)​naphthalen-​1-​ol have been synthesized and their tautomeric properties were investigated using mol. spectroscopy (UV-​vis absorption​/emission and NMR)​, X-​ray crystallog. anal. and quantum-​c...

  9. Adsorption of naphthalene and ozone on atmospheric air/ice interfaces coated with surfactants: a molecular simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyana-Arachchi, Thilanga P; Valsaraj, Kalliat T; Hung, Francisco R

    2012-03-15

    The adsorption of gas-phase naphthalene and ozone molecules onto air/ice interfaces coated with different surfactant species (1-octanol, 1-hexadecanol, or 1-octanal) was investigated using classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Naphthalene and ozone exhibit a strong preference to be adsorbed at the surfactant-coated air/ice interfaces, as opposed to either being dissolved into the bulk of the quasi-liquid layer (QLL) or being incorporated into the ice crystals. The QLL becomes thinner when the air/ice interface is coated with surfactant molecules. The adsorption of both naphthalene and ozone onto surfactant-coated air/ice interfaces is enhanced when compared to bare air/ice interface. Both naphthalene and ozone tend to stay dissolved in the surfactant layer and close to the QLL, rather than adsorbing on top of the surfactant molecules and close to the air region of our systems. Surfactants prefer to orient at a tilted angle with respect to the air/ice interface; the angular distribution and the most preferred angle vary depending on the hydrophilic end group, the length of the hydrophobic tail, and the surfactant concentration at the air/ice interface. Naphthalene prefers to have a flat orientation on the surfactant coated air/ice interface, except at high concentrations of 1-hexadecanol at the air/ice interface; the angular distribution of naphthalene depends on the specific surfactant and its concentration at the air/ice interface. The dynamics of naphthalene molecules at the surfactant-coated air/ice interface slow down as compared to those observed at bare air/ice interfaces. The presence of surfactants does not seem to affect the self-association of naphthalene molecules at the air/ice interface, at least for the specific surfactants and the range of concentrations considered in this study.

  10. Ultraviolet Irradiation of Naphthalene in H2O Ice: Implications for Meteorites and Biogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Max P.; Dworkin, Jason; Sandford, Scott A.; Allamandola, Louis J.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) naphthalene was exposed to ultraviolet radiation in H2O ice under astrophysical conditions, and the products were analyzed using infrared spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. As we found in our earlier studies on the photoprocessing of coronene in H2O ice, aromatic alcohols and ketones (quinones) were formed. The regiochemistry of the reactions is described and leads to specific predictions of the relative abundances of various oxidized naphthalenes that should exist in meteorites if interstellar ice photochemistry influenced their aromatic inventory. Since oxidized PAHs are present in carbon-rich meteorites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), and ubiquitous in and fundamental to biochemistry, the delivery of such extraterrestrial molecules to the early Earth may have played a role in the origin and evolution of life.

  11. 1-[(E-2-(2-Hydroxy-5-methylphenyldiazen-2-ium-1-yl]naphthalen-2-olate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Eddine Bouaoud

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The title zwitterion, C17H14N2O2, crystallizes with two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit, both of which are approximately planar, the dihedral angles between the benzene ring and the naphthalene ring system being 4.39 (12° in one molecule and 5.83 (12° in the other, and show an E conformation with respect to the azo double bond. An intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bond in each molecule helps to establish their near planar conformation. In the crystal, molecules are linked through O—H...O hydrogen bonds into infinite chains running along the a-axis direction. In addition, the chains are stacked along the b axis via π–π interactions between the benzene and the naphthalene rings of adjacent molecules, the centroid–centroid distances being 3.722 (3 and 3.823 (4 Å.

  12. Blue-Emitting Arylalkynyl Naphthalene Derivatives via a Hexadehydro-Diels-Alder Cascade Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Hershey, Kyle W; Holmes, Russell J; Hoye, Thomas R

    2016-10-05

    We describe here three alkynyl substituted naphthalenes that display promising luminescence characteristics. Each compound is easily and efficiently synthesized in three steps by capitalizing on the hexadehydro-Diels-Alder (HDDA) cycloisomerization reaction in which an intermediate benzyne is captured by tetraphenylcyclopentadienone, a classical trap for benzyne itself. These compounds luminesce in the deep blue when stimulated either optically (i.e., photoluminescence in both solution and solid films) or electrically [in a light-emitting diode (LED)]. The photophysical properties are relatively insensitive to the electronic nature of the substituents (H, OMe, CO 2 Me) that define these otherwise identical compounds. Overall, our observations suggest that the twisted nature of the five adjacent aryl groups serves to minimize the intermolecular interaction between core naphthalene units in different sample morphologies. These compounds represent promising leads for the identification of others of value as the emissive component of organic LEDs (OLEDs).

  13. Performance of a Novel Hydrophobic Mesoporous Material for High Temperature Catalytic Oxidation of Naphthalene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guotao Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A high surface area, hydrophobic mesoporous material, MFS, has been successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal synthesis method using a perfluorinated surfactant, SURFLON S-386, as the single template. N2 adsorption and TEM were employed to characterize the pore structure and morphology of MFS. Static water adsorption test indicates that the hydrophobicity of MFS is significantly higher than that of MCM-41. XPS and Py-GC/MS analysis confirmed the existence of perfluoroalkyl groups in MFS which led to its high hydrophobicity. MFS was used as a support for CuO in experiments of catalytic combustion of naphthalene, where it showed a significant advantage over MCM-41 and ZSM-5. SEM was helpful in understanding why CuO-MFS performed so well in the catalytic combustion of naphthalene. Experimental results indicated that MFS was a suitable support for catalytic combustion of large molecular organic compounds, especially for some high temperature catalytic reactions when water vapor was present.

  14. (E-1-(4-Aminophenyl-3-(naphthalen-2-ylprop-2-en-1-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thawanrat Kobkeatthawin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The molecule of the title chalcone derivative, C19H15NO, exists in a trans configuration with respect to the C=C double bond. The molecule is slightly twisted with a dihedral angle of 6.12 (12° between the benzene ring and the naphthalene ring system. The prop-2-en-1-one bridge is nearly planar, with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.0194 (2, and makes dihedral angles of 8.05 (19 and 11.47 (18° with the benzene ring and the naphthalene ring system, respectively. In the crystal, molecules are linked by N—H...O hydrogen bonds into chains along the b axis. Weak N—H...π and C—H...π interactions and a short N...O contact [2.974 (4 Å] are also observed.

  15. Vibrations and Eigenvalues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We make music by causing strings, membranes, or air columns to vibrate. Engineers design safe structures by control- ling vibrations. I will describe to you a very simple vibrating system and the mathematics needed to analyse it. The ideas were born in the work of Joseph-Louis Lagrange (1736–1813), and I begin by quot-.

  16. Conformationally constrained farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonists: heteroaryl replacements of the naphthalene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Jonathan Y; Caravella, Justin A; Chen, Lihong; Creech, Katrina L; Deaton, David N; Madauss, Kevin P; Marr, Harry B; McFadyen, Robert B; Miller, Aaron B; Mills, Wendy Y; Navas, Frank; Parks, Derek J; Smalley, Terrence L; Spearing, Paul K; Todd, Dan; Williams, Shawn P; Wisely, G Bruce

    2011-02-15

    To improve on the drug properties of GSK8062 1b, a series of heteroaryl bicyclic naphthalene replacements were prepared. The quinoline 1c was an equipotent FXR agonist with improved drug developability parameters relative to 1b. In addition, analog 1c lowered body weight gain and serum glucose in a DIO mouse model of diabetes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Critical Review of Naphthalene Sources and Exposures Relevant to Indoor and Outdoor Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunrong Jia

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Both the recent classification of naphthalene as a possible human carcinogen and its ubiquitous presence motivate this critical review of naphthalene’s sources and exposures. We evaluate the environmental literature on naphthalene published since 1990, drawing on nearly 150 studies that report emissions and concentrations in indoor, outdoor and personal air. While naphthalene is both a volatile organic compound and a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, concentrations and exposures are poorly characterized relative to many other pollutants. Most airborne emissions result from combustion, and key sources include industry, open burning, tailpipe emissions, and cigarettes. The second largest source is off-gassing, specifically from naphthalene’s use as a deodorizer, repellent and fumigant. In the U.S., naphthalene’s use as a moth repellant has been reduced in favor of para-dichlorobenzene, but extensive use continues in mothballs, which appears responsible for some of the highest indoor exposures, along with off-label uses. Among the studies judged to be representative, average concentrations ranged from 0.18 to 1.7 μg m-3 in non-smoker’s homes, and from 0.02 to 0.31 μg m-3 outdoors in urban areas. Personal exposures have been reported in only three European studies. Indoor sources are the major contributor to (non-occupational exposure. While its central tendencies fall well below guideline levels relevant to acute health impacts, several studies have reported maximum concentrations exceeding 100 μg m-3, far above guideline levels. Using current but draft estimates of cancer risks, naphthalene is a major environmental risk driver, with typical individual risk levels in the 10-4 range, which is high and notable given that millions of individuals are exposed. Several factors influence indoor and outdoor concentrations, but the literature is inconsistent on their effects. Further investigation is needed to better characterize naphthalene

  18. One-pot synthesis of phthalazines and pyridazino-aromatics: a novel strategy for substituted naphthalenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Simon N; Wegner, Hermann A

    2012-07-06

    A new one-pot strategy for the synthesis of phthalazines and pyridazino-aromatics starting from aromatic aldehydes has been developed. A variety of substituents ranging from electron withdrawing to donating is tolerated furnishing the desired 1,2-diazine in good to excellent yields. The products have been applied to the bidentate Lewis acid catalyzed inverse electron-demand Diels-Alder (IEDDA) reaction opening a novel two-step entry into substituted naphthalenes, such as Naproxen.

  19. Protective Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis) Extract on Naphthalene Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Male Albino Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Neveen M. El-Sherif; Noha Mohy Issa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Naphthalene (NA) is a common environmental contaminant and is abundant in tobacco smoke. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is a herb commonly used as a spice and flavoring agents in food processing and is useful in the treatment of many diseases. Aim of the work: To study the nephrotoxicity of NA and to evaluate the possible protective role of rosemary extract in adult male albino rat. Materials and Methods: 25 animals were divided into three groups: Group I (Control group), G...

  20. Nitration of naphthalene and remarks on the mechanism of electrophilic aromatic nitration*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, George A.; Narang, Subhash C.; Olah, Judith A.

    1981-01-01

    Naphthalene was nitrated with a variety of nitrating agents. Comparison of data with Perrin's electrochemical nitration [Perrin, C. L. (1977) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 99, 5516-5518] shows that nitration of naphthalene gives an α-nitronaphthalene to β-nitronaphthalene ratio that varies between 9 and 29 and is thus not constant. Perrin's data, therefore, are considered to be inconclusive evidence for the proposed one-electron transfer mechanism for the nitration of naphthalene and other reactive aromatics. Moodie and Schoefield [Hoggett, J. G., Moodie, R. B., Penton, J. R. & Schoefield, K. (1971) Nitration and Aromatic Reactivity (Cambridge Univ. Press, London)], as well as Perrin, independently concluded that, in the general scheme of nitration of reactive aromatics, there is the necessity to introduce into the classical Ingold mechanism an additional step involving a distinct intermediate preceding the formation of the Wheland intermediate (σ complexes). This view coincides with our two-step mechanistic picture [Kuhn, S. J. & Olah, G. A. (1961) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 83, 4564-4571] of the nitronium salt nitration of aromatic hydrocarbons (including benzene and toluene), in which low substrate selectivity but high positional selectivity was found, indicating the independence of substrate from positional selectivity. PMID:16593026