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Sample records for vibrational redistribution ivr

  1. IVR EFP Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains trip-level reports submitted by vessels participating in Exempted Fishery projects with IVR reporting requirements.

  2. IVR RSA Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains trip-level reports submitted by vessels participating in Research Set-Aside projects with IVR reporting requirements.

  3. On the nature of highly vibrationally excited states of thiophosgene

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Understanding the nature of the highly excited molecu- lar eigenstates is equivalent to deciphering the mecha- nism of intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution. (IVR) occurring in the molecule.1 However, the assign- ment of eigenstates is far from simple. The existence of and interplay of several strong anharmonic ...

  4. Relaxation dynamics in quantum dissipative systems: The microscopic effect of intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga-Piña, L. [Facultad de Física, Universidad de la Habana, San Lázaro y L, Vedado, 10400 Havana (Cuba); Institute for Chemistry and Biochemistry, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustr. 3, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Tremblay, J. C., E-mail: jean.c.tremblay@gmail.com [Institute for Chemistry and Biochemistry, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustr. 3, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-08-21

    We investigate the effect of inter-mode coupling on the vibrational relaxation dynamics of molecules in weak dissipative environments. The simulations are performed within the reduced density matrix formalism in the Markovian regime, assuming a Lindblad form for the system-bath interaction. The prototypical two-dimensional model system representing two CO molecules approaching a Cu(100) surface is adapted from an ab initio potential, while the diatom-diatom vibrational coupling strength is systematically varied. In the weak system-bath coupling limit and at low temperatures, only first order non-adiabatic uni-modal coupling terms contribute to surface-mediated vibrational relaxation. Since dissipative dynamics is non-unitary, the choice of representation will affect the evolution of the reduced density matrix. Two alternative representations for computing the relaxation rates and the associated operators are thus compared: the fully coupled spectral basis, and a factorizable ansatz. The former is well-established and serves as a benchmark for the solution of Liouville-von Neumann equation. In the latter, a contracted grid basis of potential-optimized discrete variable representation is tailored to incorporate most of the inter-mode coupling, while the Lindblad operators are represented as tensor products of one-dimensional operators, for consistency. This procedure results in a marked reduction of the grid size and in a much more advantageous scaling of the computational cost with respect to the increase of the dimensionality of the system. The factorizable method is found to provide an accurate description of the dissipative quantum dynamics of the model system, specifically of the time evolution of the state populations and of the probability density distribution of the molecular wave packet. The influence of intra-molecular vibrational energy redistribution appears to be properly taken into account by the new model on the whole range of coupling strengths. It

  5. Large Amplitude Motions in Polyatomic Molecule Spectra: Intramolecular Vibrational Redistribution and Isomerization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Field, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Through Stimulated Emission Pumping (SEP) studies of highly excited vibrational levels of the electronic ground state of HCP, the spectroscopic signatures of bond breaking isomer/atom (HCP right arrow HPC...

  6. Consistent post-reaction vibrational energy redistribution in DSMC simulations using TCE model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges Sebastião, Israel; Alexeenko, Alina

    2016-10-01

    The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method has been widely applied to study shockwaves, hypersonic reentry flows, and other nonequilibrium flow phenomena. Although there is currently active research on high-fidelity models based on ab initio data, the total collision energy (TCE) and Larsen-Borgnakke (LB) models remain the most often used chemistry and relaxation models in DSMC simulations, respectively. The conventional implementation of the discrete LB model, however, may not satisfy detailed balance when recombination and exchange reactions play an important role in the flow energy balance. This issue can become even more critical in reacting mixtures involving polyatomic molecules, such as in combustion. In this work, this important shortcoming is addressed and an empirical approach to consistently specify the post-reaction vibrational states close to thermochemical equilibrium conditions is proposed within the TCE framework. Following Bird's quantum-kinetic (QK) methodology for populating post-reaction states, the new TCE-based approach involves two main steps. The state-specific TCE reaction probabilities for a forward reaction are first pre-computed from equilibrium 0-D simulations. These probabilities are then employed to populate the post-reaction vibrational states of the corresponding reverse reaction. The new approach is illustrated by application to exchange and recombination reactions relevant to H2-O2 combustion processes.

  7. Interventional radiology (IVR). The history, status quo, and prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furui, Shigeru; Kohtake, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Interventional radiology (IVR) is a clinical practice that therapy and/or biopsy are performed under guidance by images obtainable by the contrast angiography, ultrasonography, CT, MRI and so on. This paper describes its history, present status and future prospect. Actual operation procedure, recent trend and progress as well are explained in the order of arterial embolization, IVR in hepatic tumors, PTA (percutaneous transluminal angiography) and MS (metallic stent indwelling), MS applied to others than artery, S-G (stent-graft), IVR in portal hypertension, development of IVR devices in Japan, and radiation exposure and its protection in IVR. Many IVR devices have been developed in Japan for as long as these 30 years, a part of which is marketed. Skin exposure in patients is unavoidable in IVR with X-ray and thereby regulations by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) are introduced for their benefit. Systems for dose estimation in patients and efforts to reduce the dose are mentioned to be important and radiologists themselves should make effort to decrease their own exposure in consideration of the dose limits defined in the law. Problems in Japan are expensiveness of IVR devices, and slow-paced approval of new devices by authority and by health insurance agent. The author recommends doctors to have expert radiologist's advice in IVR. (R.T.)

  8. The Experimental Study to Support IVR Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, L.; Lu, W.; Hu, T.

    2015-01-01

    For alleviating the severe accident damage in nuclear power plant, In-vessel retention (IVR) is used on the severe accident management strategy in light water reactor. The criterion of IVR effectiveness is the safety margin, the value that between the melt pool heat flux and the critical heat flux on the lower head, matching the design requirements. For enhance the safety margin, the melt pool heat flux and the critical heat flux should be investigated. In the molten pool, the heat transfer behavior of metal layer is the focus problem because of the thermal focus effect. Therefore, the HELM was built to study the heat transfer correlations under the IVR conditions. The Globe–Dropkin correlation and Chu-Churchill correlation has been widely used to calculate the heat flux in the metal layer. However, the Rayleigh number (Ra) for the developed Power Plant has been shown to exceed the valid range for the G–D correlation. At the same time, other studies have shown that most correlations are far from the G–D correlation. Therefore, HELM verified the G–D correlations under the high Ra condition. The relationship between axial and radial heat transfer in the metal layer will also been studied. The behaviors of CHF varying with angular positions and the concentrations of coolant chemistry are investigated by the FIRM facility. FIRM is built to embody some key factors that influence the CHF: the heater block is 30o arc of circle with full-scale radius, and is made of the copper block covered by a thin carbon steel layer. The test section can be positioned in three tilted angles. Also, the effect of coolant chemistry will be examined by the mixed solution of water, deionized water, boric acid and tri-sodium phosphate. (author)

  9. Overtone spectroscopy of the hydroxyl stretch vibration in hydroxylamine (NH2OH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J.L.; Luckhaus, D.; Brown, S.S.; Crim, F.F.

    1995-01-01

    We present photoacoustic spectra of the second (3ν OH ), third (4ν OH ), and fourth (5ν OH ) overtone bands of the hydroxyl stretch vibration in hydroxylamine. Asymmetric rotor simulations of the rovibrational contours provide rotational constants and an estimate of the homogeneous linewidth. The fourth overtone band appears anomalously broad relative to the two lower bands, reflecting a sharp increase in the rate of intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution (IVR). By contrast, the calculated density of states increases smoothly with energy. The homogeneous linewidth of the fourth overtone transition is similar to that measured by Luo et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 93, 9194 (1990)] for the predissociative sixth overtone band, supporting the conclusion that the broadening arises from increased (ro)vibrational coupling at an energy between the third and fourth overtone states

  10. Problem and future of radiation hazard in IVR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chida, Koichi; Maruoka, Shin; Saito, Haruo; Ishibashi, Tadashi; Takai, Yoshihiro

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes problems of radiation exposure to patients and operators, their dose assessment and future in the radio-protection at IVR (interventional radiology) like percutaneous coronary intervention. Patients who undergo the IVR operation are usually faced to dying risk and thereby the actually still occurring radiation injury is often justified. However, effort must be taken based on measurement and dose assessment of the radiation to reduce the exposure dose in patients, which, authors comment, leads to the decrease of dose also to the operators derived mainly from scattering. Presently in IVR, however, there are scarce methods to directly measure and assess the maximal exposure dose of patient's skin in a real time, and therefore which are tasks remained in future. Practically used is the evaluation of the overall dose by parameters like exposing hours and area dose values (International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP), 2001 and Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 1995), and/or by IVR-reference point method (International Electrotechnical Commission, 2000). The latter is on the defined point 15-cm distant from the isocenter toward X-ray tube focus and the concept is already incorporated in Japan Industrial Standard. Those evaluations are conceivably helpful for future assessment of IVR radiation effects involving carcinogenesis. (R.T.)

  11. Business drivers and design choices for multilingual IVRs : A government service delivery case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Calteaux, K

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Multilingual emerging markets hold many opportunities for the application of spoken language technologies, such as interactive voice response (IVR) systems. Designing such systems requires an in-depth understanding of the business drivers...

  12. Comparison of 2D and 3D Experiments for IVR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hae Kyun; Kim, Su Hyeon; Chung Bum Jin [Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The integrity of reactor vessel is one of the prime concern in a severe accident condition. When the InVessel core melts Retention by External Reactor Vessel Cooling (IVR-ERVC) strategy is adopted as the design concept, the local heat load imposed on the reactor vessel should be identified in order to confirm the integrity of the reactor vessel. There are several studies simulating the natural convection of the oxide pool experimentally. In them, modified Ra (Ra') substitutes conventional Ra in order to represents decay heat of the core melts, due to the self-exothermic condition of the oxide pool. Difficulties in those experiments were the realization of the homogeneous self-exothermic volumetric heat sources. For this reason, the experiments using semicircular facility were also carried out instead of those of hemisphere facility [5-8]. The mean and local Nu of the lower head and the top plate were measured and correlations of the mean Nu were developed in existing studies. However, the comparisons between 2D and 3D results and phenomenological analyses have not been sufficiently performed. In this study we measured and compared the mean and local Nu using 2D and 3D Mass Transfer Experimental Rig for Oxide Pool (MassTER-OP). The experiments were carried out using cupric acid copper sulfate (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-CuSO{sub 4}) electroplating system based on the analogy between heat and mass transfer system. The Pr was 2,014 and Ra'H were varied from 7.15X10{sup 12} to 3.05X10{sup 15}.

  13. Effects of Liquid Metal Fin on Critical Heat Flux under IVR-ERVC Condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seong Dae; Bang, In Cheol [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The molten fuel is relocated to bottom of reactor vessel after core is damaged and not cooled continuously. In-vessel retention through external reactor vessel cooling (IVR-ERVC) is presented to terminate the progression of accidents by removing the decay heat. IVR-ERVC is suitable for small size reactors like AR-600, AP-1000. There is uncertainty for high power reactor like APR-1400 and CAP-1400. This uncertainty originates from the thermal margin between the CHF value and real heat flux on the reactor vessel under severe accidents. The main mechanism of heat removal on IVR-ERVC strategy is boiling on the outer wall of reactor vessel. The boiling heat transfer is limited due to the CHF phenomenon. There should be an enough margin for preventing the CHF in boiling heat transfer systems. The CHF tests for IVR-ERVC system were conducted to confirm or increase the thermal margin. The design of thermal insulator was changed to vent the vapor smoothly. Forming the coating layer on the vessel surface was proposed to enhance the CHF margin. The liquid metal was designed to flood the space around the reactor vessel. The liquid metal has high boiling point and superb thermal conductivity in comparison with the coolant. In this work, experimental tests were conducted to validate the CFD results about the IVR-ERVC system with liquid metal. The behavior of vapor was observed to predict the tendency of CHF increase with small-scaled facility to simulate the IVR-ERVC system.

  14. Numerical simulation of multi-phase phenomena in IVR related processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Xu [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Bereich Innovative Reaktorsysteme; Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China). School of Nuclear Science and Engineering

    2016-05-15

    IVR (in-vessel retention) is one of the severe accident mitigation measures, which is widely applied in the advanced light water reactors (LWRs) such as KERENA of AREVA, AP1000 of Westinghouse and CAP1400 of SNPTC, and attracts extensive interests of the German and Chinese nuclear scientists. The ultimate target of IVR is to keep the core melt inside the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and to provide cooling capability via water flowing outside the RPV, the so called external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC). This paper summarizes some activities ongoing in both KIT and SJTU (Shanghai Jiao Tong University) with a few results examples.

  15. On the nature of intramolecular vibrational energy transfer in dense molecular environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benten, Rebekka S. von [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie der Universitaet Goettingen, Tammannstrasse 6, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany); Abel, Bernd, E-mail: Bernd.Abel@uni-lepzig.de [Wilhelm-Ostwald-Institut fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Universitaet Leipzig, Linne-Strasse 2, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2010-12-09

    Graphical abstract: Mechanisms of IVR in multi-tiers of intramolecular energy levels in different molecular environments are investigated. - Abstract: Transient femtosecond-IR-pump-UV-absorption probe-spectroscopy has been employed to shed light on the nature of intramolecular vibrational energy transfer (IVR) in dense molecular environments ranging from the diluted gas phase to the liquid. A general feature in our experiments and those of others is that IVR proceeds via multiple timescales if overtones or combination vibrations of high frequency modes are excited. It has been found that collisions enhance IVR if its (slower) timescales can compete with collisions. This enhancement is, however, much more weaker and rather inefficient as opposed to the effect of collisions on intermolecular energy transfer which is well known. In a series of experiments we found that IVR depends not significantly on the average energy transferred in a collision but rather on the number of collisions. The collisions are much less efficient in affecting IVR than VET. We conclude that collision induced broadening of vibrational energy levels reduces the energy gaps and enhances existing couplings between tiers. The present results are an important step forward to rationalize and understand apparently different and not consistent results from different groups on different molecular systems between gas and liquid phases.

  16. Internet and telephonic IVR mixed-mode survey for longitudinal studies: choice, retention, and data equivalency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Santosh K; Courtney, Theodore K; Lombardi, David A; Chang, Wen-Ruey; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Brennan, Melanye J; Perry, Melissa J

    2014-01-01

    This study examined data equivalency and loss to follow-up rates from Internet and interactive voice response (IVR) system surveys in a prospective-cohort study. 475 limited-service restaurant workers participating in the 12-week study were given a choice to report their weekly slipping experience by either IVR or Internet. Demographic differences, loss to follow-up, self-reported rates of slipping, and selection of first and last choices were compared. Loss to follow-up rates were slightly higher for those choosing the IVR mode. Rates of slipping and selection of first and last choices were not significantly different between survey modes. Propensity to choose an Internet survey decreased with increasing age, and was the lowest among Spanish speakers (5%) and those with less than a high school education (14%). Studies relying solely on Internet-based data collection may lead to selective exclusion of certain populations. Findings suggest that Internet and IVR may be combined as survey modalities within longitudinal studies. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Designing interactive voice response (IVR) interfaces: localisation for low literacy users

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sharma Grover, A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available -literate, and the impact of a different set of social-cultural, linguistic, and domestic challenges, amongst others, the authords advocate the enculturation of IVR interfaces different from the developed world. This requires the tailoring of functionalities and interactive...

  18. CHF enhancement through Pressurized Intermediate Layer in IVR-ERVC Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seong Dae; Bang, In Cheol

    2014-01-01

    The molten fuel is sequentially relocated to bottom of reactor vessel. In-vessel retention through the external reactor vessel cooling (IVR-ERVC) strategy has been adapted to some reactors at this situation in order to prevent the progression of an accident. The limitation of IVR-ERVC strategy is CHF phenomenon on the outer wall of reactor vessel. The boiling is main heat transfer mode to remove decay heat between the reactor vessel and the coolant surrounding the reactor vessel. Heated molten radioactive material is leaked. The fuel coolant interaction (FCI) phenomenon could cause the steam explosion in a state of fully flooding condition. Therefore, the CHF should be enhanced in order to be a successful IVR-ERVC strategy. Related studies were performed to confirm the CHF limit with UPLU, SBLB, KAIST and UNIST test facilities The recommendations to increase CHF include coating some materials on the vessel outer surface, increasing the reactor cavity flood level and streamlining the gap between the vessel and the vessel insulation. Recently, flooding the liquid metal is proposed to prevent the boiling itself. In this work, the effects of pressurized liquid layer inserted between the reactor vessel and flooded coolant was studied. Suitable reactor geometry was also presented to apple this concept. Generally, CHF is increased as high pressure was applied until about 1/3 of critical pressure. The limit of IVR-ERVC strategy could overcome by using pressurized intermediate layer. The CFD analysis was performed to confirm the feasibility of pressurized IVR-ERVC system. There are enough thermal margins for due to the enlarged heat transfer area and the convection heat transfer

  19. CHF enhancement through Pressurized Intermediate Layer in IVR-ERVC Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seong Dae; Bang, In Cheol [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The molten fuel is sequentially relocated to bottom of reactor vessel. In-vessel retention through the external reactor vessel cooling (IVR-ERVC) strategy has been adapted to some reactors at this situation in order to prevent the progression of an accident. The limitation of IVR-ERVC strategy is CHF phenomenon on the outer wall of reactor vessel. The boiling is main heat transfer mode to remove decay heat between the reactor vessel and the coolant surrounding the reactor vessel. Heated molten radioactive material is leaked. The fuel coolant interaction (FCI) phenomenon could cause the steam explosion in a state of fully flooding condition. Therefore, the CHF should be enhanced in order to be a successful IVR-ERVC strategy. Related studies were performed to confirm the CHF limit with UPLU, SBLB, KAIST and UNIST test facilities The recommendations to increase CHF include coating some materials on the vessel outer surface, increasing the reactor cavity flood level and streamlining the gap between the vessel and the vessel insulation. Recently, flooding the liquid metal is proposed to prevent the boiling itself. In this work, the effects of pressurized liquid layer inserted between the reactor vessel and flooded coolant was studied. Suitable reactor geometry was also presented to apple this concept. Generally, CHF is increased as high pressure was applied until about 1/3 of critical pressure. The limit of IVR-ERVC strategy could overcome by using pressurized intermediate layer. The CFD analysis was performed to confirm the feasibility of pressurized IVR-ERVC system. There are enough thermal margins for due to the enlarged heat transfer area and the convection heat transfer.

  20. Bias in child maltreatment self-reports using interactive voice response (IVR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepple, Nancy J; Freisthler, Bridget; Johnson-Motoyama, Michelle

    2014-10-01

    Few methods estimate the prevalence of child maltreatment in the general population due to concerns about socially desirable responding and mandated reporting laws. Innovative methods, such as interactive voice response (IVR), may obtain better estimates that address these concerns. This study examined the utility of interactive voice response (IVR) for child maltreatment behaviors by assessing differences between respondents who completed and did not complete a survey using IVR technology. A mixed-mode telephone survey was conducted in English and Spanish in 50 cities in California during 2009. Caregivers (n=3,023) self-reported abusive and neglectful parenting behaviors for a focal child under the age of 13 using computer-assisted telephone interviewing and IVR. We used hierarchical generalized linear models to compare survey completion by caregivers nested within cities for the full sample and age-specific ranges. For demographic characteristics, caregivers born in the United States were more likely to complete the survey when controlling for covariates. Parenting stress, provision of physical needs, and provision of supervisory needs were not associated with survey completion in the full multivariate model. For caregivers of children 0-4 years (n=838), those reporting they could often or always hear their child from another room had a higher likelihood of survey completion. The findings suggest IVR could prove to be useful for future surveys that aim to estimate abusive and/or neglectful parenting behaviors given the limited bias observed for demographic characteristics and problematic parenting behaviors. Further research should expand upon its utility to advance estimation rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Vibrational spectroscopy and intramolecular energy transfer in isocyanic acid (HNCO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, M.J.; Berghout, H.L.; Woods, E. III; Crim, F.F.

    1999-01-01

    Room temperature photoacoustic spectra in the region of the first through the fourth overtones (2ν 1 to 5ν 1 ) and free-jet action spectra of the second through the fourth overtones (3ν 1 to 5ν 1 ) of the N - H stretching vibration permit analysis of the vibrational and rotational structure of HNCO. The analysis identifies the strong intramolecular couplings that control the early stages of intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution (IVR) and gives the interaction matrix elements between the zero-order N - H stretching states and the other zero-order states with which they interact. The experimentally determined couplings and zero-order state separations are consistent with ab initio calculations of East, Johnson, and Allen [J. Chem. Phys. 98, 1299 (1993)], and comparison with the calculation identifies the coupled states and likely interactions. The states most strongly coupled to the pure N - H stretching zero-order states are ones with a quantum of N - H stretching excitation (ν 1 ) replaced by different combinations of N - C - O asymmetric or symmetric stretching excitation (ν 2 or ν 3 ) and trans-bending excitation (ν 4 ). The two strongest couplings of the nν 1 state are to the states (n-1)ν 1 +ν 2 +ν 4 and (n-1)ν 1 +ν 3 +2ν 4 , and sequential couplings through a series of low order resonances potentially play a role. The analysis shows that if the pure N - H stretch zero-order state were excited, energy would initially flow out of that mode into the strongly coupled mode in 100 fs to 700 fs, depending on the level of initial excitation. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  2. [Newly developed monitor for IVR: liquid crystal display (LCD) replaced with cathode ray tube (CRT)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichida, Takao; Hosogai, Minoru; Yokoyama, Kouji; Ogawa, Takayoshi; Okusako, Kenji; Shougaki, Masachika; Masai, Hironao; Yamada, Eiji; Okuyama, Kazuo; Hatagawa, Masakatsu

    2004-09-01

    For physicians who monitor images during interventional radiology (VR), we have built and been using a system that employs a liquid crystal display (LCD) instead of the conventional cathode ray tube (CRT). The system incorporates a ceiling-suspension-type monitor (three-display monitor) with an LCD on each of the three displays for the head and abdominal regions and another ceiling-suspension-type monitor (5-display monitor) with an LCD on each display for the cardiac region. As these monitors are made to be thin and light in weight, they can be placed in a high position in the room, thereby saving space and allowing for more effective use of space in the X-ray room. The system has also improved the efficiency of operators in the IVR room. The three-display folding mechanism allows the displays to be viewed from multiple directions, thereby improving the environment so that the performance of IVR can be observed.

  3. Feasibility of automated speech sample collection with stuttering children using interactive voice response (IVR) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Adam P; Block, Susan; Kefalianos, Elaina; Onslow, Mark; Eadie, Patricia; Barth, Ben; Conway, Laura; Mundt, James C; Reilly, Sheena

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the feasibility of adopting automated interactive voice response (IVR) technology for remotely capturing standardized speech samples from stuttering children. Participants were 10 6-year-old stuttering children. Their parents called a toll-free number from their homes and were prompted to elicit speech from their children using a standard protocol involving conversation, picture description and games. The automated IVR system was implemented using an off-the-shelf telephony software program and delivered by a standard desktop computer. The software infrastructure utilizes voice over internet protocol. Speech samples were automatically recorded during the calls. Video recordings were simultaneously acquired in the home at the time of the call to evaluate the fidelity of the telephone collected samples. Key outcome measures included syllables spoken, percentage of syllables stuttered and an overall rating of stuttering severity using a 10-point scale. Data revealed a high level of relative reliability in terms of intra-class correlation between the video and telephone acquired samples on all outcome measures during the conversation task. Findings were less consistent for speech samples during picture description and games. Results suggest that IVR technology can be used successfully to automate remote capture of child speech samples.

  4. Analisis dan Perancangan Sistem Interactive Voice Response (IVR Berbasis Openvxi Menggunakan Asterisk Pada Hotel Sahid Jaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Muliadi Kerta

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide a deep understanding of technology of IVR (Interactive Voice Recognition in OpenVXI based network using Asterisk, that help Sahid Jaya hotel to streamline communication with the guests, improving service and employee effectiveness. The methodology used is analysis which is through surveys, observation and interviews with the company and the design method by designing system from the existing needs analysis. The results obtained from this research is Communication System based in IVR OpenVXI can be applied to existing VoIP network, without disrupting the existing network. Some existing services can be supported with this system usage. Conclusions can be drawn is the use of IVR in the network using VoIP technology is the best solution to overcome the problems and needs of the hospitality which one of these is limited information guest cna get that can provided by non-operators and for support service improvement. 

  5. First installation of a dual-room IVR-CT system in the emergency room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Daiki; Nakamori, Yasushi; Kanayama, Shuji; Maruyama, Shuhei; Kawada, Masahiro; Iwamura, Hiromu; Hayakawa, Koichi; Saito, Fukuki; Kuwagata, Yasuyuki

    2018-03-05

    Computed tomography (CT) embedded in the emergency room has gained importance in the early diagnostic phase of trauma care. In 2011, we implemented a new trauma workflow concept with a sliding CT scanner system with interventional radiology features (IVR-CT) that allows CT examination and emergency therapeutic intervention without relocating the patient, which we call the Hybrid emergency room (Hybrid ER). In the Hybrid ER, all life-saving procedures, CT examination, damage control surgery, and transcatheter arterial embolisation can be performed on the same table. Although the trauma workflow realized in the Hybrid ER may improve mortality in severe trauma, the Hybrid ER can potentially affect the efficacy of other in/outpatient diagnostic workflow because one room is occupied by one severely injured patient undergoing both emergency trauma care and CT scanning for long periods. In July 2017, we implemented a new trauma workflow concept with a dual-room sliding CT scanner system with interventional radiology features (dual-room IVR-CT) to increase patient throughput. When we perform emergency surgery or interventional radiology for a severely injured or ill patient in the Hybrid ER, the sliding CT scanner moves to the adjacent CT suite, and we can perform CT scanning of another in/outpatient. We believe that dual-room IVR-CT can contribute to the improvement of both the survival of severely injured or ill patients and patient throughput.

  6. An application of zeta potential method for the selection of nano-fluids to enhance IVR capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Quynh Trang; Kim, Tae Il; Chang, Soon Heung

    2009-01-01

    In-vessel Retention (IVR) is one of the key severe accident management strategies that have been applied currently for advanced light water reactors such as APR1000 or APR1400. The concept of IVR consists of external cooling of the reactor vessel by flooding the reactor cavity to remove the decay heat from the molten core through the lower head of the vessel. However, the heat removal process is limited by the occurrence of critical heat flux (CHF) at the reactor vessel outer surface that may lead to a sharp increase of local temperature, damaging the integrity of the reactor vessel. In order to obtain higher power of nuclear reactors and to assure the achievement of the IVR capability during accident conditions, an enhancement of CHF at the outer surface of the vessel is required. The potential use of nano-fluids to increase the CHF is among the main IVR enhancing approaches. In this study, Al 2 O 3 and CNT nano-fluids with different concentrations have been used as the potential coolant to enhance IVR capabilities. The dispersion stability of the nano-fluids was verified by zeta potential measurements. The results showed effects of time, concentration and pH on the stability of nanofluids. Three types of nano-fluids were selected as the candidates to apply for the IVR. A series of experiments have been performed in this study to understand the pool-boiling critical heat flux behavior on downward facing surfaces submerged in a pool of nano-fluids at very low concentration. The inclination angle was changed from horizontal to vertical to investigate the effect of orientation on CHF enhancement which is needed for the application in IVR

  7. Development and pilot testing of daily Interactive Voice Response (IVR) calls to support antiretroviral adherence in India: A mixed-methods pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Swendeman, Dallas; Jana, Smarajit; Ray, Protim; Mindry, Deborah; Das, Madhushree; Bhakta, Bhumi

    2015-01-01

    This two-phase pilot study aimed to design, pilot, and refine an automated Interactive Voice Response (IVR) intervention to support antiretroviral adherence for people living with HIV (PLH), in Kolkata, India. Mixed-methods formative research included a community advisory board (CAB) for IVR message development, one-month pre-post pilot, post-pilot focus groups, and further message development. Two IVR calls are made daily, timed to patients’ dosing schedules, with brief messages (

  8. Review of IVR-ERVC and using flooding concept for application to high power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Min ho; Heo, Hyo; Bang, In Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Accident scope will be limited in the RPV. For example, in case of Fukushima, they have difficulties for cleanup the accident and even catching the location of the melt-through corium. Therefore, IVR-ERVC is the right strategy for mitigation of the severe accident. However, in case of high power reactors, there is a Critical Heat Flux (CHF) problem in its application to high power reactor. If CHF occurred, boiling regime changes from effective nucleate boiling to ineffective film boiling, so temperature of the RPV goes up and finally the RPV fails. To solve the CHF problem, here have been a lot of works for IVR-ERVC. In the point of in-vessel heat transfer, Theofanous suggested risk oriented accident analysis methodology which is a combination of probabilistic and deterministic approach. A lot of experiments have been done using simulants of corium in various experimental apparatus. Their simulants were usually water due to simulate large Rayleigh number and natural circulation of corium. IVR-ERVC concept has been researched for a long time. For in-vessel heat transfer, simulants or real corium was used to get a heat flux distribution to the outer wall. And based on those results, ex-vessel cooling has been researched in various geometry to get cooling limit as CHF. Material flooding is suggested as improvement of ERVC in APR 1400 to secure safety margin for CHF. Regardless of Prandtl number of the flooding material, the focusing effect of heat flux was mitigated; the maximum heat flux was reduced less than half of the maximum heat flux in bare condition

  9. Test-retest reliability of an interactive voice response (IVR) version of the EORTC QLQ-C30

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lundy, J.J.; Coons, S.J.; Aaronson, N.K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the test-retest reliability of an interactive voice response (IVR) version of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30. Methods: A convenience sample of outpatient cancer clinic patients (n = 127) was asked to

  10. Reactor Core Failure Analysis for Feasibility Study of IVR-ERVC Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Kukhee; Cho, Yongjin; Hwang, Taesuk

    2014-01-01

    The complicated physical phenomena in a reactor vessel under severe accident environments should be evaluated by effective cooling methods at the same time to satisfy thermal failure margin of the strategy. The reactor integrity by this margin criterion is guaranteed if the heat flux obtained by the analysis of heat balance equations between heat structures in a reactor vessel does not exceed the critical-heat-flux (CHF) limit for nucleate boiling on the vessel outer surface. This method assumes the layer configuration of molten pools (number of layers, thickness of layers and heat generation rate of molten corium, etc.) and evaluates representative states by a 1-dimensional heat transfer analysis. Boundary conditions of model should be well defined to increase accuracy of assessed heat flux and these are dependent on accident scenarios. Therefore, conservative assumptions or results from the analysis using system codes for accident analyses should be considered to determine boundary conditions. In this paper, in-vessel molten corium behaviors during LBLOCA which is considered as the most conservative accident scenario in IVR-ERVC design concerns are examined using MELCOR 1.8.6 to check the feasibility of APR1400 IVR-ERVC strategy. The relocated debris mass in the lower head of APR1400 reactor is analyzed using MELCOR1.8.6. This analysis is to determine the boundary conditions of the heat balance equations consisting of the lumped parameter method in order to calculate heat flux at external vessel wall surface. As a result, lower head vessel failure has been occurred at the time of about 7e3 which is very short time comparing with total period of ERVC process. Even though the effect of external vessel cooling is well-modeled, however, the differences between debris mass are relatively small. Therefore, the physical feasibility of the creep rupture model in MELCOR COR package should be verified for an adequate debris mass assessment in a reactor lower head under the

  11. Population redistribution in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, A

    1984-07-01

    One of the major consequences of the reorganization of Nigeria from 4 states into 12 states in 1967 and then into 19 states in the late 1970s was the redistribution of the Nigerian population. Prior to 1967 Nigeria's rural population migrated primarily to the 4 state capitals of Kaduna, Ibadan, Enugu, Benin City and to the federal capital of Lagos. The creation of additional states, each with their own capital, provided new urban environments where migrants from rural areas were afforded opportunities for employment and social mobility. Between 1960-1980, World Bank estimates indicate that 1) population in Nigerian cityes of over 500,000 population increased from 22-57%; 2) the number of cities with a population of 500,000 or more increased from 2 to 9 and 3) the urban population increased from 13-20%. Given Nigeria's estimated population growth rate of 3.6%/year, it is imperative that the goverment continue its decentralization efforts. Tables show 1) population by region based on the 1963 census; 2) estimated population of the 19 state capitals for 1963 and 1975; and 3) estimated population of the areas included in each of the 19 states for 196o, 1977, 1979, and 19819

  12. Simulation of IVR-ERVC and estimation method of coolant inflow to the cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyunjin; Namgung, Ihn [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    In this study, the temperature distribution outside of RV wall and evaporation rate due to heat from core will be investigated. Using the universal analysis program ANSYS Fluent, the natural convection in the cavity for IVR-ERVC conditions were modelled and performed for heat transfer analysis. The aim of this study is to calculate the appropriate coolant flow so that coolant level in the cavity can be maintained at prescribed level and vessel wall temperature distribution, including RV outside wall temperature are also investigated. Reactor vessel and cavity in case of ex-vessel cooling for severe accident condition were modeled with and without insulators. The heat load into reactor vessel from corium inside of reactor lower head were obtained from MELCORE analysis and used as input B.C of CFD analysis. The Temperature gradient of reactor outer surface and evaporation rate of cooling eater was obtained from the analysis. These results can be used for further analysis of reactor vessel creep behavior and the estimate the coolant flow rate into the reactor cavity.. and The result can be used to verify the natural convection phenomena in the cavity and also to set the design parameters of cavity and coolant flow rate. The vessel outer surface temperature gradient can be also used to more accurate investigation of vessel creep behavior during severe accident condition, The result can also be used set up a strategy for severe accident managements.

  13. Studies on boiling heat transfer on a hemispherical downward heating surface supposing IVR-AM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kenji; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Tadayoshi; Kataoka, Isao

    2006-01-01

    The scale-down experiments supposing the IVR-AM were made on the pool boiling heat transfer from hemispherical downward facing heating surface. The boiling phenomena were realized by flooding the heated hemispherical vessel into the sub-cooled water or saturated water under the atmospheric pressure. The hemispherical vessel supposing the scale-down pressure vessel was made of SUS304 stainless steel. Molten lead, which was preheated up to about 500 degrees Celsius, was put into the vessel and used as the heat source. The vessel was cooled down by flooding into the water to realize the quenching process. The direct observation by using the digital video camera was performed and made clear the special characteristics of boiling phenomena such as the film boiling, the transition boiling and the nucleate boiling taking place in order during the cooling process. The measurement for the wall superheat and heat flux by using thermocouples was also carried out to make clear the boiling heat transfer characteristics during the cooling process. Fifteen thermocouples are inserted in the wall of the hemispherical bowl to measure the temperature distributions and heat flux in the hemispherical bowl. (author)

  14. Femtosecond Multidimensional Imaging - Watching Chemistry from the Molecule's Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geßner, O.; Lee, A. M. D.; Chrysostom, E. t.-H.; Hayden, C. C.; Stolow, Albert

    Using Femtosecond Multidimensional Imaging we disentangle the complex neutral dissociation mechanism of the NO dimer. We characterize all electronic configurations from start to finish and directly observe the evolution of intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution (IVR).

  15. LESSONS LEARNED IN DEVELOPMENT OF THE HANFORD SWOC MASTER DOCUMENTED SAFETY ANALYSIS (MDSA) and IMPLEMENTATION VALIDATION REVIEW (IVR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MORENO, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    DOE set clear expectations on a cost-effective approach for achieving compliance with the Nuclear Safety Management requirements (20 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Rule), which ensured long-term benefit to Hanford, via issuance of a nuclear safety strategy in February 2003. To facilitate implementation of these expectations, tools were developed to streamline and standardize safety analysis and safety document development with the goal of a shorter and more predictable DOE approval cycle. A Hanford Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment Handbook (SARAH) was approved to standardize methodologies for development of safety analyses. A Microsoft Excel spreadsheet (RADIDOSE) was approved for the evaluation of radiological consequences for accident scenarios often postulated at Hanford. Standard safety management program chapters were approved for use as a means of compliance with the programmatic chapters of DOE-STD-3009, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports''. An in-process review was developed between DOE and the Contractor to facilitate DOE approval and provide early course correction. The new Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) developed to address the operations of four facilities within the Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) necessitated development of an Implementation Validation Review (IVR) process. The IVR process encompasses the following objectives: safety basis controls and requirements are adequately incorporated into appropriate facility documents and work instructions, facility personnel are knowledgeable of controls and requirements, and the DSA/TSR controls have been implemented. Based on DOE direction and safety analysis tools, four waste management nuclear facilities were integrated into one safety basis document. With successful completion of implementation of this safety document, lessons-learned from the in-process review, safety analysis tools and IVR process were documented for future action

  16. Turbulent convection experiment at high Rayleigh number to support CAP1400 IVR strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Li, E-mail: mali@snptrd.com [State Nuclear Hua Qing(Beijing) Nuclear Power Technology R& D Centre Co., Ltd, Building A, State Nuclear Power Research Institute, Future Science & Technology Park, Changping Dist., Beijing 102209 (China); Li, Jing, E-mail: lijing@snptrd.com [State Nuclear Hua Qing(Beijing) Nuclear Power Technology R& D Centre Co., Ltd, Building A, State Nuclear Power Research Institute, Future Science & Technology Park, Changping Dist., Beijing 102209 (China); Ji, Shui, E-mail: jishui@snptrd.com [State Nuclear Hua Qing(Beijing) Nuclear Power Technology R& D Centre Co., Ltd, Building A, State Nuclear Power Research Institute, Future Science & Technology Park, Changping Dist., Beijing 102209 (China); Chang, Huajian, E-mail: changhuajian@snptrd.com [State Nuclear Hua Qing(Beijing) Nuclear Power Technology R& D Centre Co., Ltd, Building A, State Nuclear Power Research Institute, Future Science & Technology Park, Changping Dist., Beijing 102209 (China); Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The facility reached high Ra number at 10{sup 12} of CAP1400 working condition. • The fitting formula Nu = 0.085 × Ra{sup 0.315} was established to calculate the heat flux in the metal layer at high Ra for the CAP1400. • The coupling method can accurately and safely predict the heat flow distribution of metal layer in high Ra number conditions. • The experiment results will predict the relationship between axial and radial heat transfer well. - Abstract: The characteristics of the heat transfer and the calculation of heat flux in metal layer are both the critical problems for in-vessel retention (IVR) strategy. Turbulent convection occurs in the metal layer when the Rayleigh number (Ra) becomes sufficient high. The Globe–Dropkin (G–D) correlation (Globe and Dropkin, 1959) and Chu–Churchill (C–C) correlation (Churchill and Chu, 1975) have been widely used to calculate the heat flux in the metal layer, where the valid range of the Ra is from 1.5 × 10{sup 5} to 6.8 × 10{sup 8} in G–D correlation and less than 10{sup 12} in C–C correlation. However, with the increase of reactor power, both the Rayleigh number and the rate of heat transfer below the bottom of metal layer of the molten pool will increase, and in this case the Rayleigh number even can reach 10{sup 11} for the China Advanced Passive Plant CAP1400. Accordingly, the G–D correlation is not suitable for the CAP1400. Therefore, our experiment purposes are to establish the appropriate correlation at high Ra for the CAP1400 and predict the axial and radial distribution of the heat transfer in the metal layer with the heat transfer behavior of metal layer experiment (HELM) facility. The experiments are divided into two parts. Each part concerns 39 runs and 47 experimental conditions. Its corresponding results are obtained at middle Prandtl number (Pr = 7 for water) and the Nusselt number is found to be proportional to Ra{sup 0.315} in the range 3.93 × 10{sup 8} < Ra < 3.57

  17. Turbulent convection experiment at high Rayleigh number to support CAP1400 IVR strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Li; Li, Jing; Ji, Shui; Chang, Huajian

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The facility reached high Ra number at 10 12 of CAP1400 working condition. • The fitting formula Nu = 0.085 × Ra 0.315 was established to calculate the heat flux in the metal layer at high Ra for the CAP1400. • The coupling method can accurately and safely predict the heat flow distribution of metal layer in high Ra number conditions. • The experiment results will predict the relationship between axial and radial heat transfer well. - Abstract: The characteristics of the heat transfer and the calculation of heat flux in metal layer are both the critical problems for in-vessel retention (IVR) strategy. Turbulent convection occurs in the metal layer when the Rayleigh number (Ra) becomes sufficient high. The Globe–Dropkin (G–D) correlation (Globe and Dropkin, 1959) and Chu–Churchill (C–C) correlation (Churchill and Chu, 1975) have been widely used to calculate the heat flux in the metal layer, where the valid range of the Ra is from 1.5 × 10 5 to 6.8 × 10 8 in G–D correlation and less than 10 12 in C–C correlation. However, with the increase of reactor power, both the Rayleigh number and the rate of heat transfer below the bottom of metal layer of the molten pool will increase, and in this case the Rayleigh number even can reach 10 11 for the China Advanced Passive Plant CAP1400. Accordingly, the G–D correlation is not suitable for the CAP1400. Therefore, our experiment purposes are to establish the appropriate correlation at high Ra for the CAP1400 and predict the axial and radial distribution of the heat transfer in the metal layer with the heat transfer behavior of metal layer experiment (HELM) facility. The experiments are divided into two parts. Each part concerns 39 runs and 47 experimental conditions. Its corresponding results are obtained at middle Prandtl number (Pr = 7 for water) and the Nusselt number is found to be proportional to Ra 0.315 in the range 3.93 × 10 8 < Ra < 3.57 × 10 12 . Furthermore, the experiment

  18. Feasibility of flooding the reactor cavity with liquid gallium coolant for IVR-ERVC strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seong Dae; Bang, In Cheol

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigate the feasibility of gallium liquid metal application for IVR-ERVC. ► We consider overall concerns to apply the liquid metal. ► Decay heat can be removed by flooding the reactor cavity with gallium liquid metal. -- Abstract: In this paper, a new approach replacing the ERVC coolant by a liquid metal instead of water is studied to avoid the heat removal limit of CHF during boiling of water. As the flooding material, gallium is used in terms of the melting and boiling points. Gallium has the enough low melting point of ∼29.7 °C to ensure to maintain liquid state within the containment building. A gallium storage tank for the new flooding system of the ERVC is located in higher position than one of the reactor cavity to make a passive system using the gravity for the event of a station blackout (SBO). While the decay heat from the reactor vessel is removed by gallium, the borated water which is coming out from the reactor system plays a role as the ultimate heat sink in this ERVC system. In the system, two configurations of gallium and borated water are devised depending on whether the direct contact between them occurs. In the first configuration, two fluids are separated by the block structure. The decay heat is transported from molten corium to gallium through the vessel wall. Then the heat is ultimately dissipated by boiling of water in the block structure surface facing the borated water. In the second configuration, the cavity is flooded with both borated water and gallium in the same reactor cavity space. As the result, two layers of the fluids are naturally formed by the density difference. Like the first configuration, finally the heat removal is achieved by boiling of water via gallium. The CFD analysis shows that the maximum temperature of gallium is much lower than its boiling point while the natural circulation is stably formed in two types of the configurations without any serious risk of thermal limit

  19. Development and Pilot Testing of Daily Interactive Voice Response (IVR) Calls to Support Antiretroviral Adherence in India: A Mixed-Methods Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swendeman, Dallas; Jana, Smarajit; Ray, Protim; Mindry, Deborah; Das, Madhushree; Bhakta, Bhumi

    2015-06-01

    This two-phase pilot study aimed to design, pilot, and refine an automated interactive voice response (IVR) intervention to support antiretroviral adherence for people living with HIV (PLH), in Kolkata, India. Mixed-methods formative research included a community advisory board for IVR message development, 1-month pre-post pilot, post-pilot focus groups, and further message development. Two IVR calls are made daily, timed to patients' dosing schedules, with brief messages (pilot results (n = 46, 80 % women, 60 % sex workers) found significant increases in self-reported ART adherence, both within past three days (p = 0.05) and time since missed last dose (p = 0.015). Depression was common. Messaging content and assessment domains were expanded for testing in a randomized trial currently underway.

  20. Redistribution of Income: Policy Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B. Davies

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Poverty and rising income inequality in Canada have brought demands for improved government action on redistribution. Unfortunately, such pleas risk being overshadowed by a looming fiscal crunch as the baby boomers retire. An expanding population of seniors will add at least one percent annually to both growing health and OAS/GIS costs so that, absent meaningful change, other spending will have to be slashed by an average of 20.2 percent by 2032 if total spending and revenues are not to rise relative to GDP. For Canada’s tax-transfer system to keep fulfilling its redistributive role, a fundamental rethink is required. With non-seniors spending being squeezed, some changes in tax mix, moderate revenue increases and refined targeting of transfers will be needed to protect the system’s progressive nature. Increasing personal income tax and reducing property tax by an offsetting amount would improve redistribution without raising taxes. More revenue could be obtained without severe distortions via a capital transfer tax, the elimination of boutique credits aimed at niche beneficiaries, or perhaps a dual income tax which exacts more from labor than capital income. Improvements to existing transfer programs are another way forward. The conversion of EI to a purely insurance basis, freeing up funds to support redistribution via refundable credits is a possibility. Another cost-saver involves removing the indexation of the OAS/GIS income threshold and allowing its real value to decline, making more recipients subject to clawbacks. Whichever course governments pursue, revamping Canada’s taxtransfer system will be a delicate and difficult task. This paper explores the policy choices available, and makes it clear that time is not on our side.

  1. Biodiversity redistribution under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecl, Gretta T.; Bastos, Miguel; Bell, Johann D.

    2017-01-01

    Distributions of Earth’s species are changing at accelerating rates, increasingly driven by humanmediated climate change. Such changes are already altering the composition of ecological communities, but beyond conservation of natural systems, how and why does this matter? We review evidence that ...... by changes in species distribution. Consideration of these effects of biodiversity redistribution is critical yet lacking in most mitigation and adaptation strategies, including the United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goals....

  2. Evaluation of mode equivalence of the MSKCC Bowel Function Instrument, LASA Quality of Life, and Subjective Significance Questionnaire items administered by Web, interactive voice response system (IVRS), and paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Antonia V; Keenoy, Kathleen; Shouery, Marwan; Basch, Ethan; Temple, Larissa K

    2016-05-01

    To assess the equivalence of patient-reported outcome (PRO) survey responses across Web, interactive voice response system (IVRS), and paper modes of administration. Postoperative colorectal cancer patients with home Web/e-mail and phone were randomly assigned to one of the eight study groups: Groups 1-6 completed the survey via Web, IVRS, and paper, in one of the six possible orders; Groups 7-8 completed the survey twice, either by Web or by IVRS. The 20-item survey, including the MSKCC Bowel Function Instrument (BFI), the LASA Quality of Life (QOL) scale, and the Subjective Significance Questionnaire (SSQ) adapted to bowel function, was completed from home on consecutive days. Mode equivalence was assessed by comparison of mean scores across modes and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and was compared to the test-retest reliability of Web and IVRS. Of 170 patients, 157 completed at least one survey and were included in analysis. Patients had mean age 56 (SD = 11), 53% were male, 81% white, 53% colon, and 47% rectal cancer; 78% completed all assigned surveys. Mean scores for BFI total score, BFI subscale scores, LASA QOL, and adapted SSQ varied by mode by less than one-third of a score point. ICCs across mode were: BFI total score (Web-paper = 0.96, Web-IVRS = 0.97, paper-IVRS = 0.97); BFI subscales (range = 0.88-0.98); LASA QOL (Web-paper = 0.98, Web-IVRS = 0.78, paper-IVRS = 0.80); and SSQ (Web-paper = 0.92, Web-IVRS = 0.86, paper-IVRS = 0.79). Mode equivalence was demonstrated for the BFI total score, BFI subscales, LASA QOL, and adapted SSQ, supporting the use of multiple modes of PRO data capture in clinical trials.

  3. Voluntary income redistribution with migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, R

    1992-01-01

    This study is concerned with the welfare magnet problem, in which disparities in transfer policies across states are believed to encourage recipient and possibly resource migration. "This study clarifies the terms of the debate by showing how the value of redistributing local resources depends not only on the value of income to each group, but also on the cost of the transfer in erosion of the resource base through migration and through the general equilibrium effects of such activity on local prices." The geographical focus is on the United States. excerpt

  4. Strategic campaigns and redistributive politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    2007-01-01

    The article investigates strategic, informative campaigning by two parties when politics concern redistribution. Voters are uncertain about whether parties favour special groups. Parties will target campaigns on groups where most votes are gained by informing about policies. In equilibrium......, campaigning will be most intensive in groups where the uncertainty is largest and where voters are most mobile, most likely to vote, most receptive to campaigns and relatively uninformed initially. These groups will become more informed about policy. Parties will therefore gain more votes by treating...... these groups well so these groups will gain from strategic campaigning. Welfare effects are assessed...

  5. Inequality Aversion and Voting on Redistribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höchtl, Wolfgang; Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    of income classes. We experimentally study voting on redistribution between two income classes and show that the effect of inequality aversion is asymmetric. Inequality aversion is more likely to matter if the “rich” are in majority. With a “poor” majority, we find that redistribution outcomes look...

  6. Inequality aversion and voting on redistribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höchtl, Wolfgang; Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2012-01-01

    of income classes. We experimentally study voting on redistribution between two income classes and show that the effect of inequality aversion is asymmetric. Inequality aversion is more likely to matter if the “rich” are in majority. With a “poor” majority, we find that redistribution outcomes look...

  7. Diagnosis of occlusive arterial disease and assessment of IVR with fat-suppressed gadolinium-enhanced three-dimensional MR angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Yasuo; Gemma, Kazuhito; Kawamata, Hiroshi; Okajima, Yuhji; Watari, Jun; Kumazaki, Tatsuo [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan); Maki, Toshio; Tsuchihashi, Toshio

    1996-10-01

    Fat-suppressed gadolinium-enhanced three-dimensional MR angiography (FS-CE-3D-MRA) was performed to make a diagnosis of occlusive arterial disease and evaluate the effectiveness of IVR treatment for it. FS-CE-3D-MRA delineated stenosis of common iliac arteries, which was confirmed by X-ray angiography. FS-CE-3D-MRA also detected ulcerated plaque and arterial wall irregularity. The effectiveness of IVR as atherectomy and stent placement was accurately assessed with FS-CE-3D-MRA. FS-CE-3D-MRA was useful in evaluating occlusive arterial disease with short examination times and high spatial resolution, although iliac circumflexial arteries were not detected by this technique. (author)

  8. Representation and redistribution in federations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragu, Tiberiu; Rodden, Jonathan

    2011-05-24

    Many of the world's most populous democracies are political unions composed of states or provinces that are unequally represented in the national legislature. Scattered empirical studies, most of them focusing on the United States, have discovered that overrepresented states appear to receive larger shares of the national budget. Although this relationship is typically attributed to bargaining advantages associated with greater legislative representation, an important threat to empirical identification stems from the fact that the representation scheme was chosen by the provinces. Thus, it is possible that representation and fiscal transfers are both determined by other characteristics of the provinces in a specific country. To obtain an improved estimate of the relationship between representation and redistribution, we collect and analyze provincial-level data from nine federations over several decades, taking advantage of the historical process through which federations formed and expanded. Controlling for a variety of country- and province-level factors and using a variety of estimation techniques, we show that overrepresented provinces in political unions around the world are rather dramatically favored in the distribution of resources.

  9. Fuel-coolant interaction visualization test for in-vessel corium retention external reactor vessel cooling (IVR-ERVC) condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Young Su; Hong, Seong Ho; Song, Jin Ho; Hong, Seong Wan [Severe Accident and PHWR Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    A visualization test of the fuel-coolant interaction in the Test for Real cOrium Interaction with water (TROI) test facility was carried out. To experimentally simulate the In-Vessel corium Retention (IVR)- External Reactor Vessel Cooling (ERVC) conditions, prototypic corium was released directly into the coolant water without a free fall in a gas phase before making contact with the coolant. Corium (34.39 kg) consisting of uranium oxide and zirconium oxide with a weight ratio of 8:2 was superheated, and 22.54 kg of the 34.39 kg corium was passed through water contained in a transparent interaction vessel. An image of the corium jet behavior in the coolant was taken by a high-speed camera every millisecond. Thermocouple junctions installed in the vertical direction of the coolant were cut sequentially by the falling corium jet. It was clearly observed that the visualization image of the corium jet taken during the fuel-coolant interaction corresponded with the temperature variations in the direction of the falling melt. The corium penetrated through the coolant, and the jet leading edge velocity was 2.0 m/s. Debris smaller than 1 mm was 15% of the total weight of the debris collected after a fuel-coolant interaction test, and the mass median diameter was 2.9 mm.

  10. CFD simulation on critical heat flux of flow boiling in IVR-ERVC of a nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiang, E-mail: zhangxiang3@snptc.com.cn [State Nuclear Power Technology Research & Development Center, South Area, Future Science and Technology Park, Chang Ping District, Beijing 102209 (China); Hu, Teng [State Nuclear Power Technology Research & Development Center, South Area, Future Science and Technology Park, Chang Ping District, Beijing 102209 (China); Chen, Deqi, E-mail: chendeqi@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems, Chongqing University, 400044 (China); Zhong, Yunke; Gao, Hong [Key Laboratory of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems, Chongqing University, 400044 (China)

    2016-08-01

    Highlights: • CFD simulation on CHF of boiling two-phase flow in ERVC is proposed. • CFD simulation result of CHF agrees well with that of experimental result. • The characteristics of boiling two-phase flow and boiling crisis are analyzed. - Abstract: The effectiveness of in-vessel retention (IVR) by external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) strongly depends on the critical heat flux (CHF). As long as the local CHF does not exceed the local heat flux, the lower head of the pressure vessel can be cooled sufficiently to prevent from failure. In this paper, a CFD simulation is carried out to investigate the CHF of ERVC. This simulation is performed by a CFD code fluent couple with a boiling model by UDF (User-Defined Function). The experimental CHF of ERVC obtained by State Nuclear Power Technology Research and Development Center (SNPTRD) is used to validate this CFD simulation, and it is found that the simulation result agrees well with the experimental result. Based on the CFD simulation, detailed analysis focusing on the pressure distribution, velocity distribution, void fraction distribution, heating wall temperature distribution are proposed in this paper.

  11. The Welfare State vs. the Redistributive State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, Marc F.

    1979-01-01

    While the principles of progressive taxation and the welfare state have come to be almost universally accepted, it would be a serious error to infer that American policy has ever embraced the idea of income redistribution. (Author)

  12. Verifiable Secret Redistribution for Threshold Sharing Schemes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wong, Theodore M; Wang, Chenxi; Wing, Jeannette M

    2002-01-01

    .... Our protocol guards against dynamic adversaries. We observe that existing protocols either cannot be readily extended to allow redistribution between different threshold schemes, or have vulnerabilities that allow faulty old shareholders...

  13. Migration, income redistribution, and international capital mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Meckl, Jürgen

    1994-01-01

    This paper studies income-redistribution effects from labor migration in a small open economy under alternative assumptions on the international mobility of capital. Our principal result is that induced international capital flows dampen or may even reverse redistribution effects. However, as long as the location of capital is unaffected by migration redistribntion effects may be greater if some of the capital is foreign owned, depending on whether labor and capital are friends or enemies. On...

  14. Vibration mixer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekhin, S.A.; Chernov, V.S.; Denisenko, V.V.; Gorodnyanskiy, I.F.; Prokopov, L.I.; Tikhonov, Yu.P.

    1983-01-01

    The vibration mixer is proposed which contains a housing, vibration drive with rod installed in the upper part of the mixing mechanism made in the form of a hollow shaft with blades. In order to improve intensity of mixing and dispersion of the mud, the shaft with the blades is arranged on the rod of the vibrator and is equipped with a cam coupling whose drive disc is attached to the vibration rod. The rod is made helical, while the drive disc of the cam coupling is attached to the helical surface of the rod. In addition, the vibration mixer is equipped with perforated discs installed on the ends of the rods.

  15. Exposure to inequality affects support for redistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Melissa L

    2017-01-24

    The distribution of wealth in the United States and countries around the world is highly skewed. How does visible economic inequality affect well-off individuals' support for redistribution? Using a placebo-controlled field experiment, I randomize the presence of poverty-stricken people in public spaces frequented by the affluent. Passersby were asked to sign a petition calling for greater redistribution through a "millionaire's tax." Results from 2,591 solicitations show that in a real-world-setting exposure to inequality decreases affluent individuals' willingness to redistribute. The finding that exposure to inequality begets inequality has fundamental implications for policymakers and informs our understanding of the effects of poverty, inequality, and economic segregation. Confederate race and socioeconomic status, both of which were randomized, are shown to interact such that treatment effects vary according to the race, as well as gender, of the subject.

  16. Exposure to inequality affects support for redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Melissa L.

    2017-01-01

    The distribution of wealth in the United States and countries around the world is highly skewed. How does visible economic inequality affect well-off individuals’ support for redistribution? Using a placebo-controlled field experiment, I randomize the presence of poverty-stricken people in public spaces frequented by the affluent. Passersby were asked to sign a petition calling for greater redistribution through a “millionaire’s tax.” Results from 2,591 solicitations show that in a real-world-setting exposure to inequality decreases affluent individuals’ willingness to redistribute. The finding that exposure to inequality begets inequality has fundamental implications for policymakers and informs our understanding of the effects of poverty, inequality, and economic segregation. Confederate race and socioeconomic status, both of which were randomized, are shown to interact such that treatment effects vary according to the race, as well as gender, of the subject. PMID:28069960

  17. Entanglement redistribution in the Schwarzschild spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jieci; Pan, Qiyuan; Jing, Jiliang

    2010-01-01

    The effect of Hawking radiation on the redistribution of the entanglement and mutual information in the Schwarzschild spacetime is investigated. Our analysis shows that the physically accessible correlations degrade while the unaccessible correlations increase as the Hawking temperature increases because the initial correlations described by inertial observers are redistributed between all the bipartite modes. It is interesting to note that, in the limit case that the temperature tends to infinity, the accessible mutual information equals to just half of its initial value, and the unaccessible mutual information between mode A and II also equals to the same value.

  18. Can income redistribution help changing rising inequality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, W.

    2014-01-01

    In this article compares the rise in inequality concerning net household incomes in a number of European countries and Canada, the USA and Australia. Two important factors are used to explain this worrying trend: a growing of unequal market incomes and/or a declining redistribution of income through

  19. Trade and the political economy of redistribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vannoorenberghe, Gonzague; Janeba, E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows how international trade affects the support for policies which redistribute income between workers across sectors, and how the existence of such policies changes the support for trade liberalization. Workers, who are imperfectly mobile across sectors, vote on whether to subsidize

  20. Inequality, redistribution and growth : Theory and evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haile, D.

    2005-01-01

    From a macro-perspective, the thesis provides a political economic model that analyses the joint determination of inequality, corruption, taxation, education and economic growth in a dynamic environment. It demonstrates how redistributive taxation is affected by the distribution of wealth and

  1. Cognitive ability and the demand for redistribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Mollerstrom

    Full Text Available Empirical research suggests that the cognitively able are politically more influential than the less able, by being more likely to vote and to assume leadership positions. This study asks whether this pattern matters for public policy by investigating what role a person's cognitive ability plays in determining his preferences for redistribution of income among citizens in society. To answer this question, we use a unique Swedish data set that matches responses to a tailor-made questionnaire to administrative tax records and to military enlistment records for men, with the latter containing a measure of cognitive ability. On a scale of 0 to 100 percent redistribution, a one-standard-deviation increase in cognitive ability reduces the willingness to redistribute by 5 percentage points, or by the same amount as a $35,000 increase in mean annual income. We find support for two channels mediating this economically strong and statistically significant relation. First, higher ability is associated with higher income. Second, ability is positively correlated with the view that economic success is the result of effort, rather than luck. Both these factors are, in turn, related to lower demand for redistribution.

  2. Ship Vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman

    1997-01-01

    Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board......Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board...

  3. ATMOSPHERIC HEAT REDISTRIBUTION ON HOT JUPITERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Becker, Daniel; Showman, Adam P.

    2013-01-01

    Infrared light curves of transiting hot Jupiters present a trend in which the atmospheres of the hottest planets are less efficient at redistributing the stellar energy absorbed on their daysides—and thus have a larger day-night temperature contrast—than colder planets. To this day, no predictive atmospheric model has been published that identifies which dynamical mechanisms determine the atmospheric heat redistribution efficiency on tidally locked exoplanets. Here we present a shallow-water model of the atmospheric dynamics on synchronously rotating planets that explains why heat redistribution efficiency drops as stellar insolation rises. Our model shows that planets with weak friction and weak irradiation exhibit a banded zonal flow with minimal day-night temperature differences, while models with strong irradiation and/or strong friction exhibit a day-night flow pattern with order-unity fractional day-night temperature differences. To interpret the model, we develop a scaling theory which shows that the timescale for gravity waves to propagate horizontally over planetary scales, τ wave , plays a dominant role in controlling the transition from small to large temperature contrasts. This implies that heat redistribution is governed by a wave-like process, similar to the one responsible for the weak temperature gradients in the Earth's tropics. When atmospheric drag can be neglected, the transition from small to large day-night temperature contrasts occurs when τ wave ∼√(τ rad /Ω), where τ rad is the radiative relaxation time and Ω is the planetary rotation frequency. Alternatively, this transition criterion can be expressed as τ rad ∼ τ vert , where τ vert is the timescale for a fluid parcel to move vertically over the difference in day-night thickness. These results subsume the more widely used timescale comparison for estimating heat redistribution efficiency between τ rad and the horizontal day-night advection timescale, τ adv . Only

  4. Redistributive Politics in a Political Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    One of the main functions of centralized budgets in federal and political unions is to act as an equalizing mechanism to support economic cohesion. This is also the case with the European Union’s budget, which operates as a redistributive mechanism that counteracts the cross-national and cross...... remarkably over the last decades. In this paper, we investigate how and why the net fiscal position of each member state towards the rest of the EU changes over time. Using a novel panel dataset (1979-2014), we study how some key national and EU-level political and economic variables affect the EU...... find that the political orientation of national governments does not per se influence redistributive politics with in the EU. However, when the unemployment rate is rising, right-wing governments are able to extract significantly larger budgetary benefits....

  5. Redistributive effects of Swedish health care finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdtham, U G; Sundberg, G

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigates the redistributive effects of the Swedish health care financing system in 1980 and 1990 for four different financial sources: county council taxes, payroll taxes, direct payments and state grants. The redistributive effects are decomposed into vertical, horizontal and 'reranking' segments for each of the four financial sources. The data used are based on probability samples of the Swedish population, from the Level of Living Survey (LNU) from 1981 and 1991. The paper concludes that the Swedish health care financing system is weakly progressive, although direct payments are regressive. There is some horizontal inequity and 'reranking', which mainly comes from the county council taxes, since those tax rates vary for each county council. The implication is that, to some extent, people with equal incomes are treated unequally.

  6. Redistributive taxation, multinational enterprises, and economic integration

    OpenAIRE

    Haufler, Andreas; Klemm, Alexander; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2008-01-01

    Increased activity of multinational firms exposes national corporate tax bases to cross-country profit shifting, but also leads to rising profitability of the corporate sector. We incorporate these two effects of economic integration into a simple political economy model where the median voter decides on a redistributive income tax rate. In this setting economic integration may raise or lower the equilibrium tax rate, and it is more likely to raise the tax rate of a low-tax country. The impli...

  7. Energy redistribution in diatomic molecules on surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asscher, M.; Somorjai, G.A.

    1984-04-01

    Translational and internal degrees of freedom of a scattered beam of NO molecules from a Pt(111) single crystal surface were measured as a function of scattering angle and crystal temperature in the range 450 to 1250K. None of the three degrees of freedom were found to fully accommodate to the crystal temperature, the translational degree being the most accommodated and the rotational degree of freedom the least. A precursor state model is suggested to account for the incomplete accommodation of translational and vibrational degrees of freedom as a function of crystal temperature and incident beam energy. The vibrational accommodation is further discussed in terms of a competition between desorption and vibrational excitation processes, thus providing valuable information on the interaction between vibrationally excited molecules and surfaces. Energy transfer into rotational degrees of freedom is qualitatively discussed

  8. Manipulation of molecular vibrational motions via pure rotational excitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shu, Chuan-Cun; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    2015-01-01

    The coupling between different molecular degrees of freedom plays a decisive role in many quantum phenomena, including electron transfer and energy redistribution. Here, we demonstrate a quantum-mechanical time-dependent simulation to explore how a vibrational motion in a molecule can be affected...

  9. Urban vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Ann; Knudsen, L.; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    In   this   paper   we   describe   a   field   study   conducted   with   a   wearable   vibration   belt   where   we   test   to   determine   the   vibration   intensity   sensitivity   ranges   on   a   large   diverse   group   of   participants   with   evenly   distributed  ages  and...

  10. Organizations of food redistribution and rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, T Y; Freeland-Graves, J H

    2017-11-01

    Food insecurity affects 13.4% of the USA population, despite the fact that 30-40% of all food is deposited in a landfill. Food rescue nutrition is the process of redistribution of surplus food to the impoverished. The aim of this study is to document the extent of involvement of organizations in food rescue nutrition. In this cross-sectional study, a survey about organizations involved in food rescue nutrition was developed, validated, and then tested. Directors of 100 organizations involved in food rescue nutrition from eight Southwestern States in the USA participated in this research. These organizations provided an average of 2 million kg of food to more than 40,000 clients each month. Food assistance programs had an average of eight workers and 3081 volunteers. In addition to food, these organizations provided other services such as clothing, clinical, and childcare. The agencies encountered several challenges, including lack of resources that resulted in reducing food portions and turning away clients. The extent of involvement of community-based programs in food rescue nutrition was strong in eight Southwestern states in the USA. Organizations involved in food redistribution helped alleviate food insecurity in their clients. Sustainability of these charitable networks was dependent on availability of resources and sufficient volunteers. Health professionals should encourage these organizations by providing support through donations of time, money, and/or food. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The global warming hiatus: Slowdown or redistribution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-Hai; Boyer, Tim; Trenberth, Kevin; Karl, Thomas R.; Xie, Shang-Ping; Nieves, Veronica; Tung, Ka-Kit; Roemmich, Dean

    2016-11-01

    Global mean surface temperatures (GMST) exhibited a smaller rate of warming during 1998-2013, compared to the warming in the latter half of the 20th Century. Although, not a "true" hiatus in the strict definition of the word, this has been termed the "global warming hiatus" by IPCC (2013). There have been other periods that have also been defined as the "hiatus" depending on the analysis. There are a number of uncertainties and knowledge gaps regarding the "hiatus." This report reviews these issues and also posits insights from a collective set of diverse information that helps us understand what we do and do not know. One salient insight is that the GMST phenomenon is a surface characteristic that does not represent a slowdown in warming of the climate system but rather is an energy redistribution within the oceans. Improved understanding of the ocean distribution and redistribution of heat will help better monitor Earth's energy budget and its consequences. A review of recent scientific publications on the "hiatus" shows the difficulty and complexities in pinpointing the oceanic sink of the "missing heat" from the atmosphere and the upper layer of the oceans, which defines the "hiatus." Advances in "hiatus" research and outlooks (recommendations) are given in this report.

  12. Vibrating minds

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Ed Witten is one of the leading scientists in the field of string theory, the theory that describes elementary particles as vibrating strings. This week he leaves CERN after having spent a few months here on sabbatical. His wish is that the LHC will unveil supersymmetry.

  13. Vibrational spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Rajai Atalla

    2010-01-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy is an important tool in modern chemistry. In the past two decades, thanks to significant improvements in instrumentation and the development of new interpretive tools, it has become increasingly important for studies of lignin. This chapter presents the three important instrumental methods-Raman spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and...

  14. Redistributive effect of personal income taxation in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Vaqar; O'Donoghue, Cathal

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the redistribution effect of personal income tax in Pakistan. We decompose the overall tax system in order to evaluate the contribution of rate, allowances, deductions, exemptions and credits. The structure given in Income Tax Ordinance, 2001, is applied to gross household incomes in 2002 (low growth year) and 2005 (high growth year). Our findings reveal that the reforms laid down in this Ordinance resulted in a greater redistribution of incomes. The redistributive effect i...

  15. Redistribution of cesium-137 in southeastern watersheds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHenry, J.R.; Ritchie, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    Sediment samples from 14 southeastern agricultural reservoirs and surface samples from representative soils from the contributing water shed areas were analyzed for 137 Cs. The concentrations of 137 Cs measured reflect the nature of the watershed, its cover, its use, and man's activities. Since the redistribution of 137 Cs was assumed to result from soil erosion, recent erosion rates can be calculated from the measured 137 Cs accumulations in sediments and from the decreases in the 137 Cs calculated to have been deposited on upland soils. Measured concentrations of 137 Cs ranged from 14 to 158 nCi/m 2 in surface soils. As much as 525 nCi/m 2 of 137 Cs was measured in the deposited sediment profile. Watershed budgets for 137 Cs were calculated for three representative watersheds using available sediment survey information and the measured 137 Cs concentrations

  16. Redistribution of Kinetic Energy in Turbulent Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Pumir

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In statistically homogeneous turbulent flows, pressure forces provide the main mechanism to redistribute kinetic energy among fluid elements, without net contribution to the overall energy budget. This holds true in both two-dimensional (2D and three-dimensional (3D flows, which show fundamentally different physics. As we demonstrate here, pressure forces act on fluid elements very differently in these two cases. We find in numerical simulations that in 3D pressure forces strongly accelerate the fastest fluid elements, and that in 2D this effect is absent. In 3D turbulence, our findings put forward a mechanism for a possibly singular buildup of energy, and thus may shed new light on the smoothness problem of the solution of the Navier-Stokes equation in 3D.

  17. Infiltration and redistribution of water in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroosnijder, L.

    1976-01-01

    The flow of the liquid phase through a soil can be predicted from pressure gradients. Different ways of predicting infiltration for irrigation of a basin were compared: numerical approximation; semi-analytical and analytical. A partly empirical equation was developed for description of rate of infiltration, after examination of existing equations. Under certain conditions, infiltration was influenced by under or over pressure of the trapped gas phase and by swelling of clays. Complex models for redistribution were of little value in practice, since they could not be generalized and required too many physical data about the soil. A scheme was developed that grouped techniques for estimating physical properties of soil, according to cost and expertise required. A new experimental technique based on gamma transmission is described for estimating the physical properties of the soil. (Auth.)

  18. The influence of flow redistribution on working rat muscle oxygenation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoofd, L.J.C.; Degens, H.

    2009-01-01

    We applied a theoretical model of muscle tissue O2 transport to investigate the effects of flow redistribution on rat soleus muscle oxygenation. The situation chosen was the anaerobic threshold where redistribution of flow is expected to have the largest impact. In the basic situation all

  19. Democracies under rising inequality : New tests of the redistributive thesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linde, D.E.

    2017-01-01

    Recent increases in income inequality have led a number of authors to question the redistributive thesis, which predicts higher levels of income inequality will be met with increased redistribution of income, curbing inequality. This dissertation offers a new test of this theory, and sets out to

  20. Mechanisms of Coupled Vibrational Relaxation and Dissociation in Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenise, Iole; Kustova, Elena

    2018-05-21

    A complete vibrational state-specific kinetic scheme describing dissociating carbon dioxide mixtures is proposed. CO 2 symmetric, bending and asymmetric vibrations and dissociation-recombination are strongly coupled through inter-mode vibrational energy transfers. Comparative study of state-resolved rate coefficients is carried out; the effect of different transitions may vary considerably with temperature. A non-equilibrium 1-D boundary layer flow typical to hypersonic planetary entry is studied in the state-to-state approach. To assess the sensitivity of fluid-dynamic variables and heat transfer to various vibrational transitions and chemical reactions, corresponding processes are successively included to the kinetic scheme. It is shown that vibrational-translational (VT) transitions in the symmetric and asymmetric modes do not alter the flow and can be neglected whereas the VT 2 exchange in the bending mode is the main channel of vibrational relaxation. Inter-mode vibrational exchanges affect the flow implicitly, through energy redistribution enhancing VT relaxation; the dominating role belongs to near-resonant transitions between symmetric and bending modes as well as between CO molecules and CO 2 asymmetric mode. Strong coupling between VT 2 relaxation and chemical reactions is emphasized. While vibrational distributions and average vibrational energy show strong dependence on the kinetic scheme, the heat flux is more sensitive to chemical reactions.

  1. Perancangan dan Analisis Redistribution Routing Protocol OSPF dan EIGRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWI ARYANTA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak OSPF (Open Shortest Path First dan EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol adalah dua routing protokol yang banyak digunakan dalam jaringan komputer. Perbedaan karakteristik antar routing protokol menimbulkan masalah dalam pengiriman paket data. Teknik redistribution adalah solusi untuk melakukan komunikasi antar routing protokol. Dengan menggunakan software Cisco Packet Tracer 5.3 pada penelitian ini dibuat simulasi OSPF dan EIGRP yang dihubungkan oleh teknik redistribution, kemudian dibandingkan kualitasnya dengan single routing protokol EIGRP dan OSPF. Parameter pengujian dalam penelitian ini adalah nilai time delay dan trace route. Nilai trace route berdasarkan perhitungan langsung cost dan metric dibandingkan dengan hasil simulasi. Hasilnya dapat dilakukan proses redistribution OSPF dan EIGRP. Nilai delay redistribution lebih baik 1% dibanding OSPF dan 2-3% di bawah EIGRP tergantung kepadatan traffic. Dalam perhitungan trace route redistribution dilakukan 2 perhitungan, yaitu cost untuk area OSPF dan metric pada area EIGRP. Pengambilan jalur utama dan alternatif pengiriman paket berdasarkan nilai cost dan metric yang terkecil, hal ini terbukti berdasarkan perhitungan dan simulasi. Kata kunci: OSPF, EIGRP, Redistribution, Delay, Cost, Metric. Abstract OSPF (Open Shortest Path First and EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol are two routing protocols are widely used in computer networks. Differences between the characteristics of routing protocols pose a problem in the delivery of data packets. Redistribution technique is the solution for communication between routing protocols. By using the software Cisco Packet Tracer 5.3 in this study were made simulating OSPF and EIGRP redistribution linked by technique, then compared its quality with a single EIGRP and OSPF routing protocols. Testing parameters in this study is the value of the time delay and trace route. Value trace route based on direct calculation of cost

  2. Molecular eigenstate spectroscopy: Application to the intramolecular dynamics of some polyatomic molecules in the 3000 to 7000 cm-1 region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, D.S.

    1991-05-01

    This project uses high resolution infrared spectroscopy to probe the mechanism of intramolecular vibrational redistribution (IVR) in isolated polyatomic molecules. We have found only vibrationally anharmonic coupling in the C-H stretch region of 1-butyne but rotationally mediated coupling is evident in similar spectra of ethanol. The ''keyhole'' model of IVR was developed to account for the similarities and differences between these molecules. The concepts of the model are being implemented numerically in random matrix calculations. A second F-center laser has been purchased and is now being set up to develop an infrared double resonance technique which can be applied to this problem. 4 refs., 5 figs

  3. Hot Ground Vibration Tests

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ground vibration tests or modal surveys are routinely conducted to support flutter analysis for subsonic and supersonic vehicles. However, vibration testing...

  4. Theory of vibration protection

    CERN Document Server

    Karnovsky, Igor A

    2016-01-01

    This text is an advancement of the theory of vibration protection of mechanical systems with lumped and distributed parameters. The book offers various concepts and methods of solving vibration protection problems, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different methods, and the fields of their effective applications. Fundamental approaches of vibration protection, which are considered in this book, are the passive, parametric and optimal active vibration protection. The passive vibration protection is based on vibration isolation, vibration damping and dynamic absorbers. Parametric vibration protection theory is based on the Shchipanov-Luzin invariance principle. Optimal active vibration protection theory is based on the Pontryagin principle and the Krein moment method. The book also contains special topics such as suppression of vibrations at the source of their occurrence and the harmful influence of vibrations on humans. Numerous examples, which illustrate the theoretical ideas of each chapter, ar...

  5. Radial plutonium redistribution in mixed-oxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, L.A.; Schwinkendorf, K.N.; Karnesky, R.A.

    1981-10-01

    Alpha autoradiographs from all HEDL fuel pin metallography samples are evaluated and catalogued according to different plutonium distribution patterns. The data base is analyzed for effects of fabrication and operating parameters on redistribution

  6. Macroeconomic and social change and popular demand for redistribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    This paper tests the self-interest hypothesis arguing that changes in macroeconomic and social conditions affect popular demand for redistribution. I analyze data from four waves of the European Social Survey and use a synthetic cohort design to generate pseudo panel data for socio......-demographic groups that are matched over time. I estimate fixed effect models and find that (1) changes in macroeconomic and social conditions affect the demand for redistribution; (2) results are mostly consistent with the self-interest hypothesis claiming that agents demand more redistribution in economically hard...... times (and vice versa in good times); and (3) the effect of macroeconomic and social conditions on the demand for redistribution are highly non-linear....

  7. Autoradiographic analysis of iodoamphetamine redistribution in experimental brain ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, H.; Tsuji, S.; Oba, H.; Shiba, K.; Terada, H.; Kinuya, K.; Mori, H.; Sumiya, H.; Hisada, K.

    1990-01-01

    The pathophysiologic significance of iodoamphetamine (IMP) redistribution was analyzed using a double radionuclide autoradiography technique in experimental brain ischemia in the rat. Within 4 hr after unilateral arterial occlusion, IMP almost completely redistributed at 150 min postinjection in the affected areas. At 2 min postinjection, both a remarkable decrease of IMP accumulation and histopathologic change of diminished staining were observed in these areas. The redistribution amplitude was higher in the affected hemisphere, especially in the regions surrounding the ischemic core than in the unaffected hemisphere. These findings were consistent with computer simulation studies of the time course of brain activity based on the standard diffusible tracer model. The results suggest that IMP redistribution in the ischemic area is due to differences of the temporal changes of the brain activity between the unaffected and affected areas and that it is a physical phenomenon (only flow related) rather than a biologic one

  8. Redistribution of intestinal microcirculatory oxygenation during acute hemodilution in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarte, Lothar A.; Fournell, Artur; van Bommel, Jasper; Ince, Can

    2005-01-01

    Acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) compromizes intestinal microcirculatory oxygenation; however, the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. We hypothesized that contributors herein include redistribution of oxygen away from the intestines and shunting of oxygen within the intestines.

  9. Capital mobility, tax competition, and lobbying for redistributive capital taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Lorz, Jens Oliver

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of international capital mobility on redistributive capital taxation and on lobbying activities by interest groups. It employs a model where different capital endowments lead to a conflict between households concerning their most preferred capital tax rate. Three main results are derived: First, redistributive source based capital taxes or subsidies decline as international tax competition intensifies. Second, lobbying activities of certain interest groups may e...

  10. Social norms on rent seeking and preferences for redistribution

    OpenAIRE

    Sabatini, Fabio; Sarracino, Francesco; Yamamura, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    Empirical studies have shown that preferences for redistribution are sig- nificantly correlated with expectations of future mobility and the belief that society offers equal opportunities. We add to previous research by inves- tigating the role of individual and social norms on rent seeking. We find that the individual propensity for stigmatizing rent seeking significantly and positively affects preferences for redistribution. On the other hand, living in an area where most citizens do not st...

  11. Working time flexibilization and the redistribution of work

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Joana Adelina Madeira

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, the fast pace of the transformations in the world of labour and the threat of unemployment lead us to assess the need of work redistribution measures, among which is the flexibilization of working hours. In this context, this thesis’ main aim is to investigate whether or not the flexibilization of working time is the best approach towards work redistribution. Adopting a qualitative approach, this study sets out to evaluate different flexibilization policies and to see to what extent...

  12. Perancangan dan Analisis Redistribution Routing Protocol OSPF dan EIGRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWI ARYANTA

    2014-07-01

    OSPF (Open Shortest Path First and EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol are two routing protocols are widely used in computer networks. Differences between the characteristics of routing protocols pose a problem in the delivery of data packets. Redistribution technique is the solution for communication between routing protocols. By using the software Cisco Packet Tracer 5.3 in this study were made simulating OSPF and EIGRP redistribution linked by technique, then compared its quality with a single EIGRP and OSPF routing protocols. Testing parameters in this study is the value of the time delay and trace route. Value trace route based on direct calculation of cost and metric compared with the simulation results. The result can be OSPF and EIGRP redistribution process. Value delay redistribution 1% better than OSPF and EIGRP 2-3% under traffic density dependent. In calculating the trace route redistribution is done 2 calculations, the cost for OSPF area and the area of the EIGRP metric. Making primary and alternate paths based on the packet delivery rate and the cost of the smallest metric, it is proved by calculation and simulation. Keywords: OSPF, EIGRP, Redistribution, Delay, Cost, Metric.

  13. Vibration of machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Mun Gyu; Na, Sung Su; Baek, Gwang Hyeon; Song, Chul Gi; Han, Sang Bo

    2001-09-01

    This book deals with vibration of machine which gives descriptions of free vibration using SDOF system, forced vibration using SDOF system, vibration of multi-degree of freedom system like introduction and normal form, distribution system such as introduction, free vibration of bar and practice problem, approximate solution like lumped approximations and Raleigh's quotient, engineering by intuition and experience, real problem and experimental method such as technology of signal, fourier transform analysis, frequency analysis and sensor and actuator.

  14. Enhanced vibration diagnostics using vibration signature analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.; Shehzad, K.; Zahoor, Y.; Mahmood, A.; Bibi, A.

    2001-01-01

    Symptoms will appear in equipment, as well as in human beings. when 'suffering from sickness. Symptoms of abnormality in equipment are vibration, noise, deformation, temperature, pressure, electric current, crack, wearing, leakage etc. these are called modes of failure. If the mode of failure is vibration then the vibration signature analysis can be effectively used in order to diagnose the machinery problems. Much valuable information is contained within these vibration 'Spectra' or 'Signatures' but is only of use if the analyst can unlock its 'Secrets'. This paper documents a vibration problem in the motor of a centrifugal pump (Type ETA). It focuses mainly on the roll of modern vibration monitoring system in problem analysis. The problem experienced was the motor unstability and noise due to high vibration. Using enhanced vibration signature data, the problem was analyzed. which suggested that the rotor eccentricity was the cause of excessive noise and vibration in the motor. In conclusion, advanced electronic monitoring and diagnostic systems provide powerful information for machine's condition assessment and problem analysis. Appropriate interpretation and use of this information is important for accurate and effective vibration analysis. (author)

  15. Overload cascading failure on complex networks with heterogeneous load redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yueyi; Xing, Xiaoyun; Li, Menghui; Zeng, An; Wang, Yougui

    2017-09-01

    Many real systems including the Internet, power-grid and financial networks experience rare but large overload cascading failures triggered by small initial shocks. Many models on complex networks have been developed to investigate this phenomenon. Most of these models are based on the load redistribution process and assume that the load on a failed node shifts to nearby nodes in the networks either evenly or according to the load distribution rule before the cascade. Inspired by the fact that real power-grid tends to place the excess load on the nodes with high remaining capacities, we study a heterogeneous load redistribution mechanism in a simplified sandpile model in this paper. We find that weak heterogeneity in load redistribution can effectively mitigate the cascade while strong heterogeneity in load redistribution may even enlarge the size of the final failure. With a parameter θ to control the degree of the redistribution heterogeneity, we identify a rather robust optimal θ∗ = 1. Finally, we find that θ∗ tends to shift to a larger value if the initial sand distribution is homogeneous.

  16. [Occupational standing vibration rate and vibrational diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnaukh, N G; Vyshchipan, V F; Haumenko, B S

    2003-12-01

    Occupational standing vibration rate is proposed in evaluating a degree of impairment of an organism activity. It will allow more widely to introduce specification of quality and quantity in assessment of the development of vibrational disease. According out-patient and inpatient obtained data we have established criterial values of functional changes in accordance with accumulated occupational standing vibration rate. The nomogram was worked out for defining a risk of the development of vibrational disease in mine workers. This nomogram more objectively can help in diagnostics of the disease.

  17. Redistribution of thallium-201 into right ventricle through collateral circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, Hajime; Ohkubo, Toshitaka; Takaoka, Shigeru; Ohshige, Tamao; Miyahara, Kenkichi.

    1984-01-01

    The cases of reversible right ventricular ischemia, which demonstrated redistribution of thallium (Tl)-201 into the right ventricular free wall (RVFW) through collateral channels, were reported. Two cases with complete obstruction in the proximal right coronary artery accompanied by collateral channels (left coronary artery to distal right coronary artery) underwent submaximal exercise stress Tl-201 myocardial imaging. Although the RVFW was not visualized on immediate myocardial images in one or both of the 30 0 and 60 0 left anterior oblique views in each case, three-hour delayed myocardial images showed redistribution of Tl-201 into the RVFW. It was concluded that collateral circulation affects the occurrence of redistribution of Tl-201 into the RVFW. (author)

  18. The Redistribution of Trade Gains When Income Inequality Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco de Pinto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available How does a redistribution of trade gains affect welfare when income inequality matters? To answer this question, we extend the [1] model to unionized labor markets and heterogeneous workers. As redistribution schemes, we consider unemployment benefits that are financed either by a wage tax, a payroll tax or a profit tax. Assuming that welfare declines in income inequality, we find that welfare increases up to a maximum in the case of wage tax funding, while welfare declines weakly (sharply if a profit tax (payroll tax is implemented. These effects are caused by the wage tax neutrality (due to union wage setting and by a profit tax-induced decline in long-term unemployment. As a result, the government’s optimal redistribution scheme is to finance unemployment benefits by a wage tax.

  19. Global Redistributive Obligations in the Face of Severe Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, David Vestergaard

    ? In the debate on global justice, a number of theorists argue that this discrepancy can indeed be justified (so-called anti-cosmopolitans). Thus, to bring us closer to answer regarding our redistributive obligations towards foreigners, I analyze and evaluate such arguments. My critical examination reveals...... comprehensive obligations to foreigners and compatriots simultaneously. Thus, even if we are duty-bound to redistribute comprehensively to compatriots, this does not entail that we could not also do so towards non-compatriots. Hence, their arguments are incomplete. Thirdly, I show that anti...

  20. Void redistribution in sand under post-earthquake loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, R.W.; Truman, S.P.

    1996-01-01

    A mechanism for void redistribution in an infinite slope under post-earthquake loading conditions is described by consideration of the in situ loading paths that can occur under post-earthquake conditions and the results of triaxial tests designed to represent specific in situ post-earthquake loading paths. The mechanism is illustrated by application to an example problem. Void redistribution is shown to be a phenomena that may be more pronounced at the field scale than at the laboratory scale. (author). 12 refs., 4 figs

  1. [International migration and income redistribution: a trade-theoretic analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiner, N; Meckl, J

    1995-05-01

    "We analyze the income-redistribution effects of international migration in the host and source country in a general equilibrium framework. The well-known result that marginal migration leaves the welfare of nonmigrants unaffected is discussed in more detail with regard to shifts in national income distributions. With endogenous goods' prices the consequences for the income distribution are in general ambiguous--we show possibilities for an estimation of their magnitude. As long as wage disparities determine the direction of migration it increases world efficiency. However, redistributive policies may generate migration towards the low-wage country." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  2. Collisional redistribution effects on x-ray laser saturation behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.A.; MacGowan, B.J.; Da Silva, L.B.; Matthews, D.J.; Lee, R.W.; London, R.A.; Mrowka, S.; Underwood, J.H.; Batson, P.J.

    1994-06-01

    We recently published a detailed summary of our experimental and theoretical research on Ne-like Se x-ray laser line widths, and one of our conclusions was that collisional redistribution rates are likely to have an effect on the saturation behavior of the 206.4 angstrom Se x-ray laser. In this paper we focus on the effects of collisional redistribution on x-ray laser gain coefficients, and discuss ways of including these effects in existing laser line- transfer models

  3. Species redistribution during solidification of nuclear fuel waste metal castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naterer, G F; Schneider, G E [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    An enthalpy-based finite element model and a binary system species redistribution model are developed and applied to problems associated with solidification of nuclear fuel waste metal castings. Minimal casting defects such as inhomogeneous solute segregation and cracks are required to prevent container corrosion and radionuclide release. The control-volume-based model accounts for equilibrium solidification for low cooling rates and negligible solid state diffusion for high cooling rates as well as intermediate conditions. Test problems involving nuclear fuel waste castings are investigated and correct limiting cases of species redistribution are observed. (author). 11 refs., 1 tab., 13 figs.

  4. Portable vibration exciter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecher, L. C.; Williams, F. T.

    1970-01-01

    Gas-driven vibration exciter produces a sinusoidal excitation function controllable in frequency and in amplitude. It allows direct vibration testing of components under normal loads, removing the possibility of component damage due to high static pressure.

  5. Vibrations and Eigenvalues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We make music by causing strings, membranes, or air columns to vibrate. Engineers design safe structures by control- ling vibrations. I will describe to you a very simple vibrating system and the mathematics needed to analyse it. The ideas were born in the work of Joseph-Louis Lagrange (1736–1813), and I begin by quot-.

  6. Inelastic diffraction nuclear processes with redistribution of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitenko, A.G.; Goryachij, V.V.; Peresypkin, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    The inelastic nuclear processes at high energies with redistribution of particles are described within the framework of the diffraction approach. The capture processes (p,d) and (p,p'n) generated by the high energy nucleon collision with nuclei are considered. The angular distribution of 4 He(p,d) 3 He reaction is calculated and compared with experimental data

  7. Income inequality, redistribution and the position of the decisive voter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, L.F.M.; van der Linde, D.E.

    2016-01-01

    A large literature explaining patterns of redistribution makes use of the median voter theorem. Using a novel approach, this contribution shows that in OECD countries the decisive voter, determined by the earner who sees her preferred tax rate being implemented, on average sits around the 50th

  8. Decentralisation and Interregional Redistribution in the Italian Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Irene; Zanardi, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the potential impact of the reform designed to decentralise public education in Italy, currently under discussion, on interregional redistribution. The central government has always played a prominent financial and administrative role in the provision of compulsory education in Italy. This has had a strong…

  9. Isotope exchange investigation of nitrogen redistribution in expanded austenite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Drouet, M.; Martinavičius, A.

    2013-01-01

    Sequential plasma and gaseous nitriding of Fe–18Cr–10Ni–3Mo stainless steel at 390°C with 14N and 15N isotopes followed by denitriding in flowing hydrogen was investigated. Redistribution of plasma-inserted nitrogen atoms (15N) by subsequent gaseous nitriding (14N) was observed. Denitriding after...

  10. Fast Ion Redistribution and Implications for the Hybrid Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazikian, R.; Austin, M.E.; Budny, R.V.; Chu, M.S.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Makowski, M.A.; Petty, C.C.; Politzer, P.A.; Solomon, W.M.; Van Zeeland, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Time dependent TRANSP analysis indicates that radial redistribution of fast ions is unlikely to affect the central current density in hybrid plasmas sufficient to raise q(0) above unity. The results suggest that some other mechanism other than fast ion transport must be involved in raising q(0) and preventing sawteeth in hybrid plasmas.

  11. Helical undulator based on partial redistribution of uniform magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balal, N.; Bandurkin, I. V.; Bratman, V. L.; Fedotov, A. E.

    2017-12-01

    A new type of helical undulator based on redistribution of magnetic field of a solenoid by ferromagnetic helix has been proposed and studied both in theory and experiment. Such undulators are very simple and efficient for promising sources of coherent spontaneous THz undulator radiation from dense electron bunches formed in laser-driven photo-injectors.

  12. Helical undulator based on partial redistribution of uniform magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Balal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A new type of helical undulator based on redistribution of magnetic field of a solenoid by ferromagnetic helix has been proposed and studied both in theory and experiment. Such undulators are very simple and efficient for promising sources of coherent spontaneous THz undulator radiation from dense electron bunches formed in laser-driven photo-injectors.

  13. Is a Minimum Wage an Appropriate Instrument for Redistribution?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.F. Gerritsen (Aart); B. Jacobs (Bas)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the redistributional (dis)advantages of a minimum wage over income taxation in competitive labor markets, without imposing assumptions on the (in)efficiency of labor rationing. Compared to a distributionally equivalent tax change, a minimum-wage increase raises involuntary

  14. The redistribution of granulocytes following E. coli endotoxin induced sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P; Lillevang, S T; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine

    1994-01-01

    Infusion of endotoxin elicits granulocytopenia followed by increased numbers of granulocytes in peripheral blood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the redistribution and sequestration of granulocytes in the tissues following E. coli endotoxin induced sepsis. From 16 rabbits granulocytes...

  15. Redistribution, Recognition and Representation: Working against Pedagogies of Indifference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingard, Bob; Keddie, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on an Australian government-commissioned research study that documented classroom pedagogies in 24 Queensland schools. The research created the model of "productive pedagogies", which conjoined what Nancy Fraser calls a politics of redistribution, recognition and representation. In this model pedagogies are…

  16. Redistribution effects of energy and climate policy: The electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirth, Lion; Ueckerdt, Falko

    2013-01-01

    Energy and climate policies are usually seen as measures to internalize externalities. However, as a side effect, the introduction of these policies redistributes wealth between consumers and producers, and within these groups. While redistribution is seldom the focus of the academic literature in energy economics, it plays a central role in public debates and policy decisions. This paper compares the distributional effects of two major electricity policies: support schemes for renewable energy sources, and CO 2 pricing. We find that the redistribution effects of both policies are large, and they work in opposed directions. While renewables support transfers wealth from producers to consumers, carbon pricing does the opposite. More specifically, we show that moderate amounts of wind subsidies can increase consumer surplus, even if consumers bear the subsidy costs. CO 2 pricing, in contrast, increases aggregated producer surplus, even without free allocation of emission allowances; however, not all types of producers benefit. These findings are derived from an analytical model of electricity markets, and a calibrated numerical model of Northwestern Europe. Our findings imply that if policy makers want to avoid large redistribution they might prefer a mix of policies, even if CO 2 pricing alone is the first-best climate policy in terms of allocative efficiency. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •CO 2 pricing and renewables support have strikingly different impacts on rents. •Carbon pricing increases producer surplus and decreases consumer surplus. •Renewable support schemes (portfolio standards, feed-in tariffs) do the opposite. •We model these impacts theoretically and quantify them for Europe. •Redistribution of wealth is found to be significant in size

  17. The effect of vibration on alpha radiolysis of transuranic (TRU) waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerwekh, A.; Kosiewicz, S.; Warren, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports on previously unpublished scoping work related to the potential for vibration to redistribute radionuclides on transuranic (TRU) waste. If this were to happen, the amount of gases generated, including hydrogen, could be increased above the undisturbed levels. This could be an important consideration for transport of TRU wastes either at DOE sites or from them to a future repository, e.g., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). These preliminary data on drums of real waste seem to suggest that radionuclide redistribution does not occur. However improvements in the experimental methodology are suggested to enhance safety of future experiments on real wastes as well as to provide more rigorous data

  18. Vibration of hydraulic machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yulin; Liu, Shuhong; Dou, Hua-Shu; Qian, Zhongdong

    2013-01-01

    Vibration of Hydraulic Machinery deals with the vibration problem which has significant influence on the safety and reliable operation of hydraulic machinery. It provides new achievements and the latest developments in these areas, even in the basic areas of this subject. The present book covers the fundamentals of mechanical vibration and rotordynamics as well as their main numerical models and analysis methods for the vibration prediction. The mechanical and hydraulic excitations to the vibration are analyzed, and the pressure fluctuations induced by the unsteady turbulent flow is predicted in order to obtain the unsteady loads. This book also discusses the loads, constraint conditions and the elastic and damping characters of the mechanical system, the structure dynamic analysis, the rotor dynamic analysis and the system instability of hydraulic machines, including the illustration of monitoring system for the instability and the vibration in hydraulic units. All the problems are necessary for vibration pr...

  19. Anti-vibration gloves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Sue; Dong, Ren G; Welcome, Daniel E; McDowell, Thomas W

    2015-03-01

    For exposure to hand-transmitted vibration (HTV), personal protective equipment is sold in the form of anti-vibration (AV) gloves, but it remains unclear how much these gloves actually reduce vibration exposure or prevent the development of hand-arm vibration syndrome in the workplace. This commentary describes some of the issues that surround the classification of AV gloves, the assessment of their effectiveness and their applicability in the workplace. The available information shows that AV gloves are unreliable as devices for controlling HTV exposures. Other means of vibration control, such as using alternative production techniques, low-vibration machinery, routine preventative maintenance regimes, and controlling exposure durations are far more likely to deliver effective vibration reductions and should be implemented. Furthermore, AV gloves may introduce some adverse effects such as increasing grip force and reducing manual dexterity. Therefore, one should balance the benefits of AV gloves and their potential adverse effects if their use is considered. © Crown copyright 2014.

  20. Spectroscopy of vibrationally hot molecules: Hydrogen cyanide and acetylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonas, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    An efficient formula for calculating nuclear spin statistical weights is presented. New experimental methods to distinguish electric and magnetic multipole transitions are proposed and used to prove that the formaldehyde A - X 0-0 transition is a magnetic dipole transition. HIgh resolution vacuum ultraviolet studies of the A → X fluorescence excitation spectrum of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) have: (i) determined that only the (0,1,0) vibrational level of the HCN A-state has a sufficiently long fluorescence lifetime to be suitable for Stimulated Emission Pumping (SEP) studies; and (ii) measured the electric dipole moment of the A-state. Several transitions in the hydrogen cyanide A → X SEP spectrum are shown to be due to the axis-switching mechanism. From a Franck-Condon plot of the intensities and a comparison between sums of predicted rotational constants and sums of observed rotational constants, all of the remaining transitions in the SEP spectrum can be securly assigned. Two weak resonances; a 2:3 CH:CN stretch Fermi resonance and a 6:2 bend:CN stretch resonance appear in the SEP spectrum. Excitation of the CH stretching vibration is predicted and shown to be entirely absent, apart from resonances, in the HCN SEP spectrum. A → X SEP spectra of acetylene (HCCH) near E VIB = 7,000 cm -1 display a wealth of strong and fully assignable anharmonic resonances and forbidden rotational transitions. It is proved that Darling-Dennison resonance between the cis and trans bending vibrations is the crucial first step in a series of anharmonic resonances which can transfer nearly all the vibrational energy out of the initial CC stretch/trans-bend excitation at high vibrational energy. Secondary steps in the vibrational energy flow are vibrational-l-resonance and the '2345' Fermi resonance. For short times, the vibrational energy redistribution obeys very restrictive rules

  1. 47 CFR 73.9001 - Redistribution control of digital television broadcasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Redistribution control of digital television... RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Digital Broadcast Television Redistribution Control § 73.9001 Redistribution control of digital television broadcasts. Licensees of TV broadcast stations may utilize the...

  2. Radiative redistribution modeling for hot and dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosse, C.; Calisti, A.; Talin, B.; Stamm, R.; Lee, R. W.; Klein, L.

    1999-01-01

    A model based on an extension of the Frequency Fluctuation Model (FFM) is developed to investigate the two-photon processes and particularly the radiative redistribution functions for complex emitters in a wide range of plasmas conditions. The FFM, originally, designed as a fast and reliable numerical procedure for the calculation of the spectral shape of the Stark broadened lines emitted by multi-electron ions, relies on the hypothesis that the emitter-plasma system can be well represented by a set of 'Stark Dressed Transitions', SDT. These transitions connected to each others through a stochastic mixing process accounting for the local microfield random fluctuations, form the basis for the extension of the FFM to computation of non-linear response functions. The formalism of the second order radiative redistribution function is presented and examples are shown

  3. Charge redistribution and properties of high-temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomskii, D.I.; Kusmartsev, F.V.

    1992-01-01

    We show that in high-T c superconductors (HTSC) with two groups of electrons (e.g., holes in CuO 2 planes and in a ''reservoir'') there should exist a charge redistribution with the temperature: the hole concentration N h in ''active'' superconducting CuO 2 planes increases below T c . This effect may explain structural changes such as the shift of the apical oxygen atom, anomalous thermal expansion, the shift of nuclear quadrupole resonance lines, the change of the positron lifetime, and the modification of the ion channeling below T c . Some other possible consequences of the charge redistribution (the modification of the temperature dependence of a gap Δ and of the ratio 2Δ 0 /T c , the phenomena at a contact of HTSC with normal metals and semiconductors) are discussed

  4. The redistribution of granulocytes following E. coli endotoxin induced sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P; Lillevang, S T; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine

    1994-01-01

    Infusion of endotoxin elicits granulocytopenia followed by increased numbers of granulocytes in peripheral blood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the redistribution and sequestration of granulocytes in the tissues following E. coli endotoxin induced sepsis. From 16 rabbits granulocytes...... were isolated, labelled with Indium and reinjected intravenously. Eight rabbits received an infusion of E. coli endotoxin 2 micrograms kg-1 while eight received isotonic saline. The redistribution of granulocytes was imaged with a gamma camera and calculated with a connected computer before and 2 and 6...... hours after infusion of endotoxin or saline. Serum cortisol and interleukin-1 beta were measured. In another seven rabbits, respiratory burst activity and degranulation of granulocytes were measured prior to and from 5 min to 6 hours after infusion of E. coli endotoxin 2 micrograms kg-1 BW. Following...

  5. Bandshapes in vibrational spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijkman, F.G.

    1978-01-01

    A detailed account is given of the development of modern bandshape theories since 1965. An investigation into the relative contributions of statistical irreversible relaxation processes is described, for a series of molecules in which gradually the length of one molecular axis is increased. An investigation into the theoretical and experimental investigation of the broadening brought about by the effect of fluctuating intermolecular potentials on the vibrational frequency is also described. The effect of an intermolecular perturbative potential on anharmonic and Morse oscillators is discussed and the results are presented of a computation on the broadening of the vibrational band of some diatomic molecules in a rigid lattice type solvent. The broadening of the OH-stretching vibration in a number of aliphatic alcohols, the vibrational bandshapes of the acetylenic C-H stretching vibration and of the symmetric methyl stretching vibration are investigated. (Auth./ C.F.)

  6. Responsibility and Redistribution: The Case of First Best Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Bertil Tungodden

    2001-01-01

    It is not straightforward to define the ethics of responsibility in cases where the consequences of changes in factors within our control are partly determined by factors beyond our control. In this paper, we suggest that one plausible view is to keep us responsible for the parts of the consequences that are independent of the factors beyond our control. Within the framework of a first best taxation problem, we present and characterise a redistributive mechanism that both satisfies this inter...

  7. Myocardial viability assessed by Tl-201 SPECT. Redistribution versus reinjection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalela, William Azem; Pimentel, Flavio Ferrarini de Oliveira; Uchida, Augusto Hiroshi; Bottega, Augusto; Ramires, Jose Antonio Franchine; Izaki, Marisa; Moraes, Aguinaldo Pereira; Soares Junior, Jose; Giorgi, Maria C. Pinto; Moffa, Paulo Jorge; Bellotti, Giovanni; Giovanni Guido Cerri; Meneghetti, Jose Claudio

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify if a third series of images acquired by reinjection thallium-201, 24 h after conventional myocardial perfusion with the radioisotope, improves the identification of myocardial viability segments. The methods: we studied 30 patients, mean age 57.7 ±9.4 years, with old myocardial infarction using thallium (Tl)-201 SPECT, and we obtained three series of images (stress, redistribution after 4 h and reinjection after 24 h. Cardiac images were divided in 5 segments (apical, lateral, anterior, septal and inferior) and each one received a value by a score system according to the Tl-201 myocardial uptake (0=normal uptake; 1=mild hypoperfusion; 2=moderate hypoperfusion; 3=severe hypoperfusion or no myocardial uptake). We considered viable myocardium when the uptake of Tl-201 in the segment related to te myocardial infarction increases at least 1 point in two different axis of Tl-201 SPECT. The results: seven (23,3%) patients demonstrated increase of Tl-201 uptake only at reinjection images, showing a high efficacy of the method. Nine (30%) patients showed persistent hypoperfusion at all series of images suggesting only fibrosis in the are related to the infarction. Fourteen (46,7%) patients showed increase of Tl-201 concentration at redistribution images; among these patients, six showed improvement of myocardial uptake at reinjection. This condition was interpreted as regional chronic ischemic process: hibernating myocardium. The conclusion was that Tl-201 hypoperfusion at redistribution images without significant changes in relation to the stress images do not represent fibrosis at all. The reinjection technic was better than conventional redistribution in the detection of viable myocardium. This data allows a better therapeutic orientation. (author)

  8. Cascading failures in interdependent systems under a flow redistribution model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingrui; Arenas, Alex; Yaǧan, Osman

    2018-02-01

    Robustness and cascading failures in interdependent systems has been an active research field in the past decade. However, most existing works use percolation-based models where only the largest component of each network remains functional throughout the cascade. Although suitable for communication networks, this assumption fails to capture the dependencies in systems carrying a flow (e.g., power systems, road transportation networks), where cascading failures are often triggered by redistribution of flows leading to overloading of lines. Here, we consider a model consisting of systems A and B with initial line loads and capacities given by {LA,i,CA ,i} i =1 n and {LB,i,CB ,i} i =1 n, respectively. When a line fails in system A , a fraction of its load is redistributed to alive lines in B , while remaining (1 -a ) fraction is redistributed equally among all functional lines in A ; a line failure in B is treated similarly with b giving the fraction to be redistributed to A . We give a thorough analysis of cascading failures of this model initiated by a random attack targeting p1 fraction of lines in A and p2 fraction in B . We show that (i) the model captures the real-world phenomenon of unexpected large scale cascades and exhibits interesting transition behavior: the final collapse is always first order, but it can be preceded by a sequence of first- and second-order transitions; (ii) network robustness tightly depends on the coupling coefficients a and b , and robustness is maximized at non-trivial a ,b values in general; (iii) unlike most existing models, interdependence has a multifaceted impact on system robustness in that interdependency can lead to an improved robustness for each individual network.

  9. Land Policy Changes and Land Redistribution in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Belén Albornoz Barriga

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines three distinct periods of policy change and land redistribution in Ecuador through the agrarian reform laws of 1964, 1973 and 2010. A comparative case study of each moment of the law reforms was based on the instruments and policy network approach. In order to explain public policy process design, the high incidence of collective domains led by agribusiness on government management, and the incidence of indigenous organizations and farmers over the state action.

  10. Solute redistribution in dendritic solidification with diffusion in the solid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, S.; Poirier, D. R.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation of solute redistribution during dendritic solidification with diffusion in the solid has been performed using numerical techniques. The extent of diffusion is characterized by the instantaneous and average diffusion parameters. These parameters are functions of the diffusion Fourier number, the partition ratio and the fraction solid. Numerical results are presented as an approximate model, which is used to predict the average diffusion parameter and calculate the composition of the interdendritic liquid during solidification.

  11. Transfer vibration through spine

    OpenAIRE

    Benyovszky, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Transfer Vibration through Spine Abstract In the bachelor project we deal with the topic of Transfer Vibration through Spine. The problem of TVS is trying to be solved by the critical review method. We analyse some diagnostic methods and methods of treatment based on this principle. Close attention is paid to the method of Transfer Vibration through Spine that is being currently solved by The Research Institute of Thermomechanics in The Czech Academy of Sciences in cooperation with Faculty of...

  12. Electromagnetic Field Redistribution in Metal Nanoparticle on Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Keke; Liu, Anping; Wei, Dapeng; Yu, Keke; Sun, Xiaonan; Yan, Sheng; Huang, Yingzhou

    2018-04-25

    Benefiting from the induced image charge on metal film, the light energy is confined on a film surface under metal nanoparticle dimer, which is called electromagnetic field redistribution. In this work, electromagnetic field distribution of metal nanoparticle monomer or dimer on graphene is investigated through finite-difference time-domain method. The results point out that the electromagnetic field (EM) redistribution occurs in this nanoparticle/graphene hybrid system at infrared region where light energy could also be confined on a monolayer graphene surface. Surface charge distribution was analyzed using finite element analysis, and surface-enhanced Raman spectrum (SERS) was utilized to verify this phenomenon. Furthermore, the data about dielectric nanoparticle on monolayer graphene demonstrate this EM redistribution is attributed to strong coupling between light-excited surface charge on monolayer graphene and graphene plasmon-induced image charge on dielectric nanoparticle surface. Our work extends the knowledge of monolayer graphene plasmon, which has a wide range of applications in monolayer graphene-related film.

  13. Role of Sink Density in Nonequilibrium Chemical Redistribution in Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Enrique; Senninger, Oriane; Caro, Alfredo; Soisson, Frédéric; Nastar, Maylise; Uberuaga, Blas P.

    2018-03-01

    Nonequilibrium chemical redistribution in open systems submitted to external forces, such as particle irradiation, leads to changes in the structural properties of the material, potentially driving the system to failure. Such redistribution is controlled by the complex interplay between the production of point defects, atomic transport rates, and the sink character of the microstructure. In this work, we analyze this interplay by means of a kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) framework with an underlying atomistic model for the Fe-Cr model alloy to study the effect of ideal defect sinks on Cr concentration profiles, with a particular focus on the role of interface density. We observe that the amount of segregation decreases linearly with decreasing interface spacing. Within the framework of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes, a general analytical model is derived and assessed against the KMC simulations to elucidate the structure-property relationship of this system. Interestingly, in the kinetic regime where elimination of point defects at sinks is dominant over bulk recombination, the solute segregation does not directly depend on the dose rate but only on the density of sinks. This model provides new insight into the design of microstructures that mitigate chemical redistribution and improve radiation tolerance.

  14. Current redistribution in resistor networks: Fat-tail statistics in regular and small-world networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Jörg; Bernasconi, Jakob

    2017-03-01

    The redistribution of electrical currents in resistor networks after single-bond failures is analyzed in terms of current-redistribution factors that are shown to depend only on the topology of the network and on the values of the bond resistances. We investigate the properties of these current-redistribution factors for regular network topologies (e.g., d-dimensional hypercubic lattices) as well as for small-world networks. In particular, we find that the statistics of the current redistribution factors exhibits a fat-tail behavior, which reflects the long-range nature of the current redistribution as determined by Kirchhoff's circuit laws.

  15. Mechanical vibration and shock analysis, sinusoidal vibration

    CERN Document Server

    Lalanne, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Everything engineers need to know about mechanical vibration and shock...in one authoritative reference work! This fully updated and revised 3rd edition addresses the entire field of mechanical vibration and shock as one of the most important types of load and stress applied to structures, machines and components in the real world. Examples include everything from the regular and predictable loads applied to turbines, motors or helicopters by the spinning of their constituent parts to the ability of buildings to withstand damage from wind loads or explosions, and the need for cars to m

  16. Hydroelastic Vibrations of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Folsø, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    A formula for the necessary hull girder bending stiffness required to avoid serious springing vibrations is derived. The expression takes into account the zero crossing period of the waves, the ship speed and main dimensions. For whipping vibrations the probability of exceedance for the combined...

  17. Surface vibrational spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erskine, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    A brief review of recent studies which combine measurements of surface vibrational energies with lattice dynamical calculations is presented. These results suggest that surface vibrational spectroscopy offers interesting prospects for use as a molecular-level probe of surface geometry, adsorbate bond distances and molecular orientations

  18. Gearbox vibration diagnostic analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Gearbox Vibration Diagnostic Analyzer installed in the NASA Lewis Research Center's 500 HP Helicopter Transmission Test Stand to monitor gearbox testing. The vibration of the gearbox is analyzed using diagnostic algorithms to calculate a parameter indicating damaged components.

  19. Handbook Of Noise And Vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This book is about noise and vibration. The first chapter has explanations of noise such as basic of sound, influence of noise, assessment of noise, measurement of prevention of noise and technology, case of noise measurement and soundproof. The second chapter describes vibration with outline, theory of vibration, interpretation of vibration, measurement for reduction of vibration, case of design of protection against vibration. It deals with related regulation and method of measurement.

  20. Vibration insensitive interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millerd, James; Brock, Neal; Hayes, John; Kimbrough, Brad; North-Morris, Michael; Wyant, James C.

    2017-11-01

    The largest limitation of phase-shifting interferometry for optical testing is the sensitivity to the environment, both vibration and air turbulence. An interferometer using temporal phase-shifting is very sensitive to vibration because the various phase shifted frames of interferometric data are taken at different times and vibration causes the phase shifts between the data frames to be different from what is desired. Vibration effects can be reduced by taking all the phase shifted frames simultaneously and turbulence effects can be reduced by averaging many measurements. There are several techniques for simultaneously obtaining several phase-shifted interferograms and this paper will discuss two such techniques: 1) Simultaneous phase-shifting interferometry on a single detector array (PhaseCam) and 2) Micropolarizer phase-shifting array. The application of these techniques for the testing of large optical components, measurement of vibrational modes, the phasing of segmented optical components, and the measurement of deformations of large diffuse structures is described.

  1. Vibrations of rotating machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Osami; Kanki, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masao; Keogh, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    This book opens with an explanation of the vibrations of a single degree-of-freedom (dof) system for all beginners. Subsequently, vibration analysis of multi-dof systems is explained by modal analysis. Mode synthesis modeling is then introduced for system reduction, which aids understanding in a simplified manner of how complicated rotors behave. Rotor balancing techniques are offered for rigid and flexible rotors through several examples. Consideration of gyroscopic influences on the rotordynamics is then provided and vibration evaluation of a rotor-bearing system is emphasized in terms of forward and backward whirl rotor motions through eigenvalue (natural frequency and damping ratio) analysis. In addition to these rotordynamics concerning rotating shaft vibration measured in a stationary reference frame, blade vibrations are analyzed with Coriolis forces expressed in a rotating reference frame. Other phenomena that may be assessed in stationary and rotating reference frames include stability characteristic...

  2. [Biodistribution and Postmortem Redistribution of Emamectin Benzoate in Intoxicated Mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei-wei; Lin, Yu-cai; Lu, Yan-xu

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the lethal blood level, the target organs and tissues, the toxicant storage depots and the postmortem redistribution in mice died of emamectin benzoate poisoning. The mice model of emamectin benzoate poisoning was established via intragastric injection. The main poisoning symptoms and the clinical death times of mice were observed and recorded dynamically in the acute poisoning group as well as the sub-acute poisoning death group. The pathological and histomorphological changes of organs and tissues were observed after poisoning death. The biodistribution and postmortem redistribution of emamectin benzoate in the organs and tissues of mice were assayed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at 0h, 24h, 48h and 72h after death. The lethal blood concentrations and the concentrations of emamectin benzoate were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at different time points after death. The symptoms of nervous and respiratory system were observed within 15-30 min after intragastric injection. The average time of death was (45.8 ± 7.9) min in the acute poisoning group and (8.0 ± 1.4) d in the sub-acute poisoning group, respectively. The range of acute lethal blood level was 447.164 0-524.463 5 mg/L. The pathological changes of the organs and tissues were observed via light microscope and immunofluorescence microscope. The changes of emamectin benzoate content in the blood, heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney and brain of poisoning mice showed regularity within 72 h after death (P emamectin benzoate poisoning include heart, liver, kidney, lung, brain and contact position (stomach). The toxicant storage depots are kidney and liver. There is emamectin benzoate postmortem redistribution in mice.

  3. Income- and energy-taxation for redistribution in general equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FitzRoy, F.R.

    1993-01-01

    In a 3-factor General Equilibrium (GE)-model with a continuum of ability, the employed choose optimal labour supply, and equilibrium unemployment is determined by benefits funded by wage- and energy-taxes. Aggregate labour and the net wage may increase or decrease with taxation (and unemployment), and conditions for a reduction in redistributive wage-taxes to be Pareto-improving are derived. A small energy tax always raises the net wage, providing the wage tax is reduced to maintain constant employment and a balanced budget. High ability households prefer higher energy taxes when externalities are uniformly distributed and non-distorting. (author)

  4. Simulating the Dependence of Aspen on Redistributed Snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderquist, B.; Kavanagh, K.; Link, T. E.; Seyfried, M. S.; Winstral, A. H.

    2013-12-01

    In mountainous regions across the western USA, the distribution of aspen (Populus tremuloides) is often directly related to heterogeneous soil moisture subsidies resulting from redistributed snow. With decades of climate and precipitation data across elevational and precipitation gradients, the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed (RCEW) in southwest Idaho provides a unique opportunity to study the relationship between aspen and redistributed snow. Within the RCEW, the total amount of precipitation has not changed in the past 50 years, but there are sharp declines in the percentage of the precipitation falling as snow. As shifts in the distribution of available moisture continue, future trends in aspen net primary productivity (NPP) remain uncertain. In order to assess the importance of snowdrift subsidies, NPP of three aspen stands was simulated at sites spanning elevational and precipitation gradients using the biogeochemical process model BIOME-BGC. At the aspen site experiencing the driest climate and lowest amount of precipitation from snow, approximately 400 mm of total precipitation was measured from November to March of 2008. However, peak measured snow water equivalent (SWE) held in drifts directly upslope of this stand was approximately 2100 mm, 5 times more moisture than the uniform winter precipitation layer initially assumed by BIOME-BGC. BIOME-BGC simulations in dry years forced by adjusted precipitation data resulted in NPP values approximately 30% higher than simulations assuming a uniform precipitation layer. Using BIOME-BGC and climate data from 1985-2011, the relationship between simulated NPP and measured basal area increments (BAI) improved after accounting for redistributed snow, indicating increased simulation representation. In addition to improved simulation capabilities, soil moisture data, diurnal branch water potential, and stomatal conductance observations at each site detail the use of soil moisture in the rooting zone and the onset

  5. Internal Transport Barrier Driven by Redistribution of Energetic Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.L.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Ruskov, E.; Petty, C.C.; Greenfield, C.M.; Nazikian, R.; Budny, R.

    2004-01-01

    Alfven instabilities excited by energetic ions are used as a means to reduce the central magnetic shear in a tokamak via redistribution of energetic ions. When the central magnetic shear is low enough, ballooning modes become stable for any plasma pressure gradient and an internal transport barrier (ITB) with a steep pressure gradient can exist. This mechanism can sustain a steady-state ITB as demonstrated by experimental data from the DIII-D tokamak. It can also produce a shear in toroidal and poloidal plasma rotation. Possible application of this technique to use the energetic alpha particles for improvement of burning plasma performance is discussed

  6. Democracy, Redistributive Taxation and the Private Provision of Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas

    ) pointed to, is weakened and might even be reversed in this context. Also, the median voter may choose a negative tax rate, even if he is poorer than the mean, in order to stimulate public goods production. The relevance of the model is illustrated with an application to the finance of higher education.......The paper studies in a simple, Downsian model of political competition how the private provision of public goods is affected when it is embedded in a system of democracy and redistributive taxation. Results show that the positive effect of inequality on public goods production, which Olson (1965...

  7. Isotope exchange investigation of nitrogen redistribution in expanded austenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, T.L.; Drouet, M.; Martinavičius, A.; Somers, M.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Sequential plasma and gaseous nitriding of Fe–18Cr–10Ni–3Mo stainless steel at 390 °C with 14 N and 15 N isotopes followed by denitriding in flowing hydrogen was investigated. Redistribution of plasma-inserted nitrogen atoms ( 15 N) by subsequent gaseous nitriding ( 14 N) was observed. Denitriding after plasma- and gaseous nitriding resulted in predominant retraction of 14 N, and only a minor amount of 15 N. The nitrogen isotope diffusion behaviour is explained by two different states of nitrogen bonding and short-range ordering between nitrogen and chromium

  8. ASH REDISTRIBUTION FOLLOWING A POTENTIAL VOLCANIC ERUPTION AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Pelletier; S. deLong; M.L. Cline; C. Harrington; G. Keating

    2005-01-01

    The redistribution of contaminated tephra by hillslope, fluvial, and pedologic processes is a poorly-constrained but important aspect of evaluating the radiological dose from an unlikely volcanic eruption at Yucca Mountain (YM). To better evaluate this hazard, we developed a spatially distributed, numerical model of tephra redistribution that integrates contaminated tephra from hill slopes and active channels, mixes it with clean sediment in the channel system, distributes it on the fan, and migrates it into the soil column. The model is coupled with an atmospheric dispersion model that predicts the deposition of radioactive waste-contaminated tephra at specified grid points. The redistribution model begins in the upper Fortymile Wash drainage basin where it integrates the tephra deposited on steep slopes and active channel beds within a GIS framework. The Fortymile Wash drainage basin is the focus of this model because tephra from only this basin reaches the Fortymile Wash alluvial fan by fluvial processes, and it is on this fan where the radiological dose to a hypothetical individual is compared to the regulatory standard (via additional biosphere models). The dilution effect of flood scour, mixing, and re-deposition within the upper basin is modeled using a dilution-mixing model widely used in the contaminant-transport literature. The accuracy of this model is established by comparing the model prediction with tephra concentrations measured in channels draining the Lathrop Wells volcanic center. The model combines the contaminated tephra transported from the upper basin with the tephra deposited directly on the fan as primary fallout. On the Fortymile Wash fan, channels and interchannel-divide areas are divided on the basis of soil-geomorphic mapping according to whether they are Holocene or Pleistocene in age. This approach allows the model to incorporate the effects of channel migration on the fan within the past 10,000 yr. The model treats the redistribution

  9. Carbon redistribution by erosion processes in an intensively disturbed catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boix-Fayos, Carolina; Martínez-Mena, María; Pérez Cutillas, Pedro; de Vente, Joris; Barberá, Gonzalo G.; Mosch, Wouter; Navarro Cano, Jose Antonio; Gaspar, Leticia; Navas, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Understanding how organic carbon moves with sediments along the fluvial system is crucial to close catchment scale carbon budgets. Especially challenging is the analysis of organic carbon dynamics during fluvial transport in heterogeneous, fragile and disturbed environments with ephemeral and intense hydrological pulses, typical of Mediterranean conditions. This paper explores the catchment scale organic carbon redistribution by lateral flows in extreme Mediterranean environmental conditions from a geomorphological perspective. The study area is a catchment (Cárcavo) in SE Spain with a semiarid climate, erodible lithologies, shallow soils, and highly disturbed by agricultural terraces, land levelling, reforestations and construction of check-dams. To increase understanding of erosion induced catchment scale organic carbon redistribution, we studied the subcatchments of 8 check-dams distributed along the catchment main channel in detail. We determined 137Cs, physicochemical characteristics and organic carbon pools of soils and sediments deposited behind each check-dam, performed spatial analysis of properties of the catchment and buffer areas around check-dams, and carried out geomorphological analysis of the slope-channel connections. Soils showed very low Total Organic Carbon (TOC) values oscillating between 15.2 and 4.4 g Kg-1 for forest and agricultural soils, respectively. Sediments mobilized by erosion were poor in TOC compared to the eroded (forest) soils (6.6±0.7 g Kg-1), and the redistribution of organic carbon through the catchment, especially of the Mineral Associated Organic Carbon (MAC) pool, showed the same pattern as clay particles and 137Cs. The TOC erosion rates (0.031±0.03 Mg ha-1 y-1) were comparable to others reported for subhumid Mediterranean catchments and to those modelled worldwide for pasture land. Those lateral fluxes were equivalent to 10.4 % of the TOC stock from the topsoil at the moment of the check-dam construction and

  10. Silicon micromachined vibrating gyroscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Ralf

    1997-09-01

    This work gives an overview of silicon micromachined vibrating gyroscopes. Market perspectives and fields of application are pointed out. The advantage of using silicon micromachining is discussed and estimations of the desired performance, especially for automobiles are given. The general principle of vibrating gyroscopes is explained. Vibrating silicon gyroscopes can be divided into seven classes. for each class the characteristic principle is presented and examples are given. Finally a specific sensor, based on a tuning fork for automotive applications with a sensitivity of 250(mu) V/degrees is described in detail.

  11. System Detects Vibrational Instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Sustained vibrations at two critical frequencies trigger diagnostic response or shutdown. Vibration-analyzing electronic system detects instabilities of combustion in rocket engine. Controls pulse-mode firing of engine and identifies vibrations above threshold amplitude at 5.9 and/or 12kHz. Adapted to other detection and/or control schemes involving simultaneous real-time detection of signals above or below preset amplitudes at two or more specified frequencies. Potential applications include rotating machinery and encoders and decoders in security systems.

  12. Coherent vibrational dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lanzani, Guglielmo; De Silvestri, Sandro

    2007-01-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy is a powerful investigation tool for a wide class of materials covering diverse areas in physics, chemistry and biology. The continuous development in the laser field regarding ultrashort pulse generation has led to the possibility of producing light pulses that can follow vibrational motion coupled to the electronic transitions in molecules and solids in real time. Aimed at researchers and graduate students using vibrational spectroscopy, this book provides both introductory chapters as well as more advanced contents reporting on recent progress. It also provides a good starting point for scientists seeking a sound introduction to ultrafast optics and spectroscopic techniques.

  13. Puromycin induces SUMO and ubiquitin redistribution upon proteasome inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Hotaru [Course for Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Saitoh, Hisato, E-mail: hisa@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Course for Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2016-07-29

    We have previously reported the co-localization of O-propargyl-puromycin (OP-Puro) with SUMO-2/3 and ubiquitin at promyelocytic leukemia-nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) in the presence of the proteasome inhibitor MG132, implying a role for the ubiquitin family in sequestering OP-puromycylated immature polypeptides to the nucleus during impaired proteasome activity. Here, we found that as expected puromycin induced SUMO-1/2/3 accumulation with ubiquitin at multiple nuclear foci in HeLa cells when co-exposed to MG132. Co-administration of puromycin and MG132 also facilitated redistribution of PML and the SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase RNF4 concurrently with SUMO-2/3. As removal of the drugs from the medium led to disappearance of the SUMO-2/3-ubiquitin nuclear foci, our findings indicated that nuclear assembly/disassembly of SUMO-2/3 and ubiquitin was pharmacologically manipulable, supporting our previous observation on OP-Puro, which predicted the ubiquitin family function in sequestrating aberrant proteins to the nucleus. -- Highlights: •Puromycin exhibits the O-propargyl-puromycin effect. •Puromycin induces SUMO redistribution upon proteasome inhibition. •Ubiquitin and RNF4 accumulate at PML-nuclear bodies with SUMO-2/3. •The ubiquitin family may function in nuclear sequestration of immature proteins.

  14. Damage and redistribution of impurities by ionic bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tognetti, N.P.

    1982-01-01

    Some aspects of displacement collisions in solids bombarded with ions in the medium energy range have been studied using the backscattering and channelling techniques. The production of lattice damage and the spatial redistribution of atoms within the collision cascade were the two main effects considered and experimentally studied. A comprehensive study of disorder production in GaAs was carried out at 40 K for a variety of ions and ion energies, providing insight into the mechanisms of damage generation from both the macro and microscopic points of view. Experiments on thermal recovery of partially disordered substrates revealed that annealing occurs from approximately 100 K to 300 K. A direct procedure developed for the obtainment of damage profiles from backscattering-channelling measurements is described. The net spatial redistribution of displaced atoms, in combined impurity-matrix substrates was studied and compared with existing theories of ion beam mixing. The Ag-Si system was studied for a wide range of fluence of bombarding Ar + ions. Furthermore, the contribution of atomic mixing in the experimental observation of Ge implantation at high doses into Si is discussed. (M.E.L) [es

  15. Oxygen redistribution in (UCe)Osub(2-x)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedeney, Philippe.

    1983-01-01

    Redistribution of oxygen has been investigated in (Usub(0,7)Cesub(0,3))Osub(2-x) mixed oxide subjected to a temperature gradient in laboratory experiments, in order to apply the results to the nuclear fuel (UPu)Osub(2-x). Cylindrical sintered oxide specimens were exposed to temperature up to 1300 0 C with a longitudinal thermal gradient of about 400 0 C/cm. The most interesting feature of the experimental set-up is a solid-state electrochemical gauge (ThO 2 - Y 2 O 3 ), placed in the cold part of the sample which allows a continuous measurement of the oxygen activity. The experiments showed a fast oxygen migration down the thermal gradient. The calculations performed with a model based on solid-state thermodiffusion are in good agreement with experimental results. The heat of transport Q measured for bare samples reaches (7.2+-0.5)-kcal/mole. When the sample is coated with a tight fitting metallic cladding, an extra term Qe has to be added to the heat of transport Qe. This was interpreted as an electrotransport phenomena. On the same basis, calculations applied to radial oxygen redistribution in (UPu)Osub(2-x) seem to be adequate at least during the first stage of irradiation, taking Q=(20+-5)kcal/mole [fr

  16. Heat-induced redistribution of surface oxide in uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swissa, E.; Shamir, N.; Bloch, J.; Mintz, M.H.; Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Beersheba. Nuclear Research Center-Negev)

    1990-01-01

    The redistribution of oxygen and uranium metal at the vicinity of the metal-oxide interface of native and grown oxides due to vacuum thermal annealing was studied for uranium and uranium-chromium alloy using Auger depth profiling and metallographic techniques. It was found that uranium metal is segregating out through the uranium oxide layer for annealing temperatures above 450deg C. At the same time the oxide is redistributed in the metal below the oxide-metal interface in a diffusion like process. By applying a diffusion equation of a finite source, the diffusion coefficients for the process were obtained from the oxygen depth profiles measured for different annealing times. An Arrhenius like behavior was found for the diffusion coefficient between 400 and 800deg C. The activation energy obtained was E a =15.4±1.9 kcal/mole and the pre-exponential factor, D 0 =1.1x10 -8 cm 2 /s. An internal oxidation mechanism is proposed to explain the results. (orig.)

  17. Redistribution effects for OMVPE InP/GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, T.I.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have analyzed the redistribution parameters for InP grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE) on GaAs substrates. The layers, grown using (trimethyl Indium) TMIn at atmospheric pressure, have been characterized for epitaxial quality using photoluminescence, energy dispersed x-ray analysis, and optical microscopy. In order to better understand the effects of inter-diffusion and inter-mixing for the GaAs into the InP epitaxial layer, the layer-substrate interface was first probed by growing consecutive samples of InP for increasingly longer growth times, and thus characterizing the layers as one moves away from the interface. For more detailed analysis, cross-sections of the InP/GaAs interface were prepared for scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Energy dispersed x-ray analysis has shown that all elements In, Ga, As, and P, are present on the epitaxial side of the interface, while only Ga and As are present on the substrate side. A combination of electron diffraction and luminescence measurements show the epitaxy is at least 80% InP at the interface and essentially 100% InP at a distance of 6000 angstrom into the epilayer. Electron diffraction and bright field investigation at the interface show the existence of a second phase, existing in a mostly InP matrix. The effects of redistribution in heteroepitaxial InP/GaAs are discussed

  18. Puromycin induces SUMO and ubiquitin redistribution upon proteasome inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hotaru; Saitoh, Hisato

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reported the co-localization of O-propargyl-puromycin (OP-Puro) with SUMO-2/3 and ubiquitin at promyelocytic leukemia-nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) in the presence of the proteasome inhibitor MG132, implying a role for the ubiquitin family in sequestering OP-puromycylated immature polypeptides to the nucleus during impaired proteasome activity. Here, we found that as expected puromycin induced SUMO-1/2/3 accumulation with ubiquitin at multiple nuclear foci in HeLa cells when co-exposed to MG132. Co-administration of puromycin and MG132 also facilitated redistribution of PML and the SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase RNF4 concurrently with SUMO-2/3. As removal of the drugs from the medium led to disappearance of the SUMO-2/3-ubiquitin nuclear foci, our findings indicated that nuclear assembly/disassembly of SUMO-2/3 and ubiquitin was pharmacologically manipulable, supporting our previous observation on OP-Puro, which predicted the ubiquitin family function in sequestrating aberrant proteins to the nucleus. -- Highlights: •Puromycin exhibits the O-propargyl-puromycin effect. •Puromycin induces SUMO redistribution upon proteasome inhibition. •Ubiquitin and RNF4 accumulate at PML-nuclear bodies with SUMO-2/3. •The ubiquitin family may function in nuclear sequestration of immature proteins.

  19. Heat-induced redistribution of surface oxide in uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swissa, Eli; Shamir, Noah; Mintz, Moshe H.; Bloch, Joseph

    1990-09-01

    The redistribution of oxygen and uranium metal at the vicinity of the metal-oxide interface of native and grown oxides due to vacuum thermal annealing was studied for uranium and uranium-chromium alloy using Auger depth profiling and metallographic techniques. It was found that uranium metal is segregating out through the uranium oxide layer for annealing temperatures above 450°C. At the same time the oxide is redistributed in the metal below the oxide-metal interface in a diffusion like process. By applying a diffusion equation of a finite source, the diffusion coefficients for the process were obtained from the oxygen depth profiles measured for different annealing times. An Arrhenius like behavior was found for the diffusion coefficient between 400 and 800°C. The activation energy obtained was Ea = 15.4 ± 1.9 kcal/mole and the pre-exponential factor, D0 = 1.1 × 10 -8cm2/ s. An internal oxidation mechanism is proposed to explain the results.

  20. Electricity market integration: Redistribution effect versus resource reallocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, Dominique; Romano, Elliot

    2009-01-01

    Summary: In countries with a significant amount of low variable cost generation capacity, the integration of electricity markets poses a real problem with respect to consumers' interests. In such cases, consumers face a significant price rise compared with consumers in countries where low-cost capacities are lacking. This paper analyses this problem both in the short and long term, focusing on a market dominated by nuclear and hydro production. When there are too many restrictions on new capacity developments in low-cost technologies, market integration will lead to surplus redistribution without any production reallocation. This really makes it legitimate to contemplate redistributive compensations towards local consumers in countries which benefited from low variable cost generators at the moment of liberalisation. This paper examines two alternative ways of rent reallocation, one by income with a windfall tax on nuclear producers and the allocation of this revenue to energy efficiency policy funds, and another by price by giving drawing rights on the existing nuclear generators' production to small commercial and domestic consumers, at a level equivalent to the one necessary to maintain regulated prices.

  1. Interplane redistribution of oxygen in fine-grained HTSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, E.F. [Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Kosygina 4, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Mamsurova, L.G. [Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Kosygina 4, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: mamsurova@chph.ras.ru; Permyakov, Yu.V. [National Institute for Physical, Radio and Technical Measurements (VNIIFTRI), Mendeleevo, Moscow Region 141570 (Russian Federation); Pigalskiy, K.S. [Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Kosygina 4, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Vishnev, A.A. [Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Kosygina 4, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2004-10-01

    Moessbauer spectra (T = 78 and 293 K) and X-ray (T = 293 K) studies of fine-grained high-temperature superconductors (HTSC) YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 2.985}{sup 57}Fe{sub 0.015}O{sub y} (y = 6.92-6.93, T{sub c} = 91-91.5 K) with the average grain sizes equal to 0.4, 1, and 2 {mu}m are carried out. The redistribution in the intensities of Moessbauer spectra components with the decrease in the average grain size is found. The latter evidences the oxygen content to increase in (CuO{sub {delta}}) basal planes at the expense of its decrease in (CuO{sub 2}) and (BaO) planes. The redistribution of the oxygen between the different planes of the unit cell is accompanied by the decrease in the lattice parameter c. These effects are caused likely by nonequilibrium conditions which are commonly used in preparation of fine-grained HTSC. The assumption about the existence of partial disorder between Y{sup 3+} and Ba{sup 2+} sites in the samples explains the observed changes in the values of {delta} and c parameters. An efficiency of Moessbauer spectra studies for the compounds of YBaCuO type in the case of the enhanced oxygen parameter {delta} and the possibility of its quantitative estimation from the analysis of the intensities of Moessbauer spectrum components is demonstrated.

  2. PREFACE: Vibrations at surfaces Vibrations at surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Talat S.

    2011-12-01

    This special issue is dedicated to the phenomenon of vibrations at surfaces—a topic that was indispensible a couple of decades ago, since it was one of the few phenomena capable of revealing the nature of binding at solid surfaces. For clean surfaces, the frequencies of modes with characteristic displacement patterns revealed how surface geometry, as well as the nature of binding between atoms in the surface layers, could be different from that in the bulk solid. Dispersion of the surface phonons provided further measures of interatomic interactions. For chemisorbed molecules on surfaces, frequencies and dispersion of the vibrational modes were also critical for determining adsorption sites. In other words, vibrations at surfaces served as a reliable means of extracting information about surface structure, chemisorption and overlayer formation. Experimental techniques, such as electron energy loss spectroscopy and helium-atom-surface scattering, coupled with infra-red spectroscopy, were continually refined and their resolutions enhanced to capture subtleties in the dynamics of atoms and molecules at surfaces. Theoretical methods, whether based on empirical and semi-empirical interatomic potential or on ab initio electronic structure calculations, helped decipher experimental observations and provide deeper insights into the nature of the bond between atoms and molecules in regions of reduced symmetry, as encountered on solid surfaces. Vibrations at surfaces were thus an integral part of the set of phenomena that characterized surface science. Dedicated workshops and conferences were held to explore the variety of interesting and puzzling features revealed in experimental and theoretical investigations of surface vibrational modes and their dispersion. One such conference, Vibrations at Surfaces, first organized by Harald Ibach in Juelich in 1980, continues to this day. The 13th International Conference on Vibrations at Surfaces was held at the University of

  3. Clinical significance of 201Tl reverse redistribution in patients with aorto-coronary bypass surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Tashiisa; Hayashida, Kohei; Kozuka, Takahira

    1987-01-01

    Detection of myocardial ischemia by the stress thallium scan has traditionally been performed using transient defect analysis on exercise, followed by redistribution studies. Worsening of the 201 Tl myocardial image from exercise to redistribution is referred to as reverse redistribution. In this study, we found reverse redistribution in 10 (21%) of 48 angina pectoris patients who had undergone aortocoronary bypass surgery. The clinical significance of this phenomenon in these patients was investigated in relation to angiographic and surgical findings. Reverse redistribution was found to occur in regions which were supplied by bypass grafts. These areas showed increased coronary blood flow and rapid thallium washout. Our results indicate that a perfusion defect in the bypass region of the redistribution image might be caused by relatively rapid washout in the bypass graft region compared to the adjacent normal myocardium. These results should be considered in the clinical interpretation of stress thallium scans. (orig.)

  4. Vibration Theory, Vol. 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    The present textbook has been written based on previous lecture notes for a course on stochastic vibration theory that is being given on the 9th semester at Aalborg University for M. Sc. students in structural engineering. The present 4th edition of this textbook on linear stochastic vibration th...... theory is unchanged in comparison to the 3rd edition. Only a few errors have been corrected.......The present textbook has been written based on previous lecture notes for a course on stochastic vibration theory that is being given on the 9th semester at Aalborg University for M. Sc. students in structural engineering. The present 4th edition of this textbook on linear stochastic vibration...

  5. Improved Laser Vibration Radar

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hilaire, Pierre

    1998-01-01

    .... This thesis reconfigured an existing CO2 laboratory laser radar system that is capable of measuring the frequencies of vibration of a simulated target into a more compact and rugged form for field testing...

  6. NIF Ambient Vibration Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, C.R.; Hoehler, M.S.; S.C. Sommer

    1999-01-01

    LLNL has an ongoing research and development project that includes developing data acquisition systems with remote wireless communication for monitoring the vibrations of large civil engineering structures. In order to establish the capability of performing remote sensing over an extended period of time, the researchers needed to apply this technology to a real structure. The construction of the National Ignition Facility provided an opportunity to test the data acquisition system on a large structure to monitor whether the facility is remaining within the strict ambient vibration guidelines. This document will briefly discuss the NIF ambient vibration requirements and summarize the vibration measurements performed during the Spring and Summer of 1999. In addition, a brief description of the sensors and the data acquisition systems will be provided in Appendix B

  7. A vibration sieve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekhin, S.A.; Denisenko, V.V.; Dzhalalov, M.G.; Kirichek, F.P.; Pitatel, Yu.A.; Prokopov, L.I.; Tikhonov, Yu.P.

    1982-01-01

    A vibration sieve is proposed which includes a vibration drive, a body and a screen installed on shock absorbers, a device for washing out the screen, and a subassembly for loading the material. To increase the operational reliability and effectiveness of the vibration sieve by improving the cleaning of the screen, the loading subassembly is equipped with a baffle with a lever which is hinged to it. The device for washing out the screen is made in the form of an electromagnet with a connecting rod, a switch and an eccentric, a friction ratchet mechanism and sprinkling systems. Here, the latter are interconnected, using a connecting rod, while the sprinkling system is installed on rollers under the screen. The electromagnetic switch is installed under the lever. The body is made with grooves for installing the sprinkling system. The vibration sieve is equipped with a switch which interacts with the connecting rod. The friction ratchet mechanism is equipped with a lug.

  8. Structural Stability and Vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiggers, Sine Leergaard; Pedersen, Pauli

    This book offers an integrated introduction to the topic of stability and vibration. Strikingly, it describes stability as a function of boundary conditions and eigenfrequency as a function of both boundary conditions and column force. Based on a post graduate course held by the author at the Uni...... and their derivation, thus stimulating them to write interactive and dynamic programs to analyze instability and vibrational modes....

  9. 2008 Vibrational Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip J. Reid

    2009-09-21

    The conference focuses on using vibrational spectroscopy to probe structure and dynamics of molecules in gases, liquids, and interfaces. The goal is to bring together a collection of researchers who share common interests and who will gain from discussing work at the forefront of several connected areas. The intent is to emphasize the insights and understanding that studies of vibrations provide about a variety of systems.

  10. Reducing food waste through direct surplus food redistribution : the Norwegian case

    OpenAIRE

    Capodistrias, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Food waste is a global problem with significant economic and environmental consequences. Food waste management approaches include production of biogas, animal feed and compost and surplus food redistribution. From a sustainability point of view, surplus food redistribution is the most favorable approach. Surplus food redistribution can be either direct (between suppliers of surplus food and charity food services) or indirect (Through Food banks). This paper is a case study on direct surplus f...

  11. Does Subjective Left-Right Position Have a Causal Effect on Support for Redistribution?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    characteristics as instruments for left-right position, can be used to estimate the causal effect of left-right position on support for redistribution. I analyze data on Sweden, Germany, and Norway from the two first waves of the European Social Survey and find first that left-right position is endogenous...... to support for redistribution, and second consistent with theory, that a causal effect of left-right position on support for redistribution exists which is stronger than previously shown....

  12. A little fairness may induce a lot of redistribution in democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyran, Jean-Robert; Sausgruber, Rupert

    2006-01-01

    We use a model of self-centered inequality aversion suggested by Fehr and Schmidt (Quart. J. Econom. 114 (3) (1999) 817) to study voting on redistribution. We theoretically identify two classes of conditions when an empirically plausible amount of fairness preferences induces redistribution throu...... referenda. We test the predictions of the adapted inequality aversion model in a simple redistribution experiment and find that it predicts voting outcomes far better than the standard model of voting assuming rationality and strict self-interest...

  13. Re-motivation in tourist destinations, redistribution and power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Díaz Domínguez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tourist destinations are constantly required to renew their products, services and projected image. This is possible, among other processes, through business innovation and co-management between tour operators and administrations in order to reach markets. This paper focusses on case studies of two specialised agrotourism businesses located in Fuerteventura (Canary Islands, and shows how innovation in products is limited when tour operators also come to control the supply of small and medium-sized companies, at least in destinations where mass tourism predominate. Here remotivation is presented as a means of providing the tourist with local supply in the destination in a way that allows it to stand out, aid the creation of local businesses and products, enrich the tourist experience and redistribute the profits of tourism across the area.

  14. Sediment-associated transport and redistribution of Chernobyl fallout radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walling, D.E.; Rowan, J.S.; Bradley, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    Fallout of Chernobyl-derived radionuclides over the United Kingdom evidenced marked spatial variation. Relatively high levels were recorded in central Wales, but they declined rapidly to the east. As a result the headwaters of the River Severn received significant inputs of fallout, whereas only low levels were recorded over the middle and lower reaches. Measurements of the caesium-137 content of suspended sediment transported by the River Severn and of channel and floodplain sediments collected from various locations within the basin have been used to assess the importance of fluvial transport and redistribution of Chernobyl-derived radionuclides. High concentrations of caesium-137 (up to 1450 mBqg -1 ) were recorded in suspended sediment collected from the lower reaches of the river shortly after the Chernobyl incident and substantial accumulations of Chernobyl-derived radionuclides have been detected in floodplain and channel sediments collected from areas which received only low levels of fallout directly. (author)

  15. Numerical simulation of abutment pressure redistribution during face advance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klishin, S. V.; Lavrikov, S. V.; Revuzhenko, A. F.

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents numerical simulation data on the abutment pressure redistribution in rock mass during face advance, including isolines of maximum shear stress and pressure epures. The stress state of rock in the vicinity of a breakage heading is calculated by the finite element method using a 2D nonlinear model of a structurally heterogeneous medium with regard to plasticity and internal self-balancing stress. The thus calculated stress field is used as input data for 3D discrete element modeling of the process. The study shows that the abutment pressure increases as the roof span extends and that the distance between the face breast and the peak point of this pressure depends on the elastoplastic properties and internal self-balancing stress of a rock medium.

  16. From microscopic taxation and redistribution models to macroscopic income distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertotti, Maria Letizia; Modanese, Giovanni

    2011-10-01

    We present here a general framework, expressed by a system of nonlinear differential equations, suitable for the modeling of taxation and redistribution in a closed society. This framework allows one to describe the evolution of income distribution over the population and to explain the emergence of collective features based on knowledge of the individual interactions. By making different choices of the framework parameters, we construct different models, whose long-time behavior is then investigated. Asymptotic stationary distributions are found, which enjoy similar properties as those observed in empirical distributions. In particular, they exhibit power law tails of Pareto type and their Lorenz curves and Gini indices are consistent with some real world ones.

  17. Debate on redistribution and recognition: towards an oposition posmodern feminism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pilar Rodríguez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Marxist tradition has strongly criticized Derrida’s deconstruction approach as well as the postmodern positions, considering them as only concerned with differences but with no regards for socioeconomic inequality. Nevertheless, an important part of feminism has nursed in such theories to support its own arguments. We analyze the pertinence of such criticism as well as the particular effects of deconstruction and postmodernism in the theory and praxis of feminism in the light of two current debates. The first one regarding the political potential of deconstruction and postmodernism positions; the second one, referred to the so-called contradiction between socioeconomic redistribution and cultural acknowledgement of the differences. This will lead us to a broader and more comprehensive analysis horizon.

  18. Geographical redistribution of radionuclides in forest and wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjaernhage, Aasa; Plamboeck, Agnetha; Nylen, Torbjoern; Lidstroem, Kenneth; Aagren, Goeran; Lindgren, Jonas

    2000-12-01

    This report summarizes the results from a survey concerning the presence of caesium-137 in soil in two different areas, Verkmyraan in Gaestrikland and Nyaenget in Vaesterbotten. This has been done with a portable NaI gamma spectrometer connected to a GPS, called back pack. Soil samples have also been taken in the two areas to compare the results from these with the back pack measurements. The results from a survey of Cesium-137 1989 in Nyaenget has also been included to see if there has been a redistribution of Cs-137 in the area in the last ten years. At Verkmyraan there is an increase in Cs-137 deposition at the lower part of the catchment which probably depends on a transport of Cs-137 to the outflow. In Nyaenget the results show a possible levelling of the Cs-137 activity between the different soil types, but to verify that, more soil samples must be taken and analysed

  19. Geographical redistribution of radionuclides in forest and wetland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tjaernhage, Aasa; Plamboeck, Agnetha; Nylen, Torbjoern; Lidstroem, Kenneth; Aagren, Goeran; Lindgren, Jonas

    2000-12-01

    This report summarizes the results from a survey concerning the presence of caesium-137 in soil in two different areas, Verkmyraan in Gaestrikland and Nyaenget in Vaesterbotten. This has been done with a portable NaI gamma spectrometer connected to a GPS, called back pack. Soil samples have also been taken in the two areas to compare the results from these with the back pack measurements. The results from a survey of Cesium-137 1989 in Nyaenget has also been included to see if there has been a redistribution of Cs-137 in the area in the last ten years. At Verkmyraan there is an increase in Cs-137 deposition at the lower part of the catchment which probably depends on a transport of Cs-137 to the outflow. In Nyaenget the results show a possible levelling of the Cs-137 activity between the different soil types, but to verify that, more soil samples must be taken and analysed.

  20. Stress Redistribution Explains Anti-correlated Subglacial Pressure Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Marie Lefeuvre

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a finite element model to interpret anti-correlated pressure variations at the base of a glacier to demonstrate the importance of stress redistribution in the basal ice. We first investigated two pairs of load cells installed 20 m apart at the base of the 210 m thick Engabreen glacier in Northern Norway. The load cell data for July 2003 showed that pressurisation of a subglacial channel located over one load cell pair led to anti-correlation in pressure between the two pairs. To investigate the cause of this anti-correlation, we used a full Stokes 3D model of a 210 m thick and 25–200 m wide glacier with a pressurised subglacial channel represented as a pressure boundary condition. The model reproduced the anti-correlated pressure response at the glacier bed and variations in pressure of the same order of magnitude as the load cell observations. The anti-correlation pattern was shown to depend on the bed/surface slope. On a flat bed with laterally constrained cross-section, the resulting bridging effect diverted some of the normal forces acting on the bed to the sides. The anti-correlated pressure variations were then reproduced at a distance >10–20 m from the channel. In contrast, when the bed was inclined, the channel support of the overlying ice was vertical only, causing a reduction of the normal stress on the bed. With a bed slope of 5 degrees, the anti-correlation occurred within 10 m of the channel. The model thus showed that the effect of stress redistribution can lead to an opposite response in pressure at the same distance from the channel and that anti-correlation in pressure is reproduced without invoking cavity expansion caused by sliding.

  1. Vibration transducer calibration techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkley, D. J.

    1980-09-01

    Techniques for the calibration of vibration transducers used in the Aeronautical Quality Assurance Directorate of the British Ministry of Defence are presented. Following a review of the types of measurements necessary in the calibration of vibration transducers, the performance requirements of vibration transducers, which can be used to measure acceleration, velocity or vibration amplitude, are discussed, with particular attention given to the piezoelectric accelerometer. Techniques for the accurate measurement of sinusoidal vibration amplitude in reference-grade transducers are then considered, including the use of a position sensitive photocell and the use of a Michelson laser interferometer. Means of comparing the output of working-grade accelerometers with that of previously calibrated reference-grade devices are then outlined, with attention given to a method employing a capacitance bridge technique and a method to be used at temperatures between -50 and 200 C. Automatic calibration procedures developed to speed up the calibration process are outlined, and future possible extensions of system software are indicated.

  2. Recovering Intrinsic Fragmental Vibrations Using the Generalized Subsystem Vibrational Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yunwen; Tian, Chuan; Verma, Niraj; Zou, Wenli; Wang, Chao; Cremer, Dieter; Kraka, Elfi

    2018-05-08

    Normal vibrational modes are generally delocalized over the molecular system, which makes it difficult to assign certain vibrations to specific fragments or functional groups. We introduce a new approach, the Generalized Subsystem Vibrational Analysis (GSVA), to extract the intrinsic fragmental vibrations of any fragment/subsystem from the whole system via the evaluation of the corresponding effective Hessian matrix. The retention of the curvature information with regard to the potential energy surface for the effective Hessian matrix endows our approach with a concrete physical basis and enables the normal vibrational modes of different molecular systems to be legitimately comparable. Furthermore, the intrinsic fragmental vibrations act as a new link between the Konkoli-Cremer local vibrational modes and the normal vibrational modes.

  3. Modelling dynamic water redistribution patterns in arid catchments in the Negev Desert of Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buis, E.; Veldkamp, A.

    2008-01-01

    In arid climate regions, redistribution of runoff water is highly relevant for vegetation development. The process of water redistribution at catchment scale is studied with the landscape process model LAPSUS, mainly used for erosion and sedimentation modelling. LAPSUS, formerly applied in

  4. 7 CFR 247.24 - Recovery and redistribution of caseload and administrative funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recovery and redistribution of caseload and...) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.24 Recovery and redistribution of caseload and administrative funds. (a) May FNS...

  5. Business Groups and Profit Redistribution : A Boon or Bane for Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, R.; Kabir, M.R.; Douma, S.W.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates how profit redistribution affects the performance of firms affiliated to business groups.It shows that inefficient profit redistribution causes group-affiliated firms to perform poorly relative to independent firms.This underperformance persists even after controlling for

  6. Managing consequences of climate-driven species redistribution requires integration of ecology, conservation and social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonebrake, Timothy C; Brown, Christopher J; Bell, Johann D; Blanchard, Julia L; Chauvenet, Alienor; Champion, Curtis; Chen, I-Ching; Clark, Timothy D; Colwell, Robert K; Danielsen, Finn; Dell, Anthony I; Donelson, Jennifer M; Evengård, Birgitta; Ferrier, Simon; Frusher, Stewart; Garcia, Raquel A; Griffis, Roger B; Hobday, Alistair J; Jarzyna, Marta A; Lee, Emma; Lenoir, Jonathan; Linnetved, Hlif; Martin, Victoria Y; McCormack, Phillipa C; McDonald, Jan; McDonald-Madden, Eve; Mitchell, Nicola; Mustonen, Tero; Pandolfi, John M; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Possingham, Hugh; Pulsifer, Peter; Reynolds, Mark; Scheffers, Brett R; Sorte, Cascade J B; Strugnell, Jan M; Tuanmu, Mao-Ning; Twiname, Samantha; Vergés, Adriana; Villanueva, Cecilia; Wapstra, Erik; Wernberg, Thomas; Pecl, Gretta T

    2018-02-01

    Climate change is driving a pervasive global redistribution of the planet's species. Species redistribution poses new questions for the study of ecosystems, conservation science and human societies that require a coordinated and integrated approach. Here we review recent progress, key gaps and strategic directions in this nascent research area, emphasising emerging themes in species redistribution biology, the importance of understanding underlying drivers and the need to anticipate novel outcomes of changes in species ranges. We highlight that species redistribution has manifest implications across multiple temporal and spatial scales and from genes to ecosystems. Understanding range shifts from ecological, physiological, genetic and biogeographical perspectives is essential for informing changing paradigms in conservation science and for designing conservation strategies that incorporate changing population connectivity and advance adaptation to climate change. Species redistributions present challenges for human well-being, environmental management and sustainable development. By synthesising recent approaches, theories and tools, our review establishes an interdisciplinary foundation for the development of future research on species redistribution. Specifically, we demonstrate how ecological, conservation and social research on species redistribution can best be achieved by working across disciplinary boundaries to develop and implement solutions to climate change challenges. Future studies should therefore integrate existing and complementary scientific frameworks while incorporating social science and human-centred approaches. Finally, we emphasise that the best science will not be useful unless more scientists engage with managers, policy makers and the public to develop responsible and socially acceptable options for the global challenges arising from species redistributions. © 2017 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  7. Vibrations in orthopedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokes, L D; Thorne, G C

    1988-01-01

    Measurements of various mechanical properties of skeletal material using vibration techniques have been reported. The purposes of such investigations include the monitoring of pathogenic disorders such as osteoporosis, the rate and extent of fracture healing, and the status of internal fixations. Early investigations pioneered the application of conventional vibration measurement equipment to biological systems. The more recent advent of the microcomputer has made available to research groups more sophisticated techniques for data acquisition and analysis. The economical advantages of such equipment has led to the development of portable research instrumentation which lends itself to use in a clinical environment. This review article reports on the developments and progression of the various vibrational techniques and theories as applied to musculoskeletal systems.

  8. Vibrational spectra of aminoacetonitrile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bak, B.; Hansen, E.L.; Nicolaisen, F.M.; Nielsen, O.F.

    1975-01-01

    The preparation of pure, stable aminoacetonitrile(1-amino, 1'-cyanomethane)CH 2 NH 2 CN (1) is described. The Raman spectrum, now complete, and a novel infrared spectrum extending over the 50-3600 cm -1 region are reported. A tentative normal vibration analysis is presented and supported by Raman and infrared data from the spectra of CH 2 NHDCN (2) and CH 2 ND 2 CN (3). The predominance of the trans rotamer may be attributed to intramolecular hydrogen bonding but this is too unimportant to influence the vibrational frequencies of gaseous 1, 2, and 3. However, large gas/liquid frequency shifts occur. (author)

  9. Vibrations and waves

    CERN Document Server

    Kaliski, S

    2013-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive overview of wave phenomena in different media with interacting mechanical, electromagnetic and other fields. Equations describing wave propagation in linear and non-linear elastic media are followed by equations of rheological models, models with internal rotational degrees of freedom and non-local interactions. Equations for coupled fields: thermal, elastic, electromagnetic, piezoelectric, and magneto-spin with adequate boundary conditions are also included. Together with its companion volume Vibrations and Waves. Part A: Vibrations this work provides a wealth

  10. Vibration Theory, Vol. 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    The present textbook has been written based on previous lecture notes for a course on stochastic vibration theory that is being given on the 9th semester at Aalborg University for M. Sc. students in structural engineering. The present 2nd edition of this textbook on linear stochastic vibration th...... theory is basically unchanged in comparison to the 1st edition. Only section 4.2 on single input - single output systems and chapter 6 on offshore structures have been modified in order to enhance the clearness....

  11. Inequality, Collective Action and Redistribution: a New Indicator for Assessing a Complex Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Traversa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The predominant theoretical viewpoint about the problem of income redistribution in capitalist democracies continues to postulate that the pressure towards redistribution is greatest in democracies with more inequality. However, this assumption does not seem to be corroborated empirically; perhaps this is because sometimes inequality only increases between the lower reaches of the distribution of income. In these cases, inequality increases the dispersion of earnings among the stakeholders of redistribution, and this increases their collective action problems. This paper proposes a new theoretical principle for the analysis of the relationship between inequality and redistribution, and develops an indicator consistent to this principle. A preliminary empirical exploration is carried out to illustrate how the proposed indicator is signifi cantly associated with the levels of income redistribution in 19 OECD countries between 1974 and 2005.

  12. Redistribution and Recognition: Assessing Alternative Frameworks for Aboriginal Policy in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Maciel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we argue that government approaches to addressing the claims of Aboriginal peoples in Canada are insufficient. Historically, these approaches have focused on redistribution. At the same time, these approaches have all but ignored recognition. We argue that a more holistic approach that addresses both redistribution and recognition is necessary. Further, we attempt to show that our approach is consistent with the tenets of liberalism. By conceiving of Aboriginal politics as such, the state may be better able to address claims. We begin by providing a theoretical overview of redistribution and recognition, respectively. Then, we proceed to show how redistribution and recognition must work together in an adequate account of justice with respect to Aboriginal peoples in Canada. Finally, we offer a conception of Aboriginal politics that fulfills this desideratum, and integrates the principle of recognition and redistribution in a way that is within the bounds of liberalism.

  13. Heterogeneous Dynamics of Coupled Vibrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cringus, Dan; Jansen, Thomas I. C.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Schoenlein, RW; Corkum, P; DeSilvestri, S; Nelson, KA; Riedle, E

    2009-01-01

    Frequency-dependent dynamics of coupled stretch vibrations of a water molecule are revealed by 2D IR correlation spectroscopy. These are caused by non-Gaussian fluctuations of the environment around the individual OH stretch vibrations.

  14. Vibration in car repair work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, J E; Eklund, L; Kihlberg, S; Ostergren, C E

    1987-03-01

    The main objective of the study was to find efficient hand tools which caused only minor vibration loading. Vibration measurements were carried out under standardised working conditions. The time during which car body repairers in seven companies were exposed to vibration was determined. Chisel hammers, impact wrenches, sanders and saws were the types of tools which generated the highest vibration accelerations. The average daily exposure at the different garages ranged from 22 to 70 min. The risk of vibration injury is currently rated as high. The difference between the highest and lowest levels of vibration was considerable in most tool categories. Therefore the choice of tool has a major impact on the magnitude of vibration exposure. The importance of choosing the right tools and working methods is discussed and a counselling service on vibration is proposed.

  15. Structural Stability and Vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiggers, Sine Leergaard; Pedersen, Pauli

    at the University of Southern Denmark, it reports on fundamental formulas and makes uses of graphical representation to promote understanding. Thanks to the emphasis put on analytical methods and numerical results, the book is meant to make students and engineers familiar with all fundamental equations...... and their derivation, thus stimulating them to write interactive and dynamic programs to analyze instability and vibrational modes....

  16. Vibrational Spectroscopy and Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaban, Galina M.; Kwak, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Role of vibrational spectroscopy in solving problems related to astrobiology will be discussed. Vibrational (infrared) spectroscopy is a very sensitive tool for identifying molecules. Theoretical approach used in this work is based on direct computation of anharmonic vibrational frequencies and intensities from electronic structure codes. One of the applications of this computational technique is possible identification of biological building blocks (amino acids, small peptides, DNA bases) in the interstellar medium (ISM). Identifying small biological molecules in the ISM is very important from the point of view of origin of life. Hybrid (quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics) theoretical techniques will be discussed that may allow to obtain accurate vibrational spectra of biomolecular building blocks and to create a database of spectroscopic signatures that can assist observations of these molecules in space. Another application of the direct computational spectroscopy technique is to help to design and analyze experimental observations of ice surfaces of one of the Jupiter's moons, Europa, that possibly contains hydrated salts. The presence of hydrated salts on the surface can be an indication of a subsurface ocean and the possible existence of life forms inhabiting such an ocean.

  17. Vibrations and Eigenvalues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The vibrating string problem is the source of much mathe- matics and physics. ... ing this science [mechanics],and the art of solving the problems pertaining to it, to .... used tools for finding maxima and minima of functions of several variables.

  18. Heat exchanger vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, D.J.W.

    1977-01-01

    The heat exchangers of various types are common items of plant in the generation and transmission of electricity. The amount of attention given to the flow-induced vibrations of heat exchangers by designers is usually related to the operational history of similar items of plant. Consequently, if a particular design procedure yields items of plant which behave in a satisfactory manner during their operational life, there is little incentive to improve or refine the design procedure. On the other hand, failures of heat exchangers clearly indicate deficiencies in the design procedures or in the data available to the designer. When such failures are attributable to flow-induced vibrations, the identification of the mechanisms involved is a prime importance. Ideally, basic research work provides the background understanding and the techniques necessary to be able to identify the important mechanisms. In practice, the investigation of a flow-induced vibration problem may identify the presence of mechanisms but may not be able to quantify their effects adequately. In these circumstances the need for additional work is established and the objectives of the research programme emerge. The purpose of this paper is to outline the background to the current research programme at C.E.R.L. on heat exchanger vibration

  19. Man-Induced Vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Hansen, Lars Pilegaard

    1994-01-01

    work has been done on the measurement of the exact load functions and related reponse analysis. A recent work using a spectral description has been performed by Per-Erik Erikson and includes a good literature survey. Bachmann and Ammann give a good overview of vibrations caused by human activity. Other...

  20. Heat exchanger vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, D J.W. [CERL, CEGB, Leatherhead, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    1977-12-01

    The heat exchangers of various types are common items of plant in the generation and transmission of electricity. The amount of attention given to the flow-induced vibrations of heat exchangers by designers is usually related to the operational history of similar items of plant. Consequently, if a particular design procedure yields items of plant which behave in a satisfactory manner during their operational life, there is little incentive to improve or refine the design procedure. On the other hand, failures of heat exchangers clearly indicate deficiencies in the design procedures or in the data available to the designer. When such failures are attributable to flow-induced vibrations, the identification of the mechanisms involved is a prime importance. Ideally, basic research work provides the background understanding and the techniques necessary to be able to identify the important mechanisms. In practice, the investigation of a flow-induced vibration problem may identify the presence of mechanisms but may not be able to quantify their effects adequately. In these circumstances the need for additional work is established and the objectives of the research programme emerge. The purpose of this paper is to outline the background to the current research programme at C.E.R.L. on heat exchanger vibration.

  1. General principles of vibrational spectroscopies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Schoonheydt, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Atoms in molecules and solids do not remain in fixed relative positions, but vibrate about some mean position. This vibrational motion is quantized and at room temperature, most of the molecules in a given sample are in their lowest vibrational state. Absorption of electromagnetic radiation with

  2. High-Temperature Vibration Damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Alan; Litwin, Joel; Krauss, Harold

    1987-01-01

    Device for damping vibrations functions at temperatures up to 400 degrees F. Dampens vibrational torque loads as high as 1,000 lb-in. but compact enough to be part of helicopter rotor hub. Rotary damper absorbs energy from vibrating rod, dissipating it in turbulent motion of viscous hydraulic fluid forced by moving vanes through small orifices.

  3. Reverse 201Tl myocardial redistribution induced by coronary artery spasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Dingcheng; Yin Jilin; Gong Zhihua; Xie Zhenhong; Zhang Jinhe; Wen Yanfei; Yi Shaodong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the mechanism of reverse redistribution (RR) on dipyridamole 201 Tl myocardial perfusion studies in the patients with coronary artery spasm. Methods: Twenty-six patients with coronary artery spasm and presented as RR on dipyridamole 201 Tl myocardial perfusion studies were enlisted as RR group, while other 16 patients with no coronary artery stenosis nor RR were enlisted as control group. Dipyridamole test was repeated during coronary angiography. Corrected thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) frame count (CTFC) and TIMI myocardial perfusion grade (TMPG) were measured at RR related and non-RR related coronary arteries before and after dipyridamole infusion respectively. All of the data were analyzed by Student's t-test or χ 2 -test and correlation analysis. Results: Coronary artery angiography showed slower blood flow and lower myocardial perfusion in RR related vessels when compared with non-RR related vessels in RR group, but there was no significant difference among the main coronary arteries in control group. The perfusion defects of RR area at rest were positively related to slower blood velocity at corresponding coronary arteries (r = 0.79, t =10.18, P 0.05). Conclusion: RR is related to the decreased blood flow and myocardial perfusion induced by coronary artery spasm at rest, which may be improved by stress test such as intravenous dipyridamole infusion. (authors)

  4. Managing fleet capacity effectively under second-hand market redistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillérou, Emmanuelle; Roudaut, Nolwenn; Guyader, Olivier

    2013-09-01

    Fishing capacity management policies have been traditionally implemented at national level with national targets for capacity reduction. More recently, capacity management policies have increasingly targeted specific fisheries. French fisheries spatially vary along the French coastline and are associated to specific regions. Capacity management policies, however, ignore the capital mobility associated with second-hand vessel trade between regions. This is not an issue for national policies but could limit the effectiveness of regional capacity management policies. A gravity model and a random-effect Poisson regression model are used to analyze the determinants and spatial extent of the second-hand market in France. This study is based on panel data from the French Atlantic Ocean between 1992 and 2009. The trade flows between trading partners is found to increase with their sizes and to be spatially concentrated. Despite the low trade flows between regions, a net impact analysis shows that fishing capacity is redistributed by the second-hand market to regions on the Channel and Aquitaine from central regions. National capacity management policies (constructions/destructions) have induced a net decrease in regional fleet capacity with varying magnitude across regions. Unless there is a change of policy instruments or their scale of implementation, the operation of the second-hand market decreases the effectiveness of regional capacity management policies in regions on the Channel and Aquitaine.

  5. Redistribution of boron in leaves reduces boron toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Robert J; Fitzpatrick, Kate L

    2009-11-01

    High soil boron (B) concentrations lead to the accumulation of B in leaves, causing the development of necrotic regions in leaf tips and margins, gradually extending back along the leaf. Plants vary considerably in their tolerance to B toxicity, and it was recently discovered that one of the tolerance mechanisms involved extrusion of B from the root. Expression of a gene encoding a root B efflux transporter was shown to be much higher in tolerant cultivars. In our current research we have shown that the same gene is also upregulated in leaves. However, unlike in the root, the increased activity of the B efflux transporter in the leaves cannot reduce the tissue B concentration. Instead, we have shown that in tolerant cultivars, these transporters redistribute B from the intracellular phase where it is toxic, into the apoplast which is much less sensitive to B. These results provide an explanation of why different cultivars with the same leaf B concentrations can show markedly different toxicity symptoms. We have also shown that rain can remove a large proportion of leaf B, leading to significant improvements of growth of both leaves and roots.

  6. Climate velocity and the future global redistribution of marine biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Molinos, Jorge; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Schoeman, David S.; Brown, Christopher J.; Kiessling, Wolfgang; Moore, Pippa J.; Pandolfi, John M.; Poloczanska, Elvira S.; Richardson, Anthony J.; Burrows, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Anticipating the effect of climate change on biodiversity, in particular on changes in community composition, is crucial for adaptive ecosystem management but remains a critical knowledge gap. Here, we use climate velocity trajectories, together with information on thermal tolerances and habitat preferences, to project changes in global patterns of marine species richness and community composition under IPCC Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5. Our simple, intuitive approach emphasizes climate connectivity, and enables us to model over 12 times as many species as previous studies. We find that range expansions prevail over contractions for both RCPs up to 2100, producing a net local increase in richness globally, and temporal changes in composition, driven by the redistribution rather than the loss of diversity. Conversely, widespread invasions homogenize present-day communities across multiple regions. High extirpation rates are expected regionally (for example, Indo-Pacific), particularly under RCP8.5, leading to strong decreases in richness and the anticipated formation of no-analogue communities where invasions are common. The spatial congruence of these patterns with contemporary human impacts highlights potential areas of future conservation concern. These results strongly suggest that the millennial stability of current global marine diversity patterns, against which conservation plans are assessed, will change rapidly over the course of the century in response to ocean warming.

  7. Lead sequestration and species redistribution during soil organic matter decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroth, A.W.; Bostick, B.C.; Kaste, J.M.; Friedland, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The turnover of soil organic matter (SOM) maintains a dynamic chemical environment in the forest floor that can impact metal speciation on relatively short timescales. Here we measure the speciation of Pb in controlled and natural organic (O) soil horizons to quantify changes in metal partitioning during SOM decomposition in different forest litters. We provide a link between the sequestration of pollutant Pb in O-horizons, estimated by forest floor Pb inventories, and speciation using synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. When Pb was introduced to fresh forest Oi samples, it adsorbed primarily to SOM surfaces, but as decomposition progressed over two years in controlled experiments, up to 60% of the Pb was redistributed to pedogenic birnessite and ferrihydrite surfaces. In addition, a significant fraction of pollutant Pb in natural soil profiles was associated with similar mineral phases (???20-35%) and SOM (???65-80%). Conifer forests have at least 2-fold higher Pb burdens in the forest floor relative to deciduous forests due to more efficient atmospheric scavenging and slower organic matter turnover. We demonstrate that pedogenic minerals play an important role in surface soil Pb sequestration, particularly in deciduous forests, and should be considered in any assessment of pollutant Pb mobility. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  8. Inequality and Fiscal Redistribution in Middle Income Countries: Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Indonesia, Mexico, Peru and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nora Lustig

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the redistributive impact of fiscal policy for Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Indonesia, Mexico, Peru and South Africa using comparable fiscal incidence analysis with data from around 2010. The largest redistributive effect is in South Africa and the smallest in Indonesia. Success in fiscal redistribution is driven primarily by redistributive effort (share of social spending to GDP in each country) and the extent to which transfers/subsidies are targeted to the poor and direct t...

  9. Molecular eigenstate spectroscopy: Application to the intramolecular dynamics of some polyatomic molecules in the 3000 to 7000 cm{sup {minus}1} region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, D.S. [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Intramolecular vibrational redistribution (IVR) appears to be a universal property of polyatomic molecules in energy regions where the vibrational density of states is greater than about 5 to 30 states per cm{sup {minus}1}. Interest in IVR stems from its central importance to the spectroscopy, photochemistry, and reaction kinetics of these molecules. A bright state, {var_phi}{sub s}, which may be a C-H stretching vibration, carries the oscillator strength from the ground state. This bright state may mix with bath rotational-vibrational levels to form a clump of molecular eigenstates, each of which carries a portion of the oscillator strength from the ground state. In this work the authors explicitly resolve transitions to each of these molecular eigenstates. Detailed information about the nature of IVR is contained in the frequencies and intensities of the observed discrete transitions. The primary goal of this research is to probe the coupling mechanisms by which IVR takes place. The most fundamental distinction to be made is between anharmonic coupling which is independent of molecular rotation and rotationally-mediated coupling. The authors are also interested in the rate at which IVR takes place. Measurements are strictly in the frequency domain but information is obtained about the decay of the zero order state, {var_phi}{sub s}, which could be prepared in a hypothetical experiment as a coherent excitation of the clump of molecular eigenstates. As the coherent superposition dephases, the energy would flow from the initially prepared mode into nearby overtones and combinations of lower frequency vibrational modes. The decay of the initially prepared mode is related to a pure sequence infrared absorption spectrum by a Fourier transform.

  10. The effects of vibration-reducing gloves on finger vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welcome, Daniel E.; Dong, Ren G.; Xu, Xueyan S.; Warren, Christopher; McDowell, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Vibration-reducing (VR) gloves have been used to reduce the hand-transmitted vibration exposures from machines and powered hand tools but their effectiveness remains unclear, especially for finger protection. The objectives of this study are to determine whether VR gloves can attenuate the vibration transmitted to the fingers and to enhance the understanding of the mechanisms of how these gloves work. Seven adult male subjects participated in the experiment. The fixed factors evaluated include hand force (four levels), glove condition (gel-filled, air bladder, no gloves), and location of the finger vibration measurement. A 3-D laser vibrometer was used to measure the vibrations on the fingers with and without wearing a glove on a 3-D hand-arm vibration test system. This study finds that the effect of VR gloves on the finger vibration depends on not only the gloves but also their influence on the distribution of the finger contact stiffness and the grip effort. As a result, the gloves increase the vibration in the fingertip area but marginally reduce the vibration in the proximal area at some frequencies below 100 Hz. On average, the gloves reduce the vibration of the entire fingers by less than 3% at frequencies below 80 Hz but increase at frequencies from 80 to 400 Hz. At higher frequencies, the gel-filled glove is more effective at reducing the finger vibration than the air bladder-filled glove. The implications of these findings are discussed. Relevance to industry Prolonged, intensive exposure to hand-transmitted vibration can cause hand-arm vibration syndrome. Vibration-reducing gloves have been used as an alternative approach to reduce the vibration exposure. However, their effectiveness for reducing finger-transmitted vibrations remains unclear. This study enhanced the understanding of the glove effects on finger vibration and provided useful information on the effectiveness of typical VR gloves at reducing the vibration transmitted to the fingers. The new

  11. [Effects of rainfall intensity on rainfall infiltration and redistribution in soil on Loess slope land].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Shao, Ming'an

    2006-12-01

    With simulation test, this paper studied the patterns of rainfall infiltration and redistribution in soil on typical Loess slope land, and analyzed the quantitative relations between the infiltration and redistribution and the movement of soil water and mass, with rainfall intensity as the main affecting factor. The results showed that rainfall intensity had significant effects on the rainfall infiltration and water redistribution in soil, and the microcosmic movement of soil water. The larger the rainfall intensity, the deeper the wetting front of rainfall infiltration and redistribution was, and the wetting front of soil water redistribution had a slower increase velocity than that of rainfall infiltration. The power function of the wetting front with time, and also with rainfall intensity, was fitted well. There was also a quantitative relation between the wetting front of rainfall redistribution and the duration of rainfall. The larger the rainfall intensity, the higher the initial and steady infiltration rates were, and the cumulative infiltration increased faster with time. Moreover, the larger the rainfall intensity, the smaller the wetting front difference was at the top and the end of the slope. With the larger rainfall intensity, both the difference of soil water content and its descending trend between soil layers became more obvious during the redistribution process on slope land.

  12. A review of the potential for actinide redistribution in CANDU thorium cycle fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, D.J.

    1978-02-01

    Actinide redistribution resulting from large radial temperature gradients is an accepted feature of the technology of fast reactor (U,Pu)O 2 fuels. A thorium cycle in CANDU reactors would require the use of oxide fuels with two or more components, raising the question of actinide redistribution in these fuels. The mechanisms proposed to explain redistribution in (U,Pu)O 2 fuels are reviewed, and their relevance to fuels based on ThO 2 is discussed. The fuel primarily considered is (Th,U)O 2 but some reference is made to (Th,Pu)O 2 . At this early stage of thorium fuel cycle technology, it is not possible to consider quantitatively the question of redistribution in specific fuels. However, some guidelines can be presented to indicate to fuel engineers conditions which might result in significant redistribution. It is concluded that redistribution is probably of little concern in high density, CANDU, thorium cycle fuel whose centre temperature is limited to 2350 K. If this centre temperature is exceeded, or if the fuel contains substantial inter-connected porosity, the potential for redistribution is significant and warrants more serious study. (author)

  13. Significance of Tl-201 redistribution on infarcted region assessed by coronary sinus flow and lactate metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Takao; Yamabe, Hiroshi; Suda, Kenichirou; Ohnishi, Masataka; Shiotani, Hideyuki; Kurimoto, Yasuyuki; Kobayashi, Katsuya; Maeda, Kazumi; Fukuzaki, Hisashi

    1987-01-01

    To clarify the significance of Tl-201 redistribution on infarcted regions, coronary sinus and great cardiac vein flow response and lactate metabolism assessed by Webster catheter on 14 infarcted regions after dipyridamole administration were compared with Tl-201 redistribution phenomenon. The regional coronary flow response and lactate extraction ratio in 11 regions with Tl-201 redistribution were lower than those in 3 regions without Tl-201 redistribution. Only 5 regions in 11 with Tl-201 redistribution showed lactate production. The coronary flow response in 5 regions with lactate production was not different from those in 6 without lactate production (1.16 ± 0.89 vs. 1.47 ± 0.67; n.s.). The degree of Tl-201 redistribution assessed by relative activity was not different between regions with and without lactate production. The left ventricular end-diastolic pressure elevated in 5 regions with lactate production (17.8 ± 5.4 mmHg to 29.6 ± 4.9 mmHg; p < 0.05), but didn't in 6 regions without lactate production. Five regions with lactate production contained 4 hypokinetic regions, on the other hand 6 regions without lactate production contained only 3 hypokinetic regions. In conclusion, Tl-201 redistribution on infarcted region revealed not only ischemia but also decreased coronary flow response without lactate production and/or left ventricular dysfunction. (author)

  14. Studies on so-called redistribution phenomenon of cerebral blood flow imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oba, Hiroshi

    1989-01-01

    To elucidate the relationship between so-called redistribution phenomenon and metabolism or viability of the brain tissue, a new quantitative triple-radionuclide autoradiography was developed, whereby making it possible to compare both late images and reditribution of IMP with cerebral metabolism in experimentally induced unilateral ischemic brain tissue of rats. Iodine-123 IMP and I-125 IMP were used as tracers for early and late imaging, and H-3 amino acid mixture or H-3 H-2 deoxyglucose as a tracer for protein synthesis or glucose metabolism imaging. There was no significant relationship between redistribution index and protein synthesis or glucose metabolism. Protein synthesis was remarkably decreased in the affected hemisphere regardless of redistribution index values. Although the redistribution indices showed a gentle peak at approximately 34 μ mol/100 g/ min of glucose metabolism, there was no obvious relationship between either late images or redistribution index images and glucose metabolism images. Redistribution indices showed a maximum value at approximately 40 to 50 ml/100 g/min of cerebral blood flow. Reverse redistribution was observed with 160 ml/100 g/min or more of flow. Thin layer chromatographic findings were similar in the affected and non-affected resions, suggesting redistribution of a lipophilic IMP metabolite of p-iodoamphetamine in the affected region. In vitro autoradiography revealed no significant reduction in binding ability of IMP to the affected ischemic cortex. In a computer simulation study for brain activity curve, brain activity at 150 min was found to be almost constant at more than 25 ml/100 g/min of flow. IMP redistribution was unlikely to reflect directly either brain metabolism or function, and both blood flow partition coefficient and blood flow values were independently responsible for cerebral kinetics of IMP. (N.K.)

  15. Modeling of constituent redistribution in U-Pu-Zr metallic fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeon Soo [Argonne National Laboratory, Nuclear Engineering, RERTR, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)]. E-mail: yskim@anl.gov; Hayes, S.L. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States); Hofman, G.L. [Argonne National Laboratory, Nuclear Engineering, RERTR, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Yacout, A.M. [Argonne National Laboratory, Nuclear Engineering, RERTR, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2006-12-01

    A computer model was developed to analyze constituent redistribution in U-Pu-Zr metallic nuclear fuels. Diffusion and thermochemical properties were parametrically determined to fit the postirradiation data from a fuel test performed in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II). The computer model was used to estimate redistribution profiles of fuels proposed for the conceptual designs of small modular fast reactors. The model results showed that the level of redistribution of the fuel constituents of the designs was similar to the measured data from EBR-II.

  16. Kinetic model for electric-field induced point defect redistribution near semiconductor surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorai, Prashun; Seebauer, Edmund G.

    2014-07-01

    The spatial distribution of point defects near semiconductor surfaces affects the efficiency of devices. Near-surface band bending generates electric fields that influence the spatial redistribution of charged mobile defects that exchange infrequently with the lattice, as recently demonstrated for pile-up of isotopic oxygen near rutile TiO2 (110). The present work derives a mathematical model to describe such redistribution and establishes its temporal dependence on defect injection rate and band bending. The model shows that band bending of only a few meV induces significant redistribution, and that the direction of the electric field governs formation of either a valley or a pile-up.

  17. Kinetic model for electric-field induced point defect redistribution near semiconductor surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorai, Prashun; Seebauer, Edmund G.

    2014-01-01

    The spatial distribution of point defects near semiconductor surfaces affects the efficiency of devices. Near-surface band bending generates electric fields that influence the spatial redistribution of charged mobile defects that exchange infrequently with the lattice, as recently demonstrated for pile-up of isotopic oxygen near rutile TiO 2 (110). The present work derives a mathematical model to describe such redistribution and establishes its temporal dependence on defect injection rate and band bending. The model shows that band bending of only a few meV induces significant redistribution, and that the direction of the electric field governs formation of either a valley or a pile-up.

  18. Assessing income redistributive effect of health financing in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulenga, Arnold; Ataguba, John Ele-Ojo

    2017-09-01

    Ensuring an equitable health financing system is a major concern particularly in many developing countries. Internationally, there is a strong debate to move away from excessive reliance on direct out-of-pocket (OOP) spending towards a system that incorporates a greater element of risk pooling and thus affords greater protection for the poor. This is a major focus of the move towards universal health coverage (UHC). Currently, Zambia with high levels of poverty and income inequality is implementing health sector reforms for UHC through a social health insurance scheme. However, the way to identify the health financing mechanisms that are best suited to achieving this goal is to conduct empirical analysis and consider international evidence on funding universal health systems. This study assesses, for the first time, the progressivity of health financing and how it impacts on income inequality in Zambia. Three broad health financing mechanisms (general tax, a health levy and OOP spending) were considered. Data come from the 2010 nationally representative Zambian Living Conditions and Monitoring Survey with a sample size of 19,397 households. Applying standard methodologies, the findings show that total health financing in Zambia is progressive. It also leads to a statistically significant reduction in income inequality (i.e. a pro-poor redistributive effect estimated at 0.0110 (p taxes (0.0101 (p taxes. This points to areas where government policy may focus in attempting to reduce the high level of income inequality and to improve equity in health financing towards UHC in Zambia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Thermally driven moisture redistribution in partially saturated porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, R.T.; Dodge, F.T.; Svedeman, S.J.; Manteufel, R.D.; Meyer, K.A.; Baca, R.G. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses; Rice, G. [George Rice and Associates, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-12-01

    It is widely recognized that the decay heat produced by high-level radioactive waste (HLW) will likely have a significant impact on both the pre- and post-closure performance of the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), in southwest Nevada. The task of delineating which aspects of that impact are favorable to isolation performance and which are adverse is an extremely challenging technical undertaking because of such factors as the hydrothermal regimes involved, heterogeneity of the geologic media, and the time and space scales involved. This difficulty has motivated both the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to undertake multi-year thermohydrology research programs to examine the effects of decay heat on pre- and post-closure performance of the repository. Both of these organizations are currently pursuing laboratory and field experiments, as well as numerical modeling studies, to advance the state of knowledge of the thermohydrologic phenomena relevant to the proposed geologic repository. The NRC-sponsored Thermohydrology Research Project, which was initiated in mid-1989 at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA), began with the intent of addressing a broad spectrum of generic thermohydrologic questions. While some of these questions were answered in the conduct of the study, other new and challenging ones were encountered. Subsequent to that report, laboratory-scale experiments were designed to address four fundamental questions regarding thermohydrologic phenomena: what are the principal mechanisms controlling the redistribution of moisture; under what hydrothermal conditions and time frames do individual mechanisms predominate; what driving mechanism is associated with a particular hydrothermal regime; what is the temporal and spatial scale of each hydrothermal regime? This report presents the research results and findings obtained since issuance of the first progress report. 85 refs.

  20. Signaling flux redistribution at toll-like receptor pathway junctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Selvarajoo

    Full Text Available Various receptors on cell surface recognize specific extracellular molecules and trigger signal transduction altering gene expression in the nucleus. Gain or loss-of-function mutations of one molecule have shown to affect alternative signaling pathways with a poorly understood mechanism. In Toll-like receptor (TLR 4 signaling, which branches into MyD88- and TRAM-dependent pathways upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulation, we investigated the gain or loss-of-function mutations of MyD88. We predict, using a computational model built on the perturbation-response approach and the law of mass conservation, that removal and addition of MyD88 in TLR4 activation, enhances and impairs, respectively, the alternative TRAM-dependent pathway through signaling flux redistribution (SFR at pathway branches. To verify SFR, we treated MyD88-deficient macrophages with LPS and observed enhancement of TRAM-dependent pathway based on increased IRF3 phosphorylation and induction of Cxcl10 and Ifit2. Furthermore, increasing the amount of MyD88 in cultured cells showed decreased TRAM binding to TLR4. Investigating another TLR4 pathway junction, from TRIF to TRAF6, RIP1 and TBK1, the removal of MyD88-dependent TRAF6 increased expression of TRAM-dependent Cxcl10 and Ifit2. Thus, we demonstrate that SFR is a novel mechanism for enhanced activation of alternative pathways when molecules at pathway junctions are removed. Our data suggest that SFR may enlighten hitherto unexplainable intracellular signaling alterations in genetic diseases where gain or loss-of-function mutations are observed.

  1. Thermally driven moisture redistribution in partially saturated porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, R.T.; Dodge, F.T.; Svedeman, S.J.; Manteufel, R.D.; Meyer, K.A.; Baca, R.G.

    1995-12-01

    It is widely recognized that the decay heat produced by high-level radioactive waste (HLW) will likely have a significant impact on both the pre- and post-closure performance of the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), in southwest Nevada. The task of delineating which aspects of that impact are favorable to isolation performance and which are adverse is an extremely challenging technical undertaking because of such factors as the hydrothermal regimes involved, heterogeneity of the geologic media, and the time and space scales involved. This difficulty has motivated both the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to undertake multi-year thermohydrology research programs to examine the effects of decay heat on pre- and post-closure performance of the repository. Both of these organizations are currently pursuing laboratory and field experiments, as well as numerical modeling studies, to advance the state of knowledge of the thermohydrologic phenomena relevant to the proposed geologic repository. The NRC-sponsored Thermohydrology Research Project, which was initiated in mid-1989 at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA), began with the intent of addressing a broad spectrum of generic thermohydrologic questions. While some of these questions were answered in the conduct of the study, other new and challenging ones were encountered. Subsequent to that report, laboratory-scale experiments were designed to address four fundamental questions regarding thermohydrologic phenomena: what are the principal mechanisms controlling the redistribution of moisture; under what hydrothermal conditions and time frames do individual mechanisms predominate; what driving mechanism is associated with a particular hydrothermal regime; what is the temporal and spatial scale of each hydrothermal regime? This report presents the research results and findings obtained since issuance of the first progress report. 85 refs

  2. Vibration of fuel bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.S.

    1975-06-01

    Several mathematical models have been proposed for calculating fuel rod responses in axial flows based on a single rod consideration. The spacing between fuel rods in liquid metal fast breeder reactors is small; hence fuel rods will interact with one another due to fluid coupling. The objective of this paper is to study the coupled vibration of fuel bundles. To account for the fluid coupling, a computer code, AMASS, is developed to calculate added mass coefficients for a group of circular cylinders based on the potential flow theory. The equations of motion for rod bundles are then derived including hydrodynamic forces, drag forces, fluid pressure, gravity effect, axial tension, and damping. Based on the equations, a method of analysis is presented to study the free and forced vibrations of rod bundles. Finally, the method is applied to a typical LMFBR fuel bundle consisting of seven rods

  3. Pickin’ up good vibrations

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    In preparation for the civil engineering work on the HL-LHC, vibration measurements were carried out at the LHC’s Point 1 last month. These measurements will help evaluate how civil engineering work could impact the beam, and will provide crucial details about the site’s geological make-up before construction begins.   A seismic truck at Point 1 generated wave-like vibrations measured by EN/MME. From carrying out R&D to produce state-of-the-art magnets to developing innovative, robust materials capable of withstanding beam impact, the HL-LHC is a multi-faceted project involving many groups and teams across CERN’s departments. It was in this framework that the project management mandated CERN's Mechanical and Materials Engineering (EN/MME) group to measure the propagation of vibrations around Point 1. Their question: can civil engineering work for the HL-LHC – the bulk of which is scheduled for LS2 – begin while the LHC is running? Alth...

  4. Vibrational stability of graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangfan Hu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical stability of graphene as temperature rises is analyzed based on three different self-consistent phonon (SCP models. Compared with three-dimensional (3-D materials, the critical temperature Ti at which instability occurs for graphene is much closer to its melting temperature Tm obtained from Monte Carlo simulation (Ti ≃ 2Tm, K. V. Zakharchenko, A. Fasolino, J. H. Los, and M. I. Katsnelson, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23, 202202. This suggests that thermal vibration plays a significant role in melting of graphene while melting for 3-D materials is often dominated by topologic defects. This peculiar property of graphene derives from its high structural anisotropy, which is characterized by the vibrational anisotropic coefficient (VAC, defined upon its Lindermann ratios in different directions. For any carbon based material with a graphene-like structure, the VAC value must be smaller than 5.4 to maintain its stability. It is also found that the high VAC value of graphene is responsible for its negative thermal expansion coefficient at low temperature range. We believe that the VAC can be regarded as a new criterion concerning the vibrational stability of any low-dimensional (low-D materials.

  5. Resonance-line transfer with partial redistribution. VIII. Solution in the comoving frame for moving atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalas, D.; Shine, R.A.; Kunasz, P.B.; Hummer, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of the effects of partial frequency redistribution in the scattering process for lines formed in moving atmospheres has been performed using a flexible and general method which allows solutions of the transfer equation in the comoving frame of the gas. As a specific example, we consider the same chromospheric and atomic model, with the same velocity field, that was studied by Cannon and Vardavas. We find that the large changes in the profiles obtained by those authors, between the cases of complete and partial redistribution are spurious effects of angle averaging in the observer's frame instead of the comoving frame. Our results support fully the conclusion by Magnan that these changes are, in fact, unreal, at least for this particular model and redistribution function. Future work with other redistribution functions and with nonmonotone velocity fields will be possible using the techniques developed in this paper

  6. Reverse re-distribution in the myocardial perfusion scan with 201 Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eftekhari, M.; Sadeghi, R.; Fard-Esfahani, A.; Beiki, D.; Fallahi, B.; Saghari, M.

    2004-01-01

    Reverse re-distribution pattern id defined as decreased activity in the myocardium in the rest phase of the myocardial perfusion scan in comparison with the stress images. There are many studies concerning the etiology and clinical significance of this phenomenon in nuclear medicine literature. The dominant idea about etiology of reserve redistribution is early wash out of the radiotracer from the myocardium. There is rather unanimous agreement among researchers about viability of the areas of reverse redistribution and the majority of the studies point to existence of viable tissue in these regions. However from prognostic point of view, this issue is much more controversial. In this review, we tried to summarize the current literature and reach a guideline for practical significance of reverse redistribution in every day work of nuclear medicine specialists

  7. The redistributive effects of personal taxes and social benefits in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đinđić Srđan M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we measure the influence of the instruments of Serbia’s fiscal system - personal taxes (personal income tax and social security contributions and social benefits (means tested and nonmeans tested - on income redistribution, using the latest data from the Household Budget Survey 2012. We analyse the redistributive effects of the fiscal system for the year 2013 and of the fiscal system that has been functioning since 1st January 2014. We find that the redistributive effect reduces income inequality by about 50% in both observed years. Social benefits create 98% of vertical redistribution (2013, whereas personal taxes initiate 2% (2013. State pensions, means-tested social benefits, and social security contributions are most important in reducing inequality in Serbia (2013. The partial fiscal reform (2014 has not changed the rank of the focused fiscal instruments.

  8. Unequal views of inequality: Cross-national support for redistribution 1985-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanHeuvelen, Tom

    2017-05-01

    This research examines public views on government responsibility to reduce income inequality, support for redistribution. While individual-level correlates of support for redistribution are relatively well understood, many questions remain at the country-level. Therefore, I examine how country-level characteristics affect aggregate support for redistribution. I test explanations of aggregate support using a unique dataset combining 18 waves of the International Social Survey Programme and European Social Survey. Results from mixed-effects logistic regression and fixed-effects linear regression models show two primary and contrasting effects. States that reduce inequality through bundles of tax and transfer policies are rewarded with more supportive publics. In contrast, economic development has a seemingly equivalent and dampening effect on public support. Importantly, the effect of economic development grows at higher levels of development, potentially overwhelming the amplifying effect of state redistribution. My results therefore suggest a fundamental challenge to proponents of egalitarian politics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Emerging investigator series: As( v ) in magnetite: incorporation and redistribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huhmann, Brittany L. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering; University of Iowa; Iowa City; USA; Neumann, Anke [School of Engineering; Newcastle University; Newcastle upon Tyne; UK; Boyanov, Maxim I. [Biosciences Division; Argonne National Laboratory; Argonne; USA; Institute of Chemical Engineering; Kemner, Kenneth M. [Biosciences Division; Argonne National Laboratory; Argonne; USA; Scherer, Michelle M. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering; University of Iowa; Iowa City; USA

    2017-01-01

    As coprecipitated with magnetite remained incorporated over time whereas sorbed As was redistributed and became increasingly incorporated into magnetite, both the absence and presence of aqueous Fe(ii).

  10. Using 137 Cs measurements to investigate the influence of erosion and soil redistribution on soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, P; Walling, D E

    2011-05-01

    Information on the interaction between soil erosion and soil properties is an important requirement for sustainable management of the soil resource. The relationship between soil properties and the soil redistribution rate, reflecting both erosion and deposition, is an important indicator of this interaction. This relationship is difficult to investigate using traditional approaches to documenting soil redistribution rates involving erosion plots and predictive models. However, the use of the fallout radionuclide (137)Cs to document medium-term soil redistribution rates offers a means of overcoming many of the limitations associated with traditional approaches. The study reported sought to demonstrate the potential for using (137)Cs measurements to assess the influence of soil erosion and redistribution on soil properties (particle size composition, total C, macronutrients N, P, K and Mg, micronutrients Mn, Mo, Fe, Cu and Zn and other elements, including Ti and As). (137)Cs measurements undertaken on 52 soil cores collected within a 7 ha cultivated field located near Colebrooke in Devon, UK were used to establish the magnitude and spatial pattern of medium-term soil redistribution rates within the field. The soil redistribution rates documented for the individual sampling points within the field ranged from an erosion rate of -12.9 t ha(-1) yr(-1) to a deposition rate of 19.2 t ha(-1) yr(-1). Composite samples of surface soil (0-5 cm) were collected immediately adjacent to each coring point and these samples were analysed for a range of soil properties. Individual soil properties associated with these samples showed significant variability, with CV values generally lying in the range 10-30%. The relationships between the surface soil properties and the soil redistribution rate were analysed. This analysis demonstrated statistically significant relationships between some soil properties (total phosphorus, % clay, Ti and As) and the soil redistribution rate, but for

  11. Using 137Cs measurements to investigate the influence of erosion and soil redistribution on soil properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, P.; Walling, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    Information on the interaction between soil erosion and soil properties is an important requirement for sustainable management of the soil resource. The relationship between soil properties and the soil redistribution rate, reflecting both erosion and deposition, is an important indicator of this interaction. This relationship is difficult to investigate using traditional approaches to documenting soil redistribution rates involving erosion plots and predictive models. However, the use of the fallout radionuclide 137 Cs to document medium-term soil redistribution rates offers a means of overcoming many of the limitations associated with traditional approaches. The study reported sought to demonstrate the potential for using 137 Cs measurements to assess the influence of soil erosion and redistribution on soil properties (particle size composition, total C, macronutrients N, P, K and Mg, micronutrients Mn, Mo, Fe, Cu and Zn and other elements, including Ti and As). 137 Cs measurements undertaken on 52 soil cores collected within a 7 ha cultivated field located near Colebrooke in Devon, UK were used to establish the magnitude and spatial pattern of medium-term soil redistribution rates within the field. The soil redistribution rates documented for the individual sampling points within the field ranged from an erosion rate of -12.9 t ha -1 yr -1 to a deposition rate of 19.2 t ha -1 yr -1 . Composite samples of surface soil (0-5 cm) were collected immediately adjacent to each coring point and these samples were analysed for a range of soil properties. Individual soil properties associated with these samples showed significant variability, with CV values generally lying in the range 10-30%. The relationships between the surface soil properties and the soil redistribution rate were analysed. This analysis demonstrated statistically significant relationships between some soil properties (total phosphorus, % clay, Ti and As) and the soil redistribution rate, but for most

  12. Income inequality, redistribution and poverty: Contrasting rational choices and behavioural perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Luebker, Malte

    2012-01-01

    Based on the standard axiom of individual utility maximization, rational choice has postulated that higher income inequality translates into greater redistribution by shaping the median voter’s preferences. While numerous papers have tested this proposition, the literature has remained divided over the appropriate measure for redistribution. Revisiting the original contribution by Meltzer and Richard, the present paper argues that the median voter hypothesis implies that relative redistributi...

  13. Electoral institutions, parties, and the politics of class: Why some democracies redistribute more than others

    OpenAIRE

    Iversen, Torben; Soskice, David

    2005-01-01

    We develop a general model of redistribution and use it to account for the remarkable variance in government redistribution across democracies. We show that the electoral system plays a key role because it shapes the nature of political parties and the composition of governing coalitions, whether these are conceived as electoral alliances between classes or alliances between class parties. Our argument implies a) that center-left governments dominate under PR systems, while center-right gover...

  14. Migration Elasticities, Fiscal Federalism and the Ability of States to Redistribute Income

    OpenAIRE

    Giertz, Seth H.; Tosun, Mehmet S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a simulation model in order to examine the effectiveness of state attempts at redistribution under a variety of migration elasticity assumptions. Key outputs from the simulation include the impact of tax-induced migration on state revenues, excess burden, and fiscal externalities. With modest migration elasticities, the costs of state-level redistribution are substantial, but state action may still be preferred to a federal policy that is at odds with preferences of a stat...

  15. Current redistribution in cables made of insulated, soldered, or oxidized strands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turck, B.

    1979-07-01

    Current redistributions are compared in cables made of insulated strands, soldered, or oxidized strands and insulated strands with periodic joints. After discussing the different current redistributions in the cases of a rapidly changing current and a dc current, several particular situations are investigated: what happens if a strand is broken, or if a local normal zone appears that does not affect all the strands equally, the detection of this normal zone, and the influence of short circuits between strands

  16. Household perceptions towards a redistributive policy across health insurance funds in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chomi, Eunice; Mujinja, Phares; Hansen, Kristian Schultz

    2015-01-01

    Background The Tanzanian health insurance system comprises multiple health insurance funds targeting different population groups but which operate in parallel, with no mechanisms for redistribution across the funds. Establishing such redistributive mechanisms requires public support, which...... data collected from a survey of 695 households relating to perceptions of household heads towards cross-subsidisation of the poor to enable them to access health services. Kruskal-Wallis test is used to compare perceptions by membership status. Generalized ordinal logistic regression models are used...

  17. Elemental redistribution behavior in tellurite glass induced by high repetition rate femtosecond laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Yu; Zhou, Jiajia; Khisro, Said Nasir; Zhou, Shifeng; Qiu, Jianrong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Abnormal elements redistribution behavior was observed in tellurite glass. • The refractive index and Raman intensity distribution changed significantly. • The relative glass composition remained unchanged while the glass density changed. • First time report on the abnormal element redistribution behavior in glass. • The glass network structure determines the elemental redistribution behavior. - Abstract: The success in the fabrication of micro-structures in glassy materials using femtosecond laser irradiation has proved its potential applications in the construction of three-dimensional micro-optical components or devices. In this paper, we report the elemental redistribution behavior in tellurite glass after the irradiation of high repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses. The relative glass composition remained unchanged while the glass density changed significantly, which is quite different from previously reported results about the high repetition rate femtosecond laser induced elemental redistribution in silicate glasses. The involved mechanism is discussed with the conclusion that the glass network structure plays the key role to determine the elemental redistribution. This observation not only helps to understand the interaction process of femtosecond laser with glassy materials, but also has potential applications in the fabrication of micro-optical devices

  18. Social mobility and demand for redistribution in Europe: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime-Castillo, Antonio M; Marqués-Perales, Ildefonso

    2018-03-14

    The literature on preferences for redistribution has paid little attention to the effect of social mobility on the demand for redistribution and no systematic test of the hypotheses connecting social mobility and preferences for redistribution has yet been done to date. We use the diagonal reference model to estimate the effect of origin and destination classes on preferences for redistribution in a large sample of European countries using data from the European Social Survey. Our findings are consistent with the logic of acculturation in the sense that newcomers tend to adapt their views to those of the destination class at early stages and that upward and downward mobility do not have distinctive effects on the formation of political preferences. However, even though social origins seem to have a limited impact on preferences for redistribution, the evidence does not support the hypothesis that mobile and non-mobile individuals are alike. We also find that the effect of social origin on preferences varies largely across countries. The empirical evidence leads to the conclusion that the effect of social origin on preferences for redistribution increases in contexts of strong familism. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2018.

  19. Real-time visualization of the vibrational wavepacket dynamics in electronically excited pyrimidine via femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Long, Jinyou; Ling, Fengzi; Wang, Yanmei; Song, Xinli; Zhang, Song; Zhang, Bing

    2017-07-01

    The vibrational wavepacket dynamics at the very early stages of the S1-T1 intersystem crossing in photoexcited pyrimidine is visualized in real time by femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron imaging and time-resolved mass spectroscopy. A coherent superposition of the vibrational states is prepared by the femtosecond pump pulse at 315.3 nm, resulting in a vibrational wavepacket. The composition of the prepared wavepacket is directly identified by a sustained quantum beat superimposed on the parent-ion transient, possessing a frequency in accord with the energy separation between the 6a1 and 6b2 states. The dephasing time of the vibrational wavepacket is determined to be 82 ps. More importantly, the variable Franck-Condon factors between the wavepacket components and the dispersed cation vibrational levels are experimentally illustrated to identify the dark state and follow the energy-flow dynamics on the femtosecond time scale. The time-dependent intensities of the photoelectron peaks originated from the 6a1 vibrational state exhibit a clear quantum beating pattern with similar periodicity but a phase shift of π rad with respect to those from the 6b2 state, offering an unambiguous picture of the restricted intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution dynamics in the 6a1/6b2 Fermi resonance.

  20. Random vibrations theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Wirsching, Paul H; Ortiz, Keith

    1995-01-01

    Random Vibrations: Theory and Practice covers the theory and analysis of mechanical and structural systems undergoing random oscillations due to any number of phenomena— from engine noise, turbulent flow, and acoustic noise to wind, ocean waves, earthquakes, and rough pavement. For systems operating in such environments, a random vibration analysis is essential to the safety and reliability of the system. By far the most comprehensive text available on random vibrations, Random Vibrations: Theory and Practice is designed for readers who are new to the subject as well as those who are familiar with the fundamentals and wish to study a particular topic or use the text as an authoritative reference. It is divided into three major sections: fundamental background, random vibration development and applications to design, and random signal analysis. Introductory chapters cover topics in probability, statistics, and random processes that prepare the reader for the development of the theory of random vibrations a...

  1. VIBRATION ISOLATION SYSTEM PROBABILITY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov Vladimir Alexandrovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the probability analysis for a vibration isolation system of high-precision equipment, which is extremely sensitive to low-frequency oscillations even of submicron amplitude. The external sources of low-frequency vibrations may include the natural city background or internal low-frequency sources inside buildings (pedestrian activity, HVAC. Taking Gauss distribution into account, the author estimates the probability of the relative displacement of the isolated mass being still lower than the vibration criteria. This problem is being solved in the three dimensional space, evolved by the system parameters, including damping and natural frequency. According to this probability distribution, the chance of exceeding the vibration criteria for a vibration isolation system is evaluated. Optimal system parameters - damping and natural frequency - are being developed, thus the possibility of exceeding vibration criteria VC-E and VC-D is assumed to be less than 0.04.

  2. REDISTRIBUTION OF BASE STATIONS LOAD IN MOBILE COMMUNICATION NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Ruban

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the article is the processes of load distribution in mobile communication networks. The object of research is the handover. The goal is to develop a method for redistributing the load between neighboring areas for mobile nodes. The considered base stations are supposed to have the signal-to-noise ratios that are equal or close. The methods that are used: methods of system analysis, methods of digital signal processing. The following results are obtained. The method that allows mobile nodes, whose signal-to-noise ratios are equal or close, to switch to a less loaded base station. This method allows the base station to launch the handover process enabling more even distribution of the load from mobile nodes among neighboring base stations in wireless and mobile networks. In the suggested modification of the method, the function assessing the bandwidth of the uplink channel is added to the base stations, as well a threshold value for using its bandwidth. Thus, when the current value of bandwidth reaches the threshold, the base station starts sending out a message to all mobile nodes and verifies free neighboring areas for switching over mobile nodes. If there are adjacent areas with a lower load, the base station notifies all potential candidates about the necessity of their switching over. The handover process is launched when the available bandwidth of the base station decreases below a certain threshold. Therefore, it is possible to optimize the operation of the WiMAX network with respect to the criterion of the total bandwidth capacity of the base stations. Besides, the results of the comparative analysis of the handover process in networks based on the WiMAX technology that are obtained using the OpNet simulation environment are presented. Conclusions.The suggested approach can be used to improve the basic software of mobile communication networks. When moving a node from one area to another one in access servers, the

  3. Vibration damping method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, James M.; Barney, Patrick S.; Parker, Gordon G.; Smith, David A.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides vibration damping method and apparatus that can damp vibration in more than one direction without requiring disassembly, that can accommodate varying tool dimensions without requiring re-tuning, and that does not interfere with tool tip operations and cooling. The present invention provides active dampening by generating bending moments internal to a structure such as a boring bar to dampen vibration thereof.

  4. Atomic beams probe surface vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.L.

    1982-01-01

    In the last two years, surface scientist have begun trying to obtain the vibrational frequencies of surface atoms in both insulating and metallic crystals from beams of helium atoms. It is the inelastic scattering that researchers use to probe surface vibrations. Inelastic atomic beam scattering has only been used to obtain vibrational frequency spectra from clean surfaces. Several experiments using helium beams are cited. (SC)

  5. Digital analysis of vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohnstedt, H.J.; Walter, G.

    1982-01-01

    Vibrational measurements, e.g. on turbomachinery, can be evaluated rapidly and economically with the aid of a combination of the following instruments: a desk-top computer, a two-channel vector filter and a FFT spectral analyzer. This equipment combination is available within the Allianz Centre for Technology and has also been used for mobile, on-site investigations during the last year. It enables calculation and display of time functions, kinetic shaft orbits, displacement diagrams. Bode plots, polar-coordinate plots, cascade diagrams and histograms. (orig.) [de

  6. Turbine blade vibration dampening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, C.C.; Pytanowski, G.P.; Vendituoli, J.S.

    1997-07-08

    The present turbine wheel assembly increases component life and turbine engine longevity. The combination of the strap and the opening combined with the preestablished area of the outer surface of the opening and the preestablished area of the outer circumferential surface of the strap and the friction between the strap and the opening increases the life and longevity of the turbine wheel assembly. Furthermore, the mass ``M`` or combined mass ``CM`` of the strap or straps and the centrifugal force assist in controlling vibrations and damping characteristics. 5 figs.

  7. Lattice Vibrations in Chlorobenzenes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reynolds, P. A.; Kjems, Jørgen; White, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    Lattice vibrational dispersion curves for the ``intermolecular'' modes in the triclinic, one molecule per unit cell β phase of p‐C6D4Cl2 and p‐C6H4Cl2 have been obtained by inelastic neutron scattering. The deuterated sample was investigated at 295 and at 90°K and a linear extrapolation to 0°K...... was applied in order to correct for anharmonic effects. Calculations based on the atom‐atom model for van der Waals' interaction and on general potential parameters for the aromatic compounds agree reasonably well with the experimental observations. There is no substantial improvement in fit obtained either...

  8. Vibration control, machine diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Changing vibrations announce damage in the form of wear or cracks on components of, e.g., engine rotors, pumps, power plant turbo sets, rounding-up tools, or marine diesel engines. Therefore, machine diagnostics use frequency analyses, system tests, trend analyses as well as expert systems to localize or estimate the causes of these damages and malfunctions. Data acquisistion, including not only sensors, but also reliable and redundant data processing systems and analyzing systems, play an important role. The lectures pertaining to the data base are covered in detail. (DG) [de

  9. Off-axis Modal Active Vibration Control Of Rotational Vibrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babakhani, B.; de Vries, Theodorus J.A.; van Amerongen, J.

    Collocated active vibration control is an effective and robustly stable way of adding damping to the performance limiting vibrations of a plant. Besides the physical parameters of the Active Damping Unit (ADU) containing the collocated actuator and sensor, its location with respect to the

  10. Reverse redistribution in dipyridamole-loading thallium-201 images using single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Kiyoo; Masuda, Masanosuke; Bunko, Hisashi.

    1986-01-01

    Dipyridamole was infused intravenously at a rate of 0.142 mg/kg per min for four min, and a stress image was obtained 10 min after the injection of two mCi 201 Tl. The myocardial image of Tl was analyzed by single photon emission computed tomography and its washout rate was calculated by the segmental ROI method. Myocardial function and the motion of the left ventricular wall were analyzed by 99m Tc-RBC-gated cardiac pool imaging. Reverse redistribution was noted in 27 (21.6 %) of 125 consecutive Tl dipyridamole and redistribution myocardial imaging studies. The stress image demonstrated normal perfusion (group 1) and reduced perfusion (group 2) of Tl. Group 1 consisted of 17 patients with diabetes mellitus, supraventricular arrhythmias, hypertension, and others. Group 2 consisted of 10 patients with subendocardial infarction, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension, and others. The percentage prevalence of reverse redistribution among patients with supraventricular arrhythmia was 62.5 % (five of eight patients), with subendocardial infarction 60.0 % (three of five), with hypertension 42.8 % (six of 14), and with diabetes mellitus 40.0 % (eight of 20), while in those with transmyocardial infarction and angina pectoris no reverse redistribution percentage was found. The washout rate of Tl in normal perfusion areas was 44.0 ± 12.8 %, the reverse redistribution of group 1 was 47.4 ± 12.8 %, and of group 2 was 51.2 ± 8.2 %. The washout rate of the reverse redistribution of group 2 was significantly greater than that of the normal areas. In gated cardiac pool imaging, patients in group 2 had significantly larger areas showing abnormal contraction of the left ventricular wall and significantly lower ejection fraction than did group 1. In the electrocardiogram ST segment depression was noted more frequently in group 2 than group 1. No Q wave was present in the corresponding reverse redistribution area. (J.P.N.)

  11. Vibrational spectra of ordered perovskites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corsmit, A.F.; Hoefdraad, H.E.; Blasse, G.

    1972-01-01

    The vibrational spectra of the molecular M6+O6 (M = Mo, Te, W) group in ordered perovskites of the type Ba2M2+M6+O6 are reported. These groups have symmetry Oh, whereas their site symmetry is also Oh. An assignment of the internal vibrations is presented.

  12. Vibrations and Stability: Solved Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    Worked out solutions for exercise problems in J. J. Thomsen 'Vibrations and Stability: Advanced Theory, Analysis, and Tools', Springer, Berlin - Heidelberg, 2003.......Worked out solutions for exercise problems in J. J. Thomsen 'Vibrations and Stability: Advanced Theory, Analysis, and Tools', Springer, Berlin - Heidelberg, 2003....

  13. Low Cost Digital Vibration Meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, W Vance; Geist, Jon

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the development of a low cost, digital Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) vibration meter that reports an approximation to the RMS acceleration of the vibration to which the vibration meter is subjected. The major mechanical element of this vibration meter is a cantilever beam, which is on the order of 500 µm in length, with a piezoresistor deposited at its base. Vibration of the device in the plane perpendicular to the cantilever beam causes it to bend, which produces a measurable change in the resistance of a piezoresistor. These changes in resistance along with a unique signal-processing scheme are used to determine an approximation to the RMS acceleration sensed by the device.

  14. Load-redistribution strategy based on time-varying load against cascading failure of complex network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jun; Shi Xin; Wang Kai; Shi Wei-Ren; Xiong Qing-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Cascading failure can cause great damage to complex networks, so it is of great significance to improve the network robustness against cascading failure. Many previous existing works on load-redistribution strategies require global information, which is not suitable for large scale networks, and some strategies based on local information assume that the load of a node is always its initial load before the network is attacked, and the load of the failure node is redistributed to its neighbors according to their initial load or initial residual capacity. This paper proposes a new load-redistribution strategy based on local information considering an ever-changing load. It redistributes the loads of the failure node to its nearest neighbors according to their current residual capacity, which makes full use of the residual capacity of the network. Experiments are conducted on two typical networks and two real networks, and the experimental results show that the new load-redistribution strategy can reduce the size of cascading failure efficiently. (paper)

  15. Lattice vibration spectra. 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, H.D.; Willich, P.

    1977-01-01

    The FIR absorption spectra of pyrite type compounds RuS 2 , RuSsub(2-x)Sesub(x), RuSe 2 , RuTe 2 , OsS 2 , OsSe 2 , and PtP 2 as well as loellingite type phosphides FeP 2 , RuP 2 , and OsP 2 are reported. For RuS 2 , RuSe 2 , RuTe 2 , OsS 2 , and PtP 2 all of the five infrared allowed modes (k = 0) are observed. As a first result of a numerical normal coordinate treatment vibration forms of pyrite structure are communicated. The spectra show that lattice forces of corresponding sulfides, tellurides, and phosphides are about the same strength, but increase strongly by substitution of iron by ruthenium and especially of ruthenium by osmium. The lattice constants of the RuSsub(2-x)Sesub(x) solid solution obey Vegard's rule. (author)

  16. Land-use change interacts with climate to determine elevational species redistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fengyi; Lenoir, Jonathan; Bonebrake, Timothy C

    2018-04-03

    Climate change is driving global species redistribution with profound social and economic impacts. However, species movement is largely constrained by habitat availability and connectivity, of which the interaction effects with climate change remain largely unknown. Here we examine published data on 2798 elevational range shifts from 43 study sites to assess the confounding effect of land-use change on climate-driven species redistribution. We show that baseline forest cover and recent forest cover change are critical predictors in determining the magnitude of elevational range shifts. Forest loss positively interacts with baseline temperature conditions, such that forest loss in warmer regions tends to accelerate species' upslope movement. Consequently, not only climate but also habitat loss stressors and, importantly, their synergistic effects matter in forecasting species elevational redistribution, especially in the tropics where both stressors will increase the risk of net lowland biotic attrition.

  17. The analysis of fuel constituent redistribution for ternary metallic fuel slug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byoung Oon; Lee, Dong Uk; Kim, Young Kyun; Chang, Jin Wook; Lee, Ki Bok; Kim, Young Il

    2004-02-01

    U-TRU-Zr metallic alloy is being considered as the fuel slug for the proliferation resistance core of KALIMER. The radial fuel constituent migration is a general phenomenon in the metallic alloys. This phenomenon may affect the in-reactor performance of metallic fuel rods, influencing such factors as melting temperature, thermal conductivity, power generation rate, phase boundaries and eutectic melting of the fuel slug. Thus, constituent redistribution modeling is essential when developing a metallic fuel performance code. The constituent migration model adopted in this report was based on the Ishida's model and Hofman's theory. A subroutine program has been made and installed into the MACSIS code to simulate constituent redistribution. The radial profile of Zr redistribution was calculated for the ternary metallic fuel, and compared with the measured data.

  18. Redistributed orebodies of Poison Canyon, Sec. 18 and 19, T. 13 N., R. 9 W., McKinley County

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tessendorf, T.N.

    1980-01-01

    Since the early 1950's, the Poison Canyon mine has been considered a classic example of uranium geology. Owing to present economic condtions, a close examination of the redistributed mineralization is taking place. Because of the evolution of the structure and geomorphology of Poison Canyon, the primary mineralization went through further oxidation and reduction. Enriched solutions of uranium migrated downdip through permeable sands. These solutions were controlled by north-trending fracture patterns, with some vertical movement along major faults. The uranium collected in structural and lithological traps, forming amoeba-like orebodies with the higher grade mineralization located in the fractures. First-generation redistributed ore is primarily coffinite. Forming later is second-generation redistributed ore, which is mainly tyuyamunite. The latter formed from further oxidation and redistribution of the primary and first-generation mineralization, combined with an increasing nearness to surface. The authigenic minerals in the redistributed mineralization are found in carbon-deficient sands. The redistributed minerals are locally associated with pascoite, although this mineral is rare. The radiometric equilibrium of the primary minerals differs from that of the redistributed minerals. The uranium has been leached from the primary minerals making chemical values less than radiometric values. The redistributed minerals are chemically greater than radiometric, producing a favorable equilibrium. The percent extraction in the mill process is greater for the redistributed ore than for the primary ore. The paragenetic position of the different minerals has a direct bearing on these observations

  19. Vibrational Spectroscopy of Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschoal, Vitor H; Faria, Luiz F O; Ribeiro, Mauro C C

    2017-05-24

    Vibrational spectroscopy has continued use as a powerful tool to characterize ionic liquids since the literature on room temperature molten salts experienced the rapid increase in number of publications in the 1990's. In the past years, infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies have provided insights on ionic interactions and the resulting liquid structure in ionic liquids. A large body of information is now available concerning vibrational spectra of ionic liquids made of many different combinations of anions and cations, but reviews on this literature are scarce. This review is an attempt at filling this gap. Some basic care needed while recording IR or Raman spectra of ionic liquids is explained. We have reviewed the conceptual basis of theoretical frameworks which have been used to interpret vibrational spectra of ionic liquids, helping the reader to distinguish the scope of application of different methods of calculation. Vibrational frequencies observed in IR and Raman spectra of ionic liquids based on different anions and cations are discussed and eventual disagreements between different sources are critically reviewed. The aim is that the reader can use this information while assigning vibrational spectra of an ionic liquid containing another particular combination of anions and cations. Different applications of IR and Raman spectroscopies are given for both pure ionic liquids and solutions. Further issues addressed in this review are the intermolecular vibrations that are more directly probed by the low-frequency range of IR and Raman spectra and the applications of vibrational spectroscopy in studying phase transitions of ionic liquids.

  20. Who wants to redistribute? Russia's tunnel effect in the 1990's

    OpenAIRE

    Ravallion, Martin; Lokshin, Michael

    1999-01-01

    It seems natural to expect the rich to oppose policies to redistribute income from the rich to the poor, and the poor to favor such policies. But this may be too simple a model, say the Authors. Expectations of future welfare may come into play. Well-off people on a downward trajectory may well favor such policies and poor people on a rising trajectory may not. This resistance of upwardly mobile poor people to lasting redistribution is analogous to Hirshman's"tunnel effect", as applied to tra...

  1. Calculation of pressure drop and flow redistribution in the core of LMFBR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, D.A.; Morgado, O.J.

    1985-01-01

    It is studied the flow redistribution through of fuel elements to the pressure drop calculation in the core of sodium cooled reactors. Using the quasi-static formulation of equations of the conservation of mass, energy and momentum, it was developed a computer program to flow redistribution calculations and pressure drop for different power levels and total flow simulating an arbitrary number of channels for sodium flowing . An optimization of the number of sufficient channels for calculations of this nature is done. The method is applied in studies of transients in the same reactor. (M.C.K.) [pt

  2. Stress redistribution and void growth in butt-welded canisters for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josefson, B.L.; Karlsson, L.; Haeggblad, H.Aa.

    1993-02-01

    The stress-redistribution in Cu-Fe canisters for spent nuclear fuel during waiting for deposition and after final deposition is calculated numerically. The constitutive equation modelling creep deformation during this time period employs values on materials parameters determined within the SKB-project on 'mechanical integrity of canisters for spent nuclear fuel'. The welding residual stresses are redistributed without lowering maximum values during the waiting period, a very low amount of void growth is predicted for this type of copper during the deposition period. This leads to an estimated very large rupture time

  3. Molecular vibrations the theory of infrared and Raman vibrational spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, E Bright; Cross, Paul C

    1980-01-01

    Pedagogical classic and essential reference focuses on mathematics of detailed vibrational analyses of polyatomic molecules, advancing from application of wave mechanics to potential functions and methods of solving secular determinant.

  4. Putting a damper on drilling's bad vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, S [Sedco forex, Montrouge (France); Malone, D [Anadrill, Sugar Land, TX (United States); Sheppard, M [Schlumberger Cambridge Research, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    1994-01-01

    Harmful drilling vibrations are costing the industry dearly. Three main vibration types (axial, torsional and transverse) are explained and its causes discussed. Technology exists to eliminate most vibrations, but requires more systematic deployment than is usual. Hardware that eliminates vibrations is reviewed, including downhole shock measurement, torque feedback shock guards and antiwhirl bits. 9 figs., 11 refs.

  5. Vibration measurements of automobile catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aatola, Seppo

    1994-09-01

    Vibration of catalyst cell, which is inside the casing of the catalyst, is difficult to measure with usual measuring instrumentation. When catalyst is in use, there is hot exhaust gas flow though the catalyst cell and temperature of the cell is approximately +900 degree(s)C. Therefore non-contact Laser- Doppler-Vibrometer was used to measure vibration velocity of the catalyst cell. The laser beam was directed towards the cell through pipe which was put through and welded to the casing of the catalyst. The outer end of the pipe was screw down with a tempered class to prevent exhaust gas flow from the pipe. The inner end of the pipe was open and few millimeters away from the measuring point. Catalyst was attached to the engine with two ways, rigidly close to the engine and flexible under the engine. The engine was running in test bench under controlled conditions. Vibration measurements were carried out during constant running speeds of the engine. Vibration signals were captured and analyzed with FFT-analyzer. Vibration of catalyst cell was strongest at running speed of 5000 rpm, from 10 to 20 g (1 g equals 9.81 ms-2), when catalyst was attached rigidly close to the engine. At running speed of 3000 rpm, vibration of catalyst cell was from 2 to 3 g in most cases, when catalyst was attached either rigidly or flexible to the engine. It is estimated that in real life, i.e. when catalyst is attached to car with same engine, vibration of catalyst cell at running speed of 5000 rpm is somewhere between 1 and 10 g. At running speed of 3000 rpm, which may be more often used when driving car (car speed approximately 100 kmh-1), vibration of catalyst cell is probably few g's.

  6. Smart accelerometer. [vibration damage detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention discloses methods and apparatus for detecting vibrations from machines which indicate an impending malfunction for the purpose of preventing additional damage and allowing for an orderly shutdown or a change in mode of operation. The method and apparatus is especially suited for reliable operation in providing thruster control data concerning unstable vibration in an electrical environment which is typically noisy and in which unrecognized ground loops may exist.

  7. Vibrational excitation from heterogeneous catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purvis, G.D. III; Redmon, M.J.; Woken, G. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Classical trajectories have been used by numerous researchers to investigate the dynamics of exothermic chemical reactions (atom + diatom) with a view toward understanding what leads to vibrational excitation of the product molecule. Unlike these studies, the case where the reaction is catalyzed by a solid surface is considered. The trajectory studies indicate that there should be conditions under which considerable vibrational energy appears in the product molecules without being lost to the solid during the course of the reaction. 2 figures, 3 tables

  8. Vibrational Spectral Studies of Gemfibrozil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitta, T. Asenath; Balendiran, G. K.; James, C.

    2008-11-01

    The Fourier Transform Raman and infrared spectra of the crystallized drug molecule 5-(2,5-Dimethylphenoxy)-2,2-dimethylpentanoic acid (Gemfibrozil) have been recorded and analyzed. Quantum chemical computational methods have been employed using Gaussian 03 software package based on Hartree Fock method for theoretically modeling the grown molecule. The optimized geometry and vibrational frequencies have been predicted. Observed vibrational modes have been assigned with the aid of normal coordinate analysis.

  9. Vibrational Spectroscopy on Photoexcited Dye-Sensitized Films via Pump-Degenerate Four-Wave Mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Baxter; Fan, Hao; Galoppini, Elena; Gundlach, Lars

    2018-03-01

    Molecular sensitization of semiconductor films is an important technology for energy and environmental applications including solar energy conversion, photocatalytic hydrogen production, and water purification. Dye-sensitized films are also scientifically complex and interesting systems with a long history of research. In most applications, photoinduced heterogeneous electron transfer (HET) at the molecule/semiconductor interface is of critical importance, and while great progress has been made in understanding HET, many open questions remain. Of particular interest is the role of combined electronic and vibrational effects and coherence of the dye during HET. The ultrafast nature of the process, the rapid intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution, and vibrational cooling present complications in the study of vibronic coupling in HET. We present the application of a time domain vibrational spectroscopy-pump-degenerate four-wave mixing (pump-DFWM)-to dye-sensitized solid-state semiconductor films. Pump-DFWM can measure Raman-active vibrational modes that are triggered by excitation of the sample with an actinic pump pulse. Modifications to the instrument for solid-state samples and its application to an anatase TiO 2 film sensitized by a Zn-porphyrin dye are discussed. We show an effective combination of experimental techniques to overcome typical challenges in measuring solid-state samples with laser spectroscopy and observe molecular vibrations following HET in a picosecond time window. The cation spectrum of the dye shows modes that can be assigned to the linker group and a mode that is localized on the Zn-phorphyrin chromophore and that is connected to photoexcitation.

  10. Mass Redistribution in the Core and Time-varying Gravity at the Earth's Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Wei-Jia; Chao, Benjamin F.; Fang, Ming

    2003-01-01

    The Earth's liquid outer core is in convection, as suggested by the existence of the geomagnetic field in much of the Earth's history. One consequence of the convection is the redistribution of mass resulting from relative motion among fluid parcels with slightly different densities. This time dependent mass redistribution inside the core produces a small perturbation on the gravity field of the Earth. With our numerical dynamo solutions, we find that the mass redistribution (and the resultant gravity field) symmetric about the equator is much stronger than that anti-symmetric about the equator. In particular, J(sub 2) component is the strongest. In addition, the gravity field variation increases with the Rayleigh number that measures the driving force for the geodynamo in the core. With reasonable scaling from the current dynamo solutions, we could expect that at the surface of the Earth, the J(sub 2) variation from the core is on the order of l0(exp -16)/year relative to the mean (i.e. spherically symmetric) gravity field of the Earth. The possible shielding effect due to core-mantle boundary pressure variation loading is likely much smaller and is therefore negligible. Our results suggest that time-varying gravity field perturbation due to core mass redistribution may be measured with modem space geodetic observations, which will result a new means of detecting dynamical processes in the Earth's deep interior.

  11. Transmission gamma ray study in horizon transition interface in soil, during infiltration and water redistribution process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appoloni, C.R.; Saito, H.; Algozini Junior, A.

    1992-01-01

    The horizontal erosion process in soil internal layers, in which exists a interface between different horizons or a high degree compaction region, can be emphasized through an alteration on hydraulic conductivity and diffusivity functions. With this objective, we measured the vertical infiltration and the water redistribution, in soil sample 'latossolo vermelho escuro - fase argilosa'. (author)

  12. Automatic system for redistributing feedwater in a steam generator of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuoto, J.S.; Crotzer, M.E.; Lang, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    A system is described for automatically redistributing a steam generator secondary tube system after a burst in the secondary tubing. This applies to a given steam generator in a system having several steam generators partially sharing a common tube system, and employs a pressure control generating an electrical signal which is compared with given values [fr

  13. A glimpse through the veil of ignorance: equality of opportunity and support for redistribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krawczyk, M.W.

    2007-01-01

    This study is an experimental investigation into preference for redistribution of income. It had been hypothesized that (belief in) equality of opportunity in a society diminishes support for the welfare state. This could potentially explain the low taxes and social benefits in the United States

  14. A glimpse through the veil of ignorance: Equality of opportunity and support for redistribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krawczyk, M.W.

    2010-01-01

    This study is an experimental investigation into preference for redistribution of income. It had been hypothesized that (belief in) equality of opportunity in a society diminishes support for the welfare state. This could potentially explain the low taxes and social benefits in the United States

  15. Inequality and redistribution behavior in a give-or-take game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtel, Michael M.; Scheve, Kenneth F.

    2018-01-01

    Political polarization and extremism are widely thought to be driven by the surge in economic inequality in many countries around the world. Understanding why inequality persists depends on knowing the causal effect of inequality on individual behavior. We study how inequality affects redistribution behavior in a randomized “give-or-take” experiment that created equality, advantageous inequality, or disadvantageous inequality between two individuals before offering one of them the opportunity to either take from or give to the other. We estimate the causal effect of inequality in representative samples of German and American citizens (n = 4,966) and establish two main findings. First, individuals imperfectly equalize payoffs: On average, respondents transfer 12% of the available endowments to realize more equal wealth distributions. This means that respondents tolerate a considerable degree of inequality even in a setting in which there are no costs to redistribution. Second, redistribution behavior in response to disadvantageous and advantageous inequality is largely asymmetric: Individuals who take from those who are richer do not also tend to give to those who are poorer, and individuals who give to those who are poorer do not tend to take from those who are richer. These behavioral redistribution types correlate in meaningful ways with support for heavy taxes on the rich and the provision of welfare benefits for the poor. Consequently, it seems difficult to construct a majority coalition willing to back the type of government interventions needed to counter rising inequality. PMID:29555734

  16. Normalization of reverse redistribution of thallium-201 with procainamide pretreatment in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nii, T.; Nakashima, Y.; Nomoto, J.; Hiroki, T.; Ohshima, F.; Arakawa, K.

    1991-01-01

    Stress thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging was performed in a patient with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Reverse redistribution phenomenon was observed in the absence of coronary artery disease. This seems to be the first report of normalization of this phenomenon in association with reversion of accessory pathway to normal atrioventricular conduction after pretreatment with procainamide

  17. Normalization of reverse redistribution of thallium-201 with procainamide pretreatment in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nii, T.; Nakashima, Y.; Nomoto, J.; Hiroki, T.; Ohshima, F.; Arakawa, K. (Fukuoka Univ. School of Medicine (Japan))

    1991-03-01

    Stress thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging was performed in a patient with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Reverse redistribution phenomenon was observed in the absence of coronary artery disease. This seems to be the first report of normalization of this phenomenon in association with reversion of accessory pathway to normal atrioventricular conduction after pretreatment with procainamide.

  18. Redistribution, Growth, and Inclusion : The Development of the Urban Housing System in China, 1949-2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, W.; Hoekstra, J.S.C.M.; Elsinga, M.G.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explains the development of the urban housing system in China from 1949 to 2011 with an emphasis on the factors driving housing inequality in each policy period. We argue that the logic underpinning the housing policy had shifted from socialist redistribution to the stimulation of growth

  19. The failing redistribution of roles between men and women : A psychological view and its unexpected consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roe, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    A major objective of social policy in Western-European countries during the last decade has been the redistribution of work and caring roles between mean and women. This aim has inspired social scientists to investigate the conditions for and the mechanisms by which such a role-change could be

  20. Studying DAC capacitor-array degradation in charge-redistribution SAR ADCs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, M.A.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, system-level behavioural models are used to simulate the aging-related degradation effects in the DAC capacitor array of a charge-redistribution successive approximation register (SAR) ADC because of the large calculation time of transistor-level aging simulators. A

  1. Redistribution spurs growth by using a portfolio effect on risky human capital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Lorenz

    Full Text Available We demonstrate by mathematical analysis and systematic computer simulations that redistribution can lead to sustainable growth in a society. In accordance with economic models of risky human capital, we assume that dynamics of human capital is modeled as a multiplicative stochastic process which, in the long run, leads to the destruction of individual human capital. When agents are linked by fully redistributive taxation the situation might turn to individual growth in the long run. We consider that a government collects a proportion of income and reduces it by a fraction as costs for administration (efficiency losses. The remaining public good is equally redistributed to all agents. Sustainable growth is induced by redistribution despite the losses from the random growth process and despite administrative costs. Growth results from a portfolio effect. The findings are verified for three different tax schemes: proportional tax, taking proportionally more from the rich, and proportionally more from the poor. We discuss which of these tax schemes performs better with respect to maximize growth under a fixed rate of administrative costs, and the governmental income. This leads us to general conclusions about governmental decisions, the relation to public good games with free riding, and the function of taxation in a risk-taking society.

  2. Development and validity of a new model for assessing pressure redistribution properties of support surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Junko; Sugama, Junko; Sanada, Hiromi; Okuwa, Mayumi; Nakatani, Toshio; Konya, Chizuko; Sakamoto, Jirou

    2011-05-01

    Pressure ulcers are a common problem, especially in older patients. In Japan, most institutionalized older people are malnourished and show extreme bony prominence (EBP). EBP is a significant factor in the development of pressure ulcers due to increased interface pressure concentrated at the skin surface over the EBP. The use of support surfaces is recommended for the prophylaxis of pressure ulcers. However, the present equivocal criteria for evaluating the pressure redistribution of support surfaces are inadequate. Since pressure redistribution is influenced by physique and posture, evaluations using human subjects are limited. For this reason, models that can substitute for humans are necessary. We developed a new EBP model based on the anthropometric measurements, including pelvic inclination, of 100 bedridden elderly people. A comparison between the pressure distribution charts of our model and bedridden elderly subjects demonstrated that maximum contact pressure values, buttock contact pressure values, and bone prominence rates corresponded closely. This indicates that the model provides a good approximation of the features of elderly people with EBP. We subsequently examined the validity of the model through quantitative assessment of pressure redistribution functions consisting of immersion, envelopment, and contact area change. The model was able to detect differences in the hardness of urethane foam, differences in the internal pressure of an air mattress, and sequential changes during the pressure switching mode. These results demonstrate the validity of our new buttock model in evaluating pressure redistribution for a variety of surfaces. Copyright © 2010 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Preferences on Redistribution in Fragmented Labor Markets in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Berens

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the extent to which labor market dualization polarizes preferences on redistribution between formal and informal sector workers in Latin America and the Caribbean. Differences in welfare state costs and benefits for these labor market groups are likely to fuel diverging incentives regarding welfare consumption. The article tests whether or not informal workers are driven mainly by economic self-interest to increase gains from public welfare goods. The study employed a hierarchical model on pooled survey data from the Latin American Public Opinion Project (LAPOP 2008 and 2010 to analyze the risk exposure of formal and informal workers and, subsequently, their preferences on redistribution. The analysis reveals that while economic self-interest is an influential factor for formal workers, it is (unexpectedly much less so for informal workers. Also, an increased economically insecure environment, reflected by high unemployment rates, does not motivate informal workers to an exceptional degree to turn towards the state for redistribution, despite greater exposure to economic risk. Labor market dualization does not translate into polarization at the individual level regarding redistributive preferences in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  4. Strain redistribution around holes and notches in fiber-reinforced cross-woven brittle matrix composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Torben Krogsdal; Brøndsted, Povl

    1997-01-01

    Mechanics, and an identification procedure based on a uni-axial tensile test and a shear test the strain redistribution around a hole or a notch due to matrix cracking can be predicted. Damage due to fiber breakage is not included in the model. Initial matrix damage in the C-f/SiCm material has...

  5. In situ separation of root hydraulic redistribution of soil water from liquid and vapor transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey M. Warren; J. Renée Brooks; Maria I. Dragila; Frederick C. Meinzer

    2011-01-01

    Nocturnal increases in water potential and water content in the upper soil profile are often attributed to root water efflux, a process termed hydraulic redistribution (HR). However, unsaturated liquid or vapor flux of water between soil layers independent of roots also contributes to the daily recovery in water content, confounding efforts to determine the actual...

  6. Charge transfer and redistribution at interfaces between metals and 2D materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokdam, Menno

    2013-01-01

    Large potential steps are observed at the interfaces between metals and novel 2D materials. They can lower the work function by more than 1 eV, even when the two parts are only weakly interacting. In this thesis the transfer and redistribution of electrons in metal|2D material heterostructures are

  7. Redistribution spurs growth by using a portfolio effect on risky human capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Jan; Paetzel, Fabian; Schweitzer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate by mathematical analysis and systematic computer simulations that redistribution can lead to sustainable growth in a society. In accordance with economic models of risky human capital, we assume that dynamics of human capital is modeled as a multiplicative stochastic process which, in the long run, leads to the destruction of individual human capital. When agents are linked by fully redistributive taxation the situation might turn to individual growth in the long run. We consider that a government collects a proportion of income and reduces it by a fraction as costs for administration (efficiency losses). The remaining public good is equally redistributed to all agents. Sustainable growth is induced by redistribution despite the losses from the random growth process and despite administrative costs. Growth results from a portfolio effect. The findings are verified for three different tax schemes: proportional tax, taking proportionally more from the rich, and proportionally more from the poor. We discuss which of these tax schemes performs better with respect to maximize growth under a fixed rate of administrative costs, and the governmental income. This leads us to general conclusions about governmental decisions, the relation to public good games with free riding, and the function of taxation in a risk-taking society.

  8. Collision-induced absorption intensity redistribution and the atomic pair polarizabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulanin, M. O.

    1997-01-01

    A modified relation between the trace polarizability of a diatom and the S(-2) dipole sum is proposed that accounts for the effect of atomic collisions on the dipole oscillator strength distribution. Contribution to the collision-induced trace due to redistribution in the ionization continuum of Ar is evaluated and is found to be significant

  9. Redistributive Taxation vs. Education Subsidies: Fostering Equality and Social Mobility in an Intergenerational Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Redistributive taxation and education subsidies are common policies intended to foster education attendance of poor children. However, this paper shows that in an intergenerational framework, these policies can raise social mobility only for some investment situations but not in general. I also study the impact of both policies on the aggregate…

  10. Redistribution of contaminants from pig slurry after direct injection into soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Mostofa; Bech, T B; Forslund, A

    2010-01-01

    The redistribution of pig manure-borne contaminants after direct injection to soil was investigated in a field study. The spatial distribution of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium Bacteriophage 28B and other slurry components in and around the injection slit was measured on day 0.15, 1, 6...

  11. Topographic Metric Predictions of Soil redistribution and Organic Carbon Distribution in Croplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarty, G.; Li, X.

    2017-12-01

    Landscape topography is a key factor controlling soil redistribution and soil organic carbon (SOC) distribution in Iowa croplands (USA). In this study, we adopted a combined approach based on carbon () and cesium (137Cs) isotope tracers, and digital terrain analysis to understand patterns of SOC redistribution and carbon sequestration dynamics as influenced by landscape topography in tilled cropland under long term corn/soybean management. The fallout radionuclide 137Cs was used to estimate soil redistribution rates and a Lidar-derived DEM was used to obtain a set of topographic metrics for digital terrain analysis. Soil redistribution rates and patterns of SOC distribution were examined across 560 sampling locations at two field sites as well as at larger scale within the watershed. We used δ13C content in SOC to partition C3 and C4 plant derived C density at 127 locations in one of the two field sites with corn being the primary source of C4 C. Topography-based models were developed to simulate SOC distribution and soil redistribution using stepwise ordinary least square regression (SOLSR) and stepwise principal component regression (SPCR). All topography-based models developed through SPCR and SOLSR demonstrated good simulation performance, explaining more than 62% variability in SOC density and soil redistribution rates across two field sites with intensive samplings. However, the SOLSR models showed lower reliability than the SPCR models in predicting SOC density at the watershed scale. Spatial patterns of C3-derived SOC density were highly related to those of SOC density. Topographic metrics exerted substantial influence on C3-derived SOC density with the SPCR model accounting for 76.5% of the spatial variance. In contrast C4 derived SOC density had poor spatial structure likely reflecting the substantial contribution of corn vegetation to recently sequestered SOC density. Results of this study highlighted the utility of topographic SPCR models for scaling

  12. The impact of soil redistribution on SOC pools in a Mediterranean agroforestry catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Laura; Gaspar, Leticia; Lizaga, Iván; Navas, Ana

    2017-04-01

    Soil redistribution processes play an important role influencing the spatial distribution patterns of soil and associated soil organic carbon (SOC) at landscape scale. Information on drivers of SOC dynamics is key for evaluating both soil degradation and SOC stability that can affect soil quality and sustainability. 137Cs measurements provide a very effective tool to infer spatial patterns of soil redistribution and quantify soil redistribution rates in different landscapes, but to date these data are scarce in mountain Mediterranean agroecosystems. We evaluate the effect of soil redistribution on SOC and SOC pools in relation to land use in a Mediterranean mountain catchment (246 ha). To this purpose, two hundred and four soil bulk cores were collected on a 100 m grid in the Estaña lakes catchment located in the central sector of the Spanish Pyrenees (31T 4656250N 295152E). The study area is an agroforestry and endorheic catchment characterized by the presence of evaporite dissolution induced dolines, some of which host permanent lakes. The selected landscape is representative of rainfed areas of Mediterranean continental climate with erodible lithology and shallow soils, and characterized by an intense anthropogenic activity through cultivation and water management. The cultivated and uncultivated areas are heterogeneously distributed. SOC and SOC pools (the active and decomposable fraction, ACF and the stable carbon fraction SCF) were measured by the dry combustion method and soil redistribution rates were derived from 137Cs measurements. The results showed that erosion predominated in the catchment, most of soil samples were identified as eroded sites (n=114) with an average erosion rate of 26.9±51.4 Mg ha-1 y-1 whereas the mean deposition rate was 13.0±24.2 Mg ha-1 y-1. In cultivated soils (n=54) the average of soil erosion rate was significantly higher (78.5±74.4 Mg ha-1 y-1) than in uncultivated soils (6.8±10.4 Mg ha-1 y-1). Similarly, the mean of soil

  13. Drug-driven AMPA receptor redistribution mimicked by selective dopamine neuron stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T C Brown

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Addictive drugs have in common that they cause surges in dopamine (DA concentration in the mesolimbic reward system and elicit synaptic plasticity in DA neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA. Cocaine for example drives insertion of GluA2-lacking AMPA receptors (AMPARs at glutamatergic synapes in DA neurons. However it remains elusive which molecular target of cocaine drives such AMPAR redistribution and whether other addictive drugs (morphine and nicotine cause similar changes through their effects on the mesolimbic DA system.We used in vitro electrophysiological techniques in wild-type and transgenic mice to observe the modulation of excitatory inputs onto DA neurons by addictive drugs. To observe AMPAR redistribution, post-embedding immunohistochemistry for GluA2 AMPAR subunit was combined with electron microscopy. We also used a double-floxed AAV virus expressing channelrhodopsin together with a DAT Cre mouse line to selectively express ChR2 in VTA DA neurons. We find that in mice where the effect of cocaine on the dopamine transporter (DAT is specifically blocked, AMPAR redistribution was absent following administration of the drug. Furthermore, addictive drugs known to increase dopamine levels cause a similar AMPAR redistribution. Finally, activating DA VTA neurons optogenetically is sufficient to drive insertion of GluA2-lacking AMPARs, mimicking the changes observed after a single injection of morphine, nicotine or cocaine.We propose the mesolimbic dopamine system as a point of convergence at which addictive drugs can alter neural circuits. We also show that direct activation of DA neurons is sufficient to drive AMPAR redistribution, which may be a mechanism associated with early steps of non-substance related addictions.

  14. Calculation of axial hydrogen redistribution on the spent fuels during interim dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasahara, Akihiro; Matsumura, Tetsuo

    2006-01-01

    One of the phenomena that will affect fuel integrity during a spent fuel dry storage is a hydrogen axial migration in cladding. If there is a hydrogen pickup in cladding in reactor operation, hydrogen will move from hotter to colder cladding region in the axial direction under fuel temperature gradient during dry storage. Then hydrogen beyond solubility limit in colder region will be precipitated as hydride, and consequently hydride embrittlement may take place in the cladding. In this study, hydrogen redistribution experiments were carried out to obtain the data related to hydrogen axial migration by using actually twenty years dry (air) stored spent PWR-UO 2 fuel rods of which burn-ups were 31 and 58 MWd/kg HM. From the hydrogen redistribution experiments, the heat of transport of hydrogen of zircaloy-4 cladding from twenty years dry stored spent PWR-UO 2 fuel rods were from 10.1 to 18.6 kcal/mol and they were significantly larger than that of unirradiated zircaloy-4 cladding. This means that hydrogen in irradiated cladding can move easier than that in unirradiated cladding. In the hydrogen redistribution experiments, hydrogen diffusion coefficients and solubility limit were also obtained. There are few differences in the diffusion coefficients and solubility limits between the irradiated cladding and unirradiated cladding. The hydrogen redistribution in the cladding after dry storage for forty years was evaluated by one-dimensional diffusion calculation using the measured values. The maximum values as the heat of transports, diffusion coefficients and solubility limits of the irradiated cladding and various spent fuel temperature profiles reported were used in the calculation. The axial hydrogen migration was not significant after dry storage for forty years in helium atmosphere and the maximum values as the heat of transports, diffusion coefficients and solubility limits of the unirradiated cladding gave conservative evaluation for hydrogen redistribution

  15. Effect of eating on thallium-201 myocardial redistribution after myocardial ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angello, D.A.; Wilson, R.A.; Palac, R.T.

    1987-01-01

    To determine whether eating a high-carbohydrate meal between initial and delayed postexercise thallium-201 (Tl-201) imaging affects detection of Tl-201 redistribution during exercise stress testing, 16 patients with stable angina performed 2 Tl-201 treadmill exercise stress tests within a 14-day interval. Immediately after initial postexercise imaging, patients either drank a commercially available instant breakfast preparation for the intervention test or drank an equivalent volume of water for the control test. Comparable exercise workloads were achieved by exercising patients to the same heart rate for both tests. The order of the 2 (intervention and control) tests were randomized. All patients had at least 1 region of Tl-201 myocardial redistribution on either their eating or control test scans, although only 7 of the 16 had positive treadmill exercise test responses. Forty-six regions showing Tl-201 myocardial redistribution were identified in all 144 regions examined. Significantly more of these regions were identified on control test scans than on eating test scans: 11 of 46 on both test scans, 6 of 46 only on eating test scans and 29 of 46 only on control scans (p less than 0.001). Consistent with results of the quantitative regional analysis, the percentage of Tl-201 clearance over 4 hours in the 46 Tl-201 myocardial redistribution regions was 39 +/- 8% for the eating tests and 29 +/- 8% for control tests (mean +/- standard deviation, p less than 0.003). In 4 patients diagnosis of transient ischemia would have been missed because their 14 Tl-201 myocardial redistribution regions were detected only on the control test scans

  16. The Spanish income tax reform of 2015: analysis of the effects on poverty and redistribution using microsimulation tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Badenes-Plá

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we analyze the effects of the 2015 reform of the Spanish personal income tax (PIT on tax revenue, liquidity, redistribution, progressivity, and poverty, using microdata. Tax reform has increased the redistributive effect. The applicable legislation in 2016 is almost 6.3% more redistributive than that in 2011, as measured by the Reynolds-Smolensky index. This is a remarkable achievement since greater redistribution has been attained through significantly lower tax revenue. The 2016 legislation has produced 4.4% lower tax revenue, but progressivity, as measured by Kakwani index, has increased by 12.2% from the 2011 legislation. The redistributive and progressivity analysis has been conducted with the use of microsimulation tools developed in the Instituto de Estudios Fiscales (IEF, in Spain. The poverty analysis is made using EUROMOD, a tax-benefit microsimulation model for the European Union.

  17. Vibrational spectroscopy of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaighofer, A.

    2013-01-01

    Two important steps for the development of a biosensor are the immobilization of the biological component (e.g. protein) on a surface and the enhancement of the signal to improve the sensitivity of detection. To address these subjects, the present work describes Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) investigations of several proteins bound to the surface of an attenuated total reflection (ATR) crystal. Furthermore, new nanostructured surfaces for signal enhancement were developed for use in FTIR microscopy. The mitochondrial redox-protein cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) was incorporated into a protein-tethered bilayer lipid membrane (ptBLM) on an ATR crystal featuring a roughened two-layer gold surface for signal enhancement. Electrochemical excitation by periodic potential pulses at different modulation frequencies was followed by time-resolved FTIR spectroscopy. Phase sensitive detection was used for deconvolution of the IR spectra into vibrational components. A model based on protonation-dependent chemical reaction kinetics could be fitted to the time evolution of IR bands attributed to several different redox centers of the CcO. Further investigations involved the odorant binding protein 14 (OBP14) of the honey bee (Apis mellifera), which was studied using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and circular dichroism. OBP14 was found to be thermally stable up to 45 °C, thus permitting the potential application of this protein for the fabrication of biosensors. Thermal denaturation measurements showed that odorant binding increases the thermal stability of the OBP-odorant complex. In another project, plasmonic nanostructures were fabricated that enhance the absorbance in FTIR microscopy measurements. The nanostructures are composed of an array of round-shaped insulator and gold discs on top of a continuous gold layer. Enhancement factors of up to ⁓125 could be observed with self-assembled monolayers of dodecanethiol molecules immobilized on the gold surface (author) [de

  18. Usefulness of semiquantitative analysis of dipyridamole-thallium-201 redistribution for improving risk stratification before vascular surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinson, J.R.; Boucher, C.A.; Coley, C.M.; Guiney, T.E.; Strauss, H.W.; Eagle, K.A.

    1990-01-01

    Preoperative dipyridamole-thallium-201 scanning is sensitive in identifying patients prone to ischemic cardiac complications after vascular surgery, but most patients with redistribution do not have an event after surgery. Therefore, its positive predictive value is limited. To determine which patients with thallium redistribution are at highest risk, dipyridamole-thallium-201 images were interpreted semiquantitatively. Sixty-two consecutive patients with redistribution on preoperative dipyridamole-thallium-201 planar imaging studies were identified. Each thallium scan was then analyzed independently by 2 observers for the number of myocardial segments out of 15, the number of thallium views out of 3 and the number of coronary artery territories with redistribution. Seventeen patients (27%) had postoperative ischemic events, including unstable angina pectoris, ischemic pulmonary edema, myocardial infarction and cardiac death. Thallium predictors of ischemic operative complications included thallium redistribution greater than or equal to 4 myocardial segments (p = 0.03), greater than or equal to 2 of the 3 planar views (p = 0.005) and greater than or equal to 2 coronary territories (p = 0.007). No patient with redistribution in only 1 view had an ischemic event (0 of 15). Thus, determining the extent of redistribution by dipyridamole-thallium-201 scanning improves risk stratification before vascular surgery. Patients with greater numbers of myocardial segments and greater numbers of coronary territories showing thallium-201 redistribution are at higher risk for ischemic cardiac complications. In contrast, when the extent of thallium redistribution is limited, there is a lower risk despite the presence of redistribution

  19. Trajectory Calculations for Bergman Cyclization Predict H/D Kinetic Isotope Effects Due to Nonstatistical Dynamics in the Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubleday, Charles; Boguslav, Mayla; Howell, Caronae; Korotkin, Scott D; Shaked, David

    2016-06-22

    An unusual H/D kinetic isotope effect (KIE) is described, in which isotopic selectivity arises primarily from nonstatistical dynamics in the product. In DFT-based quasiclassical trajectories of Bergman cyclization of (Z)-3-hexen-1,5-diyne (1) at 470 K, the new CC bond retains its energy, and 28% of nascent p-benzyne recrosses back to the enediyne on a vibrational time scale. The competing process of intramolecular vibrational redistribution (IVR) in p-benzyne is too slow to prevent this. Deuteration increases the rate of IVR, which decreases the fraction of recrossing and increases the yield of statistical (trapable) p-benzyne, 2. Trapable yields for three isotopomers of 2 range from 72% to 86%. The resulting KIEs for Bergman cyclization differ substantially from KIEs predicted by transition state theory, which suggests that IVR in this reaction can be studied by conventional KIEs. Leakage of vibrational zero point energy (ZPE) into the reaction coordinate was probed by trajectories in which initial ZPE in the CH/CD stretching modes was reduced by 25%. This did not change the predicted KIEs.

  20. Adaptive learning algorithms for vibration energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, John K; Behrens, Sam

    2008-01-01

    By scavenging energy from their local environment, portable electronic devices such as MEMS devices, mobile phones, radios and wireless sensors can achieve greater run times with potentially lower weight. Vibration energy harvesting is one such approach where energy from parasitic vibrations can be converted into electrical energy through the use of piezoelectric and electromagnetic transducers. Parasitic vibrations come from a range of sources such as human movement, wind, seismic forces and traffic. Existing approaches to vibration energy harvesting typically utilize a rectifier circuit, which is tuned to the resonant frequency of the harvesting structure and the dominant frequency of vibration. We have developed a novel approach to vibration energy harvesting, including adaptation to non-periodic vibrations so as to extract the maximum amount of vibration energy available. Experimental results of an experimental apparatus using an off-the-shelf transducer (i.e. speaker coil) show mechanical vibration to electrical energy conversion efficiencies of 27–34%

  1. PC based vibration monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Sanjay K.; Roy, D.A.; Pithawa, C.K.; Patil, R.K.

    2004-01-01

    Health of large rotating machinery gets reflected in the vibration signature of the rotor and supporting structures and proper recording of these signals and their analysis can give a clear picture of the health of the machine. Using these data and their trending, it is possible to predict an impending trouble in the machine so that preventive action can be taken in time and catastrophic failure can be avoided. Continuous monitoring and analysis can give quick warning and enable operator to take preventive measures. Reactor Control Division, BARC is developing a PC based Vibration monitoring system for turbo generator machinery. The System can acquire 20 vibration signals at a rate of 5000 samples per second and also 15 process signals at a rate of 100 samples/ sec. The software for vibration monitoring system includes acquisition modules, analysis modules and Graphical User Interface module. The acquisition module involves initialization, setting of required parameters and acquiring the data from PC-based data acquisition cards. The acquired raw vibration data is then stored for analysis using various software packages. The display and analysis of acquired data is done in LabVIEW 7.0 where the data is displayed in time as well as frequency domain along with the RMS value of the signal. (author)

  2. On generalized fractional vibration equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Hongzhe; Zheng, Zhibao; Wang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper presents a generalized fractional vibration equation for arbitrary viscoelastically damped system. • Some classical vibration equations can be derived from the developed equation. • The analytic solution of developed equation is derived under some special cases. • The generalized equation is particularly useful for developing new fractional equivalent linearization method. - Abstract: In this paper, a generalized fractional vibration equation with multi-terms of fractional dissipation is developed to describe the dynamical response of an arbitrary viscoelastically damped system. It is shown that many classical equations of motion, e.g., the Bagley–Torvik equation, can be derived from the developed equation. The Laplace transform is utilized to solve the generalized equation and the analytic solution under some special cases is derived. Example demonstrates the generalized transfer function of an arbitrary viscoelastic system.

  3. General vibration monitoring: Experimental hall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Wambsganss, M.W.; Smith, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    The reported vibration data were generated from measurements made on the experimental hall floor on December 2, 1992. At the time of the measurements, the ESRF hydrolevel was set-up in the Early Assembly Area (EAA) of the experimental hall and was being used to measure static displacement (settlement) of the floor. The vibration measurement area was on and adjacent to the EAA, in the vicinity of the ESRF hydrolevel test which was in progress. This report summarizes the objectives, instrumentation, measurement locations, observations, and conclusions, and provides selected results in the form of RMS vs. time plots, and power spectral densities from which frequency information can be derived. Measured response amplitudes were within the vibration criteria established for the APS

  4. Collective religiosity and the gender gap in attitudes towards economic redistribution in 86 countries, 1990-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime-Castillo, Antonio M; Fernández, Juan J; Valiente, Celia; Mayrl, Damon

    2016-05-01

    What is the relationship between gender and the demand for redistribution? Because, on average, women face more economic deprivation than men, in many countries women favor redistribution more than men. However, this is not the case in a number of other countries, where women do not support redistribution more than men. To explain this cross-national paradox, we stress the role of collective religiosity. In many religions, theological principles both militate against public policies designed to redistribute income, and also promote traditionally gendered patterns of work and family involvement. Hence, we hypothesize that, in those countries where religion remains influential either through closer church-state ties or an intensely religious population, men and women should differ less in their attitudes towards redistribution. Drawing upon the World Values Survey, we estimate three-level regression models that test our religiosity-based approach and two alternative explanations in 86 countries and 175 country-years. The results are consistent with our hypothesis. Moreover, in further support of our theoretical approach, societal religiosity undermines pro-redistribution preferences more among women than men. Our findings suggest that collective religiosity matters more to the gender gap in redistributive attitudes than traditional political and labor force factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Fundamental Vibration of Molecular Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickenson, G. D.; Niu, M. L.; Salumbides, E. J.; Komasa, J.; Eikema, K. S. E.; Pachucki, K.; Ubachs, W.

    2013-05-01

    The fundamental ground tone vibration of H2, HD, and D2 is determined to an accuracy of 2×10-4cm-1 from Doppler-free laser spectroscopy in the collisionless environment of a molecular beam. This rotationless vibrational splitting is derived from the combination difference between electronic excitation from the X1Σg+, v=0, and v=1 levels to a common EF1Σg+, v=0 level. Agreement within 1σ between the experimental result and a full ab initio calculation provides a stringent test of quantum electrodynamics in a chemically bound system.

  6. Role of redistribution and 24 hour reinjection images to assess myocardial viability in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Seok Nam; Pai, Moon Sun; Park, Chan H.; Yoon, Myung Ho; Choi, Byung Il

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the importance of redistribution and 24 hour reinjection images in Tl-201 SPECT assessment of myocardial viability after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We performed dipyridamole stress-4 hour redistribution-24 hour reinjection Tl-201 SPECT in 43 patients with recent AMI (4-16 days). The myocardium was divided into 16 segments and perfusion grade was measured visually with 4 point score from 0 to 3 (absent uptake to normal uptake). A perfusion defect with stress score 2 was considered moderate. A defect was considered severe if the stress score was 0 or 1 (absent uptake or severe perfusion decrease). Moderate defect on stress image were considered viable and and segments with severe defect were considered viable if they showed improvement of 1 score or more on redistribution or reinjection images. We compared the results of viability assessment in stress-redistribution and stress-reinjection images. On visual analysis, 344 of 688 segments (50%) had abnormal perfusion. Fify two (15%) had moderate perfusion defects and 292 (85%) had severe perfusion defects on stress image. Of 292 severe stress defects, 53 were irreversible on redistribution and reversible on reinjection images, and 15 were reverseble on redistribution and irreversible on reinjection images. Two hundred twenty four of 292 segments (76.7%) showed concordant results on stress-redistribution and stress- reinjection images. Therefore 24 hour reinjection image changed viability status from necrotic to viable in 53 segments of 292 severe stress defect (18%). However, myocardial viability was underestimated in only 5% (15/292) of severe defects by 24 hour reinjection. The 24 hour reinjection imaging is useful in the assessment of myocardial viability. It is more sensitive than 4 hour redistribution imaging. However, both redistribution and reinjection images are needed since they complement each other

  7. The Shock and Vibration Bulletin. Part 2. Vibration Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    J.N. Tait, Naval Air Development Center, Warminster, PA EVALUATION OF AN ADAPTIVE FILTER AS A DIGITAL TRACKING FILTER D.O. Smallwood and D.L. Gregory...Oklahoma Norman , Oklahoma In contrast to the considerable information abailable on free vibration of isotropic plates, there is only a very limited

  8. Investigation into Variations of Welding Residual Stresses and Redistribution Behaviors for Different Repair Welding Widths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chiyong; Lee, Hweesueng; Huh, Namsu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the variations in welding residual stresses in dissimilar metal butt weld due to width of repair welding and re-distribution behaviors resulting from similar metal welding (SMW) and mechanical loading. To this end, detailed two-dimensional axi-symmetric finite element (FE) analyses were performed considering five different repair welding widths. Based on the FE results, we first evaluated the welding residual stress distributions in repair welding. We then investigated the re-distribution behaviors of the residual stresses due to SMW and mechanical loads. It is revealed that large tensile welding residual stresses take place in the inner surface and that its distribution is affected, provided repair welding width is larger than certain value. The welding residual stresses resulting from repair welding are remarkably reduced due to SMW and mechanical loading, regardless of the width of the repair welding

  9. LABORATORY FREQUENCY REDISTRIBUTION FUNCTION FOR THE POLARIZED Λ-TYPE THREE-TERM ATOM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casini, R. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Manso Sainz, R. [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2016-12-20

    We present the frequency redistribution function for a polarized three-term atom of the Λ-type in the collisionless regime, and we specialize it to the case where both the initial and final terms of the three-state transition are metastable (i.e., with infinitely sharp levels). This redistribution function represents a generalization of the well-known R {sub II} function to the case where the lower terms of the transition can be polarized and carry atomic coherence, and it can be applied to the investigation of polarized line formation in tenuous plasmas, where collisional rates may be low enough that anisotropy-induced atomic polarization survives even in the case of metastable levels.

  10. Intra-assembly flow redistribution in LMFBRs: a simple computational approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Cazzoli, E.G.

    1983-01-01

    The liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) core consists of fuel, blanket, control, and shielding assemblies packed in a hexagonal configuration. Radial blanket assemblies occupy peripheral locations in the reactor core and are characterized by steep power gradients, while inner blanket assemblies are located within the fuel assembly region and have higher power levels but flatter distributions. It is due to the presence of this radial power gradient that large sodium temperature distributions exist at full power operation. However, at low power, low flow natural convection conditions, a significant flow redistribution takes place leading to considerable radial temperature flattening. The purpose of the present study is to formulate a simple flow-regime dependent model supported by experimental data for prediction of sodium temperature flattening due to buoyancy-induced flow redistribution in LMFBR subassemblies with significant radial power gradient

  11. Observation of instability-induced current redistribution in a spherical-torus plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, J E; Bell, R E; Gates, D A; Kaye, S M; LeBlanc, B P; Levinton, F M; Medley, S S; Sabbagh, S A; Stutman, D; Tritz, K; Yuh, H

    2006-09-01

    A motional Stark effect diagnostic has been utilized to reconstruct the parallel current density profile in a spherical-torus plasma for the first time. The measured current profile compares favorably with neoclassical theory when no large-scale magnetohydrodynamic instabilities are present in the plasma. However, a current profile anomaly is observed during saturated interchange-type instability activity. This apparent anomaly can be explained by redistribution of neutral beam injection current drive and represents the first observation of interchange-type instabilities causing such redistribution. The associated current profile modifications contribute to sustaining the central safety factor above unity for over five resistive diffusion times, and similar processes may contribute to improved operational scenarios proposed for ITER.

  12. Reverse redistribution on planar thallium scintigraphy: relationship to resting thallium uptake and long-term outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, H.M.; Soufer, R.

    1995-01-01

    Reverse redistribution (RR) of thallium-201 has been associated with both acute and healed myocardial infarction, and with recent thrombolysis. The physiologic basis for RR in coronary artery disease (CAD) is unclear but may be related to an admixture of viable and scarred myocardium within the RR segment. We performed thallium reinjection imaging at rest to better characterize RR defects in patients with chronic CAD. We found enhanced uptake of 201 Tl in 52% of RR segments after reinjection, consistent with significant regional viability that was not evident on redistribution images. We then used a logistic multiple regression analysis to determine whether RR alone or in combination with other scintigraphic findings could predict patient outcome. The results showed that severe RR was an independent predictor of patient outcome. We conclude that RR may have prognostic significance in chronic CAD. (orig.)

  13. Calculation of pressure drop and flow redistribution in the LMFBR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgado, O.J.

    1984-01-01

    The flow redistribution through fuel assemblies of LMFBRs: for the correct calculation of mass flow rates and pressure drop, are studied. Using a quasi-static formulation of conservation equations of mass and energy, a computer program was developed to simulate any arbitrary number of flow channels, operating at different linear power levels. Therefore f flow channels, operating at different linear power levels. Therefore, it was possible to perform thermal transient calculations for the Clinch River reactor core. The results of the calculations agree with the data found in the literature and supply accurate information about flow redistribution, average temperature, and pressure drop in the core, when the reactor is operated at conditions from the designed flow conditions, as is always the case in a load changing operation, or during transients. (Autor) [pt

  14. Study of two-phase flow redistribution between two passes of a heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes de Moura, L.F.

    1989-04-01

    The object of the present thesis deals with the study of two-phase flow redistribution between two passes of a heat exchanger. Mass flow rate measurements of each component performed at each channel outlet of the second pass allowed us to determine the influence of mass flow, gas quality, flow direction (upward or downward) and common header geometry upon flow redistribution. Local void fraction inside common header was measured with an optical probe. A two-dimensional two-phase flow computational code was developed from a two-fluid model. Modelling of interfacial momentum transfer was used in order to take into account twp-phase flow patterns in common headers. Numerical simulation results show qualitative agreement with experimental results. Present theoretical model limitations are analysed and future improvements are proposed [fr

  15. The hydrostatic pressure indifference point underestimates orthostatic redistribution of blood in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L G; Carlsen, Jonathan F.; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2014-01-01

    The hydrostatic indifference point (HIP; where venous pressure is unaffected by posture) is located at the level of the diaphragm and is believed to indicate the orthostatic redistribution of blood, but it remains unknown whether HIP coincides with the indifference point for blood volume (VIP......). During graded (± 20°) head-up (HUT) and head-down tilt (HDT) in 12 male volunteers, we determined HIP from central venous pressure and VIP from redistribution of both blood, using ultrasound imaging of the inferior caval vein (VIPui), and fluid volume, by regional electrical admittance (VIPadm...... of pressure and filling of the inferior caval vein as well as fluid distribution, we found HIP located corresponding to the diaphragm while VIP was placed low in the abdomen, and that medical antishock trousers elevated both HIP and VIP. The low indifference point for volume shows that the gravitational...

  16. Repair, redistribution and repopulation in V79 spheroids during multifraction irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.C.; Durand, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    We used cells growing as multicell spheroids to determine whether the initial radiation response would be predictive for multifraction exposures, or whether other factors including repopulation rate should be considered. Potential problems of hypoxia and reoxygenation were avoided by using small spheroids which had not yet developed radiobiologically hypoxic regions. Repair and redistribution dominated the responses in the first two or three exposures, with repopulation playing a minor role. As the fractionation schedule was extended, however, repopulation between fractions largely determined the number of viable cells per spheroid. We conclude that the radiation response of cells from untreated spheroids provides a general indication of net sensitivity, but that repair and redistribution produces considerable variation in radiosensitivity throughout a fractionation protocol. Ultimately, repopulation effects may dominate the multifraction response. (Author)

  17. A Novel Load Capacity Model with a Tunable Proportion of Load Redistribution against Cascading Failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Hao Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Defence against cascading failures is of great theoretical and practical significance. A novel load capacity model with a tunable proportion is proposed. We take degree and clustering coefficient into account to redistribute the loads of broken nodes. The redistribution is local, where the loads of broken nodes are allocated to their nearest neighbours. Our model has been applied on artificial networks as well as two real networks. Simulation results show that networks get more vulnerable and sensitive to intentional attacks along with the decrease of average degree. In addition, the critical threshold from collapse to intact states is affected by the tunable parameter. We can adjust the tunable parameter to get the optimal critical threshold and make the systems more robust against cascading failures.

  18. Welfare State Regimes and Attitudes Towards Redistribution in 15 Western European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads

    Social Survey and the third wave of the European Values Study, and by means of an ordered mixed probit model with concomitant variables, we find strong evidence that structural characteristics affect mass opinion in a manner consistent with regime theory. For example, public support for redistribution...... increases with total social expenditure relative to GDP, family benefits, and active labour market policies. Furthermore, we find that institutionalised left-wing political power as measured by left-wing government seats and neo-corporatism are significant predictors of support for redistribution.- See more...... at: http://www.sfi.dk/s%c3%b8geresultat-10668.aspx?Action=1&NewsId=248&PID=32427#sthash.ISdYS6vF.dpuf...

  19. Shock and Vibration. Volume 1, Issue 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pilkey, Walter D

    1994-01-01

    ..., and earthquake engineering. Among the specific areas to be covered are vibration testing and control, vibration condition monitoring and diagnostics, shock hardenings, modal technology, shock testing, data acquisition, fluid...

  20. Novel active vibration absorber with magnetorheological fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, T; Ehrlich, J; Boese, H [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Silicatforschung ISC, Neunerplatz 2, D-97082 Wuerzburg (Germany)], E-mail: thomas.gerlach@isc.fraunhofer.de

    2009-02-01

    Disturbing vibrations diminish the performance of technical high precision devices significantly. In search of a suitable solution for reducing these vibrations, a novel concept of active vibration reduction was developed which exploits the special properties of magnetorheological fluids. In order to evaluate the concept of such an active vibration absorber (AVA) a demonstrator was designed and manufactured. This demonstrator generates a force which counteracts the motion of the vibrating body. Since the counterforce is generated by a centrifugal exciter, the AVA provides the capability to compensate vibrations even in two dimensions. To control the strength of the force transmitted to the vibrating body, the exciter is based on a tunable MR coupling. The AVA was integrated in an appropriate testing device to investigate its performance. The recorded results show a significant reduction of the vibration amplitudes by an order of magnitude.

  1. Isotope separation using vibrationally excited molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to isotope separation employing isotopically selective vibrational excitation and vibration-translation reactions of the excited particles. Uranium enrichment, using uranium hexafluoride, is a particular embodiment. (U.K.)

  2. Predicting Statistical Distributions of Footbridge Vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars; Frier, Christian

    2009-01-01

    The paper considers vibration response of footbridges to pedestrian loading. Employing Newmark and Monte Carlo simulation methods, a statistical distribution of bridge vibration levels is calculated modelling walking parameters such as step frequency and stride length as random variables...

  3. Application of eigenfunction orthogonalities to vibration problems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fedotov, I

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The modelling of vibration problems is of great importance in engineering. A popular method of analysing such problems is the variational method. The simplest vibration model is represented using the example of a long rod. Two kinds...

  4. Robin Hood vs. King John Redistribution: How Do Local Judges Decide Cases In Brazil?

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Ivan Cesar

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses two opposed hypotheses to predict the behavior of judges when they have to decide a claim between parties with asymmetrical eco- nomic and political power. The .rst, which has broad acceptance among policy makers in Brazil, is the jurisdictional uncertainty hypothesis (Arida et al, 2005) that suggests that Brazilian judges tend to favor the weak party in the claim as a form of social justice and redistribution of income in favor of the poor. Glaeser et al (2003) stated ...

  5. Flux-redistribution in the focal region of a planar Fresnel ring mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastroamidjojo, M.S.A. (Gadjah Mada Univ., Indonesia); Lubis, W.

    1979-01-01

    The results of an investigation of flux redistribution at the focal region of a planar Fresnel ring mirror are reported. A parabolic mirror of large aperture was used to provide a parallel beam of light which was directed at the Fresnel test object. A cotton thread grid was used as a mapping aid to provide a 25 x 25 matrix of spatial data points. (SPH)

  6. Redistribution of the solar radiation and the rain inside of coffee plantations (Arabic Coffea L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaramillo Robledo, Alvaro

    2005-01-01

    The following review presents a series of studies on microclimates of non-shaded and shaded conditions of coffee plantations (Coffea arabica L.) in Colombia. Likewise, The redistribution of solar radiation and the temperature, as well as the energy balance, of the coffee plant and the crop are described. The results on the components of water balance and transport of nutrients within the coffee plantations are reported

  7. Fears of Redistribution, Decentralization and Secession: Evidence from Bolivia’s Referendum for Departmental Autonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Werner L. Hernani-Limarino

    2006-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed strong movements toward decentralization and secession. The former Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovaquia and Serbia and Montenegro have disintegrated. Movements for regional autonomy and even independence have gained larger support in Bolivia, Canada, Spain, France and Italy. What is the importance of redistributive politics in explaining decentralization and secession outcomes in a democratic polity? This paper attempts to answer this question building a simpl...

  8. Activité féminine, prestations familiales et redistribution

    OpenAIRE

    Olivia Ekert

    1983-01-01

    Ekert Olivia. ? Women's Work, Family Allowances and Redistribution. The system of family allowances may be looked at from two different points of view : the contributions paid throughout working life, and the benefits received when there are dependant children. The aim of this study is to determine who are the net beneficiaries of the system. A balance sheet extending over the lifetime of couples classified by their completed family size and their social group is drawn up. A model is construc...

  9. Reverse Redistribution in Myocardial Perfusion Imaging: Revisited with 64-slice MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min Kyung; Kim, Jeong Ho; Hwang, Kyung Hoon; Choi, In Suck; Choi, Soo Jin; Choe, Won Sick [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Min Ki [Good Samaritan Hospital, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The authors report myocardial perfusion imaging of a patient showing reverse redistribution (RR) and a 64-slice multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) with corresponding findings. The patient had subendocardial myocardial infarction (MI) with positive electrocardiogram (EMG) findings and elevated levels of cardiac isoenzymes. Experiencing this case emphasizes the importance of complementary correlation of a new diagnostic modality that helps us to understand the nature of RR.

  10. Re-distribution (condensation) of magnons in a ferromagnet under pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvyagin, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years several experiments have been performed to study the Bose-Einstein condensation of quasiparticles, in particular, magnons in magnetically ordered systems. Recently the Bose-Einstein condensation of magnons was observed at room temperatures in a ferromagnetic film. A theory of the condensation (redistribution) of magnons under the conditions of pumping, which explains many features of that experiment, is presented. The use of the term 'Bose-Einstein condensation of magnons' is discussed

  11. Direct visualization of redistribution and capping of fluorescent gangliosides on lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Fluorescent derivatives of gangliosides were prepared by oxidizing the sialyl residues to aldehydes and reacting them with fluorescent hydrazides. When rhodaminyl gangliosides were incubated with lymphocytes, the cells incorporated them in a time- and temperature- dependent manner. Initially, the gangliosides were evenly distributed on the cell surface but were redistributed into patches and caps by antirhodamine antibodies. When the cells were then stained with a second antibody or protein A...

  12. Finance-dominated capitalism and redistribution of income: A Kaleckian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hein, Eckhard

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines a major channel through which financialization or finance-dominated capitalism affects macroeconomic performance: the distribution channel. Empirical data for the following dimensions of redistribution in the period of finance-dominated capitalism since the early 1980s is provided for 15 advanced capitalist economies: functional distribution, personal/household distribution, and the share and composition of top incomes. Based on the Kaleckian approach to the determination ...

  13. Hydraulic redistribution study in two native tree species of agroforestry parklands of West African dry savanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayala, Jules; Heng, Lee Kheng; van Noordwijk, Meine; Ouedraogo, Sibiri Jean

    2008-11-01

    Hydraulic redistribution (HR) in karité ( Vitellaria paradoxa) and néré ( Parkia biglobosa) tree species was studied by monitoring the soil water potential ( ψs) using thermocouple psychrometers at four compass directions, various distances from trees and at different soil depths (max depth 80 cm) during the dry seasons of 2004 and 2005. A modified WaNuLCAS model was then used to infer the amount of water redistribued based on ψs values. Tree transpiration rate was also estimated from sap velocity using thermal dissipative probes (TDP) and sapwood area, and the contribution of hydraulically redistributed water in tree transpiration was determined. The results revealed on average that 46% of the psychrometer readings under karité and 33% under néré showed the occurrence of HR for the two years. Soil under néré displayed significantly lower fluctuations of ψs (0.16 MPa) compared to soil under karité (0.21 MPa). The results of this study indicated that the existence of HR leads to a higher ψs in the plant rhizosphere and hence is important for soil water dynamics and plant nutrition by making more accessible the soluble elements. The simulation showed that the amount of water redistributed would be approximately 73.0 L and 247.1 L per tree per day in 2005 for karité and néré, and would represent respectively 60% and 53% of the amount transpired a day. Even though the model has certainly overestimated the volume of water hydraulically redistributed by the two species, this water may play a key role in maintaining fine root viability and ensuring the well adaptation of these species to the dry areas. Therefore, knowledge of the extent of such transfers and of the seasonal patterns is required and is of paramount importance in parkland systems both for trees and associated crops.

  14. Taxation and redistribution in autocratic and democratic regimes over the long-run of history

    OpenAIRE

    SEELKOPF, Laura; LIERSE, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of the personal income tax has often coincided with phases of democratization in history. A common explanation is that the demands of the newly enfranchised poor contribute to the rise of progressive taxes. Yet, although the world has, on average, become more democratic since the first permanent introduction of the income tax in Great Britain in 1842, inequality is again on the rise. To what extent do democratic societies really adopt more redistributive policies than their a...

  15. Radioembolization of hepatic tumors. Flow redistribution after the occlusion of intrahepatic arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauenstein, T.C.; Heusner, T.A.; Antoch, G.; Hamami, M.; Bockisch, A.; Ertle, J.; Schlaak, J.F.; Gerken, G.

    2011-01-01

    Radioembolization using 90yttrium is an emerging therapy option for unresectable liver malignancies. In order to reduce the number of yttrium injections, endovascular occlusion of a segmental hepatic artery has been proposed. The aim of this study was to assess whether sufficient vascular redistribution of the occluded liver segments through intrahepatic collaterals can be observed. 27 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 16) or hepatic metastases (n = 11) were studied. Hepatic angiography was performed on average 16 days prior to radioembolization. The segment II/III artery (n = 9) or the segment IV artery (n = 18) was occluded using coils. Technectium-99m-labeled macroaggregated albumin (99mTc-MAA) was injected into the right and the remaining part of the left hepatic artery in order to identify any hepatic volume not included in the perfused area. Patients underwent a SPECT/CT on average 1 h after the 99mTc-MAA injection. Two radiologists evaluated the SPECT/CT scans regarding the presence of non-perfused hepatic segments. Furthermore, hepatic perfusion was assessed by digital subtraction angiography (DSA) on the day of radioembolization. In 16 / 27 patients (59 %) a perfusion of the occluded liver segment was visible on the SPECT/CT scan. In 8 / 11 patients without flow redistribution at the time of the SPECT/CT, perfusion of the occluded segment through hepatic collaterals was observed during angiography prior to radioembolization. Hence, flow redistribution was eventually found in 24 / 27 patients (89 %). Flow redistribution after the occlusion of intrahepatic arteries prior to radioembolization can be successfully induced in the majority of patients with anatomical variants of the hepatic arteries. (orig.)

  16. POLARIZED LINE FORMATION WITH LOWER-LEVEL POLARIZATION AND PARTIAL FREQUENCY REDISTRIBUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supriya, H. D.; Sampoorna, M.; Nagendra, K. N.; Ravindra, B. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore 560034 (India); Stenflo, J. O. [Institute of Astronomy, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2016-09-10

    In the well-established theories of polarized line formation with partial frequency redistribution (PRD) for a two-level and two-term atom, it is generally assumed that the lower level of the scattering transition is unpolarized. However, the existence of unexplained spectral features in some lines of the Second Solar Spectrum points toward a need to relax this assumption. There exists a density matrix theory that accounts for the polarization of all the atomic levels, but it is based on the flat-spectrum approximation (corresponding to complete frequency redistribution). In the present paper we propose a numerical algorithm to solve the problem of polarized line formation in magnetized media, which includes both the effects of PRD and the lower level polarization (LLP) for a two-level atom. First we derive a collisionless redistribution matrix that includes the combined effects of the PRD and the LLP. We then solve the relevant transfer equation using a two-stage approach. For illustration purposes, we consider two case studies in the non-magnetic regime, namely, the J {sub a} = 1, J {sub b} = 0 and J {sub a} = J {sub b} = 1, where J {sub a} and J {sub b} represent the total angular momentum quantum numbers of the lower and upper states, respectively. Our studies show that the effects of LLP are significant only in the line core. This leads us to propose a simplified numerical approach to solve the concerned radiative transfer problem.

  17. Public speaking stress-induced neuroendocrine responses and circulating immune cell redistribution in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Lucas, Ayscha; Holtmann, Gerald; Haag, Sebastian; Gerken, Guido; Riemenschneider, Natalie; Langhorst, Jost; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Heijnen, Cobi J; Schedlowski, Manfred

    2006-10-01

    Augmented neuroendocrine stress responses and altered immune functions may play a role in the manifestation of functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. We tested the hypothesis that IBS patients would demonstrate enhanced psychological and endocrine responses, as well as altered stress-induced redistribution of circulating leukocytes and lymphocytes, in response to an acute psychosocial stressor when compared with healthy controls. Responses to public speaking stress were analyzed in N = 17 IBS patients without concurrent psychiatric conditions and N = 12 healthy controls. At baseline, immediately following public speaking, and after a recovery period, state anxiety, acute GI symptoms, cardiovascular responses, serum cortisol and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were measured, and numbers of circulating leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations were analyzed by flow cytometry. Public speaking led to significant cardiovascular activation, a significant increase in ACTH, and a redistribution of circulating leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations, including significant increases in natural killer cells and cytotoxic/suppressor T cells. IBS patients demonstrated significantly greater state anxiety both at baseline and following public speaking. However, cardiovascular and endocrine responses, as well as the redistribution of circulating leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations after public speaking stress, did not differ for IBS patients compared with controls. In IBS patients without psychiatric comorbidity, the endocrine response as well as the circulation pattern of leukocyte subpopulations to acute psychosocial stress do not differ from healthy controls in spite of enhanced emotional responses. Future studies should discern the role of psychopathology in psychological and biological stress responses in IBS.

  18. Validation of neutron flux redistribution factors in JSI TRIGA reactor due to control rod movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiba, Tanja; Žerovnik, Gašper; Jazbec, Anže; Štancar, Žiga; Barbot, Loïc; Fourmentel, Damien; Snoj, Luka

    2015-01-01

    For efficient utilization of research reactors, such as TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana, it is important to know neutron flux distribution in the reactor as accurately as possible. The focus of this study is on the neutron flux redistributions due to control rod movements. For analyzing neutron flux redistributions, Monte Carlo calculations of fission rate distributions with the JSI TRIGA reactor model at different control rod configurations have been performed. Sensitivity of the detector response due to control rod movement have been studied. Optimal radial and axial positions of the detector have been determined. Measurements of the axial neutron flux distribution using the CEA manufactured fission chambers have been performed. The experiments at different control rod positions were conducted and compared with the MCNP calculations for a fixed detector axial position. In the future, simultaneous on-line measurements with multiple fission chambers will be performed inside the reactor core for a more accurate on-line power monitoring system. - Highlights: • Neutron flux redistribution due to control rod movement in JSI TRIGA has been studied. • Detector response sensitivity to the control rod position has been minimized. • Optimal radial and axial detector positions have been determined

  19. [Performance of Thallium 201 rest-redistribution spect to predict viability in recent myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Claudia; González, Patricio; Massardo, Teresa; Sierralta, Paulina; Humeres, Pamela; Jofré, Josefina; Yovanovich, Jorge; Aramburú, Ivonne; Brugère, Solange; Chamorro, Hernán; Ramírez, Alfredo; Kunstmann, Sonia; López, Héctor

    2002-03-01

    The detection of viability after acute myocardial infarction is primordial to select the most appropriate therapy, to decrease cardiac events and abnormal remodeling. Thallium201 SPECT is one of the radionuclide techniques used to detect viability. To evaluate the use of Thallium201 rest-redistribution SPECT to detect myocardial viability in reperfused patients after a recent myocardial infarction. Forty one patients with up to of 24 days of evolution of a myocardial infarction were studied. All had angiographically demonstrated coronary artery disease and were subjected to a successful thrombolysis, angioplasty or bypass grafting. SPECT Thallium201 images were acquired at rest and after 4 h of redistribution. These results were compared with variations in wall motion score, studied at baseline and after 3 or 4 months with echocardiography. The sensitivity of rest-redistribution Thallium201 SPECT, to predict recovery of wall motion was 91% when patient analysis was performed and 79% when segmental analysis was done in the culprit region. The figures for specificity were 56 and 73% respectively. Rest-distribution Thallium201 SPECT has an excellent sensitivity to predict myocardial viability in recent myocardial infarction. The data obtained in this study is similar to that reported for chronic coronary artery disease.

  20. Evaluating the effect of nutrient redistribution by animals on the phosphorus cycle of lowland Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Buendía

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P availability decreases with soil age and potentially limits the productivity of ecosystems growing on old and weathered soils. Despite growing on ancient soils, ecosystems of lowland Amazonia are highly productive and are among the most biodiverse on Earth. P eroded and weathered in the Andes is transported by the rivers and deposited in floodplains of the lowland Amazon basin creating hotspots of P fertility. We hypothesize that animals feeding on vegetation and detritus in these hotspots may redistribute P to P-depleted areas, thus contributing to dissipate the P gradient across the landscape. Using a mathematical model, we show that animal-driven spatial redistribution of P from rivers to land and from seasonally flooded to terra firme (upland ecosystems may sustain the P cycle of Amazonian lowlands. Our results show how P imported to land by terrestrial piscivores in combination with spatial redistribution of herbivores and detritivores can significantly enhance the P content in terra firme ecosystems, thereby highlighting the importance of food webs for the biogeochemical cycling of Amazonia.

  1. Plant Clonal Integration Mediates the Horizontal Redistribution of Soil Resources, Benefiting Neighboring Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xue-Hua; Zhang, Ya-Lin; Liu, Zhi-Lan; Gao, Shu-Qin; Song, Yao-Bin; Liu, Feng-Hong; Dong, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Resources such as water taken up by plants can be released into soils through hydraulic redistribution and can also be translocated by clonal integration within a plant clonal network. We hypothesized that the resources from one (donor) microsite could be translocated within a clonal network, released into different (recipient) microsites and subsequently used by neighbor plants in the recipient microsite. To test these hypotheses, we conducted two experiments in which connected and disconnected ramet pairs of Potentilla anserina were grown under both homogeneous and heterogeneous water regimes, with seedlings of Artemisia ordosica as neighbors. The isotopes [(15)N] and deuterium were used to trace the translocation of nitrogen and water, respectively, within the clonal network. The water and nitrogen taken up by P. anserina ramets in the donor microsite were translocated into the connected ramets in the recipient microsites. Most notably, portions of the translocated water and nitrogen were released into the recipient microsite and were used by the neighboring A. ordosica, which increased growth of the neighboring A. ordosica significantly. Therefore, our hypotheses were supported, and plant clonal integration mediated the horizontal hydraulic redistribution of resources, thus benefiting neighboring plants. Such a plant clonal integration-mediated resource redistribution in horizontal space may have substantial effects on the interspecific relations and composition of the community and consequently on ecosystem processes.

  2. Plant clonal integration mediates the horizontal redistribution of soil resources, benefiting neighbouring plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehua eYe

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Resources such as water taken up by plants can be released into soils through hydraulic redistribution and can also be translocated by clonal integration within a plant clonal network. We hypothesized that the resources from one (donor microsite could be translocated within a clonal network, released into different (recipient microsites and subsequently used by neighbour plants in the recipient microsite. To test these hypotheses, we conducted two experiments in which connected and disconnected ramet pairs of Potentilla anserina were grown under both homogeneous and heterogeneous water regimes, with seedlings of Artemisia ordosica as neighbours. The isotopes [15N] and deuterium were used to trace the translocation of nitrogen and water, respectively, within the clonal network. The water and nitrogen taken up by P. anserina ramets in the donor microsite were translocated into the connected ramets in the recipient microsites. Most notably, portions of the translocated water and nitrogen were released into the recipient microsite and were used by the neighbouring A. ordosica, which increased growth of the neighbouring A. ordosica significantly. Therefore, our hypotheses were supported, and plant clonal integration mediated the horizontal hydraulic redistribution of resources, thus benefiting neighbouring plants. Such a plant clonal integration-mediated resource redistribution in horizontal space may have substantial effects on the interspecific relations and composition of the community and consequently on ecosystem processes.

  3. Economic benefits of sharing and redistributing influenza vaccines when shortages occurred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-I

    2017-01-01

    Recurrent influenza outbreak has been a concern for government health institutions in Taiwan. Over 10% of the population is infected by influenza viruses every year, and the infection has caused losses to both health and the economy. Approximately three million free vaccine doses are ordered and administered to high-risk populations at the beginning of flu season to control the disease. The government recommends sharing and redistributing vaccine inventories when shortages occur. While this policy intends to increase inventory flexibility, and has been proven as widely valuable, its impact on vaccine availability has not been previously reported. This study developed an inventory model adapted to vaccination protocols to evaluate government recommended polices under different levels of vaccine production. Demands were uncertain and stratified by ages and locations according to the demographic data in Taiwan. When vaccine supply is sufficient, sharing pediatric vaccine reduced vaccine unavailability by 43% and overstock by 54%, and sharing adult vaccine reduced vaccine unavailability by 9% and overstock by 15%. Redistributing vaccines obtained greater gains for both pediatrics and adults (by 75%). When the vaccine supply is in short, only sharing pediatric vaccine yielded a 48% reduction of unused inventory, while other polices do not improve performances. When implementing vaccination activities for seasonal influenza intervention, it is important to consider mismatches of demand and vaccine inventory. Our model confirmed that sharing and redistributing vaccines can substantially increase availability and reduce unused vaccines.

  4. Partitioning of heavy metals in a soil contaminated by slag: A redistribution study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunzl, K.; Trautmannsheimer, M.; Schramel, P.

    1999-01-01

    In order to interpret reasonably the partitioning of heavy metals in a contaminated soil as observed from applying a sequential extraction procedure, information on possible redistribution processes of the metals during the various extraction steps is essential. For this purpose, sequential extraction was used to study the chemical partitioning of Ag, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in a soil contaminated wither by a slag from coal firing or by a slag from pyrite roasting. Through additional application of sequential extraction to the pure slags as well as to the uncontaminated soil, it was shown that during the various extraction steps applied to the soil/slag mixtures, substantial redistribution processes of the metals between the slag- and soil particles can occur. In many cases, metals ions released during the extraction with acid hydroxylamine or acid hydrogen peroxide are partially readsorbed by solid constituents of the mixture and will therefore be found in the subsequent fractions extracted. As a result, one has to realize that (1) it will be difficult to predict the chemical partitioning of these metals in contaminated soils by investigating pure slags only, and (2) information on the partitioning of a metal in a slag contaminated soil will not necessarily give any relevant information on the form of this metal in the slag or in the slag/soil mixture, because the redistribution processes during sequential extraction will not be the same as those occurring in the soil solution under natural conditions

  5. The influence of Pt redistribution on Ni1-xPtxSi growth properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demeulemeester, J.; Smeets, D.; Temst, K.; Vantomme, A.; Comrie, C. M.; Van Bockstael, C.; Knaepen, W.; Detavernier, C.

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the influence of Pt on the growth of Ni silicide thin films by examining the Pt redistribution during silicide growth. Three different initial Pt configurations were investigated, i.e., a Pt alloy (Ni+Pt/ ), a Pt capping layer (Pt/Ni/ ) and a Pt interlayer (Ni/Pt/ ), all containing 7 at. % Pt relative to the Ni content. The Pt redistribution was probed using in situ real-time Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) whereas the phase sequence was monitored during the solid phase reaction (SPR) using in situ real-time x-ray diffraction. We found that the capping layer and alloy exhibit a SPR comparable to the pure Ni/ system, whereas Pt added as an interlayer has a much more drastic influence on the Ni silicide phase sequence. Nevertheless, for all initial sample configurations, Pt redistributes in an erratic way. This phenomenon can be assigned to the low solubility of Pt in Ni 2 Si compared to NiSi and the high mobility of Pt in Ni 2 Si compared to pure Ni. Real-time RBS further revealed that the crucial issue determining the growth properties of each silicide phase is the Pt concentration at the Si interface during the initial stages of phase formation. The formation of areas rich in Pt reduce the Ni silicide growth kinetics which influences the phase sequence and properties of the silicides.

  6. Carriers' localization and thermal redistribution in post growth voluntarily tuned quantum dashes' size/composition distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alouane, M.H. Hadj; Helali, A.; Morris, D.; Maaref, H.; Aimez, V.; Salem, B.; Gendry, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper treats the impact of post growth tuned InAs/InP quantum dashes' (QDas) size/composition distribution on carriers' localization and thermal redistribution. The spread of this distribution depends on the experimental conditions used for the phosphorus ion implantation enhanced intermixing process. Atypical temperature-dependent luminescence properties have been observed and found to be strongly dependent on the amount of QDas size/composition dispersion. The experimental results have been reproduced by a model that takes into account the width of the QDas localized states distribution and consequent thermally induced carriers' redistribution. This model gives critical temperature values marking the beginning and the end of carriers delocalization and thermal transfer processes via an intermixing induced carrier's transfer channel located below the wetting layer states. -- Highlights: • We examine optical properties of post growth tuned QDas size/composition distribution. • Carriers' localization and thermal redistribution within inhomogeneously intermixed QDas are the origin of the atypical temperature-dependent luminescence properties. • Localized states ensemble's model is successively used to interpret the experimental results. • The carriers thermal transfer processes occur via an intermixing induced channel located below the wetting layer states. • Intermixing degree strongly influence the critical temperatures marking the beginning and the end of the carriers thermal transfer processes

  7. Evaluating the effect of nutrient redistribution by animals on the phosphorus cycle of lowland Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buendía, Corina; Kleidon, Axel; Manzoni, Stefano; Reu, Björn; Porporato, Amilcare

    2018-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) availability decreases with soil age and potentially limits the productivity of ecosystems growing on old and weathered soils. Despite growing on ancient soils, ecosystems of lowland Amazonia are highly productive and are among the most biodiverse on Earth. P eroded and weathered in the Andes is transported by the rivers and deposited in floodplains of the lowland Amazon basin creating hotspots of P fertility. We hypothesize that animals feeding on vegetation and detritus in these hotspots may redistribute P to P-depleted areas, thus contributing to dissipate the P gradient across the landscape. Using a mathematical model, we show that animal-driven spatial redistribution of P from rivers to land and from seasonally flooded to terra firme (upland) ecosystems may sustain the P cycle of Amazonian lowlands. Our results show how P imported to land by terrestrial piscivores in combination with spatial redistribution of herbivores and detritivores can significantly enhance the P content in terra firme ecosystems, thereby highlighting the importance of food webs for the biogeochemical cycling of Amazonia.

  8. Snow in a very steep rock face: accumulation and redistribution during and after a snowfall event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Gabriel Sommer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial laser scanning was used to measure snow thickness changes (perpendicular to the surface in a rock face. The aim was to investigate the accumulation and redistribution of snow in extremely steep terrain (>60°. The north-east face of the Chlein Schiahorn in the region of Davos in eastern Switzerland was scanned before and several times after a snowfall event. A summer scan without snow was acquired to calculate the total snow thickness. An improved postprocessing procedure is introduced. The data quality could be increased by using snow thickness instead of snow depth (measured vertically and by consistently applying Multi Station Adjustment to improve the registration.More snow was deposited in the flatter, smoother areas of the rock face. The spatial variability of the snow thickness change was high. The spatial patterns of the total snow thickness were similar to those of the snow thickness change. The correlation coefficient between them was 0.86. The fresh snow was partly redistributed from extremely steep to flatter terrain, presumably mostly through avalanching. The redistribution started during the snowfall and ended several days later. Snow was able to accumulate permanently at every slope angle. The amount of snow in extremely steep terrain was limited but not negligible. Areas steeper than 60° received 15% of the snowfall and contained 10% of the total amount of snow.

  9. Economic benefits of sharing and redistributing influenza vaccines when shortages occurred.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-I Chen

    Full Text Available Recurrent influenza outbreak has been a concern for government health institutions in Taiwan. Over 10% of the population is infected by influenza viruses every year, and the infection has caused losses to both health and the economy. Approximately three million free vaccine doses are ordered and administered to high-risk populations at the beginning of flu season to control the disease. The government recommends sharing and redistributing vaccine inventories when shortages occur. While this policy intends to increase inventory flexibility, and has been proven as widely valuable, its impact on vaccine availability has not been previously reported.This study developed an inventory model adapted to vaccination protocols to evaluate government recommended polices under different levels of vaccine production. Demands were uncertain and stratified by ages and locations according to the demographic data in Taiwan.When vaccine supply is sufficient, sharing pediatric vaccine reduced vaccine unavailability by 43% and overstock by 54%, and sharing adult vaccine reduced vaccine unavailability by 9% and overstock by 15%. Redistributing vaccines obtained greater gains for both pediatrics and adults (by 75%. When the vaccine supply is in short, only sharing pediatric vaccine yielded a 48% reduction of unused inventory, while other polices do not improve performances.When implementing vaccination activities for seasonal influenza intervention, it is important to consider mismatches of demand and vaccine inventory. Our model confirmed that sharing and redistributing vaccines can substantially increase availability and reduce unused vaccines.

  10. Vibrational properties of amorphous semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, P.A.B.

    1985-01-01

    A model for the lattice dynamics of a-Si 1-X N X is introduced. This model is based on a Born hamiltonian, solved in the Bethe lattice approximation. Starting from the local density of vibrational states, we analize the infrared absoption spectra of this material. (author) [pt

  11. Ultrafast vibrations of gold nanorings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelf, T; Tanaka, Y; Matsuda, O

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the vibrational modes of gold nanorings on a silica substrate with an ultrafast optical technique. By comparison with numerical simulations, we identify several resonances in the gigahertz range associated with axially symmetric deformations of the nanoring and substrate. We...

  12. Monothiodibenzoylmethane: Structural and vibrational assignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarke Knud Vilster; Gorski, Alexander; Posokhov, Yevgen

    2007-01-01

    vibrational spectra were compared with theoretical transitions obtained with B3LYP/cc-pVTZ density functional theory (DFT). The results leave no doubt that the stable ground state configuration of TDBM corresponds to the intramolecularly hydrogen bonded enol form (e-CCC), and that the photoproduct corresponds...

  13. Low-Vibration Oscillating Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, P. A.

    1984-01-01

    Oscillating compressor momentum compensated: produces little vibration in its supporting structure. Compressure requires no lubrication and virtually free of wear. Compresses working fluids such as helium, nitrogen or chlorfluorocarbons for Stirling-cycle refrigeration or other purposes. Compressor includes two mutually opposed ferromagnetic pistons of same shape and mass. Electromagnetic flux links both pistons, causing magnetic attraction between them.

  14. Vibrational relaxation in OCS mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, C.J.S.M.; Gait, P.D.; Simmie, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental measurements are reported of vibrational relaxation times which may be used to show whether there is near resonant vibration-rotation energy transfer between OCS and H 2 , D 2 or HD. Vibrational relaxation times have been measured in OCS and OCS mixtures over the temperature range 360 to 1000 K using a shock tube and a laser schlieren system. The effectiveness of the additives in reducing the relaxation time of OCS is in the order 4 He 3 He 2 2 and HD. Along this series the effect of an increase in temperature changes from the case of speeding up the rate with 4 He to retarding it with D 2 , HD and H 2 . There is no measurable difference in the effectiveness of n-D 2 and o-D 2 and little, or no, difference between n-H 2 and p-H 2 . Thus the experimental results do not give clear evidence for rotational-vibration energy transfer between hydrogen and OCS. This contrasts with the situation for CO 2 + H 2 mixtures. (author)

  15. Vibrational entropies in metallic alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozolins, Vidvuds; Asta, Mark; Wolverton, Christopher

    2000-03-01

    Recently, it has been recognized that vibrational entropy can have significant effects on the phase stability of metallic alloys. Using density functional linear response calculations and molecular dynamics simulations we study three representative cases: (i) phase diagram of Al-rich Al-Sc alloys, (ii) stability of precipitate phases in CuAl_2, and (iii) phonon dynamics in bcc Zr. We find large vibrational entropy effects in all cases. In the Al-Sc system, vibrations increase the solid solubility of Sc in Al by decreasing the stability of the L12 (Al_3Sc) phase. This leads to a nearly ten-fold increase in the solid solubility of Sc in Al at T=800 K. In the Cu-Al system, our calculations predict that the tetragonal Laves phase of CuAl2 has 0.35 kB/atom higher vibrational entropy than the cubic CaF_2-type phase (the latter is predicted to be the T=0 K ground state of CuAl_2). This entropy difference causes a structural transformation in CuAl2 precipitates from the fluorite to the tetragonal Laves phase around T=500 K. Finally, we analyze the highly unusual dynamics of anharmonically stabilized bcc Zr, finding large diffuse-scattering intensity streaks between the bcc Bragg peaks.

  16. Ultrafast vibrations of gold nanorings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelf, T; Tanaka, Y; Matsuda, O

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the vibrational modes of gold nanorings on a silica substrate with an ultrafast optical technique. By comparison with numerical simulations, we identify several resonances in the gigahertz range associated with axially symmetric deformations of the nanoring and substrate. We elucid...

  17. Effect of shelf aging on vibration transmissibility of anti-vibration gloves

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHIBATA, Nobuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Anti-vibration gloves have been used in real workplaces to reduce vibration transmitted through hand-held power tools to the hand. Generally materials used for vibration attenuation in gloves are resilient materials composed of certain synthetic and/or composite polymers. The mechanical characteristics of the resilient materials used in anti-vibration gloves are prone to be influenced by environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, and photo-irradiation, which cause material degradation and aging. This study focused on the influence of shelf aging on the vibration attenuation performance of air-packaged anti-vibration gloves following 2 yr of shelf aging. Effects of shelf aging on the vibration attenuation performance of anti-vibration gloves were examined according to the Japan industrial standard JIS T8114 test protocol. The findings indicate that shelf aging induces the reduction of vibration attenuation performance in air-packaged anti-vibration gloves. PMID:28978817

  18. Vibrational spectroscopy and structural analysis of uranium complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umrejko, D.S.; Nikanovich, M.V.

    1984-12-01

    On the basis of experimental and theoretical studies of vibbrational spectra for halides, sulfates, phosphates, uranyl oxalates (and uranium) as well as for more complicated complex systems, reliable spectroscopic criteria have been established for estimation of their structural features by more simple and accessible (than direct) methods. Due to coordination to a central ion of U/sup 6/(U/sup 4/) ligands a geometry variation specific for each method of addition occurs and concomitant redistribution of the force interaction in the mentioned system as well, which directly affects the variation of their frequency characteristics and vibration modes. On this ground stable indications of particular types of coordination for mono- and polyatomic groups (including bridge-type, characteristic of polymetric structures) are pointed out in the IR absorption and Raman spectra. In the investigated structures the predominant effect of coordination on the spectral properties of complexes, as compared with other factors (for example, outer-sphere binding) is established. The presence of water molecules in an interlayer space does not tell essentially on the state of polyatomic ligands with all donor atoms bound with the uranium central atom (particularly, in binary uranyl phosphates). In the presence of free oxygen atoms the H/sub 2/O effect can lead only to some shift of the maxima of separate bands and their additional weak splitting (in uranyl sulfates).

  19. Assessment of regional ventilation distribution: comparison of vibration response imaging (VRI) with electrical impedance tomography (EIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chang; Boehme, Stefan; Bentley, Alexander H; Hartmann, Erik K; Klein, Klaus U; Bodenstein, Marc; Baumgardner, James E; David, Matthias; Ullrich, Roman; Markstaller, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Vibration response imaging (VRI) is a bedside technology to monitor ventilation by detecting lung sound vibrations. It is currently unknown whether VRI is able to accurately monitor the local distribution of ventilation within the lungs. We therefore compared VRI to electrical impedance tomography (EIT), an established technique used for the assessment of regional ventilation. Simultaneous EIT and VRI measurements were performed in the healthy and injured lungs (ALI; induced by saline lavage) at different PEEP levels (0, 5, 10, 15 mbar) in nine piglets. Vibration energy amplitude (VEA) by VRI, and amplitudes of relative impedance changes (rel.ΔZ) by EIT, were evaluated in seven regions of interest (ROIs). To assess the distribution of tidal volume (VT) by VRI and EIT, absolute values were normalized to the VT obtained by simultaneous spirometry measurements. Redistribution of ventilation by ALI and PEEP was detected by VRI and EIT. The linear correlation between pooled VT by VEA and rel.ΔZ was R(2) = 0.96. Bland-Altman analysis showed a bias of -1.07±24.71 ml and limits of agreement of -49.05 to +47.36 ml. Within the different ROIs, correlations of VT-distribution by EIT and VRI ranged between R(2) values of 0.29 and 0.96. ALI and PEEP did not alter the agreement of VT between VRI and EIT. Measurements of regional ventilation distribution by VRI are comparable to those obtained by EIT.

  20. Redistributing vulnerabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Jens; Padmawati, Retna Siwi

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the social distribution of vulnerability in a given society may turn hazardous events into disasters. This distributional approach draws attention to continuities that explain catastrophes by virtue of the workings of society prior to the event. In this paper, we draw...... attention to the social processes whereby vulnerability is modified and renegotiated during the post-disaster period where resources for disaster alleviation and reconstruction enter local communities. Specifically, we explore the social dynamics of house damage classification in the wake of the 2006...... Central Java earthquake, and we explore relations between citizens and the state during post-disaster house reconstruction. We argue that disastrous outcomes of catastrophic events do not follow pre-existing fault lines of vulnerability in a simple or predictable manner, and that the social process...

  1. Simulating the Dependence of Sagebrush Steppe Vegetation on Redistributed Snow in a Semi-Arid Watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderquist, B.; Kavanagh, K.; Link, T. E.; Strand, E. K.; Seyfried, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    In mountainous regions across the western USA, the composition of aspen (Populus tremuloides) and sagebrush steppe plant communities is often closely related to heterogeneous soil moisture subsidies resulting from redistributed snow. With decades of climate and precipitation data across elevational and precipitation gradients, the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed (RCEW) and critical zone observatory (CZO) in southwest Idaho provides a unique opportunity to study the relationship between vegetation types and redistributed snow. Within the RCEW, the total amount of precipitation has remained unchanged over the past 50 years, however the percentage of the precipitation falling as snow has declined by approximately 4% per decade at mid-elevation sites. As shifts in precipitation phase continue, future trends in vegetation composition and net primary productivity (NPP) of different plant functional types remains a critical question. We hypothesize that redistribution of snow may supplement drought sensitive species like aspen more so than drought tolerant species like mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata spp. vaseyana). To assess the importance of snowdrift subsidies on sagebrush steppe vegetation, NPP of aspen, shrub, and grass species was simulated at three sites using the biogeochemical process model BIOME-BGC. Each site is located directly downslope from snowdrifts providing soil moisture inputs to aspen stands and neighboring vegetation. Drifts vary in size with the largest containing up to four times the snow water equivalent (SWE) of a uniform precipitation layer. Precipitation inputs used by BIOME-BGC were modified to represent the redistribution of snow and simulations were run using daily climate data from 1985-2013. Simulated NPP of annual grasses at each site was not responsive to subsidies from drifting snow. However, at the driest site, aspen and shrub annual NPP was increased by as much as 44 and 30%, respectively, with the redistribution of

  2. Using {sup 137}Cs measurements to investigate the influence of erosion and soil redistribution on soil properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, P. [School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing (China); Geography, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Amory Building, Rennes Drive, Exeter, EX4 4RJ, Devon (United Kingdom); Walling, D.E., E-mail: d.e.walling@exeter.ac.u [Geography, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Amory Building, Rennes Drive, Exeter, EX4 4RJ, Devon (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-15

    Information on the interaction between soil erosion and soil properties is an important requirement for sustainable management of the soil resource. The relationship between soil properties and the soil redistribution rate, reflecting both erosion and deposition, is an important indicator of this interaction. This relationship is difficult to investigate using traditional approaches to documenting soil redistribution rates involving erosion plots and predictive models. However, the use of the fallout radionuclide {sup 137}Cs to document medium-term soil redistribution rates offers a means of overcoming many of the limitations associated with traditional approaches. The study reported sought to demonstrate the potential for using {sup 137}Cs measurements to assess the influence of soil erosion and redistribution on soil properties (particle size composition, total C, macronutrients N, P, K and Mg, micronutrients Mn, Mo, Fe, Cu and Zn and other elements, including Ti and As). {sup 137}Cs measurements undertaken on 52 soil cores collected within a 7 ha cultivated field located near Colebrooke in Devon, UK were used to establish the magnitude and spatial pattern of medium-term soil redistribution rates within the field. The soil redistribution rates documented for the individual sampling points within the field ranged from an erosion rate of -12.9 t ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} to a deposition rate of 19.2 t ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. Composite samples of surface soil (0-5 cm) were collected immediately adjacent to each coring point and these samples were analysed for a range of soil properties. Individual soil properties associated with these samples showed significant variability, with CV values generally lying in the range 10-30%. The relationships between the surface soil properties and the soil redistribution rate were analysed. This analysis demonstrated statistically significant relationships between some soil properties (total phosphorus, % clay, Ti and As) and the soil

  3. Full Wafer Redistribution and Wafer Embedding as Key Technologies for a Multi-Scale Neuromorphic Hardware Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Zoschke, Kai; Güttler, Maurice; Böttcher, Lars; Grübl, Andreas; Husmann, Dan; Schemmel, Johannes; Meier, Karlheinz; Ehrmann, Oswin

    2018-01-01

    Together with the Kirchhoff-Institute for Physics(KIP) the Fraunhofer IZM has developed a full wafer redistribution and embedding technology as base for a large-scale neuromorphic hardware system. The paper will give an overview of the neuromorphic computing platform at the KIP and the associated hardware requirements which drove the described technological developments. In the first phase of the project standard redistribution technologies from wafer level packaging were adapted to enable a ...

  4. Experience in WWER fuel assemblies vibration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovtcharov, O.; Pavelko, V.; Usanov, A.; Arkadov, G.; Dolgov, A.; Molchanov, V.

    2003-01-01

    It is stated that the vibration studies of internals and the fuel assemblies should be conducted during the reactor designing, commissioning and commercial operation stages and the analysis methods being used should complement each other. The present paper describes the methods and main results of the vibration noise studies of internals and the fuel assemblies of the operating NPPs with WWER reactors, as an example of the implementation of the comprehensive approach to the analysis on equipment flow-induced vibration. At that, the characteristics of internals and fuel assemblies vibration loading were dealt jointly as they are elements of the same compound oscillating system and their vibrations have the interrelated nature

  5. Vibration isolation of a ship's seat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agahi, Maryam; Samani, Mehrdad B.; Behzad, Mehdi

    2005-05-01

    Different factors cause vibration. These vibrations make the voyages difficult and reduce comfort and convenience in passenger ships. In this paper, the creating factors of vibration have discussed first, then with mathematical modelling it will be attempted to minimize the vibration over the crew's seat. The modelling consists of a system with two degrees of freedom and by using vibrationisolation with passive method of Tuned Mass Damper (TMD) it will be tried to reduce the vibration over personnel. Moreover using active control systems will be compared with passive systems.

  6. Control of pipe vibrations; Schwingungsminderung bei Rohrleitungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinambari, G.R. [FH Bingen, Fachrichtung Umweltschutz, und IBS Ingenieurbuero fuer Schall- und Schwingungstechnik GmbH, Frankenthal (Germany); Thorn, U. [IBS Ingenieurbuero fuer Schall- und Schwingungstechnik GmbH, Frankenthal (Germany)

    2005-06-01

    Following commissioning of a new vacuum system for the refinery of MiRO Mineraloelraffinerie Oberrhein GmbH and Co. KG, vibrations occurred in the furnace exhaust pipes. As these had to be regarded as critical for the fatigue strength of the pipes, the pipes' vibration response in the critical frequency range was investigated immediately by means of a vibration analysis, and appropriate measures for vibration control were elaborated. All investigations, and the installation of the hydraulic vibration dampers, took place with the system operating. The effectiveness of the measures taken was checked by means of measurements following installation. The measures succeeded in attenuating the vibrations to a level at which, empirically, damage need no longer be expected. This paper illustrates the procedure for developing the vibration control measures and the essential results of the investigations. (orig.)

  7. Vibrations on board and health effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis

    2014-01-01

    There is only limited knowledge of the exposure to vibrations of ships’ crews and their risk of vibration-induced health effects. Exposure to hand-arm vibrations from the use of vibrating tools at sea does not differ from that in the land-based trades. However, in contrast to most other work places...... of the health consequences of whole body vibrations in land-transportation, such exposure at sea may affect ships’ passengers and crews. While the relation of back disorders to high levels of whole body vibration has been demonstrated among e.g. tractor drivers, there are no reported epidemiological evidence...... for such relation among seafarers except for fishermen, who, however, are also exposed to additional recognised physical risk factors at work. The assessment and reduction of vibrations by naval architects relates to technical implications of this impact for the ships’ construction, but has limited value...

  8. Interfacial instabilities in vibrated fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Jeff; Laverón-Simavilla, Ana; Tinao Perez-Miravete, Ignacio; Fernandez Fraile, Jose Javier

    2016-07-01

    Vibrations induce a range of different interfacial phenomena in fluid systems depending on the frequency and orientation of the forcing. With gravity, (large) interfaces are approximately flat and there is a qualitative difference between vertical and horizontal forcing. Sufficient vertical forcing produces subharmonic standing waves (Faraday waves) that extend over the whole interface. Horizontal forcing can excite both localized and extended interfacial phenomena. The vibrating solid boundaries act as wavemakers to excite traveling waves (or sloshing modes at low frequencies) but they also drive evanescent bulk modes whose oscillatory pressure gradient can parametrically excite subharmonic surface waves like cross-waves. Depending on the magnitude of the damping and the aspect ratio of the container, these locally generated surfaces waves may interact in the interior resulting in temporal modulation and other complex dynamics. In the case where the interface separates two fluids of different density in, for example, a rectangular container, the mass transfer due to vertical motion near the endwalls requires a counterflow in the interior region that can lead to a Kelvin-Helmholtz type instability and a ``frozen wave" pattern. In microgravity, the dominance of surface forces favors non-flat equilibrium configurations and the distinction between vertical and horizontal applied forcing can be lost. Hysteresis and multiplicity of solutions are more common, especially in non-wetting systems where disconnected (partial) volumes of fluid can be established. Furthermore, the vibrational field contributes a dynamic pressure term that competes with surface tension to select the (time averaged) shape of the surface. These new (quasi-static) surface configurations, known as vibroequilibria, can differ substantially from the hydrostatic state. There is a tendency for the interface to orient perpendicular to the vibrational axis and, in some cases, a bulge or cavity is induced

  9. Attitudes Toward, and Use of, Vibrators in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Shen; Lay, Alixe; Weis, Laura; Furnham, Adrian

    2018-01-02

    The current study examined the relationship between traditional masculine traits and attitudes toward vibrator use, actual vibrator use, and frequency of vibrator use in China. In all, 235 Chinese females aged between 16 and 58 years completed a questionnaire regarding attitudes toward, and personal use of, vibrators. The results showed a positive association between masculine traits and attitudes toward women's vibrator use, attitudes toward vibrator use and actual vibrator use, as well as frequency of vibrator use. The findings revealed an indirect path in which masculinity influences actual and frequency of vibrator use through attitudes toward women's vibrator use. Limitations and implications of the study are discussed.

  10. Dynamical response of vibrating ferromagnets

    CERN Document Server

    Gaganidze, E; Ziese, M

    2000-01-01

    The resonance frequency of vibrating ferromagnetic reeds in a homogeneous magnetic field can be substantially modified by intrinsic and extrinsic field-related contributions. Searching for the physical reasons of the field-induced resonance frequency change and to study the influence of the spin glass state on it, we have measured the low-temperature magnetoelastic behavior and the dynamical response of vibrating amorphous and polycrystalline ferromagnetic ribbons. We show that the magnetoelastic properties depend strongly on the direction of the applied magnetic field. The influence of the re-entrant spin glass transition on these properties is discussed. We present clear experimental evidence that for applied fields perpendicular to the main area of the samples the behavior of ferromagnetic reeds is rather independent of the material composition and magnetic state, exhibiting a large decrease of the resonance frequency. This effect can be very well explained with a model based on the dynamical response of t...

  11. A night with good vibrations

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Next week-end, the Geneva Science History Museum invites you to a Science Night under the banner of waves and vibrations. Scientists, artists and storytellers from more than forty institutes and local or regional associations will show that waves and vibrations form an integral part of our environment. You will be able to get in contact with the nature of waves through interactive exhibitions on sound and light and through hands-on demonstrations arranged in the Park of the Perle du Lac. On the CERN stand, you will be able to measure the speed of light with a bar of chocolate, and understand the scattering of waves with plastic ducks. Amazing, no? In addition to the stands, the Night will offer many other activities: reconstructions of experiments, a play, a concert of crystal glasses, an illuminated fountain, a house of spirits. More information Science Night, 6 and 7 July, Park of the Perle du Lac, Geneva

  12. Vibration of imperfect rotating disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Půst L.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the theoretical and numerical calculations of the flexural vibrations of a bladed disk. The main focus of this study is to elaborate the basic background for diagnostic and identification methods for ascertaining the main properties of the real structure or an experimental model of turbine disks. The reduction of undesirable vibrations of blades is proposed by using damping heads, which on the experimental model of turbine disk are applied only on a limited number of blades. This partial setting of damping heads introduces imperfection in mass, stiffness and damping distribution on the periphery and leads to more complicated dynamic properties than those of a perfect disk. Calculation of FEM model and analytic—numerical solution of disk behaviour in the limited (two modes frequency range shows the splitting of resonance with an increasing speed of disk rotation. The spectrum of resonance is twice denser than that of a perfect disk.

  13. Vibrational communication of subterranean rodents

    OpenAIRE

    HROUZKOVÁ, Ema

    2012-01-01

    This PhD. thesis focuses on the vibrational communication of subterranean mammals, in particular, vocal communication of bathyergids (Heliophobius argenteocinereus, Fukomys mechowii, Fukomys darlingi) and seismic communication of Tachyoryctes. We recorded and analyzed the vocalization of three species and discussed the physical parameters of their vocalization in relationship to the special underground acoustic environment. Moreover, social systems of African mole-rats range from solitary to ...

  14. Tool-specific performance of vibration-reducing gloves for attenuating fingers-transmitted vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welcome, Daniel E.; Dong, Ren G.; Xu, Xueyan S.; Warren, Christopher; McDowell, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fingers-transmitted vibration can cause vibration-induced white finger. The effectiveness of vibration-reducing (VR) gloves for reducing hand transmitted vibration to the fingers has not been sufficiently examined. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to examine tool-specific performance of VR gloves for reducing finger-transmitted vibrations in three orthogonal directions (3D) from powered hand tools. METHODS A transfer function method was used to estimate the tool-specific effectiveness of four typical VR gloves. The transfer functions of the VR glove fingers in three directions were either measured in this study or during a previous study using a 3D laser vibrometer. More than seventy vibration spectra of various tools or machines were used in the estimations. RESULTS When assessed based on frequency-weighted acceleration, the gloves provided little vibration reduction. In some cases, the gloves amplified the vibration by more than 10%, especially the neoprene glove. However, the neoprene glove did the best when the assessment was based on unweighted acceleration. The neoprene glove was able to reduce the vibration by 10% or more of the unweighted vibration for 27 out of the 79 tools. If the dominant vibration of a tool handle or workpiece was in the shear direction relative to the fingers, as observed in the operation of needle scalers, hammer chisels, and bucking bars, the gloves did not reduce the vibration but increased it. CONCLUSIONS This study confirmed that the effectiveness for reducing vibration varied with the gloves and the vibration reduction of each glove depended on tool, vibration direction to the fingers, and finger location. VR gloves, including certified anti-vibration gloves do not provide much vibration reduction when judged based on frequency-weighted acceleration. However, some of the VR gloves can provide more than 10% reduction of the unweighted vibration for some tools or workpieces. Tools and gloves can be matched for

  15. Lateral stiffness and vibration characteristics of composite plated RC shear walls with variable fibres spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meftah, S.A.; Yeghnem, R.; Tounsi, A.; Adda Bedia, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a finite element model for static and free vibration analysis of reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls structures strengthened with thin composite plates having variable fibres spacing is presented. An efficient analysis method that can be used regardless to the sizes and location of the bonded plates is proposed in this study. In the numerical formulation, the adherents and the adhesives are all modelled as shear wall elements, using the mixed finite element method. Several test problems are examined to demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method. Numerical results are obtained for six nonuniform distributions of E-glass, graphite and boron fibres in epoxy matrices. The fibre redistributions of the bonded plates are seen to increase the frequencies modes and reduce substantially the lateral displacements

  16. Surveillance of vibrations in PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espefaelt, R.; Lorenzen, J.; Aakerhielm, F.

    1980-07-01

    The core of a PWR - including fuel elements, internal structure, control rods and core support structure inside the pressure vessel - is subjected to forces which can cause vibrations. One sensitive means to detect and analyse such vibrations is by means of the noise from incore and excore neutron detector signals. In this project noise recordings have been made on two occasions in the Ringhals 2 plant and the obtained data been analysed using the Studsvik Noise Analysis Program System (SNAPS). The results have been intepreted and a detailed description of the vibrational status of the core and pressure vessel internals has been produced. On the basis of the obtained results it is proposed that neutron signal noise analysis should be performed at each PWR plant in the beginning, middle and end of each fuel cycle and an analysis be made using the methods developed in the project. It would also provide a contribution to a higher degree of preparedness for diagnostic tasks in case of unexpected and abnormal events. (author)

  17. The reincorporation and redistribution of trace geoforensic particulates on clothing: an introductory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R M; French, J C; O'Donnell, L; Bull, P A

    2010-12-01

    Two experimental studies were undertaken to investigate the processes of reincorporation and redistribution of trace evidence on garments when worn by a suspect or a victim (reincorporation) or after the garments have been seized and packaged for subsequent forensic analysis (redistribution). The first experiment utilised UV powder, an established proxy for geoforensic trace particulates and the second experiment utilised daffodil pollen transferred onto garments under conditions that mimicked forensic reality. It was demonstrated that reincorporation of trace particulates occurs from upper to lower parts of the same garment and also from upper garments to lower garments. Reincorporation also occurred to all areas of the lower garments, however the highest concentration of particulates was found to be the lap area of the jeans. Particulates also tended to be preserved around technical details such as stitching or relief design features of the garments. Thus the decay of particulates after a contact has been made does not necessarily involve a loss of those particulates from the entire system. These findings have implications for the interpretation of trace evidence when seeking to establish the source of initial contacts or the chronology of pertinent events. The second study demonstrated that folding and packaging items of clothing leads to a redistribution of any trace particulate evidence that is present thereby eliciting an alteration in the spatial distribution of that evidence. There is therefore a necessity to take the context of trace evidence into account and also to follow protocols that are sensitive to these aspects of trace evidence behaviour as a failure to do so may have consequences for the correct interpretation of such evidence. Copyright © 2010 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Projecting the Dependence of Sage-steppe Vegetation on Redistributed Snow in a Warming Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderquist, B.; Kavanagh, K.; Link, T. E.; Seyfried, M. S.; Strand, E. K.

    2015-12-01

    In mountainous regions, the redistribution of snow by wind can increase the effective precipitation available to vegetation. Moisture subsidies caused by drifting snow may be critical to plant productivity in semi-arid ecosystems. However, with increasing temperatures, the distribution of precipitation is becoming more uniform as rain replaces drifting snow. Understanding the ecohydrological interactions between sagebrush steppe vegetation communities and the heterogeneous distribution of soil moisture is essential for predicting and mitigating future losses in ecosystem diversity and productivity in regions characterized by snow dominated precipitation regimes. To address the dependence of vegetation productivity on redistributed snow, we simulated the net primary production (NPP) of aspen, sagebrush, and C3 grass plant functional types spanning a precipitation phase (rain:snow) gradient in the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed and Critical Zone Observatory (RCEW-CZO). The biogeochemical process model Biome-BGC was used to simulate NPP at three sites located directly below snowdrifts that provide melt water late into the spring. To assess climate change impacts on future plant productivity, mid-century (2046-2065) NPP was simulated using the average temperature increase from the Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogs (MACA) data set under the RCP 8.5 emission scenario. At the driest site, mid-century projections of decreased snow cover and increased growing season evaporative demand resulted in limiting soil moisture up to 30 and 40 days earlier for aspen and sage respectively. While spring green up for aspen occurred an average of 13 days earlier under climate change scenarios, NPP remained negative up to 40 days longer during the growing season. These results indicate that the loss of the soil moisture subsidy stemming from prolonged redistributed snow water resources can directly influence ecosystem productivity in the rain:snow transition zone.

  19. A computational model of the fetal circulation to quantify blood redistribution in intrauterine growth restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Garcia-Canadilla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR due to placental insufficiency is associated with blood flow redistribution in order to maintain delivery of oxygenated blood to the brain. Given that, in the fetus the aortic isthmus (AoI is a key arterial connection between the cerebral and placental circulations, quantifying AoI blood flow has been proposed to assess this brain sparing effect in clinical practice. While numerous clinical studies have studied this parameter, fundamental understanding of its determinant factors and its quantitative relation with other aspects of haemodynamic remodeling has been limited. Computational models of the cardiovascular circulation have been proposed for exactly this purpose since they allow both for studying the contributions from isolated parameters as well as estimating properties that cannot be directly assessed from clinical measurements. Therefore, a computational model of the fetal circulation was developed, including the key elements related to fetal blood redistribution and using measured cardiac outflow profiles to allow personalization. The model was first calibrated using patient-specific Doppler data from a healthy fetus. Next, in order to understand the contributions of the main parameters determining blood redistribution, AoI and middle cerebral artery (MCA flow changes were studied by variation of cerebral and peripheral-placental resistances. Finally, to study how this affects an individual fetus, the model was fitted to three IUGR cases with different degrees of severity. In conclusion, the proposed computational model provides a good approximation to assess blood flow changes in the fetal circulation. The results support that while MCA flow is mainly determined by a fall in brain resistance, the AoI is influenced by a balance between increased peripheral-placental and decreased cerebral resistances. Personalizing the model allows for quantifying the balance between cerebral and peripheral

  20. Optimal redistribution of an urban air quality monitoring network using atmospheric dispersion model and genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yufang; Xie, Shaodong

    2018-03-01

    Air quality monitoring networks play a significant role in identifying the spatiotemporal patterns of air pollution, and they need to be deployed efficiently, with a minimum number of sites. The revision and optimal adjustment of existing monitoring networks is crucial for cities that have undergone rapid urban expansion and experience temporal variations in pollution patterns. The approach based on the Weather Research and Forecasting-California PUFF (WRF-CALPUFF) model and genetic algorithm (GA) was developed to design an optimal monitoring network. The maximization of coverage with minimum overlap and the ability to detect violations of standards were developed as the design objectives for redistributed networks. The non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm was applied to optimize the network size and site locations simultaneously for Shijiazhuang city, one of the most polluted cities in China. The assessment on the current network identified the insufficient spatial coverage of SO2 and NO2 monitoring for the expanding city. The optimization results showed that significant improvements were achieved in multiple objectives by redistributing the original network. Efficient coverage of the resulting designs improved to 60.99% and 76.06% of the urban area for SO2 and NO2, respectively. The redistributing design for multi-pollutant including 8 sites was also proposed, with the spatial representation covered 52.30% of the urban area and the overlapped areas decreased by 85.87% compared with the original network. The abilities to detect violations of standards were not improved as much as the other two objectives due to the conflicting nature between the multiple objectives. Additionally, the results demonstrated that the algorithm was slightly sensitive to the parameter settings, with the number of generations presented the most significant effect. Overall, our study presents an effective and feasible procedure for air quality network optimization at a city scale.

  1. "These young chaps think they are just men, too": redistributing masculinity in Kgatleng bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggs, D N

    2001-07-01

    In the 19th century the BaKgatla polity was a chiefdom with a redistributional economy based on mixed agriculture. Sorghum beer was symbolic not only of the patrilineal core of their descent system and of the ideologies of reciprocity and redistribution, but also of masculinity and patriarchal control. With the establishment of a market economy, an industrial brewery and individual access to income, both beer and the act of drinking have been symbolically reconstructed. The ideology of redistribution was well suited to the support of the BaKgatla gerontocracy via alcohol production and consumption. The limits on production and consumption of beer inherent in the agricultural cycle and the control of young men's access by elders made alcohol an effective symbol of managerial competence from the limited context of household authority to that of the chiefdom as a whole. Today, young men's greater control of cash income has given them access to beer beyond the control of elders. As a result, the contrasting ideology of market exchange and competitive distribution of beer has contributed to the degradation of the power of seniors. After reviewing the historical background, this paper explores those changes. It argues that while the observed infrastructural changes have had a predictable impact on drinking behaviors and the symbolic structure of "seniority/masculinity", constructions of the "masculine community" in BaKgatla bars demonstrate continuity in key areas of mens' identities. If as anthropologists we see obvious discontinuities in behavior and ideology, the BaKgatla build selective bridges to "tradition" which seemingly ground the experience of change in relatively seamless continuity.

  2. An Approximate Redistributed Proximal Bundle Method with Inexact Data for Minimizing Nonsmooth Nonconvex Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe an extension of the redistributed technique form classical proximal bundle method to the inexact situation for minimizing nonsmooth nonconvex functions. The cutting-planes model we construct is not the approximation to the whole nonconvex function, but to the local convexification of the approximate objective function, and this kind of local convexification is modified dynamically in order to always yield nonnegative linearization errors. Since we only employ the approximate function values and approximate subgradients, theoretical convergence analysis shows that an approximate stationary point or some double approximate stationary point can be obtained under some mild conditions.

  3. A solid dietary fat containing fish oil redistributes lipoprotein subclasses without increasing oxidative stress in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Hellgren, Lars; Petersen, M.

    2004-01-01

    , a solid dietary fat containing (n-3) PUFA decreased plasma TAG, VLDL, and IDL cholesterol, and redistributed lipoprotein subclasses in LDL and HDL, with a higher concentration of the larger and less atherogenic subfractions. These changes took place without an increase in oxidative stress as measured...... of F than O fat (P oxidation measured as the ratio of plasma isoprostanes F-2 to arachidonic acid and urinary isoprostanes, whereas the vitamin E activity/plasma total lipids ratio was higher after intake of F than O (P = 0.008). In conclusion...

  4. Suppressing RF breakdown of powerful backward wave oscillator by field redistribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Song

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An over mode method for suppressing the RF breakdown on metal surface of resonant reflector cavity in powerful backward wave oscillator is investigated. It is found that the electric field is redistributed and electron emission is restrained with an over longitudinal mode cavity. Compared with the general device, a frequency band of about 5 times wider and a power capacity of at least 1.7 times greater are obtained. The results were verified in an X-band high power microwave generation experiment with the output power near 4 gigawatt.

  5. Pressure redistribution devices: what works, at what cost and what's next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Michael J

    2013-08-01

    This article discusses the development and usage of pressure redistribution devices (PRDs) and their impact on the prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers within the NHS. The article outlines the history of the development of these devices and discusses the reasons for a lack of substantial evidence in support of the use of these devices, their impact on the NHS on cost and perceived outcome. The article describes the typical usage profile in a 500 bed NHS hospital and concludes with a view as to how that may change in the future. Copyright © 2013 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Redistribution of dopant and impurity concentrations during the formation of uniform WSi2 films by RTP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegal, M.P.; Santiago, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    Secondary ion mass spectroscopy has been used to study the effects of rapid thermal processing on the formation of tetragonal tungsten disilicide thin films on Si(100), p-type 5 Ω . cm wafers. The substrates were chemically etched, followed by an RF sputter deposition of 710A W metal. The samples were then fast radiatively processed in an RTP system for time intervals ranging from 15 to 45 seconds at high temperature (--1100 0 C) under high vacuum. The redistribution of the boron dopant concentration profile is described in this paper

  7. Effects of a current on the redistribution of an ionizing additive over an MHD channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reznikov, M.B.; Lamden, D.I.; Mostinskii, I.L.

    1983-01-01

    A solution is obtained for the steady-state distribution of an ionizing impurity over the cross section of the channel in an MHD generator. It is assumed that the flow in the channel is turbulent and stabilized. Allowance is made for chemical reactions, nonisothermal flow, and ion current drift. It is shown that ion drift can lead to a substantial redistribution of the additive over the cross section and in particular to a rise in concentration by the cathode and a reduction near the anode

  8. Aspects of frequency redistribution for non-coherent scattering in a turbulent medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnan, C.

    1975-01-01

    The scattering of line phonons in a turbulent medium is re-examined. The fact is taken into account that a photon absorbed in a turbulent element having some velocity will be re-emitted by the same element and keeps in that way a certain 'memory' of its absorption. Adding the contributions of all turbulent elements at a given point new redistribution functions are constructed, describing this correlation. They give the probability that a photon with frequency x in the direction n is absorbed and re-emitted at frequency x' in the direction n'. A preliminary discussion of the problem is given in an astrophysical context. (author)

  9. Demographic aging in the United States: implications for population and income redistribution to the year 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serow, W J; Spar, M A

    1982-01-01

    "The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effects of a prolonged period of sustained low fertility upon shifts in the population distribution of the United States among Department of Energy (DOE) regions." The authors also examine the impact of demographic aging on income distribution up to the year 2000 using the assumptions made in the Series III population projections prepared by the U.S. Bureau of the Census in 1977. It is noted that migration will emerge as the primary agent for internal population redistribution. excerpt

  10. FREQUENCY REDISTRIBUTION OF POLARIZED LIGHT IN THE Λ-TYPE MULTI-TERM POLARIZED ATOM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casini, R. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Sainz, R. Manso [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2016-06-20

    We study the effects of Rayleigh and Raman scattering on the formation of polarized spectral lines in a Λ-type multi-term atom. We fully take into account the partial redistribution of frequency and the presence of atomic polarization in the lower states of the atomic model. Problems that can be modeled with this formalism include, for example, the formation of the Ca ii H–K and IR triplet, the analogous system of Ba ii, and the Ly β –H α system of hydrogenic ions.

  11. Redistribution of fallout radionuclides in Enewetak Atoll lagoon sediments by callianassid bioturbation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMurtry, G.M.; Schneider, R.C. (Hawaii Univ., Honolulu (USA). Hawaii Inst. of Geophysics); Colin, P.L. (Hawaii Inst. of Marine Biology, Honolulu (USA)); Buddemeier, R.W. (California Univ., Livermore (USA). Lawrence Livermore Lab.); Suchanek, T.H. (Fairleigh Dickinson Univ., St. Croix, Virgin Islands (USA). West Indies Lab.)

    1985-02-21

    The lagoon sediments of Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands contain a large selection of fallout radionuclides as a result of 43 nuclear weapon tests conducted there between 1948 and 1958. The authors report elevated fallout radionuclide concentrations buried more deeply in the lagoon sediments and evidence of burrowing into the sediment by several species of callianassid ghost shrimp (Crustacea: Thalassinidea) which has displaced highly radioactive sediment. The burrowing activities of callianassids, which are ubiquitous on the lagoon floor, facilitate radionuclide redistribution and complicate the fallout radionuclide inventory of the lagoon.

  12. Phase transformation and liquid density redistribution during solidification of Ni-based superalloy Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ling

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The influences of chemical segregation and phase transformation on liquid density variation during solidification of Ni-based supperalloy Inconel 718 were investigated using SEM and EDS. It was found that significant segregation in liquid prompts high Nb phase to precipitate directly from liquid, which results in the redistribution of alloy elements and liquid density in their vicinity. The term “inter-precipitate liquid density” is therefore proposed and this concept should be applied to determine the solidification behavior of superalloy Inconel 718.

  13. Regularities of in-regional redistribution of the nuclear test products in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsitskishvili, M.S.; Chkhartishvili, A.G.; Nozadze, M.R.; Intskirveli, L.N.; Buachidze, N.D.; Churguliya, E.R.; Shatberashvili, I.G.; Diasamidze, R.I.; Karchava, G.V.; Gugushvili, B.S.

    2003-01-01

    Regularities of artificial radionuclides redistribution in the Caucasus atmosphere are studied. The structure of global fallout in the region is considered. It is noted, that Caucasus is characterizing by a wide diversity of the landscapes and soils. This diversity results a different migration regime for radioisotopes in soils. Penetration of the nuclear tests products into the soils depends on the annual precipitation amount (soil humidification), and incoming level of the radioisotopes. At evaluation of external and internal irradiation doses on South Caucasus population the Caucasus was divided into regions by levels of the global reactive fallout

  14. Redistribution of fallout radionuclides in Enewetak Atoll lagoon sediments by callianassid bioturbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurtry, G.M.; Schneider, R.C.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Suchanek, T.H.

    1985-01-01

    The lagoon sediments of Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands contain a large selection of fallout radionuclides as a result of 43 nuclear weapon tests conducted there between 1948 and 1958. The authors report elevated fallout radionuclide concentrations buried more deeply in the lagoon sediments and evidence of burrowing into the sediment by several species of callianassid ghost shrimp (Crustacea: Thalassinidea) which has displaced highly radioactive sediment. The burrowing activities of callianassids, which are ubiquitous on the lagoon floor, facilitate radionuclide redistribution and complicate the fallout radionuclide inventory of the lagoon. (author)

  15. Pressure drop redistribution experimental analysis in axial flow along the bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos Franco, C. de; Carajilescov, P.

    1992-01-01

    Fuel elements of PWR type nuclear reactors are composed of rod bundles, arranged in square arrays, held by grid type spacers. The coolant flows axially along the bundle. Although such elements are laterally open, pressure drop experiments are performed in closed type test sections, originating the appearance of subchannels of different geometries. Utilizing a test section of two bundles of 4 x 4 pins and performing experiments with and without separation between the bundles, the flow redistribution factors, the friction, and the grid drag coefficients were determined for the interior subchannels. 03 refs, 06 figs, 02 tabs. (B.C.A.)

  16. Redistribution by insurance market regulation: Analyzing a ban on gender-based retirement annuities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Amy; Poterba, James; Rothschild, Casey

    2009-01-01

    We illustrate how equilibrium screening models can be used to evaluate the economic consequences of insurance market regulation. We calibrate and solve a model of the United Kingdom's compulsory annuity market and examine the impact of gender-based pricing restrictions. We find that the endogenous adjustment of annuity contract menus in response to such restrictions can undo up to half of the redistribution from men to women that would occur with exogenous Social Security-like annuity contracts. Our findings indicate the importance of endogenous contract responses and illustrate the feasibility of employing theoretical insurance market equilibrium models for quantitative policy analysis.

  17. Attitudes Toward, and Use of, Vibrators in China

    OpenAIRE

    Jing, S.; Lay, A.; Weis, L.; Furnham, A.

    2018-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between traditional masculine traits and attitudes toward vibrator use, actual vibrator use, and frequency of vibrator use in China. In all, 235 Chinese females aged between 16 and 58 years completed a questionnaire regarding attitudes toward, and personal use of, vibrators. The results showed a positive association between masculine traits and attitudes toward women's vibrator use, attitudes toward vibrator use and actual vibrator use, as well as f...

  18. Adaptive Piezoelectric Absorber for Active Vibration Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Herold

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Passive vibration control solutions are often limited to working reliably at one design point. Especially applied to lightweight structures, which tend to have unwanted vibration, active vibration control approaches can outperform passive solutions. To generate dynamic forces in a narrow frequency band, passive single-degree-of-freedom oscillators are frequently used as vibration absorbers and neutralizers. In order to respond to changes in system properties and/or the frequency of excitation forces, in this work, adaptive vibration compensation by a tunable piezoelectric vibration absorber is investigated. A special design containing piezoelectric stack actuators is used to cover a large tuning range for the natural frequency of the adaptive vibration absorber, while also the utilization as an active dynamic inertial mass actuator for active control concepts is possible, which can help to implement a broadband vibration control system. An analytical model is set up to derive general design rules for the system. An absorber prototype is set up and validated experimentally for both use cases of an adaptive vibration absorber and inertial mass actuator. Finally, the adaptive vibration control system is installed and tested with a basic truss structure in the laboratory, using both the possibility to adjust the properties of the absorber and active control.

  19. Ground test for vibration control demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C.; Prodigue, J.; Broux, G.; Cantinaud, O.; Poussot-Vassal, C.

    2016-09-01

    In the objective of maximizing comfort in Falcon jets, Dassault Aviation is developing an innovative vibration control technology. Vibrations of the structure are measured at several locations and sent to a dedicated high performance vibration control computer. Control laws are implemented in this computer to analyse the vibrations in real time, and then elaborate orders sent to the existing control surfaces to counteract vibrations. After detailing the technology principles, this paper focuses on the vibration control ground demonstration that was performed by Dassault Aviation in May 2015 on Falcon 7X business jet. The goal of this test was to attenuate vibrations resulting from fixed forced excitation delivered by shakers. The ground test demonstrated the capability to implement an efficient closed-loop vibration control with a significant vibration level reduction and validated the vibration control law design methodology. This successful ground test was a prerequisite before the flight test demonstration that is now being prepared. This study has been partly supported by the JTI CleanSky SFWA-ITD.

  20. Quantitative estimation of viable myocardium in the infarcted zone by infarct-redistribution map from images of exercise thallium-201 emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiai, Yasuhiro

    1988-01-01

    To evaluate, quantitatively, the viable myocardium in the infarcted zone, we invented the infarct-redistribution map which is produced from images of exercise thallium-201 emission computed tomography performed on 10 healthy subjects and 20 patients with myocardial infarction. The map displayed a left ventricle in which the infarcted area both with and without redistribution, the redistribution area without infarction, and normal perfusion area were shown separated in same screen. In these circumstances, the nonredistribution infarct lesion was found as being surrounded by the redistribution area. Indices of infarct and redistribution extent (defect score, % defect, redistribution ratio (RR) and redistribution index (RI)), were induced from the map and were used for quantitative analysis of the redistribution area and as the basis for comparative discussion regarding regional wall motion of the left ventricle. The quantitative indices of defect score, % defect, RR and RI were consistent with the visual assessment of planar images in detecting the extent of redistribution. Furthermore, defect score and % defect had an inverted linear relationship with % shortening (r = -0.573; p < 0.05, r = -0.536; p < 0.05, respectively), and RI had a good linear relationship with % shortening (r = 0.669; p < 0.01). We conclude that the infarct-redistribution map accurately reflects the myocardial viability and therefore may be useful for quantitative estimation of viable myocardium in the infarcted zone. (author)

  1. Enhanced detection of ischemic but viable myocardium by the reinjection of thallium after stress-redistribution imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilsizian, V.; Rocco, T.P.; Freedman, N.M.; Leon, M.B.; Bonow, R.O.

    1990-01-01

    The identification of ischemic but viable myocardium by thallium exercise scintigraphy is often imprecise, since many of the perfusion defects that develop in ischemic myocardium during exercise do not fill in on subsequent redistribution images. We hypothesized that a second injection of thallium given after the redistribution images were taken might improve the detection of ischemic but viable myocardium. We studied 100 patients with coronary artery disease, using thallium exercise tomographic imaging and radionuclide angiography. Patients received 2 mCi of thallium intravenously during exercise, redistribution imaging was performed three to four hours later, and a second dose of 1 mCi of thallium was injected at rest immediately thereafter. The three sets of images (stress, redistribution, and reinjection) were then analyzed. Ninety-two of the 100 patients had exercise-induced perfusion defects. Of the 260 abnormal myocardial regions identified by stress imaging, 85 (33 percent) appeared to be irreversible on redistribution imaging three to four hours later. However, 42 of these apparently irreversible defects (49 percent) demonstrated improved or normal thallium uptake after the second injection of thallium, with an increase in mean regional uptake from 56 +/- 12 percent on redistribution studies to 64 +/- 10 percent on reinjection imaging (P less than 0.001). Twenty patients were restudied three to six months after coronary angioplasty. Of the 15 myocardial regions with defects on redistribution studies that were identified as viable by reinjection studies before angioplasty, 13 (87 percent) had normal thallium uptake and improved regional wall motion after angioplasty. In contrast, all eight regions with persistent defects on reinjection imaging before angioplasty had abnormal thallium uptake and abnormal regional wall motion after angioplasty

  2. Vibration-type particle separation device with piezoceramic vibrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooe, Katsutoshi; Doi, Akihiro

    2008-12-01

    During hemanalysis, it is necessary to separate blood cells from whole blood. Many blood separation methods, for example, centrifugation and filtering, are in practical use. However, the use of these methods involves problems from the perspectives of processing speed and processing volume. We develop new types of blood separation devices that use piezo-ceramic vibrators. The first device uses a capillary. One end of the capillary is fixed to the device frame, and the other is fixed to a piezo-ceramic vibrator. The vibrator transmits bending waves to the capillary. This device can process only a small amount of solution; therefore, it is not suitable for hemanalysis. In order to solve this problem, we developed a second device; this device has a pair of thin glass plates with a small gap as a substitute for the capillary used in the first device. These devices are based on the fact that particles heavier than water move toward transverse velocity antinodes while those lighter than water move toward velocity nodes. In this report, we demonstrate the highspeed separation of silica microbeads and 50-vol% glycerol water by using these devices. The first device can separate the abovementioned solution within 3 min while the second can separate it within 1 min. Both devices are driven by a rectangular wave of 15 to 20 Vpp. Furthermore, it has been confirmed that red blood cells are separated from diluted whole blood using the first device within approximately 1 min. These devices have transparency, so they can compose as the analysis system with the chemical analyzer easily.

  3. Identification of Bearing Failure Using Signal Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yani, Irsyadi; Resti, Yulia; Burlian, Firmansyah

    2018-04-01

    Vibration analysis can be used to identify damage to mechanical systems such as journal bearings. Identification of failure can be done by observing the resulting vibration spectrum by measuring the vibration signal occurring in a mechanical system Bearing is one of the engine elements commonly used in mechanical systems. The main purpose of this research is to monitor the bearing condition and to identify bearing failure on a mechanical system by observing the resulting vibration. Data collection techniques based on recordings of sound caused by the vibration of the mechanical system were used in this study, then created a database system based bearing failure due to vibration signal recording sounds on a mechanical system The next step is to group the bearing damage by type based on the databases obtained. The results show the percentage of success in identifying bearing damage is 98 %.

  4. Unjamming a granular hopper by vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, A.; Maza, D.; Garcimartín, A.; Kolb, E.; Lanuza, J.; Clément, E.

    2009-07-01

    We present an experimental study of the outflow of a hopper continuously vibrated by a piezoelectric device. Outpouring of grains can be achieved for apertures much below the usual jamming limit observed for non-vibrated hoppers. Granular flow persists down to the physical limit of one grain diameter, a limit reached for a finite vibration amplitude. For the smaller orifices, we observe an intermittent regime characterized by alternated periods of flow and blockage. Vibrations do not significantly modify the flow rates both in the continuous and the intermittent regime. The analysis of the statistical features of the flowing regime shows that the flow time significantly increases with the vibration amplitude. However, at low vibration amplitude and small orifice sizes, the jamming time distribution displays an anomalous statistics.

  5. Cleaning device for vibrational hose filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, R

    1978-01-05

    Filter hoses out of web in dust separators can be cleaned by enforced vibrations. The efficiency of the cleaning is a maximum if the vibrations are at about the individual frequency of the whole arrangement. In the interior of the hose a cage from bars parallel to the wall of the hose is placed on its total length. The bars are fixed at one end and connected with a vibration exciter at the other end. The unilaterally fixed vibration bars can be adjusted to the individual frequency of the vibration exciter. If the hose filter is flown through from the outer to the inner side the vibration bars serve as a supporting body. In the reverse case the bars are placed on the outer side of the hose filter.

  6. Adsorption, translocation and redistribution of nitrogen (15N) in orange trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenilli, Tatiele Anete Bergamo; Boaretto, Antonio Enedi Boaretto; Bendassolli, Jose Albertino; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze; Muraoka, Takashi

    2002-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the absorption of 15 N from nutrient solution by young orange trees and the translocation and the redistribution of the absorbed N. The treatments were constituted by four periods of 15 N labelling (spring, summer, autumn and winter). In the first treatment, the young orange trees received 15 N in the nutrient solution during the spring and five replicates of the plants were picked at the end of the period. The new part, which was developed during the 15 N labelling period, was separated from the other part (old part) in branch and leaf, and also in flower and fruit when they were. The old part was separated in leaf, stem and root. This same procedure was followed in the other treatments. The total N and the isotope ratios 15 N/ 14 N were performed by mass spectrometry. The major part of absorbed N during the spring and summer was translocated to the new part of the orange trees, but in autumn and winter the absorbed N was concentrated in the old plant part. The redistribution of N from of old plant parts was more intensive during the autumn and winter. (author)

  7. Prescription Drug Diversion: Predictors of Illicit Acquisition and Redistribution in Three U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana Harris

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Prescription drug diversion, the transfer of prescription drugs from lawful to unlawful channels for distribution or use, is a problem in the United States. Despite the pervasiveness of diversion, there are gaps in the literature regarding characteristics of individuals who participate in the illicit trade of prescription drugs. This study examines a range of predictors (e.g., demographics, prescription insurance coverage, perceived risk associated with prescription drug diversion of membership in three distinct diverter groups: individuals who illicitly acquire prescription drugs, those who redistribute them, and those who engage in both behaviors. Methods: Data were drawn from a cross-sectional Internet study (N = 846 of prescription drug use and diversion patterns in New York City, South Florida, and Washington, D.C.. Participants were classified into diversion categories based on their self-reported involvement in the trade of prescription drugs. Group differences in background characteristics of diverter groups were assessed by Chi-Square tests and followed up with multivariate logistic regressions. Results: While individuals in all diversion groups were more likely to be younger and have a licit prescription for any of the assessed drugs in the past year than those who did not divert, individuals who both acquire and redistribute are more likely to live in New York City, not have prescription insurance coverage, and perceive fewer legal risks of prescription drug diversion. Conclusion: Findings suggest that predictive characteristics vary according to diverter group.

  8. Prescription Drug Diversion: Predictors of Illicit Acquisition and Redistribution in Three U.S. Metropolitan Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Shana; Nikulina, Valentina; Gelpí-Acosta, Camila; Morton, Cory; Newsome, Valerie; Gunn, Alana; Hoefinger, Heidi; Aikins, Ross; Smith, Vivian; Barry, Victoria; Downing, Martin J

    2015-12-02

    Prescription drug diversion, the transfer of prescription drugs from lawful to unlawful channels for distribution or use, is a problem in the United States. Despite the pervasiveness of diversion, there are gaps in the literature regarding characteristics of individuals who participate in the illicit trade of prescription drugs. This study examines a range of predictors (e.g., demographics, prescription insurance coverage, perceived risk associated with prescription drug diversion) of membership in three distinct diverter groups: individuals who illicitly acquire prescription drugs, those who redistribute them, and those who engage in both behaviors. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional Internet study ( N = 846) of prescription drug use and diversion patterns in New York City, South Florida, and Washington, D.C.. Participants were classified into diversion categories based on their self-reported involvement in the trade of prescription drugs. Group differences in background characteristics of diverter groups were assessed by Chi-Square tests and followed up with multivariate logistic regressions. While individuals in all diversion groups were more likely to be younger and have a licit prescription for any of the assessed drugs in the past year than those who did not divert, individuals who both acquire and redistribute are more likely to live in New York City, not have prescription insurance coverage, and perceive fewer legal risks of prescription drug diversion. Findings suggest that predictive characteristics vary according to diverter group.

  9. Moment analysis description of wetting and redistribution plumes in wettable and water-repellent soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yunwu; Furman, Alex; Wallach, Rony

    2012-02-01

    SummaryWater repellency has a significant impact on water flow patterns in the soil profile. Transient 2D flow in wettable and natural water-repellent soils was monitored in a transparent flow chamber. The substantial differences in plume shape and spatial water content distribution during the wetting and subsequent redistribution stages were related to the variation of contact angle while in contact with water. The observed plumes shape, internal water content distribution in general and the saturation overshoot behind the wetting front in particular in the repellent soils were associated with unstable flow. Moment analysis was applied to characterize the measured plumes during the wetting and subsequent redistribution. The center of mass and spatial variances determined for the measured evolving plumes were fitted by a model that accounts for capillary and gravitational driving forces in a medium of temporally varying wettability. Ellipses defined around the stable and unstable plumes' centers of mass and whose semi-axes represented a particular number of spatial variances were used to characterize plume shape and internal moisture distribution. A single probability curve was able to characterize the corresponding fractions of the total added water in the different ellipses for all measured plumes, which testify the competence and advantage of the moment analysis method.

  10. Redistribution of carbon flux in Torulopsis glabrata by altering vitamin and calcium level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liming; Li, Yin; Zhu, Yang; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2007-01-01

    Manipulation of cofactor (thiamine, biotin and Ca(2+)) levels as a potential tool to redistribute carbon flux was studied in Torulopsis glabrata. With sub-optimization of vitamin in fermentation medium, the carbon flux was blocked at the key node of pyruvate, and 69 g/L pyruvate was accumulated. Increasing the concentrations of thiamine and biotin could selectively open the valve of carbon flux from pyruvate to pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, the pyruvate carboxylase (PC) pathway and the channel into the TCA cycle, leading to the over-production of alpha-ketoglutarate. In addition, the activity of PC was enhanced with Ca(2+) present in fermentation medium. By combining high concentration's vitamins and CaCO(3) as the pH buffer, a batch culture was conducted in a 7-L fermentor, with the pyruvate concentration decreased to 21.8 g/L while alpha-ketoglutarate concentration increased to 43.7 g/L. Our study indicated that the metabolic flux could be redistributed to overproduce desired metabolites with manipulating the cofactor levels. Furthermore, the manipulation of vitamin level provided an alternative tool to realize metabolic engineering goals.

  11. Rapid reduction of acute subdural hematoma and redistribution of hematoma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Arata; Omata, Tomohiro; Kinouchi, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    An 88-year-old woman presented with acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) which showed rapid resolution on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. She was transferred to our hospital after falling out of bed. On admission, she was comatose with Japan Coma Scale score of 200 and Glasgow Coma Scale score of E1V1M2. Brain CT showed a thick left frontotemporal ASDH. Conservative treatment consisted of 200 ml of glycerol administered intravenously twice a day, and maintenance in the approximately 20 degree head-up position to reduce intracranial pressure. Three days later, her consciousness recovered to Japan Coma Scale score of 30 and Glasgow Coma Scale score of E2V4M5. CT showed obvious reduction of the hematoma without brain or scalp swelling. Spinal MR imaging detected no redistribution of hematoma to the spine. The present case illustrates that rapid spontaneous reduction of ASDH may occur by redistribution of hematoma, mainly to the supratentorial subdural space because of brain atrophy.

  12. Ribose facilitates thallium-201 redistribution in patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perlmutter, N.S.; Wilson, R.A.; Angello, D.A.; Palac, R.T.; Lin, J.; Brown, B.G.

    1991-01-01

    To investigate whether i.v. infusion of ribose, an adenine nucleotide precursor, postischemia facilitates thallium-201 (201Tl) redistribution and improves identification of ischemic myocardium in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), 17 patients underwent two exercise 201Tl stress tests, performed 1-2 wk apart. After immediate postexercise planar imaging, patients received either i.v. ribose (3.3 mg/kg/min x 30 min) or saline as a control. Additional imaging was performed 1 and 4 hr postexercise. Reversible defects were identified by count-profile analysis. Significantly more (nearly twice as many) reversible 201Tl defects were identified on the post-ribose images compared to the post-saline (control) images at both 1 and 4 hr postexercise (p less than 0.001). Quantitative analyses of the coronary arteriogram was available in 13 patients and confirmed that the additional reversible defects were in myocardial regions supplied by stenosed arteries. We conclude that ribose appears to facilitate 201Tl redistribution in patients with CAD and enhances identification of ischemic myocardium

  13. GAUSS-SEIDEL AND SUCCESSIVE OVERRELAXATION METHODS FOR RADIATIVE TRANSFER WITH PARTIAL FREQUENCY REDISTRIBUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampoorna, M.; Bueno, J. Trujillo

    2010-01-01

    The linearly polarized solar limb spectrum that is produced by scattering processes contains a wealth of information on the physical conditions and magnetic fields of the solar outer atmosphere, but the modeling of many of its strongest spectral lines requires solving an involved non-local thermodynamic equilibrium radiative transfer problem accounting for partial redistribution (PRD) effects. Fast radiative transfer methods for the numerical solution of PRD problems are also needed for a proper treatment of hydrogen lines when aiming at realistic time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the solar chromosphere. Here we show how the two-level atom PRD problem with and without polarization can be solved accurately and efficiently via the application of highly convergent iterative schemes based on the Gauss-Seidel and successive overrelaxation (SOR) radiative transfer methods that had been previously developed for the complete redistribution case. Of particular interest is the Symmetric SOR method, which allows us to reach the fully converged solution with an order of magnitude of improvement in the total computational time with respect to the Jacobi-based local accelerated lambda iteration method.

  14. Gauss-Seidel and Successive Overrelaxation Methods for Radiative Transfer with Partial Frequency Redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampoorna, M.; Trujillo Bueno, J.

    2010-04-01

    The linearly polarized solar limb spectrum that is produced by scattering processes contains a wealth of information on the physical conditions and magnetic fields of the solar outer atmosphere, but the modeling of many of its strongest spectral lines requires solving an involved non-local thermodynamic equilibrium radiative transfer problem accounting for partial redistribution (PRD) effects. Fast radiative transfer methods for the numerical solution of PRD problems are also needed for a proper treatment of hydrogen lines when aiming at realistic time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the solar chromosphere. Here we show how the two-level atom PRD problem with and without polarization can be solved accurately and efficiently via the application of highly convergent iterative schemes based on the Gauss-Seidel and successive overrelaxation (SOR) radiative transfer methods that had been previously developed for the complete redistribution case. Of particular interest is the Symmetric SOR method, which allows us to reach the fully converged solution with an order of magnitude of improvement in the total computational time with respect to the Jacobi-based local accelerated lambda iteration method.

  15. Atmospheric redistribution of reactive nitrogen and phosphorus by wildfires and implications for global carbon cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randerson, J. T.; Xu, L.; Wiggins, E. B.; Chen, Y.; Riley, W. J.; Mekonnen, Z. A.; Pellegrini, A.; Mahowald, N. M.

    2017-12-01

    Fires are an important process regulating the redistribution of nutrients within terrestrial ecosystems. Frequently burning ecosystems such as savannas are a net source of N and P to the atmosphere each year, with atmospheric transport and dry and wet deposition increasing nutrient availability in downwind ecosystems and over the open ocean. Transport of N and P aerosols from savanna fires within the Hadley circulation contributes to nutrient deposition over tropical forests, yielding an important cross-biome nutrient transfer. Pyrodenitrification of reactive N increases with fire temperature and modified combustion efficiency, generating a global net biospheric loss of approximately 14 Tg N per year. Here we analyze atmospheric N and P redistribution using the Global Fire Emissions Database version 4s and the Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy earth system model. We synthesize literature estimates of N and P concentrations in fire-emitted aerosols and ecosystem mass balance measurements to help constrain model estimates of these biosphere-atmosphere fluxes. In our analysis, we estimate the fraction of terrestrial net primary production (NPP) that is sustained by fire-emitted P and reactive N from upwind ecosystems. We then evaluate how recent global declines in burned area in savanna and grassland ecosystems may be changing nutrient availability in downwind ecosystems.

  16. Kinetics of incorporation/redistribution of photosensitizer hypericin to/from high-density lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joniova, Jaroslava; Buriankova, Luboslava; Buzova, Diana; Miskovsky, Pavol; Jancura, Daniel

    2014-11-20

    By means of fluorescence spectroscopy we have studied the kinetics of interaction of a photosensitizer hypericin (Hyp) with high-density lipoproteins (HDL). Hyp is incorporated into HDL molecules as monomer till ratio Hyp/HDL ∼8:1 and above this ratio forms non-fluorescent aggregates. This number is different from that found in the case of Hyp incorporation into low-density lipoprotein (LDL) molecules (8:1 vs 30:1). The difference is mainly attributed to the smaller size of HDL in comparison with LDL molecule. Biphasic kinetics of Hyp association with HDL was observed. The rapid phase of incorporation is completed within seconds, while the slow one lasts several minutes. The kinetics of the association of Hyp molecules with free HDL, Hyp/HDL=10:1 complex and the redistribution of Hyp from Hyp/HDL=70:1 complex to free HDL molecules reveal a qualitative similar characteristics of these processes with those observed for the interaction of Hyp with LDL. However, the incorporation of Hyp into HDL in the "slow" phase is more rapid than to LDL and extend of Hyp penetration into lipoproteins in the fast phase is also much higher in the case of HDL. The lower concentration of cholesterol molecules in outer shell of HDL particles is probably the determining factor for the more rapid kinetics of Hyp incorporation to and redistribution from these molecules when comparing with LDL particles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Self-consistent Study of Fast Particle Redistribution by Alfven Eigenmodes During Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergkvist, T.; Hellsten, T.; Johnson, T.

    2006-01-01

    Alfven eigenmodes (AEs) excited by fusion born α particles can degrade the heating efficiency of a burning plasma and throw out αs. To experimentally study the effects of excitation of AEs and the redistribution of the fast ions, ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) is often used. The distribution function of thermonuclear αs in a reactor is expected to be isotropic and constantly renewed through DT reactions. The distribution function of cyclotron heated ions is strongly anisotropic, and the ICRH do not only renew the distribution function but also provide a strong decorrelation mechanism between the fast ions and the AE. Because of the sensitivity of the AE dynamics on the details of the distribution function, the location of the resonance surfaces in phase space and the extent of the overlapping resonant regions for different AEs, a self-consistent treatment of the AE excitation and the ICRH is necessary. Interactions of fast ions with AEs during ICRH has been implemented in the SELFO code. Simulations are in good agreement with the experimentally observer pitch-fork splitting and rapid damping of the AE as ICRH is turned off. The redistribution of fast ions have been studied in the presence of several driven AEs. (author)

  18. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Weathering and its effects on uranium redistribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, H.; Ohnuki, T.; Yanase, N.; Sato, T.; Kimura, H.; Sekine, K.; Nagano, T.; Klessa, D.A.; Conoley, C.; Nakashima, S.; Ewing, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    In the vicinity of the uranium ore deposit at Koongarra, quartz-chlorite schist, the ore host rock, has been subjected to weathering. Although quartz is resistant to weathering, chlorite has been altered to clays and iron minerals. The chlorite weathering and the uranium association with the weathered minerals are the main topics of this study. In order to clarify the weathering of chlorite and its effects on the redistribution of uranium, the processes, mechanisms, and kinetics of the chlorite weathering, and the uranium concentrations in minerals were examined by various methods: X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis, transmission electron microscopy, autoradiography, visible spectroscopy, alpha and gamma spectrometry. The observed results were compared to those calculated, based on two different models developed for the present study. Water-rock interactions have resulted in the weathering of chlorite and precipitation and sorption of uranyl from the groundwaters with the weathering products. It is concluded that the chlorite weathering affects the uranium retardation factor, and thus uranium redistribution at Koongarra. 55 refs., 20 tabs., 120 figs

  19. Channels of energy redistribution in short-pulse laser interactions with metal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhigilei, Leonid V.; Ivanov, Dmitriy S.

    2005-01-01

    The kinetics and channels of laser energy redistribution in a target irradiated by a short, 1 ps, laser pulse is investigated in computer simulations performed with a model that combines molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with a continuum description of the laser excitation and relaxation of the conduction band electrons, based on the two-temperature model (TTM). The energy transferred from the excited electrons to the lattice splits into several parts, namely the energy of the thermal motion of the atoms, the energy of collective atomic motions associated with the relaxation of laser-induced stresses, the energy carried away from the surface region of the target by a stress wave, the energy of quasi-static anisotropic stresses, and, at laser fluences above the melting threshold, the energy transferred to the latent heat of melting and then released upon recrystallization. The presence of the non-thermal channels of energy redistribution (stress wave and quasi-static stresses), not accounted for in the conventional TTM model, can have important implications for interpretation of experimental results on the kinetics of thermal and mechanical relaxation of a target irradiated by a short laser pulse as well as on the characteristics of laser-induced phase transformations. The fraction of the non-thermal energy in the total laser energy partitioning increases with increasing laser fluence

  20. Heavy Metals in Crop Plants: Transport and Redistribution Processes on the Whole Plant Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Page

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Copper, zinc, manganese, iron, nickel and molybdenum are essential micronutrients for plants. However, when present in excess they may damage the plant or decrease the quality of harvested plant products. Some other heavy metals such as cadmium, lead or mercury are not needed by plants and represent pollutants. The uptake into the roots, the loading into the xylem, the acropetal transport to the shoot with the transpiration stream and the further redistribution in the phloem are crucial for the distribution in aerial plant parts. This review is focused on long-distance transport of heavy metals via xylem and phloem and on interactions between the two transport systems. Phloem transport is the basis for the redistribution within the shoot and for the accumulation in fruits and seeds. Solutes may be transferred from the xylem to the phloem (e.g., in the small bundles in stems of cereals, in minor leaf veins. Nickel is highly phloem-mobile and directed to expanding plant parts. Zinc and to a lesser degree also cadmium are also mobile in the phloem and accumulate in meristems (root tips, shoot apex, axillary buds. Iron and manganese are characterized by poor phloem mobility and are retained in older leaves.

  1. Zirconium hydrides and Fe redistribution in Zr-2.5%Nb alloy under ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idrees, Y.; Yao, Z. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON, Canada, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Cui, J.; Shek, G.K. [Kinetrics, Mississauga, ON (Canada); Daymond, M.R., E-mail: daymond@queensu.ca [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON, Canada, K7L 3N6 (Canada)

    2016-11-15

    Zr-2.5%Nb alloy is used to fabricate the pressure tubes of the CANDU reactor. The pressure tube is the primary pressure boundary for coolant in the CANDU design and is susceptible to delayed hydride cracking, reduction in fracture toughness upon hydride precipitation and potentially hydride blister formation. The morphology and nature of hydrides in Zr-2.5%Nb with 100 wppm hydrogen has been investigated using transmission electron microscopy. The effect of hydrides on heavy ion irradiation induced decomposition of the β phase has been reported. STEM-EDX mapping was employed to investigate the distribution of alloying elements. The results show that hydrides are present in the form of stacks of different sizes, with length scales from nano- to micro-meters. Heavy ion irradiation experiments at 250 °C on as-received and hydrided Zr-2.5%Nb alloy, show interesting effects of hydrogen on the irradiation induced redistribution of Fe. It was found that Fe is widely redistributed from the β phase into the α phase in the as-received material, however, the loss of Fe from the β phase and subsequent precipitation is retarded in the hydrided material. This preliminary work will further the current understanding of microstructural evolution of Zr based alloys in the presence of hydrogen. - Graphical abstract: STEM HAADF micrographs at low magnification showing the hydride structure in Zr-2.5Nb alloy.

  2. Segregation and Clustering Effects on Complex Boron Redistribution in Strongly Doped Polycrystalline-Silicon Layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadli, S.; Mansour, F.

    2011-01-01

    This work deals with the investigation of the complex phenomenon of boron (B) transient enhanced diffusion (TED) in strongly implanted silicon (Si) layers. It concerns the instantaneous influences of the strong B concentrations, the Si layers crystallization, the clustering and the B trapping/segregation during thermal post-implantation annealing. We have used Si thin layers obtained from disilane (Si2H6) by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) and then B implanted with a dose of 4 x 1015 atoms/cm2 at an energy of 15 keV. To avoid long redistributions, thermal annealing was carried out at relatively low-temperatures (700, 750 and 800 'deg'C) for various short-times ranging between 1 and 30 minutes. To investigate the experimental secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) doping profiles, a redistribution model well adapted to the particular structure of Si-LPCVD layers and to the effects of strong-concentrations has been established. The good adjustment of the simulated profiles with the experimental SIMS profiles allowed a fundamental understanding about the instantaneous physical phenomena giving and disturbing the TED process in strongly doped Si-LPCVD layers. It was found that boron TED is strongly affected by the simultaneous complex kinetics of clustering, crystallization, trapping and segregation during annealing. The fast formation of small Si-B clusters enhances the B diffusivity whereas the evolution of the clusters and segregation reduce this enhancement. (author)

  3. [Rainfall and soil moisture redistribution induced by xerophytic shrubs in an arid desert ecosystem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng Ning; Wang, Xin Ping; Liu, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Rainfall partitioning by desert shrub canopy modifies the redistribution of incident rainfall under the canopy, and may affect the distribution pattern of soil moisture around the plant. This study examined the distribution of rainfall and the response of soil moisture beneath the canopy of two dominant desert shrubs, Caragana korshinskii and Artemisia ordosica, in the revegetation area at the southeastern edge of the Tengger Desert. The results showed that throughfall and stemflow ave-ragely occupied 74.4%, 11.3% and 61.8%, 5.5% of the gross precipitation for C. korshinskii and A. ordosica, respectively. The mean coefficients of variation (CV) of throughfall were 0.25 and 0.30, respectively. C. korshinski were more efficient than A. ordosica on stemflow generation. The depth of soil wetting front around the stem area was greater than other areas under shrub canopy for C. korshinski, and it was only significantly greater under bigger rain events for A. ordosica. The shrub canopy could cause the unevenness of soil wetting front under the canopy in consequence of rainfall redistribution induced by xerophytic shrub.

  4. Effect of Incident Rainfall Redistribution by Maize Canopy on Soil Moisture at the Crop Row Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Martello

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of irrigation use in agriculture is a key challenge to increase farm profitability and reduce its ecological footprint. To this context, an understanding of more efficient irrigation systems includes the assessment of water redistribution at the microscale. This study aimed to investigate rainfall interception by maize canopy and to model the soil water dynamics at row scale as a result of rain and sprinkler irrigation with HYDRUS 2D/3D. On average, 78% of rainfall below the maize canopy was intercepted by the leaves and transferred along the stem (stemflow, while only 22% reached the ground directly (throughfall. In addition, redistribution of the water with respect to the amount (both rain and irrigation showed that the stemflow/throughfall ratio decreased logarithmically at increasing values of incident rainfall, suggesting the plant capacity to confine the water close to the roots and diminish water stress conditions. This was also underlined by higher soil moisture values observed in the row than in the inter-row at decreasing rainfall events. Modelled data highlighted different behavior in terms of soil water dynamics between simulated irrigation water distributions, although they did not show significant changes in terms of crop water use efficiency. These results were most likely affected by the soil type (silty-loam where the experiment was conducted, as it had unfavorable physical conditions for the rapid vertical water movement that would have increased infiltration and drainage.

  5. Intra- and inter-layer charge redistribution in biased bilayer graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Ning Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the spatial redistribution of the electron density in bilayer graphene in the presence of an interlayer bias within density functional theory. It is found that the interlayer charge redistribution is inhomogeneous between the upper and bottom layers and the transferred charge from the upper layer to the bottom layer linearly increases with the external voltage which further makes the gap at K point linearly increase. However, the band gap will saturate to 0.29 eV in the strong-field regime, but it displays a linear field dependence at the weak-field limit. Due to the AB-stacked way, two carbon atoms per unit cell in the same layer are different and there is also a charge transfer between them, making the widths of π valence bands reduced. In the bottom layer, the charge transfers from the direct atoms which directly face another carbon atom to the indirect atoms facing the center of the hexagon on the opposite layer, while the charge transfers from the indirect atoms to the direct atoms in the upper layer. Furthermore, there is a diploe between the upper and bottom layers which results in the reduction of the interlayer hopping interaction.

  6. Carrying away and redistribution of radioisotopes on the Peyne catchment basin. Preliminary report; Entrainement et redistribution des radionucleides sur le bassin versant de la Peyne. Rapport preliminaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffa, C.; Danic, F

    2006-07-01

    The transfers of radioisotopes present in soils and sediments are essentially conditioned by the mobilities of the physical vectors which constitute their supports. The water is the main vector of natural transfer, radioisotopes being associated with it under dissolved or particulate shape. The rainout and the hydrous erosion are responsible in particular for the carrying away and for the redistribution of contaminants following an atmospheric deposit on a catchment basin. However their effect is not the same in any point of the catchment basin. The work begun here aims at elaborating a classification of the grounds sensitivity towards this phenomenon of radioisotopes carrying away. The different factors of sensitivity have been identified: pluviometry, slope, soils occupation and soils nature. The Peyne catchment basin, that presents an important variability of these four parameters, constitutes the experimental site for this study. On this catchment basin, we search to identify the areas the most sensitive to the carrying away of radioisotopes, by combining a theoretical predictive approach based on the cartography and a descriptive approach basing on the sampling and the analysis of soils samples. (N.C.)

  7. Research In Diagnosing Bearing Defects From Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, T.; Earhart, E.; Fiorucci, T.

    1995-01-01

    Report describes research in bearing-defect signature analysis - use of vibration-signal analysis to diagnose defects in roller and ball bearings. Experiments performed on bearings in good condition and other bearings in which various parts scratched to provide known defects correlated with vibration signals. Experiments performed on highly instrumented motor-driven rotor assembly at speeds up to 10,050 r/min, using accelerometers, velocity probes, and proximity sensors mounted at various locations on assembly to measure vibrations.

  8. Theory And Working Of Noise And Vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Il Rok

    1988-09-01

    This book deals with theory of noise including physical property of noise like term and characteristic of sound, occurrence of sound, characteristic of noise pollution and main cause of occurrence of noise, technique of prevention of noise with noise reduction, construction guide for prevention of noise, and measure of interior noise. It also has the theory of vibration such as an introduction of vibration, and technology of prevention of vibration, official test method of environmental pollution, and summary of protection of the environment.

  9. Assessment of myocardial viability in patients with myocardial infarction using twenty-four hour thallium-201 late redistribution imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiangjun; He Yongming; Zhang Bin; Wu Yiwei; Hui Jie; Jiang Tingbo; Song Jianping; Liu Zhihua; Jiang Wenping

    2006-01-01

    Rest thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) myocardial perfusion imaging has been widely used for evaluation of myocardial ischemia/viability after myocardial infarction, but the ideal timing for imaging after injection to maximally estimate viability is not well established. Thirty-six patients with myocardial infarction underwent the initial, 3 h, and 24 h redistribution imaging after intravenous injection of 148-185 MBq 201 Tl. The initial and 3 h images, the initial and 24 h images, and the 3 and 24 h images were compared double-blinded. Out of the 184 abnormal segments based on the initial imaging, 56 (30%) segments improved by at least 1 grade on the 3 h imaging while 78 (42%) segments improved by at least 1 grade on the 24 h imaging. The 24 h late imaging detected more viable myocardium than the 3 h imaging did, with a significant difference (χ 2 =5.680, p=0.017). There were 158 abnormal segments on the 3 h imaging, with average 28% (44) segments improved by at least 1 grade on the 24 h imaging. There were 128 initial abnormal segments with no improvement on the 3 h imaging. Out of these segments, the 24 h late redistribution imaging detected additional redistribution in 26 segments, taking up 20%. Twenty-four hour late 201 Tl imaging will demonstrated additional redistribution in patients who have incompletely reversible defects on early redistribution imaging at 3 h. (author)

  10. Overlap in nitrogen sources and redistribution of nitrogen between trees and grasses in a semi-arid savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshini, K V R; Prins, Herbert H T; de Bie, Steven; Heitkönig, Ignas M A; Woodborne, Stephan; Gort, Gerrit; Kirkman, Kevin; Fry, Brian; de Kroon, Hans

    2014-04-01

    A key question in savanna ecology is how trees and grasses coexist under N limitation. We used N stable isotopes and N content to study N source partitioning across seasons from trees and associated grasses in a semi-arid savanna. We also used (15)N tracer additions to investigate possible redistribution of N by trees to grasses. Foliar stable N isotope ratio (δ(15)N) values were consistent with trees and grasses using mycorrhiza-supplied N in all seasons except in the wet season when they switched to microbially fixed N. The dependence of trees and grasses on mineralized soil N seemed highly unlikely based on seasonal variation in mineralization rates in the Kruger Park region. Remarkably, foliar δ(15)N values were similar for all three tree species differing in the potential for N fixation through nodulation. The tracer experiment showed that N was redistributed by trees to understory grasses in all seasons. Our results suggest that the redistribution of N from trees to grasses and uptake of N was independent of water redistribution. Although there is overlap of N sources between trees and grasses, dependence on biological sources of N coupled with redistribution of subsoil N by trees may contribute to the coexistence of trees and grasses in semi-arid savannas.

  11. First international conference on vibration control in optics and metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 27 selections. Some of the titles are: Use of optics for vibration analysis of automotive components; Use of pulsed lasers for vibration analysis in the nuclear power industry; Vibration analysis of photocopiers; Control of ground vibrations; Design of low-vibration buildings: two case histories; and Continuous pulsed electronic speckle pattern interferometry

  12. Developed vibration waveform monitoring unit for CBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, T.; Hotsuta, K.; Hirose, I.; Morita, E.

    2007-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, many rotating machines such as pumps and fans are in use. Shikoku Research Institute Inc. has recently developed easy-to-use tools to facilitate the maintenance of such equipment. They include a battery-operated vibration waveform monitoring unit which allows unmanned vibration monitoring on a regular basis and data collection even from intermittently operating equipment, a waveform data collector which can be used for easy collection, storage, control, and analysis of raw vibration waveform data during normal operation, and vibration analysis and evaluation tools. A combination of these tools has a high potential for optimization of rotating equipment maintenance. (author)

  13. Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvesting for Railway Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradai S.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Safe localization of trains via GPS and wireless sensors is essential for railway traffic supervision. Especially for freight trains and because normally no power source is available on the wagons, special solutions for energy supply have to be developed based on energy harvesting techniques. Since vibration is available in this case, it provides an interesting source of energy. Nevertheless, in order to have an efficient design of the harvesting system, the existing vibration needs to be investigated. In this paper, we focus on the characterization of vibration parameters in railway application. We propose an electromagnetic vibration converter especially developed to this application. Vibration profiles from a train traveling between two German cities were measured using a data acquisition system installed on the train’s wagon. Results show that the measured profiles present multiple frequency signals in the range of 10 to 50 Hz and an acceleration of up to 2 g. A prototype for a vibration converter is designed taking into account the real vibration parameters, robustness and integrability requirements. It is based on a moving coil attached to a mechanical spring. For the experimental emulation of the train vibrations, a shaker is used as an external artificial vibration source controlled by a laser sensor in feedback. A maximum voltage of 1.7 V peak to peak which corresponds to a maximum of 10 mW output power where the applied excitation frequency is close to the resonant frequency of the converter which corresponds to 27 Hz.

  14. The Efficacy of Anti-vibration Gloves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Sue; Dong, Ren; McDowell, Tom; Welcome, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Anyone seeking to control the risks from vibration transmitted to the hands and arms may contemplate the use of anti-vibration gloves. To make an informed decision about any type of personal protective equipment, it is necessary to have performance data that allow the degree of protection to be estimated. The information provided with an anti-vibration glove may not be easy to understand without some background knowledge of how gloves are tested and does not provide any clear route for estimating likely protection. Some of the factors that influence the potential efficacy of an anti-vibration glove include how risks from hand–arm vibration exposure are assessed, how the standard test for a glove is carried out, the frequency range and direction of the vibration for which protection is sought, how much hand contact force or pressure is applied and the physical limitations due to glove material and construction. This paper reviews some of the background issues that are useful for potential purchasers of anti-vibration gloves. Ultimately, anti-vibration gloves cannot be relied on to provide sufficient and consistent protection to the wearer and before their use is contemplated all other available means of vibration control ought first to be implemented. PMID:27582615

  15. Axisymmetric vibrations of thick shells of revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Katsuyoshi; Kosawada, Tadashi; Takahashi, Shin

    1983-01-01

    Axisymmetric shells of revolution are used for chemical plants, nuclear power plants, aircrafts, structures and so on, and the elucidation of their free vibration is important for the design. In this study, the axisymmetric vibration of a barrel-shaped shell was analyzed by the modified thick shell theory. The Lagrangian during one period of the vibration of a shell of revolution was determined, and from its stopping condition, the vibration equations and the boundary conditions were derived. The vibration equations were analyzed strictly by using the series solution. Moreover, the basic equations for the strain of a shell and others were based on those of Love. As the examples of numerical calculation, the natural frequency and vibration mode of the symmetrical shells of revolution fixed at both ends and supported at both ends were determined, and their characteristics were clarified. By comparing the results of this study with the results by thin shell theory, the effects of shearing deformation and rotary inertia on the natural frequency and vibration mode were clarified. The theoretical analysis and the numerical calculation are described. The effects of shearing deformation and rotary inertia on the natural frequency became larger in the higher order vibration. The vibration mode did not much change in both theories. (Kako, I.)

  16. Aircraft gas turbine engine vibration diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Fábry

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Czech and Slovak aviation are in service elderly aircrafts, usually produced in former Soviet Union. Their power units can be operated in more efficient way, in case of using additional diagnostic methods that allow evaluating their health. Vibration diagnostics is one of the methods indicating changes of rotational machine dynamics. Ground tests of aircraft gas turbine engines allow vibration recording and analysis. Results contribute to airworthiness evaluation and making corrections, if needed. Vibration sensors distribution, signal recording and processing are introduced in a paper. Recorded and re-calculated vibration parameters are used in role of health indicators.

  17. Flow induced vibrations of piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibert, R.J.; Axisa, F.

    1977-01-01

    In order to design the supports of piping systems, estimations of the vibrations induced by the fluid conveyed through the pipes are generally needed. For that purpose it is necessary to calculate the model parameters of liquid containing pipes. In most computer codes, fluid effects are accounted for just by adding the fluid mass to the structure. This may lead to serious errors. This paper presents a method to take into account these effects, by solving a coupled mechanical-acoustical problem: the computer code TEDEL of the C.E.A /D.E.M.T. System, based on the finite-elements method, has been extended to calculate simultaneously the pressure fluctuations in the fluid and the vibrations of the pipe. By this way the mechanical-acoustical coupled eigenmodes of any piping system can be obtained. These eigenmodes are used to determine the response of the system to various sources. Equations have been written in the hypohesis that acoustical wave lengths remain large compared to the diameter of the pipe. The method has been checked by an experiment performed on the GASCOGNE loop at D.E.M.T. The piping system under test consists of a tube with four elbows. The circuit is ended at each extremity by a large vessel which performs acoustical isolation by generating modes for the pressure. Excitation of the circuit is caused by a valve located near the downstream vessel. This provides an efficient localised broad band acoustical source. The comparison between the test results and the calculations has shown that the low frequency resonant characteristics of the pipe and the vibrational amplitude at various flow-rates can be correctly predicted

  18. EMBEDDED SYSTEMS FOR VIBRATION MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Milovančević

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research presented in this paper is the development of the optimal micro configuration for vibration monitoring of pumping aggregate, based on Microchip’s microcontroller (MC. Hardware used is 10-bit MC, upgraded with 12/bit A/D converter. Software for acquisition and data analysis is optimized for testing turbo pumps with rotation speed up to 2000 rpm. This software limitation is set for automatic diagnostics and for individual and manual vibro-diagnostic; the only limitation is set by accelerometer performance. The authors have performed numerous measurements on a wide range of turbo aggregates for establishing the operational condition of pumping aggregates.

  19. Introduction to vibrations and waves

    CERN Document Server

    Pain, H John

    2015-01-01

    Based on the successful multi-edition book "The Physics ofVibrations and Waves" by John Pain, the authors carry overthe simplicity and logic of the approach taken in the originalfirst edition with its focus on the patterns underlying andconnecting so many aspects of physical behavior, whilst bringingthe subject up-to-date so it is relevant to teaching in the21st century.The transmission of energy by wave propagation is a key conceptthat has applications in almost every branch of physics withtransmitting mediums essentially acting as a continuum of coupledoscillators. The characterization of t

  20. Vibration diagnostics instrumentation for ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolini, A.

    2007-06-15

    The future e{sup -}e{sup +} 500 GeV International Linear Collider will rely on unprecedented nanometer scale particle beam size at the interaction point, in order to achieve the design luminosity. Tight tolerances on static and dynamic alignment of the accelerator cavities and optical components are demanded to transport and focus the high energy electron and positron beams with reasonable position jitter and low emittance. A brief review of techniques and devices evaluated and developed so far for the vibration diagnostics of the machine is presented in this paper. (orig.)

  1. Vibrational Spectroscopy of Chromatographic Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeanne E. Pemberton

    2011-03-10

    Chromatographic separations play a central role in DOE-supported fundamental research related to energy, biological systems, the environment, and nuclear science. The overall portfolio of research activities in the Separations and Analysis Program within the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences includes support for activities designed to develop a molecular-level understanding of the chemical processes that underlie separations for both large-scale and analytical-scale purposes. The research effort funded by this grant award was a continuation of DOE-supported research to develop vibrational spectroscopic methods to characterize the interfacial details of separations processes at a molecular level.

  2. Wideband Piezomagnetoelastic Vibration Energy Harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Anders; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a small-scale wideband piezomagnetoelastic vibration energy harvester (VEH) aimed for operation at frequencies of a few hundred Hz. The VEH consists of a tape-casted PZT cantilever with thin sheets of iron foil attached on each side of the free tip. The wideband operation...... is achieved by placing the cantilever in a magnetic field induced by either one or two magnets located oppositely of the cantilever. The attraction force created by the magnetic field and iron foils introduces a mechanical force in opposite direction of the cantilevers restoring force causing a spring...

  3. Vibration diagnostics instrumentation for ILC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolini, A.

    2007-06-01

    The future e - e + 500 GeV International Linear Collider will rely on unprecedented nanometer scale particle beam size at the interaction point, in order to achieve the design luminosity. Tight tolerances on static and dynamic alignment of the accelerator cavities and optical components are demanded to transport and focus the high energy electron and positron beams with reasonable position jitter and low emittance. A brief review of techniques and devices evaluated and developed so far for the vibration diagnostics of the machine is presented in this paper. (orig.)

  4. Multivariate Analysis of Ladle Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenus, Jaefer; Brooks, Geoffrey; Dunn, Michelle

    2016-08-01

    The homogeneity of composition and uniformity of temperature of the steel melt before it is transferred to the tundish are crucial in making high-quality steel product. The homogenization process is performed by stirring the melt using inert gas in ladles. Continuous monitoring of this process is important to make sure the action of stirring is constant throughout the ladle. Currently, the stirring process is monitored by process operators who largely rely on visual and acoustic phenomena from the ladle. However, due to lack of measurable signals, the accuracy and suitability of this manual monitoring are problematic. The actual flow of argon gas to the ladle may not be same as the flow gage reading due to leakage along the gas line components. As a result, the actual degree of stirring may not be correctly known. Various researchers have used one-dimensional vibration, and sound and image signals measured from the ladle to predict the degree of stirring inside. They developed online sensors which are indeed to monitor the online stirring phenomena. In this investigation, triaxial vibration signals have been measured from a cold water model which is a model of an industrial ladle. Three flow rate ranges and varying bath heights were used to collect vibration signals. The Fast Fourier Transform was applied to the dataset before it has been analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS). PCA was used to unveil the structure in the experimental data. PLS was mainly applied to predict the stirring from the vibration response. It was found that for each flow rate range considered in this study, the informative signals reside in different frequency ranges. The first latent variables in these frequency ranges explain more than 95 pct of the variation in the stirring process for the entire single layer and the double layer data collected from the cold model. PLS analysis in these identified frequency ranges demonstrated that the latent

  5. CRBRP flow induced vibration program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novendstern, E H [Westinghouse Advanced Reactor Division, Madison, PA (United States); Grochowski, F A; Yang, T M [General Electric Co., Fast Breeder Reactor Department, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Ryan, J A; Mulcahy, T M

    1977-12-01

    The program to assure the structural adequacy of Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBRP) components during its planned 30 years of operation is described. The program includes (1) an assessment of reactor components relative to their susceptibility to FIV, (2) designing to minimize component excitation due to Fluid induced vibrations (FIV), (3) scale model tests to measure structural response during simulated operating conditions and (4) preoperational tests. An overview of the CRBRP test program is described. Additionally, details of scale model testing of reactor internals and the steam generator is described in more detail. (author)

  6. Adaptive photodetectors for vibration monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, I.A.

    2003-01-01

    We present characteristics of laser vibrometer using semiconductor GaAs and molecular SnS 2 adaptive photodetectors (AP) based on the effect of the non-steady-state photoelectromotive force. AP enable efficient direct conversion of high-frequency phase modulation of speckle-like optical wave reflected from the vibrating object into an output electrical signal with concomitant setting of optimal operation point of the interferometer and suppression of amplitude laser noise. The sensitivity of the setup is analyzed and further improvements in operation of AP are discussed

  7. Semiclassical theory of plate vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogomolny, E.; Hugues, E.

    1996-11-01

    The bi-harmonic equation of flexural vibrations of elastic plates is studied by a semiclassical method which can easily be generalized for other models of wave propagation. The surface and perimeter terms of the asymptotic number of levels are derived exactly. The next constant term is also derived. A semiclassical approximation of the quantization condition is obtained. A Berry-Tabor formula and a Gutzwiller trace formula are deduced for the integrable and chaotic cases respectively. From 600 eigenvalues of a clamped stadium plate obtained by a specially developed numerical algorithm, the trace formula is assessed, looking at its Fourier transform compared with the membrane case. (author)

  8. Fluorescence imaging of lattice re-distribution on step-index direct laser written Nd:YAG waveguide lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez de Mendívil, Jon; Pérez Delgado, Alberto; Lifante, Ginés; Jaque, Daniel [Departamento de Física de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Ródenas, Airán [Departament de Química Física i Inorgànica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona 43007 (Spain); Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Benayas, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.benayas@emt.inrs.ca [Departamento de Física de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre – Énergie Matériaux et Télécommunications, 1650, Boul. Lionel Boulet Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Aguiló, Magdalena; Diaz, Francesc [Departament de Química Física i Inorgànica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona 43007 (Spain); Kar, Ajoy K. [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-14

    The laser performance and crystalline micro-structural properties of near-infrared step-index channel waveguides fabricated inside Neodymium doped YAG laser ceramics by means of three-dimensional sub-picosecond pulse laser direct writing are reported. Fluorescence micro-mapping of the waveguide cross-sections reveals that an essential crystal lattice re-distribution has been induced after short pulse irradiation. Such lattice re-distribution is evidenced at the waveguide core corresponding to the laser written refractive index increased volume. The waveguides core surroundings also present diverse changes including slight lattice disorder and bi-axial strain fields. The step-index waveguide laser performance is compared with previous laser fabricated waveguides with a stress-optic guiding mechanism in absence of laser induced lattice re-distribution.

  9. Analysis of an out-of-pile experiment for materials redistribution under core disruptive accident condition of fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Tetsuo; Ninokata, Hisashi; Shimizu, Akinao

    1995-01-01

    Calculation of one of the SIMBATH experiments was performed using the SIMMER-II code. The experiments were intended to simulate the fuel pin disintegration, the molten materials relocation and following materials redistribution that could occur during core disruptive accidents assumed in fast breeder reactors. The calculation by SIMMER-II showed that the incorporated step-wise fuel pin disintegration model and the modified particle jamming model were capable of reproducing the course of materials relocation within the identified ranges of the parameters which governed the blockages formation, i.e. the characteristic radius of solid particles jamming and/or sieving out in the flow and the effective particle viscosity. In particular the final materials redistribution calculated by SIMMER-II very well reproduced the experiment. This fact made it possible to interpret theoretically the mechanisms of flow blockages formation and related materials redistribution. (author)

  10. Recent changes in sediment redistribution in the upper parts of the fluvial system of European Russia: regional aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Yermolaev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative assessments of soil loss from cultivated land and sediment redistribution along pathways from cultivated fields to river channels have been undertaken using a range of different methods and techniques, including erosion models, detailed studies of sediment redistribution in representative catchments, monitoring of gully head retreat and evaluation of sediment deposition in ponds and small reservoirs. Most of the sediment eroded from arable land is deposited between the lower portions of the cultivated slopes and the river channels. Less than 15% of the eroded sediment is delivered to the river channels. Sediment redistribution rates in the upper parts of the fluvial system have declined during the last 25 years in both the western and eastern parts of the Russian Plain, because of a major reduction of surface runoff during snowmelt and a reduction of the area of arable land in some parts of the study area.

  11. The ancestral logic of politics: upper-body strength regulates men's assertion of self-interest over economic redistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Michael Bang; Sznycer, Daniel; Sell, Aaron; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John

    2013-07-01

    Over human evolutionary history, upper-body strength has been a major component of fighting ability. Evolutionary models of animal conflict predict that actors with greater fighting ability will more actively attempt to acquire or defend resources than less formidable contestants will. Here, we applied these models to political decision making about redistribution of income and wealth among modern humans. In studies conducted in Argentina, Denmark, and the United States, men with greater upper-body strength more strongly endorsed the self-beneficial position: Among men of lower socioeconomic status (SES), strength predicted increased support for redistribution; among men of higher SES, strength predicted increased opposition to redistribution. Because personal upper-body strength is irrelevant to payoffs from economic policies in modern mass democracies, the continuing role of strength suggests that modern political decision making is shaped by an evolved psychology designed for small-scale groups.

  12. Thallium reinjection after stress-redistribution imaging. Does 24-hour delayed imaging after reinjection enhance detection of viable myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilsizian, V.; Smeltzer, W.R.; Freedman, N.M.; Dextras, R.; Bonow, R.O.

    1991-01-01

    Thallium reinjection immediately after conventional stress-redistribution imaging improves the detection of viable myocardium, as many myocardial regions with apparently 'irreversible' thallium defects on standard 3-4-hour redistribution images manifest enhanced thallium uptake after reinjection. Because the 10-minute period between reinjection and imaging may be too short, the present study was designed to determine whether 24-hour imaging after thallium reinjection provides additional information regarding myocardial viability beyond that obtained by imaging shortly after reinjection. We studied 50 patients with chronic stable coronary artery disease undergoing exercise thallium tomography, radionuclide angiography, and coronary arteriography. Immediately after the 3-4-hour redistribution images were obtained, 1 mCi thallium was injected at rest, and images were reacquired at 10 minutes and 24 hours after reinjection. The stress, redistribution, reinjection, and 24-hour images were then analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Of the 127 abnormal myocardial regions on the stress images, 55 had persistent defects on redistribution images by qualitative analysis, of which 25 (45%) demonstrated improved thallium uptake after reinjection. At the 24-hour study, 23 of the 25 regions (92%) with previously improved thallium uptake by reinjection showed no further improvement. Similarly, of the 30 regions determined to have irreversible defects after reinjection, 29 (97%) remained irreversible on 24-hour images. These findings were confirmed by the quantitative analysis. The mean normalized thallium activity in regions with enhanced thallium activity after reinjection increased from 57 +/- 13% on redistribution studies to 70 +/- 14% after reinjection but did not change at 24 hours (71 +/- 14%)

  13. Flow induced vibrations of piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibert, R.J.; Axisa, F.

    1977-01-01

    In order to design the supports of piping systems, estimations of the vibrations induced by the fluid conveyed through the pipes are generally needed. For that purpose it is necessary to calculate the model parameters of liquid containing pipes. In most computer codes, fluid effects are accounted for just by adding the fuid mass to the structure. This may lead to serious errors.- Inertial effects from the fluid are not correctly evaluated especially in the case of bended or of non-uniform section pipes. Fluid boundary conditions are simply ignored. - In many practical problems fluid compressibility cannot be negelcted, even in the low frequencies domain which corresponds to efficient excitation by turbulent sources of the flow. This paper presents a method to take into account these efects, by solving a coupled mechanical acoustical problem: the computer code TEDEL of the C.E.A./D.E.M.T. System, based on the finite-elements method, has been extended to calculate simultaneously the pressure fluctuations in the fluid and the vibrations of the pipe. (Auth.)

  14. AVM branch vibration test equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anne, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    An inventory of the test equipment of the AVM Branch ''Acoustic and Vibratory Mechanics Analysis Methods'' group has been undertaken. The purpose of this inventory is to enable better acquaintance with the technical characteristics of the equipment, providing an accurate definition of their functionalities, ad to inform potential users of the possibilities and equipment available in this field. The report first summarizes the various experimental surveys conduced. Then, using the AVM equipment database to draw up an exhaustive list of available equipment, it provides a full-scope picture of the vibration measurement systems (sensors, conditioners and exciters) and data processing resources commonly used on industrial sites and in laboratories. A definition is also given of a mobile test unit, called 'shelter', and a test bench used for the testing and performance rating of the experimental analysis methods developed by the group. The report concludes with a description of two fixed installations: - the calibration bench ensuring the requisite quality level for the vibration measurement systems ; - the training bench, whereby know-how acquired in the field in the field of measurement and experimental analysis processes is made available to others. (author). 27 refs., 15 figs., 2 appends

  15. Coherent lattice vibrations in superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadin, Alan M.

    2008-01-01

    A recent analysis has shown that the pair wavefunction within the BCS theory may be represented in real-space as a spherical electronic orbital (on the scale of the coherence length ξ 0 ) coupled to a standing-wave lattice vibration with wavevector 2k F and a near-resonant phonon frequency. The present paper extends this picture to a coherent pattern of phonon standing-waves on the macroscopic scale, with electrons forming Bloch waves and an energy gap much like those in the classic band theory of crystals. These parallel planes form a diffractive waveguide permitting electron waves to traveling parallel to the planes, corresponding to lossless supercurrent. A similar picture may be extended to unconventional superconductors such as the cuprates, with an array of standing spin waves rather than phonons. Such coherent lattice vibrations should be universal indicators of the superconducting state, and should be observable below T c using X-ray and neutron diffraction techniques. Further implications of this picture are discussed

  16. Noise and vibration analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsen, J.R.; Williams, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    The analysis of noise and vibration data from an operating nuclear plant can provide valuable information that can identify and characterize abnormal conditions. Existing plant monitoring equipment, such as loose parts monitoring systems (LPMS) and neutron flux detectors, may be capable of gathering noise data, but may lack the analytical capability to extract useful meanings hidden in the noise. By analyzing neutron noise signals, the structural motion and integrity of core components can be assessed. Computer analysis makes trending of frequency spectra within a fuel cycle and from one cycle to another a practical means of core internals monitoring. The Babcock and Wilcox Noise and Vibration Analysis System (NVAS) is a powerful, compact system that can automatically perform complex data analysis. The system can acquire, process, and store data, then produce report-quality plots of the important parameter. Software to perform neutron noise analysis and loose parts analysis operates on the same hardware package. Since the system is compact, inexpensive, and easy to operate, it allows utilities to perform more frequency analyses without incurring high costs and provides immediate results

  17. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokmakoff, Andrei [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Champion, Paul [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Heilweil, Edwin J. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Nelson, Keith A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Ziegler, Larry [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    2009-05-14

    This document contains the Proceedings from the 14th International Conference on Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy, which was held in Meredith, NH from May 9-14, 2009. The study of molecular dynamics in chemical reaction and biological processes using time-resolved spectroscopy plays an important role in our understanding of energy conversion, storage, and utilization problems. Fundamental studies of chemical reactivity, molecular rearrangements, and charge transport are broadly supported by the DOE's Office of Science because of their role in the development of alternative energy sources, the understanding of biological energy conversion processes, the efficient utilization of existing energy resources, and the mitigation of reactive intermediates in radiation chemistry. In addition, time-resolved spectroscopy is central to all fiveof DOE's grand challenges for fundamental energy science. The Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy conference is organized biennially to bring the leaders in this field from around the globe together with young scientists to discuss the most recent scientific and technological advances. The latest technology in ultrafast infrared, Raman, and terahertz spectroscopy and the scientific advances that these methods enable were covered. Particular emphasis was placed on new experimental methods used to probe molecular dynamics in liquids, solids, interfaces, nanostructured materials, and biomolecules.

  18. Impact self-excited vibrations of linear motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravlev, V. Ph.

    2010-08-01

    Impact self-exciting vibration modes in a linear motor of a monorail car are studied. Existence and stability conditions of self-exciting vibrations are found. Ways of avoiding the vibrations are discussed.

  19. An upper bound on the second order asymptotic expansion for the quantum communication cost of state redistribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, Nilanjana, E-mail: n.datta@statslab.cam.ac.uk [Statistical Laboratory, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Hsieh, Min-Hsiu, E-mail: Min-Hsiu.Hsieh@uts.edu.au [Centre for Quantum Computation and Intelligent Systems, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Technology Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Oppenheim, Jonathan, E-mail: j.oppenheim@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Department of Computer Science and Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119615 (Singapore)

    2016-05-15

    State redistribution is the protocol in which given an arbitrary tripartite quantum state, with two of the subsystems initially being with Alice and one being with Bob, the goal is for Alice to send one of her subsystems to Bob, possibly with the help of prior shared entanglement. We derive an upper bound on the second order asymptotic expansion for the quantum communication cost of achieving state redistribution with a given finite accuracy. In proving our result, we also obtain an upper bound on the quantum communication cost of this protocol in the one-shot setting, by using the protocol of coherent state merging as a primitive.

  20. Redistribution of natural radioactive elements resulting from animal and plant life activity in regions with high radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malslov, V.I.; Maslova, K.I.; Alexakhin, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    A quantitative assessment is made of the influence of plant and animal life on the migration and redistribution of naturally occurring radionuclides in several localized areas with unusually high soil concentrations of 226 Ra, 238 U, or 232 Th. In the taiga and tundra zones examined, the effects of radionuclide accumulation in certain plant species and of the feeding and burrowing habits of small mammals were particularly significant. The observed regularities have predictive applications in assessing the redistribution of radionuclides in regions of high radioactivity

  1. Recent advances in micro-vibration isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunchuan; Jing, Xingjian; Daley, Steve; Li, Fengming

    2015-05-01

    Micro-vibration caused by disturbance sources onboard spacecraft can severely degrade the working environment of sensitive payloads. Some notable vibration control methods have been developed particularly for the suppression or isolation of micro-vibration over recent decades. Usually, passive isolation techniques are deployed in aerospace engineering. Active isolators, however, are often proposed to deal with the low frequency vibration that is common in spacecraft. Active/passive hybrid isolation has also been effectively used in some spacecraft structures for a number of years. In semi-active isolation systems, the inherent structural performance can be adjusted to deal with variation in the aerospace environment. This latter approach is potentially one of the most practical isolation techniques for micro-vibration isolation tasks. Some emerging advanced vibration isolation methods that exploit the benefits of nonlinearity have also been reported in the literature. This represents an interesting and highly promising approach for solving some challenging problems in the area. This paper serves as a state-of-the-art review of the vibration isolation theory and/or methods which were developed, mainly over the last decade, specifically for or potentially could be used for, micro-vibration control.

  2. Vibrational measurements in 3-ID-B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutter, J.; Alp, E.; Barraza, J.; Shu, D.

    1998-04-01

    The authors have undertaken a series of vibrational measurements in hutch 3-ID-B. Their motivation was to compare two different methods of mounting an interferometer for effectiveness in vibrational isolation and stability. In addition they were able to compare the stability of the optical table with and without its eight large bolts inserted

  3. General vibration monitoring: Utility Building, August 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Wambsganss, M.W.; Smith, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    This vibration data was generated from measurements made on 8/12/92. The contents are self explanatory. They are baseline measurements and no exceptionally large vibration amplitude or response was observed. These measurements represent baseline measurements, i.e., measurements with no driving forces active, made on the utility building, a service building for the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory

  4. Dissimilar Dynamics of Coupled Water Vibrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Thomas L. C.; Cringus, Dan; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.

    2009-01-01

    Dissimilar dynamics of coupled stretch vibrations of a water molecule are revealed by two-dimensional, IR correlation spectroscopy. These are caused by essentially non-Gaussian fluctuations of the electric field exerted by the environment on the individual OH stretch vibrations. Non-Gaussian

  5. Experimental evaluation of vibrations in heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Ghiselli, A.

    1997-01-01

    Flow induced vibrations may produce damage of heat exchangers, condensers and steam generators tubes. To evaluate this problem a set of tests were developed to know the real support state of the tubes, which have great influence on the vibration response. This paper include a description of the tests and the results obtained applying them on a heat exchanger equipment. (author) [es

  6. Multipole pair vibrations in superfluid 3He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Giansiracusa, G.; Lombardo, U.; Pucci, R.; Petronio, G.

    1978-01-01

    Starting from a path integral formation of the 3 He superfluidity, the authors study the pair vibrations around the BCS solution. For both the BW and ABM states get a set of possible excitations. In particular it is shown that a new type of excitation is present for pure 1 = 2 spin singlet vibration. (Auth.)

  7. Vibrations in pipelines of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, M.R.L.V.; Bevilacqua, L.

    1984-01-01

    It is presented the main causes of vibrations in nuclear power plants pipelines to allow the identification of critical areas and correct the errors during the specification design. The methods of vibration analysis to give subsidies in the determination of the corrective providences when the problem appears during the commissioning or the generation energy, are also presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  8. 14 CFR 33.43 - Vibration test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vibration test. 33.43 Section 33.43... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.43 Vibration test. (a) Each... configuration of the propeller type which is used for the endurance test, and using, for other engines, the same...

  9. 14 CFR 33.83 - Vibration test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vibration test. 33.83 Section 33.83... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.83 Vibration test. (a) Each engine... experience, analysis, and component test and shall address, as a minimum, blades, vanes, rotor discs, spacers...

  10. Axisymmetric vibrations of thin shells of revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Katsuyoshi; Kikuchi, Norio; Kosawada, Tadashi; Takahashi, Shin

    1983-01-01

    The problem of free vibration of axisymmetric shells of revolution is important in connection with the design of pressure vessels, chemical equipment, aircrafts, structures and so on. In this study, the axisymmetrical vibration of a thin shell of revolution having a constant curvature in meridian direction was analyzed by thin shell theory. First, the Lagrangian during one period of the vibration of a shell of revolution was determined by the primary approximate theory of Love, and the vibration equations and boundary conditions were derived from its stopping condition. The vibration equations were strictly analyzed by using the series solution. The basic equations for the strain and strain energy of a shell were based on those of Novozhilov. As the examples of numerical calculation, the natural frequency and vibration mode of the symmetrical shells of revolution fixed at both ends and supported at both ends were determined, and their characteristics were clarified. The theory and the numerical calculation ore described. Especially in the frequency curves, the waving phenomena were observed frequently, which were not seen in non-axisymmetric vibration, accordingly also the vibration mode changed in complex state on the frequency curves of same order. The numerical calculation was carried out in the large computer center in Tohoku University. (Kako, I.)

  11. Adaptive techniques for diagnostics of vibrating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skormin, V.A.; Sankar, S.

    1983-01-01

    An adaptive diagnostic procedure for vibrating structures based on correspondence between current estimates of stiffness matrix and structure status is proposed. Procedure employs adaptive mathematical description of the vibrating structure in frequency domain, statistical techniques for detection and location of changes of structure properties, 'recognition' and prediction of defects. (orig.)

  12. Benefits of Spacecraft Level Vibration Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Scott; Kern, Dennis L.

    2015-01-01

    NASA-HDBK-7008 Spacecraft Level Dynamic Environments Testing discusses the approaches, benefits, dangers, and recommended practices for spacecraft level dynamic environments testing, including vibration testing. This paper discusses in additional detail the benefits and actual experiences of vibration testing spacecraft for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) flight projects. JPL and GSFC have both similarities and differences in their spacecraft level vibration test approach: JPL uses a random vibration input and a frequency range usually starting at 5 Hz and extending to as high as 250 Hz. GSFC uses a sine sweep vibration input and a frequency range usually starting at 5 Hz and extending only to the limits of the coupled loads analysis (typically 50 to 60 Hz). However, both JPL and GSFC use force limiting to realistically notch spacecraft resonances and response (acceleration) limiting as necessary to protect spacecraft structure and hardware from exceeding design strength capabilities. Despite GSFC and JPL differences in spacecraft level vibration test approaches, both have uncovered a significant number of spacecraft design and workmanship anomalies in vibration tests. This paper will give an overview of JPL and GSFC spacecraft vibration testing approaches and provide a detailed description of spacecraft anomalies revealed.

  13. External vibrations measurement of reactor components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, S A [Nuclear Electric plc, Barnwood (United Kingdom); Sugden, J [Magnox Electric, Berkeley (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The paper outlines the use of External Vibration Monitoring for remote vibration assessment of internal reactor components. The main features of the technique are illustrated by a detailed examination of the specific application to the problem of Heysham 2 Fuel Plug Unit monitoring. (author). 6 figs.

  14. Vibration mode and vibration shape under excitation of a three phase model transformer core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Seiji; Ishigaki, Yusuke; Omura, Takeshi

    2018-04-01

    Structural vibration characteristics and vibration shapes under three-phase excitation of a archetype transformer core were investigated to consider their influences on transformer noise. Acoustic noise and vibration behavior were measured in a three-limb model transformer core. Experimental modal analysis by impact test was performed. The vibration shapes were measured by a laser scanning vibrometer at different exciting frequencies. Vibration amplitude of the core in out-of-plane direction were relatively larger than those in other two in-plane directions. It was consistent with the result that the frequency response function of the core in out-of-plane direction was larger by about 20 dB or more than those in in-plane directions. There were many vibration modes having bending deformation of limbs in out-of-plane direction. The vibration shapes of the core when excited at 50 Hz and 60 Hz were almost the same because the fundamental frequencies of the vibration were not close to the resonance frequencies. When excitation frequency was 69 Hz which was half of one of the resonance frequencies, the vibration shape changed to the one similar to the resonance vibration mode. Existence of many vibration modes in out-of-plane direction of the core was presumed to be a reason why frequency characteristics of magnetostriction and transformer noise do not coincide.

  15. Optical fiber grating vibration sensor for vibration monitoring of hydraulic pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengyi; Liu, Chuntong; Li, Hongcai; He, Zhenxin; Zhao, Xiaofeng

    2017-06-01

    In view of the existing electrical vibration monitoring traditional hydraulic pump vibration sensor, the high false alarm rate is susceptible to electromagnetic interference and is not easy to achieve long-term reliable monitoring, based on the design of a beam of the uniform strength structure of the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) vibration sensor. In this paper, based on the analysis of the vibration theory of the equal strength beam, the principle of FBG vibration tuning based on the equal intensity beam is derived. According to the practical application of the project, the structural dimensions of the equal strength beam are determined, and the optimization design of the vibrator is carried out. The finite element analysis of the sensor is carried out by ANSYS, and the first order resonant frequency is 94.739 Hz. The vibration test of the sensor is carried out by using the vibration frequency of 35 Hz and the vibration source of 50 Hz. The time domain and frequency domain analysis results of test data show that the sensor has good dynamic response characteristics, which can realize the accurate monitoring of the vibration frequency and meet the special requirements of vibration monitoring of hydraulic pump under specific environment.

  16. Ultra-low-vibration pulse-tube cryocooler system - cooling capacity and vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikushima, Yuki; Li, Rui; Tomaru, Takayuki; Sato, Nobuaki; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Shintomi, Takakazu; Yamamoto, Akira

    2008-09-01

    This report describes the development of low-vibration cooling systems with pulse-tube (PT) cryocoolers. Generally, PT cryocoolers have the advantage of lower vibrations in comparison to those of GM cryocoolers. However, cooling systems for the cryogenic laser interferometer observatory (CLIO), which is a gravitational wave detector, require an operational vibration that is sufficiently lower than that of a commercial PT cryocooler. The required specification for the vibration amplitude in cold stages is less than ±1 μm. Therefore, during the development of low-vibration cooling systems for the CLIO, we introduced advanced countermeasures for commercial PT cryocoolers. The cooling performance and the vibration amplitude were evaluated. The results revealed that 4 K and 80 K PT cooling systems with a vibration amplitude of less than ±1 μm and cooling performance of 4.5 K and 70 K at heat loads of 0.5 W and 50 W, respectively, were developed successfully.

  17. Exploiting the flexibility of a family of models for taxation and redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertotti, M. L.; Modanese, G.

    2012-08-01

    We discuss a family of models expressed by nonlinear differential equation systems describing closed market societies in the presence of taxation and redistribution. We focus in particular on three example models obtained in correspondence to different parameter choices. We analyse the influence of the various choices on the long time shape of the income distribution. Several simulations suggest that behavioral heterogeneity among the individuals plays a definite role in the formation of fat tails of the asymptotic stationary distributions. This is in agreement with results found with different approaches and techniques. We also show that an excellent fit for the computational outputs of our models is provided by the κ-generalized distribution introduced by Kaniadakis in [Physica A 296, 405 (2001)].

  18. Cascading failures with local load redistribution in interdependent Watts-Strogatz networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chen; Zhang, Jun; Du, Wen-Bo; Sallan, Jose Maria; Lordan, Oriol

    2016-05-01

    Cascading failures of loads in isolated networks have been studied extensively over the last decade. Since 2010, such research has extended to interdependent networks. In this paper, we study cascading failures with local load redistribution in interdependent Watts-Strogatz (WS) networks. The effects of rewiring probability and coupling strength on the resilience of interdependent WS networks have been extensively investigated. It has been found that, for small values of the tolerance parameter, interdependent networks are more vulnerable as rewiring probability increases. For larger values of the tolerance parameter, the robustness of interdependent networks firstly decreases and then increases as rewiring probability increases. Coupling strength has a different impact on robustness. For low values of coupling strength, the resilience of interdependent networks decreases with the increment of the coupling strength until it reaches a certain threshold value. For values of coupling strength above this threshold, the opposite effect is observed. Our results are helpful to understand and design resilient interdependent networks.

  19. Life cycle assessment of pig slurry treatment technologies for nutrient redistribution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ten Hoeve, Marieke; Hutchings, Nicholas John; Peters, Gregory M.

    2014-01-01

    Animal slurry management is associated with a range of impacts on fossil resource use and the environment. The impacts are greatest when large amounts of nutrient-rich slurry from livestock production cannot be adequately utilised on adjacent land. To facilitate nutrient redistribution, a range...... of different technologies are available. This study comprised a life cycle assessment of the environmental impacts from handling 1000. kg of pig slurry ex-animal. Application of untreated pig slurry onto adjacent land was compared with using four different treatment technologies to enable nutrient...... on a combination of values derived from the literature and simulations with the Farm-N model for Danish agricultural and climatic conditions. The environmental impact categories assessed were climate change, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, terrestrial acidification, natural resource use, and soil...

  20. Implant damage and redistribution of indium in indium-implanted thin silicon-on-insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Peng; An Zhenghua; Zhu Ming; Fu, Ricky K.Y.; Chu, Paul K.; Montgomery, Neil; Biswas, Sukanta

    2004-01-01

    The indium implant damage and diffusion behavior in thin silicon-on-insulator (SOI) with a 200 nm top silicon layer were studied for different implantation energies and doses. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in the channeling mode (RBS/C) was used to characterize the implant damage before and after annealing. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was used to study the indium transient enhanced diffusion (TED) behavior in the top Si layer of the SOI structure. An anomalous redistribution of indium after relatively high energy (200 keV) and dose (1 x 10 14 cm -2 ) implantation was observed in both bulk Si and SOI substrates. However, there exist differences in these two substrates that are attributable to the more predominant out-diffusion of indium as well as the influence of the buried oxide layer in the SOI structure

  1. Large scale mass redistribution and surface displacement from GRACE and SLR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, M.; Ries, J. C.; Tapley, B. D.

    2012-12-01

    Mass transport between the atmosphere, ocean and solid earth results in the temporal variations in the Earth gravity field and loading induced deformation of the Earth. Recent space-borne observations, such as GRACE mission, are providing extremely high precision temporal variations of gravity field. The results from 10-yr GRACE data has shown a significant annual variations of large scale vertical and horizontal displacements occurring over the Amazon, Himalayan region and South Asia, African, and Russian with a few mm amplitude. Improving understanding from monitoring and modeling of the large scale mass redistribution and the Earth's response are a critical for all studies in the geosciences, in particular for determination of Terrestrial Reference System (TRS), including geocenter motion. This paper will report results for the observed seasonal variations in the 3-dimentional surface displacements of SLR and GPS tracking stations and compare with the prediction from time series of GRACE monthly gravity solution.

  2. Patrons and clients, or redistribution between equals? a review of political clientelism and its contextual transpositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Colabella

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the ways in which a candidate running for city councilor and representing the Peronist party organized the distribution of public resources (social plans and food programs in La Matanza, a district in the west of Greater Buenos Aires, during the 2005 election campaign. The first part describes the personal trajectory of the candidate and some of the neighbors dependent on him. The second part examines how this leading figure rallied election campaigners and the meaning invested in their behaviors during a series of events including the opening of a 'soup kitchen' and the election day itself. The text also identifies the constraints imposed on these actors and the implications associated with their compliance (or failure to comply with mutual obligations. This analysis enables a clearer understanding of the dynamics and complexity of the processes regulating vast political circuits in which State resources are redistributed in exchange for votes on the outskirts of Greater Buenos Aires.

  3. Four decades of post-agricultural forest development have caused major redistributions of soil phosphorus fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrijver, An De; Vesterdal, Lars; Hansen, Karin Irene

    2012-01-01

    , slowly cycling P and occluded P); in particular, we addressed the timerelated alterations in the inorganic versus organic P fractions. In less than 40 years of oak forest development, significant redistributions have occurred between different P fractions. While both the labile and the slowly cycling...... inorganic P fractions significantly decreased with forest age, the organic fractions significantly increased. The labile P pool (inorganic ? organic), which is considered to be the pool of P most likely to contribute to plant-available P, significantly decreased with forest age (from[20 to\\10% of total P......), except in the 0–5 cm of topsoil, where labile P remained persistently high. The shift from inorganic to organic P and the shifts between the different inorganic P fractions are driven by biological processes and also by physicochemical changes related to forest development. It is concluded...

  4. Investigation of Redistribution of Pile Foundation Forces Under Successive Loading of Its Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedin, Vladimir; Bikus, Kateryna; Kovba, Vladislav

    2017-12-01

    Redistribution of pile foundation forces under successive loading of its elements was investigated under laboratory conditions. A segment of pile foundation model was taken for use in the case study. Load tests on the pile foundation model segment, without joining its elements (pile and plate, which turns into grillage) and based on different combinations of static loadings were conducted. This proved that the loading of a plate causes skin friction on some length of the pile side surface as well as providing additional loading and settlement. Test results have shown that application of successive elements enables the foundation to carry loads up to 13% higher than in the case of a standard pile foundation loading with the same settlement rates.

  5. Ideas and perspectives: hydrothermally driven redistribution and sequestration of early Archaean biomass - the "hydrothermal pump hypothesis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Jan-Peter; Thiel, Volker; Bauersachs, Thorsten; Mißbach, Helge; Reinhardt, Manuel; Schäfer, Nadine; Van Kranendonk, Martin J.; Reitner, Joachim

    2018-03-01

    Archaean hydrothermal chert veins commonly contain abundant organic carbon of uncertain origin (abiotic vs. biotic). In this study, we analysed kerogen contained in a hydrothermal chert vein from the ca. 3.5 Ga Dresser Formation (Pilbara Craton, Western Australia). Catalytic hydropyrolysis (HyPy) of this kerogen yielded n-alkanes up to n-C22, with a sharp decrease in abundance beyond n-C18. This distribution ( ≤ n-C18) is very similar to that observed in HyPy products of recent bacterial biomass, which was used as reference material, whereas it differs markedly from the unimodal distribution of abiotic compounds experimentally formed via Fischer-Tropsch-type synthesis. We therefore propose that the organic matter in the Archaean chert veins has a primarily microbial origin. The microbially derived organic matter accumulated in anoxic aquatic (surface and/or subsurface) environments and was then assimilated, redistributed and sequestered by the hydrothermal fluids (hydrothermal pump hypothesis).

  6. Metastable Phase Separation and Concomitant Solute Redistribution of Liquid Fe-Cu-Sn Ternary Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao-Mei, Zhang; Wei-Li, Wang; Ying, Ruan; Bing-Bo, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Liquid Fe-Cu-Sn ternary alloys with lower Sn contents are usually assumed to display a peritectic-type solidification process under equilibrium condition. Here we show that liquid Fe 47.5 Cu 47.5 Sn 5 ternary alloy exhibits a metastable immiscibility gap in the undercooling range of 51–329 K (0.19T L ). Macroscopic phase separation occurs once undercooling exceeds 196 K and causes the formation of a floating Fe-rich zone and a descending Cu-rich zone. Solute redistribution induces the depletion of Sn concentration in the Fe-rich zone and its enrichment in the Cu-rich zone. The primary Fe phase grows dendritically and its growth velocity increases with undercooling until the appearance of notable macrosegregation, but will decrease if undercooling further increases beyond 236 K. The microsegregation degrees of both solutes in Fe and Cu phases vary only slightly with undercooling. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  7. Redistribution of erbium during the crystallization of buried amorphous silicon layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, O.V.; Nikolaev, Yu.A.; Sobolev, N.A.; Sakharov, V.I.; Serenkov, I.T.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.A.

    1999-01-01

    The redistribution of Er during its implantation in silicon at doses close to the amorphization threshold and its subsequent solid-phase epitaxial (SPE) crystallization is investigated. The formation of a buried amorphous (a) layer is discovered at Er doses equal to 5x10 13 and 1x10 14 cm -2 using Rutherford backscattering. The segregation of Er in this case takes place inwardly from the two directions corresponding to the upper and lower boundaries of the buried αlayer and leads to the formation of a concentration peak at the meeting place of the two crystallization fronts. A method for calculating the coordinate dependence of the segregation coefficient k from the distribution profiles of the erbium impurity before and after annealing is proposed. The k(x) curve exhibits a drop, whose width increases with decreasing Er implantation dose. Its appearance is attributed to the nonequilibrium nature of the segregation process at the beginning of SPE crystallization

  8. Current Redistribution around the Superconducting-to-normal Transition in Superconducting Nb-Ti Rutherford Cables

    CERN Document Server

    Willering, G P; ten Kate, H H J

    2008-01-01

    Sufficient thermal-electromagnetic stability against external heat sources is an essential design criterion for superconducting Rutherford cables, especially if operated close to the critical current. Due to the complex phenomena contributing to stability such as helium cooling, inter-strand current and heat transfer, its level is difficult to quantify. In order to improve our understanding, many stability tests were performed on different cable samples, each incorporating several point-like heaters. The current redistribution around the heat front is measured after inducing a local normal zone in one strand of the cable. By using voltage taps, expansion of the normal zone is monitored in the initially quenched strand as well as in adjacent strands. An array of Hall probes positioned at the cable edge is used to scan the selffield generated by the cable by which it becomes possible to estimate the inter-strand current transfer. In this paper it is demonstrated that two different stability regimes can be disti...

  9. Redistribution of fallout radionuclides in Enewetak Atoll lagoon sediments by callianassid bioturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtry, G M; Schneider, R C; Colin, P L; Buddemeier, R W; Suchanek, T H

    The lagoon sediments of Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands contain a large selection of fallout radionuclides as a result of 43 nuclear weapon tests conducted there between 1948 and 1958. Studies of the burial of fallout radionuclides have been conducted on the islands and in several of the large craters, but studies of their vertical distribution have been limited to about the upper 20 cm of the lagoon sediments. We have found elevated fallout radionuclide concentrations buried more deeply in the lagoon sediments and evidence of burrowing into the sediment by several species of callianassid ghost shrimp (Crustacea: Thalassinidea) which has displaced highly radioactive sediment. The burrowing activities of callianassids, which are ubiquitous on the lagoon floor, facilitate radionuclide redistribution and complicate the fallout radionuclide inventory of the lagoon.

  10. Personal use, social supply or redistribution? Cryptomarket demand on Silk Road 2 and Agora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob; Munksgaard, Rasmus; Houborg, Esben

    2016-01-01

    In 2011, Silk Road became the first black market, or "cryptomarket", for illicit drugs. This study examines two of the largest cryptomarkets which have operated, Silk Road 2.0 and Agora Marketplace. We hypothesize that cryptomarkets cater to buyers who intend to resell or redistribute the products......, specifically in the form of social drug dealing, and that larger quantities will be purchased on the cryptomarkets over time. We examine these hypotheses through a descriptive and qualitative assessment of the distribution of drugs sold, and an estimated trend line based on simple linear regression. Data...... 2.0 and Agora Marketplace. The results suggest that cryptomarkets resemble traditional drug markets in terms of the distribution and revenues. As such, it is relevant to include cryptomarkets in discussions about potential reductions of the harmful social consequences of drug markets, as well...

  11. Redistribution of caesium-137 by erosion and deposition on an australian soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallan, M.E.; Rose, C.W.; O'Leary, B.M.

    1980-01-01

    Caesium-137, a nuclear fallout product which is carried down to the ground by rainfall and becomes tightly adsorbed to soil particles, is being used to study soil erosion and accumulation. The measurement of 137 Cs activity in soil cores in an upland catchment on the Darling Downs has revealed a vertical and areal distribution of this isotope which is in general agreement with expectations based on the topography, the observed erosion and deposition sites, the variation in 137 Cs fallout through time, and hypotheses of 137 Cs redistribution. Such information may allow the development of a practical technique for estimating soil erosion and accumulation rates using this isotope; it also allows testing of mathematical models of erosion/deposition processes

  12. The Sheath Transport Observer for the Redistribution of Mass (STORM) Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Kip; Collier, Michael; Sibeck, David G.; Porter, F. Scott; Carter, J. A.; Cravens, Thomas; Omidi, N.; Robertson, Ina; Sembay, S.; Snowden, Steven L.

    2008-01-01

    All of the solar wind energy that powers magnetospheric processes passes through the magnetosheath and magnetopause. Global images of the magnetosheath and magnetopause boundary layers will resolve longstanding controversy surrounding fundamental phenomena that occur at the magnetopause and provide information needed to improve operational space weather models. Recent developments showing that soft X-rays (0.15-1 keV) result from high charge state solar wind ions undergoing charge exchange recombination through collisions with exospheric neutral atoms has led to the realization that soft X-ray imaging can provide global maps of the high-density shocked solar wind within the magnetosheath and cusps, regions lying between the lower density solar wind and magnetosphere. We discuss an instrument concept called the Sheath Transport Observer for the Redistribution of Mass (STORM), an X-ray imager suitable for simultaneously imaging the dayside magnetosheath, the magnetopause boundary layers, and the cusps.

  13. The Sheath Transport Observer for the Redistribution of Mass (STORM) Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Sibeck, David G.; Porter, F. Scott; Burch, J.; Carter, J. A.; Cravens, Thomas; Kuntz, Kip; Omidi, N.; Read, A.; Robertson, Ina; hide

    2010-01-01

    All of the solar wind energy that powers magnetospheric processes passes through the magnetosheath and magnetopause. Global images of the magnetosheath and magnetopause boundary layers will resolve longstanding controversies surrounding fundamental phenomena that occur at the magnetopause and provide information needed to improve operational space weather models. Recent developments showing that soft X-rays (0.15-1 keV) result from high charge state solar wind ions undergoing charge exchange recombination through collisions with exospheric neutral atoms has led to the realization that soft X-ray imaging can provide global maps of the high-density shocked solar wind within the magnetosheath and cusps, regions lying between the lower density solar wind and magnetosphere. We discuss an instrument concept called the Sheath Transport Observer for the Redistribution of Mass (STORM), an X-ray imager suitable for simultaneously imaging the dayside magnetosheath, the magnetopause boundary layers, and the cusps.

  14. Current redistribution effects on superconducting d.c, and microwave measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barra, M; Cassinese, A; Vaglio, R

    2006-01-01

    In the last two decades, non conventional behavior of the d.c. transport properties of superconductors, with the appearance of anomalous peaks at the transition, have been investigated and interpreted in different ways. In several cases it was recognized that the behavior can be due to current redistribution effects related to the non-homogeneous nature of the measured superconducting sample. In this paper we will briefly review and discuss these effects and, referring to simple concentrated constant equivalent circuits, we will show that sample non-homogeneity can produce the observed features. Then, in the same framework, by performing specific simulations on planar resonators, we will show that anomalous peaks in temperature dependence of the resonant frequency and of the extracted surface reactance can occur at the transition temperature of minority, lower Tc, superconducting phases

  15. Phosphate vibrations as reporters of DNA hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcelli, Steven

    The asymmetric phosphate stretch vibrational frequency is extraordinarily sensitive to its local solvent environment. Using density functional theory calculations on the model compound dimethyl phosphate, the asymmetric phosphate stretch vibrational frequency was found to shift linearly with the magnitude of an electric field along the symmetry axis of the PO2 moiety (i.e. the asymmetric phosphate stretch is an excellent linear vibrational Stark effect probe). With this linear relationship established, asymmetric phosphate stretch vibrational frequencies were computed during the course of a molecular dynamics simulation of fully hydrated DNA. Moreover, contributions to shifts in the frequencies from subpopulations of water molecules (e.g. backbone, minor groove, major groove, etc.) were calculated to reveal how phosphate vibrations report the onset of DNA hydration in experiments that vary the relative humidity of non-condensing (dry) DNA samples.

  16. High Energy Vibration for Gas Piping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gary Y. H.; Chan, K. B.; Lee, Aylwin Y. S.; Jia, ShengXiang

    2017-07-01

    In September 2016, a gas compressor in offshore Sarawak has its rotor changed out. Prior to this change-out, pipe vibration study was carried-out by the project team to evaluate any potential high energy pipe vibration problems at the compressor’s existing relief valve downstream pipes due to process condition changes after rotor change out. This paper covers high frequency acoustic excitation (HFAE) vibration also known as acoustic induced vibration (AIV) study and discusses detailed methodologies as a companion to the Energy Institute Guidelines for the avoidance of vibration induced fatigue failure, which is a common industry practice to assess and mitigate for AIV induced fatigue failure. Such detailed theoretical studies can help to minimize or totally avoid physical pipe modification, leading to reduce offshore plant shutdown days to plant shutdowns only being required to accommodate gas compressor upgrades, reducing cost without compromising process safety.

  17. Mechanism of bubble detachment from vibrating walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongjun; Park, Jun Kwon, E-mail: junkeun@postech.ac.kr; Kang, Kwan Hyoung [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31, Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, In Seok [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31, Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    We discovered a previously unobserved mechanism by which air bubbles detach from vibrating walls in glasses containing water. Chaotic oscillation and subsequent water jets appeared when a wall vibrated at greater than a critical level. Wave forms were developed at water-air interface of the bubble by the wall vibration, and water jets were formed when sufficiently grown wave-curvatures were collapsing. Droplets were pinched off from the tip of jets and fell to the surface of the glass. When the solid-air interface at the bubble-wall attachment point was completely covered with water, the bubble detached from the wall. The water jets were mainly generated by subharmonic waves and were generated most vigorously when the wall vibrated at the volume resonant frequency of the bubble. Bubbles of specific size can be removed by adjusting the frequency of the wall's vibration.

  18. Systematic vibration thermodynamic properties of bromine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G. Y.; Sun, W. G.; Liao, B. T.

    2015-11-01

    Based on the analysis of the maturity and finiteness of vibrational levels of bromine molecule in ground state and evaluating the effect on statistical computation, according to the elementary principles of quantum statistical theorem, using the full set of bromine molecular vibrational levels determined with algebra method, the statistical contribution for bromine systematical macroscopic thermodynamic properties is discussed. Thermodynamic state functions Helmholtz free energy, entropy and observable vibration heat capacity are calculated. The results show that the determination of full set of vibrational levels and maximum vibrational quantum number is the key in the correct statistical analysis of bromine systematical thermodynamic property. Algebra method results are clearly different from data of simple harmonic oscillator and the related algebra method results are no longer analytical but numerical and are superior to simple harmonic oscillator results. Compared with simple harmonic oscillator's heat capacities, the algebra method's heat capacities are more consistent with the experimental data in the given temperature range of 600-2100 K.

  19. Collision cascades enhanced hydrogen redistribution in cobalt implanted hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, P.; Becker, H.-W.; Williams, G.V.M.; Hübner, R.; Heinig, K.-H.; Markwitz, A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper reports for the first time redistribution of hydrogen atoms in diamond like carbon thin films during ion implantation of low energy magnetic ions. • The results point towards new routes of controlling the composition and distribution of elements at the nanoscale within a base matrix without using any heat treatment methods. • Exploring these opportunities can lead to a new horizon of materials and device engineering needed for enabling advanced technologies and applications. - Abstract: Hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films produced by C_3H_6 deposition at 5 kV and implanted at room temperature with 30 keV Co atoms to 12 at.% show not only a bimodal distribution of Co atoms but also a massive redistribution of hydrogen in the films. Resonant nuclear reaction analysis was used to measure the hydrogen depth profiles (15N-method). Depletion of hydrogen near the surface was measured to be as low as 7 at.% followed by hydrogen accumulation from 27 to 35 at.%. A model is proposed considering the thermal energy deposited by collision cascade for thermal insulators. In this model, sufficient energy is provided for dissociated hydrogen to diffuse out of the sample from the surface and diffuse into the sample towards the interface which is however limited by the range of the incoming Co ions. At a hydrogen concentration of ∼35 at.%, the concentration gradient of the mobile unbounded hydrogen atoms is neutralised effectively stopping diffusion towards the interface. The results point towards new routes of controlling the composition and distribution of elements at the nanoscale within a base matrix without using any heat treatment methods. Exploring these opportunities can lead to a new horizon of materials and device engineering needed for enabling advanced technologies and applications.

  20. Fire as an agent in redistributing fallout 137Cs in the Canadian boreal forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paliouris, G.; Svoboda, J.; Mierzynski, B.; Taylor, H.W.; Wein, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    The presence of fallout 137 Cs in the boreal forest and the effect of fire in redistributing 137 Cs were studied in the remote region of Wood Buffalo National Park, N.W.T., Canada. Results of a preliminary study of five burned (the fire occurred in 1981) and five unburned stands conducted in 1986 revealed that 137 Cs concentrations were higher in the surface soil of the burned stands than in the unburned ones. In 1989, a comprehensive study was conducted, in which one burned and one unburned white spruce stand were sampled in greater detail. The latter investigation also revealed a difference in the distribution of 137 Cs within the burned stand compared to the unburned one. Specifically, in the unburned stand, the highest 137 Cs concentration was identified in the epiphytic lichens and in the mosses, whereas in the burned stand, the highest concentration was measured in the surface organic soil. These results indicate that fire caused the mobilization of part of the 137 Cs bound to the above-ground matter and concentrated it in the ash layer of the burned surface soil. An additional ecologically important finding in our study was that significantly lower total 137 Cs load was observed in the burned stand compared to the unburned one. Hence, our data not only provide evidence that 137 Cs is being redistributed within the burned stand to the surface soil, but also that part of the 137 Cs is lost due to fire, presumably contaminating other ecosystems. Volatilization and fly-ash during the fire, and runoff (e.g. from snow melt) after the fire are the most likely mechanisms for the 137 Cs removal. These findings point to fire as an agent of 137 Cs secondary contamination for initially unaffected systems, as well as for those previously contaminated