WorldWideScience

Sample records for vibrational state populations

  1. Spectroscopy of Vibrational States in Diatomic Iodine Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, Mary; Harrill, Charles H.; Smith, R. Seth

    2015-04-01

    This project is focused on understanding the vibrational structure of iodine, which is a homonuclear diatomic molecule. A 20 mW, 532 nm cw diode laser was used to selectively excite neutral iodine molecules to a higher energy electronic state. By performing spectroscopy on the transitions from this state to a lower energy electronic state, the data only showed those vibrational bands which connect the two electronic states. Since a number of vibrational levels are populated in the higher energy electronic state, the transitions to all of the allowed vibrational levels in the lower energy electronic state provided sufficient data to determine the vibrational structures of both states. Emission spectra were collected with an Ocean Optics USB4000 Compact CCD Spectrometer. The spectrometer had a range of 500 - 770 nm with a resolution of approximately 0.5 nm and was sensitive enough to resolve the vibrational states in diatomic iodine molecules. The results were compared to a simple harmonic oscillator model.

  2. Rectangular Parallelepiped Vibration in Plane Strain State

    OpenAIRE

    Hanckowiak, Jerzy

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present a vibration spectrum of a homogenous parallelepiped (HP) under the action of volume and surface forces resulting from the exponent displacements entering the Fourier transforms. Vibration under the action of axial surface tractions and the free vibration are described separately. A relationship between the high frequency vibration and boundary conditions (BC) is also considered.

  3. Double resonant absorption measurement of acetylene symmetric vibrational states probed with cavity ring down spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Karhu, J; Vainio, M; Metsälä, M; Hoekstra, S; Halonen, L

    2016-01-01

    A novel mid-infrared/near-infrared double resonant absorption setup for studying infrared-inactive vibrational states is presented. A strong vibrational transition in the mid-infrared region is excited using an idler beam from a singly resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator, to populate an intermediate vibrational state. High output power of the optical parametric oscillator and the strength of the mid-infrared transition result in efficient population transfer to the intermediate state, which allows measuring secondary transitions from this state with a high signal-to-noise ratio. A secondary, near-infrared transition from the intermediate state is probed using cavity ring down spectroscopy, which provides high sensitivity in this wavelength region. Due to the narrow linewidths of the excitation sources, the rovibrational lines of the secondary transition are measured with sub-Doppler resolution. The setup is used to access a previously unreported symmetric vibrational state of acetylene, $\

  4. Population of vibrational levels of carbon dioxide by cylindrical fast ionization wave

    KAUST Repository

    Levko, Dmitry

    2017-09-08

    The population of vibrational levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) by a cylindrical fast ionization wave is analyzed using a one-dimensional Particle-in-Cell Monte Carlo collisions model. The model takes into account the inelastic electron-neutral collisions as well as the super-elastic collisions between electrons and excited species. We observe an efficient population of only the first two levels of the symmetric and asymmetric vibrational modes of CO2 by means of a fast ionization wave. The excitation of other higher vibrational modes by the fast ionization wave is inefficient. Additionally, we observe a strong influence of the secondary electron emission on the population of vibrational states of CO2. This effect is associated with the kinetics of high energy electrons generated in the cathode sheath.

  5. Stark-induced adiabatic Raman ladder for preparing highly vibrationally excited quantum states of molecular hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Nandini; Perreault, William E.; Zare, Richard N.

    2017-07-01

    We present a multi-color ladder excitation scheme that exploits Stark-induced adiabatic Raman passage to selectively populate a highly excited vibrational level of a molecule. We suggest that this multi-color coherent ladder excitation provides a practical way of accessing levels near the vibrational dissociation limit as well as the dissociative continuum, which would allow the generation of an entangled pair of fragments with near-zero relative kinetic energy. Specifically, we consider four- and six-photon coherent excitation of molecular hydrogen to high vibrational levels via intermediate vibrational levels, which are pairwise coupled by two-photon resonant interaction. Using a sequence of three partially overlapping, single-mode, nanosecond laser pulses we show that the sixth vibrational level of H2, which is too weakly coupled to be easily accessed by direct two-photon Raman excitation from the ground vibrational level, can be efficiently populated without leaving any population stranded in the intermediate level. Furthermore, we show that the fourteenth vibrational level of H2, which is the highest vibrational level in the ground electronic state with a binding energy of 22 meV, can be efficiently and selectively populated using a sequence of four pulses. The present technique offers the unique possibility of preparing entangled quantum states of H atoms without resorting to an ultracold system.

  6. Sunlight-Initiated Photochemistry: Excited Vibrational States of Atmospheric Chromophores

    OpenAIRE

    Veronica Vaida; Karl J. Feierabend; Nabilah Rontu; Kaito Takahashi

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric chemical reactions are often initiated by ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation since absorption in that wavelength range coincides to typical chemical bond energies. In this review, we present an alternative process by which chemical reactions occur with the excitation of vibrational levels in the ground electronic state by red solar photons. We focus on the O–H vibrational manifold which can be an atmospheric chromophore for driving vibrationally mediated overtone-induced chemical re...

  7. Selective excitation of a vibrational level within the electronic ground state of a polyatomic molecule with ultra pulses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    de Clercq, L

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Coherent control of the upper vibrational level populations in the electronic ground state of a polyatomic molecule was simulated. Results indicate that selective excitation of a specific upper state level is possible...

  8. Selective excitation of a vibrational level within the electronic ground state of a polyatomic molecule with ultra short pulses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Clercq, L

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Coherent control of the upper vibrational level populations in the electronic ground state of a polyatomic molecule was simulated. Results indicate that selective excitation of a specific upper state level is possible....

  9. Vibrational kinetics of electronically excited states in H2 discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonna, Gianpiero; Pietanza, Lucia D.; D'Ammando, Giuliano; Celiberto, Roberto; Capitelli, Mario; Laricchiuta, Annarita

    2017-11-01

    The evolution of atmospheric pressure hydrogen plasma under the action of repetitively ns electrical pulse has been investigated using a 0D state-to-state kinetic model that self-consistently couples the master equation of heavy particles and the Boltzmann equation for free electrons. The kinetic model includes, together with atomic hydrogen states and the vibrational kinetics of H2 ground state, vibrational levels of singlet states, accounting for the collisional quenching, having a relevant role because of the high pressure. The mechanisms of excitations, radiative decay and collisional quenching involving the excited H2 states and the corresponding cross sections, integrated over the non-equilibrium electron energy distribution function (EEDF) to obtain kinetic rates, are discussed in the light of the kinetic simulation results, i.e. the time evolution during the pulse of the plasma composition, of the EEDF and of the vibrational distributions of ground and singlet excited states.

  10. Double resonant absorption measurement of acetylene symmetric vibrational states probed with cavity ring down spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karhu, J.; Nauta, J.; Vainio, M.; Metsälä, M.; Hoekstra, S.; Halonen, L.

    2016-06-01

    A novel mid-infrared/near-infrared double resonant absorption setup for studying infrared-inactive vibrational states is presented. A strong vibrational transition in the mid-infrared region is excited using an idler beam from a singly resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator, to populate an intermediate vibrational state. High output power of the optical parametric oscillator and the strength of the mid-infrared transition result in efficient population transfer to the intermediate state, which allows measuring secondary transitions from this state with a high signal-to-noise ratio. A secondary, near-infrared transition from the intermediate state is probed using cavity ring-down spectroscopy, which provides high sensitivity in this wavelength region. Due to the narrow linewidths of the excitation sources, the rovibrational lines of the secondary transition are measured with sub-Doppler resolution. The setup is used to access a previously unreported symmetric vibrational state of acetylene, ν 1 + ν 2 + ν 3 + ν4 1 + ν5 - 1 in the normal mode notation. Single-photon transitions to this state from the vibrational ground state are forbidden. Ten lines of the newly measured state are observed and fitted with the linear least-squares method to extract the band parameters. The vibrational term value was measured to be at 9775.0018(45) cm-1, the rotational parameter B was 1.162 222(37) cm-1, and the quartic centrifugal distortion parameter D was 3.998(62) × 10-6 cm-1, where the numbers in the parenthesis are one-standard errors in the least significant digits.

  11. Double resonant absorption measurement of acetylene symmetric vibrational states probed with cavity ring down spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karhu, J; Nauta, J; Vainio, M; Metsälä, M; Hoekstra, S; Halonen, L

    2016-06-28

    A novel mid-infrared/near-infrared double resonant absorption setup for studying infrared-inactive vibrational states is presented. A strong vibrational transition in the mid-infrared region is excited using an idler beam from a singly resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator, to populate an intermediate vibrational state. High output power of the optical parametric oscillator and the strength of the mid-infrared transition result in efficient population transfer to the intermediate state, which allows measuring secondary transitions from this state with a high signal-to-noise ratio. A secondary, near-infrared transition from the intermediate state is probed using cavity ring-down spectroscopy, which provides high sensitivity in this wavelength region. Due to the narrow linewidths of the excitation sources, the rovibrational lines of the secondary transition are measured with sub-Doppler resolution. The setup is used to access a previously unreported symmetric vibrational state of acetylene, ν1+ν2+ν3+ν4 (1)+ν5 (-1) in the normal mode notation. Single-photon transitions to this state from the vibrational ground state are forbidden. Ten lines of the newly measured state are observed and fitted with the linear least-squares method to extract the band parameters. The vibrational term value was measured to be at 9775.0018(45) cm(-1), the rotational parameter B was 1.162 222(37) cm(-1), and the quartic centrifugal distortion parameter D was 3.998(62) × 10(-6) cm(-1), where the numbers in the parenthesis are one-standard errors in the least significant digits.

  12. Effect of Moisture Sorption State on Vibrational Properties of Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianxiong Lu; Jiali Jiang; Yiqiang Wu; Xianjun Li; Zhiyong Cai

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the vibrational properties and corresponding anisotropicity in wood during different states of moisture sorption. Samples of maple (Acer spp.) and red oak (Quercus rubra Michx.f.) were moisture conditioned by the adsorption process from an ovendried state and by the desorption process...

  13. Vibrationally excited state stectroscopy of radicals in a supersonic plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Bazalgette Courreges-Lacoste, J. Bulthuis, S. Stolte, T. Motylewski; Linnartz, H.V.J.

    2001-01-01

    A plasma source based on a multilayer discharge geometry in combination with a time-of-flight REMPI experiment is used to study rotationally cold spectra of highly excited vibrational states of mass selected radicals. The rovibrational state distributions upon discharge excitation are characterised

  14. The Lowest Vibrational States of Urea from the Rotational Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiel, Zbigniew; Thomas, Jessica; Medvedev, Ivan

    2014-06-01

    The urea molecule, (NH_2)_2CO, has a complex potential energy surface resulting from a combination of the NH_2 torsion and NH_2 inversion motions. This leads to a distribution of lowest vibrational states that is expected to be significantly different from the more familiar picture from simple inversion or normal mode models. The broadband 207-500 GHz spectrum of urea recorded in Dayton has signal to noise sufficient for assignment of rotational transitions in excited vibrational states up to at least 500 cm-1. In addition to the previously reported analysis of the ground and the lowest excited state we have been able to assign transitions in at least five other excited vibrational states. Strongly perturbed transitions in a close doublet of such states have been fitted to within experimental accuracy with a coupled fit and a splitting in the region of 1 cm-1. These assignments combined with vibrational energy estimates from relative intensity measurements allow for empirical discrimination between different models for the energy level manifestation of the large amplitude motions in urea.^b P.D.Godfrey, R.D.Brown, A.N.Hunter J. Mol. Struct., 413-414, 405-414 (1997). N.Inostroza, M.L.Senent, Chem. Phys. Lett., 524, 25 (2012).

  15. Signature of nonadiabatic coupling in excited-state vibrational modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Miguel A; Nelson, Tammie; Roitberg, Adrian E; Tretiak, Sergei; Fernandez-Alberti, Sebastian

    2014-11-13

    Using analytical excited-state gradients, vibrational normal modes have been calculated at the minimum of the electronic excited-state potential energy surfaces for a set of extended conjugated molecules with different coupling between them. Molecular model systems composed of units of polyphenylene ethynylene (PPE), polyphenylenevinylene (PPV), and naphthacene/pentacene (NP) have been considered. In all cases except the NP model, the influence of the nonadiabatic coupling on the excited-state equilibrium normal modes is revealed as a unique highest frequency adiabatic vibrational mode that overlaps with the coupling vector. This feature is removed by using a locally diabatic representation in which the effect of NA interaction is removed. Comparison of the original adiabatic modes with a set of vibrational modes computed in the locally diabatic representation demonstrates that the effect of nonadiabaticity is confined to only a few modes. This suggests that the nonadiabatic character of a molecular system may be detected spectroscopically by identifying these unique state-specific high frequency vibrational modes.

  16. Numerical analysis using state space method for vibration control of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ATHARVA

    Numerical analysis using state space method for vibration control of car seat by employing passive and semi active dampers. Udit S. Kotagi1, G.U. Raju1, V.B. Patil2, Krishnaraja G. Kodancha1*. 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.V. Bhoomaraddi College of Engineering & Technology, Hubli, Karnataka, INDIA.

  17. Stretching vibrational overtone and combination states in silicon tetrafluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halonen, Lauri

    1986-11-01

    A simple three-parameter model is shown to account for the observed SiF stretching vibrational states of silicon tetrafluoride. A symmetrized anharmonic bond oscillator basis set is used to calculate stretching overtone and combination eigen values, all of which are given up to v1 + v3 = 5. The results show that the highest levels of the nν3 manifold move gradually out of resonances with n quanta of ν3 as n increases, which indicates that anharmonic resonances between the ν3 ladder and some other vibrational ladders and (or) multiphoton resonances are needed to explain the observed multiphoton processes.

  18. Sunlight-Initiated Photochemistry: Excited Vibrational States of Atmospheric Chromophores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Vaida

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric chemical reactions are often initiated by ultraviolet (UV solar radiation since absorption in that wavelength range coincides to typical chemical bond energies. In this review, we present an alternative process by which chemical reactions occur with the excitation of vibrational levels in the ground electronic state by red solar photons. We focus on the O–H vibrational manifold which can be an atmospheric chromophore for driving vibrationally mediated overtone-induced chemical reactions. Experimental and theoretical O–H intensities of several carboxylic acids, alcohols, and peroxides are presented. The importance of combination bands in spectra at chemically relevant energies is examined in the context of atmospheric photochemistry. Candidate systems for overtone-initiated chemistry are provided, and their lowest energy barrier for reaction and the minimum quanta of O–H stretch required for reaction are calculated. We conclude with a discussion of the major pathways available for overtone-induced reactions in the atmosphere.

  19. The separation of vibrational coherence from ground- and excited-electronic states in P3HT film

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Yin

    2015-06-07

    © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC. Concurrence of the vibrational coherence and ultrafast electron transfer has been observed in polymer/fullerene blends. However, it is difficult to experimentally investigate the role that the excited-state vibrational coherence plays during the electron transfer process since vibrational coherence from the ground- and excited-electronic states is usually temporally and spectrally overlapped. Here, we performed 2-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2D ES) measurements on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) films. By Fourier transforming the whole 2D ES datasets (S (λ 1, T∼ 2, λ 3)) along the population time (T∼ 2) axis, we develop and propose a protocol capable of separating vibrational coherence from the ground- and excited-electronic states in 3D rephasing and nonrephasing beating maps (S (λ 1, ν∼ 2, λ 3)). We found that the vibrational coherence from pure excited electronic states appears at positive frequency (+ ν∼ 2) in the rephasing beating map and at negative frequency (- ν∼ 2) in the nonrephasing beating map. Furthermore, we also found that vibrational coherence from excited electronic state had a long dephasing time of 244 fs. The long-lived excited-state vibrational coherence indicates that coherence may be involved in the electron transfer process. Our findings not only shed light on the mechanism of ultrafast electron transfer in organic photovoltaics but also are beneficial for the study of the coherence effect on photoexcited dynamics in other systems.

  20. Unusual quantum interference in the S1 state of DABCO and observation of intramolecular vibrational redistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, Lionel; Maksimenska, Raman; Soep, Benoît; Mestdagh, Jean-Michel; Parker, David H; Nsangou, Mama; Hochlaf, Majdi

    2010-03-11

    In this paper we report an experimental study of the time-resolved response of the molecule 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) to 266.3 nm electronic excitation of the S(1) state with a femtosecond laser. Rotational decoherence and vibrational oscillation within the S(1) state are observed. We performed state-of-the-art ab initio calculations on the ground and low electronic states of the neutral molecule and the cation, which assist in the assignment of the observed photoelectron signals. Using our theoretical and spectroscopic data, the experimental findings are interpreted in terms of an unusual quantum interference between two different vibrational modes, with only the nu = 1 level of each mode being populated.

  1. Optical properties of a vibrationally modulated solid state Mott insulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, S; Clark, S R; Nicoletti, D; Cotugno, G; Tobey, R I; Dean, N; Lupi, S; Okamoto, H; Hasegawa, T; Jaksch, D; Cavalleri, A

    2014-01-22

    Optical pulses at THz and mid-infrared frequencies tuned to specific vibrational resonances modulate the lattice along chosen normal mode coordinates. In this way, solids can be switched between competing electronic phases and new states are created. Here, we use vibrational modulation to make electronic interactions (Hubbard-U) in Mott-insulator time dependent. Mid-infrared optical pulses excite localized molecular vibrations in ET-F2TCNQ, a prototypical one-dimensional Mott-insulator. A broadband ultrafast probe interrogates the resulting optical spectrum between THz and visible frequencies. A red-shifted charge-transfer resonance is observed, consistent with a time-averaged reduction of the electronic correlation strength U. Secondly, a sideband manifold inside of the Mott-gap appears, resulting from a periodically modulated U. The response is compared to computations based on a quantum-modulated dynamic Hubbard model. Heuristic fitting suggests asymmetric holon-doublon coupling to the molecules and that electron double-occupancies strongly squeeze the vibrational mode.

  2. Rotational Spectra in 29 Vibrationally Excited States of Interstellar Aminoacetonitrile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolesniková, L.; Alonso, E. R.; Mata, S.; Alonso, J. L. [Grupo de Espectroscopia Molecular (GEM), Edificio Quifima, Área de Química-Física, Laboratorios de Espectroscopia y Bioespectroscopia, Parque Científico UVa, Unidad Asociada CSIC, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2017-04-01

    We report a detailed spectroscopic investigation of the interstellar aminoacetonitrile, a possible precursor molecule of glycine. Using a combination of Stark and frequency-modulation microwave and millimeter wave spectroscopies, we observed and analyzed the room-temperature rotational spectra of 29 excited states with energies up to 1000 cm{sup −1}. We also observed the {sup 13}C isotopologues in the ground vibrational state in natural abundance (1.1%). The extensive data set of more than 2000 new rotational transitions will support further identifications of aminoacetonitrile in the interstellar medium.

  3. Fourth-Order Vibrational Transition State Theory and Chemical Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, John F.; Matthews, Devin A.; Gong, Justin Z.

    2015-06-01

    Second-order vibrational perturbation theory (VPT2) is an enormously successful and well-established theory for treating anharmonic effects on the vibrational levels of semi-rigid molecules. Partially as a consequence of the fact that the theory is exact for the Morse potential (which provides an appropriate qualitative model for stretching anharmonicity), VPT2 calculations for such systems with appropriate ab initio potential functions tend to give fundamental and overtone levels that fall within a handful of wavenumbers of experimentally measured positions. As a consequence, the next non-vanishing level of perturbation theory -- VPT4 -- offers only slight improvements over VPT2 and is not practical for most calculations since it requires information about force constants up through sextic. However, VPT4 (as well as VPT2) can be used for other applications such as the next vibrational correction to rotational constants (the ``gammas'') and other spectroscopic parameters. In addition, the marriage of VPT with the semi-classical transition state theory of Miller (SCTST) has recently proven to be a powerful and accurate treatment for chemical kinetics. In this talk, VPT4-based SCTST tunneling probabilities and cumulative reaction probabilities are give for the first time for selected low-dimensional model systems. The prospects for VPT4, both practical and intrinsic, will also be discussed.

  4. Possible splitting of the isovector vibrational state due to triaxiality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faessler, A.; Nojarov, R.; Zubik, S.

    1986-06-01

    A microscopic calculation of the restoring force for isovector scissor vibrations using the wave functions of a triaxial Woods-Saxon potential shows that the experimentally observed splitting of the isovector M1 state in /sup 164/Dy(50 keV), /sup 168/Er(70 keV) and /sup 174/Yb(200 keV) could be attributed to the presence of a possible small non-axially symmetric deformation (..gamma..=0.8/sup 0/, 1/sup 0/ and 3/sup 0/ respectively).

  5. The Astrophysical Weeds: Rotational Transitions in Excited Vibrational States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, José L.; Kolesniková, Lucie; Alonso, Elena R.; Mata, Santiago

    2017-06-01

    The number of unidentified lines in the millimeter and submillimeter wave surveys of the interstellar medium has grown rapidly. The major contributions are due to rotational transitions in excited vibrational states of a relatively few molecules that are called the astrophysical weeds. necessary data to deal with spectral lines from astrophysical weeds species can be obtained from detailed laboratory rotational measurements in the microwave and millimeter wave region. A general procedure is being used at Valladolid combining different time and/or frequency domain spectroscopic tools of varying importance for providing the precise set of spectroscopic constants that could be used to search for this species in the ISM. This is illustrated in the present contribution through its application to several significant examples. Fortman, S. M., Medvedev, I. R., Neese, C.F., & De Lucia, F.C. 2010, ApJ,725, 1682 Rotational Spectra in 29 Vibrationally Excited States of Interstellar Aminoacetonitrile, L. Kolesniková, E. R. Alonso, S. Mata, and J. L. Alonso, The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 2017, (in press).

  6. State-To Rotational and Vibrational Energy Transfers Following Vibrational Excitation of (1010000) and (0112000) in the Ground Electronic State of Acetylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiande; Freel, Keith; Heaven, Michael C.

    2011-06-01

    We have examined state-to-state rotational and vibrational energy transfers for the vibrational levels (1010000) and (0112000) of C2H2 in the ground electronic state at ambient temperature. Measurements were made using a pulsed IR - UV double resonance technique. Total removal rate constants and state-to-state rotational energy transfer rate constants have been characterized for certain even-numbered rotational levels from J = 0 to 12 within the two vibrational modes. The measured state-to-state rotational energy transfer rate constants were fit to some energy-based empirical scaling and fitting laws, and the rate constants were found to be best reproduced by the statistical power-exponential gap law (PEGL). The measured rate constants were then further evaluated by a kinetic model which simulated the experimental spectra by solving simultaneous first order differential rate equations. Some rotationally-resolved vibrational energy transfer channels were also observed following excitation of (1010000). The vibrational relaxation channels were found to contribute less than 30% to the total removal rate constants of the measured rotational levels for both of the studied vibrational states.

  7. Imaging the state-specific vibrational predissociation of the C2H2-NH3 hydrogen-bonded dimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Jessica A; Li, Guosheng; Fedorov, Igor; McCaffery, Anthony J; Reisler, Hanna

    2007-08-09

    The state-to-state vibrational predissociation (VP) dynamics of the hydrogen-bonded ammonia-acetylene dimer were studied following excitation in the asymmetric CH stretch. Velocity map imaging (VMI) and resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) were used to determine pair-correlated product energy distributions. Following vibrational excitation of the asymmetric CH stretch fundamental, ammonia fragments were detected by 2 + 1 REMPI via the B1E'' acetylene co-fragment. The latter is always generated with one or two quanta of bending excitation. All the distributions could be fit well when using a dimer dissociation energy of D0 = 900 +/- 10 cm(-1). Only channels with maximum translational energy acetylene co-fragment pair-correlated with specific rovibrational states of ammonia appear statistical as well. The vibrational-state distributions, however, show distinct state specificity among channels with low translational energy release. The predominant channel is NH3(1nu2) + C2H2(2nu4 or 1nu4 + 1nu5), where nu4 and nu5 are the trans- and cis-bend vibrations of acetylene, respectively. A second observed channel, with much lower population, is NH3(2nu2) + C2H2(1nu4). No products are generated in which the ammonia is in the vibrational ground state or the asymmetric bend (1nu4) state, nor is acetylene ever generated in the ground vibrational state or with CC stretch excitation. The angular momentum (AM) model of McCaffery and Marsh is used to estimate impact parameters in the internal collisions that give rise to the observed rotational distributions. These calculations show that dissociation takes place from bent geometries, which can also explain the propensity to excite fragment bending levels. The low recoil velocities associated with the observed channels facilitate energy exchange in the exit channel, which results in statistical-like fragment rotational distributions.

  8. The influence of vibrational state-resolved transport coefficients on the wave propagation in diatomic gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Gilberto M.; Kunova, Olga V.; Kustova, Elena V.; Oblapenko, George P.

    2018-01-01

    A detailed kinetic-theory model for the vibrationally state-resolved transport coefficients is developed taking into account the dependence of the collision cross section on the size of vibrationally excited molecule. Algorithms for the calculation of shear and bulk viscosity, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusion and diffusion coefficients for vibrational states are proposed. The transport coefficients are evaluated for single-component diatomic gases N2, O2, NO, H2, Cl2 in the wide range of temperature, and the effects of molecular diameters and the number of accounted states are discussed. The developed model is applied to study wave propagation in diatomic gases. For the case of initial Boltzmann distribution, the influence of vibrational excitation on the phase velocity and attenuation coefficient is found to be weak. We expect more significant effect in the case of initial thermal non-equilibrium, for instance in gases with optically pumped selected vibrational states.

  9. Ultrafast vibrational population transfer dynamics in 2-acetylcyclopentanone studied by 2D IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungnam; Ji, Minbiao

    2011-03-14

    2-Acetylcyclopentanone (2-ACP), which is a β-dicarbonyl compound, undergoes keto-enol isomerization, and its enol tautomers are stabilized by a cyclic intramolecular hydrogen bond. 2-ACP (keto form) has symmetric and asymmetric vibrational modes of the two carbonyl groups at 1748 and 1715 cm(-1) , respectively, which are well separated from the carbonyl modes of its enol tautomers in the FTIR spectrum. We have investigated 2-ACP dissolved in carbon tetrachloride by 2D IR spectroscopy and IR pump-probe spectroscopy. Vibrational population transfer dynamics between the two carbonyl modes were observed by 2D IR spectroscopy. To extract the population exchange dynamics (i.e., the down- and uphill population transfer rate constants), we used the normalized volumes of the cross-peaks with respect to the diagonal peaks at the same emission frequency and the survival and conditional probability functions. As expected, the downhill population transfer time constant (3.2 ps) was measured to be smaller than the uphill population transfer time constant (3.8 ps). In addition, the vibrational population relaxation dynamics of the two carbonyl modes were observed to be the same within the experimental error and were found to be much slower than vibrational population transfer between two carbonyl modes. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Double resonant absorption measurement of acetylene symmetric vibrational states probed with cavity ring down spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karhu, J.; Nauta, J.; Vainio, M.; Metsala, M.; Hoekstra, S.; Halonen, L.

    2016-01-01

    A novel mid-infrared/near-infrared double resonant absorption setup for studying infrared-inactive vibrational states is presented. A strong vibrational transition in the mid-infrared region is excited using an idler beam from a singly resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator, to

  11. Preparation of HD{sup +}-Ions in the Ro-vibrational ground state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Tobias; Roth, Bernhard; Duncker, Hannes; Hansen, Michael; Vasilyev, Sergey; Ernsting, Ingo; Schiller, Stephan [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Being the most simple heteronuclear molecule, the HD{sup +} molecular ion is an ideal model system for testing the predictions of ab-initio theoretical molecular structure calculations using high precision laser spectroscopy. Two interesting perspectives are improved tests of QED effects in molecules and an alternative determination of the electron to proton mass ration m{sub e}/m{sub p}. One important prerequisite for high precision spectroscopic measurements is the ability to control the translational as well as internal degrees of freedom of the molecules. For molecular ions stored in an ion trap the motion of the molecules can be cooled via sympathetic cooling with laser cooled atomic ions. Cooling of the internal degrees of freedom is more difficult since the sympathetic cooling does not affect the internal degrees of freedom and in non-cryogenic environments interaction with black body radiation will distribute the molecular population over several ro-vibrational states. For HD{sup +} we developed an optical pumping scheme that allows to prepare most of the molecular ions in the ro-vibrational ground state. We present first experimental results.

  12. Structural characterization of carbon nanotubes via the vibrational density of states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, Albert J.; Jain, Sandeep K.; Barkema, Gerard T.

    2017-01-01

    The electrical and chemical properties of carbon nanotubes vary significantly with different chirality and diameter, making the experimental determination of these structural properties important. Here, we show that the vibrational density of states (VDOS) contains information on the structure of

  13. Closed-loop control of vibrational population in CO{sup 2+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, E; Jochim, Bethany; Gregerson, Neal; Averin, R [Department of Physics, Augustana College, Sioux Falls, SD 57197 (United States); McKenna, J; Sayler, A M; Zohrabi, M; Carnes, K D; Ben-Itzhak, I, E-mail: eric.wells@augie.ed [J R Macdonald Laboratory, Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)

    2010-01-14

    An adaptive closed-loop feedback system is used to determine the optimal pulse shapes for manipulating the branching ratio of CO{sup 2+} following ionization by an intense laser pulse. For this target, selecting between the CO{sup 2+} and C{sup +} + O{sup +} final states requires control of the vibrational population distribution in the transient CO{sup 2+}. The ability to both suppress and enhance CO{sup 2+} relative to C{sup +} + O{sup +} is observed, with shaped pulses surpassing a transform-limited pulse by factors of about 10 for suppression and 2 for enhancement. When optimizing small channels, such as non-dissociative CO{sup 2+}, we demonstrate that a feedback signal obtained via a pulse counting technique is more robust than the more typical current mode signal collection. Furthermore, we demonstrate how the pulse counting technique allows control of a coincidence channel, specifically C{sup +} + O{sup +}, by using logical electronic gates. Using these coincidence signals allows more specific final states to be incorporated into closed-loop control.

  14. Translational vibrations between chains of hydrogen-bonded molecules in solid-state aspirin form I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masae; Ishikawa, Yoichi

    2013-06-01

    We perform dispersion-corrected first-principles calculations, and far-infrared (terahertz) spectroscopic experiments at 4 K, to examine translational vibrations between chains of hydrogen-bonded molecules in solid-state aspirin form I. The calculated frequencies and relative intensities reproduce the observed spectrum to accuracy of 11 cm-1 or less. The stronger one of the two peaks assigned to the translational mode includes the stretching vibration of the weak hydrogen bond between the acetyl groups of a neighboring one-dimensional chain. The calculation of aspirin form II performed for comparison gives the stretching vibration of the weak hydrogen bond in one-dimensional chain.

  15. Vibration Control of a Semiactive Vehicle Suspension System Based on Extended State Observer Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A feedback control method based on an extended state observer (ESO method is implemented to vibration reduction in a typical semiactive suspension (SAS system using a magnetorheological (MR damper as actuator. By considering the dynamic equations of the SAS system and the MR damper model, an active disturbance rejection control (ADRC is designed based on the ESO. Numerical simulation and real-time experiments are carried out with similar vibration disturbances. Both the simulation and experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller in vibration suppression for a SAS system.

  16. STABILITY AND NATURAL VIBRATIONS OF INHOMOGENEOUS SHELLS TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE STRESS STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazhenov V.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to the problem of developing a unified methodology based on the efficient numerical analysis of problems of stability and natural vibrations of a wide class of inhomogeneous shells, thin and medium thickness. In problems of its natural vibrations takes into account the presence of a pre-stressed state of the structure from the action of static loads, which significantly affect the spectrum of natural vibrations and allows determining the bifurcation point and the value of the critical force of buckling by dynamic criteria.

  17. Relaxation of vibrationally excited states in solid "nitrate-nitrite" binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliev, A. R.; Akhmedov, I. R.; Kakagasanov, M. G.; Aliev, Z. A.; Gafurov, M. M.; Rabadanov, K. Sh.; Amirov, A. M.

    2017-10-01

    The processes of molecular relaxation in the solid NaNO3-NaNO2 and KNO3-KNO2 "nitrate-nitrite" binary systems have been investigated by Raman spectroscopy. The relaxation time of the vibration ν1(A) of an NO- 3 anion in the binary system is found to be shorter than that in individual nitrate. The increase in the relaxation rate is explained by the existence of an additional mechanism of relaxation of vibrationally excited states of the nitrate ion in the system. This mechanism is related to the excitation of vibration of another anion (NO- 2) and generation of a lattice phonon. It has been established that this relaxation mechanism is implemented provided that the difference between the frequencies of the aforementioned vibrations correspond to the range of sufficiently high density of states in the phonon spectrum.

  18. Vibration Mitigation without Dissipative Devices: First Large-Scale Testing of a State Switched Inducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Tirelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new passive device for mitigating cable vibrations is proposed and its efficiency is assessed on 45-meter long taut cables through a series of free and forced vibration tests. It consists of a unilateral spring attached perpendicularly to the cable near the anchorage. Because of its ability to change the cable dynamic behaviour through intermittent activation, the device has been called state switched inducer (SSI. The cable behaviour is shown to be deeply modified by the SSI: the forced vibration response is anharmonicc and substantially reduced in amplitude whereas the free vibration decay is largely sped up through a beating phenomenon. The vibration mitigation effect is mainly due to the activation and coupling of various vibration modes, as evidenced in the response spectra of the equipped cable. This first large-scale experimental campaign shows that the SSI outperforms classical passive devices, thus paving the way to a new kind of low-cost vibration mitigation systems which do not rely on dissipation.

  19. Interception of excited vibrational quantum states by O2 in atmospheric association reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, David R; Lockhart, James; Blitz, Mark A; Klippenstein, Stephen J; Pilling, Michael J; Robertson, Struan H; Seakins, Paul W

    2012-08-31

    Bimolecular reactions in Earth's atmosphere are generally assumed to proceed between reactants whose internal quantum states are fully thermally relaxed. Here, we highlight a dramatic role for vibrationally excited bimolecular reactants in the oxidation of acetylene. The reaction proceeds by preliminary adduct formation between the alkyne and OH radical, with subsequent O(2) addition. Using a detailed theoretical model, we show that the product-branching ratio is determined by the excited vibrational quantum-state distribution of the adduct at the moment it reacts with O(2). Experimentally, we found that under the simulated atmospheric conditions O(2) intercepts ~25% of the excited adducts before their vibrational quantum states have fully relaxed. Analogous interception of excited-state radicals by O(2) is likely common to a range of atmospheric reactions that proceed through peroxy complexes.

  20. Vibrational dynamics of aniline (N2)1 clusters in their first excited singlet state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hineman, M. F.; Kim, S. K.; Bernstein, E. R.; Kelley, D. F.

    1992-04-01

    The first excited singlet state S1 vibrational dynamics of aniline(N2)1 clusters are studied and compared to previous results on aniline(CH4)1 and aniline(Ar)1. Intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution (IVR) and vibrational predissociation (VP) rates fall between the two extremes of the CH4 (fast IVR, slow VP) and Ar (slow IVR, fast VP) cluster results as is predicted by a serial IVR/VP model using Fermi's golden rule to describe IVR processes and a restricted Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) theory to describe unimolecular VP rates. The density of states is the most important factor determining the rates. Two product states, 00 and 10b1, of bare aniline and one intermediate state ˜(00) in the overall IVR/VP process are observed and time resolved measurements are obtained for the 000 and ˜(000) transitions. The results are modeled with the serial mechanism described above.

  1. Van der Waals potential and vibrational energy levels of the ground state radon dimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xiaowei; Qian, Shifeng; Hu, Fengfei

    2017-08-01

    In the present paper, the ground state van der Waals potential of the Radon dimer is described by the Tang-Toennies potential model, which requires five essential parameters. Among them, the two dispersion coefficients C6 and C8 are estimated from the well determined dispersion coefficients C6 and C8 of Xe2. C10 is estimated by using the approximation equation that C6C10/C82 has an average value of 1.221 for all the rare gas dimers. With these estimated dispersion coefficients and the well determined well depth De and Re the Born-Mayer parameters A and b are derived. Then the vibrational energy levels of the ground state radon dimer are calculated. 40 vibrational energy levels are observed in the ground state of Rn2 dimer. The last vibrational energy level is bound by only 0.0012 cm-1.

  2. Vibronic energy map and excited state vibrational characteristics of magnesium myoglobin determined by energy-selective fluorescence.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaposi, A D; Vanderkooi, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    The vibrational frequencies of the singlet excited state of Mg-substituted myoglobin and relative absorption probabilities were determined by fluorescence line-narrowing spectroscopy. These spectra contain information on the structure of the excited state species, and the availability of vibrationally resolved spectra from excited state biomolecules should aid in elucidating their structure and reactivity.

  3. Collective and single particle states in medium mass vibrational nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Suliman, G

    2001-01-01

    The particle-core coupling model has been employed to describe the low lying nuclear excitations in the vibrational odd-A nuclei. In the frame of this model the following observables were calculated: excitation energies, spin and parity quantum numbers, electric quadrupole moments, magnetic dipole moments and reduced transition probabilities. Two computer codes were employed. The first one, PCOREC, diagonalized the Hamiltonian providing the eigenvectors and eigenvalues. The second one, PCORECTR, starts from the eigenvector computer by the first program and computes the observables which are compared we results of experiments. A good description of the experimental data has been obtained for the sup 1 sup 3 sup 3 Sb, sup 1 sup 2 sup 3 Sb and sup 1 sup 2 sup 5 Sb nuclei. (authors)

  4. Quantum teleportation from light beams to vibrational states of a macroscopic diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, P.-Y.; Huang, Y.-Y.; Yuan, X.-X.; Chang, X.-Y.; Zu, C.; He, L.; Duan, L.-M.

    2016-01-01

    With the recent development of optomechanics, the vibration in solids, involving collective motion of trillions of atoms, gradually enters into the realm of quantum control. Here, building on the recent remarkable progress in optical control of motional states of diamonds, we report an experimental demonstration of quantum teleportation from light beams to vibrational states of a macroscopic diamond under ambient conditions. Through quantum process tomography, we demonstrate average teleportation fidelity (90.6±1.0)%, clearly exceeding the classical limit of 2/3. The experiment pushes the target of quantum teleportation to the biggest object so far, with interesting implications for optomechanical quantum control and quantum information science. PMID:27240553

  5. STOCHASTIC PARAMETRIC VIBRATIONS OF ELASTIC SYSTEMS WITH REGARD TO THEIR PREVIOUS STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorona Y.V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Reduced models of stochastic parametric vibrations of elastic systems with regard to their previous states were constructed on the base of the finite element method, generalized coordinates method, asymptotic method and functional approach. Stochastic stability problem was formulated in the average for the moment functions of the first order phase coordinates. The stability of stochastic parametric vibrations of the single degree of freedom system with regard to its previous states was investigated by the 7-stages 5-order continuous Runge-Kutta method and nested formulas Dormand-Prince.

  6. High-resolution infrared spectrum of triacetylene: The ν5 state revisited and new vibrational states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doney, K. D.; Zhao, D.; Linnartz, H.

    2015-10-01

    New data are presented that follow from a high-resolution survey, from 3302 to 3352 cm-1, through expanding acetylene plasma, and covering the Csbnd H asymmetric (ν5) fundamental band of triacetylene (HC6H). Absorption signals are recorded using continuous wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (cw-CRDS). A detailed analysis of the resulting spectra allows revisiting the molecular parameters of the ν5 fundamental band in terms of interactions with a perturbing state, which is observed for the first time. Moreover, four fully resolved hot bands (501 1011, 501 1111, 501 1311, and 101 801 1110), with band origins at 3328.5829(2), 3328.9994(2), 3328.2137(2) and 3310.8104(2) cm-1, respectively, are reported for the first time. These involve low lying bending vibrations that have been studied previously, which guarantees unambiguous identifications. Combining available data allows to derive accurate molecular parameters, both for the ground state as well as the excited states involved in the bands.

  7. Density of low-energy vibrational states in a protein solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, A. S.; Fiamingo, F. G.; Hampton, D. A.; Levin, P. D.; Thorkildsen, R.

    1985-04-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements on the aquo complex of sperm whale skeletal myoglobin in solution at T<4 K show that, at phonon energies around 20 cm-1, the density of vibrational states is that of a three-dimensional system.

  8. Excited-state intramolecular hydrogen transfer (ESIHT) of 1,8-Dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (DHAQ) characterized by ultrafast electronic and vibrational spectroscopy and computational modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Mohammed, Omar F.

    2014-05-01

    We combine ultrafast electronic and vibrational spectroscopy and computational modeling to investigate the photoinduced excited-state intramolecular hydrogen-transfer dynamics in 1,8-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (DHAQ) in tetrachloroethene, acetonitrile, dimethyl sulfoxide, and methanol. We analyze the electronic excited states of DHAQ with various possible hydrogen-bonding schemes and provide a general description of the electronic excited-state dynamics based on a systematic analysis of femtosecond UV/vis and UV/IR pump-probe spectroscopic data. Upon photoabsorption at 400 nm, the S 2 electronic excited state is initially populated, followed by a rapid equilibration within 150 fs through population transfer to the S 1 state where DHAQ exhibits ESIHT dynamics. In this equilibration process, the excited-state population is distributed between the 9,10-quinone (S2) and 1,10-quinone (S1) states while undergoing vibrational energy redistribution, vibrational cooling, and solvation dynamics on the 0.1-50 ps time scale. Transient UV/vis pump-probe data in methanol also suggest additional relaxation dynamics on the subnanosecond time scale, which we tentatively ascribe to hydrogen bond dynamics of DHAQ with the protic solvent, affecting the equilibrium population dynamics within the S2 and S1 electronic excited states. Ultimately, the two excited singlet states decay with a solvent-dependent time constant ranging from 139 to 210 ps. The concomitant electronic ground-state recovery is, however, only partial because a large fraction of the population relaxes to the first triplet state. From the similarity of the time scales involved, we conjecture that the solvent plays a crucial role in breaking the intramolecular hydrogen bond of DHAQ during the S2/S1 relaxation to either the ground or triplet state. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  9. The Study of Dynamical Potentials of Highly Excited Vibrational States of HOBr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Fang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The vibrational nonlinear dynamics of HOBr in the bending and O–Br stretching coordinates with anharmonicity and Fermi 2:1 coupling are studied with dynamical potentials in this article. The result shows that the H–O stretching vibration mode has significantly different effects on the coupling between the O–Br stretching mode and the H–O–Br bending mode under different Polyad numbers. The dynamical potentials and the corresponding phase space trajectories are obtained when the Polyad number is 27, for instance, and the fixed points in the dynamical potentials of HOBr are shown to govern the various quantal environments in which the vibrational states lie. Furthermore, it is also found that the quantal environments could be identified by the numerical values of action integrals, which is consistent with former research.

  10. Rotationally resolved IR-diode laser studies of ground-state CO2 excited by collisions with vibrationally excited pyridine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeremy A; Kim, Kilyoung; Mayhew, Maurine; Mitchell, Deborah G; Sevy, Eric T

    2008-03-27

    Relaxation of highly vibrationally excited pyridine (C5NH5) by collisions with carbon dioxide has been investigated using diode laser transient absorption spectroscopy. Vibrationally hot pyridine (E' = 40,660 cm(-1)) was prepared by 248 nm excimer laser excitation followed by rapid radiationless relaxation to the ground electronic state. Pyridine then collides with CO2, populating the high rotational CO2 states with large amounts of translational energy. The CO2 nascent rotational population distribution of the high-J (J = 58-80) tail of the 00(0)0 state was probed at short times following the excimer laser pulse to measure rate constants and probabilities for collisions populating these CO2 rotational states. Doppler spectroscopy was used to measure the CO2 recoil velocity distribution for J = 58-80 of the 00(0)0 state. The energy-transfer distribution function, P(E,E'), from E' - E approximately 1300-7000 cm(-1) was obtained by re-sorting the state-indexed energy-transfer probabilities as a function of DeltaE. P(E,E') is fit to an exponential or biexponential function to determine the average energy transferred in a single collision between pyridine and CO2. Also obtained are fit parameters that can be compared to previously studied systems (pyrazine, C6F6, methylpyrazine, and pyrimidine/CO2). Although the rotational and translational temperatures that describe pyridine/CO2 energy transfer are similar to previous systems, the energy-transfer probabilities are much smaller. P(E,E') fit parameters for pyridine/CO2 and the four previously studied systems are compared to various donor molecular properties. Finally, P(E,E') is analyzed in the context of two models, one indicating that P(E,E') shape is primarily determined by the low-frequency out-of-plane donor vibrational modes, and the other that indicates that P(E,E') shape can be determined from how the donor molecule final density of states changes with DeltaE.

  11. Numerical analysis using state space method for vibration control of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... on sagged bridges and car moving on road humps. The paper also presents the comparison of performance of both the dampers for the two cases. State space method has been employed for the numerical analysis of the study. It is found that the amplitude of displacements is reduced considerably by the employment of ...

  12. Vibration control for a rigid-flexible manipulator with full state constraints via Barrier Lyapunov Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fangfei; Liu, Jinkun

    2017-10-01

    Considering full state constraints, this paper designs a boundary controller for a two-link rigid-flexible manipulator via Barrier Lyapunov Function. The dynamic model of the two-link rigid-flexible manipulator is described by coupled ordinary differential equations- partial differential equations (ODEs-PDEs). Based on the original model without neglecting the high-frequency modes, boundary controller is proposed to regulate the joint positions and eliminate the elastic vibration simultaneously. To ensure that the full state constraints which include position, speed and vibration constraints are not transgressed, a Barrier Lyapunov Function is employed in the proposed controller. The asymptotic stability of the closed-loop system is rigorously proved by the LaSalle's Invariance Principle. Simulations are given to verify the effectiveness of the proposed controller with state constraints.

  13. Multi-state analysis of the OCS ultraviolet absorption including vibrational structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johan Albrecht; Johnson, Matthew Stanley; McBane, G.C.

    2012-01-01

    The first absorption band of OCS (carbonyl sulfide) is analyzed using potential energy surfaces and transition dipole moment functions of the lowest four singlet and the lowest four triplet states. Excitation of the 2 (1)A' state is predominant except at very low photon energies. It is shown that...... that the vibrational structures in the center of the band are due to excitation of the 2 (3)A'' triplet state, whereas the structures at very low energies are caused by bending excitation in the potential wells of states 2 (1)A' and 1 (1)A''....

  14. Spin-vibrational 1+ states in 140Ce

    OpenAIRE

    Guliyev, E.; Yavas, O.; Kuliev, A. A.

    2001-01-01

    The properties of collective I^$\\Pi$=1+ states in double even semimagic nucleus 140Ce are investigated in random phase approximation(RPA). The calculation of the B(M1) strength, elastic gamma-scattering cross section $\\sigma_(gamma)(\\omega)$ and gamma-decay width $\\Sigma_(gamma)(\\omega_i)$ show that in 140Ce the isovector spin-spin interactions concenrate the main strength of M1 transition at energy 7.89 MeV where the isovector spin-flip magnetic resonance may appear. The predisctions are con...

  15. An alternative use of Kieffer's lattice dynamics model using vibrational density of states for constructing thermodynamic databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.H.G.; van den Berg, A.P.; Schmid-Fetzer, R.

    2013-01-01

    We use Kieffer's model to represent the vibrational density of states (VDoS) and thermodynamic properties of pure substances in pressure-temperature space. We show that this model can be simplified to a vibrational model in which the VDoS is represented by multiple Einstein frequencies without

  16. Evaluation of the vehicle state with vibration-based diagnostics methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, V. E.; Polyakov, I. V.; Krasheninnikov, M. S.; Koshurina, A. A.; Dorofeev, R. A.

    2017-02-01

    Timely detection of a trouble in the mechanisms work is a guarantee of the stable operation of the entire machine complex. It allows minimizing unexpected losses, and avoiding any injuries inflicted on working people. The solution of the problem is the most important for vehicles and machines, working in remote areas of the infrastructure. All-terrain vehicles can be referred to such type of transport. The potential object of application of the described methodology is the multipurpose rotary-screw amphibious vehicle for rescue; reconnaissance; transport and technological operations. At the present time, there is no information on the use of these kinds of systems in ground-based vehicles. The present paper is devoted to the state estimation of a mechanism based on the analysis of vibration signals produced by the mechanism, in particular, the vibration signals of rolling bearings. The theory of active perception was used for the solution of the problem of the state estimation.

  17. Evaluation Of State Of Rolling Bearings Mounted In Vehicles With Use Of Vibration Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peruń G.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is a continuation of the research carried out in order to determine the possibility of diagnosing bearings of cars’ wheels. The previous paper showed the results of metallographic research and the research carried out using vibroacoustic methods, with the use of vibration signals and frequency analysis. In this paper the results of further research will be presented, which used the acceleration signals again. To determine the state of the bearings this time simple amplitude measures were used.

  18. Excitation of the lowest CO2 vibrational states by electrons in hypersonic boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenise, I.

    2017-07-01

    The state-to-state vibrational kinetics of a CO2/O2/CO/C/O/e- mixture in a hypersonic boundary layer under conditions compatible with the Mars re-entry is studied. The model adopted treats three CO2 modes (the two degenerated bending modes are approximated as a unique one) as not independent ones. Vibrational-translational transitions in the bending mode, inter-mode exchanges within CO2 molecule and between molecules of different chemical species as well as dissociation-recombination reactions are considered. Attention is paid to the electron-CO2 collisions that cause transitions from the ground vibrational state, CO2(0,0,0), to the first excited ones, CO2(1,0,0), CO2(0,1,0) and CO2(0,0,1). The corresponding processes rate coefficients are obtained starting from the electron energy distribution function, calculated either as an equilibrium Boltzmann distribution at the local temperature or by solving the Boltzmann equation. Results obtained either neglecting or including in the kinetic scheme the electron-CO2 collisions are compared and explained by analysing the rate coefficients of the electron-CO2 collisions.

  19. Nightglow vibrational distributions in the A3Σu+ and A'3Δu states of O2 derived from astronomical sky spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Slanger

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Astronomical sky spectra from the Keck I telescope on Mauna Kea have been used to obtain vibrational distributions in the O2A3Σu+ and O2(A'3Δu states from rotationally-resolved Herzberg I and Chamberlain band emissions in the terrestrial nightglow. The A3Σu+ distribution is similar to that presented in earlier publications, with the exception that there is significant population in the previously undiscerned v=0 level. The vibrational distributions of the A'3Δu and A3Σu+ states are essentially the same when comparison is made in terms of the level energies. The intensity of Chamberlain band emission at the peak of the distribution is about one-fourth that of the Herzberg I emission, as previously shown, and may be related primarily to radiative efficiency. The peaks in both population distributions are about 0.25eV below the O(3P+O(3P dissociation limit. We compare these Herzberg state distributions with that of the O2(b1Σg+ state, concurring with others that the intense nightglow emission associated with b1Σg+(v=0 is a reflection of direct transfer from the Herzberg states. This process takes place following O2 collisions, with simultaneous production of very high a1Δg and b1Σg+ vibrational levels.

  20. Electro-mechanical vibration analysis of functionally graded piezoelectric porous plates in the translation state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan Qing

    2018-02-01

    To provide reference for aerospace structural design, electro-mechanical vibrations of functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) plates carrying porosities in the translation state are investigated. A modified power law formulation is employed to depict the material properties of the plates in the thickness direction. Three terms of inertial forces are taken into account due to the translation of plates. The geometrical nonlinearity is considered by adopting the von Kármán non-linear relations. Using the d'Alembert's principle, the nonlinear governing equation of the out-of-plane motion of the plates is derived. The equation is further discretized to a system of ordinary differential equations using the Galerkin method, which are subsequently solved via the harmonic balance method. Then, the approximate analytical results are validated by utilizing the adaptive step-size fourth-order Runge-Kutta technique. Additionally, the stability of the steady state responses is examined by means of the perturbation technique. Linear and nonlinear vibration analyses are both carried out and results display some interesting dynamic phenomenon for translational porous FGPM plates. Parametric study shows that the vibration characteristics of the present inhomogeneous structure depend on several key physical parameters.

  1. Ab initio calculations of spectroscopic constants and vibrational state lifetimes of diatomic alkali-alkaline-earth cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Dmitry A; Barnes, Dustin K; Varganov, Sergey A

    2017-09-28

    We investigate the lifetimes of vibrational states of diatomic alkali-alkaline-earth cations to determine their suitability for ultracold experiments where long decoherence time and controllability by an external electric field are desirable. The potential energy and permanent dipole moment curves for the ground electronic states of LiBe + , LiMg + , NaBe + , and NaMg + are obtained using the coupled cluster with singles doubles and triples and multireference configuration interaction methods in combination with large all-electron cc-pCVQZ and aug-cc-pCV5Z basis sets. The energies and wave functions of all vibrational states are obtained by solving the Schrödinger equation for nuclei with the B-spline basis set method. To predict the lifetimes of vibrational states, the transition dipole moments, as well as the Einstein coefficients describing spontaneous emission, and the stimulated absorption and emission induced by black body radiation are calculated. Surprisingly, in all studied ions, the lifetimes of the highest excited vibrational states are similar to the lifetimes of the ground vibrational states indicating that highly vibrationally excited ions could be useful for the ultracold experiments requiring long decoherence time.

  2. Ab initio calculations of spectroscopic constants and vibrational state lifetimes of diatomic alkali-alkaline-earth cations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Dmitry A.; Barnes, Dustin K.; Varganov, Sergey A.

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the lifetimes of vibrational states of diatomic alkali-alkaline-earth cations to determine their suitability for ultracold experiments where long decoherence time and controllability by an external electric field are desirable. The potential energy and permanent dipole moment curves for the ground electronic states of LiBe+, LiMg+, NaBe+, and NaMg+ are obtained using the coupled cluster with singles doubles and triples and multireference configuration interaction methods in combination with large all-electron cc-pCVQZ and aug-cc-pCV5Z basis sets. The energies and wave functions of all vibrational states are obtained by solving the Schrödinger equation for nuclei with the B-spline basis set method. To predict the lifetimes of vibrational states, the transition dipole moments, as well as the Einstein coefficients describing spontaneous emission, and the stimulated absorption and emission induced by black body radiation are calculated. Surprisingly, in all studied ions, the lifetimes of the highest excited vibrational states are similar to the lifetimes of the ground vibrational states indicating that highly vibrationally excited ions could be useful for the ultracold experiments requiring long decoherence time.

  3. Picosecond excite-and-probe absorption measurement of the intra-2E(g)E(3/2)-state vibrational relaxation time in Ti(3+):Al2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayen, S. K.; Wang, W. B.; Petricevic, V.; Yoo, K. M.; Alfano, R. R.

    1987-01-01

    The Ti(3+)-doped Al2O3 has been recently demonstrated to be a tunable solid-state laser system with Ti(3+) as the laser-active ion. In this paper, the kinetics of vibrational transitions in the 2E(g)E(3/2) electronic state of Ti(3+):Al2O3a (crucial for characterizing new host materials for the Ti ion) was investigated. A 527-nm 5-ps pulse was used to excite a band of higher vibrational levels of the 2E(g)E(3/2) state, and the subsequent growth of population in the zero vibrational level and lower vibrational levels was monitored by a 3.9-micron picosecond probe pulse. The time evolution curve in the excited 2E(g)E(3/2) state at room temperature was found to be characterized by a sharp rise followed by a long decay, the long lifetime decay reflecting the depopulation of the zero and the lower vibrational levels of the 2E(g)E(3/2) state via radiative transitions. An upper limit of 3.5 ps was estimated for intra-2E(g)E(3/2)-state vibrational relaxation time.

  4. Charge asymmetry and relativistic corrections in pure vibrational states of the HD+ ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanke, Monika; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    2014-03-01

    In this work we present very accurate quantum-mechanical calculations of all bound pure vibrational states of the HD+ ion performed without the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation. All three particles forming the system are treated on equal footing. The approach involves separating the center-of-mass motion from the laboratory-frame nonrelativistic Hamiltonian and expending the wave function of each considered state in terms of all-particle explicitly correlated Gaussian functions. The Gaussian exponential parameters are variationally optimized with the aid of the analytical energy gradient calculated with respect to these parameters. For each state the leading relativistic corrections are calculated as expectation values of the corresponding operators with the non-BO wave function of the state. The non-BO approach allows us to directly describe the charge asymmetry in HD+ which is due to the nuclear-mass asymmetry. The effect increases with the vibrational excitation and affects the values of the relativistic corrections. This phenomenon is the focus of the present study.

  5. Numerical generalized vibration density of states evaluation for inelastic neutron scattering in solid matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kazmianec, V; Aranghel, D

    2002-01-01

    A computational method for improved evaluation of the generalized vibration density of states (GVDS) is proposed. It is based on Fast Fourier Transform (FPT) technique and gives the possibility for more precise analyses of the neutron double differential scattering cross section. The method was applied to zirconium hydride investigation. The results were presented for ZrH sub 1 sub . sub 6 U sub 0 sub . sub 3 sub 2 sample at various temperatures on time-of-flight (TOF) Spectrometry at IBR-2 reactor of JINR-Dubna and were compared to GVDS values obtained by traditional single-phonon approximation method

  6. Quantum control spectroscopy of vibrational modes: Comparison of control scenarios for ground and excited states in {beta}-carotene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauer, Juergen; Buckup, Tiago [Fachbereich Chemie, Physikalische Chemie, Philipps-Universitaet Marburg, Hans-Meerwein-Strasse, D-35043 Marburg (Germany); Motzkus, Marcus [Fachbereich Chemie, Physikalische Chemie, Philipps-Universitaet Marburg, Hans-Meerwein-Strasse, D-35043 Marburg (Germany)], E-mail: motzkus@staff.uni-marburg.de

    2008-06-23

    Quantum control spectroscopy (QCS) is used as a tool to study, address selectively and enhance vibrational wavepacket motion in large solvated molecules. By contrasting the application of Fourier-limited and phase-modulated excitation on different electronic states, the interplay between the controllability of vibrational coherence and electronic resonance is revealed. We contrast control on electronic ground and excited state by introducing an additional pump beam prior to a DFWM-sequence (Pump-DFWM). Via phase modulation of this initial pump pulse, coherent control is extended to structural evolution on the vibrationally hot ground state (hot-S{sub 0}) and lowest lying excited state (S{sub 1}) of {beta}-carotene. In an open loop setup, the control scenarios for these different electronic states are compared in their effectiveness and mechanism.

  7. Non-adiabatic corrections to the energies of the pure vibrational states of H2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubin, Sergiy; Leonarski, Filip; Stanke, Monika; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    2009-07-01

    Nonrelativistic energies of all fifteen pure vibrational states of the H molecule have been recalculated with much higher accuracy than before. In the calculations we employed explicitly correlated Gaussian functions and an approach where the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation is not assumed. The wave function of each state was expanded in terms of 10 000 Gaussians whose nonlinear parameters were optimized using a procedure involving the analytical energy gradient. The obtained non-BO energies combined with the recent BO adiabatic energies of Pachucki and Komasa [K. Pachucki, J. Komasa, J. Chem. Phys. 129 (2008) 034102] allowed us to determine new improved values of the non-adiabatic corrections for the considered states.

  8. Self-trapped vibrational states in synthetic beta-sheet helices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, Erik; Schwartz, E.; Bodis, Pavol; Koepf, Matthieu; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria; Rowan, Alan E.; Woutersen, Sander; Nolte, Roeland J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Femtosecond vibrational pump–probespectroscopy on β-helical polyisocyanopeptides reveals vibrational self-trapping in the well-defined hydrogen-bonded side groups that is absent when non-hydrogen bonded monomers are mixed in.

  9. Proposal to use vibration analysis steering components and car body to monitor, for example, the state of unbalance wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczur, R.

    2016-09-01

    The results of road tests of car VW Passat equipped with tires of size 195/65 R15, on the influence of the unbalancing front wheel on vibration of the parts of steering system, steering wheel and the body of the vehicle have been presented in this paper. Unbalances wheels made using weights of different masses, placed close to the outer edge of the steel rim and checked on the machine Hunter GSP 9700 for balancing wheels. The recorded waveforms vibration steering components and car body, at different constant driving speeds, subjected to spectral analysis to determine the possibility of isolating vibration caused by unbalanced wheel in various states and coming from good quality asphalt road surface. The results were discussed in terms of the possibility of identifying the state of unbalancing wheels and possible changes in radial stiffness of the tire vibration transmitted through the system driving wheel on the steering wheel. Vibration analysis steering components and car body, also in the longitudinal direction, including information from the CAN bus of the state of motion of the car, can be used to monitor the development of the state of unbalance wheel, tire damage or errors shape of brake discs or brake drums, causing pulsations braking forces.

  10. Millimeter-wave and Submillimeter-wave Spectra of Aminoacetonitrile in the Three Lowest Vibrational Excited States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposti, Claudio Degli; Dore, Luca; Melosso, Mattia [Dipartimento di Chimica “Giacomo Ciamician”, Università di Bologna, via Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Kobayashi, Kaori [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Fujita, Chiho; Ozeki, Hiroyuki, E-mail: ozeki@env.sci.toho-u.ac.jp [Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Science, Toho University, 2-2-1 Miyama, Funabashi, 274-8510 (Japan)

    2017-06-01

    It is important to study possible precursors of amino acids such as glycine to enable future searches in interstellar space. Aminoacetonitrile (NH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}CN) is one of the most feasible molecules for this purpose. This molecule was already detected toward Sgr B2(N). Aminoacetonitrile has a few low-lying vibrational excited states, and transitions within these states may be found in space. In this study, the pure-rotational transitions in the three lowest vibrational states in the 80–450 GHz range have been assigned and analyzed. It was found to be very important to include Coriolis coupling between the two lowest vibrational fundamentals, while the third one was unperturbed. The partition function was evaluated considering these new results.

  11. Cis-trans isomerization in the S1 state of acetylene: identification of cis-well vibrational levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merer, Anthony J; Steeves, Adam H; Baraban, Joshua H; Bechtel, Hans A; Field, Robert W

    2011-06-28

    A systematic analysis of the S(1)-trans (Ã(1)A(u)) state of acetylene, using IR-UV double resonance along with one-photon fluorescence excitation spectra, has allowed assignment of at least part of every single vibrational state or polyad up to a vibrational energy of 4200 cm(-1). Four observed vibrational levels remain unassigned, for which no place can be found in the level structure of the trans-well. The most prominent of these lies at 46 175 cm(-1). Its (13)C isotope shift, exceptionally long radiative lifetime, unexpected rotational selection rules, and lack of significant Zeeman effect, combined with the fact that no other singlet electronic states are expected at this energy, indicate that it is a vibrational level of the S(1)-cis isomer (Ã(1)A(2)). Guided by ab initio calculations [J. H. Baraban, A. R. Beck, A. H. Steeves, J. F. Stanton, and R. W. Field, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 244311 (2011)] of the cis-well vibrational frequencies, the vibrational assignments of these four levels can be established from their vibrational symmetries together with the (13)C isotope shift of the 46 175 cm(-1) level (assigned here as cis-3(1)6(1)). The S(1)-cis zero-point level is deduced to lie near 44 900 cm(-1), and the ν(6) vibrational frequency of the S(1)-cis well is found to be roughly 565 cm(-1); these values are in remarkably good agreement with the results of recent ab initio calculations. The 46 175 cm(-1) vibrational level is found to have a 3.9 cm(-1) staggering of its K-rotational structure as a result of quantum mechanical tunneling through the isomerization barrier. Such tunneling does not give rise to ammonia-type inversion doubling, because the cis and trans isomers are not equivalent; instead the odd-K rotational levels of a given vibrational level are systematically shifted relative to the even-K rotational levels, leading to a staggering of the K-structure. These various observations represent the first definite assignment of an isomer of acetylene

  12. Cis-trans isomerization in the S1 state of acetylene: Identification of cis-well vibrational levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merer, Anthony J.; Steeves, Adam H.; Baraban, Joshua H.; Bechtel, Hans A.; Field, Robert W.

    2011-06-01

    A systematic analysis of the S1-trans ({tilde A}1Au) state of acetylene, using IR-UV double resonance along with one-photon fluorescence excitation spectra, has allowed assignment of at least part of every single vibrational state or polyad up to a vibrational energy of 4200 cm-1. Four observed vibrational levels remain unassigned, for which no place can be found in the level structure of the trans-well. The most prominent of these lies at 46 175 cm-1. Its 13C isotope shift, exceptionally long radiative lifetime, unexpected rotational selection rules, and lack of significant Zeeman effect, combined with the fact that no other singlet electronic states are expected at this energy, indicate that it is a vibrational level of the S1-cis isomer ({tilde A}1A2). Guided by ab initio calculations [J. H. Baraban, A. R. Beck, A. H. Steeves, J. F. Stanton, and R. W. Field, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 244311 (2011)], 10.1063/1.3570823 of the cis-well vibrational frequencies, the vibrational assignments of these four levels can be established from their vibrational symmetries together with the 13C isotope shift of the 46 175 cm-1 level (assigned here as cis-3161). The S1-cis zero-point level is deduced to lie near 44 900 cm-1, and the ν6 vibrational frequency of the S1-cis well is found to be roughly 565 cm-1; these values are in remarkably good agreement with the results of recent ab initio calculations. The 46 175 cm-1 vibrational level is found to have a 3.9 cm-1 staggering of its K-rotational structure as a result of quantum mechanical tunneling through the isomerization barrier. Such tunneling does not give rise to ammonia-type inversion doubling, because the cis and trans isomers are not equivalent; instead the odd-K rotational levels of a given vibrational level are systematically shifted relative to the even-K rotational levels, leading to a staggering of the K-structure. These various observations represent the first definite assignment of an isomer of acetylene that was

  13. Correlation of finite element free vibration predictions using random vibration test data. M.S. Thesis - Cleveland State Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jeffrey A.

    1994-01-01

    Finite element analysis is regularly used during the engineering cycle of mechanical systems to predict the response to static, thermal, and dynamic loads. The finite element model (FEM) used to represent the system is often correlated with physical test results to determine the validity of analytical results provided. Results from dynamic testing provide one means for performing this correlation. One of the most common methods of measuring accuracy is by classical modal testing, whereby vibratory mode shapes are compared to mode shapes provided by finite element analysis. The degree of correlation between the test and analytical mode shapes can be shown mathematically using the cross orthogonality check. A great deal of time and effort can be exhausted in generating the set of test acquired mode shapes needed for the cross orthogonality check. In most situations response data from vibration tests are digitally processed to generate the mode shapes from a combination of modal parameters, forcing functions, and recorded response data. An alternate method is proposed in which the same correlation of analytical and test acquired mode shapes can be achieved without conducting the modal survey. Instead a procedure is detailed in which a minimum of test information, specifically the acceleration response data from a random vibration test, is used to generate a set of equivalent local accelerations to be applied to the reduced analytical model at discrete points corresponding to the test measurement locations. The static solution of the analytical model then produces a set of deformations that once normalized can be used to represent the test acquired mode shapes in the cross orthogonality relation. The method proposed has been shown to provide accurate results for both a simple analytical model as well as a complex space flight structure.

  14. Fragmentation of H+2 in strong 800-nm laser pulses: Initial-vibrational-state dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstein, Bernold; Thumm, Uwe

    2003-04-01

    The fragmentation of the H+2 molecular ion in 25-fs, 800-nm laser pulses in the intensity range 0.05 0.5 P W/cm2 is investigated by means of wave-packet propagation calculations. We use a collinear reduced-dimensionality model that represents both the nuclear and electronic motion by one degree of freedom including non-Born-Oppenheimer couplings. In order to reproduce accurately the properties of the “real” three-dimensional molecule, we introduce a modified “soft-core” Coulomb potential with a softening function that depends on the internuclear distance. The analysis of the calculated flux of the outgoing wave packets allows us to obtain fragmentation probabilities and kinetic-energy spectra. Our results show that the relative probabilities for dissociation and Coulomb explosion depend critically on the initial vibrational state of the molecular ion.

  15. The Ã1Au state of acetylene: ungerade vibrational levels in the region 45,800-46,550 cm-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraban, Joshua H.; Changala, P. Bryan; Merer, Anthony J.; Steeves, Adam H.; Bechtel, Hans A.; Field, Robert W.

    2012-11-01

    The ungerade vibrational levels of the ? 1Au (S1-trans) state of C2H2 lying in the region 45,800-46,550 cm-1 have been assigned from IR-UV double resonance spectra. The aim has been to classify the complete manifold of S1-trans levels in this region, so as to facilitate the assignment of the bands of S1-cis C2H2. The rotational structure is complicated because of the overlapping of vibrational polyads with different Coriolis and Darling-Dennison parameters, but assignments have been possible with the help of predictions based on the properties of polyads at lower energy. An important result is that the analysis of the (1141, 1161) polyad determines the anharmonicity constants x 14 and x 16, which will be needed to proceed to higher energies. Some regions of impressive complexity occur. Among these is the band given by the 3361, K = 1 state at 45,945 cm-1, where a three-level interaction within the S1 state is confused by triplet perturbations. Several probable S1-cis states have been observed, including cis-62, K = 1; this vibrational level appears to show a K-staggering, of the type that arises when quantum mechanical tunnelling through the barrier to cis-trans isomerization is possible. The total number of identified cis vibrational states is now 6 out of an expected 10 up to the energies discussed in this paper.

  16. A method for the direct measurement of electronic site populations in a molecular aggregate using two-dimensional electronic-vibrational spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Nicholas H. C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dong, Hui [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Oliver, Thomas A. A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fleming, Graham R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Two dimensional electronic spectroscopy has proven to be a valuable experimental technique to reveal electronic excitation dynamics in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes, nanoscale semiconductors, organic photovoltaic materials, and many other types of systems. It does not, however, provide direct information concerning the spatial structure and dynamics of excitons. 2D infrared spectroscopy has become a widely used tool for studying structural dynamics but is incapable of directly providing information concerning electronic excited states. 2D electronic-vibrational (2DEV) spectroscopy provides a link between these domains, directly connecting the electronic excitation with the vibrational structure of the system under study. In this work, we derive response functions for the 2DEV spectrum of a molecular dimer and propose a method by which 2DEV spectra could be used to directly measure the electronic site populations as a function of time following the initial electronic excitation. We present results from the response function simulations which show that our proposed approach is substantially valid. This method provides, to our knowledge, the first direct experimental method for measuring the electronic excited state dynamics in the spatial domain, on the molecular scale.

  17. A method for the direct measurement of electronic site populations in a molecular aggregate using two-dimensional electronic-vibrational spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Nicholas H. C.; Dong, Hui; Oliver, Thomas A. A.; Fleming, Graham R., E-mail: grfleming@lbl.gov [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Kavli Energy Nanosciences Institute at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Two dimensional electronic spectroscopy has proved to be a valuable experimental technique to reveal electronic excitation dynamics in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes, nanoscale semiconductors, organic photovoltaic materials, and many other types of systems. It does not, however, provide direct information concerning the spatial structure and dynamics of excitons. 2D infrared spectroscopy has become a widely used tool for studying structural dynamics but is incapable of directly providing information concerning electronic excited states. 2D electronic-vibrational (2DEV) spectroscopy provides a link between these domains, directly connecting the electronic excitation with the vibrational structure of the system under study. In this work, we derive response functions for the 2DEV spectrum of a molecular dimer and propose a method by which 2DEV spectra could be used to directly measure the electronic site populations as a function of time following the initial electronic excitation. We present results from the response function simulations which show that our proposed approach is substantially valid. This method provides, to our knowledge, the first direct experimental method for measuring the electronic excited state dynamics in the spatial domain, on the molecular scale.

  18. Structure and vibrations of 2-fluoro-N-methylaniline in the S0, S1 and D0 states: REMPI and MATI spectroscopy and theoretical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng; Dai, Wenshuai; Zhang, Lijuan; Cheng, Min; Du, Yikui; Zhu, Qihe

    2017-10-01

    Theoretical calculations predicted that there are only two stable conformers, trans and cis, for 2-fluoro-N-methylaniline (2FNMA) in the S0, S1 and D0 states. Compared to the cis conformer, the trans one is more stable, and has a population more than 99% at room temperature. The optimized molecular skeleton of trans and cis 2FNMA are both non-planar in the S0 state, but planar in the S1 and D0 states. The one-dimensional potential energy surface of 2FNMA in the S0 state is obtained. The Resonance-enhanced two-photon ionization (R2PI) and Mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectra of trans 2FNMA are obtained. The first electronic excitation energy (E1) and the adiabatic ionization energy (IE) of trans 2FNMA are determined. The substitution effect on the molecular structures, transition energies and vibrations of 2FNMA are discussed.

  19. Note: Arbitrary periodical mechanical vibrations can be realized in the resonant state based on multiple tuning fork structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liangguo; Pan, Chengliang; Wang, Hongbo; Feng, Zhihua

    2013-09-01

    We develop a novel approach to match harmonics and vibration modes based on the mechanism of multiple tuning fork structure (MTFS), through which it is promising to realize arbitrary periodical vibrations in the resonant state. A prototype three-layer MTFS with first three harmonics is presented to verify the feasibility of the proposed principle. The matching process and experimental results confirm the unique advantages of MTFS, as discussed in the theoretical analysis. Typical periodical motions, including sawtooth, square, half-wave rectified, and full-wave rectified waveforms, are achieved by the syntheses of resonant harmonics.

  20. Experimental Analysis of Steady-State Maneuvering Effects on Transmission Vibration Patterns Recorded in an AH-1 Cobra Helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Edward M.; Dzwonczyk, Mark; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Flight experiment was designed primarily to determine the extent to which steady-state maneuvers influence characteristic vibration patterns measured at the input pinion and output annulus gear locations of the main transmission. If results were to indicate that maneuvers systematically influence vibration patterns, more extensive studies would be planned to explore the response surface. It was also designed to collect baseline data for comparison with experimental data to be recorded at a later date from test stands at Glenn Research Center. Finally, because this was the first vibration flight study on the Cobra aircraft, considerable energy was invested in developing an in-flight recording apparatus, as well as exploring acceleration mounting methods, and generally learning about the overall vibratory characteristics of the aircraft itself.

  1. Lifetimes and wave functions of ozone metastable vibrational states near the dissociation limit in full symmetry approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lapierre, David; Kochanov, Roman; Kokoouline, Viatcheslav; Tyuterev, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Energies and lifetimes (widths) of vibrational states above the lowest dissociation limit of $^{16}$O$_3$ were determined using a previously-developed efficient approach, which combines hyperspherical coordinates and a complex absorbing potential. The calculations are based on a recently-computed potential energy surface of ozone determined with a spectroscopic accuracy [J. Chem. Phys. {\\bf 139}, 134307 (2013)]. The effect of permutational symmetry on rovibrational dynamics and the density of resonance states in O$_3$ is discussed in detail. Correspondence between quantum numbers appropriate for short- and long-range parts of wave functions of the rovibrational continuum is established. It is shown, by symmetry arguments, that the allowed purely vibrational ($J=0$) levels of $^{16}$O$_3$ and $^{18}$O$_3$, both made of bosons with zero nuclear spin, cannot dissociate on the ground state potential energy surface. Energies and wave functions of bound states of the ozone isotopologue $^{16}$O$_3$ with rotational ...

  2. Low-frequency vibrational excitations in the amorphous and crystalline states of triphenyl phosphite: A neutron and Raman scattering investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hédoux, Alain; Derollez, Patrick; Guinet, Yannick; Dianoux, Albert José; Descamps, Marc

    2001-04-01

    The vibrational density of states in the triphenyl phosphite, measured by inelastic neutron scattering, were obtained during isothermal aging at Ta=210, 213, and 216 K. The low-frequency ωn behavior of the vibrational density of states was observed to be time dependent. This is suggestive of an abortive crystallization process because the ω exponent has not reached the characteristic value of the crystalline state (n=2) at the end of the transformation. The confrontation of inelastic neutron scattering and Raman data in the low-frequency range reveals interesting information about the structural organization in the liquid, the glass, the undercooled liquid, and the glacial state, through the observation of the boson peak.

  3. Femtochemistry in the electronic ground state: Dynamic Stark control of vibrational dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shu, Chuan-Cun; Thomas, Esben Folger; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    2017-01-01

    We study the interplay of vibrational and rotational excitation in a diatomic molecule due to the non-resonant dynamic Stark effect. With a fixed peak intensity, optimal Gaussian pulse durations for maximizing vibrational or rotational transitions are obtained analytically and confirmed numerically...

  4. Chimera States in Two Populations with Heterogeneous Phase-lag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Erik Andreas; Bick, Christian; Panaggio, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The simplest network of coupled phase-oscillators exhibiting chimera states is given by two populations with disparate intra- and inter-population coupling strengths. We explore the effects of heterogeneous coupling phase-lags between the two populations. Such heterogeneity arises naturally......-uniform synchronization, including in-phase and anti-phase synchrony, full incoherence (splay state), chimera states with phase separation of 0 or π between populations, and states where both populations remain desynchronized. These desynchronized states exhibit stable, oscillatory, and even chaotic dynamics. Moreover...

  5. Real-time detection of doorway states in the intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution of the OH/OD stretch vibration of phenol

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Yuji; Mikami, Naohiko; Ebata, Takayuki

    2004-01-01

    A picosecond time-resolved IR-UV pump-probe spectroscopic study was carried out for the intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution of the OH/OD stretching vibration of isolated phenol and its isotopomers in supersonic beams. The time evolution due to IVR showed a significant isotope effect; the OH stretch vibration showed a single exponential decay and its lifetime is greatly lengthened upon the deuterium substitution of the CH group. The OD stretch vibration exhibited prominent quantum...

  6. Vibrational Diver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Victor; Ivanova, Alevtina; Schipitsyn, Vitalii; Stambouli, Moncef

    2014-10-01

    The paper is concerned with dynamics of light solid in cavity with liquid subjected to rotational vibration in the external force field. New vibrational phenomenon - diving of a light cylinder to the cavity bottom is found. The experimental investigation of a horizontal annulus with a partition has shown that under vibration a light body situated in the upper part of the layer is displaced in a threshold manner some distance away from the boundary. In this case the body executes symmetric tangential oscillations. An increase of the vibration intensity leads to a tangential displacement of the body near the external boundary. This displacement is caused by the tangential component of the vibrational lift force, which appears as soon as the oscillations lose symmetry. In this case the trajectory of the body oscillatory motion has the form of a loop. The tangential lift force makes stable the position of the body on the inclined section of the layer and even in its lower part. A theoretical interpretation has been proposed, which explains stabilization of a quasi-equilibrium state of a light body near the cavity bottom in the framework of vibrational hydromechanics.

  7. Vibration diagnostic system for evaluation of state interconnected electrical motors mechanical parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilevskyi, Oleksandr M.; Kulakov, Pavlo I.; Dudatiev, Igor A.; Didych, Volodymyr M.; Kotyra, Andrzej; Suleimenov, Batyrbek; Assembay, Azat; Kozbekova, Ainur

    2017-08-01

    The paper presents the structural diagram and mathematical model of a vibration diagnostic system to measure angular velocities of two interconnected electric motors. The system is based on vibration signals and the control signals of the motor mechanical parameters. The measurement procedure of the rotor rotational speed is based on vibration signals during synchronization. The procedure presented allows simultaneous measurement and synchronization frequencies of rotation to diagnose of the motors' mechanical parts. The calculated reduced error of synchronizing frequencies of rotation of the rotors, which is 0.45% of the measurement range of frequencies of rotation from 0 to 80Hz.

  8. Phase diagrams, thermodynamic properties and sound velocities derived from a multiple Einstein method using vibrational densities of states : an application to MgO–SiO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Michael H G; Schmid-Fetzer, Rainer; van den Berg, Arie P.

    2017-01-01

    In a previous paper, we showed a technique that simplifies Kieffer’s lattice vibrational method by representing the vibrational density of states with multiple Einstein frequencies. Here, we show that this technique can be applied to construct a thermodynamic database that accurately represents

  9. Analysis of solid-state transformations of pharmaceutical compounds using vibrational spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinz, Andrea; Strachan, Clare J; Gordon, Keith C

    2009-01-01

    pharmaceutical ingredient can significantly influence its processing behaviour, including powder flow and compressibility, and biopharmaceutical properties such as solubility, dissolution rate and bioavailability. KEY FINDINGS: Vibrational spectroscopic techniques such as infrared, near-infrared, Raman and, most...

  10. Gas phase Boudouard reactions involving singlet-singlet and singlet-triplet CO vibrationally excited states: implications for the non-equilibrium vibrational kinetics of CO/CO2 plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Patricia R. P.; Euclides, Henrique de O.; Albernaz, Alessandra F.; Aquilanti, Vincenzo; Capitelli, Mario; Grossi, Gaia; Lombardi, Andrea; Macheret, Sergey; Palazzetti, Federico

    2017-10-01

    Rate constants for the Boudouard reactions: CO + CO → CO2 + C and CO + CO → C2O + O, involving ground and vibrationally excited states for both singlet-singlet and singlet-triplet reactant CO molecules, have been obtained by using the transition-state theory on an ab initio generated potential energy surface. The dependence of the activation energies for the different processes on the vibrational energy of reactants has been estimated through a parametrization that accounts for the utilization of vibrational energy and is calculated by the forward and backward ab initio activation energies of the relevant processes at zero vibrational energy. The results and their comparison with available experimental reaction rates demonstrate the importance of vibrational excitation not only for the singlet-singlet reactions, but also for the singlet-triplet ones, which are here investigated for the first time. Finally, the implications of the present results on the kinetics of CO/CO2 cold plasmas are discussed: for their modeling the temperature dependence of the obtained rates for singlet-singlet and singlet-triplet reactants in the ground vibrational states have been represented by both Arrhenius and deformed Arrhenius equations.

  11. Solutions to Mitigate Vibrations and Noise Produced by Tramways (State of Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela - Dorica Stroia

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Vibrations and noises produced by daily human activities represent a major issue of nowadays, having a negative impact both on environment and on people. These negative effects occur with the human evolution and development and remain a problem that needs to be solved. The paper describes a part of the methods used on vibrations and noise damping, caused by road traffic, with reference in particular to tramways.

  12. An Analysis of the Torsion-Rotation-Vibration Rotational Spectrum of the Lowest In-Plane Bend and First Excited Torsional State of the C(3V) Internal Rotor C2H5CN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, J. C.; Pickett, Herbert M.; Sastry, K. V. L. N.

    2000-01-01

    C2H5CN (Propionitrile or ethyl cyanide) is a well known interstellar species abundantly observed in hot cores during the onset of star formation. The onset of star formation generally results in elevated temperature, which thermally populates may low lying vibrational states such as the 206/cm in-plane bend and the 212/cm first excited torsional state in C2H5CN. Unfortunately, these two states are strongly coupled through a complex series of torsion-vibration-rotation interactions, which dominate the spectrum. In order to understand the details of these interactions and develop models capable of predicting unmeasured transitions for astronomical observations in C2H5CN and similar molecules, several thousand rotational transitions in the lowest excited in-plane bend and first excited torsional state have been recorded, assigned and analyzed. The analysis reveals very strong a- and b-type Coriolis interactions and a number of other smaller interactions and has a number of important implications for other C3V torsion-rotation-vibration systems. The relative importance and the physical origins of the coupling among the rotational, vibrational and torsional motions will be presented along with a full spectroscopic analysis and supporting astronomical observations.

  13. Surface-catalyzed recombination into excited electronic, vibrational, rotational, and kinetic energy states: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofsky, I. L.; Barrett, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    Laboratory experiments in which recombined CO, CO2, D2O, OH, N2, H2, and O2 molecules desorb from surfaces in excited internal and translational states are briefly reviewed. Unequilibrated distributions predominate from the principally catalytic metal substrates so far investigated. Mean kinetic energies have been observed up to approx. 3x, and in some cases less than, wall-thermal; the velocity distributions generally vary with emission angle, with non-Lambertian particle fluxes. The excitation state populations are found to depend on surface impurities, in an as yet unexplained way.

  14. Human Population in the Western United States (1900 - 2000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Map containing historical census data from 1900 - 2000 throughout the western United States at the county level. Data includes total population, population density,...

  15. Decay Rate Measurement of the First Vibrationally Excited State of MgH+ in a Cryogenic Paul Trap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versolato, O.O.; Schwarz, M.; Hansen, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    We present a method to measure the decay rate of the first excited vibrational state of polar molecular ions that are part of a Coulomb crystal in a cryogenic linear Paul trap. Specifically, we have monitored the decay of the |ν=1,J=1⟩X towards the |ν=0,J=0⟩X level in MgH+ by saturated laser exci...

  16. Microcanonical unimolecular rate theory at surfaces. II. Vibrational state resolved dissociative chemisorption of methane on Ni(100).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, H L; Bukoski, A; Harrison, I

    2004-08-22

    A three-parameter microcanonical theory of gas-surface reactivity is used to investigate the dissociative chemisorption of methane impinging on a Ni(100) surface. Assuming an apparent threshold energy for dissociative chemisorption of E(0)=65 kJ/mol, contributions to the dissociative sticking coefficient from individual methane vibrational states are calculated: (i) as a function of molecular translational energy to model nonequilibrium molecular beam experiments and (ii) as a function of temperature to model thermal equilibrium mbar pressure bulb experiments. Under fairly typical molecular beam conditions (e.g., E(t)>/=25 kJ mol(-1), T(s)>/=475 K, T(n)state dominates the overall sticking. In contrast, under thermal equilibrium conditions at temperatures T>/=100 K the dissociative sticking is dominated by methane in vibrationally excited states, particularly those involving excitation of the nu(4) bending mode. Fractional energy uptakes f(j) defined as the fraction of the mean energy of the reacting gas-surface collision complexes that derives from specific degrees of freedom of the reactants (i.e., molecular translation, rotation, vibration, and surface) are calculated for thermal dissociative chemisorption. At 500 K, the fractional energy uptakes are calculated to be f(t)=14%, f(r)=21%, f(v)=40%, and f(s)=25%. Over the temperature range from 500 K to 1500 K relevant to thermal catalysis, the incident gas-phase molecules supply the preponderance of energy used to surmount the barrier to dissociative chemisorption, f(g)=f(t)+f(r)+f(v) approximately 75%, with the highest energy uptake always coming from the molecular vibrational degrees of freedom. The predictions of the statistical, mode-nonspecific microcanonical theory are compared to those of other dynamical theories and to recent experimental data. (c) 2004 American Institute of Physics

  17. Microscopic structure of high-spin vibrational states in superdeformed A=190 nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatsukasa, Takashi [Chalk River Labs., Ontario (Canada); Matsuyanagi, Kenichi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Mizutori, Shoujirou [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Microscopic RPA calculations based on the cranked shell model are performed to investigate the quadrupole and octupole correlations for excited superdeformed (SD) bands in even-even A=190 nuclei. The K = 2 octupole vibrations are predicted to be the lowest excitation modes at zero rotational frequency. The Coriolis coupling at finite frequency produces different effects depending on the neutron and proton number of nucleus. The calculations also indicate that some collective excitations may produce moments of inertia almost identical to those of the yrast SD band. An interpretation of the observed excited bands invoking the octupole vibrations is proposed, which suggests those octupole vibrations may be prevalent in even-even SD A=190 nuclei.

  18. Relaxation of H2O from its |04>- vibrational state in collisions with H2O, Ar, H2, N2, and O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Peter W.; Sims, Ian R.; Smith, Ian W. M.

    2004-03-01

    We report rate coefficients at 293 K for the collisional relaxation of H2O molecules from the highly excited |04>± vibrational states in collisions with H2O, Ar, H2, N2, and O2. In our experiments, the |04>- state is populated by direct absorption of radiation from a pulsed dye laser tuned to ˜719 nm. Evolution of the population in the (|04>±) levels is observed using the combination of a frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG laser, which selectively photolyses H2O(|04>±), and a frequency-doubled dye laser, which observes the OH(v=0) produced by photodissociation via laser-induced fluorescence. The delay between the pulse from the pump laser and those from the photolysis and probe lasers was systematically varied to generate kinetic decays. The rate coefficients for relaxation of H2O(|04>±) obtained from these experiments, in units of cm3 molecule-1 s-1, are: k(H2O)=(4.1±1.2)×10-10, k(Ar)=(4.9±1.1)×10-12, k(H2)=(6.8±1.1)×10-12, k(N2)=(7.7±1.5)×10-12, k(O2)=(6.7±1.4)×10-12. The implications of these results for our previous reports of rate constants for the removal of H2O molecules in selected vibrational states by collisions with H atoms (P. W. Barnes et al., Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc. 113, 167 (1999) and P. W. Barnes et al., J. Chem. Phys. 115, 4586 (2001).) are fully discussed.

  19. Ultrafast Relaxation Dynamics of Photoexcited Heme Model Compounds: Observation of Multiple Electronic Spin States and Vibrational Cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govind, Chinju; Karunakaran, Venugopal

    2017-04-13

    Hemin is a unique model compound of heme proteins carrying out variable biological functions. Here, the excited state relaxation dynamics of heme model compounds in the ferric form are systematically investigated by changing the axial ligand (Cl/Br), the peripheral substituent (vinyl/ethyl-meso), and the solvent (methanol/DMSO) using femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy upon excitation at 380 nm. The relaxation time constants of these model compounds are obtained by global analysis. Excited state deactivation pathway of the model compounds comprising the decay of the porphyrin excited state (S*) to ligand to metal charge transfer state (LMCT, τ 1 ), back electron transfer from metal to ligand (MLCT, τ 2 ), and relaxation to the ground state through different electronic spin states of iron (τ 3 and τ 4 ) are proposed along with the vibrational cooling processes. This is based on the excited state absorption spectral evolution, similarities between the transient absorption spectra of the ferric form and steady state absorption spectra of the low-spin ferrous form, and the data analysis. The observation of an increase of all the relaxation time constants in DMSO compared to the methanol reflects the stabilization of intermediate states involved in the electronic relaxation. The transient absorption spectra of met-myoglobin are also measured for comparison. Thus, the transient absorption spectra of these model compounds reveal the involvement of multiple iron spin states in the electronic relaxation dynamics, which could be an alternative pathway to the ground state beside the vibrational cooling processes and associated with the inherent features of the heme b type.

  20. Thermomechanical responses of nonlinear torsional vibration with NiTi shape memory alloy - Alternative stable states and their jumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Minglu; Sun, Qingping

    2017-05-01

    The dynamic response of nonlinear torsional vibration system with phase transformable NiTi Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) wire is investigated by experiment in this paper. The thermomechanical responses of the NiTi wire as a softening nonlinear damping spring in the torsional vibration system are measured by synchronized acquisition of rotational angle and temperature under external excitation. Frequency Response Curves (FRCs) at fixed excitation amplitude and Amplitude Response Curves (ARCs) at fixed frequency are obtained in the frequency and amplitude domains respectively. It is found that, as the deformation of NiTi wire goes into the softening nonlinear phase transition region, the smooth and stable dynamic responses along one branch of FRC or ARC will gradually enter into metastable region and eventually become unstable and drastically switch to a new contrasting alternative stable state along the other branch. The jump phenomenon between the alternative stable states on the lower and upper branches of the FRC or ARC and the hysteresis between the jump-up and jump-down are identified by experiments. In addition, the effects of external disturbance (both magnitude and direction) on triggering the jumps between the alternative stable states along the two metastable branches are examined in the time domain. The stability of the nonlinear dynamic response is analyzed by the Duffing oscillator model and interpreted via the stability landscape. For the first time, we directly reveal the alternative stable states and jump phenomena of thermomechanical responses by experiments in the frequency, amplitude and time domains. The results not only show the important roles of phase transition nonlinearity in bringing multiple equilibrium states and their fast switches, but also provide a solid experimental base for the identification of metastable regions as well as further management of the undesired dynamic responses of vibration system where NiTi is used as a nonlinear

  1. Efficient quantum calculations of vibrational states of vinylidene in full dimensionality: A scheme with combination of methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Bian, Wensheng

    2008-07-01

    Full-dimensional quantum calculations of vibrational states of C2H2 and C2D2 are performed in the high-energy region (above 20400cm-1 relative to the acetylene minimum). The theoretical scheme is a combination of several methods. To exploit the full parity and permutation symmetry, the CC-HH diatom-diatom Jacobi coordinates are chosen; phase space optimization in combination with physical considerations is used to obtain an efficient radial discrete variable representation, whereas a basis contraction scheme is applied for angular coordinates. The preconditioned inexact spectral transform method combined with an efficient preconditioner is employed to compute eigenstates within a desired spectral window. The computation is efficient. More definite assignments on vinylidene states than previous studies are acquired using the normal mode projection; in particular, a consistent analysis of the ν1 (symmetric CH stretch) state is provided. The computed vinylidene vibrational energy levels are in general good agreement with experiment, and several vinylidene states are reported for the first time.

  2. New analytical model for the ozone electronic ground state potential surface and accurate ab initio vibrational predictions at high energy range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyuterev, Vladimir G; Kochanov, Roman V; Tashkun, Sergey A; Holka, Filip; Szalay, Péter G

    2013-10-07

    An accurate description of the complicated shape of the potential energy surface (PES) and that of the highly excited vibration states is of crucial importance for various unsolved issues in the spectroscopy and dynamics of ozone and remains a challenge for the theory. In this work a new analytical representation is proposed for the PES of the ground electronic state of the ozone molecule in the range covering the main potential well and the transition state towards the dissociation. This model accounts for particular features specific to the ozone PES for large variations of nuclear displacements along the minimum energy path. The impact of the shape of the PES near the transition state (existence of the "reef structure") on vibration energy levels was studied for the first time. The major purpose of this work was to provide accurate theoretical predictions for ozone vibrational band centres at the energy range near the dissociation threshold, which would be helpful for understanding the very complicated high-resolution spectra and its analyses currently in progress. Extended ab initio electronic structure calculations were carried out enabling the determination of the parameters of a minimum energy path PES model resulting in a new set of theoretical vibrational levels of ozone. A comparison with recent high-resolution spectroscopic data on the vibrational levels gives the root-mean-square deviations below 1 cm(-1) for ozone band centres up to 90% of the dissociation energy. New ab initio vibrational predictions represent a significant improvement with respect to all previously available calculations.

  3. Energetics, structures, vibrational frequencies, vibrational absorption, vibrational circular dichroism and Raman intensities of Leu-enkephalin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalkanen, Karl J.

    2003-01-01

    Here we present several low energy conformers of Leu-enkephalin (LeuE) calculated with the density functional theory using the Becke 3LYP hybrid functional and the 6-31G* basis set. The structures, conformational energies, vibrational frequencies, vibrational absorption (VA) intensities......, vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) intensities and Raman scattering intensities are reported for the conformers of LeuE which are expected to be populated at room temperature. The species of LeuE-present in non-polar solvents is the neutral non-ionic species with the NH2 and CO2H groups, in contrast...... to the zwitterionic neutral species with the NH3+ and CO2- groups which predominates in aqueous solution and in the crystal. All of our attempts to find the zwitterionic species in the isolated state failed, with the result that a hydrogen atom from the positively charged N-terminus ammonium group transferred either...

  4. Active vibration control using state space LQG and internal model control methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkholt, Jakob; Elliott, S.J.

    1998-01-01

    Two ways of designing discrete time robust H2-controllers for feedback broadband active vibration control are compared through computer simulations. The methods are based on different models of disturbance and plant transfer functions, but yield controllers with identical properties. Two simple...... ways of introducing robustness into the H2-design are compared, and finally an efficient way of designing a practical IIR-controller is proposed....

  5. Precision measurements and test of molecular theory in highly-excited vibrational states of H$_2$ $(v=11)$

    CERN Document Server

    Trivikram, T Madhu; Wcisło, P; Ubachs, W; Salumbides, E J

    2016-01-01

    Accurate $EF{}^1\\Sigma^+_g-X{}^1\\Sigma^+_g$ transition energies in molecular hydrogen were determined for transitions originating from levels with highly-excited vibrational quantum number, $v=11$, in the ground electronic state. Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy was applied on vibrationally excited H$_2^*$, produced via the photodissociation of H$_2$S, yielding transition frequencies with accuracies of $45$ MHz or $0.0015$ cm$^{-1}$. An important improvement is the enhanced detection efficiency by resonant excitation to autoionizing $7p\\pi$ electronic Rydberg states, resulting in narrow transitions due to reduced ac-Stark effects. Using known $EF$ level energies, the level energies of $X(v=11, J=1,3-5)$ states are derived with accuracies of typically 0.002 cm$^{-1}$. These experimental values are in excellent agreement with, and are more accurate than the results obtained from the most advanced ab initio molecular theory calculations including relativistic and QED contributions.

  6. Cutting State Diagnosis for Shearer through the Vibration of Rocker Transmission Part with an Improved Probabilistic Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Si

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve more accurate and reliable identification of shearer cutting state, this paper employs the vibration of rocker transmission part and proposes a diagnosis method based on a probabilistic neural network (PNN and fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA. The original FOA is modified with a multi-swarm strategy to enhance the search performance and the modified FOA is utilized to optimize the smoothing parameters of the PNN. The vibration signals of rocker transmission part are decomposed by the ensemble empirical mode decomposition and the Kullback-Leibler divergence is used to choose several appropriate components. Forty-five features are extracted to estimate the decomposed components and original signal, and the distance-based evaluation approach is employed to select a subset of state-sensitive features by removing the irrelevant features. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated via the simulation studies of shearer cutting state diagnosis and the comparison results indicate that the proposed method outperforms the competing methods in terms of diagnosis accuracy.

  7. Vibration analysis of cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaru, Takayuki; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Shintomi, Takakazu; Yamamoto, Akira; Koyama, Tomohiro; Li, Rui

    2004-05-01

    The vibrations of Gifford-McMahon (GM) and pulse-tube (PT) cryocoolers were measured and analyzed. The vibrations of the cold-stage and cold-head were measured separately to investigate their vibration mechanisms. The measurements were performed while maintaining the thermal conditions of the cryocoolers at a steady state. We found that the vibration of the cold-head for the 4 K PT cryocooler was two orders of magnitude smaller than that of the 4 K GM cryocooler. On the other hand, the vibration of the cold-stages for both cryocoolers was of the same order of magnitude. From a spectral analysis of the vibrations and a simulation, we concluded that the vibration of the cold-stage is caused by an elastic deformation of the pulse tubes (or cylinders) due to the pressure oscillation of the working gas.

  8. Vibration analysis of cryocoolers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaru, Takayuki; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Shintomi, Takakazu; Yamamoto, Akira [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Koyama, Tomohiro; Rui Li [Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-05-01

    The vibrations of Gifford-McMahon (GM) and pulse-tube (PT) cryocoolers were measured and analyzed. The vibrations of the cold-stage and cold-head were measured separately to investigate their vibration mechanisms. The measurements were performed while maintaining the thermal conditions of the cryocoolers at a steady state. We found that the vibration of the cold-head for the 4 K PT cryocooler was two orders of magnitude smaller than that of the 4 K GM cryocooler. On the other hand, the vibration of the cold-stages for both cryocoolers was of the same order of magnitude. From a spectral analysis of the vibrations and a simulation, we concluded that the vibration of the cold-stage is caused by an elastic deformation of the pulse tubes (or cylinders) due to the pressure oscillation of the working gas. (Author)

  9. Vibrational Spectroscopy of the CCI[subscript 4]?[subscript 1] Mode: Effect of Thermally Populated Vibrational States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynor, James D.; Wetterer, Anna M.; Cochran, Rea M.; Valente, Edward J.; Mayer, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    In our previous article on CCl[subscript 4] in this "Journal," we presented an investigation of the fine structure of the symmetric stretch of carbon tetrachloride (CCl[subscript 4]) due to isotopic variations of chlorine in C[superscript 35]Cl[subscript x][superscript 37]Cl[subscript 4-x]. In this paper, we present an investigation of…

  10. State population as a predictor of radiation therapy staffing levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, John; Carbonneau, Kira; Kudlas, Myke

    2012-05-01

    Considering the cyclical nature of shortages and oversupplies of staffing levels in the labor force, an accurate prediction of future demand for personnel is of great importance. Historically, the profession of radiation therapy has been plagued with these cycles. This study establishes state population as a strong predictor of radiation therapy staffing levels. A linear regression analysis was performed to determine the association between state population and radiation therapy staffing levels from 2002 to 2010. State population is a significant and substantial predictor variable for the number of actively employed and registered radiation therapists, with 89.5% to 91.4% of the variance accounted for from 2002 to 2010. Additional research in estimating future demand in radiation therapy is possible. By monitoring change in state population, health care professionals can proactively address cycles of shortages and oversupplies in staffing levels. Copyright © 2012 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Population of metastable ionic states in electron-capture collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seim, W.; Mueller, A.; Salzborn, E.

    1981-07-01

    The population of metastable states of singly and doubly charged rare-gas ions created by electron capture in keV ion-atom collisions is investigated by means of a subsequent electron stripping or capture collision.

  12. 1990 point population coverage for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a point coverage of the 1990 Census of Population and Housing for the conterminous United States. (Alaska and Hawaii are available separately). The coverage...

  13. Infrared vibrational spectroscopy of [Ru(bpy)2(bpm)]2+ and [Ru(bpy)3]2+ in the excited triplet state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukuta, Tatsuhiko; Fukazawa, Naoto; Murata, Kei; Inagaki, Akiko; Akita, Munetaka; Tanaka, Sei'ichi; Koshihara, Shin-ya; Onda, Ken

    2014-03-03

    This work involved a detailed investigation into the infrared vibrational spectra of ruthenium polypyridyl complexes, specifically heteroleptic [Ru(bpy)2(bpm)](2+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine and bpm = 2,2'-bipyrimidine) and homoleptic [Ru(bpy)3](2+), in the excited triplet state. Transient spectra were acquired 500 ps after photoexcitation, corresponding to the vibrational ground state of the excited triplet state, using time-resolved infrared spectroscopy. We assigned the observed bands to specific ligands in [Ru(bpy)2(bpm)](2+) based on the results of deuterium substitution and identified the corresponding normal vibrational modes using quantum-chemical calculations. Through this process, the more complex vibrational bands of [Ru(bpy)3](2+) were assigned to normal vibrational modes. The results are in good agreement with the model in which excited electrons are localized on a single ligand. We also found that the vibrational bands of both complexes associated with the ligands on which electrons are little localized appear at approximately 1317 and 1608 cm(-1). These assignments should allow the study of the reaction dynamics of various photofunctional systems including ruthenium polypyridyl complexes.

  14. Vibrational and electronic spectroscopy of the retro-carotenoid rhodoxanthin in avian plumage, solid-state films, and solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Christopher J; LaFountain, Amy M; Prum, Richard O; Frank, Harry A; Tauber, Michael J

    2013-11-15

    Rhodoxanthin is one of few retro-carotenoids in nature. These chromophores are defined by a pattern of single and double bond alternation that is reversed relative to most carotenoids. Rhodoxanthin is found in the plumage of several families of birds, including fruit doves (Ptilinopus, Columbidae) and the red cotingas (Phoenicircus, Cotingidae). The coloration associated with the rhodoxanthin-containing plumage of these fruit dove and cotinga species ranges from brilliant red to magenta or purple. In the present study, rhodoxanthin is characterized in situ by UV-Vis reflectance and resonance Raman spectroscopy to gain insights into the mechanisms of color-tuning. The spectra are compared with those of the isolated pigment in solution and in thin solid films. Key vibrational signatures are identified for three isomers of rhodoxanthin, primarily in the fingerprint region. Electronic structure (DFT) calculations are employed to describe the normal modes of vibration, and determine characteristic modes of retro-carotenoids. These results are discussed in the context of various mechanisms that change the electronic absorption, including structural distortion of the chromophore or enhanced delocalization of π-electrons in the ground-state. From the spectroscopic evidence, we suggest that the shift in absorption is likely a consequence of perturbations that primarily affect the excited state of the chromophore. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Euler-Maclaurin Closed Form Finite State Space Model for a String Applied to Broadband Plate Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Panza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Euler-Maclaurin sun formula is applied to the infinite series Green's function solution in the space-time Laplace transform domain for the one dimensional wave equation for a string fixed at each end. The resulting approximate closed form solution is used to derive a single third order input-output ordinary differential equation to model the string dynamics. The average modal density of a plate is shown to be comparable to a string. A finite three state-space model is developed for the string and applied to the vibrations of a plate subjected to broadband random and impulse inputs. The applications include the direct problem of determining the response to a disturbance input and the inverse problem of identifying the disturbance input with a finite state observer based on the finite string model. Numerical simulations using many plate modes are obtained in the time and frequency domains and are used to compare the multimodal plate model to the finite string based model and to demonstrate how the finite string based model can be used to represent the multimodal vibrations of the plate.

  16. Non-Debye normalization of the glass vibrational density of states in mildly densified silicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantisi, B; Adichtchev, S; Sirotkin, S; Rafaelly, L; Pillonnet, A; Duval, E; Champagnon, B; Mermet, A [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Luminescents, Universite de Lyon, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, UMR 5620 CNRS, 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Wondraczek, L [Department of Materials Science-WW3, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Martensstrasse 5, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Behrens, H [Department of Mineralogy, Leibniz University of Hannover, Callinstrasse 3, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Marcenat, C [CEA, Institut des Nanosciences et Cryognie, SPSMS, LaTEQS, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Surovtsev, N V, E-mail: mermet@pcml.univ-lyon1.f [Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2010-01-20

    The evolution of the boson peak with densification at medium densification rates (up to 2.3%) in silicate glasses was followed through heat capacity measurements and low frequency Raman scattering. It is shown that the decrease of the boson peak induced by densification does not conform to that expected from a continuous medium; rather it follows a two step behaviour. The comparison of the heat capacity data with the Raman data shows that the light-vibration coupling coefficient is almost unaffected in this densification regime. These results are discussed in relation to the inhomogeneity of the glass elastic network at the nanometre scale.

  17. Long-term projections of national, regional, and state population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, J.F.; South, D.W.

    1986-07-01

    The projections prepared by the US Bureau of the Census are the best available projections of total US population. The DRI projections of population at the regional and state level to the year 2008 are the best available and are consistent with the US Bureau of the Census projections of total US population. The DRI regional and state projections can be extended from 2008 to 2030 with a simple model based on economic opportunity, although an even simpler model - constant shares - is used for the 1985 test runs. The US Bureau of the Census prepares the best available projections of the US age-sex distribution.

  18. Keeping current with evolving makeup of New York State population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, H Barry; Cannella, Dolores

    2009-11-01

    The changing residential population of New York State requires continued monitoring if health practitioners are to maintain an awareness of the individuals in their community. A review of federal agency reports provides a general overview of state and national demographic and health factor characteristics.

  19. Influences of quantum mechanically mixed electronic and vibrational pigment states in 2D electronic spectra of photosynthetic systems: Strong electronic coupling cases

    CERN Document Server

    Fujihashi, Yuta; Ishizaki, Akihito

    2015-01-01

    In 2D electronic spectroscopy studies, long-lived quantum beats have recently been observed in photosynthetic systems, and it has been suggested that the beats are produced by quantum mechanically mixed electronic and vibrational states. Concerning the electronic-vibrational quantum mixtures, the impact of protein-induced fluctuations was examined by calculating the 2D electronic spectra of a weakly coupled dimer with vibrational modes in the resonant condition [J. Chem. Phys. 142, 212403 (2015)]. This analysis demonstrated that quantum mixtures of the vibronic resonance are rather robust under the influence of the fluctuations at cryogenic temperatures, whereas the mixtures are eradicated by the fluctuations at physiological temperatures. However, this conclusion cannot be generalized because the magnitude of the coupling inducing the quantum mixtures is proportional to the inter-pigment coupling. In this study, we explore the impact of the fluctuations on electronic-vibrational quantum mixtures in a strongl...

  20. Updated population metadata for United States historical climatology network stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, T.W.; Gallo, K.P.

    2000-01-01

    The United States Historical Climatology Network (HCN) serial temperature dataset is comprised of 1221 high-quality, long-term climate observing stations. The HCN dataset is available in several versions, one of which includes population-based temperature modifications to adjust urban temperatures for the "heat-island" effect. Unfortunately, the decennial population metadata file is not complete as missing values are present for 17.6% of the 12 210 population values associated with the 1221 individual stations during the 1900-90 interval. Retrospective grid-based populations. Within a fixed distance of an HCN station, were estimated through the use of a gridded population density dataset and historically available U.S. Census county data. The grid-based populations for the HCN stations provide values derived from a consistent methodology compared to the current HCN populations that can vary as definitions of the area associated with a city change over time. The use of grid-based populations may minimally be appropriate to augment populations for HCN climate stations that lack any population data, and are recommended when consistent and complete population data are required. The recommended urban temperature adjustments based on the HCN and grid-based methods of estimating station population can be significantly different for individual stations within the HCN dataset.

  1. The rate parameters for coupled vibration-dissociation in a generalized SSH approximation. [Schwarz, Slawsky, and Herzfeld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Surendra P.; Huo, Winifred M.; Park, Chul

    1988-01-01

    A theoretical study of vibrational excitations and dissociations of nitrogen undergoing a nonequilibrium relaxation process upon heating and cooling is reported. The rate coefficients for collisional induced vibrational transitions and transitions from a bound vibrational state into a dissociative state have been calculated using an extension of the theory originally proposed by Schwarz (SSH) et al. (1952). High-lying vibrational states and dissociative states were explicitly included but rotational energy transfer was neglected. The transition probabilities calculated from the SSH theory were fed into the master equation, which was integrated numerically to determine the population distribution of the vibrational states as well as bulk thermodynamic properties. The results show that: (1) the transition rates have a minimum near the middle of the bound vibrational levels, causing a bottleneck in the vibrational relaxation and dissociation rates; (2) high vibrational states are always in equilibrium with the dissociative state; (3) for the heating case, only the low vibrational states relax according to the Landau-Teller theory; (4) for the cooling case, vibrational relaxation cannot be described by a rate equation; (5) Park's (1985, 1988) two-temperature model is approximately valid; and (6) the average vibrational energy removed in dissociation is about 30 percent of the dissociation energy.

  2. Forming the stress state of a vibroisolated building in the process of mounting rubber steel vibration isolator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashevskiy Mikhail Aronovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The necessity to specificate the formation process of stress-strain state of buildings in the construction process is a new problem which requires including real production characteristics going beyond calculation models into calculation methods. Today the construction process lacks this specification. When mounting vibroisolators the stress-strein of a structure state is changing. The mounting method of vibroisolators is patented and consists in multistage successive compression loading of each vibroisolator with the constant speed and following fixation of this displacement. The specified engineering method of rubber-steel pads calculation in view of change of their form during deformation, nonlinearity, rheological processes is offered. Resilient pads look like rubber plates rectangular in plane reinforced on the basic surfaces with metal sheets. The influence of a time-variable static load and free vibrations of loaded pads are considered.

  3. Chirped-pulse Fourier transform millimeter-wave spectroscopy of ten vibrationally excited states of i-propyl cyanide: exploring the far-infrared region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Benjamin E; Gruet, Sébastien; Steber, Amanda L; Giuliano, Barbara M; Schnell, Melanie

    2017-01-18

    We report here further spectroscopic investigation of the astrochemically relevant molecule i-propyl cyanide. We observed and analysed the rotational spectra of the ground state of the molecule and ten vibrationally excited states with energies between 180-500 cm(-1). For this, we used a segmented W-band spectrometer (75-110 GHz) and performed the experiments under room temperature conditions. This approach thus provides access to high-resolution, pure rotational data of vibrational modes that occur in the far-infrared fingerprint region, and that can be difficult to access with other techniques. The obtained, extensive data set will support further astronomical searches and identifications, such as in warmer regions of the interstellar space where contributions from vibrationally excited states become increasingly relevant.

  4. Neural-network analysis of the vibrational spectra of N-acetyl L-alanyl N '-methyl amide conformational states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Frimand, Kenneth; Jalkanen, Karl J.

    2001-01-01

    Density-functional theory (DFT) calculations utilizing the Becke 3LYP hybrid functional have been carried out for N-acetyl L-alanine N'-methylamide and examined with respect to the effect of water on the structure, the vibrational frequencies, vibrational absorption (VA), vibrational circular dic...

  5. Collective excitations in liquid dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO): FIR spectrum, low frequency vibrational density of states, and ultrafast dipolar solvation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Milan K.; Bagchi, Biman

    2017-01-01

    Valuable dynamical and structural information about neat liquid DMSO at ambient conditions can be obtained through a study of low frequency vibrations in the far infrared (FIR), that is, terahertz regime. For DMSO, collective excitations as well as single molecule stretches and bends have been measured by different kinds of experiments such as OHD-RIKES and terahertz spectroscopy. In the present work, we investigate the intermolecular vibrational spectrum of DMSO through three different computational techniques namely (i) the far-infrared spectrum obtained through the Fourier transform of total dipole moment auto-time correlation function, (ii) from the Fourier transform of the translational and angular velocity time autocorrelation functions, and (iii) a quenched normal mode analysis of the parent liquid at 300 K. The three spectra, although exhibit differences among each other, reveal similar features which are in good, semi-quantitative, agreement with experimental results. The study of participation ratio of the density of states obtained from the normal mode analysis shows that the broad spectrum around 100 cm-1 involves collective oscillations of 300-400 molecules. Dipolar solvation dynamics exhibit ultrafast energy relaxation with an initial time constant around 157 fs which can be attributed to the coupling to the collective excitations. We compare the properties of DMSO with those of water vis-a-vis the existence of the low frequency collective modes. Last, we find that the collective excitation spectrum exhibits strong temperature dependence.

  6. Collective excitations in liquid dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO): FIR spectrum, low frequency vibrational density of states, and ultrafast dipolar solvation dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Milan K; Bagchi, Biman

    2017-01-14

    Valuable dynamical and structural information about neat liquid DMSO at ambient conditions can be obtained through a study of low frequency vibrations in the far infrared (FIR), that is, terahertz regime. For DMSO, collective excitations as well as single molecule stretches and bends have been measured by different kinds of experiments such as OHD-RIKES and terahertz spectroscopy. In the present work, we investigate the intermolecular vibrational spectrum of DMSO through three different computational techniques namely (i) the far-infrared spectrum obtained through the Fourier transform of total dipole moment auto-time correlation function, (ii) from the Fourier transform of the translational and angular velocity time autocorrelation functions, and (iii) a quenched normal mode analysis of the parent liquid at 300 K. The three spectra, although exhibit differences among each other, reveal similar features which are in good, semi-quantitative, agreement with experimental results. The study of participation ratio of the density of states obtained from the normal mode analysis shows that the broad spectrum around 100 cm -1 involves collective oscillations of 300-400 molecules. Dipolar solvation dynamics exhibit ultrafast energy relaxation with an initial time constant around 157 fs which can be attributed to the coupling to the collective excitations. We compare the properties of DMSO with those of water vis-a-vis the existence of the low frequency collective modes. Last, we find that the collective excitation spectrum exhibits strong temperature dependence.

  7. A comparison study of steady-state vibrations with single fractional-order and distributed-order derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Jun-Sheng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We conduct a detailed study and comparison for the one-degree-of-freedom steady-state vibrations under harmonic driving with a single fractional-order derivative and a distributed-order derivative. For each of the two vibration systems, we consider the stiffness contribution factor and damping contribution factor of the term of fractional derivatives, the amplitude and the phase difference for the response. The effects of driving frequency on these response quantities are discussed. Also the influences of the order α of the fractional derivative and the parameter γ parameterizing the weight function in the distributed-order derivative are analyzed. Two cases display similar response behaviors, but the stiffness contribution factor and damping contribution factor of the distributed-order derivative are almost monotonic change with the parameter γ, not exactly like the case of single fractional-order derivative for the order α. The case of the distributed-order derivative provides us more options for the weight function and parameters.

  8. Vibrationally state selected ion molecule experimental and computational studies of both reactant charge states of [nitrogen dioxide + ethyne]+ and HOD+ with nitrogen dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Jason M.

    2011-12-01

    Ion molecule studies have not only determined reactivity of systems that would have otherwise been unavailable, but also provide a perspective that improves the understanding of the mechanisms that drive reaction. Presented here are studies of three ion molecule systems one of which is accompanied by an extensive set of direct dynamics trajectory calculations. In the first system presented, NO2+ in six different vibrational states was reacted with C2H2 over the center-of-mass energy range from 0.03 to 3.3 eV. The effects of the symmetric bend overtone (0200) excitation are particularly strong (factor of 4) while the delta overtone (0220) effects are much weaker. A large set of quasi-classical trajectories were calculated at the PBE1PBE/6-311G** level of theory, in an attempt to understand the mechanistic origins of this observation. The trajectories reproduce experiment where comparable. Analysis of these trajectories resolves the mechanistic origins of this vibrational effect. Similar experimental measurements were made for the first excited electronic state of this system where the charge is localized on the acetylene. The C 2H2+ reactant was prepared in four distinct modes. Because both reactants have one unpaired electron, collisions can occur with either singlet or triplet coupling of these unpaired electrons, and the contributions the three channels (charge, O-, and O transfer) are separated based on distinct recoil dynamics. The effects of C2H 2+ vibration are modest, but mode specific. Integral cross sections and product recoil velocity distributions were also measured for reaction of HOD+ with NO2, in which the HOD+ reactant was prepared in its ground state, and with mode-selective excitation in the 001 (OH stretch), 100 (OD stretch) and bend (010) modes. In addition, we measured the 300 K thermal kinetics in a selected ion flow tube reactor and report product branching ratios different from previous measurements. Reaction is found to occur on both the

  9. Shape Transitional Nuclei: What can we learn from the Yrare States? or Hello the Double Vacuum; Goodbye β-vibrations!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpey-Schafer, J. F.; Mullins, S. M.; Bark, R. A.; Gueorguieva, E.; Kau, J.; Komati, F.; Lawrie, J. J.; Maine, P.; Minkova, A.; Murray, S. H. T.; Ncapayi, N. J.; Vymers, P.

    2008-05-01

    The results of our measurements on the yrare states up to spin 20ℏ in 152,154,155Gd, using (α,xn) reactions and the AFRODITE γ-ray spectrometer, are presented. We find that in 155Gd the decay scheme is divided into levels feeding the [505]11/2- band, that is extruded by the prolate deformation from the h11/2 orbital, and levels feeding the i13/2[651]3/2+ intruder orbital and the h9/2[521]3/2- orbital. The decay scheme of 154Gd is very complex. We find no evidence for the existence of β-vibrational levels below 1.5 MeV. We discover that the level scheme can be best understood as a set of collective states built on the ground state configuration |01+> plus a ``congruent'' set of collective states based on the |02+> state at 681 keV. The data suggest that this second vacuum has reduced pairing. Our data do not support IBA and phonon interpretations of these transitional nuclei.

  10. AGEING POPULATION: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS AMONG EUROPEAN UNION STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura DIACONU (MAXIM

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aging population is a global phenomenon, which has affected almost all the EU states. The consequences are very important since it affects the socio-economic environment usually on the long run. Some of them could consist in increasing the public expenditure on pensions, social security and health services, which will raise the overall burden on the working population. Sometimes, a significant reduction of the labour force will even diminish the growth rate of an economy. Considering these aspects, the present paper intends to analyse the demographic situation from the EU states, the factors that have generated it and to identify the possible future trends. To determine the evolution of the ageing population phenomenon, we have analysed some demographic indicators included in various statistical reports and databases, such as the fertility rate, the median age, the percentage of population over a certain age and the age dependency ratio.

  11. Farm Population of the United States: 1975. Current Population Reports: Farm Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Vera J.; And Others

    Presented via narrative and tabular data, this report includes: Population of the U.S., Total and Farm: 1960-1975; Metropolitan-Nonmetropolitan Residence of the Farm and Nonfarm Population, by Race: 1975; Fertility Characteristics of Farm and Nonfarm Women, by Race: 1975; Persons 14 Years Old and Over Employed in Agriculture, by Farm-Nonfarm…

  12. Conformational Sub-states and Populations in Enzyme Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Pratul K [ORNL; Doucet, Nicholas [INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, University of Quebec; Chennubholta, C [University of Pittsburgh; Ramanathan, Arvind [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    reactants in the active site, chemical turnover, and release of products. In addition to formation of crucial structural interactions between enzyme and substrate(s), coordinated motions within the enzyme substrate complex allow reaction to proceed at a much faster rate, compared to the reaction in solution and in the absence of enzyme. An increasing number of enzyme systems show the presence of conserved protein motions that are important for function. A wide variety of motions are naturally sampled (over femtosecond to millisecond time-scales) as the enzyme complex moves along the energetic landscape, driven by temperature and dynamical events from the surrounding environment. Areas of low energy along the landscape form conformational sub-states, which show higher conformational populations than surrounding areas. A small number of these protein conformational sub-states contain functionally important structural and dynamical features, which assist the enzyme mechanism along the catalytic cycle. Identification and characterization of these higher-energy (also called excited) sub-states and the associated populations are challenging, as these sub-states are very short-lived and therefore rarely populated. Specialized techniques based on computer simulations, theoretical modeling, and nuclear magnetic resonance have been developed for quantitative characterization of these sub-states and populations. This chapter discusses these techniques and provides examples of their applications to enzyme systems.

  13. Fluorescence excitation and ultraviolet absorption spectra and theoretical calculations for benzocyclobutane: vibrations and structure of its excited S(1)(π,π(*)) electronic state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hee Won; Ocola, Esther J; Kim, Sunghwan; Laane, Jaan

    2014-01-21

    The fluorescence excitation spectra of jet-cooled benzocyclobutane have been recorded and together with its ultraviolet absorption spectra have been used to assign the vibrational frequencies for this molecule in its S1(π,π(*)) electronic excited state. Theoretical calculations at the CASSCF(6,6)/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory were carried out to compute the structure of the molecule in its excited state. The calculated structure was compared to that of the molecule in its electronic ground state as well as to the structures of related molecules in their S0 and S1(π,π(*)) electronic states. In each case the decreased π bonding in the electronic excited states results in longer carbon-carbon bonds in the benzene ring. The skeletal vibrational frequencies in the electronic excited state were readily assigned and these were compared to the ground state and to the frequencies of five similar molecules. The vibrational levels in both S0 and S1(π,π(*)) states were remarkably harmonic in contrast to the other bicyclic molecules. The decreases in the frequencies of the out-of-plane skeletal modes reflect the increased floppiness of these bicyclic molecules in their S1(π,π(*)) excited state.

  14. Fluorescence excitation and ultraviolet absorption spectra and theoretical calculations for benzocyclobutane: Vibrations and structure of its excited S{sub 1}(π,π{sup *}) electronic state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hee Won; Ocola, Esther J.; Laane, Jaan, E-mail: laane@mail.chem.tamu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3255 (United States); Kim, Sunghwan [National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Maryland 20894 (United States)

    2014-01-21

    The fluorescence excitation spectra of jet-cooled benzocyclobutane have been recorded and together with its ultraviolet absorption spectra have been used to assign the vibrational frequencies for this molecule in its S{sub 1}(π,π{sup *}) electronic excited state. Theoretical calculations at the CASSCF(6,6)/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory were carried out to compute the structure of the molecule in its excited state. The calculated structure was compared to that of the molecule in its electronic ground state as well as to the structures of related molecules in their S{sub 0} and S{sub 1}(π,π{sup *}) electronic states. In each case the decreased π bonding in the electronic excited states results in longer carbon-carbon bonds in the benzene ring. The skeletal vibrational frequencies in the electronic excited state were readily assigned and these were compared to the ground state and to the frequencies of five similar molecules. The vibrational levels in both S{sub 0} and S{sub 1}(π,π{sup *}) states were remarkably harmonic in contrast to the other bicyclic molecules. The decreases in the frequencies of the out-of-plane skeletal modes reflect the increased floppiness of these bicyclic molecules in their S{sub 1}(π,π{sup *}) excited state.

  15. Fluorescence excitation and ultraviolet absorption spectra and theoretical calculations for benzocyclobutane: Vibrations and structure of its excited S1(π,π*) electronic state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hee Won; Ocola, Esther J.; Kim, Sunghwan; Laane, Jaan

    2014-01-01

    The fluorescence excitation spectra of jet-cooled benzocyclobutane have been recorded and together with its ultraviolet absorption spectra have been used to assign the vibrational frequencies for this molecule in its S1(π,π*) electronic excited state. Theoretical calculations at the CASSCF(6,6)/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory were carried out to compute the structure of the molecule in its excited state. The calculated structure was compared to that of the molecule in its electronic ground state as well as to the structures of related molecules in their S0 and S1(π,π*) electronic states. In each case the decreased π bonding in the electronic excited states results in longer carbon-carbon bonds in the benzene ring. The skeletal vibrational frequencies in the electronic excited state were readily assigned and these were compared to the ground state and to the frequencies of five similar molecules. The vibrational levels in both S0 and S1(π,π*) states were remarkably harmonic in contrast to the other bicyclic molecules. The decreases in the frequencies of the out-of-plane skeletal modes reflect the increased floppiness of these bicyclic molecules in their S1(π,π*) excited state. PMID:25669377

  16. Fluorescence excitation and ultraviolet absorption spectra and theoretical calculations for benzocyclobutane: Vibrations and structure of its excited S1(π,π*) electronic state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hee Won; Ocola, Esther J.; Kim, Sunghwan; Laane, Jaan

    2014-01-01

    The fluorescence excitation spectra of jet-cooled benzocyclobutane have been recorded and together with its ultraviolet absorption spectra have been used to assign the vibrational frequencies for this molecule in its S1(π,π*) electronic excited state. Theoretical calculations at the CASSCF(6,6)/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory were carried out to compute the structure of the molecule in its excited state. The calculated structure was compared to that of the molecule in its electronic ground state as well as to the structures of related molecules in their S0 and S1(π,π*) electronic states. In each case the decreased π bonding in the electronic excited states results in longer carbon-carbon bonds in the benzene ring. The skeletal vibrational frequencies in the electronic excited state were readily assigned and these were compared to the ground state and to the frequencies of five similar molecules. The vibrational levels in both S0 and S1(π,π*) states were remarkably harmonic in contrast to the other bicyclic molecules. The decreases in the frequencies of the out-of-plane skeletal modes reflect the increased floppiness of these bicyclic molecules in their S1(π,π*) excited state.

  17. Quantum logic gates using coherent population trapping states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coherent population trap; quantum computation; controlled phase gate. PACS Nos 42.50.Ex; 32.80.Qk; 32.90+a; 03.67.Lx. Conventional computers handle information in the form of bits – which take up values 0 or. 1. Quantum computers on the other hand, use quantum bits (qubits), which can be prepared in states 0, 1 or ...

  18. Selective population of unbound states in 10Li

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. K.; Baumann, T.; Brown, J.; DeYoung, P. A.; Frank, N.; Hinnefeld, J.; Kohley, Z.; Luther, B.; Marks, B.; Spyrou, A.; Stephenson, S. L.; Thoennessen, M.; Williams, S. J.

    2015-08-01

    Unbound positive-parity states in 10Li have been populated with a two-proton removal reaction from a 71 MeV/u 12B beam. The 9Li fragments and emitted neutrons were measured with the MoNA-LISA-Sweeper setup. The measured decay energy spectrum was best fit with three states at 110 ± 40, 500 ± 100, and 1100 ± 100 keV decay energy. This is the second observation of a resonance below 200 keV. The lower two states likely belong to the expected 1+, 2+ doublet.

  19. Are the low-lying isovector 1/sup +/ states scissor vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faessler, Amand; Nojarov, R.

    1987-01-01

    The paper examines the nature of the low-lying isovector states in spherical and deformed nuclei. The subject is discussed under the following topic headings: description in the extended Bohr-Mottelson-model, quasi-particle in rare earth nuclei, isovector 1/sup +/ states in the Ti-isotopes, and a description of the 1/sup +/ states using VAMPIR (Variation after mean field projection in realistic model spaces). (U.K.).

  20. Nonadiabatic quantum dynamics calculations of transition state spectroscopy of I + HI and I + DI reactions: the existence of long life vibrational bonding resonances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayanagi, Toshiyuki

    2017-11-08

    We present the results of nonadiabatic quantum wave packet calculations to analyze the experimental transition state spectra for the I(2P3/2,1/2) + XI (X = H and D) hydrogen exchange reactions based on photodetachment of the IXI- anion. We developed (3 × 3) diabatic potential energy surfaces that can reasonably describe the nonadiabatic transitions induced by spin-orbit interactions. A good agreement was obtained between theory and experiment and it was found that nonadiabatic transitions play a role in the reaction dynamics. We also found that the calculated spectra showed very sharp resonance states with a vibrational bonding character, where the resonance wavefunctions are highly localized around the transition state region. Our calculated results suggest that one may experimentally detect these vibrational bonding resonances using time-domain transition state spectroscopy techniques since those states have picosecond-order lifetimes.

  1. On the effects of hull-girder vibration upon fatigue strength of a Post-Panamax container ship disaggregated by short-term sea state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukasawa Toichi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of hull-girder vibration on the fatigue strength of a Post-Panamax container ship are discussed in the present paper. Firstly, the short-term sea states are categorized according to the occurrence probability of each sea state. Time histories of hull-girder stress in short-term sea states are calculated by means of a nonlinear simulation code of ship response assuming that the hull-girder is rigid and flexible. Then, the calculated stress peaks are processed by the rainflow counting method, where two different counting procedures are used based on the considerations of crack propagation behaviors. Finally, the fatigue damage in life time of the ship in each categorized short-term sea state is estimated by means of Miner’s rule. Based on the calculated results, the effects of hull-girder vibrations on the fatigue damage are clarified by disaggregated damage from short-term sea state.

  2. On the effects of hull-girder vibration upon fatigue strength of a Post-Panamax container ship disaggregated by short-term sea state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toichi Fukasawa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of hull-girder vibration on the fatigue strength of a Post-Panamax container ship are discussed in the present paper. Firstly, the short-term sea states are categorized according to the occurrence probability of each sea state. Time histories of hull-girder stress in short-term sea states are calculated by means of a nonlinear simulation code of ship response assuming that the hull-girder is rigid and flexible. Then, the calculated stress peaks are processed by the rainflow counting method, where two different counting procedures are used based on the considerations of crack propagation behaviors. Finally, the fatigue damage in life time of the ship in each categorized short-term sea state is estimated by means of Miner's rule. Based on the calculated results, the effects of hull-girder vibrations on the fatigue damage are clarified by disaggregated damage from short-term sea state.

  3. Torsion - Rotation - Vibration Effects in the Ground and First Excited States of Methacrolein and Methyl Vinyl Ketone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharenko, Olena; Motiyenko, R. A.; Aviles Moreno, Juan-Ramon; Huet, T. R.

    2016-06-01

    Methacrolein and methyl vinyl ketone are the two major oxidation products of isoprene emitted in the troposphere. New spectroscopic information is provided with the aim to allow unambiguous identification of these molecules, characterized by a large amplitude motion associated with the methyl top. State-of-the-art millimeter-wave spectroscopy experiments coupled to quantum chemical calculations have been performed. Comprehensive sets of molecular parameters have been obtained. The torsion-rotation-vibration effects will be discussed in detail. From the atmospheric application point of view the results provide precise ground state molecular constants essential as a foundation (by using the Ground State Combination Differences method) for the analysis of high resolution spectrum, recorded from 600 to 1600 wn. The infrared range can be then refitted using appropriate Hamiltonian parameters. The present work is funded by the French ANR through the PIA under contract ANR-11-LABX-0005-01 (Labex CaPPA), by the Regional Council Nord-Pas de Calais and by the European Funds for Regional Economic Development (FEDER).

  4. The steady state of a particle in a vibrating box and possible ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In particular, the parameter range is found in which the particle oscillates between the walls in steady state as if the wall was static and it is showed that for these parameter ranges the particle settles to this steady state for all initial conditions. It is proposed that this phenomenon can be used to bunch charged particles in ...

  5. Quantum dynamics study on the binding of a positron to vibrationally excited states of hydrogen cyanide molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayanagi, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Kento; Yoshida, Takahiko; Kita, Yukiumi; Tachikawa, Masanori

    2017-05-01

    We present computational results of vibrationally enhanced positron annihilation in the e+ + HCN/DCN collisions within a local complex potential model. Vibrationally elastic and inelastic cross sections and effective annihilation rates were calculated by solving a time-dependent complex-potential Schrödinger equation under the ab initio potential energy surface for the positron attached HCN molecule, [HCN; e+], with multi-component configuration interaction level (Kita and Tachikawa, 2014). We discuss the effect of vibrational excitation on the positron affinities from the obtained vibrational resonance features.

  6. Experimental determination of rotational constants of low-lying vibrational levels in the 0g- pure long-range state of ultracold Cs2 molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jizhou; Liu, Wenliang; Li, Yuqing; Ma, Jie; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang

    2017-04-01

    We report an accurate experimental determination of rotational constants of the lowest vibrational levels in the purely long-range state of ultracold cesium molecules (Cs2). We engineer a precise reference of the frequency difference through double photoassociation spectroscopy (PAS). The PAS for the lowest vibrational levels, v=0-3, has been obtained with an enhanced sensitivity and accuracy, according to which the binding energies have been corrected. As deduced from the reference, the frequency intervals between neighboring rotational levels are fitted to a non-rigid rotor model, thus the rotational constants are precisely obtained. The experimental results show good agreement with theoretical expectations.

  7. The Generalized Coherent State ansatz: Application to quantum electron-vibrational dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrelli, Raffaele, E-mail: raffaele.borrelli@unito.it [DISAFA, Università di Torino, I-10095 Grugliasco (Italy); Gelin, Maxim F. [Departement of Chemistry, Technische Universität München, D-85747 Garching (Germany)

    2016-12-20

    A new ansatz for molecular vibronic wave functions based on a superposition of time-dependent Generalized Coherent States is developed and analysed. The methodology is specifically tailored to describe the time evolution of the wave function of a system in which several interacting electronic states are coupled to a bath of harmonic oscillators. The equations of motion for the wave packet parameters are obtained by using the Dirac–Frenkel time-dependent variational principle. The methodology is used to describe the quantum dynamical behavior of a model polaron system and its scaling and convergence properties are discussed and compared with numerically exact results.

  8. Vibrational autoionization of state-selective jet-cooled methanethiol (CH3SH) investigated with infrared vacuum-ultraviolet photoionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Min; Sen, Zhitao; Pratt, S. T.; Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2017-11-21

    Vibrational autoionization of Rydberg states provides key information about nonadiabatic processes above an ionization threshold. We employed time-of-flight mass detection of CH3SH+ to record vibrational-state selective photo-ionization efficiency (PIE) spectra of jet-cooled methanethiol (CH3SH) on exciting CH3SH to a specific vibrationally excited state with an infrared (IR) laser, followed by excitation with a tunable laser in the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) region for ionization. Autoionizing Rydberg states assigned to the ns, np, nd and nf series are identified. When IR light at 2601 (ν3, SH stretching mode) and 2948 cm-12, CH3 symmetric stretching mode) was employed, the Rydberg series converged to the respective vibrationally excited (ν3 and ν2) states of CH3SH+. When IR light at 3014 cm-1 (overlapped ν19, CH3 antisymmetric stretching and CH2 antisymmetric stretching modes) was employed, two converging limits towards vibrationally excited states1 and ν9) of CH3SH+ were observed. In contrast, when IR light at 2867 cm-1 (2ν10, overtone of CH3 deformation mode) and 2892 cm-1 (2ν4, overtone of CH2 scissoring mode) was employed, both Δν = -1 and Δν = -2 ionization transitions were observed; there is evidence for direct ionization from the initial state into the CH3SH+ (v4+ = 1) continuum. In all observed IR-VUV-PIE spectra, the ns and nd series show intensity greater than the other Rydberg series, which is consistent with the fact that the highest-occupied molecular orbital of CH3SH is a p-like lone pair orbital on the S atom. The quantum yields for autoionization of various vibrational excited states are discussed.

  9. Persons of Spanish Origin in the United States: March 1973. Current Population Reports, Population Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Edward W.; Cresce, Arthur

    Deomographic, social, and economic data for persons of Spanish origin in the United States are presented. Data were collected in March 1973 by the Bureau of the Census as a supplement to its monthly Current Population Survey. Persons of Spanish origin are divided into: Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central and South American, and other Spanish.…

  10. Vibration sensibility of the median nerve in a population with chronic whiplash associated disorder: Intra- and inter-rater reliability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyros, I; Soundy, A; Heneghan, N R

    2016-09-01

    Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD) grade II are the most prevalent group of whiplash patients seen on a regular basis by musculoskeletal physiotherapists. Impairment of vibration sensibility may be an early indicator of nerve pathology and it has previously been demonstrated in individuals with chronic WAD symptoms utilising vibrameters. A less expensive option, such the tuning fork (TF) may assist with these measures, but research regarding its measurement properties is lacking. To investigate the intra- and inter-rater reliability of vibration sensibility of the median nerve in chronic WAD II (CWAD II). A double blinded, within day intra- and inter-rater reliability study was undertaken. A convenience sample of 26 individuals (8 males, 18 females, age mean 29.9 ± 10.0 years) with CWADII was recruited. WAD I, III & indications of neuropathic pain. Vibration attenuation times were recorded from skin innervated by the median nerve (thenar eminence). Descriptive statistics (mean scores) and reliability statistics [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,1) and Bland and Altman limits of agreement] were undertaken with p = 0.05. Almost perfect intra-rater reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficiency (ICC): 0.972-0.955) and inter-rater reliability (ICC: 0.983) were identified. Confidence Intervals (CI) for inter-rater reliability were 95% CI: -1.461 to -0.056. Almost perfect reliability scores across intra- and inter-rater reliability were found. This provides evidence that, with a standardised testing protocol the TF can be a highly reliable means of vibration sensibility testing. Future studies assessing the validity of the TF in different WAD populations may provide further information about the usefulness of this protocol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Vibrating sample magnetometer 2D and 3D magnetization effects associated with different initial magnetization states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald E. Lukins

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Differences in VSM magnetization vector rotation associated with various initial magnetization states were demonstrated. Procedures and criteria were developed to select sample orientation and initial magnetization states to allow for the combination of two different 2D measurements runs (with the same field profiles to generate a dataset that can be representative of actual 3D magnetization rotation. Nickel, cast iron, and low moment magnetic tape media were used to demonstrate these effects using hysteresis and remanent magnetization test sequences. These results can be used to generate 2D and 3D magnetic properties to better characterize magnetic phenomena which are inherently three dimensional. Example applications are magnetic tape-head orientation sensitivity, reinterpretation of 3D coercivity and other standard magnetic properties, and multi-dimensional shielding effectiveness.

  12. Rotation-Vibration Constants for the ν 1, ν 22, ν 24, ν 22+ ν 24, and Ground States in Pyrrole ( 12C 4H 5N)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellouki, Abdeloihid; Vander Auwera, Jean; Herman, Michel

    1999-01-01

    We have recorded the infrared absorption spectrum of pyrrole at 0.005 cm-1spectral resolution using a Fourier transform interferometer. The rotational analysis of the symmetric out-of-plane C-H bend 2210fundamental band at 722.132993(5) cm-1was performed, allowing 6760 lines to be assigned. These lines were fitted simultaneously to literature data on ν1[A. Mellouki, R. Georges, M. Herman, D. L. Snavely, and S. Leytner,Chem. Phys.220, 311-322 (1997)] and microwave lines [G. Wlodarczak, L. Martinache, J. Demaison, and B. P. Van Eijck,J. Mol. Spectrosc.127, 200-208 (1988)]. A set of rotation parameters was determined for the ground state in Irand IIIrrepresentations, together with vibration-rotation constants for thev1= 1 andv22= 1 vibrational states. The fine structure in the strongest of the hot bands in that range was highlighted by division, from the experimental data, of the spectrum of the 2210band, computed using the vibration-rotation parameters. The rotational assignment of 930 lines in the strongest hot band was performed. The 22102411vibrational assignment is proposed, leading tox22,24= 1.90 cm-1. The transition dipole matrix element for the 2210band is estimated to ‖‖ = 2 × 10-4D.

  13. Rotation-Vibration Constants for the nu1, nu22, nu24, nu22 + nu24, and Ground States in Pyrrole (12C4H5N).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellouki; Vander Auwera J; Herman

    1999-01-01

    We have recorded the infrared absorption spectrum of pyrrole at 0.005 cm-1 spectral resolution using a Fourier transform interferometer. The rotational analysis of the symmetric out-of-plane C-H bend 22(1)0 fundamental band at 722.132993(5) cm-1 was performed, allowing 6760 lines to be assigned. These lines were fitted simultaneously to literature data on nu1 [A. Mellouki, R. Georges, M. Herman, D. L. Snavely, and S. Leytner, Chem. Phys. 220, 311-322 (1997)] and microwave lines [G. Wlodarczak, L. Martinache, J. Demaison, and B. P. Van Eijck, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 127, 200-208 (1988)]. A set of rotation parameters was determined for the ground state in Ir and IIIr representations, together with vibration-rotation constants for the v1 = 1 and v22 = 1 vibrational states. The fine structure in the strongest of the hot bands in that range was highlighted by division, from the experimental data, of the spectrum of the 22(1)0 band, computed using the vibration-rotation parameters. The rotational assignment of 930 lines in the strongest hot band was performed. The 22(1)024(1)1 vibrational assignment is proposed, leading to x22,24 = 1.90 cm-1. The transition dipole matrix element for the 22(1)0 band is estimated to || || = 2 x 10(-4) D. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  14. Effect of Post-Exercise Whole Body Vibration with Stretching on Mood State, Fatigue, and Soreness in Collegiate Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin J. Merrigan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Static stretching (SS during whole body vibration (WBV has been suggested for exercise recovery. The purpose was to compare post-exercise self-ratings of fatigue (FAT, mood state (BAM, soreness (SOR, and perceived exertion (RPE between SS and WBV+SS in swimmers (9 women, mean ± SD: 19.3 ± 1.3 year, 171 ± 5.7 cm, 67.6 ± 7.2 kg, 26.6 ± 4.1 %body fat (%BF; 10 men, mean ± SD: 19.7 ± 1.0 year, 183 ± 5.5 cm, 77.1 ± 4.2 kg, 13.1 ± 2.2 %BF. Athletes were divided by sex, event (sprint, distance, and assigned to SS or WBV+SS. Both conditions consisted of SS performed on the WBV platform with or without WBV (50 Hz, 6 mm. Sessions consisted of: pre and post measures of BAM, FAT, SOR; the condition; and RPE. Mixed factorial ANOVA were run. A significant condition by pre/post interaction was observed (p = 0.035. Post hoc analyses showed WBV+SS elicited lower post-exercise ratings of FAT (p = 0.002 and the BAM affective states, of tension (p = 0.031, and fatigue (p = 0.087. RPE did not differ between conditions. Of interest is the decrease in tension and fatigue noted by the BAM. Mood state can be indicative of how athletes adapt to training volume and intensity.

  15. Vibrational Spectrum of an Excited State and Huang-Rhys Factors by Coherent Wave Packets in Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyeongjin; Kim, Junwoo; Kim, So Young; Kim, Dong Eon; Joo, Taiha

    2017-03-17

    Coherent nuclear wave packet motions in an electronic excited state of a molecule are measured directly by time-resolved spontaneous fluorescence spectroscopy with an unprecedented time resolution by using two-photon absorption excitation and fluorescence upconversion by noncollinear sum frequency generation. With an estimated time resolution of approximately 25 fs, wave packet motions of vibrational modes up to 1600 cm(-1) are recorded for coumarin 153 in ethanol. Two-color transient absorption at 13 fs time resolution are measured to confirm the result. Vibrational displacements between the ground and excited states and Huang-Rhys factors (HRFs) are calculated by quantum mechanical methods and are compared with the experimental results. HRFs calculated by density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT reproduce the experiment adequately. This fluorescence-based method provides a unique and direct way to obtain the vibrational spectrum of a molecule in an electronic excited state and the HRFs, as well as the dynamics of excited states, and it might provide information on the structure of an excited state through the HRFs. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Population spikes in cortical networks during different functional states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley eMark

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Brain computational challenges vary between behavioral states. Engaged animals react according to incoming sensory information, while in relaxed and sleeping states consolidation of the learned information is believed to take place. Different states are characterized by different forms of cortical activity. We study a possible neuronal mechanism for generating these diverse dynamics and suggest their possible functional significance. Previous studies demonstrated that brief synchronized increase in a neural firing (Population Spikes can be generated in homogenous recurrent neural networks with short-term synaptic depression. Here we consider more realistic networks with clustered architecture. We show that the level of synchronization in neural activity can be controlled smoothly by network parameters. The network shifts from asynchronous activity to a regime in which clusters synchronized separately, then, the synchronization between the clusters increases gradually to fully synchronized state. We examine the effects of different synchrony levels on the transmission of information by the network. We find that the regime of intermediate synchronization is preferential for the flow of information between sparsely connected areas. Based on these results, we suggest that the regime of intermediate synchronization corresponds to engaged behavioral state of the animal, while global synchronization is exhibited during relaxed and sleeping states.

  17. Dynamics of coupled nonlinear oscillators: The formation of long-lived vibrational states in the case of molecular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval'skaya, G. A.; Petrov, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear vibrations in a closed system of coupled nonlinear oscillators are studied using acetylene type molecules as an example. A criterion for the stable existence of long-lived vibrational states—local modes—in one of the oscillators is obtained. It is shown that the disappearance of a local mode, as well as its appearance, proceeds abruptly, and the mechanism of stabilization of these excitations is due to the presence or absence of internal resonances of an oscillatory system such as any polyatomic molecule. Energy values needed to excite vibrations in which local modes can appear are determined. It is shown that calculation results agree with experimental data.

  18. Comparing population health in the United States and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huguet Nathalie

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the paper is to compare population health in the United States (US and Canada. Although the two countries are very similar in many ways, there are potentially important differences in the levels of social and economic inequality and the organization and financing of and access to health care in the two countries. Methods Data are from the Joint Canada/United States Survey of Health 2002/03. The Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3 was used to measure overall health-related quality of life (HRQL. Mean HUI3 scores were compared, adjusting for major determinants of health, including body mass index, smoking, education, gender, race, and income. In addition, estimates of life expectancy were compared. Finally, mean HUI3 scores by age and gender and Canadian and US life tables were used to estimate health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE. Results Life expectancy in Canada is higher than in the US. For those Conclusions The population of Canada appears to be substantially healthier than the US population with respect to life expectancy, HRQL, and HALE. Factors that account for the difference may include access to health care over the full life span (universal health insurance and lower levels of social and economic inequality, especially among the elderly.

  19. Vibrational predissociation dynamics in the vibronic states of the aniline-neon van der Waals complex: New features revealed by complementary spectroscopic approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becucci, M.; Lakin, N. M.; Pietraperzia, G.; Castellucci, E.; Bréchignac, Ph.; Coutant, B.; Hermine, P.

    1999-05-01

    We report two independent sets of experimental spectroscopic data which both contain information about the vibrational dynamics occurring in the aniline-neon van der Waals complex in its S1 electronically excited state. The high resolution excitation spectra of the three vibronic bands, 6a01¯, I02¯, and 101¯, of the S1←S0 transition, exhibit lifetime broadening with respect to transitions to the corresponding states in the aniline monomer. The dispersed emission spectra taken under excitation of the same three vibronic bands give access to both the distribution of aniline monomer states produced by vibrational predissociation of the complex and to the rates at which this dynamics proceeds. The overall results are discussed in a consistent way, with emphasis being given to the role of the coupling between the intramolecular and the intermolecular vibrational states. In the case of I02¯ excitation, it is shown that this coupling is reflected in the shape of the van der Waals wavefunction, as accessed through the analysis of the high resolution spectra [M. Becucci, G. Pietraperzia, N. M. Lakin, E. Castellucci, Ph. Bréchignac, Chem. Phys. Lett. 260, 87 (1996).].

  20. Collective excitations in liquid DMSO : FIR spectrum, Low frequency vibrational density of states and ultrafast dipolar solvation dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Hazra, Milan; Bagchi, Biman

    2016-01-01

    Valuable dynamical and structural information about neat liquid DMSO at ambient conditions can be obtained through study of low frequency vibrations in the far infrared (FIR), that is, terahertz regime. For DMSO, collective excitations as well as single molecule stretches and bends have been measured by different kinds of experiments such as OHD-RIKES and terahertz spectroscopy. In the present work we investigate the intermolecular vibrational spectrum of DMSO through three different computat...

  1. Research on impacts of mechanical vibrations on the production machine to its rate of change of technical state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefánia Salokyová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article observes the amount of vibration on the bearing house of a turning lathe selected in advance through the change of the revolutions per minute and the thickness of the removed material in frontal type of lathe processing. Increase in mechanical vibration values depending on the value of nominal thickness of splinter was observed during changing technological parameters of the drilling process as a consequence of rotation speed of the motor. The vibration acceleration amplitude course changes depending on the frequencies are evaluated together for 400, 800 and 1200 motor r/min. A piezoelectric sensor of the type 4507B-004 from the Brüel & Kjaer Company was used for monitoring the frequency analysis of the vibration, which was attached to the bearing house of the lathe TOS SV 18RB. The vibration signal measured during the processing and during the time period is transformed through the means of a quick Fourier transformation to the frequency spectrum in the range of 3.0–10.0 kHz. Measured values of vibration acceleration amplitude were processed and evaluated by the SignalExpress software. Graphical abstract Unwanted vibration in machine tools like lathe is one of the main problems as it affects the quality of the machined parts and tool life and creates noise during machining operation. Bearings are of paramount importance to almost all forms of rotating machinery and are the most common among machine elements. The article describes in more detail the issue of vibrations created when machining the material by lathe turning. It also includes execution, experiment evaluation in this field, and comparison of measured vibrations’ acceleration amplitude values according to the standards.

  2. Dog ecology and population studies in Lagos State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambolu, Sunday Emmanuel; Dzikwi, Asabe A; Kwaga, Jacob K P; Kazeem, Haruna M; Umoh, Jarlath U; Hambolu, Dupe A

    2014-02-14

    Dog population dynamics have a major impact upon the effectiveness of rabies control strategies. As such, understanding domestic dog ecology has been recognized as central to the design of effective rabies control programmes. This study was conducted to determine the dog ecology in Lagos State using compound dog count and street dog count in the three senatorial districts (Lagos West, East and Central) of Lagos State from February, 2011 to January, 2012. A total of 546 questionnaires were distributed for the compound dog count and all were completed and returned. Various aspects of dog ecology were determined, including size, sex, breed of the dog population, management of dogs and rabies awareness among the respondents. Out of the 546 compounds surveyed, 518 (94.87%) owned at least one dog. A total of 1,427 dogs were counted from the street counts while a total of 1,447 dogs (2.8 dogs/compound) were counted from the compound count. The dogs comprised of 583 males and 864 females, out of which 64.10% are confined. The dog vaccination coverage in the dog population surveyed was 64.10% and administered majorly (91.30%) by veterinarians. Security (60%) and pets (26%) were the major reasons for keeping dogs. Majority (88.80%) of the respondents were aware of rabies and its mode of transmission, but still believed in the use of concoctions (40.40%), herbs (19.90%) and consumption of the organ of the offending dog (11.50%) for the treatment of rabies. The findings of this study showed a male: female ratio of dog to be 1:1.5 and a dog: human ratio of 1:5.6. There was also a responsible dog ownership as majority of the respondents do confine, vaccinate and provide food for their dogs. Vaccination coverage of the total dog population was however below the 70-80% target recommended by the World Health Organization to achieve herd immunity.

  3. Solid-state transformation of the pseudopolymorphic forms of codeine phosphate hemihydrate and codeine phosphate sesquihydrate monitored by vibrational spectroscopy and thermal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruševski, Gjorgji; Ugarkovic, Sonja; Makreski, Petre

    2011-05-01

    The results from the first study on the pseudopolymorphism and solid-state transformations of codeine phosphate hemihydrate and codeine phosphate sesquihydrate are presented. The vibrational (infrared and Raman) spectra for both studied forms have revealed differences indicating that vibrational spectroscopy could discriminate between pseudopolymorphic forms of these compounds. Coupling the obtained spectroscopic data and the results from the thermoanalytical techniques (TGA/DSC) afforded interpretation of the undergoing solid-state transformations that occur when the compounds are being exposed at increased humidity and/or temperature. It was observed that, at room temperature, the hemihydrate and the sesquihydrate forms are the only sufficiently stable pseudopolymorphs of codeine phosphate explaining their intense pharmaceutical application.

  4. Dynamic Features of the Highly Excited Vibrational States of the HOCl Non-Integrable System Based on the Dynamic Potential and Lyapunov Exponent Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aixing; Fang, Chao; Liu, Yibao

    2017-01-07

    In this article the dynamic features of the highly excited vibrational states of the hypochlorous acid (HOCl) non-integrable system are studied using the dynamic potential and Lyapunov exponent approaches. On the condition that the 3:1 resonance between the H-O stretching and H-O-Cl bending modes accompany the 2:1 Fermi resonance between the O-Cl stretching and H-O-Cl bending modes, it is found that the dynamic potentials of the highly excited vibrational states vary regularly with different Polyad numbers (P numbers). As the P number increases, the dynamic potentials of the H-O stretching mode remain the same, but those of the H-O-Cl bending mode gradually become complex. In order to investigate the chaotic and stable features of the highly excited vibrational states of the HOCl non-integrable system, the Lyapunov exponents of different energy levels lying in the dynamic potentials of the H-O-Cl bending mode (P = 4 and 5) are calculated. It is shown that the Lyapunov exponents of the energy levels staying in the junction of Morse potential and inverse Morse potential are relative large, which indicates the degrees of chaos for these energy levels is relatively high, but the stabilities of the corresponding states are good. These results could be interpreted as the intramolecular vibrational relaxation (IVR) acting strongly via the HOCl bending motion and causing energy transfers among different modes. Based on the previous studies, these conclusions seem to be generally valid to some extent for non-integrable triatomic molecules.

  5. Dissociative electron attachment to vibrationally excited H{sub 2} molecules involving the {sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +} resonant Rydberg electronic state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celiberto, R., E-mail: r.celiberto@poliba.it [Department of Water Engineering and Chemistry, Polytechnic of Bari, 70125 Bari (Italy); Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas, CNR, 70125 Bari (Italy); Janev, R.K., E-mail: r.janev@fz-juelich.de [Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, P.O.B 428, 1000 Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Institute of Energy and Climate Research - Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH Association EURATOM-FZJ, Partner in Trilateral Euregio Cluster, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Wadehra, J.M., E-mail: wadehra@wayne.edu [Physics Department, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Tennyson, J., E-mail: j.tennyson@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-04

    Graphical abstract: Dissociative electron attachment cross sections as a function of the incident electron energy and for the initial vibration levels v{sub i} = 0-5, 10 of the H{sub 2} molecule. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We calculated electron-hydrogen dissociative attachment cross sections and rates coefficients. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Collision processes occurring through a resonant Rydberg state are considered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cross sections and rates were obtained for vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cross sections exhibit pronounced oscillatory structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A comparison with the process involving the electron-hydrogen resonant ground state is discussed. - Abstract: Dissociative electron attachment cross sections (DEA) on vibrationally excited H{sub 2} molecule taking place via the {sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +} Rydberg-excited resonant state are studied using the local complex potential (LCP) model for resonant collisions. The cross sections are calculated for all initial vibrational levels (v{sub i} = 0-14) of the neutral molecule. In contrast to the previously noted dramatic increase in the DEA cross sections with increasing v{sub i}, when the process proceeds via the X {sup 2}{Sigma}{sub u}{sup +} shape resonance of H{sub 2}, for the {sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +} Rydberg resonance the cross sections increase only gradually up to v{sub i} = 3 and then decrease. Moreover, the cross sections for v{sub i} Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 6 exhibit pronounced oscillatory structures. A discussion of the origin of the observed behavior of calculated cross sections is given. The DEA rate coefficients for all v{sub i} levels are also calculated in the 0.5-1000 eV temperature range.

  6. 2001 New York State NHTS: Travel Patterns of Special Populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Patricia S [ORNL; Reuscher, Tim [ORNL

    2010-03-01

    pertinent to geographic areas that are significantly smaller than what the national NHTS data allowed. The final sample size for New York State was 13,423 usable households. In this report, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) identifies and analyzes differences, if any, in travel patterns that are attributable to demographic characteristics (e.g., gender, age, race and ethnicity), household characteristics (e.g., low income households, zero and one car households), modal characteristics and geographic location. Travel patterns of those who work at home are examined and compared to those of conventional workers, as well as those who do not work. Focus is given to trip frequency, travel by time of day, trip purpose, and mode choice. For example, included in this analysis is the mobility of the elderly population in New York State. The American society is undergoing a major demographic transformation that is resulting in a greater percentage of older individuals in the population. In addition to demographic changes, recent travel surveys show that an increasing number of older individuals are licensed to drive and that they drive more than their same age cohort did a decade ago. Cohort differences in driving are particularly apparent - not only are more of today's elderly population licensed to drive than their age cohort two decades ago, they also drive more. Equally important are the increase in immigration and in racial and cultural diversity. This report also discusses vehicle availability, socioeconomic characteristics, travel trends (e.g., miles travelled, distance driven, commute patterns), and the transportation accessibility of these populations. Specifically, this report addresses in detail the travel behavior of the following special populations: (1) the elderly, defined as those who were 65 years old or older, (2) low-income households, (3) ethnic groups and immigrants, and (4) those who worked at home.

  7. Vibrational normal modes calculation in the crystalline state of methylated monosaccharides: Anomers of the methyl-D-glucopyranoside and methyl-D-xylopyranoside molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleb-Mokhtari, Ilham Naoual; Lazreg, Abbassia; Sekkal-Rahal, Majda; Bestaoui, Noreya

    2016-01-15

    A structural investigation of the organic molecules is being carried out using vibrational spectroscopy. In this study, normal co-ordinate calculations of anomers of the methyl-D-glucopyranoside and methyl-β-D-xylopyranoside in the crystalline state have been performed using the modified Urey-Bradley-Shimanouchi force field (mUBSFF) combined with an intermolecular potential energy function. The latter includes Van der Waals interactions, electrostatic terms, and explicit hydrogen bond functions. The vibrational spectra of the compounds recorded in the crystalline state, in the 4000-500 cm(-1) spectral region for the IR spectra, and in the 4000-20 cm(-1) spectral range for the Raman spectra are presented. After their careful examination, several differences in the intensities and frequency shifts have been observed. The theoretical spectra have been obtained after a tedious refinement of the force constants. Thus, on the basis of the obtained potential distribution, each observed band in IR and in Raman has been assigned to a vibrational mode. The obtained results are indeed in agreement with those observed experimentally and thus confirm the previous assignments made for the methyl-α and β-D-glucopyranoside, as well as for the methyl-β-D-xylopyranoside. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Imaging spectroscopy of the missing REMPI bands of methyl radicals: Final touches on all vibrational frequencies of the 3p Rydberg states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huilin; Liu, Kopin

    2018-01-07

    (2 + 1) resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) detection of methyl radicals, in particular that via the intermediate 3p Rydberg states, has shown to be a powerful method and thus enjoyed a wide range of applications. Methyl has six vibrational modes. Among them-including partially and fully deuterated isotopologs-four out of twenty vibrational frequencies in the intermediate 3p states have so far eluded direct spectroscopic determination. Here, by exploiting the imaging spectroscopy approach to a few judiciously selected chemical reactions, the four long-sought REMPI bands-CHD2(611), CH2D(311), CH2D(511), and CH2D(611)-are discovered, which complete the REMPI identification for probing any vibrational mode of excitation of methyl radical and its isotopologs. These results, in conjunction with those previously reported yet scattered in the literature, are summarized here for ready reference, which should provide all necessary information for further spectral assignments and future studies of chemical dynamics using this versatile REMPI scheme.

  9. State Space Formulation of Nonlinear Vibration Responses Collected from a Dynamic Rotor-Bearing System: An Extension of Bearing Diagnostics to Bearing Prognostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W. Tse

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bearings are widely used in various industries to support rotating shafts. Their failures accelerate failures of other adjacent components and may cause unexpected machine breakdowns. In recent years, nonlinear vibration responses collected from a dynamic rotor-bearing system have been widely analyzed for bearing diagnostics. Numerous methods have been proposed to identify different bearing faults. However, these methods are unable to predict the future health conditions of bearings. To extend bearing diagnostics to bearing prognostics, this paper reports the design of a state space formulation of nonlinear vibration responses collected from a dynamic rotor-bearing system in order to intelligently predict bearing remaining useful life (RUL. Firstly, analyses of nonlinear vibration responses were conducted to construct a bearing health indicator (BHI so as to assess the current bearing health condition. Secondly, a state space model of the BHI was developed to mathematically track the health evolution of the BHI. Thirdly, unscented particle filtering was used to predict bearing RUL. Lastly, a new bearing acceleration life testing setup was designed to collect natural bearing degradation data, which were used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed bearing prognostic method. Results show that the prediction accuracy of the proposed bearing prognostic method is promising and the proposed bearing prognostic method is able to reflect future bearing health conditions.

  10. Heavy atom vibrational modes and low-energy vibrational autodetachment in nitromethane anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Michael C.; Weber, J. Mathias, E-mail: weberjm@jila.colorado.edu [JILA, University of Colorado at Boulder, 440 UCB, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0440 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado at Boulder, 215UCB, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0215 (United States); Baraban, Joshua H. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado at Boulder, 215UCB, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0215 (United States); Matthews, Devin A. [Institute for Computational Engineering and Science, University of Texas at Austin, 201 E. 24th St., Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Stanton, John F. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station A5300, Austin, Texas 78712-0165 (United States)

    2015-06-21

    We report infrared spectra of nitromethane anion, CH{sub 3}NO{sub 2}{sup −}, in the region 700–2150 cm{sup −1}, obtained by Ar predissociation spectroscopy and electron detachment spectroscopy. The data are interpreted in the framework of second-order vibrational perturbation theory based on coupled-cluster electronic structure calculations. The modes in the spectroscopic region studied here are mainly based on vibrations involving the heavier atoms; this work complements earlier studies on nitromethane anion that focused on the CH stretching region of the spectrum. Electron detachment begins at photon energies far below the adiabatic electron affinity due to thermal population of excited vibrational states.

  11. Population migration and economic restructuring in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plane, D A

    1989-01-01

    "This article demonstrates that sectoral employment shifts associated with the migration pattern changes of the 1970s are very different than those for the period 1955-60 to 1965-70. Changing competitiveness for jobs in manufacturing and other traditional basic sectors of the economy cannot account for the greatly accelerated levels of core-periphery net outflow that have been the dominant characteristic of interstate movement during the 1970s and 1980s. Instead, an interconnected set of activities that includes government, services, trade, and construction is associated with the broadscale shifts in the geographic pattern of the United States' population. The causal linkage from migration to employment change assumed heightened importance during the 1970s." excerpt

  12. Coherent coupling between a molecular vibration and Fabry-Perot optical cavity to give hybridized states in the strong coupling limit (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, James P.; Owrutsky, Jeff C.; Fears, Kenan P.; Dressick, Walter J.; Dunkelberger, Adam D.; Compton, Ryan; Spann, Bryan; Simpkins, Blake S.

    2015-09-01

    Coherent coupling between an optical-transition and confined optical mode, when sufficiently strong, gives rise to new modes separated by the vacuum Rabi splitting. Such systems have been investigated for electronic-state transitions, however, only very recently have vibrational transitions been considered. Here, we bring strong polaritonic-coupling in cavities from the visible into the infrared where a new range of static and dynamic vibrational processes await investigation. First, we experimentally and numerically describe coupling between a Fabry-Perot cavity and carbonyl stretch (~1730 cm 1) in poly-methylmethacrylate. As is requisite for "strong coupling", the measured vacuum Rabi splitting of 132 cm 1 is much larger than the full width of the cavity (34 cm-1) and the inhomogeneously broadened carbonyl-stretch (24 cm-1). Agreement with classical theories providea evidence that the mixed-states are relatively immune to inhomogeneous broadening. Next, we investigate strong and weak coupling regimes through examination of cavities loaded with varying concentrations of urethane. Rabi splittings increases from 0 to ~104 cm-1 with concentrations from 0-20 vol% and are in excellent agreement to an analytical description using no fitting parameters. Ultra-fast pump-probe measurements reveal transient absorption signals over a frequency range well-separated from the vibrational band as well as modifications of energy relaxation times. Finally, we demonstrate coupling to liquids using the C-O stretching band (~1985 cm-1) of Mo(CO)6 in an aqueous solution. Opening the field of polaritonic coupling to vibrational species promises to be a rich arena amenable to a wide variety of infrared-active bonds that can be studied statically and dynamically.

  13. Terahertz spectroscopy and solid-state density functional theory calculation of anthracene: Effect of dispersion force on the vibrational modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Feng; Tominaga, Keisuke, E-mail: atmyh@ntu.edu.tw, E-mail: tominaga@kobe-u.ca.jp, E-mail: junichi.nishizawa@hanken.jp [Molecular Photoscience Research Center, Kobe University, Nada, Kobe 657-0013 (Japan); Hayashi, Michitoshi, E-mail: atmyh@ntu.edu.tw, E-mail: tominaga@kobe-u.ca.jp, E-mail: junichi.nishizawa@hanken.jp; Wang, Houng-Wei [Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, 1 Roosevelt Rd., Sec. 4, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Kambara, Ohki; Sasaki, Tetsuo [Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Jyohoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 432-8561 (Japan); Nishizawa, Jun-ichi, E-mail: atmyh@ntu.edu.tw, E-mail: tominaga@kobe-u.ca.jp, E-mail: junichi.nishizawa@hanken.jp [Jun-ichi Nishizawa Memorial Research Center, Tohoku University, 519-1176 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-0845 (Japan)

    2014-05-07

    The phonon modes of molecular crystals in the terahertz frequency region often feature delicately coupled inter- and intra-molecular vibrations. Recent advances in density functional theory such as DFT-D{sup *} have enabled accurate frequency calculation. However, the nature of normal modes has not been quantitatively discussed against experimental criteria such as isotope shift (IS) and correlation field splitting (CFS). Here, we report an analytical mode-decoupling method that allows for the decomposition of a normal mode of interest into intermolecular translation, libration, and intramolecular vibrational motions. We show an application of this method using the crystalline anthracene system as an example. The relationship between the experimentally obtained IS and the IS obtained by PBE-D{sup *} simulation indicates that two distinctive regions exist. Region I is associated with a pure intermolecular translation, whereas region II features coupled intramolecular vibrations that are further coupled by a weak intermolecular translation. We find that the PBE-D{sup *} data show excellent agreement with the experimental data in terms of IS and CFS in region II; however, PBE-D{sup *} produces significant deviations in IS in region I where strong coupling between inter- and intra-molecular vibrations contributes to normal modes. The result of this analysis is expected to facilitate future improvement of DFT-D{sup *}.

  14. Persons of Spanish Origin in the United States: March 1974. Population Characteristics, Current Population Reports. Series P-20, No. 280.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Edward W.; Cresce, Arthur

    A statistical description of the Spanish origin population in the United States is presented. Data were obtained in March 1974 in the Current Population Survey of the Bureau of the Census. The statistics pertain to such population characteristics as size, composition, age, residence, marital status, educational attainment, employment status,…

  15. Monitoring vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiryaki, B. [Hacettepe University (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2003-12-01

    The paper examines the prediction and optimisation of machine vibrations in longwall shearers. Underground studies were carried out at the Middle Anatolian Lignite Mine, between 1993 and 1997. Several shearer drums with different pick lacing arrangements were designed and tested on double-ended ranging longwall shearers employed at the mine. A computer program called the Vibration Analysis Program (VAP) was developed for analysing machine vibrations in longwall shearers. Shearer drums that were tested underground, as well as some provided by leading manufacturers, were analyzed using these programs. The results of the experiments and computer analyses are given in the article. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Nodeless vibrational amplitudes and quantum nonadiabatic dynamics in the nested funnel for a pseudo Jahn-Teller molecule or homodimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, William K.; Tiwari, Vivek; Jonas, David M.

    2017-11-01

    The nonadiabatic states and dynamics are investigated for a linear vibronic coupling Hamiltonian with a static electronic splitting and weak off-diagonal Jahn-Teller coupling through a single vibration with a vibrational-electronic resonance. With a transformation of the electronic basis, this Hamiltonian is also applicable to the anti-correlated vibration in a symmetric homodimer with marginally strong constant off-diagonal coupling, where the non-adiabatic states and dynamics model electronic excitation energy transfer or self-exchange electron transfer. For parameters modeling a free-base naphthalocyanine, the nonadiabatic couplings are deeply quantum mechanical and depend on wavepacket width; scalar couplings are as important as the derivative couplings that are usually interpreted to depend on vibrational velocity in semiclassical curve crossing or surface hopping theories. A colored visualization scheme that fully characterizes the non-adiabatic states using the exact factorization is developed. The nonadiabatic states in this nested funnel have nodeless vibrational factors with strongly avoided zeroes in their vibrational probability densities. Vibronic dynamics are visualized through the vibrational coordinate dependent density of the time-dependent dipole moment in free induction decay. Vibrational motion is amplified by the nonadiabatic couplings, with asymmetric and anisotropic motions that depend upon the excitation polarization in the molecular frame and can be reversed by a change in polarization. This generates a vibrational quantum beat anisotropy in excess of 2/5. The amplitude of vibrational motion can be larger than that on the uncoupled potentials, and the electronic population transfer is maximized within one vibrational period. Most of these dynamics are missed by the adiabatic approximation, and some electronic and vibrational motions are completely suppressed by the Condon approximation of a coordinate-independent transition dipole between

  17. The high overtone and combination levels of SF6 revisited at Doppler-limited resolution: A global effective rovibrational model for highly excited vibrational states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, M.; Boudon, V.; Loëte, M.; Roy, P.; Manceron, L.

    2017-03-01

    Sulfur hexafluoride is an important prototypal molecule for modeling highly excited vibrational energy flow and multi quanta absorption processes in hexafluoride molecules of technological importance. It is also a strong greenhouse gas of anthropogenic origin. This heavy species, however, features many hot bands at room temperature (at which only 30% of the molecules lie in the ground vibrational state), especially those originating from the lowest, v6=1 vibrational state. Using a cryogenic long path cell with variable optical path length and temperatures regulated between 120 and 163 K, coupled to Synchrotron Radiation and a high resolution interferometer, Doppler-limited spectra of the 2ν1 +ν3 , ν1 +ν2 +ν3 , ν1 +ν3 , ν2 +ν3 , 3ν3, ν2 + 3ν3 and ν1 + 3ν3 from 2000 to 4000 cm-1 near-infrared region has been recorded. Low temperature was used to limit the presence of hot bands. The spectrum has been analyzed thanks to the XTDS software package. Combining with previously observed weak difference bands in the far infrared region involving the v1, v2, v3=1 states, we are thus able to use the tensorial model to build a global fit of spectroscopic parameters for v1=1,2, v2=1, v3=1,2,3. The model constitutes a consistent set of molecular parameters and enable spectral rovibrational simulation for all multi-quanta transitions involving v1, v2 and v3 up to v1-3 = 3 . Tests simulation on rovibrational transitions not yet rovibrationally assigned are presented and compared to new experimental data.

  18. Collective excitations in liquid DMSO : FIR spectrum, Low frequency vibrational density of states and ultrafast dipolar solvation dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hazra, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Valuable dynamical and structural information about neat liquid DMSO at ambient conditions can be obtained through study of low frequency vibrations in the far infrared (FIR), that is, terahertz regime. For DMSO, collective excitations as well as single molecule stretches and bends have been measured by different kinds of experiments such as OHD-RIKES and terahertz spectroscopy. In the present work we investigate the intermolecular vibrational spectrum of DMSO through three different computational techniques namely (i) the far-infra red spectrum obtained through Fourier transform of total dipole moment auto time correlation function, (ii) from Fourier transform of the translational and angular velocity time autocorrelation functions and a (iii) quenched normal mode analysis of the parent liquid at 300K. The three spectrum, although exhibit differences among each other, reveal similar features which are in good, semi-quantitative, agreement with experimental results. Study of participation ratio of the density...

  19. Low-energy isovector quadrupole vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faessler, A.; Nojarov, R.

    1986-01-23

    The low-lying isovector quadrupole vibrations are described by an extension of the vibrational model allowing independent proton and neutron vibrations coupled by the symmetry energy. The recently detected low-lying isovector states in nearly spherical nuclei with N=84 are described well concerning their energies and E2/M1 mixing ratios. (orig.).

  20. Vibration Damping Circuit Card Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Ronald Allen (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A vibration damping circuit card assembly includes a populated circuit card having a mass M. A closed metal container is coupled to a surface of the populated circuit card at approximately a geometric center of the populated circuit card. Tungsten balls fill approximately 90% of the metal container with a collective mass of the tungsten balls being approximately (0.07) M.

  1. Engaging a state: Facebook comments on a large population biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Tevah; Platt, Jodyn; Thiel, Daniel; Kardia, Sharon L R

    2017-07-01

    Scholarship on newborn screening, dried bloodspot retention, and large population biobanking call consistently for improved public engagement. Communication with participants likely occurs only in the context of collection, consent, or notification, if at all. We ran an 11-week advertising campaign to inform Michigan Facebook users unlikely to know that their or their children's dried bloodspots (DBSs) were stored in a state biobank. We investigated the pattern and content of comments posted during the campaign, focusing on users' questions, attitudes and concerns, and the role the moderator played in addressing them. We used Facebook data to quantitatively assess engagement and employed conventional content analysis to investigate themes, attitudes, and social dynamics among user and moderator comments. Five ad sets elicited comments during campaign weeks 4-8, reaching ∼800,000 Facebook users ($6000). Gravitating around broad, underlying ethical, legal, and social issues, 180 posts from 129 unique users related to newborn screening or biobanking. Thirty six conveyed negative attitudes and 33 conveyed positive attitudes; 53 posed questions. The most prevalent themes identified were consent, privacy, bloodspot use, identifiability, inclusion criteria, research benefits, (mis)trust, genetics, DBS destruction, awareness, and the role of government. The moderator's 81 posts were responsive-answering questions, correcting or clarifying information, or providing information about opting out. Facebook ad campaigns can improve engagement by pushing out relevant content and creating dynamic, responsive, visible forums for discussion. Reduced control over messaging may be worth the trade-off for creating accessible, transparent, people-centered engagement on public health issues that are sensitive and complex.

  2. Taxsonomical States of Lacerta viridis (LACERTIDAE) Populations from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ÇEVİK, İ. Ethem

    2014-01-01

    In this research, , A total of 64 MM and 37 VV adult specimens from Turkish Thrace and 158 MM and 188 VV adult specimens from Anatolia were investigated comparatively as two separate populations groups to determine the subspecific status of the species in Turkey. No significant differences are discernible between the two population groups from the viewpoints of pholidosis, morphometrical measurements and rations and pattern and coloration characteıistics. So the Turkish L. viridis populations...

  3. Nonlocal free vibration in the pre- and post-buckled states of magneto-electro-thermo elastic rectangular nanoplates with various edge conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, R.; Gholami, R.

    2016-09-01

    Considering the small scale effect together with the influences of transverse shear deformation, rotary inertia and the magneto-electro-thermo-mechanical coupling, the linear free vibration of magneto-electro-thermo-elastic (METE) rectangular nanoplates with various edge supports in pre- and post-buckled states is investigated herein. It is assumed that the METE nanoplate is subjected to the external in-plane compressive loads in combination with magnetic, electric and thermal loads. The Mindlin plate theory, von Kármán hypothesis and the nonlocal theory are utilized to develop a size-dependent geometrically nonlinear plate model for describing the size-dependent linear and nonlinear mechanical characteristics of moderately thick METE rectangular nanoplates. The nonlinear governing equations and the corresponding boundary conditions are derived using Hamilton’s principle which are then discretized via the generalized differential quadrature method. The pseudo-arc length continuation approach is used to obtain the equilibrium postbuckling path of METE nanoplates. By the obtained postbuckling response, and taking a time-dependent small disturbance around the buckled configuration, and inserting them into the nonlinear governing equations, an eigenvalue problem is achieved from which the frequencies of pre- and post-buckled METE nanoplates can be calculated. The effects of nonlocal parameter, electric, magnetic and thermal loadings, length-to-thickness ratio and different boundary conditions on the free vibration response of METE rectangular nanoplates in the pre- and post-buckled states are highlighted.

  4. Estimates of the Lawful Permanent Resident Population in the United States: January 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report presents estimates of the lawful permanent resident (LPR) population living in the United States on January 1, 2013. The LPR population includes persons...

  5. Quantum-Phase Resolved Mapping of Ground-State Vibrational D2 Wave Packets via Selective Depletion in Intense Laser Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergler, Th.; Feuerstein, B.; Rudenko, A.; Zrost, K.; Schröter, C. D.; Moshammer, R.; Ullrich, J.

    2006-09-01

    Applying 7 fs pump-probe pulses (780nm, 4×1014W/cm2) we observe electronic ground-state vibrational wave packets in neutral D2 with a period of T=11.101(70)fs by following the internuclear separation (R-)dependent ionization with a sensitivity of Δ⟨R⟩≤0.02Å. The absolute phase of the wave packet’s motion provides evidence for R-dependent depletion of the ground state by nonlinear ionization, to be the dominant preparation mechanism. A phase shift of about π found between pure ionization (D2+) and dissociation (D++D) channels opens a pathway of quantum control.

  6. MARVEL analysis of the rotational-vibrational states of the molecular ions H2D+ and D2H+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtenbacher, Tibor; Szidarovszky, Tamás; Fábri, Csaba; Császár, Attila G

    2013-07-07

    Critically evaluated rotational-vibrational line positions and energy levels, with associated critically reviewed labels and uncertainties, are reported for two deuterated isotopologues of the H3(+) molecular ion: H2D(+) and D2H(+). The procedure MARVEL, standing for Measured Active Rotational-Vibrational Energy Levels, is used to determine the validated levels and lines and their self-consistent uncertainties based on the experimentally available information. The spectral ranges covered for the isotopologues H2D(+) and D2H(+) are 5.2-7105.5 and 23.0-6581.1 cm(-1), respectively. The MARVEL energy levels of the ortho and para forms of the ions are checked against ones determined from accurate variational nuclear motion computations employing the best available adiabatic ab initio potential energy surfaces of these isotopologues. The number of critically evaluated, validated and recommended experimental (levels, lines) are (109, 185) and (104, 136) for H2D(+) and D2H(+), respectively. The lists of assigned MARVEL lines and levels and variational levels obtained for H2D(+) and D2H(+) as part of this study are deposited in the ESI to this paper.

  7. Vibrating minds

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Ed Witten is one of the leading scientists in the field of string theory, the theory that describes elementary particles as vibrating strings. This week he leaves CERN after having spent a few months here on sabbatical. His wish is that the LHC will unveil supersymmetry.

  8. Vibrationally Driven Hydrogen Abstraction Reaction by Bromine Radical in Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae Yoon; Shalowski, Michael A.; Crim, F. Fleming

    2013-06-01

    Previously, we have shown that preparing reactants in specific vibrational states can affect the product state distribution and branching ratios in gas phase reactions. In the solution phase, however, no vibrational mediation study has been reported to date. In this work, we present our first attempt of vibrationally mediated bimolecular reaction in solution. Hydrogen abstraction from a solvent by a bromine radical can be a good candidate to test the effect of vibrational excitation on reaction dynamics because this reaction is highly endothermic and thus we can suppress any thermally initiated reaction in our experiment. Br radical quickly forms CT (charge transfer) complex with solvent molecule once it is generated from photolysis of a bromine source. The CT complex strongly absorbs visible light, which allows us to use electronic transient absorption for tracking Br radical population. For this experiment, we photolyze bromoform solution in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent with 267 nm to generate Br radical and excite the C-H stretch overtone of DMSO with 1700 nm a few hundred femtoseconds after the photolysis. Then, we monitor the population of Br-DMSO complex with 400 nm as a function of delay time between two pump beams and probe beam. As a preliminary result, we observed the enhancement of loss of Br-DMSO complex population due to the vibrational excitation. We think that increased loss of Br-DMSO complex is attributed to more loss of Br radical that abstracts hydrogen from DMSO and it is the vibrational excitation that promotes the reaction. To make a clear conclusion, we will next utilize infrared probing to directly detect HBr product formation.

  9. Georeferenced Population Datasets of Mexico (GEO-MEX): GIS of Mexican States, Municipalities and Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — GIS of Mexican States, Municipalities and Islands consists of attribute and boundary data for 1990. The attribute data include population, language, education,...

  10. Nonsewered population in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent populations that did not have access to municipal sewer service in the Pacific...

  11. EnviroAtlas - Dasymetric Population for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset intelligently reallocates 2010 population from census blocks to 30 meter pixels based on land cover and slope. This dataset was produced by...

  12. The Role of Self-Interaction Corrections, Vibrations, and Spin-Orbit in Determining the Ground Spin State in a Simple Heme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Der-you Kao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Without self-interaction corrections or the use of hybrid functionals, approximations to the density-functional theory (DFT often favor intermediate spin systems over high-spin systems. In this paper, we apply the recently proposed Fermi–Löwdin-orbital self-interaction corrected density functional formalism to a simple tetra-coordinated Fe(II-porphyrin molecule and show that the energetic orderings of the S = 1 and S = 2 spin states are changed qualitatively relative to the results of Generalized Gradient Approximation (developed by Perdew, Burke, and Ernzerhof, PBE-GGA and Local Density Approximation (developed by Perdew and Wang, PW92-LDA. Because the energetics, associated with changes in total spin, are small, we have also calculated the second-order spin–orbit energies and the zero-point vibrational energies to determine whether such corrections could be important in metal-substituted porphins. Our results find that the size of the spin–orbit and vibrational corrections to the energy orderings are small compared to the changes due to the self-interaction correction. Spin dependencies in the Infrared (IR/Raman spectra and the zero-field splittings are provided as a possible means for identifying the spin in porphyrins containing Fe(II.

  13. Chimera states in a population of identical oscillators under planar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-01-30

    Jan 30, 2015 ... We report the existence of chimera states in an assembly of identical nonlinear oscillators that are globally linked to each other in a simple planar cross-coupled form. The rotational symmetry breaking of the coupling term appears to be responsible for the emergence of these collective states that display a ...

  14. Dynamic Responses and Vibration Control of the Transmission Tower-Line System: A State-of-the-Art Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Guo, Wei-hua; Li, Peng-yun; Xie, Wen-ping

    2014-01-01

    This paper presented an overview on the dynamic analysis and control of the transmission tower-line system in the past forty years. The challenges and future developing trends in the dynamic analysis and mitigation of the transmission tower-line system under dynamic excitations are also put forward. It also reviews the analytical models and approaches of the transmission tower, transmission lines, and transmission tower-line systems, respectively, which contain the theoretical model, finite element (FE) model and the equivalent model; shows the advances in wind responses of the transmission tower-line system, which contains the dynamic effects under common wind loading, tornado, downburst, and typhoon; and discusses the dynamic responses under earthquake and ice loads, respectively. The vibration control of the transmission tower-line system is also reviewed, which includes the magnetorheological dampers, friction dampers, tuned mass dampers, and pounding tuned mass dampers. PMID:25105161

  15. Dynamic responses and vibration control of the transmission tower-line system: a state-of-the-art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Guo, Wei-hua; Li, Peng-yun; Xie, Wen-ping

    2014-01-01

    This paper presented an overview on the dynamic analysis and control of the transmission tower-line system in the past forty years. The challenges and future developing trends in the dynamic analysis and mitigation of the transmission tower-line system under dynamic excitations are also put forward. It also reviews the analytical models and approaches of the transmission tower, transmission lines, and transmission tower-line systems, respectively, which contain the theoretical model, finite element (FE) model and the equivalent model; shows the advances in wind responses of the transmission tower-line system, which contains the dynamic effects under common wind loading, tornado, downburst, and typhoon; and discusses the dynamic responses under earthquake and ice loads, respectively. The vibration control of the transmission tower-line system is also reviewed, which includes the magnetorheological dampers, friction dampers, tuned mass dampers, and pounding tuned mass dampers.

  16. [Summary of the State of World Population, 1992].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 UN Report on the Status of the World Population included an appeal for immediate and decisive action to achieve balance between population patterns, consumption, and development, so that absolute poverty could be eliminated, basic needs met, and the environment protected. The revised longterm population projection of the UN Population Division indicates an increase from 5.480 billion individuals in mid 1992 to 6 billion in 1998. Annual increments of 97 million people in the next decade will be the largest in history. Over half the increase will occur in Africa and South Asia, and almost all of it will be in Asia, Africa, or Latin America. The UN medium variant projects a near doubling of world population to 10 billion in 2050. The population would continue to increase for another century before reaching 11.6 billion in 2150. The most optimistic hypothesis indicates that world population will reach its maximum in the middle of the next century and thereafter decline. The high variant projects a total of 12.5 billion in 2050 and 20.7 billion a century later. The future course of population growth will depend greatly on actions to reduce family sizes over the next decade. About 83% of population growth in the next decade will be in urban areas. The number of persons working in other countries may reach 70 million, mostly originating in developing countries. Each year over 1 million persons emigrate permanently and almost as many seek asylum in other countries. The number of refugees has increased from 2.8 million in 1976 to 17.3 million in 1990. The report indicates that adequate resources exist for sustained world development if they are prudently used. Living conditions for the 1.1 billion most impoverished world inhabitants must be improved, the legitimate aspirations of the 3 billion persons living above crushing poverty must be met, the ecological costs of development must be reduced, and a more equitable distribution of the benefits of development must

  17. State of Art of Cancer Pharmacogenomics in Latin American Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés López-Cortés

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, several studies have shown that tumor-related somatic and germline alterations predicts tumor prognosis, drug response and toxicity. Latin American populations present a vast geno-phenotypic diversity due to the great interethnic and interracial mixing. This genetic flow leads to the appearance of complex characteristics that allow individuals to adapt to endemic environments, such as high altitude or extreme tropical weather. These genetic changes, most of them subtle and unexplored, could establish a mutational profile to develop new pharmacogenomic therapies specific for Latin American populations. In this review, we present the current status of research on somatic and germline alterations in Latin America compared to those found in Caucasian and Asian populations.

  18. Full-dimensional MCTDH/MGPF study of the ground and lowest lying vibrational states of the bihydroxide H3O2(-) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez, Daniel; Sadri, Keyvan; Meyer, Hans-Dieter

    2014-02-05

    In this study, we present a full-dimensional (9D) quantum dynamical analysis of the lowest vibrational eigenstates of H3O2(-). We have made use of the Multiconfiguration Time-Dependent Hartree method in conjunction with both an analytical and a numerical representation of the Kinetic Energy Operator and the newly developed Multigrid POTFIT [D. Peláez, H.-D. Meyer, J. Chem. Phys. 138 (2013) 014108], an algorithm which performs the transformation of a high-dimensional (up to ~12D) Potential Energy tensor into product form. Many sets of top-down Multigrid POTFIT expansions, differing in the system coordinate definition (valence and Jacobi), as well as in the number of terms in the expansion, have been analyzed. Relaxations for the computation of the ground states energies have been carried out on these potentials, obtaining an excellent overall agreement with accurate previous Diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) calculations, irrespective of the coordinate choice. The 24 lowest excited vibrational states of H3O2(-) have been computed by Block Relaxation and assigned for the first time. This has been carried out in two different pictures, namely: a 7D reduced dimensional one, in which the OH distances have been frozen at the Potential Energy Surface minimum, and a 9D full-dimensional one. The agreement between both descriptions is remarkable. The following fundamental modes have been characterized: OH torsion, OO stretching, OH wagging, OH rocking, and the elusive bridging H stretching. In particular, we provide a very accurate description of the latter in perfect agreement with experiment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Population Pressure and the Future of Saudi State Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    overpopulation stressors.26 No matter what population estimates the Kingdom may provide now or in the future, the general consensus is that Saudi...Quicksand of Poverty ,” Los Angeles Times, May 16, 2003, Section A-1 print edition, http://articles.latimes.com/2003/may/16/news/war-poverty16 (accessed...revolutionmuslim.com/uploads/Revolution_Past_and_Present.pdf (accessed June 4, 2008). Murphy, Kim. “Saudis Quicksand of Poverty .” Los Angeles Times

  20. Determination of excitation temperature and vibrational temperature of the N{sub 2}(C {sup 3}{pi}{sub u}, {nu}') state in Ne-N{sub 2} RF discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehman, N U; Naveed, M A; Zakaullah, M [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Khan, F U [Department of Physics, Gomal University D.I. Khan (Pakistan)

    2008-05-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy is used to investigate the effect of neon mixing on the excitation and vibrational temperatures of the second positive system in nitrogen plasma generated by a 13.56 MHz RF generator. The excitation temperature is determined from Ne I line intensities, using Boltzmann's plot. The overpopulation of the levels of the N{sub 2} (C {sup 3}{pi}{sub u}, {nu}') states with neon mixing are monitored by measuring the emission intensities of the second positive system of nitrogen molecules. The vibrational temperature is calculated for the sequence {delta}{nu} = -2, with the assumption that it follows Boltzmann's distribution. But due to overpopulation of levels, e.g. 1, 4, a linearization process was employed for such distributions allowing us to calculate the vibrational temperature of the N{sub 2} (C {sup 3}{pi}{sub u}, {nu}') state. It is found that the excitation temperature as well as the vibrational temperature of the second positive system can be raised significantly by mixing neon with nitrogen plasma. It is also found that the vibrational temperature increases with power and pressure up to 0.5 mbar.

  1. Study of electron-vibrational interaction in 5d states of Ce{sup 3+} ions in the chloroapatite system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhoyar, Priyanka D. [Department of Physics, R.T.M. Nagpur University, Nagpur, 440033 (India); Brik, M.G., E-mail: brik@ut.ee [College of Sciences, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing, 400065 (China); Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14C, Tartu, 50411 (Estonia); Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668, Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Physics, Jan Dlugosz University, Armii Krajowej 13/15, PL-42200, Czestochowa (Poland); Dhoble, S.J., E-mail: sjdhoble@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, R.T.M. Nagpur University, Nagpur, 440033 (India)

    2016-08-15

    Electron-vibrational interaction (EVI) in interconfigurational 5d-4f transition of Ce{sup 3+}-doped alkaline-earth chlorophosphates, also known as apatites, is studied for the first time in this work. Using the configurational coordinate model, the main EVI parameters such as Huang-Rhys factor, effective phonon energy and the zero-phonon line (ZPL) position are determined for all samples studied. Photoluminescence characteristics of these compounds are utilized to estimate EVI parameters. As a reliable test validating the obtained results, the emission band shape of was modeled to yield good agreement with experimental emission spectra. The values of EVI parameters were systematically compared for all studied materials as well as with similar systems with halide ions. - Highlights: • EVI in Ce{sup 3+}-doped alkaline-earth halochlorophosphates is studied for the first time in this work. • The EVI parameters are estimated using the configurational coordinate model. • Estimated EVI parameters are validated by modeling emission spectra. • Parameters are systematically compared.

  2. Persons of Spanish Origin in the United States: November 1969. Population Characteristics, Current Population Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressler, Tobia; And Others

    In a sample survey in November of 1969, the U.S. Bureau of Census found that approximately 9.2 million persons living in the 50 states of the United States and the District of Columbia identified themselves as being of Spanish origin. Three characteristics--Spanish origin, mother tongue, and language usually spoken at home--were used to identify…

  3. Multiple Rabi Splittings under Ultrastrong Vibrational Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jino; Chervy, Thibault; Shalabney, Atef; Devaux, Eloïse; Hiura, Hidefumi; Genet, Cyriaque; Ebbesen, Thomas W

    2016-10-07

    From the high vibrational dipolar strength offered by molecular liquids, we demonstrate that a molecular vibration can be ultrastrongly coupled to multiple IR cavity modes, with Rabi splittings reaching 24% of the vibration frequencies. As a proof of the ultrastrong coupling regime, our experimental data unambiguously reveal the contributions to the polaritonic dynamics coming from the antiresonant terms in the interaction energy and from the dipolar self-energy of the molecular vibrations themselves. In particular, we measure the opening of a genuine vibrational polaritonic band gap of ca. 60 meV. We also demonstrate that the multimode splitting effect defines a whole vibrational ladder of heavy polaritonic states perfectly resolved. These findings reveal the broad possibilities in the vibrational ultrastrong coupling regime which impact both the optical and the molecular properties of such coupled systems, in particular, in the context of mode-selective chemistry.

  4. Immigration data and national population estimates for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, D S

    1967-03-01

    The immigration component in national population estimates is comparatively small, but it is not insignificant and may indeed be an important source of error. Therefore, it warrants the considera-tion of those concerned with population estimates. The paper considers alternative methods for deriving estimates of immigration from the raw data and presents estimates of net immigration from 1950 to 1965. They are developed from estimates previously published by the Bureau of the Census, but they differ at some points where new data have become available or where a review of the data has led to a change in judgment on how best to use them. The paper also presents suggestions on how immigration statistics might be altered for purposes of improving the estimates.Census data may be used to estimate net immigration by three different methods, but upon analysis each method proves to be inadequate. Hence, data based on visas surrendered at the port of entry must be the principal source of immigration estimates. These data have their limitations because (1) they do not cover net arrivals of citizens from abroad and from Puerto Rico, (2) they do not report departures of aliens, and (3) they do not allocate all immigrants to year of entry. Alien registration and passenger data offer possible alternative estimates.The paper attempts to measure unrecorded immigration, discusses how net arrivals of citizens from abroad and from Puerto Rico may be estimated, and how the age, sex, and race of immigrants may be treated.

  5. Vibration response of misaligned rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Tejas H.; Darpe, Ashish K.

    2009-08-01

    Misalignment is one of the common faults observed in rotors. Effect of misalignment on vibration response of coupled rotors is investigated in the present study. The coupled rotor system is modelled using Timoshenko beam elements with all six dof. An experimental approach is proposed for the first time for determination of magnitude and harmonic nature of the misalignment excitation. Misalignment effect at coupling location of rotor FE model is simulated using nodal force vector. The force vector is found using misalignment coupling stiffness matrix, derived from experimental data and applied misalignment between the two rotors. Steady-state vibration response is studied for sub-critical speeds. Effect of the types of misalignment (parallel and angular) on the vibration behaviour of the coupled rotor is examined. Along with lateral vibrations, axial and torsional vibrations are also investigated and nature of the vibration response is also examined. It has been found that the misalignment couples vibrations in bending, longitudinal and torsional modes. Some diagnostic features in the fast Fourier transform (FFT) of torsional and longitudinal response related to parallel and angular misalignment have been revealed. Full spectra and orbit plots are effectively used to reveal the unique nature of misalignment fault leading to reliable misalignment diagnostic information, not clearly brought out by earlier studies.

  6. Persons of Spanish Origin in the United States: March 1977. Population Characteristics. Current Population Reports, Series P-20, No. 329.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD.

    In this report, demographic, social and economic data for the population of Spanish origin and its subcategories (Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central and South American) in the United States are tabulated. Specific information is provided concerning such characteristics as age, sex, residence, educational attainment, income, employment,…

  7. Persons of Spanish Origin in the United States: March 1974 (Advance Report). Population Characteristics, Current Population Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974

    Demographic, social, and economic characteristics of persons of Spanish origin in the United States are presented in this advance report. Data were collected in the March 1974 Current Population Survey, indicating that there were about 10.8 million persons of Spanish origin in this country. Subcategories of Spanish origin are: Mexican, Puerto…

  8. Urban vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Ann; Knudsen, L.; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2012-01-01

      lab   studies   in   that   we   found   a   decreased   detection   rate   in   busy   environments.   Here   we   test   with   a   much   larger   sample   and   age   range,   and   contribute   with   the   first   vibration  sensitivity  testing  outside  the  lab  in  an  urban   public...

  9. Rotational state resolved photodissociation spectroscopy of translationally and vibrationally cold MgH+ ions: toward rotational cooling of molecular ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre, Klaus; Hansen, Anders Kragh; Skyt, Peter Sandegaard

    2009-01-01

    The first steps toward the implementation of a simple scheme for rotational cooling of MgH+ ions based on rotational state optical pumping is considered. The various aspects of such an experiment are described in detail, and the rotational state-selective dissociation spectra of translationally...

  10. The state of ocular health among London's homeless population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawers, N

    2017-04-01

    PurposeTo investigate the demographics, visual impairment, and diagnoses of patients presenting to Vision Care for Homeless People (VCHP), Crisis clinics for London's under-researched homeless population.Patients and methodsTwo hundred eighty-three patients records, including data on sociodemographic, diabetic status, visual acuity, and ocular examination, via a comprehensive eye test were reviewed from the VCHP clinics held at 10 London 'Crisis at Christmas' centres in 2014.ResultsTwo hundred eighty-three individual patients were seen at the VCHP clinics. Eighty-nine percent of patients were male and 11% were female. Thirty-two percent (90) patients had an ocular pathology. Lens problems, including cataracts (7%), vitreoretinal (6%), ocular motility (5%), and external eye disease (5%), were the four most common pathologies. In total, 6.4% of the patients reported that they were diabetic and a medical referral letter was given to 10% of the patients seen. Two hundred thirty-three were dispensed glasses (82%). Readers were most common (39%), then distance (28%), bifocals (15%). Presenting visual impairment was 12% in the patients tested. After refractive correction, this dropped to 2.5%.ConclusionThis study shows that there is a high prevalence of uncorrected refractive error among patients attending the Crisis for Christmas eye clinic. These data also show high prevalence of ocular pathology. There is a clear need for the provision of eye tests and spectacles to tackle the issues and prevent visual impairment. More research and eye care services are needed to investigate how this is linked to their living status and enable this vulnerable population to transition out of homelessness.

  11. Relaxation dynamics and coherent energy exchange in coupled vibration-cavity polaritons (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, Blake S.; Fears, Kenan P.; Dressick, Walter J.; Dunkelberger, Adam D.; Spann, Bryan T.; Owrutsky, Jeffrey C.

    2016-09-01

    Coherent coupling between an optical transition and confined optical mode have been investigated for electronic-state transitions, however, only very recently have vibrational transitions been considered. Here, we demonstrate both static and dynamic results for vibrational bands strongly coupled to optical cavities. We experimentally and numerically describe strong coupling between a Fabry-Pérot cavity and carbonyl stretch ( 1730 cm 1) in poly-methylmethacrylate and provide evidence that the mixed-states are immune to inhomogeneous broadening. We investigate strong and weak coupling regimes through examination of cavities loaded with varying concentrations of a urethane monomer. Rabi splittings are in excellent agreement with an analytical description using no fitting parameters. Ultrafast pump-probe measurements reveal transient absorption signals over a frequency range well-separated from the vibrational band, as well as drastically modified relaxation rates. We speculate these modified kinetics are a consequence of the energy proximity between the vibration-cavity polariton modes and excited state transitions and that polaritons offer an alternative relaxation path for vibrational excitations. Varying the polariton energies by angle-tuning yields transient results consistent with this hypothesis. Furthermore, Rabi oscillations, or quantum beats, are observed at early times and we see evidence that these coherent vibration-cavity polariton excitations impact excited state population through cavity losses. Together, these results indicate that cavity coupling may be used to influence both excitation and relaxation rates of vibrations. Opening the field of polaritonic coupling to vibrational species promises to be a rich arena amenable to a wide variety of infrared-active bonds that can be studied in steady state and dynamically.

  12. Temperature dependent of IVR investigated by steady-state and time-frequency resolved CARS for liquid nitrobenzene and nitromethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanqiang; Zhu, Gangbei; Yan, Lin; Liu, Xiaosong; Yang's Ultrafast Spectroscopy Group Team

    2017-06-01

    Intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution (IVR) is important process in thermal decomposition, shock chemistry and photochemistry. Anti-Stokes Raman scattering is sensitive to the vibrational population in excited states because only vibrational excited states are responsible to the anti-Stokes Raman scattering, does not vibrational ground states. In this report, steady-state anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy and broad band ultrafast coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) are performed. The steady-state anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy shows temperature dependent of vibrational energy redistribution in vibrational excited-state molecule, and reveal that, in liquid nitrobenzene, with temperature increasing, vibrational energy is mainly redistributed in NO2 symmetric stretching mode, and phenyl ring stretching mode of νCC. For liquid nitromethane, it is found that, with temperature increasing, vibrational energy concentrate in CN stretching mode and methyl umbrella vibrational mode. In the broad band ultrafast CARS experiment, multiple vibrational modes are coherently excited to vibrational excited states, and the time-frequency resolved CARS spectra show the coincident IVR processes. This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Numbers 21673211 and 11372053), and the Science Challenging Program (Grant Number JCKY2016212A501).

  13. Tissue vibration in prolonged running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesenbichler, Bernd; Stirling, Lisa M; Federolf, Peter; Nigg, Benno M

    2011-01-04

    The impact force in heel-toe running initiates vibrations of soft-tissue compartments of the leg that are heavily dampened by muscle activity. This study investigated if the damping and frequency of these soft-tissue vibrations are affected by fatigue, which was categorized by the time into an exhaustive exercise. The hypotheses were tested that (H1) the vibration intensity of the triceps surae increases with increasing fatigue and (H2) the vibration frequency of the triceps surae decreases with increasing fatigue. Tissue vibrations of the triceps surae were measured with tri-axial accelerometers in 10 subjects during a run towards exhaustion. The frequency content was quantified with power spectra and wavelet analysis. Maxima of local vibration intensities were compared between the non-fatigued and fatigued states of all subjects. In axial (i.e. parallel to the tibia) and medio-lateral direction, most local maxima increased with fatigue (supporting the first hypothesis). In anterior-posterior direction no systematic changes were found. Vibration frequency was minimally affected by fatigue and frequency changes did not occur systematically, which requires the rejection of the second hypothesis. Relative to heel-strike, the maximum vibration intensity occurred significantly later in the fatigued condition in all three directions. With fatigue, the soft tissue of the triceps surae oscillated for an extended duration at increased vibration magnitudes, possibly due to the effects of fatigue on type II muscle fibers. Thus, the protective mechanism of muscle tuning seems to be reduced in a fatigued muscle and the risk of potential harm to the tissue may increase. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An SVM-Based Classifier for Estimating the State of Various Rotating Components in Agro-Industrial Machinery with a Vibration Signal Acquired from a Single Point on the Machine Chassis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Ruiz-Gonzalez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to assess the feasibility of estimating the state of various rotating components in agro-industrial machinery by employing just one vibration signal acquired from a single point on the machine chassis. To do so, a Support Vector Machine (SVM-based system is employed. Experimental tests evaluated this system by acquiring vibration data from a single point of an agricultural harvester, while varying several of its working conditions. The whole process included two major steps. Initially, the vibration data were preprocessed through twelve feature extraction algorithms, after which the Exhaustive Search method selected the most suitable features. Secondly, the SVM-based system accuracy was evaluated by using Leave-One-Out cross-validation, with the selected features as the input data. The results of this study provide evidence that (i accurate estimation of the status of various rotating components in agro-industrial machinery is possible by processing the vibration signal acquired from a single point on the machine structure; (ii the vibration signal can be acquired with a uniaxial accelerometer, the orientation of which does not significantly affect the classification accuracy; and, (iii when using an SVM classifier, an 85% mean cross-validation accuracy can be reached, which only requires a maximum of seven features as its input, and no significant improvements are noted between the use of either nonlinear or linear kernels.

  15. Modeling study of vibrational photochemical isotope enrichment. [HBr + Cl/sub 2/; HCl + Br/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badcock, C.C.; Hwang, W.C.; Kalsch, J.F.

    1978-09-29

    Chemical kinetic modeling studies of vibrational-photochemical isotope enrichment have been performed on two systems: Model (I), H/sup 79/Br(H/sup 81/Br) + Cl/sub 2/ and, Model (II), H/sup 37/Cl(H/sup 35/Cl) + Br. Pulsed laser excitation was modeled to the first excited vibrational level of H/sup 79/Br in Model I and the first and second excited vibrational levels of both HCl isotopes in Model II. These are prototype systems of exoergic (Model I) and endoergic (Model II) reactions. The effects on enrichment of varying the external parameters (pressure, laser intensity) and the internal parameters (rate constants for V-V exchange and excited-state reactions) were examined. Studies of these prototype systems indicate that a favorable reaction for enrichment, with isotopically-specific excitation and a significantly accelerated vibrationally-excited-state reaction should have the following properties: the reaction from v = 0 should be only moderately exoergic, and the most favorable coreactant should be a polyatomic species, such as alkyl radical. Direct excitation of the reacting vibrational level is at least an order of magnitude more favorable for enrichment than is population by energy transfer. Enrichment of the minor isotope by these processes is more effective than is major isotope enrichment. Within limits, increased laser intensity is beneficial. However, for sequential excitation of a second vibrational level, major isotope enrichment can be diminished by high populations of the first vibrational level.

  16. The Right to Choose. State of World Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) released estimates that an annual expenditure of US$17 billion by the year 2000 would result in better reproductive health worldwide. The ICPD also delineated a number of sexual and reproductive health rights. Denial of these rights leads to the deaths of 585,000 women, nearly all in developing countries, from pregnancy-related causes each year. An estimated 120-150 million women lack access to contraception. Therefore, 75 million of the 175 million annual pregnancies are unwanted, and 45 million of these result in abortions nearly half of which are unsafe and cause the death of 70,000 women each year. Female genital mutilation has compromised the health of 120 million, and 2 million more are at risk each year. Son preference manifested by selective abortions or neglect of girls has resulted in the existence of 60 million less girls than expected. Not only is protection of sexual and reproductive rights important for women's empowerment and gender equity, it is essential to achieve economic and social development. Maternal deaths are caused by malnutrition and anemia, by failure to diagnose and treat pregnancy complications, and by age-related factors. Additional public health risks include sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), HIV/AIDS, unsafe abortion, and female genital mutilation. Barriers to reproductive health information and services continue to exist, and adolescents are especially at risk of unwanted pregnancy, STDs, and HIV/AIDS. Women suffer from domestic violence and rape, and millions of children are exploited sexually. Boys and men must learn to be responsible sexually and in parenthood and to understand sexual health risks. Girls must be educated so they can improve their family's health. Women's access to productive life must be improved along with primary health care accessibility and the structure of services.

  17. Population genetic data and forensic parameters of 30 autosomal InDel markers in Santa Catarina State population, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Sandra Regina Rachadel; Uehara, Clineu Julien Seki; Sutter-Latorre, Ana Frederica; de Almeida, Bibiana Sgorla; Sauerbier, Tania Streck; Muniz, Yara Costa Netto; Marrero, Andrea Rita; de Souza, Ilíada Rainha

    2014-08-01

    The application of DNA technology in forensic investigations has grown rapidly in the last 25 years and with an exponential increase of short tandem repeats (STRs) data, usually presented as allele frequencies, that may be later used as databases for forensic and population genetics purposes. Thereby, classes of molecular markers such as single nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions/deletions (InDels) have been presented as another option of genetic marker sets. These markers can be used in paternity cases, when mutations in STR polymorphisms are present, as well as in highly degraded DNA analysis. In the present study, the allele frequencies and heterozygosity (H) of a 30 InDel markers set were determined and the forensic efficacy was evaluated through estimation of discrimination power (DP), match probability, typical paternity index and power of paternity exclusion in 108 unrelated volunteers from the State of Santa Catarina (South Brazil). The observed H per locus showed a range between 0.370 and 0.574 (mean = 0.479). HLD128 was the locus with the highest DP (DP = 0.656). DP for all markers combined was greater than 99.9999999999646 % which provides satisfactory levels of information for forensic demands. Genetic comparisons (exact tests of population differentiation and pairwise genetic distances) revealed that the population of Santa Catarina State differs from Korea and USA Afro-American populations but is similar to the Portuguese, German, Polish, Spanish and Basque populations.

  18. Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report provides estimates of the size of the unauthorized immigrant population residing in the United States as of January 2010 by period of entry, region and...

  19. Estimates of the Resident Nonimmigrant Population in the United States: 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report presents estimates on the size and characteristics of the resident nonimmigrant population in the United States in 2008.1 The estimates were based on...

  20. Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report provides estimates of the size of the unauthorized immigrant population residing in the United States as of January 2011 by period of entry, region and...

  1. Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report provides estimates of the size of the unauthorized immigrant population residing in the United States as of January 2012 by period of entry, region and...

  2. Surveillance of Vaccination Coverage among Adult Populations - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Walter W; Lu, Peng-Jun; O'Halloran, Alissa; Kim, David K; Grohskopf, Lisa A; Pilishvili, Tamara; Skoff, Tami H; Nelson, Noele P; Harpaz, Rafael; Markowitz, Lauri E; Rodriguez-Lainz, Alfonso; Fiebelkorn, Amy Parker

    2017-05-05

    Overall, the prevalence of illness attributable to vaccine-preventable diseases is greater among adults than among children. Adults are recommended to receive vaccinations based on their age, underlying medical conditions, lifestyle, prior vaccinations, and other considerations. Updated vaccination recommendations from CDC are published annually in the U.S. Adult Immunization Schedule. Despite longstanding recommendations for use of many vaccines, vaccination coverage among U.S. adults is low. August 2014-June 2015 (for influenza vaccination) and January-December 2015 (for pneumococcal, tetanus and diphtheria [Td] and tetanus and diphtheria with acellular pertussis [Tdap], hepatitis A, hepatitis B, herpes zoster, and human papillomavirus [HPV] vaccination). The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is a continuous, cross-sectional national household survey of the noninstitutionalized U.S. civilian population. In-person interviews are conducted throughout the year in a probability sample of households, and NHIS data are compiled and released annually. The survey objective is to monitor the health of the U.S. population and provide estimates of health indicators, health care use and access, and health-related behaviors. Compared with data from the 2014 NHIS, increases in vaccination coverage occurred for influenza vaccine among adults aged ≥19 years (a 1.6 percentage point increase compared with the 2013-14 season to 44.8%), pneumococcal vaccine among adults aged 19-64 years at increased risk for pneumococcal disease (a 2.8 percentage point increase to 23.0%), Tdap vaccine among adults aged ≥19 years and adults aged 19-64 years (a 3.1 percentage point and 3.3 percentage point increase to 23.1% and to 24.7%, respectively), herpes zoster vaccine among adults aged ≥60 years and adults aged ≥65 years (a 2.7 percentage point and 3.2 percentage point increase to 30.6% and to 34.2%, respectively), and hepatitis B vaccine among health care personnel (HCP) aged

  3. Smoking cessation and mortality trends among two United States populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enstrom, J E

    1999-09-01

    The long-term impact of smoking cessation on mortality is assessed among two U.S. populations: a large cohort of U.S. veterans aged 55-64 at entry and followed from 1954 through 1979 and the NHANES I Epidemiologic Followup Study (NHEFS) cohort of a national sample of U.S. adults aged 55-74 at entry and followed from 1971 through 1992. Direct and indirect survey data indicate that 50-70% of those who were current cigarette smokers at entry had quit smoking during the 19- to 26-year follow-up periods. The impact of smoking cessation on mortality among the cigarette smokers as a whole has been assessed by determining the time trend of the relative risk (RR) of death and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the cigarette smokers compared with never-smokers over the entire follow-up period in both cohorts. The total death rates for the 1954/57 U.S. veteran smokers as a whole (63,159 males) have converged only slightly toward those of never-smokers, from RR = 1.65 (1.58-1.72) during 1954-1959 to RR = 1.61 (1.58-1.63) during 1954-1979. The lung cancer death rates for 1954/57 smokers as a whole have not converged toward those of never-smokers, with RR = 10.89 (7.70-15.41) during 1954-1959 and RR = 11.10 (9.78-12.61) during 1954-1979. The total death rates for the 1971-1975 NHEFS smokers as a whole (694 males and 1116 females) have not converged toward those of never-smokers. For males, RR = 1.92 (1.46-2.52) during 1971-1982 and RR = 1.96 (1.63-2.36) during 1971-1992; for females, RR = 1.79 (1.31-2.46) during 1971-1982 and RR = 1.79 (1.47-2.17) during 1971-1992. The lung cancer death rates have diverged, based on small numbers of deaths. For males, RR = 15.76 (2.06-120.61) during 1971-1982 and RR = 22.20 (5.31-92.92) during 1971-1992; for females, RR = 2.92 (0.57-15.06) during 1971-1982 and RR = 4.74 (1.94-11.59) during 1971-1992. These trends are contrary to the substantial convergence predicted by the death rate trends among U.S. veterans who were former smokers at the

  4. Population Growth in the 1990s: Patterns within the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Marc

    2002-01-01

    Examines population growth during the 1990s for a variety of geographic levels including regions, divisions, states, metropolitan areas, counties, and large cities. Compares growth rates for the 1990s with earlier decades to provide an historical context for present-day trends in population growth and decline. Discusses how differential population…

  5. Past, Present and Future: Immigration, High Fertility Fuel State's Population Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, William A. V.

    2000-01-01

    Presents demographic information on California's increasing population and ethnic diversity. Describes age pyramids and fertility rates by ethnic group, indicating that Asians and Hispanics will comprise over two-thirds of the state's population by 2030. Discusses implications for education, teenage pregnancy, political representation, prenatal…

  6. Persons of Spanish Origin in the United States: March 1976. Population Characteristics, Current Population Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Edward, Comp.; And Others

    In March 1976, there were 11.1 million persons of Spanish origin in the United States. These included 6.6 million persons of Mexican origin, 1.8 million of Puerto Rican origin, about 700,000 of Cuban origin, and about 2.1 million of Central or South American and other Spanish origin. This report provides a statistical description of the social,…

  7. Persons of Spanish Origin in the United States: March 1975. Population Characteristics. Current Population Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Edward W., Comp.; And Others

    In March 1975, there were about 11.2 million persons of Spanish origin in the United States. These included 6.7 million persons of Mexican origin, about 1.7 million of Puerto Rican origin, about 740,000 of Cuban origin, 670,000 of Central or South American origin, and about 1.4 million of other Spanish origin. This report presents a detailed…

  8. Serum Zinc Levels Amongst Tribal Population in a District of Jharkhand State, India: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    KAPİL, UMESH; SİNGH, PREETİ; PATHAK, PRİYALİ

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Nutritional deficiency of zinc is widespreadin developing countries. India has the second largestconcentration of tribal population after that of Africancontinent. Limited data is available on the serum zinclevels amongst tribal population in India.The objective of this study is to assess the status ofserum zinc amongst tribal population in a district ofJharkhand State, India.Method: The study was conducted amongst tribals inthe age group of 18-75 years residing in districtSahibgan...

  9. Theory of vibration protection

    CERN Document Server

    Karnovsky, Igor A

    2016-01-01

    This text is an advancement of the theory of vibration protection of mechanical systems with lumped and distributed parameters. The book offers various concepts and methods of solving vibration protection problems, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different methods, and the fields of their effective applications. Fundamental approaches of vibration protection, which are considered in this book, are the passive, parametric and optimal active vibration protection. The passive vibration protection is based on vibration isolation, vibration damping and dynamic absorbers. Parametric vibration protection theory is based on the Shchipanov-Luzin invariance principle. Optimal active vibration protection theory is based on the Pontryagin principle and the Krein moment method. The book also contains special topics such as suppression of vibrations at the source of their occurrence and the harmful influence of vibrations on humans. Numerous examples, which illustrate the theoretical ideas of each chapter, ar...

  10. Pickin’ up good vibrations

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    In preparation for the civil engineering work on the HL-LHC, vibration measurements were carried out at the LHC’s Point 1 last month. These measurements will help evaluate how civil engineering work could impact the beam, and will provide crucial details about the site’s geological make-up before construction begins.   A seismic truck at Point 1 generated wave-like vibrations measured by EN/MME. From carrying out R&D to produce state-of-the-art magnets to developing innovative, robust materials capable of withstanding beam impact, the HL-LHC is a multi-faceted project involving many groups and teams across CERN’s departments. It was in this framework that the project management mandated CERN's Mechanical and Materials Engineering (EN/MME) group to measure the propagation of vibrations around Point 1. Their question: can civil engineering work for the HL-LHC – the bulk of which is scheduled for LS2 – begin while the LHC is running? Alth...

  11. Comparison of health state values derived from patients and individuals from the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Mihir; Tan, Ru San; Ng, Raymond; Choo, Su Pin; Chia, Whay Kuang; Toh, Chee Keong; Lam, Carolyn; Lee, Phong Teck; Latt, Nang Khaing Zar; Rand-Hendriksen, Kim; Cheung, Yin Bun; Luo, Nan

    2017-12-01

    Utility values are critical for cost-utility analyses that guide healthcare decisions. We aimed to compare the utility values of the 5-level EuroQoL-5Dimension (EQ-5D-5L) health states elicited from members of the general public and patients with heart disease or cancer. In face-to-face interviews with 157 heart disease patients, 169 cancer patients, and 169 members from the general population, participants valued 10 EQ-5D-5L health states using a composite Time Trade-Off method. Pooling utility values for all health states, heart disease patients and cancer patients had mean utility values lower by 0.11 points (P value = 0.014) and 0.06 points (P value = 0.148), respectively, compared to the general population. Adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, differences in health state utility values between the patient and the general populations were rendered non-significant, except that heart disease patients gave higher utility values (mean difference = 0.08; P value = 0.007) to mild health states than the general population. Difference in utility values, defined as utility value of a better health state minus that of a poorer health state, was higher among heart disease patients compared to the general population, before and after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Patients may differ from members of the general population in the strength of their preferences for hypothetical health states. Using utility values derived from the general population may under-estimate the comparative effectiveness of healthcare interventions for certain diseases, such as heart diseases.

  12. Estimation of spinal loading in vertical vibrations by numerical simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verver, M.M.; Hoof, J.F.A.M. van; Oomens, C.W.J.; Wouw, N. van de; Wismans, J.S.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Objective. This paper describes the prediction of spinal forces in car occupants during vertical vibrations using a numerical multi-body occupant model. Background. An increasing part of the population is exposed to whole body vibrations in vehicles. In literature, vertical vibrations and low back

  13. Modelling population dynamics model formulation, fitting and assessment using state-space methods

    CERN Document Server

    Newman, K B; Morgan, B J T; King, R; Borchers, D L; Cole, D J; Besbeas, P; Gimenez, O; Thomas, L

    2014-01-01

    This book gives a unifying framework for estimating the abundance of open populations: populations subject to births, deaths and movement, given imperfect measurements or samples of the populations.  The focus is primarily on populations of vertebrates for which dynamics are typically modelled within the framework of an annual cycle, and for which stochastic variability in the demographic processes is usually modest. Discrete-time models are developed in which animals can be assigned to discrete states such as age class, gender, maturity,  population (within a metapopulation), or species (for multi-species models). The book goes well beyond estimation of abundance, allowing inference on underlying population processes such as birth or recruitment, survival and movement. This requires the formulation and fitting of population dynamics models.  The resulting fitted models yield both estimates of abundance and estimates of parameters characterizing the underlying processes.  

  14. Transgender Population Size in the United States: a Meta-Regression of Population-Based Probability Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerwijk, Esther L; Sevelius, Jae M

    2017-02-01

    Transgender individuals have a gender identity that differs from the sex they were assigned at birth. The population size of transgender individuals in the United States is not well-known, in part because official records, including the US Census, do not include data on gender identity. Population surveys today more often collect transgender-inclusive gender-identity data, and secular trends in culture and the media have created a somewhat more favorable environment for transgender people. To estimate the current population size of transgender individuals in the United States and evaluate any trend over time. In June and July 2016, we searched PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Web of Science for national surveys, as well as "gray" literature, through an Internet search. We limited the search to 2006 through 2016. We selected population-based surveys that used probability sampling and included self-reported transgender-identity data. We used random-effects meta-analysis to pool eligible surveys and used meta-regression to address our hypothesis that the transgender population size estimate would increase over time. We used subsample and leave-one-out analysis to assess for bias. Our meta-regression model, based on 12 surveys covering 2007 to 2015, explained 62.5% of model heterogeneity, with a significant effect for each unit increase in survey year (F = 17.122; df = 1,10; b = 0.026%; P = .002). Extrapolating these results to 2016 suggested a current US population size of 390 adults per 100 000, or almost 1 million adults nationally. This estimate may be more indicative for younger adults, who represented more than 50% of the respondents in our analysis. Future national surveys are likely to observe higher numbers of transgender people. The large variety in questions used to ask about transgender identity may account for residual heterogeneity in our models. Public health implications. Under- or nonrepresentation

  15. Transgender Population Size in the United States: a Meta-Regression of Population-Based Probability Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevelius, Jae M.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Transgender individuals have a gender identity that differs from the sex they were assigned at birth. The population size of transgender individuals in the United States is not well-known, in part because official records, including the US Census, do not include data on gender identity. Population surveys today more often collect transgender-inclusive gender-identity data, and secular trends in culture and the media have created a somewhat more favorable environment for transgender people. Objectives. To estimate the current population size of transgender individuals in the United States and evaluate any trend over time. Search methods. In June and July 2016, we searched PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Web of Science for national surveys, as well as “gray” literature, through an Internet search. We limited the search to 2006 through 2016. Selection criteria. We selected population-based surveys that used probability sampling and included self-reported transgender-identity data. Data collection and analysis. We used random-effects meta-analysis to pool eligible surveys and used meta-regression to address our hypothesis that the transgender population size estimate would increase over time. We used subsample and leave-one-out analysis to assess for bias. Main results. Our meta-regression model, based on 12 surveys covering 2007 to 2015, explained 62.5% of model heterogeneity, with a significant effect for each unit increase in survey year (F = 17.122; df = 1,10; b = 0.026%; P = .002). Extrapolating these results to 2016 suggested a current US population size of 390 adults per 100 000, or almost 1 million adults nationally. This estimate may be more indicative for younger adults, who represented more than 50% of the respondents in our analysis. Authors’ conclusions. Future national surveys are likely to observe higher numbers of transgender people. The large variety in questions used to ask

  16. Stress analysis of vibrating pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachwieja, Janusz

    2017-03-01

    The pipelines are subject to various constraints variable in time. Those vibrations, if not monitored for amplitude and frequency, may result in both the fatigue damage in the pipeline profile at high stress concentration and the damage to the pipeline supports. If the constraint forces are known, the system response may be determined with high accuracy using analytical or numerical methods. In most cases, it may be difficult to determine the constraint parameters, since the industrial pipeline vibrations occur due to the dynamic effects of the medium in the pipeline. In that case, a vibration analysis is a suitable alternative method to determine the stress strain state in the pipeline profile. Monitoring the pipeline vibration levels involves a comparison between the measured vibration parameters and the permissible values as depicted in the graphs for a specific pipeline type. Unfortunately, in most cases, the studies relate to the petrochemical industry and thus large diameter, long and straight pipelines. For a pipeline section supported on both ends, the response in any profile at the entire section length can be determined by measuring the vibration parameters at two different profiles between the pipeline supports. For a straight pipeline section, the bending moments, variable in time, at the ends of the analysed section are a source of the pipe excitation. If a straight pipe section supported on both ends is excited by the bending moments in the support profile, the starting point for the stress analysis are the strains, determined from the Euler-Bernoulli equation. In practice, it is easier to determine the displacement using the experimental methods, since the factors causing vibrations are unknown. The industrial system pipelines, unlike the transfer pipelines, are straight sections at some points only, which makes it more difficult to formulate the equation of motion. In those cases, numerical methods can be used to determine stresses using the

  17. Characterization of coherent population-trapped states in a circuit-QED Λ system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premaratne, Shavindra P.; Wellstood, F. C.; Palmer, B. S.

    2017-10-01

    We examine coherent population trapping in a circuit-QED system consisting of an Al/AlOx/Al transmon qubit embedded in an Al three-dimensional cavity. By engineering the dissipation rate of the cavity to be much larger than that of the qubit and continuously pumping a two-photon process to an excited state of the cavity-qubit system, we are able to invert the population into the qubit excited state with a fidelity of 94%. Applying a second continuous drive tone at the dressed cavity frequency forms an effective Λ system and enables us to coherently trap the system in a dark state formed from a superposition of the excited and ground states of the qubit. By performing quantum state tomography we demonstrate that the position of the dark state on the Bloch sphere can be controlled by changing the relative amplitudes and phases of the two drives.

  18. Arthroplasty Utilization in the United States is Predicted by Age-Specific Population Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashinskaya, Bronislava; Zimmerman, Ryan M; Walcott, Brian P; Antoci, Valentin

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a common indication for hip and knee arthroplasty. An accurate assessment of current trends in healthcare utilization as they relate to arthroplasty may predict the needs of a growing elderly population in the United States. First, incidence data was queried from the United States Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 1993 to 2009. Patients undergoing total knee and hip arthroplasty were identified. Then, the United States Census Bureau was queried for population data from the same study period as well as to provide future projections. Arthroplasty followed linear regression models with the population group >64 years in both hip and knee groups. Projections for procedure incidence in the year 2050 based on these models were calculated to be 1,859,553 cases (hip) and 4,174,554 cases (knee). The need for hip and knee arthroplasty is expected to grow significantly in the upcoming years, given population growth predictions.

  19. Population structure age of Paraná state between 1970 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Pintor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The theory of demographic transition began with an effort of Frank Notestein (1945 to understand the demographic changes that were occurring in Western Europe since the late nineteenth century. The demographic transition is the transition between two scenarios of population growth, which changes the age structure of the population. The aim of the article is to discuss the evolution of population structure age of Paraná state between 1970 and 2010. The changes in the age structure of the Paraná indicate a reduction in the share of young population and increasing aging population, an increase in the relative weight of the elderly population. Public policies on education, health, social security and labor market should consider the current change in the age structure. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the change in the age structure of the population of the state of Paraná. For this we used data Censuses of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE on the age distribution of urban and rural Paraná and its Mesoregions. It was concluded that the change in structure occurs group widespread in all Mesoregions state. However, it occurs unevenly between urban and rural population.

  20. Generating spectra from ground-state wave functions: unraveling anharmonic effects in the OH- x H2O vibrational predissociation spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Anne B; Diken, Eric G; Johnson, Mark A

    2009-07-02

    An approach is described for calculating anharmonic spectra for polyatomic molecules using only the ground-state probability amplitude. The underlying theory is based on properties of harmonic oscillator wave functions and is tested for Morse oscillators with a range of anharmonicities. More extensive tests are performed with H(3)O(2)(-), using the potential and dipole surfaces of Bowman and co-workers [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 5042]. The resulting energies are compared to earlier studies that employed the same potential surface, and the agreement is shown to be very good. The vibrational spectra are calculated for both H(3)O(2)(-) and D(3)O(2)(-). In the case of H(3)O(2)(-), comparisons are made with a previously reported experimental spectrum below 2000 cm(-1). We also report the spectrum of H(3)O(2)(-) from 2400-4500 cm(-1), which extends 500 cm(-1) above the region reported earlier, revealing several new bands. As the only fundamentals in this spectral region involve the OH stretches, the spectrum is surprisingly rich. On the basis of comparisons of the experimental and calculated spectra, assignments are proposed for several of the features in this spectral region.

  1. Anomalies in the low frequency vibrational density of states for a polymer with intrinsic microporosity - the Boson peak of PIM-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorn, Reiner; Yin, Huajie; Lohstroh, Wiebke; Harrison, Wayne; Budd, Peter M; Pauw, Brian R; Böhning, Martin; Schönhals, Andreas

    2018-01-17

    Polymers with intrinsic microporosity are promising candidates for the active separation layer in gas separation membranes. Here, the vibrational density of states (VDOS) for PIM-1, the prototypical polymer with intrinsic microporosity, is investigated by means of inelastic neutron scattering. The results are compared to data measured for a more conventional high-performance polyimide used in gas separation membranes (Matrimid). The measured data show the characteristic low frequency excess contribution to VDOS above the Debye sound wave level, generally known as the Boson peak in glass-forming materials. In comparison to the Boson peak of Matrimid, that of PIM-1 is shifted to lower frequencies. This shift is discussed considering the microporous, sponge-like structure of PIM-1 as providing a higher compressibility at the molecular scale than for conventional polymers. For an annealed PIM-1 sample, the Boson peak shifts to higher frequencies in comparison to the un-annealed sample. These changes in the VDOS of the annealed PIM-1 sample are related to changes in the microporous structure as confirmed by X-ray scattering.

  2. States' use of local population health data: comparing the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and independent state health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E Richard; Kincheloe, Jennifer; Breen, Nancy; Olson, Jean L; Portnoy, Barry; Lee, Simon J Craddock

    2013-01-01

    To identify and compare key features of independent comprehensive state health surveys (SHS) with those of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for addressing the need for statewide and local population health data. We developed inclusion criteria, systematically collected information about federal and SHS that met these criteria, and obtained supplemental information from SHS leaders. We identified comprehensive independent SHS in 11 states and BRFSS surveys in all 50 states. The independent SHS meet important statewide and local data needs, filling 3 key health data gaps in the BRFSS: lack of adequate data on special populations such as children, lack of data on specific localities, and limited depth and scope of health topics surveyed on key issues such as health insurance coverage. Unlike BRFSS, independent SHS have limited comparability with each other. The BRFSS and independent SHS each meet some key state and local data needs but result in data gaps and inefficient use of resources. Surveys could more effectively and efficiently meet future needs for comparable data to monitor health care reform and address health disparities if they were coordinated across states and at the national, state, and local levels.

  3. THE POTENTIAL NEURAL MECHANISMS OF ACUTE INDIRECT VIBRATION

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    Darryl J. Cochrane

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available There is strong evidence to suggest that acute indirect vibration acts on muscle to enhance force, power, flexibility, balance and proprioception suggesting neural enhancement. Nevertheless, the neural mechanism(s of vibration and its potentiating effect have received little attention. One proposal suggests that spinal reflexes enhance muscle contraction through a reflex activity known as tonic vibration stretch reflex (TVR, which increases muscle activation. However, TVR is based on direct, brief, and high frequency vibration (>100 Hz which differs to indirect vibration, which is applied to the whole body or body parts at lower vibration frequency (5-45 Hz. Likewise, muscle tuning and neuromuscular aspects are other candidate mechanisms used to explain the vibration phenomenon. But there is much debate in terms of identifying which neural mechanism(s are responsible for acute vibration; due to a number of studies using various vibration testing protocols. These protocols include: different methods of application, vibration variables, training duration, exercise types and a range of population groups. Therefore, the neural mechanism of acute vibration remain equivocal, but spinal reflexes, muscle tuning and neuromuscular aspects are all viable factors that may contribute in different ways to increasing muscular performance. Additional research is encouraged to determine which neural mechanism(s and their contributions are responsible for acute vibration. Testing variables and vibration applications need to be standardised before reaching a consensus on which neural mechanism(s occur during and post-vibration

  4. The influence of state-to-state kinetics on diffusion and heat transfer behind shock waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunova, O.; Kustova, E.; Mekhonoshina, M.; Nagnibeda, E. [Saint Petersburg State University, 198504, Universitetskiy pr., 28, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-09

    In the paper, the influence of vibrational and chemical kinetics on heat transfer and diffusion in hypersonic flows of N{sub 2}/N mixture in the relaxation zone behind shock waves is studied on the basis of the state-to-state kinetic theory approach. The results of calculations of vibrational level populations ni, gas temperature T, total energy flux q, diffusion velocities of molecules at different vibrational states V{sub i} and atoms V{sub a} in the relaxation zone behind a shock front are presented for the free stream Mach number M = 10, 15. The contribution of different dissipative processes to the total energy flux is estimated for various flow conditions. The impact of non-equilibrium vibrational distributions in the free stream on molecular level populations and transport properties in the relaxation zone is shown.

  5. Heart disease attributed to occupational noise, vibration and other co-exposure: Self-reported population-based survey among Bulgarian workers

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    Angel M. Dzhambov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the main mortality cause worldwide. Noise and vibration are considered to be occupational risk factors, but little is known about their cardiovascular effects in Bulgaria in terms of gender and various professional groups. The aim of this study has been to investigate the risk of prevalent CVD, associated with occupational noise and vibration exposure. Material and Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of the data from 3 waves of the European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS 2001–2010 – a nationally-representative cross-sectional questionnaire survey covering 3149 workers aged ≥ 15 years in Bulgaria. Data on self-reported heart disease were linked to self-reported occupational noise and vibration, adjusting for other factors. Results from the 3 waves were pooled together using the inverse variance heterogeneity (IVhet meta-analysis. Results: For noise, the risk was elevated among women (relative risk (RR = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.53–3.01, but not men (RR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.14–1.65. Long-term workers had RR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.60–1.69. For vibration, the risk was increased in all participants. It was higher among men (RR = 2.56, 95% CI: 1.60–4.09 than it was among women (RR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.77–2.27. Among long-term, industrial, and service workers it was RR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.02–2.40; RR = 1.10, 95% CI: 0.61–1.98, and RR = 1.18, 95% CI: 0.57–2.46, respectively. Conclusions: Occupational vibration was a risk factor for prevalent heart disease in Bulgaria. Noise was an alleged risk factor only among long-term workers and women. Med Pr 2016;67(4:435–445

  6. Understanding how discrete populations of hypothalamic neurons orchestrate complicated behavioral states

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    Allison eGraebner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A major question in systems neuroscience is how a single population of neurons can interact with the rest of the brain to orchestrate complex behavioral states. The hypothalamus contains many such discrete neuronal populations that individually regulate arousal, feeding, and drinking. For example, hypothalamic neurons that express hypocretin (Hcrt neuropeptides can sense homeostatic and metabolic factors affecting wakefulness and orchestrate organismal arousal. Neurons that express agouti-related protein (AgRP can sense the metabolic needs of the body and orchestrate a state of hunger. The organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT can detect the hypertonicity of blood and orchestrate a state of thirst. Each hypothalamic population is sufficient to generate complicated behavioral states through the combined efforts of distinct efferent projections. The principal challenge to understanding these brain systems is therefore to determine the individual roles of each downstream projection for each behavioral state. In recent years, the development and application of temporally precise, genetically encoded tools have greatly improved our understanding of the structure and function of these neural systems. This review will survey recent advances in our understanding of how these individual hypothalamic populations can orchestrate complicated behavioral states due to the combined efforts of individual downstream projections.

  7. Costing of a State-Wide Population Based Cancer Awareness and Early Detection Campaign in a 2.67 Million Population of Punjab State in Northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Js; Prinja, Shankar; Jeet, Gursimer; Bhatnagar, Nidhi

    2016-01-01

    Punjab state is particularly reporting a rising burden of cancer. A 'door to door cancer awareness and early detection campaign' was therefore launched in the Punjab covering about 2.67 million population, wherein after initial training accredited social health activists (ASHAs) and other health staff conducted a survey for early detection of cancer cases based on a twelve point clinical algorithm. To ascertain unit cost for undertaking a population-based cancer awareness and early detection campaign. Data were collected using bottom-up costing methods. Full economic costs of implementing the campaign from the health system perspective were calculated. Options to meet the likely demand for project activities were further evaluated to examine their worth from the point of view of long-term sustainability. The campaign covered 97% of the state population. A total of 24,659 cases were suspected to have cancer and were referred to health facilities. At the state level, incidence and prevalence of cancer were found to be 90 and 216 per 100,000, respectively. Full economic cost of implementing the campaign in pilot district was USD 117,524. However, the financial cost was approximately USD 6,301. Start-up phase of campaign was more resource intensive (63% of total) than the implementation phase. The economic cost per person contacted and suspected by clinical algorithm was found to be USD 0.20 and USD 40 respectively. Cost per confirmed case under the campaign was 7,043 USD. The campaign was able to screen a reasonably large population. High to high economic cost points towards the fact that the opportunity cost of campaign put a significant burden on health system and other programs. However, generating awareness and early detection strategy adopted in this campaign seems promising in light of fact that organized screening is not in place in India and in many developing countries.

  8. Vibrational Cooling in A Cold Ion Trap: Vibrationally Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Cold C60- Anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xue B.; Woo, Hin-koon; Wang, Lai S.

    2005-08-01

    We demonstrate vibrational cooling of anions via collisions with a background gas in an ion trap attached to a cryogenically controlled cold head (10 ? 400 K). Photoelectron spectra of vibrationally cold C60- anions, produced by electrospray ionization and cooled in the cold ion trap, have been obtained. Relative to spectra taken at room temperature, vibrational hot bands are completely eliminated, yielding well resolved vibrational structures and a more accurate electron affinity for neutral C60. The electron affinity of C60 is measured to be 2.683 ? 0.008 eV. The cold spectra reveal complicated vibrational structures for the transition to the C60 ground state due to the Jahn-Teller effect in the ground state of C60-. Vibrational excitations in the two Ag modes and eight Hg modes are observed, providing ideal data to assess the vibronic couplings in C60-.

  9. Malthus’s theory on population as a basis for criticism of the interventionist state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dokić Marko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Going by ideological debates concerning (unjustifiable state intervention, protection of individual liberty, and the question of state's role, this article analyses Malthus's theory on population. It states a thesis that theory on population leads Malthus toward the idea of a minimal state and represents a basis for criticism of an interventionist state and its paternalistic role. The article consists of an introduction, four sections and a conclusion. The introduction cites goals of the work and gives basic notes on Malthus's theory on population and its socio-historical context. Special consideration is paid on reasons that lead to desertion of his ideas with a special focus on changes within liberal ideology, that lead to dissociation from classical liberalism and a merging of liberalism with socialism. The first part examines basic principles of Malthus's theory on population - primarily the idea that the population multiply faster than the food supply, and that population, when unchecked, increases in geometrical ratio, while subsistence increases only in arithmetical ratio. Afterwards, this Malthus's idea is linked to the status of the poor, and is concluded that the state intervention is useless, being that the troubles this part of the population faces are a consequence of their own actions. Therefore, the role of the state should not be care for the poor. In the second part positive and preventive checks to population are examined. Preventive checks are further analyzed because Malthus gives them more importance. The third, central part, is dedicated to Malthus's criticism of the Poor Laws and, within it, his opposition to the state's intervention is further analyzed. According to Malthus, laws that are passed in order to improve the status of the poor have an opposite effect. Even though their aim is to decrease poverty, they increase it. Their tendency is to lead to an increase in population, without the simultaneous increase in food

  10. The finite state projection approach to analyze dynamics of heterogeneous populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rob; Munsky, Brian

    2017-06-01

    Population modeling aims to capture and predict the dynamics of cell populations in constant or fluctuating environments. At the elementary level, population growth proceeds through sequential divisions of individual cells. Due to stochastic effects, populations of cells are inherently heterogeneous in phenotype, and some phenotypic variables have an effect on division or survival rates, as can be seen in partial drug resistance. Therefore, when modeling population dynamics where the control of growth and division is phenotype dependent, the corresponding model must take account of the underlying cellular heterogeneity. The finite state projection (FSP) approach has often been used to analyze the statistics of independent cells. Here, we extend the FSP analysis to explore the coupling of cell dynamics and biomolecule dynamics within a population. This extension allows a general framework with which to model the state occupations of a heterogeneous, isogenic population of dividing and expiring cells. The method is demonstrated with a simple model of cell-cycle progression, which we use to explore possible dynamics of drug resistance phenotypes in dividing cells. We use this method to show how stochastic single-cell behaviors affect population level efficacy of drug treatments, and we illustrate how slight modifications to treatment regimens may have dramatic effects on drug efficacy.

  11. Breeding matters: Natal experience influences population state-dependent host acceptance by an eruptive insect herbivore.

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    Jordan Lewis Burke

    Full Text Available Eruptive forest insects are highly influential agents of change in forest ecosystems, and their effects have increased with recent climate change. State-dependent life histories contribute significantly to the population dynamics of eruptive forest insect herbivores; however, the proximate mechanisms by which these species shift between states is poorly understood. Laboratory bioassays were conducted using the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae to determine the effect of maternal host selection on offspring host preferences, as they apply to population state-dependent behaviors. Female mountain pine beetles exhibited state-dependent preference for artificial host material amended with monoterpenes in the absence of other cues, such that individuals reared in high-density epidemic-state simulations rejected low monoterpene conditions, while low-density endemic-state beetles accepted low monoterpene conditions. State-specific behavior in offspring was dependent on rearing conditions, as a function of maternal host selection, and these effects were observed within one generation. Density-dependent host selection behaviors exhibited by female mountain pine beetle offspring is reinforced by context-dependent maternal effects arising from parental host selection, and in situ exposure to conspecifics. These results demonstrate potential proximate mechanisms that control population dynamics in eruptive forest insects, and will allow for more accurate predictions of continued impact and spread of these species.

  12. Population-based cancer survival in the United States: Data, quality control, and statistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemani, Claudia; Harewood, Rhea; Johnson, Christopher J; Carreira, Helena; Spika, Devon; Bonaventure, Audrey; Ward, Kevin; Weir, Hannah K; Coleman, Michel P

    2017-12-15

    Robust comparisons of population-based cancer survival estimates require tight adherence to the study protocol, standardized quality control, appropriate life tables of background mortality, and centralized analysis. The CONCORD program established worldwide surveillance of population-based cancer survival in 2015, analyzing individual data on 26 million patients (including 10 million US patients) diagnosed between 1995 and 2009 with 1 of 10 common malignancies. In this Cancer supplement, we analyzed data from 37 state cancer registries that participated in the second cycle of the CONCORD program (CONCORD-2), covering approximately 80% of the US population. Data quality checks were performed in 3 consecutive phases: protocol adherence, exclusions, and editorial checks. One-, 3-, and 5-year age-standardized net survival was estimated using the Pohar Perme estimator and state- and race-specific life tables of all-cause mortality for each year. The cohort approach was adopted for patients diagnosed between 2001 and 2003, and the complete approach for patients diagnosed between 2004 and 2009. Articles in this supplement report population coverage, data quality indicators, and age-standardized 5-year net survival by state, race, and stage at diagnosis. Examples of tables, bar charts, and funnel plots are provided in this article. Population-based cancer survival is a key measure of the overall effectiveness of services in providing equitable health care. The high quality of US cancer registry data, 80% population coverage, and use of an unbiased net survival estimator ensure that the survival trends reported in this supplement are robustly comparable by race and state. The results can be used by policymakers to identify and address inequities in cancer survival in each state and for the United States nationally. Cancer 2017;123:4982-93. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2017. This article is a U

  13. A mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics study of anti-tetrol and syn-tetrol dissolved in liquid chloroform II: infrared emission spectra, vibrational excited-state lifetimes, and nonequilibrium hydrogen-bond dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwac, Kijeong; Geva, Eitan

    2013-11-21

    The effect of vibrational excitation and relaxation of the hydroxyl stretch on the hydrogen-bond structure and dynamics of stereoselectively synthesized syn-tetrol and anti-tetrol dissolved in deuterated chloroform are investigated via a mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics simulation. Emphasis is placed on the changes in hydrogen-bond structure upon photoexcitation and the nonequilibrium hydrogen-bond dynamics that follows the subsequent relaxation from the excited to the ground vibrational state. The propensity to form hydrogen bonds is shown to increase upon photoexcitation of the hydroxyl stretch, thereby leading to a sizable red-shift of the infrared emission spectra relative to the corresponding absorption spectra. The vibrational excited state lifetimes are calculated within the framework of Fermi's golden rule and the harmonic-Schofield quantum correction factor, and found to be sensitive reporters of the underlying hydrogen-bond structure. The energy released during the relaxation from the excited to the ground state is shown to break hydrogen bonds involving the relaxing hydroxyl. The spectral signature of this nonequilibrium relaxation process is analyzed in detail.

  14. Genetic Diversity in Jatropha curcas Populations in the State of Chiapas, Mexico

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    Miguel Salvador-Figueroa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas L. has become an important source of oil production for biodiesel fuel. Most genetic studies of this plant have been conducted with Asian and African accessions, where low diversity was encountered. There are no studies of this kind focusing in the postulated region of origin. Therefore, five populations of J. curcas were studied in the state of Chiapas, Mexico, using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP markers. One hundred and fifty-two useful markers were obtained: overall polymorphism = 81.18% and overall Nei’s genetic diversity (He = 0.192. The most diverse population was the Border population [He: 0.245, Shanon’s information index (I: 0.378]. A cluster analysis revealed the highest dissimilarity coefficient (0.893 yet to be reported among accessions. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA revealed that the greatest variation is within populations (87.8%, followed by the variation among populations (7.88%. The PhiST value (0.121 indicated moderate differentiation between populations. However, a spatial AMOVA (SAMOVA detected a stronger genetic structure of populations, with a PhiST value of 0.176. To understand the fine structure of populations, an analysis of data with Bayesian statistics was conducted with software Structure©. The number of genetic populations (K was five, with mixed ancestry in most individuals (genetic migrants, except in the Soconusco, where there was a tiny fraction of fragments from other populations. In contrast, SAMOVA grouped populations in four units. To corroborate the above findings, we searched for possible genetic barriers, determining as the main barrier that separating the Border from the rest of the populations. The results are discussed based on the possible ancestry of populations.

  15. MP4 Study of the Anharmonic Coupling of the Shared Proton Stretching Vibration of the Protonated Water Dimer in Equilibrium and Transition States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitsevich, G; Malevich, A; Kozlovskaya, E; Mahnach, E; Doroshenko, I; Pogorelov, V; Pettersson, Lars G M; Sablinskas, V; Balevicius, V

    2017-03-16

    The structure and harmonic and anharmonic IR spectra of the protonated water dimer (PWD) were calculated in C1, C2, and Cs symmetry at the MP4/acc-pVTZ level of theory. We found that structure and IR spectra are practically identical in C2 and C1 symmetry, demonstrating that an equilibrium C1 configuration of the PWD is not realized. Anharmonic coupling of the shared proton stretching vibration with all other modes in the PWD in C2 and Cs symmetry was the focus of this investigation. For this purpose, 28 two-dimensional potential energy surfaces (2D PES) were built at the MP4/acc-pVTZ level of theory and the corresponding vibrational Schrödinger equations were solved using the DVR method. Differences in the coupling of the investigated mode with other modes in the C2 and Cs configurations, along with some factors that determine the red- or blue-shift of the stretching vibration frequency, were analyzed. We obtained a rather reasonable value of the stretching frequency of the bridging proton (1058.4 cm(-1)) unperturbed by Fermi resonance. The Fermi resonance between the fundamental vibration ν7 and the combined vibration ν2 + ν6 of the same symmetry was analyzed through anharmonic second-order perturbation theory calculations, as well as by 3D PES constructed using Q2, Q6, and Q7 as normal coordinates. A significant (up to 50%) transfer of intensity from the fundamental vibration to the combined one was found. We have estimated the frequency of the bridging proton stretching vibration in the Cs configuration of the PWD based on calculations of the intrinsic anharmonicity and anharmonic double modes interactions at the MP4/acc-pVTZ level of theory (1261 cm(-1)).

  16. High-resolution infrared and millimeterwave spectra of the v3=1 vibrational state of 14NF 3 at 907 cm -1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, H.; Ben Sari-Zizi, N.; Demaison, J.; Bakri, B.; Colmont, J.-M.; MKadmi, E. B.

    2003-08-01

    The ν3±1 perpendicular band of 14NF 3 ( ν˜0=907.541 cm -1) has been studied with a resolution of 2.5 × 10 -3 cm -1, and 3682 infrared (IR) transitions ( Jmax=55, Kmax=45) have been assigned. These transitions were complemented by 183 millimeterwave (MMW) rotational lines ( Jmax=25, Kmax=19) in the 150-550 GHz region (precision 50-100 kHz). The kl=+1 level reveals a strong A1/ A2 splitting due to the l(2,2) rotational interaction ( q=-4.05 × 10 -3 cm -1) while the kl=-2 and +4 levels exhibit small A1/ A2 splittings due to l(2,-4) and l(0,6) rotational interactions. All these splittings were observed by both experimental methods. Assuming the v3=1 vibrational state as isolated, a Hamiltonian model of interactions in the D reduction, with l(2,-1) rotational interaction ( r=-1.96 × 10 -4 cm -1) added, accounted for the observations. A set of 26 molecular constants reproduced the IR observations with σIR=0.175 × 10 -3 cm -1 and the MMW data with σMMW=134 kHz. The Q reduction was also performed and found of comparable quality while the QD reduction behaved poorly. This may be explained by a predicted Coriolis interaction between v3=1 and v1=1 ( A1, 1032.001 cm -1) which induces a slow convergence of the Hamiltonian in the QD reduction but has no major influence on the other reductions. The experimental equilibrium structure could be calculated as: re(N-F)=1.3676 Å and ∠(FNF)=101.84°.

  17. Prison tobacco control policies and deaths from smoking in United States prisons: population based retrospective analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Binswanger, Ingrid A; Carson, E Ann; Krueger, Patrick M; Mueller, Shane R; Steiner, John F; Sabol, William J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the mortality attributable to smoking and years of potential life lost from smoking among people in prison and whether bans on smoking in prison are associated with reductions in smoking related deaths. Design Analysis of cross sectional survey data with the smoking attributable mortality, morbidity, and economic costs system; population based time series analysis. Setting All state prisons in the United States. Main outcome measures Prevalence of smoking from cross sec...

  18. Do vibrationally excited OH molecules affect middle and upper atmospheric chemistry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. von Clarmann

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Except for a few reactions involving electronically excited molecular or atomic oxygen or nitrogen, atmospheric chemistry modelling usually assumes that the temperature dependence of reaction rates is characterized by Arrhenius' law involving kinetic temperatures. It is known, however, that in the upper atmosphere the vibrational temperatures may exceed the kinetic temperatures by several hundreds of Kelvins. This excess energy has an impact on the reaction rates. We have used upper atmospheric OH populations and reaction rate coefficients for OH(v=0...9+O3 and OH(v=0...9+O to estimate the effective (i.e. population weighted reaction rates for various atmospheric conditions. We have found that the effective rate coefficient for OH(v=0...9+O3 can be larger by a factor of up to 1470 than that involving OH in its vibrational ground state only. At altitudes where vibrationally excited states of OH are highly populated, the OH reaction is a minor sink of Ox and O3 compared to other reactions involving, e.g., atomic oxygen. Thus the impact of vibrationally excited OH on the ozone or Ox sink remains small. Among quiescent atmospheres under investigation, the largest while still small (less than 0.1% effect was found for the polar winter upper stratosphere and mesosphere. The contribution of the reaction of vibrationally excited OH with ozone to the OH sink is largest in the upper polar winter stratosphere (up to 4%, while its effect on the HO2 source is larger in the lower thermosphere (up to 1.5% for polar winter and 2.5% for midlatitude night conditions. For OH(v=0...9+O the effective rate coefficients are lower by up to 11% than those involving OH in its vibrational ground state. The effects on the odd oxygen sink are negative and can reach −3% (midlatitudinal nighttime lowermost thermosphere, i.e. neglecting vibrational excitation overestimates the odd

  19. Excited states populated via nucleon transfer in the reaction [sup 32]S+[sup 208]Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradi, L.; Petrache, C.M.; Ackermann, D.; De Angelis, G.; Moreno, H.; Napoli, D.R.; Spolaore, P.; Stefanini, A.M. (INFN, Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro (Italy)); Beghini, S.; Montagnoli, G.; Scarlassara, F.; Segato, G.F.; Signorini, C. (Padua Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica INFN, Padua (Italy)); Pollarolo, G. (Turin Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica INFN, Turin (Italy))

    1993-01-01

    The population strengths of excited states in nuclei produced via transfer reactions in the 185 MeV[sup 32]S+[sup 208]Pb reaction have been investigated by heavy-ion-[gamma] coincidence techniques. The cross sections extracted from the [gamma] spectra, have been analyzed in the framework of the Complex WKB approximation theory. (orig.).

  20. Black bear population and connectivity in the Sky Islands of Mexico and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. E. Lara-Diaz; C. A. Lopez-Gonzalez; H. Coronel-Arellano; A. Gonzalez-Bernal

    2013-01-01

    The Sky Island region is a mountainous region surrounded by grasslands, deserts and intermountain valleys, located between Mexico and the United States. However, different land management and human impact can have an effect on its wildlife populations. Currently, the border wall poses an immediate threat to the survival of black bears (Ursus americanus), considered an...

  1. Governance, ‘sovereignty-state-territory triad’, human population migration and xenophobia in (South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Tsheola

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to examine the association of the concept of governance of international relations and, by implication, human population migration, through the rigid practices of “sovereignty-state-territory triad” with the fomentation and exacerbation of societal stereotypes, attitudes and perceptions of xenophobia in Africa, in general, and South Africa, in particular. Ascriptions of the majority of population migration as “international” affirms the centrality of the operationalisation of the “sovereignty-state-territory triad” in understanding the fragmentary constructions of societal attitudes and perceptions of people resident in distinct geopolitical entities ascribed as national territories. State and non-state governance entrapments with this triad perpetuate societal stereotypes that are in concurrence with bordered-territories where populations described as citizens are stimulated to protect endowments and resources of the land against the perceived destruction associated with the conduct of the out-groups. Unsurprisingly, the theorisation of human population migration has equally been intricately involved with environmental conservation and securitisation of biodiversity that enables land dispossession of the vulnerable sections of the population through the Western economic narratives of “Peace Parks”. Simultaneously in Southern Africa, the concept of African Renaissance, inescapably embedded with “cooperation and conflict” at all scales, has offered a buzzword to be realised through “Peace Parks” that have evidently failed to deliver reaffirmation of African cultures, continental emancipation and democratisation. The preeminence of societal stereotypes, attitudes and perceptions of xenophobia and violent abuses of African immigrants in South Africa provides vivid illustrations of the inconsistencies and non-linearity of concepts such as African Renaissance and “Peace Parks”. This article asserts that

  2. A quantum-rovibrational-state-selected study of the reaction in the collision energy range of 0.05-10.00 eV: translational, rotational, and vibrational energy effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuntao; Xiong, Bo; Chang, Yih-Chung; Pan, Yi; Lo, Po Kam; Lau, Kai Chung; Ng, C Y

    2017-04-12

    We report detailed absolute integral cross sections (σ's) for the quantum-rovibrational-state-selected ion-molecule reaction in the center-of-mass collision energy (Ecm) range of 0.05-10.00 eV, where (vvv) = (000), (100), and (020), and . Three product channels, HCO+ + OH, HOCO+ + H, and CO+ + H2O, are identified. The measured σ(HCO+) curve [σ(HCO+) versus Ecm plot] supports the hypothesis that the formation of the HCO+ + OH channel follows an exothermic pathway with no potential energy barriers. Although the HOCO+ + H channel is the most exothermic, the σ(HOCO+) is found to be significantly lower than the σ(HCO+). The σ(HOCO+) curve is bimodal, indicating two distinct mechanisms for the formation of HOCO+. The σ(HOCO+) is strongly inhibited at Ecm 0.4 eV by (100) vibrational excitation. The Ecm onsets of σ(CO+) determined for the (000) and (100) vibrational states are in excellent agreement with the known thermochemical thresholds. This observation, along with the comparison of the σ(CO+) curves for the (100) and (000) states, shows that kinetic and vibrational energies are equally effective in promoting the CO+ channel. We have also performed high-level ab initio quantum calculations on the potential energy surface, intermediates, and transition state structures for the titled reaction. The calculations reveal potential barriers of ≈0.5-0.6 eV for the formation of HOCO+, and thus account for the low σ(HOCO+) and its bimodal profile observed. The Ecm enhancement for σ(HOCO+) at Ecm ≈ 0.5-5.0 eV can be attributed to the direct collision mechanism, whereas the formation of HOCO+ at low Ecm < 0.4 eV may involve a complex mechanism, which is mediated by the formation of a loosely sticking complex between HCO+ and OH. The direct collision and complex mechanisms proposed also allow the rationalization of the vibrational inhibition at low Ecm and the vibrational enhancement at high Ecm observed for the σ(HOCO+).

  3. Tunable Passive Vibration Suppressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boechler, Nicholas (Inventor); Dillon, Robert Peter (Inventor); Daraio, Chiara (Inventor); Davis, Gregory L. (Inventor); Shapiro, Andrew A. (Inventor); Borgonia, John Paul C. (Inventor); Kahn, Daniel Louis (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An apparatus and method for vibration suppression using a granular particle chain. The granular particle chain is statically compressed and the end particles of the chain are attached to a payload and vibration source. The properties of the granular particles along with the amount of static compression are chosen to provide desired filtering of vibrations.

  4. Vibrations and Eigenvalues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We make music by causing strings, membranes, or air columns to vibrate. Engineers design safe structures by control- ling vibrations. I will describe to you a very simple vibrating system and the mathematics needed to analyse it. The ideas were born in the work of Joseph-Louis Lagrange (1736–1813), and I begin by quot-.

  5. Molecular Symmetry Analysis of Low-Energy Torsional and Vibrational States in the S_{0} and S_{1} States of p-XYLENE to Interpret the Rempi Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groner, Peter; Gardner, Adrian M.; Tuttle, William Duncan; Wright, Timothy G.

    2017-06-01

    The electronic transition S_{1} ← S_{0} of p-xylene (pXyl) has been observed by REMPI spectroscopy. Its analysis required a detailed investigation of the molecular symmetry of pXyl whose methyl groups are almost free internal rotors. The molecular symmetry group of pXyl has 72 operators. This group, called [33]D_{2h}, is isomorphic to G_{36}(EM), the double group for ethane and dimethyl acetylene even though it is NOT a double group for pXyl. Loosely speaking, the group symbol, [33]D_{2h}, indicates that is for a molecule with two threefold rotors on a molecular frame with D_{2h} point group symmetry. The transformation properties of the (i) free internal rotor basis functions for the torsional coordinates, (ii) the asymmetric rotor (Wang) basis functions for the Eulerian angles, (iii) nuclear spin functions, (iv) potential function, and (v) transitions dipole moment functions were determined. The forms of the torsional potential in the S_{0} and S_{1} states and the dependence of the first order torsional splittings on the potential coefficients have been obtained. AM Gardner, WD Tuttle, P. Groner, TG Wright, J. Chem. Phys., submitted Dec 2016 P Groner, JR Durig, J. Chem. Phys., 66 (1977) 1856 PR Bunker, P Jensen, Molecular Symmetry and Spectroscopy (1998, NRC Research Press, Ottawa, 2nd ed.)

  6. Large electron transfer rate effects from the Duschinsky mixing of vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sando, Gerald M.; Spears, Kenneth G; Hupp, Joseph T

    2001-01-01

    vibrations are very important. The Duschinsky effect arises when two electronic states have vibrational normal mode coordinate systems that are rotated and translated relative to each other. We use a conventional quantum rate model for ET, and the examples include 6-8 vibrations, where two vibrational modes...

  7. State-dependent propagation of neuronal sub-population in spontaneous synchronized bursts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichiro eYada

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Repeating stable spatiotemporal patterns emerge in synchronized spontaneous activity in neuronal networks. The repertoire of such patterns can serve as memory, or a reservoir of information, in a neuronal network; moreover, the variety of patterns may represent the network memory capacity. However, a neuronal substrate for producing a repertoire of patterns in synchronization remains elusive. We herein hypothesize that state-dependent propagation of a neuronal sub-population is the key mechanism. By combining high-resolution measurement with a 4,096-channel complementary metal-oxide semiconductor microelectrode array and dimensionality reduction with non-negative matrix factorization, we investigated synchronized bursts of dissociated rat cortical neurons at approximately three weeks in vitro. We found that bursts had a repertoire of repeating spatiotemporal patterns, and different patterns shared a partially similar sequence of sub-population, supporting the idea of sequential structure of neuronal sub-populations during synchronized activity. We additionally found that similar spatiotemporal patterns tended to appear successively and periodically, suggesting a state-dependent fluctuation of propagation, which has been overlooked in existing literature. Thus, such a state-dependent property within the sequential sub-population structure is a plausible neural substrate for performing a repertoire of stable patterns during synchronized activity.

  8. Metastable states and quasicycles in a stochastic Wilson-Cowan model of neuronal population dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Bressloff, Paul C.

    2010-11-03

    We analyze a stochastic model of neuronal population dynamics with intrinsic noise. In the thermodynamic limit N→∞, where N determines the size of each population, the dynamics is described by deterministic Wilson-Cowan equations. On the other hand, for finite N the dynamics is described by a master equation that determines the probability of spiking activity within each population. We first consider a single excitatory population that exhibits bistability in the deterministic limit. The steady-state probability distribution of the stochastic network has maxima at points corresponding to the stable fixed points of the deterministic network; the relative weighting of the two maxima depends on the system size. For large but finite N, we calculate the exponentially small rate of noise-induced transitions between the resulting metastable states using a Wentzel-Kramers- Brillouin (WKB) approximation and matched asymptotic expansions. We then consider a two-population excitatory or inhibitory network that supports limit cycle oscillations. Using a diffusion approximation, we reduce the dynamics to a neural Langevin equation, and show how the intrinsic noise amplifies subthreshold oscillations (quasicycles). © 2010 The American Physical Society.

  9. Vibration of hydraulic machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yulin; Liu, Shuhong; Dou, Hua-Shu; Qian, Zhongdong

    2013-01-01

    Vibration of Hydraulic Machinery deals with the vibration problem which has significant influence on the safety and reliable operation of hydraulic machinery. It provides new achievements and the latest developments in these areas, even in the basic areas of this subject. The present book covers the fundamentals of mechanical vibration and rotordynamics as well as their main numerical models and analysis methods for the vibration prediction. The mechanical and hydraulic excitations to the vibration are analyzed, and the pressure fluctuations induced by the unsteady turbulent flow is predicted in order to obtain the unsteady loads. This book also discusses the loads, constraint conditions and the elastic and damping characters of the mechanical system, the structure dynamic analysis, the rotor dynamic analysis and the system instability of hydraulic machines, including the illustration of monitoring system for the instability and the vibration in hydraulic units. All the problems are necessary for vibration pr...

  10. Population and demographic structure of Ixodes scapularis Say in the eastern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce M Sakamoto

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The most significant vector of tick-borne pathogens in the United States is Ixodes scapularis Say (the blacklegged tick. Previous studies have identified significant genetic, behavioral and morphological differences between northern vs. southern populations of this tick. Because tick-borne pathogens are dependent on their vectors for transmission, a baseline understanding of the vector population structure is crucial to determining the risks and epidemiology of pathogen transmission. METHODS: We investigated population genetic variation of I. scapularis populations in the eastern United States using a multilocus approach. We sequenced and analyzed the mitochondrial COI and 16S genes and three nuclear genes (serpin2, ixoderin B and lysozyme from wild specimens. RESULTS: We identified a deep divergence (3-7% in I. scapularis COI gene sequences from some southern specimens, suggesting we had sampled a different Ixodes species. Analysis of mitochondrial 16S rRNA sequences did not support this hypothesis and indicated that all specimens were I. scapularis. Phylogenetic analysis and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA supported significant differences between northern vs. southern populations. Demographic analysis suggested that northern populations had experienced a bottleneck/expansion event sometime in the past, possibly associated with Pleistocene glaciation events. CONCLUSIONS: Similar to other studies, our data support the division of northern vs. southern I. scapularis genetic lineages, likely due to differences in the demographic histories between these geographic regions. The deep divergence identified in some COI gene sequences highlights a potential hazard of relying solely on COI for species identification ("barcoding" and population genetics in this important vector arthropod.

  11. First rotational analysis of the (111) and (021) vibrational state of S16O18O from the "hot" ν1 +ν2 +ν3 -ν2 and 2ν2 +ν3 -ν2 bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulenikov, O. N.; Gromova, O. V.; Bekhtereva, E. S.; Ziatkova, A. G.; Sklyarova, E. A.; Kuznetsov, S. I.; Sydow, C.; Bauerecker, S.

    2017-11-01

    The rotational structure of the (111) and (021) vibrational states is determined for the first time from the high resolution analysis of the ν1 +ν2 +ν3 -ν2 and 2ν2 +ν3 -ν2 ;hot; bands. The 480 and 74 transitions of these bands (Jmax /Kamax = 45/14 and 15/12 respectively) were assigned in the spectra, which have been recorded with the Bruker IFS 120 Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. A weighted fit analysis allowed us to generate a set of 5 fitted parameters for the (111) state and 4 fitted parameters for the (021) state. Calculation with the 9 parameters, obtained from the fit, reproduces the initial 363 energy values (about 550 assigned experimental transitions) of two vibrational states with the drms deviations of 3.2 ×10-4 cm-1 , which is comparable with the experimental uncertainties of very weak transitions of the ν1 +ν2 +ν3 -ν2 and 2ν2 +ν3 -ν2 ;hot; bands in our experiment.

  12. Information processing across behavioral states: Modes of operation and population dynamics in rodent sensory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Mohammad Mahdi; Arabzadeh, Ehsan

    2018-01-01

    Animals live in a complex and changing environment with various degrees of behavioral demands. In rodents, the behavioral states can change from sleep and quiet wakefulness to active exploration of the environment which is often manifested by whisking and locomotion. Efficient information processing is more important in some of these behavioral states such as during episodes of sensory decision-making, and specific cortical areas are expected to receive priority of processing depending on the behavioral context. It is therefore not surprising that the behavioral state affects the responsiveness of individual cortical neurons and the dynamics of neuronal population activity. Here, we review the circuit mechanisms that determine the operating mode of the sensory cortex. We explore state modulations across multiple sensory modalities, but maintain a focus on whisker-mediated behaviors, the processing of information in the vibrissal somatosensory cortex and its transfer to higher order areas. Finally, we suggest a rodent sensory prioritization paradigm to further probe the link between behavioral state, neuronal population dynamics and coding efficiency. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Populations receiving optimally fluoridated public drinking water--United States, 1992-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-11

    Water fluoridation has been identified by CDC as one of 10 great public health achievements of the 20th century. The decline in the prevalence and severity of dental caries (tooth decay) in the United States during the past 60 years has been attributed largely to the increased use of fluoride. Community water fluoridation is an equitable and cost-effective method for delivering fluoride to the community. A Healthy People 2010 objective is to increase to 75% the proportion of the U.S. population served by community water systems who receive optimally fluoridated water. To update and revise previous reports on fluoridation in the United States and describe progress toward the Healthy People 2010 objective, CDC analyzed fluoridation data for the period 1992-2006 from the 50 states and District of Columbia (DC). The results indicated that the percentage of the U.S. population served by community water systems who received optimally fluoridated water increased from 62.1% in 1992, to 65.0% in 2000, and 69.2% in 2006, and those percentages varied substantially by state. Public health officials and policymakers in states with lower percentages of residents receiving optimal water fluoridation should consider increasing their efforts to promote fluoridation of community water systems to prevent dental caries.

  14. Selective Population of Unbound Positive Parity States in 25F and 26F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Nathan; Herman, Jacob; Rabeh, Ali; Tuttle-Timm, Matthew; MoNA Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Unbound Positive Parity States in 25F and 26F were populated in the one-proton removal reaction from a radioactive 27Ne beam. The experiment was performed at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), where a 101.3 MeV/u 27Ne ion beam impinged on a liquid deuterium target populating states in 26F. States above the one- and two- neutron separation energies lead to 24F and 25F, respectively. The MoNA/LISA setup at NSCL was used to detect the fragments in coincidence with neutrons and the decay energy spectra of 25F and 26F were reconstructed by invariant mass spectroscopy. Resonance energies of approximately 0.35 MeV and 0.5 MeV for 25F* and 26F*, respectively, were extracted. Based on the calculated spectroscopic strength distribution of negative and positive parity states in 26F and the selectivity of one proton-removal reactions both states were assigned positive parity. NSF Grant #1404236.

  15. Different fatigue-resistant leg muscles and EMG response during whole-body vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Deniz

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of static whole-body vibration (WBV) on the Electromyograhic (EMG) responses of leg muscles, which are fatigue-resistant in different manner. The study population was divided into two groups according to the values obtained by the Fatigue Index [Group I: Less Fatigue Resistant (LFR), n=11; Group II: More Fatigue Resistant (MFR), n=11]. The repeated electromyographic (EMG) activities of four leg muscles were analyzed the following determinants: (1) frequency (30 Hz, 35 Hz and 40 Hz); (2) stance position (static squat position); (3) amplitude (2 mm and 4 mm) and (4) knee flexion angle (120°), (5) vertical vibration platform. Vibration data were analyzed using Minitab 16 (Minitab Ltd, State College, PA, USA). The significance level was set at pfatigue (pvibration exercise and can serve to guide the development of training programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Review of magnetostrictive vibration energy harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhangxian; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2017-10-01

    The field of energy harvesting has grown concurrently with the rapid development of portable and wireless electronics in which reliable and long-lasting power sources are required. Electrochemical batteries have a limited lifespan and require periodic recharging. In contrast, vibration energy harvesters can supply uninterrupted power by scavenging useful electrical energy from ambient structural vibrations. This article reviews the current state of vibration energy harvesters based on magnetostrictive materials, especially Terfenol-D and Galfenol. Existing magnetostrictive harvester designs are compared in terms of various performance metrics. Advanced techniques that can reduce device size and improve performance are presented. Models for magnetostrictive devices are summarized to guide future harvester designs.

  17. Changes in population and agricultural land in conterminous United States counties, 1790 to 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisanen, Pamela J.; Bliss, Norman B.

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a data set of changes in population and agricultural land for the conterminous United States at the county level, resulting in more spatial detail than in previously available compilations. The purpose was to provide data on the timing of land conversion as an input to dynamic models of the carbon cycle, although a wide variety of applications exist for the physical, biological, and social sciences. The spatial data represent the appropriate county boundaries for each census year between 1790 and 1997, and the census attributes are attached to the appropriate spatial region. The resulting time series and maps show the history of population (1790-1990) and the history of agricultural development (1850-1997). The patterns of agricultural development reflect the influences of climate, soil productivity, increases in population size, variations in the general economy, and technological changes in the energy, transportation, and agricultural sectors.

  18. Changes in population and agricultural land in conterminous United States counties, 1790 to 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisanen, Pamela J.; Bliss, Norman B.

    2002-12-01

    We have developed a data set of changes in population and agricultural land for the conterminous United States at the county level, resulting in more spatial detail than in previously available compilations. The purpose was to provide data on the timing of land conversion as an input to dynamic models of the carbon cycle, although a wide variety of applications exist for the physical, biological, and social sciences. The spatial data represent the appropriate county boundaries for each census year between 1790 and 1997, and the census attributes are attached to the appropriate spatial region. The resulting time series and maps show the history of population (1790-1990) and the history of agricultural development (1850-1997). The patterns of agricultural development reflect the influences of climate, soil productivity, increases in population size, variations in the general economy, and technological changes in the energy, transportation, and agricultural sectors.

  19. Genetic Diversity in Jatropha curcas Populations in the State of Chiapas, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Salvador-Figueroa; Lourdes Adriano-Anaya; Juan Núñez-Farfán; Francisco Espinosa-García; Adriana Sánchez-Gutiérrez; Isidro Ovando-Medina

    2011-01-01

    Jatropha curcas L. has become an important source of oil production for biodiesel fuel. Most genetic studies of this plant have been conducted with Asian and African accessions, where low diversity was encountered. There are no studies of this kind focusing in the postulated region of origin. Therefore, five populations of J. curcas were studied in the state of Chiapas, Mexico, using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. One hundred and fifty-two useful markers were obtained:...

  20. Populism

    OpenAIRE

    Abts, Koenraad; Van Kessel, Stijn

    2015-01-01

    Populism is a concept applied to a wide range of political movements and actors across the globe. There is, at the same time, considerable confusion about the attributes and manifestation of populism, as well as its impact on democracy. This contribution identifies the defining elements of the populist ideology and discusses the varieties in which populism manifests itself, for instance as a component of certain party families. We finally discuss various normative interpretations of populism,...

  1. Comparisons between nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus populations in Brazil and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.J. Loughry

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available We compared characteristics of a population of nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus studied in the southern United States with a population found in the Atlantic coastal rainforest of Brazil. Adult armadillos in Brazil weighed less than those in the U.S., but when weight was accounted for, did not differ in other measures of body size. However, juveniles in the U.S. were proportionately bigger than those in Brazil. Armadillos in Brazil were less abundant (numbers sighted per h of observation and were active later at night than those in the U.S. Adult sex-ratios were male-biased in both populations. Finally, there was no significant difference in the incidence of littermate associations observed in the two populations, but groups of juveniles (which included non-littermates were observed more frequently in the U.S. Many of these differences may be due to the fact that armadillos are hunted extensively in Brazil but not in the United States.

  2. Long-range vibration sensor based on correlation analysis of optical frequency-domain reflectometry signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhenyang; Yao, X Steve; Liu, Tiegen; Du, Yang; Liu, Kun; Han, Qun; Meng, Zhuo; Chen, Hongxin

    2012-12-17

    We present a novel method to achieve a space-resolved long- range vibration detection system based on the correlation analysis of the optical frequency-domain reflectometry (OFDR) signals. By performing two separate measurements of the vibrated and non-vibrated states on a test fiber, the vibration frequency and position of a vibration event can be obtained by analyzing the cross-correlation between beat signals of the vibrated and non-vibrated states in a spatial domain, where the beat signals are generated from interferences between local Rayleigh backscattering signals of the test fiber and local light oscillator. Using the proposed technique, we constructed a standard single-mode fiber based vibration sensor that can have a dynamic range of 12 km and a measurable vibration frequency up to 2 kHz with a spatial resolution of 5 m. Moreover, preliminarily investigation results of two vibration events located at different positions along the test fiber are also reported.

  3. Dynamical response of vibrating ferromagnets

    CERN Document Server

    Gaganidze, E; Ziese, M

    2000-01-01

    The resonance frequency of vibrating ferromagnetic reeds in a homogeneous magnetic field can be substantially modified by intrinsic and extrinsic field-related contributions. Searching for the physical reasons of the field-induced resonance frequency change and to study the influence of the spin glass state on it, we have measured the low-temperature magnetoelastic behavior and the dynamical response of vibrating amorphous and polycrystalline ferromagnetic ribbons. We show that the magnetoelastic properties depend strongly on the direction of the applied magnetic field. The influence of the re-entrant spin glass transition on these properties is discussed. We present clear experimental evidence that for applied fields perpendicular to the main area of the samples the behavior of ferromagnetic reeds is rather independent of the material composition and magnetic state, exhibiting a large decrease of the resonance frequency. This effect can be very well explained with a model based on the dynamical response of t...

  4. Emergence of a super-synchronized mobbing state in a large population of coupled chemical oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Gourab; Muñuzuri, Alberto P.; Pérez-Mercader, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Oscillatory phenomena are ubiquitous in Nature. The ability of a large population of coupled oscillators to synchronize constitutes an important mechanism to express information and establish communication among members. To understand such phenomena, models and experimental realizations of globally coupled oscillators have proven to be invaluable in settings as varied as chemical, biological and physical systems. A variety of rich dynamical behavior has been uncovered, although usually in the context of a single state of synchronization or lack thereof. Through the experimental and numerical study of a large population of discrete chemical oscillators, here we report on the unexpected discovery of a new phenomenon revealing the existence of dynamically distinct synchronized states reflecting different degrees of communication. Specifically, we discover a novel large-amplitude super-synchronized state separated from the conventionally reported synchronized and quiescent states through an unusual sharp jump transition when sampling the strong coupling limit. Our results assume significance for further elucidating globally coherent phenomena, such as in neuropathologies, bacterial cell colonies, social systems and semiconductor lasers.

  5. Admixture analysis of a rural population of the state of Guerrero, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Carolina; Gutiérrez, Gerardo; Parra, Esteban J; Kline, Christopher; Shriver, Mark D

    2005-12-01

    We studied 156 individuals of Native American descent from the city of Tlapa in the state of Guerrero in western Mexico. Most individuals' ethnicity was either Nahua, Mixtec, or Tlapanec, but self-identified Mestizos and individuals of mixed ethnicities were also included in the sample. We typed 24 autosomal, one Y-chromosome, and four mitochondrial ancestry-informative markers (AIMs) to estimate group and individual admixture proportions, and determine whether the admixture process involved directional gene flow between parental groups. When genetically defined (GD) Mestizos were excluded from the analysis, Native American ancestry represented approximately 98% of the population's gene pool, while European and West African ancestry represented approximately 1% each. Maternally inherited markers also showed an exceptionally high Native American contribution (98.5%), as did the paternally inherited marker, DYS199 (90.7%). We did not detect genetic structure in this population using these AIMs, which appears consistent with the homogeneity of the sample in terms of admixture proportions. The addition of GD Mestizos to the sample did not produce a considerable change in admixture estimates, but it had a major effect on population structure. These results show that the population of Tlapa in Guerrero, Mexico, has experienced little admixture with Europeans and/or West Africans. They also show that the impact of a small number of admixed individuals on an otherwise homogeneous population might have profound implications on subsequent ancestry/phenotype analysis and mapping strategies. We suggest that heterogeneity is a major characteristic of Mexican populations and, as a consequence, should not be disregarded when designing epidemiological studies of Mexican and Mexican American populations. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Population Decoding of Motor Cortical Activity using a Generalized Linear Model with Hidden States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawhern, Vernon; Wu, Wei; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas G.; Paninski, Liam

    2010-01-01

    Generalized linear models (GLMs) have been developed for modeling and decoding population neuronal spiking activity in the motor cortex. These models provide reasonable characterizations between neural activity and motor behavior. However, they lack a description of movement-related terms which are not observed directly in these experiments, such as muscular activation, the subject's level of attention, and other internal or external states. Here we propose to include a multi-dimensional hidden state to address these states in a GLM framework where the spike count at each time is described as a function of the hand state (position, velocity, and acceleration), truncated spike history, and the hidden state. The model can be identified by an Expectation-Maximization algorithm. We tested this new method in two datasets where spikes were simultaneously recorded using a multi-electrode array in the primary motor cortex of two monkeys. It was found that this method significantly improves the model-fitting over the classical GLM, for hidden dimensions varying from 1 to 4. This method also provides more accurate decoding of hand state (lowering the Mean Square Error by up to 29% in some cases), while retaining real-time computational efficiency. These improvements on representation and decoding over the classical GLM model suggest that this new approach could contribute as a useful tool to motor cortical decoding and prosthetic applications. PMID:20359500

  7. Time-Resolved Measurement of the C_2 ^1AΠ u State Population Following Photodissociation of the S_1 State of Acetylene Using Frequency-Modulation Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhenhui; Jiang, Jun; Field, Robert W.

    2017-06-01

    The excited-state population of the C_2 ^1AΠ_u state produced in photolysis of S_1 acetylene was investigated. The pulsed UV laser (216.5 nm) excites acetylene into J=8 e-symmetry level of the S_1 3^4 level, and subsequently dissociates the S_1 acetylene into C_2 fragments. A frequency-modulated near-infrared probe laser beam is used to detect the C_2 population in the ^1AΠ_u state. The sensitivity and the fast response of the experimental setup has been verified by I_2 excited state measurements. The setup will be used to record the C_2 A-X transitions, which are fitted with a Voigt function. The derived lineshape and line intensities will be analyzed, and we will use the information to calculate the A state populations of C_2 and map the populations with time-resolution following the photolysis.

  8. selective excitation of vibrational modes of polyatomic molecule

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Mode-selective dynamics of triatomic molecule in the electronic ground state under continuous wave laser pulse is investigated for the discrete vibrational bound states. A non-perturbative approach has been used to analyse the vibrational couplings and dynamics of the molecule. Keywords. Polyatomic molecule ...

  9. Rheumatic effects of vibration at work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Keith T; Bovenzi, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Occupational exposures to vibration come in many guises and are very common at a population level. It follows that an important minority of working-aged patients seen by medical services will have been exposed to this hazard of employment. Vibration can cause human health effects which may manifest in the patients that rheumatologists see. In this chapter we identify the health effects of relevance to them, and review their epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, and vocational and clinical management. On either side of this, we describe the nature and assessment of the hazard, the scale and common patterns of exposure to vibration in the community, and the legal basis for controlling health risks, and comment on the role of health surveillance in detecting early adverse effects and what can be done to prevent the rheumatic effects of vibration at work. PMID:26612239

  10. Population stress: A spatiotemporal analysis of population change and land development at the county level in the contiguous United States, 2001-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Guangqing; Ho, Hung Chak

    2018-01-01

    The past century has witnessed rapidly increasing population-land conflicts due to exponential population growth and its many consequences. Although the measures of population-land conflicts are many, there lacks a model that appropriately considers both the social and physical contexts of population-land conflicts. In this study we introduce the concept of population stress, which identifies areas with populations growing faster than the lands available for sustainable development. Specifically, population stress areas are identified by comparing population growth and land development as measured by land developability in the contiguous United States from 2001 to 2011. Our approach is based on a combination of spatial multicriteria analysis, zonal statistics, and spatiotemporal modeling. We found that the population growth of a county is associated with the decrease of land developability, along with the spatial influences of surrounding counties. The Midwest and the traditional "Deep South" counties would have less population stress with future land development, whereas the Southeast Coast, Washington State, Northern Texas, and the Southwest would face more stress due to population growth that is faster than the loss of suitable lands for development. The factors contributing to population stress may differ from place to place. Our population stress concept is useful and innovative for understanding population stress due to land development and can be applied to other regions as well as global research. It can act as a basis towards developing coherent sustainable land use policies. Coordination among local governments and across different levels of governments in the twenty-first century is a must for effective land use planning.

  11. Nasalance of Brazilian Portuguese-speaking populations from two different states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturo, Denise Silva; Pirola, Melissa Nara de Carvalho Picinato; Ricz, Lílian Neto Aguiar; Trawitzki, Luciana Vitaliano Voi

    2017-03-16

    To measure the nasalance scores of Brazilian Portuguese-speaking young adults from the states of Sao Paulo and Minas Gerais in order to investigate whether dialect variations and gender affect these scores. Nasalance was assessed in 36 individuals: 20 native residents of Sao Paulo state (mean age=23 y.o.) and 16 native residents of Minas Gerais state (mean age=24 y.o.), following the same criteria. Nasalance measures were taken using the Nasometer II 6400 (KayPentax) device based on the reading of three texts (nasal-1, nasal-2, and oral). Intergroup nasalance scores were compared using the unpaired Student's t test considering two experimental groups. The nasalance scores in individuals from the states of Sao Paulo and Minas Gerais were 52.7% and 48.8% for the nasal-1 text, 49.6% and 49.9% for the nasal-2 text, and 14.3% and 9.8% for the oral text, respectively. Statistical analysis comparing the mean nasalance scores in both groups showed significant difference (p=0.03) only for the oral text, in which individuals from Sao Paulo state presented higher scores. Although nasalance scores were lower in individuals from Minas Gerais state compared with those of individuals from Sao Paulo state, both groups presented values within the normal range. The variable gender was not relevant in the nasalance assessment; however, a tendency for higher scores was observed in women compared with men from Minas Gerais state in the same group in the reading of the nasal-2 text. This study contributes to the knowledge of nasalance reference scores for two different populations of Brazilian Portuguese speakers; however, the results herein reported should be interpreted with caution due to the small study sample size.

  12. Vibrational energy relaxation in liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnoy, J.; Gale, G. M.

    The de-excitation of the vibrational population of small molecules in the liquid state is considered. Experimental techniques applicable to the measurement of relaxation times in dense phases are first described. Theoretical approaches are subsequently developed with special emphasis on the relationship between ab-initio quantum methods and binary interaction models. Finally, a selection of experimental results is analysed in the light of these theories. Special attention is given to the dependence of the relaxation time on experimental parameters such as density, temperature or the concentration of a mixture. The behaviour of the relaxation time across the liquid/solid phase transition is also treated. La désexcitation vibrationnelle de petites molécules est étudiée en phase liquide. Les techniques expérimentales utilisables pour mesurer les temps de relaxation en phase dense sont d'abord décrites. Les approches théoriques sont ensuite développées en montrant en particulier les liens entre les deux principales : l'approche quantique ab-initio et les modèles d'interaction binaire. Un choix de résultats expérimentaux est finalement analysé à la lumière de ces théories. Les dépendances des temps de relaxation envers les paramètres expérimentaux, comme la densité, la température ou la concentration d'un mélange, sont spécialement étudiées. Le comportement de la relaxation à la transition liquide/solide est aussi abordé.

  13. Collective model for isovector quadrupole vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nojarov, R.; Faessler, A.

    1987-03-01

    The vibrational model is extended by introducing isospin-dependent collective coordinates, permitting a description out-of-phase neutron-proton vibrations coupled by a density-dependent symmetry energy. The restoring force is calculated microscopically using the wavefunctions of a Woods-Saxon potential and the coupling with three-phonon states is taken into account. The model is able to describe the available experimental data (energies and multipole mixing ratios) on low-lying 2/sup +/ states, which were observed recently in nuclei near the shell closures (/sup 124/Te, /sup 140/Ba, /sup 142/Ce and /sup 144/Nd), supporting the identification of these states as isovector quadrupole vibrations and predicting such states in /sup 126 -130/ Te.

  14. Linking Crystal Populations to Dynamic States: Crystal Dissolution and Growth During an Open-System Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergantz, G. W.; Schleicher, J.; Burgisser, A.

    2016-12-01

    The identification of shared characteristics in zoned crystals has motivated the definition of crystal populations. These populations reflect the simultaneous transport of crystals, heat and composition during open-system events. An obstacle to interpreting the emergence of a population is the absence of a way to correlate specific dynamic conditions with the characteristic attributes of a population. By combining a boundary-layer diffusion controlled model for crystal growth/dissolution with discrete-element magma dynamics simulations of crystal-bearing magmas, the creation of populations can be simulated. We have implemented a method that decomposes the chemical potential into the thermal and compositional contributions to crystal dissolution/growth. This allows for the explicit treatment of thermal inertia and thermal-compositional decoupling as fluid circulation stirs the system during an open-system event. We have identified three distinct dynamic states producing crystal populations. They are based on the volume fraction of crystals. In a mushy system, thermal and compositional states are tightly linked as the volume involved in the mixing is constrained by the so-called mixing bowl (Bergantz et al., 2015). The mixing bowl volume is a function of the visco-plastic response of the mush and the intrusion width, not by the progressive entrainment of the new intrusion as commonly assumed. Crystal dissolution is the dominate response to input of more primitive magma. At the other endmember, under very dilute conditions, thermal and compositional conditions can become decoupled, and the in-coming magma forms a double-diffusive low-Re jet. This can allow for both dissolution and growth as crystals circulate widely into an increasingly stratified system. A middle range of crystal concentration produces a very complex feedback, as sedimenting crystals form fingers and chains that interact with the incoming magma, break-up the entrainment with chaotic stirring and add

  15. Spectroscopy and lifetime measurements of states in $^{76}$Kr populated in $^{76}$Rb decay

    CERN Document Server

    Giannatiempo, A; Perego, A; Sona, P; Mach, H; Fogelberg, B; García-Borge, M J; Tengblad, O; Fraile-Prieto, L M; Aas, A J; Gulda, K; CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the excited states of $^{76}$Kr, populated in the decay of $^{76}$Rb produced at ISOLDE isotopic separator, have been investigated by using K-conversion electron, $\\gamma$-ray, and $\\gamma\\gamma$ coincidence measurements. The lifetimes of several levels have been measured by means of the Advanced Time-Delayed $\\beta\\gamma\\gamma (t)$ method. The identification of 19 new levels and 55 transitions and the information deduced on spin and/or parity of the observed states from K-conversion coefficients, log ft values and decay properties have led to an improved knowledge of the level scheme. In particular, six 1$^-$ states have been definitely identified and $J^{\\pi} =2^{-}$ has been assigned to the 2227 keV level, on which a band proposed to have negative-parity and even-spin had been previously observed. The strengths of the $E$0 and $E$2 transitions de-exciting the 0$^{+}_{2}$ and 0$^{+}_{3}$ states (the latter is here identified with the state at 1598 keV) have been measured. The experimental ...

  16. Population of high-spin isomeric states following fragmentation of 238U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowry, M.; Podolyák, Zs.; Pietri, S.; Kurcewicz, J.; Bunce, M.; Regan, P. H.; Farinon, F.; Geissel, H.; Nociforo, C.; Prochazka, A.; Weick, H.; Al-Dahan, N.; Alkhomashi, N.; Allegro, P. R. P.; Benlliure, J.; Benzoni, G.; Boutachkov, P.; Bruce, A. M.; Denis Bacelar, A. M.; Farrelly, G. F.; Gerl, J.; Górska, M.; Gottardo, A.; Grębosz, J.; Gregor, N.; Janik, R.; Knöbel, R.; Kojouharov, I.; Kubo, T.; Kurz, N.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Merchan, E.; Mukha, I.; Naqvi, F.; Pfeiffer, B.; Pfützner, M.; Plaß, W.; Pomorski, M.; Riese, B.; Ricciardi, M. V.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Schaffner, H.; Scheidenberger, C.; Simpson, E. C.; Sitar, B.; Spiller, P.; Stadlmann, J.; Strmen, P.; Sun, B.; Tanihata, I.; Terashima, S.; Valiente Dobón, J. J.; Winfield, J. S.; Wollersheim, H.-J.; Woods, P. J.

    2013-08-01

    Isomeric ratios have been determined for 23 metastable states identified in A≈200 nuclei from Pt to Rn near the valley of stability following fragmentation of 238U. This includes high-spin states with angular momenta ranging from (39/2)ℏ to 25ℏ. The experimental results are discussed together with those of similar experiments performed in this mass region. Isomeric ratios are compared with theoretical predictions where the angular momentum of the fragment arises purely due to the angular momentum of nucleons removed from the projectile. The theoretical yield of low-spin states is generally overestimated. In these cases the assumption of 100% feeding of the isomer may require modification. However, the yield of high-spin isomeric states [Im ≥ (39/2)ℏ] is significantly underestimated and highlights the requirement for a more complete theoretical framework in relation to the generation of fragment angular momentum. The enhanced population of high-spin states reported here is advantageous to future studies involving isomeric beams at fragmentation facilities such as the Rikagaku Kenkyusho RI Beam Factory (Japan) and next-generation facilities at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (Germany) and Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (USA).

  17. Incidence of hidradenitis suppurativa in the United States: A sex- and age-adjusted population analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Amit; Lavian, Jonathan; Lin, Gloria; Strunk, Andrew; Alloo, Allireza

    2017-07-01

    The true incidence of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is unknown. To determine standardized incidence estimates for HS in the United States. We used a retrospective cohort analysis, including incident HS cases identified using electronic health records data for a demographically heterogeneous population-based sample of >48 million unique patients across all 4 census regions. We calculated standardized 1- and 10-year cumulative incidences for the overall population and for sex-, age-, and race-specific groups. There were 5410 new HS diagnoses over a 1-year period, with an incidence of 11.4 (95% confidence interval [CI], 11.1-11.8) cases per 100,000 population. One-year incidence in women was 16.1 (95% CI, 15.5-16.6) per 100,000, more than twice that of men [6.8 (95% CI, 6.5-7.2) per 100,000; P 2.5 times that of whites [11.7 (95% CI, 11.3-12.2) per 100,000; P population. The use of deidentified claims prevented validation for a larger case subset. HS incidence has increased over the past decade and disproportionately involves women, young adults, and African Americans. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. State of the science of health literacy measures: Validity implications for minority populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tam H.; Park, Hyunjeong; Han, Hae-Ra; Chan, Kitty S.; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K.; Haun, Jolie; Kim, Miyong T.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To review the evidence supporting the validity of health literacy (HL) measures for ethnic minority populations. Methods PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases were searched for HL measures between 1965 and 2013. Results A total of 109HL measures were identified; 37 were non-English HL measures and 72 were English language measures. Of the 72 English language measures, 17 did not specify the racial/ethnic characteristic of their sample. Of the remaining 55 measures, 10 (18%) did not include blacks, 30 (55%) did not include Hispanics, and 35 (64%) did not include Asians in their validation sample. When Hispanic and Asian Americans were included, they accounted for small percentages in the overall sample. Between 2005–2013, a growing number of REALM and TOFHLA translations were identified, and new HL measures for specific cultural/linguistic groups within and outside the United States were developed. Conclusions While there are a growing number of new and translated HL measures for minority populations, many existing HL measures have not been properly validated for minority groups. Practice Implications HL measures that have not been properly validated for a given population should be piloted before wider use. In addition, improving HL instrument development/validation methods are imperative to increase the validity of these measures for minority populations. PMID:26275841

  19. Vibrational circular dichroism spectroscopy of a spin-triplet bis-(biuretato) cobaltate(III) coordination compound with low-lying electronic transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Christian; Thulstrup, Peter W.

    2007-01-01

    Vibrational absorption (VA) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy was applied in the analysis of vibrational and low lying electronic transitions of a triplet ground state cobalt(III) coordination compound. The spectroscopic measurements were performed on the tetrabutylammonium salt...

  20. Collisional relaxation of the three vibrationally excited difluorobenzene isomers by collisions with CO2: effect of donor vibrational mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Deborah G; Johnson, Alan M; Johnson, Jeremy A; Judd, Kortney A; Kim, Kilyoung; Mayhew, Maurine; Powell, Amber L; Sevy, Eric T

    2008-02-14

    Relaxation of highly vibrationally excited 1,2-, 1,3-, and 1,4-difluorobenzne (DFB) by collisions with carbon dioxide has been investigated using diode laser transient absorption spectroscopy. Vibrationally hot DFB (E' approximately 41,000 cm(-1)) was prepared by 248 nm excimer laser excitation followed by rapid radiationless relaxation to the ground electronic state. Collisions between hot DFB isomers and CO2 result in large amounts of rotational and translational energy transfer from the hot donors to the bath. The CO2 nascent rotational population distribution of the high-J (J = 58-80) tail of the 00(0)0 state was probed at short times following the excimer laser pulse to measure rate constants and probabilities for collisions populating these states. The amount of translational energy gained by CO2 during collisions was determined using Doppler spectroscopy to measure the width of the absorption line for each transition. The energy transfer probability distribution function, P(E,E'), for the large DeltaE tail was obtained by resorting the state-indexed energy transfer probabilities as a function of DeltaE. P(E,E') was fit to a biexponential function to determine the average energy transferred in a single DFB/CO2 collision and fit parameters describing the shape of P(E,E'). P(E,E') fit parameters for DFB/CO2 and the previously studied C6F6/CO2 system are compared to various donor molecular properties. A model based on Fermi's Golden Rule indicates that the shape of P(E,E') is primarily determined by the low-frequency out-of-plane donor vibrational modes. A fractional mode population analysis is performed, which suggests that for energy transfer from DFB and C6F6 to CO2 the two key donor vibrational modes from which energy leaks out of the donor into the bath are nu11 and nu16. These "gateway" modes are some of the same modes determined to be the most efficient energy transfer modes by quantum scattering studies of benzene/He collisions.

  1. Vibration-rotation-tunneling dynamics in small water clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliano, Nick [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-11-01

    The goal of this work is to characterize the intermolecular vibrations of small water clusters. Using tunable far infrared laser absorption spectroscopy, large amplitude vibration-rotation-tunneling (VRT) dynamics in vibrationally excited states of the water dimer and the water trimer are investigated. This study begins with the measurement of 12 VRT subbands, consisting of approximately 230 transitions, which are assigned to an 82.6 cm-1 intermolecular vibration of the water dimer-d4. Each of the VRT subbands originate from Ka''=0 and terminate in either Ka'=0 or 1. These data provide a complete characterization of the tunneling dynamics in the vibrationally excited state as well as definitive symmetry labels for all VRT energy levels. Furthermore, an accurate value for the A' rotational constant is found to agree well with its corresponding ground state value. All other excited state rotational constants are fitted, and discussed in terms of the corresponding ground state constants. In this vibration, the quantum tunneling motions are determined to exhibit large dependencies with both the Ka' quantum number and the vibrational coordinate, as is evidenced by the measured tunneling splittings. The generalized internal-axis-method treatment which has been developed to model the tunneling dynamics, is considered for the qualitative description of each tunneling pathway, however, the variation of tunneling splittings with vibrational excitation indicate that the high barrier approximation does not appear to be applicable for this vibrational coordinate. The data are consistent with a motion possessing a' symmetry, and the vibration is assigned as the v12 acceptor bending coordinate. This assignment is in agreement with the vibrational symmetry, the resultsof high level ab initio calculations, and preliminary data assigned to the analogous vibration in the D2

  2. Vibration-rotation-tunneling dynamics in small water clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliano, N.

    1992-11-01

    The goal of this work is to characterize the intermolecular vibrations of small water clusters. Using tunable far infrared laser absorption spectroscopy, large amplitude vibration-rotation-tunneling (VRT) dynamics in vibrationally excited states of the water dimer and the water trimer are investigated. This study begins with the measurement of 12 VRT subbands, consisting of approximately 230 transitions, which are assigned to an 82.6 cm[sup [minus]1] intermolecular vibration of the water dimer-d[sub 4]. Each of the VRT subbands originate from K[sub a][double prime]=0 and terminate in either K[sub a][prime]=0 or 1. These data provide a complete characterization of the tunneling dynamics in the vibrationally excited state as well as definitive symmetry labels for all VRT energy levels. Furthermore, an accurate value for the A[prime] rotational constant is found to agree well with its corresponding ground state value. All other excited state rotational constants are fitted, and discussed in terms of the corresponding ground state constants. In this vibration, the quantum tunneling motions are determined to exhibit large dependencies with both the K[sub a][prime] quantum number and the vibrational coordinate, as is evidenced by the measured tunneling splittings. The generalized internal-axis-method treatment which has been developed to model the tunneling dynamics, is considered for the qualitative description of each tunneling pathway, however, the variation of tunneling splittings with vibrational excitation indicate that the high barrier approximation does not appear to be applicable for this vibrational coordinate. The data are consistent with a motion possessing a[prime] symmetry, and the vibration is assigned as the [nu][sub 12] acceptor bending coordinate. This assignment is in agreement with the vibrational symmetry, the resultsof high level ab initio calculations, and preliminary data assigned to the analogous vibration in the D[sub 2]O-DOH isotopomer.

  3. Controlling vibrational cooling with zero-width resonances: An adiabatic Floquet approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Arnaud; Viennot, David; Jolicard, Georges; Lefebvre, Roland; Atabek, Osman

    2016-10-01

    In molecular photodissociation, some specific combinations of laser parameters (wavelength and intensity) lead to unexpected zero-width resonances (ZWRs) with, in principle, infinite lifetimes. Their potential to induce basic quenching mechanisms has recently been devised in the laser control of vibrational cooling through filtration strategies [O. Atabek et al., Phys. Rev. A 87, 031403(R) (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.87.031403]. A full quantum adiabatic control theory based on the adiabatic Floquet Hamiltonian is developed to show how a laser pulse could be envelope-shaped and frequency-chirped so as to protect a given initial vibrational state against dissociation, taking advantage of its continuous transport on the corresponding ZWR all along the pulse duration. As compared with previous control scenarios that actually suffered from nonadiabatic contamination, drastically different and much more efficient filtration goals are achieved. A semiclassical analysis helps us to find and interpret a complete map of ZWRs in the laser parameter plane. In addition, the choice of a given ZWR path, among the complete series identified by the semiclassical approach, turns out to be crucial for the cooling scheme, targeting a single vibrational state population left at the end of the pulse, while all others have almost completely decayed. The illustrative example, which has the potential to be transposed to other diatomics, is Na2 prepared by photoassociation in vibrationally hot but translationally and rotationally cold states.

  4. Characterization of mitochondrial haplogroups in a large population-based sample from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sabrina L; Goodloe, Robert; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Pendergrass, Sarah A; Murdock, Deborah G; Crawford, Dana C

    2014-07-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups are valuable for investigations in forensic science, molecular anthropology, and human genetics. In this study, we developed a custom panel of 61 mtDNA markers for high-throughput classification of European, African, and Native American/Asian mitochondrial haplogroup lineages. Using these mtDNA markers, we constructed a mitochondrial haplogroup classification tree and classified 18,832 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). To our knowledge, this is the largest study to date characterizing mitochondrial haplogroups in a population-based sample from the United States, and the first study characterizing mitochondrial haplogroup distributions in self-identified Mexican Americans separately from Hispanic Americans of other descent. We observed clear differences in the distribution of maternal genetic ancestry consistent with proposed admixture models for these subpopulations, underscoring the genetic heterogeneity of the United States Hispanic population. The mitochondrial haplogroup distributions in the other self-identified racial/ethnic groups within NHANES were largely comparable to previous studies. Mitochondrial haplogroup classification was highly concordant with self-identified race/ethnicity (SIRE) in non-Hispanic whites (94.8 %), but was considerably lower in admixed populations including non-Hispanic blacks (88.3 %), Mexican Americans (81.8 %), and other Hispanics (61.6 %), suggesting SIRE does not accurately reflect maternal genetic ancestry, particularly in populations with greater proportions of admixture. Thus, it is important to consider inconsistencies between SIRE and genetic ancestry when performing genetic association studies. The mitochondrial haplogroup data that we have generated, coupled with the epidemiologic variables in NHANES, is a valuable resource for future studies investigating the contribution of mtDNA variation to human health and disease.

  5. Vibrational excitation of hydrogen molecules by two-photon absorption and third-harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yuki; Hara, Hideaki; Hiraki, Takahiro; Masuda, Takahiko; Sasao, Noboru; Uetake, Satoshi; Yoshimi, Akihiro; Yoshimura, Koji; Yoshimura, Motohiko

    2018-01-01

    We report the coherent excitation of the vibrational state of hydrogen molecules by two-photon absorption and the resultant third-harmonic generation (THG). Parahydrogen molecules cooled by liquid nitrogen are irradiated by mid-infrared nanosecond pulses at 4.8 μm with a nearly Fourier-transform-limited linewidth. The first excited vibrational state of parahydrogen is populated by two-photon absorption of the mid-infrared photons. Because of the narrow linewidth of the mid-infrared pulses, coherence between the ground and excited states is sufficient to induce higher-order processes. Near-infrared photons from the THG are observed at 1.6 μm. The dependence of the intensity of the near-infrared radiation on mid-infrared pulse energy, target pressure, and cell length is determined. We used a simple formula for THG with consideration of realistic experimental conditions to explain the observed results.

  6. A LABORATORY STUDY OF C{sub 3}H{sup +} AND THE C{sub 3}H RADICAL IN THREE NEW VIBRATIONALLY EXCITED {sup 2}Σ STATES USING A PIN-HOLE NOZZLE DISCHARGE SOURCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, Michael C.; Crabtree, Kyle N.; Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; Martinez, Oscar Jr.; Gottlieb, Carl A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); McGuire, Brett A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Rotational lines of the positive molecular ion C{sub 3}H{sup +} and of the neutral C{sub 3}H radical in three new vibrationally excited states with {sup 2}Σ symmetry have been detected in a supersonic molecular beam in the centimeter-wave band. The fundamental rotational line of the ion is quite weak, but is observed with similar intensity in a dc discharge through several different hydrocarbon gases when helium is the buffer gas. Under these conditions, the fractional abundance of C{sub 3}H{sup +} relative to C{sub 3}H is estimated to be of order 10{sup −4}, i.e., toward the lower end of the ratio (10{sup −3}–10{sup −4}) found for protonated ions using the same discharge nozzle. For each new {sup 2}Σ state of the C{sub 3}H radical, spectroscopic constants, including those describing hydrogen hyperfine structure, have been determined to high precision. Lines of one {sup 2}Σ state (B = 11271 MHz) are particularly intense in our molecular beam; for this state and a second one (B = 11306 MHz), millimeter-wave transitions have also been observed between 180 and 340 GHz using a long path dc glow absorption spectrometer. On the basis of intensity measurements with this spectrometer, the inferred rotation–vibration constant α, and theoretical calculations, the state with B = 11271 MHz is tentatively assigned to the ν{sub 5} bending mode, predicted to lie ∼300 cm{sup −1} above ground.

  7. Decennial Life Tables for the White Population of the United States, 1790-1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, J David

    2010-04-01

    This article constructs new life tables for the white population of the United States in each decade between 1790 and 1900. Drawing from several recent studies, it suggests best estimates of life expectancy at age 20 for each decade. These estimates are fitted to new standards derived from the 1900-02 rural and 1900-02 overall DRA life tables using a two-parameter logit model with fixed slope. The resulting decennial life tables more accurately represent sex-and age-specific mortality rates while capturing known mortality trends.

  8. Metastable states and intermittent switching of small populations of confined point vortices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmieder, R.W.

    1995-07-01

    We have found that small populations of point vortices confined in a box exhibit a variety of new and interesting metastable collective motions, ranging from rigid body rotation to complete chaos. These motions are induced by simulated heating and cooling of the vortices; they do not appear in adiabatic systems. By judicious choice of vortex circulations, heating and cooling rates, and box size, we have produced systems that switch intermittently between several metastable states, that oscillate quasi-periodically, and that show a variety of interesting collective behaviors that in some cases are suggestive of biological organisms.

  9. 14th International Conference on Acoustics and Vibration of Mechanical Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Marinca, Vasile

    2018-01-01

    This book is a collection of papers presented at Acoustics and Vibration of Mechanical Structures 2017 – AVMS 2017 – highlighting the current trends and state-of-the-art developments in the field. It covers a broad range of topics, such as noise and vibration control, noise and vibration generation and propagation, the effects of noise and vibration, condition monitoring and vibration testing, modeling, prediction and simulation of noise and vibration, environmental and occupational noise and vibration, noise and vibration attenuators, as well as biomechanics and bioacoustics. The book also presents analytical, numerical and experimental techniques for evaluating linear and non-linear noise and vibration problems (including strong nonlinearity). It is primarily intended for academics, researchers and professionals, as well as PhD students in various fields of the acoustics and vibration of mechanical structures.

  10. Food provision of population as a factor of the state economic security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov Nikolayevna Voronina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The main trends of the Russian agriculture development are analyzed. Food security of the population is one of the biggest challenges facing the state and has a significant impact on the country's economic security. Despite the growth of food production in recent years, domestic production of the agroindustrial complex has not yet reached the post-Soviet level. Agri-food market in Russia is characterized by a high level of dependence on the volume of imports. To compare the degree of food security of Russian regions, an analysis of their self-sufficiency in food resources was conducted. The main targets of state policies, medium term ones (until 2012 and long-term ones (until 2020 were defined, analysis of the mechanisms of their implementation to evaluate future impact of the proposed policy on food security of the country was made.

  11. Model Indepedent Vibration Control

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Jing

    2010-01-01

    A NMIFC system is proposed for broadband vibration control. It has two important features. Feature F1 is that the NMIFC is stable without introducing any invasive effects, such as probing signals or controller perturbations, into the vibration system; feature F2 is

  12. Vibration Theory, Vol. 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    The present textbook has been written based on previous lecture notes for a course on stochastic vibration theory that is being given on the 9th semester at Aalborg University for M. Sc. students in structural engineering. The present 4th edition of this textbook on linear stochastic vibration...

  13. Vibration Theory, Vol. 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    The present textbook has been written based on previous lecture notes for a course on stochastic vibration theory that is being given on the 9th semester at Aalborg University for M. Sc. students in structural engineering. The present 2nd edition of this textbook on linear stochastic vibration...

  14. Hydroelastic Vibrations of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Folsø, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    A formula for the necessary hull girder bending stiffness required to avoid serious springing vibrations is derived. The expression takes into account the zero crossing period of the waves, the ship speed and main dimensions. For whipping vibrations the probability of exceedance for the combined...

  15. Gearbox vibration diagnostic analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Gearbox Vibration Diagnostic Analyzer installed in the NASA Lewis Research Center's 500 HP Helicopter Transmission Test Stand to monitor gearbox testing. The vibration of the gearbox is analyzed using diagnostic algorithms to calculate a parameter indicating damaged components.

  16. Mechanical vibration and shock analysis, sinusoidal vibration

    CERN Document Server

    Lalanne, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Everything engineers need to know about mechanical vibration and shock...in one authoritative reference work! This fully updated and revised 3rd edition addresses the entire field of mechanical vibration and shock as one of the most important types of load and stress applied to structures, machines and components in the real world. Examples include everything from the regular and predictable loads applied to turbines, motors or helicopters by the spinning of their constituent parts to the ability of buildings to withstand damage from wind loads or explosions, and the need for cars to m

  17. Prison tobacco control policies and deaths from smoking in United States prisons: population based retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binswanger, Ingrid A; Carson, E Ann; Krueger, Patrick M; Mueller, Shane R; Steiner, John F; Sabol, William J

    2014-08-05

    To determine the mortality attributable to smoking and years of potential life lost from smoking among people in prison and whether bans on smoking in prison are associated with reductions in smoking related deaths. Analysis of cross sectional survey data with the smoking attributable mortality, morbidity, and economic costs system; population based time series analysis. All state prisons in the United States. Prevalence of smoking from cross sectional survey of inmates in state correctional facilities. Data on state prison tobacco policies from web based searches of state policies and legislation. Deaths and causes of death in US state prisons from the deaths in custody reporting program of the Bureau of Justice Statistics for 2001-11. Smoking attributable mortality and years of potential life lost was assessed from the smoking attributable mortality, morbidity, and economic costs system of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multivariate Poisson models quantified the association between bans and smoking related cancer, cardiovascular and pulmonary deaths. The most common causes of deaths related to smoking among people in prison were lung cancer, ischemic heart disease, other heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and chronic airways obstruction. The age adjusted smoking attributable mortality and years of potential life lost rates were 360 and 5149 per 100,000, respectively; these figures are higher than rates in the general US population (248 and 3501, respectively). The number of states with any smoking ban increased from 25 in 2001 to 48 by 2011. In prisons the mortality rate from smoking related causes was lower during years with a ban than during years without a ban (110.4/100,000 v 128.9/100,000). Prisons that implemented smoking bans had a 9% reduction (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.88 to 0.95) in smoking related deaths. Bans in place for longer than nine years were associated with reductions in cancer

  18. Population-level differences in revascularization treatment and outcomes among various United States subpopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Garth; Xiao, Yang-Yu Karen; Rappoport, Dan; Siddiqi, Saima

    2016-01-26

    Despite recent general improvements in health care, significant disparities persist in the cardiovascular care of women and racial/ethnic minorities. This is true even when income, education level, and site of care are taken into consideration. Possible explanations for these disparities include socioeconomic considerations, elements of discrimination and racism that affect socioeconomic status, and access to adequate medical care. Coronary revascularization has become the accepted and recommended treatment for myocardial infarction (MI) today and is one of the most common major medical interventions in the United States, with more than 1 million procedures each year. This review discusses recent data on disparities in co-morbidities and presentation symptoms, care and access to medical resources, and outcomes in revascularization as treatment for acute coronary syndrome, looking especially at women and minority populations in the United States. The data show that revascularization is used less in both female and minority patients. We summarize recent data on disparities in co-morbidities and presentation symptoms related to MI; access to care, medical resources, and treatments; and outcomes in women, blacks, and Hispanics. The picture is complicated among the last group by the many Hispanic/Latino subgroups in the United States. Some differences in outcomes are partially explained by presentation symptoms and co-morbidities and external conditions such as local hospital capacity. Of particular note is the striking differential in both presentation co-morbidities and mortality rates seen in women, compared to men, especially in women ≤ 55 years of age. Surveillance data on other groups in the United States such as American Indians/Alaska Natives and the many Asian subpopulations show disparities in risk factors and co-morbidities, but revascularization as treatment for MI in these populations has not been adequately studied. Significant research is required to

  19. Escape from the competence state in Streptococcus mutans is governed by the bacterial population density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, D; Villemin, C; Perry, J A; Lévesque, C M

    2016-12-01

    Horizontal gene transfer through natural DNA transformation is an important evolutionary mechanism among bacteria. Transformation requires that the bacteria are physiologically competent to take and incorporate free DNA directly from the environment. Although natural genetic transformation is a remarkable feature of many naturally competent bacteria, the process is energetically expensive for the cells. Consequently, a tight control of the competence state is necessary. The objective of the present work was to help decipher the molecular mechanisms regulating the escape from the competence state in Streptococcus mutans, the principal etiological agent responsible for tooth decay in humans. Our results showed that the cessation of competence in S. mutans was abrupt, and did not involve the accumulation of a competence inhibitor nor the depletion of a competence activator in the extracellular environment. The competence state was repressed at high cell population density via concomitant repression of sigX gene encoding the master regulator of the competence regulon. Co-culture experiments performed with oral and non-oral bacteria showed that S. mutans assesses its own population density and also the microbial density of its surroundings to regulate its competence escape. Interestingly, neither the intra-species and extra-species quorum-sensing systems nor the other 13 two-component regulatory systems identified in S. mutans were involved in the cell-density-dependent escape of the competence state. Altogether, our results suggest a complex mechanism regulating the competence shut-off involving cell-density-dependent repression of sigX through an as yet undefined system, and possibly SigX protein stability. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Vibrations of rotating machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Osami; Kanki, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masao; Keogh, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    This book opens with an explanation of the vibrations of a single degree-of-freedom (dof) system for all beginners. Subsequently, vibration analysis of multi-dof systems is explained by modal analysis. Mode synthesis modeling is then introduced for system reduction, which aids understanding in a simplified manner of how complicated rotors behave. Rotor balancing techniques are offered for rigid and flexible rotors through several examples. Consideration of gyroscopic influences on the rotordynamics is then provided and vibration evaluation of a rotor-bearing system is emphasized in terms of forward and backward whirl rotor motions through eigenvalue (natural frequency and damping ratio) analysis. In addition to these rotordynamics concerning rotating shaft vibration measured in a stationary reference frame, blade vibrations are analyzed with Coriolis forces expressed in a rotating reference frame. Other phenomena that may be assessed in stationary and rotating reference frames include stability characteristic...

  1. Ultrafast Optical Excitation of a Persistent Surface-State Population in the Topological Insulator Bi2Se3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobota, Jonathan

    2012-03-14

    Using femtosecond time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we investigated the nonequilibrium dynamics of the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}. We studied p-type Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}, in which the metallic Dirac surface state and bulk conduction bands are unoccupied. Optical excitation leads to a meta-stable population at the bulk conduction band edge, which feeds a nonequilibrium population of the surface state persisting for >10 ps. This unusually long-lived population of a metallic Dirac surface state with spin texture may present a channel in which to drive transient spin-polarized currents.

  2. [Prevalence of rhinitis allergic in populations of several states of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Hernández, Eleazar; Medina-Ávalos, Miguel Alejandro; Barnica-Alvarado, Raúl Humberto; Soto-Candia, Diego; Guerrero-Venegas, Rosario; Zecua-Nájera, Yahvéh

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is an inflammatory disorder of the nasal mucosa, characterized by symptoms of itching, rhinorrhea, nasal congestion and sneezing induced by an IgE-mediated response. In Mexico we have reports of prevalence, with fluctuations of 5.5% to 47.7% with the question of rhinitis symptoms the past 12 months. To determine the prevalence of allergic rhinitis in schoolchildren from various states of Mexico. A descriptive study of prevalence in which a questionnaire was applied to preschool, elementary-, middle- and high-school population. It was performed in four cities in four states of Mexico: Puebla, Puebla, Tulancingo, Hidalgo, Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala and Cancun, Quintana Roo. Parents answered questionnaires of preschool and elementary school and middle- and high-school students answered their questionnaires. The study was conducted from June 2014 to January 2015. The instrument used was: questionnaire diagnosis of allergic rhinitis for epidemiological studies. Of the surveys, 8,159 completed questionnaires were obtained, in the city of Puebla: 2,267, Tulancingo, Hidalgo: 2,478, Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala: 2,574, Cancun, Quintana Roo: 840; total male: 4,190 (51%). The overall average rate of prevalence of allergic rhinitis among four states including all respondents ages was 15%. With the use of the questionnaire diagnosis of allergic rhinitis for epidemiological studies in the four cities in four different states, we found a prevalence of allergic rhinitis of 15% in ≥13 yearpopulation and 13% in ≤12 year-old children.

  3. Population Growth, Climate Change and Water Scarcity in the Southwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Amy C; Harhay, Michael O

    2010-06-30

    PROBLEM STATEMENT: In a simple economic model, water scarcity arises as a result of an imbalance between the supply of and demand for water sources. Distribution in this setting is the source of numerous conflicts globally. APPROACH: Already, the Southwestern United States (US) suffers from annual drought and long-standing feud over natural water resources. RESULTS: Population growth in the Southwestern United States along with the continued effects of climate change (natural and anthropogenic) predicts a perpetual decline in natural water sources, such as smaller snowpacks, in the coming years. As the increasing number of communities across multiple US states that subsist off of natural water supplies face water shortages with increasing severity, further water conflict will emerge. Such conflicts become especially protracted when the diversion of water from a source of benefit to one community negatively impacts nearby communities of humans and economically vital ecosystems (e.g., marshlands or tributaries). CONCLUSION/RECOMMENDATIONS: The ensuing politics and health effects of these diversions can be complicated and future water policies both domestically and internationally are lacking. To draw attention to and stimulate discussion around the lacking policy discussion domestically, herein we document existing and emerging consequences of watery scarcity in the Southwestern United States and briefly outline past and potential future policy responses.

  4. Controlled Population of Floquet-Bloch States via Coupling to Bose and Fermi Baths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik I. Seetharam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available External driving is emerging as a promising tool for exploring new phases in quantum systems. The intrinsically nonequilibrium states that result, however, are challenging to describe and control. We study the steady states of a periodically driven one-dimensional electronic system, including the effects of radiative recombination, electron-phonon interactions, and the coupling to an external fermionic reservoir. Using a kinetic equation for the populations of the Floquet eigenstates, we show that the steady-state distribution can be controlled using the momentum and energy relaxation pathways provided by the coupling to phonon and Fermi reservoirs. In order to utilize the latter, we propose to couple the system and reservoir via an energy filter which suppresses photon-assisted tunneling. Importantly, coupling to these reservoirs yields a steady state resembling a band insulator in the Floquet basis. The system exhibits incompressible behavior, while hosting a small density of excitations. We discuss transport signatures and describe the regimes where insulating behavior is obtained. Our results give promise for realizing Floquet topological insulators.

  5. Anatomy of an Exciton : Vibrational Distortion and Exciton Coherence in H- and J-Aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tempelaar, Roel; Stradomska, Anna; Knoester, Jasper; Spano, Frank C.

    2013-01-01

    In organic materials, coupling of electronic excitations to vibrational degrees of freedom results in polaronic excited states. Through numerical calculations, we demonstrate that the vibrational distortion field accompanying such a polaron scales as the product of the excitonic interaction field

  6. Rotational Spectrum of NSF3 in the Ground and v(5)=1 Vibrational States: Observation of Q-Branch Perturbation-Allowed Transitions with Delta(k-l)=0, +/- 3, +/- 6 and Anomalies in the Rovibrational Structure of the v(5)=1 State

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macholl, S.; Mäder, H.; Harder, H.; Margulés, L.; Dréan, P.; Cosléou, J.; Demaison, J.; Pracna, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 4 (2009), s. 668-679 ISSN 1089-5639 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400504; GA AV ČR 1ET400400410; GA MŠk LC06071; GA AV ČR IAA400400706 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : Fourier-transform spectrometer * vibrational states * symmetric top molecules Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.899, year: 2009

  7. Supramolecular organization of perfluorinated 1H-indazoles in the solid state using X-ray crystallography, SSNMR and sensitive (VCD) and non sensitive (MIR, FIR and Raman) to chirality vibrational spectroscopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-Moreno, María M; Avilés-Moreno, Juan Ramón; López-González, Juan Jesús; Jacob, Kane; Vendier, Laure; Etienne, Michel; Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José; Claramunt, Rosa M

    2017-01-04

    1H-Indazole derivatives exhibit a remarkable property since some of them form chiral supramolecular structures starting from achiral monomers. The present work deals with the study of three perfluorinated 1H-indazoles that resolve spontaneously as conglomerates. These conglomerates can contain either a pure enantiomer (one helix) or a mixture of both enantiomers (both helices) with an enantiomeric excess (e.e.) of one of them. The difficulty of the structural analysis of these types of compounds is thus clear. We outline a complete strategy to determine the structures and configurations (M or P helices) of the enantiomers (helices) forming the conglomerates of these perfluorinated 1H-indazoles based on X-ray crystallography, solid state NMR spectroscopy and different solid state vibrational spectroscopies that are either sensitive (VCD) or not (FarIR, IR and Raman) to chirality, together with quantum chemical calculations (DFT).

  8. Electronic signatures of large amplitude motions: dipole moments of vibrationally excited local-bend and local-stretch states of S0 acetylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Bryan M; Steeves, Adam H; Field, Robert W

    2006-09-28

    A one-dimensional local bend model is used to describe the variation of electronic properties of acetylene in vibrational levels that embody large amplitude local motions on the S0 potential energy surface. Calculations performed at the CCSD(T) and MR-AQCC levels of theory predict an approximately linear dependence of the dipole moment on the number of quanta in either the local bending or local stretching excitation. In the local mode limit, one quantum of stretching excitation in one CH bond leads to an increase of 0.025 D in the dipole moment, and one quantum of bending vibration in the CCH angle leads to an increase of 0.068 D. The use of a one-dimensional model for the local bend is justified by comparison to the well-established polyad model which reveals a decoupling of the large amplitude bending from other degrees of freedom in the range of Nbend = 14-22. We find that the same one-dimensional large amplitude bending motion emerges from two profoundly different representations, a one-dimensional cut through an ab initio, seven-dimensional Hamiltonian and the three-dimensional (l = 0) pure-bending experimentally parametrized spectroscopic Hamiltonian.

  9. Myopia and Exposure to Organophosphate and Pyrethroid Pesticides in the General United States Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migneron-Foisy, Vincent; Bouchard, Maryse F; Freeman, Ellen E; Saint-Amour, Dave

    2017-09-01

    Previous research suggests that exposure to pesticides might be associated with human myopia, although data were obtained only from highly exposed individuals. The present study aimed to assess whether exposure to organophosphates and pyrethroids in the United States general population was associated with the prevalence of myopia. Data were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, years 1999-2008). One-spot urine samples were used to estimate the concentration of several pesticide metabolites. Exposure data and equivalent spherical refraction errors were available for 5147 and 2911 individuals for organophosphates and pyrethroids, respectively. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess the relation between log10-transformed urinary levels of pesticide metabolites and the risk of moderate (≤-1 and >-5 diopters [D]) and high myopia (≤-5 D) in adolescents (12- to 19-years old) and young adults (20- to 40-years old). Models were adjusted for sex, age, ethnicity, diabetes, creatinine, cadmium and lead concentrations, and income in both age groups, but also for education level and cigarette and alcohol consumption in the adult group. No association between organophosphates or pyrethroid metabolites and myopia was observed. However, after adjusting for education level and cigarette and alcohol consumption, a statistically significant decreased risk of high myopia in those with a 10-fold increase of dialkyl phosphate metabolites was found in adults but only in men (P myopia in the United States general population.

  10. Validation Study of the Mini-Mental State Examination in Urdu Language for Pakistani Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Safia; Shahbaz, Naila; Akhtar, Syed Wasim; Ahmad, Arsalan; Iqbal, Sadaf; Ahmed, Sellal; Naqvi, Haider; Wasay, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Validation study of the Mini-Mental State Examination in Urdu language for Pakistani population. This study was conducted primarily to validate and determine the optimal cutoff score in the diagnosis of dementia among Pakistani's and study the effects of gender and education on the MMSE performance in our population. Four hundred participants took part in the study. Patient with dementia recruited from five major hospitals from Pakistan. The MMSE was translated into Urdu. There were 61 men and 39 women in dementia group and 225 men and 75 women in the control group. The mean score of Urdu MMSE were lower in patients with dementia 18.5 ± 5.6 (range 0-30) as compared to the controls 26.8 ± 2.6 (range 7-30). This difference between groups was statistically significant (p<0.001). Educational based MMSE score below 15 yielded perfect sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of dementia. These finding confirm the influence of level of education on MMSE score and education stratified cutoff scores should be used while screening for cognitive impairment in this population.

  11. State-space modeling to support management of brucellosis in the Yellowstone bison population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, N. Thompson; Geremia, Chris; Treanor, John; Wallen, Rick; White, P.J.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Rhyan, Jack C.

    2015-01-01

    The bison (Bison bison) of the Yellowstone ecosystem, USA, exemplify the difficulty of conserving large mammals that migrate across the boundaries of conservation areas. Bison are infected with brucellosis (Brucella abortus) and their seasonal movements can expose livestock to infection. Yellowstone National Park has embarked on a program of adaptive management of bison, which requires a model that assimilates data to support management decisions. We constructed a Bayesian state-space model to reveal the influence of brucellosis on the Yellowstone bison population. A frequency-dependent model of brucellosis transmission was superior to a density-dependent model in predicting out-of-sample observations of horizontal transmission probability. A mixture model including both transmission mechanisms converged on frequency dependence. Conditional on the frequency-dependent model, brucellosis median transmission rate was 1.87 yr−1. The median of the posterior distribution of the basic reproductive ratio (R0) was 1.75. Seroprevalence of adult females varied around 60% over two decades, but only 9.6 of 100 adult females were infectious. Brucellosis depressed recruitment; estimated population growth rate λ averaged 1.07 for an infected population and 1.11 for a healthy population. We used five-year forecasting to evaluate the ability of different actions to meet management goals relative to no action. Annually removing 200 seropositive female bison increased by 30-fold the probability of reducing seroprevalence below 40% and increased by a factor of 120 the probability of achieving a 50% reduction in transmission probability relative to no action. Annually vaccinating 200 seronegative animals increased the likelihood of a 50% reduction in transmission probability by fivefold over no action. However, including uncertainty in the ability to implement management by representing stochastic variation in the number of accessible bison dramatically reduced the probability of

  12. Integrated predictive maintenance program vibration and lube oil analysis: Part I - history and the vibration program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, H.

    1996-12-01

    This paper is the first of two papers which describe the Predictive Maintenance Program for rotating machines at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. The organization has recently been restructured and significant benefits have been realized by the interaction, or {open_quotes}synergy{close_quotes} between the Vibration Program and the Lube Oil Analysis Program. This paper starts with the oldest part of the program - the Vibration Program and discusses the evolution of the program to its current state. The {open_quotes}Vibration{close_quotes} view of the combined program is then presented.

  13. An ephemeral sexual population of Phytophthora infestans in the Northeastern United States and Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Danies

    Full Text Available Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight disease, has been reported in North America since the mid-nineteenth century. In the United States the lack of or very limited sexual reproduction has resulted in largely clonal populations of P. infestans. In 2010 and 2011, but not in 2012 or 2013, 20 rare and diverse genotypes of P. infestans were detected in a region that centered around central New York State. The ratio of A1 to A2 mating types among these genotypes was close to the 50∶50 ratio expected for sexual recombination. These genotypes were diverse at the glucose-6-phosphate isomerase locus, differed in their microsatellite profiles, showed different banding patterns in a restriction fragment length polymorphism assay using a moderately repetitive and highly polymorphic probe (RG57, were polymorphic for four different nuclear genes and differed in their sensitivity to the systemic fungicide mefenoxam. The null hypothesis of linkage equilibrium was not rejected, which suggests the population could be sexual. These new genotypes were monomorphic in their mitochondrial haplotype that was the same as US-22. Through parentage exclusion testing using microsatellite data and sequences of four nuclear genes, recent dominant lineages US-8, US-11, US-23, and US-24 were excluded as possible parents for these genotypes. Further analyses indicated that US-22 could not be eliminated as a possible parent for 14 of the 20 genotypes. We conclude that US-22 could be a parent of some, but not all, of the new genotypes found in 2010 and 2011. There were at least two other parents for this population and the genotypic characteristics of the other parents were identified.

  14. Population-Based Estimates of Life Expectancy After HIV Diagnosis. United States 2008 – 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Azfar-e-Alam; Irene Hall, H.; Hu, Xiaohong; Song, Ruiguang

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Using National HIV surveillance system data we estimated life expectancy and average years of life lost among person diagnosed with HIV infection during 2008–2011. Methods Population-based surveillance data, restricted to persons with diagnosed HIV infection age 13 years or older, from all 50 states and D.C. were used to estimate life expectancy after HIV diagnosis using the life table method. Generated estimates were compared with life expectancy in the general population in the same calendar year to calculate average years of life lost (AYLL). Life expectancy and average years of life lost were also estimated for subgroups by age, sex and race/ethnicity. Results The overall life expectancy after HIV diagnosis in the United States, increased 3.43 years from 25.43 (95% Confidence interval (CI) 25.37–25.49) in 2008, to 28.86 (95% CI 28.80–28.92) in 2011. Improvements were observed irrespective of sex, race/ethnicity, transmission category and stage of disease at diagnosis, though the extent of improvement varied by different characteristics. Based on the life expectancy in the general population, in 2010 the AYLL, were 12.8 years for males and 16.5 years for females. By race/ethnicity, on average blacks (13.3 years) and whites (13.4 years) had fewer AYLL than Hispanic/Latinos (14.7). Conclusions Despite improvements in life expectancy among people diagnosed with an HIV infection during 2008–2011, disparities by sex and by race/ethnicity persist. Targeted efforts should continue to further reduce disparities and improve life expectancy after HIV diagnosis. PMID:26890283

  15. Population-Based Estimates of Life Expectancy After HIV Diagnosis: United States 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Azfar-E-Alam; Hall, H Irene; Hu, Xiaohong; Song, Ruiguang

    2016-06-01

    Using National HIV surveillance system data, we estimated life expectancy and average years of life lost (AYLL) among persons diagnosed with HIV infection during 2008-2011. Population-based surveillance data, restricted to persons with diagnosed HIV infection aged 13 years or older, from all 50 states and Washington, D.C. were used to estimate life expectancy after HIV diagnosis using the life table method. Generated estimates were compared with life expectancy in the general population in the same calendar year to calculate AYLL. Life expectancy and AYLL were also estimated for subgroups by age, sex, and race/ethnicity. The overall life expectancy after HIV diagnosis in the United States increased by 3.43 years from 25.43 (95% CI: 25.37 to 25.49) in 2008 to 28.86 (95% CI: 28.80 to 28.92) in 2011. Improvements were observed irrespective of sex, race/ethnicity, transmission category, and stage of disease at diagnosis, though the extent of improvement varied by different characteristics. Based on the life expectancy in the general population, in 2010, the AYLL were 12.8 years for males and 16.5 years for females. By race/ethnicity, on average, blacks (13.3 years) and whites (13.4 years) had fewer AYLL than Hispanics/Latinos (14.7). Despite improvements in life expectancy among people diagnosed with an HIV infection during 2008-2011, disparities by sex and by race/ethnicity persist. Targeted efforts should continue to further reduce disparities and improve life expectancy after HIV diagnosis.

  16. Estimates of the Size and Characteristics of the Resident Nonimmigrant Population in the United States: January 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report presents estimates of the size and characteristics of the resident nonimmigrant population in the United States. The estimates are daily averages for the...

  17. U.S. Census Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Selected Age Groups by Sex for the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2010-2016. U.S. Census Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Selected Age Groups by Sex for the United States. The estimates are based on the 2010 Census...

  18. U.S. Census Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Selected Age Groups by Sex for the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2010-2015. U.S. Census Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Selected Age Groups by Sex for the United States. The estimates are based on the 2010 Census...

  19. Estimating the high-arsenic domestic-well population in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotte, Joseph; Medalie, Laura; Qi, Sharon L.; Backer, Lorraine C.; Nolan, Bernard T.

    2017-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations from 20 450 domestic wells in the U.S. were used to develop a logistic regression model of the probability of having arsenic >10 μg/L (“high arsenic”), which is presented at the county, state, and national scales. Variables representing geologic sources, geochemical, hydrologic, and physical features were among the significant predictors of high arsenic. For U.S. Census blocks, the mean probability of arsenic >10 μg/L was multiplied by the population using domestic wells to estimate the potential high-arsenic domestic-well population. Approximately 44.1 M people in the U.S. use water from domestic wells. The population in the conterminous U.S. using water from domestic wells with predicted arsenic concentration >10 μg/L is 2.1 M people (95% CI is 1.5 to 2.9 M). Although areas of the U.S. were underrepresented with arsenic data, predictive variables available in national data sets were used to estimate high arsenic in unsampled areas. Additionally, by predicting to all of the conterminous U.S., we identify areas of high and low potential exposure in areas of limited arsenic data. These areas may be viewed as potential areas to investigate further or to compare to more detailed local information. Linking predictive modeling to private well use information nationally, despite the uncertainty, is beneficial for broad screening of the population at risk from elevated arsenic in drinking water from private wells.

  20. Estimation of thyroid gland state of voles natural populations from increased radioactive background territories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raskosha, O.; Ermakova, O.; Kaneva, A. [Institute of Biology of Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division of Russian Academy of Science (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Investigation of effects caused in biological objects by chronic low-intensity radiation in their natural habitats is one of the most important problems of modern radioecology. The aim of our work - complex estimation of state of thyroid gland of voles inhabiting increased radioactive background territories. We investigated tundra voles (Microtus oeconomus Pall.) that were sampled at different stages of population cycle from the experimental and the control sites in the Uhta region of the Komi Republic, Russia. Experimental site contamination resulted from commercial extraction od radium between the 1930's and 1950's. Irradiation exposure dose at the site was 50-2000 mR/h (at the control site 10-15 mR/h). Complex estimation of thyroid was made by histological, morpho-metrical, radioimmunological and cytogenetic methods. Results showed high sensitivity of thyroid gland of tundra voles from chronically irradiated natural populations. We found reliable changes in morphological features of thyroid, in the level of thyroidal hormones and increased frequency of cells with micro-nucleuses in animals sampled from the experimental site as compared with the control ones. It was also showed, that chronic exposure of ionizing irradiation at the same range of absorbed doses can cause different effects in animals depending on sex, age and the stage of population cycle. This confirms the need of including these biological factors to analysis of low doses effects in the natural populations during radioecological studies. Investigations were supported by RFBR grants No. 13-04-01750? and No. 13-04-90351-RBUa. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  1. On observation distributions for state space models of population survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knape, Jonas; Jonzén, Niclas; Sköld, Martin

    2011-11-01

    1. State space models are starting to replace more simple time series models in analyses of temporal dynamics of populations that are not perfectly censused. By simultaneously modelling both the dynamics and the observations, consistent estimates of population dynamical parameters may be obtained. For many data sets, the distribution of observation errors is unknown and error models typically chosen in an ad-hoc manner. 2. To investigate the influence of the choice of observation error on inferences, we analyse the dynamics of a replicated time series of red kangaroo surveys using a state space model with linear state dynamics. Surveys were performed through aerial counts and Poisson, overdispersed Poisson, normal and log-normal distributions may all be adequate for modelling observation errors for the data. We fit each of these to the data and compare them using AIC. 3. The state space models were fitted with maximum likelihood methods using a recent importance sampling technique that relies on the Kalman filter. The method relaxes the assumption of Gaussian observation errors required by the basic Kalman filter. Matlab code for fitting linear state space models with Poisson observations is provided. 4. The ability of AIC to identify the correct observation model was investigated in a small simulation study. For the parameter values used in the study, without replicated observations, the correct observation distribution could sometimes be identified but model selection was prone to misclassification. On the other hand, when observations were replicated, the correct distribution could typically be identified. 5. Our results illustrate that inferences may differ markedly depending on the observation distributions used, suggesting that choosing an adequate observation model can be critical. Model selection and simulations show that for the models and parameter values in this study, a suitable observation model can typically be identified if observations are

  2. Vibrational modes of nanolines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyliger, Paul R.; Flannery, Colm M.; Johnson, Ward L.

    2008-04-01

    Brillouin-light-scattering spectra previously have been shown to provide information on acoustic modes of polymeric lines fabricated by nanoimprint lithography. Finite-element methods for modeling such modes are presented here. These methods provide a theoretical framework for determining elastic constants and dimensions of nanolines from measured spectra in the low gigahertz range. To make the calculations feasible for future incorporation in inversion algorithms, two approximations of the boundary conditions are employed in the calculations: the rigidity of the nanoline/substrate interface and sinusoidal variation of displacements along the nanoline length. The accuracy of these approximations is evaluated as a function of wavenumber and frequency. The great advantage of finite-element methods over other methods previously employed for nanolines is the ability to model any cross-sectional geometry. Dispersion curves and displacement patterns are calculated for modes of polymethyl methacrylate nanolines with cross-sectional dimensions of 65 nm × 140 nm and rectangular or semicircular tops. The vibrational displacements and dispersion curves are qualitatively similar for the two geometries and include a series of flexural, Rayleigh-like, and Sezawa-like modes. This paper is a contribution of the National Institute of Standards and Technology and is not subject to copyright in the United States.

  3. Structural Stability and Vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiggers, Sine Leergaard; Pedersen, Pauli

    This book offers an integrated introduction to the topic of stability and vibration. Strikingly, it describes stability as a function of boundary conditions and eigenfrequency as a function of both boundary conditions and column force. Based on a post graduate course held by the author at the Uni......This book offers an integrated introduction to the topic of stability and vibration. Strikingly, it describes stability as a function of boundary conditions and eigenfrequency as a function of both boundary conditions and column force. Based on a post graduate course held by the author...... and their derivation, thus stimulating them to write interactive and dynamic programs to analyze instability and vibrational modes....

  4. Short communication: Improving accuracy of Jersey genomic evaluations in the United States and Denmark by sharing reference population bulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect on prediction accuracy for Jersey genomic evaluations in Denmark and the United States from using larger reference populations was assessed. Each country contributed genotypes from 1,157 Jersey bulls to the reference population of the other. Eight of 9 traits analyzed by Denmark (milk, fa...

  5. Disparities in access to trauma care in the United States: A population-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Brendan G; Bowman, Ariel J; Wolff, Catherine S; Mullen, Michael T; Holena, Daniel N; Branas, Charles C; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2017-02-01

    Injury is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in the United States. Accordingly, expanding access to trauma care is a Healthy People priority. The extent to which disparities in access to trauma care exist in the US is unknown. Our objective was to describe geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic disparities in access to trauma care in the United States. Cross-sectional study of the US population in 2010 using small units of geographic analysis and validated estimates of population access to a Level I or II trauma center within 60minutes via ambulance or helicopter. We examined the association between geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic factors and trauma center access, with subgroup analyses of urban-rural disparities. Of the 309 million people in the US in 2010, 29.7 million lacked access to trauma care. Across the country, areas with higher income were significantly more likely to have access (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.12-1.50), as were major cities (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.25-3.62) and suburbs (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.02-1.57). Areas with higher rates of uninsured (OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.07-0.11) and Medicaid or Medicare eligible patients (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.59-0.82) were less likely to have access. Areas with higher proportions of blacks and non-whites were more likely to have access (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.19-1.58), as were areas with higher proportions of Hispanics and foreign-born persons (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.13-2.01). Overall, rurality was associated with significantly lower access to trauma care (OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.18-0.23). While the majority of the United States has access to trauma care within an hour, almost 30 million US residents do not. Significant disparities in access were evident for vulnerable populations defined by insurance status, income, and rurality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Incidence of cytomegalovirus infection among the general population and pregnant women in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dollard Sheila C

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytomegalovirus (CMV is a common opportunistic infection among HIV-infected individuals, a major source of serious complications among organ-transplant recipients, and a leading cause of hearing loss, vision loss, and mental retardation among congenitally infected children. Women infected for the first time during pregnancy are especially likely to transmit CMV to their fetuses. More children suffer serious disabilities caused by congenital CMV than by several better-known childhood maladies such as Down syndrome or fetal alcohol syndrome Methods Using CMV seroprevalence data from the nationally representative Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we estimated CMV incidence among the general United States population and among pregnant women. We employed catalytic models that used age-specific CMV seroprevalences as cumulative markers of past infections in order to derive estimates of three basic parameters: the force of infection, the basic reproductive rate, and the average age of infection. Our main focus was the force of infection, an instantaneous per capita rate of acquisition of infection that approximates the incidence of infection in the seronegative population. Results Among the United States population ages 12–49 the force of infection was 1.6 infections per 100 susceptible persons per year (95% confidence interval: 1.2, 2.4. The associated basic reproductive rate of 1.7 indicates that, on average, an infected person transmits CMV to nearly two susceptible people. The average age of CMV infection was 28.6 years. Force of infection was significantly higher among non-Hispanic Blacks (5.7 and Mexican Americans (5.1 than among non-Hispanic Whites (1.4. Force of infection was significantly higher in the low household income group (3.5 than in the middle (2.1 and upper (1.5 household income groups. Based on these CMV incidence estimates, approximately 27,000 new CMV infections occur among seronegative

  7. A hierarchical integrated population model for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Bi-State Distinct Population Segment, California and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Halstead, Brian J.; Blomberg, Erik J.; Brussee, Brianne; Howe, Kristy B.; Wiechman, Lief; Tebbenkamp, Joel; Reese, Kerry P.; Gardner, Scott C.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus, hereafter referred to as “sage-grouse”) are endemic to sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystems throughout Western North America. Populations of sage-grouse have declined in distribution and abundance across the range of the species (Schroeder and others, 2004; Knick and Connelly, 2011), largely as a result of human disruption of sagebrush communities (Knick and Connelly, 2011). The Bi-State Distinct Population Segment (DPS) represents sage-grouse populations that are geographically isolated and genetically distinct (Benedict and others, 2003; Oyler-McCance and others, 2005) and that are present at the extreme southwestern distribution of the sage-grouse range (Schroeder and others, 2004), straddling the border of California and Nevada. Subpopulations of sage-grouse in the DPS may be at increased risk of extirpation because of a substantial loss of sagebrush habitat and lack of connectivity (Oyler-McCance and others, 2005). Sage-grouse in the Bi-State DPS represent small, localized breeding populations distributed across 18,325 km2. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service currently (2014) is evaluating the Bi-State DPS as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, independent of other sage-grouse populations. This DPS was designated as a higher priority for listing than sage-grouse in other parts of the species’ range (U.S. Department of the Interior, 2010). Range-wide population analyses for sage-grouse have included portions of the Bi-State DPS (Sage and Columbian Sharp-tailed Grouse Technical Committee 2008; Garton and others, 2011). Although these analyses are informative, the underlying data only represent a portion of the DPS and are comprised of lek count observations only. A thorough examination of population dynamics and persistence that includes multiple subpopulations and represents the majority of the DPS is largely lacking. Furthermore, fundamental information on population growth

  8. Bayesian salamanders: analysing the demography of an underground population of the European plethodontid Speleomantes strinatii with state-space modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvidio Sebastiano

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that Plethodontid salamanders are excellent candidates for indicating ecosystem health. However, detailed, long-term data sets of their populations are rare, limiting our understanding of the demographic processes underlying their population fluctuations. Here we present a demographic analysis based on a 1996 - 2008 data set on an underground population of Speleomantes strinatii (Aellen in NW Italy. We utilised a Bayesian state-space approach allowing us to parameterise a stage-structured Lefkovitch model. We used all the available population data from annual temporary removal experiments to provide us with the baseline data on the numbers of juveniles, subadults and adult males and females present at any given time. Results Sampling the posterior chains of the converged state-space model gives us the likelihood distributions of the state-specific demographic rates and the associated uncertainty of these estimates. Analysing the resulting parameterised Lefkovitch matrices shows that the population growth is very close to 1, and that at population equilibrium we expect half of the individuals present to be adults of reproductive age which is what we also observe in the data. Elasticity analysis shows that adult survival is the key determinant for population growth. Conclusion This analysis demonstrates how an understanding of population demography can be gained from structured population data even in a case where following marked individuals over their whole lifespan is not practical.

  9. Vibration Analysis and the Accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Have you ever put your hand on an electric motor or motor-driven electric appliance and felt it vibrate? Ever wonder why it vibrates? What is there about the operation of the motor, or the object to which it is attached, that causes the vibrations? Is there anything "regular" about the vibrations, or are they the result of random causes? In this…

  10. Population impact of lung cancer screening in the United States: Projections from a microsimulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criss, Steven D; Sheehan, Deirdre F; Palazzo, Lauren; Kong, Chung Yin

    2018-02-01

    Previous simulation studies estimating the impacts of lung cancer screening have ignored the changes in smoking prevalence over time in the United States. Our primary rationale was to perform, to our knowledge, the first simulation study that estimates the health outcomes of lung cancer screening with explicit modeling of smoking trends for the whole US population. Utilizing a well-validated microsimulation model, we estimated the benefits and harms of an annual low-dose computed tomography screening scenario with a realistic screening adherence rate versus a no-screening scenario for the US population from 2016-2030. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) eligibility criteria were applied: age 55-77 years at time of screening, history of at least 30 pack-years of smoking, and current smoker or former smoker with fewer than 15 years since quitting. In the screened population, cumulative mortality reduction was projected to reach 16.98% (95% CI 16.90%-17.07%). Cumulative mortality reduction was estimated to be 3.52% (95% CI 3.50%-3.53%) for the overall study population, with annual mortality reduction peaking at 4.38% (95% CI 4.36%-4.41%) in 2021 and falling to 3.53% (95% CI 3.50%-3.56%) by 2030. Lung cancer screening would save a projected 148,484 life-years (95% CI 147,429-149,540) across the total population through 2030. There were estimated to be 9,054 (95% CI 9,011-9,098) overdiagnosed cases among the 252,429 (95% CI 251,208-253,649) screen-detected lung cancer diagnoses, yielding an overdiagnosis rate of 3.59%. The limitations of our study are that we do not explicitly model race or socioeconomic status and our model was calibrated to data from studies performed in academic centers, both of which may impact the generalizability of our results. We also exclusively model the effects of the CMS guidelines for lung cancer screening and not any other screening strategies. The mortality reduction and life-years gained estimated by this study are lower

  11. Strategy for predicting railway-induced vibrations in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Peter; Persson, Kent; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2016-01-01

    for the residents. It is necessary, even at an early stage of planning, to assess the extent of the vibrations and state requirements for the building in order to avoid costly changes at later stages. Ground vibration induced by railway traffic is studied in the paper. The aim is to develop a strategy...... for predicting vibrations in nearby buildings in an early stage of the building process. The strategy is based on that there is a fairly good knowledge of the properties of the ground and that some on-site vibration measurements are made. By combining these with finite-element analysis, the vibration level...... a strategy for predicting railway-induced vibrations....

  12. Kinetic theory for DNA melting with vibrational entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensale, Sebastian; Peng, Zhangli; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2017-10-01

    By treating DNA as a vibrating nonlinear lattice, an activated kinetic theory for DNA melting is developed to capture the breakage of the hydrogen bonds and subsequent softening of torsional and bending vibration modes. With a coarse-grained lattice model, we identify a key bending mode with GHz frequency that replaces the hydrogen vibration modes as the dominant out-of-phase phonon vibration at the transition state. By associating its bending modulus to a universal in-phase bending vibration modulus at equilibrium, we can hence estimate the entropic change in the out-of-phase vibration from near-equilibrium all-atom simulations. This and estimates of torsional and bending entropy changes lead to the first predictive and sequence-dependent theory with good quantitative agreement with experimental data for the activation energy of melting of short DNA molecules without intermediate hairpin structures.

  13. Persons of Spanish Origin in the United States: March 1980 (Advance Report). Population Characteristics, Current Population Reports. Series P-20, No. 361.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD. Population Div.

    The Bureau of the Census collected information on age, residence, employment status, occupation, and income in March 1980 as a supplement to its monthly Current Population Survey. Data indicated that in March 1980 there were about 13.2 million persons of Spanish origin in the United States. Of these, there were about 60% of Mexican origin, 14% of…

  14. Catalytic synthesis of ammonia using vibrationally excited nitrogen molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Henriksen, Niels Engholm; Billing, Gert D.

    1992-01-01

    are vibrationally excited to states with quantum numbers 3-10. The rate and equilibrium constants for the process using vibrationally excited nitrogen molecules are calculated and expressions for the reaction rates are derived. A comparison with the ordinary process, where the nitrogen molecules...

  15. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 18, Number 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    Institute EDITOR: TECHNICAL EDITOR: RESEARCH EDITOR: COPY EDITOR: PRODUCTION: BOARD OF EDITORS R.L. Bort J.D.C. Crisp D.J. Johns B.N...integral formulation, steady cellular elements (tetrahedron and cube), state (earth dams and foundations), and free vibrations (shear walls). The reviewer...Excitation ............ 61 Harbors and Dams ................ 45 Shock Excitation ................ 64 Power Plants .................... 46 Vibration

  16. Travel patterns and characteristics of foreign-born sub-population in New York state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Shih-Miao [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hwang, Ho-Ling [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reuscher, Tim [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, Daniel W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-10-01

    According to the 2010 Census, over 22% of total New York State (NYS) residents were foreign-born and over one in three persons living in New York City (NYC) were foreign-born. Foreign-born and their dependents impact local economies in many different ways, including purchasing power, transportation service needs, business sales and receipts generated, and workforce. To allow better policy decision making and program planning of transportation developments and investments in NYS, a clear understanding of the foreign-born population’s travel characteristics and behaviors, as well as their unique transportation service needs, are necessary. This report documents the characteristics of the foreign-born population and identified differences in travel behaviors and mobility issues between foreign-born residents of NYS and their U.S.-born counterparts.

  17. How Education Media can benefit the International Student Population in the United States University Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Purmensky

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated international students’ access to the Internet, their use of webbased educational media, and the differences between those who utilized a website designed to decrease acculturative stress and those who did not. Results indicated that international students applying to universities in the United States have excellent access to the Internet, although in some areas it is still very expensive. Of the students who utilized the website designed for them, most found it was very helpful to their adjustment to life at the university. Many of those same students also reported that they used web-based educational media resources to help them decide which university to attend. Universities need to focus their attention on using web-based educational media to attract and assist their international student populations.

  18. Comparison of various NLTE codes in computing the charge-state populations of an argon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, S.R.; Weisheit, J.C.

    1984-11-01

    A comparison among nine computer codes shows surprisingly large differences where it had been believed that the theroy was well understood. Each code treats an argon plasma, optically thin and with no external photon flux; temperatures vary around 1 keV and ion densities vary from 6 x 10/sup 17/ cm/sup -3/ to 6 x 10/sup 21/ cm/sup -3/. At these conditions most ions have three or fewer bound electrons. The calculated populations of 0-, 1-, 2-, and 3-electron ions differ from code to code by typical factors of 2, in some cases by factors greater than 300. These differences depend as sensitively on how may Rydberg states a code allows as they do on variations among computed collision rates. 29 refs., 23 figs.

  19. Vibrations and Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    About this textbook An ideal text for students that ties together classical and modern topics of advanced vibration analysis in an interesting and lucid manner. It provides students with a background in elementary vibrations with the tools necessary for understanding and analyzing more complex...... dynamical phenomena that can be encountered in engineering and scientific practice. It progresses steadily from linear vibration theory over various levels of nonlinearity to bifurcation analysis, global dynamics and chaotic vibrations. It trains the student to analyze simple models, recognize nonlinear...... phenomena and work with advanced tools such as perturbation analysis and bifurcation analysis. Explaining theory in terms of relevant examples from real systems, this book is user-friendly and meets the increasing interest in non-linear dynamics in mechanical/structural engineering and applied mathematics...

  20. Vibrational Energy Relaxation in Water-Acetonitrile Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cringus, Dan; Yeremenko, Sergey; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Wiersma, Douwe A.; Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Nelson, Keith A.; Okada, Tadashi; Silvestri, Sandro De

    2004-01-01

    IR pump-probe spectroscopy is used to study the effect of hydrogen bonding on the vibrational energy relaxation pathways. Hydrogen bonding accelerates the population relaxation from 12ps in diluted acetonitrile solution to 700fs in bulk water.

  1. Vibrational energy relaxation in water-acetonitrile mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cringus, D; Yeremenko, S; Pshenichnikov, MS; Wiersma, DA; Kobayashi, T; Okada, T; Kobayashi, T; Nelson, KA; DeSilvestri, S

    2005-01-01

    IR pump-probe spectroscopy is used to study the effect of hydrogen bonding on the vibrational energy relaxation pathways. Hydrogen bonding accelerates the population relaxation from 12ps in diluted acetonitrile solution to 700fs in bulk water.

  2. Vibrational energy relaxation in water-acetonitrile mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cringus, Dan; Yeremenko, Sergey; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Wiersma, Douwe A.

    2004-01-01

    IR pump-probe spectroscopy is used to study the effect of hydrogen bonding on the vibrational energy relaxation pathways. Hydrogen bonding accelerates the population relaxation from 12ps in diluted acetonitrile solution to 700fs in bulk water.

  3. Vibrational energy flow in substituted benzenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pein, Brandt C.

    Using ultrafast infrared (IR) Raman spectroscopy, vibrational energy flow was monitored in several liquid-state substituted benzenes at ambient temperature. In a series of mono-halogenated benzenes, X-C6H 5 (X = F, Cl, Br, I), a similar CH-stretch at 3068 cm-1 was excited using picosecond IR pulses and the resulting vibrational relaxation and overall vibrational cooling processes were monitored with anti-Stokes spectroscopy. In the molecules with a heavier halide substituent the CH-stretch decayed slower while midrange vibrations decayed faster. This result was logical if the density of states (DOS) in the first few tiers, which is the DOS composed of vibrations with smaller quantum number, is what primarily determines energy flow. For tiers 1-4, the DOS was nearly identical in the CH-stretch region while it increased in the midrange region for heavier halide mass. Excitation spectroscopy, an extension of 3D IR-Raman spectroscopy, was developed and used to selectively pump vibrations localized to the substituent or the phenyl group in nitrobenzene (NB), o-fluoronitrobenzene (OFNB) and o-nitrotoluene (ONT) and in the alkylbenzene series toluene, isopropylbenzene (IPB), and t-butylbenzene (TBB). Using quantum chemical calculations, each Raman active vibration was sorted, according to their atomic displacements, into three classifications: substituent, phenyl, or global. Using IR pump wavenumbers that initially excited substituent or phenyl vibrations, IR-Raman spectroscopy was used to monitor energy flowing from the substituent to phenyl vibrations and vice versa. In NB nitro-to-phenyl and nitro-to-global energy flow was almost nonexistent while phenyl-to-nitro and phenyl-to-global was weak. When ortho substituents (-CH3, -F) were introduced, energy flow from nitro-to-phenyl and nitro-to-global was activated. In ONT, phenyl-to-nitro energy flow ceased possibly due to the added methyl group diverting energy from entering the nitro vibrations. Energy flow is therefore

  4. Noninfectious disease among the Bhutanese refugee population at a United States urban clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gayathri S; Varma, Selina; Saenger, Michael S; Burleson, Molly; Kohrt, Brandon A; Cantey, Paul

    2014-10-01

    A large number of Bhutanese are currently being resettled to the United States. A high prevalence of noninfectious diseases has been noted in some refugee groups, but data on the Bhutanese refugee population are lacking. A retrospective, chart review study was conducted to determine proportion of noninfectious disease among ethnically Nepali Bhutanese refugees (n = 66) seen at the Grady Refugee Clinic (GRC). GRC disease proportions included the following: 52 % of the patients were overweight/obese (n = 34), 23 % were hypertensive (n = 15), 12 % had vitamin B(12) deficiency (n = 8), 15 % had depression (n = 10), and 14 % had diabetes (n = 9). Nine (90 %) patients with depression had chronic disease compared to 30 (54 %) of the patients without depression. The study found a substantial burden of chronic disease, micronutrient deficiency, and depression in the GRC. Further research is needed to accurately describe the disease burden in refugee populations and to evaluate pre-resettlement disease prevention strategies to provide a framework for future public health interventions.

  5. Distribution of Lewis (FUT3)genotype and allele: frequencies in a biethnic United States population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, B; Pankow, J S; Salomaa, V; Couper, D; Morris, T L; Brantley, K R; Hiller, K M; Heiss, G; Weston, B W

    2002-10-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the prevalence and distribution of four major single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (T59G, T1067G, T202C, and C314T) of the Lewis ( FUT3)gene in a biethnic United States population. This population-based cross-sectional study was based on data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, which included 761 males and females aged 45-64 years, who had no known/detected clinical atherosclerotic disease (577 Caucasians, 184 African Americans). The main outcome measures were prevalence of the Lewis genotype and allele frequencies for four SNPs of the FUT3gene. The most common genotype was the "wild type" at all four nucleotide positions ( WWWW), which was found to be present in 46.9% of ARIC participants. At least one mutant allele was detected in 51.7% of Caucasians, and 56.7% of African Americans ( P=0.59). The frequencies of mutant alleles ranged from 6.3% to 18.4% at the four FUT3gene sites examined. The distribution of the Lewis genotype and allele frequencies differed significantly by ethnicity at sites 59, 202, and 314. The prevalence of the Lewis genotype suggesting a lack of alpha(1,3/1,4) fucosyltransferase activity was 11.6% in Caucasians and 9.9% in African Americans ( P=0.67). Four specific SNPs of the Lewis genotype are common in the population at large. However, these four SNPs seem to fail to explain the majority of Lewis-negative phenotype in African Americans, given that Lewis-negative genotype prevalence was about one-third of what was expected. Use of rapid DNA sequencing and simultaneous Lewis phenotype determination could avoid the problems associated with haplotype determination and Lewis genotype grouping. Further studies testing SNPs of the Lewisgene are warranted, in particular among African Americans.

  6. The high comorbidity burden of the hepatitis C virus infected population in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louie Karly S

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic hepatitis C (HCV disease can be complicated with comorbid conditions that may impact treatment eligibility and outcomes. The aim of the study was to systematically review comorbidities and symptoms in an HCV infected population, specifically assessing comorbidities associated with HCV anti-viral treatment and disease, as well as comparing comorbidities between an HCV infected and uninfected control population. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study within a United States medical claims database among patients with chronic HCV designed to estimate the two-year period prevalence of comorbidities. Patients with two HCV diagnosis codes, 24 months of continuous health insurance coverage, and full medical and pharmacy benefits were included. Results Among a chronic HCV cohort of 7411 patients, at least one comorbid condition was seen in almost all patients (> 99% during the study period. HCV-infected patients reported almost double the number of comorbidities compared to uninfected controls. Of the 25 most common comorbidities, the majority of the comorbidities (n = 22 were known to be associated with either HCV antiviral treatment or disease. The five most frequent comorbidities were liver disease [other] (37.5%, connective tissue disease (37.5%, abdominal pain (36.1%, upper respiratory infections (35.6%, and lower respiratory disease (33.7%. Three notable comorbidities not known to be associated with antiviral treatment or disease were benign neoplasms (24.3%, genitourinary symptoms & ill-defined conditions (14.8%, and viral infections (13.8%. Conclusions This US medically insured HCV population is highly comorbid. Effective strategies to manage these comorbidities are necessary to allow wider access to HCV treatment and reduce the future burden of HCV disease and its manifestations.

  7. Monothiodibenzoylmethane: Structural and vibrational assignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarke Knud Vilster; Gorski, Alexander; Posokhov, Yevgen

    2007-01-01

    The vibrational structure of the title compound (1,3-diphenyl-3-thioxopropane-1-one, TDBM) was studied by a variety of experimental and theoretical methods. The stable ground state configuration of TDBM was investigated by IR absorption measurements in different media, by LD polarization spectros...... to an “open”, non-chelated enethiol form (t-TCC), thereby supporting the previous conclusions by Posokhov et al. No obvious indications of the contribution of other forms to the observed spectra could be found....

  8. Persons of Spanish Origin in the United States: March 1977 (Advance Report). Population Characteristics, Current Population Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Edward W.; And Others

    The report presents advance data from the March 1977 Current Population Survey on selected demographic, social, and economic characteristics of persons of Spanish origin. Persons of Spanish origin are divided into the subcategories of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, and other Spanish origin. Data pertain to such population…

  9. The Fiscal Challenges of Population Aging The Contrasting Cases of The United States and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Henry J. Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Population aging results inevitably from increasing longevity and declining fertility. But how much and how fast populations age differ enormously. So do the fiscal stresses that population aging generates.

  10. An integrated low carbon energy solution to cooking fuel, tailored to Niger state's rural population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvell, Aaron; Price-Allison, Andrew; Birch, Calum; Green, Toby; Harijan, Khanji; Maihankuri, Sheidi; Raji, Abdulganiy; Uqaili, Mohammed; Dupont, Valerie

    2017-11-01

    Niger State (Nigeria) was selected as a case study of renewable, affordable and user friendly clean energy provision in remote areas of developing countries. Niger state has 80% of its 4.5 million population living in rural agrarian areas with low literacy rates, there is a lack of wind thus eliminating wind as widely available potential power source. Based on the assessment of the local large insolation, the type of agricultural, biomass and husbandry resources, this study selected the design of anaerobic digestion units processing mostly animal and human waste, and whose heating and power requirement would be entirely provided by solar photovoltaic/thermal to maintain optimum efficiency of the biogas production. The designs was carried out at the scale of up to 15 household demand (community scale). Volume and therefore the production of biogas maybe increased or decreased in the design considered, and local, low cost resilient material were proposed. The proposed system was costed for a community of 24 people, demonstrating the potential for clean and renewable gas production economically.

  11. The origin of unequal bond lengths in the C̃ (1)B2 state of SO2: Signatures of high-lying potential energy surface crossings in the low-lying vibrational structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, G Barratt; Jiang, Jun; Field, Robert W

    2016-04-14

    The C̃ (1)B2 state of SO2 has a double-minimum potential in the antisymmetric stretch coordinate, such that the minimum energy geometry has nonequivalent SO bond lengths. The asymmetry in the potential energy surface is expressed as a staggering in the energy levels of the ν3(') progression. We have recently made the first observation of low-lying levels with odd quanta of v3('), which allows us-in the current work-to characterize the origins of the level staggering. Our work demonstrates the usefulness of low-lying vibrational level structure, where the character of the wavefunctions can be relatively easily understood, to extract information about dynamically important potential energy surface crossings that occur at much higher energy. The measured staggering pattern is consistent with a vibronic coupling model for the double-minimum, which involves direct coupling to the bound 2 (1)A1 state and indirect coupling with the repulsive 3 (1)A1 state. The degree of staggering in the ν3(') levels increases with quanta of bending excitation, which is consistent with the approach along the C̃ state potential energy surface to a conical intersection with the 2 (1)A1 surface at a bond angle of ∼145°.

  12. Vibrational relaxation of hot carriers in C60 molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjet, Mohamed; Chakraborty, Himadri

    2017-04-01

    Electron-phonon coupling in molecular systems is at the heart of several important physical phenomena, including the mobility of carriers in organic electronic devices. Following the optical absorption, the vibrational relaxation of excited (hot) electrons and holes to the fullerene band-edges driven by electron-phonon coupling, known as the hot carrier thermalization process, is of particular fundamental interest. Using the non-adiabatic molecular dynamical methodology (PYXAID + Quantum Espresso) based on density functional approach, we have performed a simulation of vibrionic relaxations of hot carriers in C60. Time-dependent population decays and transfers in the femtosecond scale from various excited states to the states at the band-edge are calculated to study the details of this relaxation process. This work was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation.

  13. Prevalence of hypertension in the rural adult population of Osun State, southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asekun-Olarinmoye EO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available EO Asekun-Olarinmoye,1 PO Akinwusi,2 WO Adebimpe,1 MA Isawumi,3 MB Hassan,3 OA Olowe,4 OB Makanjuola,4 CO Alebiosu,2 TA Adewole51Department of Community Medicine, 2Department of Medicine, 3Department of Surgery, 4Department of Microbiology, 5Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Health Sciences, Osun State University, Osogbo, Osun State, NigeriaBackground: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension in two rural communities of Osun State, Nigeria.Methods: A consenting adult population of the Alajue and Obokun rural communities in southwestern Nigeria that presented for the screening exercise participated in this community-based cross-sectional descriptive study. Two hundred and fifty-nine respondents aged older than 18 years completed a standardized, pretested, structured questionnaire as part of activities celebrating World Kidney Day and World Glaucoma Day in 2011. Anthropometric data and blood pressure were recorded, and the data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17.Results: The mean age of the respondents was 49.7 ± 1.6 years, 100 (38.6% were males, 84 (32.4% were farmers, and 111 (42.9% were traders. The prevalence of hypertension was 13.16% (present in 34 respondents. Seventeen (6.6% had isolated systolic hypertension, while 11 (4.2% had isolated diastolic hypertension. Two hundred and thirty-six (91.1% undertook daily exercise lasting at least 30 minutes and 48 (18.5% had ever taken antihypertensive drugs on a regular basis. Four respondents (1.6% claimed a family history of hypertension. The average body mass index (BMI among respondents was 23.4 ± 4.9 kg/m2, 51 (19.6% had a BMI of 25.0–29.9, and 30 (11.5% had a BMI ≥ 30. A significant association existed between age older than 40 years and having hypertension (P 0.05. Rates of older age and high BMI were significantly higher among hypertensives than among normotensives. Respondents with BMI < 25 had at

  14. Liver fibrosis scores predict liver disease mortality in the United States population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unalp-Arida, Aynur; Ruhl, Constance E

    2017-07-01

    Fatty liver disease is common in the United States and worldwide due to changing lifestyles and can progress to fibrosis and cirrhosis contributing to premature death. We examined whether liver fibrosis scores were associated with increased overall and disease-specific mortality in a United States population-based prospective survey with up to 23 years of linked-mortality data. Data were analyzed from 14,841 viral hepatitis-negative adult participants in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. Liver fibrosis was predicted using the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) score, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease fibrosis score (NFS), and Forns score. Participants were passively followed for mortality, identified by death certificate underlying or contributing causes, by linkage to National Death Index records through 2011. Hazard ratios (HR) for mortality were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression to adjust for mortality risk factors. During follow-up, cumulative mortality was 28.0% from all causes and 0.82% with liver disease, including primary liver cancer. Elevated liver disease mortality was found with an intermediate to high APRI (HR, 9.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.02-17.73), intermediate (HR, 3.15; 95% CI, 1.33-7.44) or high (HR, 25.14; 95% CI, 8.38-75.40) FIB-4 score, high NFS (HR, 6.52; 95% CI, 2.30-18.50), and intermediate (HR, 3.58; 95% CI, 1.78-7.18) or high (HR, 63.13; 95% CI, 22.16-179.78) Forns score. Overall mortality was also greater with higher fibrosis scores. In the United States population, higher liver fibrosis scores were associated with increased liver disease and overall mortality. Liver health management with common clinical measures of fibrosis risk stratification merits further investigation. (Hepatology 2017;66:84-95). © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. This article has been contributed to by U.S. Government

  15. Population-Focused Practice Competency Needs Among Public Health Nursing Leaders in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espina, Christine R; Bekemeier, Betty; Storey-Kuyl, Marni

    2016-05-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ISSUE Instructions: 1.2 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded after you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. In order to obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Population-Focused Practice Competency Needs Among Public Health Nursing Leaders in Washington State," found on pages 212-219, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name, contact information, and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until April 30, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. OBJECTIVES Describe supports and barriers to adopting population-focused care in public health nursing

  16. DFT study of the molecular and crystal structure and vibrational analysis of cisplatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, I.; Trendafilova, N.; Dodoff, N.; Kovacheva, D.

    2017-04-01

    DFT and periodic-DFT (PAW-PBE method, code VASP) calculations have been performed to study the structural and vibrational characteristics of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cisplatin) at molecular and outside molecular level. To estimate the effect of the intermolecular interactions in crystal on the structural and vibrational properties of cisplatin, three theoretical models are considered in the present study: monomer (isolated molecule), hydrogen bonded dimer and periodic solid state structures. The work focused on the role of the theoretical models for correct modeling and prediction of geometrical and vibrational parameters of cisplatin. It has been found that the elaborate three-dimensional intermolecular hydrogen bonding network in the crystalline cisplatin significantly influences the structural and vibrational pattern of cisplatin and therefore the isolated cisplatin molecule is not the correct computational model regardless of the theoretical level used. To account for the whole intermolecular hydrogen bonding network in direction of both a and c axis and for more reliable calculations of structural and vibrational parameters periodic DFT calculations were carried out in the full crystalline periodic environment with the known lattice parameters for each cisplatin polymorph phase. The model calculations performed both at molecular level and for the periodic structures of alpha and beta cisplatin polymorph forms revealed the decisive role of the extended theoretical model for reliable prediction of the structural and vibrational characteristics of cisplatin. The powder diffraction pattern and the calculated IR and Raman spectra predicted beta polymorph form of our cisplatin sample freshly synthesized for the purposes of the present study using the Dhara's method. The various rotamers realized in the polymorph forms of cisplatin were explained by the low population of the large number of rotamers in solution as well as with the high rotamer

  17. Vibrational quantisation of the B=7 Skyrmion

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    C.J. Halcrow

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider the inclusion of the most important vibrational modes in the quantisation of the dodecahedral B=7 Skyrmion. In contrast to a rigid body quantisation, this formalism allows a spin 32 state to lie below the spin 72 state, in agreement with experimental data. There is also a low lying spin 12 state and two spin 52 states. We find that the excited spin 72 state has a smaller root mean square charge radius than the other states. This prediction is an important signature of the Skyrme model, in conflict with more conventional nuclear models.

  18. Measurement of Dynamic Viscoelasticity of Full-Size Wood Composite Panels Using a Vibration Testing Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Guan; Houjiang Zhang; John F. Hunt; Lujing Zhou; Dan Feng

    2016-01-01

    The dynamic viscoelasticity of full-size wood composite panels (WCPs) under the free-free vibrational state were determined by a vibration testing method. Vibration detection tests were performed on 194 pieces of three types of full-size WCPs (particleboard, medium density fiberboard, and plywood (PW)). The dynamic viscoelasticity from smaller specimens cut from the...

  19. Persons of Spanish Origin in the United States: March 1975 (Advance Report). Population Characteristics, Current Population Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Edward W., Comp.; And Others

    In March 1975, there were about 11.2 million persons of Spanish origin in the United States. This advance report presents data on a variety of social, economic, and democratic characteristics for these people. Subcategories of Spanish origin are: Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central and South American, or other Spanish origin. Collected in the…

  20. Nonlinear Vibration of a Magnetic Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Juhua; Cheng, Zhongqi; Ge, Ziming; Zhang, Yuelan; Lu, Wenqiang; Song, Feng; Li, Chuanyong

    2012-01-01

    To demonstrate the different vibration characteristics of a magnetic spring compared with those of a metal one, a magnetic spring apparatus was constructed from a pair of circular magnets of the same size with an inside diameter of 2.07 cm and an outside diameter of 4.50 cm. To keep the upper magnet in a suspension state, the two magnets were…

  1. Vibration exposure and prevention in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futatsuka, M; Ueno, T; Yamada, S

    1994-05-01

    Working conditions of vibration exposure have generally improved, but many difficult problems must be solved such as (1) hygienic improvements in a variety of vibrating tools; (2) improving working conditions, for example, by limiting the time of operation in spite of economic difficulties such as those faced by those who work on a piece rate basis; (3) gathering more complete information about the risk population because of the large number of self-employed in informal employment sectors; and (4) finding work places after rehabilitation for patients, particularly in mountainous rural areas or in small scale industries. Historical observation of vibration and preventive measures in Japanese national forests was presented on the basis of the results of a retrospective cohort study in Kyushu, Japan. Prevalence rate of VWF remarkably changed from 58.4% in the groups that began to operate chain saws in 1960 to only a few cases in the groups who started the operation after 1971. When we compare the relationships between the results of long term cohort study and the consequences of preventive measures of vibration syndrome, the most important factor is the decrease of vibration exposure (improvement in chain saws plus the time restriction system). The comprehensive prevention system used in Japanese national forests consists of the following: (1) Health care system; (2) Work regulation system; (3) System for improving mechanized tools; (4) Warming system to protect against cold conditions; and (5) Education and training system.

  2. Near-threshold vibrational excitation of acetylene by positron impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Eliane M.; Lima, Marco A. P.; Sanchez, Sergio D.'A.; Varella, Márcio T. Do N.

    2010-01-01

    We report vibrational excitation cross sections for C-C and C-H symmetric stretch modes of acetylene by positron impact. The contribution of these infrared inactive modes to the annihilation parameter is also addressed. The Feshbach projection operator approach was employed to vibrationally resolve e+-acetylene scattering phase shifts obtained with the Schwinger multichannel method. The present results point out a virtual state pole at the equilibrium geometry of acetylene that becomes a bound state as either bond is stretched, in qualitative agreement with previous calculations for small hydrocarbons. The vibrational couplings are stronger for the C-C mode, giving rise to a bound state pole within the Franck-Condon region of the vibrational ground state. These bound and virtual states give rise to sharp threshold structures (vibrational resonances) in both the vibrational excitation cross sections and the annihilation parameter (Zeff). We found fair agreement between the present calculations and previously reported e+-acetylene vibrational excitation cross sections.

  3. Differences in the population structure of Neisseria meningitidis in two Australian states: Victoria and Western Australia.

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    Shakeel Mowlaboccus

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis is the causative agent of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD. A recombinant vaccine called Bexsero® incorporates four subcapsular antigens (fHbp, NHBA, NadA and PorA which are used to assign a Bexsero® antigen sequence type (BAST to each meningococcal strain. The vaccine elicits an immune response against combinations of variants of these antigens which have been grouped into specific BAST profiles that have been shown to have different distributions within geographical locations thus potentially affecting the efficacy of the vaccine. In this study, invasive meningococcal disease isolates from the western seaboard of Australia (Western Australia; WA were compared to those from the south-eastern seaboard (Victoria; VIC from 2008 to 2012. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS of 131 meningococci from VIC and 70 meningococci from WA were analysed for MLST, FetA and BAST profiling. Serogroup B predominated in both jurisdictions and a total of 10 MLST clonal complexes (cc were shared by both states. Isolates belonging to cc22, cc103 and cc1157 were unique to VIC whilst isolates from cc60 and cc212 were unique to WA. Clonal complex 41/44 represented one-third of the meningococcal population in each state but the predominant ST was locally different: ST-6058 in VIC and ST-146 in WA. Of the 108 BAST profiles identified in this collection, only 9 BASTs were simultaneously observed in both states. A significantly larger proportion of isolates in VIC harboured alleles for the NHBA-2 peptide and fHbp-1, antigenic variants predicted to be covered by the Bexsero® vaccine. The estimate for vaccine coverage in WA (47.1% [95% CI: 41.1-53.1%] was significantly lower than that in VIC (66.4% [95% CI: 62.3-70.5%]. In conclusion, the antigenic structure of meningococci causing invasive disease in two geographically distinct states of Australia differed significantly during the study period which may affect vaccine effectiveness and highlights the

  4. Hot Spots of Mercury Bioaccumulation in Amphibian Populations From the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, M. S.

    2008-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination in the United States (U.S.) is well-documented and continues to be a public- health issue of great concern. Fish consumption advisories have been issued throughout much of the U.S. due to elevated levels of methylmercury (MeHg). Methylmercury contamination in the developing fetus and in young children is a major public health issue for certain sectors of the global human population. Moreover, identifying MeHg hot spots and the effects of MeHg pollution on environmental health and biodiversity are also considered a high priority for land managers, risk assessors, and conservation scientists. Despite their overall biomass and importance to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, Hg and MeHg bioaccumulation dynamics and toxicity in amphibians are not well studied, especially when compared to other vertebrate taxa such as birds, mammals, and fish species. Population declines in amphibians are well documented and likely caused by synergistic and interacting, multiple stressors such as climate change, exposure to toxic pollutants, fungal pathogens, and habitat loss and ecosystem degradation. Protecting quality of terrestrial ecosystems in the U.S. has enormous ramifications for economic and public health of the nation's residents and is fundamental to maintaining the biotic integrity of surface waters, riparian zones, and environmental health of forested landscapes nationwide. Determining Hg concentration levels for terrestrial and surface water ecosystems also has important implications for protecting the nation's fauna. Here I present an overview of the National Amphibian Mercury Program and evaluate variation in MeHg hotspots, Hg bioaccumulation and distribution in freshwater and terrestrial habitats across a broad gradient of physical, climatic, biotic, and ecosystem settings to identify the environmental conditions and ecosystem types that are most sensitive to Hg pollution. The role of geography, disturbance mechanisms, and abiotic and biotic

  5. Cancer incidence among Asian American populations in the United States, 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hongbin; Pinheiro, Paulo S; Xu, Jianbo; Amei, Amei

    2016-05-01

    Cancer incidence disparities exist among specific Asian American populations. However, the existing reports exclude data from large metropoles like Chicago, Houston and New York. Moreover, incidence rates by subgroup have been underestimated due to the exclusion of Asians with unknown subgroup. Cancer incidence data for 2009 to 2011 for eight states accounting for 68% of the Asian American population were analyzed. Race for cases with unknown subgroup was imputed using stratified proportion models by sex, age, cancer site and geographic regions. Age-standardized incidence rates were calculated for 17 cancer sites for the six largest Asian subgroups. Our analysis comprised 90,709 Asian and 1,327,727 non-Hispanic white cancer cases. Asian Americans had significantly lower overall cancer incidence rates than non-Hispanic whites (336.5 per 100,000 and 541.9 for men, 299.6 and 449.3 for women, respectively). Among specific Asian subgroups, Filipino men (377.4) and Japanese women (342.7) had the highest overall incidence rates while South Asian men (297.7) and Korean women (275.9) had the lowest. In comparison to non-Hispanic whites and other Asian subgroups, significantly higher risks were observed for colorectal cancer among Japanese, stomach cancer among Koreans, nasopharyngeal cancer among Chinese, thyroid cancer among Filipinos, and liver cancer among Vietnamese. South Asians had remarkably low lung cancer risk. Overall, Asian Americans have a lower cancer risk than non-Hispanic whites, except for nasopharyngeal, liver and stomach cancers. The unique portrayal of cancer incidence patterns among specific Asian subgroups in this study provides a new baseline for future cancer surveillance research and health policy. © 2015 UICC.

  6. Design of Wind Turbine Vibration Monitoring System

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    Shoubin Wang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure safety of wind turbine operation and to reduce the occurrence of faults as well as to improve the reliability of wind turbine operation, a vibration monitoring for wind turbine is developed. In this paper, it analyses the enlargement of all the parts of the structure and the working mechanism, the research method of wind turbine operation vibration is introduced, with the focus being the use of the sensor principle. Finally the hardware design and software of this system is introduced and the main function of this system is described, which realizes condition monitoring of the work state of wind turbines.

  7. Genetic variants associated with arsenic metabolism within human arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase show wide variation across multiple populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujihara, Junko; Yasuda, Toshihiro; Kato, Hideaki; Yuasa, Isao; Panduro, Arturo; Kunito, Takashi; Takeshita, Haruo

    2011-02-01

    Human arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) is known to catalyze the methylation of arsenite. The objective of this study was to investigate the diversity of the AS3MT gene in Mexican and German populations. The distribution of 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in AS3MT was assessed on healthy individuals: 38 Mestizo, 69 Nahuas, 50 Huicholes, and 32 Germans. All 18 SNPs were polymorphic in the German and Mexican populations. Of the three Mexican populations, a minor allele frequency was the highest in the Mestizo, followed by the Nahuas and Huicholes. In the German and three Mexican groups, haplotype #1(TATAGAAGTCTTCATGAC) was the most predominant. Seven haplotypes were newly found in the German and three Mexican populations. The D' values between SNP pairs were high in the German and Nahua populations; they had a similar pattern. The pattern of the Mestizo was more similar to the African than to the other Mexican populations. Huicholes had a moderate pattern of the African and German/Nahua populations. The network had three clusters. One originated in the African population and another may have originated in an Asian (Chinese and/or Japanese) population. The third one may have originated among Caucasians. This study is the first to demonstrate the existence of genetic heterogeneity in the distribution of 18 SNPs in AS3MT of German and Mexican populations.

  8. Spectacles use in a rural population in the state of Telangana in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmamula, Srinivas; Khanna, Rohit C; Kunuku, Eswararao; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2017-06-01

    Uncorrected refractive errors are the leading cause of visual impairment. To assess the prevalence and patterns of spectacles use among those aged ≥40 years in the South Indian state of Telangana. This was a population-based, cross-sectional study, in which 6150 people were enumerated from 123 clusters in the two districts of Telangana state (Adilabad and Mahbubnagar) using a two-stage cluster random sampling methodology. Participants were visited in their households and presenting visual acuity (VA) was assessed in all cases followed by pinhole VA if presenting VA was worse than 6/12. A questionnaire was used to collect information on the current and previous spectacles use, type of spectacles, and details of the spectacles provider. Stata statistical software version 12. Among 5881 participants examined, 53.7% were women, and 82% had no formal education. The prevalence of current spectacles use was 28.8% (95% confidence interval: 27.6-30.0). On applying multiple logistic regression analysis, spectacles use was significantly associated with older age groups, female gender, higher levels of education, and residing in Adilabad district. Bifocals were the most commonly used type of spectacles (56.3%), and private eye clinics (70.3%) were the leading service providers. The spectacles coverage was 53.6%. We reported on prevalence and patterns of spectacles use using a large representative sample and a high response rate. More than half of those who may benefit from spectacles were using them, suggestive of a reasonable primary eye care coverage in the two districts studied.

  9. CURRENT STATE OF POPULATION OF GAME MAMMALS HABITING SHELKOVSKOY DISTRICT OF CHECHNYA AND WAYS FOR OPTIMIZATION

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    A. M. Batkhiyev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The goal of the research is that: to identify the taxonomic composition of game species and make full list of species to assess the current state of populations and resources to carry out eco-faunistic analysis of the distribution of game mammals habiting Shelkovskiy district of Chechnya. Methods. We used mapping techniques, various methods of census forms and scientific processing of the collected material, systematic and bioecological analysis. Results. As a result, we have identified 5 ecological complexes and characterized them by distribution on the identified and described natural habitats. We have made an inventory of species, identified conditions of rare species and determined their status. Biometric data has been obtained for a number of species; their biological and ecological features have been described. We also identified the species composition of game mammals and their spatial distribution of habitats. The differentiation of species in ecological groups has been carried out. Data has been obtained on the number of nine major types for the period of 2012-2013, and their characteristics. We have made an estimation of ecological and economic potential of resources of game mammals of the study area. Conclusions. Based on the analysis of the results we can make a judgment about the level of biodiversity of species of game mammals of the studied area, the current state of their number and possible use for commercial, sports and recreational purposes. We propose specific measures such as the use of existing biological resources i.e. species of mammals, as well as the creation of new protected areas as a form of preserving and increasing the number of mammals in the area. The research results can be useful for monitoring and creating specially protected natural reservations, protection of endangered species. The findings have implications for the organization of hunting economy to increase the number of game animals. 

  10. Practice patterns among male and female general dentists in a Washington State population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Aguila, Michael A; Leggott, Penelope J; Robertson, Paul B; Porterfield, Denise L; Felber, Gene D

    2005-06-01

    Women make up about 14 percent of general dentists in the United States, and the proportion is projected to exceed 29 percent by 2020. The authors obtained dental benefits claims data from the Washington Dental Service (WDS), Seattle, and used them to examine the practice patterns of 265 women and 1,947 men engaged in general dentistry for at least 26 days in 2001. Practice variables of interest included age, days worked, procedures performed and total income from WDS reimbursements and patient copayments. The number, age and sex of patients treated also were obtained. Using productivity data, the authors also estimated the potential impact of an increase in the percentage of female dentists in the state. The authors found no differences between male and female dentists in the number of procedures per patient, income per patient or income per day of work. Frequency distributions of various services were highly similar for both groups. Multiple regression models showed no influence of dentist's sex on total income. However, the mean and median numbers of days worked were about 10 percent lower for female dentists than for male dentists. This difference was consistent with the finding that female dentists treated approximately 10 percent fewer patients, performed about 10 percent fewer procedures and had a combined income of about 10 percent less than that of male dentists. Practice patterns of male and female dentists generally were equivalent in this WDS population. Female and male dentists provided a similar range of services and earned an equal income per patient treated and per day worked. However, women worked fewer days per year than did men, irrespective of age. If the dental work force and practice patterns remain unchanged otherwise, the total number of patients treated per dentist will decrease slightly as women make up an increasing proportion of dentists.

  11. Fine-scale population dynamics in a marine fish species inferred from dynamic state-space models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Lauren A; Storvik, Geir O; Knutsen, Halvor; Olsen, Esben M; Stenseth, Nils C

    2017-07-01

    Identifying the spatial scale of population structuring is critical for the conservation of natural populations and for drawing accurate ecological inferences. However, population studies often use spatially aggregated data to draw inferences about population trends and drivers, potentially masking ecologically relevant population sub-structure and dynamics. The goals of this study were to investigate how population dynamics models with and without spatial structure affect inferences on population trends and the identification of intrinsic drivers of population dynamics (e.g. density dependence). Specifically, we developed dynamic, age-structured, state-space models to test different hypotheses regarding the spatial structure of a population complex of coastal Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Data were from a 93-year survey of juvenile (age 0 and 1) cod sampled along >200 km of the Norwegian Skagerrak coast. We compared two models: one which assumes all sampled cod belong to one larger population, and a second which assumes that each fjord contains a unique population with locally determined dynamics. Using the best supported model, we then reconstructed the historical spatial and temporal dynamics of Skagerrak coastal cod. Cross-validation showed that the spatially structured model with local dynamics had better predictive ability. Furthermore, posterior predictive checks showed that a model which assumes one homogeneous population failed to capture the spatial correlation pattern present in the survey data. The spatially structured model indicated that population trends differed markedly among fjords, as did estimates of population parameters including density-dependent survival. Recent biomass was estimated to be at a near-record low all along the coast, but the finer scale model indicated that the decline occurred at different times in different regions. Warm temperatures were associated with poor recruitment, but local changes in habitat and fishing pressure may

  12. Conformational and vibrational reassessment of solid paracetamol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, Ana M.; Azevedo, Celeste; Ribeiro-Claro, Paulo J. A.

    2017-08-01

    This work provides an answer to the urge for a more detailed and accurate knowledge of the vibrational spectrum of the widely used analgesic/antipyretic drug commonly known as paracetamol. A comprehensive spectroscopic analysis - including infrared, Raman, and inelastic neutron scattering (INS) - is combined with a computational approach which takes account for the effects of intermolecular interactions in the solid state. This allows a full reassessment of the vibrational assignments for Paracetamol, thus preventing the propagation of incorrect data analysis and misassignments already found in the literature. In particular, the vibrational modes involving the hydrogen-bonded Nsbnd H and Osbnd H groups are correctly reallocated to bands shifted by up to 300 cm- 1 relatively to previous assignments.

  13. Chatter vibrations of high-performance motorcycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, R. S.; Watanabe, Y.

    2013-03-01

    Motorcycle racing teams occasionally experience speed-limiting vibrations of around 25 Hz frequency in mid-corner. The nature of the vibrations has not been closely defined yet and the mechanics are currently not properly understood. Conventional motorcycle-dynamics models are shown here to reveal the existence of a vibration mode that aligns with the experience being referred to, suggesting some explanations. Root loci for variations in speed or cornering vigour, demonstrating modal characteristics for small perturbations from trim states, are employed to indicate how the mode responds to changes in operation and design. Modal participation is examined for a lightly damped case. Influences on the natural frequency and damping of the mode are found and a way of stabilising the mode is suggested.

  14. An analysis of mercury exposures among the adult population in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Alicia M; Gelberg, Kitty H

    2013-06-01

    The extent of methylmercury exposures among adults in New York State (NYS) has not been well characterized. Over the past few years, the NYS Heavy Metals Registry (HMR) has seen an increase in both blood mercury tests being reported, and nonoccupational exposures to mercury, which appear primarily due to fish consumption. This study will, (1) Characterize the adults who are tested for blood mercury in NYS; (2) Examine the circumstances for blood mercury testing; and (3) Characterize this population in terms of exposure history, specifically those individuals who are non-occupationally exposed through a diet of seafood consumption in reference to blood mercury levels. Data available from HMR laboratory results, including basic demographics and test results, were combined with data from telephone interviews. The interview contains information on the reasons for testing, possible sources of exposure, and the individual's work and home environment. Approximately 99 % of adults reported to the HMR, with identifiable exposures to mercury, had non-occupational exposures resulting from seafood consumption. Common types of fish consumed include salmon, tuna, and swordfish, with 90 % of adults eating seafood a few times or more per week. Information will be provided on the reasons for being tested and the range of blood mercury levels in relation to their seafood consumption. NYS residents who frequently eat fish should be aware of what types of fish contain mercury and avoid or reduce consumption of fish with high mercury levels.

  15. Leprosy in Buriticupu, state of Maranhão: active search in the general population

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    Antonio Rafael da Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study was developed to evaluate the situation of leprosy in the general population of the municipality of Buriticupu, State of Maranhão, Brazil. METHODS: We used the method of active search to identify new cases from 2008 to 2010. Bacilloscopy of intradermal scrapings was performed in all patients with skin lesions compatible with leprosy, and histopathological examination in those who had doubts on the definition of the clinical form. RESULTS: The study included 19,104 individuals, with 42 patients diagnosed with leprosy after clinical examination, representing a detection rate of 219.84 per 100,000 inhabitants. The predominant clinical presentation was tuberculoid with 24 (57.1% cases, followed by borderline with 11, indeterminate with four, and lepromatous with three cases. The study also allowed the identification of 81 patients with a history of leprosy and other skin diseases, such as pityriasis versicolor, dermatophytosis, scabies, vitiligo, and skin carcinoma. The binomial test showed that the proportion of cases in the headquarters was significantly higher than that in the villages (p = 0.04, and the generalized exact test showed that there was no association between age and clinical form (p = 0.438 and between age and gender (p = 0.083. CONCLUSIONS: The elevated detection rate defines the city as hyperendemic for leprosy; the active search for cases, as well as the organization of health services, is an important method for disease control.

  16. Cognitive Deficits in Healthy Elderly Population With "Normal" Scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votruba, Kristen L; Persad, Carol; Giordani, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated whether healthy older adults with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores above 23 exhibit cognitive impairment on neuropsychological tests. Participants completed the MMSE and a neuropsychological battery including tests of 10 domains. Results were compared to published normative data. On neuropsychological testing, participants performed well on measures of naming and recall but showed mild to moderate impairment in working memory and processing speed and marked impairment in inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functioning. Almost everyone (91%) scored at least 1 standard deviation (SD) below the mean in at least 1 domain. The median number of domains in which individuals scored below 1 SD was 3.0 of 10.0, whereas over 21% scored below 1 SD in 5 domains or more. With the strictest of definitions for impairment, 20% of this population scored below 2.0 SDs below the norm in at least 2 domains, a necessary condition for a diagnosis of dementia. The finding that cognitive impairment, particularly in attention and executive functioning, is found in healthy older persons who perform well on the MMSE has clinical and research implications in terms of emphasizing normal variability in performance and early identification of possible impairment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Social disparities in women's health service use in the United States: a population-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kelli Stidham; Dalton, Vanessa; Johnson, Timothy R B

    2014-02-01

    Poor and disparate reproductive health outcomes in the United States may be related to inadequate and differential receipt of women's health care. We investigated trends in and determinants of adult U.S. women's health service use, 2006-2010. We analyzed population data from 7897 women aged 25-44 years in the National Survey of Family Growth from 2006 to 2010 using multivariable logistic regression. Women's health service use in the past year was reported by 74% of the sample. Among noninfertile, sexually active women, 47% used contraceptive services; fewer used pregnancy (21%) and sexually transmitted infection (14%) services. In multivariable models, the odds of service use were greater among older, poor, unemployed women and women with less educational attainment than younger and socioeconomically advantaged women. Black women had greater odds of using pregnancy, sexually transmitted infection and gynecologic examination services than white women (odds ratio, 1.4-1.6). Lack of insurance was associated with service use in all models (odds ratio, 0.4-0.8). Although age-related differences in women's health service use may reflect fertility transitions, social disparities mirror reproductive inequalities among U.S. women. Research on women's health service use and outcomes across the reproductive life course and forthcoming sociopolitical climates is needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Temporal dynamics of distinct CA1 cell populations during unconscious state induced by ketamine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Kuang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ketamine is a widely used dissociative anesthetic which can induce some psychotic-like symptoms and memory deficits in some patients during the post-operative period. To understand its effects on neural population dynamics in the brain, we employed large-scale in vivo ensemble recording techniques to monitor the activity patterns of simultaneously recorded hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells and various interneurons during several conscious and unconscious states such as awake rest, running, slow wave sleep, and ketamine-induced anesthesia. Our analyses reveal that ketamine induces distinct oscillatory dynamics not only in pyramidal cells but also in at least seven different types of CA1 interneurons including putative basket cells, chandelier cells, bistratified cells, and O-LM cells. These emergent unique oscillatory dynamics may very well reflect the intrinsic temporal relationships within the CA1 circuit. It is conceivable that systematic characterization of network dynamics may eventually lead to better understanding of how ketamine induces unconsciousness and consequently alters the conscious mind.

  19. Innate Susceptibility to Norovirus Infections Influenced by FUT2 Genotype in a United States Pediatric Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Rebecca L.; Payne, Daniel C.; Staat, Mary A.; Selvarangan, Rangaraj; Shirley, S. Hannah; Halasa, Natasha; Boom, Julie A.; Englund, Janet A.; Szilagyi, Peter G.; Harrison, Christopher J.; Klein, Eileen J.; Weinberg, Geoffrey A.; Wikswo, Mary E.; Parashar, Umesh; Vinjé, Jan; Morrow, Ardythe L.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Norovirus is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE). Noroviruses bind to gut histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), but only 70%–80% of individuals have a functional copy of the FUT2 (“secretor”) gene required for gut HBGA expression; these individuals are known as “secretors.” Susceptibility to some noroviruses depends on FUT2 secretor status, but the population impact of this association is not established. Methods. From December 2011 to November 2012, active AGE surveillance was performed at 6 geographically diverse pediatric sites in the United States. Case patients aged norovirus by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Norovirus genotype was then determined by sequencing. Results. Norovirus was detected in 302 of 1465 (21%) AGE cases and 52 of 826 (6%) healthy controls. Norovirus AGE cases were 2.8-fold more likely than norovirus-negative controls to be secretors (P norovirus, GII.4. Control children of Meso-American ancestry were more likely than children of European or African ancestry to be secretors (96% vs 74%; P norovirus infection and varies by ancestry. GII.4 norovirus exclusively infected secretors. These findings are important to norovirus vaccine trials and design of agents that may block norovirus-HBGA binding. PMID:25744498

  20. [Adolescent health: a population-based study in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braz, Marici; Barros Filho, Antonio A; Barros, Marilisa B A

    2013-09-01

    We estimated the prevalence of chronic diseases and other health problems reported by adolescents in relation to social and demographic variables and nutritional status. This cross-sectional population-based survey analyzed data from the Health Survey in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, 2008. We used descriptive statistics and associations between variables with the chisquare test. Prevalence of chronic diseases among adolescents was 19.17%, with asthma showing the highest prevalence (7.59%), followed by heart disease (1.96%), hypertension (1.07%), and diabetes 0.21%. Prevalence rates were 61.53% for health problems, 40.39% for allergy, and 24.83% for frequent headache or migraine. After multivariate analysis using Poisson regression, the factors associated with chronic disease were age 15 to 19 years (PR = 1.38), not attending school (PR = 1.46), having children (PR = 1.84), and obesity (PR = 1.54). Female gender (PR = 1.12) was statistically associated with health problems. The study illustrates that adolescence is a life stage in which chronic disease and health problems can occur.

  1. The diffraction signatures of individual vibrational modes in polyatomic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Seol; Weber, Peter M.; Stratt, Richard M.

    2000-01-01

    Though one normally thinks of single-molecule diffraction studies as tools for eliciting molecular geometry, molecular diffraction patterns are really the Fourier transforms of complete molecular wave functions. There is thus at least the possibility of imaging the vibrational wave functions of polyatomic molecules by means of a pump-probe diffraction experiment: the pump laser could prepare a specific vibrational state and an electron or x-ray could then be diffracted off the molecule some short time later. The present paper develops the general theory of diffraction signatures for individual vibrational wave functions in polyatomic molecules and investigates the feasibility of seeing such signatures experimentally using the example of a linear triatomic molecule modeled after CS2. Although aligned molecules in specific vibrational quantum states turn out to exhibit very characteristic diffraction signatures, the signatures of the vibrational wave functions are partially washed out for the complete isotropy expected from gas phase molecules. Nonetheless, it is possible to design a diffraction experiment using a pump-dump sequence with a polarized laser beam which will select a nonisotropic sample of vibrationally excited molecules. We show that the resulting level of anisotropy should enhance the diffraction signature, helping to distinguish different vibrational components. These model calculations therefore suggest the possibility of observing the dynamics of vibrational wave packets using experimentally realizable diffraction techniques.

  2. Population Health and Paid Parental Leave: What the United States Can Learn from Two Decades of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Burtle

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, numerous studies have suggested that dedicated time for parents to be with their children in the earliest months of life offers significant benefits to child health. The United States (US is the only wealthy nation without a formalized policy guaranteeing workers paid time off when they become new parents. As individual US states consider enacting parental leave policies, there is a significant opportunity to decrease health inequities and build a healthier American population. This document is intended as a critical review of the present evidence for the association between paid parental leave and population health.

  3. Population Effect of Differences in Cholesterol Guidelines in Eastern Europe and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jerry C; Zdrojewski, Tomasz; Pencina, Michael J; Wyszomirski, Adam; Lachacz, Mateusz; Opolski, Grzegorz; Bandosz, Piotr; Rutkowski, Marcin; Gaciong, Zbigniew; Wyrzykowski, Bogdan; Navar, Ann M

    2016-09-01

    The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines for the management of blood cholesterol and the current European Society of Cardiology/European Atherosclerosis Society (ESC/EAS) guidelines differ in how they identify adults in need of statin therapy; furthermore, it is unclear how this difference translates into numbers and characteristics of patients recommended for treatment. To determine the effect of the ACC/AHA and ESC/EAS cholesterol guidelines when applied to a population-based sample. We used nationally representative data for 3055 adults aged 40 to 65 years from the 2007-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) for the United States and for 1060 adults aged 40 to 65 years from the 2011 Nadciśnięnie Tętnicze w Polsce survey for Poland. Data analysis was conducted from May 1, 2014, to December 31, 2015. The number and characteristics of adults recommended for statin therapy according to the ACC/AHA and ESC/EAS guidelines were evaluated, and characteristics were compared between adults with discordant recommendations. The 3136 US adults in NHANES (2007-2012) aged 40 to 65 years represented 100.1 million adults; after excluding the 81 patients with missing data, these population estimates translate to 97.9 million adults. Similarly, the 1060 Polish adults in NATPOL (2011) aged 40 to 65 years represent 13.5 million adults. Using weighted data, in the United States, 43.8% (95% CI, 40.9%-46.7%) of adults would be recommended for statin therapy according to ACC/AHA guidelines and 39.1% (95% CI, 36.4%-41.8%) according to ESC/EAS guidelines. In Poland, 49.9% (95% CI, 46.9%-52.9%) of adults would be recommended for statin therapy under ACC/AHA guidelines compared with 47.6% (95% CI, 44.6%-50.7%) under ESC/EAS guidelines. Among individuals without cardiovascular disease and not currently taking statins, 11.0% of US and 10.5% of Polish adults had discordant guideline recommendations. Compared with individuals

  4. EnviroAtlas - Dasymetric Population by 12-Digit HUC for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset estimates population by 12-digit HUC. It is based on the EnviroAtlas dasymetric dataset, which intelligently reallocates 2010 population...

  5. Lymphatic filariasis in migrant population in non-endemic states - Need to cover by Mass Drug Administration (MDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailash Chandra Verma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lymphatic filariasis (LF is targeted by WHO for global elimination as a public health problem by year2020. GoI is signatory to WHO resolution and envisaged elimination by instituting annual mass drug administration (MDA in all endemic districts under NVBDCP by year 2015.With rapid industrialization and urbanization, large number of landless farmer, unskilled/skilled labour migrate either singly or with entire family members to other states (which may be non-endemic for LF in search of employment. These migrants from endemic states escape MDA beings migrated to non-endemic states.Aims and Objectives: To find out prevalence of LF and MF density among migrant staying in non-endemic states and assess needs to institute MDA in such migrants.Material & Methods: This study was a cross sectional epidemiological study carried out in migrant population staying at/near the construction site covering the population of 1640. However, only 1092 person participated in the study.Result: A total of 1092 people agreed to participate in the study, out of which, 22 were found MF positive and 4 presented with clinical signs of LF. The study found MF prevalence of 2.01% with average MF density of 3.90.Conclusion: Endemicity (2.01% of MF among migratory population more than national average (0.45%, which is capable of continuing transmission (>1% in population at risk living in non-endemic states where MDA is not administered. 

  6. Vibrational spectroscopy of resveratrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billes, Ferenc; Mohammed-Ziegler, Ildikó; Mikosch, Hans; Tyihák, Ernő

    2007-11-01

    In this article the authors deal with the experimental and theoretical interpretation of the vibrational spectra of trans-resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy- trans-stilbene) of diverse beneficial biological activity. Infrared and Raman spectra of the compound were recorded; density functional calculations were carried out resulting in the optimized geometry and several properties of the molecule. Based on the calculated force constants, a normal coordinate analysis yielded the character of the vibrational modes and the assignment of the measured spectral bands.

  7. Bumblebee vibration activated foraging

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Dan Kuan-Nien

    2009-01-01

    The ability use vibrational signals to activate nestmate foraging is found in the highly social bees, stingless bees and honey bees, and has been hypothesized to exist in the closely related, primitively eusocial bumble bees. We provide the first strong and direct evidence that this is correct. Inside the nest, bumble bee foragers produce brief bursts of vibration (foraging activation pulses) at 594.5 Hz for 63±26 ms (velocityRMS=0.46±0.02mm/s, forceRMS=0.8±0.2 mN. Production of these vibrati...

  8. Man-Induced Vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Hansen, Lars Pilegaard

    1994-01-01

    concerned with spectator-induced vertical vibrations on grandstands. The idea is to use impulse response analysis and base the load description on the load impulse. If the method is feasable, it could be used in connection with the formulation of requirements in building codes. During the last two decades...... work has been done on the measurement of the exact load functions and related reponse analysis. A recent work using a spectral description has been performed by Per-Erik Erikson and includes a good literature survey. Bachmann and Ammann give a good overview of vibrations caused by human activity. Other...

  9. Vibrations and waves

    CERN Document Server

    Kaliski, S

    2013-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive overview of wave phenomena in different media with interacting mechanical, electromagnetic and other fields. Equations describing wave propagation in linear and non-linear elastic media are followed by equations of rheological models, models with internal rotational degrees of freedom and non-local interactions. Equations for coupled fields: thermal, elastic, electromagnetic, piezoelectric, and magneto-spin with adequate boundary conditions are also included. Together with its companion volume Vibrations and Waves. Part A: Vibrations this work provides a wealth

  10. Torsion-rotation-vibration effects in the ground and first excited states of methacrolein, a major atmospheric oxidation product of isoprene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharenko, O.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Aviles Moreno, J.-R.; Huet, T. R., E-mail: Therese.Huet@univ-lille1.fr [Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, Atomes et Molécules, UMR8523 CNRS – Université Lille 1, Bâtiment P5, F- 59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Jabri, A. [Laboratoire Inter-universitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, CNRS - Universités Paris Est Créteil et Paris Diderot, 61 Avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil Cedex (France); Institute for Physical Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Kleiner, I. [Laboratoire Inter-universitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, CNRS - Universités Paris Est Créteil et Paris Diderot, 61 Avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil Cedex (France)

    2016-01-14

    Methacrolein is a major oxidation product of isoprene emitted in the troposphere. New spectroscopy information is provided with the aim to allow unambiguous identification of this complex molecule, characterized by a large amplitude motion associated with the methyl top. State-of-the-art millimeter-wave spectroscopy experiments coupled to quantum chemical calculations have been performed. For the most stable s-trans conformer of atmospheric interest, the torsional and rotational structures have been characterized for the ground state, the first excited methyl torsional state (ν{sub 27}), and the first excited skeletal torsional state (ν{sub 26}). The inverse sequence of A and E tunneling sub-states as well as anomalous A-E splittings observed for the rotational lines of v{sub 26} = 1 state clearly indicates a coupling between methyl torsion and skeletal torsion. A comprehensive set of molecular parameters has been obtained. The far infrared spectrum of Durig et al. [Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 42, 89–103 (1986)] was reproduced, and a Fermi interaction between ν{sub 25} and 2ν{sub 27} was evidenced.

  11. Heterogeneous Dynamics of Coupled Vibrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cringus, Dan; Jansen, Thomas I. C.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Schoenlein, RW; Corkum, P; DeSilvestri, S; Nelson, KA; Riedle, E

    2009-01-01

    Frequency-dependent dynamics of coupled stretch vibrations of a water molecule are revealed by 2D IR correlation spectroscopy. These are caused by non-Gaussian fluctuations of the environment around the individual OH stretch vibrations.

  12. Using mixed methods research to explore the effect of an adaptation exercise on general population valuations of health states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTaggart-Cowan, Helen M; O'Cathain, Alicia; Tsuchiya, Aki; Brazier, John E

    2012-04-01

    To understand the effect of an adaptation exercise (AE) on general population values for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) states. A sequential mixed methods design was employed: an analysis of a dataset to develop RA states for valuing in later phases of the study; a qualitative interview study with members of the general population to identify how an AE affected valuing of the RA states and to help design a questionnaire for the final phase; and a quantitative quasi-experimental study to identify factors that influence change in values after being informed about adaptation. Three RA states were developed using Rasch and cluster analyses. Participants in the qualitative phase identified a range of ways in which information about adaptation affected their values. For example, they realized they could adapt to RA because their family and friends who had RA, or similar conditions, could cope. A 25-item questionnaire was developed and used during the final phase to identify that younger and healthier individuals were more likely to increase their values after being informed about disease adaptation. The qualitative findings were revisited and found to support the quantitative results. This approach facilitated understanding of whether and how an AE affected valuing of health states. Each phase affected the next phase of the study, leading to the conclusion that general population respondents who have little experience of disease will likely increase their health state values after being informed about adaptation because they understand that they could cope with the disease.

  13. Vibrational lineshapes of adsorbates on solid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueba, H.

    A review is presented of the current activity in vibrational spectroscopy of adsorbates on metal surfaces. A brief introduction of the representative spectroscopies is given to demonstrate the rich information contained in vibrational spectra, which are characterized by their intensity, peak position and width. Analysis of vibrational spectra enables us to gain the deep insight into not only the local character of adsorption site or geometry, but also the dynamical interaction between the adsorbates or between the adsorbate and the substrate. Some recent instructive experimental results, mostly of a CO molecule adsorbed on various metal surfaces, are accompanied by the corresponding theoretical recipe for vibrational excitation mechanisms. Wide spread experimental results of the C-O stretching frequency of CO adsorbed on metal surfaces are discussed in terms of the chemical effect involving the static and dynamic charge transfers between the chemisorbed CO and metal, and also of the electrostatic dipole-dipole interaction between the molecules. The central subject of this review is directed to the linshapes characterized by the vibrational relaxation processes of adsorbates. A simple and transparent model is introduced to show that the characteristic decay time of the correlation function for the vibrational coordinates is the key quantity to determine the spectral lineshapes. Recent experimental results focused on a search for an intrinsic broadening mechanism are reviewed in the light of the so-called T1 (energy) and T2 (phase) relaxation processesof the vibrational excited states of adsorbates. Those are the vibrational energy dissipation into the elementary excitation, such as phonons or electron-hole pairs in the metal substrate, and pure dephasing due to the energy exchange with the sorroundings. The change of width and frequency by varying the experimental variables, such as temperature or isotope effect, provides indispensable knowledge for the dynamical

  14. One-phonon octupole vibrational states in {sup 211}At, {sup 212}Rn, {sup 213}Fr and {sup 214}Ra with N = 126

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, J.K.; Hamilton, J.H.; Ramayya, A.V. [Vanderbilt University, Physics Department, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Excited high spin states in {sup 211}At, {sup 212}Rn, {sup 213}Fr and {sup 214}Ra with N = 126 are reorganized and interpreted in terms of the stretched weak coupling of an octupole 3{sup -} phonon. Nearly identical sequences of levels with {Delta}I = 3 and the parity change are found, for the first time, up to 25{sup -} for 20 states of {sup 214}Ra, up to 35{sup -} for 36 states of {sup 212}Rn and up to 53/2{sup +} for 16 states of {sup 213}Fr. The stretched weak coupling of an octupole phonon is extended up to the highest excitation energy of 11355 keV for {sup 212}Rn which has the largest experimental B(E3) value of 44.1(88) W.u. for the 11{sup -} {yields} 8{sub 2}{sup +} transition. The stretched weak coupling of an octupole 3{sup -} phonon needs to be considered when single particle configurations are assigned to high spin states. Average octupole excitation energies of 657(51) keV for {sup 211}At, 1101(28) keV for {sup 212}Rn, 667(25) keV for {sup 213}Fr, and 709(25) keV for {sup 214}Ra are obtained. The calculated level energies are in a good agreement with the experimental level energies within the error limit of 4.3%. (orig.)

  15. Semiclassical treatments for small-molecule dynamics in low-temperature crystals using fixed and adiabatic vibrational bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Craig T.; Cina, Jeffrey A.

    2007-09-01

    signals from molecules in cryogenic matrices and their semiclassical interpretation in terms of electronic and vibrational decoherence and vibrational population relaxation, all within a pure-state description of the macroscopic many-body complex.

  16. Quantum chemical studies on structural, vibrational, nonlinear optical properties and chemical reactivity of indigo carmine dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mansy, M. A. M.

    2017-08-01

    Structural and vibrational spectroscopic studies were performed on indigo carmine (IC) isomers using FT-IR spectral analysis along with DFT/B3LYP method utilizing Gaussian 09 software. GaussView 5 program has been employed to perform a detailed interpretation of vibrational spectra. Simulation of infrared spectra has led to an excellent overall agreement with the observed spectral patterns. Mulliken population analyses on atomic charges, MEP, HOMO-LUMO, NLO, first order hyperpolarizability and thermodynamic properties have been examined by (DFT/B3LYP) method with the SDD basis set level. Density of state spectra (DOS) were calculated using GaussSum 3 at the same level of theory. Molecular modeling approved that DOS Spectra are the most significant tools for differentiating between two IC isomers so far. Moreover, The IC isomers (cis-isomer) have shown an extended applicability for manufacturing both NLO and photovoltaic devices such as solar cells.

  17. Heterogeneity of the HIV epidemic in the general population of Karnataka state, south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banandur Pradeep

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the context of AVAHAN, the India AIDS Initiative of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, general population surveys (GPS were carried out between 2006 and 2008 in Belgaum (northern, Bellary (mid-state and Mysore (southern districts of Karnataka state, south India. Data from these three surveys were analysed to understand heterogeneity in HIV risk. Methods Outcome variables were the prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Independent variables included age, district, place of residence, along with socio-demographic, medical and behavioural characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression was undertaken to identify characteristics associated with HIV and differences between districts, incorporating survey statistics to consider weights and cluster effects. Results The participation rate was 79.0% for the interview and 72.5% for providing a blood or urine sample that was tested for HIV. Belgaum had the highest overall HIV (1.43% and Herpes simplex type-2 (HSV-2 (16.93% prevalence, and the lowest prevalence of curable STIs. In Belgaum, the HIV epidemic is predominantly rural, and among women. In Bellary, the epidemic is predominantly in urban areas and among men, and HIV prevalence was 1.18%. Mysore had the lowest prevalence of HIV (0.80% and HSV-2 (10.89% and the highest prevalence of curable STIs. Higher HIV prevalence among men was associated with increasing age (p25-29years=11.22,95%CI:1.42-88.74, AOR30-34years=13.13,95%CI:1.67-103.19 and AOR35-39years=11.33,95%CI:1.32-96.83, having more than one lifetime sexual partner (AOR=4.61,95%CI:1.26-16.91 and having ever used a condom (AOR=3.32,95%CI:1.38-7.99. Having a dissolved marriage (being widowed/divorced/separated was the strongest predictor (AOR=10.98,95%CI: 5.35-22.57 of HIV among women. Being a muslim woman was associated with lower HIV prevalence (AOR=0.27,95%CI:0.08-0.87. Conclusion The HIV epidemic in Karnataka shows considerable heterogeneity

  18. Assessing service use for mental health by Indigenous populations in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States of America: a rapid review of population surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Cecily; Harris, Meredith G; Baxter, Amanda J; Leske, Stuart; Diminic, Sandra; Gone, Joseph P; Hunter, Ernest; Whiteford, Harvey

    2017-08-04

    Indigenous people in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States of America experience disproportionately poor mental health compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. To optimally allocate resources, health planners require information about the services Indigenous people use for mental health, their unmet treatment needs and the barriers to care. We reviewed population surveys of Indigenous people to determine whether the information needed to guide service development is being collected. We sought national- or state-level epidemiological surveys of Indigenous populations conducted in each of the four selected countries since 1990 that asked about service use for mental health. Surveys were identified from literature reviews and web searches. We developed a framework for categorising the content of each survey. Using this framework, we compared the service use content of the surveys of Indigenous people to each other and to general population mental health surveys. We focused on identifying gaps in information coverage and topics that may require Indigenous-specific questions or response options. Nine surveys met our inclusion criteria. More than half of these included questions about health professionals consulted, barriers to care, perceived need for care, medications taken, number, duration, location and payment of health professional visits or use of support services or self-management. Less than half included questions about interventions received, hospital admissions or treatment dropout. Indigenous-specific content was most common in questions regarding use of support services or self-management, types of health professionals consulted, barriers to care and interventions received. Epidemiological surveys measuring service use for mental health among Indigenous populations have been less comprehensive and less standardised than surveys of the general population, despite having assessed similar content. To better understand the gaps in mental

  19. Composite Struts Would Damp Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgin, Benjamin P.

    1991-01-01

    New design of composite-material (fiber/matrix laminate) struts increases damping of longitudinal vibrations without decreasing longitudinal stiffness or increasing weight significantly. Plies with opposing chevron patterns of fibers convert longitudinal vibrational stresses into shear stresses in intermediate viscoelastic layer, which dissipate vibrational energy. Composite strut stronger than aluminum strut of same weight and stiffness.

  20. Unstaged cancer in the United States: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Allison E

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current study examines unstaged disease for 18 cancer sites in the United States according to the influence of age, sex, race, marital status, incidence, and lethality. Methods Analyses are based on 1,040,381 male and 1,011,355 female incident cancer cases diagnosed during 2000 through 2007. Data were collected by population-based cancer registries in the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. Results The level of unstaged disease was greater in more lethal cancers (e.g., liver, esophagus, and pancreas compared with less deadly cancers (i.e., colon, urinary bladder, and female breast. Unstaged disease increased with age and is greater among non-married patients. Blacks compared with whites experienced significantly higher levels of unstaged cancers of the stomach, rectum, colon, skin (melanoma, urinary bladder, thyroid, breast, corpus, cervix, and ovaries, but lower levels of unstaged liver, lung and bronchial cancers. Males compared with females experienced significantly lower levels of unstaged cancers of the liver, pancreas, esophagus, and stomach, but significantly higher levels of unstaged lung and bronchial cancer and thyroid cancer. The percent of unstaged cancer significantly decreased over the study period for 15 of the 18 cancer sites. Conclusion Tumor staging directly affects treatment options and survival, so it is recommended that further research focus on why a decrease in unstaged disease did not occur for all of the cancer sites considered from 2000 to 2007, and why there are differential levels of staging between whites and blacks, males and females for several of the cancer sites.

  1. Mechanical Ventilation for Acute Stroke: A Multi-state Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Shouri; Mayer, Stephan A; Fink, Matthew E; Lord, Aaron S; Rosengart, Axel; Mangat, Halinder S; Segal, Alan Z; Claassen, Jan; Kamel, Hooman

    2015-08-01

    Mechanical ventilation is frequently performed in patients with ischemic stroke (IS), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In this study, we used statewide administrative claims data to examine the rates of use, associated conditions, and in-hospital mortality rates for mechanically ventilated stroke patients. We used statewide administrative claims data from three states and ICD-9-CM codes to identify patients admitted with stroke and those who received mechanical ventilation and tracheostomy. Descriptive statistics and exact 95 % confidence intervals were used to report rates of mechanical ventilation, tracheostomy, and in-hospital mortality. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify conditions associated with mechanical ventilation based on previously described risk factors. 798,255 hospital admissions for stroke were identified. 12.5 % of these patients underwent mechanical ventilation. This rate varied by stroke type: 7.9 % for IS, 29.9 % for ICH, and 38.5 % for SAH. Increased age was associated with a decreased risk of receiving mechanical ventilation (RR per decade, 0.91). Of stroke patients who underwent mechanical ventilation, 16.3 % received a tracheostomy. Mechanical ventilation was more likely to occur in association with status epilepticus (RR, 5.1), pneumonia (RR, 4.9), sepsis (RR, 3.6), and hydrocephalus (RR, 3.3). In-hospital mortality rate for mechanically ventilated stroke patients was 52.7 % (46.8 % for IS, 61.0 % for ICH, and 54.6 % for SAH). In this large population-based sample, over half of mechanically ventilated stroke patients died in the hospital despite the fact that younger patients were more likely to receive mechanical ventilation. Future studies are indicated to elucidate mechanical ventilation strategies to optimize long-term outcomes after severe stroke.

  2. Ship Vibration Design Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    Frachtschiffen," Werft Reederie Hafen, 1925. 4-21 Noonan, E. F. "Vibration Considerations for 120,000 CM LNG Ships," NKF: Preliminary Report No. 7107, 25...Ship Response to Ice - A Second Season by C. Daley, J. W. St. John, R. Brown, J. Meyer , and I. Glen 1990 SSC-340 Ice Forces and Ship Response to Ice

  3. Compact Vibration Damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanco, Thomas G. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A vibration damper includes a rigid base with a mass coupled thereto for linear movement thereon. Springs coupled to the mass compress in response to the linear movement along either of two opposing directions. A converter coupled to the mass converts the linear movement to a corresponding rotational movement. A rotary damper coupled to the converter damps the rotational movement.

  4. Vibrations and Eigenvalues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The vibrating string problem is the source of much mathematicsand physics. This article describes Lagrange's formulationof a discretised version of the problem and its solution.This is also the first instance of an eigenvalue problem. Author Affiliations. Rajendra Bhatia1. Ashoka University, Rai, Haryana 131 029, India.

  5. Blade Vibration Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The Phase I project successfully demonstrated that an advanced noncontacting stress measurement system (NSMS) could improve classification of blade vibration response in terms of mistuning and closely spaced modes. The Phase II work confirmed the microwave sensor design process, modified the sensor so it is compatible as an upgrade to existing NSMS, and improved and finalized the NSMS software. The result will be stand-alone radar/tip timing radar signal conditioning for current conventional NSMS users (as an upgrade) and new users. The hybrid system will use frequency data and relative mode vibration levels from the radar sensor to provide substantially superior capabilities over current blade-vibration measurement technology. This frequency data, coupled with a reduced number of tip timing probes, will result in a system capable of detecting complex blade vibrations that would confound traditional NSMS systems. The hardware and software package was validated on a compressor rig at Mechanical Solutions, Inc. (MSI). Finally, the hybrid radar/tip timing NSMS software package and associated sensor hardware will be installed for use in the NASA Glenn spin pit test facility.

  6. Vibration Sensitive Keystroke Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopatka, M.; Peetz, M.-H.; van Erp, M.; Stehouwer, H.; van Zaanen, M.

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel method for performing non-invasive biometric analysis on habitual keystroke patterns using a vibration-based feature space. With the increasing availability of 3-D accelerometer chips in laptop computers, conventional methods using time vectors may be augmented using a distinct

  7. A Detailed Level Kinetics Model of NO Vibrational Energy Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Surendra P.; Gilmore, John; Cavolowsky, John A. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Several contemporary problems have pointed to the desirability of a detailed level kinetics approach to modeling the distribution of vibrational energy in NO. Such a model is necessary when vibrational redistribution reactions are insufficient to maintain a Boltzmann distribution over the vibrational energy states. Recent calculations of the rate constant for the first reaction of the Zeldovich mechanism (N2 + O (goes to) NO + N) have suggested that the product NO is formed in high vibrational states. In shock layer flowfields, the product NO molecules may experience an insufficient number of collisions to establish a Boltzmann distribution over vibrational states, thus necessitating a level kinetics model. In other flows, such as expansions of high temperature air, fast, near-resonance vibrational energy exchanges with N2 and O2 may also require a level specific model for NO because of the relative rates of vibrational exchange and redistribution. The proposed report will integrate computational and experimental components to construct such a model for the NO molecule.

  8. Evaluation of Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, and Relationship Between Legendary Vechur Cattle and Crossbred Cattle of Kerala State, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhika, G; Aravindakshan, T V; Jinty, S; Ramya, K

    2017-03-30

    The legendary Vechur cattle of Kerala, described as a very short breed, and the crossbred (CB) Sunandini cattle population exhibited great phenotypic variation; hence, the present study attempted to analyze the genetic diversity existing between them. A set of 14 polymorphic microsatellites were chosen from FAO-ISAG panel and amplified from genomic DNA isolated from blood samples of 30 Vechur and 64 unrelated crossbred cattle, using fluorescent labeled primers. Both populations revealed high genetic diversity as evidenced from high observed number of alleles, Polymorphic Information Content and expected heterozygosity. Observed heterozygosity was lesser (0.699) than expected (0.752) in Vechur population which was further supported by positive FIS value of 0.1149, indicating slight level of inbreeding in Vechur population. Overall, FST value was 0.065, which means genetic differentiation between crossbred and Vechur population was 6.5%, indicating that the crossbred cattle must have differentiated into a definite population that is different from the indigenous Vechur cows. Structure analysis indicated that the two populations showed distinct differences, with two underlying clusters. The present study supports the separation between Taurine and Zebu cattle and throws light onto the genetic diversity and relationship between native Vechur and crossbred cattle populations in Kerala state.

  9. Population structure of the emerging plant pathogen Phytophthora ramorum on the west coast of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Prospero; E.M. Hansen; N.J. Grünwald; J. Britt; L.M. Winton.

    2009-01-01

    Phytophthora ramorum is a devastating pathogen in native forests in California and southwestern Oregon and in nursery crops in California, Oregon and Washington. In this study we analyzed the population structure of P. ramorum in the west coast (CA, OR, and WA) of the United States by screening 579 isolates recovered...

  10. Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2012. Current Population Reports P60-245

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeNavas-Walt, Carmen; Proctor, Bernadette D.; Smith, Jessica C.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents data on income, poverty, and health insurance coverage in the United States based on information collected in the 2013 and earlier Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplements (CPS ASEC) conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. For most groups, the 2012 income, poverty, and health insurance estimates were not…

  11. Patterns of granular convection and separation in narrow vibration bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Chuanping

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular convection/separation of single and binary component particles are studied in a narrow vibration bed, respectively. With filling the single light particles (molecular sieve beads, the bed exhibits five different states successively by increasing the vibration frequency f from 15Hz to 70 Hz (vibration strength Γ>3, as the global convection, symmetrical heap, unsymmetrical heap, local convection and pseudo solid. Comparatively, the granular bed of the single heavy particles (steel beads is only in pseudo solid state at the above vibration condition. By filling binary component particles (molecular sieve and same size steel beads instead of the single component, the bed shows similar convection state with that of the single molecular sieve beads, and the heavy steel beads are aggregated in the centre of convention roll as a core. Varying the initial distribution of binary component particles, the final convection and separation are not influenced, although the aggregation process of steel beads changes.

  12. Rotational isovector vibrations in titanium nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faessler, A.; Nojarov, R.; Taigel, T.

    1989-01-30

    The strong M1 states with K/sup ..pi../ = 1/sup +/ in /sup 44,46,48,50/Ti are described microscopically with a deformed Woods-Saxon potential plus QRPA using a parameter-free self-consistent quadrupole force and an interaction, which restores the rotational symmetry. The available experimental data (energies, B(M1) values and (e,e') form factors in /sup 46,48/Ti) are well described in terms of isovector quadrupole rotational vibrations. These RPA states correspond to the scissor-type of isovector motion described by the two-rotor model, but they overlap only 20-30% with the collective isovector rotational state of this model since only few quasiparticle configurations take part in the RPA rotational vibration.

  13. Comparison of Vocal Vibration-Dose Measures for Potential-Damage Risk Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titze, Ingo R.; Hunter, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: School-teachers have become a benchmark population for the study of occupational voice use. A decade of vibration-dose studies on the teacher population allows a comparison to be made between specific dose measures for eventual assessment of damage risk. Method: Vibration dosimetry is reformulated with the inclusion of collision stress.…

  14. [Population and economics in Quintana Roo state: some considerations from recent experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Barajas, I

    1995-01-01

    "This article focuses on the explosive population growth in Quintana Roo [Mexico] during the last few years and its...implications [for] the local economy. First, the article briefly describes population structure, emphasizing some migratory and socioeconomic aspects. Next it considers the status sectoral and regional production structure, which [emphasize] the strong dependence on tourism and its concentration in Cancun. In the conclusions population and economic aspects entwine, providing a more comprehensive developmental perspective." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  15. Electronic and vibrational spectroscopy and vibrationally mediated photodissociation of V+(OCO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citir, Murat; Altinay, Gokhan; Metz, Ricardo B

    2006-04-20

    Electronic spectra of gas-phase V+(OCO) are measured in the near-infrared from 6050 to 7420 cm(-1) and in the visible from 15,500 to 16,560 cm(-1), using photofragment spectroscopy. The near-IR band is complex, with a 107 cm(-1) progression in the metal-ligand stretch. The visible band shows clearly resolved vibrational progressions in the metal-ligand stretch and rock, and in the OCO bend, as observed by Brucat and co-workers. A vibrational hot band gives the metal-ligand stretch frequency in the ground electronic state nu3'' = 210 cm(-1). The OCO antisymmetric stretch frequency in the ground electronic state (nu1'') is measured by using vibrationally mediated photodissociation. An IR laser vibrationally excites ions to nu1'' = 1. Vibrationally excited ions selectively dissociate following absorption of a second, visible photon at the nu1' = 1 CO2, due to interaction with the metal. Larger blue shifts observed for complexes with fewer ligands agree with trends seen for larger V+(OCO)n clusters.

  16. Controlling the Floquet state population and observing micromotion in a periodically driven two-body quantum system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbuquois, Rémi; Messer, Michael; Görg, Frederik; Sandholzer, Kilian; Jotzu, Gregor; Esslinger, Tilman

    2017-11-01

    Near-resonant periodic driving of quantum systems promises the implementation of a large variety of novel quantum states, though their preparation and measurement remains challenging. We address these aspects in a model system consisting of interacting fermions in a periodically driven array of double wells created by an optical lattice. The singlet and triplet fractions and the double occupancy of the Floquet states are measured and their behavior as a function of the interaction strength is analyzed in the high- and low-frequency regimes. We demonstrate full control of the Floquet state population and find suitable ramping protocols and time scales that adiabatically connect the initial ground state to different targeted Floquet states. The micromotion that exactly describes the time evolution of the system within one driving cycle is observed. Additionally, we provide an analytic description of the model and compare it to numerical simulations.

  17. Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis of a Vibrating Turbine Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama N. Alshroof

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the numerical fluid-structure interaction (FSI modelling of a vibrating turbine blade using the commercial software ANSYS-12.1. The study has two major aims: (i discussion of the current state of the art of modelling FSI in gas turbine engines and (ii development of a “tuned” one-way FSI model of a vibrating turbine blade to investigate the correlation between the pressure at the turbine casing surface and the vibrating blade motion. Firstly, the feasibility of the complete FSI coupled two-way, three-dimensional modelling of a turbine blade undergoing vibration using current commercial software is discussed. Various modelling simplifications, which reduce the full coupling between the fluid and structural domains, are then presented. The one-way FSI model of the vibrating turbine blade is introduced, which has the computational efficiency of a moving boundary CFD model. This one-way FSI model includes the corrected motion of the vibrating turbine blade under given engine flow conditions. This one-way FSI model is used to interrogate the pressure around a vibrating gas turbine blade. The results obtained show that the pressure distribution at the casing surface does not differ significantly, in its general form, from the pressure at the vibrating rotor blade tip.

  18. Insecticide resistance status of United States populations of Aedes albopictus and mechanisms involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcombe, Sébastien; Farajollahi, Ary; Healy, Sean P; Clark, Gary G; Fonseca, Dina M

    2014-01-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) is an invasive mosquito that has become an important vector of chikungunya and dengue viruses. Immature Ae. albopictus thrive in backyard household containers that require treatment with larvicides and when adult populations reach pest levels or disease transmission is ongoing, adulticiding is often required. To assess the feasibility of control of USA populations, we tested the susceptibility of Ae. albopictus to chemicals representing the main insecticide classes with different modes of action: organochlorines, organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, insect growth regulators (IGR), naturalytes, and biolarvicides. We characterized a susceptible reference strain of Ae. albopictus, ATM95, and tested the susceptibility of eight USA populations to five adulticides and six larvicides. We found that USA populations are broadly susceptible to currently available larvicides and adulticides. Unexpectedly, however, we found significant resistance to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in two Florida populations and in a New Jersey population. We also found resistance to malathion, an organophosphate, in Florida and New Jersey and reduced susceptibility to the IGRs pyriproxyfen and methoprene. All populations tested were fully susceptible to pyrethroids. Biochemical assays revealed a significant up-regulation of GSTs in DDT-resistant populations in both larval and adult stages. Also, β-esterases were up-regulated in the populations with suspected resistance to malathion. Of note, we identified a previously unknown amino acid polymorphism (Phe → Leu) in domain III of the VGSC, in a location known to be associated with pyrethroid resistance in another container-inhabiting mosquito, Aedes aegypti L. The observed DDT resistance in populations from Florida may indicate multiple introductions of this species into the USA, possibly from tropical populations. In addition, the mechanisms underlying DDT resistance often result in pyrethroid resistance

  19. Insecticide resistance status of United States populations of Aedes albopictus and mechanisms involved.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Marcombe

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus (Skuse is an invasive mosquito that has become an important vector of chikungunya and dengue viruses. Immature Ae. albopictus thrive in backyard household containers that require treatment with larvicides and when adult populations reach pest levels or disease transmission is ongoing, adulticiding is often required. To assess the feasibility of control of USA populations, we tested the susceptibility of Ae. albopictus to chemicals representing the main insecticide classes with different modes of action: organochlorines, organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, insect growth regulators (IGR, naturalytes, and biolarvicides. We characterized a susceptible reference strain of Ae. albopictus, ATM95, and tested the susceptibility of eight USA populations to five adulticides and six larvicides. We found that USA populations are broadly susceptible to currently available larvicides and adulticides. Unexpectedly, however, we found significant resistance to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT in two Florida populations and in a New Jersey population. We also found resistance to malathion, an organophosphate, in Florida and New Jersey and reduced susceptibility to the IGRs pyriproxyfen and methoprene. All populations tested were fully susceptible to pyrethroids. Biochemical assays revealed a significant up-regulation of GSTs in DDT-resistant populations in both larval and adult stages. Also, β-esterases were up-regulated in the populations with suspected resistance to malathion. Of note, we identified a previously unknown amino acid polymorphism (Phe → Leu in domain III of the VGSC, in a location known to be associated with pyrethroid resistance in another container-inhabiting mosquito, Aedes aegypti L. The observed DDT resistance in populations from Florida may indicate multiple introductions of this species into the USA, possibly from tropical populations. In addition, the mechanisms underlying DDT resistance often result in

  20. Demographic and spatial disparity in HIV prevalence among incarcerated population in the US: A state-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Srimoyee

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore empirically the presence of any spatial and demographic disparity in the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection rate among the prison inmates across 48 states in the US and compare the results for 2000 and 2010. HIV infection is a severe health issue for incarcerated populations in the US. In 2010, the rate of diagnosed HIV infection among inmates in state and federal prisons was five times more than the nonincarcerated population. The National Prisoner Statistics database was used to find the demographic disparities in HIV prevalence rate based on incarceration rate, gender, race/ethnicity, the proportion of non-US citizens, and proportion of population below 18 years. State-level spatial mapping, Pearson correlation coefficient, and Moran's I statistic (univariate and bivariate) were computed based on these demographic characteristics using QGIS and Geoda software. There was a statistically significant pattern of spatial disparity in overall, male and female HIV infection rates across the state prisoners, with South and South-Eastern states facing a higher risk of infection. There was also statistically significant bivariate spatial association of HIV infection rate with the covariates: whites (negative), blacks (positive), non-US citizen (positive), and prisoners under age 18 years (positive) for both 2000 and 2010. There was a statistically significant higher HIV infection rate among the female prisoners in comparison to the male prisoners. It is of prime importance to examine the state-level disparities in HIV infection rate based on place and demographics. This is because evaluating the spatial pattern will help in accessing the relevant local information and provide federal agencies with better knowledge to target interventions and prevention programs toward the subgroup of the population at higher risk and help in controlling and reducing HIV infection prevalence.

  1. Animal Communications Through Seismic Vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Peggy (University of Tulsa)

    2001-05-02

    Substrate vibration has been important to animals as a channel of communication for millions of years, but our literature on vibration in this context of biologically relevant information is only decades old. The jaw mechanism of the earliest land vertebrates allowed them to perceive substrate vibrations as their heads lay on the ground long before airborne sounds could be heard. Although the exact mechanism of vibration production and the precise nature of the wave produced are not always understood, recent development of affordable instrumentation to detect and measure vibrations has allowed researchers to answer increasingly sophisticated questions about how animals send and receive vibration signals. We now know that vibration provides information used in predator defense, prey detection, recruitment to food, mate choice, intrasexual competition, and maternal/brood social interactions in a variety of insect orders, spiders, crabs, scorpions, chameleons, frogs, golden moles, mole rats, kangaroos rats, wallabies, elephants and bison.

  2. Electron--impact resonant vibration excitation cross sections and rate coefficients for carbon monoxide

    CERN Document Server

    Laporta, V; Tennyson, J; Celiberto, R; 10.1088/0963-0252/21/4/045005

    2012-01-01

    Resonant vibrational and rotation-vibration excitation cross sections for electron-CO scattering are calculated in the 0-10 eV energy range for all 81 vibrational states of CO, assuming that the excitation occur via the 2{\\Pi} shape resonance. Static exchange plus polarization calculations performed using the R-matrix method are used to estimate resonance positions and widths as functions of internuclear separation. The effects of nuclear motion are considered using a local complex potential model. Good agreement is obtained with available experimental data on excitation from the vibrational ground state. Excitation rates and cross sections are provided as a functions of the initial CO vibrational state for all ground state vibrational levels.

  3. Vibration Attenuation of Plate Using Multiple Vibration Absorbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaman Izzuddin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Vibrations are undesired phenomenon and it can cause harm, distress and unsettling influence to the systems or structures, for example, aircraft, automobile, machinery and building. One of the approach to limit this vibration by introducing passive vibration absorber attached to the structure. In this paper, the adequacy of utilizing passive vibration absorbers are investigated. The vibration absorber system is designed to minimize the vibration of a thin plate fixed along edges. The plate’s vibration characteristics, such as, natural frequency and mode shape are determined using three techniques: theoretical equations, finite element (FE analysis and experiment. The results demonstrate that the first four natural frequencies of fixed-fixed ends plate are 48, 121, 193 and 242 Hz, and these results are corroborated well with theoretical, FE simulation and experiment. The experiment work is further carried out with attached single and multiple vibration absorbers onto plate by tuning the absorber’s frequency to match with the excitation frequency. The outcomes depict that multiple vibration absorbers are more viable in lessening the global structural vibration.

  4. Internal rotation, spin-orbit coupling, and low-frequency vibrations in the ? ground state of CH3-CC-CH+3 and CD3-CC-CD+3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacovella, Ugo; Gans, Bérenger; Merkt, Frédéric

    2015-08-01

    Pulsed-field-ionisation zero-kinetic-energy (PFI-ZEKE) photoelectron spectra of 2-butyne (CH3-CC-CH3) and its fully deuterated isotopomer have been recorded in the region of the origin band of the ? ionising transition. The spectral congestion originating from the combined effects of the internal rotation of the methyl groups, the spin-orbit coupling, and the Jahn-Teller effect prevented the full resolution of the rotational structure of the photoelectron spectra. A tentative analysis of the rotational branch structure of the photoelectron spectra using rovibronic photoionisation selection rules derived in the permutation-inversion spin double group G36(M2) suggests a splitting of ∼10.5 cm-1 between the two spin-orbit components E3/2 and E1/2 of the ? 2 E1 ground state and an almost free internal rotation of the methyl groups in the cations. Assignments are proposed for several low-lying vibrational levels of the cations.

  5. Population genetic structure of Sisyrinchium micranthum Cav. (Iridaceae in Itapuã State Park, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Olinda Tacuatiá

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sisyrinchium micranthum Cav. is a member of the family Iridaceae, which is distributed over the American continent. In Brazil, this species is found, not only in disturbed areas and coastal regions, but is also very common in urban centers, such as public parks, during the spring. Chromosome counts for North American specimens are 2n = 32 and 2n = 48, whereas in southern Brazil, there is a polyploidy series with three chromosome numbers, 2n = 16, 2n = 32, and 2n = 48. Population analyses using DNA molecular markers are inexistent for this species, in spite of its wide distribution and morphological variation. To study the genetic population structure of S. micranthum, five natural populations were accessed in a conservation park within the Atlantic Rain Forest Biome in southern Brazil. Here, the chromosome numbers 2n = 16 and 2n = 48 had already been described. Molecular analysis showed that the populations are highly structured with low gene flow among them. The population with 2n = 48 was genetically less variable than and distinct from the other populations. Population genetics in relation to cytogenetic data provided new insights regarding the genetic diversification and mating system of S. micranthum.

  6. Terrestrial population models for ecological risk assessment: A state-of-the-art review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emlen, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Few attempts have been made to formulate models for predicting impacts of xenobiotic chemicals on wildlife populations. However, considerable effort has been invested in wildlife optimal exploitation models. Because death from intoxication has a similar effect on population dynamics as death by harvesting, these management models are applicable to ecological risk assessment. An underlying Leslie-matrix bookkeeping formulation is widely applicable to vertebrate wildlife populations. Unfortunately, however, the various submodels that track birth, death, and dispersal rates as functions of the physical, chemical, and biotic environment are by their nature almost inevitably highly species- and locale-specific. Short-term prediction of one-time chemical applications requires only information on mortality before and after contamination. In such cases a simple matrix formulation may be adequate for risk assessment. But generally, risk must be projected over periods of a generation or more. This precludes generic protocols for risk assessment and also the ready and inexpensive predictions of a chemical's influence on a given population. When designing and applying models for ecological risk assessment at the population level, the endpoints (output) of concern must be carefully and rigorously defined. The most easily accessible and appropriate endpoints are (1) pseudoextinction (the frequency or probability of a population falling below a prespecified density), and (2) temporal mean population density. Spatial and temporal extent of predicted changes must be clearly specified a priori to avoid apparent contradictions and confusion.

  7. Quasi-classical trajectories study of Ne2Br2(B) vibrational predissociation: Kinetics and product distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Arbelo-González, Wilmer; Reed, Stewart K; Rubayo-Soneira, Jesús; Shalashilin, Dmitrii V

    2011-01-01

    The vibrational predissociation of the Ne2Br2(B) van der Waals complex has been investigated using the quasi-classical trajectory method (QCT), in the range of vibrational levels v' = 16-23. Extensive comparison is made with the most recent experimental observations [Pio et al., J. Chem. Phys. 133, 014305 (2010)], molecular dynamics with quantum transitions (MDQT) simulations [Miguel et al., Faraday Discuss. 118, 257 (2001)], and preliminary results from 24-dimensional Cartesian coupled coherent state (CCCS) calculations. A sequential mechanism is found to accurately describe the theoretical dynamical evolution of intermediate and final product populations, and both QCT and CCCS provide very good estimates for the dissociation lifetimes. The capabilities of QCT in the description of the fragmentation kinetics is analyzed in detail by using reduced-dimensionality models of the complexes and concepts from phase-space transport theory. The problem of fast decoupling of the different coherent states in CCCS simul...

  8. Spatial analysis of environment and population at risk of natural gas fracking in the state of Pennsylvania, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingmin

    2015-05-15

    Hydraulic fracturing, also known as fracking, has been increasing exponentially across the United States, which holds the largest known shale gas reserves in the world. Studies have found that the high-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing process (HVHFP) threatens water resources, harms air quality, changes landscapes, and damages ecosystems. However, there is minimal research focusing on the spatial study of environmental and human risks of HVHFP, which is necessary for state and federal governments to administer, regulate, and assess fracking. Integrating GIS and spatial kernel functions, we study the presently operating fracking wells across the state of Pennsylvania (PA), which is the main part of the current hottest Marcellus Shale in US. We geographically process the location data of hydraulic fracturing wells, 2010 census block data, urbanized region data, railway data, local road data, open water data, river data, and wetland data for the state of PA. From this we develop a distance based risk assessment in order to understand the environmental and urban risks. We generate the surface data of fracking well intensity and population intensity by integrating spatial dependence, semivariogram modeling, and a quadratic kernel function. The surface data of population risk generated by the division of fracking well intensity and population intensity provide a novel insight into the local and regional regulation of hydraulic fracturing activities in terms of environmental and health related risks due to the proximity of fracking wells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Vibrational spectroscopy investigation using ab initio and DFT vibrational analysis of 7-chloro-2-methylamino-5-phenyl-3H-1,4-benzodiazepine-4-oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasath, M.; Muthu, S.; Arun Balaji, R.

    2013-09-01

    The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectrum of 7-chloro-2-methylamino-5-phenyl-3H-1, 4-benzodiazepine-4-oxide (7CMP4BO) has been recorded in the region 4000-400 and 4000-100 cm-1 respectively. The optimized geometry, Thermodynamic properties, NBO, Molecular Electrostatic Potentials, PES, frequency and intensity of the vibrational bands of 7CMP4BO were obtained by the ab initio HF and density functional theory (DFT), B3LYP/6-31G (d,p) basis set. The molecule orbital contributions were studied by using the total (TDOS), partial (PDOS), and overlap population (OPDOS) density of states. The harmonic vibrational frequencies were calculated and the scaled values have been compared with experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. A detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra of this compound has been made on the basis of the calculated potential energy distribution (PED). The linear polarizability (α) and the first order hyperpolarizability (β) values of the investigated molecule have been computed using DFT quantum mechanical calculations. The observed and the calculated frequencies are found to be in good agreement. The experimental spectra also coincide satisfactorily with those of theoretically calculated values.

  10. Good vibrations. [Hydraulic turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, P.

    1994-07-01

    The latest developments in the Voith Turbine Control and Automation System (VTLS), which couples digital control technology to hydropower plant equipment, are described. Prominent among these is the vibration diagnostics module for hydraulic turbines. It provides machine-specific diagnostic logic for a vibration monitoring and analysis system. Of the two other VTLS modules described, the operation module optimizes the control of a power plant with three or more turbines by considering the individual properties of each in turn, recommending which should be run, and how, in order to partition the load for a required power output. The cavitation module is a diagnostic system which enables the limits of operation of the turbines to be extended to bands just outside those determined by cavitation calculations. (3 figures). (UK)

  11. Can Molecular Quantum Interference Effect Transistors Survive Vibration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuguang; Zhou, WeiJun; Zhang, Qing; Kwok, YanHo; Chen, GuanHua; Ratner, Mark A

    2017-10-19

    Quantum interference in cross-conjugated molecules can be utilized to construct molecular quantum interference effect transistors. However, whether its application can be achieved depends on the survivability of the quantum interference under real conditions such as nuclear vibration. We use two simulation methods to investigate the effects of nuclear vibration on quantum interference in a meta-linked benzene system. The simulation results suggest that the quantum interference is robust against nuclear vibration not only in the steady state but also in its transient dynamics, and thus the molecular quantum interference effect transistors can be realized.

  12. Airflow induced vibration of the Si-IT prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkstra, H; De Aguiar, V; Rigo, V

    2014-01-01

    In this note we present the results of air-flow induced vibration tests performed on mechanical prototypes of the Si option of the Inner Tracker upgrade. We made a modal analyze where we observed the eigenfrequency of the Si-ladder structure at ∼30 Hz as previously measured at CERN. Flowing dry-air to cool the prototypes we do not observe a lock-in state of the vortex induced vibration (VIV). The maximum observed vibration amplitude is calculated. We conclude that the VIV excites the eigenfrequency almost independently from the air-flow speed, and with an amplitude which does not damage the structure.

  13. Nonsewered population in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2002 summarized for NHDPlus v2 catchments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the population within each incremental watershed delineated in the NHDPlus v2...

  14. Attributes for NHDplus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: Population Density, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the average population density, in number of people per square kilometer multiplied by 10 for the year 2000, compiled for every catchment of...

  15. EnviroAtlas - Sum of population near roads without tree buffer for the conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of total population near major roads without any tree buffer within 12-digit Hydrologic Units (HUC_12), based on the National...

  16. Survival trends in metastatic bladder cancer in the United States: A population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binay Kumar Shah

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: This population-based study shows that decreases in 6-month and 12-month relative survival rates among patients with MBC in 2001-2010 compared to 1991-2000, specifically, more pronounced among CC men and Oth men.

  17. Expected Time for Random Genetic Drift of a Population between Stable Phenotypic States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, Russell

    1985-11-01

    Natural selection and random genetic drift are modeled by using diffusion equations for the mean phenotype of a quantitative (polygenic) character in a finite population with two available adaptive zones or ecological niches. When there is appreciable selection, the population is likely to spend a very long time drifting around the peak in its original adaptive zone. With the mean phenotype initially anywhere near the local optimum, the expected time until a shift between phenotypic adaptive peaks increases approximately exponentially with the effective population size. In comparison, the expected duration of intermediate forms in the actual transition between adaptive peaks is extremely short, generally below the level of resolution in the fossil record, and increases approximately logarithmically with the effective population size. The evolutionary dynamics of this model conform to the pattern of current paleontological concepts of morphological ``stasis'' and ``punctuated equilibria.''

  18. Population structure and phenotypic variation of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum from dry bean in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Kamvar, Zhian N.; Amaradasa, Bimal S.; Jhala, Rachana; McCoy, Serena; Steadman, James R.; Everhart, Sydney E.

    2017-01-01

    The ascomycete pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a necrotrophic pathogen on over 400 known host plants, and is the causal agent of white mold on dry bean. Currently, there are no known cultivars of dry bean with complete resistance to white mold. For more than 20 years, bean breeders have been using white mold screening nurseries with natural populations of S. sclerotiorum to screen new cultivars for resistance. It is thus important to know if the genetic diversity in populations of S. scl...

  19. Vibrational stability of graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangfan Hu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical stability of graphene as temperature rises is analyzed based on three different self-consistent phonon (SCP models. Compared with three-dimensional (3-D materials, the critical temperature Ti at which instability occurs for graphene is much closer to its melting temperature Tm obtained from Monte Carlo simulation (Ti ≃ 2Tm, K. V. Zakharchenko, A. Fasolino, J. H. Los, and M. I. Katsnelson, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23, 202202. This suggests that thermal vibration plays a significant role in melting of graphene while melting for 3-D materials is often dominated by topologic defects. This peculiar property of graphene derives from its high structural anisotropy, which is characterized by the vibrational anisotropic coefficient (VAC, defined upon its Lindermann ratios in different directions. For any carbon based material with a graphene-like structure, the VAC value must be smaller than 5.4 to maintain its stability. It is also found that the high VAC value of graphene is responsible for its negative thermal expansion coefficient at low temperature range. We believe that the VAC can be regarded as a new criterion concerning the vibrational stability of any low-dimensional (low-D materials.

  20. Vibrationally excited oxygen in the middle atmosphere. Evaluation of its potential as an additional source of ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koppers, G.A.A.

    1996-11-01

    Ozone is `the` most important trace gas in the middle atmosphere. Despite the large efforts that have been made to calculate its concentration in the middle atmosphere there is long standing discrepancy between in-situ and remote sensing measurements on one hand and model results on the other. The latter tend to be about 30% too low in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere. One of the photolysis products of ozone itself, O2({upsilon}) - an oxygen molecule with extra vibrational energy, has been suggested as an intermediate in a reaction sequence that possibly could represent the missing ozone source. A key point in model calculations that estimate the magnitude of the proposed extra ozone source is the fractional population distribution of O2({upsilon}) after ozone photodissociation. Recent statistical calculations supply the vibrational distribution of O2({upsilon}) as a function of the wavelength at which ozone is dissociated. Based on these results a 2D chemical model that includes O2({upsilon}) chemistry has been used to investigate the importance of this mechanism. The extra ozone production by this mechanism has been compared for several other vibrational distributions taken from literature, different collisional deactivation rates of the excited oxygen fragments, and including a reaction between high vibrational excited oxygen with ground state oxygen producing two odd oxygen molecules. Our results indicate that regardless of whether the high vibrational reaction is included, alternatively the deactivation rates are decreased or not, the vibrational excited oxygen mechanism can not simultaneously match the absolute amount of the difference between the model results and SAGE II data and the height distribution of this difference. 23 refs, 17 figs, 2 tabs

  1. Calculation of Ground State Rotational Populations for Kinetic Gas Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules including Electron-Impact Excitation and Wall Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David R. Farley

    2010-08-19

    A model has been developed to calculate the ground-state rotational populations of homonuclear diatomic molecules in kinetic gases, including the effects of electron-impact excitation, wall collisions, and gas feed rate. The equations are exact within the accuracy of the cross sections used and of the assumed equilibrating effect of wall collisions. It is found that the inflow of feed gas and equilibrating wall collisions can significantly affect the rotational distribution in competition with non-equilibrating electron-impact effects. The resulting steady-state rotational distributions are generally Boltzmann for N≥3, with a rotational temperature between the wall and feed gas temperatures. The N=0,1,2 rotational level populations depend sensitively on the relative rates of electron-impact excitation versus wall collision and gas feed rates.

  2. Microscopic calculation of the restoring force for scissor isovector vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nojarov, R.; Bochnacki, Z.; Faessler, A.

    1986-07-01

    The restoring force for scissor isovector vibrations is calculated microscopically with the wave functions of an axially symmetric Woods-Saxon potential from a density-dependent symmetry energy. The experimental energies of the low-lying magnetic dipole states in rare-earth nuclei are well reproduced. It is found that only outer particles, which contribute to the nuclear moment of inertia, take part in this collective vibration. They are about half of the total number of nucleons.

  3. MEASUREMENT OF VIBRATION PARAMETERS OF THE WAVEGUIDE FOR MEDICAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Palevicius

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods allowing investigation of vibrations of the stainless steel waveguide by combining noncontact techniques with the state-of-the-art multiphysics software are developed. The vibrations of the waveguide, used in nowadays surgery are examined by the aids of the holographic interferometry technique, vibrometer based on Doppler shift of backscattered laser light and the virtual model of the waveguide is created by the Comsol Multiphysics software. 

  4. Mortality causes and outcomes in Indigenous populations of Canada, the United States, and Australia with rheumatic disease: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Kelle; Barnabe, Cheryl

    2017-07-25

    Indigenous populations of Canada, America, Australia, and New Zealand have increased rates and severity of rheumatic disease. Our objective was to summarize mortality outcomes and explore disease and social factors related to mortality. A systematic search was performed in medical (Medline, EMBASE, and CINAHL), Indigenous and conference abstract databases (to June 2015) combining search terms for Indigenous populations and rheumatic diseases. Studies were included if they reported measures of mortality (crude frequency, mortality rate, survival, and potential years of life lost (PYLL)) in Indigenous populations from the four countries. Of 5269 titles and abstracts identified, 504 underwent full-text review and 12 were included. No studies from New Zealand were found. In five Canadian studies of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, First Nations ethnicity was associated with lower survival after adjusting for disease and social factors, and an increased frequency of death from lupus and its complications compared to Caucasians was found. All-cause mortality was higher in Native Americans (n = 2 studies) relative to Whites with SLE after adjusting for disease and social factors, but not in those with lupus nephritis alone. Australian Aborigines with SLE frequently developed infection and lupus complications leading to death (n = 3 studies). Mortality rates were increased in Pima Indians in the United States with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared to those without RA. One study in Native Americans with scleroderma found nearly all deaths were related to progressive disease. Canadian and American Indigenous populations with SLE have increased mortality rates compared to Caucasian populations. Mortality in Canadian and Australian Indigenous populations with SLE, and in Native American populations with RA and scleroderma, is frequently attributed to disease progression or complications. The proportional attribution of rheumatic disease severity and social factors

  5. Occurrence of enteric parasites in populations of Quiscalus lugubris (Aves: Passeriformes, Icteridae) of urban semiarid of Falcon state, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Cazorla Perfetti, Dalmiro; Laboratorio de Entomología, Parasitología y Medicina Tropical (L.E.P.A.M.E.T.), Centro de Investigaciones Biomédicas (C.I.B.), Universidad Nacional Experimental “Francisco de Miranda” (UNEFM), Estado Falcón; Morales Moreno, Pedro; Laboratorio de Entomología, Parasitología y Medicina Tropical (L.E.P.A.M.E.T.), Centro de Investigaciones Biomédicas (C.I.B.), Universidad Nacional Experimental “Francisco de Miranda” (UNEFM), Estado Falcón

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal parasites in passerine birds can potentially have zoonotic importance. A study was conducted to determine the occurrence of intestinal parasites in feces of Carib Grackle, Quiscalus lugubris, populations (Aves, Passeriformes: Icteridae), in the city of Coro, Falcon State, Venezuela. Parasitological examination of the samples (n=156) was conducted by applying the direct smear, Willis-Molloy (NaCl) and Faust (zinc sulphate) flotation methods, spontaneous sedimentation in tube techniq...

  6. Maturation State of Cervical Vertebrae Bone in a Colombian Population with or without Cleft Lip and Palate

    OpenAIRE

    González Carrera, María Clara; Universidad El Bosque; Martínez, Claudia Marcela; Mora Díaz, Íngrid; Universidad El Bosque; Bautista Mendoza, Gloria Rocío; Universidad El Bosque; Palmet Orozco, Sara Patricia; Universidad el Bosque

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the state of bone maturation in a Colombian population with and without cleft lip palate (CLP), using cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) analysis. Methods: A previously calibrated examiner (kappa = 0.76) evaluated the CVM of 145 7-to-18-year-old individuals with and without CLP through lateral radiographs. 73 patients had CLP and 72 did not have the condition. Descriptive and inferential (chi2) statistical analyses were performed to the data (alpha = 0.05). Results: The 7...

  7. Structural, vibrational and photoluminescence properties of Sr{sub (1-x)}Pb{sub x}MoO{sub 4} solid solution synthesized by solid state reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallaoui, A.; Taoufyq, A. [IM2NP, UMR CNRS 7334, University of Toulon, BP20132, 83957 La Garde (France); LME, Faculty of Sciences, University Ibn Zohr, 80000 Agadir (Morocco); Arab, M. [IM2NP, UMR CNRS 7334, University of Toulon, BP20132, 83957 La Garde (France); Bakiz, B.; Benlhachemi, A.; Bazzi, L. [LME, Faculty of Sciences, University Ibn Zohr, 80000 Agadir (Morocco); Valmalette, J-C.; Villain, S.; Guinneton, F. [IM2NP, UMR CNRS 7334, University of Toulon, BP20132, 83957 La Garde (France); Gavarri, J-R., E-mail: gavarri.jr@univ-tln.fr [IM2NP, UMR CNRS 7334, University of Toulon, BP20132, 83957 La Garde (France)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • The solid solution Sr{sub (1-x)}Pb{sub (x)}MoO{sub 4} is characterized by X-ray diffraction. • Raman spectroscopy confirm that the solid solution is disordered. • Photoluminescence experiments are carried out under X-ray excitation. • Emission bands can be decomposed into four components between 2.1 and 2.9 eV. • The intensities of emission bands reach a maximum for 0.1 < x < 0.4. - Abstract: In this paper, strontium lead molybdate Sr{sub 1-x}Pb{sub x}MoO{sub 4} polycrystalline samples with 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 were prepared by solid state preparation method at 1000 °C. These materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Their photoluminescence responses were analyzed under X-ray excitation. Rietveld refinements indicate that all the materials present a scheelite-type tetragonal structure. Micro-Raman spectra confirmed the formation of the solid solution with a specific effect due to Sr-O-Mo and Pb-O-Mo links in the scheelite structure. SEM images showed modifications in the shapes and grain sizes as x increased. Broad photoluminescent emission bands were observed in the energy range 2.1–2.9 eV. The emission bands were decomposed into four gaussian components. The intensities of all components presented a strong maximum in the composition range 0.1 < x < 0.4.

  8. State constitutional commitment to health and health care and population health outcomes: evidence from historical US data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Hiroaki

    2015-07-01

    I investigated whether the introduction of health and health care provisions in US state constitutions can make health systems more equitable and improve health outcomes by urging state policymakers and administrative agencies to uphold their human rights obligations at state level. I constructed a panel of infant mortality rates from 50 US states over the period 1929 through 2000 to examine their association with the timing and details of introducing a constitutional right to health and health care provisions. The introduction of a stronger constitutional commitment that obligates state legislature to provide health care was associated with a subsequent reduction in the infant mortality rate of approximately 7.8%. The introduction of provisions explicitly targeting the poor was also associated with a reduction in the infant mortality rate of 6.5%. These health benefits are primarily evident in non-White populations. This empirical result supports Elizabeth Leonard's view that although state constitutional rights have been poorly enforced through the judiciary, a constitutional expression of health care duties has fueled the political and social process, ultimately allowing states to identify the best way to address citizens' health inequality concerns.

  9. Childhood Asthma Utilization Rates in a Nonsmoking Population of Utah Compared to State and National Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gren, Lisa H.; Taylor, Brooke; Lyon, Joseph L.

    2011-01-01

    Risk factors, such as parental smoking, are commonly associated with increased asthma symptoms and hospitalizations of children. Deseret Mutual Benefits Administrators (DMBA) is the health insurer for employees of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and their families. Due to religious proscription, employees abstain from alcohol and tobacco use, creating a cohort of children not exposed to parental smoking. Calculation of hospitalization rates for DMBA, Utah, and the US were made in children to compare rates between a nonsmoking population and general populations. Compared to DMBA, rate ratios for asthma hospitalization and emergency department asthma visits were higher for the US and Utah. The incidence of hospital outpatient department and physician office visits was significantly greater for the US population compared to the DMBA. This study demonstrates a decreased need for health services used by children not exposed to second-hand smoke. PMID:22389787

  10. Neurologic manifestations of AIDS: a comparative study of two populations from Mexico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, J R; Garcìa-Ramos, G; Novak, I S; Rivera, V M; Huerta, E; Essex, M

    1995-01-01

    Neurologic complications associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection vary geographically. To understand the pattern of HIV-associated neurologic complications in Mexico, 120 AIDS patients from Mexico City, Mexico, and 500 AIDS patients from Houston, Texas, were studied cross-sectionally and retrospectively. Neurologic, laboratory, imaging, and pathologic examinations identified 40 Mexican patients and 130 U.S. patients with neurologic complications. Whereas AIDS dementia complex was the most common neurologic manifestation in both groups, intracranial tuberculoma was present only in the Mexican population (10%). Primary brain lymphoma was more prevalent in the U.S. population (8.4%). The different findings in the Mexican population likely reflect afflictions common to developing countries--a high prevalence of tuberculosis and a high mortality rate. These conditions preclude complications such as lymphoma, which develop later in the natural course of HIV infection.

  11. EPSPS Gene Amplification in Glyphosate-Resistant Italian Ryegrass (Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum) Populations from Arkansas (United States).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Reiofeli A; Scott, Robert C; Dayan, Franck E; Burgos, Nilda R

    2015-07-01

    Glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass was detected in Arkansas (United States) in 2007. In 2014, 45 populations were confirmed resistant in eight counties across the state. The level of resistance and resistance mechanisms in six populations were studied to assess the severity of the problem and identify alternative management approaches. Dose-response bioassays, glyphosate absorption and translocation experiments, herbicide target (EPSPS) gene sequence analysis, and gene amplification assays were conducted. The dose causing 50% growth reduction (GR50) was 7-19 times higher for the resistant population than for the susceptible standard. Uptake and translocation of (14)C-glyphosate were similar in resistant and susceptible plants, and no mutation in the EPSPS gene known to be associated with resistance to glyphosate was detected. Resistant plants contained from 11- to >100-fold more copies of the EPSPS gene than the susceptible plants, whereas the susceptible plants had only one copy of EPSPS. Plants surviving the recommended dose of glyphosate contained at least 10 copies. The EPSPS copy number was positively related to glyphosate resistance level (r = 80). Therefore, resistance to glyphosate in these populations is due to multiplication of the target site. Resistance mechanisms could be location-specific. Suppressing the mechanism for gene amplification may overcome resistance.

  12. Improved Analysis of Long-Term Monitoring Data Demonstrates Marked Regional Declines of Bat Populations in the Eastern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E Ingersoll

    Full Text Available Bats are diverse and ecologically important, but are also subject to a suite of severe threats. Evidence for localized bat mortality from these threats is well-documented in some cases, but long-term changes in regional populations of bats remain poorly understood. Bat hibernation surveys provide an opportunity to improve understanding, but analysis is complicated by bats' cryptic nature, non-conformity of count data to assumptions of traditional statistical methods, and observation heterogeneities such as variation in survey timing. We used generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs to account for these complicating factors and to evaluate long-term, regional population trajectories of bats. We focused on four hibernating bat species - little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus, tri-colored bat (Perimyotis subflavus, Indiana myotis (M. sodalis, and northern myotis (M. septentrionalis - in a four-state region of the eastern United States during 1999-2011. Our results, from counts of nearly 1.2 million bats, suggest that cumulative declines in regional relative abundance by 2011 from peak levels were 71% (with 95% confidence interval of ±11% in M. lucifugus, 34% (±38% in P. subflavus, 30% (±26% in M. sodalis, and 31% (±18% in M. septentrionalis. The M. lucifugus population fluctuated until 2004 before persistently declining, and the populations of the other three species declined persistently throughout the study period. Population trajectories suggest declines likely resulted from the combined effect of multiple threats, and indicate a need for enhanced conservation efforts. They provide strong support for a change in the IUCN Red List conservation status in M. lucifugus from Least Concern to Endangered within the study area, and are suggestive of a need to change the conservation status of the other species. Our modeling approach provided estimates of uncertainty, accommodated non-linearities, and controlled for observation heterogeneities, and

  13. VIBRATION ISOLATION SYSTEM PROBABILITY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov Vladimir Alexandrovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the probability analysis for a vibration isolation system of high-precision equipment, which is extremely sensitive to low-frequency oscillations even of submicron amplitude. The external sources of low-frequency vibrations may include the natural city background or internal low-frequency sources inside buildings (pedestrian activity, HVAC. Taking Gauss distribution into account, the author estimates the probability of the relative displacement of the isolated mass being still lower than the vibration criteria. This problem is being solved in the three dimensional space, evolved by the system parameters, including damping and natural frequency. According to this probability distribution, the chance of exceeding the vibration criteria for a vibration isolation system is evaluated. Optimal system parameters - damping and natural frequency - are being developed, thus the possibility of exceeding vibration criteria VC-E and VC-D is assumed to be less than 0.04.

  14. Random vibrations theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Wirsching, Paul H; Ortiz, Keith

    1995-01-01

    Random Vibrations: Theory and Practice covers the theory and analysis of mechanical and structural systems undergoing random oscillations due to any number of phenomena— from engine noise, turbulent flow, and acoustic noise to wind, ocean waves, earthquakes, and rough pavement. For systems operating in such environments, a random vibration analysis is essential to the safety and reliability of the system. By far the most comprehensive text available on random vibrations, Random Vibrations: Theory and Practice is designed for readers who are new to the subject as well as those who are familiar with the fundamentals and wish to study a particular topic or use the text as an authoritative reference. It is divided into three major sections: fundamental background, random vibration development and applications to design, and random signal analysis. Introductory chapters cover topics in probability, statistics, and random processes that prepare the reader for the development of the theory of random vibrations a...

  15. Population-Based Preference Weights for the EQ-5D Health States Using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, Reza; Zeraati, Hojjat; Akbari Sari, Ali; Rashidian, Arash; Mohammad, Kazem

    2016-01-01

    Background Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is used as a measure to valuate healthcare interventions and guide policy making. The EuroQol EQ-5D is a widely used generic preference-based instrument to measure Health-related quality of life. Objectives The objective of this study was to develop a value set of the EQ-5D health states for an Iranian population. Patients and Methods This study is a cross-sectional study of Iranian populations. Our sample from Iranian populations consists out of 869 participants, who were selected for this study using a stratified probability sampling method. The sample was taken from individuals living in the city of Tehran and was stratified by age and gender from July to November 2013. Respondents valued 13 health states using the visual analogue scale (VAS) of the EQ-5D. Several fixed effects regression models were tested to predict the full set of health states. We selected the final model based on the logical consistency of the estimates, the sign and magnitude of the regression coefficients, goodness of fit, and parsimony. We also compared predicted values with a value set from similar studies in the UK and other countries. Results Our results show that the HRQoL does not vary among socioeconomic groups. Models at the individual level resulted in an additive model with all coefficients being statistically significant, R2 = 0.55, a value of 0.75 for the best health state (11112), and a value of -0.074 for the worst health state (33333). The value set obtained for the study sample remarkably differs from those elicited in developed countries. Conclusions This study is the first estimate for the EQ-5D value set based on the VAS in Iran. Given the importance of locally adapted value set the use of this value set can be recommended for future studies in Iran and In the EMRO regions. PMID:27186384

  16. Prevalence, population dynamics and host preferences of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae of livestock in Marathwada region of Maharashtra State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. Narladkar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study is a part of a research project on integrated pest management of livestock pests with reference to Culicoides spp. Study of prevalence, population dynamics and host preferences are the important benchmarks essential for chalking out the strategies of integrated pest management of Culicoides, thus the study was aimed. Materials and Methods: Light trap collections of Culicoides midges and other tiny flies from animal shed from seventeen centers representing entire Maharashtra state were conducted. Similarly, year round collections from host sheds were envisaged to work out host preferences and population dynamics of Culicoides spp. locally prevalent. Multiple regression analysis was employed to define the environmental predictors responsible for ups and downs during different seasons occurring in the geographic region of the present study. Results: Study revealed the prevalence of Culicoides spp., Phlebotomus spp. and Simulium spp. Simultaneous study undertaken by the aid of hand net, collections of fly species from Marathwada region of Maharashtra state yielded additionally, Tabanus spp., Pangonia spp., mosquitoes and other cyclorrhaphan flies. Some of the species are vectors of livestock diseases hence map of the distribution of these pest species is for to reckon risk areas. Population dynamics study on Culicoides spp. in Marathwada region indicated that, (a Culicoides population were persistent throughout the year; (b Two peaks of population, one in the monsoon (August-September and another minor peak occurred during post monsoon/beginning of winter (November of the year. Drastic reduction in the population occurred during the month of May, which is the hottest month in the year. Culicoides collections from the sheds of different host species indicated the preferences for feeding in the ascending order of preference as cattle, sheep, buffaloes and then goats. Conclusion: Prevalence of Culicoides schultzei, Culicoides

  17. Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report provides estimates of the number of unauthorized immigrants residing in the United States as of January 2008 by period of entry, region and country of...

  18. Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report provides estimates of the number of unauthorized immigrants residing in the United States as of January 2007 by period of entry, region and country of...

  19. Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report provides estimates of the number of unauthorized immigrants residing in the United States as of January 2009 by period of entry, region and country of...

  20. [Seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in the rural population of Sucre State, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jordán, Noris; Berrizbeitia, Mariolga; Rodríguez, Jessicca; Concepción, Juan Luis; Cáceres, Ana; Quiñones, Wilfredo

    2017-10-26

    The current study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Sucre State, Venezuela, and its association with epidemiological risk factors. The cluster sampling design allowed selecting 96 villages and 576 dwellings in the State's 15 municipalities. A total of 2,212 serum samples were analyzed by ELISA, HAI, and IFI. Seroprevalence in Sucre State was 3.12%. Risk factors associated with T. cruzi infection were: accumulated garbage, flooring and wall materials, type of dwelling, living in a house with wattle and daub walls and/or straw roofing, living in a house with risky walls and roofing, risky buildings and wattle and daub outbuildings, poultry inside the human dwelling, and presence of firewood. Infection was associated with individual age, and three seropositive cases were found in individuals less than 15 years of age. Sucre State has epidemiological factors that favor the risk of acquiring T. cruzi infection.

  1. Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report provides estimates of the number of unauthorized immigrants residing in the United States as of January 2006 by period of entry, region and country of...

  2. General three-state model with biased population replacement: analytical solution and application to language dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaiori, Francesca; Castellano, Claudio; Cuskley, Christine F; Loreto, Vittorio; Pugliese, Martina; Tria, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Empirical evidence shows that the rate of irregular usage of English verbs exhibits discontinuity as a function of their frequency: the most frequent verbs tend to be totally irregular. We aim to qualitatively understand the origin of this feature by studying simple agent-based models of language dynamics, where each agent adopts an inflectional state for a verb and may change it upon interaction with other agents. At the same time, agents are replaced at some rate by new agents adopting the regular form. In models with only two inflectional states (regular and irregular), we observe that either all verbs regularize irrespective of their frequency, or a continuous transition occurs between a low-frequency state, where the lemma becomes fully regular, and a high-frequency one, where both forms coexist. Introducing a third (mixed) state, wherein agents may use either form, we find that a third, qualitatively different behavior may emerge, namely, a discontinuous transition in frequency. We introduce and solve analytically a very general class of three-state models that allows us to fully understand these behaviors in a unified framework. Realistic sets of interaction rules, including the well-known naming game (NG) model, result in a discontinuous transition, in agreement with recent empirical findings. We also point out that the distinction between speaker and hearer in the interaction has no effect on the collective behavior. The results for the general three-state model, although discussed in terms of language dynamics, are widely applicable.

  3. Active Control of Parametric Vibrations in Coupled Rotor-Blade Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rene Hardam; Santos, Ilmar

    2003-01-01

    In rotor-blade systems basis as well as parametric vibration modes will appear due to the vibration coupling among flexible rotating blades and hub rigid body motion. Parametric vibration will typically occur when the hub operates at a constant angular velocity. Operating at constant velocity...... the model becomes periodic-variant. In order to reduce basis as well as parametric vibrations by means of active control in such systems a time-variant control strategy has to be adopted. This paper presents a methodology for designing an active controller to reduce vibrations in a coupled rotor......-blade system. The main aim is to control blade as well as hub vibrations in such a system by means of active control with focus on reducing the parametric vibration. A periodic state feedback controller is designed by transforming the system into a linear time-invariant form. Using this a controller...

  4. Conservation state of populations of rare plant species in highly transformed meadow steppes of Southern Opillya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Dmytrash-Vatseba

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of natural habitats causes rapid extinction of rare plant populations. The diversity of rare plant species in the meadow steppes of Southern Opillya (Western Ukraine depends strongly on patch area, pasture digression of vegetation and a variety of eco-coenotical conditions. The main threats for the rare components of the meadow steppe flora are reduction of habitat and overgrazing. Spatial connections between sites are unable to support a constant rare plant population. The analysis of the composition of rare plant meadow-steppe species indicated that habitats with similar rare species composition usually have similar parameters of area, stages of pasture digression and eco-coenotical conditions. Spatial connectivity of patches does not ensure species similarity of rare components of the flora. Rare plant species were grouped according to their preferences for habitat , area and condition. In small patches subject to any stage of pasture digression grow populations of Adonis vernalis L., Pulsatilla patens (L. Mill., P. grandis Wender., Stipa capillata L., S. рennata L., Chamaecytisus blockianus (Pawł. Klásková etc. On the contrary, populations of other species (Carlina onopordifolia Besser. ex Szafer., Kuecz. et Pawł., Adenophora liliifolia (L. Ledeb. ex A. DC., Crambe tataria Sebeók, Euphorbia volhynica Besser ex Racib., Stipa tirsa Stev. etc. prefer large habitats, not changed by pasture digression. Prevention of reduction of rare species diversity requires preservation (also extension of patch area and regulation of grazing intensity.

  5. Roads to health : multi-state modelling of population health and resource use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niessen, Louis Wilhelmus

    2002-01-01

    The book has described the dynamics of disease occurrence in populations and gives an overview of the major known health determinants of mortality decline, health risk factors and health services, and studies the health interventions options in two example diseases i.e. diabetes and stroke. We

  6. Conservation genetics of remnant Lilium philadelphicum populations in the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew E. Horning; Michael S. Webster

    2009-01-01

    In recent decades, an increasing number of plant species have been negatively affected by anthropogenic habitat fragmentation and disturbance. In many cases, the habitat matrix between populations has been converted from a natural to an urban environment. One such species, Lilium philadelphicum (Liliaceae) a showy perennial with a naturally patchy...

  7. RENO, NV, JANUARY 15, 2004: FACTORS IMPLICATED IN AMPHIBIAN POPULATION DECLINES IN THE UNITED STATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factors known or suspected to be adversely affecting native amphibian populations in the US were identified using information from 267 species accounts written in a standardized format by multiple authors in the forthcoming book, 'Status and Conservation of U.S. Amphibians'. Spec...

  8. Life expectancy with cognitive impairment in the older population of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthers, Kristen; Kim, Jung Ki; Crimmins, Eileen

    2003-05-01

    This article provides estimates of the prevalence of cognitive impairment by age and sex for a nationally representative sample of the U.S. population aged 70 and over. From these estimates, years of life with and without cognitive impairment are calculated. Using data from the Assets and Health Dynamics of the Oldest Old (AHEAD) survey, the prevalence of cognitive impairment is estimated for a sample representing both the community-dwelling and institutionalized older American population. Sullivan's method is used to calculate the average number of years an elderly person can expect to live with and without cognitive impairment. The prevalence of moderate to severe cognitive impairment in the total U.S. population aged 70 and over is 9.5%. At age 70, the average American can expect 1.5 years with cognitive impairment. Expected length of life with cognitive impairment is longer for women than men because of their longer life expectancy. As total life expectancy continues to increase, the length of life with cognitive impairment for the American population will increase unless age-specific prevalence is reduced. There is great potential for improvement in future early treatment and diagnosis of this condition.

  9. Insecticide resistance status of United States populations of Aedes albopictus and mechanisms involved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) is an invasive mosquito that has become an important vector of chikungunya and dengue viruses. Immature Ae. albopictus thrive in backyard household containers that require treatment with larvicides and when adult populations reach pest levels or disease transmission is ongoi...

  10. Evaluation of reproductive compatibility of interstrain matings among plum curculio populations in the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing; Pfeiffer, Douglas G

    2008-10-01

    Reproductive compatibility of interstrain matings in plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), was studied during the summers of 2004 and 2006. There was a unidirectional incompatibility in the cross-matings along a rough north to south transect of the range of plum curculio (4 x 4 two-factorial design). There was significantly lower fertility in West Virginia males mated with New York and Virginia females (40 and 29%, respectively), and Florida males had a significantly lower fertility with Virginia and West Virginia females (46 and 37%, respectively), but Florida females were compatible with males of all four populations. Three northern populations were compatible with each other in all cross-mating combinations (New York, Massachusetts, and New Jersey; 3 x 3 two-factorial design). There was a unidirectional reproductive incompatibility in the combination of New Jersey males with Florida females (47%) and a bi-directional incompatibility between Florida and West Virginia reciprocal cross-mating (26 and 21%, respectively). The pattern of the reproductive incompatibility among geographic populations could help us to distinguish plum curculio strains and to clarify their strain distribution range to enrich our knowledge on their population ecology and biosystematics.

  11. Population inversion in hyperfine states of Rb with a single nanosecond chirped pulse in the framework of a four-level system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G.; Zakharov, V.; Collins, T.; Gould, P.; Malinovskaya, S. A.

    2014-04-01

    We implement a four-level semiclassical model of a single pulse interacting with the hyperfine structure in ultracold rubidium aimed at control of population dynamics and quantum state preparation. We discuss a method based on pulse chirping to achieve population inversion between hyperfine states of the 5S shell. The results may prove useful for quantum operations with ultracold atoms.

  12. Perpetuating neo-colonialism through population control: South Africa and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuumba, M B

    1993-01-01

    Third world women in the global economy are valuable as a cheap source of labor and as producers of additional cheap labor sources (children). This discussion focuses on the interrelationships between race, class, and gender bias in international population programs and the unequal power relationship between colonizers and the colonized. For example, USAID directs over 33% of its family planning (FP) service delivery funding and 50% of policy funds to Africa, and African women and women of color in general are blamed for their own poverty and underdevelopment. Madi Gray is cited as suggesting that African FP is the cure for "illegitimacy, misery in the ghettos, and rising crime." The paternalistic and racist population policies of the US are traced to a 1905 speech of President Theodore Roosevelt, who expressed concern about the Yankee stock being overwhelmed by immigrants, non-Whites, and the poor. In 1933, the US Birth Control Federation targeted Black women. Birth control and eugenic practices were integrated before the Second World War and shared the goal of reducing the immigrant and Black populations. The current South African equivalent to this situation is the White power rhetoric of "Black peril" which is said to threaten White power, safety, and profits. Structural changes in both the US and South Africa are creating large surplus labor pools comprised largely of Black Africans. When labor reserves are too large, poverty and underemployment are identified as the result of overpopulation. Unhealthy and unproved birth control technologies have been distributed to Africans while health care, economic resources, and social security have been neglected. Population control is used for selective population reduction.

  13. Vibration Control via Stiffness Switching of Magnetostrictive Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidler, Justin J.; Asnani, Vivake M.; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a computational study of structural vibration control that is realized by switching a magnetostrictive transducer between high and low stiffness states. Switching is accomplished by either changing the applied magnetic field with a voltage excitation or changing the shunt impedance on the transducer's coil (i.e., the magnetostrictive material's magnetic boundary condition). Switched-stiffness vibration control is simulated using a lumped mass supported by a damper and the magnetostrictive transducer (mount), which is represented by a nonlinear, electromechanical model. Free vibration of the mass is calculated while varying the mount's stiffness according to a reference switched-stiffness vibration control law. The results reveal that switching the magnetic field produces the desired change in stiffness, but also an undesired actuation force that can significantly degrade the vibration control. Hence, a modified switched-stiffness control law that accounts for the actuation force is proposed and implemented for voltage-controlled stiffness switching. The influence of the magnetomechanical bias condition is also discussed. Voltage-controlled stiffness switching is found to introduce damping equivalent to a viscous damping factor up to about 0.25; this is shown to primarily result from active vibration reduction caused by the actuation force. The merit of magnetostrictive switched-stiffness vibration control is then quantified by comparing the results of voltage- and shunt-controlled stiffness switching to the performance of optimal magnetostrictive shunt damping.

  14. Kappa Delta Award. Low back pain and whole body vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, M H; Magnusson, M; Wilder, D G

    1998-09-01

    The investigators describe their multifaceted approach to the study of the relationship between whole body vibration and low back pain. The epidemiologic study was a two center study of drivers and sedentary workers in the United States and Sweden. The vibration exposure was measured in the vehicles. It was found that the career vibration exposure was related to low back, neck, and shoulder pain. However, disability was related to job satisfaction. In vivo experiments, using percutaneous pin mounted accelerometers have shown that the natural frequency is at 4.5 Hz. The frequency response is affected by posture, seating, and seat back inclination. The response appears to be determined largely by the rocking of the pelvis. Electromyographic studies have shown that muscle fatigue occurs under whole body vibration. After whole body vibration exposure the muscle response to a sudden load has greater latency. Vehicle driving may be a reason for low back pain or herniated nucleus pulposus. Prolonged seating exposure, coupled with the whole body vibration, should be reduced for those recovering from these problems. Vibration attenuating seats and correct ergonomic layout of the cabs may reduce the risks of recurrence.

  15. Dynamics of Multistage Gear Transmission with Effects of Gearbox Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, F. K.; Tu, Y. K.; Zakrajsek, J. J.; Townsend, Dennis P.

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive approach is presented in analyzing the dynamic behavior of multistage gear transmission systems with the effects of gearbox induced vibrations and mass imbalances of the rotor. The modal method, with undamped frequencies and planar mode shapes, is used to reduce the degrees of freedom of the gear system for time-transient dynamic analysis. Both the lateral and torsional vibration modes of each rotor-bearing-gear stage as well as the interstage vibrational characteristics are coupled together through localized gear mesh tooth interactions. In addition, gearbox vibrations are also coupled to the rotor-bearing-gear system dynamics through bearing support forces between the rotor and the gearbox. Transient and steady state dynamics of lateral and torsional vibrations of the geared system are examined in both time and frequency domains to develop interpretations of the overall modal dynamic characteristics under various operating conditions. A typical three-stage geared system is used as an example. Effects of mass imbalance and gearbox vibrations on the system dynamic behavior are presented in terms of modal excitation functions for both lateral and torsional vibrations. Operational characteristics and conclusions are drawn from the results presented.

  16. Inferences about population dynamics from count data using multi-state models: A comparison to capture-recapture approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Zipkin, Elise; Scott, Sillett T.; Chandler, Richard; Royle, J. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Wildlife populations consist of individuals that contribute disproportionately to growth and viability. Understanding a population's spatial and temporal dynamics requires estimates of abundance and demographic rates that account for this heterogeneity. Estimating these quantities can be difficult, requiring years of intensive data collection. Often, this is accomplished through the capture and recapture of individual animals, which is generally only feasible at a limited number of locations. In contrast, N-mixture models allow for the estimation of abundance, and spatial variation in abundance, from count data alone. We extend recently developed multistate, open population N-mixture models, which can additionally estimate demographic rates based on an organism's life history characteristics. In our extension, we develop an approach to account for the case where not all individuals can be assigned to a state during sampling. Using only state-specific count data, we show how our model can be used to estimate local population abundance, as well as density-dependent recruitment rates and state-specific survival. We apply our model to a population of black-throated blue warblers (Setophaga caerulescens) that have been surveyed for 25 years on their breeding grounds at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, USA. The intensive data collection efforts allow us to compare our estimates to estimates derived from capture–recapture data. Our model performed well in estimating population abundance and density-dependent rates of annual recruitment/immigration. Estimates of local carrying capacity and per capita recruitment of yearlings were consistent with those published in other studies. However, our model moderately underestimated annual survival probability of yearling and adult females and severely underestimates survival probabilities for both of these male stages. The most accurate and precise estimates will necessarily require some amount of intensive

  17. Chaotic vortex induced vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, J.; Sheridan, J. [Fluids Laboratory for Aeronautical and Industrial Research (FLAIR), Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Leontini, J. S. [Department of Mechanical and Product Design Engineering, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Lo Jacono, D. [Institut de Mécanique des Fluides de Toulouse (IMFT), CNRS, UPS and Université de Toulouse, 31400 Toulouse (France)

    2014-12-15

    This study investigates the nature of the dynamic response of an elastically mounted cylinder immersed in a free stream. A novel method is utilized, where the motion of the body during a free vibration experiment is accurately recorded, and then a second experiment is conducted where the cylinder is externally forced to follow this recorded trajectory. Generally, the flow response during both experiments is identical. However, particular regimes exist where the flow response is significantly different. This is taken as evidence of chaos in these regimes.

  18. Lattice Vibrations in Chlorobenzenes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reynolds, P. A.; Kjems, Jørgen; White, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    Lattice vibrational dispersion curves for the ``intermolecular'' modes in the triclinic, one molecule per unit cell β phase of p‐C6D4Cl2 and p‐C6H4Cl2 have been obtained by inelastic neutron scattering. The deuterated sample was investigated at 295 and at 90°K and a linear extrapolation to 0°K...... was applied in order to correct for anharmonic effects. Calculations based on the atom‐atom model for van der Waals' interaction and on general potential parameters for the aromatic compounds agree reasonably well with the experimental observations. There is no substantial improvement in fit obtained either...

  19. A novel assessment of population structure and gene flow in grey wolf populations of the Northern Rocky Mountains of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vonHoldt, Bridgett M; Stahler, Daniel R; Bangs, Edward E; Smith, Douglas W; Jimenez, Mike D; Mack, Curt M; Niemeyer, Carter C; Pollinger, John P; Wayne, Robert K

    2010-10-01

    The successful re-introduction of grey wolves to the western United States is an impressive accomplishment for conservation science. However, the degree to which subpopulations are genetically structured and connected, along with the preservation of genetic variation, is an important concern for the continued viability of the metapopulation. We analysed DNA samples from 555 Northern Rocky Mountain wolves from the three recovery areas (Greater Yellowstone Area, Montana, and Idaho), including all 66 re-introduced founders, for variation in 26 microsatellite loci over the initial 10-year recovery period (1995-2004). The population maintained high levels of variation (H(O) = 0.64-0.72; allelic diversity k=7.0-10.3) with low levels of inbreeding (F(IS) wolves will rely on management decisions that promote natural dispersal dynamics and minimize anthropogenic factors that reduce genetic connectivity. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Do American States with more religious or conservative populations search more for sexual content on google?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacInnis, Cara C; Hodson, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    In America, religiosity and conservatism are generally associated with opposition to non-traditional sexual behavior, but prominent political scandals and recent research suggest a paradoxical private attraction to sexual content on the political and religious right. We examined associations between state-level religiosity/conservatism and anonymized interest in searching for sexual content online using Google Trends (which calculates within-state search volumes for search terms). Across two separate years, and controlling for demographic variables, we observed moderate-to-large positive associations between: (1) greater proportions of state-level religiosity and general web searching for sexual content and (2) greater proportions of state-level conservatism and image-specific searching for sex. These findings were interpreted in terms of the paradoxical hypothesis that a greater preponderance of right-leaning ideologies is associated with greater preoccupation with sexual content in private internet activity. Alternative explanations (e.g., that opposition to non-traditional sex in right-leaning states leads liberals to rely on private internet sexual activity) are discussed, as are limitations to inference posed by aggregate data more generally.