International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chee, Yi Shen; Ting, Tiew Wei; Hung, Yew Mun
2015-01-01
The effect of thermal asymmetrical boundaries on entropy generation of viscous dissipative flow of forced convection in thermal non-equilibrium porous media is analytically studied. The two-dimensional temperature, Nusselt number and entropy generation contours are analysed comprehensively to provide insights into the underlying physical significance of the effect on entropy generation. By incorporating the effects of viscous dissipation and thermal non-equilibrium, the first-law and second-law characteristics of porous-medium flow are investigated via various pertinent parameters, i.e. heat flux ratio, effective thermal conductivity ratio, Darcy number, Biot number and averaged fluid velocity. For the case of symmetrical wall heat flux, an optimum condition with a high Nusselt number and a low entropy generation is identified at a Darcy number of 10 −4 , providing an ideal operating condition from the second-law aspect. This type of heat and fluid transport in porous media covers a wide range of engineering applications, involving porous insulation, packed-bed catalytic process in nuclear reactors, filtration transpiration cooling, and modelling of transport phenomena of microchannel heat sinks. - Highlights: • Effects of thermal asymmetries on convection in porous-medium are studied. • Exergetic effectiveness of porous media with thermal asymmetries is investigated. • 2-D temperature, Nusselt number and entropy generation contours are analyzed. • Significance of viscous dissipation in entropy generation is scrutinized. • Significance of thermal non-equilibrium in entropy generation is studied
Cross-coupling effects in chemically non-equilibrium viscous compressible flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kustova, E.V.; Giordano, D.
2011-01-01
Graphical abstract: Self-cosistent kinetic-theory description of chemical-reaction rates and mean normal stress in one-temperature viscous compressible gas flows. Reaearch highlights: → In chemically non-equilibrium viscous compressible flows, the rate of each reaction depends on the velocity divergence and rates of all other reactions. → Cross effects between the rates of chemical reactions and normal mean stress can be found in the symmetric form and expressed in terms of the reaction affinities. → In the case of small affinities, the entropy production is unconditionally non-negative; in the case of finite affinities, the entropy production related to the scalar forces has no definite sign. - Abstract: A closed self-consistent description of a one-temperature non-equilibrium reacting flow is presented on the basis of the kinetic theory methods. A general case including internal degrees of freedom, dissociation-recombination and exchange reactions, and arbitrary values of affinities of chemical reactions is considered. Chemical-reaction rates and mean normal stress in viscous compressible flows are studied and a symmetric cross coupling between these terms is found. It is shown that the rate of each chemical reaction and the mean normal stress depend on velocity divergence and affinities of all chemical reactions; the law of mass action is violated in viscous flows. The results obtained in the frame of linear irreversible thermodynamics can be deduced from the proposed model for the particular case of small affinities. The reciprocal Onsager-Casimir relations are verified, the symmetry of kinetic coefficients is demonstrated, and the entropy production in a viscous flow is studied.
Nozzle Flow with Vibrational Nonequilibrium. Ph.D. Thesis
Landry, John Gary
1995-01-01
Flow of nitrogen gas through a converging-diverging nozzle is simulated. The flow is modeled using the Navier-Stokes equations that have been modified for vibrational nonequilibrium. The energy equation is replaced by two equations. One equation accounts for energy effects due to the translational and rotational degrees of freedom, and the other accounts for the affects due to the vibrational degree of freedom. The energy equations are coupled by a relaxation time which measures the time required for the vibrational energy component to equilibrate with the translational and rotational energy components. An improved relaxation time is used in this thesis. The equations are solved numerically using the Steger-Warming flux vector splitting method and the Implicit MacCormack method. The results show that uniform flow is produced outside of the boundary layer. Nonequilibrium exists in both the converging and diverging nozzle sections. The boundary layer region is characterized by a marked increase in translational-rotational temperature. The vibrational temperature remains frozen downstream of the nozzle, except in the boundary layer.
Flux-split algorithms for flows with non-equilibrium chemistry and vibrational relaxation
Grossman, B.; Cinnella, P.
1990-01-01
The present consideration of numerical computation methods for gas flows with nonequilibrium chemistry thermodynamics gives attention to an equilibrium model, a general nonequilibrium model, and a simplified model based on vibrational relaxation. Flux-splitting procedures are developed for the fully-coupled inviscid equations encompassing fluid dynamics and both chemical and internal energy-relaxation processes. A fully coupled and implicit large-block structure is presented which embodies novel forms of flux-vector split and flux-difference split algorithms valid for nonequilibrium flow; illustrative high-temperature shock tube and nozzle flow examples are given.
Numerical Investigation of Damping of Torsional Beam Vibrations by Viscous Bimoments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hoffmeyer, David; Høgsberg, Jan Becker
2017-01-01
Damping of torsional beam vibrations of slender beam–structures with thin–walled cross–sections is investigated. Analytical results from solving the differential equation governing torsion with viscous bimoments imposed at the boundary, are compared with a numerical approach with three...
Rydalevskaya, Maria A.; Voroshilova, Yulia N.
2018-05-01
Vibrationally non-equilibrium flows of chemically homogeneous diatomic gases are considered under the conditions that the distribution of the molecules over vibrational levels differs significantly from the Boltzmann distribution. In such flows, molecular collisions can be divided into two groups: the first group corresponds to "rapid" microscopic processes whereas the second one corresponds to "slow" microscopic processes (their rate is comparable to or larger than that of gasdynamic parameters variation). The collisions of the first group form quasi-stationary vibrationally non-equilibrium distribution functions. The model kinetic equations are used to study the transport processes under these conditions. In these equations, the BGK-type approximation is used to model only the collision operators of the first group. It allows us to simplify derivation of the transport fluxes and calculation of the kinetic coefficients. Special attention is given to the connection between the formulae for the bulk viscosity coefficient and the sound velocity square.
State resolved vibrational relaxation modeling for strongly nonequilibrium flows
Boyd, Iain D.; Josyula, Eswar
2011-05-01
Vibrational relaxation is an important physical process in hypersonic flows. Activation of the vibrational mode affects the fundamental thermodynamic properties and finite rate relaxation can reduce the degree of dissociation of a gas. Low fidelity models of vibrational activation employ a relaxation time to capture the process at a macroscopic level. High fidelity, state-resolved models have been developed for use in continuum gas dynamics simulations based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD). By comparison, such models are not as common for use with the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. In this study, a high fidelity, state-resolved vibrational relaxation model is developed for the DSMC technique. The model is based on the forced harmonic oscillator approach in which multi-quantum transitions may become dominant at high temperature. Results obtained for integrated rate coefficients from the DSMC model are consistent with the corresponding CFD model. Comparison of relaxation results obtained with the high-fidelity DSMC model shows significantly less excitation of upper vibrational levels in comparison to the standard, lower fidelity DSMC vibrational relaxation model. Application of the new DSMC model to a Mach 7 normal shock wave in carbon monoxide provides better agreement with experimental measurements than the standard DSMC relaxation model.
Features of free and forced vibrations in systems with dry and viscous friction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kislyi, A.A.; Borovik, O.V.
1995-01-01
Curve-fitting methods are usually used to obtain the exact solution to vibration problems in which allowance is made for dry (Coulomb) friction, but these methods permit determination of the laws of motion only in individual cases. The fact that the initial differential equations contain a piecewise-linear function characterizing dry friction makes it difficult to establish-and, thus to analyze-the general law governing vibratory motion for this case. As a result, dry friction is replaced by an equivalent viscous friction, and the corresponding areas of the hysteresis loops are equated. However, such a substitution cannot be justified in many cases, since dry and viscous friction differ in physical nature and differently affect the main characteristics of both free and forced vibrations. Moreover, the area of the hysteresis loop is proportional to the square of the amplitude in viscous friction but is proportional to the first power of the latter in dry friction. If the method of signum-function delay is used, then it becomes possible to determine the continuous laws of motion of such systems and establish the features of dry friction compared to viscous friction
Validation of vibration-dissociation coupling models in hypersonic non-equilibrium separated flows
Shoev, G.; Oblapenko, G.; Kunova, O.; Mekhonoshina, M.; Kustova, E.
2018-03-01
The validation of recently developed models of vibration-dissociation coupling is discussed in application to numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations in a two-temperature approximation for a binary N2/N flow. Vibrational-translational relaxation rates are computed using the Landau-Teller formula generalized for strongly non-equilibrium flows obtained in the framework of the Chapman-Enskog method. Dissociation rates are calculated using the modified Treanor-Marrone model taking into account the dependence of the model parameter on the vibrational state. The solutions are compared to those obtained using traditional Landau-Teller and Treanor-Marrone models, and it is shown that for high-enthalpy flows, the traditional and recently developed models can give significantly different results. The computed heat flux and pressure on the surface of a double cone are in a good agreement with experimental data available in the literature on low-enthalpy flow with strong thermal non-equilibrium. The computed heat flux on a double wedge qualitatively agrees with available data for high-enthalpy non-equilibrium flows. Different contributions to the heat flux calculated using rigorous kinetic theory methods are evaluated. Quantitative discrepancy of numerical and experimental data is discussed.
PROTOTYPING NON-EQUILIBRIUM VISCOUS-TIMESCALE ACCRETION THEORY USING LMC X-3
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cambier, Hal J.; Smith, David M. [Physics Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)
2013-04-10
Explaining variability observed in the accretion flows of black hole X-ray binary systems remains challenging, especially concerning timescales less than, or comparable to, the viscous timescale but much larger than the inner orbital period despite decades of research identifying numerous relevant physical mechanisms. We take a simplified but broad approach to study several mechanisms likely relevant to patterns of variability observed in the persistently high-soft Roche-lobe overflow system LMC X-3. Based on simple estimates and upper bounds, we find that physics beyond varying disk/corona bifurcation at the disk edge, Compton-heated winds, modulation of total supply rate via irradiation of the companion, and the likely extent of the partial hydrogen ionization instability is needed to explain the degree, and especially the pattern, of variability in LMC X-3 largely due to viscous dampening. We then show how evaporation-condensation may resolve or compound the problem given the uncertainties associated with this complex mechanism and our current implementation. We briefly mention our plans to resolve the question, refine and extend our model, and alternatives we have not yet explored.
Mechanism of laser and rf plasma in vibrational nonequilibrium CO-N2 gas mixture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lou Guofeng; Adamovich, Igor V.
2009-01-01
This paper investigates the mechanism of plasma created by focused CO laser and rf electric field. The plasma is created in a CO/N 2 environment, at a total pressure of 600 torr. Ionization of the gases occurs by an associative ionization mechanism, in collisions of two highly vibrationally excited molecules. These highly vibrationally excited states are populated by resonance absorption of the CO radiation followed by anharmonic vibration-vibration (V-V) pumping. Moreover N 2 also becomes vibrationally excited due to collisions with vibrationally excited CO. The coupled rf reduced electric field E/N is sufficiently low to prevent electron impact ionization that may create plasma individually, so when a subbreakdown rf field is applied to the plasma, collisions between the free electrons heated by the field and the diatomic species create additional vibrational excitation both in the region occupied by the CO laser beam and outside of the laser beam region. The numerical results show plasma created in both regions (in and out of the CO laser beam region) with the associative ionization mechanism. This suggests a method for creating a stable nonequilibrium plasma. The calculation result is verified by comparison the synthetic spectrum to a measured one.
Non-equilibrium vibrational and chemical kinetics in shock heated carbon dioxide
Kosareva, A. A.
2018-05-01
The flows of CO2/CO/O2/O/C and CO2/CO/O mixtures behind shock waves are studied in the three-temperature, two-temperature and one-temperature approximations. The influence of the vibrational relaxation and chemical reactions on the flow composition, temperature and velocity is investigated. It is shown that the vibrational non-equilibrium has a significant effect on the macroscopic parameters of the flow near the front of the shock wave. It was found that the composition of the mixture has the greatest effect on the numerical density of CO molecules and O atoms. Also, significant differences between the values of the vibrational temperature of the asymmetric regime have been revealed.
Probabilistic analysis of wind-induced vibration mitigation of structures by fluid viscous dampers
Chen, Jianbing; Zeng, Xiaoshu; Peng, Yongbo
2017-11-01
The high-rise buildings usually suffer from excessively large wind-induced vibrations, and thus vibration control systems might be necessary. Fluid viscous dampers (FVDs) with nonlinear power law against velocity are widely employed. With the transition of design method from traditional frequency domain approaches to more refined direct time domain approaches, the difficulty of time integration of these systems occurs sometimes. In the present paper, firstly the underlying reason of the difficulty is revealed by identifying that the equations of motion of high-rise buildings installed with FVDs are sometimes stiff differential equations. Thus, an approach effective for stiff differential systems, i.e., the backward difference formula (BDF), is then introduced, and verified to be effective for the equation of motion of wind-induced vibration controlled systems. Comparative studies are performed among some methods, including the Newmark method, KR-alpha method, energy-based linearization method and the statistical linearization method. Based on the above results, a 20-story steel frame structure is taken as a practical example. Particularly, the randomness of structural parameters and of wind loading input is emphasized. The extreme values of the responses are examined, showing the effectiveness of the proposed approach, and also necessitating the refined probabilistic analysis in the design of wind-induced vibration mitigation systems.
Simulation of Free Airfoil Vibrations in Incompressible Viscous Flow — Comparison of FEM and FVM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Petr Sváček
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with a numerical solution of the interaction of two-dimensional (2-D incompressible viscous flow and a vibrating profile NACA 0012 with large amplitudes. The laminar flow is described by the Navier-Stokes equations in the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian form. The profile with two degrees of freedom (2-DOF can rotate around its elastic axis and oscillate in the vertical direction. Its motion is described by a nonlinear system of two ordinary differential equations. Deformations of the computational domain due to the profile motion are treated by the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerianmethod. The finite volume method and the finite element method are applied, and the numerical results are compared.
Longitudinally Vibrating Elastic Rods with Locally and Non-Locally Reacting Viscous Dampers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Şefaatdin Yüksel
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Eigencharacteristics of a longitudinally vibrating elastic rod with locally and non-locally reacting damping are analyzed. The rod is considered as a continuous system and complex eigenfrequencies are determined as solution of a characteristic equation. The variation of the damping ratios with respect to damper locations and damping coefficients for the first four eigenfrequencies are obtained. It is shown that at any mode of locally or non-locally damped elastic rod, the variation of damping ratio with damper location is linearly proportional to absolute value of the mode shape of undamped system. It is seen that the increasing damping coefficient does not always increase the damping ratio and there are optimal values for the damping ratio. Optimal values for external damping coefficients of viscous dampers and locations of the dampers are presented.
Shin, Seungha
All energy conversion inefficiencies begin with emission of resonant atomic motions, e.g., vibrations, and are declared as waste heat once these motions thermalize to equilibrium. The nonequilibrium energy occupancy of the vibrational modes can be targeted as a harvestable, low entropy energy source for direct conversion to electric energy. Since the lifetime of these resonant vibrations is short, special nanostructures are required with the appropriate tuning of the kinetics. These in turn require multiscale, multiphysics treatments. Atomic vibration is described with quasiparticle phonon in solid, and the optical phonon emission is dominant relaxation channel in semiconductors. These optical modes become over-occupied when their emission rate becomes larger than their decay rate, thus hindering energy relaxation and transport in devices. Effective removal of these phonons by drifting electrons is investigated by manipulating the electron distribution to have higher population in the low-energy states, thus allowing favorable phonon absorption. This is done through introduction, design and analysis of a heterobarrier conducting current, where the band gap is controlled by alloying, thus creating a spatial variation which is abrupt followed by a linear gradient (to ensure directed current). Self-consistent ensemble Monte Carlo simulations based on interaction kinetics between electron and phonon show that up to 19% of the phonon energy is converted to electric potential with an optimized GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs barrier structure over a range of current and electron densities, and this system is also verified through statistical entropy analysis. This direct energy conversion improves the device performance with lower operation temperature and enhances overall energy conversion efficiency. Through this study, the paradigm for harvesting the resonant atomic vibration is proposed, reversing the general role of phonon as only causing electric potential drop. Fundamentals
Nonlocal vibration of Y-shaped CNT conveying nano-magnetic viscous fluid under magnetic field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Ghorbanpour Arani
2015-06-01
Full Text Available This study deals with the vibration and stability analysis of a Y-shaped single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT embedded in visco-Pasternak foundation and conveying nano-magnetic viscous fluid (NMF based on nonlocal elasticity theory and Euler–Bernoulli beam model. The fluid is two-phases due to the existence of magnetic nanoparticles which its volume fraction is much little in comparison with the base fluid where the influence of 2D magnetic field is taken into account. Also, Knudsen number is used to correct the velocity profile of fluid. The Galerkin method is applied to solve the equation of motion which is obtained by employing Hamilton’s principle. The detail parametric study is conducted, focusing on the combined effects of carbon nanotube and Y-shaped junction fitted at the downstream end, fluid velocity, Knudsen number and elastic medium. The results indicate that increasing the angle between centerline of the CNT and the downstream elbows decreases stability of system.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Zhang, Xin-Rong; Niu, Xiao-Dong
2010-01-01
The damping characteristics and flow behaviors of ER fluids inside a piston–cylinder viscous damper subjected to external electric fields are studied based on experiment, theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. The viscous damper is a closed system with an inner piston and an outer cylinder, which is designed and constructed in our laboratory. In the experiment, the test ER fluid is enclosed in the gap of a piston–cylinder system. To examine the damping characteristics of the test ER fluid, a piston sine vibration experiment is performed with accompanying theoretical analyses. In addition, in order to investigate the ER flow behaviors inside the damper, a numerical simulation is carried out. The present study discloses the damping characteristics and the fluid mechanism of the ER fluid in the piston–cylinder damper with an applied external electric field
Nosonovsky, Michael
2013-01-01
Many scientists and engineers do not realize that, under certain conditions, friction can lead to the formation of new structures at the interface, including in situ tribofilms and various patterns. In turn, these structures-usually formed by destabilization of the stationary sliding regime-can lead to the reduction of friction and wear. Friction-Induced Vibrations and Self-Organization: Mechanics and Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics of Sliding Contact combines the mechanical and thermodynamic methods in tribology, thus extending the field of mechanical friction-induced vibrations to non-mechanical instabilities and self-organization processes at the frictional interface. The book also relates friction-induced self-organization to novel biomimetic materials, such as self-lubricating, self-cleaning, and self-healing materials. Explore Friction from a Different Angle-as a Fundamental Force of Nature The book begins with an exploration of friction as a fundamental force of nature throughout the history of science....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adamovich, Igor V.
2014-01-01
A three-dimensional, nonperturbative, semiclassical analytic model of vibrational energy transfer in collisions between a rotating diatomic molecule and an atom, and between two rotating diatomic molecules (Forced Harmonic Oscillator–Free Rotation model) has been extended to incorporate rotational relaxation and coupling between vibrational, translational, and rotational energy transfer. The model is based on analysis of semiclassical trajectories of rotating molecules interacting by a repulsive exponential atom-to-atom potential. The model predictions are compared with the results of three-dimensional close-coupled semiclassical trajectory calculations using the same potential energy surface. The comparison demonstrates good agreement between analytic and numerical probabilities of rotational and vibrational energy transfer processes, over a wide range of total collision energies, rotational energies, and impact parameter. The model predicts probabilities of single-quantum and multi-quantum vibrational-rotational transitions and is applicable up to very high collision energies and quantum numbers. Closed-form analytic expressions for these transition probabilities lend themselves to straightforward incorporation into DSMC nonequilibrium flow codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kustova, Elena V.; Kremer, Gilberto M.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • State-to-state approach for coupled vibrational relaxation and chemical reactions. • Self-consistent model for rates of non-equilibrium reactions and energy transitions. • In viscous flows mass action law is violated. • Cross coupling between reaction rates and non-equilibrium pressure in viscous flow. • Results allow implementing the state-to-state approach for viscous flow simulations. - Abstract: Viscous gas flows with vibrational relaxation and chemical reactions in the state-to-state approach are analyzed. A modified Chapman–Enskog method is used for the determination of chemical reaction and vibrational transition rates and non-equilibrium pressure. Constitutive equations depend on the thermodynamic forces: velocity divergence and chemical reaction/transition affinity. As an application, N 2 flow with vibrational relaxation across a shock wave is investigated. Two distinct processes occur behind the shock: for small values of the distance the affinity is large and vibrational relaxation is in its initial stage; for large distances the affinity is small and the chemical reaction is in its final stage. The affinity contributes more to the transition rate than the velocity divergence and the effect of these two contributions are more important for small distances from the shock front. For the non-equilibrium pressure, the term associated with the bulk viscosity increases by a small amount the hydrostatic pressure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kustova, Elena V., E-mail: e.kustova@spbu.ru [Department of Mathematics and Mechanics, Saint Petersburg State University, 198504 Universitetskiy pr. 28, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kremer, Gilberto M., E-mail: kremer@fisica.ufpr.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Caixa Postal 19044, 81531-980 Curitiba (Brazil)
2014-12-05
Highlights: • State-to-state approach for coupled vibrational relaxation and chemical reactions. • Self-consistent model for rates of non-equilibrium reactions and energy transitions. • In viscous flows mass action law is violated. • Cross coupling between reaction rates and non-equilibrium pressure in viscous flow. • Results allow implementing the state-to-state approach for viscous flow simulations. - Abstract: Viscous gas flows with vibrational relaxation and chemical reactions in the state-to-state approach are analyzed. A modified Chapman–Enskog method is used for the determination of chemical reaction and vibrational transition rates and non-equilibrium pressure. Constitutive equations depend on the thermodynamic forces: velocity divergence and chemical reaction/transition affinity. As an application, N{sub 2} flow with vibrational relaxation across a shock wave is investigated. Two distinct processes occur behind the shock: for small values of the distance the affinity is large and vibrational relaxation is in its initial stage; for large distances the affinity is small and the chemical reaction is in its final stage. The affinity contributes more to the transition rate than the velocity divergence and the effect of these two contributions are more important for small distances from the shock front. For the non-equilibrium pressure, the term associated with the bulk viscosity increases by a small amount the hydrostatic pressure.
Jagiełowicz-Ryznar C.
2016-01-01
The numerical calculations results of torsional vibration of the multi-cylinder crankshaft in the serial combustion engine (MC), including a viscous damper (VD), at complex forcing, were shown. In fact, in the MC case the crankshaft rotation forcings spectrum is the sum of harmonic forcing whose amplitude can be compared with the amplitude of the 1st harmonic. A significant impact, in the engine operational velocity, on the vibration damping process of MC, may be the amplitude of the 2nd harm...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jagiełowicz-Ryznar C.
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The numerical calculations results of torsional vibration of the multi-cylinder crankshaft in the serial combustion engine (MC, including a viscous damper (VD, at complex forcing, were shown. In fact, in the MC case the crankshaft rotation forcings spectrum is the sum of harmonic forcing whose amplitude can be compared with the amplitude of the 1st harmonic. A significant impact, in the engine operational velocity, on the vibration damping process of MC, may be the amplitude of the 2nd harmonic of a forcing moment. The calculations results of MC vibration, depending on the amplitude of the 2nd harmonic of the forcing moment, for the first form of the torsional vibration, were shown. Higher forms of torsional vibrations have no practical significance. The calculations assume the optimum damping coefficient VD, when the simple harmonic forcing is equal to the base critical velocity of the MC crankshaft.
Measurement of Vibrational Non-Equilibrium in a Supersonic Freestream Using Dual-Pump CARS
Cutler, Andrew D.; Magnotti, Gaetano; Cantu, Luca M. L.; Gallo, Emanuela C. A.; Danehy, Paul M.; Burle, Rob; Rockwell, Robert; Goyne, Christopher; McDaniel, James
2012-01-01
Measurements have been conducted at the University of Virginia Supersonic Combustion Facility of the flow in a constant area duct downstream of a Mach 2 nozzle, where the airflow has first been heated to approximately 1200 K. Dual-pump CARS was used to acquire rotational and vibrational temperatures of N2 and O2 at two planes in the duct at different downstream distances from the nozzle exit. Wall static pressures in the nozzle are also reported. With a flow of clean air, the vibrational temperature of N2 freezes at close to the heater stagnation temperature, while the O2 vibrational temperature is about 1000 K. The results are well predicted by computational fluid mechanics models employing separate "lumped" vibrational and translational/rotational temperatures. Experimental results are also reported for a few percent steam addition to the air and the effect of the steam is to bring the flow to thermal equilibrium.
Nonequilibrium electron-vibration coupling and conductance fluctuations in a C60 junction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ulstrup, Søren; Frederiksen, Thomas; Brandbyge, Mads
2012-01-01
displacement. Combined with a vibrational heating mechanism we construct a model from our results that explain the polarity-dependent two-level conductance fluctuations observed in recent scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments [N. Ne´el et al., Nano Lett. 11, 3593 (2011)]. These findings highlight...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ivo Stachiv
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Vibrating micro-/nanosized cantilever beams under an applied axial force are the key components of various devices used in nanotechnology. In this study, we perform a complete theoretical investigation of the cantilever beams under an arbitrary value of the axial force vibrating in a specific environment such as vacuum, air or viscous fluid. Based on the results easy accessible expressions enabling one the fast and highly accurate estimations of changes in the Q-factor and resonant frequencies of beam oscillating in viscous fluid caused by the applied axial force are derived and analyzed. It has been also shown that for beam-to-string and string vibrational regimes the mode shape starts to significantly deviate from the one known for a beam without axial force. Moreover, a linear dependency of the vibrational amplitude in resonance on the dimensionless tension parameter has been found. We revealed that only a large axial force, i.e. the string vibrational regime, significantly improves the Q-factor of beams submerged in fluid, while an increase of the axial force in beam and beam-to-string transition regimes has a negligibly small impact on the Q-factor enhancement. Experiments carried out on the carbon nanotubes and nanowires are in a good agreement with present theoretical predictions.
Comparison of Vibrational Relaxation Modeling for Strongly Non-Equilibrium Flows
2014-01-01
important pro- cess in a wide range of high speed flows. High temperature shock layers that form in front of hypersonic vehicles can lead to significant...continuum flows for use in traditional Computational Fluid Dynamics ( CFD ) and non-continuum flows for use with rarefied flow de- scriptions, such as the...145 .98 4396 V. Summary and Conclusions The form of two vibrational relaxation models that are commonly used in DSMC and CFD simula- tions have been
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohammadimehr, M.; Mohammadi-Dehabadi, A.A.; Maraghi, Z. Khoddami
2017-01-01
In this research, the effect of non-local higher order stress on the nonlinear vibration behavior of carbon nanotube conveying viscous nanoflow resting on elastic foundation is investigated. Physical intuition reveals that increasing nanoscale stress leads to decrease the stiffness of nanostructure which firstly established by Eringen's non-local elasticity theory (previous nonlocal method) while many of papers have concluded otherwise at microscale based on modified couple stress, modified strain gradient theories and surface stress effect. The non-local higher order stress model (new nonlocal method) is used in this article that has been studied by few researchers in other fields and the results from the present study show that the trend of the new nonlocal method and size dependent effect including modified couple stress theory is the same. In this regard, the nonlinear motion equations are derived using a variational principal approach considering essential higher-order non-local terms. The surrounded elastic medium is modeled by Pasternak foundation to increase the stability of system where the fluid flow may cause system instability. Effects of various parameters such as non-local parameter, elastic foundation coefficient, and fluid flow velocity on the stability and dimensionless natural frequency of nanotube are investigated. The results of this research show that the small scale parameter based on higher order stress help to increase the natural frequency which has been approved by other small scale theories such as strain gradient theory, modified couple stress theory and experiments, and vice versa for previous nonlocal method. This study may be useful to measure accurately the vibration characteristics of nanotubes conveying viscous nanoflow and to design nanofluidic devices for detecting blood Glucose.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mohammadimehr, M., E-mail: mmohammadimehr@kashanu.ac.ir [Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, P.O. Box: 87317-53153, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadi-Dehabadi, A.A. [Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, P.O. Box: 87317-53153, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Maraghi, Z. Khoddami [Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, P.O. Box: 87317-53153, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-04-01
In this research, the effect of non-local higher order stress on the nonlinear vibration behavior of carbon nanotube conveying viscous nanoflow resting on elastic foundation is investigated. Physical intuition reveals that increasing nanoscale stress leads to decrease the stiffness of nanostructure which firstly established by Eringen's non-local elasticity theory (previous nonlocal method) while many of papers have concluded otherwise at microscale based on modified couple stress, modified strain gradient theories and surface stress effect. The non-local higher order stress model (new nonlocal method) is used in this article that has been studied by few researchers in other fields and the results from the present study show that the trend of the new nonlocal method and size dependent effect including modified couple stress theory is the same. In this regard, the nonlinear motion equations are derived using a variational principal approach considering essential higher-order non-local terms. The surrounded elastic medium is modeled by Pasternak foundation to increase the stability of system where the fluid flow may cause system instability. Effects of various parameters such as non-local parameter, elastic foundation coefficient, and fluid flow velocity on the stability and dimensionless natural frequency of nanotube are investigated. The results of this research show that the small scale parameter based on higher order stress help to increase the natural frequency which has been approved by other small scale theories such as strain gradient theory, modified couple stress theory and experiments, and vice versa for previous nonlocal method. This study may be useful to measure accurately the vibration characteristics of nanotubes conveying viscous nanoflow and to design nanofluidic devices for detecting blood Glucose.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soltani, P; Farshidianfar, A; Taherian, M M
2010-01-01
In this study, for the first time, the transverse vibrational model of a viscous-fluid-conveying single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) embedded in biological soft tissue is developed. Nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beam theory has been used to investigate fluid-induced vibration of the SWCNT while visco-elastic behaviour of the surrounding tissue is simulated by the Kelvin-Voigt model. The results indicate that the resonant frequencies and the critical flow velocity at which structural instability of nanotubes emerges are significantly dependent on the properties of the medium around the nanotube, the boundary conditions, the viscosity of the fluid and the nonlocal parameter. Detailed results are demonstrated for the dependence of damping and elastic properties of the medium on the resonant frequencies and the critical flow velocity. Three standard boundary conditions, namely clamped-clamped, clamped-pinned and pinned-pinned, are applied to study the effect of the supported end conditions. Furthermore, it is found that the visco-elastic foundation causes an obvious reduction in the critical velocity in comparison with the elastic foundation, in particular for a compliant medium, pinned-pinned boundary condition, high viscosity of the fluid and small values of the nonlocal coefficient.
Jeon, Jonggu; Lim, Joon Hyung; Kim, Seongheun; Kim, Heejae; Cho, Minhaeng
2015-05-28
A time series of kinetic energies (KE) from classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation contains fundamental information on system dynamics. It can also be analyzed in the frequency domain through Fourier transformation (FT) of velocity correlation functions, providing energy content of different spectral regions. By limiting the FT time span, we have previously shown that spectral resolution of KE evolution is possible in the nonequilibrium situations [Jeon and Cho, J. Chem. Phys. 2011, 135, 214504]. In this paper, we refine the method by employing the concept of instantaneous power spectra, extending it to reflect an instantaneous time-correlation of velocities with those in the future as well as with those in the past, and present a new method to obtain the instantaneous spectral density of KE (iKESD). This approach enables the simultaneous spectral and temporal resolution of KE with unlimited time precision. We discuss the formal and novel properties of the new iKESD approaches and how to optimize computational methods and determine parameters for practical applications. The method is specifically applied to the nonequilibrium MD simulation of vibrational relaxation of the OD stretch mode in a hydrated HOD molecule by employing a hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) potential. We directly compare the computational results with the OD band population relaxation time profiles extracted from the IR pump-probe measurements for 5% HOD in water. The calculated iKESD yields the OD bond relaxation time scale ∼30% larger than the experimental value, and this decay is largely frequency-independent if the classical anharmonicity is accounted for. From the integrated iKESD over intra- and intermolecular bands, the major energy transfer pathways were found to involve the HOD bending mode in the subps range, then the internal modes of the solvent until 5 ps after excitation, and eventually the solvent intermolecular modes. Also, strong hydrogen
Deshmukh, Sanket A; Kamath, Ganesh; Suthar, Kamlesh J; Mancini, Derrick C; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K R S
2014-03-14
Molecular dynamics simulations in conjunction with finite element calculations are used to explore the conformational dynamics of a thermo-sensitive oligomer, namely poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM), subjected to an ultra-fast heating-cooling cycle. Finite element (FE) calculations were used to predict the temperature profile resulting from laser-induced heating of the polymer-aqueous system. The heating rate (∼0.6 K ps(-1)) deduced from FE calculations was used to heat an aqueous solution of PNIPAM consisting of 30 monomeric units (30-mer) from 285 K to 315 K. Non-equilibrium effects arising from the ultra-fast heating-cooling cycle results in a hysteresis during the coil-to-globule transition. The corresponding atomic scale conformations were characterized by monitoring the changes in the vibrational spectra, which provided a reliable metric to study the coil-to-globule transition in PNIPAM and vice-versa across the LCST. The vibrational spectra of bonds involving atoms from the oligomer backbone and the various side-groups (amide I, amide II, and the isopropyl group of PNIPAM) of the oligomers were analyzed to study the conformational changes in the oligomer corresponding to the observed hysteresis. The differences in the vibrational spectra calculated at various temperatures during heating and cooling cycles were used to understand the coil-to-globule and globule-to-coil transitions in the PNIPAM oligomer and identify the changes in the relative interactions between various atoms in the backbone and in the side groups of the oligomer with water. The shifts in the computed vibrational spectral peaks and the changes in the intensity of peaks for the different regions of PNIPAM, seen across the LCST during the heating cycle, are in good agreement with previous experimental studies. The changes in the radius of gyration (Rg) and vibrational spectra for amide I and amide II regions of PNIPAM suggest a clear coil-to-globule transition at ∼301 K during the
Two-temperature chemically non-equilibrium modelling of an air supersonic ICP
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El Morsli, Mbark; Proulx, Pierre [Laboratoire de Modelisation de Procedes Chimiques par Ordinateur Oppus, Departement de Genie Chimique, Universite de Sherbrooke (Ciheam) J1K 2R1 (Canada)
2007-08-21
In this work, a non-equilibrium mathematical model for an air inductively coupled plasma torch with a supersonic nozzle is developed without making thermal and chemical equilibrium assumptions. Reaction rate equations are written, and two coupled energy equations are used, one for the calculation of the translational-rotational temperature T{sub hr} and one for the calculation of the electro-vibrational temperature T{sub ev}. The viscous dissipation is taken into account in the translational-rotational energy equation. The electro-vibrational energy equation also includes the pressure work of the electrons, the Ohmic heating power and the exchange due to elastic collision. Higher order approximations of the Chapman-Enskog method are used to obtain better accuracy for transport properties, taking advantage of the most recent sets of collisions integrals available in the literature. The results obtained are compared with those obtained using a chemical equilibrium model and a one-temperature chemical non-equilibrium model. The influence of the power and the pressure chamber on the chemical and thermal non-equilibrium is investigated.
Development of a Thermo-chemical Non-equilibrium Solver for Hypervelocity Flows
Balasubramanian, R.; Anandhanarayanan, K.
2015-04-01
In the present study, a three dimensional flowsolver is indigenously developed to numerically simulate hypervelocity thermal and chemical non equilibrium reactive air flow past flight vehicles. The two-temperature, five species, seventeen reactions, thermo-chemical non equilibrium, non-ionizing, air-chemistry model of Park is implemented in a compressible viscous code CERANS and solved in the finite volume framework. The energy relaxation is addressed by a conservation equation for the vibrational energy of the gas mixture resulting in the evaluation of its vibrational temperature. The AUSM-PW+ numerical flux function has been used for modeling the convective fluxes and a central differencing approximation is used for modeling the diffusive fluxes. The flowsolver had been validated for specifically chosen test cases with inherent flow complexities of non-ionizing hypervelocity thermochemical nonequilibrium flows and results obtained are in good agreement with results available in open literature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Surzhikov, S.
2012-01-01
Graphical abstract: It has been shown that different coupled vibrational dissociation models, being applied for solving coupled radiative gasdynamic problems for large size space vehicles, exert noticeable effect on radiative heating of its surface at orbital entry on high altitudes (h ⩾ 70 km). This influence decreases with decreasing the space vehicles sizes. Figure shows translational (solid lines) and vibrational (dashed lines) temperatures in shock layer with (circle markers) and without (triangles markers) radiative-gasdynamic interaction for one trajectory point of entering space vehicle. Highlights: ► Nonequilibrium dissociation processes exert effect on radiation heating of space vehicles (SV). ► The radiation gas dynamic interaction enhances this influence. ► This influence increases with increasing the SV sizes. - Abstract: Radiative aerothermodynamics of large-scale space vehicles is considered for Earth orbital entry at zero angle of attack. Brief description of used radiative gasdynamic model of physically and chemically nonequilibrium, viscous, heat conductive and radiative gas of complex chemical composition is presented. Radiation gasdynamic (RadGD) interaction in high temperature shock layer is studied by means of numerical experiment. It is shown that radiation–gasdynamic coupling for orbital space vehicles of large size is important for high altitude part of entering trajectory. It is demonstrated that the use of different models of coupled vibrational dissociation (CVD) in conditions of RadGD interaction gives rise temperature variation in shock layer and, as a result, leads to significant variation of radiative heating of space vehicle.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maes, Christian
2012-01-01
In contrast to the quite unique entropy concept useful for systems in (local) thermodynamic equilibrium, there is a variety of quite distinct nonequilibrium entropies, reflecting different physical points. We disentangle these entropies as they relate to heat, fluctuations, response, time asymmetry, variational principles, monotonicity, volume contraction or statistical forces. However, not all of those extensions yield state quantities as understood thermodynamically. At the end we sketch how aspects of dynamical activity can take over for obtaining an extended Clausius relation.
Nonequilibrium Molecular Energy Coupling and Conversion Mechanisms
2016-08-28
resolved temperature measurements, by pure rotational picosecond broadband Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy ( CARS ), and kinetic modeling...rotational ps CARS for thermometry measurements in highly transient nonequilibrium plasmas. Rotational-translational temperatures are measured for time...primarily on localized flow heating on sub-acoustic time scale, and for assessing feasibility of high-speed aerodynamic flow control by vibrational
High-Temperature Vibration Damper
Clarke, Alan; Litwin, Joel; Krauss, Harold
1987-01-01
Device for damping vibrations functions at temperatures up to 400 degrees F. Dampens vibrational torque loads as high as 1,000 lb-in. but compact enough to be part of helicopter rotor hub. Rotary damper absorbs energy from vibrating rod, dissipating it in turbulent motion of viscous hydraulic fluid forced by moving vanes through small orifices.
Bulk viscous cosmology with causal transport theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piattella, Oliver F.; Fabris, Júlio C.; Zimdahl, Winfried
2011-01-01
We consider cosmological scenarios originating from a single imperfect fluid with bulk viscosity and apply Eckart's and both the full and the truncated Müller-Israel-Stewart's theories as descriptions of the non-equilibrium processes. Our principal objective is to investigate if the dynamical properties of Dark Matter and Dark Energy can be described by a single viscous fluid and how such description changes when a causal theory (Müller-Israel-Stewart's, both in its full and truncated forms) is taken into account instead of Eckart's non-causal one. To this purpose, we find numerical solutions for the gravitational potential and compare its behaviour with the corresponding ΛCDM case. Eckart's and the full causal theory seem to be disfavoured, whereas the truncated theory leads to results similar to those of the ΛCDM model for a bulk viscous speed in the interval 10 −11 || cb 2 ∼ −8
Kirk, Benjamin S.; Bova, Stephen W.; Bond, Ryan B.
2011-01-01
Presentation topics include background and motivation; physical modeling including governing equations and thermochemistry; finite element formulation; results of inviscid thermal nonequilibrium chemically reacting flow and viscous thermal equilibrium chemical reacting flow; and near-term effort.
Aeroacoustic and aerodynamic applications of the theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics
Horne, W. Clifton; Smith, Charles A.; Karamcheti, Krishnamurty
1991-01-01
Recent developments in the field of nonequilibrium thermodynamics associated with viscous flows are examined and related to developments to the understanding of specific phenomena in aerodynamics and aeroacoustics. A key element of the nonequilibrium theory is the principle of minimum entropy production rate for steady dissipative processes near equilibrium, and variational calculus is used to apply this principle to several examples of viscous flow. A review of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and its role in fluid motion are presented. Several formulations are presented of the local entropy production rate and the local energy dissipation rate, two quantities that are of central importance to the theory. These expressions and the principle of minimum entropy production rate for steady viscous flows are used to identify parallel-wall channel flow and irrotational flow as having minimally dissipative velocity distributions. Features of irrotational, steady, viscous flow near an airfoil, such as the effect of trailing-edge radius on circulation, are also found to be compatible with the minimum principle. Finally, the minimum principle is used to interpret the stability of infinitesimal and finite amplitude disturbances in an initially laminar, parallel shear flow, with results that are consistent with experiment and linearized hydrodynamic stability theory. These results suggest that a thermodynamic approach may be useful in unifying the understanding of many diverse phenomena in aerodynamics and aeroacoustics.
An entropy-variables-based formulation of residual distribution schemes for non-equilibrium flows
Garicano-Mena, Jesús; Lani, Andrea; Degrez, Gérard
2018-06-01
In this paper we present an extension of Residual Distribution techniques for the simulation of compressible flows in non-equilibrium conditions. The latter are modeled by means of a state-of-the-art multi-species and two-temperature model. An entropy-based variable transformation that symmetrizes the projected advective Jacobian for such a thermophysical model is introduced. Moreover, the transformed advection Jacobian matrix presents a block diagonal structure, with mass-species and electronic-vibrational energy being completely decoupled from the momentum and total energy sub-system. The advantageous structure of the transformed advective Jacobian can be exploited by contour-integration-based Residual Distribution techniques: established schemes that operate on dense matrices can be substituted by the same scheme operating on the momentum-energy subsystem matrix and repeated application of scalar scheme to the mass-species and electronic-vibrational energy terms. Finally, the performance gain of the symmetrizing-variables formulation is quantified on a selection of representative testcases, ranging from subsonic to hypersonic, in inviscid or viscous conditions.
Ab initio vibrations in nonequilibrium nanowires
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Engelund, Mads; Markussen, T
2010-01-01
We review recent results on electronic and thermal transport in two different quasi one-dimensional systems: Silicon nanowires (SiNW) and atomic gold chains. For SiNW's we compute the ballistic electronic and thermal transport properties on equal footing, allowing us to make quantitative predicti...
An upwind, kinetic flux-vector splitting method for flows in chemical and thermal non-equilibrium
Eppard, W. M.; Grossman, B.
1993-01-01
We have developed new upwind kinetic difference schemes for flows with non-equilibrium thermodynamics and chemistry. These schemes are derived from the Boltzmann equation with the resulting Euler schemes developed as moments of the discretized Boltzmann scheme with a locally Maxwellian velocity distribution. Splitting the velocity distribution at the Boltzmann level is seen to result in a flux-split Euler scheme and is called Kinetic Flux Vector Splitting (KFVS). Extensions to flows with finite-rate chemistry and vibrational relaxation is accomplished utilizing nonequilibrium kinetic theory. Computational examples are presented comparing KFVS with the schemes of Van Leer and Roe for a quasi-one-dimensional flow through a supersonic diffuser, inviscid flow through two-dimensional inlet, and viscous flow over a cone at zero angle-of-attack. Calculations are also shown for the transonic flow over a bump in a channel and the transonic flow over an NACA 0012 airfoil. The results show that even though the KFVS scheme is a Riemann solver at the kinetic level, its behavior at the Euler level is more similar to the existing flux-vector splitting algorithms than to the flux-difference splitting scheme of Roe.
Nonequilibrium Phenomena in Plasmas
Sharma, A Surjalal
2005-01-01
The complexity of plasmas arises mainly from their inherent nonlinearity and far from equilibrium nature. The nonequilibrium behavior of plasmas is evident in the natural settings, for example, in the Earth's magnetosphere. Similarly, laboratory plasmas such as fusion bottles also have their fair share of complex behavior. Nonequilibrium phenomena are intimately connected with statistical dynamics and form one of the growing research areas in modern nonlinear physics. These studies encompass the ideas of self-organization, phase transition, critical phenomena, self-organized criticality and turbulence. This book presents studies of complexity in the context of nonequilibrium phenomena using theory, modeling, simulations, and experiments, both in the laboratory and in nature.
Adiabatic Hamiltonian deformation, linear response theory, and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoover, W.G.
1980-01-01
Although Hamiltonians of various kinds have previously been used to derive Green-Kubo relations for the transport coefficients, the particular choice described is uniquely related to thermodynamics. This nonequilibrium Hamiltonian formulation of fluid flow provides pedagogically simple routes to nonequilibrium fluxes and distribution functions, to theoretical understanding of long-time effects, and to new numerical methods for simulating systems far from equilibrium. The same methods are now being applied to solid-phase problems. At the relatively high frequencies used in the viscous fluid calculations described, solids typically behave elastically. Lower frequencies lead to the formation of dislocations and other defects, making it possible to study plastic flow. A property of the nonequilibrium equations of motion which might be profitably explored is their effective irreversibility. Because only a few particles are necessary to generate irreversible behavior, simulations using adiabatic deformations of the kind described here could perhaps elucidate the instability in the equations of motion responsible for irreversibility
Nonequilibrium quantum field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niemi, A.J.
1988-01-01
Combining the Feynman-Vernon influence functional formalism with the real-time formulation of finite-temperature quantum field theories we present a general approach to relativistic quantum field theories out of thermal equilibrium. We clarify the physical meaning of the additional fields encountered in the real-time formulation of quantum statistics and outline diagrammatic rules for perturbative nonequilibrium computations. We derive a generalization of Boltzmann's equation which gives a complete characterization of relativistic nonequilibrium phenomena. (orig.)
Formulating viscous hydrodynamics for large velocity gradients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pratt, Scott
2008-01-01
Viscous corrections to relativistic hydrodynamics, which are usually formulated for small velocity gradients, have recently been extended from Navier-Stokes formulations to a class of treatments based on Israel-Stewart equations. Israel-Stewart treatments, which treat the spatial components of the stress-energy tensor τ ij as dynamical objects, introduce new parameters, such as the relaxation times describing nonequilibrium behavior of the elements τ ij . By considering linear response theory and entropy constraints, we show how the additional parameters are related to fluctuations of τ ij . Furthermore, the Israel-Stewart parameters are analyzed for their ability to provide stable and physical solutions for sound waves. Finally, it is shown how these parameters, which are naturally described by correlation functions in real time, might be constrained by lattice calculations, which are based on path-integral formulations in imaginary time
Viscous, Resistive Magnetorotational Modes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pessah, Martin Elias; Chan, Chi-kwan
2008-01-01
We carry out a comprehensive analysis of the behavior of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in viscous, resistive plasmas. We find exact, non-linear solutions of the non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations describing the local dynamics of an incompressible, differentially rotating...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dyre, Jeppe
1999-01-01
Recent NMR experiments on supercooled toluene and glycerol by Hinze and Böhmer show that small rotation angles dominate with only a few large molecular rotations. These results are here interpreted by assuming that viscous liquids are solidlike on short length scales. A characteristic length...
Nonequilibrium statistical physics
Röpke, Gerd
2013-01-01
Authored by one of the top theoretical physicists in Germany, and a well-known authority in the field, this is the only coherent presentation of the subject suitable for masters and PhD students, as well as postdocs in physics and related disciplines.Starting from a general discussion of the nonequilibrium state, different standard approaches such as master equations, and kinetic and linear response theory, are derived after special assumptions. This allows for an insight into the problems of nonequilibrium physics, a discussion of the limits, and suggestions for improvements. Applications
Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of nucleation
Schweizer, M.; Sagis, L.M.C.
2014-01-01
We present a novel approach to nucleation processes based on the GENERIC framework (general equation for the nonequilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling). Solely based on the GENERIC structure of time-evolution equations and thermodynamic consistency arguments of exchange processes between a
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feng Chaojun; Li Xinzhou
2009-01-01
We investigate the viscous Ricci dark energy (RDE) model by assuming that there is bulk viscosity in the linear barotropic fluid and the RDE. In the RDE model without bulk viscosity, the universe is younger than some old objects at certain redshifts. Since the age of the universe should be longer than any objects living in the universe, the RDE model suffers the age problem, especially when we consider the object APM 08279+5255 at z=3.91 with age t=2.1 Gyr. In this Letter, we find that once the viscosity is taken into account, this age problem is alleviated.
1978-01-01
The proposed magnetically anchored viscous fluid damper can maintain the Skylab in a gravity-gradient stabilized mode at the anticipated reboost altitudes. The parameters influencing damper performance (and thereby affecting the degree of risk) are: (1) amount of skylab pitch bias in the orbit plane which will result from aerodynamic trim conditions of the post-reboost configuration Skylab; (2) the lowest altitude to which the post-reboost Skylab will be allowed to decay prior to the next rendezvous; (3) maximum allowable weight and size of the proposed damper in order to match shuttle/TRS mission constraints; (4) the amount of magnetic materials expected to be in the vicinity of the damper.
Langlois, William E
2014-01-01
Leonardo wrote, 'Mechanics is the paradise of the mathematical sciences, because by means of it one comes to the fruits of mathematics' ; replace 'Mechanics' by 'Fluid mechanics' and here we are." - from the Preface to the Second Edition Although the exponential growth of computer power has advanced the importance of simulations and visualization tools for elaborating new models, designs and technologies, the discipline of fluid mechanics is still large, and turbulence in flows remains a challenging problem in classical physics. Like its predecessor, the revised and expanded Second Edition of this book addresses the basic principles of fluid mechanics and solves fluid flow problems where viscous effects are the dominant physical phenomena. Much progress has occurred in the nearly half a century that has passed since the edition of 1964. As predicted, aspects of hydrodynamics once considered offbeat have risen to importance. For example, the authors have worked on problems where variations in viscosity a...
Statistical mechanics of nonequilibrium liquids
Evans, Denis J; Craig, D P; McWeeny, R
1990-01-01
Statistical Mechanics of Nonequilibrium Liquids deals with theoretical rheology. The book discusses nonlinear response of systems and outlines the statistical mechanical theory. In discussing the framework of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, the book explains the derivation of a nonequilibrium analogue of the Gibbsian basis for equilibrium statistical mechanics. The book reviews the linear irreversible thermodynamics, the Liouville equation, and the Irving-Kirkwood procedure. The text then explains the Green-Kubo relations used in linear transport coefficients, the linear response theory,
Bulk viscous cosmological model with interacting dark fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kremer, Gilberto M.; Sobreiro, Octavio A.S.
2012-01-01
We study a cosmological model for a spatially flat Universe whose constituents are a dark energy field and a matter field comprising baryons and dark matter. The constituents are assumed to interact with each other, and a non-equilibrium pressure is introduced to account for irreversible processes. We take the nonequilibrium pressure to be proportional to the Hubble parameter within the framework of a first-order thermodynamic theory. The dark energy and matter fields are coupled by their barotropic indexes, which depend on the ratio between their energy densities. We adjust the free parameters of the model to optimize the fits to the Hubble parameter data. We compare the viscous model with the non-viscous one, and show that the irreversible processes cause the dark-energy and matter-density parameters to become equal and the decelerated-accelerated transition to occur at earlier times. Furthermore, the density and deceleration parameters and the distance modulus have the correct behavior, consistent with a viable scenario of the present status of the Universe . (author)
Non-equilibrium Microwave Plasma for Efficient High Temperature Chemistry.
van den Bekerom, Dirk; den Harder, Niek; Minea, Teofil; Gatti, Nicola; Linares, Jose Palomares; Bongers, Waldo; van de Sanden, Richard; van Rooij, Gerard
2017-08-01
A flowing microwave plasma based methodology for converting electric energy into internal and/or translational modes of stable molecules with the purpose of efficiently driving non-equilibrium chemistry is discussed. The advantage of a flowing plasma reactor is that continuous chemical processes can be driven with the flexibility of startup times in the seconds timescale. The plasma approach is generically suitable for conversion/activation of stable molecules such as CO2, N2 and CH4. Here the reduction of CO2 to CO is used as a model system: the complementary diagnostics illustrate how a baseline thermodynamic equilibrium conversion can be exceeded by the intrinsic non-equilibrium from high vibrational excitation. Laser (Rayleigh) scattering is used to measure the reactor temperature and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to characterize in situ internal (vibrational) excitation as well as the effluent composition to monitor conversion and selectivity.
Nonequilibrium effects in Isoscaling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dorso, C. O.; Lopez, J. A.
2007-01-01
In this work we study within a simple model different properties of the system that allow us to understand the properties of the isoscaling observable. We first show that isoscaling is a general property of fragmenting systems. We show this by using a simple generalized percolation model. We show that the usual isoscaling property can be obtained in the case of bond percolation in bichromatic lattices with any regular topology. In this case the probabilities of each color (isospin) are independent. We then explore the effect of introducing 'non-equilibrium' effects
Non-equilibrium thermodynamics
De Groot, Sybren Ruurds
1984-01-01
The study of thermodynamics is especially timely today, as its concepts are being applied to problems in biology, biochemistry, electrochemistry, and engineering. This book treats irreversible processes and phenomena - non-equilibrium thermodynamics.S. R. de Groot and P. Mazur, Professors of Theoretical Physics, present a comprehensive and insightful survey of the foundations of the field, providing the only complete discussion of the fluctuating linear theory of irreversible thermodynamics. The application covers a wide range of topics: the theory of diffusion and heat conduction, fluid dyn
The nonequilibrium molecular dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoover, W.G.
1992-03-01
MOLECULAR DYNAMICS has been generalized in order to simulate a variety of NONEQUILIBRIUM systems. This generalization has been achieved by adopting microscopic mechanical definitions of macroscopic thermodynamic and hydrodynamic variables, such as temperature and stress. Some of the problems already treated include rapid plastic deformation, intense heat conduction, strong shockwaves simulation, and far-from-equilibrium phase transformations. Continuing advances in technique and in the modeling of interatomic forces, coupled with qualitative improvements in computer hardware, are enabling such simulations to approximate real-world microscale and nanoscale experiments
Instabilities and nonequilibrium structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tirapegui, E.; Villarroel, D.
1987-01-01
Physical systems can be studied both near to and far from equilibrium where instabilities appear. The behaviour in these two regions is reviewed in this book, from both the theoretical and application points of view. The influence of noise in these situations is an essential feature which cannot be ignored. It is therefore discussed using phenomenological and theoretical approaches for the numerous problems which still remain in the field. This volume should appeal to mathematicians and physicists interested in the areas of instability, bifurcation theory, dynamical systems, pattern formation, nonequilibrium structures and statistical mechanics. (Auth.)
Large scale structure from viscous dark matter
Blas, Diego; Garny, Mathias; Tetradis, Nikolaos; Wiedemann, Urs Achim
2015-01-01
Cosmological perturbations of sufficiently long wavelength admit a fluid dynamic description. We consider modes with wavevectors below a scale $k_m$ for which the dynamics is only mildly non-linear. The leading effect of modes above that scale can be accounted for by effective non-equilibrium viscosity and pressure terms. For mildly non-linear scales, these mainly arise from momentum transport within the ideal and cold but inhomogeneous fluid, while momentum transport due to more microscopic degrees of freedom is suppressed. As a consequence, concrete expressions with no free parameters, except the matching scale $k_m$, can be derived from matching evolution equations to standard cosmological perturbation theory. Two-loop calculations of the matter power spectrum in the viscous theory lead to excellent agreement with $N$-body simulations up to scales $k=0.2 \\, h/$Mpc. The convergence properties in the ultraviolet are better than for standard perturbation theory and the results are robust with respect to varia...
Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics of Driven Disordered Materials
Bouchbinder, Eran
2011-03-01
We present a nonequilibrium thermodynamic framework for describing the dynamics of driven disordered solids (noncrystalline solids near and below their glass temperature, soft glassy materials such as colloidal suspensions and heavily dislocated polycrystalline solids). A central idea in our approach is that the set of mechanically stable configurations, i.e. the part of the system that is described by inherent structures, evolves slowly as compared to thermal vibrations and is characterized by an effective disorder temperature. Our thermodynamics-motivated equations of motion for the flow of energy and entropy are supplemented by coarse-grained internal variables that carry information about the relevant microscopic physics. Applications of this framework to amorphous visco-plasticity (Shear-Transformation-Zone theory), glassy memory effects (the Kovacs effect) and dislocation-mediated polycrystalline plasticity will be briefly discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katalin Martinás
2007-02-01
Full Text Available A microeconomic, agent based framework to dynamic economics is formulated in a materialist approach. An axiomatic foundation of a non-equilibrium microeconomics is outlined. Economic activity is modelled as transformation and transport of commodities (materials owned by the agents. Rate of transformations (production intensity, and the rate of transport (trade are defined by the agents. Economic decision rules are derived from the observed economic behaviour. The non-linear equations are solved numerically for a model economy. Numerical solutions for simple model economies suggest that the some of the results of general equilibrium economics are consequences only of the equilibrium hypothesis. We show that perfect competition of selfish agents does not guarantee the stability of economic equilibrium, but cooperativity is needed, too.
Nonequilibrium emergent phenomena in organic molecular solids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mitrano, Matteo
2015-07-15
The manipulation of matter with ultrashort laser pulses is a relevant research field from both a fundamental and an applied perspective, owing to the efficient coupling to the electronic degrees of freedom on femtosecond timescales and the ability to induce transient phases that cannot be realized in equilibrium scenarios. Strongly correlated materials are a natural environment for the observation of such novel and emergent out-of-equilibrium physics because small modifications to the electron-electron interactions can induce transitions between remarkably different macroscopic phases. One of the most effective means of modifying the effective electron-electron interactions is to perturb the crystal structure through pressure, strain or even light. However, it remains largely unexplored how perturbing the structural degrees of freedom affects the electron dynamics of the transiently driven states and how the interplay of correlations and electron-lattice interactions determine the intrinsic timescales of these nonequilibrium states. This thesis investigates how to control the light-induced nonequilibrium electronic properties in strongly correlated organics, that are highly tunable with moderate variations of external parameters, by perturbing their structural degrees of freedom, either via static pressures or vibrational excitation. We study the role of correlations in determining the relaxation rate of holes (holons) and double occupancies (doublons) in a solid state Mott insulator, the ET-F{sub 2}TCNQ, driven across a transient insulator-to-metal transition. By mapping holon-doublon lifetimes onto the ground-state electronic interactions, we found that the decay rate of the photoinjected quasiparticles depends on the degree of correlation between carriers and is affected by the presence of a competition between local recombination and delocalization of holon-doublon pairs. By optically controlling the effective correlations in organic molecular crystals through
Definition of Nonequilibrium Entropy of General Systems
Mei, Xiaochun
1999-01-01
The definition of nonequilibrium entropy is provided for the general nonequilibrium processes by connecting thermodynamics with statistical physics, and the principle of entropy increment in the nonequilibrium processes is also proved in the paper. The result shows that the definition of nonequilibrium entropy is not unique.
Viscous Fingering in Deformable Systems
Guan, Jian Hui; MacMinn, Chris
2017-11-01
Viscous fingering is a classical hydrodynamic instability that occurs when an invading fluid is injected into a porous medium or a Hele-Shaw cell that contains a more viscous defending fluid. Recent work has shown that viscous fingering in a Hele-Shaw cell is supressed when the flow cell is deformable. However, the mechanism of suppression relies on a net volumetric expansion of the flow area. Here, we study flow in a novel Hele-Shaw cell consisting of a rigid bottom plate and a flexible top plate that deforms in a way that is volume-conserving. In other words, fluid injection into the flow cell leads to a local expansion of the flow area (outward displacement of the flexible surface) that must be coupled to non-local contraction (inward displacement of the flexible surface). We explore the impact of this volumetric confinement on steady viscous flow and on viscous fingering. We would like to thank EPSRC for the funding for this work.
Relic gravitons and viscous cosmologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cataldo, Mauricio; Mella, Patricio
2006-01-01
Previously it was shown that there exists a class of viscous cosmological models which violate the dominant energy condition for a limited amount of time after which they are smoothly connected to the ordinary radiation era (which preserves the dominant energy conditions). This violation of the dominant energy condition at an early cosmological epoch may influence the slopes of energy spectra of relic gravitons that might be of experimental relevance. However, the bulk viscosity coefficient of these cosmologies became negative during the ordinary radiation era, and then the entropy of the sources driving the geometry decreases with time. We show that in the presence of viscous sources with a linear barotropic equation of state p=γρ we get viscous cosmological models with positive bulk viscous stress during all their evolution, and hence the matter entropy increases with the expansion time. In other words, in the framework of viscous cosmologies, there exist isotropic models compatible with the standard second law of thermodynamics which also may influence the slopes of energy spectra of relic gravitons
Quasiadiabatic modes from viscous inhomogeneities
Giovannini, Massimo
2016-04-20
The viscous inhomogeneities of a relativistic plasma determine a further class of entropic modes whose amplitude must be sufficiently small since curvature perturbations are observed to be predominantly adiabatic and Gaussian over large scales. When the viscous coefficients only depend on the energy density of the fluid the corresponding curvature fluctuations are shown to be almost adiabatic. After addressing the problem in a gauge-invariant perturbative expansion, the same analysis is repeated at a non-perturbative level by investigating the nonlinear curvature inhomogeneities induced by the spatial variation of the viscous coefficients. It is demonstrated that the quasiadiabatic modes are suppressed in comparison with a bona fide adiabatic solution. Because of its anomalously large tensor to scalar ratio the quasiadiabatic mode cannot be a substitute for the conventional adiabatic paradigm so that, ultimately, the present findings seems to exclude the possibility of a successful accelerated dynamics solely...
Effect of non-equilibrium flow chemistry and surface catalysis on surface heating to AFE
Stewart, David A.; Henline, William D.; Chen, Yih-Kanq
1991-01-01
The effect of nonequilibrium flow chemistry on the surface temperature distribution over the forebody heat shield on the Aeroassisted Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle was investigated using a reacting boundary-layer code. Computations were performed by using boundary-layer-edge properties determined from global iterations between the boundary-layer code and flow field solutions from a viscous shock layer (VSL) and a full Navier-Stokes solution. Surface temperature distribution over the AFE heat shield was calculated for two flight conditions during a nominal AFE trajectory. This study indicates that the surface temperature distribution is sensitive to the nonequilibrium chemistry in the shock layer. Heating distributions over the AFE forebody calculated using nonequilibrium edge properties were similar to values calculated using the VSL program.
Anisotropic nonequilibrium hydrodynamic attractor
Strickland, Michael; Noronha, Jorge; Denicol, Gabriel S.
2018-02-01
We determine the dynamical attractors associated with anisotropic hydrodynamics (aHydro) and the DNMR equations for a 0 +1 d conformal system using kinetic theory in the relaxation time approximation. We compare our results to the nonequilibrium attractor obtained from the exact solution of the 0 +1 d conformal Boltzmann equation, the Navier-Stokes theory, and the second-order Mueller-Israel-Stewart theory. We demonstrate that the aHydro attractor equation resums an infinite number of terms in the inverse Reynolds number. The resulting resummed aHydro attractor possesses a positive longitudinal-to-transverse pressure ratio and is virtually indistinguishable from the exact attractor. This suggests that an optimized hydrodynamic treatment of kinetic theory involves a resummation not only in gradients (Knudsen number) but also in the inverse Reynolds number. We also demonstrate that the DNMR result provides a better approximation of the exact kinetic theory attractor than the Mueller-Israel-Stewart theory. Finally, we introduce a new method for obtaining approximate aHydro equations which relies solely on an expansion in the inverse Reynolds number. We then carry this expansion out to the third order, and compare these third-order results to the exact kinetic theory solution.
Grossman, B.; Garrett, J.; Cinnella, P.
1989-01-01
Several versions of flux-vector split and flux-difference split algorithms were compared with regard to general applicability and complexity. Test computations were performed using curve-fit equilibrium air chemistry for an M = 5 high-temperature inviscid flow over a wedge, and an M = 24.5 inviscid flow over a blunt cylinder for test computations; for these cases, little difference in accuracy was found among the versions of the same flux-split algorithm. For flows with nonequilibrium chemistry, the effects of the thermodynamic model on the development of flux-vector split and flux-difference split algorithms were investigated using an equilibrium model, a general nonequilibrium model, and a simplified model based on vibrational relaxation. Several numerical examples are presented, including nonequilibrium air chemistry in a high-temperature shock tube and nonequilibrium hydrogen-air chemistry in a supersonic diffuser.
Laserlike Vibrational Instability in Rectifying Molecular Conductors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lu, Jing Tao; Hedegård, Per; Brandbyge, Mads
2011-01-01
We study the damping of molecular vibrations due to electron-hole pair excitations in donor-acceptor (D-A) type molecular rectifiers. At finite voltage additional nonequilibrium electron-hole pair excitations involving both electrodes become possible, and contribute to the stimulated emission....... We investigate the effect in realistic molecular rectifier structures using first-principles calculations....
Role of theoretical dynamics in vibration diagnostics of pipe systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rejent, B.
1992-01-01
The importance of vibration diagnostics of pipe systems and the relevance of theoretical dynamics are shown using examples. The problems are discussed of vibration diagnostics of the primary circuit of a nuclear power plant with viscous seismic dampers installed. (M.D.) 7 figs., 5 refs
Non-equilibrium phase transitions
Henkel, Malte; Lübeck, Sven
2009-01-01
This book describes two main classes of non-equilibrium phase-transitions: (a) static and dynamics of transitions into an absorbing state, and (b) dynamical scaling in far-from-equilibrium relaxation behaviour and ageing. The first volume begins with an introductory chapter which recalls the main concepts of phase-transitions, set for the convenience of the reader in an equilibrium context. The extension to non-equilibrium systems is made by using directed percolation as the main paradigm of absorbing phase transitions and in view of the richness of the known results an entire chapter is devoted to it, including a discussion of recent experimental results. Scaling theories and a large set of both numerical and analytical methods for the study of non-equilibrium phase transitions are thoroughly discussed. The techniques used for directed percolation are then extended to other universality classes and many important results on model parameters are provided for easy reference.
Viscous fingering with permeability heterogeneity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tan, C.; Homsy, G.M.
1992-01-01
Viscous fingering in miscible displacements in the presence of permeability heterogeneities is studied using two-dimensional simulations. The heterogeneities are modeled as stationary random functions of space with finite correlation scale. Both the variance and scale of the heterogeneities are varied over modest ranges. It is found that the fingered zone grows linearly in time in a fashion analogous to that found in homogeneous media by Tan and Homsy [Phys. Fluids 31, 1330 (1988)], indicating a close coupling between viscous fingering on the one hand and flow through preferentially more permeable paths on the other. The growth rate of the mixing zone increases monotonically with the variance of the heterogeneity, as expected, but shows a maximum as the correlation scale is varied. The latter is explained as a ''resonance'' between the natural scale of fingers in homogeneous media and the correlation scale
Periodic folding of viscous sheets
Ribe, Neil M.
2003-09-01
The periodic folding of a sheet of viscous fluid falling upon a rigid surface is a common fluid mechanical instability that occurs in contexts ranging from food processing to geophysics. Asymptotic thin-layer equations for the combined stretching-bending deformation of a two-dimensional sheet are solved numerically to determine the folding frequency as a function of the sheet’s initial thickness, the pouring speed, the height of fall, and the fluid properties. As the buoyancy increases, the system bifurcates from “forced” folding driven kinematically by fluid extrusion to “free” folding in which viscous resistance to bending is balanced by buoyancy. The systematics of the numerically predicted folding frequency are in good agreement with laboratory experiments.
Viscous entrainment on hairy surfaces
Nasto, Alice; Brun, P.-T.; Hosoi, A. E.
2018-02-01
Nectar-drinking bats and honeybees have tongues covered with hairlike structures, enhancing their ability to take up viscous nectar by dipping. Using a combination of model experiments and theory, we explore the physical mechanisms that govern viscous entrainment in a hairy texture. Hairy surfaces are fabricated using laser cut molds and casting samples with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer. We model the liquid trapped within the texture using a Darcy-Brinkmann-like approach and derive the drainage flow solution. The amount of fluid that is entrained is dependent on the viscosity of the fluid, the density of the hairs, and the withdrawal speed. Both experiments and theory reveal an optimal hair density to maximize fluid uptake.
Computation of Viscous Incompressible Flows
Kwak, Dochan
2011-01-01
This monograph is intended as a concise and self-contained guide to practitioners and graduate students for applying approaches in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to real-world problems that require a quantification of viscous incompressible flows. In various projects related to NASA missions, the authors have gained CFD expertise over many years by developing and utilizing tools especially related to viscous incompressible flows. They are looking at CFD from an engineering perspective, which is especially useful when working on real-world applications. From that point of view, CFD requires two major elements, namely methods/algorithm and engineering/physical modeling. As for the methods, CFD research has been performed with great successes. In terms of modeling/simulation, mission applications require a deeper understanding of CFD and flow physics, which has only been debated in technical conferences and to a limited scope. This monograph fills the gap by offering in-depth examples for students and engine...
Incorporation of coupled nonequilibrium chemistry into a two-dimensional nozzle code (SEAGULL)
Ratliff, A. W.
1979-01-01
A two-dimensional multiple shock nozzle code (SEAGULL) was extended to include the effects of finite rate chemistry. The basic code that treats multiple shocks and contact surfaces was fully coupled with a generalized finite rate chemistry and vibrational energy exchange package. The modified code retains all of the original SEAGULL features plus the capability to treat chemical and vibrational nonequilibrium reactions. Any chemical and/or vibrational energy exchange mechanism can be handled as long as thermodynamic data and rate constants are available for all participating species.
Establishment of the technical basis for applying viscous dampers to nuclear power plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Narahara, Yukiko; Higuchi, Tomokazu; Katayama, Hiroshi; Ito, Ryo; Hattori, Kiyoshi; Nakajima, Jun
2017-01-01
For the purpose of introducing viscous dampers to nuclear power plants, the damping characteristic of the viscous damper under specific conditions in nuclear power plants was examined. In particular the seismic response analysis method, the design evaluation method, and the maintenance and management guideline were studied. In the viscous dampers characteristic test, the damping characteristics under earthquake motion and the environmental condition of nuclear power plants have been examined. From the test results, if the parameters such as vibration amplitude, vibration frequency, repeated load, temperature, and radiation are considered, there is a possibility of viscous damper application to components in nuclear power plants. In order to evaluate the applicability of the complex modal analysis method using response spectrum, comparison with the time history response analysis result was performed using a PWR steam generator analysis model. The evaluation result from the complex modal analysis method was in good agreement with the time history response analysis result, and the availability of this method was confirmed. From the test results, considerations in design and maintenance in the case of applying viscous dampers to nuclear power plants were selected. The bases of the design evaluation method and the maintenance and management guideline were developed. (author)
Open problems in non-equilibrium physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kusnezov, D.
1997-01-01
The report contains viewgraphs on the following: approaches to non-equilibrium statistical mechanics; classical and quantum processes in chaotic environments; classical fields in non-equilibrium situations: real time dynamics at finite temperature; and phase transitions in non-equilibrium conditions
Open problems in non-equilibrium physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kusnezov, D.
1997-09-22
The report contains viewgraphs on the following: approaches to non-equilibrium statistical mechanics; classical and quantum processes in chaotic environments; classical fields in non-equilibrium situations: real time dynamics at finite temperature; and phase transitions in non-equilibrium conditions.
Non-equilibrium supramolecular polymerization.
Sorrenti, Alessandro; Leira-Iglesias, Jorge; Markvoort, Albert J; de Greef, Tom F A; Hermans, Thomas M
2017-09-18
Supramolecular polymerization has been traditionally focused on the thermodynamic equilibrium state, where one-dimensional assemblies reside at the global minimum of the Gibbs free energy. The pathway and rate to reach the equilibrium state are irrelevant, and the resulting assemblies remain unchanged over time. In the past decade, the focus has shifted to kinetically trapped (non-dissipative non-equilibrium) structures that heavily depend on the method of preparation (i.e., pathway complexity), and where the assembly rates are of key importance. Kinetic models have greatly improved our understanding of competing pathways, and shown how to steer supramolecular polymerization in the desired direction (i.e., pathway selection). The most recent innovation in the field relies on energy or mass input that is dissipated to keep the system away from the thermodynamic equilibrium (or from other non-dissipative states). This tutorial review aims to provide the reader with a set of tools to identify different types of self-assembled states that have been explored so far. In particular, we aim to clarify the often unclear use of the term "non-equilibrium self-assembly" by subdividing systems into dissipative, and non-dissipative non-equilibrium states. Examples are given for each of the states, with a focus on non-dissipative non-equilibrium states found in one-dimensional supramolecular polymerization.
Rheology via nonequilibrium molecular dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoover, W.G.
1982-10-01
The equilibrium molecular dynamics formulated by Newton, Lagrange, and Hamilton has been modified in order to simulate rheologial molecular flows with fast computers. This modified Nonequilibrium Molecular Dynamics (NEMD) has been applied to fluid and solid deformations, under both homogeneous and shock conditions, as well as to the transport of heat. The irreversible heating associated with dissipation could be controlled by carrying out isothermal NEMD calculations. The new isothermal NEMD equations of motion are consistent with Gauss' 1829 Least-Constraint principle as well as certain microscopic equilibrium and nonequilibrium statistical formulations due to Gibbs and Boltzmann. Application of isothermal NEMD revealed high-frequency and high-strain-rate behavior for simple fluids which resembled the behavior of polymer solutions and melts at lower frequencies and strain rates. For solids NEMD produces plastic flows consistent with experimental observations at much lower strain rates. The new nonequilibrium methods also suggest novel formulations of thermodynamics in nonequilibrium systems and shed light on the failure of the Principle of Material Frame Indifference
Thermochemical nonequilibrium analysis of O2+Ar based on state-resolved kinetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jae Gang; Boyd, Iain D.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Thermochemical nonequilibrium studies for three lowest lying electronic states of O 2 . • The complete sets of the rovibrational state-to-state transition rates of O 2 +Ar. • Rovibrational relaxations and coupled chemical reactions of O 2 . • Nonequilibrium reaction rates of O 2 derived from the quasi-steady state assumption. - Abstract: The thermochemical nonequilibrium of the three lowest lying electronic states of molecular oxygen, O 2 (X 3 Σ g - ,a 1 Δ g ,b 1 Σ g + ), through interactions with argon is studied in the present work. The multi-body potential energy surfaces of O 2 +Ar are evaluated from the semi-classical RKR potential of O 2 in each electronic state. The rovibrational states and energies of each electronic state are calculated by the quantum mechanical method based on the present inter-nuclear potential of O 2 . Then, the complete sets of the rovibrational state-to-state transition rate coefficients of O 2 +Ar are calculated by the quasi-classical trajectory method including the quasi-bound states. The system of master equations constructed by the present state-to-state transition rate coefficients are solved to analyze the thermochemical nonequilibrium of O 2 +Ar in various heat bath conditions. From these studies, it is concluded that the vibrational relaxation and coupled chemical reactions of each electronic state needs to be treated as a separate nonequilibrium process, and rotational nonequilibrium needs to be considered at translational temperatures above 10,000 K
Extension of CE/SE method to non-equilibrium dissociating flows
Wen, C.Y.
2017-12-08
In this study, the hypersonic non-equilibrium flows over rounded nose geometries are numerically investigated by a robust conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) code, which is based on hybrid meshes consisting of triangular and quadrilateral elements. The dissociating and recombination chemical reactions as well as the vibrational energy relaxation are taken into account. The stiff source terms are solved by an implicit trapezoidal method of integration. Comparison with laboratory and numerical cases are provided to demonstrate the accuracy and reliability of the present CE/SE code in simulating hypersonic non-equilibrium flows.
Non-equilibrium plasma kinetics of reacting CO: an improved state to state approach
Pietanza, L. D.; Colonna, G.; Capitelli, M.
2017-12-01
Non-equilibrium plasma kinetics of reacting CO for conditions typically met in microwave discharges have been developed based on the coupling of excited state kinetics and the Boltzmann equation for the electron energy distribution function (EEDF). Particular attention is given to the insertion in the vibrational kinetics of a complete set of electron molecule resonant processes linking the whole vibrational ladder of the CO molecule, as well as to the role of Boudouard reaction, i.e. the process of forming CO2 by two vibrationally excited CO molecules, in shaping the vibrational distribution of CO and promoting reaction channels assisted by vibrational excitation (pure vibrational mechanisms, PVM). PVM mechanisms can become competitive with electron impact dissociation processes (DEM) in the activation of CO. A case study reproducing the conditions of a microwave discharge has been considered following the coupled kinetics also in the post discharge conditions. Results include the evolution of EEDF in discharge and post discharge conditions highlighting the role of superelastic vibrational and electronic collisions in shaping the EEDF. Moreover, PVM rate coefficients and DEM ones are studied as a function of gas temperature, showing a non-Arrhenius behavior, i.e. the rate coefficients increase with decreasing gas temperature as a result of a vibrational-vibrational (V-V) pumping up mechanism able to form plateaux in the vibrational distribution function. The accuracy of the results is discussed in particular in connection to the present knowledge of the activation energy of the Boudouard process.
Mathematical models of viscous friction
Buttà, Paolo; Marchioro, Carlo
2015-01-01
In this monograph we present a review of a number of recent results on the motion of a classical body immersed in an infinitely extended medium and subjected to the action of an external force. We investigate this topic in the framework of mathematical physics by focusing mainly on the class of purely Hamiltonian systems, for which very few results are available. We discuss two cases: when the medium is a gas and when it is a fluid. In the first case, the aim is to obtain microscopic models of viscous friction. In the second, we seek to underline some non-trivial features of the motion. Far from giving a general survey on the subject, which is very rich and complex from both a phenomenological and theoretical point of view, we focus on some fairly simple models that can be studied rigorously, thus providing a first step towards a mathematical description of viscous friction. In some cases, we restrict ourselves to studying the problem at a heuristic level, or we present the main ideas, discussing only some as...
Viscous Design of TCA Configuration
Krist, Steven E.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Campbell, Richard L.
1999-01-01
The goal in this effort is to redesign the baseline TCA configuration for improved performance at both supersonic and transonic cruise. Viscous analyses are conducted with OVERFLOW, a Navier-Stokes code for overset grids, using PEGSUS to compute the interpolations between overset grids. Viscous designs are conducted with OVERDISC, a script which couples OVERFLOW with the Constrained Direct Iterative Surface Curvature (CDISC) inverse design method. The successful execution of any computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based aerodynamic design method for complex configurations requires an efficient method for regenerating the computational grids to account for modifications to the configuration shape. The first section of this presentation deals with the automated regridding procedure used to generate overset grids for the fuselage/wing/diverter/nacelle configurations analysed in this effort. The second section outlines the procedures utilized to conduct OVERDISC inverse designs. The third section briefly covers the work conducted by Dick Campbell, in which a dual-point design at Mach 2.4 and 0.9 was attempted using OVERDISC; the initial configuration from which this design effort was started is an early version of the optimized shape for the TCA configuration developed by the Boeing Commercial Airplane Group (BCAG), which eventually evolved into the NCV design. The final section presents results from application of the Natural Flow Wing design philosophy to the TCA configuration.
Nonequilibrium mesoscopic transport: a genealogy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, Mukunda P; Green, Frederick
2012-01-01
Models of nonequilibrium quantum transport underpin all modern electronic devices, from the largest scales to the smallest. Past simplifications such as coarse graining and bulk self-averaging served well to understand electronic materials. Such particular notions become inapplicable at mesoscopic dimensions, edging towards the truly quantum regime. Nevertheless a unifying thread continues to run through transport physics, animating the design of small-scale electronic technology: microscopic conservation and nonequilibrium dissipation. These fundamentals are inherent in quantum transport and gain even greater and more explicit experimental meaning in the passage to atomic-sized devices. We review their genesis, their theoretical context, and their governing role in the electronic response of meso- and nanoscopic systems. (topical review)
Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics ensemble method
Eu, Byung Chan
1998-01-01
In this monograph, nonequilibrium statistical mechanics is developed by means of ensemble methods on the basis of the Boltzmann equation, the generic Boltzmann equations for classical and quantum dilute gases, and a generalised Boltzmann equation for dense simple fluids The theories are developed in forms parallel with the equilibrium Gibbs ensemble theory in a way fully consistent with the laws of thermodynamics The generalised hydrodynamics equations are the integral part of the theory and describe the evolution of macroscopic processes in accordance with the laws of thermodynamics of systems far removed from equilibrium Audience This book will be of interest to researchers in the fields of statistical mechanics, condensed matter physics, gas dynamics, fluid dynamics, rheology, irreversible thermodynamics and nonequilibrium phenomena
Nonequilibrium quantum fluctuations of work.
Allahverdyan, A E
2014-09-01
The concept of work is basic for statistical thermodynamics. To gain a fuller understanding of work and its (quantum) features, it needs to be represented as an average of a fluctuating quantity. Here I focus on the work done between two moments of time for a thermally isolated quantum system driven by a time-dependent Hamiltonian. I formulate two natural conditions needed for the fluctuating work to be physically meaningful for a system that starts its evolution from a nonequilibrium state. The existing definitions do not satisfy these conditions due to issues that are traced back to noncommutativity. I propose a definition of fluctuating work that is free of previous drawbacks and that applies for a wide class of nonequilibrium initial states. It allows the deduction of a generalized work-fluctuation theorem that applies for an arbitrary (out-of-equilibrium) initial state.
Computer simulation of nonequilibrium processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wallace, D.C.
1985-07-01
The underlying concepts of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, and of irreversible thermodynamics, will be described. The question at hand is then, how are these concepts to be realize in computer simulations of many-particle systems. The answer will be given for dissipative deformation processes in solids, on three hierarchical levels: heterogeneous plastic flow, dislocation dynamics, an molecular dynamics. Aplication to the shock process will be discussed
State-to-state modeling of non-equilibrium air nozzle flows
Nagnibeda, E.; Papina, K.; Kunova, O.
2018-05-01
One-dimensional non-equilibrium air flows in nozzles are studied on the basis of the state-to-state description of vibrational-chemical kinetics. Five-component mixture N2/O2/NO/N/O is considered taking into account Zeldovich exchange reactions of NO formation, dissociation, recombination and vibrational energy transitions. The equations for vibrational and chem-ical kinetics in a flow are coupled to the conservation equations of momentum and total energy and solved numerically for different conditions in a nozzle throat. The vibrational distributions of nitrogen and oxygen molecules, number densities of species as well as the gas temperature and flow velocity along a nozzle axis are analysed using the detailed state-to-state flow description and in the frame of the simplified one-temperature thermal equilibrium kinetic model. The comparison of the results showed the influence of non-equilibrium kinetics on macroscopic nozzle flow parameters. In the state-to-state approach, non-Boltzmann vibrational dis-tributions of N2 and O2 molecules with a plateau part at intermediate levels are found. The results are found with the use of the complete and simplified schemes of reactions and the impact of exchange reactions, dissociation and recombination on variation of vibrational level populations, mixture composition, gas velocity and temperature along a nozzle axis is shown.
Numerical Simulation of Non-Equilibrium Two-Phase Wet Steam Flow through an Asymmetric Nozzle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miah Md Ashraful Alam
2017-11-01
Full Text Available The present study reported of the numerical investigation of a high-speed wet steam flow through an asymmetric nozzle. The spontaneous non-equilibrium homogeneous condensation of wet steam was numerically modeled based on the classical nucleation theory and droplet growth rate equation combined with the field conservations within the computational fluid dynamics (CFD code of ANSYS Fluent 13.0. The equations describing droplet formations and interphase change were solved sequentially after solving the main flow conservation equations. The calculations were carried out assuming the flow two-dimensional, compressible, turbulent, and viscous. The SST k-ω model was used for modeling the turbulence within an unstructured mesh solver. The validation of numerical model was accomplished, and the results showed a good agreement between the numerical simulation and experimental data. The effect of spontaneous non-equilibrium condensation on the jet and shock structures was revealed, and the condensation shown a great influence on the jet structure.
Modelling non-equilibrium thermodynamic systems from the speed-gradient principle.
Khantuleva, Tatiana A; Shalymov, Dmitry S
2017-03-06
The application of the speed-gradient (SG) principle to the non-equilibrium distribution systems far away from thermodynamic equilibrium is investigated. The options for applying the SG principle to describe the non-equilibrium transport processes in real-world environments are discussed. Investigation of a non-equilibrium system's evolution at different scale levels via the SG principle allows for a fresh look at the thermodynamics problems associated with the behaviour of the system entropy. Generalized dynamic equations for finite and infinite number of constraints are proposed. It is shown that the stationary solution to the equations, resulting from the SG principle, entirely coincides with the locally equilibrium distribution function obtained by Zubarev. A new approach to describe time evolution of systems far from equilibrium is proposed based on application of the SG principle at the intermediate scale level of the system's internal structure. The problem of the high-rate shear flow of viscous fluid near the rigid plane plate is discussed. It is shown that the SG principle allows closed mathematical models of non-equilibrium processes to be constructed.This article is part of the themed issue 'Horizons of cybernetical physics'. © 2017 The Author(s).
Viscous forces and bulk viscoelasticity near jamming
Baumgarten, K.; Tighe, B.P.
2017-01-01
When weakly jammed packings of soft, viscous, non-Brownian spheres are probed mechanically, they respond with a complex admixture of elastic and viscous effects. While many of these effects are understood for specific, approximate models of the particles' interactions, there are a number of proposed
Ten themes of viscous liquid dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dyre, J. C.
2007-01-01
Ten ‘themes' of viscous liquid physics are discussed with a focus on how they point to a general description of equilibrium viscous liquid dynamics (i.e., fluctuations) at a given temperature. This description is based on standard time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations for the density fields...
Non-equilibrium fluctuation-induced interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dean, David S
2012-01-01
We discuss non-equilibrium aspects of fluctuation-induced interactions. While the equilibrium behavior of such interactions has been extensively studied and is relatively well understood, the study of these interactions out of equilibrium is relatively new. We discuss recent results on the non-equilibrium behavior of systems whose dynamics is of the dissipative stochastic type and identify a number of outstanding problems concerning non-equilibrium fluctuation-induced interactions.
Viscous bursting of suspended films
Debrégeas, G.; Martin, P.; Brochard-Wyart, F.
1995-11-01
Soap films break up by an inertial process. We present here the first observations on freely suspended films of long-chain polymers, where viscous effects are dominant and no surfactant is present. A hole is nucleated at time 0 and grows up to a radius R(t) at time t. A surprising feature is that the liquid from the hole is not collected into a rim (as it is in soap films): The liquid spreads out without any significant change of the film thickness. The radius R(t) grows exponentially with time, R~exp(t/τ) [while in soap films R(t) is linear]. The rise time τ~ηe/2γ where η is viscosity, e is thickness (in the micron range), and γ is surface tension. A simple model is developed to explain this growth law.
Electrokinetic Control of Viscous Fingering
Mirzadeh, Mohammad; Bazant, Martin Z.
2017-10-01
We present a theory of the interfacial stability of two immiscible electrolytes under the coupled action of pressure gradients and electric fields in a Hele-Shaw cell or porous medium. Mathematically, our theory describes a phenomenon of "vector Laplacian growth," in which the interface moves in response to the gradient of a vector-valued potential function through a generalized mobility tensor. Physically, we extend the classical Saffman-Taylor problem to electrolytes by incorporating electrokinetic (EK) phenomena. A surprising prediction is that viscous fingering can be controlled by varying the injection ratio of electric current to flow rate. Beyond a critical injection ratio, stability depends only upon the relative direction of flow and current, regardless of the viscosity ratio. Possible applications include porous materials processing, electrically enhanced oil recovery, and EK remediation of contaminated soils.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alekhin, S.A.; Chernov, V.S.; Denisenko, V.V.; Gorodnyanskiy, I.F.; Prokopov, L.I.; Tikhonov, Yu.P.
1983-01-01
The vibration mixer is proposed which contains a housing, vibration drive with rod installed in the upper part of the mixing mechanism made in the form of a hollow shaft with blades. In order to improve intensity of mixing and dispersion of the mud, the shaft with the blades is arranged on the rod of the vibrator and is equipped with a cam coupling whose drive disc is attached to the vibration rod. The rod is made helical, while the drive disc of the cam coupling is attached to the helical surface of the rod. In addition, the vibration mixer is equipped with perforated discs installed on the ends of the rods.
Londono, J.M.; Wagg, D.; Neild, S.A.
2014-01-01
Viscous fluid dampers have proved to be effective in suppressing unwanted vibrations in a range of engineering structures. When dampers are fitted in a structure, a brace is typically used to attach them to the main structure. The stiffness of this brace can significantly alter the effectiveness of the damper, and in structures with multiple dampers, this can be a complex scenario to model. In this paper, we demonstrate that the effects of the brace compliance on the damper performance can be...
Dynamics of unstable sound waves in a non-equilibrium medium at the nonlinear stage
Khrapov, Sergey; Khoperskov, Alexander
2018-03-01
A new dispersion equation is obtained for a non-equilibrium medium with an exponential relaxation model of a vibrationally excited gas. We have researched the dependencies of the pump source and the heat removal on the medium thermodynamic parameters. The boundaries of sound waves stability regions in a non-equilibrium gas have been determined. The nonlinear stage of sound waves instability development in a vibrationally excited gas has been investigated within CSPH-TVD and MUSCL numerical schemes using parallel technologies OpenMP-CUDA. We have obtained a good agreement of numerical simulation results with the linear perturbations dynamics at the initial stage of the sound waves growth caused by instability. At the nonlinear stage, the sound waves amplitude reaches the maximum value that leads to the formation of shock waves system.
Kunova, O. V.; Shoev, G. V.; Kudryavtsev, A. N.
2017-01-01
Nonequilibrium flows of a two-component oxygen mixture O2/O behind a shock wave are studied with due allowance for the state-to-state vibrational and chemical kinetics. The system of gas-dynamic equations is supplemented with kinetic equations including contributions of VT (TV)-exchange and dissociation processes. A method of the numerical solution of this system with the use of the ANSYS Fluent commercial software package is proposed, which is used in a combination with the authors' code that takes into account nonequilibrium kinetics. The computed results are compared with parameters obtained by solving the problem in the shock-fitting formulation. The vibrational temperature is compared with experimental data. The numerical tool proposed in the present paper is applied to study the flow around a cylinder.
Nonequilibrium theory of flame propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Merzhanov, A.G.
1995-01-01
The nonequilibrium theory of flame propagation is considered as applied to the following three processes of wave propagation: the combustion waves of the second kind, the combustion waves with broad reaction zones, and the combustion waves with chemical stages. Kinetic and combustion wave parameters are presented for different in composition mixtures of boron and transition metals, such as Zr, Hf, Ti, Nb, Ta, Mo, as well as for the Ta-N, Zr-C-H, Nb-B-O systems to illustrate specific features of the above-mentioned processes [ru
Viscous shear in the Kerr metric
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderson, M.R.; Lemos, J.P.S.
1988-01-01
Models of viscous flows on to black holes commonly assume a zero-torque boundary condition at the radius of the last stable Keplerian orbit. It is here shown that this condition is wrong. The viscous torque is generally non-zero at both the last stable orbit and the horizon itself. The existence of a non-zero viscous torque at the horizon does not require the transfer of energy or angular momentum across any spacelike distance, and so does not violate causality. Further, in comparison with the viscous torque in the distant, Newtonian regime, the viscous torque on the horizon is often reversed, so that angular momentum is viscously advected inwards rather than outwards. This phenomenon is first suggested by an analysis of the quasi-stationary case, and then demonstrated explicitly for a series of cold, dynamical flows which fall freely from the last stable orbit in the Schwarzschild and Kerr metrics. In the steady flows constructed here, the net torque on the hole is always directed in the usual sense; any reversal in the viscous torque is offset by an increase in the convected flux of angular momentum. (author)
Performance of a viscous damper using electro-rheological fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Otani, A.; Kobayashi, H.; Kobayashi, N.; Tadaishi, Y.
1994-01-01
A new damper has been developed that suppresses small-amplitude vibrations over a wide frequency range. The damper has been tested using both an electro-rheological fluid (ERF) and a highly viscous liquid, which are enclosed in the damper's casing (a metal bellows). The apparent viscosity of the ERF can be changed by varying the strength of the applied electrical field. Initially, a simple L-shaped piping model excited by a rotary-type exciter was used to investigate the performance of the damper, utilizing both fluids. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the passive damper. Based on the experimental results, application of the damper to an actual piping system with a big pump was carried out analytical
Dynamics of two coaxial cylindrical shells containing viscous fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yeh, T.T.; Chen, S.S.
1976-09-01
This study was motivated by the need to design the thermal shield in reactor internals and other system components to avoid detrimental flow-induced vibrations. The system component is modeled as two coaxial shells separated by a viscous fluid. In the analysis, Flugge's shell equations of motion and linearized Navier-Stokes equation for viscous fluid are employed. First, a traveling-wave type solution is taken for shells and fluid. Then, from the interface conditions between the shells and fluid, the solution for the fluid medium is expressed in terms of shell displacements. Finally, using the shell equations of motion gives the frequency equation, from which the natural frequency, mode shape, and modal damping ratio of coupled modes can be calculated. The analytical results show a fairly good qualitative agreement with the published experimental data. Some important conclusions are as follows: (1) In computing the natural frequencies and mode shapes of uncoupled modes and coupled modes, the fluid may be considered inviscid and incompressible. (2) There exists out-of-phase and in-phase modes. The lowest natural frequency is always associated with the out-of-phase mode. (3) The lowest natural frequency of coupled modes is lower than the uncoupled modes. (4) The fluid viscosity contributes significantly to damping, in particular, the modal damping of the out-of-phase modes isrelatively large for small gaps. (5) If the fluid gap is small, or the fluid viscosity is relatively high, the simulation of the vibration Reynolds number should be included to ensure that modal damping of the model is properly accounted for. With the presented analysis and results, the frequency and damping characteristics can be analyzed and design parameters can be related to frequency and damping
Non-equilibrium phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mottola, E.; Cooper, F.M.; Bishop, A.R.; Habib, S.; Kluger, Y.; Jensen, N.G.
1998-01-01
This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Non-equilibrium phase transitions play a central role in a very broad range of scientific areas, ranging from nuclear, particle, and astrophysics to condensed matter physics and the material and biological sciences. The aim of this project was to explore the path to a deeper and more fundamental understanding of the common physical principles underlying the complex real time dynamics of phase transitions. The main emphasis was on the development of general theoretical tools to deal with non-equilibrium processes, and of numerical methods robust enough to capture the time-evolving structures that occur in actual experimental situations. Specific applications to Laboratory multidivisional efforts in relativistic heavy-ion physics (transition to a new phase of nuclear matter consisting of a quark-gluon plasma) and layered high-temperature superconductors (critical currents and flux flow at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory) were undertaken
Non-dissipative effects in nonequilibrium systems
Maes, Christian
2018-01-01
This book introduces and discusses both the fundamental aspects and the measurability of applications of time-symmetric kinetic quantities, outlining the features that constitute the non-dissipative branch of non-equilibrium physics. These specific features of non-equilibrium dynamics have largely been ignored in standard statistical mechanics texts. This introductory-level book offers novel material that does not take the traditional line of extending standard thermodynamics to the irreversible domain. It shows that although stationary dissipation is essentially equivalent with steady non-equilibrium and ubiquitous in complex phenomena, non-equilibrium is not determined solely by the time-antisymmetric sector of energy-entropy considerations. While this should not be very surprising, this book provides timely, simple reminders of the role of time-symmetric and kinetic aspects in the construction of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics.
Low moduli elastomers with low viscous dissipation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bejenariu, Anca Gabriela; Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard
2012-01-01
A controlled reaction schema for addition curing silicones leads to both significantly lower elastic modulus and lower viscous dissipation than for the chemically identical network prepared by the traditional reaction schema....
2005-10-30
This report summarizes the accomplishments of a field investigation project that was conducted in order to understand the mechanisms of wind- and rain-wind-induced stay cable vibrations and to assess the effectiveness of passive viscous dampers and c...
INTRODUCTION: Nonequilibrium Processes in Plasmas
Petrović, Zoran; Marić, Dragana; Malović, Gordana
2009-07-01
This book aims to give a cross section from a wide range of phenomena that, to different degrees, fall under the heading of non-equilibrium phenomenology. The selection is, of course, biased by the interests of the members of the scientific committee and of the FP6 Project 026328 IPB-CNP Reinforcing Experimental Centre for Non-equilibrium Studies with Application in Nano-technologies, Etching of Integrated Circuits and Environmental Research. Some of the papers included here are texts based on selected lectures presented at the Second International Workshop on Non-equilibrium Processes in Plasmas and Environmental Science. However, this volume is not just the proceedings of that conference as it contains a number of papers from authors that did not attend the conference. The goal was to put together a volume that would cover the interests of the project and support further work. It is published in the Institute of Physics journal Journal of Physics: Conference Series to ensure a wide accessibility of the articles. The texts presented here range from in-depth reviews of the current status and past achievements to progress reports of currently developed experimental devices and recently obtained still unpublished results. All papers have been refereed twice, first when speakers were selected based on their reputation and recently published results, and second after the paper was submitted both by the editorial board and individual assigned referees according to the standards of the conference and of the journal. Nevertheless, we still leave the responsibility (and honours) for the contents of the papers to the authors. The papers in this book are review articles that give a summary of the already published work or present the work in progress that will be published in full at a later date (or both). In the introduction to the first volume, in order to show how far reaching, ubiquitous and important non-equilibrium phenomena are, we claimed that ever since the early
NATO Advanced Study Institute on Nonequilibrium Phonon Dynamics
1985-01-01
Phonons are always present in the solid state even at an absolute temperature of 0 K where zero point vibrations still abound. Moreover, phonons interact with all other excitations of the solid state and, thereby, influence most of its properties. Historically experimental information on phonon transport came from measurements of thermal conductivity. Over the past two decades much more, and much more detailed, information on phonon transport and on many of the inherent phonon interaction processes have come to light from experiments which use nonequilibrium phonons to study their dynamics. The resultant research field has most recently blossomed with the development of ever more sophisticated experimental and theoretical methods which can be applied to it. In fact, the field is moving so rapidly that new members of the research community have difficulties in keeping up to date. This NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) was organized with the objective of overcoming the information barrier between those expert...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Herman
1997-01-01
Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board......Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board...
Analysis of non-equilibrium phenomena in inductively coupled plasma generators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, W.; Panesi, M., E-mail: mpanesi@illinois.edu [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61822 (United States); Lani, A. [Von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Rhode-Saint-Genèse (Belgium)
2016-07-15
This work addresses the modeling of non-equilibrium phenomena in inductively coupled plasma discharges. In the proposed computational model, the electromagnetic induction equation is solved together with the set of Navier-Stokes equations in order to compute the electromagnetic and flow fields, accounting for their mutual interaction. Semi-classical statistical thermodynamics is used to determine the plasma thermodynamic properties, while transport properties are obtained from kinetic principles, with the method of Chapman and Enskog. Particle ambipolar diffusive fluxes are found by solving the Stefan-Maxwell equations with a simple iterative method. Two physico-mathematical formulations are used to model the chemical reaction processes: (1) A Local Thermodynamics Equilibrium (LTE) formulation and (2) a thermo-chemical non-equilibrium (TCNEQ) formulation. In the TCNEQ model, thermal non-equilibrium between the translational energy mode of the gas and the vibrational energy mode of individual molecules is accounted for. The electronic states of the chemical species are assumed in equilibrium with the vibrational temperature, whereas the rotational energy mode is assumed to be equilibrated with translation. Three different physical models are used to account for the coupling of chemistry and energy transfer processes. Numerical simulations obtained with the LTE and TCNEQ formulations are used to characterize the extent of non-equilibrium of the flow inside the Plasmatron facility at the von Karman Institute. Each model was tested using different kinetic mechanisms to assess the sensitivity of the results to variations in the reaction parameters. A comparison of temperatures and composition profiles at the outlet of the torch demonstrates that the flow is in non-equilibrium for operating conditions characterized by pressures below 30 000 Pa, frequency 0.37 MHz, input power 80 kW, and mass flow 8 g/s.
Statistical thermodynamics of nonequilibrium processes
Keizer, Joel
1987-01-01
The structure of the theory ofthermodynamics has changed enormously since its inception in the middle of the nineteenth century. Shortly after Thomson and Clausius enunciated their versions of the Second Law, Clausius, Maxwell, and Boltzmann began actively pursuing the molecular basis of thermo dynamics, work that culminated in the Boltzmann equation and the theory of transport processes in dilute gases. Much later, Onsager undertook the elucidation of the symmetry oftransport coefficients and, thereby, established himself as the father of the theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. Com bining the statistical ideas of Gibbs and Langevin with the phenomenological transport equations, Onsager and others went on to develop a consistent statistical theory of irreversible processes. The power of that theory is in its ability to relate measurable quantities, such as transport coefficients and thermodynamic derivatives, to the results of experimental measurements. As powerful as that theory is, it is linear and...
Nonequilibrium fluctuations in a resistor.
Garnier, N; Ciliberto, S
2005-06-01
In small systems where relevant energies are comparable to thermal agitation, fluctuations are of the order of average values. In systems in thermodynamical equilibrium, the variance of these fluctuations can be related to the dissipation constant in the system, exploiting the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. In nonequilibrium steady systems, fluctuations theorems (FT) additionally describe symmetry properties of the probability density functions (PDFs) of the fluctuations of injected and dissipated energies. We experimentally probe a model system: an electrical dipole driven out of equilibrium by a small constant current I, and show that FT are experimentally accessible and valid. Furthermore, we stress that FT can be used to measure the dissipated power P = R I2 in the system by just studying the PDFs' symmetries.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koffi-Kpante, Kossi
1996-01-01
Inviscid flow of the N 2 -CH 4 -Ar gas mixture in thermochemical nonequilibrium has been studied. We have specially modelled the thermal and the chemical processes, such as vibrational excitation, dissociation, ionization and radiation which can occur in the hypersonic flows. Different vibrational models are tested and the effects of kinetic-vibration coupling modeling are studied on the flow-field properties. Therefore, the intensity of spontaneous emission of CN molecule from B 2 Σ + → X 2 Σ + electronic transition of the violet band, where Δν = 0 is computed. So, comparison is made between experimental and numerical results on: 1) The spontaneous emission of CN, 2) the rotational temperature of CN B state and 3) the vibrational temperature of CN B state. Because of the profiles of the measured intensity and the disagreement between numerical results and measurements, especially on the spontaneous emission and in the thermodynamic size, the inviscid flow and the unsteady boundary layer interaction study is made. Last, the thermal and the chemical processes models described in the first part of this thesis are used to compute the inviscid nonequilibrium flow around the Huygens probe. The equations system has been solved with a finite volume method, in with the fluxes have been split with Van-Leer methods. (author) [fr
Link prediction based on nonequilibrium cooperation effect
Li, Lanxi; Zhu, Xuzhen; Tian, Hui
2018-04-01
Link prediction in complex networks has become a common focus of many researchers. But most existing methods concentrate on neighbors, and rarely consider degree heterogeneity of two endpoints. Node degree represents the importance or status of endpoints. We describe the large-degree heterogeneity as the nonequilibrium between nodes. This nonequilibrium facilitates a stable cooperation between endpoints, so that two endpoints with large-degree heterogeneity tend to connect stably. We name such a phenomenon as the nonequilibrium cooperation effect. Therefore, this paper proposes a link prediction method based on the nonequilibrium cooperation effect to improve accuracy. Theoretical analysis will be processed in advance, and at the end, experiments will be performed in 12 real-world networks to compare the mainstream methods with our indices in the network through numerical analysis.
Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics: The first 25 years
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoover, W.G.
1992-08-01
Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics has been generalized to simulate Nonequilibrium systems by adding sources of thermodynamic heat and work. This generalization incorporates microscopic mechanical definitions of macroscopic thermodynamic and hydrodynamic variables, such as temperature and stress, and augments atomistic forces with special boundary, constraint, and driving forces capable of doing work on, and exchanging heat with, an otherwise Newtonian system. The underlying Lyapunov instability of these nonequilibrium equations of motion links microscopic time-reversible deterministic trajectories to macroscopic time-irreversible hydrodynamic behavior as described by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Green-Kubo linear-response theory has been checked. Nonlinear plastic deformation, intense heat conduction, shockwave propagation, and nonequilibrium phase transformation have all been simulated. The nonequilibrium techniques, coupled with qualitative improvements in parallel computer hardware, are enabling simulations to approximate real-world microscale and nanoscale experiments
Non-equilibrium dog-flea model
Ackerson, Bruce J.
2017-11-01
We develop the open dog-flea model to serve as a check of proposed non-equilibrium theories of statistical mechanics. The model is developed in detail. Then it is applied to four recent models for non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. Comparison of the dog-flea solution with these different models allows checking claims and giving a concrete example of the theoretical models.
Plasma wave instabilities in nonequilibrium graphene
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aryal, Chinta M.; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2016-01-01
We study two-stream instabilities in a nonequilibrium system in which a stream of electrons is injected into doped graphene. As with equivalent nonequilibrium parabolic band systems, we find that the graphene systems can support unstable charge-density waves whose amplitudes grow with time. We...... of the injected electrons that maximizes the growth rate increases with increasing | q |. We compare the range and strength of the instability in graphene to that of two- and three-dimensional parabolic band systems....
Quantum thermodynamics: a nonequilibrium Green's function approach.
Esposito, Massimiliano; Ochoa, Maicol A; Galperin, Michael
2015-02-27
We establish the foundations of a nonequilibrium theory of quantum thermodynamics for noninteracting open quantum systems strongly coupled to their reservoirs within the framework of the nonequilibrium Green's functions. The energy of the system and its coupling to the reservoirs are controlled by a slow external time-dependent force treated to first order beyond the quasistatic limit. We derive the four basic laws of thermodynamics and characterize reversible transformations. Stochastic thermodynamics is recovered in the weak coupling limit.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Morrison, Ann; Knudsen, L.; Andersen, Hans Jørgen
2012-01-01
In this paper we describe a field study conducted with a wearable vibration belt where we test to determine the vibration intensity sensitivity ranges on a large diverse group of participants with evenly distributed ages and...
Lempert, Walter R.; Adamovich, Igor V.
2014-10-01
The paper provides an overview of the use of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and spontaneous Raman scattering for diagnostics of low-temperature nonequilibrium plasmas and nonequilibrium high-enthalpy flows. A brief review of the theoretical background of CARS, four-wave mixing and Raman scattering, as well as a discussion of experimental techniques and data reduction, are included. The experimental results reviewed include measurements of vibrational level populations, rotational/translational temperature, electric fields in a quasi-steady-state and transient molecular plasmas and afterglow, in nonequilibrium expansion flows, and behind strong shock waves. Insight into the kinetics of vibrational energy transfer, energy thermalization mechanisms and dynamics of the pulse discharge development, provided by these experiments, is discussed. Availability of short pulse duration, high peak power lasers, as well as broadband dye lasers, makes possible the use of these diagnostics at relatively low pressures, potentially with a sub-nanosecond time resolution, as well as obtaining single laser shot, high signal-to-noise spectra at higher pressures. Possibilities for the development of single-shot 2D CARS imaging and spectroscopy, using picosecond and femtosecond lasers, as well as novel phase matching and detection techniques, are discussed.
Aerospace Applications of Non-Equilibrium Plasma
Blankson, Isaiah M.
2016-01-01
Nonequilibrium plasma/non-thermal plasma/cold plasmas are being used in a wide range of new applications in aeronautics, active flow control, heat transfer reduction, plasma-assisted ignition and combustion, noise suppression, and power generation. Industrial applications may be found in pollution control, materials surface treatment, and water purification. In order for these plasma processes to become practical, efficient means of ionization are necessary. A primary challenge for these applications is to create a desired non-equilibrium plasma in air by preventing the discharge from transitioning into an arc. Of particular interest is the impact on simulations and experimental data with and without detailed consideration of non-equilibrium effects, and the consequences of neglecting non-equilibrium. This presentation will provide an assessment of the presence and influence of non-equilibrium phenomena for various aerospace needs and applications. Specific examples to be considered will include the forward energy deposition of laser-induced non-equilibrium plasmoids for sonic boom mitigation, weakly ionized flows obtained from pulsed nanosecond discharges for an annular Hall type MHD generator duct for turbojet energy bypass, and fundamental mechanisms affecting the design and operation of novel plasma-assisted reactive systems in dielectric liquids (water purification, in-pipe modification of fuels, etc.).
The thinning of viscous liquid threads.
Castrejon-Pita, J. Rafael; Castrejon-Pita, Alfonso A.; Hutchings, Ian M.
2012-11-01
The thinning neck of dripping droplets is studied experimentally for viscous Newtonian fluids. High speed imaging is used to measure the minimum neck diameter in terms of the time τ to breakup. Mixtures of water and glycerol with viscosities ranging from 20 to 363 mPa s are used to model the Newtonian behavior. The results show the transition from potential to inertial-viscous regimes occurs at the predicted values of ~Oh2. Before this transition the neck contraction rate follows the inviscid scaling law ~τ 2 / 3 . After the transition, the neck thinning tends towards the linear viscous scaling law ~ τ . Project supported by the EPSRC-UK (EP/G029458/1) and Cambridge-KACST.
Buckling and stretching of thin viscous sheets
O'Kiely, Doireann; Breward, Chris; Griffiths, Ian; Howell, Peter; Lange, Ulrich
2016-11-01
Thin glass sheets are used in smartphone, battery and semiconductor technology, and may be manufactured by producing a relatively thick glass slab and subsequently redrawing it to a required thickness. The resulting sheets commonly possess undesired centerline ripples and thick edges. We present a mathematical model in which a viscous sheet undergoes redraw in the direction of gravity, and show that, in a sufficiently strong gravitational field, buckling is driven by compression in a region near the bottom of the sheet, and limited by viscous resistance to stretching of the sheet. We use asymptotic analysis in the thin-sheet, low-Reynolds-number limit to determine the centerline profile and growth rate of such a viscous sheet.
A Blast Wave Model With Viscous Corrections
Yang, Z.; Fries, R. J.
2017-04-01
Hadronic observables in the final stage of heavy ion collision can be described well by fluid dynamics or blast wave parameterizations. We improve existing blast wave models by adding shear viscous corrections to the particle distributions in the Navier-Stokes approximation. The specific shear viscosity η/s of a hadron gas at the freeze-out temperature is a new parameter in this model. We extract the blast wave parameters with viscous corrections from experimental data which leads to constraints on the specific shear viscosity at kinetic freeze-out. Preliminary results show η/s is rather small.
A Blast Wave Model With Viscous Corrections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, Z; Fries, R J
2017-01-01
Hadronic observables in the final stage of heavy ion collision can be described well by fluid dynamics or blast wave parameterizations. We improve existing blast wave models by adding shear viscous corrections to the particle distributions in the Navier-Stokes approximation. The specific shear viscosity η/s of a hadron gas at the freeze-out temperature is a new parameter in this model. We extract the blast wave parameters with viscous corrections from experimental data which leads to constraints on the specific shear viscosity at kinetic freeze-out. Preliminary results show η/s is rather small. (paper)
Simultaneous viscous-inviscid coupling via transpiration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yiu, K.F.C.; Giles, M.B.
1995-01-01
In viscous-inviscid coupling analysis, the direct coupling technique and the inverse coupling technique are commonly adopted. However, stability and convergence of the algorithms derived are usually very unsatisfactory. Here, by using the transpiration technique to simulate the effect of the displacement thickness, a new simultaneous coupling method is derived. The integral boundary layer equations and the full potential equation are chosen to be the viscous-inviscid coupled system. After discretization, the Newton-Raphson technique is proposed to solve the coupled nonlinear system. Several numerical results are used to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method. 15 refs., 23 figs
Magnetic Viscous Drag for Friction Labs
Gaffney, Chris; Catching, Adam
2016-01-01
The typical friction lab performed in introductory mechanics courses is usually not the favorite of either the student or the instructor. The measurements are not all that easy to make, and reproducibility is usually a troublesome issue. This paper describes the augmentation of such a friction lab with a study of the viscous drag on a magnet…
Delayed Capillary Breakup of Falling Viscous Jets
Javadi, A.; Eggers, J.; Bonn, D.; Habibi, M.; Ribe, N.M.
2013-01-01
Thin jets of viscous fluid like honey falling from capillary nozzles can attain lengths exceeding 10 m before breaking up into droplets via the Rayleigh-Plateau (surface tension) instability. Using a combination of laboratory experiments and WKB analysis of the growth of shape perturbations on a jet
Dilepton production in schematic causal viscous hydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song, Taesoo; Han, Kyong Chol; Ko, Che Ming
2011-01-01
Assuming that in the hot dense matter produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, the energy density, entropy density, and pressure as well as the azimuthal and space-time rapidity components of the shear tensor are uniform in the direction transversal to the reaction plane, we derive a set of schematic equations from the Isreal-Stewart causal viscous hydrodynamics. These equations are then used to describe the evolution dynamics of relativistic heavy-ion collisions by taking the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio of 1/4π for the initial quark-gluon plasma (QGP) phase and of 10 times this value for the later hadron-gas (HG) phase. Using the production rate evaluated with particle distributions that take into account the viscous effect, we study dilepton production in central heavy-ion collisions. Compared with results from the ideal hydrodynamics, we find that although the dilepton invariant mass spectra from the two approaches are similar, the transverse momentum spectra are significantly enhanced at high transverse momenta by the viscous effect. We also study the transverse momentum dependence of dileptons produced from QGP for a fixed transverse mass, which is essentially absent in the ideal hydrodynamics, and find that this so-called transverse mass scaling is violated in the viscous hydrodynamics, particularly at high transverse momenta.
Equilibrium sampling by reweighting nonequilibrium simulation trajectories.
Yang, Cheng; Wan, Biao; Xu, Shun; Wang, Yanting; Zhou, Xin
2016-03-01
Based on equilibrium molecular simulations, it is usually difficult to efficiently visit the whole conformational space of complex systems, which are separated into some metastable regions by high free energy barriers. Nonequilibrium simulations could enhance transitions among these metastable regions and then be applied to sample equilibrium distributions in complex systems, since the associated nonequilibrium effects can be removed by employing the Jarzynski equality (JE). Here we present such a systematical method, named reweighted nonequilibrium ensemble dynamics (RNED), to efficiently sample equilibrium conformations. The RNED is a combination of the JE and our previous reweighted ensemble dynamics (RED) method. The original JE reproduces equilibrium from lots of nonequilibrium trajectories but requires that the initial distribution of these trajectories is equilibrium. The RED reweights many equilibrium trajectories from an arbitrary initial distribution to get the equilibrium distribution, whereas the RNED has both advantages of the two methods, reproducing equilibrium from lots of nonequilibrium simulation trajectories with an arbitrary initial conformational distribution. We illustrated the application of the RNED in a toy model and in a Lennard-Jones fluid to detect its liquid-solid phase coexistence. The results indicate that the RNED sufficiently extends the application of both the original JE and the RED in equilibrium sampling of complex systems.
Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics in Multiphase Flows
Mauri, Roberto
2013-01-01
Non-equilibrium thermodynamics is a general framework that allows the macroscopic description of irreversible processes. This book introduces non-equilibrium thermodynamics and its applications to the rheology of multiphase flows. The subject is relevant to graduate students in chemical and mechanical engineering, physics and material science. This book is divided into two parts. The first part presents the theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, reviewing its essential features and showing, when possible, some applications. The second part of this book deals with how the general theory can be applied to model multiphase flows and, in particular, how to determine their constitutive relations. Each chapter contains problems at the end, the solutions of which are given at the end of the book. No prior knowledge of statistical mechanics is required; the necessary prerequisites are elements of transport phenomena and on thermodynamics. “The style of the book is mathematical, but nonetheless it remains very re...
Nonequilibrium statistical physics a modern perspective
Livi, Roberto
2017-01-01
Statistical mechanics has been proven to be successful at describing physical systems at thermodynamic equilibrium. Since most natural phenomena occur in nonequilibrium conditions, the present challenge is to find suitable physical approaches for such conditions: this book provides a pedagogical pathway that explores various perspectives. The use of clear language, and explanatory figures and diagrams to describe models, simulations and experimental findings makes the book a valuable resource for undergraduate and graduate students, and also for lecturers organizing teaching at varying levels of experience in the field. Written in three parts, it covers basic and traditional concepts of nonequilibrium physics, modern aspects concerning nonequilibrium phase transitions, and application-orientated topics from a modern perspective. A broad range of topics is covered, including Langevin equations, Levy processes, directed percolation, kinetic roughening and pattern formation.
Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics theory, algorithms and applications
Todd, Billy D
2017-01-01
Written by two specialists with over twenty-five years of experience in the field, this valuable text presents a wide range of topics within the growing field of nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD). It introduces theories which are fundamental to the field - namely, nonequilibrium statistical mechanics and nonequilibrium thermodynamics - and provides state-of-the-art algorithms and advice for designing reliable NEMD code, as well as examining applications for both atomic and molecular fluids. It discusses homogenous and inhomogenous flows and pays considerable attention to highly confined fluids, such as nanofluidics. In addition to statistical mechanics and thermodynamics, the book covers the themes of temperature and thermodynamic fluxes and their computation, the theory and algorithms for homogenous shear and elongational flows, response theory and its applications, heat and mass transport algorithms, applications in molecular rheology, highly confined fluids (nanofluidics), the phenomenon of slip and...
Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of restricted Boltzmann machines
Salazar, Domingos S. P.
2017-08-01
In this work, we analyze the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of a class of neural networks known as restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) in the context of unsupervised learning. We show how the network is described as a discrete Markov process and how the detailed balance condition and the Maxwell-Boltzmann equilibrium distribution are sufficient conditions for a complete thermodynamics description, including nonequilibrium fluctuation theorems. Numerical simulations in a fully trained RBM are performed and the heat exchange fluctuation theorem is verified with excellent agreement to the theory. We observe how the contrastive divergence functional, mostly used in unsupervised learning of RBMs, is closely related to nonequilibrium thermodynamic quantities. We also use the framework to interpret the estimation of the partition function of RBMs with the annealed importance sampling method from a thermodynamics standpoint. Finally, we argue that unsupervised learning of RBMs is equivalent to a work protocol in a system driven by the laws of thermodynamics in the absence of labeled data.
Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of restricted Boltzmann machines.
Salazar, Domingos S P
2017-08-01
In this work, we analyze the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of a class of neural networks known as restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) in the context of unsupervised learning. We show how the network is described as a discrete Markov process and how the detailed balance condition and the Maxwell-Boltzmann equilibrium distribution are sufficient conditions for a complete thermodynamics description, including nonequilibrium fluctuation theorems. Numerical simulations in a fully trained RBM are performed and the heat exchange fluctuation theorem is verified with excellent agreement to the theory. We observe how the contrastive divergence functional, mostly used in unsupervised learning of RBMs, is closely related to nonequilibrium thermodynamic quantities. We also use the framework to interpret the estimation of the partition function of RBMs with the annealed importance sampling method from a thermodynamics standpoint. Finally, we argue that unsupervised learning of RBMs is equivalent to a work protocol in a system driven by the laws of thermodynamics in the absence of labeled data.
2009-01-01
Ed Witten is one of the leading scientists in the field of string theory, the theory that describes elementary particles as vibrating strings. This week he leaves CERN after having spent a few months here on sabbatical. His wish is that the LHC will unveil supersymmetry.
Umesh P. Agarwal; Rajai Atalla
2010-01-01
Vibrational spectroscopy is an important tool in modern chemistry. In the past two decades, thanks to significant improvements in instrumentation and the development of new interpretive tools, it has become increasingly important for studies of lignin. This chapter presents the three important instrumental methods-Raman spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and...
Linking Equilibrium and Nonequilibrium Dynamics in Glass-Forming Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mauro, John C.; Guo, Xiaoju; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup
, we show that the nonequilibrium glassy dynamics are intimately connected with the equilibrium liquid dynamics. This is accomplished by deriving a new functional form for the thermal history dependence of nonequilibrium viscosity, which is validated against experimental measurements of industrial...
Canonical operator formulation of nonequilibrium thermodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mehrafarin, M.
1992-09-01
A novel formulation of nonequilibrium thermodynamics is proposed which emphasises the fundamental role played by the Boltzmann constant k in fluctuations. The equivalence of this and the stochastic formulation is demonstrated. The k → 0 limit of this theory yields the classical deterministic description of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The new formulation possesses unique features which bear two important results namely the thermodynamic uncertainty principle and the quantisation of entropy production rate. Such a theory becomes indispensable whenever fluctuations play a significant role. (author). 7 refs
Nonideal plasmas as non-equilibrium media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morozov, I V; Norman, G E; Valuev, A A; Valuev, I A
2003-01-01
Various aspects of the collective behaviour of non-equilibrium nonideal plasmas are studied. The relaxation of kinetic energy to the equilibrium state is simulated by the molecular dynamics (MD) method for two-component non-degenerate strongly non-equilibrium plasmas. The initial non-exponential stage, its duration and the subsequent exponential stage of the relaxation process are studied for a wide range of ion charge, nonideality parameter and ion mass. A simulation model of the nonideal plasma excited by an electron beam is proposed. An approach is developed to calculate the dynamic structure factor in non-stationary conditions. Instability increment is obtained from MD simulations
On the excess energy of nonequilibrium plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Timofeev, A. V.
2012-01-01
The energy that can be released in plasma due to the onset of instability (the excess plasma energy) is estimated. Three potentially unstable plasma states are considered, namely, plasma with an anisotropic Maxwellian velocity distribution of plasma particles, plasma with a two-beam velocity distribution, and an inhomogeneous plasma in a magnetic field with a local Maxwellian velocity distribution. The excess energy can serve as a measure of the degree to which plasma is nonequilibrium. In particular, this quantity can be used to compare plasmas in different nonequilibrium states.
An implicit multigrid algorithm for computing hypersonic, chemically reacting viscous flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Edwards, J.R.
1996-01-01
An implicit algorithm for computing viscous flows in chemical nonequilibrium is presented. Emphasis is placed on the numerical efficiency of the time integration scheme, both in terms of periteration workload and overall convergence rate. In this context, several techniques are introduced, including a stable, O(m 2 ) approximate factorization of the chemical source Jacobian and implementations of V-cycle and filtered multigrid acceleration methods. A five species-seventeen reaction air model is used to calculate hypersonic viscous flow over a cylinder at conditions corresponding to flight at 5 km/s, 60 km altitude and at 11.36 km/s, 76.42 km altitude. Inviscid calculations using an eleven-species reaction mechanism including ionization are presented for a case involving 11.37 km/s flow at an altitude of 84.6 km. Comparisons among various options for the implicit treatment of the chemical source terms and among different multilevel approaches for convergence acceleration are presented for all simulations
Characterization of nonequilibrium states of trapped Bose–Einstein condensates
Yukalov, V. I.; Novikov, A. N.; Bagnato, V. S.
2018-06-01
The generation of different nonequilibrium states in trapped Bose–Einstein condensates is studied by numerically solving the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Inducing nonequilibrium states by shaking a trap creates the following states: weak nonequilibrium, the state of vortex germs, the state of vortex rings, the state of straight vortex lines, the state of deformed vortices, vortex turbulence, grain turbulence, and wave turbulence. A characterization of nonequilibrium states is advanced by introducing effective temperature, Fresnel number, and Mach number.
Elliptic flow from non-equilibrium initial condition with a saturation scale
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruggieri, M.; Scardina, F.; Plumari, S.; Greco, V.
2013-01-01
A current goal of relativistic heavy-ion collisions experiments is the search for a Color Glass Condensate (CGC) as the limiting state of QCD matter at very high density. In viscous hydrodynamics simulations, a standard Glauber initial condition leads to estimate 4πη/s∼1, while employing the Kharzeev–Levin–Nardi (KLN) modeling of the glasma leads to at least a factor of 2 larger η/s. Within a kinetic theory approach based on a relativistic Boltzmann-like transport simulation, our main result is that the out-of-equilibrium initial distribution reduces the efficiency in building-up the elliptic flow. At RHIC energy we find the available data on v 2 are in agreement with a 4πη/s∼1 also for KLN initial conditions. More generally, our study shows that the initial non-equilibrium in p-space can have a significant impact on the build-up of anisotropic flow
Coupled-Mode Flutter of Wind Turbines and its Suppression Using Torsional Viscous Damper
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Zili; Chen, Bei; Nielsen, Søren R. K.
2017-01-01
The trend towards lighter and more flexible blades may lead to aeroelastic instability of wind turbines under certain circumstances, resulting in rapid destructive failure or limit-cycle oscillations of the structural components. For pitch-regulated wind turbines, classical flutter is believed...... between blade vibrations with tower and drivetrain motions are also considered, making this model capable for coupled-mode flutter analysis of a complete wind turbine system. The parameters of the model have been calibrated to the DTU 10MW wind turbine, and the critical flutter speed of the rotor is shown...... to be about 1.6 times its nominal rotational speed. A novel torsional viscous damper is then proposed to suppress torsional blade vibration and to enhance flutter stability of wind turbines....
Viscous warm inflation: Hamilton-Jacobi formalism
Akhtari, L.; Mohammadi, A.; Sayar, K.; Saaidi, Kh.
2017-04-01
Using Hamilton-Jacobi formalism, the scenario of warm inflation with viscous pressure is considered. The formalism gives a way of computing the slow-rolling parameter without extra approximation, and it is well-known as a powerful method in cold inflation. The model is studied in detail for three different cases of the dissipation and bulk viscous pressure coefficients. In the first case where both coefficients are taken as constant, it is shown that the case could not portray warm inflationary scenario compatible with observational data even it is possible to restrict the model parameters. For other cases, the results shows that the model could properly predicts the perturbation parameters in which they stay in perfect agreement with Planck data. As a further argument, r -ns and αs -ns are drown that show the acquired result could stand in acceptable area expressing a compatibility with observational data.
Sudden viscous dissipation in compressing plasma turbulence
Davidovits, Seth; Fisch, Nathaniel
2015-11-01
Compression of a turbulent plasma or fluid can cause amplification of the turbulent kinetic energy, if the compression is fast compared to the turnover and viscous dissipation times of the turbulent eddies. The consideration of compressing turbulent flows in inviscid fluids has been motivated by the suggestion that amplification of turbulent kinetic energy occurred on experiments at the Weizmann Institute of Science Z-Pinch. We demonstrate a sudden viscous dissipation mechanism whereby this amplified turbulent kinetic energy is rapidly converted into thermal energy, which further increases the temperature, feeding back to further enhance the dissipation. Application of this mechanism in compression experiments may be advantageous, if the plasma can be kept comparatively cold during much of the compression, reducing radiation and conduction losses, until the plasma suddenly becomes hot. This work was supported by DOE through contract 67350-9960 (Prime # DOE DE-NA0001836) and by the DTRA.
Design method for fluid viscous dampers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jia, Jiuhong; Hua, Hongxing [Shanghai Jiaotong University, State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai (China); Du, Jianye; Wang, Yu [Naval Arming Academy, Institute of Naval Vessels, Beijing (China)
2008-09-15
A basic design method of doubly acting fluid viscous dampers with double guide bars is presented. The flow of the viscoelastic fluid between two parallel plates, one of which is started suddenly and the other of which is still, is analyzed. According to this solution, the velocity and the shear stress of the fluid at the fringe of the piston are solved approximately. A mathematical model of viscous dampers is derived, and the shock test is carried out. From experimental results, the parameters of the mathematical model are determined. Consequently, a semi-empirical design equation is obtained. Applying this equation to a certain practical damper, the damping material is chosen and the physical dimensions of the damper are determined. Shock tests using this damper are performed. Theoretical results are in good agreement with experimental results, which validates the reliability of the calculated physical dimensions of the specimen damper and the validity of the basic design equation. (orig.)
Solidity of viscous liquids. IV. Density fluctuations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dyre, J. C.
2006-01-01
This paper is the fourth in a series exploring the physical consequences of the solidity of highly viscous liquids. It is argued that the two basic characteristics of a flow event (a jump between two energy minima in configuration space) are the local density change and the sum of all particle...... displacements. Based on this it is proposed that density fluctuations are described by a time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation with rates in k space of the form C+Dk^2 with D>>C a^2 where a is the average intermolecular distance. The inequality expresses a long-wavelength dominance of the dynamics which...... with Debye behavior at low frequencies and an omega^{−1/2} decay of the loss at high frequencies. Finally, a general formalism for the description of viscous liquid dynamics, which supplements the density dynamics by including stress fields, a potential energy field, and molecular orientational fields...
Newton solution of inviscid and viscous problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Venkatakrishnan, V.
1988-01-01
The application of Newton iteration to inviscid and viscous airfoil calculations is examined. Spatial discretization is performed using upwind differences with split fluxes. The system of linear equations which arises as a result of linearization in time is solved directly using either a banded matrix solver or a sparse matrix solver. In the latter case, the solver is used in conjunction with the nested dissection strategy, whose implementation for airfoil calculations is discussed. The boundary conditions are also implemented in a fully implicit manner, thus yielding quadratic convergence. Complexities such as the ordering of cell nodes and the use of a far field vortex to correct freestream for a lifting airfoil are addressed. Various methods to accelerate convergence and improve computational efficiency while using Newton iteration are discussed. Results are presented for inviscid, transonic nonlifting and lifting airfoils and also for laminar viscous cases. 17 references
Mechanisms of Coupled Vibrational Relaxation and Dissociation in Carbon Dioxide.
Armenise, Iole; Kustova, Elena
2018-05-21
A complete vibrational state-specific kinetic scheme describing dissociating carbon dioxide mixtures is proposed. CO 2 symmetric, bending and asymmetric vibrations and dissociation-recombination are strongly coupled through inter-mode vibrational energy transfers. Comparative study of state-resolved rate coefficients is carried out; the effect of different transitions may vary considerably with temperature. A non-equilibrium 1-D boundary layer flow typical to hypersonic planetary entry is studied in the state-to-state approach. To assess the sensitivity of fluid-dynamic variables and heat transfer to various vibrational transitions and chemical reactions, corresponding processes are successively included to the kinetic scheme. It is shown that vibrational-translational (VT) transitions in the symmetric and asymmetric modes do not alter the flow and can be neglected whereas the VT 2 exchange in the bending mode is the main channel of vibrational relaxation. Inter-mode vibrational exchanges affect the flow implicitly, through energy redistribution enhancing VT relaxation; the dominating role belongs to near-resonant transitions between symmetric and bending modes as well as between CO molecules and CO 2 asymmetric mode. Strong coupling between VT 2 relaxation and chemical reactions is emphasized. While vibrational distributions and average vibrational energy show strong dependence on the kinetic scheme, the heat flux is more sensitive to chemical reactions.
The partially filled viscous ring damper.
Alfriend, K. T.
1973-01-01
The problem of a spinning satellite with a partially filled viscous ring damper is investigated. It is shown that there are two distinct modes of motion, the nutation-synchronous mode and spin-synchronous mode. From an approximate solution of the equations of motion a time constant is obtained for each mode. From a consideration of the fluid dynamics several methods are developed for determining the damping constant.
Generation of highly-viscous microjets
Tagawa, Yoshiyuki; Onuki, Hajime; Oi, Yuto
2015-11-01
An ink-jet printing system (or a liquid-dispensing device) has ecological and cost advantages compared to other printing systems such as offset printing and gravure printing since it requires a small amount of liquids. However, most ink-jet printers are not able to eject high-viscous liquids more than 10 cSt. This limitation severely restricts applications of the ink-jet system. Here we present a novel jet-generation system, discharging jets of high-viscous liquids up to 1,000 cSt. The system employs an impulsive force and converges the force efficiently in order to accelerate the liquid-air interface strongly for generating viscous jets: It consists of a liquid container and a thin tube partially inserted in the liquid. The liquid-air interface inside the thin tube is set deeper than that outside of the tube. We then add an impulsive force on the bottom of the container, leading to the microjet generation inside the thin tube. The pressure field under the impulsive force is estimated using pressure-impulse approach, deriving the jet velocity. The jet velocity is experimentally measured with varying the impulsive force and liquid levels in the tube and the container. It is found that the measured velocities agree with the estimation. Owing to the simple structure of the generation system and an ability for ejecting viscous liquids, it could extend the limits of existing ink-jet printers and may be applicable for next-generation technologies such as 3D printing systems and needle-free injection devices. JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 26709007.
The viscous dynamics of a rotating plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
James, B.W.; Simpson, S.W.
1978-01-01
The rotational velocity of a high-density, partially-ionized neon plasma has been calculated as a function of time using a dynamical model in which J x B and viscous forces act on the plasma. The calculation of appropriate transport coefficients is discussed in detail. The model is used to predict measured voltages in a plasma centrifuge experiment. Observations of neon isotope separation in this experiment have been reported in a previous paper (James and Simpson 1976). (author)
Leapfrogging of multiple coaxial viscous vortex rings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, M.; Lou, J.; Lim, T. T.
2015-01-01
A recent theoretical study [Borisov, Kilin, and Mamaev, “The dynamics of vortex rings: Leapfrogging, choreographies and the stability problem,” Regular Chaotic Dyn. 18, 33 (2013); Borisov et al., “The dynamics of vortex rings: Leapfrogging in an ideal and viscous fluid,” Fluid Dyn. Res. 46, 031415 (2014)] shows that when three coaxial vortex rings travel in the same direction in an incompressible ideal fluid, each of the vortex rings alternately slips through (or leapfrogs) the other two ahead. Here, we use a lattice Boltzmann method to simulate viscous vortex rings with an identical initial circulation, radius, and separation distance with the aim of studying how viscous effect influences the outcomes of the leapfrogging process. For the case of two identical vortex rings, our computation shows that leapfrogging can be achieved only under certain favorable conditions, which depend on Reynolds number, vortex core size, and initial separation distance between the two rings. For the case of three coaxial vortex rings, the result differs from the inviscid model and shows that the second vortex ring always slips through the leading ring first, followed by the third ring slipping through the other two ahead. A simple physical model is proposed to explain the observed behavior
Quantum distribution function of nonequilibrium system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sogo, Kiyoshi; Fujimoto, Yasushi.
1990-03-01
A path integral representation is derived for the Wigner distribution function of a nonequilibrium system coupled with heat bath. Under appropriate conditions, the Wigner distribution function approaches an equilibrium distribution, which manifests shifting and broadening of spectral lines due to the interaction with heat bath. It is shown that the equilibrium distribution becomes the quantum canonical distribution in the vanishing coupling constant limit. (author)
Non-equilibrium thermodynamics and physical kinetics
Bikkin, Halid
2014-01-01
This graduate textbook covers contemporary directions of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics as well as classical methods of kinetics. With one of the main propositions being to avoid terms such as "obviously" and "it is easy to show", this treatise is an easy-to-read introduction into this traditional, yet vibrant field.
Introduction to the nonequilibrium functional renormalization group
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berges, J.; Mesterházy, D.
2012-01-01
In these lectures we introduce the functional renormalization group out of equilibrium. While in thermal equilibrium typically a Euclidean formulation is adequate, nonequilibrium properties require real-time descriptions. For quantum systems specified by a given density matrix at initial time, a generating functional for real-time correlation functions can be written down using the Schwinger-Keldysh closed time path. This can be used to construct a nonequilibrium functional renormalization group along similar lines as for Euclidean field theories in thermal equilibrium. Important differences include the absence of a fluctuation-dissipation relation for general out-of-equilibrium situations. The nonequilibrium renormalization group takes on a particularly simple form at a fixed point, where the corresponding scale-invariant system becomes independent of the details of the initial density matrix. We discuss some basic examples, for which we derive a hierarchy of fixed point solutions with increasing complexity from vacuum and thermal equilibrium to nonequilibrium. The latter solutions are then associated to the phenomenon of turbulence in quantum field theory.
Generators of nonequilibrium low-temperature plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dautov, G.Yu.
1988-01-01
Results are described of a study and of the characteristics of sources of a non-equilibrium gas-discharge plasma. The plasma generators considered include glow, high frequency, and arc discharge generators. Thermodynamic, ionic, and electronic processes occurring in the plasmas are evaluated
Non-equilibrium modelling of distillation
Wesselingh, JA; Darton, R
1997-01-01
There are nasty conceptual problems in the classical way of describing distillation columns via equilibrium stages, and efficiencies or HETP's. We can nowadays avoid these problems by simulating the behaviour of a complete column in one go using a non-equilibrium model. Such a model has phase
Evolution and non-equilibrium physics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Becker, Nikolaj; Sibani, Paolo
2014-01-01
We argue that the stochastic dynamics of interacting agents which replicate, mutate and die constitutes a non-equilibrium physical process akin to aging in complex materials. Specifically, our study uses extensive computer simulations of the Tangled Nature Model (TNM) of biological evolution...
The influence of exothermic reactions on the nonequilibrium level of discharge plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chernyak, V.Ya.; Iukhymenko, V.V.; Prysiazhnevych, I.V.; Martysh, Eu.V.
2013-01-01
The comparative analysis of plasma parameters of transverse arc and discharge in the gas channel with liquid wall was made for different working gas and liquids (for air, distilled water and for its mixtures with ethanol). Electronic excitation temperatures Te of atoms, vibrational Tv and rotational Tr temperatures of molecules in the generated plasma were determined by optical emission spectroscopy. It was shown that both discharges generate nonequilibrium plasma in the case of working gas air and working liquid-distilled water. Adding a fuel (ethanol) into the plasma system with O 2 leads to the increasing of rotational and vibrational temperatures of molecules, which became equal to each other within the errors. This may indicate that the exothermic reactions reduce the level of nonthermality of the generated plasma as a result of additional energy supply for heavy components in the process of complete combustion of hydrocarbons.
Simulations of vibrational relaxation in dense molecular fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holian, B.L.
1985-07-01
In the understanding of high-temperatre and -pressure chemistry in explosives, first step is the study of the transfer of energy from translational degrees of freedom into internal vibrations of the molecules. We present new methods using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) for measuring vibrational relaxation in a diatomic fluid, where we expect a classical treatment of many-body collisions to be relevant because of the high densities (2 to 3 times compressed compared to the normal fluid) and high temperatures (2000 to 4000 K) involved behind detonation waves. NEMD techniques are discussed, including their limitations, and qualitative results presented
Vibration Control of Sandwich Beams Using Electro-Rheological Fluids
Srikantha Phani, A.; Venkatraman, K.
2003-09-01
Electro-rheological (ER) fluids are a class of smart materials exhibiting significant reversible changes in their rheological and hence mechanical properties under the influence of an applied electric field. Efforts are in progress to embed ER fluids in various structural elements to mitigate vibration problems. The present work is an experimental investigation of the behaviour of a sandwich beam with ER fluid acting as the core material. A starch-silicone-oil-based ER fluid is used in the present study. Significant improvements in the damping properties are achieved in experiments and the damping contributions by viscous and non-viscous forces are estimated by force-state mapping (FSM) technique. With the increase in electric field across the ER fluid from 0 to 2 kV, an increase of 25-50% in equivalent viscous damping is observed. It is observed that as concentration of starch is increased, the ER effect grows stronger but eventually is overcome by applied stresses.
Computational modelling of the flow of viscous fluids in carbon nanotubes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khosravian, N [Computational Physical Sciences Research Laboratory, Department of Nano-Science, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), PO Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rafii-Tabar, H [Computational Physical Sciences Research Laboratory, Department of Nano-Science, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), PO Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2007-11-21
Carbon nanotubes will have extensive application in all areas of nano-technology, and in particular in the field of nano-fluidics, wherein they can be used for molecular separation, nano-scale filtering and as nano-pipes for conveying fluids. In the field of nano-medicine, nanotubes can be functionalized with various types of receptors to act as bio-sensors for the detection and elimination of cancer cells, or be used as bypasses and even neural connections. Modelling fluid flow inside nanotubes is a very challenging problem, since there is a complex interplay between the motion of the fluid and the stability of the walls. A critical issue in the design of nano-fluidic devices is the induced vibration of the walls, due to the fluid flow, which can promote structural instability. It has been established that the resonant frequencies depend on the flow velocity. We have studied, for the first time, the flow of viscous fluids through multi-walled carbon nanotubes, using the Euler-Bernoulli classical beam theory to model the nanotube as a continuum structure. Our aim has been to compute the effect of the fluid flow on the structural stability of the nanotubes, without having to consider the details of the fluid-walls interaction. The variations of the resonant frequencies with the flow velocity are obtained for both unembedded nanotubes, and when they are embedded in an elastic medium. It is found that a nanotube conveying a viscous fluid is more stable against vibration-induced buckling than a nanotube conveying a non-viscous fluid, and that the aspect ratio plays the same role in both cases.
Computational modelling of the flow of viscous fluids in carbon nanotubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khosravian, N; Rafii-Tabar, H
2007-01-01
Carbon nanotubes will have extensive application in all areas of nano-technology, and in particular in the field of nano-fluidics, wherein they can be used for molecular separation, nano-scale filtering and as nano-pipes for conveying fluids. In the field of nano-medicine, nanotubes can be functionalized with various types of receptors to act as bio-sensors for the detection and elimination of cancer cells, or be used as bypasses and even neural connections. Modelling fluid flow inside nanotubes is a very challenging problem, since there is a complex interplay between the motion of the fluid and the stability of the walls. A critical issue in the design of nano-fluidic devices is the induced vibration of the walls, due to the fluid flow, which can promote structural instability. It has been established that the resonant frequencies depend on the flow velocity. We have studied, for the first time, the flow of viscous fluids through multi-walled carbon nanotubes, using the Euler-Bernoulli classical beam theory to model the nanotube as a continuum structure. Our aim has been to compute the effect of the fluid flow on the structural stability of the nanotubes, without having to consider the details of the fluid-walls interaction. The variations of the resonant frequencies with the flow velocity are obtained for both unembedded nanotubes, and when they are embedded in an elastic medium. It is found that a nanotube conveying a viscous fluid is more stable against vibration-induced buckling than a nanotube conveying a non-viscous fluid, and that the aspect ratio plays the same role in both cases
Nonequilibrium Green's function method for quantum thermal transport
Wang, Jian-Sheng; Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Li, Huanan; Thingna, Juzar
2014-12-01
This review deals with the nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method applied to the problems of energy transport due to atomic vibrations (phonons), primarily for small junction systems. We present a pedagogical introduction to the subject, deriving some of the well-known results such as the Laudauer-like formula for heat current in ballistic systems. The main aim of the review is to build the machinery of the method so that it can be applied to other situations, which are not directly treated here. In addition to the above, we consider a number of applications of NEGF, not in routine model system calculations, but in a few new aspects showing the power and usefulness of the formalism. In particular, we discuss the problems of multiple leads, coupled left-right-lead system, and system without a center. We also apply the method to the problem of full counting statistics. In the case of nonlinear systems, we make general comments on the thermal expansion effect, phonon relaxation time, and a certain class of mean-field approximations. Lastly, we examine the relationship between NEGF, reduced density matrix, and master equation approaches to thermal transport.
Chung, Pil Seung; Song, Wonyup; Biegler, Lorenz T.; Jhon, Myung S.
2017-05-01
During the operation of hard disk drive (HDD), the perfluoropolyether (PFPE) lubricant experiences elastic or viscous shear/elongation deformations, which affect the performance and reliability of the HDD. Therefore, the viscoelastic responses of PFPE could provide a finger print analysis in designing optimal molecular architecture of lubricants to control the tribological phenomena. In this paper, we examine the rheological responses of PFPEs including storage (elastic) and loss (viscous) moduli (G' and G″) by monitoring the time-dependent-stress-strain relationship via non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. We analyzed the rheological responses by using Cox-Merz rule, and investigated the molecular structural and thermal effects on the solid-like and liquid-like behaviors of PFPEs. The temperature dependence of the endgroup agglomeration phenomena was examined, where the functional endgroups are decoupled as the temperature increases. By analyzing the relaxation processes, the molecular rheological studies will provide the optimal lubricant selection criteria to enhance the HDD performance and reliability for the heat-assisted magnetic recording applications.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pil Seung Chung
2017-05-01
Full Text Available During the operation of hard disk drive (HDD, the perfluoropolyether (PFPE lubricant experiences elastic or viscous shear/elongation deformations, which affect the performance and reliability of the HDD. Therefore, the viscoelastic responses of PFPE could provide a finger print analysis in designing optimal molecular architecture of lubricants to control the tribological phenomena. In this paper, we examine the rheological responses of PFPEs including storage (elastic and loss (viscous moduli (G′ and G″ by monitoring the time-dependent-stress-strain relationship via non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. We analyzed the rheological responses by using Cox-Merz rule, and investigated the molecular structural and thermal effects on the solid-like and liquid-like behaviors of PFPEs. The temperature dependence of the endgroup agglomeration phenomena was examined, where the functional endgroups are decoupled as the temperature increases. By analyzing the relaxation processes, the molecular rheological studies will provide the optimal lubricant selection criteria to enhance the HDD performance and reliability for the heat-assisted magnetic recording applications.
Microjet Generator for Highly Viscous Fluids
Onuki, Hajime; Oi, Yuto; Tagawa, Yoshiyuki
2018-01-01
This paper describes a simple system for generating a highly viscous microjet. The jet is produced inside a wettable thin tube partially submerged in a liquid. The gas-liquid interface inside the tube, which is initially concave, is kept much deeper than that outside the tube. An impulsive force applied at the bottom of a liquid container leads to significant acceleration of the liquid inside the tube followed by flow focusing due to the concave interface. The jet generation process can be divided into two parts that occur in different time scales, i.e., the impact interval [impact duration ≤O (10-4) s ] and the focusing interval [focusing duration ≫O (10-4) s ]. During the impact interval, the liquid accelerates suddenly due to the impact. During the focusing interval, the microjet emerges due to flow focusing. In order to explain the sudden acceleration inside the tube during the impact interval, we develop a physical model based on a pressure impulse approach. Numerical simulations confirm the proposed model, indicating that the basic mechanism of the acceleration of the liquid due to the impulsive force is elucidated. Remarkably, the viscous effect is negligible during the impact interval. In contrast, during the focusing interval, the viscosity plays an important role in the microjet generation. We experimentally and numerically investigate the velocity of microjets with various viscosities. We find that higher viscosities lead to reduction of the jet velocity, which can be described by using the Reynolds number (the ratio between the inertia force and the viscous force). This device may be a starting point for next-generation technologies, such as high-viscosity inkjet printers including bioprinters and needle-free injection devices for minimally invasive medical treatments.
Viscous hydrophilic injection matrices for serial crystallography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gabriela Kovácsová
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Serial (femtosecond crystallography at synchrotron and X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL sources distributes the absorbed radiation dose over all crystals used for data collection and therefore allows measurement of radiation damage prone systems, including the use of microcrystals for room-temperature measurements. Serial crystallography relies on fast and efficient exchange of crystals upon X-ray exposure, which can be achieved using a variety of methods, including various injection techniques. The latter vary significantly in their flow rates – gas dynamic virtual nozzle based injectors provide very thin fast-flowing jets, whereas high-viscosity extrusion injectors produce much thicker streams with flow rates two to three orders of magnitude lower. High-viscosity extrusion results in much lower sample consumption, as its sample delivery speed is commensurate both with typical XFEL repetition rates and with data acquisition rates at synchrotron sources. An obvious viscous injection medium is lipidic cubic phase (LCP as it is used for in meso membrane protein crystallization. However, LCP has limited compatibility with many crystallization conditions. While a few other viscous media have been described in the literature, there is an ongoing need to identify additional injection media for crystal embedding. Critical attributes are reliable injection properties and a broad chemical compatibility to accommodate samples as heterogeneous and sensitive as protein crystals. Here, the use of two novel hydrogels as viscous injection matrices is described, namely sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and the thermo-reversible block polymer Pluronic F-127. Both are compatible with various crystallization conditions and yield acceptable X-ray background. The stability and velocity of the extruded stream were also analysed and the dependence of the stream velocity on the flow rate was measured. In contrast with previously characterized injection media, both new
One-dimensional reduction of viscous jets. II. Applications
Pitrou, Cyril
2018-04-01
In a companion paper [Phys. Rev. E 97, 043115 (2018), 10.1103/PhysRevE.97.043115], a formalism allowing to describe viscous fibers as one-dimensional objects was developed. We apply it to the special case of a viscous fluid torus. This allows to highlight the differences with the basic viscous string model and with its viscous rod model extension. In particular, an elliptic deformation of the torus section appears because of surface tension effects, and this cannot be described by viscous string nor viscous rod models. Furthermore, we study the Rayleigh-Plateau instability for periodic deformations around the perfect torus, and we show that the instability is not sufficient to lead to the torus breakup in several droplets before it collapses to a single spherical drop. Conversely, a rotating torus is dynamically attracted toward a stationary solution, around which the instability can develop freely and split the torus in multiple droplets.
Viscous flows the practical use of theory
Brenner, Howard
1988-01-01
Representing a unique approach to the study of fluid flows, Viscous Flows demonstrates the utility of theoretical concepts and solutions for interpreting and predicting fluid flow in practical applications. By critically comparing all relevant classes of theoretical solutions with experimental data and/or general numerical solutions, it focuses on the range of validity of theoretical expressions rather than on their intrinsic character.This book features extensive use of dimensional analysis on both models and variables, and extensive development of theoretically based correlating equations.
Generic Primary Mechanical Response of Viscous Liquids
Bierwirth, S. Peter; Böhmer, Roland; Gainaru, Catalin
2017-12-01
Four decades ago a seminal review by Jonscher [Nature (London) 267, 673 (1977), 10.1038/267673a0] revealed that the dielectric response of conducting materials is characterized by a "remarkable universality". Demonstrating that the same response pattern is exhibited also by shear rheological spectra of nonpolymeric viscous liquids, the present contribution connects two branches of condensed matter physics: Concepts developed for charge transport can be employed for the description of mass flow and vice versa. Based on the virtual equivalence of the two dynamics a connection is established between microscopic and macroscopic viscoelastic characteristics of liquids, resembling the Barton-Nakajima-Namikawa relation for conductivity.
Variational form for a viscous plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishida, A.; Steinhauer, L.C.; Berk, H.L.
1991-01-01
The variational formulation for a fluid plasma including the parallel and gyroviscosities is developed using the basic approach of Berk et al. [Phys. Fluids 24, 2245 (1981)]. The equivalence of the variational problem to the original viscous fluid equations of motion is shown. The theory is developed for an axisymmetric plasma with no magnetic field in the azimuthal direction and therefore applies to field-reversed configurations and axisymmetric mirrors. This theory offers the advantage of describing both parallel and transverse ion kinetic effects within the simplicity afforded by a variational fluid model
Nonequilibrium recombination after a curved shock wave
Wen, Chihyung; Hornung, Hans
2010-02-01
The effect of nonequilibrium recombination after a curved two-dimensional shock wave in a hypervelocity dissociating flow of an inviscid Lighthill-Freeman gas is considered. An analytical solution is obtained with the effective shock values derived by Hornung (1976) [5] and the assumption that the flow is ‘quasi-frozen’ after a thin dissociating layer near the shock. The solution gives the expression of dissociation fraction as a function of temperature on a streamline. A rule of thumb can then be provided to check the validity of binary scaling for experimental conditions and a tool to determine the limiting streamline that delineates the validity zone of binary scaling. The effects on the nonequilibrium chemical reaction of the large difference in free stream temperature between free-piston shock tunnel and equivalent flight conditions are discussed. Numerical examples are presented and the results are compared with solutions obtained with two-dimensional Euler equations using the code of Candler (1988) [10].
Microscopic machining mechanism of polishing based on vibrations of liquid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, Z G; Guo, Z N; Chen, X; Yu, Z Q; Yu, T M; Lee, W B
2007-01-01
A molecular dynamics method has been applied to study the mechanism of polishing based on vibrations of liquid. Movements of polishing particles and formations of impact dents are simulated and discussed. The abrasive effect between particle and machined substrate is evaluated empirically. Polishing qualities, including roughness and fractal character under multiple impacts, are obtained by numerical methods. Results show that the particle will vibrate and roll viscously on the substrate. Press, tear and self-organization effects will be responsible for the formation of impact dents. Simulation results are compared with experimental data to verify the conclusions
Lattice Boltzmann approach for complex nonequilibrium flows.
Montessori, A; Prestininzi, P; La Rocca, M; Succi, S
2015-10-01
We present a lattice Boltzmann realization of Grad's extended hydrodynamic approach to nonequilibrium flows. This is achieved by using higher-order isotropic lattices coupled with a higher-order regularization procedure. The method is assessed for flow across parallel plates and three-dimensional flows in porous media, showing excellent agreement of the mass flow with analytical and numerical solutions of the Boltzmann equation across the full range of Knudsen numbers, from the hydrodynamic regime to ballistic motion.
Efficiency bounds for nonequilibrium heat engines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mehta, Pankaj; Polkovnikov, Anatoli
2013-01-01
We analyze the efficiency of thermal engines (either quantum or classical) working with a single heat reservoir like an atmosphere. The engine first gets an energy intake, which can be done in an arbitrary nonequilibrium way e.g. combustion of fuel. Then the engine performs the work and returns to the initial state. We distinguish two general classes of engines where the working body first equilibrates within itself and then performs the work (ergodic engine) or when it performs the work before equilibrating (non-ergodic engine). We show that in both cases the second law of thermodynamics limits their efficiency. For ergodic engines we find a rigorous upper bound for the efficiency, which is strictly smaller than the equivalent Carnot efficiency. I.e. the Carnot efficiency can be never achieved in single reservoir heat engines. For non-ergodic engines the efficiency can be higher and can exceed the equilibrium Carnot bound. By extending the fundamental thermodynamic relation to nonequilibrium processes, we find a rigorous thermodynamic bound for the efficiency of both ergodic and non-ergodic engines and show that it is given by the relative entropy of the nonequilibrium and initial equilibrium distributions. These results suggest a new general strategy for designing more efficient engines. We illustrate our ideas by using simple examples. -- Highlights: ► Derived efficiency bounds for heat engines working with a single reservoir. ► Analyzed both ergodic and non-ergodic engines. ► Showed that non-ergodic engines can be more efficient. ► Extended fundamental thermodynamic relation to arbitrary nonequilibrium processes
Nonequilibrium Phase Transitions Associated with DNA Replication
2011-02-11
polymerases) catalyzing the growth of a DNA primer strand (the nascent chain of nucleotides complementary to the template strand) based on the Watson ...the fraction (error rate) of monomers for which y, where y is the correct Watson - Crick complementary base of , can be obtained by ¼ X...Nonequilibrium Phase Transitions Associated with DNA Replication Hyung-June Woo* and Anders Wallqvist Biotechnology High Performance Computing
Nonequilibrium statistical averages and thermo field dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marinaro, A.; Scarpetta, Q.
1984-01-01
An extension of thermo field dynamics is proposed, which permits the computation of nonequilibrium statistical averages. The Brownian motion of a quantum oscillator is treated as an example. In conclusion it is pointed out that the procedure proposed to computation of time-dependent statistical average gives the correct two-point Green function for the damped oscillator. A simple extension can be used to compute two-point Green functions of free particles
Stress relaxation in viscous soft spheres.
Boschan, Julia; Vasudevan, Siddarth A; Boukany, Pouyan E; Somfai, Ellák; Tighe, Brian P
2017-10-04
We report the results of molecular dynamics simulations of stress relaxation tests in athermal viscous soft sphere packings close to their unjamming transition. By systematically and simultaneously varying both the amplitude of the applied strain step and the pressure of the initial condition, we access both linear and nonlinear response regimes and control the distance to jamming. Stress relaxation in viscoelastic solids is characterized by a relaxation time τ* that separates short time scales, where viscous loss is substantial, from long time scales, where elastic storage dominates and the response is essentially quasistatic. We identify two distinct plateaus in the strain dependence of the relaxation time, one each in the linear and nonlinear regimes. The height of both plateaus scales as an inverse power law with the distance to jamming. By probing the time evolution of particle velocities during relaxation, we further identify a correlation between mechanical relaxation in the bulk and the degree of non-affinity in the particle velocities on the micro scale.
Dynamics of amorphous solids and viscous liquids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dyre, Jeppe
-square displacement as function of time. The 15 publications are related to each other in the following way. P1-P7 is a continuously progressing attempt to explain the AC properties of extremely disordered solids (with P2 as a digression). P8 discusses a simple model for viscous liquids and the glass transition. In P...... with the title "Viscous Liquids and the Glass Transition" reviews and comments P8-P10. In P8 from 1987 a simple model for the glass transition is proposed in which there is only one relevant degree of freedom, the potential energy of a region in the liquid. The model was originally constructed to explain the non......This thesis consists of fifteen publications (P1-P15) published between 1987 and 1996 and a summary. In this abstract an overview of the main results is given by following the summary's three Chapters. The first Chapter with the title "AC Conduction in Disordered Solids" reviews and comments P1-P7...
Direct laser printing using viscous printer's ink
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nasibov, A S; Bagramov, V G; Berezhnoi, K V
2006-01-01
The results of experiments on direct laser printing using viscous printer's ink with the help of a copper vapour laser (CVL)-based device are presented. The highly reflecting CVL cavity mirror was replaced by a spatial mirror modulator (SMM). Viscous printer's ink was used for printing. A pressure pulse produced at the boundary (on which an intensified and diminished image of the SMM was projected) between the ink and a transparency was used for transferring the ink to the plastic card. It was shown that the use of a CVL allowed a maximum printing speed of ∼80 cm 2 s -1 , a resolution of 625 dpi and up to 15 gradations. The dependence of the emission intensity of the element being projected (pixel) on its diameter is studied. It is shown that an increase in the brightness of this element with decreasing its size is caused by the summation of the laser and amplified radiation. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ground vibration tests or modal surveys are routinely conducted to support flutter analysis for subsonic and supersonic vehicles. However, vibration testing...
Nonequilibrium Statistical Operator Method and Generalized Kinetic Equations
Kuzemsky, A. L.
2018-01-01
We consider some principal problems of nonequilibrium statistical thermodynamics in the framework of the Zubarev nonequilibrium statistical operator approach. We present a brief comparative analysis of some approaches to describing irreversible processes based on the concept of nonequilibrium Gibbs ensembles and their applicability to describing nonequilibrium processes. We discuss the derivation of generalized kinetic equations for a system in a heat bath. We obtain and analyze a damped Schrödinger-type equation for a dynamical system in a heat bath. We study the dynamical behavior of a particle in a medium taking the dissipation effects into account. We consider the scattering problem for neutrons in a nonequilibrium medium and derive a generalized Van Hove formula. We show that the nonequilibrium statistical operator method is an effective, convenient tool for describing irreversible processes in condensed matter.
Theory of vibration protection
Karnovsky, Igor A
2016-01-01
This text is an advancement of the theory of vibration protection of mechanical systems with lumped and distributed parameters. The book offers various concepts and methods of solving vibration protection problems, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different methods, and the fields of their effective applications. Fundamental approaches of vibration protection, which are considered in this book, are the passive, parametric and optimal active vibration protection. The passive vibration protection is based on vibration isolation, vibration damping and dynamic absorbers. Parametric vibration protection theory is based on the Shchipanov-Luzin invariance principle. Optimal active vibration protection theory is based on the Pontryagin principle and the Krein moment method. The book also contains special topics such as suppression of vibrations at the source of their occurrence and the harmful influence of vibrations on humans. Numerous examples, which illustrate the theoretical ideas of each chapter, ar...
On nonequilibrium many-body systems. 1: The nonequilibrium statistical operator method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Algarte, A.C.S.; Vasconcellos, A.R.; Luzzi, R.; Sampaio, A.J.C.
1985-01-01
The theoretical aspects involved in the treatment of many-body systems strongly departed from equilibrium are discussed. The nonequilibrium statistical operator (NSO) method is considered in detail. Using Jaynes' maximum entropy formalism complemented with an ad hoc hypothesis a nonequilibrium statistical operator is obtained. This approach introduces irreversibility from the outset and we recover statistical operators like those of Green-Mori and Zubarev as particular cases. The connection with Generalized Thermodynamics and the construction of nonlinear transport equations are briefly described. (Author) [pt
Phononic band gaps and vibrations in one- and two-dimensional mass-spring structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard
2003-01-01
The vibrational response of finite periodic lattice structures subjected to periodic loading is investigated. Special attention is devoted to the response in frequency ranges with gaps in the band structure for the corresponding infinite periodic lattice. The effects of boundaries, viscous dampin...
Grose, W. L.
1971-01-01
An approximate inverse solution is presented for the nonequilibrium flow in the inviscid shock layer about a vehicle in hypersonic flight. The method is based upon a thin-shock-layer approximation and has the advantage of being applicable to both subsonic and supersonic regions of the shock layer. The relative simplicity of the method makes it ideally suited for programming on a digital computer with a significant reduction in storage capacity and computing time required by other more exact methods. Comparison of nonequilibrium solutions for an air mixture obtained by the present method is made with solutions obtained by two other methods. Additional cases are presented for entry of spherical nose cones into representative Venusian and Martian atmospheres. A digital computer program written in FORTRAN language is presented that permits an arbitrary gas mixture to be employed in the solution. The effects of vibration, dissociation, recombination, electronic excitation, and ionization are included in the program.
Horizontally viscous effects in a tidal basin: extending Taylor's problem
Roos, Pieter C.; Schuttelaars, H.M.
2009-01-01
The classical problem of Taylor (Proc. Lond. Math. Soc., vol. 20, 1921, pp. 148–181) of Kelvin wave reflection in a semi-enclosed rectangular basin of uniform depth is extended to account for horizontally viscous effects. To this end, we add horizontally viscous terms to the hydrodynamic model
Diffusion on Viscous Fluids, Existence and Asymptotic Properties of Solutions,
1983-09-01
Matematica - Politecuico di Milano (1982). 11.* P. Secchi "On the Initial Value ProbleM for the Nquations of Notion of Viscous Incompressible Fluids In...of two viscous Incompressible Fluids’, preprint DepartLmento dl matematica - Politecuico di Milano (1982). -15- 11. P. Secchi 00n the XnitiaI Value
Poloidal variation of viscous forces in the banana collisionality regime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, J.P.; Callen, J.D.
1992-12-01
The poloidal variation of the parallel viscous and heat viscous forces are determined for the first time using a rigorous Chapman- Enskog-like approach that has been developed recently. It is shown that the poloidal variation is approximately proportional to the poloidal distribution of the trapped particles, which are concentrated on the outer edge (large major radius side) of the tokamak
Equivalent viscous damping procedure for multi-material systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmed, H.; Ma, D.
1979-01-01
The inclusion of accurate viscous damping effects in the seismic analysis of nuclear power plants is discussed. A procedure to evaluate and use equivalent viscous damping coefficients in conjunction with the substructure method of finite element analysis is outlined in detail
Null controllability of the viscous Camassa–Holm equation with ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this paper, we study the null controllability of the viscous Camassa–. Holm equation on the one-dimensional torus. By using a moving distributed control, we obtain that the system is null controllable for a given data with certain regularity. Keywords. Viscous Camassa–Holm equation; null controllability; moving control;.
Physical hydrodynamic propulsion model study on creeping viscous
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The present investigation focusses on a mathematical study of creeping viscous flow induced by metachronal wave propagation in a horizontal ciliated tube containing porous media. Creeping flow limitations are imposed, i.e. inertial forces are small compared to viscous forces and therefore a very low Reynolds number (Re ...
Influence of viscous dissipation and radiation on MHD Couette flow ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The overall analysis of the study of these parameters in various degrees show an increase in the velocity profile of the fluid, while radiation parameter decreases the temperature profile; viscous dissipation and Reynolds number increase the temperature profile of the fluid. Key word: Couette flow, viscous dissipation, ...
Experimental study of highly viscous impinging jets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gomon, M. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
1998-12-01
The objective of this research is to study the behavior of highly viscous gravity-driven jets filling a container. Matters of interest are the formation of voids in the fluid pool during the filling process and the unstable behavior of the fluid in the landing region which manifests itself as an oscillating motion. The working fluids used in this research are intended to simulate the flow behavior of molten glass. Qualitative and quantitative results are obtained in a parametric study. The fraction of voids present in the fluid pool after the filling of the container is measured for different parameter values of viscosity and mass flow rate. Likewise, frequencies of the oscillating jet are measured. Results are inconclusive with regard to a correlation between parameter settings and void fractions. As for frequencies, power law correlations are established.
Sloshing analysis of viscous liquid storage tanks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uras, R.Z.
1995-01-01
The effect of viscosity on the sloshing response of tanks containing viscous liquids is studied using the in-house finite element computer code, FLUSTR-ANL. Two different tank sizes each filled at two levels, are modeled, and their dynamic responses under harmonic and seismic ground motions are simulated. The results are presented in terms of the wave height, and pressures at selected nodes and elements in the finite element mesh. The viscosity manifests itself as a damping effect, reducing the amplitudes. Under harmonic excitation, the dynamic response reaches the steady-state faster as the viscosity value becomes larger. The fundamental sloshing frequency for each study case stays virtually unaffected by an increase in viscosity. For the small tank case, a 5% difference is observed in the fundamental frequency of the smallest (1 cP) and the highest (1000 cP) viscosity cases considered in this study. The fundamental frequencies of the large tank are even less sensitive
Multidomain spectral solution of compressible viscous flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kopriva, D.A.
1994-01-01
We develop a nonoverlapping mutidomain spectral collocation method to solve compressible viscous flows. At the interfaces, the advection terms are treated with a characteristic correction method. The diffusion terms are treated with a penalty method. Spectral accuracy is demonstrated on linear model problems in one and two space dimensions. The method is applied to a subsonic and supersonic flow over a flat plate. The results are compared to solutions of the boundary-layer equations which show that two digit accuracy in the adiabatic plate temperature is obtained with 16 points in the boundary layer for a freestream Mach number of two. A second application is to a transonic flow in a two-dimensional converging-diverging nozzle, where the computed results are compared to experimental data
Experimental study of highly viscous impinging jets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomon, M.
1998-12-01
The objective of this research is to study the behavior of highly viscous gravity-driven jets filling a container. Matters of interest are the formation of voids in the fluid pool during the filling process and the unstable behavior of the fluid in the landing region which manifests itself as an oscillating motion. The working fluids used in this research are intended to simulate the flow behavior of molten glass. Qualitative and quantitative results are obtained in a parametric study. The fraction of voids present in the fluid pool after the filling of the container is measured for different parameter values of viscosity and mass flow rate. Likewise, frequencies of the oscillating jet are measured. Results are inconclusive with regard to a correlation between parameter settings and void fractions. As for frequencies, power law correlations are established
Viscous photons in relativistic heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dion, Maxime; Paquet, Jean-Francois; Young, Clint; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles; Schenke, Bjoern
2011-01-01
Theoretical studies of the production of real thermal photons in relativistic heavy ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are performed. The space-time evolution of the colliding system is modelled using music, a 3+1D relativistic hydrodynamic simulation, using both its ideal and viscous versions. The inclusive spectrum and its azimuthal angular anisotropy are studied separately, and the relative contributions of the different photon sources are highlighted. It is shown that the photon v 2 coefficient is especially sensitive to the details of the microscopic dynamics like the equation of state, the ratio of shear viscosity over entropy density, η/s, and to the morphology of the initial state.
Electrohydrodynamics of a viscous drop with inertia.
Nganguia, H; Young, Y-N; Layton, A T; Lai, M-C; Hu, W-F
2016-05-01
Most of the existing numerical and theoretical investigations on the electrohydrodynamics of a viscous drop have focused on the creeping Stokes flow regime, where nonlinear inertia effects are neglected. In this work we study the inertia effects on the electrodeformation of a viscous drop under a DC electric field using a novel second-order immersed interface method. The inertia effects are quantified by the Ohnesorge number Oh, and the electric field is characterized by an electric capillary number Ca_{E}. Below the critical Ca_{E}, small to moderate electric field strength gives rise to steady equilibrium drop shapes. We found that, at a fixed Ca_{E}, inertia effects induce larger deformation for an oblate drop than a prolate drop, consistent with previous results in the literature. Moreover, our simulations results indicate that inertia effects on the equilibrium drop deformation are dictated by the direction of normal electric stress on the drop interface: Larger drop deformation is found when the normal electric stress points outward, and smaller drop deformation is found otherwise. To our knowledge, such inertia effects on the equilibrium drop deformation has not been reported in the literature. Above the critical Ca_{E}, no steady equilibrium drop deformation can be found, and often the drop breaks up into a number of daughter droplets. In particular, our Navier-Stokes simulations show that, for the parameters we use, (1) daughter droplets are larger in the presence of inertia, (2) the drop deformation evolves more rapidly compared to creeping flow, and (3) complex distribution of electric stresses for drops with inertia effects. Our results suggest that normal electric pressure may be a useful tool in predicting drop pinch-off in oblate deformations.
Viscous Flow over Nonlinearly Stretching Sheet with Effects of Viscous Dissipation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Javad Alinejad
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The flow and heat transfer characteristics of incompressible viscous flow over a nonlinearly stretching sheet with the presence of viscous dissipation is investigated numerically. The similarity transformation reduces the time-independent boundary layer equations for momentum and thermal energy into a set of coupled ordinary differential equations. The obtained equations, including nonlinear equation for the velocity field and differential equation by variable coefficient for the temperature field , are solved numerically by using the fourth order of Runge-Kutta integration scheme accompanied by shooting technique with Newton-Raphson iteration method. The effect of various values of Prandtl number, Eckert number and nonlinear stretching parameter are studied. The results presented graphically show some behaviors such as decrease in dimensionless temperature due to increase in Pr number, and curve relocations are observed when heat dissipation is considered.
Bulk viscous matter and recent acceleration of the universe based on causal viscous theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mohan, N.D.J.; Sasidharan, Athira; Mathew, Titus K. [Cochin University of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Kochi (India)
2017-12-15
The evolution of the bulk viscous matter dominated universe has been analysed using the full causal theory for the evolution of the viscous pressure in the context of the recent acceleration of the universe. The form of the viscosity is taken as ξ = αρ{sup 1/2}. We obtained analytical solutions for the Hubble parameter and scale factor of the universe. The model parameters have been computed using the observational data. The evolution of the prominent cosmological parameters was obtained. The age of the universe for the best estimated model parameters is found to be less than observational value. The viscous matter behaves like a stiff fluid in the early phase and evolves to a negative pressure fluid in the later phase. The equation of state is found to be stabilised with value ω > -1. The local as well as generalised second law of thermodynamics is satisfied. The statefinder diagnostic shows that this model is distinct from the standard ΛCDM. One of the marked deviations seen in this model to be compared with the corresponding model using the Eckart approach is that in this model the bulk viscosity decreases with the expansion of the universe, while in the Eckart formalism it increases from negative values in the early universe towards positive values. (orig.)
Bulk viscous matter and recent acceleration of the universe based on causal viscous theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohan, N.D.J.; Sasidharan, Athira; Mathew, Titus K.
2017-01-01
The evolution of the bulk viscous matter dominated universe has been analysed using the full causal theory for the evolution of the viscous pressure in the context of the recent acceleration of the universe. The form of the viscosity is taken as ξ = αρ 1/2 . We obtained analytical solutions for the Hubble parameter and scale factor of the universe. The model parameters have been computed using the observational data. The evolution of the prominent cosmological parameters was obtained. The age of the universe for the best estimated model parameters is found to be less than observational value. The viscous matter behaves like a stiff fluid in the early phase and evolves to a negative pressure fluid in the later phase. The equation of state is found to be stabilised with value ω > -1. The local as well as generalised second law of thermodynamics is satisfied. The statefinder diagnostic shows that this model is distinct from the standard ΛCDM. One of the marked deviations seen in this model to be compared with the corresponding model using the Eckart approach is that in this model the bulk viscosity decreases with the expansion of the universe, while in the Eckart formalism it increases from negative values in the early universe towards positive values. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwak, Mun Gyu; Na, Sung Su; Baek, Gwang Hyeon; Song, Chul Gi; Han, Sang Bo
2001-09-01
This book deals with vibration of machine which gives descriptions of free vibration using SDOF system, forced vibration using SDOF system, vibration of multi-degree of freedom system like introduction and normal form, distribution system such as introduction, free vibration of bar and practice problem, approximate solution like lumped approximations and Raleigh's quotient, engineering by intuition and experience, real problem and experimental method such as technology of signal, fourier transform analysis, frequency analysis and sensor and actuator.
Simple models of equilibrium and nonequilibrium phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lebowitz, J.L.
1987-01-01
This volume consists of two chapters of particular interest to researchers in the field of statistical mechanics. The first chapter is based on the premise that the best way to understand the qualitative properties that characterize many-body (i.e. macroscopic) systems is to study 'a number of the more significant model systems which, at least in principle are susceptible of complete analysis'. The second chapter deals exclusively with nonequilibrium phenomena. It reviews the theory of fluctuations in open systems to which they have made important contributions. Simple but interesting model examples are emphasised
Nonequilibrium fermion production in quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pruschke, Jens
2010-01-01
The creation of matter in the early universe or in relativistic heavy-ion collisions is inevitable connected to nonequilibrium physics. One of the key challenges is the explanation of the corresponding thermalization process following nonequilibrium instabilities. The role of fermionic quantum fields in such scenarios is discussed in the literature by using approximations of field theories which neglect important quantum corrections. This thesis goes beyond such approximations. A quantum field theory where scalar bosons interact with Dirac fermions via a Yukawa coupling is analyzed in the 2PI effective action formalism. The chosen approximation allows for a correct description of the dynamics including nonequilibrium instabilities. In particular, fermion-boson loop corrections allow to study the interaction of fermions with large boson fluctuations. The applied initial conditions generate nonequilibrium instabilities like parametric resonance or spinodal instabilities. The equations of motion for correlation functions are solved numerically and major characteristics of the fermion dynamics are described by analytical solutions. New mechanisms for the production of fermions are found. Simulations in the case of spinodal instability show that unstable boson fluctuations induce exponentially growing fermion modes with approximately the same growth rate. If the unstable regime lasts long enough a thermalization of the infrared part of the fermion occupation number occurs on time scales much shorter than the time scale on which bosonic quantum fields thermalize. Fermions acquire an excess of occupation in the ultraviolet regime compared to a Fermi-Dirac statistic characterized by a power-law with exponent two. The fermion production mechanism via parametric resonance is found to be most efficient after the instability ends. Quantum corrections then provide a very efficient particle creation mechanism which is interpreted as an amplification of decay processes. The ratio
Universality in Nonequilibrium Lattice Systems Theoretical Foundations
Ódor, Géza
2008-01-01
Universal scaling behavior is an attractive feature in statistical physics because a wide range of models can be classified purely in terms of their collective behavior due to a diverging correlation length. This book provides a comprehensive overview of dynamical universality classes occurring in nonequilibrium systems defined on regular lattices. The factors determining these diverse universality classes have yet to be fully understood, but the book attempts to summarize our present knowledge, taking them into account systematically.The book helps the reader to navigate in the zoo of basic m
Nonequilibrium fermion production in quantum field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pruschke, Jens
2010-06-16
The creation of matter in the early universe or in relativistic heavy-ion collisions is inevitable connected to nonequilibrium physics. One of the key challenges is the explanation of the corresponding thermalization process following nonequilibrium instabilities. The role of fermionic quantum fields in such scenarios is discussed in the literature by using approximations of field theories which neglect important quantum corrections. This thesis goes beyond such approximations. A quantum field theory where scalar bosons interact with Dirac fermions via a Yukawa coupling is analyzed in the 2PI effective action formalism. The chosen approximation allows for a correct description of the dynamics including nonequilibrium instabilities. In particular, fermion-boson loop corrections allow to study the interaction of fermions with large boson fluctuations. The applied initial conditions generate nonequilibrium instabilities like parametric resonance or spinodal instabilities. The equations of motion for correlation functions are solved numerically and major characteristics of the fermion dynamics are described by analytical solutions. New mechanisms for the production of fermions are found. Simulations in the case of spinodal instability show that unstable boson fluctuations induce exponentially growing fermion modes with approximately the same growth rate. If the unstable regime lasts long enough a thermalization of the infrared part of the fermion occupation number occurs on time scales much shorter than the time scale on which bosonic quantum fields thermalize. Fermions acquire an excess of occupation in the ultraviolet regime compared to a Fermi-Dirac statistic characterized by a power-law with exponent two. The fermion production mechanism via parametric resonance is found to be most efficient after the instability ends. Quantum corrections then provide a very efficient particle creation mechanism which is interpreted as an amplification of decay processes. The ratio
A Lagrangian formalism for nonequilibrium ensembles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sobouti, Y.
1989-08-01
It is suggested to formulate a nonequilibrium ensemble theory by maximizing a time-integrated entropy constrained by Liouville's equation. This leads to distribution functions of the form f = Z -1 exp(-g/kT), where g(p,q,t) is a solution of Liouville's equation. A further requirement that the entropy should be an additivie functional of the integrals of Liouville's equation, limits the choice of g to linear superpositions of the nonlinearly independent integrals of motion. Time-dependent and time-independent integrals may participate in this superposition. (author). 14 refs
Origins of scaling relations in nonequilibrium growth
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Escudero, Carlos; Korutcheva, Elka
2012-01-01
Scaling and hyperscaling laws provide exact relations among critical exponents describing the behavior of a system at criticality. For nonequilibrium growth models with a conserved drift, there exist few of them. One such relation is α + z = 4, found to be inexact in a renormalization group calculation for several classical models in this field. Herein, we focus on the two-dimensional case and show that it is possible to construct conserved surface growth equations for which the relation α + z = 4 is exact in the renormalization group sense. We explain the presence of this scaling law in terms of the existence of geometric principles dominating the dynamics. (paper)
Enhanced vibration diagnostics using vibration signature analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmed, S.; Shehzad, K.; Zahoor, Y.; Mahmood, A.; Bibi, A.
2001-01-01
Symptoms will appear in equipment, as well as in human beings. when 'suffering from sickness. Symptoms of abnormality in equipment are vibration, noise, deformation, temperature, pressure, electric current, crack, wearing, leakage etc. these are called modes of failure. If the mode of failure is vibration then the vibration signature analysis can be effectively used in order to diagnose the machinery problems. Much valuable information is contained within these vibration 'Spectra' or 'Signatures' but is only of use if the analyst can unlock its 'Secrets'. This paper documents a vibration problem in the motor of a centrifugal pump (Type ETA). It focuses mainly on the roll of modern vibration monitoring system in problem analysis. The problem experienced was the motor unstability and noise due to high vibration. Using enhanced vibration signature data, the problem was analyzed. which suggested that the rotor eccentricity was the cause of excessive noise and vibration in the motor. In conclusion, advanced electronic monitoring and diagnostic systems provide powerful information for machine's condition assessment and problem analysis. Appropriate interpretation and use of this information is important for accurate and effective vibration analysis. (author)
Nonequilibrium dynamics in an interacting Fe-C nanoparticle system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jönsson, P.; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Nordblad, P.
2000-01-01
Nonequilibrium dynamics in an interacting Fe-C nanoparticle sample, exhibiting a low-temperature spin-glass-like phase, has been studied by low-frequency ac susceptibility and magnetic relaxation experiments. The nonequilibrium behavior shows characteristic spin-glass features, but some qualitative...
Non-equilibrium spectroscopy of high-Tc superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krasnov, V M
2009-01-01
In superconductors, recombination of two non-equilibrium quasiparticles into a Cooper pair results in emission of excitation that mediates superconductivity. This is the basis of the proposed new type of 'non-equilibrium' spectroscopy of high T c superconductors, which may open a possibility for direct and unambiguous determination of the coupling mechanism of high T c superconductivity. In case of low T c superconductors, the feasibility of such the non-equilibrium spectroscopy was demonstrated in classical phonon generation-detection experiments almost four decades ago. Recently it was demonstrated that a similar technique can be used for high T c superconductors, using natural intrinsic Josephson junctions both for injection of non-equilibrium quasiparticles and for detection of the non-equilibrium radiation. Here I analyze theoretically non-equilibrium phenomena in intrinsic Josephson junctions. It is shown that extreme non-equilibrium state can be achieved at bias equal to integer number of the gap voltage, which can lead to laser-like emission from the stack. I argue that identification of the boson type, constituting this non-equilibrium radiation would unambiguously reveal the coupling mechanism of high Tc superconductors.
Exploring Chemical and Thermal Non-equilibrium in Nitrogen Arcs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghorui, S; Das, A K
2012-01-01
Plasma torches operating with nitrogen are of special importance as they can operate with usual tungsten based refractory electrodes and offer radical rich non-oxidizing high temperature environment for plasma chemistry. Strong gradients in temperature as well as species densities and huge convective fluxes lead to varying degrees of chemical non-equilibrium in associated regions. An axi-symmetric two-temperature chemical non-equilibrium model of a nitrogen plasma torch has been developed to understand the effects of thermal and chemical non-equilibrium in arcs. A 2-D finite volume CFD code in association with a non-equilibrium property routine enabled extraction of steady state self-consistent distributions of various plasma quantities inside the torch under various thermal and chemical non-equilibrium conditions. Chemical non-equilibrium has been incorporated through computation of diffusive and convective fluxes in each finite volume cell in every iteration and associating corresponding thermodynamic and transport properties through the scheme of 'chemical non-equilibrium parameter' introduced by Ghorui et. al. Recombination coefficient data from Nahar et. al. and radiation data from Krey and Morris have been used in the simulation. Results are presented for distributions of temperature, pressure, velocity, current density, electric potential, species densities and chemical non-equilibrium effects. Obtained results are compared with similar results under LTE.
Numerical optimization of conical flow waveriders including detailed viscous effects
Bowcutt, Kevin G.; Anderson, John D., Jr.; Capriotti, Diego
1987-01-01
A family of optimized hypersonic waveriders is generated and studied wherein detailed viscous effects are included within the optimization process itself. This is in contrast to previous optimized waverider work, wherein purely inviscid flow is used to obtain the waverider shapes. For the present waveriders, the undersurface is a streamsurface of an inviscid conical flowfield, the upper surface is a streamsurface of the inviscid flow over a tapered cylinder (calculated by the axisymmetric method of characteristics), and the viscous effects are treated by integral solutions of the boundary layer equations. Transition from laminar to turbulent flow is included within the viscous calculations. The optimization is carried out using a nonlinear simplex method. The resulting family of viscous hypersonic waveriders yields predicted high values of lift/drag, high enough to break the L/D barrier based on experience with other hypersonic configurations. Moreover, the numerical optimization process for the viscous waveriders results in distinctly different shapes compared to previous work with inviscid-designed waveriders. Also, the fine details of the viscous solution, such as how the shear stress is distributed over the surface, and the location of transition, are crucial to the details of the resulting waverider geometry. Finally, the moment coefficient variations and heat transfer distributions associated with the viscous optimized waveriders are studied.
Non-equilibrium many body dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Creutz, M.; Gyulassy, M.
1997-01-01
This Riken BNL Research Center Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Many Body Physics was held on September 23-25, 1997 as part of the official opening ceremony of the Center at Brookhaven National Lab. A major objective of theoretical work at the center is to elaborate on the full spectrum of strong interaction physics based on QCD, including the physics of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking, the parton structure of hadrons and nuclei, and the phenomenology of ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions related to the up-coming experiments at RHIC. The opportunities and challenges of nuclear and particle physics in this area naturally involve aspects of the many body problem common to many other fields. The aim of this symposium was to find common theoretical threads in the area of non-equilibrium physics and modern transport theories. The program consisted of invited talks on a variety topics from the fields of atomic, condensed matter, plasma, astrophysics, cosmology, and chemistry, in addition to nuclear and particle physics. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the database for contributions to this workshop
Nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eckstein, Martin
2009-12-21
The aim of this thesis is the investigation of strongly interacting quantum many-particle systems in nonequilibrium by means of the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). An efficient numerical implementation of the nonequilibrium DMFT equations within the Keldysh formalism is provided, as well a discussion of several approaches to solve effective single-site problem to which lattice models such as the Hubbard-model are mapped within DMFT. DMFT is then used to study the relaxation of the thermodynamic state after a sudden increase of the interaction parameter in two different models: the Hubbard model and the Falicov-Kimball model. In the latter case an exact solution can be given, which shows that the state does not even thermalize after infinite waiting times. For a slow change of the interaction, a transition to adiabatic behavior is found. The Hubbard model, on the other hand, shows a very sensitive dependence of the relaxation on the interaction, which may be called a dynamical phase transition. Rapid thermalization only occurs at the interaction parameter which corresponds to this transition. (orig.)
Nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eckstein, Martin
2009-01-01
The aim of this thesis is the investigation of strongly interacting quantum many-particle systems in nonequilibrium by means of the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). An efficient numerical implementation of the nonequilibrium DMFT equations within the Keldysh formalism is provided, as well a discussion of several approaches to solve effective single-site problem to which lattice models such as the Hubbard-model are mapped within DMFT. DMFT is then used to study the relaxation of the thermodynamic state after a sudden increase of the interaction parameter in two different models: the Hubbard model and the Falicov-Kimball model. In the latter case an exact solution can be given, which shows that the state does not even thermalize after infinite waiting times. For a slow change of the interaction, a transition to adiabatic behavior is found. The Hubbard model, on the other hand, shows a very sensitive dependence of the relaxation on the interaction, which may be called a dynamical phase transition. Rapid thermalization only occurs at the interaction parameter which corresponds to this transition. (orig.)
Nonequilibrium free diffusion in seed leachate
Ortiz G., Luis; Riquelme P., Pablo; Guzmán, R.
2013-11-01
In this work, we use a Schlieren-like Near Field Scattering (SNFS) setup to study nonequilibrium free diffusion behavior of a colloidal solution obtained from seeds leachate. The main objective is to compare the temporal behavior of the diffusion coefficient of seed leachate with an electric conductivity based vigor test. SNFS sizing measurements, based on Mie theory, were carried out to ensure its reliability and sensitivity. Then, we performed a typical nonequilibrium free diffusion experiment of a glycerol-water mixture. In this way, we confirmed that SNFS setup is sensitive to giant concentration fluctuations of nanocolloidal solutions. The results obtained in this stage reproduce properly the data reported elsewhere in literature. Moreover, seed leachate diffuse, in water, in a similar way that glycerol does. In both cases we used the same method (dynamic structure factor) to determine thermo-physical properties. We show that time evolution of diffusion coefficient of Lupinus Albus leachate exhibits three defined regimes as electric conductivity measurements. The results also exhibit a correspondence between the behavior of the diffusion coefficient and electric conductivity values of the two regions in the temporal range studied. Finally, we discuss biological processes involved in germination that could modulate this dependence, and the role played by the electrolytic nature of solutes.
Phase transitions in nonequilibrium traffic theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, H.M.
2000-02-01
This paper uses the center difference scheme of Lax-Friedrichs to numerically solve a newly developed continuum traffic flow theory and the kinematic theory of Lighthill and Whitham, and Richards, and it studies the flow-concentration phase transitions in flow containing both shock and rarefaction waves. A homogeneous road with finite length was modeled by both theories. Numerical simulations show that both theories yield nearly identical results for two representative Riemann problems--one has a shock solution and the other a rarefaction wave solution. Their phase transition curves, however, are different: those derived from the new theory have two branches--one for acceleration flow and one for deceleration flow, whereas those derived from the LWR theory comprise a single curve--the equilibrium curve. The phase transition curves in the shock case agree well with certain experimental observations but disagree with others. This disagreement may be resolved by studying transitions among nonequilibrium states, which awaits further development of a more accurate finite difference approximation of the nonequilibrium theory.
Non-equilibrium many body dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Creutz, M.; Gyulassy, M.
1997-09-22
This Riken BNL Research Center Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Many Body Physics was held on September 23-25, 1997 as part of the official opening ceremony of the Center at Brookhaven National Lab. A major objective of theoretical work at the center is to elaborate on the full spectrum of strong interaction physics based on QCD, including the physics of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking, the parton structure of hadrons and nuclei, and the phenomenology of ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions related to the up-coming experiments at RHIC. The opportunities and challenges of nuclear and particle physics in this area naturally involve aspects of the many body problem common to many other fields. The aim of this symposium was to find common theoretical threads in the area of non-equilibrium physics and modern transport theories. The program consisted of invited talks on a variety topics from the fields of atomic, condensed matter, plasma, astrophysics, cosmology, and chemistry, in addition to nuclear and particle physics. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the database for contributions to this workshop.
Chaviaropoulos, P. K.; Soerensen, N. N.; Hansen, M. O. L.; Nikolaou, I. G.; Aggelis, K. A.; Johansen, J.; Gaunaa, Mac; Hambraus, T.; Frhr. von Geyr, Heiko; Hirsch, Ch.; Shun, Kang; Voutsinas, S. G.; Tzabiras, G.; Perivolaris, Y.; Dyrmose, S. Z.
2003-10-01
The recent introduction of ever larger wind turbines poses new challenges with regard to understanding the mechanisms of unsteady flow-structure interaction. An important aspect of the problem is the aeroelastic stability of the wind turbine blades, especially in the case of combined flap/lead-lag vibrations in the stall regime. Given the limited experimental information available in this field, the use of CFD techniques and state-of-the-art viscous flow solvers provides an invaluable alternative towards the identification of the underlying physics and the development and validation of sound engineering-type aeroelastic models. Navier-Stokes-based aeroelastic stability analysis of individual blade sections subjected to combined pitch/flap or flap/lead-lag motion has been attempted by the present consortium in the framework of the concluded VISCEL JOR3-CT98-0208 Joule III project.
Accelerated Testing of UH-60 Viscous Bearings for Degraded Grease Fault
Dykas, Brian; Hood, Adrian; Krantz, Timothy; Klemmer, Marko
2015-01-01
An accelerated aging investigation of critical aviation bearings lubricated with MIL-PRF- 81322 grease was conducted to derive an understanding of the mechanisms of grease degradation and loss of lubrication over time. The current study focuses on UH-60 Black Hawk viscous damper bearings supporting the tail rotor driveshaft, which were subjected to more than 5800 hours of testing in a heated environment to accelerate the deterioration of the grease. The mechanism of grease degradation is a reduction in the oil/thickener ratio rather than the expected chemical degradation of grease constituents. Over the course of testing, vibration and temperature monitoring of bearings was conducted and trends for failing bearings are presented.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhou, Qiang; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Qu, Weilian
2010-01-01
Considering the coupling between the in-plane and out-of-plane vibration, the stochastic response of an inclined shallow cable with linear viscous dampers subjected to Gaussian white noise excitation is investigated in this paper. Selecting the static deflection shape due to a concentrated force...... together with the C-type Gram-Charlier expansion with a fourth-order closure are applied to obtain statistical moments, power spectral density and probabilistic density function of the cable response, whose availability is verified by Monte Carlo method. Taking a typical cable as an example, the influence...... of several factors, which include excitation level and direction as well as damper size, on the dynamic response of the cable is extensively investigated. It is found that the sum of mean square in-plane and out-of-plane displacement is primarily independent of the load direction when the excitation level...
Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) under non-equilibrium conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oberthur, R.C.
1984-01-01
The use of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) for the study of systems under non-equilibrium conditions is illustrated by three types of experiments in the field of polymer research: - the relaxation of a system from an initial non-equilibrium state towards equilibrium, - the cyclic or repetitive installation of a series of non-equilibrium states in a system, - the steady non-equilibrium state maintained by a constant dissipation of energy within the system. Characteristic times obtained in these experiments with SANS are compared with the times obtained from quasi-elastic neutron and light scattering, which yield information about the equilibrium dynamics of the system. The limits of SANS applied to non-equilibrium systems for the measurement of relaxation times at different length scales are shown and compared to the limits of quasielastic neutron and light scattering
Nonequilibrium shock-heated nitrogen flows using a rovibrational state-to-state method
Panesi, M.; Munafò, A.; Magin, T. E.; Jaffe, R. L.
2014-07-01
A rovibrational collisional model is developed to study the internal energy excitation and dissociation processes behind a strong shock wave in a nitrogen flow. The reaction rate coefficients are obtained from the ab initio database of the NASA Ames Research Center. The master equation is coupled with a one-dimensional flow solver to study the nonequilibrium phenomena encountered in the gas during a hyperbolic reentry into Earth's atmosphere. The analysis of the populations of the rovibrational levels demonstrates how rotational and vibrational relaxation proceed at the same rate. This contrasts with the common misconception that translational and rotational relaxation occur concurrently. A significant part of the relaxation process occurs in non-quasi-steady-state conditions. Exchange processes are found to have a significant impact on the relaxation of the gas, while predissociation has a negligible effect. The results obtained by means of the full rovibrational collisional model are used to assess the validity of reduced order models (vibrational collisional and multitemperature) which are based on the same kinetic database. It is found that thermalization and dissociation are drastically overestimated by the reduced order models. The reasons of the failure differ in the two cases. In the vibrational collisional model the overestimation of the dissociation is a consequence of the assumption of equilibrium between the rotational energy and the translational energy. The multitemperature model fails to predict the correct thermochemical relaxation due to the failure of the quasi-steady-state assumption, used to derive the phenomenological rate coefficient for dissociation.
Radio frequency energy coupling to high-pressure optically pumped nonequilibrium plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Plonjes, Elke; Palm, Peter; Lee, Wonchul; Lempert, Walter R.; Adamovich, Igor V.
2001-01-01
This article presents an experimental demonstration of a high-pressure unconditionally stable nonequilibrium molecular plasma sustained by a combination of a continuous wave CO laser and a sub-breakdown radio frequency (rf) electric field. The plasma is sustained in a CO/N 2 mixture containing trace amounts of NO or O 2 at pressures of P=0.4 - 1.2atm. The initial ionization of the gases is produced by an associative ionization mechanism in collisions of two CO molecules excited to high vibrational levels by resonance absorption of the CO laser radiation with subsequent vibration-vibration (V-V) pumping. Further vibrational excitation of both CO and N 2 is produced by free electrons heated by the applied rf field, which in turn produces additional ionization of these species by the associative ionization mechanism. In the present experiments, the reduced electric field, E/N, is sufficiently low to preclude field-induced electron impact ionization. Unconditional stability of the resultant cold molecular plasma is enabled by the negative feedback between gas heating and the associative ionization rate. Trace amounts of nitric oxide or oxygen added to the baseline CO/N 2 gas mixture considerably reduce the electron - ion dissociative recombination rate and thereby significantly increase the initial electron density. This allows triggering of the rf power coupling to the vibrational energy modes of the gas mixture. Vibrational level populations of CO and N 2 are monitored by infrared emission spectroscopy and spontaneous Raman spectroscopy. The experiments demonstrate that the use of a sub-breakdown rf field in addition to the CO laser allows an increase of the plasma volume by about an order of magnitude. Also, CO infrared emission spectra show that with the rf voltage turned on the number of vibrationally excited CO molecules along the line of sight increase by a factor of 3 - 7. Finally, spontaneous Raman spectra of N 2 show that with the rf voltage the vibrational
[Occupational standing vibration rate and vibrational diseases].
Karnaukh, N G; Vyshchipan, V F; Haumenko, B S
2003-12-01
Occupational standing vibration rate is proposed in evaluating a degree of impairment of an organism activity. It will allow more widely to introduce specification of quality and quantity in assessment of the development of vibrational disease. According out-patient and inpatient obtained data we have established criterial values of functional changes in accordance with accumulated occupational standing vibration rate. The nomogram was worked out for defining a risk of the development of vibrational disease in mine workers. This nomogram more objectively can help in diagnostics of the disease.
Kustova, E. V.; Savelev, A. S.; Kunova, O. V.
2018-05-01
Theoretical models for the vibrational state-resolved Zeldovich reaction are assessed by comparison with the results of quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) calculations. An error in the model of Aliat is corrected; the model is generalized taking into account NO vibrational states. The proposed model is fairly simple and can be easily implemented to the software for non-equilibrium flow modeling. It provides a good agreement with the QCT rate coefficients in the whole range of temperatures and reagent/product vibrational states. The developed models are tested in simulations of vibrational and chemical relaxation of air mixture behind a shock wave. The importance of accounting for excitated NO vibrational states and accurate prediction of Zeldovich reactions rates is shown.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He, Y B; Tang, X H
2016-01-01
In this paper, in order to extend the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) to deal with more nonlinear systems, a one-dimensional and five-velocity lattice Boltzmann scheme with an amending function for a family of the coupled viscous Burgers’ equation (CVBE) is proposed. With the Taylor and Chapman–Enskog expansion, a family of the CVBE is recovered correctly from the lattice Boltzmann equation through selecting the equilibrium distribution functions and amending functions properly. The method is applied to some test examples with an analytical solution. The results are compared with those obtained by the finite difference method (FDM); it is shown that the numerical solutions agree well with the analytical solutions and the errors obtained by the present method are smaller than the FDM. Furthermore, some problems without analytical solutions are numerically studied by the present method and the FDM. The results show that the numerical solutions of the LBM are in good agreement with those obtained by the FDM, which can validate the effectiveness and stability of the LBM. (paper: classical statistical mechanics, equilibrium and non-equilibrium)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peralta-Ramos, J., E-mail: jperalta@ift.unesp.b [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Doutor Bento Teobaldo Ferraz 271, Bloco II, 01140-070 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Nakwacki, M.S., E-mail: sole@iafe.uba.a [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-090 Sao Paulo (Brazil)
2011-02-01
We calculate the spectra of produced thermal photons in Au + Au collisions taking into account the nonequilibrium contribution to photon production due to finite shear viscosity. The evolution of the fireball is modeled by second-order as well as by divergence-type 2+1 dissipative hydrodynamics, both with an ideal equation of state and with one based on Lattice QCD that includes an analytical crossover. The spectrum calculated in the divergence-type theory is considerably enhanced with respect to the one calculated in the second-order theory, the difference being entirely due to differences in the viscous corrections to photon production. Our results show that the differences in hydrodynamic formalisms are an important source of uncertainty in the extraction of the value of {eta}/s from measured photon spectra. The uncertainty in the value of {eta}/s associated with different hydrodynamic models used to compute thermal photon spectra is larger than the one occurring in matching hadron elliptic flow to RHIC data.
Development of a Model Foamy Viscous Fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vial C.
2013-08-01
Full Text Available The objective is to develop a model viscous foamy fluid, i.e. below the very wet limit, the rheological and stability properties of which can be tuned. First, the method used for the preparation of foamy fluids is detailed, including process and formulation. Then, experimental results highlight that stable foamy fluids with a monomodal bubble size distribution can be prepared with a void fraction between 25% and 50% (v/v. Their viscoelastic properties under flow and low-strain oscillatory conditions are shown to result from the interplay between the formulation of the continuous phase, void fraction and bubble size. Their apparent viscosity can be described using the Cross equation and zero-shear Newtonian viscosity may be predicted by a Mooney equation up to a void fraction about 40%. The Cox-Merz and the Laun’s rules apply when the capillary number Ca is lower than 0.1. The upper limit of the zero-shear plateau region decreases when void fraction increases or bubble size decreases. In the shear-thinning region, shear stress varies with Ca1/2, as in wet foams with immobile surfaces. Finally, foamy fluids can be sheared up to Ca about 0.1 without impairing their microstructure. Their stability at rest achieves several hours and increases with void fraction due to compact packing constraints. These constitute, therefore, versatile model fluids to investigate the behaviour of foamy fluids below the very wet limit in process conditions.
Viscous fingering of HCI through gastric mucin
Bhaskar, K. Ramakrishnan; Garik, Peter; Turner, Bradley S.; Bradley, James Douglas; Bansil, Rama; Stanley, H. Eugene; Lamont, J. Thomas
1992-12-01
THE HCI in the mammalian stomach is concentrated enough to digest the stomach itself, yet the gastric epithelium remains undamaged. One protective factor is gastric mucus, which forms a protective layer over the surface epithelium1-4 and acts as a diffusion barrier5,6 Bicarbonate ions secreted by the gastric epithelium7 are trapped in the mucus gel, establishing a gradient from pH 1-2 at the lumen to pH 6-7 at the cell surface8-10. How does HCI, secreted at the base of gastric glands by parietal cells, traverse the mucus layer without acidifying it? Here we demonstrate that injection of HCI through solutions of pig gastric mucin produces viscous fingering patterns11-18 dependent on pH, mucin concentration and acid flow rate. Above pH 4, discrete fingers are observed, whereas below pH 4, HCI neither penetrates the mucin solution nor forms fingers. Our in vitro results suggest that HCI secreted by the gastric gland can penetrate the mucus gel layer (pH 5-7) through narrow fingers, whereas HC1 in the lumen (pH 2) is prevented from diffusing back to the epithelium by the high viscosity of gastric mucus gel on the luminal side.
Scaling the viscous circular hydraulic jump
Argentina, Mederic; Cerda, Enrique; Duchesne, Alexis; Limat, Laurent
2017-11-01
The formation mechanism of hydraulic jumps has been proposed by Belanger in 1828 and rationalised by Lord Rayleigh in 1914. As the Froude number becomes higher than one, the flow super criticality induces an instability which yields the emergence of a steep structure at the fluid surface. Strongly deformed liquid-air interface can be observed as a jet of viscous fluid impinges a flat boundary at high enough velocity. In this experimental setup, the location of the jump depends on the viscosity of the liquid, as shown by T. Bohr et al. in 1997. In 2014, A. Duchesne et al. have established the constancy of the Froude number at jump. Hence, it remains a contradiction, in which the radial hydraulic jump location might be explained through inviscid theory, but is also viscosity dependent. We present a model based on the 2011 Rojas et al. PRL, which solves this paradox. The agreement with experimental measurements is excellent not only for the prediction of the position of the hydraulic jump, but also for the determination of the fluid thickness profile. We predict theoretically the critical value of the Froude number, which matches perfectly to that measured by Duchesne et al. We acknowledge the support of the CNRS and the Universit Cte d'Azur, through the IDEX funding.
Singular limits in thermodynamics of viscous fluids
Feireisl, Eduard
2017-01-01
This book is about singular limits of systems of partial differential equations governing the motion of thermally conducting compressible viscous fluids. "The main aim is to provide mathematically rigorous arguments how to get from the compressible Navier-Stokes-Fourier system several less complex systems of partial differential equations used e.g. in meteorology or astrophysics. However, the book contains also a detailed introduction to the modelling in mechanics and thermodynamics of fluids from the viewpoint of continuum physics. The book is very interesting and important. It can be recommended not only to specialists in the field, but it can also be used for doctoral students and young researches who want to start to work in the mathematical theory of compressible fluids and their asymptotic limits." Milan Pokorný (zbMATH) "This book is of the highest quality from every point of view. It presents, in a unified way, recent research material of fundament al importance. It is self-contained, thanks to Chapt...
Nonlinear waves in bipolar complex viscous astroclouds
Karmakar, P. K.; Haloi, A.
2017-05-01
A theoretical evolutionary model to analyze the dynamics of strongly nonlinear waves in inhomogeneous complex astrophysical viscous clouds on the gravito-electrostatic scales of space and time is procedurally set up. It compositionally consists of warm lighter electrons and ions (Boltzmanian); and cold massive bi-polar dust grains (inertial fluids) alongside vigorous neutral dynamics in quasi-neutral hydrodynamic equilibrium. Application of the Sagdeev pseudo-potential method reduces the inter-coupled structure equations into a pair of intermixed forced Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (f-KdVB) equations. The force-terms are self-consistently sourced by inhomogeneous gravito-electrostatic interplay. A numerical illustrative shape-analysis based on judicious astronomical parametric platform shows the electrostatic waves evolving as compressive dispersive shock-like eigen-modes. A unique transition from quasi-monotonic to non-monotonic oscillatory compressive shock-like patterns is found to exist. In contrast, the self-gravitational and effective perturbations grow purely as non-monotonic compressive oscillatory shock-like structures with no such transitory features. It is seen that the referral frame velocity acts as amplitude-reducing agent (stabilizing source) for the electrostatic fluctuations solely. A comparison in the prognostic light of various earlier satellite-based observations and in-situ measurements is presented. The paper ends up with synoptic highlights on the main implications and non-trivial applications in the interstellar space and cosmic plasma environments leading to bounded structure formation.
Yoshimura, Shinji; Kasahara, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi
2017-10-01
Medical applications of non-equilibrium atmospheric plasmas have recently been attracting a great deal of attention, where many types of plasma sources have been developed to meet the purposes. For example, plasma-activated medium (PAM), which is now being studied for cancer treatment, has been produced by irradiating non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma with ultrahigh electron density to a culture medium. Meanwhile, in order to measure electron density in magnetic confinement plasmas, a CO2 laser dispersion interferometer has been developed and installed on the Large Helical Device (LHD) at the National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan. The dispersion interferometer has advantages that the measurement is insensitive to mechanical vibrations and changes in neutral gas density. Taking advantage of these properties, we applied the dispersion interferometer to electron density diagnostics of atmospheric pressure plasmas produced by the NU-Global HUMAP-WSAP-50 device, which is used for producing PAM. This study was supported by the Grant of Joint Research by the National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS).
A tightly coupled non-equilibrium model for inductively coupled radio-frequency plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Munafò, A.; Alfuhaid, S. A.; Panesi, M.; Cambier, J.-L.
2015-01-01
The objective of the present work is the development of a tightly coupled magneto-hydrodynamic model for inductively coupled radio-frequency plasmas. Non Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (NLTE) effects are described based on a hybrid State-to-State approach. A multi-temperature formulation is used to account for thermal non-equilibrium between translation of heavy-particles and vibration of molecules. Excited electronic states of atoms are instead treated as separate pseudo-species, allowing for non-Boltzmann distributions of their populations. Free-electrons are assumed Maxwellian at their own temperature. The governing equations for the electro-magnetic field and the gas properties (e.g., chemical composition and temperatures) are written as a coupled system of time-dependent conservation laws. Steady-state solutions are obtained by means of an implicit Finite Volume method. The results obtained in both LTE and NLTE conditions over a broad spectrum of operating conditions demonstrate the robustness of the proposed coupled numerical method. The analysis of chemical composition and temperature distributions along the torch radius shows that: (i) the use of the LTE assumption may lead to an inaccurate prediction of the thermo-chemical state of the gas, and (ii) non-equilibrium phenomena play a significant role close the walls, due to the combined effects of Ohmic heating and macroscopic gradients
Picosecond dissociation of amyloid fibrils with infrared laser: A nonequilibrium simulation study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoang Viet, Man; Roland, Christopher, E-mail: cmroland@ncsu.edu; Sagui, Celeste, E-mail: sagui@ncsu.edu [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-8202 (United States); Derreumaux, Philippe; Nguyen, Phuong H., E-mail: phuong.nguyen@ibpc.fr [Laboratoire de Biochimie Théorique, UPR 9080, CNRS Université Denis Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité IBPC, 13 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Li, Mai Suan [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Institute for Computational Science and Technology, SBI Building, Quang Trung Software City, Tan Chanh Hiep Ward, District 12, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)
2015-10-21
Recently, mid-infrared free-electron laser technology has been developed to dissociate amyloid fibrils. Here, we present a theoretical framework for this type of experiment based on laser-induced nonequilibrium all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. We show that the fibril is destroyed due to the strong resonance between its amide I vibrational modes and the laser field. The effects of laser irradiation are determined by a balance between fibril formation and dissociation. While the overall rearrangements of the fibril finish over short time scales, the interaction between the peptides and the solvent continues over much longer times indicating that the waters play an important role in the dissociation process. Our results thus provide new insights into amyloid fibril dissociation by laser techniques and open up new venues to investigate the complex phenomena associated with amyloidogenesis.
Nonequilibrium Quantum Phase Transition in a Hybrid Atom-Optomechanical System
Mann, Niklas; Bakhtiari, M. Reza; Pelster, Axel; Thorwart, Michael
2018-02-01
We consider a hybrid quantum many-body system formed by a vibrational mode of a nanomembrane, which interacts optomechanically with light in a cavity, and an ultracold atom gas in the optical lattice of the out-coupled light. The adiabatic elimination of the light field yields an effective Hamiltonian which reveals a competition between the force localizing the atoms and the membrane displacement. At a critical atom-membrane interaction, we find a nonequilibrium quantum phase transition from a localized symmetric state of the atom cloud to a shifted symmetry-broken state, the energy of the lowest collective excitation vanishes, and a strong atom-membrane entanglement arises. The effect occurs when the atoms and the membrane are nonresonantly coupled.
The effect of inertia, viscous damping, temperature and normal ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Nitish Sinha
2018-04-16
Apr 16, 2018 ... physical parameters such as inertia, viscous damping, temperature and normal stress on the chaotic ... However, the present study has shown the appearance of chaos for the specific .... Although chaos is a general man-.
Mechanical lifter for recovering highly viscous oil and bitumens
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rakhmanov, R N; Akhunov, A M; Asfandiyarov, Kh A; Maksutov, R A
1982-01-01
A mechanical lifter is described for recovering highly viscous oil and bitumens. The lifter differs from the known and has significant advantages over them. The lifter was made and tested on a stand well.
Highly-viscous microjet induced by an impact
Onuki, Hajime; Tagawa, Yoshiyuki
2017-11-01
Ejection of a liquid microjet with high viscosity is essential for various novel technologies such as 3D printers, printed electronics and bio printers. To generate such a microjet, we focus on utilizing an impulsive force. Thanks to a short-time impact, the viscous dissipation in the liquid can be suppressed, resulting in the ejection of viscous microjets. In this study, we investigate ejection mechanism of the viscous jet experimentally and numerically. The jet velocity decreases with increasing the viscosity of a liquid. Remarkably it is found that all the data of jet velocities normalized by initial velocities of the liquid as a function of Reynolds number, the balance between the inertia force and the viscous force, collapse onto a single master curve.
Effect of viscous dissipation and radiation in an annular cone
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmed, N. J. Salman; Kamangar, Sarfaraz; Khan, T. M. Yunus; Azeem
2016-01-01
The viscous dissipation is an effect due to which heat is generated inside the medium. The presence of radiation further complicates the heat transfer behavior inside porous medium. The present paper discusses the combined effect of viscous dissipation and radiation inside a porous medium confined in an annular cone with inner radius r_i. The viscous dissipation and radiation terms are included in the energy equation thereby solving the coupled momentum and energy equations with the help of finite element method. The results are presented in terms of isothermal and streamline indicating the thermal and fluid flow behavior of porous medium. It is found that the combination of viscous dissipation and radiation parameter and the cone angle has significant effect on the heat transfer and fluid flow behavior inside the porous medium. The fluid velocity is found to increase with the increase in Raleigh number
Effect of viscous dissipation and radiation in an annular cone
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahmed, N. J. Salman; Kamangar, Sarfaraz [Centre for Energy Sciences, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603 Malaysia (Malaysia); Khan, T. M. Yunus, E-mail: yunus.tatagar@gmail.com [Centre for Energy Sciences, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603 Malaysia (Malaysia); Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, BVB College of Engineering & Technology, Hubli (India); Azeem [Dept. of Computer System & Technology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)
2016-06-21
The viscous dissipation is an effect due to which heat is generated inside the medium. The presence of radiation further complicates the heat transfer behavior inside porous medium. The present paper discusses the combined effect of viscous dissipation and radiation inside a porous medium confined in an annular cone with inner radius r{sub i}. The viscous dissipation and radiation terms are included in the energy equation thereby solving the coupled momentum and energy equations with the help of finite element method. The results are presented in terms of isothermal and streamline indicating the thermal and fluid flow behavior of porous medium. It is found that the combination of viscous dissipation and radiation parameter and the cone angle has significant effect on the heat transfer and fluid flow behavior inside the porous medium. The fluid velocity is found to increase with the increase in Raleigh number.
Beecher, L. C.; Williams, F. T.
1970-01-01
Gas-driven vibration exciter produces a sinusoidal excitation function controllable in frequency and in amplitude. It allows direct vibration testing of components under normal loads, removing the possibility of component damage due to high static pressure.
Thermal Nonequilibrium in Hypersonic Separated Flow
2014-12-22
and rotational temperature of nitric oxide and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) point measurements of rotational and vibrational...temperature T∞ [K] 590 165 freestream density ρ∞ [kg/m3] 0.0020 0.0060 freestream velocity u∞ [m/s] 4550 2500 Figure 7 shows the nozzle reservoir
Viscous damping of toroidal angular momentum in tokamaks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stacey, W. M. [Georgia Tech Fusion Research Center, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)
2014-09-15
The Braginskii viscous stress tensor formalism was generalized to accommodate non-axisymmetric 3D magnetic fields in general toroidal flux surface geometry in order to provide a representation for the viscous damping of toroidal rotation in tokamaks arising from various “neoclassical toroidal viscosity” mechanisms. In the process, it was verified that the parallel viscosity contribution to damping toroidal angular momentum still vanishes even in the presence of toroidal asymmetries, unless there are 3D radial magnetic fields.
Non-equilibrium effects in the plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Einfeld, D.
1975-01-01
Radial dependences of non-equilibrium effects of a He plasma were studied in a wall-stabilized short-time discharge. The electron density (nsub(e) = 2.5 x 10 22 m -3 ), the electron temperature and the equilibrium shift were determined by calculations of the continuum beam density and the beam densities of one He-I and one He-II line, respectively. In the discharge axis, the overpopulation factors of the ground state of He-I and He-II are about 75. As the distance to the axis increases, they increase for He-I and decrease for He-II. Except for the usual errors of measurement, the overpopulation factors found here correspond to those calculated from the balance equations (Drawin). (orig./AK) [de
Non-equilibrium in flowing atmospheric plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haas, J.C.M. de.
1986-01-01
This thesis deals with the fundamental aspects of two different plasmas applied in technological processes. The first one is the cesium seeded argon plasma in a closed cycle Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator, the second is the thermal argon plasma in a cascade arc with an imposed flow. In Chapter 2 the influence of non-equilibrium on the mass and energy balances of a plasma is worked out. The general theory presented there can be applied to both the plasma in an MHD generator and to the cascade arc with imposed flow. Introductions to these plasmas are given in the Chapters 3 and 6 respectively. These chapters are both followed by two chapters which treat the theoretical and the experimental investigations. The results are summarized in Chapter 9. (Auth.)
Landau superfluids as nonequilibrium stationary states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wreszinski, Walter F.
2015-01-01
We define a superfluid state to be a nonequilibrium stationary state (NESS), which, at zero temperature, satisfies certain metastability conditions, which physically express that there should be a sufficiently small energy-momentum transfer between the particles of the fluid and the surroundings (e.g., pipe). It is shown that two models, the Girardeau model and the Huang-Yang-Luttinger (HYL) model, describe superfluids in this sense and, moreover, that, in the case of the HYL model, the metastability condition is directly related to Nozières’ conjecture that, due to the repulsive interaction, the condensate does not suffer fragmentation into two (or more) parts, thereby assuring its quantum coherence. The models are rigorous examples of NESS in which the system is not finite, but rather a many-body system
Non-equilibrium quantum heat machines
Alicki, Robert; Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, David
2015-11-01
Standard heat machines (engine, heat pump, refrigerator) are composed of a system (working fluid) coupled to at least two equilibrium baths at different temperatures and periodically driven by an external device (piston or rotor) sometimes called the work reservoir. The aim of this paper is to go beyond this scheme by considering environments which are stationary but cannot be decomposed into a few baths at thermal equilibrium. Such situations are important, for example in solar cells, chemical machines in biology, various realizations of laser cooling or nanoscopic machines driven by laser radiation. We classify non-equilibrium baths depending on their thermodynamic behavior and show that the efficiency of heat machines powered by them is limited by the generalized Carnot bound.
Nonequilibrium work relation in a macroscopic system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sughiyama, Yuki; Ohzeki, Masayuki
2013-01-01
We reconsider a well-known relationship between the fluctuation theorem and the second law of thermodynamics by evaluating stochastic evolution of the density field (probability measure valued process). In order to establish a bridge between microscopic and macroscopic behaviors, we must take the thermodynamic limit of a stochastic dynamical system following the standard procedure in statistical mechanics. The thermodynamic path characterizing a dynamical behavior in the macroscopic scale can be formulated as an infimum of the action functional for the stochastic evolution of the density field. In our formulation, the second law of thermodynamics can be derived only by symmetry of the action functional without recourse to the Jarzynski equality. Our formulation leads to a nontrivial nonequilibrium work relation for metastable (quasi-stationary) states, which are peculiar in the macroscopic system. We propose a prescription for computing the free energy for metastable states based on the resultant work relation. (paper)
Nonequilibrium Chromosome Looping via Molecular Slip Links
Brackley, C. A.; Johnson, J.; Michieletto, D.; Morozov, A. N.; Nicodemi, M.; Cook, P. R.; Marenduzzo, D.
2017-09-01
We propose a model for the formation of chromatin loops based on the diffusive sliding of molecular slip links. These mimic the behavior of molecules like cohesin, which, along with the CTCF protein, stabilize loops which contribute to organizing the genome. By combining 3D Brownian dynamics simulations and 1D exactly solvable nonequilibrium models, we show that diffusive sliding is sufficient to account for the strong bias in favor of convergent CTCF-mediated chromosome loops observed experimentally. We also find that the diffusive motion of multiple slip links along chromatin is rectified by an intriguing ratchet effect that arises if slip links bind to the chromatin at a preferred "loading site." This emergent collective behavior favors the extrusion of loops which are much larger than the ones formed by single slip links.
Magnetic polarons in a nonequilibrium polariton condensate
Mietki, Paweł; Matuszewski, Michał
2017-09-01
We consider a condensate of exciton polaritons in a diluted magnetic semiconductor microcavity. Such a system may exhibit magnetic self-trapping in the case of sufficiently strong coupling between polaritons and magnetic ions embedded in the semiconductor. We investigate the effect of the nonequilibrium nature of exciton polaritons on the physics of the resulting self-trapped magnetic polarons. We find that multiple polarons can exist at the same time, and we derive a critical condition for self-trapping that is different from the one predicted previously in the equilibrium case. Using the Bogoliubov-de Gennes approximation, we calculate the excitation spectrum and provide a physical explanation in terms of the effective magnetic attraction between polaritons, mediated by the ion subsystem.
Anomalous properties of hot dense nonequilibrium plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferrante, G; Zarcone, M; Uryupin, S A
2005-01-01
A concise overview of a number of anomalous properties of hot dense nonequilibrium plasmas is given. The possibility of quasistationary megagauss magnetic field generation due to Weibel instability is discussed for plasmas created in atom tunnel ionization. The collisionless absorption and reflection of a test electromagnetic wave normally impinging on the plasma with two-temperature bi-maxwellian electron velocity distribution function are studied. Due to the wave magnetic field influence on the electron kinetics in the skin layer the wave absorption and reflection significantly depend on the degree of the electron temperature anisotropy. The linearly polarized impinging wave during reflection transforms into an elliptically polarized one. The problem of transmission of an ultrashort laser pulse through a layer of dense plasma, formed as a result of ionization of a thin foil, is considered. It is shown that the strong photoelectron distribution anisotropy yields an anomalous penetration of the wave field through the foil
Non-equilibrium quantum heat machines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alicki, Robert; Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, David
2015-01-01
Standard heat machines (engine, heat pump, refrigerator) are composed of a system (working fluid) coupled to at least two equilibrium baths at different temperatures and periodically driven by an external device (piston or rotor) sometimes called the work reservoir. The aim of this paper is to go beyond this scheme by considering environments which are stationary but cannot be decomposed into a few baths at thermal equilibrium. Such situations are important, for example in solar cells, chemical machines in biology, various realizations of laser cooling or nanoscopic machines driven by laser radiation. We classify non-equilibrium baths depending on their thermodynamic behavior and show that the efficiency of heat machines powered by them is limited by the generalized Carnot bound. (paper)
MMS two-phase nonequilibrium pressurizer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oh, S.J.; Sursock, J.P.
1987-01-01
The pressurizer of a nuclear steam supply system establishes and maintains the nuclear plant primary loop pressure within the prescribed limit. It is a vertical cylindrical vessel which provides a water reserve and a steam surge chamber to accommodate coolant density changes during operation. To adjust the pressure to a desired value, electric heaters are provided in its lower section and the spray nozzles are provided in its upper section. Also, to protect against the buildup of the excess pressure, the pressurizer has two different types of relief valves, i.e., power operated relief valve and the safety relief valve. The pressurizer model implemented to the MMS is described in detail. In particular, the handling of the nonequilibrium condition, surgeline CCFL (Counter-current Flooding Limitation), and the level tracking model are described in detail. Next, the simulation of the Shippingport pressurizer load drop test is reported
Stochastic approach to equilibrium and nonequilibrium thermodynamics.
Tomé, Tânia; de Oliveira, Mário J
2015-04-01
We develop the stochastic approach to thermodynamics based on stochastic dynamics, which can be discrete (master equation) and continuous (Fokker-Planck equation), and on two assumptions concerning entropy. The first is the definition of entropy itself and the second the definition of entropy production rate, which is non-negative and vanishes in thermodynamic equilibrium. Based on these assumptions, we study interacting systems with many degrees of freedom in equilibrium or out of thermodynamic equilibrium and how the macroscopic laws are derived from the stochastic dynamics. These studies include the quasiequilibrium processes; the convexity of the equilibrium surface; the monotonic time behavior of thermodynamic potentials, including entropy; the bilinear form of the entropy production rate; the Onsager coefficients and reciprocal relations; and the nonequilibrium steady states of chemical reactions.
Non-equilibrium synergistic effects in atmospheric pressure plasmas.
Guo, Heng; Zhang, Xiao-Ning; Chen, Jian; Li, He-Ping; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken
2018-03-19
Non-equilibrium is one of the important features of an atmospheric gas discharge plasma. It involves complicated physical-chemical processes and plays a key role in various actual plasma processing. In this report, a novel complete non-equilibrium model is developed to reveal the non-equilibrium synergistic effects for the atmospheric-pressure low-temperature plasmas (AP-LTPs). It combines a thermal-chemical non-equilibrium fluid model for the quasi-neutral plasma region and a simplified sheath model for the electrode sheath region. The free-burning argon arc is selected as a model system because both the electrical-thermal-chemical equilibrium and non-equilibrium regions are involved simultaneously in this arc plasma system. The modeling results indicate for the first time that it is the strong and synergistic interactions among the mass, momentum and energy transfer processes that determine the self-consistent non-equilibrium characteristics of the AP-LTPs. An energy transfer process related to the non-uniform spatial distributions of the electron-to-heavy-particle temperature ratio has also been discovered for the first time. It has a significant influence for self-consistently predicting the transition region between the "hot" and "cold" equilibrium regions of an AP-LTP system. The modeling results would provide an instructive guidance for predicting and possibly controlling the non-equilibrium particle-energy transportation process in various AP-LTPs in future.
Nanoscale hotspots due to nonequilibrium thermal transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sinha, Sanjiv; Goodson, Kenneth E.
2004-01-01
Recent experimental and modeling efforts have been directed towards the issue of temperature localization and hotspot formation in the vicinity of nanoscale heat generating devices. The nonequilibrium transport conditions which develop around these nanoscale devices results in elevated temperatures near the heat source which can not be predicted by continuum diffusion theory. Efforts to determine the severity of this temperature localization phenomena in silicon devices near and above room temperature are of technological importance to the development of microelectronics and other nanotechnologies. In this work, we have developed a new modeling tool in order to explore the magnitude of the additional thermal resistance which forms around nanoscale hotspots from temperatures of 100-1000K. The models are based on a two fluid approximation in which thermal energy is transferred between ''stationary'' optical phonons and fast propagating acoustic phonon modes. The results of the model have shown excellent agreement with experimental results of localized hotspots in silicon at lower temperatures. The model predicts that the effect of added thermal resistance due to the nonequilibrium phonon distribution is greatest at lower temperatures, but is maintained out to temperatures of 1000K. The resistance predicted by the numerical code can be easily integrated with continuum models in order to predict the temperature distribution around nanoscale heat sources with improved accuracy. Additional research efforts also focused on the measurements of the thermal resistance of silicon thin films at higher temperatures, with a focus on polycrystalline silicon. This work was intended to provide much needed experimental data on the thermal transport properties for micro and nanoscale devices built with this material. Initial experiments have shown that the exposure of polycrystalline silicon to high temperatures may induce recrystallization and radically increase the thermal
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We make music by causing strings, membranes, or air columns to vibrate. Engineers design safe structures by control- ling vibrations. I will describe to you a very simple vibrating system and the mathematics needed to analyse it. The ideas were born in the work of Joseph-Louis Lagrange (1736–1813), and I begin by quot-.
Simulation of free airfoil vibrations in incompressible viscous flow – comparison of FEM and FVM
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Sváček, P.; Horáček, Jaromír; Honzátko, R.; Kozel, K.
2012-01-01
Roč. 52, č. 6 (2012), s. 104-114 ISSN 1210-2709 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/11/0207 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : laminar flow * finite volume method * finite element method * arbitrary Lagrangian -Eulerian method * nonlinear aeroelasticity Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics
Marti, Sina; Stünitz, Holger; Heilbronner, Renée; Plümper, Oliver; Drury, Martyn
2017-12-01
Rock deformation experiments are performed on fault gouge fabricated from 'Maryland Diabase' rock powder to investigate the transition from dominant brittle to dominant viscous behaviour. At the imposed strain rates of γ˙ = 3 ·10-5 - 3 ·10-6 s-1, the transition is observed in the temperature range of (600 °C < T < 800 °C) at confining pressures of (0.5 GPa ≤ Pc ≤ 1.5 GPa). The transition thereby takes place by a switch from brittle fracturing and cataclastic flow to viscous dissolution-precipitation creep and grain boundary sliding. Mineral reactions and resulting grain size refinement by nucleation are observed to be critical processes for the switch to viscous deformation, i.e., grain size sensitive creep. In the transitional regime, the mechanical response of the sample is a mixed-mode between brittle and viscous rheology and microstructures associated with both brittle and viscous deformation are observed. As grain size reduction by reaction and nucleation is a time dependent process, the brittle-viscous transition is not only a function of T but to a large extent also of microstructural evolution.
General multi-group macroscopic modeling for thermo-chemical non-equilibrium gas mixtures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Yen, E-mail: yen.liu@nasa.gov; Vinokur, Marcel [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California 94035 (United States); Panesi, Marco; Sahai, Amal [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 61801 (United States)
2015-04-07
This paper opens a new door to macroscopic modeling for thermal and chemical non-equilibrium. In a game-changing approach, we discard conventional theories and practices stemming from the separation of internal energy modes and the Landau-Teller relaxation equation. Instead, we solve the fundamental microscopic equations in their moment forms but seek only optimum representations for the microscopic state distribution function that provides converged and time accurate solutions for certain macroscopic quantities at all times. The modeling makes no ad hoc assumptions or simplifications at the microscopic level and includes all possible collisional and radiative processes; it therefore retains all non-equilibrium fluid physics. We formulate the thermal and chemical non-equilibrium macroscopic equations and rate coefficients in a coupled and unified fashion for gases undergoing completely general transitions. All collisional partners can have internal structures and can change their internal energy states after transitions. The model is based on the reconstruction of the state distribution function. The internal energy space is subdivided into multiple groups in order to better describe non-equilibrium state distributions. The logarithm of the distribution function in each group is expressed as a power series in internal energy based on the maximum entropy principle. The method of weighted residuals is applied to the microscopic equations to obtain macroscopic moment equations and rate coefficients succinctly to any order. The model’s accuracy depends only on the assumed expression of the state distribution function and the number of groups used and can be self-checked for accuracy and convergence. We show that the macroscopic internal energy transfer, similar to mass and momentum transfers, occurs through nonlinear collisional processes and is not a simple relaxation process described by, e.g., the Landau-Teller equation. Unlike the classical vibrational energy
General multi-group macroscopic modeling for thermo-chemical non-equilibrium gas mixtures
Liu, Yen; Panesi, Marco; Sahai, Amal; Vinokur, Marcel
2015-04-01
This paper opens a new door to macroscopic modeling for thermal and chemical non-equilibrium. In a game-changing approach, we discard conventional theories and practices stemming from the separation of internal energy modes and the Landau-Teller relaxation equation. Instead, we solve the fundamental microscopic equations in their moment forms but seek only optimum representations for the microscopic state distribution function that provides converged and time accurate solutions for certain macroscopic quantities at all times. The modeling makes no ad hoc assumptions or simplifications at the microscopic level and includes all possible collisional and radiative processes; it therefore retains all non-equilibrium fluid physics. We formulate the thermal and chemical non-equilibrium macroscopic equations and rate coefficients in a coupled and unified fashion for gases undergoing completely general transitions. All collisional partners can have internal structures and can change their internal energy states after transitions. The model is based on the reconstruction of the state distribution function. The internal energy space is subdivided into multiple groups in order to better describe non-equilibrium state distributions. The logarithm of the distribution function in each group is expressed as a power series in internal energy based on the maximum entropy principle. The method of weighted residuals is applied to the microscopic equations to obtain macroscopic moment equations and rate coefficients succinctly to any order. The model's accuracy depends only on the assumed expression of the state distribution function and the number of groups used and can be self-checked for accuracy and convergence. We show that the macroscopic internal energy transfer, similar to mass and momentum transfers, occurs through nonlinear collisional processes and is not a simple relaxation process described by, e.g., the Landau-Teller equation. Unlike the classical vibrational energy
General multi-group macroscopic modeling for thermo-chemical non-equilibrium gas mixtures.
Liu, Yen; Panesi, Marco; Sahai, Amal; Vinokur, Marcel
2015-04-07
This paper opens a new door to macroscopic modeling for thermal and chemical non-equilibrium. In a game-changing approach, we discard conventional theories and practices stemming from the separation of internal energy modes and the Landau-Teller relaxation equation. Instead, we solve the fundamental microscopic equations in their moment forms but seek only optimum representations for the microscopic state distribution function that provides converged and time accurate solutions for certain macroscopic quantities at all times. The modeling makes no ad hoc assumptions or simplifications at the microscopic level and includes all possible collisional and radiative processes; it therefore retains all non-equilibrium fluid physics. We formulate the thermal and chemical non-equilibrium macroscopic equations and rate coefficients in a coupled and unified fashion for gases undergoing completely general transitions. All collisional partners can have internal structures and can change their internal energy states after transitions. The model is based on the reconstruction of the state distribution function. The internal energy space is subdivided into multiple groups in order to better describe non-equilibrium state distributions. The logarithm of the distribution function in each group is expressed as a power series in internal energy based on the maximum entropy principle. The method of weighted residuals is applied to the microscopic equations to obtain macroscopic moment equations and rate coefficients succinctly to any order. The model's accuracy depends only on the assumed expression of the state distribution function and the number of groups used and can be self-checked for accuracy and convergence. We show that the macroscopic internal energy transfer, similar to mass and momentum transfers, occurs through nonlinear collisional processes and is not a simple relaxation process described by, e.g., the Landau-Teller equation. Unlike the classical vibrational energy
General multi-group macroscopic modeling for thermo-chemical non-equilibrium gas mixtures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Yen; Vinokur, Marcel; Panesi, Marco; Sahai, Amal
2015-01-01
This paper opens a new door to macroscopic modeling for thermal and chemical non-equilibrium. In a game-changing approach, we discard conventional theories and practices stemming from the separation of internal energy modes and the Landau-Teller relaxation equation. Instead, we solve the fundamental microscopic equations in their moment forms but seek only optimum representations for the microscopic state distribution function that provides converged and time accurate solutions for certain macroscopic quantities at all times. The modeling makes no ad hoc assumptions or simplifications at the microscopic level and includes all possible collisional and radiative processes; it therefore retains all non-equilibrium fluid physics. We formulate the thermal and chemical non-equilibrium macroscopic equations and rate coefficients in a coupled and unified fashion for gases undergoing completely general transitions. All collisional partners can have internal structures and can change their internal energy states after transitions. The model is based on the reconstruction of the state distribution function. The internal energy space is subdivided into multiple groups in order to better describe non-equilibrium state distributions. The logarithm of the distribution function in each group is expressed as a power series in internal energy based on the maximum entropy principle. The method of weighted residuals is applied to the microscopic equations to obtain macroscopic moment equations and rate coefficients succinctly to any order. The model’s accuracy depends only on the assumed expression of the state distribution function and the number of groups used and can be self-checked for accuracy and convergence. We show that the macroscopic internal energy transfer, similar to mass and momentum transfers, occurs through nonlinear collisional processes and is not a simple relaxation process described by, e.g., the Landau-Teller equation. Unlike the classical vibrational energy
Vibration of hydraulic machinery
Wu, Yulin; Liu, Shuhong; Dou, Hua-Shu; Qian, Zhongdong
2013-01-01
Vibration of Hydraulic Machinery deals with the vibration problem which has significant influence on the safety and reliable operation of hydraulic machinery. It provides new achievements and the latest developments in these areas, even in the basic areas of this subject. The present book covers the fundamentals of mechanical vibration and rotordynamics as well as their main numerical models and analysis methods for the vibration prediction. The mechanical and hydraulic excitations to the vibration are analyzed, and the pressure fluctuations induced by the unsteady turbulent flow is predicted in order to obtain the unsteady loads. This book also discusses the loads, constraint conditions and the elastic and damping characters of the mechanical system, the structure dynamic analysis, the rotor dynamic analysis and the system instability of hydraulic machines, including the illustration of monitoring system for the instability and the vibration in hydraulic units. All the problems are necessary for vibration pr...
Hewitt, Sue; Dong, Ren G; Welcome, Daniel E; McDowell, Thomas W
2015-03-01
For exposure to hand-transmitted vibration (HTV), personal protective equipment is sold in the form of anti-vibration (AV) gloves, but it remains unclear how much these gloves actually reduce vibration exposure or prevent the development of hand-arm vibration syndrome in the workplace. This commentary describes some of the issues that surround the classification of AV gloves, the assessment of their effectiveness and their applicability in the workplace. The available information shows that AV gloves are unreliable as devices for controlling HTV exposures. Other means of vibration control, such as using alternative production techniques, low-vibration machinery, routine preventative maintenance regimes, and controlling exposure durations are far more likely to deliver effective vibration reductions and should be implemented. Furthermore, AV gloves may introduce some adverse effects such as increasing grip force and reducing manual dexterity. Therefore, one should balance the benefits of AV gloves and their potential adverse effects if their use is considered. © Crown copyright 2014.
Rate of tunneling nonequilibrium quasiparticles in superconducting qubits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ansari, Mohammad H
2015-01-01
In superconducting qubits the lifetime of quantum states cannot be prolonged arbitrarily by decreasing temperature. At low temperature quasiparticles tunneling between the electromagnetic environment and superconducting islands takes the condensate state out of equilibrium due to charge imbalance. We obtain the tunneling rate from a phenomenological model of non-equilibrium, where nonequilibrium quasiparticle tunnelling stimulates a temperature-dependent chemical potential shift in the superconductor. As a result we obtain a non-monotonic behavior for relaxation rate as a function of temperature. Depending on the fabrication parameters for some qubits, the lowest tunneling rate of nonequilibrium quasiparticles can take place only near the onset temperature below which nonequilibrium quasiparticles dominate over equilibrium one. Our theory also indicates that such tunnelings can influence the probability of transitions in qubits through a coupling to the zero-point energy of phase fluctuations. (paper)
Nonequilibrium electron transport through quantum dots in the Kondo regime
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wölfle, Peter; Paaske, Jens; Rosch, Achim
2005-01-01
Electron transport at large bias voltage through quantum dots in the Kondo regime is described within the perturbative renormalization group extended to nonequilibrium. The conductance, local magnetization, dynamical spin susceptibility and local spectral function are calculated. We show how...
Nonequilibrium constitutive models for RELAP5/MOD2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, J.C.; Trapp, J.A.; Riemke, R.A.; Ransom, V.H.
1983-01-01
RELAP5/MOD2 is a new version of RELAP5 containing improved modeling features that provide a generic pressurized-water transient simulation capability. In particular, the nonequilibrium modeling capability has been generalized to include conditions that occur in operational transients including repressurization and emergency-feed-water injection with loss-of-coolant accidents. The improvements include addition of a second energy equation to the hydrodynamic model, addition of nonequilibrium heat-transfer models, and the associated nonequilibrium vapor-generation models. The objective of this paper is to describe these models and to report the developmental assessment results obtained from similar of several separate effects experiments. The assessment shows that RELAP5 calculated results are in good agreement with data and the nonequilibrium phenomena are properly modeled
Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics of Self-Replicating Protocells
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fellermann, Harold; Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Hansen, Per Lyngs
2018-01-01
We provide a non-equilibrium thermodynamic description of the life-cycle of a droplet based, chemically feasible, system of protocells. By coupling the protocells metabolic kinetics with its thermodynamics, we demonstrate how the system can be driven out of equilibrium to ensure protocell growth...... and replication. This coupling allows us to derive the equations of evolution and to rigorously demonstrate how growth and replication life-cycle can be understood as a non-equilibrium thermodynamic cycle. The process does not appeal to genetic information or inheritance, and is based only on non......-equilibrium physics considerations. Our non-equilibrium thermodynamic description of simple, yet realistic, processes of protocell growth and replication, represents an advance in our physical understanding of a central biological phenomenon both in connection to the origin of life and for modern biology....
Equilibrium and non-equilibrium phenomena in arcs and torches
Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.
2000-01-01
A general treatment of non-equilibrium plasma aspects is obtained by relating transport fluxes to equilibrium restoring processes in so-called disturbed Bilateral Relations. The (non) equilibrium stage of a small microwave induced plasma serves as case study.
Electrolytes: transport properties and non-equilibrium thermodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, D.G.
1980-12-01
This paper presents a review on the application of non-equilibrium thermodynamics to transport in electrolyte solutions, and some recent experimental work and results for mutual diffusion in electrolyte solutions
Foundations of atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasmas
Bruggeman, Peter J.; Iza, Felipe; Brandenburg, Ronny
2017-12-01
Non-equilibrium plasmas have been intensively studied over the past century in the context of material processing, environmental remediation, ozone generation, excimer lamps and plasma display panels. Research on atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasmas intensified over the last two decades leading to a large variety of plasma sources that have been developed for an extended application range including chemical conversion, medicine, chemical analysis and disinfection. The fundamental understanding of these discharges is emerging but there remain a lot of unexplained phenomena in these intrinsically complex plasmas. The properties of non-equilibrium plasmas at atmospheric pressure span over a huge range of electron densities as well as heavy particle and electron temperatures. This paper provides an overview of the key underlying processes that are important for the generation and stabilization of atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasmas. The unique physical and chemical properties of theses discharges are also summarized.
Some recent developments in non-equilibrium statistical physics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
: ... This canonical prescription is the starting point for studying a system in ... abilistic approach to non-equilibrium dynamics by treating the case of Markovian ..... equation in this network between the incoming flux and the outgoing flux at each.
Comparison of Nonequilibrium Solution Algorithms Applied to Chemically Stiff Hypersonic Flows
Palmer, Grant; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj
1995-01-01
Three solution algorithms, explicit under-relaxation, point implicit, and lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel, are used to compute nonequilibrium flow around the Apollo 4 return capsule at the 62-km altitude point in its descent trajectory. By varying the Mach number, the efficiency and robustness of the solution algorithms were tested for different levels of chemical stiffness.The performance of the solution algorithms degraded as the Mach number and stiffness of the flow increased. At Mach 15 and 30, the lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel method produces an eight order of magnitude drop in the energy residual in one-third to one-half the Cray C-90 computer time as compared to the point implicit and explicit under-relaxation methods. The explicit under-relaxation algorithm experienced convergence difficulties at Mach 30 and above. At Mach 40 the performance of the lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel algorithm deteriorates to the point that it is out performed by the point implicit method. The effects of the viscous terms are investigated. Grid dependency questions are explored.
Lattice ellipsoidal statistical BGK model for thermal non-equilibrium flows
Meng, Jianping; Zhang, Yonghao; Hadjiconstantinou, Nicolas G.; Radtke, Gregg A.; Shan, Xiaowen
2013-03-01
A thermal lattice Boltzmann model is constructed on the basis of the ellipsoidal statistical Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (ES-BGK) collision operator via the Hermite moment representation. The resulting lattice ES-BGK model uses a single distribution function and features an adjustable Prandtl number. Numerical simulations show that using a moderate discrete velocity set, this model can accurately recover steady and transient solutions of the ES-BGK equation in the slip-flow and early transition regimes in the small Mach number limit that is typical of microscale problems of practical interest. In the transition regime in particular, comparisons with numerical solutions of the ES-BGK model, direct Monte Carlo and low-variance deviational Monte Carlo simulations show good accuracy for values of the Knudsen number up to approximately 0.5. On the other hand, highly non-equilibrium phenomena characterized by high Mach numbers, such as viscous heating and force-driven Poiseuille flow for large values of the driving force, are more difficult to capture quantitatively in the transition regime using discretizations chosen with computational efficiency in mind such as the one used here, although improved accuracy is observed as the number of discrete velocities is increased.
Density-functional method for nonequilibrium electron transport
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brandbyge, Mads; Mozos, J.L.; Ordejon, P.
2002-01-01
the contact and the electrodes on the same footing. The effect of the finite bias (including self-consistency and the solution of the electrostatic problem) is taken into account using nonequilibrium Green's functions. We relate the nonequilibrium Green's function expressions to the more transparent scheme...... wires connected to aluminum electrodes with extended or finite cross section, (ii) single atom gold wires, and finally (iii) large carbon nanotube systems with point defects....
Non-equilibrium dynamics from RPMD and CMD.
Welsch, Ralph; Song, Kai; Shi, Qiang; Althorpe, Stuart C; Miller, Thomas F
2016-11-28
We investigate the calculation of approximate non-equilibrium quantum time correlation functions (TCFs) using two popular path-integral-based molecular dynamics methods, ring-polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) and centroid molecular dynamics (CMD). It is shown that for the cases of a sudden vertical excitation and an initial momentum impulse, both RPMD and CMD yield non-equilibrium TCFs for linear operators that are exact for high temperatures, in the t = 0 limit, and for harmonic potentials; the subset of these conditions that are preserved for non-equilibrium TCFs of non-linear operators is also discussed. Furthermore, it is shown that for these non-equilibrium initial conditions, both methods retain the connection to Matsubara dynamics that has previously been established for equilibrium initial conditions. Comparison of non-equilibrium TCFs from RPMD and CMD to Matsubara dynamics at short times reveals the orders in time to which the methods agree. Specifically, for the position-autocorrelation function associated with sudden vertical excitation, RPMD and CMD agree with Matsubara dynamics up to O(t 4 ) and O(t 1 ), respectively; for the position-autocorrelation function associated with an initial momentum impulse, RPMD and CMD agree with Matsubara dynamics up to O(t 5 ) and O(t 2 ), respectively. Numerical tests using model potentials for a wide range of non-equilibrium initial conditions show that RPMD and CMD yield non-equilibrium TCFs with an accuracy that is comparable to that for equilibrium TCFs. RPMD is also used to investigate excited-state proton transfer in a system-bath model, and it is compared to numerically exact calculations performed using a recently developed version of the Liouville space hierarchical equation of motion approach; again, similar accuracy is observed for non-equilibrium and equilibrium initial conditions.
Complex Dynamics in Nonequilibrium Economics and Chemistry
Wen, Kehong
Complex dynamics provides a new approach in dealing with economic complexity. We study interactively the empirical and theoretical aspects of business cycles. The way of exploring complexity is similar to that in the study of an oscillatory chemical system (BZ system)--a model for modeling complex behavior. We contribute in simulating qualitatively the complex periodic patterns observed from the controlled BZ experiments to narrow the gap between modeling and experiment. The gap between theory and reality is much wider in economics, which involves studies of human expectations and decisions, the essential difference from natural sciences. Our empirical and theoretical studies make substantial progress in closing this gap. With the help from the new development in nonequilibrium physics, i.e., the complex spectral theory, we advance our technique in detecting characteristic time scales from empirical economic data. We obtain correlation resonances, which give oscillating modes with decays for correlation decomposition, from different time series including S&P 500, M2, crude oil spot prices, and GNP. The time scales found are strikingly compatible with business experiences and other studies in business cycles. They reveal the non-Markovian nature of coherent markets. The resonances enhance the evidence of economic chaos obtained by using other tests. The evolving multi-humped distributions produced by the moving-time -window technique reveal the nonequilibrium nature of economic behavior. They reproduce the American economic history of booms and busts. The studies seem to provide a way out of the debate on chaos versus noise and unify the cyclical and stochastic approaches in explaining business fluctuations. Based on these findings and new expectation formulation, we construct a business cycle model which gives qualitatively compatible patterns to those found empirically. The soft-bouncing oscillator model provides a better alternative than the harmonic oscillator
Achieving Radiation Tolerance through Non-Equilibrium Grain Boundary Structures.
Vetterick, Gregory A; Gruber, Jacob; Suri, Pranav K; Baldwin, Jon K; Kirk, Marquis A; Baldo, Pete; Wang, Yong Q; Misra, Amit; Tucker, Garritt J; Taheri, Mitra L
2017-09-25
Many methods used to produce nanocrystalline (NC) materials leave behind non-equilibrium grain boundaries (GBs) containing excess free volume and higher energy than their equilibrium counterparts with identical 5 degrees of freedom. Since non-equilibrium GBs have increased amounts of both strain and free volume, these boundaries may act as more efficient sinks for the excess interstitials and vacancies produced in a material under irradiation as compared to equilibrium GBs. The relative sink strengths of equilibrium and non-equilibrium GBs were explored by comparing the behavior of annealed (equilibrium) and as-deposited (non-equilibrium) NC iron films on irradiation. These results were coupled with atomistic simulations to better reveal the underlying processes occurring on timescales too short to capture using in situ TEM. After irradiation, NC iron with non-equilibrium GBs contains both a smaller number density of defect clusters and a smaller average defect cluster size. Simulations showed that excess free volume contribute to a decreased survival rate of point defects in cascades occurring adjacent to the GB and that these boundaries undergo less dramatic changes in structure upon irradiation. These results suggest that non-equilibrium GBs act as more efficient sinks for defects and could be utilized to create more radiation tolerant materials in future.
Nonequilibrium landscape theory of neural networks.
Yan, Han; Zhao, Lei; Hu, Liang; Wang, Xidi; Wang, Erkang; Wang, Jin
2013-11-05
The brain map project aims to map out the neuron connections of the human brain. Even with all of the wirings mapped out, the global and physical understandings of the function and behavior are still challenging. Hopfield quantified the learning and memory process of symmetrically connected neural networks globally through equilibrium energy. The energy basins of attractions represent memories, and the memory retrieval dynamics is determined by the energy gradient. However, the realistic neural networks are asymmetrically connected, and oscillations cannot emerge from symmetric neural networks. Here, we developed a nonequilibrium landscape-flux theory for realistic asymmetrically connected neural networks. We uncovered the underlying potential landscape and the associated Lyapunov function for quantifying the global stability and function. We found the dynamics and oscillations in human brains responsible for cognitive processes and physiological rhythm regulations are determined not only by the landscape gradient but also by the flux. We found that the flux is closely related to the degrees of the asymmetric connections in neural networks and is the origin of the neural oscillations. The neural oscillation landscape shows a closed-ring attractor topology. The landscape gradient attracts the network down to the ring. The flux is responsible for coherent oscillations on the ring. We suggest the flux may provide the driving force for associations among memories. We applied our theory to rapid-eye movement sleep cycle. We identified the key regulation factors for function through global sensitivity analysis of landscape topography against wirings, which are in good agreements with experiments.
Nonequilibrium landscape theory of neural networks
Yan, Han; Zhao, Lei; Hu, Liang; Wang, Xidi; Wang, Erkang; Wang, Jin
2013-01-01
The brain map project aims to map out the neuron connections of the human brain. Even with all of the wirings mapped out, the global and physical understandings of the function and behavior are still challenging. Hopfield quantified the learning and memory process of symmetrically connected neural networks globally through equilibrium energy. The energy basins of attractions represent memories, and the memory retrieval dynamics is determined by the energy gradient. However, the realistic neural networks are asymmetrically connected, and oscillations cannot emerge from symmetric neural networks. Here, we developed a nonequilibrium landscape–flux theory for realistic asymmetrically connected neural networks. We uncovered the underlying potential landscape and the associated Lyapunov function for quantifying the global stability and function. We found the dynamics and oscillations in human brains responsible for cognitive processes and physiological rhythm regulations are determined not only by the landscape gradient but also by the flux. We found that the flux is closely related to the degrees of the asymmetric connections in neural networks and is the origin of the neural oscillations. The neural oscillation landscape shows a closed-ring attractor topology. The landscape gradient attracts the network down to the ring. The flux is responsible for coherent oscillations on the ring. We suggest the flux may provide the driving force for associations among memories. We applied our theory to rapid-eye movement sleep cycle. We identified the key regulation factors for function through global sensitivity analysis of landscape topography against wirings, which are in good agreements with experiments. PMID:24145451
Fluctuations When Driving Between Nonequilibrium Steady States
Riechers, Paul M.; Crutchfield, James P.
2017-08-01
Maintained by environmental fluxes, biological systems are thermodynamic processes that operate far from equilibrium without detailed-balanced dynamics. Yet, they often exhibit well defined nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). More importantly, critical thermodynamic functionality arises directly from transitions among their NESSs, driven by environmental switching. Here, we identify the constraints on excess heat and dissipated work necessary to control a system that is kept far from equilibrium by background, uncontrolled "housekeeping" forces. We do this by extending the Crooks fluctuation theorem to transitions among NESSs, without invoking an unphysical dual dynamics. This and corresponding integral fluctuation theorems determine how much work must be expended when controlling systems maintained far from equilibrium. This generalizes thermodynamic feedback control theory, showing that Maxwellian Demons can leverage mesoscopic-state information to take advantage of the excess energetics in NESS transitions. We also generalize an approach recently used to determine the work dissipated when driving between functionally relevant configurations of an active energy-consuming complex system. Altogether, these results highlight universal thermodynamic laws that apply to the accessible degrees of freedom within the effective dynamic at any emergent level of hierarchical organization. By way of illustration, we analyze a voltage-gated sodium ion channel whose molecular conformational dynamics play a critical functional role in propagating action potentials in mammalian neuronal membranes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Velikhov, E.P.; Golubev, V.S.; Dykhne, A.M.
1976-01-01
The paper assesses the position in 1975 of theoretical and experimental work on the physics of a magnetohydrodynamic generator with non-equilibrium plasma conductivity. This research started at the beginning of the 1960s; as work on the properties of thermally non-equilibrium plasma in magnetic fields and also in MHD generator ducts progressed, a number of phenomena were discovered and investigated that had either been unknown in plasma physics or had remained uninvestigated until that time: ionization instability and ionization turbulence of plasma in a magnetic field, acoustic instability of a plasma with anisotropic conductivity, the non-equilibrium ionization wave and the energy balance of a non-equilibrium plasma. At the same time, it was discovered what physical requirements an MHD generator with non-equilibrium conductivity must satisfy to achieve high efficiency in converting the thermal or kinetic energy of the gas flow into electric energy. The experiments on MHD power generation with thermally non-equilibrium plasma carried out up to 1975 indicated that it should be possible to achieve conversion efficiencies of up to 20-30%. (author)
Vibrationally coupled electron transport through single-molecule junctions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haertle, Rainer
2012-04-26
Single-molecule junctions are among the smallest electric circuits. They consist of a molecule that is bound to a left and a right electrode. With such a molecular nanocontact, the flow of electrical currents through a single molecule can be studied and controlled. Experiments on single-molecule junctions show that a single molecule carries electrical currents that can even be in the microampere regime. Thereby, a number of transport phenomena have been observed, such as, for example, diode- or transistor-like behavior, negative differential resistance and conductance switching. An objective of this field, which is commonly referred to as molecular electronics, is to relate these transport phenomena to the properties of the molecule in the contact. To this end, theoretical model calculations are employed, which facilitate an understanding of the underlying transport processes and mechanisms. Thereby, one has to take into account that molecules are flexible structures, which respond to a change of their charge state by a profound reorganization of their geometrical structure or may even dissociate. It is thus important to understand the interrelation between the vibrational degrees of freedom of a singlemolecule junction and the electrical current flowing through the contact. In this thesis, we investigate vibrational effects in electron transport through singlemolecule junctions. For these studies, we calculate and analyze transport characteristics of both generic and first-principles based model systems of a molecular contact. To this end, we employ a master equation and a nonequilibrium Green's function approach. Both methods are suitable to describe this nonequilibrium transport problem and treat the interactions of the tunneling electrons on the molecular bridge non-perturbatively. This is particularly important with respect to the vibrational degrees of freedom, which may strongly interact with the tunneling electrons. We show in detail that the resulting
Bandshapes in vibrational spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dijkman, F.G.
1978-01-01
A detailed account is given of the development of modern bandshape theories since 1965. An investigation into the relative contributions of statistical irreversible relaxation processes is described, for a series of molecules in which gradually the length of one molecular axis is increased. An investigation into the theoretical and experimental investigation of the broadening brought about by the effect of fluctuating intermolecular potentials on the vibrational frequency is also described. The effect of an intermolecular perturbative potential on anharmonic and Morse oscillators is discussed and the results are presented of a computation on the broadening of the vibrational band of some diatomic molecules in a rigid lattice type solvent. The broadening of the OH-stretching vibration in a number of aliphatic alcohols, the vibrational bandshapes of the acetylenic C-H stretching vibration and of the symmetric methyl stretching vibration are investigated. (Auth./ C.F.)
Violations of conservation laws in viscous liquid dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dyre, Jeppe
2007-01-01
The laws expressing conservation of momentum and energy apply to any isolated system, but these laws are violated for highly viscous liquids under laboratory conditions because of the unavoidable interactions with the measuring equipment over the long times needed to study the dynamics. Moreover,......, although particle number conservation applies strictly for any liquid, the solidity of viscous liquids implies that even this conservation law is apparently violated in coarse-grained descriptions of density fluctuations.......The laws expressing conservation of momentum and energy apply to any isolated system, but these laws are violated for highly viscous liquids under laboratory conditions because of the unavoidable interactions with the measuring equipment over the long times needed to study the dynamics. Moreover...
Thermal radiation from an evolving viscous quark gluon plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitra, Sukanya; Mohanty, Payal; Sarkar, Sourav; Alam, Jan-E
2013-01-01
The effects of viscosity on the space-time evolution of quark gluon plasma produced in nuclear collisions at relativistic heavy ion collider energies have been studied. The entropy generated due to the viscous motion of the fluid has been taken into account in constraining the initial temperature by the final multiplicity (measured at the freeze-out point). The viscous effects on the photon spectra has been introduced consistently through the evolution dynamics and phase space factors of all the participating partons/hadrons in the production process. In contrast to some of the recent calculations the present work includes the contribution from the hadronic phase. A small change in the transverse momentum (p T ) distribution of photons is observed due to viscous effects. (author)
Manipulation of viscous fingering in a radially tapered cell geometry
Bongrand, Grégoire; Tsai, Peichun Amy
2018-06-01
When a more mobile fluid displaces another immiscible one in a porous medium, viscous fingering propagates with a partial sweep, which hinders oil recovery and soil remedy. We experimentally investigate the feasibility of tuning such fingering propagation in a nonuniform narrow passage with a radial injection, which is widely used in various applications. We show that a radially converging cell can suppress the common viscous fingering observed in a uniform passage, and a full sweep of the displaced fluid is then achieved. The injection flow rate Q can be further exploited to manipulate the viscous fingering instability. For a fixed gap gradient α , our experimental results show a full sweep at a small Q but partial displacement with fingering at a sufficient Q . Finally, by varying α , we identify and characterize the variation of the critical threshold between stable and unstable displacements. Our experimental results reveal good agreement with theoretical predictions by a linear stability analysis.
Transfer vibration through spine
Benyovszky, Adam
2012-01-01
Transfer Vibration through Spine Abstract In the bachelor project we deal with the topic of Transfer Vibration through Spine. The problem of TVS is trying to be solved by the critical review method. We analyse some diagnostic methods and methods of treatment based on this principle. Close attention is paid to the method of Transfer Vibration through Spine that is being currently solved by The Research Institute of Thermomechanics in The Czech Academy of Sciences in cooperation with Faculty of...
Nanoconfined ionic liquids: Disentangling electrostatic and viscous forces
Lhermerout, Romain; Perkin, Susan
2018-01-01
Recent reports of surface forces across nanoconfined ionic liquids have revealed the existence of an anomalously long-ranged interaction apparently of electrostatic origin. Ionic liquids are viscous, and therefore it is important to inspect rigorously whether the observed repulsive forces are indeed equilibrium forces or, rather, arise from the viscous force during drainage of the fluid between two confining surfaces. In this paper we present our direct measurements of surface forces between mica sheets approaching in the ionic liquid [C2C1Im ] [NTf2] , exploring three orders of magnitude in approach velocity. Trajectories are systematically fitted by solving the equation of motion, allowing us to disentangle the viscous and equilibrium contributions. First, we find that the drainage obeys classical hydrodynamics with a negative slip boundary condition in the range of the structural force, implying that a nanometer -thick portion of the liquid in the vicinity of the solid surface is composed of ordered molecules that do not contribute to the flow. Second, we show that a long-range static force must indeed be invoked, in addition to the viscous force, in order to describe the data quantitatively. This equilibrium interaction decays exponentially and with decay length in agreement with the screening length reported for the same system in previous studies. In those studies the decay was simply checked to be independent of velocity and measured at a low approach rate, rather than explicitly taking account of viscous effects: we explain why this gives indistinguishable outcomes for the screening length by noting that the viscous force is linear to very good approximation over a wide range of distances.
One-dimensional reduction of viscous jets. I. Theory
Pitrou, Cyril
2018-04-01
We build a general formalism to describe thin viscous jets as one-dimensional objects with an internal structure. We present in full generality the steps needed to describe the viscous jets around their central line, and we argue that the Taylor expansion of all fields around that line is conveniently expressed in terms of symmetric trace-free tensors living in the two dimensions of the fiber sections. We recover the standard results of axisymmetric jets and we report the first and second corrections to the lowest order description, also allowing for a rotational component around the axis of symmetry. When applied to generally curved fibers, the lowest order description corresponds to a viscous string model whose sections are circular. However, when including the first corrections, we find that curved jets generically develop elliptic sections. Several subtle effects imply that the first corrections cannot be described by a rod model since it amounts to selectively discard some corrections. However, in a fast rotating frame, we find that the dominant effects induced by inertial and Coriolis forces should be correctly described by rod models. For completeness, we also recover the constitutive relations for forces and torques in rod models and exhibit a missing term in the lowest order expression of viscous torque. Given that our method is based on tensors, the complexity of all computations has been beaten down by using an appropriate tensor algebra package such as xAct, allowing us to obtain a one-dimensional description of curved viscous jets with all the first order corrections consistently included. Finally, we find a description for straight fibers with elliptic sections as a special case of these results, and recover that ellipticity is dynamically damped by surface tension. An application to toroidal viscous fibers is presented in the companion paper [Pitrou, Phys. Rev. E 97, 043116 (2018), 10.1103/PhysRevE.97.043116].
Shallow water equations: viscous solutions and inviscid limit
Chen, Gui-Qiang; Perepelitsa, Mikhail
2012-12-01
We establish the inviscid limit of the viscous shallow water equations to the Saint-Venant system. For the viscous equations, the viscosity terms are more degenerate when the shallow water is close to the bottom, in comparison with the classical Navier-Stokes equations for barotropic gases; thus, the analysis in our earlier work for the classical Navier-Stokes equations does not apply directly, which require new estimates to deal with the additional degeneracy. We first introduce a notion of entropy solutions to the viscous shallow water equations and develop an approach to establish the global existence of such solutions and their uniform energy-type estimates with respect to the viscosity coefficient. These uniform estimates yield the existence of measure-valued solutions to the Saint-Venant system generated by the viscous solutions. Based on the uniform energy-type estimates and the features of the Saint-Venant system, we further establish that the entropy dissipation measures of the viscous solutions for weak entropy-entropy flux pairs, generated by compactly supported C 2 test-functions, are confined in a compact set in H -1, which yields that the measure-valued solutions are confined by the Tartar-Murat commutator relation. Then, the reduction theorem established in Chen and Perepelitsa [5] for the measure-valued solutions with unbounded support leads to the convergence of the viscous solutions to a finite-energy entropy solution of the Saint-Venant system with finite-energy initial data, which is relative with respect to the different end-states of the bottom topography of the shallow water at infinity. The analysis also applies to the inviscid limit problem for the Saint-Venant system in the presence of friction.
Non-equilibrium transport in the quantum dot: quench dynamics and non-equilibrium steady state
Culver, Adrian; Andrei, Natan
We present an exact method of calculating the non-equilibrium current driven by a voltage drop across a quantum dot. The system is described by the two lead Anderson model at zero temperature with on-site Coulomb repulsion and non-interacting, linearized leads. We prepare the system in an initial state consisting of a free Fermi sea in each lead with the voltage drop given as the difference between the two Fermi levels. We quench the system by coupling the dot to the leads at t = 0 and following the time evolution of the wavefunction. In the long time limit a new type of Bethe Ansatz wavefunction emerges, which satisfies the Lippmann-Schwinger equation with the two Fermi seas serving as the boundary conditions. This exact, non-perturbative solution describes the non-equilibrium steady state of the system. We describe how to use this solution to compute the infinite time limit of the expectation value of the current operator at a given voltage, which would yield the I-V characteristic of the dot. Research supported by NSF Grant DMR 1410583.
Radiation and viscous dissipation effect on square porous annulus
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Badruddin, Irfan Anjum [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603 (Malaysia); Quadir, G. A. [School of Mechatronic Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia)
2016-06-08
The present study is carried out to investigate the effect of radiation and viscous dissipation in a square porous annulus subjected to outside hot T{sub h} and inside cold T{sub c} temperature. The square annulus has a hollow section of dimension D×D at the interior of annulus. The flow is assumed to obey Darcy law. The governing equations are non-dimensionalised and solved with the help of finite element method. Results are discussed with respect to viscous dissipation parameter, radiation parameter and size of the hollow section of annulus.
Experimental demonstration of the Rayleigh acoustic viscous boundary layer theory.
Castrejón-Pita, J R; Castrejón-Pita, A A; Huelsz, G; Tovar, R
2006-03-01
Amplitude and phase velocity measurements on the laminar oscillatory viscous boundary layer produced by acoustic waves are presented. The measurements were carried out in acoustic standing waves in air with frequencies of 68.5 and 114.5 Hz using laser Doppler anemometry and particle image velocimetry. The results obtained by these two techniques are in good agreement with the predictions made by the Rayleigh viscous boundary layer theory and confirm the existence of a local maximum of the velocity amplitude and its expected location.
Viscous optical clearing agent for in vivo optical imaging
Deng, Zijian; Jing, Lijia; Wu, Ning; lv, Pengyu; Jiang, Xiaoyun; Ren, Qiushi; Li, Changhui
2014-07-01
By allowing more photons to reach deeper tissue, the optical clearing agent (OCA) has gained increasing attention in various optical imaging modalities. However, commonly used OCAs have high fluidity, limiting their applications in in vivo studies with oblique, uneven, or moving surfaces. In this work, we reported an OCA with high viscosity. We measured the properties of this viscous OCA, and tested its successful performances in the imaging of a living animal's skin with two optical imaging modalities: photoacoustic microscopy and optical coherence tomography. Our results demonstrated that the viscous OCA has a great potential in the study of different turbid tissues using various optical imaging modalities.
Radiation and viscous dissipation effect on square porous annulus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Badruddin, Irfan Anjum; Quadir, G. A.
2016-01-01
The present study is carried out to investigate the effect of radiation and viscous dissipation in a square porous annulus subjected to outside hot T h and inside cold T c temperature. The square annulus has a hollow section of dimension D×D at the interior of annulus. The flow is assumed to obey Darcy law. The governing equations are non-dimensionalised and solved with the help of finite element method. Results are discussed with respect to viscous dissipation parameter, radiation parameter and size of the hollow section of annulus.
Hasanirokh, K.; Phirouznia, A.; Majidi, R.
2016-02-01
The influence of the electron coupling with non-polarized optical phonons on magnetoelectric effects of a two-dimensional electron gas system has been investigated in the presence of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings. Numerical calculations have been performed in the non-equilibrium regime. In the previous studies in this field, it has been shown that the Rashba and Dresselhaus couplings cannot generate non-equilibrium spin current and the spin current vanishes identically in the absence of other relaxation mechanisms such as lattice vibrations. However, in the current study, based on a semiclassical approach, it was demonstrated that in the presence of electron-phonon coupling, the spin current and other magnetoelectric quantities have been modulated by the strength of the spin-orbit interactions.
Electro-spray of high viscous liquids for producing mono-sized spherical alginate beads
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hamid Moghadam; Mohsen Samimi; Abdolreza Samimi; Mohamad Khorram
2008-01-01
Alginate beads, often used for controlled release of enzymes and drugs, are usually produced by spraying sodium alginate liquid into a gelling agent using mechanical vibration nozzle or air jet. In this work an alternative method of electro-spray was employed to form droplets with desired size from a highly viscous sodium alginate solution using constant DC voltage. The droplets were then cured in a calcium chloride solution. The main objective was to produce mono-sized beads from such a highly viscous and non-Newtonian liquid (1000-5000 mPa s). The effects of nozzle diameter, flow rate and concentration of liquid on the size of the beads were investigated. Among the parameters studied, voltage had a pronounced effect on the size of beads as compared to flow rate zzle diameter and concentration of alginate liquid. The size of beads was reduced to a minimum value with increasing the voltage in the range of 0-10 kV. At the early stages of voltage increase (I.e. Up to about 4 kV), the rate of size reduction was relatively low, while the dripping mode dominated. However, in the middle part of the range of applied voltage, where the rate of size reduction was high (I.e. About 4-7 kV), an unstable transition occurred between dripping and jetting. At the end part of the range (I.e. 7-10 kV) jet mode of spray was observed. Increasing the height of fall of the droplets was found to improve the sphericity of the beads, because of the increased time of flight for the droplets. This was especially identifiable at higher concentrations of the alginate liquid (I.e. 3 w/v%)
Viscous-Fluid-Spring Damper Retrofit of a Steel Moment Frame Structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hussain, Saif; Van Benschoten, Paul; Al Satari, Mohamed; Lin, Silian
2008-01-01
The subject building is a peculiar pre-Northridge steel moment resisting frame building. Upon investigating the existing lateral resisting system, numerous significant deficiencies were identified; inherent lack of redundancy, poor geometry and inadequate stiffness of the lateral resisting system. All of which resulted in an extremely soft 5-story structure with a primary torsional mode of vibration at T 1 = 5.46 s. Significant structural modifications were deemed necessary to meet the ''life-safety'' performance objective as outlined in rehabilitation standards such as ASCE 41. Both increased stiffness and damping were required to adequately retrofit the building. Furthermore, adjacent building separation as well as deformation compatibility issues needed to be addressed and resolved. A three-dimensional computer model of the building was created using ETABS mathematically simulating the building's dynamic characteristics in its current condition. Multiple seismic retrofit systems were investigated such as Buckling Restrained Braced Frames (BRBF's). However, based on the performance effectiveness and constructability of the retrofit schemes studied, the Viscous-Fluid-Spring Damper (VFSD) system was proposed as the ''optimum'' solution for the building. The VFSD, was chosen because it combines the relatively compact size and minimally invasive constructability with the required properties (an elastomeric spring in parallel with a nonlinear velocity dependent viscous damper). A site-specific response spectrum was developed for the Design Basis Earthquake (DBE, 475 year return period) event, and three pairs of representative earthquake horizontal ground motion time-histories were scaled to match this DBE. The proposed scheme reduced the building maximum inter-story drift ratio from 5.4% to about 1%. Similarly, the maximum roof displacement was reduced by about 70% (23'' to 7'')
Soap film vibration: origin of the dissipation.
Acharige, Sébastien Kosgodagan; Elias, Florence; Derec, Caroline
2014-11-07
We investigate the complex dispersion relationship of a transverse antisymmetric wave on a horizontal soap film. Experimentally, the complex wave number k at a fixed forcing frequency is determined by measuring the vibrating amplitude of the soap film: the wavelength (linked to the real part of k) is determined by the spatial variation of the amplitude; the decay length (linked to the imaginary part of k) is determined by analyzing the resonance curves of the vibrating wave as a function of frequency. Theoretically, we compute the complex dispersion relationship taking into account the physical properties of the bulk liquid and gas phase, and of the gas-liquid interfaces. The comparison between the computation (developed to the leading order under our experimental conditions) and the experimental results confirms that the phase velocity is fixed by the interplay between surface tension, and liquid and air inertia, as reported in previous studies. Moreover, we show that the attenuation of the transverse antisymmetric wave originates from the viscous dissipation in the gas phase surrounding the liquid film. This result is an important step in understanding the propagation of an acoustic wave in liquid foam, using a bottom-up approach.
Vibration of fusion reactor components with magnetic damping
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D’Amico, Gabriele; Portone, Alfredo [Fusion for Energy – Torres Diagonal Litoral B3 – c/Josep Plá n.2, Barcelona (Spain); Rubinacci, Guglielmo [Department of Electrical Eng. and Information Technologies, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio, 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Testoni, Pietro, E-mail: pietro.testoni@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy – Torres Diagonal Litoral B3 – c/Josep Plá n.2, Barcelona (Spain)
2016-11-01
The aim of this paper is to assess the importance of the magnetic damping in the dynamic response of the main plasma facing components of fusion machines, under the strong Lorentz forces due to Vertical Displacement Events. The additional eddy currents due to the vibration of the conducting structures give rise to volume loads acting as damping forces, a kind of viscous damping, being these additional loads proportional to the vibration speed. This effect could play an important role when assessing, for instance, the inertial loads associated to VV movements in case of VDEs. In this paper, we present the results of a novel numerical formulation, in which the field equations are solved by adopting a very effective fully 3D integral formulation, not limited to the analysis of thin shell structures, as already successfully done in several approaches previously published.
Fluid-structure coupling between a vibrating cylinder and a narrow annular flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perotin, L.
1994-01-01
This paper presents an analytical investigation of the fluidelastic coupling between an axial annular flow and a flexible vibrating axisymmetrical structure. The model presented is suited to single-phase, incompressible, viscous fluids and to annular flows of variable cross-section, axially symmetrical when the structure is motionless.An experimental validation of this model is presented at the end of the paper: the results obtained with the numerical model are compared with experimental data for an oscillating cylinder free to vibrate under the effect of a variable-cross-section annular flow. ((orig.))
Mechanical vibration and shock analysis, sinusoidal vibration
Lalanne, Christian
2014-01-01
Everything engineers need to know about mechanical vibration and shock...in one authoritative reference work! This fully updated and revised 3rd edition addresses the entire field of mechanical vibration and shock as one of the most important types of load and stress applied to structures, machines and components in the real world. Examples include everything from the regular and predictable loads applied to turbines, motors or helicopters by the spinning of their constituent parts to the ability of buildings to withstand damage from wind loads or explosions, and the need for cars to m
Hydroelastic Vibrations of Ships
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Folsø, Rasmus
2002-01-01
A formula for the necessary hull girder bending stiffness required to avoid serious springing vibrations is derived. The expression takes into account the zero crossing period of the waves, the ship speed and main dimensions. For whipping vibrations the probability of exceedance for the combined...
Surface vibrational spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erskine, J.L.
1984-01-01
A brief review of recent studies which combine measurements of surface vibrational energies with lattice dynamical calculations is presented. These results suggest that surface vibrational spectroscopy offers interesting prospects for use as a molecular-level probe of surface geometry, adsorbate bond distances and molecular orientations
Gearbox vibration diagnostic analyzer
1992-01-01
This report describes the Gearbox Vibration Diagnostic Analyzer installed in the NASA Lewis Research Center's 500 HP Helicopter Transmission Test Stand to monitor gearbox testing. The vibration of the gearbox is analyzed using diagnostic algorithms to calculate a parameter indicating damaged components.
Handbook Of Noise And Vibration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1995-12-01
This book is about noise and vibration. The first chapter has explanations of noise such as basic of sound, influence of noise, assessment of noise, measurement of prevention of noise and technology, case of noise measurement and soundproof. The second chapter describes vibration with outline, theory of vibration, interpretation of vibration, measurement for reduction of vibration, case of design of protection against vibration. It deals with related regulation and method of measurement.
Second law analysis of a reacting temperature dependent viscous ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper, entropy generation during the flow of a reacting viscous fluid through an inclined Channel with isothermal walls are investigated. The coupled energy and momentum equations were solved numerically. Previous results in literature (Adesanya et al 2006 [[17]) showed both velocity and temperature have two ...
Self-consistent viscous heating of rapidly compressed turbulence
Campos, Alejandro; Morgan, Brandon
2017-11-01
Given turbulence subjected to infinitely rapid deformations, linear terms representing interactions between the mean flow and the turbulence dictate the evolution of the flow, whereas non-linear terms corresponding to turbulence-turbulence interactions are safely ignored. For rapidly deformed flows where the turbulence Reynolds number is not sufficiently large, viscous effects can't be neglected and tend to play a prominent role, as shown in the study of Davidovits & Fisch (2016). For such a case, the rapid increase of viscosity in a plasma-as compared to the weaker scaling of viscosity in a fluid-leads to the sudden viscous dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy. As shown in Davidovits & Fisch, increases in temperature caused by the direct compression of the plasma drive sufficiently large values of viscosity. We report on numerical simulations of turbulence where the increase in temperature is the result of both the direct compression (an inviscid mechanism) and the self-consistent viscous transfer of energy from the turbulent scales towards the thermal energy. A comparison between implicit large-eddy simulations against well-resolved direct numerical simulations is included to asses the effect of the numerical and subgrid-scale dissipation on the self-consistent viscous This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Mathematical Theory of Compressible Viscous, and Heat Conducting Fluids
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Feireisl, Eduard
2007-01-01
Roč. 33, č. 4 (2007), s. 461-490 ISSN 0898-1221 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/05/0164 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : compressible fluid * viscous fluid * entropy Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.720, year: 2007
Anisotropic plastic deformation by viscous flow in ion tracks
van Dillen, T; Polman, A; Onck, PR; van der Giessen, E
2005-01-01
A model describing the origin of ion beam-induced anisotropic plastic deformation is derived and discussed. It is based on a viscoelastic thermal spike model for viscous flow in single ion tracks derived by Trinkaus and Ryazanov. Deviatoric (shear) stresses, brought about by the rapid thermal
Thermosolutal MHD flow and radiative heat transfer with viscous ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper investigates double diffusive convection MHD flow past a vertical porous plate in a chemically active fluid with radiative heat transfer in the presence of viscous work and heat source. The resulting nonlinear dimensionless equations are solved by asymptotic analysis technique giving approximate analytic ...
Viscous modes, isocurvature perturbations and CMB initial conditions
Giovannini, Massimo
2015-01-01
When the predecoupling plasma is thermodinamically reversible its fluctuations are classified in terms of the adiabatic and entropic modes. A different category of physical solutions, so far unexplored, arises when the inhomogeneities of the viscosity coefficients induce computable curvature perturbations. The viscous modes are explicitly illustrated and compared with the conventional isocurvature solutions.
Unsteady Viscous Flow Past an Impulsively Started Porous Vertical ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper presents a new numerical approach for solving unsteady two dimensional boundary layer flow past an infinite vertical porous surface with the flow generated by Newtonian heating and impulsive motion in the presence of viscous dissipation and temperature dependent viscosity. The viscosity of the fluid under ...
Free-surface viscous flow solution methods for ship hydrodynamics
Wackers, J.; Koren, B.; Raven, H.C.; Ploeg, van der A.; Starke, A.R.; Deng, G.; Queutey, P.; Visonneau, M.; Hino, T.; Ohashi, K.
2011-01-01
The simulation of viscous free-surface water flow is a subject that has reached a certain maturity and is nowadays used in industrial applications, like the simulation of the flow around ships. While almost all methods used are based on the Navier-Stokes equations, the discretisation methods for the
Spatiotemporal resonances in mixing of open viscous fluids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Okkels, Fridolin; Tabeling, Patrick
2004-01-01
In this Letter, we reveal a new dynamical phenomenon, called "spatiotemporal resonance," which is expected to take place in a broad range of viscous, periodically forced, open systems. The observation originates from a numerical and theoretical analysis of a micromixer, and is supported...
Hydrodynamic response of viscous fluids under seismic excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, D.C.
1993-01-01
Hydrodynamic response of liquid-tank systems, such as reactor vessels, spent-fuel pools and liquid storage tanks have been studied extensively in the last decade (Chang et al. 1988; Ma et al. 1991). However, most of the studies are conducted with the assumption of an inviscid fluid. In recent years, the hydrodynamic response of viscous fluids has received increasing attention in high level waste storage tanks containing viscous waste material. This paper presents a numerical study on the hydrodynamic response of viscous fluids in a large 2-D fluid-tank system under seismic excitation. Hydrodynamic responses (i.e. sloshing wave height, fluid pressures, shear stress, etc.) are calculated for a fluid with various viscosities. Four fluid viscosities are considered. They are 1 cp, 120 cp, 1,000 cp and 12,000 cp (1 cp = 1.45 x 10 -7 lb-sec/in 2 ). Note that the liquid sodium of the Liquid-Metal Reactor (LMR) reactor has a viscosity of 1.38 x 10 -5 lb-sec/in 2 (about 95 cp) at an operational temperature of 900 degree F. Section 2 describes the pertinent features of the mathematical model. In Section 3, the fundamental sloshing phenomena of viscous fluid are examined. Sloshing wave height and shear stress for fluid with different viscosities are compared. The conclusions are given in Section 4
Creeping Viscous Flow around a Heat-Generating Solid Sphere
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krenk, Steen
1981-01-01
The velocity field for creeping viscous flow around a solid sphere due to a spherically symmetric thermal field is determined and a simple thermal generalization of Stokes' formula is obtained. The velocity field due to an instantaneous heat source at the center of the sphere is obtained in closed...... form and an application to the storage of heat-generating nuclear waste is discussed....
Vibration insensitive interferometry
Millerd, James; Brock, Neal; Hayes, John; Kimbrough, Brad; North-Morris, Michael; Wyant, James C.
2017-11-01
The largest limitation of phase-shifting interferometry for optical testing is the sensitivity to the environment, both vibration and air turbulence. An interferometer using temporal phase-shifting is very sensitive to vibration because the various phase shifted frames of interferometric data are taken at different times and vibration causes the phase shifts between the data frames to be different from what is desired. Vibration effects can be reduced by taking all the phase shifted frames simultaneously and turbulence effects can be reduced by averaging many measurements. There are several techniques for simultaneously obtaining several phase-shifted interferograms and this paper will discuss two such techniques: 1) Simultaneous phase-shifting interferometry on a single detector array (PhaseCam) and 2) Micropolarizer phase-shifting array. The application of these techniques for the testing of large optical components, measurement of vibrational modes, the phasing of segmented optical components, and the measurement of deformations of large diffuse structures is described.
Vibrations of rotating machinery
Matsushita, Osami; Kanki, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masao; Keogh, Patrick
2017-01-01
This book opens with an explanation of the vibrations of a single degree-of-freedom (dof) system for all beginners. Subsequently, vibration analysis of multi-dof systems is explained by modal analysis. Mode synthesis modeling is then introduced for system reduction, which aids understanding in a simplified manner of how complicated rotors behave. Rotor balancing techniques are offered for rigid and flexible rotors through several examples. Consideration of gyroscopic influences on the rotordynamics is then provided and vibration evaluation of a rotor-bearing system is emphasized in terms of forward and backward whirl rotor motions through eigenvalue (natural frequency and damping ratio) analysis. In addition to these rotordynamics concerning rotating shaft vibration measured in a stationary reference frame, blade vibrations are analyzed with Coriolis forces expressed in a rotating reference frame. Other phenomena that may be assessed in stationary and rotating reference frames include stability characteristic...
Stokes’ and Lamb's viscous drag laws
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eames, I; Klettner, C A
2017-01-01
Since Galileo used his pulse to measure the time period of a swinging chandelier in the 17th century, pendulums have fascinated scientists. It was not until Stokes' (1851 Camb. Phil. Soc. 9 8–106) (whose interest was spurred by the pendulur time pieces of the mid 19th century) treatise on viscous flow that a theoretical framework for the drag on a sphere at low Reynolds number was laid down. Stokes' famous drag law has been used to determine two fundamental physical constants—the charge on an electron and Avogadro's constant—and has been used in theories which have won three Nobel prizes. Considering its illustrious history it is then not surprising that the flow past a sphere and its two-dimensional analog, the flow past a cylinder, form the starting point of teaching flow past a rigid body in undergraduate level fluid mechanics courses. Usually starting with the two-dimensional potential flow past a cylinder, students progress to the three-dimensional potential flow past a sphere. However, when the viscous flow past rigid bodies is taught, the three-dimensional example of a sphere is first introduced, and followed by (but not often), the two-dimensional viscous flow past a cylinder. The reason why viscous flow past a cylinder is generally not taught is because it is usually explained from an asymptotic analysis perspective. In fact, this added mathematical complexity is why the drag on a cylinder was only solved in 1911, 60 years after the drag on a sphere. In this note, we show that the viscous flow past a cylinder can be explained without the need to introduce any asymptotic analysis while still capturing all the physical insight of this classic fluid mechanics problem. (paper)
Bose, Deepak
2012-01-01
The design of entry vehicles requires predictions of aerothermal environment during the hypersonic phase of their flight trajectories. These predictions are made using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes that often rely on physics and chemistry models of nonequilibrium processes. The primary processes of interest are gas phase chemistry, internal energy relaxation, electronic excitation, nonequilibrium emission and absorption of radiation, and gas-surface interaction leading to surface recession and catalytic recombination. NASAs Hypersonics Project is advancing the state-of-the-art in modeling of nonequilibrium phenomena by making detailed spectroscopic measurements in shock tube and arcjets, using ab-initio quantum mechanical techniques develop fundamental chemistry and spectroscopic databases, making fundamental measurements of finite-rate gas surface interactions, implementing of detailed mechanisms in the state-of-the-art CFD codes, The development of new models is based on validation with relevant experiments. We will present the latest developments and a roadmap for the technical areas mentioned above
Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and fluctuation relations for small systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cao Liang; Ke Pu; Qiao Li-Yan; Zheng Zhi-Gang
2014-01-01
In this review, we give a retrospect of the recent progress in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics and thermodynamics in small dynamical systems. For systems with only a few number of particles, fluctuations and nonlinearity become significant and contribute to the nonequilibrium behaviors of the systems, hence the statistical properties and thermodynamics should be carefully studied. We review recent developments of this topic by starting from the Gallavotti—Cohen fluctuation theorem, and then to the Evans—Searles transient fluctuation theorem, Jarzynski free-energy equality, and the Crooks fluctuation relation. We also investigate the nonequilibrium free energy theorem for trajectories involving changes of the heat bath temperature and propose a generalized free-energy relation. It should be noticed that the non-Markovian property of the heat bath may lead to the violation of the free-energy relation. (topical review - statistical physics and complex systems)
Non-equilibrium phase transitions in complex plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suetterlin, K R; Raeth, C; Ivlev, A V; Thomas, H M; Khrapak, S; Zhdanov, S; Rubin-Zuzic, M; Morfill, G E; Wysocki, A; Loewen, H; Goedheer, W J; Fortov, V E; Lipaev, A M; Molotkov, V I; Petrov, O F
2010-01-01
Complex plasma being the 'plasma state of soft matter' is especially suitable for investigations of non-equilibrium phase transitions. Non-equilibrium phase transitions can manifest in dissipative structures or self-organization. Two specific examples are lane formation and phase separation. Using the permanent microgravity laboratory PK-3 Plus, operating onboard the International Space Station, we performed unique experiments with binary mixtures of complex plasmas that showed both lane formation and phase separation. These observations have been augmented by comprehensive numerical and theoretical studies. In this paper we present an overview of our most important results. In addition we put our results in context with research of complex plasmas, binary systems and non-equilibrium phase transitions. Necessary and promising future complex plasma experiments on phase separation and lane formation are briefly discussed.
Inviscid flux-splitting algorithms for real gases with non-equilibrium chemistry
Shuen, Jian-Shun; Liou, Meng-Sing; Van Leer, Bram
1990-01-01
Formulations of inviscid flux splitting algorithms for chemical nonequilibrium gases are presented. A chemical system for air dissociation and recombination is described. Numerical results for one-dimensional shock tube and nozzle flows of air in chemical nonequilibrium are examined.
Impact of ultra-viscous drops: air-film gliding and extreme wetting
Langley, Kenneth; Li, Erqiang; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T
2017-01-01
water drop, the viscous-dominated flow in the thin air layer counteracts the inertia of the drop liquid. For highly viscous drops the viscous stresses within the liquid also affect the interplay between the drop and the gas. Here the drop also forms a
Simulations of the Yawed MEXICO Rotor Using a Viscous-Inviscid Panel Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramos García, Néstor; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Shen, Wen Zhong
2014-01-01
In the present work the viscous-inviscid interactive model MIRAS is used to simulate flows past the MEXICO rotor in yawed conditions. The solver is based on an unsteady three-dimensional free wake panel method which uses a strong viscous-inviscid interaction technique to account for the viscous...
Time Dependent Hartree Fock Equation: Gateway to Nonequilibrium Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dufty, James W.
2007-01-01
This is the Final Technical Report for DE-FG02-2ER54677 award 'Time Dependent Hartree Fock Equation - Gateway to Nonequilibrium Plasmas'. Research has focused on the nonequilibrium dynamics of electrons in the presence of ions, both via basic quantum theory and via semi-classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. In addition, fundamental notions of dissipative dynamics have been explored for models of grains and dust, and for scalar fields (temperature) in turbulent edge plasmas. The specific topics addressed were Quantum Kinetic Theory for Metallic Clusters, Semi-classical MD Simulation of Plasmas , and Effects of Dissipative Dynamics.
Introduction to nonequilibrium statistical mechanics with quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kita, Takafumi
2010-01-01
In this article, we present a concise and self-contained introduction to nonequilibrium statistical mechanics with quantum field theory by considering an ensemble of interacting identical bosons or fermions as an example. Readers are assumed to be familiar with the Matsubara formalism of equilibrium statistical mechanics such as Feynman diagrams, the proper self-energy, and Dyson's equation. The aims are threefold: (1) to explain the fundamentals of nonequilibrium quantum field theory as simple as possible on the basis of the knowledge of the equilibrium counterpart; (2) to elucidate the hierarchy in describing nonequilibrium systems from Dyson's equation on the Keldysh contour to the Navier-Stokes equation in fluid mechanics via quantum transport equations and the Boltzmann equation; (3) to derive an expression of nonequilibrium entropy that evolves with time. In stage (1), we introduce nonequilibrium Green's function and the self-energy uniquely on the round-trip Keldysh contour, thereby avoiding possible confusions that may arise from defining multiple Green's functions at the very beginning. We try to present the Feynman rules for the perturbation expansion as simple as possible. In particular, we focus on the self-consistent perturbation expansion with the Luttinger-Ward thermodynamic functional, i.e., Baym's Φ-derivable approximation, which has a crucial property for nonequilibrium systems of obeying various conservation laws automatically. We also show how the two-particle correlations can be calculated within the Φ-derivable approximation, i.e., an issue of how to handle the 'Bogoliubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvons (BBGKY) hierarchy'. Aim (2) is performed through successive reductions of relevant variables with the Wigner transformation, the gradient expansion based on the Groenewold-Moyal product, and Enskog's expansion from local equilibrium. This part may be helpful for convincing readers that nonequilibrium systems can be handled microscopically with
Limiting processes in non-equilibrium classical statistical mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jancel, R.
1983-01-01
After a recall of the basic principles of the statistical mechanics, the results of ergodic theory, the transient at the thermodynamic limit and his link with the transport theory near the equilibrium are analyzed. The fundamental problems put by the description of non-equilibrium macroscopic systems are investigated and the kinetic methods are stated. The problems of the non-equilibrium statistical mechanics are analyzed: irreversibility and coarse-graining, macroscopic variables and kinetic description, autonomous reduced descriptions, limit processes, BBGKY hierarchy, limit theorems [fr
Convection with local thermal non-equilibrium and microfluidic effects
Straughan, Brian
2015-01-01
This book is one of the first devoted to an account of theories of thermal convection which involve local thermal non-equilibrium effects, including a concentration on microfluidic effects. The text introduces convection with local thermal non-equilibrium effects in extraordinary detail, making it easy for readers newer to the subject area to understand. This book is unique in the fact that it addresses a large number of convection theories and provides many new results which are not available elsewhere. This book will be useful to researchers from engineering, fluid mechanics, and applied mathematics, particularly those interested in microfluidics and porous media.
Forces and energy dissipation in inhomogeneous non-equilibrium superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poluehktov, Yu.M.; Slezov, V.V.
1987-01-01
The phenomenological theory of volume forces and dissipation processes in inhomogeneous non-equilibrium superconductors near temperature transition from the normal to superconducting state is constructed. The approach is based on application of dynamic equations of superconductivity formulated on the basis of the Lagrangian formalism. These equations are generalized the Ginzburg-Landau theory in the nonstationary non-equilibrium case for ''foul'' superconductors. The value estimations of volume forces arising in inhomogeneities during relaxation of an order parameter and when the electrical field is penetrated into the superconductor, are given
Experimental approaches for studying non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma jets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shashurin, A., E-mail: ashashur@purdue.edu [School of Aeronautics & Astronautics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Keidar, M. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, District of Columbia 20052 (United States)
2015-12-15
This work reviews recent research efforts undertaken in the area non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma jets with special focus on experimental approaches. Physics of small non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma jets operating in kHz frequency range at powers around few Watts will be analyzed, including mechanism of breakdown, process of ionization front propagation, electrical coupling of the ionization front with the discharge electrodes, distributions of excited and ionized species, discharge current spreading, transient dynamics of various plasma parameters, etc. Experimental diagnostic approaches utilized in the field will be considered, including Rayleigh microwave scattering, Thomson laser scattering, electrostatic streamer scatterers, optical emission spectroscopy, fast photographing, etc.
Nonlinear dissipative devices in structural vibration control: A review
Lu, Zheng; Wang, Zixin; Zhou, Ying; Lu, Xilin
2018-06-01
Structural vibration is a common phenomenon existing in various engineering fields such as machinery, aerospace, and civil engineering. It should be noted that the effective suppression of structural vibration is conducive to enhancing machine performance, prolonging the service life of devices, and promoting the safety and comfort of structures. Conventional linear energy dissipative devices (linear dampers) are largely restricted for wider application owing to their low performance under certain conditions, such as the detuning effect of tuned mass dampers subjected to nonstationary excitations and the excessively large forces generated in linear viscous dampers at high velocities. Recently, nonlinear energy dissipative devices (nonlinear dampers) with broadband response and high robustness are being increasingly used in practical engineering. At the present stage, nonlinear dampers can be classified into three groups, namely nonlinear stiffness dampers, nonlinear-stiffness nonlinear-damping dampers, and nonlinear damping dampers. Corresponding to each nonlinear group, three types of nonlinear dampers that are widely utilized in practical engineering are reviewed in this paper: the nonlinear energy sink (NES), particle impact damper (PID), and nonlinear viscous damper (NVD), respectively. The basic concepts, research status, engineering applications, and design approaches of these three types of nonlinear dampers are summarized. A comparison between their advantages and disadvantages in practical engineering applications is also conducted, to provide a reference source for practical applications and new research.
Modeling of brittle-viscous flow using discrete particles
Thordén Haug, Øystein; Barabasch, Jessica; Virgo, Simon; Souche, Alban; Galland, Olivier; Mair, Karen; Abe, Steffen; Urai, Janos L.
2017-04-01
Many geological processes involve both viscous flow and brittle fractures, e.g. boudinage, folding and magmatic intrusions. Numerical modeling of such viscous-brittle materials poses challenges: one has to account for the discrete fracturing, the continuous viscous flow, the coupling between them, and potential pressure dependence of the flow. The Discrete Element Method (DEM) is a numerical technique, widely used for studying fracture of geomaterials. However, the implementation of viscous fluid flow in discrete element models is not trivial. In this study, we model quasi-viscous fluid flow behavior using Esys-Particle software (Abe et al., 2004). We build on the methodology of Abe and Urai (2012) where a combination of elastic repulsion and dashpot interactions between the discrete particles is implemented. Several benchmarks are presented to illustrate the material properties. Here, we present extensive, systematic material tests to characterize the rheology of quasi-viscous DEM particle packing. We present two tests: a simple shear test and a channel flow test, both in 2D and 3D. In the simple shear tests, simulations were performed in a box, where the upper wall is moved with a constant velocity in the x-direction, causing shear deformation of the particle assemblage. Here, the boundary conditions are periodic on the sides, with constant forces on the upper and lower walls. In the channel flow tests, a piston pushes a sample through a channel by Poisseuille flow. For both setups, we present the resulting stress-strain relationships over a range of material parameters, confining stress and strain rate. Results show power-law dependence between stress and strain rate, with a non-linear dependence on confining force. The material is strain softening under some conditions (which). Additionally, volumetric strain can be dilatant or compactant, depending on porosity, confining pressure and strain rate. Constitutive relations are implemented in a way that limits the
Silicon micromachined vibrating gyroscopes
Voss, Ralf
1997-09-01
This work gives an overview of silicon micromachined vibrating gyroscopes. Market perspectives and fields of application are pointed out. The advantage of using silicon micromachining is discussed and estimations of the desired performance, especially for automobiles are given. The general principle of vibrating gyroscopes is explained. Vibrating silicon gyroscopes can be divided into seven classes. for each class the characteristic principle is presented and examples are given. Finally a specific sensor, based on a tuning fork for automotive applications with a sensitivity of 250(mu) V/degrees is described in detail.
System Detects Vibrational Instabilities
Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.
1990-01-01
Sustained vibrations at two critical frequencies trigger diagnostic response or shutdown. Vibration-analyzing electronic system detects instabilities of combustion in rocket engine. Controls pulse-mode firing of engine and identifies vibrations above threshold amplitude at 5.9 and/or 12kHz. Adapted to other detection and/or control schemes involving simultaneous real-time detection of signals above or below preset amplitudes at two or more specified frequencies. Potential applications include rotating machinery and encoders and decoders in security systems.
Lanzani, Guglielmo; De Silvestri, Sandro
2007-01-01
Vibrational spectroscopy is a powerful investigation tool for a wide class of materials covering diverse areas in physics, chemistry and biology. The continuous development in the laser field regarding ultrashort pulse generation has led to the possibility of producing light pulses that can follow vibrational motion coupled to the electronic transitions in molecules and solids in real time. Aimed at researchers and graduate students using vibrational spectroscopy, this book provides both introductory chapters as well as more advanced contents reporting on recent progress. It also provides a good starting point for scientists seeking a sound introduction to ultrafast optics and spectroscopic techniques.
Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of the Kovacs effect
Bouchbinder, Eran; Langer, J. S.
We present a thermodynamic theory of the Kovacs effect based on the idea that the configurational degrees of freedom of a glass-forming material are driven out of equilibrium with the heat bath by irreversible thermal contraction and expansion. We assume that the slowly varying configurational subsystem, i.e. the part of the system that is described by inherent structures, is characterized by an effective temperature, and contains a volume-related internal variable. We examine mechanisms by which irreversible dynamics of the fast, kinetic-vibrational degrees of freedom can cause the entropy and the effective temperature of the configurational subsystem to increase during sufficiently rapid changes in the bath temperature. We then use this theory to interpret the numerical simulations by Mossa and Sciortino (MS), who observe the Kovacs effect in more detail than is feasible in laboratory experiments. Our analysis highlights two mechanisms for the equilibration of internal variables. In one of these, an internal variable first relaxes toward a state of quasi-equilibrium determined by the effective temperature, and then approaches true thermodynamic equilibrium as the effective temperature slowly relaxes toward the bath temperature. In the other mechanism, an internal variable directly equilibrates with the bath temperature on intermediate timescales, without equilibrating with the effective temperature at any stage. Both mechanisms appear to be essential for understanding the MS results.
PREFACE: Vibrations at surfaces Vibrations at surfaces
Rahman, Talat S.
2011-12-01
This special issue is dedicated to the phenomenon of vibrations at surfaces—a topic that was indispensible a couple of decades ago, since it was one of the few phenomena capable of revealing the nature of binding at solid surfaces. For clean surfaces, the frequencies of modes with characteristic displacement patterns revealed how surface geometry, as well as the nature of binding between atoms in the surface layers, could be different from that in the bulk solid. Dispersion of the surface phonons provided further measures of interatomic interactions. For chemisorbed molecules on surfaces, frequencies and dispersion of the vibrational modes were also critical for determining adsorption sites. In other words, vibrations at surfaces served as a reliable means of extracting information about surface structure, chemisorption and overlayer formation. Experimental techniques, such as electron energy loss spectroscopy and helium-atom-surface scattering, coupled with infra-red spectroscopy, were continually refined and their resolutions enhanced to capture subtleties in the dynamics of atoms and molecules at surfaces. Theoretical methods, whether based on empirical and semi-empirical interatomic potential or on ab initio electronic structure calculations, helped decipher experimental observations and provide deeper insights into the nature of the bond between atoms and molecules in regions of reduced symmetry, as encountered on solid surfaces. Vibrations at surfaces were thus an integral part of the set of phenomena that characterized surface science. Dedicated workshops and conferences were held to explore the variety of interesting and puzzling features revealed in experimental and theoretical investigations of surface vibrational modes and their dispersion. One such conference, Vibrations at Surfaces, first organized by Harald Ibach in Juelich in 1980, continues to this day. The 13th International Conference on Vibrations at Surfaces was held at the University of
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Søren R. K.
The present textbook has been written based on previous lecture notes for a course on stochastic vibration theory that is being given on the 9th semester at Aalborg University for M. Sc. students in structural engineering. The present 4th edition of this textbook on linear stochastic vibration th...... theory is unchanged in comparison to the 3rd edition. Only a few errors have been corrected.......The present textbook has been written based on previous lecture notes for a course on stochastic vibration theory that is being given on the 9th semester at Aalborg University for M. Sc. students in structural engineering. The present 4th edition of this textbook on linear stochastic vibration...
Improved Laser Vibration Radar
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Hilaire, Pierre
1998-01-01
.... This thesis reconfigured an existing CO2 laboratory laser radar system that is capable of measuring the frequencies of vibration of a simulated target into a more compact and rugged form for field testing...
NIF Ambient Vibration Measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noble, C.R.; Hoehler, M.S.; S.C. Sommer
1999-01-01
LLNL has an ongoing research and development project that includes developing data acquisition systems with remote wireless communication for monitoring the vibrations of large civil engineering structures. In order to establish the capability of performing remote sensing over an extended period of time, the researchers needed to apply this technology to a real structure. The construction of the National Ignition Facility provided an opportunity to test the data acquisition system on a large structure to monitor whether the facility is remaining within the strict ambient vibration guidelines. This document will briefly discuss the NIF ambient vibration requirements and summarize the vibration measurements performed during the Spring and Summer of 1999. In addition, a brief description of the sensors and the data acquisition systems will be provided in Appendix B
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alekhin, S.A.; Denisenko, V.V.; Dzhalalov, M.G.; Kirichek, F.P.; Pitatel, Yu.A.; Prokopov, L.I.; Tikhonov, Yu.P.
1982-01-01
A vibration sieve is proposed which includes a vibration drive, a body and a screen installed on shock absorbers, a device for washing out the screen, and a subassembly for loading the material. To increase the operational reliability and effectiveness of the vibration sieve by improving the cleaning of the screen, the loading subassembly is equipped with a baffle with a lever which is hinged to it. The device for washing out the screen is made in the form of an electromagnet with a connecting rod, a switch and an eccentric, a friction ratchet mechanism and sprinkling systems. Here, the latter are interconnected, using a connecting rod, while the sprinkling system is installed on rollers under the screen. The electromagnetic switch is installed under the lever. The body is made with grooves for installing the sprinkling system. The vibration sieve is equipped with a switch which interacts with the connecting rod. The friction ratchet mechanism is equipped with a lug.
Seismic Retrofitting of an Existing Steel Railway Bridge by Fluid Viscous Dampers
Gangopadhyay, Avijit; Ghosh, Aparna Dey
2016-09-01
There are over a lakh of bridges in the Indian Railways, many of which have become seismically deficient, either through aging or due to inadequate seismic design considerations. The extensive damage of bridges all over the world in recent earthquakes has propelled significant advancement in earthquake protection and retrofitting of bridges. Amongst various passive control systems that are reliable as well as cost-effective, Fluid Viscous Dampers (FVDs) are proving to be successful in bridge vibration control. Orificed FVDs, commercially available as Taylor Devices, have already been successfully installed in several bridges worldwide. However, there has been no such application or study related to Indian railway bridges. In this paper, an existing thirty years' old railway bridge in Jharkhand, India, has been analyzed in SAP2000v14 considering reduced stiffness and found deficient when subjected to spectrum-compatible accelerograms. Subsequent retrofitting of the bridge superstructure with FVDs has been carried out and the results indicate substantial reductions in the responses of the bridge deck.
Nonequilibrium thermodynamic fluctuations and phase transition in black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Su, R.; Cai, R.; Yu, P.K.N.
1994-01-01
Landau nonequilibrium fluctuation and phase transition theory is applied to the discussion of the phase transition of black holes. Some second moments of relevant thermodynamical quantities for Kerr-Newman black holes are estimated. A theorem governing the divergence of some second moments and the occurrence of the phase transition in black holes is given
D.C.-arc plasma generator for nonequilibrium plasmachemical processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kvaltin, J.
1990-06-01
The analysis is made of the conditions for generation of nonequilibrium plasma in a plasmachemical reactor, and the design is described of a d.c. arc plasma generator based on the integral criterion. Results of measuring potentials on the plasma column of this generator are presented. (author)
SRB states and nonequilibrium statistical mechanics close to equilibrium
Gallavotti, Giovannni; Ruelle, David
1996-01-01
Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics close to equilibrium is studied using SRB states and a formula for their derivatives with respect to parameters. We write general expressions for the thermodynamic fluxes (or currents) and the transport coefficients, generalizing previous results. In this framework we give a general proof of the Onsager reciprocity relations.
Non-equilibrium microwave plasma for efficient high temperature chemistry
van den Bekerom, D.C.M.; den Harder, N.; Minea, T.; Palomares Linares, J.M.; Bongers, W.; van de Sanden, M.C.M.; van Rooij, G.J.
2017-01-01
This article describes a flowing microwave reactor that is used to drive efficient non-equilibrium chemistry for the application of conversion/activation of stable molecules such as CO2, N2 and CH4. The goal of the procedure described here is to measure the in situ gas temperature and gas
Complex temporal and spatial patterns in nonequilibrium processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Swinney, H.L.
1992-01-01
We have used dynamical systems methods to study and characterize bifurcations and pattern formation in a variety of nonequilibrium systems. In this paper we describe our work on dynamical systems, chemical oscillations and chaos, chemical spatial patterns, instabilities in fluid dynamics, electrodeposition clusters, the ballast resistor, and crack propagation
Nonlinear and Nonequilibrium Spin Injection in Magnetic Tunneling Junctions
Guo, Hong
2007-03-01
Quantitative analysis of charge and spin quantum transport in spintronic devices requires an atomistic first principles approach that can handle nonlinear and nonequilibrium transport conditions. We have developed an approach for this purpose based on real space density functional theory (DFT) carried out within the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function formalism (NEGF). We report theoretical analysis of nonlinear and nonequilibrium spin injection and quantum transport in Fe/MgO/Fe trilayer structures as a function of external bias voltage. Devices with well relaxed atomic structures and with FeO oxidization layers are investigated as a function of external bias voltage. We also report calculations of nonequilibrium spin injection into molecular layers and graphene. Comparisons to experimental data will be presented. Work in collaborations with: Derek Waldron, Vladimir Timochevski (McGill University); Ke Xia (Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing, China); Eric Zhu, Jian Wang (University of Hong Kong); Paul Haney, and Allan MacDonald (University of Texas at Austin).
Effects of vacancies on overshooting in nonequilibrium ordering processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gilhøj, Henriette; Jeppesen, Claus; Mouritsen, Ole G.
1996-01-01
The effects of annealed site dilution on the nonequilibrium ordering process in the two-dimensional Ising model with a nonconserved order parameter have been studied using Monte Carlo simulation. It is found that the transient development of a local order that is larger than the equilibrium order...
Principle of Entropy Maximization for Nonequilibrium Steady States
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan
2002-01-01
The goal of this contribution is to find out to what extent the principle of entropy maximization, which serves as a basis for the equilibrium thermodynamics, may be generalized onto non-equilibrium steady states. We prove a theorem that, in the system of thermodynamic coordinates, where entropy...
Supersymmetric Field Theory of Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamic System
Olemskoi, Alexander I.; Brazhnyi, Valerii A.
1998-01-01
On the basis of Langevin equation the optimal SUSY field scheme is formulated to discribe a non-equilibrium thermodynamic system with quenched disorder and non-ergodicity effects. Thermodynamic and isothermal susceptibilities, memory parameter and irreversible response are determined at different temperatures and quenched disorder intensities.
Fluctuation and dissipation in nonequilibrium quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramos, Rudnei O.
1994-01-01
The nonequilibrium dynamics of a scalar field is studied using perturbation theory and a real time finite temperature formulation. The evolution equation for the scalar field is explicitly obtained, and terms responsible for noise (fluctuations) and dissipation are identified and studied in the high temperature limit. (author)
Nonequilibrium Enhances Adaptation Efficiency of Stochastic Biochemical Systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chen Jia
Full Text Available Adaptation is a crucial biological function possessed by many sensory systems. Early work has shown that some influential equilibrium models can achieve accurate adaptation. However, recent studies indicate that there are close relationships between adaptation and nonequilibrium. In this paper, we provide an explanation of these two seemingly contradictory results based on Markov models with relatively simple networks. We show that as the nonequilibrium driving becomes stronger, the system under consideration will undergo a phase transition along a fixed direction: from non-adaptation to simple adaptation then to oscillatory adaptation, while the transition in the opposite direction is forbidden. This indicates that although adaptation may be observed in equilibrium systems, it tends to occur in systems far away from equilibrium. In addition, we find that nonequilibrium will improve the performance of adaptation by enhancing the adaptation efficiency. All these results provide a deeper insight into the connection between adaptation and nonequilibrium. Finally, we use a more complicated network model of bacterial chemotaxis to validate the main results of this paper.
Applications of non-equilibrium plasma in chemical processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Patino, P.; Castro, A.
2003-01-01
By means of optical emission spectroscopy the population of O( 3 P) in a non-equilibrium, high voltage, oxygen plasma, and O( 3 P), H and OH in another of steam in radio frequency, have been followed. Reactions of both plasmas with liquid hydrocarbons have produced oxidation and/or hydrogenation, depending on the conditions of each one. (Author)
Non-equilibrium and band tailing in organic conductors
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
. Non-equilibrium ... Introduction. Study of organic conductors and semiconductors continues to generate interest with the ... Band tailing reduces band gap or the acti- ..... (9), we can identify Eg(0) with the focal point and is proportional to P2. 1 .
Measures of trajectory ensemble disparity in nonequilibrium statistical dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crooks, Gavin E; Sivak, David A
2011-01-01
Many interesting divergence measures between conjugate ensembles of nonequilibrium trajectories can be experimentally determined from the work distribution of the process. Herein, we review the statistical and physical significance of several of these measures, in particular the relative entropy (dissipation), Jeffreys divergence (hysteresis), Jensen–Shannon divergence (time-asymmetry), Chernoff divergence (work cumulant generating function), and Rényi divergence
Coherence enhanced quantum metrology in a nonequilibrium optical molecule
Wang, Zhihai; Wu, Wei; Cui, Guodong; Wang, Jin
2018-03-01
We explore the quantum metrology in an optical molecular system coupled to two environments with different temperatures, using a quantum master equation beyond secular approximation. We discover that the steady-state coherence originating from and sustained by the nonequilibrium condition can enhance quantum metrology. We also study the quantitative measures of the nonequilibrium condition in terms of the curl flux, heat current and entropy production at the steady state. They are found to grow with temperature difference. However, an apparent paradox arises considering the contrary behaviors of the steady-state coherence and the nonequilibrium measures in relation to the inter-cavity coupling strength. This paradox is resolved by decomposing the heat current into a population part and a coherence part. Only the latter, the coherence part of the heat current, is tightly connected to the steady-state coherence and behaves similarly with respect to the inter-cavity coupling strength. Interestingly, the coherence part of the heat current flows from the low-temperature reservoir to the high-temperature reservoir, opposite to the direction of the population heat current. Our work offers a viable way to enhance quantum metrology for open quantum systems through steady-state coherence sustained by the nonequilibrium condition, which can be controlled and manipulated to maximize its utility. The potential applications go beyond quantum metrology and extend to areas such as device designing, quantum computation and quantum technology in general.
Nonequilibrium two-dimensional Ising model with stationary uphill diffusion
Colangeli, Matteo; Giardinà, Cristian; Giberti, Claudio; Vernia, Cecilia
2018-03-01
Usually, in a nonequilibrium setting, a current brings mass from the highest density regions to the lowest density ones. Although rare, the opposite phenomenon (known as "uphill diffusion") has also been observed in multicomponent systems, where it appears as an artificial effect of the interaction among components. We show here that uphill diffusion can be a substantial effect, i.e., it may occur even in single component systems as a consequence of some external work. To this aim we consider the two-dimensional ferromagnetic Ising model in contact with two reservoirs that fix, at the left and the right boundaries, magnetizations of the same magnitude but of opposite signs.We provide numerical evidence that a class of nonequilibrium steady states exists in which, by tuning the reservoir magnetizations, the current in the system changes from "downhill" to "uphill". Moreover, we also show that, in such nonequilibrium setup, the current vanishes when the reservoir magnetization attains a value approaching, in the large volume limit, the magnetization of the equilibrium dynamics, thus establishing a relation between equilibrium and nonequilibrium properties.
Electron systems out of equilibrium: nonequilibrium Green's function approach
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Špička, Václav; Velický, Bedřich; Kalvová, Anděla
2014-01-01
Roč. 28, č. 23 (2014), "1430013-1"-"1430013-103" ISSN 0217-9792 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0897 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nonequilibrium statistical physics * transients * quantum transport the ory Subject RIV: BE - The oretical Physics Impact factor: 0.937, year: 2014
Fluctuation theorems and orbital magnetism in nonequilibrium state
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We study Langevin dynamics of a driven charged particle in the presence as well as in the absence of magnetic field. We discuss the validity of various work fluctuation theorems using different model potentials and external drives. We also show that one can generate an orbital magnetic moment in a nonequilibrium state ...
On the forces and fluxes in non-equilibrium thermodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kitahara, Kazuo
1986-01-01
A formulation of non-equilibrium thermodynamics of continuum systems based on local equilibrium assumption is reported. Thermodynamic forces are defined from a generalized local entropy and irreversible fluxes are defined as non-advective parts of fluxes of conservative quantities. The validity of the general evolution criterion and its generalization is discussed. (author)
Structural Stability and Vibration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wiggers, Sine Leergaard; Pedersen, Pauli
This book offers an integrated introduction to the topic of stability and vibration. Strikingly, it describes stability as a function of boundary conditions and eigenfrequency as a function of both boundary conditions and column force. Based on a post graduate course held by the author at the Uni...... and their derivation, thus stimulating them to write interactive and dynamic programs to analyze instability and vibrational modes....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Philip J. Reid
2009-09-21
The conference focuses on using vibrational spectroscopy to probe structure and dynamics of molecules in gases, liquids, and interfaces. The goal is to bring together a collection of researchers who share common interests and who will gain from discussing work at the forefront of several connected areas. The intent is to emphasize the insights and understanding that studies of vibrations provide about a variety of systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khosravian, N; Rafii-Tabar, H
2008-01-01
In the design of nanotube-based fluidic devices, a critical issue is the effect of the induced vibrations in the nanotube arising from the fluid flow, since these vibrations can promote structural instabilities, such as buckling transitions. It is known that the induced resonant frequencies depend on the fluid flow velocity in a significant manner. We have studied, for the first time, the flow of a non-viscous fluid in stubby multi-walled carbon nanotubes, using the Timoshenko classical beam theory to model the nanotubes as a continuum structure. We have obtained the variations of the resonant frequencies with the fluid flow velocity under several experimentally interesting boundary conditions and aspect ratios of the nanotube. The main finding from our work is that, compared to an Euler-Bernoulli classical beam model of a nanotube, the Timoshenko beam predicts the loss of stability at lower fluid flow velocities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khosravian, N; Rafii-Tabar, H [Computational Physical Sciences Research Laboratory, Department of Nano-Science, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), PO Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: rafii-tabar@nano.ipm.ac.ir
2008-07-09
In the design of nanotube-based fluidic devices, a critical issue is the effect of the induced vibrations in the nanotube arising from the fluid flow, since these vibrations can promote structural instabilities, such as buckling transitions. It is known that the induced resonant frequencies depend on the fluid flow velocity in a significant manner. We have studied, for the first time, the flow of a non-viscous fluid in stubby multi-walled carbon nanotubes, using the Timoshenko classical beam theory to model the nanotubes as a continuum structure. We have obtained the variations of the resonant frequencies with the fluid flow velocity under several experimentally interesting boundary conditions and aspect ratios of the nanotube. The main finding from our work is that, compared to an Euler-Bernoulli classical beam model of a nanotube, the Timoshenko beam predicts the loss of stability at lower fluid flow velocities.
A semi-elliptic analysis of internal viscous flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghia, U.; Ramamurti, R.; Ghia, K.N.
1986-01-01
The increased demands placed presently on the performance of compressors and turbines of gas-turbine engines have, for some time, pointed the need for accurate analysis of viscous flows in turbomachinery. With the recent developments of advanced computational facilities, much effort has been made to respond to this need. Various mathematical formulations, grid systems and numerical techniques have been developed for the numerical solution of the viscous flow equations (Refs. 1-4). The full Navier-Stokes equations as well as their corresponding thin-layer approximate form have been employed in H- as well as C-grids, using explicit or implicit methods, including convergence enhancement techniques based on multi-grid methodology. Nevertheless, obtaining converged solutions for general geometries on acceptably refined grids remains a computationally demanding task. The present paper discusses a reduced form on the governing equations which can capture much of the physics, while requiring less computer resources than the full Navier-Stokes equations
Renormalization group approach to causal bulk viscous cosmological models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belinchon, J A; Harko, T; Mak, M K
2002-01-01
The renormalization group method is applied to the study of homogeneous and flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker type universes, filled with a causal bulk viscous cosmological fluid. The starting point of the study is the consideration of the scaling properties of the gravitational field equations, the causal evolution equation of the bulk viscous pressure and the equations of state. The requirement of scale invariance imposes strong constraints on the temporal evolution of the bulk viscosity coefficient, temperature and relaxation time, thus leading to the possibility of obtaining the bulk viscosity coefficient-energy density dependence. For a cosmological model with bulk viscosity coefficient proportional to the Hubble parameter, we perform the analysis of the renormalization group flow around the scale-invariant fixed point, thereby obtaining the long-time behaviour of the scale factor
Microfluidic System Simulation Including the Electro-Viscous Effect
Rojas, Eileen; Chen, C. P.; Majumdar, Alok
2007-01-01
This paper describes a practical approach using a general purpose lumped-parameter computer program, GFSSP (Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program) for calculating flow distribution in a network of micro-channels including electro-viscous effects due to the existence of electrical double layer (EDL). In this study, an empirical formulation for calculating an effective viscosity of ionic solutions based on dimensional analysis is described to account for surface charge and bulk fluid conductivity, which give rise to electro-viscous effect in microfluidics network. Two dimensional slit micro flow data was used to determine the model coefficients. Geometry effect is then included through a Poiseuille number correlation in GFSSP. The bi-power model was used to calculate flow distribution of isotropically etched straight channel and T-junction microflows involving ionic solutions. Performance of the proposed model is assessed against experimental test data.
Spectral analysis of viscous static compressible fluid equilibria
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nunez, Manuel [Departamento de Analisis Matematico, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid (Spain)
2001-05-25
It is generally assumed that the study of the spectrum of the linearized Navier-Stokes equations around a static state will provide information about the stability of the equilibrium. This is obvious for inviscid barotropic compressible fluids by the self-adjoint character of the relevant operator, and rather easy for viscous incompressible fluids by the compact character of the resolvent. The viscous compressible linearized system, both for periodic and homogeneous Dirichlet boundary problems, satisfies neither condition, but it does turn out to be the generator of an immediately continuous, almost stable semigroup, which justifies the analysis of the spectrum as predictive of the initial behaviour of the flow. As for the spectrum itself, except for a unique negative finite accumulation point, it is formed by eigenvalues with negative real part, and nonreal eigenvalues are confined to a certain bounded subset of complex numbers. (author)
Thermal and viscous effects on sound waves: revised classical theory.
Davis, Anthony M J; Brenner, Howard
2012-11-01
In this paper the recently developed, bi-velocity model of fluid mechanics based on the principles of linear irreversible thermodynamics (LIT) is applied to sound propagation in gases taking account of first-order thermal and viscous dissipation effects. The results are compared and contrasted with the classical Navier-Stokes-Fourier results of Pierce for this same situation cited in his textbook. Comparisons are also made with the recent analyses of Dadzie and Reese, whose molecularly based sound propagation calculations furnish results virtually identical with the purely macroscopic LIT-based bi-velocity results below, as well as being well-supported by experimental data. Illustrative dissipative sound propagation examples involving application of the bi-velocity model to several elementary situations are also provided, showing the disjoint entropy mode and the additional, evanescent viscous mode.
USE OF POLYMERS TO RECOVER VISCOUS OIL FROM UNCONVENTIONAL RESERVOIRS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Randall Seright
2011-09-30
This final technical progress report summarizes work performed the project, 'Use of Polymers to Recover Viscous Oil from Unconventional Reservoirs.' The objective of this three-year research project was to develop methods using water soluble polymers to recover viscous oil from unconventional reservoirs (i.e., on Alaska's North Slope). The project had three technical tasks. First, limits were re-examined and redefined for where polymer flooding technology can be applied with respect to unfavorable displacements. Second, we tested existing and new polymers for effective polymer flooding of viscous oil, and we tested newly proposed mechanisms for oil displacement by polymer solutions. Third, we examined novel methods of using polymer gels to improve sweep efficiency during recovery of unconventional viscous oil. This report details work performed during the project. First, using fractional flow calculations, we examined the potential of polymer flooding for recovering viscous oils when the polymer is able to reduce the residual oil saturation to a value less than that of a waterflood. Second, we extensively investigated the rheology in porous media for a new hydrophobic associative polymer. Third, using simulation and analytical studies, we compared oil recovery efficiency for polymer flooding versus in-depth profile modification (i.e., 'Bright Water') as a function of (1) permeability contrast, (2) relative zone thickness, (3) oil viscosity, (4) polymer solution viscosity, (5) polymer or blocking-agent bank size, and (6) relative costs for polymer versus blocking agent. Fourth, we experimentally established how much polymer flooding can reduce the residual oil saturation in an oil-wet core that is saturated with viscous North Slope crude. Finally, an experimental study compared mechanical degradation of an associative polymer with that of a partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide. Detailed results from the first two years of the project may be
IUTAM Symposium on Lubricated Transport of Viscous Materials
1998-01-01
The main objective of the First International Symposium on Lubricated Transport of Viscous Materials was to bring together scientists and engineers from academia and industryto discuss current research work and exchange ideas in this newly emerging field. It is an area offluid dynamics devoted to laying bare the principlesofthe lubricated transport of viscous materials such as crude oil, concentrated oil/water emulsion, slurries and capsules. It encompasses several types of problem. Studies of migration of particulates away from walls, Segre-Silverberg effects, lubrication versus lift and shear-induced migration belong to one category. Some of the technological problems are the fluid dynamics ofcore flows emphasizing studies ofstability, problems of start-up, lift-off and eccentric flow where gravity causes the core flow to stratify. Another category of problems deals with the fouling of pipe walls with oil, with undesirable increases in pressure gradients and even blocking. This study involves subjects like ...
Grossman, B.; Cinella, P.
1988-01-01
A finite-volume method for the numerical computation of flows with nonequilibrium thermodynamics and chemistry is presented. A thermodynamic model is described which simplifies the coupling between the chemistry and thermodynamics and also results in the retention of the homogeneity property of the Euler equations (including all the species continuity and vibrational energy conservation equations). Flux-splitting procedures are developed for the fully coupled equations involving fluid dynamics, chemical production and thermodynamic relaxation processes. New forms of flux-vector split and flux-difference split algorithms are embodied in a fully coupled, implicit, large-block structure, including all the species conservation and energy production equations. Several numerical examples are presented, including high-temperature shock tube and nozzle flows. The methodology is compared to other existing techniques, including spectral and central-differenced procedures, and favorable comparisons are shown regarding accuracy, shock-capturing and convergence rates.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khodadi, M.; Sepangi, H.R.
2014-01-01
We study the phase transition from quark–gluon plasma to hadrons in the early universe in the context of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. According to the standard model of cosmology, a phase transition associated with chiral symmetry breaking after the electro-weak transition has occurred when the universe was about 1–10 μs old. We focus attention on such a phase transition in the presence of a viscous relativistic cosmological background fluid in the framework of non-detailed balance Hořava–Lifshitz cosmology within an effective model of QCD. We consider a flat Friedmann–Robertson–Walker universe filled with a non-causal and a causal bulk viscous cosmological fluid respectively and investigate the effects of the running coupling constants of Hořava–Lifshitz gravity, λ, on the evolution of the physical quantities relevant to a description of the early universe, namely, the temperature T, scale factor a, deceleration parameter q and dimensionless ratio of the bulk viscosity coefficient to entropy density (ξ)/s . We assume that the bulk viscosity cosmological background fluid obeys the evolution equation of the steady truncated (Eckart) and full version of the Israel–Stewart fluid, respectively. -- Highlights: •In this paper we have studied quark–hadron phase transition in the early universe in the context of the Hořava–Lifshitz model. •We use a flat FRW universe with the bulk viscosity cosmological background fluid obeying the evolution equation of the steady truncated (Eckart) and full version of the Israel–Stewart fluid, respectively
Quasi-neutral limit for a model of viscous plasma
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Feireisl, Eduard; Zhang, P.
2010-01-01
Roč. 197, č. 1 (2010), s. 271-295 ISSN 0003-9527 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/0315 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Navier-Stokes- Poisson system * quasi-neutral limit * viscous plasma Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.277, year: 2010 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00205-010-0317-7
Viscous Flow with Large Fluid-Fluid Interface Displacement
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole; Saasen, Arild
1998-01-01
The arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) kinematic description has been implemented in a 3D transient finite element program to simulate multiple fluid flows with fluid-fluid interface or surface displacements. The description of fluid interfaces includes variable interfacial tension, and the formulation...... is useful in the simulation of low and intermediate Reynolds number viscous flow. The displacement of two immiscible Newtonian fluids in a vertical (concentric and eccentric) annulus and a (vertical and inclined)tube is simulated....
Viscous Regularization of the Euler Equations and Entropy Principles
Guermond, Jean-Luc
2014-03-11
This paper investigates a general class of viscous regularizations of the compressible Euler equations. A unique regularization is identified that is compatible with all the generalized entropies, à la [Harten et al., SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 35 (1998), pp. 2117-2127], and satisfies the minimum entropy principle. A connection with a recently proposed phenomenological model by [H. Brenner, Phys. A, 370 (2006), pp. 190-224] is made. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.
Mathematical aspects of finite element methods for incompressible viscous flows
Gunzburger, M. D.
1986-01-01
Mathematical aspects of finite element methods are surveyed for incompressible viscous flows, concentrating on the steady primitive variable formulation. The discretization of a weak formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations are addressed, then the stability condition is considered, the satisfaction of which insures the stability of the approximation. Specific choices of finite element spaces for the velocity and pressure are then discussed. Finally, the connection between different weak formulations and a variety of boundary conditions is explored.
Steady fall of a rigid body in viscous fluid
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Nečasová, Šárka
2005-01-01
Roč. 63, Sp. Is. (2005), s. 2113-2119 ISSN 0362-546X. [Invited Talks from the Fourth World Congress of Nonlinear Analysts (WCNA 2004). Orlando , 30.7.2004-7.8.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/02/0684 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : steady fall * rigid body * viscous fluid Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.519, year: 2005
Effective description of dark matter as a viscous fluid
Floerchinger, S.; Tetradis, N.; Wiedemann, U.A.
2016-10-28
Treating dark matter at large scales as an effectively viscous fluid provides an improved framework for the calculation of the density and velocity power spectra compared to the standard assumption of an ideal pressureless fluid. We discuss how this framework can be made concrete through an appropriate coarse-graining procedure. We also review results that demonstrate that it improves the convergence of cosmological perturbation theory.
Mathematical theory of viscous fluids: retrospective and future perspectives
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Feireisl, Eduard
2010-01-01
Roč. 27, č. 2 (2010), s. 533-555 ISSN 1078-0947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/0315 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : viscous fluid * Navier-Stokes-Fourier system * global-intime solutions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.986, year: 2010 http://www.aimsciences.org/journals/displayArticles.jsp?paperID=4942
Diffusivity measurements of volatile organics in levitated viscous aerosol particles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Bastelberger
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Field measurements indicating that atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA particles can be present in a highly viscous, glassy state have spurred numerous studies addressing low diffusivities of water in glassy aerosols. The focus of these studies is on kinetic limitations of hygroscopic growth and the plasticizing effect of water. In contrast, much less is known about diffusion limitations of organic molecules and oxidants in viscous matrices. These may affect atmospheric chemistry and gas–particle partitioning of complex mixtures with constituents of different volatility. In this study, we quantify the diffusivity of a volatile organic in a viscous matrix. Evaporation of single particles generated from an aqueous solution of sucrose and small amounts of volatile tetraethylene glycol (PEG-4 is investigated in an electrodynamic balance at controlled relative humidity (RH and temperature. The evaporative loss of PEG-4 as determined by Mie resonance spectroscopy is used in conjunction with a radially resolved diffusion model to retrieve translational diffusion coefficients of PEG-4. Comparison of the experimentally derived diffusivities with viscosity estimates for the ternary system reveals a breakdown of the Stokes–Einstein relationship, which has often been invoked to infer diffusivity from viscosity. The evaporation of PEG-4 shows pronounced RH and temperature dependencies and is severely depressed for RH ≲ 30 %, corresponding to diffusivities < 10−14 cm2 s−1 at temperatures < 15 °C. The temperature dependence is strong, suggesting a diffusion activation energy of about 300 kJ mol−1. We conclude that atmospheric volatile organic compounds can be subject to severe diffusion limitations in viscous organic aerosol particles. This may enable an important long-range transport mechanism for organic material, including pollutant molecules such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs.
A Thermodynamically Consistent Approach to Phase-Separating Viscous Fluids
Anders, Denis; Weinberg, Kerstin
2018-04-01
The de-mixing properties of heterogeneous viscous fluids are determined by an interplay of diffusion, surface tension and a superposed velocity field. In this contribution a variational model of the decomposition, based on the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible laminar flow and the extended Korteweg-Cahn-Hilliard equations, is formulated. An exemplary numerical simulation using C1-continuous finite elements demonstrates the capability of this model to compute phase decomposition and coarsening of the moving fluid.
Effective description of dark matter as a viscous fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Floerchinger, Stefan; Garny, Mathias; Tetradis, Nikolaos; Wiedemann, Urs Achim
2016-01-01
Treating dark matter at large scales as an effectively viscous fluid provides an improved framework for the calculation of the density and velocity power spectra compared to the standard assumption of an ideal pressureless fluid. We discuss how this framework can be made concrete through an appropriate coarse-graining procedure. We also review results that demonstrate that it improves the convergence of cosmological perturbation theory
Aircraft crash survivability from viscous injury in vertical impacts
Barth, Thomas H.
2009-01-01
This research investigated viscous injury from vertical impact loading to determine if it is critical to survivability of aircraft accidents. A unique database was built from autopsy reports and accident investigations combining injury data with the vehicle impact data. Computer models were created and used to assess injury potential. Common design limits and actual crash data from full scale research experiments were used as inputs. The results were analyzed according to publi...
Handbook of mathematical analysis in mechanics of viscous fluids
Novotný, Antonín
2018-01-01
Mathematics has always played a key role for researches in fluid mechanics. The purpose of this handbook is to give an overview of items that are key to handling problems in fluid mechanics. Since the field of fluid mechanics is huge, it is almost impossible to cover many topics. In this handbook, we focus on mathematical analysis on viscous Newtonian fluid. The first part is devoted to mathematical analysis on incompressible fluids while part 2 is devoted to compressible fluids.
Influence of vibration on structure rheological properties of a highly concentrated suspension
Ouriev Uriev, Boris N.; Uriev, Naum B.
2005-08-01
The influence of mechanical vibration on the flow properties of a highly concentrated multiphase food system is explored in this work. An experimental set-up was designed and adapted to a conventional rotational rheometer with precise rheological characterization capability. A number of calibration tests were performed prior to fundamental experiments with a highly concentrated chocolate suspension. Also, the prediction of wall slippage in shear flow under vibration was evaluated. Analysis of the boundary conditions shows that no side effects such as wall slippage or the Taylor effect were present during the shear experiment under vibration. It was found that superposition of mechanical vibration and shear flow radically decreases the shear viscosity. Comparison between reference shear viscosities at specified shear rates and those measured under vibration shows considerable differences in flow properties. Conversion of the behaviour of the concentrated suspension from strongly shear-thinning to Newtonian flow is reported. Also, the appearance of vibration-induced dilatancy as a new phenomenon is described. It is suggested to relate such phenomena to the non-equilibrium between structure formation and disintegration under vibration and hydrodynamic forces of shear flow. The influence of vibration on structure formation can be well observed during measurement of the yield value of the chocolate suspension under vibration. Comparison with reference data shows how sensitive the structure of the concentrated suspension is to vibration in general. The effects and observations revealed provide a solid basis for further fundamental investigations of structure formation regularities in the flow of any highly concentrated system. The results also show the technological potential for non-conventional treatment of concentrated, multiphase systems.
On microscopic stress nonequilibrium: Application to the magnetopause
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Z.J.
1986-01-01
The main purpose of this paper is to propose the concept of microscopic stress nonequilibrium (or simply micro-nonequilibrium) in plasma physics. This concept arises as a consequence of the insolubility of the steady-state Vlasov-Maxwell equations (or the kinetic-field equations in general) under certain conditions. In what follows: (1) A general stress equilibrium condition for tangential plasma discontinuities is derived from the Maxwell tensor and the plasma stress tensor. (2) An equivalent equilibrium condition, which takes the form of equations of motion of a ''fictitious particle'', is also derived from the above condition. (3) A general solution of the distribution functions is derived according to Jeans's theorem or Liouville's theorem for the solar wind particles in a tangential magnetopause. (4) This solution is applied to the equilibrium condition to investigate the equilibrium state of the tangential magnetopause. Both Parker's tail-region and Wu's dawn-side ''nonequilibria''are confirmed to be micro-nonequilibria because of the violation of the above equilibrium condition. (5) The effects of various factors in micro-nonequilibria are discussed. It is found that randomly trapped particles and inwards electric field in the magnetopause layer generally cannot relieve the dawn-side or tail-region micro-nonequilibria; and that a northward magnetic field in the solar wind generally can suppress the dawn-side nonequilibrium, while a southward field can jeopardize a dusk-side Vlasov equilibrium. (6) Discussion: The concept of ''micro-nonequilibrium'' may become of importance in basic plasma dynamics. It is also possible that the micro-nonequilibrium may play a fundamental role in solar wind particles entering the magnetopause and in magnetospheric substorms
Alternating currents and shear waves in viscous electronics
Semenyakin, M.; Falkovich, G.
2018-02-01
Strong interaction among charge carriers can make them move like viscous fluid. Here we explore alternating current (ac) effects in viscous electronics. In the Ohmic case, incompressible current distribution in a sample adjusts fast to a time-dependent voltage on the electrodes, while in the viscous case, momentum diffusion makes for retardation and for the possibility of propagating slow shear waves. We focus on specific geometries that showcase interesting aspects of such waves: current parallel to a one-dimensional defect and current applied across a long strip. We find that the phase velocity of the wave propagating along the strip respectively increases/decreases with the frequency for no-slip/no-stress boundary conditions. This is so because when the frequency or strip width goes to zero (alternatively, viscosity go to infinity), the wavelength of the current pattern tends to infinity in the no-stress case and to a finite value in a general case. We also show that for dc current across a strip with a no-stress boundary, there are only one pair of vortices, while there is an infinite vortex chain for all other types of boundary conditions.
Special Fluid Viscous Dampers For The Messina Strait Bridge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colato, Gian Paolo; Infanti, Samuele; Castellano, Maria Gabriella
2008-01-01
The Messina Strait Bridge would be the world's longest suspension bridge, with a design earthquake characterised by a PGA value of 0.58 g and a distance between the ipocenter and the bridge of 15 km. Said critical structure of course would need a suitable restraint system for traffic braking loads, wind and seismic actions. Each type of load requires a specific behaviour of the restraint system, making its design a big challenge.The restraint system comprises special types of fluid viscous dampers, installed both in longitudinal and transverse direction, both at the towers and at the anchorages. In seismic conditions they behave as viscous dampers, to reduce the forces on the structural elements and the movements of the bridge deck. But in service dynamic conditions, e.g. under traffic or wind load, the devices shall behave like shock transmission units, thus preventing the longitudinal and transverse movements of the deck.FIP Industriale cooperated with the selected General Contractor, a consortium lead by Impregilo, in the design of said viscous dampers. This paper describes the main features of said devices
Circulation shedding in viscous starting flow past a flat plate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nitsche, Monika; Xu, Ling
2014-01-01
Numerical simulations of viscous flow past a flat plate moving in the direction normal to itself reveal details of the vortical structure of the flow. At early times, most of the vorticity is attached to the plate. This paper introduces a definition of the shed circulation at all times and shows that it indeed represents vorticity that separates and remains separated from the plate. During a large initial time period, the shed circulation satisfies the scaling laws predicted for self-similar inviscid separation. Various contributions to the circulation shedding rate are presented. The results show that during this initial time period, viscous diffusion of vorticity out of the vortex is significant but appears to be independent of the value of the Reynolds number. At later times, the departure of the shed circulation from its large Reynolds number behaviour is significantly affected by diffusive loss of vorticity through the symmetry axis. A timescale is proposed that describes when the viscous loss through the axis becomes relevant. The simulations provide benchmark results to evaluate simpler separation models such as point vortex and vortex sheet models. A comparison with vortex sheet results is included. (paper)
Viscous wing theory development. Volume 1: Analysis, method and results
Chow, R. R.; Melnik, R. E.; Marconi, F.; Steinhoff, J.
1986-01-01
Viscous transonic flows at large Reynolds numbers over 3-D wings were analyzed using a zonal viscid-inviscid interaction approach. A new numerical AFZ scheme was developed in conjunction with the finite volume formulation for the solution of the inviscid full-potential equation. A special far-field asymptotic boundary condition was developed and a second-order artificial viscosity included for an improved inviscid solution methodology. The integral method was used for the laminar/turbulent boundary layer and 3-D viscous wake calculation. The interaction calculation included the coupling conditions of the source flux due to the wing surface boundary layer, the flux jump due to the viscous wake, and the wake curvature effect. A method was also devised incorporating the 2-D trailing edge strong interaction solution for the normal pressure correction near the trailing edge region. A fully automated computer program was developed to perform the proposed method with one scalar version to be used on an IBM-3081 and two vectorized versions on Cray-1 and Cyber-205 computers.
Diffusivity measurements of volatile organics in levitated viscous aerosol particles
Bastelberger, Sandra; Krieger, Ulrich K.; Luo, Beiping; Peter, Thomas
2017-07-01
Field measurements indicating that atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles can be present in a highly viscous, glassy state have spurred numerous studies addressing low diffusivities of water in glassy aerosols. The focus of these studies is on kinetic limitations of hygroscopic growth and the plasticizing effect of water. In contrast, much less is known about diffusion limitations of organic molecules and oxidants in viscous matrices. These may affect atmospheric chemistry and gas-particle partitioning of complex mixtures with constituents of different volatility. In this study, we quantify the diffusivity of a volatile organic in a viscous matrix. Evaporation of single particles generated from an aqueous solution of sucrose and small amounts of volatile tetraethylene glycol (PEG-4) is investigated in an electrodynamic balance at controlled relative humidity (RH) and temperature. The evaporative loss of PEG-4 as determined by Mie resonance spectroscopy is used in conjunction with a radially resolved diffusion model to retrieve translational diffusion coefficients of PEG-4. Comparison of the experimentally derived diffusivities with viscosity estimates for the ternary system reveals a breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein relationship, which has often been invoked to infer diffusivity from viscosity. The evaporation of PEG-4 shows pronounced RH and temperature dependencies and is severely depressed for RH ≲ 30 %, corresponding to diffusivities pollutant molecules such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).
Testing of viscous anti-HIV microbicides using Lactobacillus.
Moncla, B J; Pryke, K; Rohan, L C; Yang, H
2012-02-01
The development of topical microbicides for intravaginal use to prevent HIV infection requires that the drugs and formulated products be nontoxic to the endogenous vaginal Lactobacillus. In 30min exposure tests we found dapivirine, tenofovir and UC781 (reverse transcriptase inhibitor anti-HIV drugs) as pure drugs or formulated as film or gel products were not deleterious to Lactobacillus species; however, PSC-RANTES (a synthetic CCR5 antagonist) killed 2 strains of Lactobacillus jensenii. To demonstrate the toxicity of formulated products a new assay was developed for use with viscous and non-viscous samples that we have termed the Lactobacillus toxicity test. We found that the vortex mixing of vaginal Lactobacillus species can lead to reductions in bacterial viability. Lactobacillus can survive briefly, about 2s, but viability declines with increased vortex mixing. The addition of heat inactivated serum or bovine serum albumin, but not glycerol, prevented the decrease in bacterial viability. Bacillus atrophaeus spores also demonstrated loss of viability upon extended mixing. We observed that many of the excipients used in film formulation and the films themselves also afford protection from the killing during vortex mixing. This method is of relevance for toxicity for cidal activities of viscous products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Simulation of swimming strings immersed in a viscous fluid flow
Huang, Wei-Xi; Sung, Hyung Jin
2006-11-01
In nature, many phenomena involve interactions between flexible bodies and their surrounding viscous fluid, such as a swimming fish or a flapping flag. The intrinsic dynamics is complicate and not well understood. A flexible string can be regarded as a one-dimensional flag model. Many similarities can be found between the flapping string and swimming fish, although different wake speed results in a drag force for the flapping string and a propulsion force for the swimming fish. In the present study, we propose a mathematical formulation for swimming strings immersed in a viscous fluid flow. Fluid motion is governed by the Navier-Stokes equations and a momentum forcing is added in order to bring the fluid to move at the same velocity with the immersed surface. A flexible inextensible string model is described by another set of equations with an additional momentum forcing which is a result of the fluid viscosity and the pressure difference across the string. The momentum forcing is calculated by a feedback loop. Simulations of several numerical examples are carried out, including a hanging string which starts moving under gravity without ambient fluid, a swinging string immersed in a quiescent viscous fluid, a string swimming within a uniform surrounding flow, and flow over two side-by-side strings. The numerical results agree well with the theoretical analysis and previous experimental observations. Further simulation of a swimming fish is under consideration.
Steady flow instability in an annulus with deflectors at rotational vibration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kozlov, Nikolai V [Lab. Vibrational Hydromechanics, Perm State-Humanitarian Pedagogical University 24 Sibirskaya av., 614990 Perm (Russian Federation); Pareau, Dominique; Stambouli, Moncef [Lab. Chemical Engineering, CentraleSupélec-Université Paris Saclay, Grande Voie des Vignes, 92295 Châtenay-Malabry (France); Ivantsov, Andrey, E-mail: kozlov.n@icmm.ru [Lab. Computational Hydrodynamics Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics UB RAS1 Acad. Korolev st., 614013 Perm (Russian Federation)
2016-12-15
Experimental study and direct numerical simulation of the dynamics of an isothermal low-viscosity fluid are done in a coaxial gap of a cylindrical container making rotational vibrations relative to its axis. On the inner surface of the outer wall of the container, semicircular deflectors are regularly situated, playing the role of flow activators. As a result of vibrations, the activators oscillate tangentially. In the simulation, a 2D configuration is considered, excluding the end-wall effects. In the experiment, a container with a large aspect ratio is used. Steady streaming is generated in the viscous boundary layers on the activators. On each of the latter, beyond the viscous domain, a symmetric vortices pair is formed. The steady streaming in the annulus has an azimuthal periodicity. With an increase in the vibration intensity, a competition between the vortices occurs, as a result of which one of the vortices (let us call it even) approaches the activator and the other one (odd) rolls away and couples with the vortices from the neighbouring pairs. Streamlines of the odd vortices close on each other, forming a cog-wheel shaped flow that encircles the inner wall. Comparison of the experiment and the simulation reveals an agreement at moderate vibration intensity. (paper)
Design and Synthesis of Nonequilibrium Systems.
Cheng, Chuyang; McGonigal, Paul R; Stoddart, J Fraser; Astumian, R Dean
2015-09-22
The active transport of ions and molecules across cell membranes is essential to creating the concentration gradients that sustain life in all living organisms, be they bacteria, fungi, plants, animals or Homo sapiens. Nature uses active transport everywhere for everything. Molecular biologists have long been attracted to the study of active transport and continue to this day to investigate and elucidate the tertiary structures of the complex motor proteins that sustain it, while physicists, interested in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, have developed theoretical models to describe the driven ratcheting motions that are crucial to its function. The increasingly detailed understanding that contemporary science has acquired relating to active transport, however, has yet to lead to the design and construction of artificial molecular motors capable of employing ratchet-driven motions that can also perform work against concentration gradients. Mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs) in the form of pseudo- and semirotaxanes are showing some encouraging signs in meeting these goals. This review summarizes recent progress in making artificial molecular motors that can perform work by "pumping" tetracationic rings into high-energy states. The launching pad is a bistable [2]rotaxane whose dumbbell component contains two electron-donating recognition sites, one, a tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) unit, which interacts more strongly with the ring component, cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) (CBPQT(4+)), containing two electron-accepting bipyridinium units, than does the other 1,5-dioxynaphthalene (DNP) unit. Switching can be induced electrochemically by oxidizing the TTF unit to a TTF(•+) radical cation, whereupon Coulombic repulsion takes care of moving the ring to the DNP unit. Reduction of the radical cation resets the switch. Molecular switches operate at, or close to, equilibrium. Any work done during one switching event is undone during the reset. Molecular motors, on the
Petrović, Z. Lj; Malović, G.; Tasić, M.; Nikitović, Ž.
2007-06-01
from many different standpoints. A special case of non-equilibrium is that of non-neutral plasmas, i.e. plasmas devoid of ions, as described in the lecture and paper by J Marler (Appleton, USA). Physics of swarms (the low space charge limit of ionized gases) is similar to the previous study in the fact that we may have only one group of charged particles electrons (or ions). But the difference is that the latter has a much higher pressure and therefore number of collisions. In the lecture on one aspect of the application of swarm data (transport coefficients) to determine the electron scattering cross sections R White (Townsville, Australia) addresses a long standing controversy in the vibrational excitation of H2 of an unacceptable discrepancy between swarm results and binary collision experiments and theories, (a problem that has been of particular importance to the host Laboratory). The lecture of N Dyatko (Troitsk, Russian Federation) tackles one of the most interesting recent problems in the transport theory of ionized gases, that of the negative absolute conductivity and attempts to translate it to solid state physics where the stakes are much higher. The swarm studies were always based on excellent experimental data and the leading experimental group today is that of J de Urquijo (Cuernavaca, Mexico) who presents a review of a wide range of transport data that his group obtained in fluorinated gases. The gas breakdown in dc and high frequency fields was addressed by M Radmilović-Rađenović (Belgrade, Serbia) by applying a detailed secondary electron production model in Particle in Cell (PIC) code and comparing the results to a broad range of experimental data. The hybrid (fluid-Monte Carlo) model has been applied in the study by Z Donko and K Kutasi (Budapest, Hungary) of low pressure obstructed glow discharges to decribe the effect of fast neutrals on gas discharges. A study of kinetics of negative ions of hydrogen in glow discharges with positive column and
Vibration transducer calibration techniques
Brinkley, D. J.
1980-09-01
Techniques for the calibration of vibration transducers used in the Aeronautical Quality Assurance Directorate of the British Ministry of Defence are presented. Following a review of the types of measurements necessary in the calibration of vibration transducers, the performance requirements of vibration transducers, which can be used to measure acceleration, velocity or vibration amplitude, are discussed, with particular attention given to the piezoelectric accelerometer. Techniques for the accurate measurement of sinusoidal vibration amplitude in reference-grade transducers are then considered, including the use of a position sensitive photocell and the use of a Michelson laser interferometer. Means of comparing the output of working-grade accelerometers with that of previously calibrated reference-grade devices are then outlined, with attention given to a method employing a capacitance bridge technique and a method to be used at temperatures between -50 and 200 C. Automatic calibration procedures developed to speed up the calibration process are outlined, and future possible extensions of system software are indicated.
Linear and nonlinear viscous flow in two-dimensional fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gravina, D.; Ciccotti, G.; Holian, B.L.
1995-01-01
We report on molecular dynamics simulations of shear viscosity η of a dense two-dimensional fluid as a function of the shear rate γ. We find an analytic dependence of η on γ, and do not find any evidence whatsoever of divergence in the Green-Kubo (GK) value that would be caused by the well-known long-time tail for the shear-stress autocorrelation function, as predicted by the mode-coupling theory. In accordance with the linear response theory, the GK value of η agrees remarkably well with nonequilibrium values at small shear rates. (c) 1995 The American Physical Society
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoneda, M. (Kawada Industries Inc., Tokyo (Japan)); Shimoda, I. (Oiles Corp., Tokyo (Japan))
1993-12-20
Oil dampers and viscous shearing dampers have been used to control wind-induced cable vibrations of cable-stayed bridges. The damping addition efficiency in the case where only damping force of the viscous shearing damper is considered was discussed in the previous paper. In this paper, more precise estimation is done by also considering the spring elasticity of the damper. Arranging the results of an indoor excitation test on viscous shearing dampers using SA-P viscous body, an experimental equation to express the spring rigidity is derived. The spring elasticity becomes smaller with increasing temperature of viscous body, decreasing frequency, and increasing amplitude. Then, the damping addition effect is measured by installing the viscous shearing damper on the actual bridge cable, and is compared with the theoretical value resulting from the complex-eigenvalue analysis. Consequently, it is shown that the theoretical value is almost correspondent with the measured result through the analysis using equivalent coefficient of viscosity and equivalent spring constant, which are arranged in the experimental equation. Moreover, application examples of damping estimation curves for designing cables with dampers are given. 15 refs., 13 figs., 10 tabs.
Recovering Intrinsic Fragmental Vibrations Using the Generalized Subsystem Vibrational Analysis.
Tao, Yunwen; Tian, Chuan; Verma, Niraj; Zou, Wenli; Wang, Chao; Cremer, Dieter; Kraka, Elfi
2018-05-08
Normal vibrational modes are generally delocalized over the molecular system, which makes it difficult to assign certain vibrations to specific fragments or functional groups. We introduce a new approach, the Generalized Subsystem Vibrational Analysis (GSVA), to extract the intrinsic fragmental vibrations of any fragment/subsystem from the whole system via the evaluation of the corresponding effective Hessian matrix. The retention of the curvature information with regard to the potential energy surface for the effective Hessian matrix endows our approach with a concrete physical basis and enables the normal vibrational modes of different molecular systems to be legitimately comparable. Furthermore, the intrinsic fragmental vibrations act as a new link between the Konkoli-Cremer local vibrational modes and the normal vibrational modes.
Nokes, L D; Thorne, G C
1988-01-01
Measurements of various mechanical properties of skeletal material using vibration techniques have been reported. The purposes of such investigations include the monitoring of pathogenic disorders such as osteoporosis, the rate and extent of fracture healing, and the status of internal fixations. Early investigations pioneered the application of conventional vibration measurement equipment to biological systems. The more recent advent of the microcomputer has made available to research groups more sophisticated techniques for data acquisition and analysis. The economical advantages of such equipment has led to the development of portable research instrumentation which lends itself to use in a clinical environment. This review article reports on the developments and progression of the various vibrational techniques and theories as applied to musculoskeletal systems.
Scott, James F; Evans, Donald M; Katiyar, Ram S; McQuaid, Raymond G P; Gregg, J Marty
2017-08-02
Since the 1935 work of Landau-Lifshitz and of Kittel in 1946 all ferromagnetic, ferroelectric, and ferroelastic domains have been thought to be straight-sided with domain widths proportional to the square root of the sample thickness. We show in the present work that this is not true. We also discover period doubling domains predicted by Metaxas et al (2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 217208) and modeled by Wang and Zhao (2015 Sci. Rep. 5 8887). We examine non-equilibrium ferroic domain structures in perovskite oxides with respect to folding, wrinkling, and relaxation and suggest that structures are kinetically limited and in the viscous flow regime predicted by Metaxas et al in 2008 but never observed experimentally. Comparisons are made with liquid crystals and hydrodynamic instabilities, including chevrons, and fractional power-law relaxation. As Shin et al (2016 Soft Matter 12 3502) recently emphasized: 'An understanding of how these folds initiate, propagate, and interact with each other is still lacking'. Inside each ferroelastic domain are ferroelectric 90° nano-domains with 10 nm widths and periodicity in agreement with the 10 nm theoretical minima predicted by Feigl et al (2014 Nat. Commun. 5 4677). Evidence is presented for domain-width period doubling, which is common in polymer films but unknown in ferroic domains. A discussion of the folding-to-period doubling phase transition model of Wang and Zhao is included.
Palmer, Grant; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj
1993-01-01
Three solution algorithms, explicit underrelaxation, point implicit, and lower upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel (LUSGS), are used to compute nonequilibrium flow around the Apollo 4 return capsule at 62 km altitude. By varying the Mach number, the efficiency and robustness of the solution algorithms were tested for different levels of chemical stiffness. The performance of the solution algorithms degraded as the Mach number and stiffness of the flow increased. At Mach 15, 23, and 30, the LUSGS method produces an eight order of magnitude drop in the L2 norm of the energy residual in 1/3 to 1/2 the Cray C-90 computer time as compared to the point implicit and explicit under-relaxation methods. The explicit under-relaxation algorithm experienced convergence difficulties at Mach 23 and above. At Mach 40 the performance of the LUSGS algorithm deteriorates to the point it is out-performed by the point implicit method. The effects of the viscous terms are investigated. Grid dependency questions are explored.
Vibrational spectra of aminoacetonitrile
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bak, B.; Hansen, E.L.; Nicolaisen, F.M.; Nielsen, O.F.
1975-01-01
The preparation of pure, stable aminoacetonitrile(1-amino, 1'-cyanomethane)CH 2 NH 2 CN (1) is described. The Raman spectrum, now complete, and a novel infrared spectrum extending over the 50-3600 cm -1 region are reported. A tentative normal vibration analysis is presented and supported by Raman and infrared data from the spectra of CH 2 NHDCN (2) and CH 2 ND 2 CN (3). The predominance of the trans rotamer may be attributed to intramolecular hydrogen bonding but this is too unimportant to influence the vibrational frequencies of gaseous 1, 2, and 3. However, large gas/liquid frequency shifts occur. (author)
Kaliski, S
2013-01-01
This book gives a comprehensive overview of wave phenomena in different media with interacting mechanical, electromagnetic and other fields. Equations describing wave propagation in linear and non-linear elastic media are followed by equations of rheological models, models with internal rotational degrees of freedom and non-local interactions. Equations for coupled fields: thermal, elastic, electromagnetic, piezoelectric, and magneto-spin with adequate boundary conditions are also included. Together with its companion volume Vibrations and Waves. Part A: Vibrations this work provides a wealth
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Søren R. K.
The present textbook has been written based on previous lecture notes for a course on stochastic vibration theory that is being given on the 9th semester at Aalborg University for M. Sc. students in structural engineering. The present 2nd edition of this textbook on linear stochastic vibration th...... theory is basically unchanged in comparison to the 1st edition. Only section 4.2 on single input - single output systems and chapter 6 on offshore structures have been modified in order to enhance the clearness....
Force-dominated non-equilibrium oxidation kinetics of tantalum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kar, Prasenjit; Wang, Ke; Liang, Hong
2008-01-01
Using a combined electrochemical and mechanical manipulation technique, we compared the equilibrium and non-equilibrium oxidation processes and states of tantalum. Experimentally, a setup was developed with an electrochemical system attached to a sliding mechanical configuration capable of friction force measurement. The surface chemistry of a sliding surface, i.e., tantalum, was modified through the electrolyte. The mechanically applied force was fixed and the dynamics of the surface was monitored in situ through a force sensor. The formation of non-equilibrium oxidation states of tantalum was found in oxidation limiting environment of acetic acid. An oxidative environment of deionized water saturated with KCl was used as comparison. We proposed a modified Arrhenius-Eyring equation in which the mechanical factor was considered. We found that the mechanical energy induced the non-stable-state reactions leading to metastable oxidation states of tantalum. This equation can be used to predict mechanochemical reactions that are important in many industrial applications
On Equivalence of Nonequilibrium Thermodynamic and Statistical Entropies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Purushottam D. Gujrati
2015-02-01
Full Text Available We review the concept of nonequilibrium thermodynamic entropy and observables and internal variables as state variables, introduced recently by us, and provide a simple first principle derivation of additive statistical entropy, applicable to all nonequilibrium states by treating thermodynamics as an experimental science. We establish their numerical equivalence in several cases, which includes the most important case when the thermodynamic entropy is a state function. We discuss various interesting aspects of the two entropies and show that the number of microstates in the Boltzmann entropy includes all possible microstates of non-zero probabilities even if the system is trapped in a disjoint component of the microstate space. We show that negative thermodynamic entropy can appear from nonnegative statistical entropy.
Phase transition universality classes of classical, nonequilibrium systems
Ódor, G
2004-01-01
In the first chapter I summarize the most important critical exponents and relations used in this work. In the second chapter I briefly address the question of scaling behavior at first order phase transitions.In chapter three I review dynamical extensions of basic static classes, show the effect of mixing dynamics and percolation behavior. The main body of this work is given in chapter four where genuine, dynamical universality classes specific to nonequilibrium systems are introduced. In chapter five I continue overviewing such nonequilibrium classes but in coupled, multi-component systems. Most of known transitions in low dimensional systems are between active and absorbing states of reaction-diffusion type systems, but I briefly introduce related classes that appear in interface growth models in chapter six. Some of them are related to critical behavior of coupled, multi-component systems. Finally in chapter seven I summarize families of absorbing state system classes, mean-field classes and the most freq...
Analysis of Atomic Electronic Excitation in Nonequilibrium Air Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He Xin; Jia Hong-Hui; Yin Hong-Wei; Zhang Hai-Liang; Chang Sheng-Li; Yang Jun-Cai; Dang Wei-Hua
2014-01-01
Electronic excitation of atoms is studied in nonequilibrium air plasmas with the electronic temperature between 8000 K and 20000 K. By using the modified Saha—Boltzmann equation, our simplified method takes into account significant radiative processes and strong self-absorption of the vacuum ultraviolet lines. Calculations are carried out at three trajectory points of the Fire II flight experiment. Good agreement with the detailed collisional-radiative model is obtained, and the performance of this method in applications to highly nonequilibrium conditions is better than Park's quasi-steady-state model and Spradian-9.0. A short discussion on the influence of optical thickness of the vacuum ultraviolet radiation is also given. It costs about 2.9 ms on the average to solve one cell of the shock layer on a low cost computer, which shows that the present method is fast and efficient. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)
Non-equilibrium Dynamics, Thermalization and Entropy Production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hinrichsen, Haye; Janotta, Peter; Gogolin, Christian
2011-01-01
This paper addresses fundamental aspects of statistical mechanics such as the motivation of a classical state space with spontaneous transitions, the meaning of non-equilibrium in the context of thermalization, and the justification of these concepts from the quantum-mechanical point of view. After an introductory part we focus on the problem of entropy production in non-equilibrium systems. In particular, the generally accepted formula for entropy production in the environment is analyzed from a critical perspective. It is shown that this formula is only valid in the limit of separated time scales of the system's and the environmental degrees of freedom. Finally, we present an alternative simple proof of the fluctuation theorem.
Crossover from equilibration to aging: Nonequilibrium theory versus simulations.
Mendoza-Méndez, P; Lázaro-Lázaro, E; Sánchez-Díaz, L E; Ramírez-González, P E; Pérez-Ángel, G; Medina-Noyola, M
2017-08-01
Understanding glasses and the glass transition requires comprehending the nature of the crossover from the ergodic (or equilibrium) regime, in which the stationary properties of the system have no history dependence, to the mysterious glass transition region, where the measured properties are nonstationary and depend on the protocol of preparation. In this work we use nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations to test the main features of the crossover predicted by the molecular version of the recently developed multicomponent nonequilibrium self-consistent generalized Langevin equation theory. According to this theory, the glass transition involves the abrupt passage from the ordinary pattern of full equilibration to the aging scenario characteristic of glass-forming liquids. The same theory explains that this abrupt transition will always be observed as a blurred crossover due to the unavoidable finiteness of the time window of any experimental observation. We find that within their finite waiting-time window, the simulations confirm the general trends predicted by the theory.
Supersymmetric electroweak baryogenesis, nonequilibrium field theory and quantum Boltzmann equations
Riotto, Antonio
1998-01-01
The closed time-path (CPT) formalism is a powerful Green's function formulation to describe nonequilibrium phenomena in field theory and it leads to a complete nonequilibrium quantum kinetic theory. In this paper we make use of the CPT formalism to write down a set of quantum Boltzmann equations describing the local number density asymmetries of the particles involved in supersymmetric electroweak baryogenesis. These diffusion equations automatically and self-consistently incorporate the CP-violating sources which fuel baryogenesis when transport properties allow the CP-violating charges to diffuse in front of the bubble wall separating the broken from the unbroken phase at the electroweak phase transition. This is a significant improvement with respect to recent approaches where the CP-violating sources are inserted by hand into the diffusion equations. Furthermore, the CP-violating sources and the particle number changing interactions manifest ``memory'' effects which are typical of the quantum transp ort t...
Nonequilibrium Green function techniques applied to hot electron quantum transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jauho, A.P.
1989-01-01
During the last few years considerable effort has been devoted to deriving quantum transport equations for semiconductors under extreme conditions (high electric fields, spatial quantization in one or two directions). Here we review the results obtained with nonequilibrium Green function techniques as formulated by Baym and Kadanoff, or by Keldysh. In particular, the following topics will be discussed: (i) Systematic approaches to reduce the transport equation governing the correlation function to a transport equation for the Wigner function; (ii) Approximations reducing the nonmarkovian quantum transport equation to a numerically tractable form, and results for model semiconductors; (iii) Recent progress in extending the formalism to inhomogeneous systems; and (iv) Nonequilibrium screening. In all sections we try to direct the reader's attention to points where the present understanding is (at best) incomplete, and indicate possible lines for future work. (orig.)
Non-equilibrium statistical physics with application to disordered systems
Cáceres, Manuel Osvaldo
2017-01-01
This textbook is the result of the enhancement of several courses on non-equilibrium statistics, stochastic processes, stochastic differential equations, anomalous diffusion and disorder. The target audience includes students of physics, mathematics, biology, chemistry, and engineering at undergraduate and graduate level with a grasp of the basic elements of mathematics and physics of the fourth year of a typical undergraduate course. The little-known physical and mathematical concepts are described in sections and specific exercises throughout the text, as well as in appendices. Physical-mathematical motivation is the main driving force for the development of this text. It presents the academic topics of probability theory and stochastic processes as well as new educational aspects in the presentation of non-equilibrium statistical theory and stochastic differential equations.. In particular it discusses the problem of irreversibility in that context and the dynamics of Fokker-Planck. An introduction on fluc...
Investigation of Non-Equilibrium Radiation for Earth Entry
Brandis, A. M.; Johnston, C. O.; Cruden, B. A.
2016-01-01
For Earth re-entry at velocities between 8 and 11.5 km/s, the accuracy of NASA's computational uid dynamic and radiative simulations of non-equilibrium shock layer radiation is assessed through comparisons with measurements. These measurements were obtained in the NASA Ames Research Center's Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) facility. The experiments were aimed at measuring the spatially and spectrally resolved radiance at relevant entry conditions for both an approximate Earth atmosphere (79% N2 : 21% O2 by mole) as well as a more accurate composition featuring the trace species Ar and CO2 (78.08% N2 : 20.95% O2 : 0.04% CO2 : 0.93% Ar by mole). The experiments were configured to target a wide range of conditions, of which shots from 8 to 11.5 km/s at 0.2 Torr (26.7 Pa) are examined in this paper. The non-equilibrium component was chosen to be the focus of this study as it can account for a significant percentage of the emitted radiation for Earth re-entry, and more importantly, non-equilibrium has traditionally been assigned a large uncertainty for vehicle design. The main goals of this study are to present the shock tube data in the form of a non-equilibrium metric, evaluate the level of agreement between the experiment and simulations, identify key discrepancies and to examine critical aspects of modeling non-equilibrium radiating flows. Radiance pro les integrated over discreet wavelength regions, ranging from the Vacuum Ultra Violet (VUV) through to the Near Infra-Red (NIR), were compared in order to maximize both the spectral coverage and the number of experiments that could be used in the analysis. A previously defined non-equilibrium metric has been used to allow comparisons with several shots and reveal trends in the data. Overall, LAURA/HARA is shown to under-predict EAST by as much as 40% and over-predict by as much as 12% depending on the shock speed. DPLR/NEQAIR is shown to under-predict EAST by as much as 50% and over-predict by as much as 20% depending
Optimal control of transitions between nonequilibrium steady states.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Patrick R Zulkowski
Full Text Available Biological systems fundamentally exist out of equilibrium in order to preserve organized structures and processes. Many changing cellular conditions can be represented as transitions between nonequilibrium steady states, and organisms have an interest in optimizing such transitions. Using the Hatano-Sasa Y-value, we extend a recently developed geometrical framework for determining optimal protocols so that it can be applied to systems driven from nonequilibrium steady states. We calculate and numerically verify optimal protocols for a colloidal particle dragged through solution by a translating optical trap with two controllable parameters. We offer experimental predictions, specifically that optimal protocols are significantly less costly than naive ones. Optimal protocols similar to these may ultimately point to design principles for biological energy transduction systems and guide the design of artificial molecular machines.
Linear response in the nonequilibrium zero range process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maes, Christian; Salazar, Alberto
2014-01-01
We explore a number of explicit response formulæ around the boundary driven zero range process to changes in the exit and entrance rates. In such a nonequilibrium regime kinetic (and not only thermodynamic) aspects make a difference in the response. Apart from a number of formal approaches, we illustrate a general decomposition of the linear response into entropic and frenetic contributions, the latter being realized from changes in the dynamical activity at the boundaries. In particular in this way one obtains nonlinear modifications to the Green–Kubo relation. We end by bringing some general remarks about the situation where that nonequilibrium response remains given by the (equilibrium) Kubo formula such as for the density profile in the boundary driven Lorentz gas
14th International Conference on Nonequilibrium Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductors
Saraniti, M; Nonequilibrium Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductors
2006-01-01
International experts gather every two years at this established conference to discuss recent developments in theory and experiment in non-equilibrium transport phenomena. These developments have been the driving force behind the spectacular advances in semiconductor physics and devices over the last few decades. Originally known as "Hot Carriers in Semiconductors," the 14th conference in the series covered a wide spectrum of traditional topics dealing with non-equilibrium phenomena, ranging from quantum transport to optical phenomena in mesoscopic and nano-scale structures. Particular attention was given this time to emerging areas of this rapidly evolving field, with many sessions covering terahertz devices, high field transport in nitride semiconductors, spintronics, molecular electronics, and bioelectronics applications.
The entropy concept for non-equilibrium states.
Lieb, Elliott H; Yngvason, Jakob
2013-10-08
In earlier work, we presented a foundation for the second law of classical thermodynamics in terms of the entropy principle. More precisely, we provided an empirically accessible axiomatic derivation of an entropy function defined on all equilibrium states of all systems that has the appropriate additivity and scaling properties, and whose increase is a necessary and sufficient condition for an adiabatic process between two states to be possible. Here, after a brief review of this approach, we address the question of defining entropy for non-equilibrium states. Our conclusion is that it is generally not possible to find a unique entropy that has all relevant physical properties. We do show, however, that one can define two entropy functions, called S - and S + , which, taken together, delimit the range of adiabatic processes that can occur between non-equilibrium states. The concept of comparability of states with respect to adiabatic changes plays an important role in our reasoning.
Non-equilibrium plasma reactor for natrual gas processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shair, F.H.; Ravimohan, A.L.
1974-01-01
A non-equilibrium plasma reactor for natural gas processing into ethane and ethylene comprising means of producing a non-equilibrium chemical plasma wherein selective conversion of the methane in natural gas to desired products of ethane and ethylene at a pre-determined ethane/ethylene ratio in the chemical process may be intimately controlled and optimized at a high electrical power efficiency rate by mixing with a recycling gas inert to the chemical process such as argon, helium, or hydrogen, reducing the residence time of the methane in the chemical plasma, selecting the gas pressure in the chemical plasma from a wide range of pressures, and utilizing pulsed electrical discharge producing the chemical plasma. (author)
Ordered phase and non-equilibrium fluctuation in stock market
Maskawa, Jun-ichi
2002-08-01
We analyze the statistics of daily price change of stock market in the framework of a statistical physics model for the collective fluctuation of stock portfolio. In this model the time series of price changes are coded into the sequences of up and down spins, and the Hamiltonian of the system is expressed by spin-spin interactions as in spin glass models of disordered magnetic systems. Through the analysis of Dow-Jones industrial portfolio consisting of 30 stock issues by this model, we find a non-equilibrium fluctuation mode on the point slightly below the boundary between ordered and disordered phases. The remaining 29 modes are still in disordered phase and well described by Gibbs distribution. The variance of the fluctuation is outlined by the theoretical curve and peculiarly large in the non-equilibrium mode compared with those in the other modes remaining in ordinary phase.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
In this paper the author presents an overview on his own research works. More than ten years ago, we proposed a new fundamental equation of nonequilibrium statistical physics in place of the present Liouville equation. That is the stochastic velocity type’s Langevin equation in 6N dimensional phase space or its equivalent Liouville diffusion equation. This equation is time-reversed asymmetrical. It shows that the form of motion of particles in statistical thermodynamic systems has the drift-diffusion duality, and the law of motion of statistical thermodynamics is expressed by a superposition of both the law of dynamics and the stochastic velocity and possesses both determinism and probability. Hence it is different from the law of motion of particles in dynamical systems. The stochastic diffusion motion of the particles is the microscopic origin of macroscopic irreversibility. Starting from this fundamental equation the BBGKY diffusion equation hierarchy, the Boltzmann collision diffusion equation, the hydrodynamic equations such as the mass drift-diffusion equation, the Navier-Stokes equation and the thermal conductivity equation have been derived and presented here. What is more important, we first constructed a nonlinear evolution equation of nonequilibrium entropy density in 6N, 6 and 3 dimensional phase space, predicted the existence of entropy diffusion. This entropy evolution equation plays a leading role in nonequilibrium entropy theory, it reveals that the time rate of change of nonequilibrium entropy density originates together from its drift, diffusion and production in space. From this evolution equation, we presented a formula for entropy production rate (i.e. the law of entropy increase) in 6N and 6 dimensional phase space, proved that internal attractive force in nonequilibrium system can result in entropy decrease while internal repulsive force leads to another entropy increase, and derived a common expression for this entropy decrease rate or
Bulk viscous matter and recent acceleration of the universe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sasidharan, Athira; Mathew, Titus K. [Cochin University of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Kochi (India)
2015-07-15
We consider a cosmological model dominated by bulk viscous matter with a total bulk viscosity coefficient proportional to the velocity and acceleration of the expansion of the universe in such a way that ζ = ζ{sub 0} + ζ{sub 1}(a)/(a) + ζ{sub 2}(a)/(a). We show that there exist two limiting conditions in the bulk viscous coefficients (ζ{sub 0}, ζ{sub 1}, ζ{sub 2}) which correspond to a universe having a Big Bang at the origin, followed by an early decelerated epoch and then making a smooth transition into an accelerating epoch. We have constrained the model using the type Ia Supernovae data, evaluated the best estimated values of all the bulk viscous parameters and the Hubble parameter corresponding to the two limiting conditions. We found that even though the evolution of the cosmological parameters are in general different for the two limiting cases, they show identical behavior for the best estimated values of the parameters from both limiting conditions. A recent acceleration would occur if ζ{sub 0} + ζ{sub 1} > 1 for the first limiting conditions and if ζ{sub 0} + ζ{sub 1} < 1 for the second limiting conditions. The age of the universe predicted by this model is found to be less than that predicted from the oldest galactic globular clusters. The total bulk viscosity seems to be negative in the past and becomes positive when z ≤ 0.8. So the model violates the local second law of thermodynamics. However, the model satisfies the generalized second law of thermodynamics at the apparent horizon throughout the evolution of the universe. We also made a statefinder analysis of the model and found that it is distinguishably different from the standard ΛCDM model at present, but it shows a de Sitter type behavior in the far future of the evolution. (orig.)
Molecular-Based Optical Diagnostics for Hypersonic Nonequilibrium Flows
Danehy, Paul; Bathel, Brett; Johansen, Craig; Winter, Michael; O'Byrne, Sean; Cutler, Andrew
2015-01-01
This presentation package consists of seven different talks rolled up into one. These talks are all invited orals presentations in a special session at the Aviation 2015 conference and represent contributions that were made to a recent AIAA book that will be published entitled 'Hypersonic Nonequilibrium Flows: Fundamentals and Recent Advances'. Slide 5 lists the individual presentations that will be given during the special session.
Non-equilibrium quasiparticle processes in superconductor tunneling structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perold, W.J.
1990-01-01
A broad overview is presented of the phenomenon of superconductivity. The tunneling of quasiparticles in superconducter-insulator structures is described. Related non-equilibrium processes, such as superconductor bandgap suppresion, quasiparticle diffusion and recombination, and excess quasiparticle collection are discussed. The processes are illustrated with numerical computer simulation data. The importance of the inter-relationship between these processes in practical multiple tunneling junction superconducting device structures is also emphasized. 14 refs., 8 figs
Ward identity for non-equilibrium Fermi systems
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Velický, B.; Kalvová, Anděla; Špička, Václav
2008-01-01
Roč. 77, č. 4 (2008), 041201/1-041201/4 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC202/07/J051 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : non-equilibrium * Green’s functions * quantum transport equations * Ward identity Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 3.322, year: 2008
Crossover from Nonequilibrium Fractal Growth to Equilibrium Compact Growth
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Erik Schwartz; Fogedby, Hans C.; Mouritsen, Ole G.
1988-01-01
Solidification controlled by vacancy diffusion is studied by Monte Carlo simulations of a two-dimensional Ising model defined by a Hamiltonian which models a thermally driven fluid-solid phase transition. The nonequilibrium morphology of the growing solid is studied as a function of time as the s...... as the system relaxes into equilibrium described by a temperature. At low temperatures the model exhibits fractal growth at early times and crossover to compact solidification as equilibrium is approached....
Exact fluctuations of nonequilibrium steady states from approximate auxiliary dynamics
Ray, Ushnish; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Limmer, David T.
2017-01-01
We describe a framework to significantly reduce the computational effort to evaluate large deviation functions of time integrated observables within nonequilibrium steady states. We do this by incorporating an auxiliary dynamics into trajectory based Monte Carlo calculations, through a transformation of the system's propagator using an approximate guiding function. This procedure importance samples the trajectories that most contribute to the large deviation function, mitigating the exponenti...
Non-Equilibrium Modeling of Inductively Coupled RF Plasmas
2015-01-01
wall can be approximated with the expression for an infinite solenoid , B(r = R) = µ0NIc, where quan- tities N and Ic are the number of turns per unit...Modeling of non-equilibrium plasmas in an induc- tively coupled plasma facility. AIAA Paper 2014– 2235, 2014. 45th AIAA Plasmadynamics and Lasers ...1993. 24th Plas- madynamics and Laser Conference, Orlando, FL. [22] M. Capitelli, I. Armenise, D. Bruno, M. Caccia- tore, R. Celiberto, G. Colonna, O
On nonequilibrium many-body systems III: nonlinear transport theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luzzi, R.; Vasconcellos, A.R.; Algarte, A.C.S.
1986-01-01
A nonlinear transport theory for many-body systems arbitrarily away from equilibrium, based on the nonequilibrium statistical operator (NSO) method, is presented. Nonlinear transport equations for a basis set of dynamical quantities are derived using two equivalent treatments that may be considered far reaching generalizations of the Hilbert-Chapman-Enskog method and Mori's generalized Langevin equations method. The first case is considered in some detail and the general characteristics of the theory are discussed. (Author) [pt
Heterogeneous Dynamics of Coupled Vibrations
Cringus, Dan; Jansen, Thomas I. C.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Schoenlein, RW; Corkum, P; DeSilvestri, S; Nelson, KA; Riedle, E
2009-01-01
Frequency-dependent dynamics of coupled stretch vibrations of a water molecule are revealed by 2D IR correlation spectroscopy. These are caused by non-Gaussian fluctuations of the environment around the individual OH stretch vibrations.
Hansson, J E; Eklund, L; Kihlberg, S; Ostergren, C E
1987-03-01
The main objective of the study was to find efficient hand tools which caused only minor vibration loading. Vibration measurements were carried out under standardised working conditions. The time during which car body repairers in seven companies were exposed to vibration was determined. Chisel hammers, impact wrenches, sanders and saws were the types of tools which generated the highest vibration accelerations. The average daily exposure at the different garages ranged from 22 to 70 min. The risk of vibration injury is currently rated as high. The difference between the highest and lowest levels of vibration was considerable in most tool categories. Therefore the choice of tool has a major impact on the magnitude of vibration exposure. The importance of choosing the right tools and working methods is discussed and a counselling service on vibration is proposed.
Viscous and thermal modelling of thermoplastic composites forming process
Guzman, Eduardo; Liang, Biao; Hamila, Nahiene; Boisse, Philippe
2016-10-01
Thermoforming thermoplastic prepregs is a fast manufacturing process. It is suitable for automotive composite parts manufacturing. The simulation of thermoplastic prepreg forming is achieved by alternate thermal and mechanical analyses. The thermal properties are obtained from a mesoscopic analysis and a homogenization procedure. The forming simulation is based on a viscous-hyperelastic approach. The thermal simulations define the coefficients of the mechanical model that depend on the temperature. The forming simulations modify the boundary conditions and the internal geometry of the thermal analyses. The comparison of the simulation with an experimental thermoforming of a part representative of automotive applications shows the efficiency of the approach.
Cardy-Verlinde entropy formula in viscous cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brevik, I.; Odintsov, S.D.
2002-01-01
The results of a paper by Verlinde (hep-th/0008140), discussing the holographic principle in a radiation dominated universe, are extended when allowing the cosmic fluid to possess a bulk viscosity. This corresponds to a nonconformally invariant theory. The generalization of the Cardy-Verlinde entropy formula to the case of a viscous universe seems from a formal point of view to be possible, although we question on physical grounds some elements of this kind of theory, especially the manner in which the Casimir energy is evaluated. Our discussion suggests that for nonconformally invariant theories the holographic definition of Casimir energy should be modified
Improvements for rotary viscous dampers used in spacecraft deployment mechanisms
Stewart, Alphonso; Powers, Charles; Lyons, Ron
1998-01-01
During component level thermal-vacuum deployment testing of eight rotary viscous dampers for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, all the dampers failed to provide damping during a region of the deployment. Radiographic examination showed that air in the damping fluid caused the undamped motion when the dampers were operated in a vacuum environment. Improvements in the procedure used to fill the dampers with damping fluid, the installation of a Viton vacuum seal in the damper cover, and improved screening techniques eliminated the problem.
ΛCDM model with dissipative nonextensive viscous dark matter
Gimenes, H. S.; Viswanathan, G. M.; Silva, R.
2018-03-01
Many models in cosmology typically assume the standard bulk viscosity. We study an alternative interpretation for the origin of the bulk viscosity. Using nonadditive statistics proposed by Tsallis, we propose a bulk viscosity component that can only exist by a nonextensive effect through the nonextensive/dissipative correspondence (NexDC). In this paper, we consider a ΛCDM model for a flat universe with a dissipative nonextensive viscous dark matter component, following the Eckart theory of bulk viscosity, without any perturbative approach. In order to analyze cosmological constraints, we use one of the most recent observations of Type Ia Supernova, baryon acoustic oscillations and cosmic microwave background data.
Hybrid viscous damper with filtered integral force feedback control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Høgsberg, Jan; Brodersen, Mark L.
2016-01-01
In hybrid damper systems active control devices are usually introduced to enhance the performance of otherwise passive dampers. In the present paper a hybrid damper concept is comprised of a passive viscous damper placed in series with an active actuator and a force sensor. The actuator motion...... is controlled by a filtered integral force feedback strategy, where the main feature is the filter, which is designed to render a damper force that in a phase-plane representation operates in front of the corresponding damper velocity. It is demonstrated that in the specific parameter regime where the damper...
Viscous fingering and channeling in chemical enhanced oil recovery
Daripa, Prabir; Dutta, Sourav
2017-11-01
We have developed a hybrid numerical method based on discontinuous finite element method and modified method of characteristics to compute the multiphase multicomponent fluid flow in porous media in the context of chemical enhanced oil recovery. We use this method to study the effect of various chemical components on the viscous fingering and channeling in rectilinear and radial flow configurations. We will also discuss about the efficiency of various flooding schemes based on these understandings. Time permitting, we will discuss about the effect of variable injection rates in these practical setting. U.S. National Science Foundation Grant DMS-1522782.
Crossflow and water banks in viscous dominant regimes of waterflooding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yuan, Hao; Zhang, Xuan; Shapiro, Alexander
2014-01-01
Understanding the crossflow in multilayered reservoirs is of great importance for designing mobility control methods for enhanced oil recovery. The authors reveal saturation profiles in stratified reservoirs to study the interlayer communication in the viscous dominant regime. The displacement...... profiles are more even and smoother in a communicating layer-cake reservoir than in a noncommunicating one. Water banks and transition zones may be observed. Analysis indicates that the phenomena are attributed to the enhanced crossflow due to large mobility ratios (water-oil). The mobility control...
Emulsifying property of a viscous exopolysaccharide fromSphingomonas paucimobilis.
Ashtaputre, A A; Shah, A K
1995-03-01
A viscous exopolysaccharide fromSphingomonas paucimobilis-GS1, emulsified xylene, benzene, 2-methylnaphthalene, hexadecane, hexane, kerosene and paraffin oil as well as castor, coconut and olive oils when used at 1 mg/ml. It stabilized the emulsions more efficiently than commercial gums such as arabic, tragacanth, karaya and xanthan. Emulsions were stable for 6 months, from 4 to 40°C and pH 4 to 10 and in the presence of NaCl up to 50 g/l. The polysaccharide had no discernible toxicity towards mice when tested using World Health Organization guidelines.
Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of dilute polymer solutions in flow.
Latinwo, Folarin; Hsiao, Kai-Wen; Schroeder, Charles M
2014-11-07
Modern materials processing applications and technologies often occur far from equilibrium. To this end, the processing of complex materials such as polymer melts and nanocomposites generally occurs under strong deformations and flows, conditions under which equilibrium thermodynamics does not apply. As a result, the ability to determine the nonequilibrium thermodynamic properties of polymeric materials from measurable quantities such as heat and work is a major challenge in the field. Here, we use work relations to show that nonequilibrium thermodynamic quantities such as free energy and entropy can be determined for dilute polymer solutions in flow. In this way, we determine the thermodynamic properties of DNA molecules in strong flows using a combination of simulations, kinetic theory, and single molecule experiments. We show that it is possible to calculate polymer relaxation timescales purely from polymer stretching dynamics in flow. We further observe a thermodynamic equivalence between nonequilibrium and equilibrium steady-states for polymeric systems. In this way, our results provide an improved understanding of the energetics of flowing polymer solutions.
Choking flow modeling with mechanical and thermal non-equilibrium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoon, H.J.; Ishii, M.; Revankar, S.T. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)
2006-01-15
The mechanistic model, which considers the mechanical and thermal non-equilibrium, is described for two-phase choking flow. The choking mass flux is obtained from the momentum equation with the definition of choking. The key parameter for the mechanical non-equilibrium is a slip ratio. The dependent parameters for the slip ratio are identified. In this research, the slip ratio which is defined in the drift flux model is used to identify the impact parameters on the slip ratio. Because the slip ratio in the drift flux model is related to the distribution parameter and drift velocity, the adequate correlations depending on the flow regime are introduced in this study. For the thermal non-equilibrium, the model is developed with bubble conduction time and Bernoulli choking model. In case of highly subcooled water compared to the inlet pressure, the Bernoulli choking model using the pressure undershoot is used because there is no bubble generation in the test section. When the phase change happens inside the test section, two-phase choking model with relaxation time calculates the choking mass flux. According to the comparison of model prediction with experimental data shows good agreement. The developed model shows good prediction in both low and high pressure ranges. (author)
Non-equilibrium Quasi-Chemical Nucleation Model
Gorbachev, Yuriy E.
2018-04-01
Quasi-chemical model, which is widely used for nucleation description, is revised on the basis of recent results in studying of non-equilibrium effects in reacting gas mixtures (Kolesnichenko and Gorbachev in Appl Math Model 34:3778-3790, 2010; Shock Waves 23:635-648, 2013; Shock Waves 27:333-374, 2017). Non-equilibrium effects in chemical reactions are caused by the chemical reactions themselves and therefore these contributions should be taken into account in the corresponding expressions for reaction rates. Corrections to quasi-equilibrium reaction rates are of two types: (a) spatially homogeneous (caused by physical-chemical processes) and (b) spatially inhomogeneous (caused by gas expansion/compression processes and proportional to the velocity divergency). Both of these processes play an important role during the nucleation and are included into the proposed model. The method developed for solving the generalized Boltzmann equation for chemically reactive gases is applied for solving the set of equations of the revised quasi-chemical model. It is shown that non-equilibrium processes lead to essential deviation of the quasi-stationary distribution and therefore the nucleation rate from its traditional form.
Integrated aeroelastic vibrator for fluid mixing in open microwells
Xia, H. M.; Jin, X.; Zhang, Y. Y.; Wu, J. W.; Zhang, J.; Wang, Z. P.
2018-01-01
Fluid mixing in micro-wells/chambers is required in a variety of biological and biochemical processes. However, mixing fluids of small volumes is usually difficult due to increased viscous effects. In this study, we propose a new method for mixing enhancement in microliter-scale open wells. A thin elastic diaphragm is used to seal the bottom of the mixing microwell, underneath which an air chamber connects an aeroelastic vibrator. Driven by an air flow, the vibrator produces self-excited vibrations and causes pressure oscillations in the air chamber. Then the elastic diaphragm is actuated to mix the fluids in the microwell. Two designs that respectively have one single well and 2 × 2 wells were prototyped. Testing results show that for liquids with a volume ranging from 10-60 µl and viscosity ranging from 1-5 cP, complete mixing can be obtained within 5-20 s. Furthermore, the device is operable with an air micropump, and hence facilitating the miniaturization and integration of lab-on-a-chip and microbioreactor systems.
Study of the rise of gas bubbles in a viscous liquid. Stability and speed. Bibliographical study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dahan, Gilbert
1969-01-01
This short thesis reports a bibliographical study on the movement of gas bubbles in viscous liquids. The author addresses the formation of gas bubbles in liquids of different viscosity (devices used for the formation of bubbles in viscous liquids, formation of bubbles at a hole), and the behaviour of bubbles rising in viscous liquids and more particularly the speed and shape of these bubbles [fr
Structural Stability and Vibration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wiggers, Sine Leergaard; Pedersen, Pauli
at the University of Southern Denmark, it reports on fundamental formulas and makes uses of graphical representation to promote understanding. Thanks to the emphasis put on analytical methods and numerical results, the book is meant to make students and engineers familiar with all fundamental equations...... and their derivation, thus stimulating them to write interactive and dynamic programs to analyze instability and vibrational modes....
Vibrational Spectroscopy and Astrobiology
Chaban, Galina M.; Kwak, D. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Role of vibrational spectroscopy in solving problems related to astrobiology will be discussed. Vibrational (infrared) spectroscopy is a very sensitive tool for identifying molecules. Theoretical approach used in this work is based on direct computation of anharmonic vibrational frequencies and intensities from electronic structure codes. One of the applications of this computational technique is possible identification of biological building blocks (amino acids, small peptides, DNA bases) in the interstellar medium (ISM). Identifying small biological molecules in the ISM is very important from the point of view of origin of life. Hybrid (quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics) theoretical techniques will be discussed that may allow to obtain accurate vibrational spectra of biomolecular building blocks and to create a database of spectroscopic signatures that can assist observations of these molecules in space. Another application of the direct computational spectroscopy technique is to help to design and analyze experimental observations of ice surfaces of one of the Jupiter's moons, Europa, that possibly contains hydrated salts. The presence of hydrated salts on the surface can be an indication of a subsurface ocean and the possible existence of life forms inhabiting such an ocean.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The vibrating string problem is the source of much mathe- matics and physics. ... ing this science [mechanics],and the art of solving the problems pertaining to it, to .... used tools for finding maxima and minima of functions of several variables.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richards, D.J.W.
1977-01-01
The heat exchangers of various types are common items of plant in the generation and transmission of electricity. The amount of attention given to the flow-induced vibrations of heat exchangers by designers is usually related to the operational history of similar items of plant. Consequently, if a particular design procedure yields items of plant which behave in a satisfactory manner during their operational life, there is little incentive to improve or refine the design procedure. On the other hand, failures of heat exchangers clearly indicate deficiencies in the design procedures or in the data available to the designer. When such failures are attributable to flow-induced vibrations, the identification of the mechanisms involved is a prime importance. Ideally, basic research work provides the background understanding and the techniques necessary to be able to identify the important mechanisms. In practice, the investigation of a flow-induced vibration problem may identify the presence of mechanisms but may not be able to quantify their effects adequately. In these circumstances the need for additional work is established and the objectives of the research programme emerge. The purpose of this paper is to outline the background to the current research programme at C.E.R.L. on heat exchanger vibration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jönsson, Jeppe; Hansen, Lars Pilegaard
1994-01-01
work has been done on the measurement of the exact load functions and related reponse analysis. A recent work using a spectral description has been performed by Per-Erik Erikson and includes a good literature survey. Bachmann and Ammann give a good overview of vibrations caused by human activity. Other...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Richards, D J.W. [CERL, CEGB, Leatherhead, Surrey (United Kingdom)
1977-12-01
The heat exchangers of various types are common items of plant in the generation and transmission of electricity. The amount of attention given to the flow-induced vibrations of heat exchangers by designers is usually related to the operational history of similar items of plant. Consequently, if a particular design procedure yields items of plant which behave in a satisfactory manner during their operational life, there is little incentive to improve or refine the design procedure. On the other hand, failures of heat exchangers clearly indicate deficiencies in the design procedures or in the data available to the designer. When such failures are attributable to flow-induced vibrations, the identification of the mechanisms involved is a prime importance. Ideally, basic research work provides the background understanding and the techniques necessary to be able to identify the important mechanisms. In practice, the investigation of a flow-induced vibration problem may identify the presence of mechanisms but may not be able to quantify their effects adequately. In these circumstances the need for additional work is established and the objectives of the research programme emerge. The purpose of this paper is to outline the background to the current research programme at C.E.R.L. on heat exchanger vibration.
General principles of vibrational spectroscopies
Weckhuysen, B.M.; Schoonheydt, R.A.
2000-01-01
Atoms in molecules and solids do not remain in fixed relative positions, but vibrate about some mean position. This vibrational motion is quantized and at room temperature, most of the molecules in a given sample are in their lowest vibrational state. Absorption of electromagnetic radiation with
Mankodi, T K; Bhandarkar, U V; Puranik, B P
2017-08-28
A new ab initio based chemical model for a Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) study suitable for simulating rarefied flows with a high degree of non-equilibrium is presented. To this end, Collision Induced Dissociation (CID) cross sections for N 2 +N 2 →N 2 +2N are calculated and published using a global complete active space self-consistent field-complete active space second order perturbation theory N 4 potential energy surface and quasi-classical trajectory algorithm for high energy collisions (up to 30 eV). CID cross sections are calculated for only a selected set of ro-vibrational combinations of the two nitrogen molecules, and a fitting scheme based on spectroscopic weights is presented to interpolate the CID cross section for all possible ro-vibrational combinations. The new chemical model is validated by calculating equilibrium reaction rate coefficients that can be compared well with existing shock tube and computational results. High-enthalpy hypersonic nitrogen flows around a cylinder in the transition flow regime are simulated using DSMC to compare the predictions of the current ab initio based chemical model with the prevailing phenomenological model (the total collision energy model). The differences in the predictions are discussed.
Unstructured Mesh Movement and Viscous Mesh Generation for CFD-Based Design Optimization, Phase II
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovations proposed are twofold: 1) a robust unstructured mesh movement method able to handle isotropic (Euler), anisotropic (viscous), mixed element (hybrid)...
Marshall Mccall, Patrick
turnover on the steady-state properties of collections of filaments remained unclear. Here, I reconstituted tunable, non-equilibrium actin turnover dynamics in entangled solutions of actin filaments as a model of the actin cortex of living cells. We found that this non-equilibrium turnover decouples solution mechanics from microstructure, enabling structurally indistinguishable materials to behave effectively as either viscous fluids or elastic gels. Additionally, we employed computer simulations to identify the dynamical regime in which actin turnover controls the effective viscosity of 2D cross-linked actin networks in the presence of motors. Additionally, I examine in this thesis the localization and self-assembly of actin filaments in condensed liquid phases called polyelectrolyte coacervates as a model membrane-less organelle. We find that concentration of actin through spontaneous partitioning preferentially to the coacervate phase accelerates the assembly of filaments. These filaments then localize to the coacervate-bulk interface, generating particles with visco-elastic shells surrounding liquid cores. In this case, the properties of the condensed phase enable regulation of actin assembly dynamics.
Computational Study of Nonequilibrium Chemistry in High Temperature Flows
Doraiswamy, Sriram
Recent experimental measurements in the reflected shock tunnel CUBRC LENS-I facility raise questions about our ability to correctly model the recombination processes in high enthalpy flows. In the carbon dioxide flow, the computed shock standoff distance over the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) shape was less than half of the experimental result. For the oxygen flows, both pressure and heat transfer data on the double cone geometry were not correctly predicted. The objective of this work is to investigate possible reasons for these discrepancies. This process involves systematically addressing different factors that could possibly explain the differences. These factors include vibrational modeling, role of electronic states and chemistry-vibrational coupling in high enthalpy flows. A state-specific vibrational model for CO2, CO, O2 and O system is devised by taking into account the first few vibrational states of each species. All vibrational states with energies at or below 1 eV are included in the present work. Of the three modes of vibration in CO2 , the antisymmetric mode is considered separately from the symmetric stretching mode and the doubly degenerate bending modes. The symmetric and the bending modes are grouped together since the energy transfer rates between the two modes are very large due to Fermi resonance. The symmetric and bending modes are assumed to be in equilibrium with the translational and rotational modes. The kinetic rates for the vibrational-translation energy exchange reactions, and the intermolecular and intramolecular vibrational-vibrational energy exchange reactions are based on experimental data to the maximum extent possible. Extrapolation methods are employed when necessary. This vibrational model is then coupled with an axisymmetric computational fluid dynamics code to study the expansion of CO2 in a nozzle. The potential role of low lying electronic states is also investigated. Carbon dioxide has a single excited state just below
Rheology of granular flows immersed in a viscous fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amarsid, Lhassan
2015-01-01
We investigate the behavior of granular materials immersed in a viscous fluid by means of extensive simulations based on the Discrete Element Method for particle dynamics coupled with the Lattice Boltzmann method for the fluid. We show that, for a broad range of parameters such as shear rate, confining stress and viscosity, the internal friction coefficient and packing fraction are well described by a single 'visco-inertial' dimensionless parameter combining inertial and Stokes numbers. The frictional behavior under constant confining pressure is mapped into a viscous behavior under volume-controlled conditions, leading to the divergence of the effective normal and shear viscosities in inverse square of the distance to the critical packing fraction. The results are in excellent agreement with the experimental data of Boyer et al. (2011). The evolution of the force network in terms of connectivity and anisotropy as a function of the visco-inertial number, indicates that the increase of frictional strength is a direct consequence of structural anisotropy enhanced by both fluid viscosity and grain inertia. In view of application to a potential nuclear accident, we also study the fragmentation and flow of confined porous aggregates in a fluid under the action of local overpressures and pressure gradients as well as gravity-driven flow of immersed particles in an hourglass. (author)
Dynamics of flexible fibers transported in confined viscous flows
Cappello, Jean; Duprat, Camille; Du Roure, Olivia; Nagel, Mathias; Gallaire, François; Lindner, Anke
2017-11-01
The dynamics of elongated objects has been extensively studied in unbounded media as for example the sedimentation of fibers at low Reynolds numbers. It has recently been shown that these transport dynamics are strongly modified by bounding walls. Here we focus on the dynamics of flexible fibers confined by the top and bottom walls of a microchannel and transported in pressure-driven flows. We combine well-controlled microfluidic experiments and simulations using modified Brinkmann equations. We control shape, orientation, and mechanical properties of our fibers using micro-fabrication techniques and in-situ characterization methods. These elastic fibers can be deformed by viscous and pressure forces leading to very rich transport dynamics coupling lateral drift with shape evolution. We show that the bending of a perpendicular fiber is proportional to an elasto-viscous number and we fully characterize the influence of the confinement on the deformation of the fiber. Experiments on parallel flexible fibers reveal the existence of a buckling threshold. The European Research Council is acknowledged for funding the work through a consolidator Grant (ERC PaDyFlow 682367).
Shear-Induced Membrane Fusion in Viscous Solutions
Kogan, Maxim
2014-05-06
Large unilamellar lipid vesicles do not normally fuse under fluid shear stress. They might deform and open pores to relax the tension to which they are exposed, but membrane fusion occurring solely due to shear stress has not yet been reported. We present evidence that shear forces in a viscous solution can induce lipid bilayer fusion. The fusion of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3- phosphocholine (DOPC) liposomes is observed in Couette flow with shear rates above 3000 s-1 provided that the medium is viscous enough. Liposome samples, prepared at different viscosities using a 0-50 wt % range of sucrose concentration, were studied by dynamic light scattering, lipid fusion assays using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), and linear dichroism (LD) spectroscopy. Liposomes in solutions with 40 wt % (or more) sucrose showed lipid fusion under shear forces. These results support the hypothesis that under suitable conditions lipid membranes may fuse in response to mechanical-force- induced stress. © 2014 American Chemical Society.
Viscous and gravitational fingering in multiphase compositional and compressible flow
Moortgat, Joachim
2016-03-01
Viscous and gravitational fingering refer to flow instabilities in porous media that are triggered by adverse mobility or density ratios, respectively. These instabilities have been studied extensively in the past for (1) single-phase flow (e.g., contaminant transport in groundwater, first-contact-miscible displacement of oil by gas in hydrocarbon production), and (2) multi-phase immiscible and incompressible flow (e.g., water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection in oil reservoirs). Fingering in multiphase compositional and compressible flow has received much less attention, perhaps due to its high computational complexity. However, many important subsurface processes involve multiple phases that exchange species. Examples are carbon sequestration in saline aquifers and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by gas or WAG injection below the minimum miscibility pressure. In multiphase flow, relative permeabilities affect the mobility contrast for a given viscosity ratio. Phase behavior can also change local fluid properties, which can either enhance or mitigate viscous and gravitational instabilities. This work presents a detailed study of fingering behavior in compositional multiphase flow in two and three dimensions and considers the effects of (1) Fickian diffusion, (2) mechanical dispersion, (3) flow rates, (4) domain size and geometry, (5) formation heterogeneities, (6) gravity, and (7) relative permeabilities. Results show that fingering in compositional multiphase flow is profoundly different from miscible conditions and upscaling techniques used for the latter case are unlikely to be generalizable to the former.
Non self-propelled swimmer in a confined viscous fluid
Choudhary, Priyanka; Mandal, Subhayan
2018-05-01
As we know that in a low Reynolds number regime, the swimming strategies that are used in high Reynolds number swimming are inefficient because of the dominating viscous forces. Therefore, micro-swimmers have developed different moving strategies that have fruitfully overcome and have exploited drag. Hydrodynamic interactions due to the objects in the vicinity are also one of the ingredients that can make a micro-swimmer motile. To show the importance of such kind of hydrodynamic interactions, here we investigate a 2-D scallop near no-slip boundaries in a viscous fluid using bead spring model together with multi-particle collision dynamics. Here, we show that if we place a scallop near a wall, it gets rotated and the direction of rotation depends upon the orientation of the scallop as expected. Instead of one wall, if we place the scallop between two closely spaced walls, initially it rotates and then slowly starts moving in backward direction due to the hydrodynamic interaction with the walls. Then we show that how the speed of the scallop is affected as we change the width of the channel. Our results can endue important guidance in the construction of robotic micro-swimmers.
Viscous self interacting dark matter and cosmic acceleration
Atreya, Abhishek; Bhatt, Jitesh R.; Mishra, Arvind
2018-02-01
Self interacting dark matter (SIDM) provides us with a consistent solution to certain astrophysical observations in conflict with collision-less cold DM paradigm. In this work we estimate the shear viscosity (η) and bulk viscosity (ζ) of SIDM, within kinetic theory formalism, for galactic and cluster size SIDM halos. To that extent we make use of the recent constraints on SIDM cross-section for the dwarf galaxies, LSB galaxies and clusters. We also estimate the change in solution of Einstein's equation due to these viscous effects and find that σ/m constraints on SIDM from astrophysical data provide us with sufficient viscosity to account for the observed cosmic acceleration at present epoch, without the need of any additional dark energy component. Using the estimates of dark matter density for galactic and cluster size halo we find that the mean free path of dark matter ~ few Mpc. Thus the smallest scale at which the viscous effect start playing the role is cluster scale. Astrophysical data for dwarf, LSB galaxies and clusters also seems to suggest the same. The entire analysis is independent of any specific particle physics motivated model for SIDM.
Compressed gas domestic aerosol valve design using high viscous product
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A Nourian
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Most of the current universal consumer aerosol products using high viscous product such as cooking oil, antiperspirants, hair removal cream are primarily used LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas propellant which is unfriendly environmental. The advantages of the new innovative technology described in this paper are: i. No butane or other liquefied hydrocarbon gas is used as a propellant and it replaced with Compressed air, nitrogen or other safe gas propellant. ii. Customer acceptable spray quality and consistency during can lifetime iii. Conventional cans and filling technology There is only a feasible energy source which is inert gas (i.e. compressed air to replace VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds and greenhouse gases, which must be avoided, to improve atomisation by generating gas bubbles and turbulence inside the atomiser insert and the actuator. This research concentrates on using "bubbly flow" in the valve stem, with injection of compressed gas into the passing flow, thus also generating turbulence. The new valve designed in this investigation using inert gases has advantageous over conventional valve with butane propellant using high viscous product (> 400 Cp because, when the valving arrangement is fully open, there are negligible energy losses as fluid passes through the valve from the interior of the container to the actuator insert. The use of valving arrangement thus permits all pressure drops to be controlled, resulting in improved control of atomising efficiency and flow rate, whereas in conventional valves a significant pressure drops occurs through the valve which has a complex effect on the corresponding spray.
Performance test of a ceramic turbo-viscous pump
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abe, Tetsuya; Hiroki, Seiji; Murakami, Yoshio; Shiraishi, Shigeyuki; Totoura, Sadayuki; Ohtaki, Takashi.
1994-01-01
In the special fields of nuclear fusion facilities and semiconductor production installation, the development of new vacuum pumps which can cope with strong magnetic fields, high temperature gas and corrosive gas is demanded. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. has advanced the development of ceramic turbo-molecular pumps and ceramic turbo-viscous pumps, which use ceramic rotors and gas bearings since 1985. The evaluation test of the ceramic turbo-viscous vacuum pump CT-3000H which can evacuate from atmospheric pressure to high vacuum with one pump was carried out, and the experimental results on the performance and the reliability were obtained, therefore, those are reported in this paper. The structure, specification and features of the CT-3000H are shown. The exhaust performance test of the pump was carried out in conformity with the standard of the Vacuum Society of Japan, JVIS 005 'Method of performance test for turbo-molecular pumps'. The gases used were nitrogen and helium. The results are shown. The exhaust test from atmospheric pressure was carried out by two methods, and the results are shown. (K.I.)
Effect of external viscous load on head movement
Nam, M.-H.; Lakshminarayanan, V.; Stark, L. W.
1984-01-01
Quantitative measurements of horizontal head rotation were obtained from normal human subjects intending to make 'time optimal' trajectories between targets. By mounting large, lightweight vanes on the head, viscous damping B, up to 15 times normal could be added to the usual mechanical load of the head. With the added viscosity, the head trajectory was slowed and of larger duration (as expected) since fixed and maximal (for that amplitude) muscle forces had to accelerate the added viscous load. This decreased acceleration and velocity and longer duration movement still ensued in spite of adaptive compensation; this provided evidence that quasi-'time optimal' movements do indeed employ maximal muscle forces. The adaptation to this added load was rapid. Then the 'adapted state' subjects produced changed trajectories. The adaptation depended in part on the differing detailed instructions given to the subjects. This differential adaptation provided evidence for the existence of preprogrammed controller signals, sensitive to intended criterion, and neurologically ballistic or open loop rather than modified by feedback from proprioceptors or vision.
The effects of vibration-reducing gloves on finger vibration
Welcome, Daniel E.; Dong, Ren G.; Xu, Xueyan S.; Warren, Christopher; McDowell, Thomas W.
2015-01-01
Vibration-reducing (VR) gloves have been used to reduce the hand-transmitted vibration exposures from machines and powered hand tools but their effectiveness remains unclear, especially for finger protection. The objectives of this study are to determine whether VR gloves can attenuate the vibration transmitted to the fingers and to enhance the understanding of the mechanisms of how these gloves work. Seven adult male subjects participated in the experiment. The fixed factors evaluated include hand force (four levels), glove condition (gel-filled, air bladder, no gloves), and location of the finger vibration measurement. A 3-D laser vibrometer was used to measure the vibrations on the fingers with and without wearing a glove on a 3-D hand-arm vibration test system. This study finds that the effect of VR gloves on the finger vibration depends on not only the gloves but also their influence on the distribution of the finger contact stiffness and the grip effort. As a result, the gloves increase the vibration in the fingertip area but marginally reduce the vibration in the proximal area at some frequencies below 100 Hz. On average, the gloves reduce the vibration of the entire fingers by less than 3% at frequencies below 80 Hz but increase at frequencies from 80 to 400 Hz. At higher frequencies, the gel-filled glove is more effective at reducing the finger vibration than the air bladder-filled glove. The implications of these findings are discussed. Relevance to industry Prolonged, intensive exposure to hand-transmitted vibration can cause hand-arm vibration syndrome. Vibration-reducing gloves have been used as an alternative approach to reduce the vibration exposure. However, their effectiveness for reducing finger-transmitted vibrations remains unclear. This study enhanced the understanding of the glove effects on finger vibration and provided useful information on the effectiveness of typical VR gloves at reducing the vibration transmitted to the fingers. The new
Nonequilibrium states of high tc YBCO superconductors under tunnel injection of quasiparticles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iguchi, I.; Wang, Q.; Lee, K.; Yoshida, K.
1995-01-01
The nonequilibrium states of high Tc superconductors are investigated by means of tunnel injection of quasiparticles using Pb(or Au)/MgO/YBCO tunnel junctions. The effective critical-current reduction due to tunnel injection is observed, whose behaviour is different from simple heating. The observed results suggest that the resultant nonequilibrium states may also differ from those described by conventional nonequilibrium models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kostarev, V.V.; Petrenko, A.V.; Vasilyev, P.S.; Reinsch, K.-H.
2005-01-01
This paper concerns a further development of High Viscous Damper (HVD) approach for essential decreasing of structure's floor response spectra. Usually restraining of components and pipelines by HVD is used for significant decreasing of operational vibration and seismic loads. A new approach consists of dampers installation for essential upgrading of a whole system's damping that is much more efficient in both technical and economical points of view than restraining of each component of the system. In that way using of HVD means high energy dissipation for whole dynamic system 'Building-Components' subjected to the base seismic or other extreme load excitation. The specific feature of each NPP site is an existing of a few closely spaced buildings: reactor building, turbine hall and so on. As the rule such buildings play sufficiently different roles in NPP operation and therefore have sufficiently different design, natural frequencies (periods) and distortion of floors and different rocking modes on a soil. The main idea explained in the paper is an interconnection of buildings by HVD. Then differences in their mechanical properties provide their out-of-phase relative motions during an earthquake and therefore effective dissipative work provided by HVD devices. At the same time implementation of HVD approach allows to eliminate possible interactions and collisions in the gaps between building structures that wears potential threat of building failure. The detailed 3D finite element models of reactor building, turbine hall and special building were developed for NPP with VVER-1000 MWt reactor type. Performed analysis has shown high efficiency of suggested approach for protection of buildings, structures, systems and components against seismic and other impacts. (authors)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P.Kostrobii
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Nonequilibrium properties of an inhomogeneous electron gas are studied using the method of the nonequilibrium statistical operator by D.N. Zubarev. Generalized transport equations for the mean values of inhomogeneous operators of the electron number density, momentum density, and total energy density for weakly and strongly nonequilibrium states are obtained. We derive a chain of equations for the Green's functions, which connects commutative time-dependent Green's functions "density-density", "momentum-momentum", "enthalpy-enthalpy" with reduced Green's functions of the generalized transport coefficients and with Green's functions for higher order memory kernels in the case of a weakly nonequilibrium spatially inhomogeneous electron gas.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jepps, Owen G; Rondoni, Lamberto
2010-01-01
Deterministic 'thermostats' are mathematical tools used to model nonequilibrium steady states of fluids. The resulting dynamical systems correctly represent the transport properties of these fluids and are easily simulated on modern computers. More recently, the connection between such thermostats and entropy production has been exploited in the development of nonequilibrium fluid theories. The purpose and limitations of deterministic thermostats are discussed in the context of irreversible thermodynamics and the development of theories of nonequilibrium phenomena. We draw parallels between the development of such nonequilibrium theories and the development of notions of ergodicity in equilibrium theories. (topical review)
Vibrations of Elastic Systems With Applications to MEMS and NEMS
Magrab, Edward B
2012-01-01
This work presents a unified approach to the vibrations of elastic systems as applied to MEMS devices, mechanical components, and civil structures. Applications include atomic force microscopes, energy harvesters, and carbon nanotubes and consider such complicating effects as squeeze film damping, viscous fluid loading, in-plane forces, and proof mass interactions with their elastic supports. These effects are analyzed as single degree-of-freedom models and as more realistic elastic structures. The governing equations and boundary conditions for beams, plates, and shells with interior and boundary attachments are derived by applying variational calculus to an expression describing the energy of the system. The advantages of this approach regarding the generation of orthogonal functions and the Rayleigh-Ritz method are demonstrated. A large number of graphs and tables are given to show the impact of various factors on the systems’ natural frequencies, mode shapes, and responses.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hunke, E.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Zhang, Y. [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States)
1997-12-31
A nonlinear viscous-plastic (VP) rheology proposed by Hibler (1979) has been demonstrated to be the most suitable of the rheologies commonly used for modeling sea ice dynamics. However, the presence of a huge range of effective viscosities hinders numerical implementations of this model, particularly on high resolution grids or when the ice model is coupled to an ocean or atmosphere model. Hunke and Dukowicz (1997) have modified the VP model by including elastic waves as a numerical regularization in the case of zero strain rate. This modification (EVP) allows an efficient, fully explicit discretization that adapts well to parallel architectures. The authors present a comparison of EVP and VP dynamics model results from two 5-year simulations of Arctic sea ice, obtained with a high resolution sea ice model. The purpose of the comparison is to determine how differently the two dynamics models behave, and to decide whether the elastic-viscous-plastic model is preferable for high resolution climate simulations, considering its high efficiency in parallel computation. Results from the first year of this experiment (1990) are discussed in detail in Hunke and Zhang (1997).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, S.S.
1975-06-01
Several mathematical models have been proposed for calculating fuel rod responses in axial flows based on a single rod consideration. The spacing between fuel rods in liquid metal fast breeder reactors is small; hence fuel rods will interact with one another due to fluid coupling. The objective of this paper is to study the coupled vibration of fuel bundles. To account for the fluid coupling, a computer code, AMASS, is developed to calculate added mass coefficients for a group of circular cylinders based on the potential flow theory. The equations of motion for rod bundles are then derived including hydrodynamic forces, drag forces, fluid pressure, gravity effect, axial tension, and damping. Based on the equations, a method of analysis is presented to study the free and forced vibrations of rod bundles. Finally, the method is applied to a typical LMFBR fuel bundle consisting of seven rods
Katarina Anthony
2015-01-01
In preparation for the civil engineering work on the HL-LHC, vibration measurements were carried out at the LHC’s Point 1 last month. These measurements will help evaluate how civil engineering work could impact the beam, and will provide crucial details about the site’s geological make-up before construction begins. A seismic truck at Point 1 generated wave-like vibrations measured by EN/MME. From carrying out R&D to produce state-of-the-art magnets to developing innovative, robust materials capable of withstanding beam impact, the HL-LHC is a multi-faceted project involving many groups and teams across CERN’s departments. It was in this framework that the project management mandated CERN's Mechanical and Materials Engineering (EN/MME) group to measure the propagation of vibrations around Point 1. Their question: can civil engineering work for the HL-LHC – the bulk of which is scheduled for LS2 – begin while the LHC is running? Alth...
Vibrational stability of graphene
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Yangfan Hu
2013-05-01
Full Text Available The mechanical stability of graphene as temperature rises is analyzed based on three different self-consistent phonon (SCP models. Compared with three-dimensional (3-D materials, the critical temperature Ti at which instability occurs for graphene is much closer to its melting temperature Tm obtained from Monte Carlo simulation (Ti ≃ 2Tm, K. V. Zakharchenko, A. Fasolino, J. H. Los, and M. I. Katsnelson, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23, 202202. This suggests that thermal vibration plays a significant role in melting of graphene while melting for 3-D materials is often dominated by topologic defects. This peculiar property of graphene derives from its high structural anisotropy, which is characterized by the vibrational anisotropic coefficient (VAC, defined upon its Lindermann ratios in different directions. For any carbon based material with a graphene-like structure, the VAC value must be smaller than 5.4 to maintain its stability. It is also found that the high VAC value of graphene is responsible for its negative thermal expansion coefficient at low temperature range. We believe that the VAC can be regarded as a new criterion concerning the vibrational stability of any low-dimensional (low-D materials.