Sample records for vibrational nonequilibrium effects

  1. Ab initio vibrations in nonequilibrium nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Engelund, Mads; Markussen, T


    predictions for the thermoelectric properties, while for the atomic gold chains we evaluate microscopically the damping of the vibrations, due to the coupling of the chain atoms to the modes in the bulk contacts. Both approaches are based on the combination of density-functional theory, and nonequilibrium......We review recent results on electronic and thermal transport in two different quasi one-dimensional systems: Silicon nanowires (SiNW) and atomic gold chains. For SiNW's we compute the ballistic electronic and thermal transport properties on equal footing, allowing us to make quantitative...

  2. Nozzle Flow with Vibrational Nonequilibrium. Ph.D. Thesis (United States)

    Landry, John Gary


    Flow of nitrogen gas through a converging-diverging nozzle is simulated. The flow is modeled using the Navier-Stokes equations that have been modified for vibrational nonequilibrium. The energy equation is replaced by two equations. One equation accounts for energy effects due to the translational and rotational degrees of freedom, and the other accounts for the affects due to the vibrational degree of freedom. The energy equations are coupled by a relaxation time which measures the time required for the vibrational energy component to equilibrate with the translational and rotational energy components. An improved relaxation time is used in this thesis. The equations are solved numerically using the Steger-Warming flux vector splitting method and the Implicit MacCormack method. The results show that uniform flow is produced outside of the boundary layer. Nonequilibrium exists in both the converging and diverging nozzle sections. The boundary layer region is characterized by a marked increase in translational-rotational temperature. The vibrational temperature remains frozen downstream of the nozzle, except in the boundary layer.

  3. Nonequilibrium electron-vibration coupling and conductance fluctuations in a C-60 junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulstrup, Soren; Frederiksen, Thomas; Brandbyge, Mads


    displacement. Combined with a vibrational heating mechanism we construct a model from our results that explain the polarity-dependent two-level conductance fluctuations observed in recent scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments [N. Neel et al., Nano Lett. 11, 3593 (2011)]. These findings highlight...... the significance of nonequilibrium effects in chemical bond formation/breaking and in electron-vibration coupling in molecular electronics....

  4. Ultrafast Vibrational Dynamics of Water Disentangled by Reverse Nonequilibrium Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Nagata


    Full Text Available Water is a unique solvent with strong, yet highly dynamic, intermolecular interactions. Many insights into this distinctive liquid have been obtained using ultrafast vibrational spectroscopy of water’s O-H stretch vibration. However, it has been challenging to separate the different contributions to the dynamics of the O-H stretch vibration in H_{2}O. Here, we present a novel nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD algorithm that allows for a detailed picture of water vibrational dynamics by generating nonequilibrium vibrationally excited states at targeted vibrational frequencies. Our ab initio NEMD simulations reproduce the experimentally observed time scales of vibrational dynamics in H_{2}O. The approach presented in this work uniquely disentangles the effects on the vibrational dynamics of four contributions: the delocalization of the O-H stretch mode, structural dynamics of the hydrogen bonded network, intramolecular coupling within water molecules, and intermolecular coupling between water molecules (near-resonant energy transfer between O-H groups. Our results illustrate that intermolecular energy transfer and the delocalization of the O-H stretch mode are particularly important for the spectral diffusion in H_{2}O.

  5. Imaging Nonequilibrium Atomic Vibrations with X-ray Diffuse Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trigo, M.; Chen, J.; Vishwanath, V.H.; /SLAC; Sheu, Y.M.; /Michigan U.; Graber, T.; Henning, R.; /U. Chicago; Reis, D; /SLAC /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.


    We use picosecond x-ray diffuse scattering to image the nonequilibrium vibrations of the lattice following ultrafast laser excitation. We present images of nonequilibrium phonons in InP and InSb throughout the Brillouin-zone which remain out of equilibrium up to nanoseconds. The results are analyzed using a Born model that helps identify the phonon branches contributing to the observed features in the time-resolved diffuse scattering. In InP this analysis shows a delayed increase in the transverse acoustic (TA) phonon population along high-symmetry directions accompanied by a decrease in the longitudinal acoustic (LA) phonons. In InSb the increase in TA phonon population is less directional.

  6. Calculating thermal radiation of a vibrational nonequilibrium gas flow using the method of k-distribution (United States)

    Molchanov, A. M.; Bykov, L. V.; Yanyshev, D. S.


    The method has been developed to calculate infrared radiation of vibrational nonequilibrium gas based on k-distribution. A comparison of the data on the calculated nonequilibrium radiation with results of other authors and with experimental data has shown satisfactory agreement. It is shown that the results of calculation of radiation intensity using nonequilibrium and equilibrium methods significantly differ from each other. The discrepancy increases with increasing height (decreasing pressure) and can exceed an order of magnitude.

  7. Non-equilibrium Casimir force between vibrating plates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hanke

    Full Text Available We study the fluctuation-induced, time-dependent force between two plates confining a correlated fluid which is driven out of equilibrium mechanically by harmonic vibrations of one of the plates. For a purely relaxational dynamics of the fluid we calculate the fluctuation-induced force generated by the vibrating plate on the plate at rest. The time-dependence of this force is characterized by a positive lag time with respect to the driving. We obtain two distinctive contributions to the force, one generated by diffusion of stress in the fluid and another related to resonant dissipation in the cavity. The relation to the dynamic Casimir effect of the electromagnetic field and possible experiments to measure the time-dependent Casimir force are discussed.

  8. Validation of vibration-dissociation coupling models in hypersonic non-equilibrium separated flows (United States)

    Shoev, G.; Oblapenko, G.; Kunova, O.; Mekhonoshina, M.; Kustova, E.


    The validation of recently developed models of vibration-dissociation coupling is discussed in application to numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations in a two-temperature approximation for a binary N2/N flow. Vibrational-translational relaxation rates are computed using the Landau-Teller formula generalized for strongly non-equilibrium flows obtained in the framework of the Chapman-Enskog method. Dissociation rates are calculated using the modified Treanor-Marrone model taking into account the dependence of the model parameter on the vibrational state. The solutions are compared to those obtained using traditional Landau-Teller and Treanor-Marrone models, and it is shown that for high-enthalpy flows, the traditional and recently developed models can give significantly different results. The computed heat flux and pressure on the surface of a double cone are in a good agreement with experimental data available in the literature on low-enthalpy flow with strong thermal non-equilibrium. The computed heat flux on a double wedge qualitatively agrees with available data for high-enthalpy non-equilibrium flows. Different contributions to the heat flux calculated using rigorous kinetic theory methods are evaluated. Quantitative discrepancy of numerical and experimental data is discussed.

  9. Nonequilibrium electron-vibration coupling and conductance fluctuations in a C60 junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulstrup, Søren; Frederiksen, Thomas; Brandbyge, Mads


    We investigate chemical bond formation and conductance in a molecular C60 junction under finite bias voltage using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory and nonequilibrium Green's functions (DFT-NEGF). At the point of contact formation we identify a remarkably strong...... displacement. Combined with a vibrational heating mechanism we construct a model from our results that explain the polarity-dependent two-level conductance fluctuations observed in recent scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments [N. Ne´el et al., Nano Lett. 11, 3593 (2011)]. These findings highlight...

  10. Non-dissipative effects in nonequilibrium systems

    CERN Document Server

    Maes, Christian


    This book introduces and discusses both the fundamental aspects and the measurability of applications of time-symmetric kinetic quantities, outlining the features that constitute the non-dissipative branch of non-equilibrium physics. These specific features of non-equilibrium dynamics have largely been ignored in standard statistical mechanics texts. This introductory-level book offers novel material that does not take the traditional line of extending standard thermodynamics to the irreversible domain. It shows that although stationary dissipation is essentially equivalent with steady non-equilibrium and ubiquitous in complex phenomena, non-equilibrium is not determined solely by the time-antisymmetric sector of energy-entropy considerations. While this should not be very surprising, this book provides timely, simple reminders of the role of time-symmetric and kinetic aspects in the construction of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics.

  11. Measurement of Vibrational Non-Equilibrium in a Supersonic Freestream Using Dual-Pump CARS (United States)

    Cutler, Andrew D.; Magnotti, Gaetano; Cantu, Luca M. L.; Gallo, Emanuela C. A.; Danehy, Paul M.; Burle, Rob; Rockwell, Robert; Goyne, Christopher; McDaniel, James


    Measurements have been conducted at the University of Virginia Supersonic Combustion Facility of the flow in a constant area duct downstream of a Mach 2 nozzle, where the airflow has first been heated to approximately 1200 K. Dual-pump CARS was used to acquire rotational and vibrational temperatures of N2 and O2 at two planes in the duct at different downstream distances from the nozzle exit. Wall static pressures in the nozzle are also reported. With a flow of clean air, the vibrational temperature of N2 freezes at close to the heater stagnation temperature, while the O2 vibrational temperature is about 1000 K. The results are well predicted by computational fluid mechanics models employing separate "lumped" vibrational and translational/rotational temperatures. Experimental results are also reported for a few percent steam addition to the air and the effect of the steam is to bring the flow to thermal equilibrium.

  12. Convection with local thermal non-equilibrium and microfluidic effects

    CERN Document Server

    Straughan, Brian


    This book is one of the first devoted to an account of theories of thermal convection which involve local thermal non-equilibrium effects, including a concentration on microfluidic effects. The text introduces convection with local thermal non-equilibrium effects in extraordinary detail, making it easy for readers newer to the subject area to understand. This book is unique in the fact that it addresses a large number of convection theories and provides many new results which are not available elsewhere. This book will be useful to researchers from engineering, fluid mechanics, and applied mathematics, particularly those interested in microfluidics and porous media.

  13. Examination of nonequilibrium effects in an ionized nitrogen flow (United States)

    Hatfield, John A.; Candler, Graham V.


    A thermo-chemical nonequilibrium ionized nitrogen flow in a shock tube is examined. A one-dimensional computational fluid dynamics code has been developed to study the flowfield incorporating a novel treatment of the electron energy equation. In the present approach, the electron pressure is included in the electron energy flux. In contrast, previous work has removed this term from the flux to facilitate the flux splitting. The code uses a five-species gas model for ionized nitrogen characterized by translational-rotational, vibrational, and electron-electronic temperatures. The results give good agreement with experimental data except for an inadequacy in the electronic source terms. A small difference is observed between the new and old splittings which increases with higher levels of ionization.


    The effects of ambient dissociation in a hypersonic free stream were examined for inviscid, nonequilibrium shock layers. The profiles of atom...enthalpy and for fixed flight speed. For fixed enthalpy, the effect of ambient dissociation was shown to decay rapidly behind the shock. For fixed...flight speed, the correlation was expressed by a simple subtraction of the ambient dissociation fraction. The subtraction rule preserves the gas

  15. Effect of nonequilibrium quasiparticle flow on SNS Josephson junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplunenko, V.K.; Ryazanov, V.V.; Shmidt, V.V.


    Experiments have been carried out on the effect of a nonequilibrium flow of quasiparticles on the Josephson properties of a Ta-Cu-Ta SNS junction. A nonequilibrium quasiparticle flow can be set up at the junction because the thickness of the superconducting banks of the SNS sandwich is on the order of the depth to which the longitudinal electric field penetrates into the superconductor, and the sandwich is bracketed by thick plates of a normal metal. During the injection of quasiparticles into one of the superconducting banks of the SNS junction, Josephson generation is excited at the junction; the total current flowing across the junction is zero. The nonequilibrium quasiparticle current which flows across the SNS junction is several times the critical current I/sub c/ and has no direct effect on its Josephson characteristics. The appearance of a difference in the electrochemical potentials of the pairs and of Josephson generation at the junction is due exclusively to the flow of the superconducting current. The experimental results are analyzed on the basis of an equivalent circuit proposed for the junction by Kadin, Smith, and Skocpol (J. Low Temp. Phys. 38, 497 (1980)), simplified somewhat for the case at hand. A study of the temperature dependence of the effects shows that at T> or =0.97T/sub c/ the nonequilibrium quasiparticle current in the normal Josephson intermediate layer of the junction does not depend on Andreev reflection processes at the NS interfaces. The scale time for electron-phonon energy relaxation in the tantalum used as the superconductor is estimated to be tau/sub Epsilon/roughly-equal 4.0 x 10/sup -1/ s.

  16. Effects of Nonequilibrium Plasmas on Eukaryotic Cells (United States)


    effects of the plasma bullets on bacteria of dental relevance, Streptococcus mutans , which is implicated in the onset and progression of dental caries ...S. mutans is a cariogenic organism that contributes to caries in infants, children and adults. S. mutans alone are not difficult to destroy; however...Hynes " Experimental Investigations of Plasma Bullets and their Effects on Streptococcus mutans ", In Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. Plasma Medicine, San

  17. Non-equilibrium effects in VECSELs (United States)

    Hader, J.; Kilen, I.; Koch, S. W.; Moloney, J. V.


    A systematic study of microscopic many-body dynamics is used to analyze a strategy for how to generate ultrashort mode locked pulses in the vertical external-cavity surface-emitting lasers with a saturable absorber mirror. The field propagation is simulated using Maxwell's equations and is coupled to the polarization from the quantum wells using the semiconductor Bloch equations. Simulations on the level of second Born-Markov are used to fit coefficients for microscopic higher order correlation effects such as dephasing of the polarization, carrier-carrier scattering and carrier relaxation. We numerically examine recent published experimental results on mode locked pulses, as well as the self phase modulation in the gain chip and SESAM.

  18. Equilibrium & Nonequilibrium Fluctuation Effects in Biopolymer Networks (United States)

    Kachan, Devin Michael

    speculate that cells take advantage of this equilibrium effect by tuning near the transition point, where small changes in free cross-linker density will affect large structural rearrangements between free filament networks and networks of bundles. Cells are naturally found far from equilibrium, where the active influx of energy from ATP consumption controls the dynamics. Motor proteins actively generate forces within biopolymer networks, and one may ask how these differ from the random stresses characteristic of equilibrium fluctuations. Besides the trivial observation that the magnitude is independent of temperature, I find that the processive nature of the motors creates a temporally correlated, or colored, noise spectrum. I model the network with a nonlinear scalar elastic theory in the presence of active driving, and study the long distance and large scale properties of the system with renormalization group techniques. I find that there is a new critical point associated with diverging correlation time, and that the colored noise produces novel frequency dependence in the renormalized transport coefficients. Finally, I study marginally elastic solids which have vanishing shear modulus due to the presence of soft modes, modes with zero deformation cost. Although network coordination is a useful metric for determining the mechanical response of random spring networks in mechanical equilibrium, it is insufficient for describing networks under external stress. In particular, under-constrained networks which are fluid-like at zero load will dynamically stiffen at a critical strain, as observed in numerical simulations and experimentally in many biopolymer networks. Drawing upon analogies to the stress induced unjamming of emulsions, I develop a kinetic theory to explain the rigidity transition in spring and filament networks. Describing the dynamic evolution of non-affine deformation via a simple mechanistic picture, I recover the emergent nonlinear strain

  19. Effects of vacancies on overshooting in nonequilibrium ordering processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilhøj, Henriette; Jeppesen, Claus; Mouritsen, Ole G.


    The effects of annealed site dilution on the nonequilibrium ordering process in the two-dimensional Ising model with a nonconserved order parameter have been studied using Monte Carlo simulation. It is found that the transient development of a local order that is larger than the equilibrium order...... (overshooting), as recently reported in the pure Ising model [H. Gilhoj, C. Jeppesen, and O. G; Mouritsen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3305 (1995)], persists in the dilute model and is accompanied by a depletion of the vacancies within the ordered domains....

  20. Evaluation of nonequilibrium effects in bundle dispersed-flow film boiling. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, D.G.; Mullins, C.B.; Yoder, G.L.


    The effects of thermodynamic nonequilibrium in dispersed flow film boiling heat transfer are examined. Steady-state and transient rod-bundle data are used to evaluate several empirical heat-transfer models commonly employed to predict post-CHF behavior. The models that account for thermodynamic nonequilibrium perform adequately, while those that ignore nonequilibrium effects incur errors in wall superheat as high as 190/sup 0/K. Nonequilibrium effects can also be treated by explicitly modeling the phenomena. The thermal-hydraulic code COBRA-TF employs this approach. Using bundle data, the models in the code are evaluated. Analysis suggests that the interfacial heat transfer is overpredicted.

  1. Comparison of Vibrational Relaxation Modeling for Strongly Non-Equilibrium Flows (United States)


    3 where SVT is a steric factor, ! is the oscillator frequency, m̃ is the collision reduced mass, µ is the oscillator reduced mass, is the oscillator...f !"i+fCOL exp ("COL) nX r=0 (1)r r! (i r)! (f r)! 1 "rCOL 2 (2) "COL = SVT 4⇡3! m̃ 2/µ ↵2h sinh2 ⇣⇡! ↵v̄ ⌘ (3) For diatom...factors, SVT and SVV, and the parameter ↵ determine the rate of vibrational relaxation, while the inherent form of the transition probability

  2. A mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics study of anti-tetrol and syn-tetrol dissolved in liquid chloroform II: infrared emission spectra, vibrational excited-state lifetimes, and nonequilibrium hydrogen-bond dynamics. (United States)

    Kwac, Kijeong; Geva, Eitan


    The effect of vibrational excitation and relaxation of the hydroxyl stretch on the hydrogen-bond structure and dynamics of stereoselectively synthesized syn-tetrol and anti-tetrol dissolved in deuterated chloroform are investigated via a mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics simulation. Emphasis is placed on the changes in hydrogen-bond structure upon photoexcitation and the nonequilibrium hydrogen-bond dynamics that follows the subsequent relaxation from the excited to the ground vibrational state. The propensity to form hydrogen bonds is shown to increase upon photoexcitation of the hydroxyl stretch, thereby leading to a sizable red-shift of the infrared emission spectra relative to the corresponding absorption spectra. The vibrational excited state lifetimes are calculated within the framework of Fermi's golden rule and the harmonic-Schofield quantum correction factor, and found to be sensitive reporters of the underlying hydrogen-bond structure. The energy released during the relaxation from the excited to the ground state is shown to break hydrogen bonds involving the relaxing hydroxyl. The spectral signature of this nonequilibrium relaxation process is analyzed in detail.

  3. Nonlinear Peltier effect and the nonequilibrium Jonson-Mahan theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available We generalize the many-body formalism for the Peltier effect to the nonlinear/nonequilibrium regime corresponding to large amplitude (spatially uniform but time-dependent electric fields. We find a relationship between the expectation values for the charge current and for the part of the heat current that reduces to the Jonson-Mahan theorem in the linear-response regime. The nonlinear-response Peltier effect has an extra term in the heat current that is related to Joule heating (we are unable to fully analyze this term. The formalism holds in all dimensions and for arbitrary many-body systems that have local interactions. We illustrate it for the Falicov-Kimball, Hubbard, and periodic Anderson models.

  4. Collisional-Radiative Nonequilibrium and Precursor Effects in a Nitrogen Shock Wave (United States)

    Cambier, Jean-Luc; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)


    Improvements to a plasma code with a Collisional-Radiative (CR) non-equilibrium model are made, allowing for a more accurate description of the physical processes. The code allows for non-Boltzmann distributions of the electronic excited states by convecting separately each excited state, as a pseudo-specie. Each molecular state has also its own vibrational temperature, while a global rotational temperature is assumed. The free electron temperature is different from those of the excited states, and the electron heat conduction is also included. The CR model also uses a unique coupling between chemistry and vibrational energy (C-V coupling), which is fully coherent, and has the property of establishing thermal equilibrium as well as chemical equilibrium, on its own. We have also included a coupling between electronic excitations and vibrational energy (X-V coupling), which can have a strong influence on the vibrational temperature of some states. The recent improvements include the multi- temperature dependence of the chemical rates for associative ionization, as well as the estimation of the internal energies transferred during this process. Additionally, the distribution of energy into different translational modes (electron and heavy particles) is now correctly modeled. This provides a very rapid heating mechanism for the free electrons, since it is found that the electrons are generated with an average thermal energy of the same order as the heavy particle translational energy. This effect was observed by Gorelov et al in a recent paper, and lead to pronounced peaks in electron temperature immediately behind the shock. We will attempt ro reproduce this phenomenon. The last modification concerns the inclusion of the radiative terms into the calculations, thus enabling us to observe the effect of radiative losses and radiation transport. Preliminary tests have shown that the radiative losses are not negligible, i.e. the shock velocity drops when the radiative

  5. Vibrations on board and health effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis


    for such relation among seafarers except for fishermen, who, however, are also exposed to additional recognised physical risk factors at work. The assessment and reduction of vibrations by naval architects relates to technical implications of this impact for the ships’ construction, but has limited value......There is only limited knowledge of the exposure to vibrations of ships’ crews and their risk of vibration-induced health effects. Exposure to hand-arm vibrations from the use of vibrating tools at sea does not differ from that in the land-based trades. However, in contrast to most other work places...... of the health consequences of whole body vibrations in land-transportation, such exposure at sea may affect ships’ passengers and crews. While the relation of back disorders to high levels of whole body vibration has been demonstrated among e.g. tractor drivers, there are no reported epidemiological evidence...

  6. Evaluation of hand-arm vibration reducing effect of anti-vibration glove


    樹野, 淳也; 前田, 節雄; 横田, 和樹; 平, 雄一郎


    Many kinds of the anti-vibration glove have been developed for reducing hand-arm vibration during the operation with vibration tools. International standard ISO 10819 evaluates the physical effect of gloves' vibration transmissibility but not evaluates the physiological effect of human hands. Thus, in this paper, we proposed the evaluation using the temporary threshold shift of vibrotactile perception threshold to evaluate the hand-arm vibration reducing effect of anti-vibration glove. We per...

  7. Non-equilibrium Kondo effect in double quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiselev, M.N. E-mail:; Kikoin, K.A.; Molenkamp, L.W


    We investigate theoretically a non-equilibrium transport through a double quantum dot (DQD) in a parallel geometry. It is shown that the resonance Kondo tunneling through a parallel DQD with even occupation and singlet ground state may arise at a strong bias, which compensates the energy of singlet/triplet excitation. Using the renormalization group technique we derive scaling equations and calculate the differential conductance as a function of an auxiliary DC-bias for parallel DQD being in a regime described by SO(4) symmetry.

  8. Effective temperature in nonequilibrium state with heat flux using discrete variable model (United States)

    Sobolev, S. L.


    The effective temperature, which acts as a criterion for thermalization in systems with heat flux, has been introduced on the bases of a relatively simple discrete variable model (DVM). The DVM is inherently nonlocal and can be used to describe multi-length and -time scale heat conduction including low-dimensional and sub-continuum regimes. Under far from equilibrium conditions when the heat flux tends to its maximum possible value, the effective temperature and the corresponding nonequilibrium entropy go to zero, which points to a possible generalization of the third law in nonequilibrium situations.

  9. Rheumatic effects of vibration at work (United States)

    Palmer, Keith T; Bovenzi, Massimo


    Occupational exposures to vibration come in many guises and are very common at a population level. It follows that an important minority of working-aged patients seen by medical services will have been exposed to this hazard of employment. Vibration can cause human health effects which may manifest in the patients that rheumatologists see. In this chapter we identify the health effects of relevance to them, and review their epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, and vocational and clinical management. On either side of this, we describe the nature and assessment of the hazard, the scale and common patterns of exposure to vibration in the community, and the legal basis for controlling health risks, and comment on the role of health surveillance in detecting early adverse effects and what can be done to prevent the rheumatic effects of vibration at work. PMID:26612239

  10. Kinetic study of low-temperature CO2 plasmas under non-equilibrium conditions. I. Relaxation of vibrational energy (United States)

    Silva, T.; Grofulović, M.; Klarenaar, B. L. M.; Morillo-Candas, A. S.; Guaitella, O.; Engeln, R.; Pintassilgo, C. D.; Guerra, V.


    A kinetic model describing the time evolution of ∼70 individual CO2(X1Σ+) vibrational levels during the afterglow of a pulsed DC glow discharge is developed in order to contribute to the understanding of vibrational energy transfer in CO2 plasmas. The results of the simulations are compared against in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy data obtained in a pulsed DC glow discharge and its afterglow at pressures of a few Torr and discharge currents of around 50 mA. The very good agreement between the model predictions and the experimental results validates the kinetic scheme considered here and the corresponding vibration–vibration and vibration–translation rate coefficients. In this sense, it establishes a reaction mechanism for the vibrational kinetics of these CO2 energy levels and offers a firm basis to understand the vibrational relaxation in CO2 plasmas. It is shown that first-order perturbation theories, namely, the Schwartz–Slawsky–Herzfeld and Sharma–Brau methods, provide a good description of CO2 vibrations under low excitation regimes.

  11. Nonequilibrium quantum bounds to Landauer's principle: Tightness and effectiveness (United States)

    Campbell, Steve; Guarnieri, Giacomo; Paternostro, Mauro; Vacchini, Bassano


    We assess two different nonequilibrium quantum Landauer bounds: the traditional approach based on the change in entropy, referred to as the "entropic bound," and one based on the details of the dynamical map, referred to as the "thermodynamic bound." By first restricting to a simple exactly solvable model of a single two-level system coupled to a finite-dimensional thermal environment and by exploiting an excitation-preserving interaction, we establish the dominant role played by the population terms in dictating the tightness of these bounds with respect to the dissipated heat and clearly establish that coherences only affect the entropic bound. Furthermore, we show that sharp boundaries between the relative performance of the two quantities emerge and find that there are clear instances where both approaches return a bound weaker than Clausius' statement of the second law, rendering them ineffective. Finally, we show that our results extend to generic interaction terms.

  12. Effect of shelf aging on vibration transmissibility of anti-vibration gloves. (United States)

    Shibata, Nobuyuki


    Anti-vibration gloves have been used in real workplaces to reduce vibration transmitted through hand-held power tools to the hand. Generally materials used for vibration attenuation in gloves are resilient materials composed of certain synthetic and/or composite polymers. The mechanical characteristics of the resilient materials used in anti-vibration gloves are prone to be influenced by environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, and photo-irradiation, which cause material degradation and aging. This study focused on the influence of shelf aging on the vibration attenuation performance of air-packaged anti-vibration gloves following 2 years of shelf aging. Effects of shelf aging on the vibration attenuation performance of anti-vibration gloves were examined according to the Japan industrial standard JIS T8114 test protocol. The findings indicate that shelf aging induces the reduction of vibration attenuation performance in air-packaged anti-vibration gloves.

  13. No Telescoping Effect with Dual Tendon Vibration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Bellan

    Full Text Available The tendon vibration illusion has been extensively used to manipulate the perceived position of one's own body part. However, findings from previous research do not seem conclusive sregarding the perceptual effect of the concurrent stimulation of both agonist and antagonist tendons over one joint. On the basis of recent data, it has been suggested that this paired stimulation generates an inconsistent signal about the limb position, which leads to a perceived shrinkage of the limb. However, this interesting effect has never been replicated. The aim of the present study was to clarify the effect of a simultaneous and equal vibration of the biceps and triceps tendons on the perceived location of the hand. Experiment 1 replicated and extended the previous findings. We compared a dual tendon stimulation condition with single tendon stimulation conditions and with a control condition (no vibration on both 'upward-downward' and 'towards-away from the elbow' planes. Our results show a mislocalisation towards the elbow of the position of the vibrated arm during dual vibration, in line with previous results; however, this did not clarify whether the effect was due to arm representation contraction (i.e., a 'telescoping' effect. Therefore, in Experiment 2 we investigated explicitly and implicitly the perceived arm length during the same conditions. Our results clearly suggest that in all the vibration conditions there was a mislocalisation of the entire arm (including the elbow, but no evidence of a contraction of the perceived arm length.

  14. Density profile evolution and nonequilibrium effects in partial and full spreading measurements of surface diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikunen, P.; Vattulainen, Ilpo Tapio; Ala-Nissila, T.


    (theta) to determine the locations of phase boundaries and find such data to be clearly time dependent during full spreading. We conclude that nonequilibrium effects seem to be an inherent feature in profile evolution studies of surface diffusion in all cases where ordering plays a prominent role. This warrants...

  15. The effect of clusters and heterogeneous reactions on non-equilibrium plasma flue gas cleaning (United States)

    Potapkin, B. V.; Deminsky, M. A.; Fridman, A. A.; Rusanov, V. D.


    Theoretical investigation of the effect of molecular clusters and aerosol particles on non-equilibrium plasma flue gas cleaning was made in this paper. Two types of heterogeneous reactions in aerosol and clusters are considered. It was shown that in both cases these reactions are essential in the evaluation of chemical composition. As a result of theoretical approach and modelling, the optimum regime of plasma generation for essential decreasing of purification energy cost was established.

  16. Investigation of the effect of water exposed to nonequilibrium contact plasma onto saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mykolenko


    Full Text Available Introduction. Additional treatment of water by nonequilibrium contact plasma allows improving consumer characteristics of bakery goods considerably. Determination of the effect of plasma-chemically activated water on morphological, cultural and physiological properties of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast is important from the technological point of view. Materials and Methods. Experimental investigations were carried out in the conditions of bacteriological laboratory by seeding the culture of yeasts of ТМ “Lvivski” and “Kryvorizki” on Sabouraud dense liquid nutrient media. The quantity of viable cells of microorganisms was determined by the method of Gould sector seeds. Morphology of the yeast was investigated by phase-contrast microscopy. Biotechnological properties of yeasts were determined on Giss media. Results. The paper establishes the effect of water exposed to nonequilibrium contact plasma on the sensitivity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and shows absence of suppressive action of treated water with regard to cultural properties of microorganisms. The experiments prove that with the use of plasma-chemically activated water morphological characteristics and biochemical properties of bakery yeasts produced by Lviv and Kryvyi Rig yeast plants are preserved. Culturing of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast on the nutrient media prepared with the use of water exposed to nonequilibrium contact plasm resulted in 6,5–15 times’ increase in quantity of viable microorganisms compared with the control on the mains drinking water. Conclusions. Physiological properties of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast improved owing to use water exposed to nonequilibrium contact plasma. Results of investigations are recommended for using in yeast production and bread making.

  17. The effect of non-equilibrium condensation on the drag coefficient in a transonic airfoil flow (United States)

    Kim, I. W.; Alam, M. M. A.; Lee, S. J.; Kwon, Y. D.; Kwon, S. B.


    In this study, a transonic flow past NACA0012 profile at angle of attack α=00 whose aspect ratio AR is 1.0 with non-equilibrium condensation is analyzed by numerical analysis using a TVD scheme and is investigated using an intermittent indraft type supersonic wind tunnel. Transonic flows of 0.78-0.90 in free stream Mach number with the variations of the stagnation relative humidity(Φ0) are tested. For the same free stream Mach number, the increase in Φ0 causes decrease in the drag coefficient of profile which is composed of the drag components of form, viscous and wave. In the case of the same M∞ and T0, for more than Φ0=30%, despite the irreversibility of process in non-equilibrium condensation, the drag by shock wave decreases considerably with the increase of Φ0. On the other hand, it shows that the effect of condensation on the drag coefficients of form and viscous is negligible. As an example, the decreasing rate in the drag coefficient of profile caused by the influence of non-equilibrium condensation for the case of M∞=0.9 and Φ0 =50% amounts to 34%. Also, it were turned out that the size of supersonic bubble (that is, the maximum height of supersonic zone) and the deviation of pressure coefficient from the value for M=1 decrease with the increase of Φ0 for the same M∞.

  18. The effect of non-equilibrium metal cooling on the interstellar medium (United States)

    Capelo, Pedro R.; Bovino, Stefano; Lupi, Alessandro; Schleicher, Dominik R. G.; Grassi, Tommaso


    By using a novel interface between the modern smoothed particle hydrodynamics code GASOLINE2 and the chemistry package KROME, we follow the hydrodynamical and chemical evolution of an isolated galaxy. In order to assess the relevance of different physical parameters and prescriptions, we constructed a suite of ten simulations, in which we vary the chemical network (primordial and metal species), how metal cooling is modelled (non-equilibrium versus equilibrium; optically thin versus thick approximation), the initial gas metallicity (from ten to hundred per cent solar), and how molecular hydrogen forms on dust. This is the first work in which metal injection from supernovae, turbulent metal diffusion, and a metal network with non-equilibrium metal cooling are self-consistently included in a galaxy simulation. We find that properly modelling the chemical evolution of several metal species and the corresponding non-equilibrium metal cooling has important effects on the thermodynamics of the gas, the chemical abundances, and the appearance of the galaxy: the gas is typically warmer, has a larger molecular gas mass fraction, and has a smoother disc. We also conclude that, at relatively high metallicity, the choice of molecular-hydrogen formation rates on dust is not crucial. Moreover, we confirm that a higher initial metallicity produces a colder gas and a larger fraction of molecular gas, with the low-metallicity simulation best matching the observed molecular Kennicutt-Schmidt relation. Finally, our simulations agree quite well with observations which link star formation rate to metal emission lines.

  19. Studying effects of non-equilibrium radiative transfer via HPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holladay, Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This report presents slides on Ph.D. Research Goals; Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) Implications; Calculating an Opacity; Opacity: Pictographic Representation; Opacity: Pictographic Representation; Opacity: Pictographic Representation; Collisional Radiative Modeling; Radiative and Collisional Excitation; Photo and Electron Impact Ionization; Autoionization; The Rate Matrix; Example: Total Photoionization rate; The Rate Coefficients; inlinlte version 1.1; inlinlte: Verification; New capabilities: Rate Matrix – Flexibility; Memory Option Comparison; Improvements over previous DCA solver; Inter- and intra-node load balancing; Load Balance – Full Picture; Load Balance – Full Picture; Load Balance – Internode; Load Balance – Scaling; Description; Performance; xRAGE Simulation; Post-process @ 2hr; Post-process @ 4hr; Post-process @ 8hr; Takeaways; Performance for 1 realization; Motivation for QOI; Multigroup Er; Transport and NLTE large effects (1mm, 1keV); Transport large effect, NLTE lesser (1mm, 750eV); Blastwave Diagnostici – Description & Performance; Temperature Comparison; NLTE has effect on dynamics at wall; NLTE has lesser effect in the foam; Global Takeaways; The end.

  20. Image charge effects in the nonequilibrium Anderson-Holstein model (United States)

    Perfetto, E.; Stefanucci, G.


    Image charge effects in nanoscale junctions with strong electron-phonon coupling open the way to unexplored physical scenarios. We propose a simple and still accurate many-body approach to deal with the simultaneous occurrence of the Franck-Condon blockade and the screening-induced enhancement of the polaron mobility. A transparent analytic expression for the polaron decay rate is derived and the dependence on the strength and range of the screening is highlighted. This allows us to interpret and explain several transient and steady-state features of the electrical current. Remarkably, we find that the competition between the charge blocking due to the electron-phonon interaction and the charge deblocking due to the image charges gives rise to a novel mechanism of negative differential conductance. An experimental setup to observe this phenomenon is discussed.

  1. Phase diagram of KHF2 and non-equilibrium effects (United States)

    Hobson, M. C.; Kellner, J. D.


    The equilibrium diagram for the KHF2-H2O system was constructed from cooling and heating curves for the compositions between 5 wt% and 40 wt% KHF2 and the results are shown. The phase diagrams shown is typical of that of a two component system with miscible liquid phases and whole solid phases consist of pure components. A eutectic point was found at approximately 15% KHF2 which remains completely liquid down to a temperature of -9.0 C. No hydrate formation was observed and no anomalous behavior such as the occurrence of solid transitions or metastable states was observed. The effect of rapid freezing on the equilibrium diagram did not appear, and cooling curves exhibited only one halt. Also, at rapid freezing rates, the supercooling of the solutions was smaller than those observed at the slow cooling rates. The existence of a eutectic composition and the slow rate of dissolution of the salt are used to interpret heat absorption behavior in practical applications of the KHF2-H2O system.

  2. Vibrational mechanics nonlinear dynamic effects, general approach, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Blekhman, Iliya I


    This important book deals with vibrational mechanics - the new, intensively developing section of nonlinear dynamics and the theory of nonlinear oscillations. It offers a general approach to the study of the effect of vibration on nonlinear mechanical systems.The book presents the mathematical apparatus of vibrational mechanics which is used to describe such nonlinear effects as the disappearance and appearance under vibration of stable positions of equilibrium and motions (i.e. attractors), the change of the rheological properties of the media, self-synchronization, self-balancing, the vibrat

  3. Dynamic Wetting in a Non-Equilibrium Gas: The Effect of Gas Pressure on Air Entrainment (United States)

    Sprittles, James


    Experimentally, it is now well established that lowering the pressure of an ambient gas can suppress wetting failures, or ``air entrainment,'' at a liquid-solid-gas moving contact-line in both coating processes and drop impact dynamics. In this work, we consider the possibility that non-equilibrium effects in the gas are responsible for such phenomena. These can be included into a continuum framework by allowing for slip at both the solid-gas and liquid-gas interfaces, caused by Knudsen layers attached to these boundaries, which is related to the mean free path in the gas, and hence the ambient pressure. This model has been incorporated into a computational framework developed for dynamic wetting phenomena, which resolves all scales in the problem, so that these new effects can be investigated. It is shown that reductions in gas pressure, and hence increases in slip, can dramatically modify the flow field in the gas-film in front of a moving contact-line so that air entrainment is prevented. Specifically, in a dip-coating setup it is shown that the new model (a) describes experimental results for the critical wetting speed at a given gas pressure and (b) allows us to identify new parameters associated with the non-equilibrium gas dynamics which govern the contact-line's motion.

  4. Effects of vibration on flexibility: a meta-analysis. (United States)

    Osawa, Y; Oguma, Y


    Exogenous stimulation of skeletal muscle or tendon is often used to improve range of motion. Despite substantial research efforts, however, the effects of vibration on flexibility have not been clarified. In this review, we investigated the effects of acute and chronic intervention programs which used vibration to improve flexibility in young healthy individuals. Effect size was calculated using data from a total of 600 participants in 19 studies before and after the introduction of vibration-based intervention, and a total of 324 participants in 13 studies on the additive effects of vibration compared with the identical conditions without vibration. Sub-group analyses were performed based on intervention period, type of exercise, and type of vibration. Meta-analysis showed that vibration interventions had significant effects on flexibility (standardized mean difference [SMD]=-0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI]=-1.14- -0.43; panalysis revealed a significant additive effect of vibration on flexibility compared with the identical condition without vibration (SMD=0.25, 95%CI=0.03-0.48; P=0.03), with small heterogeneity (I(2)=0%). The risk of publication bias was low judged from Kendall's τ statistic. We concluded that the use of vibration might lead to additive improvements in flexibility.

  5. Effects of spatial diffusion on nonequilibrium steady states in a model for prebiotic evolution (United States)

    Intoy, B. F.; Wynveen, A.; Halley, J. W.


    Effects of spatial diffusion in a Kauffman-like model for prebiotic evolution previously studied in a "well-mixed" limit are reported. The previous model was parametrized by a parameter p defined as the probability that a possible reaction in a network of reactions characterizing the artificial chemistry actually appears in the chemical network. In the model reported here, we numerically study a grid of such well-mixed reactors on a two-dimensional spatial lattice in which the model chemical constituents can hop between neighboring reactors at a rate controlled by a second parameter η . We report the frequency of appearance of three distinct types of nonequilibrium steady states, characterized as "diffusively alive locally dead" (DALD), "diffusively dead locally alive" (DDLA) and "diffusively alive locally alive" (DALA). The types are defined according to whether they are chemically equilibrated at each site, diffusively equilibrated between sites, or neither, respectively. With our parametrization of the definitions of these nonequilibrium states, many of the DALA states are growing rapidly in population due to the explosive population growth of a few sites, while their entropy remains well below its equilibrium value. Sharp temporal transitions occur as exploding sites appear. DALD states occur less commonly than the other types and also usually harbor a few explosively growing sites but transitions are less sharp than in DALA systems.

  6. Effect of Non-Equilibrium Condensation on Force Coefficients in Transonic Airfoil Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seung Min; Kang, Hui Bo; Kwon, Young Doo; Kwon, Soon Bum [Kyungpook National Univeristy, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Heung Kyun [Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)


    The present study investigated the effects of non-equilibrium condensation with the angle of attack on the coefficients of pressure, lift, and drag in the transonic 2-D flow of NACA0012 by numerical analysis of the total variation diminishing (TVD) scheme. At T{sub 0}=298 K and α=3°, the lift coefficients for M{sub ∞}=0.78 and 0.81 decreased monotonically with increasing Φ{sub 0}. In contrast, for M{sub ∞} corresponding to the Mach number of the force break, CL increased with Φ{sub 0}. For α=3° and Φ{sub 0}=0%, CD increased markedly as M{sub ∞} increased. However, at Φ{sub 0}=60% and α=3°, which corresponded to the case of the condensation having a large influence, CD increased slightly as M{sub ∞} increased. The decrease in profile drag by non-equilibrium condensation grew as the angle of attack and stagnation relative humidity increased for the same free stream transonic Mach number. At Φ{sub 0}=0%, the coefficient of the wave drag increased with the attack angle and free stream Mach number. When Φ{sub 0}>50%, the coefficient of the wave drag decreased as α and M{sub ∞} increased. Lowering Φ{sub 0} and increasing M{sub ∞} increased the maximum Mach number.

  7. Nonequilibrium absorption in semiconductors and the dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kristinn; Jauho, Antti-Pekka


    systems. Modulation above the band gap is weak in the 3D case but considerable fine structure is predicted for 1D and 2D systems. A characteristic feature of the dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect is that the absorption edge will be shifted up by an amount corresponding to the average kinetic energy......We theoretically study free electron light absorption for a sample which is placed in a strong, time-dependent uniform electric field. In the case of static fields one observes the Franz-Keldysh effect: finite absorption for photon energies below the band gap. We refer to this phenomenon...... as the Franz-Keldysh tail. Modulation of the spectra above the band gap is also found. These static effects are observed in both 3D, 2D and 1D systems. Our analysis, based on nonequilibrium Green function techniques, shows that an analogous effect takes place in time-dependent fields: the dynamical Franz...

  8. Effects of non-equilibrium particle distributions in deuterium-tritium burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michta, D; Graziani, F; Pruet, J; Luu, T


    We investigate the effects of non-equilibrium particle distributions resulting from rapid deuterium-tritium burning in plasmas using a Fokker-Planck code that incorporates small-angle Coulomb scattering, Brehmsstrahlung, Compton scattering, and thermal-nuclear burning. We find that in inertial confinement fusion environments, deviations away from Maxwellian distributions for either deuterium or tritium ions are small and result in 1% changes in the energy production rates. The deuterium and tritium effective temperatures are not equal, but differ by only about 2.5% near the time of peak burn rate. Simulations with high Z (Xe) dopants show that the dopant temperature closely tracks that of the fuel. On the other hand, fusion product ion distributions are highly non-Maxwellian, and careful treatments of energy-exchange between these ions and other particles is important for determining burn rates.

  9. Zero-point vibrational effects on optical rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruud, K.; Taylor, P.R.; Åstrand, P.-O.


    We investigate the effects of molecular vibrations on the optical rotation in two chiral molecules, methyloxirane and trans-2,3-dimethylthiirane. It is shown that the magnitude of zero-point vibrational corrections increases as the electronic contribution to the optical rotation increases....... Vibrational effects thus appear to be important for an overall estimate of the molecular optical rotation, amounting to about 20-30% of the electronic counterpart. We also investigate the special case of chirality introduced in a molecule through isotopic substitution. In this case, the zero-point vibrational...

  10. Modelling of micro vibration energy harvester considering size effect (United States)

    Li, Chuangye; Huo, Rui; Wang, Weike


    Considering increase of stiffness caused by size effect, equivalent Young's modulus was introduced for futher analysis. Experimental platform was established to test vibration characteristics. Dynamic equation for micro piezoelectric cantilever beam considering size effect was studied with finite element analysis and experiment. Results shows it is accurate. Based on that, dynamic model for micro vibration energy harvester was improved, a T-type micro vibration energy harvester was designed and fabricated. Resonant frequency, tip displacement and output voltage of the harvester were obtained. Comparing with macroscopic model for vibration harvester, improved one reduces errors by 13%, 35% and 22%.

  11. Nonequilibrium Green's function theory for nonadiabatic effects in quantum electron transport. (United States)

    Kershaw, Vincent F; Kosov, Daniel S


    We develop nonequilibrium Green's function-based transport theory, which includes effects of nonadiabatic nuclear motion in the calculation of the electric current in molecular junctions. Our approach is based on the separation of slow and fast time scales in the equations of motion for Green's functions by means of the Wigner representation. Time derivatives with respect to central time serve as a small parameter in the perturbative expansion enabling the computation of nonadiabatic corrections to molecular Green's functions. Consequently, we produce a series of analytic expressions for non-adiabatic electronic Green's functions (up to the second order in the central time derivatives), which depend not solely on the instantaneous molecular geometry but likewise on nuclear velocities and accelerations. An extended formula for electric current is derived which accounts for the non-adiabatic corrections. This theory is concisely illustrated by the calculations on a model molecular junction.

  12. Reactive species in non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasmas: Generation, transport, and biological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, X., E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Naidis, G.V. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Laroussi, M. [Plasma Engineering & Medicine Institute, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); Reuter, S. [Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology, Felix-Hausdorff-Strasse 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Graves, D.B. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ostrikov, K. [Institute for Future Environments, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia); School of Physics, Chemistry, and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia); Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, P.O.Box 218, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia); School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)


    Non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasmas have recently become a topical area of research owing to their diverse applications in health care and medicine, environmental remediation and pollution control, materials processing, electrochemistry, nanotechnology and other fields. This review focuses on the reactive electrons and ionic, atomic, molecular, and radical species that are produced in these plasmas and then transported from the point of generation to the point of interaction with the material, medium, living cells or tissues being processed. The most important mechanisms of generation and transport of the key species in the plasmas of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets and other non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasmas are introduced and examined from the viewpoint of their applications in plasma hygiene and medicine and other relevant fields. Sophisticated high-precision, time-resolved plasma diagnostics approaches and techniques are presented and their applications to monitor the reactive species and plasma dynamics in the plasma jets and other discharges, both in the gas phase and during the plasma interaction with liquid media, are critically reviewed. The large amount of experimental data is supported by the theoretical models of reactive species generation and transport in the plasmas, surrounding gaseous environments, and plasma interaction with liquid media. These models are presented and their limitations are discussed. Special attention is paid to biological effects of the plasma-generated reactive oxygen and nitrogen (and some other) species in basic biological processes such as cell metabolism, proliferation, survival, etc. as well as plasma applications in bacterial inactivation, wound healing, cancer treatment and some others. Challenges and opportunities for theoretical and experimental research are discussed and the authors’ vision for the emerging convergence trends across several disciplines and application domains is presented to

  13. The Effect of Non-equilibrium Kinetics on Oxygen Chemistry in the Interstellar Medium (United States)

    Naduvalath, Balakrishnan


    It has been suggested that in photon-dominated regions, oxygen chemistry is initiated by the O+H2 yields OH+H reaction. The reaction has an energy barrier of about 0.4 eV with ground state reactants and it is slow at low temperatures. There is strong experimental evidence that vibrational excitation of the H2 molecule increases the reactivity significantly. We present extensive quantum calculations of cross sections and rate coefficients for the O+H2(v) reaction for v = 0 - 3 of the H2 molecule and show that the vibrational excitation of the molecule has a significant effect on reactivity, especially at low temperatures.

  14. Can Molecular Quantum Interference Effect Transistors Survive Vibration? (United States)

    Chen, Shuguang; Zhou, WeiJun; Zhang, Qing; Kwok, YanHo; Chen, GuanHua; Ratner, Mark A


    Quantum interference in cross-conjugated molecules can be utilized to construct molecular quantum interference effect transistors. However, whether its application can be achieved depends on the survivability of the quantum interference under real conditions such as nuclear vibration. We use two simulation methods to investigate the effects of nuclear vibration on quantum interference in a meta-linked benzene system. The simulation results suggest that the quantum interference is robust against nuclear vibration not only in the steady state but also in its transient dynamics, and thus the molecular quantum interference effect transistors can be realized.

  15. Effect of vibration on visual display terminal work performance. (United States)

    Hsieh, Yao-Hung; Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe; Chen, Hsiao-Ching


    Today electronic visual displays have dramatic use in daily life. Reading these visual displays is subject to their vibration. Using a software-simulation of a vibrated environment, the study investigated the effect of vibration on visual performance and fatigue for several numerical display design characteristics including the font size and the number of digits displayed. Both the frequency and magnitude of vibration had significant effects on the reaction time, accuracy, and visual fatigue. 10 graduate students (23-30 years old; M = 25.6), randomly tested in this experiment, were offered about 25 U.S. dollars for their participation. Numbers in vertical presentation were affected more in vertical vibration than those in horizontal presentation. Analysis showed whenever the display is used in vibration environment, an increased font size may be an effective way to compensate the adverse effect of vibration. The software design of displayed materials must be designed to take the motion effect into consideration to increase the quality of the screen display.

  16. Effects of Cutting Tool Parameters on Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ince Mehmet Alper


    Full Text Available This paper presents of the influence on vibration of Co28Cr6Mo medical alloy machined on a CNC lathe based on cutting parameters (rotational speed, feed rate, depth of cut and tool tip radius. The influences of cutting parameters have been presented in graphical form for understanding. To achieve the minimum vibration, the optimum values obtained for rpm, feed rate, depth of cut and tool tip radius were respectively, 318 rpm, 0.25 mm/rev, 0.9 mm and 0.8 mm. Maximum vibration has been revealed the values obtained for rpm, feed rate, depth of cut and tool tip radius were respectively, 636 rpm, 0.1 mm/rev, 0,5 mm and 0.8 mm.

  17. Design for Vibration Monitoring: A Methodology for Reliable and Cost-Effective Vibration Monitoring (United States)

    Tumer, Irem Y.; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)


    The purpose of health monitoring systems is to detect failures or defects for increased safety and performance and to provide on-condition maintenance with reduced costs. The problems associated with health monitoring systems include high rates of false alarms and missed failures, which make monitoring an unreliable and costly task. The reason for this is that unaccounted variations invalidate signal modeling assumptions. Our approach was to focus on vibration monitoring of rotating components. We analyzed baseline signals to determine statistical variations, identify and model factors that influence vibrations (pre-production vs. post-production variations), determine hit and false alarm rates with baseline flight data, model and predict effects of defects and variations on vibrations, and develop algorithms and metrics for failure and anomaly detection in the presence of variations.

  18. Effect of finite energy of intravalley acoustic phonons on the temperature of non-equilibrium electrons in a quantum surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nag, S. [Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Bhattacharya, D.P., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India)


    The effect of finite energy of intravalley acoustic phonons on the electric field dependence of the temperature of the non-equilibrium carriers in a quantum surface has been studied here. The calculations have been made, for a rather pure material, at low lattice temperature. Numerical results are obtained for GaAs and Si. The results are interesting being significantly different from what one obtains by neglecting the phonon energy.

  19. Effects of non-equilibrium angle fluctuation on F1-ATPase kinetics induced by temperature increase. (United States)

    Tamiya, Yuji; Watanabe, Rikiya; Noji, Hiroyuki; Li, Chun-Biu; Komatsuzaki, Tamiki


    F 1 -ATPase (F 1 ) is an efficient rotary protein motor, whose reactivity is modulated by the rotary angle to utilize thermal fluctuation. In order to elucidate how its kinetics are affected by the change in the fluctuation, we have extended the reaction-diffusion formalism [R. Watanabe et al., Biophys. J., 2013, 105, 2385] applicable to a wider range of temperatures based on experimental data analysis of F 1 derived from thermophilic Bacillus under high ATP concentration conditions. Our simulation shows that the rotary angle distribution manifests a stronger non-equilibrium feature as the temperature increases, because ATP hydrolysis and P i release are more accelerated compared with the timescale of rotary angle relaxation. This effect causes the rate coefficient obtained from dwell time fitting to deviate from the Arrhenius relation in P i release, which has been assumed in the previous activation thermodynamic quantities estimation using linear Arrhenius fitting. Larger negative correlation is also found between hydrolysis and P i release waiting time in a catalytic dwell with the increase in temperature. This loss of independence between the two successive reactions at the catalytic dwell sheds doubt on the conventional dwell time fitting to obtain rate coefficients with a double exponential function at temperatures higher than 65 °C, which is close to the physiological temperature of the thermophilic Bacillus.

  20. Effects of non-equilibrium plasma in the treatment of ligature-induced peri-implantitis. (United States)

    Shi, Qi; Song, Ke; Zhou, Xincai; Xiong, Zilan; Du, Tianfeng; Lu, Xinpei; Cao, Yingguang


    To evaluate the effects of non-equilibrium plasma in the treatment of ligature-induced peri-implantitis in beagle dogs. Six beagles received 12 implants installed in the position of the fourth mandibular premolars. Ligature-induced peri-implantitis was initiated at 3 months post-implantation. When approximately 40% of the supporting bone was lost, the ligatures were removed. The implants were subjected to the muco-periosteal scaling and chlorhexidine irrigation with or without plasma irrigation. Three months later, clinical, radiographic and microbiological analyses were performed. Block biopsies were prepared for micro-CT and histomorphometric analysis. The primary outcome was the difference in bone healing of peri-implant sites, and the secondary outcomes included changes in clinical parameters (SBI, PD) and bacterial detection. At baseline, no significant differences were observed between the two groups. At 3 months post-treatment, the plasma group showed a significantly higher bone level than the control group (p implantitis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Dynamics of Multistage Gear Transmission with Effects of Gearbox Vibrations (United States)

    Choy, F. K.; Tu, Y. K.; Zakrajsek, J. J.; Townsend, Dennis P.


    A comprehensive approach is presented in analyzing the dynamic behavior of multistage gear transmission systems with the effects of gearbox induced vibrations and mass imbalances of the rotor. The modal method, with undamped frequencies and planar mode shapes, is used to reduce the degrees of freedom of the gear system for time-transient dynamic analysis. Both the lateral and torsional vibration modes of each rotor-bearing-gear stage as well as the interstage vibrational characteristics are coupled together through localized gear mesh tooth interactions. In addition, gearbox vibrations are also coupled to the rotor-bearing-gear system dynamics through bearing support forces between the rotor and the gearbox. Transient and steady state dynamics of lateral and torsional vibrations of the geared system are examined in both time and frequency domains to develop interpretations of the overall modal dynamic characteristics under various operating conditions. A typical three-stage geared system is used as an example. Effects of mass imbalance and gearbox vibrations on the system dynamic behavior are presented in terms of modal excitation functions for both lateral and torsional vibrations. Operational characteristics and conclusions are drawn from the results presented.

  2. Energy evaluation of protection effectiveness of anti-vibration gloves. (United States)

    Hermann, Tomasz; Dobry, Marian Witalis


    This article describes an energy method of assessing protection effectiveness of anti-vibration gloves on the human dynamic structure. The study uses dynamic models of the human and the glove specified in Standard No. ISO 10068:2012. The physical models of human-tool systems were developed by combining human physical models with a power tool model. The combined human-tool models were then transformed into mathematical models from which energy models were finally derived. Comparative energy analysis was conducted in the domain of rms powers. The energy models of the human-tool systems were solved using numerical simulation implemented in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. The simulation procedure demonstrated the effectiveness of the anti-vibration glove as a method of protecting human operators of hand-held power tools against vibration. The desirable effect is achieved by lowering the flow of energy in the human-tool system when the anti-vibration glove is employed.

  3. Effect of Ultrasonic Vibration on Proliferation and Differentiation of Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Hino


    Full Text Available The effect of mechanical stimulation of vibration on proliferation and differentiation of cells has been studied in vitro. To apply the vibration on the cells, a piezoelectric element was attached on the outside surface of the bottom of the culture plate of six wells. The piezoelectric element was vibrated by sinusoidally alternating voltage at 1.0 MHz generated by a function generator. Five kinds of cells were used in the experiment: C2C12 (mouse myoblast cell, L929 (fibroblast connective tissue of mouse, Hepa1-6 (mouse hepatoma cell, HUVEC (human umbilical vein endothelial cell, and Neuro-2a (mouse neural crest-derived cell line. After the incubation for 24 hours, cells were exposed to the ultrasonic vibration intermittently for three days: for thirty minutes per day. At the end of the experiment, the number of cells was counted by colorimetric method with a microplate photometer. In the case of Neuro-2a, the total length of the neurite was calculated at the microscopic image. The experimental study shows following results. Cells are exfoliated by the strong vibration. Proliferation and differentiation of cells are accelerated with mild vibration. The optimum intensity of vibration depends on the kind of cells.

  4. Effects of Hand Vibration on Motor Output in Chronic Hemiparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibele de Andrade Melo


    Full Text Available Background. Muscle vibration has been shown to increase the corticospinal excitability assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS and to change voluntary force production in healthy subjects. Objectives. To evaluate the effect of vibration on corticospinal excitability using TMS and on maximal motor output using maximal voluntary contraction (MVC in individuals with chronic hemiparesis. Methodology. Nineteen hemiparetic and 17 healthy control subjects participated in this study. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs and MVC during lateral pinch grip were recorded at first dorsal interosseous muscle in a single session before, during, and after one-minute trials of 80 Hz vibration of the thenar eminence. Results. In hemiparetic subjects, vibration increased MEP amplitudes to a level comparable to that of control subjects and triggered a MEP response in 4 of 7 patients who did not have a MEP at rest. Also, vibration increased the maximal rate of force production (dF/dtmax⁡ in both control and hemiparetic subjects but it did not increase MVC. Conclusion. Motor response generated with a descending cortical drive in chronic hemiparetic subjects can be increased during vibration. Vibration could be used when additional input is needed to reveal motor responses and to increase rate of force generation.

  5. Evaluation of blast-induced vibration effects on structures 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Rim; Jeon, Gyu Shick; Lee, Dae Soo; Joo, Kwang Ho; Lee, Woong Keon [Korea Electrotechnology Research Inst., Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Chang Ha; Chung, So Keul; Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Hee Soon; Chun, Sun Woo; Park, Yeon Jun; Synn, Joong Ho; Choi, Byung Hee [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    Due to the difficulties of obtaining construction site for new plants, following ones are inevitably being built in the site adjacent to existing power plants. Therefore considerable thought has been recently given to the dynamic loading generated by blasting works near the plants to maintain the safety of structures and facilities in power plants. Our own standard for safety level of blast vibration is not prepared yet, and foreign standards have been generally employed without theoretical and experimental verification. Safety-related structures of power plants and facilities have to be protected against the effects of possible hazards due to blast vibration. Earthquakes have been considered a major dynamic design loading as a requirement of plant design, but the effects of blast-induced vibration are not. In order to ensure the safety, rational safe criterion should be established and blast design should be satisfy it, which requires the development of a model for prediction of vibration level through more systematic measurement and analysis. The main objectives of the study are : to provide background data for establishing the rational safe vibration limits, to develop models for prediction of blast vibration level, to establish safe blast design criterion, and to accumulate techniques for field measurements, data acquisition and analysis (author). 80 refs., 347 figs.

  6. Gas phase Boudouard reactions involving singlet-singlet and singlet-triplet CO vibrationally excited states: implications for the non-equilibrium vibrational kinetics of CO/CO2 plasmas (United States)

    Barreto, Patricia R. P.; Euclides, Henrique de O.; Albernaz, Alessandra F.; Aquilanti, Vincenzo; Capitelli, Mario; Grossi, Gaia; Lombardi, Andrea; Macheret, Sergey; Palazzetti, Federico


    Rate constants for the Boudouard reactions: CO + CO → CO2 + C and CO + CO → C2O + O, involving ground and vibrationally excited states for both singlet-singlet and singlet-triplet reactant CO molecules, have been obtained by using the transition-state theory on an ab initio generated potential energy surface. The dependence of the activation energies for the different processes on the vibrational energy of reactants has been estimated through a parametrization that accounts for the utilization of vibrational energy and is calculated by the forward and backward ab initio activation energies of the relevant processes at zero vibrational energy. The results and their comparison with available experimental reaction rates demonstrate the importance of vibrational excitation not only for the singlet-singlet reactions, but also for the singlet-triplet ones, which are here investigated for the first time. Finally, the implications of the present results on the kinetics of CO/CO2 cold plasmas are discussed: for their modeling the temperature dependence of the obtained rates for singlet-singlet and singlet-triplet reactants in the ground vibrational states have been represented by both Arrhenius and deformed Arrhenius equations.

  7. Analytical model for the quantum-confined Stark effect including electric field screening by non-equilibrium carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulashevich, K.A. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, RAS, 26 Polytekhnicheskaya, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Soft-Impact Ltd., P.O. Box 83, 27 Engels av., St. Petersburg 194156 (Russian Federation); Karpov, S.Yu. [Soft-Impact Ltd., P.O. Box 83, 27 Engels av., St. Petersburg 194156 (Russian Federation); Suris, R.A. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, RAS, 26 Polytekhnicheskaya, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation)


    We have derived an analytical approximation for the energy levels in a symmetric quantum well applicable in a wide range of the electric field variation. Suppression of the quantum-confined Stark effect due to the electric field screening by non-equilibrium carriers is considered self-consistently within the perturbation theory. Theoretical predictions are compared with available observations. Specific features of the quantum-confined Stark effect in light-emitting diode heterostructures are discussed. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. The effect of whole body vibration exercise on muscle activation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of whole body vibration exercise (WBV) on muscle activation has recently been a topic for discussion amongst some researchers. Researchers are divided on the safety and effectiveness of WBV. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of WBV on muscle activation. Healthy university students (N = 11; ...

  9. Effect of vibration frequency on biopsy needle insertion force. (United States)

    Tan, Lei; Qin, Xuemei; Zhang, Qinhe; Zhang, Hongcai; Dong, Hongjian; Guo, Tuodang; Liu, Guowei


    Needle insertion is critical in many clinical medicine procedures, such as biopsy, brachytherapy, and injection therapy. A platform with two degrees of freedom was set up to study the effect of vibration frequency on needle insertion force. The gel phantom deformation at the needle cutting edge and the Voigt model are utilized to develop a dynamic model to explain the relationship between the insertion force and needle-tip velocity. The accuracy of this model was verified by performing needle insertions into phantom gel. The effect of vibration on insertion force can be explained as the vibration increasing the needle-tip velocity and subsequently increasing the insertion force. In a series of needle insertion experiments with different vibration frequencies, the peak forces were selected for comparison to explore the effect of vibration frequency on needle insertion force. The experimental results indicate that the insertion force at 500Hz increases up to 17.9% compared with the force at 50Hz. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Vibrational analysis of dibenzo-18-crown-6. Effect of dispersion correction on the calculated vibrational spectra (United States)

    Al-Jallal, Nada A.; El-Azhary, Adel A.


    We report for the first time a detailed vibrational analysis of dibenzo-18-crown-6, db18c6. The experimental IR and Raman spectra of db18c6 were measured. The assignment of the fundamental vibrational frequencies of db18c6 was aided by using scaled quantum mechanical force fields calculated at the B3LYP/6-311G** and CAM-B3LYP/6-311G** levels. Comparison between the experimental and calculated spectra of some of the important conformations of db18c6 led to the conclusion that db18c6 in the solid phase exists in a C2 conformation that is similar to that predicted by X-ray, for also the solid phase. The effect of inclusion of the atom pair-wise dispersion correction to the B3LYP method, known as the B3LYP-D3 method, on the calculated IR and Raman spectra of db18c6 at the B3LYP level was also investigated. It was concluded that the effect of inclusion of the dispersion correction on the calculated vibrational frequencies and intensities is negligible.

  11. Shunted Piezoelectric Vibration Damping Analysis Including Centrifugal Loading Effects (United States)

    Min, James B.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Provenza, Andrew J.


    Excessive vibration of turbomachinery blades causes high cycle fatigue problems which require damping treatments to mitigate vibration levels. One method is the use of piezoelectric materials as passive or active dampers. Based on the technical challenges and requirements learned from previous turbomachinery rotor blades research, an effort has been made to investigate the effectiveness of a shunted piezoelectric for the turbomachinery rotor blades vibration control, specifically for a condition with centrifugal rotation. While ample research has been performed on the use of a piezoelectric material with electric circuits to attempt to control the structural vibration damping, very little study has been done regarding rotational effects. The present study attempts to fill this void. Specifically, the objectives of this study are: (a) to create and analyze finite element models for harmonic forced response vibration analysis coupled with shunted piezoelectric circuits for engine blade operational conditions, (b) to validate the experimental test approaches with numerical results and vice versa, and (c) to establish a numerical modeling capability for vibration control using shunted piezoelectric circuits under rotation. Study has focused on a resonant damping control using shunted piezoelectric patches on plate specimens. Tests and analyses were performed for both non-spinning and spinning conditions. The finite element (FE) shunted piezoelectric circuit damping simulations were performed using the ANSYS Multiphysics code for the resistive and inductive circuit piezoelectric simulations of both conditions. The FE results showed a good correlation with experimental test results. Tests and analyses of shunted piezoelectric damping control, demonstrating with plate specimens, show a great potential to reduce blade vibrations under centrifugal loading.

  12. The effects of sound level and vibration magnitude on the relative discomfort of noise and vibration. (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Griffin, Michael J


    The relative discomfort caused by noise and vibration, how this depends on the level of noise and the magnitude of vibration, and whether the noise and vibration are presented simultaneously or sequentially has been investigated in a laboratory study with 20 subjects. Noise and vertical vibration were reproduced with all 49 combinations of 7 levels of noise and 7 magnitudes of vibration to allow the discomfort caused by one of the stimuli to be judged relative to the other stimulus using magnitude estimation. In four sessions, subjects judged noise relative to vibration and vibration relative to noise, with both simultaneous and sequential presentations of the stimuli. The equivalence of noise and vibration was not greatly dependent on whether the stimuli were simultaneous or sequential, but highly dependent on whether noise was judged relative to vibration or vibration was judged relative to noise. When judging noise, higher magnitude vibrations appeared to mask the discomfort caused by low levels of noise. When judging vibration, higher level noises appeared to mask the discomfort caused by low magnitudes of vibration. The judgment of vibration discomfort was more influenced by noise than the judgment of noise discomfort was influenced by vibration.

  13. Large electron transfer rate effects from the Duschinsky mixing of vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sando, Gerald M.; Spears, Kenneth G; Hupp, Joseph T


    vibrations are very important. The Duschinsky effect arises when two electronic states have vibrational normal mode coordinate systems that are rotated and translated relative to each other. We use a conventional quantum rate model for ET, and the examples include 6-8 vibrations, where two vibrational modes...

  14. The immediate effect of vibration therapy on flexibility in female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of vibration therapy on the flexibility of female gymnasts. A pre-test, post-test design was used to evaluate this effect. Fifty two gymnasts were assigned to either the control group or to one of three experimental groups. For both the pre- and post-testing all ...

  15. Nonequilibrium emergent phenomena in organic molecular solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrano, Matteo


    The manipulation of matter with ultrashort laser pulses is a relevant research field from both a fundamental and an applied perspective, owing to the efficient coupling to the electronic degrees of freedom on femtosecond timescales and the ability to induce transient phases that cannot be realized in equilibrium scenarios. Strongly correlated materials are a natural environment for the observation of such novel and emergent out-of-equilibrium physics because small modifications to the electron-electron interactions can induce transitions between remarkably different macroscopic phases. One of the most effective means of modifying the effective electron-electron interactions is to perturb the crystal structure through pressure, strain or even light. However, it remains largely unexplored how perturbing the structural degrees of freedom affects the electron dynamics of the transiently driven states and how the interplay of correlations and electron-lattice interactions determine the intrinsic timescales of these nonequilibrium states. This thesis investigates how to control the light-induced nonequilibrium electronic properties in strongly correlated organics, that are highly tunable with moderate variations of external parameters, by perturbing their structural degrees of freedom, either via static pressures or vibrational excitation. We study the role of correlations in determining the relaxation rate of holes (holons) and double occupancies (doublons) in a solid state Mott insulator, the ET-F{sub 2}TCNQ, driven across a transient insulator-to-metal transition. By mapping holon-doublon lifetimes onto the ground-state electronic interactions, we found that the decay rate of the photoinjected quasiparticles depends on the degree of correlation between carriers and is affected by the presence of a competition between local recombination and delocalization of holon-doublon pairs. By optically controlling the effective correlations in organic molecular crystals through

  16. Nuclear Quantum Vibrational Effects in Shock Hugoniot Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, N; Reed, E; Fried, L E


    We present a straightforward method for the inclusion of quantum nuclear vibrational effects in molecular dynamics calculations of shock Hugoniot temperatures. Using a Grueneisen equation of state and a quasiharmonic approximation to the vibrational energies, we derive a simple, post-processing method for calculation of the quantum corrected Hugoniot temperatures. We have used our novel technique on ab initio simulations of shock compressed water. Our results indicate significantly closer agreement with all available experimental temperature data. Our formalism and technique can be easily applied to a number of different shock compressed molecular liquids or solids.

  17. Vibrating Intrinsic reverberation Chambers for shielding effectiveness measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, G.S.; Vogt-Ardatjew, R.A.; Schipper, H.; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes


    A new technique for shielding effectiveness measurements is the dual VIRC method. In this method two Vibrating Intrinsic Reverberation Chambers (VIRC) are combined together via a common wall with an aperture that forms the interface between them. This particular set-up makes it possible to achieve a

  18. Effect of vibration versus suspension therapy on balance in children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most cerebral palsy children have deficits in balance, co-ordination, and gait throughout childhood and adulthood. So, it is essential to seek an ideal physical therapy program to help in solving such widespread problem. The present study was conducted to compare between the effect of vibration training and suspension ...

  19. Effect of vibration versus suspension therapy on balance in children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Khaled A. Olama


    Mar 3, 2012 ... Effect of vibration versus suspension therapy on balance in children with hemiparetic cerebral palsy. Khaled A. Olama *, Nahed S. Thabit. Department of Physical Therapy for Disturbance of Growth and Development in Children and its Surgery,. Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

  20. Effect of different mechanical vibration on blood parameters of one ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mechanical vibrations are congenital to any system of transportation. In poultry industry, the higher or lower intensity of this agent during the transportation of eggs and chickens can increase the production losses and decrease the efficiency of the system as a whole. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of ...

  1. Effect of Building Characteristics on Vibration-Induced Acceleration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effective accelerations for non-structural components located at different heights in a building are amplified due to the vibrations of the building and the components themselves. The amplifications along the height of buildings having different heights, structural systems and stiffness were studied. Four, eight and sixteen ...

  2. Effects of whole body vibration intervention on handgrip strength of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of whole body vibration intervention on handgrip strength of Brazilian healthy soldiers. Danielle Soares Morel, Eloá Moreira-Marconi, Samuel Brandão Sobrinho Neto, Laisa Liane Paineiras Domingos, Patrícia Lopes de Souza, Danúbia da Cunha de Sá Caputo, Glenda Dias Costa, Cláudia Ferreira de Figueiredo, ...

  3. The effect of whole-body vibration training on selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The information on the use of whole-body vibration training (WBVT) on some health-related risk factors such as body composition and biochemical parameters is limited. The purpose of the study was therefore, to assess the effect of progressive WBVT on selected anthropometric and biochemical parameters in healthy ...

  4. The Effects of Vibration on the Gait Pattern and Vibration Perception Threshold of Children With Idiopathic Toe Walking. (United States)

    Fanchiang, Hsinchen Daniel; Geil, Mark; Wu, Jianhua; Chen, Yu-Ping; Wang, Yong Tai


    The effectiveness of idiopathic toe walking treatments is not conclusive. The study investigated the use of vibration as a therapeutic/treatment method for children with idiopathic toe walking. Fifteen children with idiopathic toe walking and 15 typically developing children, aged 4 to 10 years, completed the study. The study included a barefoot gait examination and a vibration perception threshold test before and after standing on a whole body vibration machine for 60 seconds. Temporal-spatial parameters were recorded along with HR32, a calculation designed to distinguish on aspects of the toe-walking pattern. No significant gait pattern differences were found between children with idiopathic toe walking and typically developing children after one bout of vibration intervention. HR32 was found to be a means to identify the toe-walking pattern (P vibration of children with idiopathic toe walking was not found in the current study (P = .921). © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Research on Effects of Blast Casting Vibration and Vibration Absorption of Presplitting Blasting in Open Cast Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ma


    Full Text Available The impact energy produced by blast casting is able to break and cast rocks, yet the strong vibration effects caused at the same time would threaten the safety of mines. Based on the theory of Janbu’s Limit Equilibrium Method (LEM, pseudo-static method has been incorporated to analyze the influence of dynamic loads of blasting on slope stability. The horizontal loads produced by blast vibrations cause an increase in sliding forces, and this leads to a lower slope stability coefficient. When the tensile stresses of the two adjacent blast holes are greater than the tensile strength of rock mass, the radical oriented cracks are formed, which is the precondition for the formation of presplit face. Thus, the formula for calculating the blast hole spacing of presplit blasting can be obtained. Based on the analysis of the principles of vibration tester and vibration pick-up in detecting blast vibrations, a detection scheme of blast vibration is worked out by taking the blast area with precrack rear and non-precrack side of the detection object. The detection and research results of blast vibration show that presplit blasting can reduce the attenuation coefficient of stress wave by half, and the vibration absorption ratio could reach 50.2%; the impact of dynamic loads on the end-wall slope stability coefficient is 1.98%, which proves that presplit blasting plays an important role in shock absorption of blast casting.

  6. Ab initio analysis of the effect of strain on the density of non-equilibrium electronic states and their role in the wave model of martensitic transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashchenko, M.P. [Ural State Forest Engineering University, Sybirskiy trakt 37, 620100 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)], E-mail:; Skorikova, N.A.; Chashchina, V.G. [Ural State Forest Engineering University, Sybirskiy trakt 37, 620100 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)


    In the wave model of martensitic transformations, the influence of the tensile strain on the creation of non-equilibrium electrons is crucial for the principle of wave amplification by stimulated emission of phonons from an inverted electronic population. By consideration of the strain-effect on the electronic energy spectrum it is shown that - for certain interval of finite strain - the density of active electronic non-equilibrium states in a strained lattice can satisfy the conditions for a phonon-maser effect.

  7. Effect of Non-Equilibrium Surface Thermochemistry in Simulation of Carbon Based Ablators (United States)

    Chen, Yih-Kanq; Gokcen, Tahir


    This study demonstrates that coupling of a material thermal response code and a flow solver using non-equilibrium gas/surface interaction model provides time-accurate solutions for the multidimensional ablation of carbon based charring ablators. The material thermal response code used in this study is the Two-dimensional Implicit Thermal-response and AblatioN Program (TITAN), which predicts charring material thermal response and shape change on hypersonic space vehicles. Its governing equations include total energy balance, pyrolysis gas mass conservation, and a three-component decomposition model. The flow code solves the reacting Navier-Stokes equations using Data Parallel Line Relaxation (DPLR) method. Loose coupling between the material response and flow codes is performed by solving the surface mass balance in DPLR and the surface energy balance in TITAN. Thus, the material surface recession is predicted by finite-rate gas/surface interaction boundary conditions implemented in DPLR, and the surface temperature and pyrolysis gas injection rate are computed in TITAN. Two sets of nonequilibrium gas/surface interaction chemistry between air and the carbon surface developed by Park and Zhluktov, respectively, are studied. Coupled fluid-material response analyses of stagnation tests conducted in NASA Ames Research Center arc-jet facilities are considered. The ablating material used in these arc-jet tests was Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA). Computational predictions of in-depth material thermal response and surface recession are compared with the experimental measurements for stagnation cold wall heat flux ranging from 107 to 1100 Watts per square centimeter.

  8. Surface morphology effects in a vibration based triboelectric energy harvester (United States)

    Nafari, A.; Sodano, H. A.


    Despite the abundance of ambient mechanical energy in our environment, it is often neglected and left unused. However, recent studies have demonstrated that mechanical vibrations can be harvested and used to power small wireless electronic devices, such as micro electromechanical sensors (MEMS) and actuators. Most commonly, these energy harvesters convert vibration into electrical energy by utilizing piezoelectric, electromagnetic or electrostatic effects. Recently, triboelectric based energy harvesters have shown to be among the simplest and most cost-effective techniques for scavenging mechanical energy. The basis of triboelectric energy harvesters is the periodic contact and separation of two surfaces with opposite triboelectric properties which results in induced charge flow through an external load. Here, a vibration driven triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) is fabricated and the effect of micro/nano scale surface modification is studied. The TENG produces electrical energy on the basis of periodic out-of-plane charge separation between gold and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with opposite triboelectric charge polarities. By introducing micro/nano scale surface modifications to the PDMS and gold, the TENG’s power output is further enhanced. This work demonstrates that the morphology of the surfaces in a TENG device is important and by increasing the effective surface area through micro/nano scale modification, the power output of the device can increase by 118%. Moreover, it is shown that unlike many TENGs proposed in the literature, the fabricated device has a high RMS open circuit voltage and short circuit current and can perform for an extended period of time.

  9. Geometric Filtering Effect of Vertical Vibrations in Railway Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Dumitriu


    Full Text Available The paper herein examines the geometric filtering effect coming from the axle base of a railway vehicle upon the vertical vibrations behavior, due to the random irregularities of the track. For this purpose, the complete model of a two-level suspension and flexible carbody vehicle has been taken into account. Following the modal analysis, the movement equations have been treated in an original manner and brought to a structure that points out at the symmetrical and anti-symmetrical decoupled movements of vehicle and their excitation modes. There has been shown that the geometric filtering has a selective behavior in decreasing the level of vibrations, and its contribution is affected by the axle base magnitude, rolling speed and frequency range.

  10. The effects of load and toothpaste on powered toothbrush vibrations. (United States)

    Lea, Simon C; Khan, Amina; Patanwala, Hussein S; Landini, Gabriel; Walmsley, A Damien


    The primary cleaning action of powered toothbrushes is the motion of the bristles in contact with the tooth surfaces. The aim of this study was to use scanning laser vibrometry to determine the effects of load and toothpaste on the bristle vibration characteristics of four powered toothbrushes (Oral-B Sonic Complete; Oral-B Professional Care 8000 Series; Sonicare Elite and Ultrasonex). Toothbrushes were initially scanned, with the laser vibrometer, under unloaded conditions to provide baseline readings. Toothbrushes were then assessed under loaded conditions (1.00 N and 2.00 N), with and without toothpaste, to observe the effect on bristle motion. Application of 1.00 N load significantly reduced the displacement amplitudes of all powered toothbrushes (p0.497). With toothpaste, 1.00 N load caused a significant decrease in vibration displacement amplitude for all brushes (ptoothpaste, significantly reduced all toothbrushes vibration displacement amplitude (ptoothbrushes tested. Load and toothpaste significantly affected the performance of powered toothbrushes. Understanding why these factors affect certain toothbrush designs more than others may lead to toothbrushes being designed with greater clinical efficacy.



    KOÇ, Gözde; K. Alparslan ERMAN


    Whole body vibration training, the person’s entire body on a platform, creates a vibration that may affect the muscles and bones. Despite the vibration used of massage and treatment since ancient times, it was used as a training method in recent years and became very popular and has attracted the attention of researchers. Whole body vibration training used both sport science with the aim to improve performance and in the fields of medicine for sports therapy. Whole body vibration training bri...

  12. The effect of vibration on bed voidage behaviors in fluidized beds with large particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jin


    Full Text Available The effects of vibration parameters, operating conditions and material properties on bed voidage were investigated using an optical fiber probe approach in a vibrating fluidized bed with a diameter of 148 mm. Variables studied included frequency (0-282 s-1, amplitude (0 mm-1 mm, bed height (0.1 m-0.4 m as well as four kinds of particles (belonging to Geldart's B and D groups. The axial and radial voidage distribution with vibration is compared with that without vibration, which shows vibration can aid in the fluidization behaviors of particles. For a larger vibration amplitude, the vibration seriously affects bed voidage. The vibration energy can damp out for particle layers with increasing the bed height. According to analysis of experimental data, an empirical correlation for predicting bed voidage, giving good agreement with the experimental data and a deviation within ±15%, was proposed.

  13. Nonequilibrium thermal effects on exciton time correlations in coupled semiconductor quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, J. C.; Rodríguez, F. J.; Quiroga, L. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de los Andes, AA 4976, Bogotá (Colombia)


    Theoretical guides to test 'macroscopic realism' in solid-state systems under quantum control are highly desirable. Here, we report on the evolution of a Leggett-Garg inequality (LGI), a combination of two-time correlations, in an out-of-equilibrium set up consisting of two interacting excitons confined in separate semiconductor quantum dots which are coupled to independent baths at different temperatures (T{sub 1} ≠ T{sub 2}). In a Markovian steady-state situation we found a rich variety of dynamical behaviors in different sectors of the average temperature (T{sub M} = (T{sub 1}+T{sub 2})/2) vs. coupling strength to the reservoirs (Γ) space parameter. For high T{sub M} and Γ values the LGI is not violated, as expected. However, by decreasing T{sub M} or Γ a sector of parameters appears where the LGI is violated at thermal equilibrium (T{sub 1} = T{sub 2}) and the violation starts decreasing when the system is moved out of the equilibrium. Surprisingly, at even lower T{sub M} values, for any Γ, there is an enhancement of the LGI violation by exposing the system to a temperature gradient, i.e. quantum correlations increase in a nonequilibrium thermal situation. Results on LGI violations in a steady-state regime are compared with other non-locality-dominated quantum correlation measurements, such as concurrence and quantum discord, between the two excitons under similar temperature gradients.

  14. Characterization of Train-Induced Vibration and its Effect on Fecal Corticosterone Metabolites in Mice. (United States)

    Atanasov, Nicholas A; Sargent, Jennifer L; Parmigiani, John P; Palme, Rupert; Diggs, Helen E


    Excessive environmental vibrations can have deleterious effects on animal health and experimental results, but they remain poorly understood in the animal laboratory setting. The aims of this study were to characterize train-associated vibration in a rodent vivarium and to assess the effects of this vibration on the reproductive success and fecal corticosterone metabolite levels of mice. An instrumented cage, featuring a high-sensitivity microphone and accelerometer, was used to characterize the vibrations and sound in a vivarium that is near an active railroad. The vibrations caused by the passing trains are 3 times larger in amplitude than are the ambient facility vibrations, whereas most of the associated sound was below the audible range for mice. Mice housed in the room closest to the railroad tracks had pregnancy rates that were 50% to 60% lower than those of mice of the same strains but bred in other parts of the facility. To verify the effect of the train vibrations, we used a custom-built electromagnetic shaker to simulate the train-induced vibrations in a controlled environment. Fecal pellets were collected from male and female mice that were exposed to the simulated vibrations and from unexposed control animals. Analysis of the fecal samples revealed that vibrations similar to those produced by a passing train can increase the levels of fecal corticosterone metabolites in female mice. These increases warrant attention to the effects of vibration on mice and, consequently, on reproduction and experimental outcomes.

  15. Effect of vibration stabilization of the process of postcritical deformation (United States)

    Wildemann, V. E.; Lomakin, E. V.; Tretyakov, M. P.


    Results of the experimental study of vibration stabilization of the process of postcritical deformation during the tensile testing of solid cylindrical specimens made of 20 and 40Cr structural steels under additional vibrations are presented. The vibrations are implemented using cyclic torsion of the specimens at a small amplitude and a frequency of 10-30 Hz.

  16. Effect of vibration on muscle strength imbalance in lower extremity using multi-control whole body vibration platform. (United States)

    Yu, Chang Ho; Seo, Shin Bae; Kang, Seung Rok; Kim, Kyung; Kwon, Tae Kyu


    This study shows the improvement of muscle activity and muscle strength imbalance in the lower extremities through independent exercise loads in vibration platform. Twenty females of age 20 participated in this study. The subjects were divided into WBV group, with more than 10% of muscle strength imbalance between left and right the lower extremities, and control group, with less than 10% of muscle strength imbalance between left and right the lower extremities. As the prior experiment showed, different exercise postures provide different muscular activities. As a result, the highest muscular activity was found to be in the low squat posture. Therefore, the LS posture was selected for the exercise in this experiment. Vibration intensities were applied to dominant muscle and non-dominant muscle, and the vibration frequency was fixed at 25Hz for the WBV group. The control group was asked to perform the same exercise as the WBV group, without stimulated vibration. This exercise was conducted for a total of 4 weeks. As a result, the WBV group which showed an average deviation of 16% before the experiment, tended to decrease approximately to 5%. In this study, vibration exercise using load deviation is shown to be effective in improving the muscle strength imbalance.

  17. Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamic Analysis of Double Diffusive, Nanofluid Forced Convection in Catalytic Microreactors with Radiation Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Govone


    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical investigation of the second law performance of double diffusive forced convection in microreactors with the inclusion of nanofluid and radiation effects. The investigated microreactors consist of a single microchannel, fully filled by a porous medium. The transport of heat and mass are analysed by including the thick walls and a first order, catalytic chemical reaction on the internal surfaces of the microchannel. Two sets of thermal boundary conditions are considered on the external surfaces of the microchannel; (1 constant temperature and (2 constant heat flux boundary condition on the lower wall and convective boundary condition on the upper wall. The local thermal non-equilibrium approach is taken to thermally analyse the porous section of the system. The mass dispersion equation is coupled with the transport of heat in the nanofluid flow through consideration of Soret effect. The problem is analytically solved and illustrations of the temperature fields, Nusselt number, total entropy generation rate and performance evaluation criterion (PEC are provided. It is shown that the radiation effect tends to modify the thermal behaviour within the porous section of the system. The radiation parameter also reduces the overall temperature of the system. It is further demonstrated that, expectedly, the nanoparticles reduce the temperature of the system and increase the Nusselt number. The total entropy generation rate and consequently PEC shows a strong relation with radiation parameter and volumetric concentration of nanoparticles.

  18. Plasma Chemistry of Vibrationally Nonequilibrium Molecules (United States)


    atmosphere allowed for bleeding air into the inlet of the pump after shutting it off to prevent sucking pump oil back into the gas handling lines. An...In t Vps plae but onm can expect dais mvaw to be hanoam sntdce AE Is alna smoller d=a die avuage knetic anerzv involved in dick com hrs M smicaou has...ber. obsead In die fiqtid phase/ Brawk 78/. Another hint Is that O(-N mixmes gave mom pulsed laser output than pure OCS / Deutsch 66/. - Excitation by

  19. Combined effect of noise and vibration produced by high-speed trains on annoyance in buildings. (United States)

    Lee, Pyoung Jik; Griffin, Michael J


    The effects of noise and vibration on annoyance in buildings during the passage of a nearby high-speed train have been investigated in a laboratory experiment with recorded train noise and 20 Hz vibration. The noises included the effects of two types of façade: windows-open and windows-closed. Subjects were exposed to six levels of noise and six magnitudes of vibration, and asked to rate annoyance using an 11-point numerical scale. The experiment consisted of four sessions: (1) evaluation of noise annoyance in the absence of vibration, (2) evaluation of total annoyance from simultaneous noise and vibration, (3) evaluation of noise annoyance in the presence of vibration, and (4) evaluation of vibration annoyance in the absence of noise. The results show that vibration did not influence ratings of noise annoyance, but that total annoyance caused by combined noise and vibration was considerably greater than the annoyance caused by noise alone. The noise annoyance and the total annoyance caused by combined noise and vibration were associated with subject self-ratings of noise sensitivity. Two classical models of total annoyance due to combined noise sources (maximum of the single source annoyance or the integration of individual annoyance ratings) provided useful predictions of the total annoyance caused by simultaneous noise and vibration.

  20. Thermochemical Nonequilibrium 2D Modeling of Nitrogen Inductively Coupled Plasma Flow (United States)

    Yu, Minghao; Yusuke, Takahashi; Hisashi, Kihara; Ken-ichi, Abe; Kazuhiko, Yamada; Takashi, Abe; Satoshi, Miyatani


    Two-dimensional (2D) numerical simulations of thermochemical nonequilibrium inductively coupled plasma (ICP) flows inside a 10-kW inductively coupled plasma wind tunnel (ICPWT) were carried out with nitrogen as the working gas. Compressible axisymmetric Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations coupled with magnetic vector potential equations were solved. A four-temperature model including an improved electron-vibration relaxation time was used to model the internal energy exchange between electron and heavy particles. The third-order accuracy electron transport properties (3rd AETP) were applied to the simulations. A hybrid chemical kinetic model was adopted to model the chemical nonequilibrium process. The flow characteristics such as thermal nonequilibrium, inductive discharge, effects of Lorentz force were made clear through the present study. It was clarified that the thermal nonequilibrium model played an important role in properly predicting the temperature field. The prediction accuracy can be improved by applying the 3rd AETP to the simulation for this ICPWT. supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (No. 23560954), sponsored by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science

  1. Nonequilibrium Chemical Effects in Single-Molecule SERS Revealed by Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Sean A.; Apra, Edoardo; Govind, Niranjan; Hess, Wayne P.; El-Khoury, Patrick Z.


    Recent developments in nanophotonics have paved the way for achieving significant advances in the realm of single molecule chemical detection, imaging, and dynamics. In particular, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a powerful analytical technique that is now routinely used to identify the chemical identity of single molecules. Understanding how nanoscale physical and chemical processes affect single molecule SERS spectra and selection rules is a challenging task, and is still actively debated. Herein, we explore underappreciated chemical phenomena in ultrasensitive SERS. We observe a fluctuating excited electronic state manifold, governed by the conformational dynamics of a molecule (4,4’-dimercaptostilbene, DMS) interacting with a metallic cluster (Ag20). This affects our simulated single molecule SERS spectra; the time trajectories of a molecule interacting with its unique local environment dictates the relative intensities of the observable Raman-active vibrational states. Ab initio molecular dynamics of a model Ag20-DMS system are used to illustrate both concepts in light of recent experimental results.

  2. Nonequilibrium Chemical Effects in Single-Molecule SERS Revealed by Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Simulations. (United States)

    Fischer, Sean A; Aprà, Edoardo; Govind, Niranjan; Hess, Wayne P; El-Khoury, Patrick Z


    Recent developments in nanophotonics have paved the way for achieving significant advances in the realm of single-molecule chemical detection, imaging, and dynamics. In particular, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a powerful analytical technique that is now routinely used to identify the chemical identity of single molecules. Understanding how nanoscale physical and chemical processes affect single-molecule SERS spectra and selection rules is a challenging task and is still actively debated. Herein, we explore underappreciated chemical phenomena in ultrasensitive SERS. We observe a fluctuating excited electronic state manifold, governed by the conformational dynamics of a molecule (4,4'-dimercaptostilbene, DMS) interacting with a metallic cluster (Ag20). This affects our simulated single-molecule SERS spectra; the time trajectories of a molecule interacting with its unique local environment dictates the relative intensities of the observable Raman-active vibrational states. Ab initio molecular dynamics of a model Ag20-DMS system are used to illustrate both concepts in light of recent experimental results.

  3. Nonequilibrium Phenomena in Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, A Surjalal


    The complexity of plasmas arises mainly from their inherent nonlinearity and far from equilibrium nature. The nonequilibrium behavior of plasmas is evident in the natural settings, for example, in the Earth's magnetosphere. Similarly, laboratory plasmas such as fusion bottles also have their fair share of complex behavior. Nonequilibrium phenomena are intimately connected with statistical dynamics and form one of the growing research areas in modern nonlinear physics. These studies encompass the ideas of self-organization, phase transition, critical phenomena, self-organized criticality and turbulence. This book presents studies of complexity in the context of nonequilibrium phenomena using theory, modeling, simulations, and experiments, both in the laboratory and in nature.

  4. Slenderness effects in the free vibration of laminated magnetoelectroelastic beams (United States)

    Jiang, Chao; Heyliger, Paul R.


    A semi-analytical discrete-layer approach is used to evaluate slenderness effects in the free vibration of laminated magnetoelectroelastic beams under various boundary conditions. Piecewise continuous approximations are used through the thickness direction of the beam and either continuous polynomial or trigonometric functions are used in the axial direction. Conventional beam models, including those of Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko, can be recovered to predict frequency estimates and are compared with results of the present model. Numerical examples are used to show the effects of beam slenderness on frequency and modal order for beams under simply-supported, fixed-fixed, and cantilever conditions. The results of these analyses clearly illustrate the thickness effects for axial, torsional, and bending modes and also provide some results useful for comparison for theses laminated beams.

  5. Size effects on free vibration of heterogeneous beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassanati Bahman


    Full Text Available In this paper the influence of microstructure on the free vibration of geometrically similar heterogeneous beams with free-free boundary conditions was numerically investigated by detailed finite element analysis (FEA to identify and quantify any effect of beam size on transverse modal frequencies when the microstructural scale is comparable to the overall size. ANSYS Mechanical APDL was used to generate specific unit cells at the microstructural scale comprised of two isotropic materials with different material properties. Unit cell variants containing voids and inclusions were considered. At the macroscopic scale, four beam sizes consisting of one, two, three or four layers of defined unit cells were represented by repeatedly regenerating the unit cell as necessary. In all four beam sizes the aspect ratio was kept constant. Changes to the volume fractions of each material were introduced while keeping the homogenized properties of the beam fixed. The influence of the beam surface morphology on the results was also investigated. The ANSYS results were compared with the analytical results from solution to Timoshenko beam and nonlocal Timoshenko beam as well as numerical results for a Micropolar beam. In nonlocal Timoshenko beams the Eringen’s small length scale coefficients were estimated for some of the studied models. Numerical analyses based on Micropolar theory were carried out to study the modal frequencies and a method was suggested to estimate characteristic length in bending and coupling number via transverse vibration which verifies the use of Micropolar elasticity theory in dynamic analysis.

  6. Signal Processing Methods for Removing the Effects of Whole Body Vibration upon Speech (United States)

    Bitner, Rachel M.; Begault, Durand R.


    Humans may be exposed to whole-body vibration in environments where clear speech communications are crucial, particularly during the launch phases of space flight and in high-performance aircraft. Prior research has shown that high levels of vibration cause a decrease in speech intelligibility. However, the effects of whole-body vibration upon speech are not well understood, and no attempt has been made to restore speech distorted by whole-body vibration. In this paper, a model for speech under whole-body vibration is proposed and a method to remove its effect is described. The method described reduces the perceptual effects of vibration, yields higher ASR accuracy scores, and may significantly improve intelligibility. Possible applications include incorporation within communication systems to improve radio-communication systems in environments such a spaceflight, aviation, or off-road vehicle operations.

  7. Non-Equilibrium Kinetics and Transport Properties in Reacting Flows in Nozzles (United States)

    Alexandrova, T. Yu.; Chikhaoui, A.; Kustova, E. V.; Nagnibeda, E. A.


    Non-equilibrium vibration-dissociation kinetics, transport properties and dissociation rate coefficients in expanding flows are studied on the basis of different kinetic theory approaches: state-to-state, multi-temperature and one-temperature ones. The limits of validity of more simple models are discussed, the influence of non-equilibrium vibrational distributions, initial conditions, nozzle profile on the macroscopic parameters, heat transfer and reaction rates is investigated.

  8. Human Factors Assessment of Vibration Effects on Visual Performance During Launch (United States)

    Holden, Kritina


    The Human Factors Assessment of Vibration Effects on Visual Performance During Launch (Visual Performance) investigation will determine visual performance limits during operational vibration and g-loads on the Space Shuttle, specifically through the determination of minimum readable font size during ascent using planned Orion display formats. Research Summary: The aim of the Human Factors Assessment of Vibration Effects on Visual Performance during Launch (Visual Performance) investigation is to provide supplementary data to that collected by the Thrust Oscillation Seat Detailed Technical Objective (DTO) 695 (Crew Seat DTO) which will measure seat acceleration and vibration from one flight deck and two middeck seats during ascent. While the Crew Seat DTO data alone are important in terms of providing a measure of vibration and g-loading, human performance data are required to fully interpret the operational consequences of the vibration values collected during Space Shuttle ascent. During launch, crewmembers will be requested to view placards with varying font sizes and indicate the minimum readable size. In combination with the Crew Seat DTO, the Visual Performance investigation will: Provide flight-validated evidence that will be used to establish vibration limits for visual performance during combined vibration and linear g-loading. o Provide flight data as inputs to ongoing ground-based simulations, which will further validate crew visual performance under vibration loading in a controlled environment. o Provide vibration and performance metrics to help validate procedures for ground tests and analyses of seats, suits, displays and controls, and human-in-the-loop performance.

  9. Numerical Study on the Effect of Non-Equilibrium Condensation on Drag Divergence Mach Number in a Transonic Moist Air Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seung Min [GyeongBuk Technopark, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hui Bo; Kwon, Young Doo; Kwon, Soon Bum [Kyungpook Nat’l Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)


    In the present study, the effects of non-equilibrium condensation on the drag divergence Mach number with the angle of attack in a transonic 2D moist air flow of NACA0012 are investigated using the TVD finite difference scheme. For the same α, the maximum upstream Mach number of the shock wave, Mmax, and the size of supersonic bubble decrease with the increase in Φ{sub 0}. For the same M{sub ∞}, Φ{sub 0}, and T{sub 0}, the length of the non-equilibrium condensation zone Δ{sub z} decreases with increasing Φ{sub 0}. On the other hand, because of the attenuating effect of non-equilibrium condensation on wave drag, which is related to the interaction between the shock wave and the boundary layer, the drag coefficient C{sub D} decreases with an increase in Φ{sub 0} for the same M{sub ∞} and α. For the same α, M{sub D} increases with increasing Φ{sub 0}, while M{sub D} decreases with an increase in α.

  10. Lateral vibration effects in atomic-scale friction


    Roth, R.; Fajardo, O. Y.; Mazo, J. J.; Meyer, E; Gnecco, E.


    The influence of lateral vibrations on the stick-slip motion of a nanotip elastically pulled on a flat crystal surface is studied by atomic force microscopy measurements on a NaCl(001) surface in ultra-high vacuum. The slippage of the nanotip across the crystal lattice is anticipated at increasing driving amplitude, similarly to what is observed in presence of normal vibrations. This lowers the average friction force, as explained by the Prandtl-Tomlinson model with lateral vibrations superim...

  11. Noninvasive monitoring of vocal fold vertical vibration using the acoustic Doppler effect. (United States)

    Tao, Chao; Jiang, Jack J; Wu, Dan; Liu, Xiaojun; Chodara, Ann


    To validate a proposed method of noninvasively monitoring vocal fold vertical vibration through utilization of the acoustic Doppler effect and the waveguide property of the vocal tract. Validation case-control study. In this device, an ultrasound beam is generated and directed into the mouth. The vocal tract, acting as a natural waveguide, guides the ultrasound beam toward the vibrating vocal folds. The vertical velocity of vocal fold vibration is then recovered from the Doppler frequency of the reflected ultrasound. One subject (age 32, male) was studied and measurements were taken under three modes of vocal fold vibration: breathing (no vibration), whispering (irregular vibration), and normal phonation (regular vibration). The peak-to-peak amplitude of the measured velocity of vocal fold vertical vibration was about 0.16 m/s, and the fundamental frequency was 172 Hz; the extracted velocity information showed a reasonable waveform and value in comparison with the previous studies. In all three modes of phonation, the Doppler frequencies derived from the reflected ultrasound corresponded with the vertical velocity of vocal fold vibration as expected. The proposed method can accurately represent the characteristics of different phonation modes such as no phonation, whisper and normal phonation. The proposed device could be used in daily monitoring and assessment of vocal function and vocal fold vibration. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of whole-body vibration exercise on the endocrine system of healthy men. (United States)

    Di Loreto, C; Ranchelli, A; Lucidi, P; Murdolo, G; Parlanti, N; De Cicco, A; Tsarpela, O; Annino, G; Bosco, C; Santeusanio, F; Bolli, G B; De Feo, P


    Whole-body vibration is reported to increase muscle performance, bone mineral density and stimulate the secretion of lipolytic and protein anabolic hormones, such as GH and testosterone, that might be used for the treatment of obesity. To date, as no controlled trial has examined the effects of vibration exercise on the human endocrine system, we performed a randomized controlled study, to establish whether the circulating concentrations of glucose and hormones (insulin, glucagon, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, GH, IGF-1, free and total testosterone) are affected by vibration in 10 healthy men [age 39 +/- 3, body mass index (BMI) of 23.5 +/- 0.5 kg/m2, mean +/- SEM]. Volunteers were studied on two occasions before and after standing for 25 min on a ground plate in the absence (control) or in the presence (vibration) of 30 Hz whole body vibration. Vibration slightly reduced plasma glucose (30 min: vibration 4.59 +/- 0.21, control 4.74 +/- 0.22 mM, p=0.049) and increased plasma norepinephrine concentrations (60 min: vibration 1.29 +/- 0.18, control 1.01 +/- 0.07 nM, p=0.038), but did not change the circulating concentrations of other hormones. These results demonstrate that vibration exercise transiently reduces plasma glucose, possibly by increasing glucose utilization by contracting muscles. Since hormonal responses, with the exception of norepinephrine, are not affected by acute vibration exposure, this type of exercise is not expected to reduce fat mass in obese subjects.

  13. Test-retest reliability of muscle vibration effects on postural sway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, H.; Brumagne, S.; van Dieen, J.H.; Vanhees, L.


    The effect of alterations in the processing of proprioceptive signals, on postural control, has been studied using muscle vibration effects. However, reliability and agreement of muscle vibration have still to be addressed.This study aimed to assess intra- and interday reliability and agreement of

  14. A study on the evaluation of vibration effect and the development of vibration reduction method for Wolsung unit 1 main steam piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun; Kim, Yeon Whan [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center; Kim, Tae Ryong; Park, Jin Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)


    The main steam piping of nuclear power plant which runs between steam generator and high pressure turbine has been experienced to have a severe effect on the safe operation of the plant due to the vibration induced by the steam flowing inside the piping. The imposed cyclic loads by the vibration could result in the degradation of the related structures such as connection parts between main instruments, valves, pipe supports and building. The objective of the study is to reduce the vibration level of Wolsung nuclear power plant unit 1 main steam pipeline by analyzing vibration characteristics of the piping, identifying sources of the vibration and developing a vibration reduction method .The location of the maximum vibration is piping between the main steam header and steam chest .The stress level was found to be within the allowable limit .The main vibration frequency was found to be 4{approx}6 Hz which is the same as the natural frequency from model test .A vibration reduction method using pipe supports of energy absorbing type(WEAR)is selected .The measured vibration level after WEAR installation was reduced about 36{approx}77% in displacement unit (author). 36 refs., 188 figs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Zaleski


    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies on the effect of technological parameters of vibration shot peening upon the shape of bearing curves and the parameters of that curve. The topography of surface formed in result of vibration shot peening and pre-machining, which was grinding, were analyzed. The material used in the studies was alloy steel 30HGSA. The shot peening process was performed on an appliance equipped with a kinematic vibrator. Shot peening time t, vibrator oscillations (vibrations frequency ν, as well as vibrator oscillations amplitude A were changed within: t = 1–15 min, ν = 17,5–35 Hz, A = 10,3–17,3 mm. For measuring surface roughness and determining the bearing curve the appliance T8000 RC120-400 by Hommel-Etamic was used together with the software. In result of the machining performed surface roughness decreased, and the parameters of bearing curve improved.

  16. Cost-effective and detailed modelling of compressor manifold vibrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, A.; Egas, G.; Smeulers, J.P.M.


    In systems with large reciprocating compressors, so-called compressor manifold vibrations can contribute to fatigue failure of the pipe system. These vibrations are excited by pulsation-induced forces and by forces generated by the compressor. This paper describes an advanced and accurate method for

  17. Effect of multi axis vibration and subject postures on sketching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sedentary activities such as reading, writing, sketching, etc. are affected due to the train vibrations. Therefore, the present study investigates the extent of perceived difficulty and distortion in a sketching task by seated subjects in two postures under low frequency, multi axial random vibrations. Thirty male voluntary subjects ...

  18. Review of vibration effect during piling installation to adjacent structure (United States)

    Rahman, Nurul Aishah Abd; Musir, Adhilla Ainun; Dahalan, Nurol Huda; Ghani, Abdul Naser Abdul; Khalil, Muhamad Kasimi Abd


    Basically, many major structures across the world such as towers, high rise building, houses and bridges utilize pile as a support material. The use of pile is important to strengthen the structures. However, this has led to another problem to the nearest surrounding structures resulted from pile driving. As part of a construction work, unavoidable pile driving activity generates a vibration towards the surrounding structures if uncontrolled may cause damage to the adjacent structure. As the current construction works are frequently located in urban areas where the distance between the nearest building structures is not far, vibration may cause damage to nearby structures. Knowing which part of the building that is mostly affected by various vibration patterns from the impact of pile driving is crucial. Thus, it is very important to predict the impact of vibration during piling installation work. This paper reviews the vibrations generated by piling activity toward surrounding structures in terms sources of vibration, impact of piling installation, pile-soil interaction, and factors affecting the vibration impact of building as well as to study the parameters involved in vibration generation during piling works.

  19. Influence of vibrational relaxation on perturbations in a shock layer on a plate (United States)

    Kirilovskiy, S. V.; Maslov, A. A.; Poplavskaya, T. V.; Tsyryul'nikov, I. S.


    The influence of excitation of molecular vibrational degrees of freedom on the mean flow and perturbation development in a hypersonic (M = 6-14) viscous shock layer is studied. The layer originates on a plate placed in a flow of air, carbon dioxide, or their mixture at high stagnation temperatures (2000-3000 K). The mean flow and pressure pulsation on the surface of the plate are measured in an IT-302M pulsed wind tunnel (Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences). Numerical simulation is carried out in terms of a model of a thermally perfect gas using the ANSYS Fluent program package based on solving nonstationary two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. External flow perturbations are introduced into the computational domain in the form of plane monochromatic acoustic waves using UDF modules built in the computational code. It is shown that the excitation of vibrational degrees of freedom in carbon dioxide molecules considerably influences the position of the head wave and intensifies perturbations in contrast to air in which the fraction of vibrationally excited molecules is low at the same parameters of the oncoming low. The influence of the excitation of vibrational degrees of freedom is studied both for equilibrium gas and for a vibrationally nonequilibrium gas. Nonequilibrium vibrational degrees of freedom are simulated using a two-temperature model of relaxation flows in which the time variation of the vibrational energy is described by the Landau-Teller equation with regard to a finite time of energy exchange between vibrational and translational-rotational degrees of freedom of molecules. It is found that the vibrational nonequilibrium has a damping effect on perturbations.

  20. Aerospace Applications of Non-Equilibrium Plasma (United States)

    Blankson, Isaiah M.


    Nonequilibrium plasma/non-thermal plasma/cold plasmas are being used in a wide range of new applications in aeronautics, active flow control, heat transfer reduction, plasma-assisted ignition and combustion, noise suppression, and power generation. Industrial applications may be found in pollution control, materials surface treatment, and water purification. In order for these plasma processes to become practical, efficient means of ionization are necessary. A primary challenge for these applications is to create a desired non-equilibrium plasma in air by preventing the discharge from transitioning into an arc. Of particular interest is the impact on simulations and experimental data with and without detailed consideration of non-equilibrium effects, and the consequences of neglecting non-equilibrium. This presentation will provide an assessment of the presence and influence of non-equilibrium phenomena for various aerospace needs and applications. Specific examples to be considered will include the forward energy deposition of laser-induced non-equilibrium plasmoids for sonic boom mitigation, weakly ionized flows obtained from pulsed nanosecond discharges for an annular Hall type MHD generator duct for turbojet energy bypass, and fundamental mechanisms affecting the design and operation of novel plasma-assisted reactive systems in dielectric liquids (water purification, in-pipe modification of fuels, etc.).

  1. Signature analysis of roller bearing vibrations - Lubrication effects (United States)

    Su, Y.-T.; Sheen, Y.-T.; Lin, M.-H.

    This study investigates the vibration signature of roller bearings, induced by the surface irregularities of components, under various lubricating conditions. The bearing vibration is modeled as the output of the bearing assembly which is subjected to the excitations of surface irregularities through the oil-film. The oil-film acts as a spring between the roller and race. The stiffness of oil-film under different lubricating conditions is studied from the empirical equation of minimum oil-film thickness. It is shown that the vibration spectra of a normal roller bearing may have a pattern of equal frequency spacing distribution (EFSD) whose frequency information is similar to that of a damaged bearing. Under large loading and low running speed, the vibration energy is low if the lubricant viscosity is high. On the other hand, at high running speed, the vibration energy is high with high lubricant viscosity.

  2. Sound and vibration : effects on infants' heart rate and heart rate variability during neonatal transport


    Karlsson, Björn-Markus; Lindkvist, Marie; Lindkvist, Markus; Karlsson, Marcus; Lundström, Ronnie; Håkansson, Stellan; Wiklund, Urban; van den Berg, Johannes


    Aim: To measure the effect of sound and whole-body vibration on infants' heart rate and heart rate variability during ground and air ambulance transport. Methods: Sixteen infants were transported by air ambulance with ground ambulance transport to and from the airports. Whole-body vibration and sound levels were recorded and heart parameters were obtained by ECG signal. Results: Sound and whole-body vibration levels exceeded the recommended limits. Mean whole-body vibration and sound levels w...

  3. Effect of Bio Ethanol and Diesel Blend on Small Diesel Engine Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H Hashemi Fard


    Full Text Available The use of Bio-ethanol as an alternative diesel engine fuel is rapidly increasing. Bio-ethanol is mixed with diesel fuel at different ratios and used in CI and SI engines. Since vibrations have direct effects on users and engine components, for this reason analysis of vibration resulting from combustion in CI engines is very important. In this study, evaluation of vibration was performed for both diesel and ethanol blends. Commercial diesel fuel (D100, E2 (2% ethanol and 98% diesel fuel, E5, E10, E15 and E20 were used in a two-wheel MITSUBISHI tractor. The engine was tested in 1200, 1600, 2000 and 2400 rpm for all fuel blends, and also the effect of load was investigated for D100 and E10. Results showed that vibration is significantly affected by fuel blend. It was observed that E10 had the lowest vibration while E20 had the highest value. It was also observed that vibration increased as engine speed increased for all fuel blends. It was found that both axial and lateral vibrations affected significantly by load. The lateral vibrations decreased continuously with load rise , but the axial vibrations increased initially but started to follow a reverse trend.

  4. Non-equilibrium modeling of the PMSE Overshoot Effect revisited: A comprehensive study (United States)

    Biebricher, Alexander; Havnes, Ove


    Numerical investigations of the Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSE) Overshoot Effect have to date been undertaken under the premise of plasma neutrality and current equilibrium at any time. We find it necessary to revisit the calculations without these restrictions, since electrons and ions are attached to and absorbed by mesospheric dust particles at vastly different rates under PMSE conditions. We find that differences to earlier modeling might be so significant as to warrant further investigation. Furthermore, we conduct comprehensive studies of the PMSE Overshoot Effect and put the results in the context of experimental realities.

  5. The Effects of Local Vibration on Balance, Power, and Self-Reported Pain After Exercise. (United States)

    Custer, Lisa; Peer, Kimberly S; Miller, Lauren


    Muscle fatigue and acute muscle soreness occur after exercise. Application of a local vibration intervention may reduce the consequences of fatigue and soreness. To examine the effects of a local vibration intervention after a bout of exercise on balance, power, and self-reported pain. Single-blind crossover study. Laboratory. 19 healthy, moderately active subjects. After a 30-min bout of full-body exercise, subjects received either an active or a sham vibration intervention. The active vibration intervention was performed bilaterally over the muscle bellies of the triceps surae, quadriceps, hamstrings, and gluteals. At least 1 wk later, subjects repeated the bout, receiving the other vibration intervention. Static balance, dynamic balance, power, and self-reported pain were measured at baseline, after the vibration intervention, and 24 h postexercise. After the bout of exercise, subjects had reduced static and dynamic balance and increased self-reported pain regardless of vibration intervention. There were no differences between outcome measures between the active and sham vibration conditions. The local vibration intervention did not affect balance, power, or self-reported pain.

  6. Effect of longitudinal vibration of fluid-filled pipe with elastic wall on sound transmission character

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DONG Peng


    Full Text Available When one end of a fluid-filled pipe with an elastic wall is fixed and a harmonic force effect acts on the other end,a steady longitudinal vibration will be produced. Compared to the pipeline resonance mode,the amplitude of the steady longitudinal vibration of an elastic pipe is greater,and the effect on the sound is also greater. The study of the steady longitudinal vibration of pipes can better describe the effects of fluid-filled pipelines on the radiation sound field of the pipe opening. Through the contrast between the analysis calculation of the equivalent beam model and the experimental results,the accuracy of the equivalent beam model for the calculation of the steady longitudinal vibration of pipelines is verified,and a method of isolating the steady longitudinal vibration state is proposed and verified.

  7. Effect of Vibration on Pain Response to Heel Lance: A Pilot Randomized Control Trial. (United States)

    McGinnis, Kate; Murray, Eileen; Cherven, Brooke; McCracken, Courtney; Travers, Curtis


    Applied mechanical vibration in pediatric and adult populations has been shown to be an effective analgesic for acute and chronic pain, including needle pain. Studies among the neonatal population are lacking. According to the Gate Control Theory, it is expected that applied mechanical vibration will have a summative effect with standard nonpharmacologic pain control strategies, reducing behavioral and physiologic pain responses to heel lancing. To determine the safety and efficacy of mechanical vibration for relief of heel lance pain among neonates. In this parallel design randomized controlled trial, eligible enrolled term or term-corrected neonates (n = 56) in a level IV neonatal intensive care unit were randomized to receive either sucrose and swaddling or sucrose, swaddling, and vibration for heel lance analgesia. Vibration was applied using a handheld battery-powered vibrator (Norco MiniVibrator, Hz = 92) to the lateral aspect of the lower leg along the sural dermatome throughout the heel lance procedure. Neonatal Pain, Agitation, and Sedation Scale (N-PASS) scores, heart rate, and oxygen saturations were collected at defined intervals surrounding heel lancing. Infants in the vibration group (n = 30) had significantly lower N-PASS scores and more stable heart rates during heel stick (P = .006, P = .037) and 2 minutes after heel lance (P = .002, P = .016) than those in the nonvibration group. There were no adverse behavioral or physiologic responses to applied vibration in the sample. Applied mechanical vibration is a safe and effective method for managing heel lance pain. This pilot study suggests that mechanical vibration warrants further exploration as a nonpharmacologic pain management tool among the neonatal population.

  8. Quantum dissipative effects on non-equilibrium transport through a single-molecular transistor: The Anderson-Holstein-Caldeira-Leggett model. (United States)

    Raju, Ch Narasimha; Chatterjee, Ashok


    The Anderson-Holstein model with Caldeira-Leggett coupling with environment is considered to describe the damping effect in a single molecular transistor (SMT) which comprises a molecular quantum dot (with electron-phonon interaction) mounted on a substrate (environment) and coupled to metallic electrodes. The electron-phonon interaction is first eliminated using the Lang-Firsov transformation and the spectral density function, charge current and differential conductance are then calculated using the non-equilibrium Keldysh Green function technique. The effects of damping rate, and electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions on the transport properties of SMT are studied at zero temperature.

  9. Quantum dissipative effects on non-equilibrium transport through a single-molecular transistor: The Anderson-Holstein-Caldeira-Leggett model (United States)

    Raju, Ch. Narasimha; Chatterjee, Ashok


    The Anderson-Holstein model with Caldeira-Leggett coupling with environment is considered to describe the damping effect in a single molecular transistor (SMT) which comprises a molecular quantum dot (with electron-phonon interaction) mounted on a substrate (environment) and coupled to metallic electrodes. The electron-phonon interaction is first eliminated using the Lang-Firsov transformation and the spectral density function, charge current and differential conductance are then calculated using the non-equilibrium Keldysh Green function technique. The effects of damping rate, and electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions on the transport properties of SMT are studied at zero temperature.

  10. Effects of thermochemistry, nonequilibrium, and surface catalysis on the design of hypersonic vehicles (United States)

    Scott, Carl D.


    An account is given of the function of physical aspects of a gas on the characteristics of the flow and of the heating associated with hypersonic flight. At the high temperatures encountered, the thermal and chemical characteristics of the air in a hypersonic vehicle's shock layer are altered in ways which depend on the atomic and molecular structure of N and O and their ions; similar effects exist in scramjet propulsion systems. These properties in turn influence the character of shock waves and expansions, and hence the pressure, temperature, and velocity distributions. Transport properties affecting the boundary-layer structure will also affect heat flux and shear stress.

  11. Nonequilibrium effective field theory for absorbing state phase transitions in driven open quantum spin systems (United States)

    Buchhold, Michael; Everest, Benjamin; Marcuzzi, Matteo; Lesanovsky, Igor; Diehl, Sebastian


    Phase transitions to absorbing states are among the simplest examples of critical phenomena out of equilibrium. The characteristic feature of these models is the presence of a fluctuationless configuration which the dynamics cannot leave, which has proved a rather stringent requirement in experiments. Recently, a proposal to seek such transitions in highly tunable systems of cold-atomic gases offers to probe this physics and, at the same time, to investigate the robustness of these transitions to quantum coherent effects. Here, we specifically focus on the interplay between classical and quantum fluctuations in a simple driven open quantum model which, in the classical limit, reproduces a contact process, which is known to undergo a continuous transition in the "directed percolation" universality class. We derive an effective long-wavelength field theory for the present class of open spin systems and show that, due to quantum fluctuations, the nature of the transition changes from second to first order, passing through a bicritical point which appears to belong instead to the "tricritical directed percolation" class.

  12. Effects of vibration on occupant driving performance under simulated driving conditions. (United States)

    Azizan, Amzar; Fard, M; Azari, Michael F; Jazar, Reza


    Although much research has been devoted to the characterization of the effects of whole-body vibration on seated occupants' comfort, drowsiness induced by vibration has received less attention to date. There are also little validated measurement methods available to quantify whole body vibration-induced drowsiness. Here, the effects of vibration on drowsiness were investigated. Twenty male volunteers were recruited for this experiment. Drowsiness was measured in a driving simulator, before and after 30-min exposure to vibration. Gaussian random vibration, with 1-15 Hz frequency bandwidth was used for excitation. During the driving session, volunteers were required to obey the speed limit of 100 kph and maintain a steady position on the left-hand lane. A deviation in lane position, steering angle variability, and speed deviation were recorded and analysed. Alternatively, volunteers rated their subjective drowsiness by Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) scores every 5-min. Following 30-min of exposure to vibration, a significant increase of lane deviation, steering angle variability, and KSS scores were observed in all volunteers suggesting the adverse effects of vibration on human alertness level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The influence of vibrational state-resolved transport coefficients on the wave propagation in diatomic gases (United States)

    Kremer, Gilberto M.; Kunova, Olga V.; Kustova, Elena V.; Oblapenko, George P.


    A detailed kinetic-theory model for the vibrationally state-resolved transport coefficients is developed taking into account the dependence of the collision cross section on the size of vibrationally excited molecule. Algorithms for the calculation of shear and bulk viscosity, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusion and diffusion coefficients for vibrational states are proposed. The transport coefficients are evaluated for single-component diatomic gases N2, O2, NO, H2, Cl2 in the wide range of temperature, and the effects of molecular diameters and the number of accounted states are discussed. The developed model is applied to study wave propagation in diatomic gases. For the case of initial Boltzmann distribution, the influence of vibrational excitation on the phase velocity and attenuation coefficient is found to be weak. We expect more significant effect in the case of initial thermal non-equilibrium, for instance in gases with optically pumped selected vibrational states.

  14. Minimizing the effects of pile driving vibrations : research spotlight. (United States)


    Engineers must take care that the vibrations from pile driving : operations during bridge construction do not damage underground : utilities or cause settlement in the foundations of nearby structures. : In this project, researchers developed a simpl...

  15. Nonequilibrium statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Röpke, Gerd


    Authored by one of the top theoretical physicists in Germany, and a well-known authority in the field, this is the only coherent presentation of the subject suitable for masters and PhD students, as well as postdocs in physics and related disciplines.Starting from a general discussion of the nonequilibrium state, different standard approaches such as master equations, and kinetic and linear response theory, are derived after special assumptions. This allows for an insight into the problems of nonequilibrium physics, a discussion of the limits, and suggestions for improvements. Applications

  16. Effects of Contraction Joints on Vibrational Characteristics of Arch Dams: Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Wang


    Full Text Available This study experimentally investigates the effects of contraction joints on the vibrational characteristics of high arch dams. Three scale models of the world’s second highest dam, the Xiaowan Arch Dam, are used as experimental specimens identified by zero, one, and two contraction joints. When a scale model vibrates harmonically at a specific frequency, its operating deflection shape is acquired by using a scanning laser vibrometer to scan the side surface of the model. The effects of contraction joints on the vibrational characteristics of arch dams are studied by examining the changes in operating deflection shapes. Experimental results demonstrate that (i contraction joints can significantly affect the vibrational characteristics of arch dams, (ii the operating deflection shape intuitively illustrates the vibrational characteristics of arch dams, and (iii a scanning laser vibrometer has marked advantages over traditional equipment in accurately and efficiently acquiring full-field dynamic responses of a structure.

  17. Combined Effects of High-Speed Railway Noise and Ground Vibrations on Annoyance (United States)

    Yokoshima, Shigenori; Morihara, Takashi; Sato, Tetsumi; Yano, Takashi


    The Shinkansen super-express railway system in Japan has greatly increased its capacity and has expanded nationwide. However, many inhabitants in areas along the railways have been disturbed by noise and ground vibration from the trains. Additionally, the Shinkansen railway emits a higher level of ground vibration than conventional railways at the same noise level. These findings imply that building vibrations affect living environments as significantly as the associated noise. Therefore, it is imperative to quantify the effects of noise and vibration exposures on each annoyance under simultaneous exposure. We performed a secondary analysis using individual datasets of exposure and community response associated with Shinkansen railway noise and vibration. The data consisted of six socio-acoustic surveys, which were conducted separately over the last 20 years in Japan. Applying a logistic regression analysis to the datasets, we confirmed the combined effects of vibration/noise exposure on noise/vibration annoyance. Moreover, we proposed a representative relationship between noise and vibration exposures, and the prevalence of each annoyance associated with the Shinkansen railway. PMID:28749452

  18. Combined Effects of High-Speed Railway Noise and Ground Vibrations on Annoyance. (United States)

    Yokoshima, Shigenori; Morihara, Takashi; Sato, Tetsumi; Yano, Takashi


    The Shinkansen super-express railway system in Japan has greatly increased its capacity and has expanded nationwide. However, many inhabitants in areas along the railways have been disturbed by noise and ground vibration from the trains. Additionally, the Shinkansen railway emits a higher level of ground vibration than conventional railways at the same noise level. These findings imply that building vibrations affect living environments as significantly as the associated noise. Therefore, it is imperative to quantify the effects of noise and vibration exposures on each annoyance under simultaneous exposure. We performed a secondary analysis using individual datasets of exposure and community response associated with Shinkansen railway noise and vibration. The data consisted of six socio-acoustic surveys, which were conducted separately over the last 20 years in Japan. Applying a logistic regression analysis to the datasets, we confirmed the combined effects of vibration/noise exposure on noise/vibration annoyance. Moreover, we proposed a representative relationship between noise and vibration exposures, and the prevalence of each annoyance associated with the Shinkansen railway.

  19. The effect of whole-body resonance vibration in a porcine model of spinal cord injury. (United States)

    Streijger, Femke; Lee, Jae H T; Chak, Jason; Dressler, Dan; Manouchehri, Neda; Okon, Elena B; Anderson, Lisa M; Melnyk, Angela D; Cripton, Peter A; Kwon, Brian K


    Whole-body vibration has been identified as a potential stressor to spinal cord injury (SCI) patients during pre-hospital transportation. However, the effect that such vibration has on the acutely injured spinal cord is largely unknown, particularly in the frequency domain of 5 Hz in which resonance of the spine occurs. The objective of the study was to investigate the consequences of resonance vibration on the injured spinal cord. Using our previously characterized porcine model of SCI, we subjected animals to resonance vibration (5.7±0.46 Hz) or no vibration for a period of 1.5 or 3.0 h. Locomotor function was assessed weekly and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected to assess different inflammatory and injury severity markers. Spinal cords were evaluated histologically to quantify preserved white and gray matter. No significant differences were found between groups for CSF levels of monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and lL-8. Glial fibrillary acidic protein levels were lower in the resonance vibration group, compared with the non-vibrated control group. Spared white matter tissue was increased within the vibrated group at 7 d post-injury but this difference was not apparent at the 12-week time-point. No significant difference was observed in locomotor recovery following resonance vibration of the spine. Here, we demonstrate that exposure to resonance vibration for 1.5 or 3 h following SCI in our porcine model is not detrimental to the functional or histological outcomes. Our observation that a 3.0-h period of vibration at resonance frequency induces modest histological improvement at one week post-injury warrants further study.

  20. The effect of side quantum dots on conductance through four-quantum-dot combinations: study by non-equilibrium Greens function method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Darizin


    Full Text Available Electronic transport has been investigated in four-quantum-dot combination coupled to metal electrodes using the non-equilibrium Green’s function method, and curves I-V and conductance (dI/dV were analyzed for special combination. We have showed that the emergence of negative differential conductivity is due to asymmetric distribution of quantum dots in the central region, existence of non-coupled dots (side quantum dots, and the interference effect. We found that more side quantum dots lead to more negative differential conductance.

  1. Symmetry-broken effects on electron momentum spectroscopy caused by adiabatic vibration (United States)

    Zhu, Yinghao; Ma, Xiaoguang; Lou, Wenhua; Wang, Meishan; Yang, Chuanlu


    The vibronic coupling effect is usually studied by invoking the breakdown of Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The present study shows that the symmetry-broken effect induced by nuclei vibrations can also lead strong impact on the electronic states under the framework of Born-Oppenheimer approximation. This adiabatic-invoking vibrational effect on electron momentum spectroscopy of ethylene (C2H4), ethane (C2H6) and methanol (CH3OH) was studied with quantum mechanical method. The results show that electron momentum spectroscopy of localized electrons, especially core electrons in axial symmetric geometry molecules can be affected unusually and strongly by several asymmetric vibrational modes.

  2. The Statistical Dynamics of Nonequilibrium Control (United States)

    Rotskoff, Grant Murray

    Living systems, even at the scale of single molecules, are constantly adapting to changing environmental conditions. The physical response of a nanoscale system to external gradients or changing thermodynamic conditions can be chaotic, nonlinear, and hence difficult to control or predict. Nevertheless, biology has evolved systems that reliably carry out the cell's vital functions efficiently enough to ensure survival. Moreover, the development of new experimental techniques to monitor and manipulate single biological molecules has provided a natural testbed for theoretical investigations of nonequilibrium dynamics. This work focuses on developing paradigms for both understanding the principles of nonequilibrium dynamics and also for controlling such systems in the presence of thermal fluctuations. Throughout this work, I rely on a perspective based on two central ideas in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics: large deviation theory, which provides a formalism akin to thermodynamics for nonequilibrium systems, and the fluctuation theorems which identify time symmetry breaking with entropy production. I use the tools of large deviation theory to explore concepts like efficiency and optimal coarse-graining in microscopic dynamical systems. The results point to the extreme importance of rare events in nonequilibrium dynamics. In the context of rare dynamical events, I outline a formal approach to predict efficient control protocols for nonequilibrium systems and develop computational tools to solve the resulting high dimensional optimization problems. The final chapters of this work focus on applications to self-assembly dynamics. I show that the yield of desired structures can be enhanced by driving a system away from equilibrium, using analysis inspired by the theory of the hydrophobic effect. Finally, I demonstrate that nanoscale, protein shells can be modeled and controlled to robustly produce monodisperse, nonequilibrium structures strikingly similar to the

  3. Effect of combining traction and vibration on back muscles, heart rate and blood pressure. (United States)

    Wang, Lizhen; Zhao, Meiya; Ma, Jian; Tian, Shan; Xiang, Pin; Yao, Wei; Fan, Yubo


    Eighty-five percent of the population has experienced low back pain (LBP), which may result in decreasing muscle strength and endurance, functional capacity of the spine, and so on. Traction and vibration are commonly used to relieve the low back pain. The effect of the combing traction and vibration on back muscles, heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) was investigated in this study. Thirty healthy subjects participated in 12 trials lying supine on the spine-combing bed with different tilt angle (0°, 10°, 20° and 30°) and vibration modes (along with the sagittal and coronal axis with 0 Hz, 2 Hz and 12 Hz separately). EMG was recorded during each trial. Power spectral frequency analysis was applied to evaluate muscle fatigue by the shift of median power frequency (MPF). Pulse pressure (PP) was calculated from BP. HR and PP were used to estimate the effect of the combination of traction and vibration on the cardio-vascular system. It was shown that vibration could increase HR and decrease PP. The combination of traction and vibration (2 Hz vibration along Z-axis and 12 Hz vibration along Y-axis) had no significant effect on the cardio-vascular system. The MPF of lumbar erector spinae (LES) and upper trapezius (UT) decreased significantly when the angle reached 20° under the condition of 2 Hz vibration along Z-axis compared with it of 0°. Furthermore, the MPF also decreased significantly compared with it of static mode at 20° for LES and at 30° for UT. However at 12 Hz vibration along Y-axis, the MPF had significant increase when the angle reached 20° in LES and 30° in UT compared to 0°. For LES, the MPF also had significant difference when the angle was increased from 10° to 20°. Therefore, combining 2 Hz vibration along Z-axis and traction (tilt angles that less than 20°) may to reduce muscle fatigue both for LES and UT compared with either vibration or traction alone. The combination of 12 Hz vibration along Y-axis and traction (tilt angles

  4. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of nucleation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweizer, M.; Sagis, L.M.C.


    We present a novel approach to nucleation processes based on the GENERIC framework (general equation for the nonequilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling). Solely based on the GENERIC structure of time-evolution equations and thermodynamic consistency arguments of exchange processes between a

  5. Nonequilibrium thermal entanglement


    Quiroga, Luis; Rodriguez, Ferney J.; Ramirez, Maria E.; Paris, Roberto


    Results on heat current, entropy production rate and entanglement are reported for a quantum system coupled to two different temperature heat reservoirs. By applying a temperature gradient, different quantum states can be found with exactly the same amount of entanglement but different purity degrees and heat currents. Furthermore, a nonequilibrium enhancement-suppression transition behavior of the entanglement is identified.

  6. Effect of Slot Combination and Skewed Slot on Electromagnetic Vibration of Capacitor Motor under Load (United States)

    Hirotsuka, Isao; Tsuboi, Kazuo

    The capacitor motor (CRM) is widely used to drive industrial equipments and electric home appliances. Recently, the reduction in the vibration and noise of the CRM has become increasingly important from the standpoint of environmental improvement. However, the electromagnetic vibration of the CRM under load has not been analyzed sufficiently. Therefore, we have studied the electromagnetic vibration of CRM for the purpose of reducing it. In a previous paper, the relationships for a backward magnetic field, the equivalent circuit current, and the vibration of the CRM were clarified. The present paper theoretically and experimentally discusses the effect of the slot combination and skewed slot on the electromagnetic vibration of CRM under load. The primary conclusions are as follows: (1) In the case of 4-pole and 6-pole CRMs, the dominant electromagnetic vibration of CRMs was theoretically attributed to three types of electromagnetic force waves. Two types of electromagnetic force waves are generated: one wave is generated by the interaction of two forward magnetic fluxes, such as those of a three-phase squirrel-cage induction motor, and the other wave is generated under the influence of a backward magnetic flux. (2) The characteristics of dominant electromagnetic vibration depending on load and running capacitor were classified theoretically and experimentally into three types based on the characteristics of the electromagnetic force wave and equivalent circuit current. (3) The influences of magnetic saturation in dominant electromagnetic vibration were verified experimentally and their causes were clarified theoretically in relation to electromagnetic force waves.

  7. The effects of sling exercise using vibration on trunk muscle activities of healthy adults. (United States)

    Choi, Youngin; Kang, Hyungkyu


    [Purpose] This study compared the effects of sling exercises with and without vibration on the muscular activity of the internal oblique (IO), rectus abdominis (RA), multifidus (MF), and erector spinae (ES) muscles of healthy adults. [Methods] Eleven healthy university students (11 men) with a mean age of 22.8 years were enrolled in this study. Subjects performed supine and prone bridge exercises with the knees flexed using a sling suspension system with and without vibration. The amplitudes of the EMG activities of selected trunk muscles (internal oblique, rectus abdominis, erector spinae, multifidus) were recorded. Two types of exercise conditions were executed in a random sequence for 5 seconds each. The signals detected from the middle 3 seconds (after discarding the signals of the first and the last one seconds) were used in the analysis. A 3-minute break was given after each exercise to minimize muscle fatigue. [Results] During the supine bridge exercise with vibration, the activities of the IO, RA, MF, and ES muscles were significantly higher than those of the supine bridge exercise without vibration. Additionally, during the prone bridge exercise with vibration, the activities of the IO, RA, MF, and ES were significantly higher than those of the prone bridge exercise without vibration. [Conclusion] Sling exercises with vibration improved the trunk muscle activities of healthy adults compared to the sling exercises without vibration. The information presented here is important for clinicians who use lumbar stabilization exercises as an evaluation tool or a rehabilitation exercise.

  8. Effect of nonlinearity of connecting dampers on vibration control of connected building structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi eKasagi


    Full Text Available The connection of two building structures with dampers is one of effective vibration control systems. In this vibration control system, both buildings have to possess different vibration properties in order to provide a higher vibration reduction performance. In addition to such condition of different vibration properties of both buildings, the connecting dampers also play an important role in the vibration control mechanism. In this paper, the effect of nonlinearity of connecting dampers on the vibration control of connected building structures is investigated in detail. A high-damping rubber damper and an oil damper with and without relief mechanism are treated. It is shown that, while the high-damping rubber damper is effective in a rather small deformation level, the linear oil damper is effective in a relatively large deformation level. It is further shown that, while the oil dampers reduce the response in the same phase as the case without dampers, the high-damping rubber dampers change the phase. The merit is that the high-damping rubber can reduce the damper deformation and keep the sufficient space between both buildings. This can mitigate the risk of building pounding.

  9. Effect of horizontal wave barriers on ground vibration propagation. (United States)

    Grau, L; Laulagnet, B


    The aim of this article is to introduce a method to mitigate ground surface vibration through a flexural plate coupled to the ground and acting as a horizontal wave barrier. Using the thin plate hypothesis, two flexural plates are coupled to the ground, the first plate being the excited plate and the second plate the horizontal wave barrier. For instance, the first plate may represent a slab track and be excited by the tramway wheels. A solution to the problem can be found using a spatial two-dimensional Fourier transform of the elastodynamics equation for the ground and a modal decomposition for the flexural plate vibration. The authors show that vibration is substantially mitigated by the horizontal wave barrier and depends on its thickness and width. When the top surface wavelength becomes smaller than twice the plate width, the horizontal wave barrier acts as a wave barrier in the frequency range of interest, i.e., from 20 Hz.

  10. Effect of structural design on traffic-induced building vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Peter; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Persson, Kent


    are related to the type of construction material (if it would be a light or heavy structure), and to the slab thickness. The finite element method is employed for discretizing the building structure that is coupled to a semi-analytical model considering a layered ground. © 2017 The Authors. Published......Population growth and urbanization results in densified cities, where new buildings are being built closer to existing vibration sources such as road-, tram- and rail traffic. In addition, new transportation systems are constructed closer to existing buildings. Potential disturbing vibrations...... properties, and type and size of the building are governing factors. In the paper, a study is presented aiming at investigating the influence of various parameters of the building's structural design on vibration levels in the structure caused by ground surface loads, e.g. traffic. Parameters studied...

  11. The Effect of Flowing Water on Turbine Rotor Vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Ida


    There is a lack of standardized rules on how the fluid in the turbine should be included in rotor models of hydraulic machinery. This thesis is an attempt to shed some light on this issue. We approach the problem from two viewpoints, situated at place at a hydropower plant and by mathematical analysis. One goal of the thesis is to develop a measurement system that monitors the instantaneous pressure at several locations of a runner blade on a 10 MW Kaplan prototype in Porjus along Lule river. Paper A outlines the development of the measurement system and the instrumentation of the runner blade. Miniature piezo-resistive pressure transducers were mounted flush to the surface. If instrumentation is successful, the pressure field of the runner blade could be measured simultaneously as the loads and displacements of the guide bearings and the generator. The second objective is concerned with how the motion-induced fluid force affects the dynamic behaviour of the rotor. Inertia and angular momentum of the fluid and shrouding are expected to influence the dynamic behaviour of the turbine. Paper B scrutinizes this assumption by presenting a simple fluid-rotor model that captures the effects of inertia and angular momentum of the fluid on the motion of a confined cylinder. The simplicity of the model allows for powerful analytical solution methods. The results show that fluid inertia, angular momentum and shrouding of hydraulic turbines could have substantial effects on lateral rotor vibrations. This calls for further investigation with a more complex fluid-rotor model that accounts for flexural bending modes.

  12. Whole-body vibration augments resistance training effects on body composition in postmenopausal women. (United States)

    Fjeldstad, Cecilie; Palmer, Ian J; Bemben, Michael G; Bemben, Debra A


    Age-related changes in body composition are well-documented with a decrease in lean body mass and a redistribution of body fat generally observed. Resistance training alone has been shown to have positive effects on body composition, however, these benefits may be enhanced by the addition of a vibration stimulus. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 8 months of resistance training with and without whole-body vibration (WBV) on body composition in sedentary postmenopausal women. Fifty-five women were assigned to resistance only (RG, n=22), vibration plus resistance (VR, n=21) or non-exercising control (CG, n=12) groups. Resistance training (3 sets 10 repetitions 80% strength) was performed using isotonic weight training equipment and whole-body vibration was done with the use of the power plate (Northbrooke, IL) vibration platform for three times per week for 8 months. Total and regional body composition was assessed from the total body DXA scans at baseline (pre) and after 8 months (post) of training. In the VR group, total % body fat decreased from pre- to post-time points (ptraining groups exhibited significant increases in bone free lean tissue mass for the total body, arm and trunk regions from pre to post (ptraining alone and with whole-body vibration resulted in positive body composition changes by increasing lean tissue. However, only the combination of resistance training and whole-body vibration was effective for decreasing percent body fat.

  13. The effects of sole vibration stimulation on Korean male professional volleyball players' jumping and balance ability. (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Youn; Min, Kyoung-Ok; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Soon-Hee


    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in jumping ability and lower limb balance ability elicited by plyometric training and vibration exercise, of volleyball players with and without ankle injuries, which frequently occur among Korean professional volleyball players. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight volleyball players were divided into the following groups: plyometric with ankle injury (PAI) group; plyometric with non-ankle injury (PAN) group; vibrator with ankle injury (VAI) group; and vibrator with non-ankle injury (VAN) group. After exercise and whole body vibration stimulation, their vertical jumping abilities, side step, and static equilibrium ability were measured. [Results] The vibration exercise group which had experienced ankle injuries showed significant improvements in the sidestep test after the intervention compared to before the intervention. In vertical jumping as well, significant improvements were observed in the VAI group and the VAN group following vibration exercise. In the balance ability test, significant improvesments in the PAN group and the PAI group were observed after the intervention. According to the results of the right side, there was significant change in the left/back side test and the right/back side test before and after the intervention; and in the test of one-leg standing with eyes closed, there were significant group, timing, and interaction effects. [Conclusions] The training method which effectively improved the jumping ability of volleyball players was plyometric training, and for balance ability improvement, whole body vibration exercise was effective.

  14. The effects of sole vibration stimulation on Korean male professional volleyball players’ jumping and balance ability (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Youn; Min, Kyoung-Ok; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Soon-Hee


    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in jumping ability and lower limb balance ability elicited by plyometric training and vibration exercise, of volleyball players with and without ankle injuries, which frequently occur among Korean professional volleyball players. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight volleyball players were divided into the following groups: plyometric with ankle injury (PAI) group; plyometric with non-ankle injury (PAN) group; vibrator with ankle injury (VAI) group; and vibrator with non-ankle injury (VAN) group. After exercise and whole body vibration stimulation, their vertical jumping abilities, side step, and static equilibrium ability were measured. [Results] The vibration exercise group which had experienced ankle injuries showed significant improvements in the sidestep test after the intervention compared to before the intervention. In vertical jumping as well, significant improvements were observed in the VAI group and the VAN group following vibration exercise. In the balance ability test, significant improvesments in the PAN group and the PAI group were observed after the intervention. According to the results of the right side, there was significant change in the left/back side test and the right/back side test before and after the intervention; and in the test of one-leg standing with eyes closed, there were significant group, timing, and interaction effects. [Conclusions] The training method which effectively improved the jumping ability of volleyball players was plyometric training, and for balance ability improvement, whole body vibration exercise was effective. PMID:27313344

  15. Effect of Frequency and Vibration Time on Shaker Performance for Mechanized Harvesting of Orange (Thomson cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Ghorbanpour


    Full Text Available Manual citrus harvesting is commonly performing hard, expensive and time consuming. In this study, a factorial experiment with a completely randomized design in three replications was performed to find out the effect of frequency (three levels of 5, 7.5 and 10 Hz, vibration time (three levels of 10, 15 and 20 seconds on harvesting capacity and losses of Thomson cultivar of orange. The results indicated that the effect of frequency and vibration time was significant (P≤0.01 on the harvesting capacity and losses, but their interaction effects weren’t significant. The harvesting capacity significantly increased by increasing frequency, and the highest harvesting capacity was 62.8 % at 10 Hz frequency. Although the harvesting capacity increased by increasing the vibration time, but there was no significant difference in vibration times between 15 and 20 seconds at 10 Hz frequency. Also the fruit loss was increased by increasing the vibration time. Due to these reasons, frequency of 10 Hz and vibration time of 15 seconds were selected as the most suitable condition for mechanized harvesting of this cultivar of orange. Finally a linear mathematical model was developed based on the frequency and vibration time for the harvesting capacity and fruit loss of Thomson cultivar of orange.

  16. The effects of pre-exercise vibration stimulation on the exercise-induced muscle damage. (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Yun; Kang, Da-Haeng; Lee, Joon-Hee; O, Se-Min; Jeon, Jae-Keun


    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of pre-induced muscle damage vibration stimulation on the pressure-pain threshold and muscle-fatigue-related metabolites of exercise-induced muscle damage. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy, adult male subjects were randomly assigned to the pre-induced muscle damage vibration stimulation group, post-induced muscle damage vibration stimulation group, or control group (n=10 per group). To investigate the effects of pre-induced muscle damage vibration stimulation, changes in the pressure-pain threshold (lb), creatine kinase level (U/L), and lactate dehydrogenase level (U/L) were measured and analyzed at baseline and at 24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours after exercise. [Results] The pressure-pain thresholds and concentrations of creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase varied significantly in each group and during each measurement period. There were interactions between the measurement periods and groups, and results of the post-hoc test showed that the pre-induced muscle damage vibration stimulation group had the highest efficacy among the groups. [Conclusion] Pre-induced muscle damage vibration stimulation is more effective than post-induced muscle damage vibration stimulation for preventing muscle damage.

  17. Equilibrium sampling by reweighting nonequilibrium simulation trajectories. (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; Wan, Biao; Xu, Shun; Wang, Yanting; Zhou, Xin


    Based on equilibrium molecular simulations, it is usually difficult to efficiently visit the whole conformational space of complex systems, which are separated into some metastable regions by high free energy barriers. Nonequilibrium simulations could enhance transitions among these metastable regions and then be applied to sample equilibrium distributions in complex systems, since the associated nonequilibrium effects can be removed by employing the Jarzynski equality (JE). Here we present such a systematical method, named reweighted nonequilibrium ensemble dynamics (RNED), to efficiently sample equilibrium conformations. The RNED is a combination of the JE and our previous reweighted ensemble dynamics (RED) method. The original JE reproduces equilibrium from lots of nonequilibrium trajectories but requires that the initial distribution of these trajectories is equilibrium. The RED reweights many equilibrium trajectories from an arbitrary initial distribution to get the equilibrium distribution, whereas the RNED has both advantages of the two methods, reproducing equilibrium from lots of nonequilibrium simulation trajectories with an arbitrary initial conformational distribution. We illustrated the application of the RNED in a toy model and in a Lennard-Jones fluid to detect its liquid-solid phase coexistence. The results indicate that the RNED sufficiently extends the application of both the original JE and the RED in equilibrium sampling of complex systems.

  18. Root Flexibility and Untwist Effects on Vibration Characteristics of a Gas Turbine Blade

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hou, Jianfu


    .... This report outlines a study of root flexibility and aerofoil untwist effects on the vibration characteristics of a turbine blade using 3-D finite element analysis, together with laboratory testing...

  19. Acute effects of shock-type vibration transmitted to the hand-arm system. (United States)

    Schäfer, N; Dupuis, H; Hartung, E


    The aim of the project was to find out whether shock-type vibration of hand-tools compared to non-impulsive vibration has stronger acute effects on the hand-arm system and therefore needs a stricter evaluation from the occupational health point of view in comparison with the requirements of the Draft International Standard ISO-DIS 5349. Under laboratory conditions, subjects were exposed to simulated vibration of hand-tools (grinder, chain saw, hammer-drill, pneumatic hammer, rivet hammer and nailer). The following evaluation criteria were used: biomechanical transmissibility of the hand-arm system (wrist, elbow joint, shoulder joint); muscle-activity (m. flexor carpi ulnaris, m. biceps, m. triceps); peripheral circulation (skin temperature) and subjective perception (comparison of intensity of standard and test vibrations). The results show no significant difference in acute effects on the hand-arm system between impulsive and non-impulsive type vibrations of the hand-tools tested with respect to the chosen vibration level, short-time exposure (up to 8 min) and evaluation criteria. In summary, therefore, it may be concluded that for the evaluation of shock-type vibration of the hand-tools tested, it is justified to use the existing Draft International Standard ISO-DIS 5349.

  20. The effects of low-frequency vibrations on hepatic profile of blood (United States)

    Damijan, Z.


    Body vibrations training has become popular in sports training, fitness activity, it is still a rare form of physical rehabilitation.. Vibrations are transmitted onto the whole body or some body parts of an exercising person via a vibration platform subjected to mechanical vertical vibrations. During the training session a participant has to maintain his body position or do exercises that engage specific muscles whilst vibrations of the platform are transmitted onto the person's body. This paper is the continuation of the earlier study covering the effects of low-frequency vibrations on selected physiological parameters of the human body. The experiments were conducted to find the answer to the question if vibration exposure (total duration of training sessions 6 hours 20 min) should produce any changes in hepatic profile of blood. Therefore a research program was undertaken at the University of Science and Technology AGH UST to investigate the effects of low-frequency vibration on selected parameters of hepatic profile of human blood. Cyclic fluctuations of bone loading were induced by the applied harmonic vibration 3.5 Hz and amplitude 0.004 m. The experiments utilizing two vibrating platforms were performed in the Laboratory of Structural Acoustics and Biomedical Engineering AGH-UST. The applied vibrations were harmless and not annoying, in accordance with the standard PN-EN ISO 130901-1, 1998. 23 women volunteers had 19 sessions on subsequent working days, at the same time of day. during the tests the participants remained in the standing position, passive. The main hypothesis has it that short-term low-frequency vibration exposure might bring about the changes of the hepatic profile of blood, including: bilirubin (BILIRUBIN), alkaline phosphatase (Alp), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and albumin (ALBUMIN) levels. Research data indicate the low-frequency vibrations exposure produces statistically significant decrease of

  1. Investigating the engine vibration in MF285 tractor effected by different blends of biodiesel fuel using statistical methods and ANFIS


    A Safrangian; L Naderloo; H Javadikia; M Mostafaei; S. S Mohtasebi


    Introduction Vibrations include a wide range of engineering sciences and discuss from different aspects. One of the aspects is related to various types of engines vibrations, which are often used as power sources in agriculture. The created vibrations can cause lack of comfort and reduce effective work and have bad influence on the health and safety. One of the important parameters of the diesel engine that has the ability to create vibration and knocking is the type of fuel. In this stud...

  2. Effect of Moisture Sorption State on Vibrational Properties of Wood (United States)

    Jianxiong Lu; Jiali Jiang; Yiqiang Wu; Xianjun Li; Zhiyong Cai


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the vibrational properties and corresponding anisotropicity in wood during different states of moisture sorption. Samples of maple (Acer spp.) and red oak (Quercus rubra Michx.f.) were moisture conditioned by the adsorption process from an ovendried state and by the desorption process...

  3. Acute effects of varying whole body vibration exposure on jump ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whole body vibration (WBV) has been shown to result in rapid improvement in muscle strength and power. However, WBV studies have utilised sedentary individuals as participants and research is limited on athletes for whom strength and power are their primary assets in sport. Utilising WBV as part of a training ...

  4. Effect of curvature on structures and vibrations of zigzag carbon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First-principles pseudopotential-based density functional theory calculations of atomic and electronic structures, full phonon dispersions and thermal properties of zigzag single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are presented. By determining the correlation between vibrational modes of a graphene sheet and of the ...

  5. Effect of curvature on structures and vibrations of zigzag carbon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    By determining the correlation between vibrational modes of a graphene sheet and ... graphene lattice. Thus, each SWCNT is uniquely labeled with a pair of integers (n, m) describing its chirality. (n, n) CNTs are called as 'armchair' nanotubes and (n, 0). CNTs are ... semiconductor transitions can be induced more readily in.

  6. Transient optical response of ultrafast nonequilibrium excited metals: effects of electron-electron contribution to collisional absorption. (United States)

    Colombier, J P; Combis, P; Audouard, E; Stoian, R


    Approaching energy coupling in laser-irradiated metals, we point out the role of electron-electron collision as an efficient control factor for ultrafast optical absorption. The high degree of laser-induced electron-ion nonequilibrium drives a complex absorption pattern with consequences on the transient optical properties. Consequently, high electronic temperatures determine largely the collision frequency and establish a transition between absorptive regimes in solid and plasma phases. In particular, taking into account umklapp electron-electron collisions, we performed hydrodynamic simulations of the laser-matter interaction to calculate laser energy deposition during the electron-ion nonequilibrium stage and subsequent matter transformation phases. We observe strong correlations between optical and thermodynamic properties according to the experimental situations. A suitable connection between solid and plasma regimes is chosen in accordance with models that describe the behavior in extreme, asymptotic regimes. The proposed approach describes as well situations encountered in pump-probe types of experiments, where the state of matter is probed after initial excitation. Comparison with experimental measurements shows simulation results which are sufficiently accurate to interpret the observed material behavior. A numerical probe is proposed to analyze the transient optical properties of matter exposed to ultrashort pulsed laser irradiation at moderate and high intensities. Various thermodynamic states are assigned to the observed optical variation. Qualitative indications of the amount of energy coupled in the irradiated targets are obtained.

  7. Acute effects of stochastic resonance whole body vibration. (United States)

    Elfering, Achim; Zahno, Jasmine; Taeymans, Jan; Blasimann, Angela; Radlinger, Lorenz


    To investigate the acute effects of stochastic resonance whole body vibration (SR-WBV) training to identify possible explanations for preventive effects against musculoskeletal disorders. Twenty-three healthy, female students participated in this quasi-experimental pilot study. Acute physiological and psychological effects of SR-WBV training were examined using electromyography of descending trapezius (TD) muscle, heart rate variability (HRV), different skin parameters (temperature, redness and blood flow) and self-report questionnaires. All subjects conducted a sham SR-WBV training at a low intensity (2 Hz with noise level 0) and a verum SR-WBV training at a higher intensity (6 Hz with noise level 4). They were tested before, during and after the training. Conclusions were drawn on the basis of analysis of variance. Twenty-three healthy, female students participated in this study (age = 22.4 ± 2.1 years; body mass index = 21.6 ± 2.2 kg/m(2)). Muscular activity of the TD and energy expenditure rose during verum SR-WBV compared to baseline and sham SR-WBV (all P < 0.05). Muscular relaxation after verum SR-WBV was higher than at baseline and after sham SR-WBV (all P < 0.05). During verum SR-WBV the levels of HRV were similar to those observed during sham SR-WBV. The same applies for most of the skin characteristics, while microcirculation of the skin of the middle back was higher during verum compared to sham SR-WBV (P < 0.001). Skin redness showed significant changes over the three measurement points only in the middle back area (P = 0.022). There was a significant rise from baseline to verum SR-WBV (0.86 ± 0.25 perfusion units; P = 0.008). The self-reported chronic pain grade indicators of pain, stiffness, well-being, and muscle relaxation showed a mixed pattern across conditions. Muscle and joint stiffness (P = 0.018) and muscular relaxation did significantly change from baseline to different conditions of SR-WBV (P < 0.001). Moreover, muscle relaxation after

  8. Acute effect of whole body vibration on postural control in congenitally blind subjects: a preliminary evidence. (United States)

    di Cagno, Alessandra; Giombini, Arrigo; Iuliano, Enzo; Moffa, Stefano; Caliandro, Tiziana; Parisi, Attilio; Borrione, Paolo; Calcagno, Giuseppe; Fiorilli, Giovanni


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of whole body vibration at optimal frequency, on postural control in blind subjects. Twenty-four participants, 12 congenital blind males (Experimental Group), and 12 non-disabled males with no visual impairment (Control Groups) were recruited. The area of the ellipse and the total distance of the center of pressure displacements, as postural control parameters, were evaluated at baseline (T0), immediately after the vibration (T1), after 10 min (T10) and after 20 min (T20). Whole body vibration protocol consisted into 5 sets of 1 min for each vibration, with 1 min rest between each set on a vibrating platform. The total distance of center of pressure showed a significant difference (p static balance were found after an acute bout of whole body vibration at optimal frequency in blind subjects and, consequently, whole body vibration may be considered as a safe application in individuals who are blind.

  9. Influence of disorder on ageing and memory effects in non-equilibrium critical dynamics of 3D Ising model relaxing from an ordered state (United States)

    Prudnikov, Vladimir V.; Prudnikov, Pavel V.; Pospelov, Evgeny A.


    We have performed a numerical investigation of the influence of disorder on the dynamical non-equilibrium evolution of a 3D site-diluted Ising model from a low-temperature initial state with magnetization m 0  =  1. It is shown that two-time dependences of the autocorrelation and integrated response functions for systems with spin concentrations p  =  1.0, 0.95, 0.8, 0.6 and 0.5 demonstrate ageing properties with anomalous slowing-down relaxation and violation of the fluctuation-dissipation ratio. It was revealed that during non-equilibrium critical dynamics in the long-time regime t-{{t}\\text{w}}\\gg {{t}\\text{w}}\\gg 1 the autocorrelation functions for diluted systems are extremely slow due to the pinning of domain walls on impurity sites. We have found that the fluctuation-dissipation ratio {{X}∞}=0 for diluted systems with spin concentration p  memory effects for critical evolution in the ageing regime with realization of cyclic temperature change and quenching at T<{{T}\\text{c}} .

  10. Individual Optimal Frequency in Whole-Body Vibration: Effect of Protocol, Joint Angle, and Fatiguing Exercise. (United States)

    Carlucci, Flaminia; Felici, Francesco; Piccinini, Alberto; Haxhi, Jonida; Sacchetti, Massimo


    Carlucci, F, Felici, F, Piccinini, A, Haxhi, J, and Sacchetti, M. Individual optimal frequency in whole-body vibration: effect of protocol, joint angle, and fatiguing exercise. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3503-3511, 2016-Recent studies have shown the importance of individualizing the vibration intervention to produce greater effects on the neuromuscular system in less time. The purpose of this study was to assess the individual optimal vibration frequency (OVF) corresponding to the highest muscle activation (RMSmax) during vibration at different frequencies, comparing different protocols. Twenty-nine university students underwent 3 continuous (C) and 2 random (R) different vibrating protocols, maintaining a squat position on a vibration platform. The C protocol lasted 50 seconds and involved the succession of ascending frequencies from 20 to 55 Hz, every 5 seconds. The same protocol was performed twice, having the knee angle at 120° (C) and 90° (C90), to assess the effect of joint angle and after a fatiguing squatting exercise (CF) to evaluate the influence of fatigue on OVF assessment. In the random protocols, vibration time was 20 seconds with a 2-minute (R2) and a 4-minute (R4) pauses between tested frequencies. Muscle activation and OVF values did not differ significantly in the C, R2, and R4 protocols. RMSmax was higher in C90 (p fatiguing exercise had no effect on OVF. In conclusion, the shorter C protocol produced similar myoelectrical activity in the R2 and the R4 protocols, and therefore, it could be equally valid in identifying the OVF with considerable time efficiency. Knee joint angle and fatiguing exercise had an effect on surface electromyography response during vibration but did not affect OVF identification significantly.

  11. Disk/Shaft Vibration Induced by Bearing Clearance Effects: Analysis and Experiment (United States)

    Flowers, George T.; Wu, Fangsheng


    This study presents an investigation of the dynamics of a rotor system with bearing clearance. Of particular interest is the influence of such effects on coupled disk/shaft vibration. Experimental results for a rotor system with a flexible disk are presented and compared to predictions from a simulation model. Some insights and conclusions are obtained with regard to the conditions under which such vibration may be significant.

  12. Dataset for paper "The effect of track load correlation on ground-borne vibration from railways"


    Ntotsios, Evangelos; Thompson, David; Hussein, M.F.M.


    Dataset for paper "The effect of track load correlation on ground-borne vibration from railways" Authors: Evangelos Ntotsios, David Thompson, Mohammed Hussein Journal of Sound and Vibration Accepted: 02 May 2017Licenses or restrictions placed on the data: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 File "FigureData.xlsx" contains all data contained in the graphs of the paper. One page is added per figure. Format: Microsoft Excel

  13. Theory of vibration protection

    CERN Document Server

    Karnovsky, Igor A


    This text is an advancement of the theory of vibration protection of mechanical systems with lumped and distributed parameters. The book offers various concepts and methods of solving vibration protection problems, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different methods, and the fields of their effective applications. Fundamental approaches of vibration protection, which are considered in this book, are the passive, parametric and optimal active vibration protection. The passive vibration protection is based on vibration isolation, vibration damping and dynamic absorbers. Parametric vibration protection theory is based on the Shchipanov-Luzin invariance principle. Optimal active vibration protection theory is based on the Pontryagin principle and the Krein moment method. The book also contains special topics such as suppression of vibrations at the source of their occurrence and the harmful influence of vibrations on humans. Numerous examples, which illustrate the theoretical ideas of each chapter, ar...

  14. Statistical mechanics of nonequilibrium liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Denis J; Craig, D P; McWeeny, R


    Statistical Mechanics of Nonequilibrium Liquids deals with theoretical rheology. The book discusses nonlinear response of systems and outlines the statistical mechanical theory. In discussing the framework of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, the book explains the derivation of a nonequilibrium analogue of the Gibbsian basis for equilibrium statistical mechanics. The book reviews the linear irreversible thermodynamics, the Liouville equation, and the Irving-Kirkwood procedure. The text then explains the Green-Kubo relations used in linear transport coefficients, the linear response theory,

  15. Researches Regarding the Effect of Nitinol Vibration Damper Applied to Infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Amariei


    Full Text Available Many of the performed researches all around the world aim to develop advanced technologies in order to enhance the performances of the infrastructure systems, different from the actual ones, fact which involves multidisciplinary research (IT, sensoring, electronics, smart materials and others, aiming to assist engineers in realizing full benefits of structural health monitoring. The paper presents a preliminary feasibility study of a system that can be used for damping of structural vibrations. Thus, shape memory alloys (SMA components can affect through two mechanisms the structure’s vibrations. The stresses from a SMA element that realize phase transformations, as a result of vibrations, have an effect on the frequency-amplitude characteristics. In addition, a dissipation of energy due to hysteresis in a SMA element can reduce the natural frequency and affect forced vibrations.

  16. Effects of Vibration and G-Loading on Heart Rate, Breathing Rate, and Response Time (United States)

    Godinez, Angelica; Ayzenberg, Ruthie; Liston, Dorian B.; Stone, Leland S.


    Aerospace and applied environments commonly expose pilots and astronauts to G-loading and vibration, alone and in combination, with well-known sensorimotor (Cohen, 1970) and performance consequences (Adelstein et al., 2008). Physiological variables such as heart rate (HR) and breathing rate (BR) have been shown to increase with G-loading (Yajima et al., 1994) and vibration (e.g. Guignard, 1965, 1985) alone. To examine the effects of G-loading and vibration, alone and in combination, we measured heart rate and breathing rate under aerospace-relevant conditions (G-loads of 1 Gx and 3.8 Gx; vibration of 0.5 gx at 8, 12, and 16 Hz).

  17. A distributed fiber vibration sensor utilizing dispersion induced walk-off effect in a unidirectional Mach-Zehnder interferometer. (United States)

    Chen, Qingming; Jin, Chao; Bao, Yuan; Li, Zhaohui; Li, Jianping; Lu, Chao; Yang, Liang; Li, Guifang


    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel ultra-long range and sensitive distributed fiber vibration sensor. Only one unidirectional Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is employed in this scheme as the sensing element. In this sensor structure, we utilize chromatic dispersion-induced walk-off effect between the vibration signals sensed by two distributed feedback (DFB) lasers at different wavelengths to locate the vibration position. Vibration signals with frequencies up to 9 MHz can be detected and the spatial resolution of 31 m is achieved over 320 km of the standard single mode fiber. Monitoring multiple vibration sources can also be realized using this scheme.

  18. Non-equilibrium Microwave Plasma for Efficient High Temperature Chemistry. (United States)

    van den Bekerom, Dirk; den Harder, Niek; Minea, Teofil; Gatti, Nicola; Linares, Jose Palomares; Bongers, Waldo; van de Sanden, Richard; van Rooij, Gerard


    A flowing microwave plasma based methodology for converting electric energy into internal and/or translational modes of stable molecules with the purpose of efficiently driving non-equilibrium chemistry is discussed. The advantage of a flowing plasma reactor is that continuous chemical processes can be driven with the flexibility of startup times in the seconds timescale. The plasma approach is generically suitable for conversion/activation of stable molecules such as CO2, N2 and CH4. Here the reduction of CO2 to CO is used as a model system: the complementary diagnostics illustrate how a baseline thermodynamic equilibrium conversion can be exceeded by the intrinsic non-equilibrium from high vibrational excitation. Laser (Rayleigh) scattering is used to measure the reactor temperature and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to characterize in situ internal (vibrational) excitation as well as the effluent composition to monitor conversion and selectivity.

  19. Short Duration Bioastronautics Investigation 1904: Human Factors Assessment of Vibration Effects on Visual Performance during Launch (United States)

    Thompson, Shelby; Holden, Kritina; Ebert, Douglas; Root, Phillip; Adelstein, Bernard; Jones, Jeffery


    The primary objective of the Short Duration Bioastronautics Investigation (SDBI) 1904 was to determine visual performance limits during Shuttle operational vibration and g-loads, specifically through the determination of minimal usable font sizes using Orion-type display formats. Currently there is little to no data available to quantify human visual performance under the extreme g- and vibration conditions of launch. Existing data on shuttle vibration magnitude and frequency is incomplete and does not address human visual performance. There have been anecdotal reports of performance decrements from shuttle crews, but no structured data have been collected. Previous work by NASA on the effects of vibration and linear g-loads on human performance was conducted during the Gemini era, but these experiments were performed using displays and controls that are dramatically different than current concepts being considered by the Constellation Program. Recently, three investigations of visual performance under vibration have been completed at NASA Ames Research Center: the first examining whole-body vibration, the second employing whole-body vibration coupled with a sustained g-load, and a third examining the effects of peak versus extended duration vibration. However, all of these studies were conducted using only a single x-axis direction (eyeballs in/out). Estimates of thrust oscillations from the Constellation Ares-I first stage are driving the need for realistic human performance requirements. SDBI 1904 was an opportunity to address the need for requirements by conducting a highly focused and applied evaluation in a relevant spaceflight environment. The SDBI was a companion effort to Detailed Test Objective (DTO) 695, which measured shuttle seat accelerations (vibration) during ascent. Data from the SDBI will serve an important role in interpreting the DTO vibration data. Both SDBI 1904 and DTO 695 were low impact with respect to flight resources, and combined, they

  20. The effect of fatigue on abnormal vibration induced illusion of movement in idiopathic focal dystonia. (United States)

    Frima, N; Rome, S M; Grünewald, R A


    Perception of vibration induced illusionary movement (VIIM) is subnormal in dystonic patients, suggesting abnormal sensory-motor processing in patients with idiopathic focal dystonia. To examine the effects of fatigue on VIIM in patients with idiopathic torticollis. An illusionary sensation of arm extension was evoked by an 80 Hz transcutaneous vibratory stimulus applied to the biceps brachii tendon while the arm was restrained. Blindfolded patients attempted to copy the perceived movement of the vibrated arm with the opposite (tracking) arm and the change in elbow angle of the tracking arm was quantified over 45 seconds. The tasks were repeated following volitional fatigue of the vibrated arm. The subnormal perception of VIIM perceived by patients with torticollis, occurring bilaterally and remote from the location of dystonic symptoms, was corrected by fatigue of the vibrated arm compared with prefatigue values (mean (SEM): 19.04 degrees (1.76) degrees v 24.25 degrees (2.41 degrees ); p = 0.01, paired t test). While a combination of central or peripheral factors may be involved in the correction of abnormal perception of the vibration induced illusion of movement in dystonia, subnormal elasticity of muscle spindles could be implicated in the impaired perception of vibration induced illusionary movement and may predispose an individual towards developing idiopathic focal dystonia.

  1. Free vibration of elastically supported thin cylinders including gyroscopic effects

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Loveday, PW


    Full Text Available stream_source_info loveday_1998.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 30419 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name loveday_1998.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 D[R[ 747723*JSV 106...# or in_nite "rigid#[ 7 0887 Academic Press 0[ INTRODUCTION The vibration of thin elastic shells has been studied by many researchers[ The results of many of these studies have been summarised by Leissa 0 and Blevins 1 [ The literature contains numerous...

  2. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    De Groot, Sybren Ruurds


    The study of thermodynamics is especially timely today, as its concepts are being applied to problems in biology, biochemistry, electrochemistry, and engineering. This book treats irreversible processes and phenomena - non-equilibrium thermodynamics.S. R. de Groot and P. Mazur, Professors of Theoretical Physics, present a comprehensive and insightful survey of the foundations of the field, providing the only complete discussion of the fluctuating linear theory of irreversible thermodynamics. The application covers a wide range of topics: the theory of diffusion and heat conduction, fluid dyn


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Parkhomenko


    Full Text Available The article discribes the following types of adjusting rotary equipment such as: balancing in own bearings, on-center alignment and shaft alignment, elimination of soft foot. The vibration alignment is based on the results of vibration diagnostics at production run of OJSC «BSW – Management Company of Holding «BMC». 

  4. Effectiveness of Stationary Humans and Tuned Mass Dampers in Controlling Floor vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars


    damper) so as to ensure compliance with requirements related to human tolerance to vertical vibrations. However, the paper demonstrates that stationary humans themselves can provide a significant passive damping source due to dynamic interaction between the masses of the stationary humans...... a dynamic excitation generated by humans in motion. The vibration levels are compared with those expected if the else wise empty structures were fitted with a tuned mass damper so as to illustrate the effectiveness of the crowd in mitigating floor vibrations. Since a stationary crowd of people changes...... the dynamic characteristics of the floor which they occupy, the effectiveness of a potential tuned mass damper installation would also be influenced by the crowd's presence, and the paper quantifies the changes in damper effectiveness introduced in this way. From the results presented in the paper is would...

  5. Effects of whole-body vibration training in patients with multiple sclerosis: A systematic review. (United States)

    Castillo-Bueno, I; Ramos-Campo, D J; Rubio-Arias, J A


    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. MS is characterised by nerve demyelination that can alter nerve transmission and lead to such symptoms as fatigue, muscle weakness, and impaired motor function. There are 47 000 people with MS in Spain. Vibration training can be an effective and complementary alternative to traditional exercise to treat patients with MS. The aim of this study was to analyse the effectiveness of vibration training programmes in patients with MS. We searched 5 electronic databases (PubMed, SPORTDiscus, SciELO, Lilacs, IBECS, and ISI Web of Knowledge) in August 2015. By using a set of keywords, we found studies linking vibration training and MS and included randomised controlled trials that applied vibration training to patients with MS. Our search yielded 71 studies. Only 9 of them were included after removing duplicate studies and those which were not relevant according to our selection criteria. These studies obtained different outcomes. Some studies found improvements in muscle strength, functional capacity, coordination, resistance, balance, and some areas of MSSS-88. However, we identified limitations in some of these studies and there are still few publications on vibration training and multiple sclerosis to ensure training effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of angle on flow-induced vibrations of pinniped vibrissae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin T Murphy

    Full Text Available Two types of vibrissal surface structures, undulated and smooth, exist among pinnipeds. Most Phocidae have vibrissae with undulated surfaces, while Otariidae, Odobenidae, and a few phocid species possess vibrissae with smooth surfaces. Variations in cross-sectional profile and orientation of the vibrissae also exist between pinniped species. These factors may influence the way that the vibrissae behave when exposed to water flow. This study investigated the effect that vibrissal surface structure and orientation have on flow-induced vibrations of pinniped vibrissae. Laser vibrometry was used to record vibrations along the whisker shaft from the undulated vibrissae of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina and northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris and the smooth vibrissae of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus. Vibrations along the whisker shaft were measured in a flume tank, at three orientations (0°, 45°, 90° to the water flow. The results show that vibration frequency and velocity ranges were similar for both undulated and smooth vibrissae. Angle of orientation, rather than surface structure, had the greatest effect on flow-induced vibrations. Vibration velocity was up to 60 times higher when the wide, flat aspect of the whisker faced into the flow (90°, compared to when the thin edge faced into the flow (0°. Vibration frequency was also dependent on angle of orientation. Peak frequencies were measured up to 270 Hz and were highest at the 0° orientation for all whiskers. Furthermore, CT scanning was used to quantify the three-dimensional structure of pinniped vibrissae that may influence flow interactions. The CT data provide evidence that all vibrissae are flattened in cross-section to some extent and that differences exist in the orientation of this profile with respect to the major curvature of the hair shaft. These data support the hypothesis that a compressed cross-sectional profile may play a key role in reducing self

  7. Investigation of the short argon arc with hot anode. I. Numerical simulations of non-equilibrium effects in the near-electrode regions (United States)

    Khrabry, A.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Nemchinsky, V.; Khodak, A.


    The atmospheric pressure arcs have recently found application in the production of nanoparticles. The distinguishing features of such arcs are small length and hot ablating anode characterized by intensive electron emission and radiation from its surface. We performed a one-dimensional modeling of argon arc, which shows that near-electrode effects of thermal and ionization non-equilibrium play an important role in the operation of a short arc, because the non-equilibrium regions are up to several millimeters long and are comparable to the arc length. The near-anode region is typically longer than the near-cathode region and its length depends more strongly on the current density. The model was extensively verified and validated against previous simulation results and experimental data. The Volt-Ampere characteristic (VAC) of the near-anode region depends on the anode cooling mechanism. The anode voltage is negative. In the case of strong anode cooling (water-cooled anode) when the anode is cold, temperature and plasma density gradients increase with current density, resulting in a decrease of the anode voltage (the absolute value increases). Falling VAC of the near-anode region suggests the arc constriction near the anode. Without anode cooling, the anode temperature increases significantly with the current density, leading to a drastic increase in the thermionic emission current from the anode. Correspondingly, the anode voltage increases to suppress the emission, and the opposite trend in the VAC is observed. The results of simulations were found to be independent of sheath model used: collisional (fluid) or collisionless model gave the same plasma profiles for both near-anode and near-cathode regions.

  8. Non-equilibrium phase transitions in a liquid crystal. (United States)

    Dan, K; Roy, M; Datta, A


    The present manuscript describes kinetic behaviour of the glass transition and non-equilibrium features of the "Nematic-Isotropic" (N-I) phase transition of a well known liquid crystalline material N-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-4-butylaniline from the effects of heating rate and initial temperature on the transitions, through differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy. Around the vicinity of the glass transition temperature (Tg), while only a change in the baseline of the ΔCp vs T curve is observed for heating rate (β) > 5 K min(-1), consistent with a glass transition, a clear peak for β ≤ 5 K min(-1) and the rapid reduction in the ΔCp value from the former to the latter rate correspond to an order-disorder transition and a transition from ergodic to non-ergodic behaviour. The ln β vs 1000/T curve for the glass transition shows convex Arrhenius behaviour that can be explained very well by a purely entropic activation barrier [Dan et al., Eur. Phys. Lett. 108, 36007 (2014)]. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicates sudden freezing of the out-of-plane distortion vibrations of the benzene rings around the glass transition temperature and a considerable red shift indicating enhanced coplanarity of the benzene rings and, consequently, enhancement in the molecular ordering compared to room temperature. We further provide a direct experimental evidence of the non-equilibrium nature of the N-I transition through the dependence of this transition temperature (TNI) and associated enthalpy change (ΔH) on the initial temperature (at fixed β-values) for the DSC scans. A plausible qualitative explanation based on Mesquita's extension of Landau-deGennes theory [O. N. de Mesquita, Braz. J. Phys. 28, 257 (1998)] has been put forward. The change in the molecular ordering from nematic to isotropic phase has been investigated through fluorescence anisotropy measurements where the order parameter, quantified by the

  9. Nonequilibrium Solidification, Grain Refinements, and Recrystallization of Deeply Undercooled Ni-20 At. Pct Cu Alloys: Effects of Remelting and Stress (United States)

    Xu, Xiaolong; Hou, Hua; Zhao, Yuhong; Liu, Feng


    Grain refinement phenomena during the microstructural evolution upon nonequilibrium solidification of deeply undercooled Ni-20 at. pct Cu melts were systematically investigated. The dendrite growth in the bulk undercooled melts was captured by a high-speed camera. The first kind of grain refinement occurring in the low undercooling regimes was explained by a current grain refinement model. Besides, for the dendrite melting mechanism, the stress originating from the solidification contraction and thermal strain in the FMZ during rapid solidification could be a main mechanism causing the second kind of grain refinement above the critical undercooling. This internal stress led to the distortion and breakup of the primary dendrites and was semiquantitatively described by a corrected stress accumulation model. It was found that the stress-induced recrystallization could make the primary microstructures refine substantially after recalescence. A new method, i.e., rapidly quenching the deeply undercooled alloy melts before recalescence, was developed in the present work to produce crystalline alloys, which were still in the cold-worked state and, thus, had the driven force for recrystallization.

  10. Dissociative electron attachment and vibrational excitation of CF{sub 3}Cl: Effect of two vibrational modes revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarana, Michal [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0440 (United States); Houfek, Karel; Horacek, Jiri [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, V Holesovickach 2, Prague (Czech Republic); Fabrikant, Ilya I. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)


    We present a study of dissociative electron attachment and vibrational excitation processes in electron collisions with the CF{sub 3}Cl molecule. The calculations are based on the two-dimensional nuclear dynamics including the C-Cl symmetric stretch coordinate and the CF{sub 3} symmetric deformation (umbrella) coordinate. The complex potential energy surfaces are calculated using the ab initio R-matrix method. The results for dissociative attachment and vibrational excitation of the umbrella mode agree quite well with experiment whereas the cross section for excitation of the C-Cl symmetric stretch vibrations is about a factor-of-three too low in comparison with experimental data.

  11. An approximate local thermodynamic nonequilibrium radiation model for air (United States)

    Gally, Thomas A.; Carlson, Leland A.


    A radiatively coupled viscous shock layer analysis program which includes chemical and thermal nonequilibrium is used to calculate stagnation point flow profiles for typical aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle conditions. Two methods of predicting local thermodynamic nonequilibrium radiation effects are used as a first and second order approximation to this phenomena. Tabulated results for both nitrogen and air freestreams are given with temperature, species, and radiation profiles for some air conditions. Two body solution results are shown for 45 and 60 degree hyperboloid bodies at 12 km/sec and 80 km altitude. The presented results constitute an advancement in the engineering modeling of radiating nonequilibrium reentry flows.

  12. Effectiveness of new vibration delivery system on pain associated with injection of local anesthesia in children. (United States)

    Shilpapriya, Mangalampally; Jayanthi, Mungara; Reddy, Venumbaka Nilaya; Sakthivel, Rajendran; Selvaraju, Girija; Vijayakumar, Poornima


    Pain is highly subjective and it is neurologically proven that stimulation of larger diameter fibers - e.g., using appropriate coldness, warmth, rubbing, pressure or vibration - can close the neural "gate" so that the central perception of itch and pain is reduced. This fact is based upon "gate control" theory of Melzack and Wall. The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of vibration stimuli on pain experienced during local anesthetic injections. Thirty patients aged 6-12 years old of both the genders with Frankel's behavior rating scale as positive and definitely positive requiring bilateral local anesthesia injections for dental treatment were included in the split-mouth cross over design. Universal pain assessment tool was used to assess the pain with and without vibration during the administration of local anesthesia and the results obtained were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Local anesthetic administration with vibration resulted in significantly less pain (P = 0.001) compared to the injections without the use of vibe. The results suggest that vibration can be used as an effective method to decrease pain during dental local anesthetic administration.

  13. Vibration effect and control of In-Wheel Switched Reluctance Motor for electric vehicle (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Li, Yinong; Huang, Jingying; Zhang, Nong


    The Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) processes favorable driving capacity and great application potential in In-Wheel Motor (IWM) Electric Vehicle (EV). However vibration and noise problems are always the disadvantages of SRM. This paper investigates the vibration and noise issues and corresponding control methodology for the IWM application of SRM. By utilizing the analytical Fourier fitting method, a convenience method for modeling In-Wheel Switched Reluctance Motor (IW SRM) is proposed and the characteristics of the unbalanced residual lateral force related to vibration excitation are analyzed. Then the dynamic negative effect of IW SRM on vehicle is analyzed with a quarter driving and vibration vehicle model. It is found that the vertical shock occurs under the vehicle starting condition and high frequency force excitation exists under the constant speed condition. To address these issues, corresponding control methods are proposed, modified and compared. The proposed combined vibration feedback control of current chopping with PWM can effectively reduce the SRM residual force and ensure the required vehicle speed, though some slight low frequency forces are induced.

  14. Effect of different vibration frequencies on heart rate variability and driving fatigue in healthy drivers. (United States)

    Jiao, Kun; Li, Zengyong; Chen, Ming; Wang, Chengtao; Qi, Shaohua


    This investigation was to assess the effect of different vibration frequencies on heart rate variability (HRV) and driving fatigue in healthy subjects during simulated driving, by the use of power spectrum analysis and subjective evaluation. Sixty healthy subjects (29.6+/-3.3 years) were randomly divided into three groups, A, B and C, and the subjects of each group participated in the simulated driving for 90 min with vertical sinusoidal vibration (acceleration 0.05 g) of 1.8 Hz (group A), 6 Hz (group B) and no vibration (group C), respectively. Low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) components of HRV, reflecting sympathetic and parasympathetic activities, and the LF:HF ratio, indicating sympathovagal balance, were measured throughout all periods. All indices of HRV were calculated in the pre-experiment period, mid-experiment period and end-experiment period, and were analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance. Subjective responses to a questionnaire were obtained after the simulated task for the three groups. Significant differences in all indices of HRV were observed between different experiment periods and between any two groups. The ratings of subjective fatigue exhibited significant differences between any two groups. The drivers' fatigue ratings were associated with vibration frequencies in simulated driving. The study quantitatively demonstrated that different effects on autonomic nerve activities were induced by different vibration frequencies.

  15. The effect of vibrationally excited nitrogen on the low-latitude ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jenkins


    Full Text Available The first five vibrationally excited states of molecular nitrogen have been included in the Sheffield University plasmasphere ionosphere model. Vibrationally excited molecular nitrogen reacts much more strongly with atomic oxygen ions than ground-state nitrogen; this means that more O+ ions are converted to NO+ ions, which in turn combine with the electrons to give reduced electron densities. Model calculations have been carried out to investigate the effect of including vibrationally excited molecular nitrogen on the low-latitude ionosphere. In contrast to mid-latitudes, a reduction in electron density is seen in all seasons during solar maximum, the greatest effect being at the location of the equatorial trough.

  16. Effects of whole-body vibration training on different devices on bone mineral density. (United States)

    Von Stengel, Simon; Kemmler, Wolfgang; Bebenek, Michael; Engelke, Klaus; Kalender, Willi A


    Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a new nonpharmacological approach to counteract osteoporosis. However, the specific vibration protocol to most effectively reduce osteoporotic risk has not been reported. In the ELVIS II (Erlangen Longitudinal Vibration Study II) trial, we determined the effect of different WBV devices on bone mineral density (BMD) and neuromuscular performance. A total of 108 postmenopausal women (65.8 ± 3.5 yr) were randomly allocated to 1) rotational vibration training (RVT), i.e., 12.5 Hz, 12 mm, three sessions per week, for 15 min, including dynamic squat exercises; 2) vertical vibration training (VVT), i.e., 35 Hz, 1.7 mm, as above; and 3) a wellness control group (CG), i.e., two blocks of 10 low-intensity gymnastics sessions. BMD was measured at the hip and lumbar spine at baseline and after 12 months of training using dual-energy x-ray absorptiomety. Maximum isometric leg extension strength and leg power were determined using force plates. A BMD gain at the lumbar spine was observed in both vibration VT groups (RVT = +0.7% ± 2.2%, VVT = +0.5% ± 2.0%), which was significant compared with the CG value (-0.4% ± 2.0%) for RVT (P = 0.04) and borderline nonsignificant for VVT (P = 0.08). In the neck region, no significant treatment effect occurred. Neck BMD values tended to increase in both VT groups (RVT = +0.3% ± 2.7%, VVT = +1.1% ± 3.4%) and remained stable in CG (-0.0% ± 2.1%).Both VT groups gained maximum leg strength (RVT = +27% ± 22%, VVT = +24% ± 34%) compared with CG (+6% ± 20%, P = 0.000), whereas power measurements did not reach the level of significance (P = 0.1). WBV training is effective for reducing the risk for osteoporosis by increasing lumbar BMD and leg strength.

  17. Effect of electromagnetic vibration on the microstructure of direct chill cast Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy (United States)

    Zuo, Y.; Fu, X.; Zhu, Q.; Li, L.; Wang, P.; Cui, J.


    An electromagnetic vibration was achieved by the combined application of an alternating magnetic field and a stationary magnetic field during direct chill (DC) casting process. The ingots with 200 mm in diameter were prepared under the influence of electromagnetic vibration. The effect of electromagnetic vibration on the microstructure of an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy was studied. The results showed that electromagnetic vibration has a significant effect on the solidification behaviour, under the influence of electromagnetic vibration during DC casting process, the microstructure is significantly refined and the uniformity of microstructure is evidently improved. This paper introduces the DC casting technology with the application of electromagnetic vibration, presents these results and gives corresponding discussions.

  18. Effects of whole-body vibration training on fibrinolytic and coagulative factors in healthy young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Ghazalian


    Full Text Available Background: The aim was to evaluate effects of 5-week whole body vibration (WBV training with different amplitudes and progressive frequencies on fibrinolytic/coagulative factors. Materials and Methods: 25 subjects were divided randomly in high or low-amplitude vibration, and control groups. Training consisted of 5-week WBV with amplitudes 4 or 2 mm. Plasma samples were analyzed before and after training. Statistical analysis was done using one-way analysis of variance and Wilcoxon signed ranked test. P <0.05 was considered significant. Results: High-amplitude vibration caused an increase in tissue plasminogen activator (tPA (P = 0.028 (pretest: 1744.61 ± 707.95; posttest: 2313.63 ± 997.19 pg/ml, and decrease in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 (P = 0.033 (pretest: 97.94 ± 34.37; posttest: 85.12 ± 36.92 ng/ml. Fibrinogen and plasminogen were not changed significantly. Low-amplitude vibration caused an increase in tPA (P = 0.006 (pretest: 2208.18 ± 1280.37; posttest: 3492.72 ± 3549.22 pg/ml. PAI-1, fibrinogen and plasminogen were not changed significantly. There were no significant differences between groups. Conclusion: Amplitude of vibrations in WBV training may affect fibrinolytic factors.

  19. The nonequilibrium beam plasma (United States)

    Skvortsov, V. A.


    The kinetics and the heating of nonequilibrium plasma, formed as a result of injection of intensive relativistic (or subrelativistic) electron or proton beams in the atomic-molecular gas (nitrogen or air with water vapor) at different pressures (from 0.1-10 atm) have been investigated numerically by using the mathematical model “SKIF” which was developed by the author 15 years ago. More than 200 plasma-chemical reactions and elementary processes are taken into consideration, including the action of “non-Maxwell” electrons of the cascade, formed in the ionization of the molecules by the beam particles. For the description of the deviation of energy distribution of such electrons from the equilibrium distribution, a simplified analytical model was used, with the help of which one can calculate the energy spectrum of the cascade electrons with satisfactory precision. This essentially reduces the calculating expenditure.

  20. Non-equilibrium Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Martinás


    Full Text Available A microeconomic, agent based framework to dynamic economics is formulated in a materialist approach. An axiomatic foundation of a non-equilibrium microeconomics is outlined. Economic activity is modelled as transformation and transport of commodities (materials owned by the agents. Rate of transformations (production intensity, and the rate of transport (trade are defined by the agents. Economic decision rules are derived from the observed economic behaviour. The non-linear equations are solved numerically for a model economy. Numerical solutions for simple model economies suggest that the some of the results of general equilibrium economics are consequences only of the equilibrium hypothesis. We show that perfect competition of selfish agents does not guarantee the stability of economic equilibrium, but cooperativity is needed, too.

  1. Definition of Nonequilibrium Entropy of General Systems


    Mei, Xiaochun


    The definition of nonequilibrium entropy is provided for the general nonequilibrium processes by connecting thermodynamics with statistical physics, and the principle of entropy increment in the nonequilibrium processes is also proved in the paper. The result shows that the definition of nonequilibrium entropy is not unique.

  2. Towards an accurate description of anharmonic infrared spectra in solution within the polarizable continuum model: reaction field, cavity field and nonequilibrium effects. (United States)

    Cappelli, Chiara; Lipparini, Filippo; Bloino, Julien; Barone, Vincenzo


    We present a newly developed and implemented methodology to perturbatively evaluate anharmonic vibrational frequencies and infrared (IR) intensities of solvated systems described by means of the polarizable continuum model (PCM). The essential aspects of the theoretical model and of the implementation are described and some numerical tests are shown, with special emphasis towards the evaluation of IR intensities, for which the quality of the present method is compared to other methodologies widely used in the literature. Proper account of an incomplete solvation regime in the treatment of the molecular vibration is also considered, as well as inclusion of the coupling between the solvent and the probing field (cavity field effects). In order to assess the quality of our approach, comparison with experimental findings is reported for selected cases. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  3. Towards an accurate description of anharmonic infrared spectra in solution within the polarizable continuum model: Reaction field, cavity field and nonequilibrium effects (United States)

    Cappelli, Chiara; Lipparini, Filippo; Bloino, Julien; Barone, Vincenzo


    We present a newly developed and implemented methodology to perturbatively evaluate anharmonic vibrational frequencies and infrared (IR) intensities of solvated systems described by means of the polarizable continuum model (PCM). The essential aspects of the theoretical model and of the implementation are described and some numerical tests are shown, with special emphasis towards the evaluation of IR intensities, for which the quality of the present method is compared to other methodologies widely used in the literature. Proper account of an incomplete solvation regime in the treatment of the molecular vibration is also considered, as well as inclusion of the coupling between the solvent and the probing field (cavity field effects). In order to assess the quality of our approach, comparison with experimental findings is reported for selected cases.

  4. Small and inconsistent effects of whole body vibration on athletic performance : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortobagyi, Tibor; Lesinski, Melanie; Fernandez-del-Olmo, Miguel; Granacher, Urs

    We quantified the acute and chronic effects of whole body vibration on athletic performance or its proxy measures in competitive and/or elite athletes. Systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Whole body vibration combined with exercise had an overall 0.3 % acute effect on maximal voluntary

  5. Nonequilibrium recombination after a curved shock wave (United States)

    Wen, Chihyung; Hornung, Hans


    The effect of nonequilibrium recombination after a curved two-dimensional shock wave in a hypervelocity dissociating flow of an inviscid Lighthill-Freeman gas is considered. An analytical solution is obtained with the effective shock values derived by Hornung (1976) [5] and the assumption that the flow is ‘quasi-frozen’ after a thin dissociating layer near the shock. The solution gives the expression of dissociation fraction as a function of temperature on a streamline. A rule of thumb can then be provided to check the validity of binary scaling for experimental conditions and a tool to determine the limiting streamline that delineates the validity zone of binary scaling. The effects on the nonequilibrium chemical reaction of the large difference in free stream temperature between free-piston shock tunnel and equivalent flight conditions are discussed. Numerical examples are presented and the results are compared with solutions obtained with two-dimensional Euler equations using the code of Candler (1988) [10].

  6. Effect of Space Vehicle Structure Vibration on Control Moment Gyroscope Dynamics (United States)

    Dobrinskaya, Tatiana


    Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs) are used for non-propulsive attitude control of satellites and space stations, including the International Space Station (ISS). CMGs could be essential for future long duration space missions due to the fact that they help to save propellant. CMGs were successfully tested on the ground for many years, and have been successfully used on satellites. However, operations have shown that the CMG service life on the ISS is significantly shorter than predicted. Since the dynamic environment of the ISS differs greatly from the nominal environment of satellites, it was important to analyze how operations specific to the station (dockings and undockings, huge solar array motion, crew exercising, robotic operations, etc) can affect the CMG performance. This task became even more important since the first CMG failure onboard the ISS. The CMG failure resulted in the limitation of the attitude control capabilities, more propellant consumption, and additional operational issues. Therefore, the goal of this work was to find out how the vibrations of a space vehicle structure, caused by a variety of onboard operations, can affect the CMG dynamics and performance. The equations of CMG motion were derived and analyzed for the case when the gyro foundation can vibrate in any direction. The analysis was performed for unbalanced CMG gimbals to match the CMG configuration on ISS. The analysis showed that vehicle structure vibrations can amplify and significantly change the CMG motion if the gyro gimbals are unbalanced in flight. The resonance frequencies were found. It was shown that the resonance effect depends on the magnitude of gimbal imbalance, on the direction of a structure vibration, and on gimbal bearing friction. Computer modeling results of CMG dynamics affected by the external vibration are presented. The results can explain some of the CMG vibration telemetry observed on ISS. This work shows that balancing the CMG gimbals decreases the effect

  7. Investigation of gyroscopic effects in vibrating fluid-filled cylinders subjected to axial rotation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shatalov, MY


    Full Text Available of the theory of gyroscopic effects in distributed structures. The model of a thick vibrating cylinder filled with a fluid and subjected to inertial rotation is analyzed. The dynamics of the cylinder is considered in terms of linear elasticity and the fluid...

  8. Effect of a short period whole body vibration with 10 Hz on blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of a short period whole body vibration with 10 Hz on blood biomarkers in Wistar rats. Milena de Oliveira Bravo Monteiro, Danúbia da Cunha de Sá-Caputo, Eloá Moreira-Marconi, Éric Heleno Freire Ferreira Frederico, Cintia Renata de Sousa-Gonçalves, Luciana Camargo Bernardo, Carlos Alberto Sampaio ...

  9. The acute effect of whole body vibration (WBV) training on power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of acute whole body vibration (WBV) training on the speed, agility and explosive power performance measurements of university field hockey players. A two-way randomized, crossover experimental research design was used in the study. Seventeen university field ...

  10. Effect of whole-body vibration on muscle strength, spasticity, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CP) and is characterized by spasticity and muscle weakness of both lower limbs resulting in decreased walking ability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of whole body vibration (WBV) training on muscle strength, spasticity, and ...

  11. The Effect of Vibration on Postural Response of Down Syndrome Individuals on the Seesaw (United States)

    Carvalho, Regiane Luz; Almeida, Gil Lucio


    In order to better understand the role of proprioception in postural adjustments on unstable surfaces, we analyzed the effect of vibration on the pattern of muscle activity and joint displacements (ankle, knee and hip) of eight intellectually normal participants (control group-CG) and eight individuals with Down syndrome (DS) while balancing on…

  12. Effects of heat exchange and nonlinearity on acoustic streaming in a vibrating cylindrical cavity. (United States)

    Gubaidullin, Amir A; Yakovenko, Anna V


    Acoustic streaming in a gas filled cylindrical cavity subjected to the vibration effect is investigated numerically. Both thermally insulated walls and constant temperature walls are considered. The range of vibration frequencies from low frequencies, at which the process can be described by an approximate analytical solution, to high frequencies giving rise to strong nonlinear effects is studied. Frequencies lower than the resonant one are chosen, and nonlinearity is achieved due to the large amplitude. The problem is solved in an axisymmetric statement. The dependence of acoustic streaming in narrow channels at vibration frequencies lower than the resonant one on the type of thermal boundary conditions is shown. The streaming vortices' directions of rotation in the case of constant temperature walls are found to be opposite to those in the case of thermally insulated walls. Different nonlinear effects, which increase with the frequency of vibration, are obtained. Nonlinear effects manifesting as the nonuniformity of average temperature, pressure, and density are in turn found to be influencing the streaming velocity and streaming structure.

  13. Free vibration of thermally loaded panels including initial imperfections and post-buckling effects (United States)

    Murphy, K. D.; Virgin, L. N.; Rizzi, S. A.


    A combined theoretical and experimental approach is developed to consider the small amplitude free vibration characteristics of fully clamped panels under the influence of uniform heating. Included in this study are the effects of higher modes, in-plane boundary elasticity, initial imperfections, and post-buckling. Comparisons between theory and experiment reveal excellent agreement.

  14. Potential effects of whole-body vibration exercises on blood flow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The ability to control skin blood flow decreases with advancing age and some clinical disorders, as in diabetes and in rheumatologic diseases. Feasible clinical strategies such as whole-body vibration exercise (WBVE) are being used without a clear understanding of its effects. The aim of the present study is to ...

  15. Effect of whole-body vibration on muscle strength, spasticity, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marwa M. Ibrahim

    Abstract Background and purpose: Spastic diplegia is a common form of cerebral palsy (CP) and is characterized by spasticity and muscle weakness of both lower limbs resulting in decreased walk- ing ability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of whole body vibration (WBV) training on muscle strength, ...

  16. Effects of whole-body vibration on muscle strength and power of elderly: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Opuszcka Campos


    Full Text Available The aim of this systematic review was to summarize available scientific evidence on the utilization of whole body vibration as an alternative method to promote effective modifications on muscle strength and power in the aging population.  Scientific studies were retrieved from the following databases: Medline, Scielo, Lillacs, Cochrane Library, PEDro and Science Citation Index. The PEDro scale was used to assess the quality of the included studies, while content went through a critical analysis. From the 91 studies retrieved, 75 were excluded and 16 attended the selection criteria. From the16, the majority (68.8% presented from moderate to high methodological quality. Whole-body vibration associated to both isometric and dynamic exercises seemed to constitute an alternative for therapeutic intervention to improve muscular strength and power of healthy elderly. However, due to the characteristics of the designs of the studies reviewed and the threats to their internal validity (i.e., the absence of the control condition to the vibratory stimulus it was challenging to establish the additional effects of the whole-body vibration on the target population. Divergent findings were found for the whole-body vibration effect on muscular power. It is still necessary to conduct randomized control trials to establish the real effectiveness of this kind of intervention.

  17. Effects of vibration frequency on vibration-assisted nano-scratch process of mono-crystalline copper via molecular dynamics simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhu


    Full Text Available It has always been a critical issue to understand the material removal behavior of Vibration-Assisted Machining (VAM, especially on atomic level. To find out the effects of vibration frequency on material removal response, a three-dimensional molecular dynamics (MD model has been established in this research to investigate the effects of scratched groove, crystal defects on the surface quality, comparing with the Von Mises shear strain and tangential force in simulations during nano-scratching process. Comparisons are made among the results of simulations from different vibration frequency with the same scratching feed, depth, amplitude and crystal orientation. Copper potential in this simulation is Embedded-Atom Method (EAM potential. Interaction between copper and carbon atoms is Morse potential. Simulational results show that higher frequency can make groove smoother. Simulation with high frequency creates more dislocations to improve the machinability of copper specimen. The changing frequency does not have evident effects on Von Mises shear strain. Higher frequency can decrease the tangential force to reduce the consumption of cutting energy and tool wear. In conclusion, higher vibration frequency in VAM on mono-crystalline copper has positive effects on surface finish, machinablility and tool wear reduction.

  18. Back muscle EMG of helicopter pilots in flight: effects of fatigue, vibration, and posture. (United States)

    de Oliveira, Carlos Gomes; Nadal, Jurandir


    The high prevalence of low back pain in helicopter pilots has been attributed to back muscle fatigue due to a pilot's required posture and/or aircraft vibration. This study investigated the effect of posture and vibration on the surface electromyogram (EMG) of right and left erector spinae (ES) muscles of pilots and evaluated ES fatigue during flight. There were 12 male pilots who were monitored during helicopter flights lasting an average of 2 h. Prior to the flight, a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of ES was performed and the EMG was recorded. Vibration was measured at the pilot's seat through a triaxial accelerometer. The effect of posture on EMG was tested by comparing four characteristics of left and right EMG expressed as % MVC. Effect of Z vibration on EMG was investigated by coherence function and through correlation between coherently averaged EMG and Z for the frequencies of the main rotor of the helicopter (1R) and its first harmonic (2R). Fatigue was investigated through median frequencies (MF) of the EMG power spectra. No effect of posture on EMG was found for any parameter (p > 0.05). Data from one pilot suggested an effect of 1R on EMG, but statistical tests revealed this not to be significant (p > 0.05) for any pilot. No fatigue was evidenced by linear regression of MF. While the scientific literature contains the hypothesis that low back pain in helicopter pilots is mainly due to muscle fatigue caused by posture and/or vibration, the present study did not lend support to this hypothesis.

  19. Effects of vibration training in reducing risk of slip-related falls among young adults with obesity. (United States)

    Yang, Feng; Munoz, Jose; Han, Long-Zhu; Yang, Fei


    This study examined the effects of controlled whole-body vibration training on reducing risk of slip-related falls in people with obesity. Twenty-three young adults with obesity were randomly assigned into either the vibration or placebo group. The vibration and placebo groups respectively received 6-week vibration and placebo training on a side-alternating vibration platform. Before and after the training, the isometric knee extensors strength capacity was measured for the two groups. Both groups were also exposed to a standardized slip induced by a treadmill during gait prior to and following the training. Dynamic stability and fall incidences responding to the slip were also assessed. The results indicated that vibration training significantly increased the muscle strength and improved dynamic stability control at recovery touchdown after the slip occurrence. The improved dynamic stability could be resulted from the enhanced trunk segment movement control, which may be attributable to the strength increment caused by the vibration training. The decline of the fall rates from the pre-training slip to the post-training one was greater among the vibration group than the placebo group (45% vs. 25%). Vibration-based training could be a promising alternative or additional modality to active exercise-based fall prevention programs for people with obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of vibration training on force production in female basketball players. (United States)

    Fernandez-Rio, Javier; Terrados, Nicolas; Fernandez-Garcia, Benjamin; Suman, Oscar E


    The goal of this research project was to investigate the long-term effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) training on force production. Thirty-one female basketball players were randomly distributed in an experimental group: VG (vibration) and a control group: CG (no vibration). Both groups participated in the same training program; however, the experimental group (VG) performed a set of exercises on a vibration platform (Power Plate) at 30- to 35-Hz frequency and 4 mm amplitude, whereas the CG performed the same exercises at 0 Hz. Muscle performance of the legs was tested on a contact-time platform (Ergojump, Finland) through several tests: squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), and 15-second maximal performance jump; squat leg power (knee extension) was also evaluated using an Ergopower machine (Bosco, Italy). After 14 weeks, there was a significant increase (p power. However, there were no significant differences between the VG and the CG for any of the parameters evaluated. The findings of this study indicate that WBV training has no additive or discernible effect on the strength development of female basketball players after several weeks of use, suggesting that the application of this technology has no advantages over traditional strength training methods.

  1. Surface energy effect on free vibration of nano-sized piezoelectric double-shell structures (United States)

    Fang, Xue-Qian; Zhu, Chang-Song; Liu, Jin-Xi; Liu, Xiang-Lin


    Combining Goldenveizer-Novozhilov shell theory, thin plate theory and electro-elastic surface theory, the size-dependent vibration of nano-sized piezoelectric double-shell structures under simply supported boundary condition is presented, and the surface energy effect on the natural frequencies is discussed. The displacement components of the cylindrical nano-shells and annular nano-plates are expanded as the superposition of standard Fourier series based on Hamilton's principle. The total stresses with consideration of surface energy effect are derived, and the total energy function is obtained by using Rayleigh-Ritz energy method. The free vibration equation is solved, and the natural frequency is analyzed. In numerical examples, it is found that the surface elastic constant, piezoelectric constant and surface residual stress show different effects on the natural frequencies. The effect of surface piezoelectric constant is the maximum. The effect of dimensions of the double-shell under different surface material properties is also examined.

  2. Nonequilibrium Green's function method for quantum thermal transport (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Sheng; Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Li, Huanan; Thingna, Juzar


    This review deals with the nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method applied to the problems of energy transport due to atomic vibrations (phonons), primarily for small junction systems. We present a pedagogical introduction to the subject, deriving some of the well-known results such as the Laudauer-like formula for heat current in ballistic systems. The main aim of the review is to build the machinery of the method so that it can be applied to other situations, which are not directly treated here. In addition to the above, we consider a number of applications of NEGF, not in routine model system calculations, but in a few new aspects showing the power and usefulness of the formalism. In particular, we discuss the problems of multiple leads, coupled left-right-lead system, and system without a center. We also apply the method to the problem of full counting statistics. In the case of nonlinear systems, we make general comments on the thermal expansion effect, phonon relaxation time, and a certain class of mean-field approximations. Lastly, we examine the relationship between NEGF, reduced density matrix, and master equation approaches to thermal transport.

  3. A tightly coupled non-equilibrium model for inductively coupled radio-frequency plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munafò, A., E-mail:; Alfuhaid, S. A., E-mail:; Panesi, M., E-mail: [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Talbot Laboratory, 104 S. Wright St., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Cambier, J.-L., E-mail: [Edwards Air Force Base Research Laboratory, 10 E. Saturn Blvd., Edwards AFB, California 93524 (United States)


    The objective of the present work is the development of a tightly coupled magneto-hydrodynamic model for inductively coupled radio-frequency plasmas. Non Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (NLTE) effects are described based on a hybrid State-to-State approach. A multi-temperature formulation is used to account for thermal non-equilibrium between translation of heavy-particles and vibration of molecules. Excited electronic states of atoms are instead treated as separate pseudo-species, allowing for non-Boltzmann distributions of their populations. Free-electrons are assumed Maxwellian at their own temperature. The governing equations for the electro-magnetic field and the gas properties (e.g., chemical composition and temperatures) are written as a coupled system of time-dependent conservation laws. Steady-state solutions are obtained by means of an implicit Finite Volume method. The results obtained in both LTE and NLTE conditions over a broad spectrum of operating conditions demonstrate the robustness of the proposed coupled numerical method. The analysis of chemical composition and temperature distributions along the torch radius shows that: (i) the use of the LTE assumption may lead to an inaccurate prediction of the thermo-chemical state of the gas, and (ii) non-equilibrium phenomena play a significant role close the walls, due to the combined effects of Ohmic heating and macroscopic gradients.

  4. Investigation of ΔE Effect on Vibrational Behavior of Giant Magnetostrictive Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sheykholeslami


    Full Text Available Resonant magnetostrictive transducers are used for generating vibrations in the sonic and ultrasonic range of frequency. As the mechanical properties of magnetostrictive materials change according to different operating conditions (i.e., temperature, mechanical prestress, and magnetic bias, the vibrational behavior of the transducer changes too. ΔE effect is the change in the Young modulus of the ferromagnetic material and it has to be considered as it leads to changes in the dynamics of the transducer. This paper deals with the study of such effect from both theoretical and experimental point of view. ΔE effect on behavior of the transducer based on Terfenol-D is analytically described as a function of different operating conditions focusing on effects on resonance frequency, mode shape, and moreover experimentally the quality factor. Results of resonance frequency prediction have been validated with experiments and good agreement has been seen.

  5. The Effect of a Vibration Absorber on the Damping Properties of Alpine Skis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Schwanitz


    Full Text Available Coupled bending-torsion vibrations at the shovel are a severe problem when running an alpine ski at high velocities on hard or icy slopes. Thus, a major goal for ski manufacturers is to dampen vibrations through a proper multi-material design and/or additional absorbers. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a particular vibration absorber on a commercial slalom ski through a series of laboratory tests as well as a subjective field evaluation. Therefore, two identical pairs of ski were used and the absorber was deactivated on one pair. Laboratory tests revealed reductions of 5% to 49% of bending vibrations on skis with activated absorber. Subjective evaluation by 6 subjects suggested minor differences in the mean of the evaluated criteria turnablity, edge grip, steering behavior and stability towards a better performance of the skis with activated absorber. Subjects were able to identify the absorber mode with a success rate of 61.1%.

  6. Regular physical activity reduces the effects of Achilles tendon vibration on postural control for older women. (United States)

    Maitre, J; Serres, I; Lhuisset, L; Bois, J; Gasnier, Y; Paillard, T


    The aim was to determine in what extent physical activity influences postural control when visual, vestibular, and/or proprioceptive systems are disrupted. Two groups of healthy older women: an active group (74.0 ± 3.8 years) who practiced physical activities and a sedentary group (74.7 ± 6.3 years) who did not, underwent 12 postural conditions consisted in altering information emanating from sensory systems by means of sensory manipulations (i.e., eyes closed, cervical collar, tendon vibration, electromyostimulation, galvanic vestibular stimulation, foam surface). The center of foot pressure velocity was recorded on a force platform. Results indicate that the sensory manipulations altered postural control. The sedentary group was more disturbed than the active group by the use of tendon vibration. There was no clear difference between the two groups in the other conditions. This study suggests that the practice of physical activities is beneficial as a means of limiting the effects of tendon vibration on postural control through a better use of the not manipulated sensory systems and/or a more efficient reweighting to proprioceptive information from regions unaffected by the tendon vibration. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Numerical investigation on vibration characteristics of a micro-speaker diaphragm considering thermoforming effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyeong Min; Park, Ke Un [Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Micro-speaker diaphragms play an important role in generating desired sound responses, and are designed to have thin membrane shapes for flexibility in the axial direction. The micro-speaker diaphragms are formed from thin polymer film through the thermoforming process, in which local thickness reductions occur due to strain localization. This thickness reduction results in a change in vibration characteristics of the diaphragm and different sound responses from that of the original design. In this study, the effect of this thickness change in the diaphragm on its vibration characteristics is numerically investigated by coupling thermoforming simulation, structural analysis and modal analysis. Thus, the thickness change in the diaphragm is calculated from the thermoforming simulation, and reflected in the further structural and modal analyses in order to estimate the relevant stiffness and vibration modes. Comparing these simulation results with those from a diaphragm with the uniform thickness, it is found that a local thickness reduction results in the stiffness reduction and the relevant change in the natural frequencies and the corresponding vibration modes.

  8. Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Therapy in Patients with Fibromyalgia: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Collado-Mateo


    Full Text Available Objective. To review the literature on the effects of whole-body vibration therapy in patients with fibromyalgia. Design. Systematic literature review. Patients. Patients with fibromyalgia. Methods. An electronic search of the literature in four medical databases was performed to identify studies on whole-body vibration therapy that were published up to the 15th of January 2015. Results. Eight articles satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were analysed. According to the Dutch CBO guidelines, all selected trials had a B level of evidence. The main outcomes that were measured were balance, fatigue, disability index, health-related quality of life, and pain. Whole-body vibration appeared to improve the outcomes, especially balance and disability index. Conclusion. Whole-body vibration could be an adequate treatment for fibromyalgia as a main therapy or added to a physical exercise programme as it could improve balance, disability index, health-related quality of life, fatigue, and pain. However, this conclusion must be treated with caution because the paucity of trials and the marked differences between existing trials in terms of protocol, intervention, and measurement tools hampered the comparison of the trials.

  9. Grain size effects on stability of nonlinear vibration with nanocrystalline NiTi shape memory alloy (United States)

    Xia, Minglu; Sun, Qingping


    Grain size effects on stability of thermomechanical responses for a nonlinear torsional vibration system with nanocrystalline superelastic NiTi bar are investigated in the frequency and amplitude domains. NiTi bars with average grain size from 10 nm to 100 nm are fabricated through cold-rolling and subsequent annealing. Thermomechanical responses of the NiTi bar as a softening nonlinear damping spring in the torsional vibration system are obtained by synchronised acquisition of rotational angle and temperature under external sinusoidal excitation. It is shown that nonlinearity and damping capacity of the NiTi bar decrease as average grain size of the material is reduced below 100 nm. Therefore jump phenomena of thermomechanical responses become less significant or even vanish and the vibration system becomes more stable. The work in this paper provides a solid experimental base for manipulating the undesired jump phenomena of thermomechanical responses and stabilising the mechanical vibration system through grain refinement of NiTi SMA.

  10. Effect of geometric nonlinearity on the free flexural vibrations of moderately thick rectangular plates (United States)

    Raju, K. K.; Rao, G. V.; Raju, I. S.


    The effect of geometric nonlinearity on the free flexural vibrations of moderately thick rectangular plates is studied in this paper. Finite element formulation is employed to obtain the non-linear to linear period ratios for some rectangular plates. A conforming finite element of rectangular shape wherein the effects of shear deformation and rotatory inertia are included, is developed and used for the analysis. Results are presented for both simply supported and clamped boundary conditions.

  11. Effect of ultrasonic vibration time on the retention of prefabricated posts luted with two different cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dastnaei Peimaneh Hosseini


    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: In case of nonsurgical endodontic re-treatment or replacing a restoration, one of the best methods for removing post from the canal is using an ultrasonic vibration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ultrasonic vibration time on the retention of post luted with zinc phosphate or glass ionmer cements.   Materials and Methods: 96 sound extracted lower premolars were selected. The coronal section of specimen was removed and the roots were endodontically treated. A 9-mm post space was prepared in each specimens and a stainless steel Parapost XP was cemented into the post space. Half of the specimens were cemented with the Zinc phosphate cement and the other by g lass ionomer cement. After 7 days of storage, both groups were equally divided into 4 subgroups of 12 teeth. Control group did not receive any treatment. The other subgroups subjected to ultrasonic vibration for 4, 8 or 12 minutes. The retention of all specimens was evaluated and data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey tests.   Results: In control (no ultrasonic group and 4 minute ultrasonic group, the retention of posts luted with Zinc phosphate cement were not significantly differen t from those luted with g lass ionomer cement. (P=0.372. On the other hand , applying of ultrasonic vibration for 8 and 12 minutes in zinc phosphate and 12 minutes in g lass ionomer caused a significant reduction in the retention of posts (P=0.01.   Conclusion: Although, the initial retention of two cements was not different, the ultrasonic vibration had more catastrophic effect on zinc phosphate in comparison to glass ionomer.

  12. The effect of a small initial curvature on the free vibration of clamped, rectangular plates (United States)

    Adeniji-Fashola, A. A.; Oyediran, A. A.


    An analytical method of obtaining the natural frequencies and mode shapes of clamped, rectangular plates having a small initial curvature is presented. Specifically, the singular perturbation technique is used to reduce the fourth-order plate vibration problem to the simpler membrane problem with modified boundary conditions that account for the bending effects. The eigenfrequencies for plates with inverse aspect ratios varying between 0.1 and 1.0 and for the dimensionless normal prestress between 0.1 and 1.0 have been presented for values of epsilon, the normalized bending rigidity, ranging between 0.0010 and 0.2500. It is established that a small initial curvature has no effect on the frequency of vibration of the plate. However, its effect is manifested in the eigenmodes.

  13. Laserlike Vibrational Instability in Rectifying Molecular Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Jing Tao; Hedegård, Per; Brandbyge, Mads


    We study the damping of molecular vibrations due to electron-hole pair excitations in donor-acceptor (D-A) type molecular rectifiers. At finite voltage additional nonequilibrium electron-hole pair excitations involving both electrodes become possible, and contribute to the stimulated emission and...

  14. [Effect of an 8-week vibration training program in the elderly]. (United States)

    Muñoz Saez, Cesar J; Moras Feliu, Gerard; Rodríguez-Jiménez, Sergio


    Physical activity has been shown to maintain or improve autonomy in the elderly. It has also been demonstrated that vibration exercise in adults achieves rapid benefits. This study analyses the effects of an 8-week program of reduced volume vibration training on autonomy and strength in a group of elderly subjects. The 23 participants (18 women and 5 men, aged between 70 and 92 years, mean age 81.2 years) underwent a training program of five 30-second series of mechanical vibrations at 25 Hz and 2 mm wavelength three times a week for eight weeks. The isometric strength of the extensor muscles of the knee was assessed with a MuscleLab(®) gauge, and autonomy was tested with the "Expanded-Timed-Get-Up-and-Go" (ETGUG) test, both before and immediately after the eight weeks of the program and then eight weeks afterwards. Significant differences were detected between the three time points in strength, and also in total time taken to complete the ETGUG and the various sections of the test, with the exception of the time taken to stand up and to turn. The vibration training program significantly improved the time taken to complete the ETGUG and strength after eight weeks of training. However, these benefits only endured for walking speed, not for strength. The results of the ETGUG test revealed significant changes overall. However, in two sections (standing up and turning) the differences were not significant, probably because the results do not depend exclusively on participants' physical capacity but are also related to their coordination skills. Eight weeks of reduced volume vibration training in the elderly improved autonomy, but not isometric strength. Copyright © 2012 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of aerobic exercise and whole body vibration on glycaemia control in type 2 diabetic males. (United States)

    Behboudi, Lale; Azarbayjani, Mohammad-Ali; Aghaalinejad, Hamid; Salavati, Mahyar


    Aerobic exercise has been identified as the main treatment for type 2 diabetic patients. Such an exercise, however, is usually repined by some of patients who suffer from lack of stamina. Therefore, whole body vibration has recently been introduced as a passive intervention. The present study aimed at comparing how aerobic exercise and whole body vibration affect glycaemia control in type 2 diabetic males. Thirty diabetic males were divided into three groups, namely aerobic exercise (AE), whole body vibration (WBV), and control. Aerobic exercise schedule consisted of three walking sessions a week, each for 30-60 minutes and in 60-70% of maximum stock heartbeat. Vibration exercise was composed of 8-12-min stand-up and semi-squat positioning in frequency of 30 Hz and amplitude of 2 mm. Concentrations of fasting glycosylated hemoglobin, fasting glucose, and insulin were measured in the beginning of the trial, after the fourth week, and after the eighth week. After 8 weeks of exercise, no significant difference was detected in concentrations of fasting glycosylated hemoglobin and insulin between the groups (P=0.83, P=0.12). There were no significant differences in any of the variables between AE and WBV (P>0.05). But a more significant decrease in fasting glucose was observed in exercise groups (AE and WBV) compared with control group (P=0.02). The present study showed that AE and WBV identically stimulate metabolic system. Thus, it can be concluded that type 2 diabetic patients lacking stamina for aerobic exercise can opt for vibration exercise as an effective substitute.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Bazett-Jones


    Full Text Available While it seems that whole body vibration (WBV might be an effective modality to enhance physical performance, the proper prescription of WBV for performance enhancement remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare the immediate effect of various WBV accelerations on counter movement jump (CMJ height, the duration of any effect, and differences between men and women. Forty-four participants (33 men, 11 women participated in no less than four CMJ familiarization sessions and completed all vibration sessions. Participants performed a pre-test (three maximal CMJs, followed randomly by one of five WBV accelerations; 1g (no-WBV control, 2.16g, 2.80g, 4.87g, and 5.83g. Participants performed three maximal CMJs immediately, five, and 10 minutes following each 45 sec WBV session. The mean of the three performances was used and calculated as a percentage of the pre-vibration mean value. A Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA; acceleration x time x gender model was used to analyze the data. The two-way interactions of acceleration-gender (p = 0.033 and time-gender (p = 0.050 were significant. Women performed significantly better following the 2.80g (p = 0.0064 and 5.83g (p = 0. 0125 WBV sessions compared to the 1g (control session. Men, however, did not experience performance enhancing effects following any of the vibration sessions. While significant differences did not occur between time in either gender, the effects of the 45 sec WBV session in women were transient, lasting approximately five minutes. During the prescription of WBV, gender should be considered given that the results of this study seem to indicate that men and women respond differently to WBV. The results of this study suggest that WBV might be a useful modality as applied during the pre-competition warm-up

  17. Effect of vibration frequency on microstructure and performance of high chromium cast iron prepared by lost foam casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-qi Zou


    Full Text Available In the present research, high chromium cast irons (HCCIs were prepared using the lost foam casting (LFC process. To improve the wear resistance of the high chromium cast irons (HCCIs, mechanical vibration was employed during the solidification of the HCCIs. The effects of vibration frequency on the microstructure and performance of the HCCIs under as-cast, as-quenched and as-tempered conditions were investigated. The results indicated that the microstructures of the LFC-produced HCCIs were refined due to the introduction of mechanical vibration, and the hardness was improved compared to that of the alloy without vibration. However, only a slight improvement in hardness was found in spite of the increase of vibration frequency. In contrast, the impact toughness of the as-tempered HCCIs increased with an increase in the vibration frequency. In addition, the wear resistance of the HCCIs was improved as a result of the introduction of vibration and increased with an increase in the vibration frequency.

  18. A nonlinear circular ring model with rotating effects for tire vibrations (United States)

    Vu, Trong Dai; Duhamel, Denis; Abbadi, Zouhir; Yin, Hai-Ping; Gaudin, Arnaud


    Rolling noise contributes significantly to the noise inside cars. This noise comes from the tire/road contact and for low frequencies (0-400 Hz), it is mainly transmitted into the cabin through structural vibrations. Thus estimating this noise requires modelling the tire vibrations by taking into account the rotating effects and the contact with rough surfaces. Concerning the model of rolling tire, a formulation of a deformable solid is constructed by using an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian approach. This formulation is applied on a new simplified tire model which is a circular ring including shear stresses and nonlinear effects due to the vehicle load. This model is successfully validated by comparison with FEM results.

  19. Free Vibrations of a Cantilevered SWCNT with Distributed Mass in the Presence of Nonlocal Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. De Rosa


    Full Text Available The Hamilton principle is applied to deduce the free vibration frequencies of a cantilever single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT in the presence of an added mass, which can be distributed along an arbitrary part of the span. The nonlocal elasticity theory by Eringen has been employed, in order to take into account the nanoscale effects. An exact formulation leads to the equations of motion, which can be solved to give the frequencies and the corresponding vibration modes. Moreover, two approximate semianalytical methods are also illustrated, which can provide quick parametric relationships. From a more practical point of view, the problem of detecting the mass of the attached particle has been solved by calculating the relative frequency shift due to the presence of the added mass: from it, the mass value can be easily deduced. The paper ends with some numerical examples, in which the nonlocal effects are thoroughly investigated.

  20. Vibrationally coupled electron transport through single-molecule junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haertle, Rainer


    Single-molecule junctions are among the smallest electric circuits. They consist of a molecule that is bound to a left and a right electrode. With such a molecular nanocontact, the flow of electrical currents through a single molecule can be studied and controlled. Experiments on single-molecule junctions show that a single molecule carries electrical currents that can even be in the microampere regime. Thereby, a number of transport phenomena have been observed, such as, for example, diode- or transistor-like behavior, negative differential resistance and conductance switching. An objective of this field, which is commonly referred to as molecular electronics, is to relate these transport phenomena to the properties of the molecule in the contact. To this end, theoretical model calculations are employed, which facilitate an understanding of the underlying transport processes and mechanisms. Thereby, one has to take into account that molecules are flexible structures, which respond to a change of their charge state by a profound reorganization of their geometrical structure or may even dissociate. It is thus important to understand the interrelation between the vibrational degrees of freedom of a singlemolecule junction and the electrical current flowing through the contact. In this thesis, we investigate vibrational effects in electron transport through singlemolecule junctions. For these studies, we calculate and analyze transport characteristics of both generic and first-principles based model systems of a molecular contact. To this end, we employ a master equation and a nonequilibrium Green's function approach. Both methods are suitable to describe this nonequilibrium transport problem and treat the interactions of the tunneling electrons on the molecular bridge non-perturbatively. This is particularly important with respect to the vibrational degrees of freedom, which may strongly interact with the tunneling electrons. We show in detail that the resulting

  1. Acute effects of vibration from a chipping hammer and a grinder on the hand-arm system. (United States)

    Kihlberg, S; Attebrant, M; Gemne, G; Kjellberg, A


    The purpose of this study was to compare various effects on the hand-arm system of vibration exposure from a chipping hammer and a grinder with the same frequency weighted acceleration. Grip and push forces were measured and monitored during the exposure. The various effects were: muscle activity (measured with surface electrodes), discomfort ratings for different parts of the hand-arm system (made during and after exposure), and vibration perception threshold (for 10 minutes before and 10 minutes after the exposure). No increase in muscle activity due to exposure to vibration was found in the hand muscle studied. In the forearm, conversely, there was an increase in both muscle studied. For the upper arm the muscle activity only increased when exposed to impact vibration. Subjective ratings in the hand and shift in vibration perception threshold were effected more by the grinder than the hammer exposure. These results show that the reaction of the hand-arm system to vibration varies with frequency quantitatively as well as qualitatively. They do not support the notion that one single frequency weighted curve would be valid for the different health effects of hand-arm vibration (vascular, musculoskeletal, neurological, and psychophysiological).

  2. Effects of small vibrations on the surface of a liquid bridge


    Kawaji, Masahiro; Liang, R. Q.; 川路 正裕


    The effects of small vibrations on the surface oscillation of a liquid bridge, especially the resonance behavior, were investigated numerically, using a three-dimensional code based on the level set method to capture the gas-liquid interface. The surface oscillation of an isothermal liquid bridge held vertically between solid disks was predicted, and the predictions were compared with an analytical model based on a mass-spring-damper analogy. By subjecting the liquid bridge to various horizon...

  3. The Effects of Manufacturing Tolerances on the Vibration of Aero-engine Rotor-damper Assemblies (United States)

    Sykes, J. E. H.; Holmes, R.


    A range of rotor assemblies incorporating one and two squeeze film dampers with various static misalignments is investigated. Waterfall diagrams are constructed which demonstrate the effects of such misalignment and damper support flexibility on the nature and severity of subsynchronous resonance and jump phenomena. Vibration signatures of similar rotor-bearing assemblies are shown to contrast strongly due to different accumulations of tolerances during manufacture, fitting, and operation.

  4. Non-equilibrium phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Henkel, Malte; Lübeck, Sven


    This book describes two main classes of non-equilibrium phase-transitions: (a) static and dynamics of transitions into an absorbing state, and (b) dynamical scaling in far-from-equilibrium relaxation behaviour and ageing. The first volume begins with an introductory chapter which recalls the main concepts of phase-transitions, set for the convenience of the reader in an equilibrium context. The extension to non-equilibrium systems is made by using directed percolation as the main paradigm of absorbing phase transitions and in view of the richness of the known results an entire chapter is devoted to it, including a discussion of recent experimental results. Scaling theories and a large set of both numerical and analytical methods for the study of non-equilibrium phase transitions are thoroughly discussed. The techniques used for directed percolation are then extended to other universality classes and many important results on model parameters are provided for easy reference.

  5. Immediate effects of whole body vibration on patellar tendon properties and knee extension torque. (United States)

    Rieder, F; Wiesinger, H-P; Kösters, A; Müller, E; Seynnes, O R


    Reports about the immediate effects of whole body vibration (WBV) exposure upon torque production capacity are inconsistent. However, the changes in the torque-angle relationship observed by some authors after WBV may hinder the measurement of torque changes at a given angle. Acute changes in tendon mechanical properties do occur after certain types of exercise but this hypothesis has never been tested after a bout of WBV. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether tendon compliance is altered immediately after WBV, effectively shifting the optimal angle of peak torque towards longer muscle length. Twenty-eight subjects were randomly assigned to either a WBV (n = 14) or a squatting control group (n = 14). Patellar tendon CSA, stiffness and Young's modulus and knee extension torque-angle relationship were measured using ultrasonography and dynamometry 1 day before and directly after the intervention. Tendon CSA was additionally measured 24 h after the intervention to check for possible delayed onset of swelling. The vibration intervention had no effects on patellar tendon CSA, stiffness and Young's modulus or the torque-angle relationship. Peak torque was produced at ~70° knee angle in both groups at pre- and post-test. Additionally, the knee extension torque globally remained unaffected with the exception of a small (-6%) reduction in isometric torque at a joint angle of 60°. The present results indicate that a single bout of vibration exposure does not substantially alter patellar tendon properties or the torque-angle relationship of knee extensors.

  6. Study of the effects of vocal tract constriction on glottal vibration. (United States)

    Mittal, Vinay Kumar; Yegnanarayana, B; Bhaskararao, Peri


    Characteristics of glottal vibration are affected by the obstruction to the flow of air through the vocal tract system. The obstruction to the airflow is determined by the nature, location, and extent of constriction in the vocal tract during production of voiced sounds. The effects of constriction on glottal vibration are examined for six different categories of speech sounds having varying degree of constriction. The effects are examined in terms of source and system features derived from the speech and electroglottograph signals. It is observed that a high degree of constriction causing obstruction to the flow of air results in large changes in these features, relative to the adjacent steady vowel regions, as in the case of apical trill and alveolar fricative sounds. These changes are insignificant when the obstruction to the airflow is less, as in the case of velar fricative and lateral approximant sounds. There are no changes in the excitation features when there is a free flow of air along the auxiliary tract, despite constriction in the vocal tract, as in the case of nasals. These studies show that effects of constriction can indeed be observed in the features of glottal vibration as well as vocal tract resonances.

  7. The Effect of Friction on the Nonlinear Vibration of the Cracked One-Stage Power Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rezaee


    Full Text Available : The gear systems are widely used in industry to transmit the power or change the direction of the torque. Due to the extensive usage of the gears, the detailed designing and the subsequent maintenance of these systems are more and more evident. System recognition can be achieved through modeling the system, investigating the system behavior, and comparing the results obtained through the model with the actual system behavior. Up to now, the effect of dry friction has not been taken into account in nonlinear vibration analysis and modeling of a cracked one-stage gear power transmission system. In this paper, the nonlinear vibration of a pair of cracked spur-gear system in presence of dry friction, static transmission error, clearance and time-variant mesh stiffness is investigated. To this end, the time-variant mesh stiffness of an intact tooth is calculated analytically. Then, the tooth root crack is modeled as a cracked cantilever beam. The governing nonlinear equation of motion is extracted accordingly, and in order to consider the effect of dry friction, the governing equation solved by Rung- Kutta method in three separate time spans. Finally, the frequency response and bifurcation diagrams are used to study the effect of the friction and tooth root crack on the nonlinear vibration behavior of the system.

  8. Generalization of the second law for a transition between nonequilibrium states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takara, K. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Ibaraki University, Bunkyo, Mito 310-8512 (Japan); Hasegawa, H.-H., E-mail: [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Ibaraki University, Bunkyo, Mito 310-8512 (Japan); Center for Complex Quantum Systems, Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Driebe, D.J. [Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Worldwide, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33309 (United States)


    The maximum work formulation of the second law of thermodynamics is generalized for a transition between nonequilibrium states. The relative entropy, the Kullback-Leibler divergence between the nonequilibrium states and the canonical distribution, determines the maximum ability to work. The difference between the final and the initial relative entropies with an effective temperature gives the maximum dissipative work for both adiabatic and isothermal processes. Our formulation reduces to both the Vaikuntanathan-Jarzynski relation and the nonequilibrium Clausius relation in certain situations. By applying our formulation to a heat engine the Carnot cycle is generalized to a circulation among nonequilibrium states.

  9. Effective potentials in a bidimensional vibrated granular gas (United States)

    Velázquez-Pérez, Stephanie; Pérez-Ángel, Gabriel; Nahmad-Molinari, Yuri


    We present a numerical study of the spatial correlations of a quasi-two-dimensional granular fluid kept in a nonstatic steady state via vertical shaking. The simulations explore a wide range of vertical accelerations, restitution coefficients, and packing fractions, always staying below the crystallization limit. From the simulations we obtain the relevant pair distribution functions (PDFs), and effective potentials for the interparticle interaction are extracted from these PDFs via the Ornstein-Zernike equation with the Percus-Yevick closure. The correlations in the granular structures originating from these effective potentials are checked against the originating PDF using standard Monte Carlo simulations, and we find in general an excellent agreement. The resulting effective potentials show an increase of the spatial correlation at contact with the decreasing values of the restitution coefficient, and a tendency of the potentials to display deeper wells for more dissipative dynamics. A general exception to this trend appears for a range of values of the forcing, which depends on the restitution coefficient, but not on the density, where resonant bouncing increases correlations, resulting in deeper potential wells. The nature of these resonances is explored and shown to be the result of synchronization in the parabolic flights of the particles.

  10. Effect of whole-body vibration on muscle strength, spasticity, and motor performance in spastic diplegic cerebral palsy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa M. Ibrahim


    Conclusion: The obtained results suggest that 12-weeks’ intervention of whole-body vibration training can increase knee extensors strength and decrease spasticity with beneficial effects on walking speed and motor development in spastic diplegic CP children.

  11. Effects of poroelastic coefficients on normal vibration modes in vocal-fold tissues. (United States)

    Tao, Chao; Liu, Xiaojun


    The vocal-fold tissue is treated as a transversally isotropic fluid-saturated porous material. Effects of poroelastic coefficients on eigenfrequencies and eigenmodes of the vocal-fold vibration are investigated using the Ritz method. The study demonstrates that the often-used elastic model is only a particular case of the poroelastic model with an infinite fluid-solid mass coupling parameter. The elastic model may be considered appropriate for the vocal-fold tissue when the absolute value of the fluid-solid mass coupling parameter is larger than 10(5) kg/m(3). Otherwise, the poroelastic model may be more accurate. The degree of compressibility of the vocal tissue can also been described by the poroelastic coefficients. Finally, it is revealed that the liquid and solid components in a poroelastic model could have different modal shapes when the coupling between them is weak. The mode decoupling could cause desynchronization and irregular vibration of the folds.

  12. Frequency Up-Converted Low Frequency Vibration Energy Harvester Using Trampoline Effect (United States)

    Ju, S.; Chae, S. H.; Choi, Y.; Jun, S.; Park, S. M.; Lee, S.; Lee, H. W.; Ji, C.-H.


    This paper presents a non-resonant vibration energy harvester based on magnetoelectric transduction mechanism and mechanical frequency up-conversion using trampoline effect. The harvester utilizes a freely movable spherical permanent magnet which bounces off the aluminum springs integrated at both ends of the cavity, achieving frequency up-conversion from low frequency input vibration. Moreover, bonding method of magnetoelectric laminate composite has been optimized to provide higher strain to piezoelectric material and thus obtain a higher output voltage. A proof-of-concept energy harvesting device has been fabricated and tested. Maximum open-circuit voltage of 11.2V has been obtained and output power of 0.57μW has been achieved for a 50kΩ load, when the fabricated energy harvester was hand-shaken.

  13. Ultrafast optical nonlinearity, electronic absorption, vibrational spectra and solvent effect studies of ninhydrin (United States)

    Sajan, D.; Devi, T. Uma; Safakath, K.; Philip, Reji; Němec, Ivan; Karabacak, M.


    FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-Vis spectra of the nonlinear optical molecule ninhydrin have been recorded and analyzed. The equilibrium geometry, bonding features, and harmonic vibrational wavenumbers have been investigated with the help of B3LYP density functional theory method. A detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra is carried out with the aid of normal coordinate analysis following the scaled quantum mechanical force field methodology. Solvent effects have been calculated using time-dependent density functional theory in combination with the polarized continuum model. Natural bond orbital analysis confirms the occurrence of strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding in the molecule. Employing the open-aperture z-scan technique, nonlinear optical absorption of the sample has been studied in the ultrafast and short-pulse excitation regimes, using 100 fs and 5 ns laser pulses respectively. It is found that ninhydrin exhibits optical limiting for both excitations, indicating potential photonic applications.

  14. Goos-Hänchen effect for optical vibrational modes in a semiconductor structure (United States)

    Villegas, Diosdado; Arriaga, J.; de León-Pérez, Fernando; Pérez-Álvarez, R.


    We study the tunneling of optical vibrational modes with transverse horizontal polarization that impinge, at a given angle, on a semiconductor heterostructure. We find a large influence of the Goos-Hänchen shift on tunneling times. In particular, a Goos-Hänchen shift larger than the barrier thickness is reported for the first time. The relation between Goos-Hänchen and Hartman effects is also discussed. The identity that equals the dwell time to the sum of transmission and interference times, previously derived for one-dimensional tunneling problems, is extended to the two-dimensional case. Closed-form expressions are developed for the relevant quantities. Instead of using the standard approach, the interference time is computed from the vibrational energy density. The present study could be useful for the design of semiconductor devices.

  15. Chain length effects on the vibrational structure and molecular interactions in the liquid normal alkyl alcohols (United States)

    Kiefer, Johannes; Wagenfeld, Sabine; Kerlé, Daniela


    Alkyl alcohols are widely used in academia, industry, and our everyday lives, e.g. as cleaning agents and solvents. Vibrational spectroscopy is commonly used to identify and quantify these compounds, but also to study their structure and behavior. However, a comprehensive investigation and comparison of all normal alkanols that are liquid at room temperature has not been performed, surprisingly. This study aims at bridging this gap with a combined experimental and computational effort. For this purpose, the alkyl alcohols from methanol to undecan-1-ol have been analyzed using infrared and Raman spectroscopy. A detailed assignment of the individual peaks is presented and the influence of the alkyl chain length on the hydrogen bonding network is discussed. A 2D vibrational mapping allows a straightforward visualization of the effects. The conclusions drawn from the experimental data are backed up with results from Monte Carlo simulations using the simulation package Cassandra.

  16. Investigating the thermal environment effects on geometrically nonlinear vibration of smart functionally graded plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Rastgoo, Abbas; Bahrami, Mansoor Nikkhah [University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    An analytical solution for a sandwich circular FGM plate coupled with piezoelectric layers under one-dimensional heat conduction is presented. All materials of the device may be of any functional gradients in the direction of thickness. The solution exactly satisfies all the equilibrium conditions and continuity conditions for the stress, displacement and electric displacement as well as electric potential on the interfaces between adjacency layers. A nonlinear static problem is solved first to determine the initial stress state and pre-vibration deformations of the FG plate that is subjected to in-plane forces and applied actuator voltage in thermal environment in the case of simply supported boundary conditions. By adding an incremental dynamic state to the pre-vibration state, the differential equations that govern the nonlinear vibration behavior of pre-stressed piezoelectric coupled FGM plates are derived. The role of thermal environment as well as control effects on nonlinear static deflections and natural frequencies imposed by the piezoelectric actuators using high input voltages are investigated. Numerical examples are provided and simulation results are discussed. Numerical results for FGM plates with a mixture of metal and ceramic are presented in dimensionless forms. The good agreement between the results of this paper and those of the finite element (FE) analyses validated the presented approach. In a parametric study the emphasis is placed on investigating the effect of varying the applied actuator voltage and thermal environment as well as gradient index of FG plate on the dynamics and control characteristics of the structure

  17. Open problems in non-equilibrium physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusnezov, D.


    The report contains viewgraphs on the following: approaches to non-equilibrium statistical mechanics; classical and quantum processes in chaotic environments; classical fields in non-equilibrium situations: real time dynamics at finite temperature; and phase transitions in non-equilibrium conditions.

  18. The Effects of Tai Chi Chuan Combined with Vibration Training on Balance Control and Lower Extremity Muscle Power (United States)

    Chung, Pao-Hung; Lin, Guan-Lun; Liu, Chiang; Chuang, Long-Ren; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang


    The aim of this study was to determine whether performing Tai Chi Chuan on a customized vibration platform could enhance balance control and lower extremity muscle power more efficiently than Tai Chi Chuan alone in an untrained young population. Forty-eight healthy young adults were randomly assigned to the following three groups: a Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training group (TCV), a Tai Chi Chuan group (TCC) or a control group. The TCV group underwent 30 minutes of a reformed Tai Chi Chuan program on a customized vibration platform (32 Hz, 1 mm) three times a week for eight weeks, whereas the TCC group was trained without vibration stimuli. A force platform was used to measure the moving area of a static single leg stance and the heights of two consecutive countermovement jumps. The activation of the knee extensor and flexor was also measured synchronously by surface electromyography in all tests. The results showed that the moving area in the TCV group was significantly decreased by 15.3%. The second jump height in the TCV group was significantly increased by 8.14%, and the activation of the knee extensor/flexor was significantly decreased in the first jump. In conclusion, Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training can more efficiently improve balance control, and the positive training effect on the lower extremity muscle power induced by vibration stimuli still remains significant because there is no cross-interaction between the two different types of training methods. Key points Eight weeks of Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training can more efficiently improve balance control for an untrained young population. The positive training effect on the lower extremity muscle power induced by vibration stimuli during Tai Chi Chuan movements still remains significant because of SSC mechanism. Combining Tai Chi Chuan with vibration training is more efficient and does not decrease the overall training effects due to a cross-interaction of each other

  19. The effects of tai chi chuan combined with vibration training on balance control and lower extremity muscle power. (United States)

    Chung, Pao-Hung; Lin, Guan-Lun; Liu, Chiang; Chuang, Long-Ren; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang


    The aim of this study was to determine whether performing Tai Chi Chuan on a customized vibration platform could enhance balance control and lower extremity muscle power more efficiently than Tai Chi Chuan alone in an untrained young population. Forty-eight healthy young adults were randomly assigned to the following three groups: a Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training group (TCV), a Tai Chi Chuan group (TCC) or a control group. The TCV group underwent 30 minutes of a reformed Tai Chi Chuan program on a customized vibration platform (32 Hz, 1 mm) three times a week for eight weeks, whereas the TCC group was trained without vibration stimuli. A force platform was used to measure the moving area of a static single leg stance and the heights of two consecutive countermovement jumps. The activation of the knee extensor and flexor was also measured synchronously by surface electromyography in all tests. The results showed that the moving area in the TCV group was significantly decreased by 15.3%. The second jump height in the TCV group was significantly increased by 8.14%, and the activation of the knee extensor/flexor was significantly decreased in the first jump. In conclusion, Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training can more efficiently improve balance control, and the positive training effect on the lower extremity muscle power induced by vibration stimuli still remains significant because there is no cross-interaction between the two different types of training methods. Key pointsEight weeks of Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training can more efficiently improve balance control for an untrained young population.The positive training effect on the lower extremity muscle power induced by vibration stimuli during Tai Chi Chuan movements still remains significant because of SSC mechanism.Combining Tai Chi Chuan with vibration training is more efficient and does not decrease the overall training effects due to a cross-interaction of each other.

  20. Collisional relaxation of the three vibrationally excited difluorobenzene isomers by collisions with CO2: effect of donor vibrational mode. (United States)

    Mitchell, Deborah G; Johnson, Alan M; Johnson, Jeremy A; Judd, Kortney A; Kim, Kilyoung; Mayhew, Maurine; Powell, Amber L; Sevy, Eric T


    Relaxation of highly vibrationally excited 1,2-, 1,3-, and 1,4-difluorobenzne (DFB) by collisions with carbon dioxide has been investigated using diode laser transient absorption spectroscopy. Vibrationally hot DFB (E' approximately 41,000 cm(-1)) was prepared by 248 nm excimer laser excitation followed by rapid radiationless relaxation to the ground electronic state. Collisions between hot DFB isomers and CO2 result in large amounts of rotational and translational energy transfer from the hot donors to the bath. The CO2 nascent rotational population distribution of the high-J (J = 58-80) tail of the 00(0)0 state was probed at short times following the excimer laser pulse to measure rate constants and probabilities for collisions populating these states. The amount of translational energy gained by CO2 during collisions was determined using Doppler spectroscopy to measure the width of the absorption line for each transition. The energy transfer probability distribution function, P(E,E'), for the large DeltaE tail was obtained by resorting the state-indexed energy transfer probabilities as a function of DeltaE. P(E,E') was fit to a biexponential function to determine the average energy transferred in a single DFB/CO2 collision and fit parameters describing the shape of P(E,E'). P(E,E') fit parameters for DFB/CO2 and the previously studied C6F6/CO2 system are compared to various donor molecular properties. A model based on Fermi's Golden Rule indicates that the shape of P(E,E') is primarily determined by the low-frequency out-of-plane donor vibrational modes. A fractional mode population analysis is performed, which suggests that for energy transfer from DFB and C6F6 to CO2 the two key donor vibrational modes from which energy leaks out of the donor into the bath are nu11 and nu16. These "gateway" modes are some of the same modes determined to be the most efficient energy transfer modes by quantum scattering studies of benzene/He collisions.

  1. Perspective: Vibrational-induced steric effects in bimolecular reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Kopin, E-mail: [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences (IAMS), Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-166, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)


    The concept of preferred collision geometry in a bimolecular reaction is at the heart of reaction dynamics. Exemplified by a series of crossed molecular beam studies on the reactions of a C–H stretch-excited CHD{sub 3}(v{sub 1} = 1) with F, Cl, and O({sup 3}P) atoms, two types of steric control of chemical reactivity will be highlighted. A passive control is governed in a reaction with strong anisotropic entry valley that can significantly steer the incoming trajectories. This disorientation effect is illustrated by the F and O({sup 3}P) + CHD{sub 3}(v{sub 1} = 1) reactions. In the former case, the long-range anisotropic interaction acts like an optical “negative” lens by deflecting the trajectories away from the favored transition-state geometry, and thus inhibiting the bond rupture of the stretch-excited CHD{sub 3}. On the contrary, the interaction between O({sup 3}P) and CHD{sub 3}(v{sub 1} = 1) behaves as a “positive” lens by funneling the large impact-parameter collisions into the cone of acceptance, and thereby enhances the reactivity. As for reactions with relatively weak anisotropic interactions in the entry valley, an active control can be performed by exploiting the polarization property of the infrared excitation laser to polarize the reactants in space, as demonstrated in the reaction of Cl with a pre-aligned CHD{sub 3}(v{sub 1} = 1) reactant. A simpler case, the end-on versus side-on collisions, will be elucidated for demonstrating a means to disentangle the impact-parameter averaging. A few general remarks about some closely related issues, such as mode-, bond-selectivity, and Polanyi’s rules, are made.

  2. Effect of whole-body vibration on lower-limb EMG activity in subjects with and without spinal cord injury (United States)

    Alizadeh-Meghrazi, Milad; Masani, Kei; Zariffa, José; Sayenko, Dimitry G.; Popovic, Milos R.; Craven, B. Catharine


    Objective Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) results in substantial reductions in lower extremity muscle mass and bone mineral density below the level of the lesion. Whole-body vibration (WBV) has been proposed as a means of counteracting or treating musculoskeletal degradation after chronic motor complete SCI. To ascertain how WBV might be used to augment muscle and bone mass, we investigated whether WBV could evoke lower extremity electromyography (EMG) activity in able-bodied individuals and individuals with SCI, and which vibration parameters produced the largest magnitude of effect. Methods Ten male subjects participated in the study, six able-bodied and four with chronic SCI. Two different manufacturers' vibration platforms (WAVE® and Juvent™) were evaluated. The effects of vibration amplitude (0.2, 0.6 or 1.2 mm), vibration frequency (25, 35, or 45 Hz), and subject posture (knee angle of 140°, 160°, or 180°) on lower extremity EMG activation were determined (not all combinations of parameters were possible on both platforms). A novel signal processing technique was proposed to estimate the power of the EMG waveform while minimizing interference and artifacts from the plate vibration. Results WBV can elicit EMG activity among subjects with chronic SCI, if appropriate vibration parameters are employed. The amplitude of vibration had the greatest influence on EMG activation, while the frequency of vibration had lesser but statistically significant impact on the measured lower extremity EMG activity. Conclusion These findings suggest that WBV with appropriate parameters may constitute a promising intervention to treat musculoskeletal degradation after chronic SCI. PMID:24986541

  3. Warm-up effects from concomitant use of vibration and static stretching after cycling. (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Wen; Liu, Chiang; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang


    Static stretch is routinely used in traditional warm-up but impaired muscle performance. Combining vibration with static stretching as a feasible component may be an alternative to static stretching after submaximal aerobic exercise to improve jumping as well as flexibility. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of aerobic exercise, static stretching, and vibration with static stretching on flexibility and vertical jumping performance. A repeated measures experimental design was used in this study. Twelve participants randomly underwent 5 different warm-ups including cycling alone (C warm-up), static stretching alone (S warm-up), combining vibration with static stretching (VS warm-up), cycling followed by S (C+S warm-up), and cycling followed by VS (C+VS warm-up) on 5 separate days. Sit-and-reach, squat jump (SJ), and counter movement jump (CMJ) were measured for pre- and post- tests. The sit-and-reach scores after the S, VS, C+S and C+VS warm-ups were significantly enhanced (Pperformance, compared with the traditional warm-up (C+S warm-up).

  4. Effect of Induced Vibration on the Blood Flow Properties in a Mechanical Aortic Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadhim Saleem Khalefa


    Full Text Available The effect of induced vibration on velocity distribution for the blood flow in the bileaflet mechanical heart valves conveying blood was investigated in this study. The bileaflet valve was simulated as an orifice. The induced vibration is due to the pulsed blood flow in the artery. Results presented in this study were performed using CFD FLUENT software. This analysis is based on the non-linear numerical solution by using a finite-element method, for the system of governing partial differential equations (continuity, momentum of Navier - Stokes equation of blood flow through the orifice. It has been found that as the flow through the orifice increased, the vibration at the orifice inlet increased. For steady state conditions, at Reynolds number 50 the recorded frequency was 20Hz. When the Reynolds number increased to 100 due to the increase in the blood flow the recorded frequency increased to 30Hz. The increase in frequency may result in damaging the blood red cells and platelets which subsequently results in increasing the blood clogging downstream of the orifice.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Stepanenko


    Full Text Available The paper contains a theoretical underpinning on creation of ultrasonic vibration concentrators based on annular elastic elements with non-circular (ellipse-like eccentric shape of internal contour. Shape of internal contour in polar coordinates is described by Fourier series relative to angular coordinate that consists of a constant term and first and second harmonics. An effect of geometric parameters of the concentrator on amplification factor and natural vibration frequencies has been investigated with the help of a finite element method. The paper reveals the possibility to control an amplification factor of annular concentrators while varying eccentricity of internal contour and mean value of cross-section thickness. The amplification factor satisfies a condition K < N, where N is thickness ratio of amplifier input and output sections, and it is decreasing with increase of vibration mode order. The similar condition has been satisfied for conical bar concentrator with the difference that in the case of bar concentrators an amplification is ensured due to variation of diameter and N will represent ratio of diameters. It has been proved that modification of internal contour shape makes it possible to carry out a wide-band tuning of natural frequencies of concentrator vibrations without alteration of its overall dimensions and substantial change of amplification factor, which is important for frequency matching of the concentrator and ultrasonic vibratory system. Advantages of the proposed concentrators include simplicity of design and manufacturing, small overall dimensions, possibility for natural frequency tuning by means of static load variation. The developed concentrators can find their application in ultrasonic devices and instruments for technological and medical purposes.

  6. Non-equilibrium supramolecular polymerization. (United States)

    Sorrenti, Alessandro; Leira-Iglesias, Jorge; Markvoort, Albert J; de Greef, Tom F A; Hermans, Thomas M


    Supramolecular polymerization has been traditionally focused on the thermodynamic equilibrium state, where one-dimensional assemblies reside at the global minimum of the Gibbs free energy. The pathway and rate to reach the equilibrium state are irrelevant, and the resulting assemblies remain unchanged over time. In the past decade, the focus has shifted to kinetically trapped (non-dissipative non-equilibrium) structures that heavily depend on the method of preparation (i.e., pathway complexity), and where the assembly rates are of key importance. Kinetic models have greatly improved our understanding of competing pathways, and shown how to steer supramolecular polymerization in the desired direction (i.e., pathway selection). The most recent innovation in the field relies on energy or mass input that is dissipated to keep the system away from the thermodynamic equilibrium (or from other non-dissipative states). This tutorial review aims to provide the reader with a set of tools to identify different types of self-assembled states that have been explored so far. In particular, we aim to clarify the often unclear use of the term "non-equilibrium self-assembly" by subdividing systems into dissipative, and non-dissipative non-equilibrium states. Examples are given for each of the states, with a focus on non-dissipative non-equilibrium states found in one-dimensional supramolecular polymerization.

  7. Effect of self-vibration on accuracy of free-fall absolute gravity measurement with laser interferometer (United States)

    Feng, Jin-yang; Wu, Shu-qing; Li, Chun-jian; Su, Duo-wu; Yu, Mei


    A free-fall absolute gravimeter was used to measure the gravity acceleration of a corner-cube released in high vacuum, and the gravity acceleration was determined by fitting the free-falling trajectories obtained through optical interferometry. During the measurement, the self-vibration of an absolute gravimeter caused ground vibration and the change in optical path length due to vibration of vacuum-air interface, which resulted in a measurement error. Numerical simulation was run by introducing vibration disturbance to the trajectories of free-fall. The effect of disturbance under different instrumental self-vibration conditions was analyzed. Simulation results indicated that the deviation of calculated gravity acceleration from the preset value and residuals amplitude after fitting depended on the amplitude and initial phase of the vibration disturbance. The deviation value and fitting residuals amplitude increased with the increasing of amplitude and there was a one-to-one correspondence between the two. The deviation of calculated gravity acceleration decreases by properly setting the initial phase difference of vibration disturbance with respect to the interference fringe signal.

  8. The effect of whole body vibration short-term exercises on respiratory gas exchange in overweight and obese women. (United States)

    Vissers, Dirk; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Truijen, Steven; Ides, Kris; Vercruysse, Carl-Christian; Van Gaal, Luc


    To assess the effect of whole body vibration on oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production among overweight and obese women. In a randomized controlled trial, anthropometric measurements were taken in 20 adult overweight women. Ventilation of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and heart rate were measured using a portable gas-analysis system. After each exercise, a Borg's scale score was assessed. Exercises were performed on a vibration platform with a frequency of 35 Hz and with the intensity set on "high" (amplitude of 4 mm). Two dynamic exercises (squatting and calf raises) and one static exercise (standing) were performed during 3 minutes with and without vibration in a randomized order, with 10 minutes rest between exercises. Mean values of the third minute of exercise were compared. Ventilation of oxygen and carbon dioxide were consistently, significantly higher in the exercises with vibration compared with the exercises without vibration. Borg's scale scores only showed a significant difference between calf raises with and without vibration. The addition of whole body vibration to both static and dynamic exercises appears to significantly increase oxygen uptake in overweight and obese women. More research is needed to determine the physiological pathway and clinical relevance of this increase.

  9. The effects of vibration loading on adipose stem cell number, viability and differentiation towards bone-forming cells. (United States)

    Tirkkonen, Laura; Halonen, Heidi; Hyttinen, Jari; Kuokkanen, Hannu; Sievänen, Harri; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; Mannerström, Bettina; Sándor, George K B; Suuronen, Riitta; Miettinen, Susanna; Haimi, Suvi


    Mechanical stimulation is an essential factor affecting the metabolism of bone cells and their precursors. We hypothesized that vibration loading would stimulate differentiation of human adipose stem cells (hASCs) towards bone-forming cells and simultaneously inhibit differentiation towards fat tissue. We developed a vibration-loading device that produces 3g peak acceleration at frequencies of 50 and 100 Hz to cells cultured on well plates. hASCs were cultured using either basal medium (BM), osteogenic medium (OM) or adipogenic medium (AM), and subjected to vibration loading for 3 h d(-1) for 1, 7 and 14 day. Osteogenesis, i.e. differentiation of hASCs towards bone-forming cells, was analysed using markers such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, collagen production and mineralization. Both 50 and 100 Hz vibration frequencies induced significantly increased ALP activity and collagen production of hASCs compared with the static control at 14 day in OM. A similar trend was detected for mineralization, but the increase was not statistically significant. Furthermore, vibration loading inhibited adipocyte differentiation of hASCs. Vibration did not affect cell number or viability. These findings suggest that osteogenic culture conditions amplify the stimulatory effect of vibration loading on differentiation of hASCs towards bone-forming cells.

  10. Effect of Longitudinal Magnetic Field on Vibration Characteristics of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in a Viscoelastic Medium (United States)

    Zhang, D. P.; Lei, Y.; Shen, Z. B.


    The effect of longitudinal magnetic field on vibration response of a sing-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) embedded in viscoelastic medium is investigated. Based on nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, Maxwell's relations, and Kelvin viscoelastic foundation model, the governing equations of motion for vibration analysis are established. The complex natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes in closed form for the embedded SWCNT with arbitrary boundary conditions are obtained using transfer function method (TFM). The new analytical expressions for the complex natural frequencies are also derived for certain typical boundary conditions and Kelvin-Voigt model. Numerical results from the model are presented to show the effects of nonlocal parameter, viscoelastic parameter, boundary conditions, aspect ratio, and strength of the magnetic field on vibration characteristics for the embedded SWCNT in longitudinal magnetic field. The results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed methods for vibration analysis of embedded SWCNTs under magnetic field.

  11. Effect of Longitudinal Magnetic Field on Vibration Characteristics of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in a Viscoelastic Medium (United States)

    Zhang, D. P.; Lei, Y.; Shen, Z. B.


    The effect of longitudinal magnetic field on vibration response of a sing-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) embedded in viscoelastic medium is investigated. Based on nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, Maxwell's relations, and Kelvin viscoelastic foundation model, the governing equations of motion for vibration analysis are established. The complex natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes in closed form for the embedded SWCNT with arbitrary boundary conditions are obtained using transfer function method (TFM). The new analytical expressions for the complex natural frequencies are also derived for certain typical boundary conditions and Kelvin-Voigt model. Numerical results from the model are presented to show the effects of nonlocal parameter, viscoelastic parameter, boundary conditions, aspect ratio, and strength of the magnetic field on vibration characteristics for the embedded SWCNT in longitudinal magnetic field. The results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed methods for vibration analysis of embedded SWCNTs under magnetic field.

  12. Extension of CE/SE method to non-equilibrium dissociating flows

    KAUST Repository

    Wen, C.Y.


    In this study, the hypersonic non-equilibrium flows over rounded nose geometries are numerically investigated by a robust conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) code, which is based on hybrid meshes consisting of triangular and quadrilateral elements. The dissociating and recombination chemical reactions as well as the vibrational energy relaxation are taken into account. The stiff source terms are solved by an implicit trapezoidal method of integration. Comparison with laboratory and numerical cases are provided to demonstrate the accuracy and reliability of the present CE/SE code in simulating hypersonic non-equilibrium flows.

  13. Development and testing of a numerical simulation method for thermally nonequilibrium dissociating flows in ANSYS Fluent (United States)

    Shoev, G. V.; Bondar, Ye. A.; Oblapenko, G. P.; Kustova, E. V.


    Various issues of numerical simulation of supersonic gas flows with allowance for thermochemical nonequilibrium on the basis of fluid dynamic equations in the two-temperature approximation are discussed. The computational tool for modeling flows with thermochemical nonequilibrium is the commercial software package ANSYS Fluent with an additional userdefined open-code module. A comparative analysis of results obtained by various models of vibration-dissociation coupling in binary gas mixtures of nitrogen and oxygen is performed. Results of numerical simulations are compared with available experimental data.

  14. Common Vocal Effects and Partial Glottal Vibration in Professional Nonclassical Singers. (United States)

    Caffier, Philipp P; Ibrahim Nasr, Ahmed; Ropero Rendon, Maria Del Mar; Wienhausen, Sascha; Forbes, Eleanor; Seidner, Wolfram; Nawka, Tadeus


    To multidimensionally investigate common vocal effects in experienced professional nonclassical singers, to examine their mechanism of production and reproducibility, to demonstrate the existence of partial glottal vibration, and to assess the potential of damage to the voice from nonclassical singing. Individual cohort study. Ten male singers aged between 25 and 46 years (34 ± 7 years [mean ± SD]) with different stylistic backgrounds were recruited (five pop/rock/metal, five musical theater). Participants repeatedly presented the usual nonclassical vocal effects and techniques in their repertoire. All performances were documented and analyzed using established instruments (eg, auditory-perceptual assessment, videolaryngostroboscopy, electroglottography, voice function diagnostics). The vocal apparatus of all singers was healthy and capable of high performance. Typical nonclassical vocal effects were breathy voice, creaky voice, vocal fry, grunting, distortion, rattle, belt, and twang. All effects could be easily differentiated from each other. They were intraindividually consistently repeatable and also interindividually produced in a similar manner. A special feature in one singer was the first evidence of partial glottal vibration when belting in the high register. The unintended transition to this reduced voice quality was accompanied by physical fatigue and inflexible respiratory support. The long-lasting use of the investigated nonclassical vocal effects had no negative impact on trained singers. The possibility of long-term damage depends on the individual constitution, specific use, duration, and extent of the hyperfunction. The incidence of partial glottal vibration and its consequences require continuing research to learn more about efficient and healthy vocal function in nonclassical singing. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An effective rate equation approach to reaction kinetics in small volumes: theory and application to biochemical reactions in nonequilibrium steady-state conditions. (United States)

    Grima, R


    Chemical master equations provide a mathematical description of stochastic reaction kinetics in well-mixed conditions. They are a valid description over length scales that are larger than the reactive mean free path and thus describe kinetics in compartments of mesoscopic and macroscopic dimensions. The trajectories of the stochastic chemical processes described by the master equation can be ensemble-averaged to obtain the average number density of chemical species, i.e., the true concentration, at any spatial scale of interest. For macroscopic volumes, the true concentration is very well approximated by the solution of the corresponding deterministic and macroscopic rate equations, i.e., the macroscopic concentration. However, this equivalence breaks down for mesoscopic volumes. These deviations are particularly significant for open systems and cannot be calculated via the Fokker-Planck or linear-noise approximations of the master equation. We utilize the system-size expansion including terms of the order of Omega(-1/2) to derive a set of differential equations whose solution approximates the true concentration as given by the master equation. These equations are valid in any open or closed chemical reaction network and at both the mesoscopic and macroscopic scales. In the limit of large volumes, the effective mesoscopic rate equations become precisely equal to the conventional macroscopic rate equations. We compare the three formalisms of effective mesoscopic rate equations, conventional rate equations, and chemical master equations by applying them to several biochemical reaction systems (homodimeric and heterodimeric protein-protein interactions, series of sequential enzyme reactions, and positive feedback loops) in nonequilibrium steady-state conditions. In all cases, we find that the effective mesoscopic rate equations can predict very well the true concentration of a chemical species. This provides a useful method by which one can quickly determine the

  16. Generalized Dicke Nonequilibrium Dynamics in Trapped Ions (United States)

    Genway, Sam; Li, Weibin; Ates, Cenap; Lanyon, Benjamin P.; Lesanovsky, Igor


    We explore trapped ions as a setting to investigate nonequilibrium phases in a generalized Dicke model of dissipative spins coupled to phonon modes. We find a rich dynamical phase diagram including superradiantlike regimes, dynamical phase coexistence, and phonon-lasing behavior. A particular advantage of trapped ions is that these phases and transitions among them can be probed in situ through fluorescence. We demonstrate that the main physical insights are captured by a minimal model and consider an experimental realization with Ca+ ions trapped in a linear Paul trap with a dressing scheme to create effective two-level systems with a tunable dissipation rate.

  17. Lifetime-vibrational interference effects in resonantly excited x-ray emission spectra of CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skytt, P.; Glans, P.; Gunnelin, K. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [and others


    The parity selection rule for resonant X-ray emission as demonstrated for O{sub 2} and N{sub 2} can be seen as an effect of interference between coherently excited degenerate localized core states. One system where the core state degeneracy is not exact but somewhat lifted was previously studied at ALS, namely the resonant X-ray emission of amino-substituted benzene (aniline). It was shown that the X-ray fluorescence spectrum resulting from excitation of the C1s at the site of the {open_quotes}aminocarbon{close_quotes} could be described in a picture separating the excitation and the emission processes, whereas the spectrum corresponding to the quasi-degenerate carbons could not. Thus, in this case it was necessary to take interference effects between the quasi-degenerate intermediate core excited states into account in order to obtain agreement between calculations and experiment. The different vibrational levels of core excited states in molecules have energy splittings which are of the same order of magnitude as the natural lifetime broadening of core excitations in the soft X-ray range. Therefore, lifetime-vibrational interference effects are likely to appear and influence the band shapes in resonant X-ray emission spectra. Lifetime-vibrational interference has been studied in non-resonant X-ray emission, and in Auger spectra. In this report the authors discuss results of selectively excited soft X-ray fluorescence spectra of molecules, where they focus on lifetime-interference effects appearing in the band shapes.

  18. Effects of interset whole-body vibration on bench press resistance training in trained and untrained individuals. (United States)

    Timon, Rafael; Collado-Mateo, Daniel; Olcina, Guillermo; Gusi, Narcis


    Previous studies have demonstrated positive effects of acute vibration exercise on concentric strength and power, but few have observed the effects of vibration exposure on resistance training. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of whole body vibration applied to the chest via hands on bench press resistance training in trained and untrained individuals. Nineteen participants (10 recreationally trained bodybuilders and 9 untrained students) performed two randomized sessions of resistance training on separate days. Each strength session consisted of 3 bench press sets with a load of 75% 1RM to failure in each set, with 2 minutes' rest between sets. All subjects performed the same strength training with either, vibration exposure (12 Hz, 4 mm) of 30 seconds immediately before each bench press set or without vibration. Number of total repetitions, kinematic parameters, blood lactate and perceived exertion were analyzed. In the untrained group, vibration exposure caused a significant increase in the mean velocity (from 0.36±0.02 to 0.39±0.03 m/s) and acceleration (from 0.75±0.10 to 0.86±0.09 m/s2), as well as a decrease in perceived effort (from 8±0.57 to 7.35±0.47) in the first bench press set, but no change was observed in the third bench press set. In the recreationally trained bodybuilders, vibration exposure did not cause any improvement on the performance of bench press resistance training. These results suggest that vibration exposure applied just before the bench press exercise could be a good practice to be implemented by untrained individuals in resistance training.

  19. Analysis of subsystem randomness effects on the mid-frequency vibrations of built-up structures (United States)

    Ji, Lin; Huang, Zhenyu


    The paper concerns the analysis of subsystem randomness effects on the mid-frequency vibration responses of built-up systems. The system model considered, in the first instance, is a long-wavelength finite element (FE) subsystem connected with a short-wavelength statistical energy analysis (SEA) subsystem via discrete couplings. The randomness effects of the SEA subsystem on both the displacement response of the FE subsystem and the energy response of the SEA subsystem are then investigated under the frame of the hybrid FE/SEA theory [P. Shorter, R. Langley, Vibro-acoustic analysis of complex systems, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 288 (2005) 669-700]. It is found that the subsystem randomness effects may be well indicated by a dimensionless parameter α, which is a function of the number of coupling points, the dynamic mismatch between the FE and SEA subsystems and the modal overlap factor of the SEA subsystem. The smaller the value of α is, the more insignificant the randomness effects are. As a result, a so-called "α-criterion" is derived which states that, if a built-up structure satisfies the condition of α≪1, the randomness effects of the SEA subsystem can be neglected. In this case, the SEA subsystem can be simply treated as an infinite (or semi-infinite as appropriate) structure regardless of its mode count being sufficiently high or not. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the validity of the present theory.

  20. Effects of Non-Equilibrium Chemistry and Darcy-Forchheimer Flow of Pyrolysis Gas for a Charring Ablator (United States)

    Chen, Yih-Kanq; Milos, Frank S.


    The Fully Implicit Ablation and Thermal Response code, FIAT, simulates pyrolysis and ablation of thermal protection materials and systems. The governing equations, which include energy conservation, a three-component decomposition model, and a surface energy balance, are solved with a moving grid. This work describes new modeling capabilities that are added to a special version of FIAT. These capabilities include a time-dependent pyrolysis gas flow momentum equation with Darcy-Forchheimer terms and pyrolysis gas species conservation equations with finite-rate homogeneous chemical reactions. The total energy conservation equation is also enhanced for consistency with these new additions. Parametric studies are performed using this enhanced version of FIAT. Two groups of analyses of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) are presented. In the first group, an Orion flight environment for a proposed Lunar-return trajectory is considered. In the second group, various test conditions for arcjet models are examined. The central focus of these parametric studies is to understand the effect of pyrolysis gas momentum transfer on PICA material in-depth thermal responses with finite-rate, equilibrium, or frozen homogeneous gas chemistry. Results are presented, discussed, and compared with those predicted by the baseline PICA/FIAT ablation and thermal response model developed by the Orion Thermal Protection System Advanced Development Project.


    Monteiro, Milena de Oliveira Bravo; de Sá-Caputo, Danúbia da Cunha; Moreira-Marconi, Eloá; Frederico, Éric Heleno Freire Ferreira; de Sousa-Gonçalves, Cintia Renata; Bernardo, Luciana Camargo; Guimarães, Carlos Alberto Sampaio; Bernardo-Filho, Mario


    Exposure to whole body vibration exercises (WBVE), besides some biological effects, causes alterations in the concentration of some blood biomarkers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the action of vibration (10 Hz) of WBVE on the concentration of blood biomarkers in Wistar rats. Wistar rats were divided in 2 groups. The experimental group (EG) was subjected to vibrations of 10Hz (one min per day, one week, total time of seven min), while the control group (CG) has not experienced vibration. Samples of whole blood were drawn for biochemical analysis of the concentration of total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, VLDL, glucose, CPK, albumin, alkaline phosphates, TGP, TGO, γGT, lipase, amylase, urea and creatinine. White blood cell count and a platelet-hemogram were also performed. Significant (pvibration. Although these findings were obtained with rats, they might contribute to try to understand better these mechanisms that occur following exposure to a frequency of 10Hz.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Kachare


    Full Text Available Everything in the universe that has mass possesses stiffness and intrinsic damping. Owing to the stiffness property, mass will vibrate when excited and its intrinsic damping property will act to stop the vibration. The particle impact damper (PID is a very interesting damper that affects impact and friction effects of particles by means of energy dissipation. PID is a means for achieving high structural damping by using a particle-filled enclosure attached to a structure. The particles absorb the kinetic energy of the structure and convert it into heat through inelastic collisions between the particles themselves and between the particles and the walls of the enclosure. In this work, PID is measured for a cantilever mild steel beam with an enclosure attached to its free end; copper particles are used in this study. The PID is found to be highly nonlinear. The most useful observation is that for a very small weight penalty (about 7% to 8 %, the maximum damped amplitude of vibration at resonance with a PID, is about 9 to 10 times smaller than that without a PID. It is for more than that of with only intrinsic material damping of a majority of structural metals. A satisfactory comparison of damping with and without particles through experimentation is observed. The effect of the size of the particles on the damping performance of the beam and the effective packing ratio can be identified. It is also shown that as the packing ratio changes, the contributions of the phenomena of impact and friction towards damping also change. It is encouraging that despite its deceptive simplicity, the model captures the essential physics of PID.

  3. Estimate of the effect of micro-vibration on the performance of the Algerian satellite (Alsat-1B) imager (United States)

    Serief, Chahira


    Alsat-1B, launched into a 670 km sun-synchronous orbit on board the PSLV launch vehicle from the Sriharikota launch site in India on 26 September 2016, is a medium resolution Earth Observation satellite with a mass of 100 kg. Alsat-1B will be used for agricultural and resource monitoring, disaster management, land use mapping and urban planning. It is based on the SSTL-100 platform, and flies a 24 m multispectral imager and a 12 m panchromatic imager delivering images with a swath width of 140 km. One of the main factors affecting the performance of satellite-borne optical imaging systems is micro-vibration. Micro-vibration is a low level mechanical disturbance inevitably generated from moving parts on a satellite and exceptionally difficult to be controlled by the attitude and orbital control system (AOCS) of a spacecraft. Micro-vibration usually causes problems for optical imaging systems onboard Earth Observation satellites. The major effect of micro-vibration is the excitation of the support structures for the optical elements during imaging operations which can result in severe degradation of image quality by smearing and distortion. Quantitative characterization of image degradation caused by micro-vibration is thus quite useful and important as part of system level analysis which can help preventing micro-vibration influence by proper design and restoring the degraded image. The aim of this work is to provide quantitative estimates of the effect of micro-vibration on the performance of Alsat-1B imager, which may be experienced operationally, in terms of the modulation transfer function (MTF) and based on ground micro-vibration tests results.

  4. Effect of whole body vibration exercise on muscle strength and proprioception in females with knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trans, T; Aaboe, J; Henriksen, M


    groups trained twice a week for 8 weeks, with a progressively increasing intensity. The WBV groups performed unloaded static WBV exercise. The following were measured: knee muscle strength (extension/flexion) and proprioception (threshold for detection of passive movement (TDPM)). Self-reported disease......The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise on muscle strength and proprioception in female patients with osteoarthritis in the knee (knee-OA). A single blinded, randomised, controlled trial was performed in an outpatient clinic on 52 female patients...... status was measured using WOMAC. It was found that muscle strength increased significantly (p

  5. Whole-Body Vibration Training Effect on Physical Performance and Obesity in Mice


    Huang, Chi-Chang; Tseng, Tzu-Ling; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chung, Yi-Hsiu; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Wu, Jyh-Horng


    The purpose of this study was to verify the beneficial effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) training on exercise performance, physical fatigue and obesity in mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into two groups: normal group (n=6), fed standard diet (control), and experimental group (n=18), fed a HFD. After 4-week induction, followed by 6-week WBV of 5 days per week, the 18 obese mice were divided into 3 groups (n=6 per group): HFD with ...

  6. The vibration of a layered rotating planet and Bryan’s effect

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shatalov, MY


    Full Text Available to distinguish between spheroidal and torsional modes. For the spheroidal mode we assume that ?i = 0. In this case the stress components of the 413The Vibration of a Layered Rotating Planet and Bryan?s Effect 10 Will-be-set-by-IN-TECH solids are ?i,rr = [ 2...?. For the investigation of the torsional modes we assume that ?i = 0 and ?i = 0 and hence the corresponding stress components are ?i,r? = ?i a sin ? ? ?? ( ??i ?r ? ?i r ) , (53a) ?i,r? = ? ?i a ? ?? ( ??i ?r ? ?i r ) . (53b) Let us model a...

  7. Vibration Effects of Nonclassically Damped Building-Piping Systems Subjected to Extreme Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YongHee Ryu


    Full Text Available Piping leakage can occur at T-joint, elbows, valves, or nozzles in nuclear power plants and nonnuclear power plants such as petrochemical plants when subjected to extreme loads and such leakage of piping systems can also lead to fire or explosion. For example, leakage of sodium, toxic gases, or nitrogen in hospitals can cause man-made hazards. The primary objective of this research is to understand the vibration effects due to classical/nonclassical damping with building-piping systems under extreme loads. The current evaluation employed finite-element analysis to calculate the effects of the responses of classically and nonclassically damped building-piping systems. Classical and nonclassical damping matrices for a coupled primary-secondary system were developed based on the Rayleigh equation. A total of 10 selected ground motions were applied to single degree of freedom (SDOF primary-SDOF secondary (2-DOF coupled systems in which the ratios of the natural frequencies between the primary and secondary systems ranged between 0.9 and 1.1. It revealed that the vibration effect of nonclassical damping was significant where the natural frequencies of the two systems were nearly tuned. For piping-material nonlinearity, the effects of nonclassical damping on the result forces of piping systems were not significantly different from those of classical damping.

  8. Nonequilibrium Dynamical Mean-Field Theory for Bosonic Lattice Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo U. R. Strand


    Full Text Available We develop the nonequilibrium extension of bosonic dynamical mean-field theory and a Nambu real-time strong-coupling perturbative impurity solver. In contrast to Gutzwiller mean-field theory and strong-coupling perturbative approaches, nonequilibrium bosonic dynamical mean-field theory captures not only dynamical transitions but also damping and thermalization effects at finite temperature. We apply the formalism to quenches in the Bose-Hubbard model, starting from both the normal and the Bose-condensed phases. Depending on the parameter regime, one observes qualitatively different dynamical properties, such as rapid thermalization, trapping in metastable superfluid or normal states, as well as long-lived or strongly damped amplitude oscillations. We summarize our results in nonequilibrium “phase diagrams” that map out the different dynamical regimes.

  9. Free energy for non-equilibrium quasi-stationary states (United States)

    Allahverdyan, A. E.; Martirosyan, N. H.


    We study a class of non-equilibrium quasi-stationary states for a Markov system interacting with two different thermal baths. We show that the work done under a slow, external change of parameters admits a potential, i.e., the free energy. Three conditions are needed for the existence of free energy in this non-equilibrium system: time-scale separation between variables of the system, partial controllability (external fields couple only with the slow variable), and an effective detailed balance. These conditions are facilitated in the continuous limit for the slow variable. In contrast to its equilibrium counterpart, the non-equilibrium free energy can increase with temperature. One example of this is that entropy reduction by means of external fields (cooling) can be easier (in the sense of the work cost) if it starts from a higher temperature.

  10. Evaluation of the effectiveness of elastomeric mount using vibration power flow and transmissibility methods (United States)

    Arib Rejab, M. N.; Shukor, S. A. Abdul; Sofian, M. R. Mohd; Inayat-Hussain, J. I.; Nazirah, A.; Asyraf, I.


    This paper presents the results of an experimental work to determine the dynamic stiffness and loss factor of elastomeric mounts. It also presents the results of theoretical analysis to determine the transmissibility and vibration power flow of these mounts, which are associated with their contribution to structure-borne noise. Four types of elastomeric mounts were considered, where three of them were made from green natural rubber material (SMR CV60, Ekoprena and Pureprena) and one made from petroleum based synthetic rubber (EPDM). In order to determine the dynamic stiffness and loss factor of these elastomeric mounts, dynamic tests were conducted using MTS 830 Elastomer Test System. Dynamic stiffness and loss factor of these mounts were measured for a range of frequency between 5 Hz and 150 Hz, and with a dynamic amplitude of 0.2 mm (p-p). The transmissibility and vibration power flow were determined based on a simple 2-Degree-of-Freedom model representing a vibration isolation system with a flexible receiver. This model reprsents the three main parts of a vehicle, which are the powertrain and engine mounting, the flexible structure and the floor of the vehicle. The results revealed that synthetic rubber (EPDM) was only effective at high frequency region. Natural rubber (Ekoprena), on the other hand, was found to be effective at both low and high frequency regions due to its low transmissibility at resonant frequency and its ability to damp the resonance. The estimated structure-borne noise emission showed that Ekoprena has a lower contribution to structure-borne noise as compared to the other types of elastomeric mounts.

  11. Carbon vaporization into a nonequilibrium, stagnation-point boundary layer (United States)

    Suzuki, T.


    The heat transfer to the stagnation point of an ablating carbonaceous heat shield, where both the gas-phase boundary layer and the heterogeneous surface reactions are not in chemical equilibrium, is examined. Specifically, the nonequilibrium changes in the mass fraction profiles of carbon species calculated for frozen flow are studied. A set of equations describing the steady-state, nonequilibrium laminar boundary layer in the axisymmetric stagnation region, over an ablating graphite surface, is solved, with allowance for the effects of finite rate of carbon vaporization.

  12. Generalization of the second law for a nonequilibrium initial state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, H.-H., E-mail: [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Ibaraki University, Bunkyo, Mito 310-8512 (Japan); Ishikawa, J.; Takara, K. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Ibaraki University, Bunkyo, Mito 310-8512 (Japan); Driebe, D.J. [Division of Math, Science and Technology, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33314 (United States)


    We generalize the second law of thermodynamics in its maximum work formulation for a nonequilibrium initial distribution. It is found that in an isothermal process, the Boltzmann relative entropy (H-function) is not just a Lyapunov function but also tells us the maximum work that may be gained from a nonequilibrium initial state. The generalized second law also gives a fundamental relation between work and information. It is valid even for a small Hamiltonian system not in contact with a heat reservoir but with an effective temperature determined by the isentropic condition. Our relation can be tested in the Szilard engine, which will be realized in the laboratory.

  13. Non-equilibrium critical behavior of thin Ising films (United States)

    Medvedeva, Maria A.; Prudnikov, Pavel V.; Elin, Alexey S.


    In this paper we study the non-equilibrium properties of Ising ferromagnetic films using Monte Carlo simulations by short-time dynamic method. We have found thickness dependency of critical exponents z, θ ‧ and β / ν . Ageing effects were observed in non-equilibrium critical behavior. Former was carried out both from high-temperature and low-temperature initial states. A characteristic time of relaxation, which diverges at a transition temperature in the thermodynamic limit, is obtained as a function of the system size and waiting time.

  14. The effect of track load correlation on ground-borne vibration from railways (United States)

    Ntotsios, Evangelos; Thompson, David; Hussein, Mohammed


    In predictions of ground-borne vibration from railways, it is generally assumed that the unevenness profile of the wheel and rail is fully correlated between the two rails and the two wheels of an axle. This leads to identical contact forces at the two rails and can allow further simplifications of the vehicle model, the track model and the track/ground interface conditions. In the present paper, the level of correlation of the track loading at the wheel/rail interface due to rail unevenness and its influence on predictions of ground vibration is investigated. The extent to which the unevenness of the two rails is correlated has been estimated from measurements of track geometry obtained with track recording vehicles for four different tracks. It was found that for wavelengths longer than about 3 m the unevenness of the two rails can be considered to be strongly correlated and in phase. To investigate the effect of this on ground vibration, an existing model expressed in the wavenumber-frequency domain is extended to include separate inputs on the two rails. The track is modelled as an infinite invariant linear structure resting on an elastic stratified half-space. This is excited by the gravitational loading of a passing train and the irregularity of the contact surfaces between the wheels and the rails. The railway model is developed in this work to be versatile so that it can account or discard the effect of load correlations on the two rails beside the effects of variation of the tractions across the width of the track-ground interface and the vehicle sprung mass, as well as the roll motion of the sleepers and the axle. A comparative analysis is carried out on the influence of these factors on the response predictions using numerical simulations. It is shown that, when determining the vibration in the free field, it is important to include in the model the traction variation across the track-ground interface and the non-symmetrical loading at the two rails that

  15. Investigating the engine vibration in MF285 tractor effected by different blends of biodiesel fuel using statistical methods and ANFIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Safrangian


    Full Text Available Introduction Vibrations include a wide range of engineering sciences and discuss from different aspects. One of the aspects is related to various types of engines vibrations, which are often used as power sources in agriculture. The created vibrations can cause lack of comfort and reduce effective work and have bad influence on the health and safety. One of the important parameters of the diesel engine that has the ability to create vibration and knocking is the type of fuel. In this study, the effects of different blends of biodiesel, bioethanol and diesel on the engine vibration were investigated. As a result, a blend of fuels such as synthetic fuel that creates less vibration engine can be identified and introduced. Materials and Methods In this study, canola oil and methanol alcohol with purity of 99.99% and the molar ratio of 6:1 and sodium hydroxide catalyst with 1% by weight of oil were used for biodiesel production. Reactor configurations include: maintaining the temperature at 50 ° C, the reaction time of 5 minutes and the intensity of mixing (8000 rpm, and pump flow, 0.83 liters per minute. A Massey Ferguson (MF 285 tractor with single differential (2WD, built in 2012 at Tractor factory of Iran was used for the experiment. To measure the engine vibration signals, an oscillator with model of VM120 British MONITRAN was used. Vibration signals were measured at three levels of engine speed (2000, 1600, 1000 rpm in three directions (X, Y, Z. The analysis performed by two methods in this study: statistical data analysis and data analysis using Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS. Statistical analysis of data: a factorial experiment of 10×3 based on completely randomized design with three replications was used in each direction of X, Y and Z that conducted separately. Data were compiled and analyzed by SPSS 19 software. Ten levels of fuel were including of biodiesel (5, 15 and 25% and bioethanol (2, 4 and 6%, and diesel fuel. Data

  16. Nonequilibrium fermion production in quantum field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruschke, Jens


    The creation of matter in the early universe or in relativistic heavy-ion collisions is inevitable connected to nonequilibrium physics. One of the key challenges is the explanation of the corresponding thermalization process following nonequilibrium instabilities. The role of fermionic quantum fields in such scenarios is discussed in the literature by using approximations of field theories which neglect important quantum corrections. This thesis goes beyond such approximations. A quantum field theory where scalar bosons interact with Dirac fermions via a Yukawa coupling is analyzed in the 2PI effective action formalism. The chosen approximation allows for a correct description of the dynamics including nonequilibrium instabilities. In particular, fermion-boson loop corrections allow to study the interaction of fermions with large boson fluctuations. The applied initial conditions generate nonequilibrium instabilities like parametric resonance or spinodal instabilities. The equations of motion for correlation functions are solved numerically and major characteristics of the fermion dynamics are described by analytical solutions. New mechanisms for the production of fermions are found. Simulations in the case of spinodal instability show that unstable boson fluctuations induce exponentially growing fermion modes with approximately the same growth rate. If the unstable regime lasts long enough a thermalization of the infrared part of the fermion occupation number occurs on time scales much shorter than the time scale on which bosonic quantum fields thermalize. Fermions acquire an excess of occupation in the ultraviolet regime compared to a Fermi-Dirac statistic characterized by a power-law with exponent two. The fermion production mechanism via parametric resonance is found to be most efficient after the instability ends. Quantum corrections then provide a very efficient particle creation mechanism which is interpreted as an amplification of decay processes. The ratio

  17. Nonequilibrium superconductivity for particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, K.E.


    A considerable amount of attention has been devoted to nonequilibrium superconductivity over the last 10 to 15 years. A fairly complete and quantatitive understanding of the experimental and theoretical aspects of the subject has emerged. In this paper aspects of nonequilibrium superconductivity which are relevant to a majority of particle detector applications will be reviewed, and new calculations, more specific to actual detector applications, will be presented. The primary focus is on ionizing particles for which the characteristic energy is greater than typical superconducting energy gap values,, of about 1 MeV. Thus microwave and far-infrared detection is excluded, although many of the results and consequences may also apply in those cases. 36 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics ensemble method

    CERN Document Server

    Eu, Byung Chan


    In this monograph, nonequilibrium statistical mechanics is developed by means of ensemble methods on the basis of the Boltzmann equation, the generic Boltzmann equations for classical and quantum dilute gases, and a generalised Boltzmann equation for dense simple fluids The theories are developed in forms parallel with the equilibrium Gibbs ensemble theory in a way fully consistent with the laws of thermodynamics The generalised hydrodynamics equations are the integral part of the theory and describe the evolution of macroscopic processes in accordance with the laws of thermodynamics of systems far removed from equilibrium Audience This book will be of interest to researchers in the fields of statistical mechanics, condensed matter physics, gas dynamics, fluid dynamics, rheology, irreversible thermodynamics and nonequilibrium phenomena

  19. Thermodynamic Measure for Nonequilibrium Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Grandpierre


    Full Text Available One of the most fundamental laws of Nature is formulated by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. At present, in its usual formulation the central concept is entropy characterized in terms of equilibrium state variables. We point out that because thermodynamic changes arise when systems are out of equilibrium and because entropy is not a natural state variable characterizing non-equilibrium states, a new formulation of the Second Law is required. In this paper, we introduce a new, more general, but still entropic measure that is suitable in non-equilibrium conditions as well. This new entropic measure has given a name extropy. The introduction of extropy allows us to formulate the Second Law in a more suitable and precise form, and it resolves some conceptual difficulties related to the interpretation of entropy. We point out that extropy has a fundamental significance in physics, in biology, and in our scientific worldview.

  20. The Effect of Acute Vibration Exercise on Short-Distance Sprinting and Reactive Agility (United States)

    Cochrane, Darryl J.


    Vibration exercise (VbX) has been a popular modality to enhancing physical performance, where various training methods and techniques have been employed to improve immediate and long-term sprint performance. However, the use of acute side-alternating VbX on sprint and agility performance remains unclear. Eight female athletes preformed side-alternating vibration exercise (VbX) and control (no VbX) in a cross over randomised design that was conducted one week apart. After performing a warm-up, the athletes undertook maximal 5m sprints and maximal reactive agility sprints (RAT), this was followed by side-alternating VbX (26 Hz, 6mm) or control (no VbX). Immediately following the intervention, post-sprint tests and RAT were performed. There was a significant treatment effect but there was no time effect (pre vs. post) or interaction effect for sprint and RAT; however, side-alternating VbX did not compromise sprint and agility performance. Key Points Acute VbX could be beneficial for the acceleration phase (1.5m) of a short-distance sprint. Acute VbX does not have positive influence on short-distance (3m & 5m) sprint performance. Acute VbX does not enhance reactive agility performance. PMID:24149157

  1. Nonlinear Vibrational Analysis of Nanobeams Embedded in an Elastic Medium including Surface Stress Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Azizi


    Full Text Available Due to size-dependent behavior of nanostructures, the classical continuum models are not applicable for the analyses at this submicron size. Surface stress effect is one of the most important matters which make the nanoscale structures have different properties compared to the conventional structures due to high surface to volume ratio. In the present study, nonlinear free vibrational characteristics of embedded nanobeams are investigated including surface stress effects. To this end, a thin surface layer is assumed on the upper and lower surfaces of the cross section to separate the surface and bulk of nanobeams with their own different material properties. Based on harmonic balance method, closed-form analytical solution is conducted for nonlinear vibrations to obtain natural frequencies of embedded nanobeams with and without considerations of surface elasticity and residual surface tension effects corresponding to the various values of nondimensional amplitude, elastic foundation modulus, and geometrical variables of the system. Selected numerical results are given to indicate the influence of each one in detail.

  2. Interlayer shear effect on vibrational behavior of bilayer graphene using the molecular mechanics simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Mirparizi


    Full Text Available In this article, the interlayer shear effects on vibrational behavior of bilayer graphene (BG are studied by using the molecular mechanics (MM simulation. Investigation on mechanical behavior of graphenes has recently attracted because of their excellent properties. MM simulation is exploited for modeling of covalent bond in the plane of graphene layers and they are modeled as space-frame structures. The interaction between two layers is modeled by Lennard–Jones potential for not only two apposite atoms but also for all adjacent atoms. The frequencies and mode shapes for cantilever and bridged bilayer graphene as well as monolayer graphene (MG are obtained by a finite element approach. Results show that the interlayer shear interaction has considerable effect on vibrational behavior of BG and increases the natural frequencies, because existence of horizontal forces (shear forces that prevent the lateral displacements. It can be seen that the interaction between two layers are more considerable in second mode because the curvature and variation of displacement are higher in second mode. Also it can be found that changing of mode shapes has considerable effect on shear interaction.

  3. Non-Equilibrium Quantum Dissipation


    Segal, Dvira; Reichman, David R.; Millis, Andrew J.


    Dissipative processes in non-equilibrium many-body systems are fundamentally different than their equilibrium counterparts. Such processes are of great importance for the understanding of relaxation in single molecule devices. As a detailed case study, we investigate here a generic spin-fermion model, where a two-level system couples to two metallic leads with different chemical potentials. We present results for the spin relaxation rate in the nonadiabatic limit for an arbitrary coupling to ...

  4. Computer simulation of nonequilibrium processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, D.C.


    The underlying concepts of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, and of irreversible thermodynamics, will be described. The question at hand is then, how are these concepts to be realize in computer simulations of many-particle systems. The answer will be given for dissipative deformation processes in solids, on three hierarchical levels: heterogeneous plastic flow, dislocation dynamics, an molecular dynamics. Aplication to the shock process will be discussed.

  5. Effect of whole body vibration on lactate level recovery and heart rate recovery in rest after intense exercise. (United States)

    Kang, Seung Rok; Min, Jin-Young; Yu, Changho; Kwon, Tae-Kyu


    In this paper, we investigated the recovery of the lactate level, muscular fatigue, and heart rate recovery (HRR) with respect to whole body vibration (WBV) during the rest stage after a gait exercise. A total of 24 healthy subjects with no medical history of exercise injury participated. The participants were divided into a training group with vibration during rest and a control group with the same conditions but without vibration. The subjects performed a gait exercise with a slope of 15% and velocity of 4 km/h to consume 450 kcal in 30 min. Then, they rested on a vibrating chair or on a chair without vibrations for 30 min. The vibration protocol consists of a frequency of 10 Hz and amplitude of 5 mm. To estimate the recovery effect, we measured the lactate levels in blood, spectral edge frequency (SEF) of MVIC, and HRR before, immediately after exercise, and after rest. The results showed that the lactate level in the training group decreased more (93.8%) than in the control group (32.8%). Also, HRR showed a similar trend with a recovery of 88.39% in the training group but 64.72% in the control group. We considered that whole-body vibrations during rest would help remove lactic acid by improving the level of lactic acid oxidation with stimulated blood vessels in the muscles and by helping to maintain blood flow. Also, WBV would lead to compensation to actively decrease the fast excess post-exercise oxygen consumption from blood circulation. We suggest that whole-body vibrations during rest can provide fast, efficient fatigue recovery as a cool down exercise for women, the elderly, and patients without other activity after intense exercise.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao-Hung Chung


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether performing Tai Chi Chuan on a customized vibration platform could enhance balance control and lower extremity muscle power more efficiently than Tai Chi Chuan alone in an untrained young population. Forty-eight healthy young adults were randomly assigned to the following three groups: a Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training group (TCV, a Tai Chi Chuan group (TCC or a control group. The TCV group underwent 30 minutes of a reformed Tai Chi Chuan program on a customized vibration platform (32 Hz, 1 mm three times a week for eight weeks, whereas the TCC group was trained without vibration stimuli. A force platform was used to measure the moving area of a static single leg stance and the heights of two consecutive countermovement jumps. The activation of the knee extensor and flexor was also measured synchronously by surface electromyography in all tests. The results showed that the moving area in the TCV group was significantly decreased by 15.3%. The second jump height in the TCV group was significantly increased by 8.14%, and the activation of the knee extensor/flexor was significantly decreased in the first jump. In conclusion, Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training can more efficiently improve balance control, and the positive training effect on the lower extremity muscle power induced by vibration stimuli still remains significant because there is no cross-interaction between the two different types of training methods.

  7. Effects of tension on vortex-induced vibration (VIV) responses of a long tensioned cylinder in uniform flows (United States)

    Kang, Ling; Ge, Fei; Wu, Xiaodong; Hong, Youshi


    The effects of tension on vortex-induced vibration (VIV) responses for a tension-dominated long cylinder with an aspect ratio of 550 in uniform flows are experimentally investigated in this paper. The results show that elevated tension suppresses fluctuations of maximum displacement with respect to flow velocity and makes chaotic VIV more likely to appear. With respect to periodic VIV, if elevated tension is applied, the dominant vibration frequency in the in-line (IL) direction will switch from a fundamental vibration frequency to twice the value of the fundamental vibration frequency, which results in a ratio of the dominant vibration frequency in the IL direction to that in the cross-flow direction of 2.0. The suppression of the elevated tension in the fluctuation of the maximum displacement causes the axial tension to become an active control parameter for the VIV maximum displacement of a tension-dominated long riser or tether of an engineering structure in deep oceans. However, the axial tension must be optimized before being used since the high dominant vibration frequency due to the elevated tension may unfavorably affect the fatigue life of the riser or tether.

  8. Study of vibration and its effect on health of the motorcycle rider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivakumara BS


    Full Text Available The motorcycle riders are subjected to extreme vibrations due to the vibrations of its engine, improper structural design of the motorcycle and the bad road conditions. The literature review reveals that the vibrations are most hazardous to the health if it exceeds the limit. The experiments were conducted to measure the magnitude of the vibrations acting on the rider during motorcycle riding under various road conditions. Experimental values of accelerations and frequencies which are beyond permissible limits according to the literature confirm that vibration certainly affects health of the motorcycle rider

  9. Balance, gait and quality of life in Parkinson's disease: Effects of whole body vibration treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmylla Teixeira Soares

    Full Text Available Introduction Parkinson's disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disorder, which triggers limitations and disability in people. Therefore, rehabilitation therapy is widely recommended in patients with PD, especially those who do not respond to pharmacological treatment.Objective Evaluate the effect of a protocol of Whole-body Vibration (WBV in balance, gait and Quality of Life (QOL of patients with PD, who do not respond to pharmacological treatment.Methods It was performed 12 sessions of a protocol WBV (squat, plantar flexion, isometric contraction of members and single-leg balance, with three sets each, at a vibrating platform (2mm and 35Hz in 10 PD patients. By the first 3 sessions, patients underwent 20 seconds of exercise and 20 seconds of rest. After the third session, the treatment was 40 seconds of exercise and 20 seconds of rest. The Tinetti Test was applied before and after treatment to assess balance and gait, and the Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life-questionnaire (PDQL-BR, to evaluate the PDQL-BR and its subcategories: Parkinson, Systemic, Social and Emotional.Results Treatment did not significantly change the balance (p = 0.438, QOL issue in Emotional (p = 0.450 and Social (p = 0.171, but improved gait (p = 0.003, the Tinetti (p ≤ 0.001, the quality of life in items Parkinson (p ≤ 0.001, Systemic (p ≤ 0.001 and PDQL-BR (p ≤ 0.001.Conclusions WBV exercises on the vibrating platform, according to the parameters used, showed promising results that encourage its use to improve the clinical conditions related to disorders of gait, balance and QOL in patients with PD.

  10. The Effects of Vibrations Experienced during Road vs. Off-road Cycling. (United States)

    Macdermid, P W; Fink, P W; Stannard, S R


    The purpose of this investigation was to compare the effects of vibrations experienced during off-road and road cycling. It was hypothesised that additional damping will be expressed through a greater work demand and increased physiological markers when travelling at the same speed over an identical terrain profile. Participants ascended a tar-sealed road climb and a single-track off-road climb at a predetermined speed. Time, speed, power, cadence, heart rate and V̇ O2 were sampled and logged every second while tri-axial accelerometers recorded accelerations (128 Hz) to quantify vibrations experienced. Statistical analysis indicated accelerations to be greater during the off-road condition (p<0.0001) with post-hoc analysis exposing differences (p<0.001) for handlebar, arm, leg and seat post but not the lower back or head. The increased accelerations during off-road riding are associated with the increased vibrations and rolling resistance experienced. This led to increases in the work done (road: 280±69 vs. off-road: 312±74 W, p=0.0003) and, consequentially, a significant increase in the physiological markers V̇ O2 (road: 48.5±7.5 off-road 51.4±7.3 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), p=0.0033) and heart rate (road: 161±10 off-road 170±10 bpm, p=0.0001) during the off-road condition. Such physiological differences and their causes are important to understand in order to provide suitable training recommendations or technological interventions for improving competitive performance or recreational enjoyment. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgos Paradisis


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 6 wk of whole body vibration (WBV training on sprint running kinematics and explosive strength performance. Twenty-four volunteers (12 women and 12 men participated in the study and were randomised (n = 12 into the experimental and control groups. The WBV group performed a 6-wk program (16-30 min·d-1, 3 times a week on a vibration platform. The amplitude of the vibration platform was 2.5 mm and the acceleration was 2.28 g. The control group did not participate in any training. Tests were performed Pre and post the training period. Sprint running performance was measured during a 60 m sprint where running time, running speed, step length and step rate were calculated. Explosive strength performance was measured during a counter movement jump (CMJ test, where jump height and total number of jumps performed in a period of 30 s (30CVJT. Performance in 10 m, 20 m, 40 m, 50 m and 60 m improved significantly after 6 wk of WBV training with an overall improvement of 2.7%. The step length and running speed improved by 5.1% and 3.6%, and the step rate decreased by 3.4%. The countermovement jump height increased by 3.3%, and the explosive strength endurance improved overall by 7.8%. The WBV training period of 6 wk produced significant changes in sprint running kinematics and explosive strength performance

  12. Unusual motions due to nonlinear effects in a driven vibrating string (United States)

    Hanson, Roger J.


    Usual nonlinear effects observed in a sinusoidally driven vibrating string include generation of motion perpendicular to the driving plane, sudden jumps of amplitude and associated hysteresis, and generation of higher harmonics. In addition, under some conditions, there can be a rich variety of unusual, very complex motions of a point on the string, the pattern of which, together with associated harmonic (and sometimes subharmonic) content, can change dramatically with a slight change in driving frequency or sometimes with constant driving frequency and force. Intrinsic string asymmetries can also have a profound effect on the behavior. In a brass harpsichord string (wire) such asymmetries can cause a small splitting of each natural frequency of free vibration into two closely spaced frequencies (relative separation ~0.2% to 2%, strongly dependent on tension.) The two frequency components are associated, respectively, with the transverse motion along two orthogonal characteristic wire axes. Emphasis will be on display of optically detected unusual motion patterns of a point on the string, including an example of a pattern period of 10 s when driving at 50 Hz. See R. J. Hanson et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117, 400-412 (2005) for a more complete treatment.

  13. Effects of functional group mass variance on vibrational properties and thermal transport in graphene (United States)

    Lindsay, L.; Kuang, Y.


    Intrinsic thermal resistivity critically depends on features of phonon dispersions dictated by harmonic interatomic forces and masses. Here we present the effects of functional group mass variance on vibrational properties and thermal conductivity (κ ) of functionalized graphene from first-principles calculations. We use graphane, a buckled graphene backbone with covalently bonded hydrogen atoms on both sides, as the base material and vary the mass of the hydrogen atoms to simulate the effect of mass variance from other functional groups. We find nonmonotonic behavior of κ with increasing mass of the functional group and an unusual crossover from acoustic-dominated to optic-dominated thermal transport behavior. We connect this crossover to changes in the phonon dispersion with varying mass which suppress acoustic phonon velocities, but also give unusually high velocity optic modes. Further, we show that out-of-plane acoustic vibrations contribute significantly more to thermal transport than in-plane acoustic modes despite breaking of a reflection-symmetry-based scattering selection rule responsible for their large contributions in graphene. This work demonstrates the potential for manipulation and engineering of thermal transport properties in two-dimensional materials toward targeted applications.

  14. Effects of asymmetric superior laryngeal nerve stimulation on glottic posture, acoustics, vibration. (United States)

    Chhetri, Dinesh K; Neubauer, Juergen; Bergeron, Jennifer L; Sofer, Elazar; Peng, Kevin A; Jamal, Nausheen


    Evaluate the effects of asymmetric superior laryngeal nerve stimulation on the vibratory phase, laryngeal posture, and acoustics. Basic science study using an in vivo canine model. The superior laryngeal nerves were symmetrically and asymmetrically stimulated over eight activation levels to mimic laryngeal asymmetries representing various levels of superior laryngeal nerve paresis and paralysis conditions. Glottal posture change, vocal fold speed, and vibration of these 64 distinct laryngeal-activation conditions were evaluated by high speed video and concurrent acoustic and aerodynamic recordings. Assessments were made at phonation onset. Vibratory phase was symmetric in all symmetric activation conditions, but consistent phase asymmetry toward the vocal fold with higher superior laryngeal-nerve activation was observed. Superior laryngeal nerve paresis and paralysis conditions had reduced vocal fold strain and fundamental frequency. Superior laryngeal nerve activation increased vocal fold closure speed, but this effect was more pronounced for the ipsilateral vocal fold. Increasing asymmetry led to aperiodic and chaotic vibration. This study directly links vocal-fold tension asymmetry with vibratory phase asymmetry, in particular the side with greater tension leads in the opening phase. The clinical observations of vocal fold lag, reduced vocal range, and aperiodic voice in superior laryngeal paresis and paralysis is also supported. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Molecular, vibrational and electronic structure of 4-bromo-2-halogenobenzaldehydes: Halogen and solvent effects (United States)

    Fernández, David; Parlak, Cemal; Bilge, Metin; Kaya, Mehmet Fatih; Tursun, Mahir; Keşan, Gürkan; Rhyman, Lydia; Ramasami, Ponnadurai; Şenyel, Mustafa


    The halogen and solvent effects on the structure of 4-bromo-2-halogenobenzaldehydes [C7H4BrXO; X = F (BFB), Cl (BCB) or Br (BBB)] were investigated by the density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) methods. The B3LYP functional and HF and MP2 levels of theory were used with the 6-311+G(3df,p) or aug-cc-pVDZ basis sets. Computations were focused on the cis and trans conformers of the investigated compounds in the gas phase and solutions of 18 different polar or non-polar organic solvents. The computed frequencies of the C=O stretching vibration of the compounds were correlated with some empirical solvent parameters such as the Kirkwood-Bauer-Magat (KBM) equation, solvent acceptor number (AN), Swain parameters and linear solvation energy relationships (LSERs). The electronic properties of the compounds were also examined. The present work explores the effects of the medium and halogen on the conformation, geometrical parameters, dipole moment, ν(C=O) vibration, UV data, frontier orbitals and density-of-states diagram of the compounds. The findings of this research can be useful for studies on benzaldehydes.

  16. Thermal Effects on Vibration and Control of Piezocomposite Kirchhoff Plate Modeled by Finite Elements Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sanbi


    Full Text Available Theoretical and numerical results of the modeling of a smart plate are presented for optimal active vibration control. The smart plate consists of a rectangular aluminum piezocomposite plate modeled in cantilever configuration with surface bonded thermopiezoelectric patches. The patches are symmetrically bonded on top and bottom surfaces. A generic thermopiezoelastic theory for piezocomposite plate is derived, using linear thermopiezoelastic theory and Kirchhoff assumptions. Finite element equations for the thermopiezoelastic medium are obtained by using the linear constitutive equations in Hamilton’s principle together with the finite element approximations. The structure is modelled analytically and then numerically and the results of simulations are presented in order to visualize the states of their dynamics and the state of control. The optimal control LQG-Kalman filter is applied. By using this model, the study first gives the influences of the actuator/sensor pair placement and size on the response of the smart plate. Second, the effects of thermoelastic and pyroelectric couplings on the dynamics of the structure and on the control procedure are studied and discussed. It is shown that the effectiveness of the control is not affected by the applied thermal gradient and can be applied with or without this gradient at any time of plate vibrations.

  17. Effects of music in combination with vibration in acupuncture points on the treatment of fibromyalgia. (United States)

    Weber, Augusto; Werneck, Lineu; Paiva, Eduardo; Gans, Paulo


    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a disease that causes widespread pain and increased sensitivity to pain because of a dysfunction in the central nervous system. This study investigated the effect of music combined with vibration on acupuncture points for the treatment of FM. A total of 120 patients with FM were allocated randomly to four groups (30 patients each). One group listened to a sequence of Bach's compositions. The second group was subjected to vibratory stimuli on a combination of acupuncture points on the skin. The third group (complete) underwent both procedures in a simultaneous and synchronized manner, with inclusion of binaural beats. The fourth group (control) received no stimulation. The participants underwent the experimental procedure during five sessions performed on alternate days. They were assessed by the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) before the first session and after the last session (20 days). All groups showed a significant improvement in FIQ and HAQ scores at the evaluation after the intervention. The complete group exhibited the best result on both the FIQ and HAQ (peffect in FM may be substantial. However, comparison between groups revealed that the complete group had the greatest reduction in both FIQ and HAQ, with a significant improvement in HAQ, suggesting that the combined use of music and vibration exerts a greater effect on FM symptoms.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Kiselev


    Full Text Available An experimental instrument complex which includes hardware for performing complex procedures using electrical shock massager frictional action was performed. The aim of the study was to influence the additional vibration effect on the efficiency of the procedure of electrostimulation.In order to increase the efficiency of the procedure electrostimulation authors proposed to carry it out with using of massager shock-friction action. The changes of muscular indicator on different stimulation treatments was shown after a series of seven treatments .Results of the processing of the experimental data and its subsequent analysis found that the use of the vibration exposure is accompanied by increase of load parameters in untrained volunteers. The increase in contact area due to decrease in the distance between the nozzle and the axis of rotation of the tumbler body surface, increases the electrical efficiency of the procedure.On the basis of a generalized analysis of data reflecting the effect of inappropriate electrical stimulation, it was established that, in order to achieve the best results, oscillatory systems providing shock-friction mode of its interaction with the skin surface, in particular a shock-frictional massager, were used.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppola, C. M.; Longo, S. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70126 Bari (Italy); D' Introno, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Bari, Via Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Galli, D. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Tennyson, J., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)


    Energy exchange processes play a crucial role in the early universe, affecting the thermal balance and the dynamical evolution of the primordial gas. In the present work we focus on the consequences of a non-thermal distribution of the level populations of H{sub 2}: first, we determine the excitation temperatures of vibrational transitions and the non-equilibrium heat transfer; second, we compare the modifications to chemical reaction rate coefficients with respect to the values obtained assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium; and third, we compute the spectral distortions to the cosmic background radiation generated by the formation of H{sub 2} in vibrationally excited levels. We conclude that non-equilibrium processes cannot be ignored in cosmological simulations of the evolution of baryons, although their observational signatures remain below current limits of detection. New fits to the equilibrium and non-equilibrium heat transfer functions are provided.

  20. Relaxation dynamics in quantum dissipative systems: The microscopic effect of intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga-Piña, L. [Facultad de Física, Universidad de la Habana, San Lázaro y L, Vedado, 10400 Havana (Cuba); Institute for Chemistry and Biochemistry, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustr. 3, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Tremblay, J. C., E-mail: [Institute for Chemistry and Biochemistry, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustr. 3, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)


    We investigate the effect of inter-mode coupling on the vibrational relaxation dynamics of molecules in weak dissipative environments. The simulations are performed within the reduced density matrix formalism in the Markovian regime, assuming a Lindblad form for the system-bath interaction. The prototypical two-dimensional model system representing two CO molecules approaching a Cu(100) surface is adapted from an ab initio potential, while the diatom-diatom vibrational coupling strength is systematically varied. In the weak system-bath coupling limit and at low temperatures, only first order non-adiabatic uni-modal coupling terms contribute to surface-mediated vibrational relaxation. Since dissipative dynamics is non-unitary, the choice of representation will affect the evolution of the reduced density matrix. Two alternative representations for computing the relaxation rates and the associated operators are thus compared: the fully coupled spectral basis, and a factorizable ansatz. The former is well-established and serves as a benchmark for the solution of Liouville-von Neumann equation. In the latter, a contracted grid basis of potential-optimized discrete variable representation is tailored to incorporate most of the inter-mode coupling, while the Lindblad operators are represented as tensor products of one-dimensional operators, for consistency. This procedure results in a marked reduction of the grid size and in a much more advantageous scaling of the computational cost with respect to the increase of the dimensionality of the system. The factorizable method is found to provide an accurate description of the dissipative quantum dynamics of the model system, specifically of the time evolution of the state populations and of the probability density distribution of the molecular wave packet. The influence of intra-molecular vibrational energy redistribution appears to be properly taken into account by the new model on the whole range of coupling strengths. It

  1. Nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckstein, Martin


    The aim of this thesis is the investigation of strongly interacting quantum many-particle systems in nonequilibrium by means of the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). An efficient numerical implementation of the nonequilibrium DMFT equations within the Keldysh formalism is provided, as well a discussion of several approaches to solve effective single-site problem to which lattice models such as the Hubbard-model are mapped within DMFT. DMFT is then used to study the relaxation of the thermodynamic state after a sudden increase of the interaction parameter in two different models: the Hubbard model and the Falicov-Kimball model. In the latter case an exact solution can be given, which shows that the state does not even thermalize after infinite waiting times. For a slow change of the interaction, a transition to adiabatic behavior is found. The Hubbard model, on the other hand, shows a very sensitive dependence of the relaxation on the interaction, which may be called a dynamical phase transition. Rapid thermalization only occurs at the interaction parameter which corresponds to this transition. (orig.)

  2. Effect of whole-body vibration exercise in preventing falls and fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Ditte Beck; Thomsen, Katja; Hansen, Stinus


    of retrieved publications. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Randomised controlled trials examining the effect of WBV on fracture risk in adults ≥50 years of age. The primary outcomes were fractures, fall rates and the proportion of participants who fell. Secondary outcomes were bone mineral density......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of whole-body vibration exercise (WBV) on fracture risk in adults ≥50 years of age. DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis calculating relative risk ratios, fall rate ratio and absolute weighted mean difference using random effects models. Heterogeneity...... (BMD), bone microarchitecture, bone turnover markers and calcaneal broadband attenuation (BUA). RESULTS: 15 papers (14 trials) met the inclusion criteria. Only one study had fracture data reporting a non-significant fracture reduction (risk ratio (RR)=0.47, 95% CI 0.14 to 1.57, P=0.22) (moderate...

  3. The effect of critically moving loads on the vibrations of soft soils and isolated railway tracks (United States)

    Auersch, L.


    The dynamic response of the railway track is strongly influenced by the underlying soil. For a soft soil and very high train speeds or for a very soft soil and regular train speeds, the train speed can be close to the speed of elastic waves in the soil. This paper presents a detailed study of the so-called "moving-load effect", i.e. an amplification of the dynamic response due to the load movement, for the tracks on soft soil. The analysis is carried out by evaluating the related integrals in the wavenumber domain. The influence of the load speed is quantified for a large set of parameters, showing that the effect on the soil vibration is reduced with increase of the frequency, track width and inverse wave velocity. Therefore, the moving-load effect associated with vibratory train loads is negligible whereas the amplification associated with the moving dead weight of the train can be significant. The strong moving-load effect on a perfectly homogeneous soil, however, can be strongly diminished by a layered or randomly varying soil situation. This theoretical result is affirmed by measurements at a test site in Germany where the trains run on a very soft soil at a near-critical speed. The results for soft soils are compared with experimental and theoretical results for a stiff soil. It is found that the influence of the stiffness of the soil is much stronger than the moving-load effect. This holds for the soil vibration as well as for the track vibration which both show a minor dependence on the load speed but a considerable dependence on the soil stiffness in theory and experiment. Railway tracks can include soft isolation elements such as rail pads, sleeper shoes and ballast mats. For these types of isolation elements and normal soil conditions, the influence of the load speed is usually negligible. There is only one isolation measure for which the moving load may be effective: a track which is constructed as a heavy mass-spring system. The resonance of this track

  4. Electronic Bottleneck and Coherent Vibrational Effect on Relaxation Dynamics of Photoexcited Ions in Crystals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alfano, R. R


    .... The nonequilibrium population of a local mode of 765 cm(sup -1) in Cr(sup 4+):Mg2SiO4 was found to build up during the transition through an electronic bottleneck and decay by interaction with a restricted number of phonon modes...

  5. Nonequilibrium volumetric response of shocked polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clements, B E [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Polymers are well known for their non-equilibrium deviatoric behavior. However, investigations involving both high rate shock experiments and equilibrium measured thermodynamic quantities remind us that the volumetric behavior also exhibits a non-equilibrium response. Experiments supporting the notion of a non-equilibrium volumetric behavior will be summarized. Following that discussion, a continuum-level theory is proposed that will account for both the equilibrium and non-equilibrium response. Upon finding agreement with experiment, the theory is used to study the relaxation of a shocked polymer back towards its shocked equilibrium state.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Marín


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of 2 days/week versus 4 days/week of Whole Body Vibration (WBV during eight weeks of WBV training on health-related quality of life (SF-36, balance and lower body strength, as well as short-term detraining (3 weeks on balance and lower body strength among older adults. Thirty-four older adults were randomly assigned to a control group (Control; n = 11 or to one of the vibration training groups: WBV 2 days/week (WBV_2d; n = 11 or WBV 4 days/week (WBV_4d; n = 12. The WBV groups exercised for 8 weeks, following 3 weeks of detraining. Lower body strength increased significantly (p < 0.05 for both groups, WBV_2d and WBV_4d, after 8-week training. A significant reduction in strength was observed following 3 weeks of detraining only in WBV_2d group (p < 0.05. All variables of the SF-36 and the balance test did not change after intervention in any group. 2 days/week and 4 days/week of WBV during 8 weeks showed the same improvements on muscle strength. 3 weeks of detraining did not reverse the gains in strength made during 32 sessions of WBV

  7. Whole Body Vibration at Different Exposure Frequencies: Infrared Thermography and Physiological Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Sonza


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of whole body vibration (WBV on physiological parameters, cutaneous temperature, tactile sensitivity, and balance. Twenty-four healthy adults (25.3±2.6 years participated in four WBV sessions. They spent 15 minutes on a vibration platform in the vertical mode at four different frequencies (31, 35, 40, and 44 Hz with 1 mm of amplitude. All variables were measured before and after WBV exposure. Pressure sensation in five anatomical regions and both feet was determined using Von Frey monofilaments. Postural sway was measured using a force plate. Cutaneous temperature was obtained with an infrared camera. WBV influences the discharge of the skin touch-pressure receptors, decreasing sensitivity at all measured frequencies and foot regions (P≤0.05. Regarding balance, no differences were found after 20 minutes of WBV at frequencies of 31 and 35 Hz. At 40 and 44 Hz, participants showed higher anterior-posterior center of pressure (COP velocity and length. The cutaneous temperature of the lower limbs decreased during and 10 minutes after WBV. WBV decreases touch-pressure sensitivity at all measured frequencies 10 min after exposure. This may be related to the impaired balance at higher frequencies since these variables have a role in maintaining postural stability. Vasoconstriction might explain the decreased lower limb temperature.

  8. Effect of groove on socket welds under the condition of vibration fatigue (United States)

    Xiu, Junjie; Jing, Hongyang; Han, Yongdian; Zhao, Lei; Xu, Lianyong


    Root failures of socket welds in small bore piping caused by vibration mainly occur at nuclear power plants (NPPs). It was observed that at higher stress level failures tended to originate at the toe while for the case of lower stress failures tended to occur at the root. The groove can increase the penetration depth (PD) of root, which is beneficial to the fatigue life. The effect of groove was also investigated by finite element method (FEM). The simulation results show that groove can decline the stress distribution, stress triaxiality and maximum principal plastic strain in the weld root, and the 5 mm groove suffering σmax (the highest stress of root failure) is almost same as no groove subjecting to σf (fatigue limit). The test results show that the socket weld with groove can increase the natural frequency and damping of specimen, which make the system more difficult to vibrate. Moreover, the groove can also improve the fatigue property of specimen which do not exist the root failure even under high cycle fatigue (HCF).

  9. Non-equilibrium plasma kinetics of reacting CO: an improved state to state approach (United States)

    Pietanza, L. D.; Colonna, G.; Capitelli, M.


    Non-equilibrium plasma kinetics of reacting CO for conditions typically met in microwave discharges have been developed based on the coupling of excited state kinetics and the Boltzmann equation for the electron energy distribution function (EEDF). Particular attention is given to the insertion in the vibrational kinetics of a complete set of electron molecule resonant processes linking the whole vibrational ladder of the CO molecule, as well as to the role of Boudouard reaction, i.e. the process of forming CO2 by two vibrationally excited CO molecules, in shaping the vibrational distribution of CO and promoting reaction channels assisted by vibrational excitation (pure vibrational mechanisms, PVM). PVM mechanisms can become competitive with electron impact dissociation processes (DEM) in the activation of CO. A case study reproducing the conditions of a microwave discharge has been considered following the coupled kinetics also in the post discharge conditions. Results include the evolution of EEDF in discharge and post discharge conditions highlighting the role of superelastic vibrational and electronic collisions in shaping the EEDF. Moreover, PVM rate coefficients and DEM ones are studied as a function of gas temperature, showing a non-Arrhenius behavior, i.e. the rate coefficients increase with decreasing gas temperature as a result of a vibrational–vibrational (V–V) pumping up mechanism able to form plateaux in the vibrational distribution function. The accuracy of the results is discussed in particular in connection to the present knowledge of the activation energy of the Boudouard process.

  10. Small and inconsistent effects of whole body vibration on athletic performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Hortobágyi, Tibor; Lesinski, Melanie; Fernandez-Del-Olmo, Miguel; Granacher, Urs


    We quantified the acute and chronic effects of whole body vibration on athletic performance or its proxy measures in competitive and/or elite athletes. Systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Whole body vibration combined with exercise had an overall 0.3 % acute effect on maximal voluntary leg force (-6.4 %, effect size = -0.43, 1 study), leg power (4.7 %, weighted mean effect size = 0.30, 6 studies), flexibility (4.6 %, effect size = -0.12 to 0.22, 2 studies), and athletic performance (-1.9 %, weighted mean effect size = 0.26, 6 studies) in 191 (103 male, 88 female) athletes representing eight sports (overall effect size = 0.28). Whole body vibration combined with exercise had an overall 10.2 % chronic effect on maximal voluntary leg force (14.6 %, weighted mean effect size = 0.44, 5 studies), leg power (10.7 %, weighted mean effect size = 0.42, 9 studies), flexibility (16.5 %, effect size = 0.57 to 0.61, 2 studies), and athletic performance (-1.2 %, weighted mean effect size = 0.45, 5 studies) in 437 (169 male, 268 female) athletes (overall effect size = 0.44). Whole body vibration has small and inconsistent acute and chronic effects on athletic performance in competitive and/or elite athletes. These findings lead to the hypothesis that neuromuscular adaptive processes following whole body vibration are not specific enough to enhance athletic performance. Thus, other types of exercise programs (e.g., resistance training) are recommended if the goal is to improve athletic performance.

  11. Model Indepedent Vibration Control


    Yuan, Jing


    A NMIFC system is proposed for broadband vibration control. It has two important features. Feature F1 is that the NMIFC is stable without introducing any invasive effects, such as probing signals or controller perturbations, into the vibration system; feature F2 is

  12. Finite difference analysis of torsional vibrations of pretwisted, rotating, cantilever beams with effects of warping (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, K. B.; Kaza, K. R. V.


    Theoretical natural frequencies of the first three modes of torsional vibration of pretwisted, rotating cantilever beams are determined for various thickness and aspect ratios. Conclusions concerning individual and collective effects of warping, pretwist, tension-torsion coupling and tennis racket effect (twist-rotational coupling) terms on the natural frequencies are drawn from numerical results obtained by using a finite difference procedure with first order central differences. The relative importance of structural warping, inertial warping, pretwist, tension-torsion and twist-rotational coupling terms is discussed for various rotational speeds. The accuracy of results obtained by using the finite difference approach is verified by a comparison with the exact solution for specialized simple cases of the equation of motion used in this paper.

  13. Effect of pulse pressure on borehole stability during shear swirling flow vibration cementing (United States)


    The shear swirling flow vibration cementing (SSFVC) technique rotates the downhole eccentric cascade by circulating cementing fluid. It makes the casing eccentrically revolve at high speed around the borehole axis. It produces strong agitation action to the annulus fluid, makes it in the state of shear turbulent flow, and results in the formation of pulse pressure which affects the surrounding rock stress. This study was focused on 1) the calculation of the pulse pressure in an annular turbulent flow field based on the finite volume method, and 2) the analysis of the effect of pulse pressure on borehole stability. On the upside, the pulse pressure is conducive to enhancing the liquidity of the annulus fluid, reducing the fluid gel strength, and preventing the formation of fluid from channeling. But greater pulse pressure may cause lost circulation and even formation fracturing. Therefore, in order to ensure smooth cementing during SSFVC, the effect of pulse pressure should be considered when cementing design. PMID:29145408

  14. Effect of pulse pressure on borehole stability during shear swirling flow vibration cementing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Cui

    Full Text Available The shear swirling flow vibration cementing (SSFVC technique rotates the downhole eccentric cascade by circulating cementing fluid. It makes the casing eccentrically revolve at high speed around the borehole axis. It produces strong agitation action to the annulus fluid, makes it in the state of shear turbulent flow, and results in the formation of pulse pressure which affects the surrounding rock stress. This study was focused on 1 the calculation of the pulse pressure in an annular turbulent flow field based on the finite volume method, and 2 the analysis of the effect of pulse pressure on borehole stability. On the upside, the pulse pressure is conducive to enhancing the liquidity of the annulus fluid, reducing the fluid gel strength, and preventing the formation of fluid from channeling. But greater pulse pressure may cause lost circulation and even formation fracturing. Therefore, in order to ensure smooth cementing during SSFVC, the effect of pulse pressure should be considered when cementing design.

  15. Experimental Investigation of Effects of Vibration upon Elastic and Cohesive Properties of Beds of Wet Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Alsop


    Full Text Available The transmission of sinusoidal vibrations through beds of cohesive particulate solids was measured. Results were interpreted in terms of a critical state model to predict the elastic swelling constant k, and the cohesive stress C. Factorial experimental design was used to identify significant parameters. Factors that affect k include percent moisture, bulk density, sample size, sample shape, the presence of a supporting membrane, and loading order. Factors that affect C include percent moisture and particle size distribution. Factors affecting k were interpreted in terms of their effects upon bed structure and factors affecting C in terms of an equivalent pore water pressure due to capillary and liquid bridge effects. The critical state model was modified to incorporate general relationships between axial and radial strains.

  16. The acute effect of whole body vibration on repeated shuttle-running in young soccer players. (United States)

    Padulo, J; Di Giminiani, R; Ibba, G; Zarrouk, N; Moalla, W; Attene, G; Migliaccio, G M; Pizzolato, F; Bishop, D; Chamari, K


    The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on Repeated Sprint Ability (RSA). Seventeen male soccer players (16.71±0.47 y) performed three RSA tests (Randomized crossover study design). The second RSA test was done with WBV (RSA2) to assess the effect of WBV. The studied variables were: best time (BT), worst time (WT), total time (TT), the fatigue index (FI) of RSA, and post-test blood lactate (BLa). ANOVA with repeated measures showed no differences between RSA1 and RSA3, while there were significant differences in all variables studied. TT= [RSA2 0.93% and 1.68% lower than RSA1 and RSA3 respectively; pRepeated Sprint Ability efforts, most of the performance variables improved. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Effects of real and sham whole-body mechanical vibration on spinal excitability at rest and during muscle contraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortobagyi, T.; Rider, P.; DeVita, P.


    We examined the effects of whole-body mechanical vibration (WBV) on indices of motoneuronal excitability at rest and during muscle contraction in healthy humans. Real and sham WBV at 30Hz had no effect on reflexes measured during muscle contraction. Real WBV at 30 and 50Hz depressed the H-reflex

  18. Controllable parametric excitation effect on linear and nonlinear vibrational resonances in the dynamics of a buckled beam (United States)

    Djomo Mbong, T. L. M.; Siewe Siewe, M.; Tchawoua, C.


    In this study, the effect of a controllable parametric excitation on both linear and nonlinear vibrational resonances on the dynamic of a buckled beam excited by a combination of uncontrollable low- and high-frequency periodic forces are investigated. First of all, the beam dynamic is assumed to be constrained by two periodic and independent ambient solicitations, such as wind and earthquake. An axial load of the beam represented by a periodic and parametric excitation is used to control the vibrational resonance phenomenon, induced by the presence of the two external excitations. Approximate analytical expressions for the linear response and the high-frequency force amplitude at which linear vibrational resonance occurs are obtained. An analytical expression of the amplitude of the nonlinear response at the superharmonic equal to the double of the low-frequency, is obtained. For all these expressions, we show the effect of the parametric excitation. We compare all the obtained results with the ones of the case where, the parametric force is absent. It is shown that, the presence of the parametric excitation permit the suppression of both linear and nonlinear vibrational resonances. Moreover, the vibration amplitudes of the buckled beam are significantly reduced, around certain threshold values for the amplitude and the frequency of the parametric excitation.

  19. The effect of vibration therapy on spasticity and motor function in children with cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Katusic, Ana; Alimovic, Sonja; Mejaski-Bosnjak, Vlatka


    As the motor system relies heavily on deep sensory stimulation, recent studies have investigated the effect of vibration stimuli. Although research suggests a positive influence of vibration on motor performance in individuals with neurological disorders, there are very limited numbers of studies in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of sound wave vibration therapy on spasticity and motor function in children with CP. In this 3-month trial, 89 children with spastic CP were randomized to either continue their physiotherapy treatment (PT) or to receive vibration therapy twice a week in addition to their PT program. The randomization was stratified according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level to ensure similar functional ability. Children were assessed at baseline and after the 12-week intervention period. The outcomes measured were spasticity level as assessed by Modified Modified Ashworth Scale (MMAS) and gross motor function as assessed by Gross Motor Function Measurement (GMFM-88). Subgroup analysis was performed for the GMFCS. Significant differences between groups were detected for changes in spasticity level and gross motor function after the three months intervention. In conclusion, vibration therapy may decrease spasticity and improve motor performance in children with CP. The results of the present trial serve as valuable input for evidence-based treatments in paediatric neurorehabilitation.

  20. Computational Modeling of the Size Effects on the Optical Vibrational Modes of H-Terminated Ge Nanostructures

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    Miguel Cruz-Irisson


    Full Text Available The vibrational dispersion relations of porous germanium (pGe and germanium nanowires (GeNWs were calculated using the ab initio density functional perturbation theory with a generalized gradient approximation with norm-conserving pseudopotentials. Both pores and nanowires were modeled using the supercell technique. All of the surface dangling bonds were saturated with hydrogen atoms. To address the difference in the confinement between the pores and the nanowires, we calculated the vibrational density of states of the two materials. The results indicate that there is a slight shift in the highest optical mode of the Ge-Ge vibration interval in all of the nanostructures due to the phonon confinement effects. The GeNWs exhibit a reduced phonon confinement compared with the porous Ge due to the mixed Ge-dihydride vibrational modes around the maximum bulk Ge optical mode of approximately 300 cm−1; however, the general effects of such confinements could still be noticed, such as the shift to lower frequencies of the highest optical mode belonging to the Ge vibrations.

  1. Pre-dive vibration effect on bubble formation after a 30-m dive requiring a decompression stop. (United States)

    Germonpré, Peter; Pontier, Jean-Michel; Gempp, Emmanuel; Blatteau, Jean-Eric; Deneweth, Stefaan; Lafère, Pierre; Marroni, Alessandro; Balestra, Costantino


    The preconditioning of divers to reduce post-dive decompression sickness (DCS) has gained increased interest in diving medical research over the last few years. The beneficial effects of physical exercise, oxygen breathing, hyperbaric exposure, heat exposure, hyperhydration, or nitroglycerin administration before the dive are only a few examples of ongoing research. In this work, we investigated the effects of pre-dive whole-body vibration on post-dive bubble formation. Following French Navy standard dive procedures, 14 healthy male military divers performed 2 identical dives 1 wk apart to 30 m of seawater (msw) for 30 min. One of the dives was randomly preceded by a 30-min whole-body vibration session (frequencies 35-40 Hz) 1 h before the dive. Post-dive bubbles were measured precordially 30, 60, and 90 min after the dive and were graded according to the Kissman Integrated Severity Score (KISS) protocol, with and without knee flexing. Arterial endothelial function was measured before and after vibration using flow mediated dilation (FMD) measurement. A significant reduction in bubble scores was observed after the "vibration" dive. As there was no observed change in FMD after vibration, we do not believe a nitric oxide mediated mechanism is involved; rather, a mechanical dislodgement or enhanced lymphatic elimination of gas nuclei is hypothesized.

  2. New insights for mesospheric OH: multi-quantum vibrational relaxation as a driver for non-local thermodynamic equilibrium

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    K. S. Kalogerakis


    Full Text Available The question of whether mesospheric OH(v rotational population distributions are in equilibrium with the local kinetic temperature has been debated over several decades. Despite several indications for the existence of non-equilibrium effects, the general consensus has been that emissions originating from low rotational levels are thermalized. Sky spectra simultaneously observing several vibrational levels demonstrated reproducible trends in the extracted OH(v rotational temperatures as a function of vibrational excitation. Laboratory experiments provided information on rotational energy transfer and direct evidence for fast multi-quantum OH(high-v vibrational relaxation by O atoms. We examine the relationship of the new relaxation pathways with the behavior exhibited by OH(v rotational population distributions. Rapid OH(high-v + O multi-quantum vibrational relaxation connects high and low vibrational levels and enhances the hot tail of the OH(low-v rotational distributions. The effective rotational temperatures of mesospheric OH(v are found to deviate from local thermodynamic equilibrium for all observed vibrational levels. Dedicated to Tom G. Slanger in celebration of his 5 decades of research in aeronomy.

  3. The effects of whole body vibration on EMG activity of the upper extremity muscles in static modified push up position. (United States)

    Ashnagar, Zinat; Shadmehr, Azadeh; Hadian, Mohammadreza; Talebian, Saeed; Jalaei, Shohreh


    Whole Body Vibration (WBV) has been reported to change neuromuscular activity which indirectly assessed by electromyography (EMG). Although researches regarding the influence of WBV on EMG activity of the upper extremity muscles are in their infancy, contradictory findings have been reported as a result of dissimilar protocols. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of WBV on electromyography (EMG) activity of upper extremity muscles in static modified push up position. Forty recreationally active females were randomly assigned in WBV and control groups. Participants in WBV group received 5 sets of 30 seconds vibration at 5 mm (peak to peak) and 30 Hz by using vibratory platform. No vibration stimulus was used in the control group. Surface EMG was recorded from Upper Trapezius (UT), Serratus Anterior (SA), Biceps Brachii (BB) and Triceps Brachii (TB) muscles before, during and after the vibration protocol while the subjects maintained the static modified push up position. EMG signals were expressed as root mean square (EMGrms) and normalized by maximum voluntary exertion (MVE). EMGrms activity of the studied muscles increased significantly during the vibration protocol in the WBV group comparing to the control group (P ≤ 0.05). The results indicated that vibration stimulus transmitting via hands increased muscle activity of UT, SA, BB and TB muscles by an average of 206%, 60%, 106% and 120%, respectively, comparing to pre vibration values. These findings suggest that short exposure to the WBV could increase the EMGrms activity of the upper extremity muscles in the static modified push-up position. However, more sessions of WBV application require for a proper judgment.

  4. Effects of high power ultrasonic vibration on temperature distribution of workpiece in dry creep feed up grinding. (United States)

    Paknejad, Masih; Abdullah, Amir; Azarhoushang, Bahman


    Temperature history and distribution of steel workpiece (X20Cr13) was measured by a high tech infrared camera under ultrasonic assisted dry creep feed up grinding. For this purpose, a special experimental setup was designed and fabricated to vibrate only workpiece along two directions by a high power ultrasonic transducer. In this study, ultrasonic effects with respect to grinding parameters including depth of cut (a e ), feed speed (v w ), and cutting speed (v s ) has been investigated. The results indicate that the ultrasonic vibration has considerable effect on reduction of temperature, depth of thermal damage of workpiece and width of temperature contours. Maximum temperature reduction of 25.91% was reported at condition of v s =15m/s, v w =500mm/min, a e =0.4mm in the presence of ultrasonic vibration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Experimental investigation of a non-equilibrium expansion flow after hydrogen/air combustion in hypersonic ramjet engines; Experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Nichtgleichgewichtsexpansionsstroemung nach Wasserstoff/Luft-Verbrennung in Hyperschall-Staustrahltriebwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisgerber, H.


    The exhaust gas flow in the model thrust nozzle under investigation is characterized by chemical and thermal (vibrational) non-equilibrium which is experimentally detected by differing rotational and vibrational temperatures in the supersonic region of the nozzle. An analytical method to determine the vibrational relaxation time from expansion experiments is presented and validated using literature data. The nitrogen vibrational temperature at the nozzle exit strongly depends on the relaxation time of collisions with water molecules; for this process a correlation from the literature is selected. The measurements are completed by an experimental and numerical analysis of velocimetry tracer particle motion in flows with strong velocity gradients and an experimental investigation of the causes and effects of laser beam distortions occurring in high enthalpy flows. So a reliable database is presented for a reacting flow in a model nozzle of rectangular cross-section which was already used to validate a CFD code including the model of thermal non-equilibrium effects. (orig.) [German] Die Stroemung eines Abgases in der untersuchten Modellschubduese ist charakterisiert durch chemisches und thermisches (vibratorisches) Nichtgleichgewicht, das durch die Abweichung der Vibrations- von der Rotationstemperatur des Stickstoffmolekuels im Ueberschallteil der Duese experimentell belegt wird. Eine Methode zur analytischen Ermittlung der Vibrationsrelaxationszeit aus Expansionsexperimenten wird vorgestellt und anhand von Literaturdaten validiert. Die entscheidende Groesse fuer die Vibrationstemperatur des Stickstoffs am Duesenaustritt ist die Relaxationszeit beim Stoss mit einem Wassermolekuel; aus den fuer diesen Vorgang vorliegenden Literaturangaben wird eine Korrelation ausgewaehlt. Zur Absicherung der Messungen wird zum einen das Folgeverhalten von zur Geschwindigkeitsmessung zugefuegten Partikeln in Stroemungen mit starken Geschwindigkeitsgradienten experimentell und

  6. Effect Of Vibration On Occupant Driving Performances Measured By Simulated Driving

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    Amzar Azizan


    Full Text Available Although the performance of vehicle driver has been well investigated in many types of environments however drowsy driving caused by vibration has received far less attention. Experiment procedures comprised of two 10-minutes simulated driving sessions in no-vibration condition and with-vibration condition. In with-vibration condition volunteers were exposed to a Gaussian random vibration with 1-15 Hz frequency bandwidth at 0.2 ms-2 r.m.s. for 30-minutes. A deviation in lane position and vehicle speed were recorded and analyzed. Volunteers have also rated their subjective drowsiness by giving score using Karolinska Sleepiness Scale KSS every 5-minutes interval. Strong evidence of driving impairment following 30-minutes exposure to vibration were found significant in all volunteers p 0.05.

  7. The effect of hand-arm vibration syndrome on quality of life. (United States)

    House, R; Wills, M; Liss, G; Switzer-McIntyre, S; Lander, L; Jiang, D


    It is important to determine how hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS), a common occupational condition, affects quality of life (QOL). To measure the physical (SF12-P) and mental (SF12-M) components of QOL in workers with HAVS, using the SF12 questionnaire, and to determine the effect of the vascular, sensorineural and musculoskeletal components of HAVS on QOL. Subjects were recruited consecutively from workers with HAVS attending an occupational medicine clinic. They were assessed to determine the Stockholm vascular and sensorineural scale stages as well as an upper extremity pain score, measured by the Borg scale, as an indication of musculoskeletal problems associated with the use of vibrating tools. The SF12-P and SF12-M were both compared with Canadian population normal values after adjusting for age and sex. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the effect of the various HAVS components on SF12-P and SF12-M as well as the effects of age and carpal tunnel syndrome. One hundred and forty-one subjects were recruited and 139 (99%) agreed to participate, including 134 men and 5 women. The SF12-P and SF12-M scores were significantly below the Canadian population mean values (P < 0.001), indicating lower QOL. In the multiple regression analysis, the predictor with the largest partial R (2) value for both the SF12-P and SF12-M was the upper extremity pain score. Both the physical and the mental QOL in workers with HAVS were below Canadian population normal values and subjects' upper extremity pain score had the greatest effect on their QOL.

  8. A Numerical Study of the Screening Effectiveness of Open Trenches for High-Speed Train-Induced Vibration

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    Chih-hung Chiang


    Full Text Available This study used the 2D boundary element method in time domain to examine the screening effectiveness of open trenches on reducing vibration generated by a high-speed train. The parameters included configurations of the trench, train speed, the distance between the source and the trench, and the Poisson’s ratio of the soil. A reducing displacement level (in dB scale was defined and used to evaluate the screening effectiveness of a wave barrier. The maximal reducing displacement level reached 25 dB when an open trench was used as a wave barrier. The depth of an open trench is a main influential parameter of screening effectiveness. The cutoff frequency of the displacement spectrum increases with decreasing trench depth. The maximal screening effectiveness occurs when the depth is 0.3-0.4 Rayleigh wavelength. Using an open trench as a wave barrier can reduce 10–25 dB of vibration amplitude at frequencies between 30 and 70 Hz. A considerable increase in screening effectiveness of the open trench was observed from 30 to 70 Hz, which matches the main frequencies of vibration induced by Taiwan High Speed Rail. The influence of trench width on screening effectiveness is nonsignificant except for frequencies from 30 to 40 Hz. Poisson’s ratio has various effects on the reduction of vibration at frequencies higher than 30 Hz.


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    Yusuke Osawa


    Full Text Available Although resistance training (RT combined with whole-body vibration (WBV is becoming increasingly popular among untrained adults, the additional effects of WBV on muscle fitness are still not well understood. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of WBV on muscle strength, muscle power, muscle endurance, and neuromuscular activities compared with the identical RT without WBV. Thirty-three individuals (6 males and 27 females; 22-49 years old were randomly assigned to a training program using slow-velocity RT coupled with WBV (RT- WBV group, n = 17 or an identical exercise program without WBV (RT group, n = 16. Participants performed eight exercises per 60 min session on a vibration platform (RT-WBV group, frequency, 35 Hz; amplitude, 2 mm twice weekly for seven weeks. To evaluate the effects of WBV, the maximal isometric and isokinetic knee extension strength, maximal isometric lumbar extension strength, countermovement-jump, and the number of sit-ups were measured before and after the trial. Significantly higher increases were observed in the maximal isometric and concentric knee extension strength (p = 0.02, p = 0.04 , respectively, and maximal isometric lumbar extension strength at 60 degrees of trunk flexion (p = 0.02 in the RT-WBV group (+36.8%, +38.4%, +26.4%, respectively in comparison to the RT group (+16.5%, +12.8%, +14.3%, respectively. A significant difference was also observed between the RT-WBV group (+8.4% and the RT group (+4.7% in the countermovement jump height (p = 0.02. In conclusion, the results suggest that significant additional increases in maximal isometric and concentric knee extension and lumbar extension strength, and countermovement jump height can be achieved by incorporating WBV into a slow-velocity RT program during the initial stage of regular RT in untrained healthy adults

  10. Magnetic polarons in a nonequilibrium polariton condensate (United States)

    Mietki, Paweł; Matuszewski, Michał


    We consider a condensate of exciton polaritons in a diluted magnetic semiconductor microcavity. Such a system may exhibit magnetic self-trapping in the case of sufficiently strong coupling between polaritons and magnetic ions embedded in the semiconductor. We investigate the effect of the nonequilibrium nature of exciton polaritons on the physics of the resulting self-trapped magnetic polarons. We find that multiple polarons can exist at the same time, and we derive a critical condition for self-trapping that is different from the one predicted previously in the equilibrium case. Using the Bogoliubov-de Gennes approximation, we calculate the excitation spectrum and provide a physical explanation in terms of the effective magnetic attraction between polaritons, mediated by the ion subsystem.


    Monteiro, Milena de Oliveira Bravo; de Sá-Caputo, Danúbia da Cunha; Moreira-Marconi, Eloá; Frederico, Éric Heleno Freire Ferreira; de Sousa-Gonçalves, Cintia Renata; Bernardo, Luciana Camargo; Guimarães, Carlos Alberto Sampaio; Bernardo-Filho, Mario


    Background: Exposure to whole body vibration exercises (WBVE), besides some biological effects, causes alterations in the concentration of some blood biomarkers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the action of vibration (10 Hz) of WBVE on the concentration of blood biomarkers in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats were divided in 2 groups. The experimental group (EG) was subjected to vibrations of 10Hz (one min per day, one week, total time of seven min), while the control group (CG) has not experienced vibration. Samples of whole blood were drawn for biochemical analysis of the concentration of total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, VLDL, glucose, CPK, albumin, alkaline phosphates, TGP, TGO, γGT, lipase, amylase, urea and creatinine. Results: White blood cell count and a platelet-hemogram were also performed. Significant (p<0.05) increase in TGP, TGO and white blood cells and decrease in LDL concentration was found after exposure of 10Hz mechanical vibration. Conclusion: Although these findings were obtained with rats, they might contribute to try to understand better these mechanisms that occur following exposure to a frequency of 10Hz. PMID:28740939

  12. Effect of particle shape on powder flowability of microcrystalline cellulose as determined using the vibration shear tube method. (United States)

    Horio, Takehiko; Yasuda, Masatoshi; Matsusaka, Shuji


    Powder flowability of microcrystalline cellulose particles having different particle shapes, whose aspect ratios ranged from 1.8 to 6.4, was measured using the vibration shear tube method. Particles lubricated with magnesium stearate were also investigated in order to evaluate the effect of surface modification on powder flowability. Particles were discharged through a narrow gap between a vibrating tube edge and a flat bottom surface, where each particle experienced high shear forces, thus, overcoming adhesion and friction forces. Vibration amplitude was increased at a constant rate during measurement and the masses of the discharged particles were measured at consistent time intervals. Flowability profiles, i.e., the relationships between the mass flow rates of the discharged particles and their vibration accelerations, were obtained from these measurements. Critical vibration accelerations and characteristic mass flow rates were then determined from flowability profiles in order to evaluate static and dynamic friction properties. The results were compared with those obtained using conventional methods. It was found that angle of repose and compressibility were related to static and dynamic friction properties. Furthermore, it was found that particle aspect ratio more significantly affects powder flowability than does lubrication with magnesium stearate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Multivariate Multiscale Entropy Applied to Center of Pressure Signals Analysis: An Effect of Vibration Stimulation of Shoes

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    Jiann-Shing Shieh


    Full Text Available Falls are unpredictable accidents and resulting injuries can be serious to the elderly. A preventative solution can be the use of vibration stimulus of white noise to improve the sense of balance. In this work, a pair of vibration shoes were developed and controlled by a touch-type switch which can generate mechanical vibration noise to stimulate the patient’s feet while wearing the shoes. In order to evaluate the balance stability and treatment effect of vibrating insoles in these shoes, multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE algorithm is applied to calculate the relative complexity index of reconstructed center of pressure (COP signals in antero-posterior and medio-lateral directions by the multivariate empirical mode decomposition (MEMD. The results show that the balance stability of 61.5% elderly subjects is improved after wearing the developed shoes, which is more than 30.8% using multiscale entropy. In conclusion, MEMD-enhanced MMSE is able to distinguish the smaller differences between before and after the use of vibration shoes in both two directions, which is more powerful than the empirical mode decomposition (EMD-enhanced MSE in each individual direction.



    BROEKMANS, Tom; Roelants, Machteld; ALDERS, Geert; FEYS, Peter; THIJS, Herbert; OP 'T EIJNDE, Bert


    Objective To investigate the acute effects of long term whole body vibration on leg muscle performance and functional capacity in persons with multiple sclerosis Design A randomized controlled trial Subjects Twenty five patients with multiple sclerosis (mean age 47 9 +/- 1 9 years Expanded Disability Status Scale 4 3 +/- 0 2) were assigned randomly to whole body vibration training (n = 11) or to a control group (n = 14) Methods The whole body vibration group performed static and dynamic leg s...

  15. The effect of the training with the different combinations of frequency and peak-to-peak vibration displacement of whole-body vibration on the strength of knee flexors and extensors

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    M Stania


    Full Text Available Whole-body vibration training has become a popular method used in sports and physiotherapy. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of different vibration frequency and peak-to-peak displacement combinations on men knee flexors and extensors strength in isokinetic conditions. The sample consisted of 49 male subjects randomly allocated to seven comparative groups, six of which exercised on a vibration platform with parameters set individually for the groups. The experimental groups were exposed to vibrations 3 times a week for 4 weeks. The pre- and post- isokinetic strength tests, with the angular velocities of 240°/s and 30°/s, were recorded prior to and 2 days after the training. After 4 weeks of whole-body vibration training, a significant increase was noted regarding the mean values of peak torque, average peak torque and total work for knee flexors at high angular velocity in Groups I (60 Hz/ 4 mm and V (40 Hz/ 2 mm (p<0.05. The mean percentage values of post-training changes to study parameters suggest that the training had the most beneficial effect in Groups I (60 Hz/4 mm and IV (60 Hz/2 mm (p<0.05. Whole-body vibrations during static exercise beneficially affected knee flexor strength profile in young men at high angular velocity. The combinations of 60 Hz/4 mm seem to have the most advantageous effects on muscle strength parameters.

  16. Proposal of the Sound Insulating Measures for Vibrational Sorter and Verification of the Effectiveness Measures

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    Pavol Liptai


    Full Text Available The paper describes a specific design of the sound insulating enclosure of the vibrating sorter. Recycling aspects have also been taken into account when designing the enclosure, because recycled foam has been applied as a sound-absorbing material. Acoustic camera was used to measure, analyze, evaluate and for sound sources localization and identification. The visualization method was used to locate the critical locations of the device and then quantify them. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed enclosure, the measurements of the sound parameters were performed before and after the realization soundproofing measure. The measured results show the requested efficiency of the sound insulating enclosure in terms of noise reduction as well as dust in the vicinity of the sorter.

  17. Assessment of thermal effects on the free vibration characteristics of composite beams

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    Ergun, Emin; Alkan, Veysel [Pamukkale Univ., Denizil (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    In this study, thermal effects on the free vibration characteristics of composite beams are studied for different temperatures and boundary conditions by using numerical and experimental techniques. Different ply angles, stacking sequences and specimen thickness are also considered. The comparison revealed a good agreement between numerical and experimental results. It is also concluded that regardless of the type of boundary condition and thickness, natural frequencies are decreased with increasing temperature. In addition, a minimum natural frequency value occurs in the natural frequency-ply angle graph at 60 ply angle for all considered temperatures. It can also be stated that the natural frequencies of the composite beams can be adjusted by controlling the temperature as well as the stacking sequences. (orig.)

  18. Effects of whole-body vibration applied to lower extremity muscles during decline bench press exercise. (United States)

    García-Gutiérrez, M T; Hazell, T J; Marín, P J


    To evaluate the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on skeletal muscle activity and power performance of the upper body during decline bench press exercise at different loads. Forty-seven healthy young and active male students volunteered. Each performed dynamic decline bench press repetitions with and without WBV (50 Hz, 2.2 mm) applied through a hamstring bridge exercise at three different loads of their 1-repetition maximum (1RM): 30%, 50%, and 70% 1RM. Muscle activity of the triceps brachii (TB), biceps brachii (BB), pectoralis major (PM), and biceps femoris (BF) was measured with surface electromyography electrodes and kinetic parameters of the repetitions were measured with a rotary encoder. WBV increased peak power (PP) output during the 70% 1RM condition (ppress and this augmentation contributes to an increased peak power at higher loads and increased peak acceleration at lower loads.

  19. Design principles for nonequilibrium self-assembly. (United States)

    Nguyen, Michael; Vaikuntanathan, Suriyanarayanan


    We consider an important class of self-assembly problems, and using the formalism of stochastic thermodynamics, we derive a set of design principles for growing controlled assemblies far from equilibrium. The design principles constrain the set of configurations that can be obtained under nonequilibrium conditions. Our central result provides intuition for how equilibrium self-assembly landscapes are modified under finite nonequilibrium drive.

  20. Effects of Vibration Amplitude on Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Strength of Ultrasonic Spot Welded Cu/Al Joints

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    Jian Liu


    Full Text Available The effects of vibration amplitude on the interface reaction and mechanical strength of the Cu/Al joints were systematically investigated in ultrasonic spot welding (USW experiments. The appropriate vibration amplitude (22.5 μm was beneficial for obtaining a sound joint. The formation of the continuous intermetallic compounds (IMC layer accelerated with a higher vibration amplitude. The lap shear tensile strength of the Cu/Al joints decreased when the thickness of the intermetallic layer was greater than 1 μm at various amplitudes. With the increase in welding time, a crack occurred in the copper side owing to the occurrence of the eutectic reaction, α-A l + θ → L , at the periphery of the nugget. The remarkable decline of ultrasonic power curves occurred at various amplitude levels upon the formation of a crack in the copper side.

  1. A Nonmonotonous Damage Model to Characterize Mullins and Residual Strain Effects of Rubber Strings Subjected to Transverse Vibrations

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    Alex Elías-Zúñiga


    Full Text Available This work focuses on the formulation of a constitutive equation to predict Mullins and residual strain effects of buna-N, silicone, and neoprene rubber strings subjected to small transverse vibrations. The nonmonotone behavior exhibited by experimental data is captured by the proposed material model through the inclusion of a phenomenological non-monotonous softening function that depends on the strain intensity between loading and unloading cycles. It is shown that theoretical predictions compare well with uniaxial experimental data collected from transverse vibration tests.

  2. The acute effects of vibration stimulus following FIFA 11+ on agility and reactive strength in collegiate soccer players


    Ross Cloak; Alan Nevill; Julian Smith; Matthew Wyon


    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of combining the FIFA 11+ and acute vibration training on reactive strength index (RSI) and 505 agility. Methods: Seventy-four male collegiate soccer players took part in the study and were randomly assigned to FIFA 11+ with acute vibration group (FIFA + WBV), FIFA 11+ with isometric squat group (FIFA + IS) or a control group consisting of the FIFA 11+ alone (Con). The warm-up consisted of the FIFA 11+ and was administered to all par...

  3. Effect of impulse vibration and noise on vasomotor function of peripheral blood vessels among pneumatic forge hammer operators. (United States)

    Solecki, L


    An evaluation of the effect of impulse vibration and noise on vasomotor function of blood vessels among pneumatic forge hammer operators has been presented based on thermal tests (cooling). The study covered the following groups of workers; pneumatic forge hammer operators (I), pneumatic forging hammer operators (II), hammer operator's assistants (III), operators of forging presses and machines (IV) and the control group. The results of the study showed that in groups I and III it was impulse noise not vibration that caused changes in the functioning of peripheral blood vessels.

  4. Torsional vibration analysis of bars including secondary torsional shear deformation effect by the boundary element method (United States)

    Sapountzakis, E. J.; Tsipiras, V. J.; Argyridi, A. K.


    In this paper a boundary element method (BEM) is developed for the torsional vibration problem of bars of arbitrary doubly symmetric constant cross section, taking into account the nonuniform warping and secondary torsional shear deformation effects (STSDE). The bar is subjected to arbitrarily distributed or concentrated dynamic torsional loading along its length, while its edges are subjected to the most general torsional and warping boundary conditions. Apart from the angle of twist, the primary angle of twist per unit length is considered as an additional 1-D degree of freedom in order to account for the STSDE in the equations of motion of the bar. The warping shear stress distribution and the pertinent secondary torsional rigidity are computed by satisfying local equilibrium considerations under dynamic conditions without adhering to assumptions of Thin Tube Theory (TTT). By employing a distributed mass model system accounting for rotatory and warping inertia, an initial boundary value and two boundary value problems with respect to the variable along the bar time-dependent 1-D kinematical components, to the primary and secondary warping functions, respectively, are formulated. The latter are solved employing a pure BE method, requiring exclusively boundary discretization of the bar's cross section. The numerical solution of the aforementioned initial boundary value problem is performed through a BE method leading to a system of differential equations with displacement only unknowns, which is solved using an efficient direct time integration technique. Additionally, for the free vibrations case, a generalized eigenvalue problem is formulated through a similar BE technique. The accuracy and reliability of the results is assessed by FEM solutions employing solid or shell modelling. Both open- and closed-shaped cross section bars are examined and the necessity to include nonuniform torsional and STSD effects in the dynamic analysis of bars is demonstrated.

  5. Small fields: nonequilibrium radiation dosimetry. (United States)

    Das, Indra J; Ding, George X; Ahnesjö, Anders


    Advances in radiation treatment with beamlet-based intensity modulation, image-guided radiation therapy, and stereotactic radiosurgery (including specialized equipments like CyberKnife, Gamma Knife, tomotherapy, and high-resolution multileaf collimating systems) have resulted in the use of reduced treatment fields to a subcentimeter scale. Compared to the traditional radiotherapy with fields > or =4 x 4 cm2, this can result in significant uncertainty in the accuracy of clinical dosimetry. The dosimetry of small fields is challenging due to nonequilibrium conditions created as a consequence of the secondary electron track lengths and the source size projected through the collimating system that are comparable to the treatment field size. It is further complicated by the prolonged electron tracks in the presence of low-density inhomogeneities. Also, radiation detectors introduced into such fields usually perturb the level of disequilibrium. Hence, the dosimetric accuracy previously achieved for standard radiotherapy applications is at risk for both absolute and relative dose determination. This article summarizes the present knowledge and gives an insight into the future procedures to handle the nonequilibrium radiation dosimetry problems. It is anticipated that new miniature detectors with controlled perturbations and corrections will be available to meet the demand for accurate measurements. It is also expected that the Monte Carlo techniques will increasingly be used in assessing the accuracy, verification, and calculation of dose, and will aid perturbation calculations of detectors used in small and highly conformal radiation beams. rican Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  6. The Effect of Single-Level Disc Degeneration on Dynamic Response of the Whole Lumbar Spine to Vertical Vibration. (United States)

    Guo, Li-Xin; Fan, Wei


    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of single-level disc degeneration on dynamic response of the whole lumbar spine to vertical whole body vibration that is typically present when driving vehicles. Ligamentous finite element models of the lumbar L1-S1 motion segment in different grades of degeneration (healthy, mild, and moderate) at the L4-L5 level were developed with consideration of changing disc height and material properties of the nucleus pulpous. All models were loaded with a compressive follower preload of 400 N and a sinusoidal vertical vibration load of ±40 N. After transient dynamic analyses, computational results for the 3 models in terms of disc bulge, von-Mises stress in annulus ground substance, and nucleus pressure were plotted as a function of time and compared. All the predicted results showed a cyclic response with time. At the degenerated L4-L5 disc level, as degeneration progressed, maximum value of the predicted response showed a decrease in disc bulge and von-Mises stress in annulus ground substance but a slight increase in nucleus pressure, and their vibration amplitudes were all decreased. At the adjacent levels of the degenerated disc, there was a slight decrease in maximum value and vibration amplitude of these predicted responses with the degeneration. The results indicated that single-level disc degeneration can alter vibration characteristics of the whole lumbar spine especially for the degenerated disc level, and increasing the degeneration did not deteriorate the effect of vertical vibration on the spine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Vibration Characteristics of a Mistuned Bladed Disk considering the Effect of Coriolis Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanen Kan


    Full Text Available To investigate the influence of Coriolis force on vibration characteristics of mistuned bladed disk, a bladed disk with 22 blades is employed and the effects of different rotational speeds and excitation engine orders on the maximum forced response are discussed considering the effects of Coriolis forces. The results show that if there are frequency veering regions, the largest split of double natural frequencies of each modal family considering the effects of Coriolis forces appears at frequency veering region. In addition, the amplitude magnification factor considering the Coriolis effects is increased by 1.02% compared to the system without considering the Coriolis effects as the rotating speed is 3000 rpm, while the amplitude magnification factor is increased by 2.76% as the rotating speed is 10000 rpm. The results indicate that the amplitude magnification factor may be moderately enhanced with the increasing of rotating speed. Moreover, the position of the maximum forced response of bladed disk may shift from one blade to another with the increasing of the rotational speed, when the effects of Coriolis forces are considered.

  8. Estimation of the effects of rain-wind induced vibration in the design stage of inclined stay cables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, C.P.W.; Staalduinen, P.C. van


    Rain-wind induced vibration of stay cables is a great concern for the designers of cable stayed bridges. Despite numerous experimental investigations, an accurate quantitative prediction of this effect in the design stage is not feasible without extensive experiments. This paper presents a model to

  9. Oximetry: a new non-invasive method to detect metabolic effects induced by a local application of mechanical vibration (United States)

    Felici, A.; Trombetta, C.; Abundo, P.; Foti, C.; Rosato, N.


    Mechanical vibrations application is increasingly common in clinical practice due to the effectiveness induced by these stimuli on the human body. Local vibration (LV) application allows to apply and act only where needed, focusing the treatment on the selected body segment. An experimental device for LV application was used to generate the vibrations. The aim of this study was to detect and analyze the metabolic effects induced by LV on the brachial bicep muscle by means of an oximeter. This device monitors tissue and muscle oxygenation using NIRS (Near Infrared Spectroscopy) and is able to determine the concentration of haemoglobin and oxygen saturation in the tissue. In a preliminary stage we also investigated the effects induced by LV application, by measuring blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen saturation and temperature. These data confirmed that the effects induced by LV application are actually localized. The results of the measurements obtained using the oximeter during the vibration application, have shown a variation of the concentrations. In particular an increase of oxygenate haemoglobin was shown, probably caused by an increased muscle activity and/or a rise in local temperature detected during the application.

  10. Application of COMSOL Multiphysics in Thermal Effect Analysis of Electromagnetic Active Vibration Absorber (United States)

    Hang, Su; Xue-tao, Weng


    At present, there are some researches in the thermal analysis of electromagnetic absorbers. The heating principle of electromagnetic absorber magnetic circuit is analysed, and the finite element method is used to numerically solve the temperature field in the working process of electromagnetic vibration absorber. The magnetic circuit simulation model of electromagnetic vibration absorber is established in Comsol Multiphysics finite element analysis software. And the grid Division, simulation analysis of the vibration absorber magnetic circuit structure of the internal temperature distribution, you can get the vibration absorber magnetic circuit in the working process of the temperature field of two-dimensional distribution graphics and magnetic circuit structure of different parts of the temperature rise contrast chart. The conclusion provides some theoretical reference for the design and research of electromagnetic active vibration absorber.

  11. Effect of ambient vibration on solid rocket motor grain and propellant/liner bonding interface (United States)

    Cao, Yijun; Huang, Weidong; Li, Jinfei


    In order to study the condition of structural integrity in the process of the solid propellant motor launching and transporting, the stress and strain field analysis were studied on a certain type of solid propellant motor. the vibration acceleration on the solid propellant motors' transport process were monitored, then the original vibration data was eliminated the noise and the trend term efficiently, finally the characteristic frequency of vibration was got to the finite element analysis. Experiment and simulation results show that the monitored solid propellant motor mainly bear 0.2 HZ and 15 HZ low frequency vibration in the process of transportation; Under the low frequency vibration loading, solid propellant motor grain stress concentration position is respectively below the head and tail of the propellant/liner bonding surface and the grain roots.

  12. Gravity and Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics of Classical Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, B L


    Renewed interest in deriving gravity (more precisely, the Einstein equations) from thermodynamics considerations [1, 2] is stirred up by a recent proposal that 'gravity is an entropic force' [3] (see also [4]). Even though I find the arguments justifying such a claim in this latest proposal rather ad hoc and simplistic compared to the original one I would unreservedly support the call to explore deeper the relation between gravity and thermodynamics, this having the same spirit as my long-held view that general relativity is the hydrodynamic limit [5, 6] of some underlying theories for the microscopic structure of spacetime - all these proposals, together with that of [7, 8], attest to the emergent nature of gravity [9]. In this first paper of two we set the modest goal of studying the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of classical matter only, bringing afore some interesting prior results, without invoking any quantum considerations such as Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, holography or Unruh effect. This is for the ...

  13. Nonequilibrium Chromosome Looping via Molecular Slip Links (United States)

    Brackley, C. A.; Johnson, J.; Michieletto, D.; Morozov, A. N.; Nicodemi, M.; Cook, P. R.; Marenduzzo, D.


    We propose a model for the formation of chromatin loops based on the diffusive sliding of molecular slip links. These mimic the behavior of molecules like cohesin, which, along with the CTCF protein, stabilize loops which contribute to organizing the genome. By combining 3D Brownian dynamics simulations and 1D exactly solvable nonequilibrium models, we show that diffusive sliding is sufficient to account for the strong bias in favor of convergent CTCF-mediated chromosome loops observed experimentally. We also find that the diffusive motion of multiple slip links along chromatin is rectified by an intriguing ratchet effect that arises if slip links bind to the chromatin at a preferred "loading site." This emergent collective behavior favors the extrusion of loops which are much larger than the ones formed by single slip links.

  14. Acute effects of simultaneous electromyostimulation and vibration on leg blood flow in spinal cord injury. (United States)

    Menéndez, H; Ferrero, C; Martín-Hernández, J; Figueroa, A; Marín, P J; Herrero, A J


    Randomized crossover. To analyze the acute effects of isolated and simultaneous application of whole-body vibration (WBV) and electromyostimulation (ES) on popliteal artery blood velocity (BV) and skin temperature (ST) of the calf in subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI). Valladolid, Spain. Ten subjects with SCI were assessed in five different sessions. After a familiarization session, four interventions were applied in random order; WBV, ES, simultaneous WBV and ES (WBV+ES), and 30 s of WBV followed by 30 s of ES (WBV30/ES30). Each intervention consisted of 10 sets × 1 min ON+1 min OFF. Subjects were seated on their own wheelchairs with their feet on the vibration platform (10 Hz, 5 mm peak-to-peak), and ES was applied on the gastrocnemius muscle of both legs (8 Hz, 400 μs). The simultaneous application (WBV+ES) produced the greatest increase in mean BV (MBV; 36% and 42%, respectively) and peak BV (PBV; 30% and 36%, respectively) during the intervention. This intervention produced the greatest mean increases in MBV (21%) and PBV (19%) during the recovery period. Last, this intervention produced the highest increase in ST during the intervention (2.1 °C). The simultaneous application of WBV+ES seems to produce a greater increase in MBV and PBV of the popliteal artery and ST of the calf than the isolated (WBV or ES) or consecutive application of both stimuli (WBV30/ES30). This study provides an efficient therapeutic methodology to improve peripheral arterial properties, which is pivotal in SCI patient's rehabilitation.

  15. Effect of train vibration on settlement of soil: A numerical analysis (United States)

    Tiong, Kah-Yong; Ling, Felix Ngee-Leh; Talib, Zaihasra Abu


    The drastic development of transit system caused the influence of ground-borne vibrations induced by train on ground settlement became concern problem nowadays. The purpose of this study is to investigate soil settlement caused by train vibration. To facilitate this study, computer simulation of soil dynamic response using commercial finite element package - PLAXIS 2D was performed to simulate track-subgrade system together with dynamic train load under three different conditions. The results of simulation analysis established the facts that the soil deformation increased with raising in water level. This phenomenon happens because the increasing water level not only induced greater excess pore water pressure but also reduced stiffness of soil. Furthermore, the simulation analysis also deduced that the soil settlement was reduced by placing material with high stiffness between the subgrade and the ballast layer since material with high stiffness was able to dissipate energy efficiently due to its high bearing capacity, thus protecting the subgrade from deteriorating. The simulation analysis result also showed that the soil dynamic response increased with the increase in the speed of train and a noticeable amplification in soil deformation occurred as the train speed approaches the Rayleigh wave velocity of the track subgrade system. This is due to the fact that dynamic train load depend on both the self-weight of the train and the dynamic component due to inertial effects associated with the train speed. Thus, controlling the train speeds under critical velocity of track-subgrade system is able to ensure the safety of train operation as it prevents track-ground resonance and dramatic ground.

  16. Relevance of rangeland degradation in semiarid Northeastern South Africa to the nonequilibrium theory

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wessels, Konrad J


    Full Text Available According to the nonequilibrium theory, livestock grazing has a limited effect on long-term vegetation productivity of semiarid rangelands, which is largely determined by rainfall. The communal lands in northeastern South Africa contain extensive...

  17. The Effect of a Mechanical Arm System on Portable Grinder Vibration Emissions. (United States)

    McDowell, Thomas W; Welcome, Daniel E; Warren, Christopher; Xu, Xueyan S; Dong, Ren G


    Mechanical arm systems are commonly used to support powered hand tools to alleviate ergonomic stressors related to the development of workplace musculoskeletal disorders. However, the use of these systems can increase exposure times to other potentially harmful agents such as hand-transmitted vibration. To examine how these tool support systems affect tool vibration, the primary objectives of this study were to characterize the vibration emissions of typical portable pneumatic grinders used for surface grinding with and without a mechanical arm support system at a workplace and to estimate the potential risk of the increased vibration exposure time afforded by the use of these mechanical arm systems. This study also developed a laboratory-based simulated grinding task based on the ISO 28927-1 (2009) standard for assessing grinder vibrations; the simulated grinding vibrations were compared with those measured during actual workplace grinder operations. The results of this study demonstrate that use of the mechanical arm may provide a health benefit by reducing the forces required to lift and maneuver the tools and by decreasing hand-transmitted vibration exposure. However, the arm does not substantially change the basic characteristics of grinder vibration spectra. The mechanical arm reduced the average frequency-weighted acceleration by about 24% in the workplace and by about 7% in the laboratory. Because use of the mechanical arm system can increase daily time-on-task by 50% or more, the use of such systems may actually increase daily time-weighted hand-transmitted vibration exposures in some cases. The laboratory acceleration measurements were substantially lower than the workplace measurements, and the laboratory tool rankings based on acceleration were considerably different than those from the workplace. Thus, it is doubtful that ISO 28927-1 is useful for estimating workplace grinder vibration exposures or for predicting workplace grinder acceleration rank

  18. Effects of ionic strength on the surface tension and nonequilibrium interfacial characteristics of poly(sodium styrenesulfonate)/dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide mixtures. (United States)

    Ábrahám, Ágnes; Kardos, Attila; Mezei, Amália; Campbell, Richard A; Varga, Imre


    We rationalize the surface tension behavior and nonequilibrium interfacial characteristics of high molecular weight poly(sodium styrenesulfonate)/dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (NaPSS/DTAB) mixtures with respect to the ionic strength. Excellent agreement is achieved between experimental data and our recent empirical model [Langmuir 2013, 29, 11554], which is based on the lack of colloidal stability of bulk aggregates in the phase separation region and has no free fitting parameters. We show that the size of a surface tension peak positioned at the edge of the phase separation region can be suppressed by the addition of inert electrolyte, which lowers the critical micelle concentration in relation to the phase separation region. Such manipulation of the peak is possible for the 100 ppm NaPSS/DTAB system because there is a high free surfactant concentration in the phase separation region. The close agreement of our model with the experimental data of samples in the phase separation region with respect to the ionic strength indicates that the surface tension behavior can be rationalized in terms of comprehensive precipitation regardless of whether there is a peak or not. The time scale of precipitation for the investigated system is on the order of one month, which emphasizes the need to understand the dynamic changes in the state of bulk aggregation in order to rationalize the surface properties of strongly interacting mixtures; steady state surface properties measured in the interim period will represent samples far from equilibrium. We show also that the surface properties of samples of low ionic strength outside the equilibrium phase separation region can be extreme opposites depending on the sample history, which is attributed to the generation of trapped nonequilibrium states. This work highlights the need to validate the underlying nature of oppositely charged polyelectrolyte/surfactant systems prior to the interpretation of experimental data within an

  19. Research on Spillover Effects for Vibration Control of Piezoelectric Smart Structures by ANSYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingjian Dong


    Full Text Available To control vibration of a piezoelectric smart structure, a controller is usually designed based on a reduced order model (ROM of the system. When such a ROM based controller operates in closed loop with the actual structure, spillover phenomenon occurs because the unmodeled dynamics, which are not included in ROM, will be excited. In this paper, a new approach aiming at investigating spillover effects in ANSYS software is presented. By using the ANSYS parametric design language (APDL, the ROM based controller is integrated into finite element model to provide an accurate representation of what will happen when the controller is connected to the real plant. Therefore, the issues of spillover effects can be addressed in the closed loop simulation. Numerical examples are presented for investigating spillover effects of a cantilever piezoelectric plate subjected to various types of loading. The importance of considering spillover effects in closed loop simulation of piezoelectric smart structures is demonstrated. Moreover, the present study may provide an efficient method especially beneficial for preliminary design of piezoelectric smart structure to evaluate the performance of candidate control laws in finite element environment considering spillover effects.

  20. Surface Effect on Vibration of Y-SWCNTs Embedded on Pasternak Foundation Conveying Viscose Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghorbanpour-Arani


    Full Text Available Surface and small scale effects on free transverse vibration of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT fitted with Y-junction at downstream end conveying viscose fluid is investigated in this article based on Euler-Bernoulli beam (EBB model. Nonlocal elasticity theory is employed to consider small scale effects due to its simplicity and efficiency. The energy method and Hamilton’s principle are used to establish the corresponding motion equation. To discretize and solve the governing equation of motion the Galerkin method is applied. Moreover, the small-size effect, angle of Y-junction, surface layer and Pasternak elastic foundation are studied in detail. Regarding fluid flow effects, it has been concluded that the fluid flow is an effective factor on increasing the instability of Y-SWCNT. Results show that increasing the angle of Y-junction enhances the flutter fluid velocity where the first and second modes are merged. This work could be used in medical application and design of nano-electromechanical devices such as measuring the density of blood flowing through such nanotubes.

  1. Hemodynamic and ventilatory effects of manual respiratory physiotherapy techniques of chest clapping, vibration, and shaking in an animal model. (United States)

    Wong, W P; Paratz, J D; Wilson, K; Burns, Y R


    Chest clapping, vibration, and shaking were studied in 10 physiotherapists who applied these techniques on an anesthetized animal model. Hemodynamic variables (such as heart rate, blood pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, and right atrial pressure) were measured during the application of these techniques to verify claims of adverse events. In addition, expired tidal volume and peak expiratory flow rate were measured to ascertain effects of these techniques. Physiotherapists in this study applied chest clapping at a rate of 6.2 +/- 0.9 Hz, vibration at 10.5 +/- 2.3 Hz, and shaking at 6.2 +/- 2.3 Hz. With the use of these rates, esophageal pressure swings of 8.8 +/- 5.0, 0.7 +/- 0.3, and 1.4 +/- 0.7 mmHg resulted from clapping, vibration, and shaking respectively. Variability in rates and "forces" generated by these techniques was physiotherapy experience and layers of towel used explained approximately 79% of the variance in clapping force (P = 0.004), whereas age and clinical experience explained >80% of variance in shaking force (P = 0.003). Application of these techniques by physiotherapists was found to have no significant effects on hemodynamic and most ventilatory variables in this study. From this study, we conclude that chest clapping, vibration, and shaking 1). can be consistently performed by physiotherapists; 2). are significantly related to physiotherapists' characteristics, particularly clinical experience; and 3). caused no significant hemodynamic effects.

  2. Nonequilibrium-induced metal-superconductor quantum phase transition in graphene


    Takei, So; Kim, Yong Baek


    We study the effects of dissipation and time-independent nonequilibrium drive on an open superconducting graphene. In particular, we investigate how dissipation and nonequilibrium effects modify the semi-metal-BCS quantum phase transition that occurs at half-filling in equilibrium graphene with attractive interactions. Our system consists of a graphene sheet sandwiched by two semi-infinite three-dimensional Fermi liquid reservoirs, which act both as a particle pump/sink and a source of decohe...

  3. Effect of acute and chronic whole-body vibration exercise on serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels in women with fibromyalgia. (United States)

    Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Moras, Gerard; Padilla, Jaume; Fernández-Solà, Joaquim; Bennett, Robert M; Lázaro-Haro, Cristina; Pons, Sebastià


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acute and chronic whole-body vibration exercise on serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels in women with fibromyalgia. A randomized controlled two-factor mixed experimental design was used. Twenty-four women with fibromyalgia (age +/- standard error of the mean, 54.95 +/- 2.03) were randomized into the vibration group or the control group. The vibration group underwent a protocol of static and dynamic tasks with whole-body vibration exercise twice a week for a total of six weeks, whereas the control group performed the same protocol without vibratory stimulus. Both groups continued their usual pharmacological treatment. Serum IGF-1 levels were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To test the effects of long-term whole-body vibration exercise, serum IGF-1 measurements were taken at baseline and at weeks 1, 3, and 6 of the intervention. To test the short-term effects, at week 1, serum IGF-1 measurements were taken before and immediately following a session of whole-body vibration exercise. Treatment adherence was 93% in the vibration group and 92% in the control group. None of the subjects dropped out of the study. There was an absence of change in IGF-1 at week 1 and week 6 of whole-body vibration exercise. Results show no change in serum IGF-1 levels in women with fibromyalgia undergoing whole-body vibration exercise. Although high-intensity exercise and whole-body vibration exercise have been shown to increase serum IGF-1 in healthy individuals, the effectiveness of whole-body vibration exercise as a strategy to produce improvements in serum IGF-1 levels in women with fibromyalgia could not be demonstrated.

  4. INTRODUCTION: Nonequilibrium Processes in Plasmas (United States)

    Petrović, Zoran; Marić, Dragana; Malović, Gordana


    This book aims to give a cross section from a wide range of phenomena that, to different degrees, fall under the heading of non-equilibrium phenomenology. The selection is, of course, biased by the interests of the members of the scientific committee and of the FP6 Project 026328 IPB-CNP Reinforcing Experimental Centre for Non-equilibrium Studies with Application in Nano-technologies, Etching of Integrated Circuits and Environmental Research. Some of the papers included here are texts based on selected lectures presented at the Second International Workshop on Non-equilibrium Processes in Plasmas and Environmental Science. However, this volume is not just the proceedings of that conference as it contains a number of papers from authors that did not attend the conference. The goal was to put together a volume that would cover the interests of the project and support further work. It is published in the Institute of Physics journal Journal of Physics: Conference Series to ensure a wide accessibility of the articles. The texts presented here range from in-depth reviews of the current status and past achievements to progress reports of currently developed experimental devices and recently obtained still unpublished results. All papers have been refereed twice, first when speakers were selected based on their reputation and recently published results, and second after the paper was submitted both by the editorial board and individual assigned referees according to the standards of the conference and of the journal. Nevertheless, we still leave the responsibility (and honours) for the contents of the papers to the authors. The papers in this book are review articles that give a summary of the already published work or present the work in progress that will be published in full at a later date (or both). In the introduction to the first volume, in order to show how far reaching, ubiquitous and important non-equilibrium phenomena are, we claimed that ever since the early

  5. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Nonequilibrium Phonon Dynamics

    CERN Document Server


    Phonons are always present in the solid state even at an absolute temperature of 0 K where zero point vibrations still abound. Moreover, phonons interact with all other excitations of the solid state and, thereby, influence most of its properties. Historically experimental information on phonon transport came from measurements of thermal conductivity. Over the past two decades much more, and much more detailed, information on phonon transport and on many of the inherent phonon interaction processes have come to light from experiments which use nonequilibrium phonons to study their dynamics. The resultant research field has most recently blossomed with the development of ever more sophisticated experimental and theoretical methods which can be applied to it. In fact, the field is moving so rapidly that new members of the research community have difficulties in keeping up to date. This NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) was organized with the objective of overcoming the information barrier between those expert...

  6. SDBI 1904: Human Factors Assessment of Vibration Effects on Visual Performance during Launch (United States)

    Thompson, Shelby G.; Holden, Kritina; Root, Phillip; Ebert, Douglas; Jones, Jeffery; Adelstein, Bernard


    The primary objective of the of Human Factors Short Duration Bioastronautics Investigation (SDBI) 1904 is to determine visual performance limits during operational vibration and g-loads, specifically through the determination of minimal usable font sized using Orion-type display formats. Currently there is little to no data available to quantify human visual performance under these extreme conditions. Existing data on shuttle vibration magnitude and frequency is incomplete, does not address sear and crew vibration in the current configuration, and does not address human visual performance. There have been anecdotal reports of performance decrements from shuttle crews, but no structured data has been collected. The SDBI is a companion effort to the Detailed Test Objective (DTO) 695, which will measure shuttle seat accelerations (vibration) during ascent. Data fro the SDBI will serve an important role in interpreting the DTO vibration data. This data will be collected during the ascent phase of three shuttle missions (STS-119, 127, and 128). Both SDBI1904 and DTO 695 are low impact with respect to flight resources, and combined they represent an efficient and focused problem solving approach. The SDBI and DTO data will be correlated to determine the nature of perceived visual performance under varying vibrations and g-loads. This project will provide: 1) Immediate data for developing preliminary human performance vibration requirements; 2) Flight validated inputs for ongoing and future ground-based research; and 3) Information of functional needs that will drive Orion display format design decisions.

  7. Understanding the effect of hammering process on the vibration characteristics of cymbals (United States)

    Kuratani, F.; Yoshida, T.; Koide, T.; Mizuta, T.; Osamura, K.


    Cymbals are thin domed plates used as percussion instruments. When cymbals are struck, they vibrate and radiate sound. Cymbals are made through spin forming, hammering, and lathing. The spin forming creates the basic shape of the cymbal, which determines its basic vibration characteristics. The hammering and lathing produce specific sound adjustments by changing the cymbal's vibration characteristics. In this study, we study how hammering cymbals affects their vibration characteristics. The hammering produces plastic deformation (small, shallow dents) on the cymbal's surface, generating residual stresses throughout it. These residual stresses change the vibration characteristics. We perform finite element analysis of a cymbal to obtain its stress distribution and the resulting change in vibration characteristics. To reproduce the stress distribution, we use thermal stress analysis, and then with this stress distribution we perform vibration analysis. These results show that each of the cymbal's modes has a different sensitivity to the thermal load (i.e., hammering). This difference causes changes in the frequency response and the deflection shape that significantly improves the sound radiation efficiency. In addition, we explain the changes in natural frequencies by the stress and modal strain energy distributions.

  8. Flow patterns generated by vibrations in weightlessness in binary mixture with Soret effect. (United States)

    Shevtsova, Valentina; Melnikov, Denis; Gaponenko, Yuri; Lyubimova, Tatyana; Mialdun, Aliaksandr; Sechenyh, Vitaliy


    Vibrational convection refers to the specific flows that appear when a fluid with density gradient is subjected to external vibration. The density gradient may result from the inhomogeneity of temperature or composition. The study of vibrational impact on fluids has fundamental and applied importance. In weightlessness, vibrational convection is an additional way of transporting heat and matter similar to thermo- and solutocapillary convection. The response of the fluid to external forcing depends on the frequency of vibration. The case of small amplitude and high frequency vibration (when the period is much smaller than the characteristic viscous and heat (mass) diffusion times) is of special interest. In this case, the mean flow can be observed in the system, which describes the non-linear response of the fluid to a periodic excitation. The mean flow is most pronounced in the absence of other external forces (in particular, absence of static gravity). The experiment IVIDIL (Influence of Vibration on Diffusion in Liquids) has been conducted on the ISS during more than 3 months in 2009-2010. In the experimental liquids the density changes due to both the temperature and composition. 55 experimental runs of IVIDIL provided rich variety of valuable information about behavior of the liquid in weightlessness which is released with time, [1-3]. The current results provide experimental and numerical evidence of richness of flow patterns and their classification. References: 1. Shevtsova V., Mialdun A., Melnikov D., Ryzhkov I., Gaponenko Y., Saghir Z., Lyubimova T., Legros J.C., IVIDIL experiment onboard ISS: thermodiffusion in presence of controlled vibrations, Comptes Rendus Mecanique, 2011, 339, 310-317 2. Shevtsova V., Lyubimova T., Saghir Z. , Melnikov D., Gaponenko Y. , Sechenyh V. , Legros J.C. , Mialdun A., IVIDIL: on-board g-jitters and diffusion controlled phenomena; Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2011, 327, 012031 3. Mazzoni S., Shevtsova V., Mialdun A

  9. Quantum wavepacket ab initio molecular dynamics: an approach for computing dynamically averaged vibrational spectra including critical nuclear quantum effects. (United States)

    Sumner, Isaiah; Iyengar, Srinivasan S


    We have introduced a computational methodology to study vibrational spectroscopy in clusters inclusive of critical nuclear quantum effects. This approach is based on the recently developed quantum wavepacket ab initio molecular dynamics method that combines quantum wavepacket dynamics with ab initio molecular dynamics. The computational efficiency of the dynamical procedure is drastically improved (by several orders of magnitude) through the utilization of wavelet-based techniques combined with the previously introduced time-dependent deterministic sampling procedure measure to achieve stable, picosecond length, quantum-classical dynamics of electrons and nuclei in clusters. The dynamical information is employed to construct a novel cumulative flux/velocity correlation function, where the wavepacket flux from the quantized particle is combined with classical nuclear velocities to obtain the vibrational density of states. The approach is demonstrated by computing the vibrational density of states of [Cl-H-Cl]-, inclusive of critical quantum nuclear effects, and our results are in good agreement with experiment. A general hierarchical procedure is also provided, based on electronic structure harmonic frequencies, classical ab initio molecular dynamics, computation of nuclear quantum-mechanical eigenstates, and employing quantum wavepacket ab initio dynamics to understand vibrational spectroscopy in hydrogen-bonded clusters that display large degrees of anharmonicities.

  10. Combination of external load and whole body vibration potentiates the GH-releasing effect of squatting in healthy females. (United States)

    Giunta, M; Rigamonti, A E; Agosti, F; Patrizi, A; Compri, E; Cardinale, M; Sartorio, A


    In recent years, whole body vibration (WBV) has become an efficient complement or alternative to resistance training. Very limited data on the effects of different WBV protocols on anabolic hormones are available. In this study, we compared the growth hormone (GH), blood lactate (LA), and cortisol responses to different protocols involving WBV. Six healthy women recreationally active performed 10 sets of 12 dynamic squats in the following conditions: squatting alone (S), squatting+vibration (SV), squatting+external load (SE), and squatting+external load+vibration (SEV). All responses at the different stimuli determined acute increases in GH, cortisol, and LA. In particular, GH secretion significantly increased in all 4 conditions immediately after the exercise session compared to other time points. Furthermore, a significantly larger increase was identified following SEV as compared to the other conditions. Cortisol concentrations significantly decreased after S, SV and SE whereas they increased significantly following SEV. LA peaks occurred immediately at the end of each condition. However it reached statistical significance only following SEV. The results of our study demonstrate that the combination of squatting+external load+vibration (SEV) could represent the most suitable modality to potentiate the somatotropic function and, indirectly, to obtain an increase in muscle strength and positive changes in the body composition. Further studies are necessary in order to determine the chronic effects of this exercise modality on the hormonal profile. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Research on Effective Electric-Mechanical Coupling Coefficient of Sandwich Type Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Transducer Using Bending Vibration Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhang


    Full Text Available An analytical model on electromechanical coupling coefficient and the length optimization of a bending piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer are proposed. The piezoelectric transducer consists of 8 PZT elements sandwiched between four thin electrodes, and the PZT elements are clamped by a screwed connection between fore beam and back beam. Firstly, bending vibration model of the piezoelectric transducer is built based on the Timoshenko beam theory. Secondly, the analytical model of effective electromechanical coupling coefficient is built based on the bending vibration model. Energy method and electromechanical equivalent circuit method are involved in the modelling process. To validate the analytical model, sandwich type piezoelectric transducer example in second order bending vibration mode is analysed. Effective electromechanical coupling coefficient of the transducer is optimized with simplex reflection technique, and the optimized ratio of length of the transducers is obtained. Finally, experimental prototypes of the sandwich type piezoelectric transducers are fabricated. Bending vibration mode and impedance of the experimental prototypes are tested, and electromechanical coupling coefficient is obtained according to the testing results. Results show that the analytical model is in good agreement with the experimental model.

  12. The Effect of Atom Vacancy Defect on the Vibrational Behavior of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: A Structural Mechanics Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Georgantzinos


    Full Text Available An atomistic structural mechanics method, which is based on the exclusive use of spring elements, is developed in order to study the effect of imperfections due to atom vacancy on the vibrational characteristics of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs. The developed elements simulate the relative translations and rotations between atoms as well as the mass of the atoms. In this way, molecular mechanics theory can be applied directly because the atomic bonds are modeled by using exclusively physical variables such as bond stretching. The method is validated for its predictability comparing with vibration results found in the open literature for pristine nanotubes. Then, it is used for the vibration analysis of defective nanotubes. Imperfections such as one-atom vacancy, two-atom vacancy, and one carbon hexagonal cell vacancy are investigated. Their effect on vibrational behavior is explored for different defect positions, nanotube diameters, and support conditions. According to the obtained results, the fundamental frequency is decreased as the size of imperfection increases, and the percentage reduction in fundamental frequency due to the atomic vacancy defect is more affected for a single-clamped SWCNT than for a double-clamped one.

  13. Effects of Ultrasonic Vibration on Heat Transfer Characteristics of Lithium Bromide Aqueous Solution under the Reduced Pressure (United States)

    Yamashiro, Hikaru; Nakashima, Ryou

    The effects of ultrasonic vibration on heat transfer characteristics of lithium bromide aqueous solution under the reduced pressures are studied experimentally. Pool boiling curves on horizontal smooth tube are obtained using distilled water and 50 % LiBr aqueous solution as test liquids. The system pressure p is varied from 12 to 101 kPa and the liquid subcooling ΔTsub ranges from 0 to 70 K. The frequency of ultrasonic vibration vi s set at 24 and 44 kHz, and the power input to the vibrator P is varied from 0 to 35 W. The wall superheat at the boiling incipience is found to decrease with increasing P, and the nucleate boiling curve shifts toward the lower wall temperature region. However, the effect of P is not found to be very significant in the high heat flux region, especially in the case of small liquid subcooling. Ultrasonic vibration is also found to improve the nucleate boiling heat transfer coefficient by up to a maximum of 3.5 times and to prevent crystallization of the solution and precipitation of additives.

  14. Effects of muscle fatigue on the ground reaction force and soft-tissue vibrations during running: a model study. (United States)

    Nikooyan, Ali Asadi; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas


    A modeling approach is used in this paper to study the effects of fatigue on the ground reaction force (GRF) and the vibrations of the lower extremity soft tissues. A recently developed multiple degrees-of-freedom mass-spring-damper model of the human body during running is used for this purpose. The model is capable of taking the muscle activity into account by using a nonlinear controller that tunes the mechanical properties of the soft-tissue package based on two physiological hypotheses, namely, "constant force" and "constant vibration." In this study, muscle fatigue is implemented in the model as the gradual reduction of the ability of the controller to tune the mechanical properties of the lower body soft-tissue package. Simulations are carried out for various types of footwear in both pre- and postfatigue conditions. The simulation results show that the vibration amplitude of the lower body soft-tissue package may considerably increase (up to 20%) with muscle fatigue, while the effects of fatigue on the GRF are negligible. The results of this modeling study are in line with the experimental studies that found muscle fatigue does not significantly change the GRF peaks, but may increase the level of soft-tissue vibrations (particularly for hard shoes). A major contribution of the current study is the formulation of a hypothesis about how the central nervous system tunes the muscle properties after fatigue.

  15. [Effect of vibration, noise, physical exertion and unfavorable microclimate on carbohydrate metabolism in workers engaged into mining industry and machine building]. (United States)

    Lapko, I V; Kir'iakov, V A; Antoshina, L I; Pavlovskaia, N A; Kondratovich, S V


    The authors studied influence of vibration, noise, physical overexertion and microclimate on carbohydrates metabolism and insulin resistance in metal mining industry workers. Findings are that vibration disease appeared to have maximal effect on insulin resistance test results and insulin level. The authors suggested biomarkers for early diagnosis of insulin resistance disorders in metal mining industry workers.

  16. Statistical thermodynamics of nonequilibrium processes

    CERN Document Server

    Keizer, Joel


    The structure of the theory ofthermodynamics has changed enormously since its inception in the middle of the nineteenth century. Shortly after Thomson and Clausius enunciated their versions of the Second Law, Clausius, Maxwell, and Boltzmann began actively pursuing the molecular basis of thermo­ dynamics, work that culminated in the Boltzmann equation and the theory of transport processes in dilute gases. Much later, Onsager undertook the elucidation of the symmetry oftransport coefficients and, thereby, established himself as the father of the theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. Com­ bining the statistical ideas of Gibbs and Langevin with the phenomenological transport equations, Onsager and others went on to develop a consistent statistical theory of irreversible processes. The power of that theory is in its ability to relate measurable quantities, such as transport coefficients and thermodynamic derivatives, to the results of experimental measurements. As powerful as that theory is, it is linear and...

  17. Effects of surface topography and vibrations on wetting: Superhydrophobicity, icephobicity and corrosion resistance (United States)

    Ramachandran, Rahul

    Concrete and metallic materials are widely used in construction and water industry. The interaction of both these materials with water and ice (or snow) produces undesirable results and is therefore of interest. Water that gets absorbed into the pores of dry concrete expands on freezing and can lead to crack formation. Also, the ice accretion on concrete surfaces such as roadways can have disastrous consequence. Metallic components used in the water industry undergo corrosion due to contact with aqueous corrosive solutions. Therefore, it is desirable to make concrete water/ice-repellent, and to make metallic surfaces corrosion-resistant. Recent advances in micro/nanotechnology have made it possible to design functional micro/nanostructured surfaces with micro/nanotopography providing low adhesion. Some examples of such surfaces are superhydrophobic surfaces, which are extremely water repellent, and icephobic surfaces, which have low ice adhesion, repel incoming water droplets before freezing, or delay ice nucleation. This dissertation investigates the effects of surface micro/nanotopography and small amplitude fast vibrations on the wetting and adhesion of concrete with the goal of producing hydrophobic and icephobic concrete, and on the wetting of metallic surfaces to prevent corrosion. The relationship between surface micro/nanotopography and small fast vibrations is established using the method of separation of motions. Both these small scale effects can be substituted by an effective force or energy. The structure-property relationships in materials and surfaces are established. Both vibrations as well as surface micro/nanopatterns can affect wetting properties such as contact angle and surface free energy. Hydrophobic engineered cementitious composite samples are produced by controlling their surface topography and surface free energy. The surface topography is controlled by varying the concrete mixture composition. The surface free energy of concrete is

  18. Effect of Location of Delamination on Free Vibration of Cross-Ply Conical Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Dey


    Full Text Available Location of delamination is a triggering parameter for structural instability of laminated composites. In this paper, a finite element method is employed to determine the effects of location of delamination on free vibration characteristics of graphite-epoxy cross-ply composite pre-twisted shallow conical shells. The generalized dynamic equilibrium equation is derived from Lagrange's equation of motion neglecting Coriolis effect for moderate rotational speeds. The formulation is exercised by using an eight noded isoparametric plate bending element based on Mindlin's theory. Multi-point constraint algorithm is utilized to ensure the compatibility of deformation and equilibrium of resultant forces and moments at the delamination crack front. The standard eigen value problem is solved by applying the QR iteration algorithm. Finite element codes are developed to obtain the numerical results concerning the effects of location of delamination, twist angle and rotational speed on the natural frequencies of cross-ply composite shallow conical shells. The mode shapes are also depicted for a typical laminate configuration. Numerical results obtained from parametric studies of both symmetric and anti-symmetric cross-ply laminates are the first known non-dimensional natural frequencies for the type of analyses carried out here.

  19. Acute effects of whole-body vibration on running gait in marathon runners. (United States)

    Padulo, Johnny; Filingeri, Davide; Chamari, Karim; Migliaccio, Gian Mario; Calcagno, Giuseppe; Bosco, Gerardo; Annino, Giuseppe; Tihanyi, Jozsef; Pizzolato, Fabio


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a single bout of whole-body vibration (WBV) on running gait. The running kinematic of sixteen male marathon runners was assessed on a treadmill at iso-efficiency speed after 10 min of WBV and SHAM (i.e. no WBV) conditions. A high-speed camera (210 Hz) was used for the video analysis and heart rate (HR) was also monitored. The following parameters were investigated: step length (SL), flight time (FT), step frequency (SF), contact time (CT), HR and the internal work (WINT). Full-within one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the randomised crossover design indicated that when compared to SHAM conditions, WBV decreased the SL and the FT by ~4% (P effect occurred during the first minute of running: the SL decreased ~3.5% (P running kinematics during the first minutes post exposure. These results provide insights on the effects of WBV on the central components controlling muscle function.

  20. The acute effects of different training loads of whole body vibration on flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in divers. (United States)

    Dallas, G; Paradisis, G; Kirialanis, P; Mellos, V; Argitaki, P; Smirniotou, A


    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of different vibration loads (frequency and amplitude) of whole-body vibration (WBV) on flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in springboard divers. Eighteen male and female divers, aged 19 ± 2 years, volunteered to perform 3 different WBV protocols in the present study. To assess the vibration effect, flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs were measured before (Pre), immediately after (Post 1) and 15 min after the end of vibration exposure (Post 15). Three protocols with different frequencies and amplitudes were used in the present study: a) low vibration frequency and amplitude (30 Hz/2 mm); b) high vibration frequency and amplitude (50 Hz/4 mm); c) a control protocol (no vibration). WBV protocols were performed on a Power Plate platform, whereas the no vibration divers performed the same protocol but with the vibration platform turned off. A two-way ANOVA 3 x 3 (protocol × time) with repeated measures on both factors was used. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Univariate analyses with simple contrasts across time were selected as post hoc tests. Intraclass coefficients (ICC) were used to assess the reliability across time. The results indicated that flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs were significantly higher in both WBV protocols compared to the no vibration group (NVG). The greatest improvement in flexibility and explosive strength, which occurred immediately after vibration treatment, was maintained 15 min later in both WBV protocols, whereas NVG revealed a significant decrease 15 min later, in all examined strength parameters. In conclusion, a bout of WBV significantly increased flexibility and explosive strength in competitive divers compared with the NVG. Therefore, it is recommended to incorporate WBV as a method to increase flexibility and vertical jump height in sports where these parameters play an important role in the success outcome of

  1. Effect of Attitudinal, Situational and Demographic Factors on Annoyance Due to Environmental Vibration and Noise from Construction of a Light Rapid Transit System (United States)

    Wong-McSweeney, Daniel; Woodcock, James; Waddington, David; Peris, Eulalia; Koziel, Zbigniew; Moorhouse, Andy; Redel-Macías, María Dolores


    The aim of this paper is to determine what non-exposure factors influence the relationship between vibration and noise exposure from the construction of a Light Rapid Transit (LRT) system and the annoyance of nearby residents. Noise and vibration from construction sites are known to annoy residents, with annoyance increasing as a function of the magnitude of the vibration and noise. There is not a strong correlation between exposure and levels of annoyance suggesting that factors not directly related to the exposure may have an influence. A range of attitudinal, situational and demographic factors are investigated with the aim of understanding the wide variation in annoyance for a given vibration exposure. A face-to-face survey of residents (n = 350) near three sites of LRT construction was conducted, and responses were compared to semi-empirical estimates of the internal vibration within the buildings. It was found that annoyance responses due to vibration were strongly influenced by two attitudinal variables, concern about property damage and sensitivity to vibration. Age, ownership of the property and the visibility of the construction site were also important factors. Gender, time at home and expectation of future levels of vibration had much less influence. Due to the measurement methods used, it was not possible to separate out the effects of noise and vibration on annoyance; as such, this paper focusses on annoyance due to vibration exposure. This work concludes that for the most cost-effective reduction of the impact of construction vibration and noise on the annoyance felt by a community, policies should consider attitudinal factors. PMID:27983662

  2. The acute effects of different training loads of whole body vibration on flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in divers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Dallas


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of different vibration loads (frequency and amplitude of whole-body vibration (WBV on flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in springboard divers. Eighteen male and female divers, aged 19 ± 2 years, volunteered to perform 3 different WBV protocols in the present study. To assess the vibration effect, flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs were measured before (Pre, immediately after (Post 1 and 15 min after the end of vibration exposure (Post 15. Three protocols with different frequencies and amplitudes were used in the present study: a low vibration frequency and amplitude (30 Hz/2 mm; b high vibration frequency and amplitude (50 Hz/4 mm; c a control protocol (no vibration. WBV protocols were performed on a Power Plate platform, whereas the no vibration divers performed the same protocol but with the vibration platform turned off. A two-way ANOVA 3 x 3 (protocol × time with repeated measures on both factors was used. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Univariate analyses with simple contrasts across time were selected as post hoc tests. Intraclass coefficients (ICC were used to assess the reliability across time. The results indicated that flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs were significantly higher in both WBV protocols compared to the no vibration group (NVG. The greatest improvement in flexibility and explosive strength, which occurred immediately after vibration treatment, was maintained 15 min later in both WBV protocols, whereas NVG revealed a significant decrease 15 min later, in all examined strength parameters. In conclusion, a bout of WBV significantly increased flexibility and explosive strength in competitive divers compared with the NVG. Therefore, it is recommended to incorporate WBV as a method to increase flexibility and vertical jump height

  3. Construction vibration attenuation with distance and its effect on the quality of early-age concrete. (United States)


    Damage to structures due to vibrations from pile driving operations is of great concern to engineers. This : research has stemmed from the need to address potential damage to concrete-filled pipe piles and recently : placed concrete structures that c...

  4. Various performance-enhancing effects from the same intensity of whole-body vibration training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paohung Chung


    Conclusion: All frequency and amplitude settings in the 8-week whole-body vibration training increased muscle strength, but different settings resulted in various neuromuscular adaptations despite the same intensity.

  5. Effect of pile-driving induced vibrations on nearby structures and other assets. (United States)


    The work described here represents an attempt to understand the mechanisms of energy : transfer from steel H-piles driven with diesel hammers to the surrounding soil and the energy : attenuation through the soil by measuring ground motion vibrations ...

  6. A Simulation Study of the Fundamental Vibrational Shifts of HCl Diluted in Ar, Kr, and Xe: Anharmonic Corrections Effects

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    A. Padilla


    Full Text Available We have calculated the vibrational solvent shifts of the fundamental bands of HCl diluted in Ar, Kr, and Xe solutions at different thermodynamic conditions by means of the molecular dynamics technique and a model for the isotropic part of the interaction depending on the vibration. The theoretical vibrational shifts, which were compared with the available experimental data, have been determined by considering both, the usual linear Buckingham terms and the nonlinear anharmonic corrections, and the latter omitted in a previous work for the HCl in Ar and Kr. We have found that the Buckingham contributions dominate the solvent shifts of the fundamental bands of HCl in Ar, Kr, and Xe, although the anharmonic shifts’ present significant greater values than those obtained previously for N2 diluted in liquid Ar and pure liquid N2, both at normal conditions. We have analyzed the solvent shifts influence of the linear and quadratic (in the vibrational coordinate oscillator-bath interaction terms and also the Dunham intramolecular potential effects on the anharmonic contributions.

  7. Analysis of the Effects of Surface Pitting and Wear on the Vibrations of a Gear Transmission System (United States)

    Choy, F. K.; Polyshchuk, V.; Zakrajsek, J. J.; Handschuh, R. F.; Townsend, D. P.


    A comprehensive procedure to simulate and analyze the vibrations in a gear transmission system with surface pitting, 'wear' and partial tooth fracture of the gear teeth is presented. An analytical model was developed where the effects of surface pitting and wear of the gear tooth were simulated by phase and magnitude changes in the gear mesh stiffness. Changes in the gear mesh stiffness were incorporated into each gear-shaft model during the global dynamic simulation of the system. The overall dynamics of the system were evaluated by solving for the transient dynamics of each shaft system simultaneously with the vibration of the gearbox structure. In order to reduce the number of degrees-of-freedom in the system, a modal synthesis procedure was used in the global transient dynamic analysis of the overall transmission system. An FFT procedure was used to transform the averaged time signal into the frequency domain for signature analysis. In addition, the Wigner-Ville distribution was also introduced to examine the gear vibration in the joint time frequency domain for vibration pattern recognition. Experimental results obtained from a gear fatigue test rig at NASA Lewis Research Center were used to evaluate the analytical model.

  8. The effects of a bridge exercise with vibration training and an unstable base of support on lumbar stabilization. (United States)

    Park, Jinsik; Lee, Sangyong; Hwangbo, Gak


    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a bridge exercise with vibration training and an unstable base of support on lumbar stabilization. [Subjects] This study assigned healthy adults in their 20s to a bridge exercise with a sling and vibration group (BESV, n=20) and a bridge exercise with a sling group (BESG, n=20). [Methods] Electromyography was used to comparatively analyze the activity of the internal obliques (IO), external obliques (EO), and rectus abdominis (RA) when local vibration was applied during a bridge exercise that used a sling as an unstable base of support. [Results] There were statistically significant increases in the activity of the IO and EO within each group after the intervention. The activity of the IO and the EO was significantly higher in the BESV group than in the BES group after the intervention. [Conclusion] The bridge exercise performed using vibration training on an unstable base of support increased the activity of the IO and the EO, which improved lumbar stabilization.

  9. The effect of ultrasonic vibration on the compaction characteristics of paracetamol. (United States)

    Levina, M; Rubinstein, M H


    An ultrasonic (US) compaction rig has been developed that is capable of providing compaction pressure together with high-power ultrasonic vibrations of 20 kHz to a powder or granular material in a die. The rig has been used to investigate the effect of US on the compaction properties of paracetamol, a drug that produces tablets that are weak and frequently exhibit capping. It was found that coherent paracetamol tablets could be prepared by US-assisted compaction at pressures as low as 20 to 30 MPa. Application of US before and after compaction was not found to be as effective as US applied during compaction. The breaking forces of the tablets produced with US applied during compaction were found to be consistently significantly higher than when compaction was performed conventionally or with US applied before or after compaction. The application of US during compaction made it possible to increase tablet breaking force, typically by a factor of 2 to 5. It was concluded that pressure should be applied together with US to achieve a better acoustical contact, which is required to transmit vibrations from the horn to the material and also to bond the surfaces of the particles. US application during compaction also resulted in an increase in apparent density, in relation to the apparent density of conventionally prepared paracetamol tablets, of up to 12.8%. US appears to improve particle rearrangement and provide energy for partial melting of particle asperities and subsequent fusion of particle surfaces, thus increasing interparticulate bonding. Development of solid bridges between the particles during US-assisted compaction was observed on scanning electron photomicrographs. Solid bridge formation was thought to result in a reduction of void space, which in turn reduced the rate of water penetration into the compacts and consequently increased tablet disintegration and drug dissolution times. It was found that the results of US-assisted compaction are influenced by


    Zmijewski, P.; Jimenez-Olmedo, J.M.; Jové-Tossi, M.A.; Martínez-Carbonell, A.; Suárez-Llorca, C.; Andreu-Cabrera, E.


    The primary aim of this study was to examine the effects of 6-week strength training with whole body vibration (WBV) on leg strength and jumping performance in volleyball and beach volleyball players. Twenty-three sub-elite male volleyball (VB; n=12) and beach volleyball players (BVB; n=11) aged 21.2±3.0 years were divided into two groups and subjected to 6 weeks of strength training (three one-hour sessions per week): (I) 12 players (6 VB and 6 BVB players) underwent training with WBV (30-40 Hz, 1.7-2.5 mm, 3.0-5.7 g), and (II) 11 players (6 VB and 5 BVB players) underwent traditional strength training. Squat jump (SJ) and countermovement squat jump (CMJ) measurements by the Ergo Tester contact platform and maximum leg press test (1RM) were conducted. Three-factor (2 time x 2 WBV use x 2 discipline) analysis of variance for SJ, CMJ and 1RM revealed a significant time main effect (pvolleyball and beach volleyball players increases leg strength more and leads to greater improvement in jump performance than traditional strength training, but greater improvements can be expected in beach volleyball players than in volleyball players. PMID:25187676

  11. Effects of resistance training with whole-body vibration on muscle fitness in untrained adults. (United States)

    Osawa, Y; Oguma, Y


    The effects of resistance training (RT) combined with whole-body vibration (WBV) on muscle fitness, particularly muscle hypertrophy and neuromuscular performance, are not well understood. We investigated the effects of WBV in healthy, untrained participants after a 13-week RT course by performing magnetic resonance imaging and by measuring maximal isometric (with electromyography) and isokinetic knee extension strengths, isometric lumbar extension torque, countermovement-jump, knee extension endurance, and sit-ups. Thirty-two individuals (22-49 years old) were randomly assigned to RT groups with (RT-WBV, n=16) or without WBV (RT, n=16). Following the RT course, significantly higher increases in the cross-sectional areas of m. psoas major (vs baseline values) and erector spinae muscle (vs the RT group) were observed in the RT-WBV group (+10.7%, Phypertrophy and isometric lumbar extension torque suggest a potential benefit of incorporating WBV into slow-velocity RT programs involving exercises of long duration. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Whole-body vibration training effect on physical performance and obesity in mice. (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Chang; Tseng, Tzu-Ling; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chung, Yi-Hsiu; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Wu, Jyh-Horng


    The purpose of this study was to verify the beneficial effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) training on exercise performance, physical fatigue and obesity in mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into two groups: normal group (n=6), fed standard diet (control), and experimental group (n=18), fed a HFD. After 4-week induction, followed by 6-week WBV of 5 days per week, the 18 obese mice were divided into 3 groups (n=6 per group): HFD with sedentary control (HFD), HFD with WBV at relatively low-intensity (5.6 Hz, 0.13 g) (HFD+VL) or high-intensity (13 Hz, 0.68 g) (HFD+VH). A trend analysis revealed that WBV increased the grip strength in mice. WBV also dose-dependently decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels and increased glucose level after the swimming test. WBV slightly decreased final body weight and dose-dependently decreased weights of epididymal, retroperitoneal and perirenal fat pads and fasting serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, CK, glucose, total cholesterol and triacylglycerol. Therefore, WBV could improve exercise performance and fatigue and prevent fat accumulation and obesity-associated biochemical alterations in obese mice. It may be an effective intervention for health promotion and prevention of HFD-induced obesity.

  13. Effects of immobilization and whole-body vibration on rat serum Type I collagen turnover. (United States)

    Dönmez, Gürhan; Doral, Mahmut Nedim; Suljevic, Şenay; Sargon, Mustafa Fevzi; Bilgili, Hasan; Demirel, Haydar Ali


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of short-term, high-magnitude whole-body vibration (WBV) on serum type I collagen turnover in immobilized rats. Thirty Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into the following 5 groups: immobilization (IS), immobilization + remobilization (IR), immobilization + WBV (IV), control (C), and WBV control (CV). Immobilization was achieved by casting from the crista iliaca anterior superior to the lower part of the foot for 2 weeks. The applied WBV protocol involved a frequency of 45 Hz and amplitude of 3 mm for 7 days starting a day after the end of the immobilization period. Serum type I collagen turnover markers were measured by using ELISA kits. Serum NH2-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (PINP) levels were significantly lower in the immobilization groups (p immobilization groups. Similarly, serum COOH-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) levels were higher in the WBV controls than their own controls (p Immobilization led to deterioration of tendon tissue, as observed by histopathological analysis with a transmission electron microscope. Although 1 week of WBV had a positive effect on type I collagen turnover in controls, it is not an efficient method for repairing tissue damage in the early stage following immobilization. Copyright © 2016 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects Of Whole Body Vibration On Vertical Jump Performance Following Exercise Induced Muscle Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole C. Dabbs


    Full Text Available Enhancing vertical jump performance is critical for many sports. Following high intensity training, individuals often experience exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD. Many recovery modalities have been tested with conflicting results. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of whole-body vibration (WBV on vertical jump performance following EIMD. 27 females volunteered for 7 sessions and were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group and administered each testing day. Vertical jump performance was assessed via vertical jump height (VJH, peak power output (PPO, rate of force development (RFD, relative ground reaction force (GRFz, and peak activation ratio of the vastus medialis (VM via electromyography (EMG before and after 3 days of EIMD via split squats. Two testing sets were collected each day, consisting of pre measures followed by WBV or control, and then post second measures. A 2x8 (group x time mixed factor analysis of variance (ANOVA was conducted for each variable. No significant interactions or group differences were found in any variable. Significant main effects for time were found in any variable, indicating performance declined following muscle damage. These results indicate that WBV does not aid in muscle recovery or vertical jump performance following EIMD.

  15. Investigations on the Effects of Vortex-Induced Vibration with Different Distributions of Lorentz Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhang


    Full Text Available The control of vortex-induced vibration (VIV in shear flow with different distributions of Lorentz force is numerically investigated based on the stream function–vorticity equations in the exponential-polar coordinates exerted on moving cylinder for Re = 150. The cylinder motion equation coupled with the fluid, including the mathematical expressions of the lift force coefficient C l , is derived. The initial and boundary conditions as well as the hydrodynamic forces on the surface of cylinder are also formulated. The Lorentz force applied to suppress the VIV has no relationship with the flow field, and involves two categories, i.e., the field Lorentz force and the wall Lorentz force. With the application of symmetrical Lorentz forces, the symmetric field Lorentz force can amplify the drag, suppress the flow separation, decrease the lift fluctuation, and then suppress the VIV while the wall Lorentz force decreases the drag only. With the application of asymmetrical Lorentz forces, besides the above-mentioned effects, the field Lorentz force can increase additional lift induced by shear flow, whereas the wall Lorentz force can counteract the additional lift, which is dominated on the total effect.

  16. Effect of Blast-Induced Vibration from New Railway Tunnel on Existing Adjacent Railway Tunnel in Xinjiang, China (United States)

    Liang, Qingguo; Li, Jie; Li, Dewu; Ou, Erfeng


    The vibrations of existing service tunnels induced by blast-excavation of adjacent tunnels have attracted much attention from both academics and engineers during recent decades in China. The blasting vibration velocity (BVV) is the most widely used controlling index for in situ monitoring and safety assessment of existing lining structures. Although numerous in situ tests and simulations had been carried out to investigate blast-induced vibrations of existing tunnels due to excavation of new tunnels (mostly by bench excavation method), research on the overall dynamical response of existing service tunnels in terms of not only BVV but also stress/strain seemed limited for new tunnels excavated by the full-section blasting method. In this paper, the impacts of blast-induced vibrations from a new tunnel on an existing railway tunnel in Xinjiang, China were comprehensively investigated by using laboratory tests, in situ monitoring and numerical simulations. The measured data from laboratory tests and in situ monitoring were used to determine the parameters needed for numerical simulations, and were compared with the calculated results. Based on the results from in situ monitoring and numerical simulations, which were consistent with each other, the original blasting design and corresponding parameters were adjusted to reduce the maximum BVV, which proved to be effective and safe. The effect of both the static stress before blasting vibrations and the dynamic stress induced by blasting on the total stresses in the existing tunnel lining is also discussed. The methods and related results presented could be applied in projects with similar ground and distance between old and new tunnels if the new tunnel is to be excavated by the full-section blasting method.

  17. Effect of tendon vibration during wide-pulse neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on the decline and recovery of muscle force. (United States)

    Bochkezanian, Vanesa; Newton, Robert U; Trajano, Gabriel S; Vieira, Amilton; Pulverenti, Timothy S; Blazevich, Anthony J


    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is commonly used to activate skeletal muscles and reverse muscle atrophy in clinical populations. Clinical recommendations for NMES suggest the use of short pulse widths (100-200 μs) and low-to-moderate pulse frequencies (30-50 Hz). However, this type of NMES causes rapid muscle fatigue due to the (non-physiological) high stimulation intensities and non-orderly recruitment of motor units. The use of both wide pulse widths (1000 μs) and tendon vibration might optimize motor unit activation through spinal reflex pathways and thus delay the onset of muscle fatigue, increasing muscle force and mass. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine the acute effects of patellar tendon vibration superimposed onto wide-pulse width (1000 μs) knee extensor electrical stimulation (NMES, 30 Hz) on peak muscle force, total impulse before "muscle fatigue", and the post-exercise recovery of muscle function. Tendon vibration (Vib), NMES (STIM) or NMES superimposed onto vibration (STIM + Vib) were applied in separate sessions to 16 healthy adults. Total torque-time integral (TTI), maximal voluntary contraction torque (MVIC) and indirect measures of muscle damage were tested before, immediately after, 1 h and 48 h after each stimulus. TTI increased (145.0 ± 127.7%) in STIM only for "positive responders" to the tendon vibration (8/16 subjects), but decreased in "negative responders" (-43.5 ± 25.7%). MVIC (-8.7%) and rectus femoris electromyography (RF EMG) (-16.7%) decreased after STIM (group effect) for at least 1 h, but not after STIM + Vib. No changes were detected in indirect markers of muscle damage in any condition. Tendon vibration superimposed onto wide-pulse width NMES increased TTI only in 8 of 16 subjects, but reduced voluntary force loss (fatigue) ubiquitously. Negative responders to tendon vibration may derive greater benefit from wide-pulse width NMES alone.

  18. Short-term effects of vibration therapy on motor impairments in Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    King, Lauren K; Almeida, Quincy J; Ahonen, Heidi


    Recent studies have suggested that vibration therapy may have a positive influence on motor symptoms in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, quantitative evidence of these benefits is scarce, and the concept of "whole-body" vibration in these studies is vague. The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the influence of vibration on motor symptoms and functional measures in PD by delivering sound waves to the entire body. We delivered whole body sound wave vibration to 40 individuals with PD using a Physioacoustic Chair, a piece of equipment with speakers spaced throughout the chair permitting a series of programmed low frequency sound waves through the body. Using a parallel cross-over design we utilized the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), quantitative gait assessments, and a grooved pegboard for upper limb control. Improvements were seen in all symptom, motor control and functional outcome measures at the time of assessment. Specifically, a significant decrease in rigidity, and tremor were shown, as well as a significant increase in step length and improved speed on the grooved pegboard task. Results of this initial investigation provide support for vibration therapy as a non-pharmacological treatment alternative. Long-term benefits of vibration therapy will require further research.

  19. Study on the Effect of Reciprocating Pump Pipeline System Vibration on Oil Transportation Stations

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    Hongfang Lu


    Full Text Available Due to the periodic movement of the piston in the reciprocating pump, the fluid will cause a pressure pulsation, and the resulting pipeline vibration may lead to instrument distortion, pipe failure and equipment damage. Therefore, it is necessary to study the vibration phenomena of reciprocating pump pipelines based on pressure pulsation theory. This paper starts from the reciprocating pump pipe pressure pulsation caused by a fluid, pressure pulsation in the pipeline and the unbalanced exciting force is calculated under the action of the reciprocating pump. Then, the numerical simulation model is established based on the pipe beam model, and the rationality of the numerical simulation method is verified by indoor experiments. Finally, a case study is taken as an example to analyze the vibration law of the pipeline system, and vibration reduction measures are proposed. The following main conclusions are drawn from the analysis: (1 unbalanced exciting forces are produced in the elbows or tee joints, and it can also influence the straight pipe to different levels; (2 in actual engineering, it should be possible to prevent the simultaneous settlement of multiple places; (3 the vibration amplitude increases with the pipe thermal stress, and when the oil temperature is higher than 85 °C, it had a greater influence on the vertical vibration amplitude of the pipe.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinori Fukudomet


    Full Text Available The purpose of present study was to compare the effect of Ia afferent attenuation on the activity of alpha motor neuron (MN during concentric and eccentric action. Eight male subjects were enrolled in the present study. The experiments consisted of two sessions of MVC measurements, since all subjects performed both maximal concentric and eccentric action. EMG signals were simultaneously measured. To establish the baseline of strength, subjects were asked to perform MVC of knee extension in each session. After finishing the measurements, 20 min of vibration stimulation was applied. Immediately after finishing vibration stimulation, the MVC and AEMG were again measured. The means of MVC for concentric knee extension at pre and post- vibration stimulation were 192.2 ± 49.3 Nm and 162.3 ± 47.9 Nm, respectively. The means of MVC for eccentric knee extension at pre and post-vibration stimulation were 299.7 ± 77.0 Nm and 247.3 ± 88. 6 Nm, respectively. Two-factor repeated ANOVA detected significant differences in the MVC. Both main effects for pre-post condition (F(1,7=, p = 0.0033 and action (F(1,7=26.35, p = 0.0013 were noted. No interaction effect (action x condition was noted. The means of AEMG (vastus lateralis (VL, vastus medialis (VM, rectus femoris (RF at pre and post -vibration stimulation were decreased. Two-factor repeated ANOVA detected significant differences in AEMG (VM and VL. Both main effects for pre-post condition (VL;F(1,7=7.27, p = 0.0308, VM; F(1,7=9.55, p = 0.0175 and action (F(1,7=12.40, p = 0.0097 were noted in the VL and the VM but not in the RF. Furthermore, significant interaction (action x condition effect was noted in the VM (F(1,7=7.03, p = 0.0328 but not in the VL. The MVC and the EMG activity of the VL in response to the prolonged vibration stimulation were significantly reduced in eccentric contraction over concentric contraction. These results represented that a deactivation effect on the alpha MN of the VL during

  1. Vibrational Stark Effect to Probe the Electric-Double Layer of the Ionic Liquid-Metal Electrodes (United States)

    Garcia Rey, Natalia; Moore, Alexander Knight; Toyouchi, Shuichi; Dlott, Dana


    Vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy is used to study the effect of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) in situ at the electrical double layer (EDL). RTILs have been recognized as electrolytes without solvent for applications in batteries, supercapacitors and electrodeposition^{1}. The molecular response of the RTIL in the EDL affects the performance of these devices. We use the vibrational Stark effect on CO as a probe to detect the changes in the electric field affected by the RTIL across the EDL on metal electrodes. The Stark effect is a shift in the frequency in response to an externally applied electric field and also influenced by the surrounding electrolyte and electrode^{2}. The CO Stark shift is monitored by the CO-VSFG spectra on Pt or Ag in a range of different imidazolium-based RTILs electrolytes, where their composition is tuned by exchanging the anion, the cation or the imidazolium functional group. We study the free induction decay (FID)^{3} of the CO to monitor how the RTIL structure and composition affect the vibrational relaxation of the CO. Combining the CO vibrational Stark effect and the FID allow us to understand how the RTIL electrochemical response, molecular orientation response and collective relaxation affect the potential drop of the electric field across the EDL, and, in turn, how determines the electrical capacitance or reactivity of the electrolyte/electrode interface. ^{1}Fedorov, M. V.; Kornyshev, A. A., Ionic Liquids at Electrified Interfaces. Chem. Rev. 2014, 114, 2978-3036. ^{2} (a) Lambert, D. K., Vibrational Stark Effect of Adsorbates at Electrochemical Interfaces. Electrochim. Acta 1996, 41, 623-630. (b) Oklejas, V.; Sjostrom, C.; Harris, J. M., SERS Detection of the Vibrational Stark Effect from Nitrile-Terminated SAMs to Probe Electric Fields in the Diffuse Double-Layer. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2002, 124, 2408-2409. ^{3}Symonds, J. P. R.; Arnolds, H.; Zhang, V. L.; Fukutani, K.; King, D. A


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Pérez-Turpin


    Full Text Available The primary aim of this study was to examine the effects of 6-week strength training with whole body vibration (WBV on leg strength and jumping performance in volleyball and beach volleyball players. Twenty-three sub-elite male volleyball (VB; n=12 and beach volleyball players (BVB; n=11 aged 21.2±3.0 years were divided into two groups and subjected to 6 weeks of strength training (three one-hour sessions per week: (I 12 players (6 VB and 6 BVB players underwent training with WBV (30-40 Hz, 1.7-2.5 mm, 3.0-5.7 g, and (II 11 players (6 VB and 5 BVB players underwent traditional strength training. Squat jump (SJ and countermovement squat jump (CMJ measurements by the Ergo Tester contact platform and maximum leg press test (1RM were conducted. Three-factor (2 time x 2 WBV use x 2 discipline analysis of variance for SJ, CMJ and 1RM revealed a significant time main effect (p<0.001, a WBV use effect (p<0.001 and a discipline effect (p<0.001. Significantly greater improvements in the SJ (p<0.001 and CMJ (p<0.001 and in 1RM (p<0.001 were found in the WBV training groups than in traditional training groups. Significant 3-way interaction effects (training, WBV use, discipline kind were also found for SJ, CMJ and 1RM (p=0.001, p<0.001, p=0.001, respectively. It can be concluded that implementation of 6-week WBV training in routine practice in volleyball and beach volleyball players increases leg strength more and leads to greater improvement in jump performance than traditional strength training, but greater improvements can be expected in beach volleyball players than in volleyball players.

  3. Superconductors in non-equilibrium. Higgs oscillations and induced superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittner, Nikolaj; Schnyder, Andreas; Manske, Dirk [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Krull, Holger [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Lehrstuhl fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany); Tohyama, Takami [Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Science, Tokyo 125-8585 (Japan)


    Nonequilibrium pump-probe time-domain spectroscopy opens new perspectives in studying the dynamical properties of the strongly correlated electron systems. In particular, new effects, such as transient superconductivity or Higgs oscillations of the superconducting condensate, can be obtained. Using various methods we present a theoretical study of the nonequilibrium dynamics in superconductors. Firstly, within the framework of the density matrix formalism we study Higgs oscillations in superconductors, which allow to detect the properties of the superconducting condensate as a function of time. For two-band superconductors the interplay between the phase (Leggett) and amplitude (Higgs) modes is analyzed in detail and new predictions are made. Secondly, employing the time-dependent Lanczos algorithm to the one-dimensional extended Hubbard model we observe appearance of a transient Meissner effect, which is a fingerprint of the induced superconductivity.

  4. Effect of voluntary periodic muscular activity on nonlinearity in the apparent mass of the seated human body during vertical random whole-body vibration (United States)

    Huang, Ya; Griffin, Michael J.


    The principal resonance frequency in the driving-point impedance of the human body decreases with increasing vibration magnitude—a nonlinear response. An understanding of the nonlinearities may advance understanding of the mechanisms controlling body movement and improve anthropodynamic modelling of responses to vibration at various magnitudes. This study investigated the effects of vibration magnitude and voluntary periodic muscle activity on the apparent mass resonance frequency using vertical random vibration in the frequency range 0.5-20 Hz. Each of 14 subjects was exposed to 14 combinations of two vibration magnitudes (0.25 and 2.0 m s -2 root-mean square (rms)) in seven sitting conditions: two without voluntary periodic movement (A: upright; B: upper-body tensed), and five with voluntary periodic movement (C: back-abdomen bending; D: folding-stretching arms from back to front; E: stretching arms from rest to front; F: folding arms from elbow; G: deep breathing). Three conditions with voluntary periodic movement significantly reduced the difference in resonance frequency at the two vibration magnitudes compared with the difference in a static sitting condition. Without voluntary periodic movement (condition A: upright), the median apparent mass resonance frequency was 5.47 Hz at the low vibration magnitude and 4.39 Hz at the high vibration magnitude. With voluntary periodic movement (C: back-abdomen bending), the resonance frequency was 4.69 Hz at the low vibration magnitude and 4.59 Hz at the high vibration magnitude. It is concluded that back muscles, or other muscles or tissues in the upper body, influence biodynamic responses of the human body to vibration and that voluntary muscular activity or involuntary movement of these parts can alter their equivalent stiffness.

  5. Effect of the gel elasticity of model skin matrices on the distance/depth-dependent transmission of vibration energy supplied from a cosmetic vibrator. (United States)

    Jeong, M K; Hwang, C; Nam, H; Cho, Y S; Kang, B Y; Cho, E C


    The purpose of this study was to determine how the energies supplied from a cosmetic vibrator are deeply or far transferred into organs and tissues, and how these depths or distances are influenced by tissue elasticity. External vibration energy was applied to model skin surfaces through a facial cleansing vibrator, and we measured a distance- and depth-dependent energy that was transferred to model skin matrices. As model skin matrices, we synthesized hard and soft poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) gels, as well as hydrogels with a modulus of 2.63 MPa, 0.33 MPa and 21 kPa, respectively, mostly representing those of skin and other organs. The transfer of vibration energy was measured either by increasing the separation distances or by increasing the depth from the vibrator. The energies were transmitted deeper into the hard PDMS than into the soft PDMS and hydrogel matrices. This finding implies that the vibration forces influence a larger area of the gel matrices when the gels are more elastic (or rigid). There were no appreciable differences between the soft PDMS and hydrogel matrices. However, the absorbed energies were more concentrated in the area closest to the vibrator with decreasing elasticity of the matrix. Softer materials absorbed most of the supplied energy around the point of the vibrator. In contrast, harder materials scattered the external energy over a broad area. The current results are the first report in estimating how the external energy is deeply or distantly transferred into a model skins depending on the elastic moduli of the models skins. In doing so, the results would be potentially useful in predicting the health of cells, tissues and organs exposed to various stimuli. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  6. Referesher Course on Contemporary Non-Equilibrium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 7. Referesher Course on Contemporary Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics. Information and Announcements Volume 15 Issue 7 July 2010 pp 678-678 ...

  7. Simulating Nonequilibrium Radiation via Orthogonal Polynomial Refinement (United States)


    The complex nonequilibrium radiative simulation for high-speed flow is built on the interlocking phenomena between quantum physics , aerodynamics with...from quantum physics and transmit across the two different coordinates by a nearest neighbor search algorithm.

  8. Effects of 24 weeks of whole body vibration training on body composition and muscle strength in untrained females. (United States)

    Roelants, M; Delecluse, C; Goris, M; Verschueren, S


    The aim of this study was to investigate and to compare the effect of 24 weeks "whole body vibration" training and fitness training on body composition and on muscle strength. Forty-eight untrained females (21.3 +/- 2.0 yr) participated in the study. The whole body vibration group (N = 18) performed unloaded static and dynamic exercises on a vibration platform (35 - 40 Hz, 2.5 - 5.0 mm; Power Plate). The fitness group (N = 18) followed a standard cardiovascular (15 - 40 min) and resistance training program including dynamic leg press and leg extension exercises (20 - 8 RM). Both groups trained 3 times weekly. The control group (N = 12) did not participate in any training. Body composition was determined by means of underwater weighing. Additionally 12 skinfolds were assessed. Isometric (0 degrees /s) and isokinetic (50 degrees /s, 100 degrees /s, 150 degrees /s) knee-extensor strength was measured by means of a motor-driven dynamometer (Technogym). Over 24 weeks there were no significant changes (p > 0.05) in weight, in percentage body fat, nor in skinfold thickness in any of the groups. Fat free mass increased significantly in the whole body vibration group (+ 2.2 %) only. A significant strength gain was recorded in the whole body vibration group (24.4 +/- 5.1 %; 5.9 +/- 2.1 %; 8.3 +/- 4.4 %; 7.6 +/- 1.5 %) and in the fitness group (16.5 +/- 1.7 %; 12.0 +/- 2.7 %; 10.4 +/- 2.3 %; 10.2 +/- 1.9 %), at 0 degrees /s, 50 degrees /s, 100 degrees /s and 150 degrees /s respectively. In conclusion, 24 weeks whole body vibration training did not reduce weight, total body fat or subcutaneous fat in previously untrained females. However, whole body vibration training induces a gain in knee-extensor strength combined with a small increase in fat free mass. The gain in strength is comparable to the strength increase following a standard fitness training program consisting of cardiovascular and resistance training.

  9. The effect of whole-body vibration training on lean mass: A PRISMA-compliant meta-analysis. (United States)

    Chen, Hengting; Ma, Jianxiong; Lu, Bin; Ma, Xin-Long


    Whole-body vibration training (WBVT) confers a continuous vibration stimuli to the body. Although some reports have discussed the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on bone mineral density and muscle strength, study of WBV effects on lean mass have not been determined. The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to evaluate published, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the effects of WBVT on lean mass. We identified only RCTs by searching databases, including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and the Cochrane Library from inception to March 2017. Data extraction, quality assessment, and meta-analysis were performed. Ten RCTs with 5 RCTs concentrating on older people, 3 on young adults, and 2 on children and adolescents were included. We additionally explored the effect of WBVT on postmenopausal women (6 trials from the 10 trials). Significant improvements in lean mass with WBVT were merely found in young adults (P = .02) but not in other populations compared to control group. The effect of WBVT found in the present meta-analysis may be used in counteracting the loss of muscle mass in younger adults. Moreover, optimal WBVT protocols for greater muscle hypertrophy are expected to be investigated.

  10. Study of the Effectiveness of Vibration in Reduction of Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness Resulting after Therapeutic Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Introduction: Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS is a common strain resulting during therapeutic exercise with eccentric contractions. This pain can result in loss of interest by the patient and eventually in cancellation of the routine. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether vibration could have an affect on delayed onset muscle soreness. We hypothesized that the vibration training would decrease DOMS. Methods: Subjects comprised of 30 male athletes aged 18-26 years. The athletes were involved in regular sports activities since at least three years. Subjects were assigned randomly into two VT (n=15 and Non-VT (n=15 groups. The measurements included the flexed knee angle (FANG, pressure pain threshold (PPT, muscle soreness (SOR of right quadriceps muscle and maximal isometric force (MIF of both quadriceps muscles together (Base-line. A vibrator was used to apply 50 Hz vibration on the left and right quadriceps muscles for 1 min in the VT group. Then both groups trained eccentric exercise. All parameters were determined again 24 hours post-exercise (After- activity. Results: All subjects showed a loss in MIF, decrease in PPT, FANG and increase in SOR 24h after eccentric exercise (p=0/000. But the parameters were statistically significantly different in the VT and Non-VT groups [MIF (p=0/000, PPT (p=0/001, FANG (p=0/02, SOR (p=0/003]. Conclusion: Therapeutic exercise with eccentric contractions results in DOMS, but vibration training before exercise is effective and beneficial in decreasing DOMS.

  11. Investigation of Multiscale Non-equilibrium Flow Dynamics Under External Force Field

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Tianbai


    The multiple scale non-equilibrium gaseous flow behavior under external force field is investigated. Both theoretical analysis based on the kinetic model equation and numerical study are presented to demonstrate the dynamic effect of external force on the flow evolution, especially on the non-equilibrium heat flux. The current numerical experiment is based on the well-balanced unified gas-kinetic scheme (UGKS), which presents accurate solutions in the whole flow regime from the continuum Navier-Stokes solution to the transition and free molecular ones. The heat conduction in the non-equilibrium regime due to the external forcing term is quantitatively investigated. In the lid-driven cavity flow study, due to the external force field the density distribution inside cavity gets stratified and a multiscale non-equilibrium flow transport appears in a single gas dynamic system. With the increment of external forcing term, the flow topological structure changes dramatically, and the temperature gradient, shearing s...

  12. Including surface ligand effects in continuum elastic models of nanocrystal vibrations (United States)

    Lee, Elizabeth M. Y.; Mork, A. Jolene; Willard, Adam P.; Tisdale, William A.


    The measured low frequency vibrational energies of some quantum dots (QDs) deviate from the predictions of traditional elastic continuum models. Recent experiments have revealed that these deviations can be tuned by changing the ligands that passivate the QD surface. This observation has led to speculation that these deviations are due to a mass-loading effect of the surface ligands. In this article, we address this speculation by formulating a continuum elastic theory that includes the dynamical loading by elastic surface ligands. We demonstrate that this model is capable of accurately reproducing the l = 0 phonon energy across a variety of different QD samples, including cores with different ligand identities and epitaxially grown CdSe/CdS core/shell heterostructures. We highlight that our model performs well even in the small QD regime, where traditional elastic continuum models are especially prone to failure. Furthermore, we show that our model combined with Raman measurements can be used to infer the elastic properties of surface bound ligands, such as sound velocities and elastic moduli, that are otherwise challenging to measure.

  13. Quantum thermodynamics: a nonequilibrium Green's function approach. (United States)

    Esposito, Massimiliano; Ochoa, Maicol A; Galperin, Michael


    We establish the foundations of a nonequilibrium theory of quantum thermodynamics for noninteracting open quantum systems strongly coupled to their reservoirs within the framework of the nonequilibrium Green's functions. The energy of the system and its coupling to the reservoirs are controlled by a slow external time-dependent force treated to first order beyond the quasistatic limit. We derive the four basic laws of thermodynamics and characterize reversible transformations. Stochastic thermodynamics is recovered in the weak coupling limit.

  14. Non-equilibrium dog-flea model (United States)

    Ackerson, Bruce J.


    We develop the open dog-flea model to serve as a check of proposed non-equilibrium theories of statistical mechanics. The model is developed in detail. Then it is applied to four recent models for non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. Comparison of the dog-flea solution with these different models allows checking claims and giving a concrete example of the theoretical models.

  15. Monitoring vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiryaki, B. [Hacettepe University (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering


    The paper examines the prediction and optimisation of machine vibrations in longwall shearers. Underground studies were carried out at the Middle Anatolian Lignite Mine, between 1993 and 1997. Several shearer drums with different pick lacing arrangements were designed and tested on double-ended ranging longwall shearers employed at the mine. A computer program called the Vibration Analysis Program (VAP) was developed for analysing machine vibrations in longwall shearers. Shearer drums that were tested underground, as well as some provided by leading manufacturers, were analyzed using these programs. The results of the experiments and computer analyses are given in the article. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Forced Transverse Vibration of a Closed Double Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube System Containing a Fluid with Effect of Compressive Axial Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Nasirshoaibi


    Full Text Available Based on the Rayleigh beam theory, the forced transverse vibrations of a closed double single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT system containing a fluid with a Pasternak layer in-between are investigated. It is assumed that the two single-walled carbon nanotubes of the system are continuously joined by a Pasternak layer and both sides of SWCNTs containing a fluid are closed. The dynamic responses of the system caused by arbitrarily distributed continuous loads are obtained. The effect of compressive axial load on the forced vibrations of the double single-walled carbon nanotube system is discussed for one case of particular excitation loading. The properties of the forced transverse vibrations of the system are found to be significantly dependent on the compressive axial load. The steady-state vibration amplitudes of the SWCNT decrease with increasing of length of SWCNT. Vibrations caused by the harmonic exciting forces are discussed, and conditions of resonance and dynamic vibration absorption are formulated. The SWCNT-type dynamic absorber is a new concept of a dynamic vibration absorber (DVA, which can be applied to suppress excessive vibrations of corresponding SWCNT systems.

  17. The bending vibrational levels of the acetylene cation: a case study of the Renner-Teller effect in a molecule with two degenerate bending vibrations. (United States)

    Tang, Sheunn-Jiun; Chou, Yung-Ching; Lin, Jim Jr-Min; Hsu, Yen-Chu


    Forty three vibronic levels of C2H2+, X 2Pi u, with upsilon4 = 0-6, upsilon5 = 0-3, and K = 0-4, lying at energies of 0-3520 cm(-1) above the zero-point level, have been recorded at rotational resolution. These levels were observed by double resonance, using 1+1' two-color pulsed-field ionization zero-kinetic-energy photoelectron spectroscopy. The intermediate states were single rovibrational levels chosen from the A1Au, 4nu3 (K = 1-2), 5nu3 (K = 1), nu2+4nu3 (K = 0), and 47,206 cm(-1) (K = 1) levels of C2H2. Seven of the trans-bending levels of C2H2+ (upsilon4 = 0-3, K = 0-2) had been reported previously by Pratt et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 99, 6233 (1993)]; our results for these levels agree well with theirs. A full analysis has been carried out, including the Renner-Teller effect and the vibrational anharmonicity for both the trans- and cis-bending vibrations. The rotational structure of the lowest 16 vibronic levels (consisting of the complete set of levels with upsilon4 + upsilon5 < or = 2, except for the unobserved upper (2Pi u component of the 2nu4 overtone) could be fitted by least squares using 16 parameters to give an rms deviation of 0.21 cm(-1). The vibronic coupling parameter epsilon5 (about whose magnitude there has been controversy) was determined to be -0.0273(7). For the higher vibronic levels, an additional parameter, r45, was needed to allow for the Darling-Dennison resonance between the two bending manifolds. Almost all the observed levels of the upsilon4 + upsilon5 = 3 and 4 polyads (about half of the predicted number) could then be assigned. In a final fit to 39 vibronic levels with upsilon4 + upsilon5 < or = 5, an rms deviation of 0.34 cm(-1) was obtained using 20 parameters. An interesting finding is that Hund's spin-coupling cases (a) and (b) both occur in the Sigmau components of the nu4 + 2nu5 combination level. The ionization potential of C2H2 (from the lowest rotational level of the ground state to the lowest rotational level of the cation

  18. The Effect of Whole-Body Vibration on Lower-Body Resistance Detraining in College-Age Women (United States)

    Lindsay, Keston G.; Nichols, David L.; Davis, Ronald W.; Marshall, David D.


    Purpose: This study explored the effect of whole-body vibration (WBV) using accelerations of 2.56 "g" to 7.68 "g" on lower-body detraining. Methods: All participants (N = 20) were trained using a lower-body resistance-training program for 30 min twice per week from Week 0 to Week 6. At the end of the program, they were randomly…

  19. Effect of iTonic whole-body vibration on delayed-onset muscle soreness among untrained individuals


    Rhea, Matthew R.; Bunker, Derek; Marín Cabezuelo, Pedro J.; Lunt, K. T.


    Attempts to reduce or eliminate delayed-onset of muscle soreness are important as this condition is painful and debilitating. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of whole-body vibration (WBV) massage and stretching exercises at reducing perceived pain among untrained men. Sixteen adult men (age, 36.6 +/- 2.1 yr) volunteered to perform a strenuous exercise session consisting of resistance training and repeated sprints. Subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 recovery g...

  20. Geometric phase contribution to quantum nonequilibrium many-body dynamics. (United States)

    Tomka, Michael; Polkovnikov, Anatoli; Gritsev, Vladimir


    We study the influence of geometry of quantum systems underlying space of states on its quantum many-body dynamics. We observe an interplay between dynamical and topological ingredients of quantum nonequilibrium dynamics revealed by the geometrical structure of the quantum space of states. As a primary example we use the anisotropic XY ring in a transverse magnetic field with an additional time-dependent flux. In particular, if the flux insertion is slow, nonadiabatic transitions in the dynamics are dominated by the dynamical phase. In the opposite limit geometric phase strongly affects transition probabilities. This interplay can lead to a nonequilibrium phase transition between these two regimes. We also analyze the effect of geometric phase on defect generation during crossing a quantum-critical point.

  1. Phase transition universality classes of classical, nonequilibrium systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ódor, G


    In the first chapter I summarize the most important critical exponents and relations used in this work. In the second chapter I briefly address the question of scaling behavior at first order phase transitions.In chapter three I review dynamical extensions of basic static classes, show the effect of mixing dynamics and percolation behavior. The main body of this work is given in chapter four where genuine, dynamical universality classes specific to nonequilibrium systems are introduced. In chapter five I continue overviewing such nonequilibrium classes but in coupled, multi-component systems. Most of known transitions in low dimensional systems are between active and absorbing states of reaction-diffusion type systems, but I briefly introduce related classes that appear in interface growth models in chapter six. Some of them are related to critical behavior of coupled, multi-component systems. Finally in chapter seven I summarize families of absorbing state system classes, mean-field classes and the most freq...

  2. Density-functional method for nonequilibrium electron transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandbyge, Mads; Mozos, J.L.; Ordejon, P.


    We describe an ab initio method for calculating the electronic structure, electronic transport, and forces acting on the atoms, for atomic scale systems connected to semi-infinite electrodes and with an applied voltage bias. Our method is based on the density-functional theory (DFT) as implemented...... the contact and the electrodes on the same footing. The effect of the finite bias (including self-consistency and the solution of the electrostatic problem) is taken into account using nonequilibrium Green's functions. We relate the nonequilibrium Green's function expressions to the more transparent scheme...... wires connected to aluminum electrodes with extended or finite cross section, (ii) single atom gold wires, and finally (iii) large carbon nanotube systems with point defects....

  3. Effect of whole-body vibration training on body composition, exercise performance and biochemical responses in middle-aged mice. (United States)

    Lin, Ching-I; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Kan, Nai-Wen; Wei, Li; Chiu, Yen-Shuo; Huang, Chi-Chang


    Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a well-known light-resistance exercise by automatic adaptations to rapid and repeated oscillations from a vibrating platform, which is also a simple and convenient exercise for older adults. However, the potential benefits of WBV on aging-associated changes in body composition, exercise performance, and fatigue are currently unclear. The objective of the study is to investigate the beneficial effects of WBV training on body composition, exercise performance, and physical fatigue-related and biochemical responses in middle-aged mice. In total, 24 male C57BL/6 mice aged 15 months old were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=8 per group): sedentary control (SC), relatively low-frequency WBV (5.6 Hz, 2 mm, 0.13 g) (LV), and relatively high-frequency WBV (13 Hz, 2 mm, 0.68 g) (HV). Mice in the LV and HV groups were placed inside a vibration platform and vibrated at different frequencies and fixed amplitude (2 mm) for 15 min, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Exercise performance, core temperature and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK) after a 15-min swimming exercise, as were changes in body composition and biochemical variables at the end of the experiment. Relative muscle and brown adipose tissue weight (%) was significantly higher for the HV than SC mice, but relative liver weight (%) was lower. On trend analysis, WBV increased grip strength, aerobic endurance and core temperature in mice. As well, serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels were dose-dependently decreased with vibration frequency after the swimming test. Fasting serum levels of albumin and total protein were increased and serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and creatinine decreased dose-dependently with vibration frequency. Moreover, WBV training improved the age-related abnormal morphology of skeletal muscle, liver and kidney tissues. Therefore, it could improve exercise performance and

  4. Mimicking Nonequilibrium Steady States with Time-Periodic Driving (United States)

    Raz, O.; Subaşı, Y.; Jarzynski, C.


    Under static conditions, a system satisfying detailed balance generically relaxes to an equilibrium state in which there are no currents. To generate persistent currents, either detailed balance must be broken or the system must be driven in a time-dependent manner. A stationary system that violates detailed balance evolves to a nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) characterized by fixed currents. Conversely, a system that satisfies instantaneous detailed balance but is driven by the time-periodic variation of external parameters—also known as a stochastic pump (SP)—reaches a periodic state with nonvanishing currents. In both cases, these currents are maintained at the cost of entropy production. Are these two paradigmatic scenarios effectively equivalent? For discrete-state systems, we establish a mapping between nonequilibrium stationary states and stochastic pumps. Given a NESS characterized by a particular set of stationary probabilities, currents, and entropy production rates, we show how to construct a SP with exactly the same (time-averaged) values. The mapping works in the opposite direction as well. These results establish a proof of principle: They show that stochastic pumps are able to mimic the behavior of nonequilibrium steady states, and vice versa, within the theoretical framework of discrete-state stochastic thermodynamics. Nonequilibrium steady states and stochastic pumps are often used to model, respectively, biomolecular motors driven by chemical reactions and artificial molecular machines steered by the variation of external, macroscopic parameters. Our results loosely suggest that anything a biomolecular machine can do, an artificial molecular machine can do equally well. We illustrate this principle by showing that kinetic proofreading, a NESS mechanism that explains the low error rates in biochemical reactions, can be effectively mimicked by a constrained periodic driving.

  5. Membrane-type resonator as an effective miniaturized tuned vibration mass damper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Liang; Au-Yeung, Ka Yan; Yang, Min; Tang, Suet To; Yang, Zhiyu, E-mail:; Sheng, Ping [Department of Physics, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)


    Damping of low frequency vibration by lightweight and compact devices has been a serious challenge in various areas of engineering science. Here we report the experimental realization of a type of miniature low frequency vibration dampers based on decorated membrane resonators. At frequency around 150 Hz, two dampers, each with outer dimensions of 28 mm in diameter and 5 mm in height, and a total mass of 1.78 g which is less than 0.6% of the host structure (a nearly free-standing aluminum beam), can reduce its vibrational amplitude by a factor of 1400, or limit its maximum resonance quality factor to 18. Furthermore, the conceptual design of the dampers lays the foundation and demonstrates the potential of further miniaturization of low frequency dampers.

  6. Ligand effects on the structure and vibrational properties of the thiolated Au18 cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Tlahuice-Flores


    Full Text Available Most of the studies devoted to thiolated gold clusters suppose that their core and Au-S framework do not suffer from distortion independently of the protecting ligands (-SR and it is assumed as correct to simplify the ligand as SCH3. In this work is delivered a systematic study of the structure and vibrational properties (IR and Raman of the Au18(SR14 cluster. The pursued goal is to understand the dependency of the displayed vibrational properties of the thiolated Au18 cluster with the ligands type. A set of six ligands was considered during calculations of the vibrational properties based on density functional theory (DFT and in its dispersion-corrected approach (DFT-D.

  7. Analysis of the effect of vibrations on the bentonite buffer in the canister hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Martin (AaF- Berg och Maetteknik, Stockholm (Sweden)); Hakami, Hossein; Ekneligoda, Thushan (Itasca Geomekanik AB, Solna (Sweden))


    During the construction of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in crystalline rock, blasting activities in certain deposition tunnels will occur at the same time as the deposition of canisters containing the waste is going on in another adjacent access tunnel. In fact, the deposition consists of several stages after the drilling of the deposition hole. The most vulnerable stage from a vibration point of view is when the bentonite buffer is placed in the deposition hole but the canister has not been placed yet. During this stage, a hollow column of bentonite blocks remains free to vibrate inside the deposition hole. The goal of this study was to investigate the displacement of the bentonite blocks when exposed to the highest vibration level that can be expected during the drill and blast operations. In order to investigate this, a three dimensional model in 3DEC, capable of capturing the dynamic behaviour of the bentonite buffer was set up. To define the vibration levels, which serve as input data for the 3DEC model, an extensive analysis of the recorded vibrations from the TASQ - tunnel was carried out. For this purpose, an upper expected vibration limit was defined. This was done outgoing from the fact that the planned charging for the construction of the geological repository will lie in the interval 2 to 4 kg. Furthermore, at the first stage for this study, it was decided that the vibration should be conservatively evaluated for 30 m distance. Using these data, it was concluded that the maximum vibration level that can be expected will be approximately 60 mm/s. After simplifying the vibration signal, a sinusoidal wave with the amplitude 60 mm/s was applied at the bottom of the column and it was assumed that the vibrations only affect the bentonite buffer in one direction (horizontal direction). From this simulation, it was concluded that hardly any displacements occurred. However, when applying the same sinusoidal wave both in the horizontal and the

  8. Vibrational Diver (United States)

    Kozlov, Victor; Ivanova, Alevtina; Schipitsyn, Vitalii; Stambouli, Moncef


    The paper is concerned with dynamics of light solid in cavity with liquid subjected to rotational vibration in the external force field. New vibrational phenomenon - diving of a light cylinder to the cavity bottom is found. The experimental investigation of a horizontal annulus with a partition has shown that under vibration a light body situated in the upper part of the layer is displaced in a threshold manner some distance away from the boundary. In this case the body executes symmetric tangential oscillations. An increase of the vibration intensity leads to a tangential displacement of the body near the external boundary. This displacement is caused by the tangential component of the vibrational lift force, which appears as soon as the oscillations lose symmetry. In this case the trajectory of the body oscillatory motion has the form of a loop. The tangential lift force makes stable the position of the body on the inclined section of the layer and even in its lower part. A theoretical interpretation has been proposed, which explains stabilization of a quasi-equilibrium state of a light body near the cavity bottom in the framework of vibrational hydromechanics.

  9. Mutual structural effect of bilirubin and model membranes by vibrational circular dichroism. (United States)

    Novotná, Pavlína; Goncharova, Iryna; Urbanová, Marie


    In this study, vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy was employed for the first time to study the bilirubin (BR) interaction with model membranes and models for membrane proteins. An enantioselective interaction of BR with zwitterionic 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and sphingomyelin (SPM) liposomes was observed by VCD and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) complemented by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The M-form of BR was preferentially recognized in the BR/DMPC system at concentration above 1×10(-4)M, for lower concentrations the P-form of BR was recognized by the DMPC liposomes. The VCD spectra also showed that the SPM liposomes, which represent the main component of nerve cell membrane, were significantly more disturbed by the presence of BR than the DMPC liposomes-a stable association with a strong VCD signal was observed providing the explanations for the supposed BR neurotoxicity. The effect of time and pH on the BR/DMPC or SPM liposome systems was shown to be essential while the effect of temperature in the range of 15-70°C was negligible demonstrating the surprisingly high temperature stability of BR when interacting with the studied membranes. The influence of a membrane protein was tested on a model consisting of poly-l-arginine (PLAG) bound in the α-helical form to the surface of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-rac-glycerol) liposomes and sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles. VCD and also ECD spectra showed that a variety of BR diastereoisomers interacted with PLAG in such systems. In a system of PLAG with micelles composed of sodium dodecyl sulfate, the M-form of bound BR was observed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Effect of Tool Dimension, Tool Overhang and Cutting Parameters Towards Tool Vibration and Surface Roughness on Turning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuingli Santo Bandaso


    Full Text Available Turning process is the removal of metal from the outer diameter of a rotating cylindrical workpiece. Turning is used to reduce the diameter of the workpiece, usually to a specified dimension, and to produce a smooth finish on the metal. This research investigates the effect of feed rate, spindle speed, tool overhang and tool dimensions toward vibration amplitude and surface roughness on turning process. This study uses both statistical and graphical analysis of the data collected. The experimentation was carried out on conventional lathe machine with straight turning operation. Material used as workpiece was St.60 carbon steel which was turned with HSS tool bit with the dimension of 3/8 Inches and ½ Inches. Cutting parameters varied by spindle speed, feed rate, and tool overhang, while the depth of cut is maintained at a depth of 0.5 mm. The vibration data of cutting tool obtained from a transducer (vibrometer mounted at a distance of 10 mm from the tip of the cutting tool during the cutting process takes place, whereas the surface roughness data obtained from measurements of surface roughness apparatus after turning process. The results showed that, The effect of feed rate, spindle speed, tool overhang, and tool dimension simultaneously towards vibration amplitude and surface roughness has a grater effects on the use of 3/8 inches cutting tool than ½ inches cutting tool. With the use of the same tool dimensions obtained that, The most influential parameters on the vibration amplitude is tool overhang while the most influential parameter on surface roughness value is feed rate.

  11. Effects of Eight Months of Whole-Body Vibration Training on the Muscle Mass and Functional Capacity of Elderly Women. (United States)

    Santin-Medeiros, Fernanda; Rey-López, Juan P; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Cristi-Montero, Carlos S; Garatachea Vallejo, Nuria


    Few intervention studies have used whole-body vibration (WBV) training in the elderly, and there is inconclusive evidence about its health benefits. We examined the effect of 8 months of WBV training on muscle mass and functional capacity in elderly women. A total of 37 women (aged 82.4 ± 5.7 years) voluntarily participated in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to a vibration group (n = 19) or a control group (n = 18). The vibration group trained on a vertical vibration platform twice a week. The control group was requested not to change their habitual lifestyle. The quadriceps femoris muscle cross-sectional area was determined by magnetic resonance imaging. All participants were evaluated by a battery of tests (Senior Fitness Test) to determine their functional capacity, as well as handgrip strength and balance/gait. General linear repeated-measure analysis of variance (group by time) was performed to examine the effect of the intervention on the outcomes variables. After 8 months, nonstatistically significant differences in the quadriceps CSA (pre-training: 8,516.16 ± 1,271.78 mm² and post-training: 8,671.63 ± 1,389.03 mm²) (p > 0.05) were found in the WBV group (Cohen's d: -0.12), whereas the CON group significantly decreased muscle mass (pre-training: 9,756.18 ± 1,420.07 mm² and post-training: 9,326.82 ± 1,577.53 mm²), with moderate effect size evident (Cohen's d: 0.29). In both groups, no changes were observed in the functional capacity, handgrip strength and balance/gait. The WBV training could prevent the loss of quadriceps CSA in elderly women.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ahlborg, Lotta; Andersson, Christina; Julin, Per


    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on spasticity, muscle strength and motor performance after 8 weeks of whole-body vibration training compared with resistance training in adults with cerebral palsy. Methods...

  13. Effects of vibrational motion on core-level spectra of prototype organic molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uejio, Janel S.; Schwartz, Craig P.; Saykally, Richard J.; Prendergast, David


    A computational approach is presented for prediction and interpretation of core-level spectra of complex molecules. Applications are presented for several isolated organic molecules, sampling a range of chemical bonding and structural motifs. Comparison with gas phase measurements indicate that spectral lineshapes are accurately reproduced both above and below the ionization potential, without resort to ad hoc broadening. Agreement with experiment is significantly improved upon inclusion of vibrations via molecular dynamics sampling. We isolate and characterize spectral features due to particular electronic transitions enabled by vibrations, noting that even zero-point motion is sufficient in some cases.

  14. The effect of large amplitude motions on the vibrational intensities in hydrogen bonded complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackeprang, Kasper; Hänninen, Vesa; Halonen, Lauri


    We have developed a model to calculate accurately the intensity of the hydrogen bonded XH-stretching vibrational transition in hydrogen bonded complexes. In the Local Mode Perturbation Theory (LMPT) model, the unperturbed system is described by a local mode (LM) model, which is perturbed...... by the intermolecular modes of the hydrogen bonded system that couple with the intramolecular vibrations of the donor unit through the potential energy surface. We have applied the model to three complexes containing water as the donor unit and different acceptor units, providing a series of increasing complex binding...... of the fundamental hydrogen bonded OH-stretching transition relative to the simpler LM model....

  15. Vibrational effects in charge transport through a molecular double quantum dot (United States)

    Sowa, Jakub K.; Mol, Jan A.; Briggs, G. Andrew D.; Gauger, Erik M.


    Recent progress in the field of molecular electronics has revealed the fundamental importance of the coupling between the electronic degrees of freedom and specific vibrational modes. Considering the examples of a molecular dimer and a carbon nanotube double quantum dot, we here theoretically investigate transport through a two-site system that is strongly coupled to a single vibrational mode. Using a quantum master equation approach, we demonstrate that, depending on the relative positions of the two dots, electron-phonon interactions can lead to negative differential conductance and suppression of the current through the system. We also discuss the experimental relevance of the presented results and possible implementations of the studied system.

  16. Analysis of chemical components of shiitake polysaccharides and its anti-fatigue effect under vibration. (United States)

    Li, Xiaoling; Zhang, Hongbo; Xu, Haibo


    The shiitake polysaccharides were obtained from shiitake mushroom. Four fractions were isolated from the polysaccharides using a Sephadex G-100 gel column. Chemical components of the two main fractions were determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC), and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). F1 was composed of rhamnose, glucose, and mannose. F3 was composed of xylose, mannose, arabinose and galactose. The obtained results still showed that administration of shiitake polysaccharides could improve muscle's comfortability of animals under a long period of vibration. The above findings might be applicable to studies of vibration ergonomics.

  17. Effects of Rippling Deformation and Mid-Plane Stretching on Non-linear Vibration for Embedded Carbon Nanotube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehdipour, I.; Barari, Amin; Domairry, G.


    ). Accurate theoretical models for vibrational behavior of CNTs are important for several reasons. For instance, natural frequencies of CNTs play an important role on nanomechanical resonators using them. In addition, the effective Young’s modulus of a nanotube may be determined indirectly from its measured...... natural frequencies or mode shapes if a sufficiently precise theoretical model is used. The molecular dynamics (MD) method simulates CNTs accurately. However, MD simulation is limited to systems with a small number of atoms (say, less than 1016) and remains time-consuming and expensive (Yaghmaei and Rafii......-Tabar, 2009; Zhang et al., 2009; Gibson et al., 2007). For large-scale systems, continuum mechanics approach has widely and successfully modeled mechanical and vibrational characteristics of CNTs (Gibson et al., 2007; Fu et al., 2006; Ranjbartoreh et al., 2007). The continuum modeling approach needs much less...

  18. Effect of iTonic whole-body vibration on delayed-onset muscle soreness among untrained individuals. (United States)

    Rhea, Matthew R; Bunker, Derek; Marín, Pedro J; Lunt, Kregg


    Attempts to reduce or eliminate delayed-onset of muscle soreness are important as this condition is painful and debilitating. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of whole-body vibration (WBV) massage and stretching exercises at reducing perceived pain among untrained men. Sixteen adult men (age, 36.6 +/- 2.1 yr) volunteered to perform a strenuous exercise session consisting of resistance training and repeated sprints. Subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 recovery groups: a group performing WBV stretching sessions or a stretching group performing static stretching without vibration. Both groups performed similar stretches, twice per day for 3 days after the workout. The vibration group performed their stretches on the iTonic platform (frequency, 35 Hz; amplitude, 2 mm). Perceived pain was measured at 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours postworkout. Statistical analyses identified a significantly lower level of reported perceived pain at all postworkout measurement times among the WBV group (p time. The degree of attenuation of pain ranged from 22-61%. These data suggest that incorporating WBV as a recovery/regeneration tool may be effective for reducing the pain of muscle soreness and tightness after strenuous training.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Osawa


    Full Text Available Resistance training with whole-body vibration (WBV is becoming increasingly popular as an alternative to conventional resistance training or as supplementary training. Despite its growing popularity, the specific effects of WBV training on muscle morphology, strength, and endurance are not well understood, particularly in young adults. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of WBV training on bone-free lean body mass (BFLBM, and maximal muscle strength and endurance in healthy, untrained, young individuals. Eighteen healthy men and women (21-39 years were randomly assigned to either a body-weight exercise with WBV (VT group or a control exercise group without WBV (CON. Participants performed eight exercises per 40- min session on a vibration platform (VT group, frequency = 30-40 Hz; amplitude = 2 mm twice weekly for 12 weeks. Anthropometry, total and regional BFLBM (trunks, legs, and arms measured by dual- energy X-ray absorptiometry, and muscle strength and endurance measured by maximal isometric lumbar extension strength, maximal isokinetic knee extension and flexion strength, and the number of sit- ups performed were recorded and compared. Two-way repeated-measures ANOVA revealed no significant changes between the groups in any of the measured variables. We conclude that 12 weeks of body weight vibration exercise compared to body weight exercise alone does not provide meaningful changes to BFLBM or muscle performance in healthy young adults.

  20. Investigation of the Effect of Material on Undamped Free Vibration of Cantilever Beams with Uniform Single Surface Crack (United States)

    Mufazzal, Sameera; Muzakkir, S. M.; Zakir Jafri, Hasan


    Crack detection in structures is a critical area of research where the developments have been made out since decades. Various techniques are available for early identification and quantification of cracks to predict and prevent the unexpected sudden failure of structure and ensure uninterrupted service. Use of vibration analysis for detecting crack is one of the widely used techniques which offer lots of advantages over other like it is easier and less costly method and can be used for inaccessible components. The present work attempts to use modal analysis through FEA to investigate the effect of crack on natural frequency of vibration in beams of different materials, for three different crack location. From the result, it has been inferred that among Structural Steel (SS), Aluminium alloy (Al) and Gray Cast Iron (CI), the natural frequency is highest for Al beam and lowest for CI beam. Introduction of crack reduces the natural frequency of vibration, however, the effect of crack location on frequency is not uniform for different modes. Also, the trend is similar in beams of all the materials.

  1. Effect Of Long-Period Earthquake Ground Motions On Nonlinear Vibration Of Shells With Variable Thickness (United States)

    Abdikarimov, R.; Bykovtsev, A.; Khodzhaev, D.; Research Team Of Geotechnical; Structural Engineers


    Long-period earthquake ground motions (LPEGM) with multiple oscillations have become a crucial consideration in seismic hazard assessment because of the rapid increase of tall buildings and special structures (SP).Usually, SP refers to innovative long-span structural systems. More specifically, they include many types of structures, such as: geodesic showground; folded plates; and thin shells. As continuation of previous research (Bykovtsev, Abdikarimov, Khodzhaev 2003, 2010) analysis of nonlinear vibrations (NV) and dynamic stability of SP simulated as shells with variable rigidity in geometrically nonlinear statement will be presented for two cases. The first case will represent NV example of a viscoelastic orthotropic cylindrical shell with radius R, length L and variable thickness h=h(x,y). The second case will be NV example of a viscoelastic shell with double curvature, variable thickness, and bearing the concentrated masses. In both cases we count, that the SP will be operates under seismic load generated by LPEGM with multiple oscillations. For different seismic loads simulations, Bykovtsev’s Model and methodology was used for generating LPEGM time history. The methodology for synthesizing LPEGM from fault with multiple segmentations was developed by Bykovtev (1978-2010) and based on 3D-analytical solutions by Bykovtsev-Kramarovskii (1987&1989) constructed for faults with multiple segmentations. This model is based on a kinematics description of displacement function on the fault and included in consideration of all possible combinations of 3 components of vector displacement (two slip vectors and one tension component). The opportunities to take into consideration fault segmentations with both shear and tension vector components of displacement on the fault plane provide more accurate LPEGM evaluations. Radiation patterns and directivity effects were included in the model and more physically realistic results for simulated LPEGM were considered. The

  2. Acute effects of unilateral whole body vibration training on single leg vertical jump height and symmetry in healthy men. (United States)

    Shin, Seungho; Lee, Kyeongjin; Song, Changho


    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the acute effects of unilateral whole body vibration training on height and symmetry of the single leg vertical jump in healthy men. [Subjects] Thirty males with no history of lower limb dysfunction participated in this study. [Methods] The participants were randomly allocated to one of three groups: the unilateral vibratory stimulation group (n=10), bilateral vibratory stimulation group (n=10), and, no vibratory stimulation group (n=10). The subjects in the unilateral and bilateral stimulation groups participated in one session of whole body vibration training at 26 Hz for 3 min. The no vibratory stimulation group subjects underwent the same training for 3 min without whole body vibration. All participants performed the single leg vertical jump for each lower limb, to account for the strong and weak sides. The single leg vertical jump height and symmetry were measured before and after the intervention. [Results] The single leg vertical jump height of the weak lower limb significantly improved in the unilateral vibratory stimulation group, but not in the other groups. The single leg vertical jump height of the strong lower limb significantly improved in the bilateral vibratory stimulation group, but not in the other groups. The single leg vertical jump symmetry significantly improved in the unilateral vibratory stimulation group, but not in the other groups. [Conclusion] Therefore, the present study found that the effects of whole body vibration training were different depending on the type of application. To improve the single leg vertical jump height in the weak lower limbs as well as limb symmetry, unilateral vibratory stimulation might be more desirable.

  3. Effectiveness of Different Rest Intervals Following Whole-Body Vibration on Vertical Jump Performance between College Athletes and Recreationally Trained Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole C. Dabbs


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different rest intervals following whole-body vibration on counter-movement vertical jump performance. Sixteen females, eight recreationally trained and eight varsity athletes volunteered to participate in four testing visits separated by 24 h. Visit one acted as a familiarization visit where subjects were introduced to the counter-movement vertical jump and whole-body vibration protocols. Visits 2–4 contained 2 randomized conditions. Whole-body vibration was administered in four bouts of 30 s with 30 s rest between bouts. During whole-body vibration subjects performed a quarter squat every 5 s, simulating a counter-movement vertical jump. Whole-body vibration was followed by three counter-movement vertical jumps with five different rest intervals between the vibration exposure and jumping. For a control condition, subjects performed squats with no whole-body vibration. There was a significant (p < 0.05 main effect for time for vertical jump height, peak power output, and relative ground reaction forces, where a majority of individuals max jump from all whole-body vibration conditions was greater than the control condition. There were significant (p < 0.05 group differences, showing that varsity athletes had a greater vertical jump height and peak power output compared to recreationally trained females. There were no significant (p > 0.05 group differences for relative ground reaction forces. Practitioners and/or strength and conditioning coaches may utilize whole-body vibration to enhance acute counter-movement vertical jump performance after identifying individuals optimal rest time in order to maximize the potentiating effects.

  4. Chronic effects of simultaneous electromyostimulation and vibration on leg blood flow in spinal cord injury. (United States)

    Menéndez, H; Ferrero, C; Martín-Hernández, J; Figueroa, A; Marín, P J; Herrero, A J


    Randomized two-group parallel. The objective of this study was to analyze the adaptations on the popliteal artery (mean blood velocity (MBV), peak blood velocity (PBV), arterial resting diameter (RD) and blood flow (BF)) induced by 12 weeks of simultaneous application of whole-body vibration and electromyostimulation (WBV+ES) in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Secondarily, the musculoskeletal effects of this therapy on the gastrocnemius muscle thickness (MT) and femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) were analyzed. Valladolid, Spain. Seventeen SCI patients (American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) A or B) were randomly assigned to the experimental group (EG=9) or the control group (CG=8). Each subject was assessed in four different occasions: at baseline, after 6 weeks (Post-6) and 12 weeks of the treatment (Post-12) and 8 weeks after the end of the treatment (Post-20). Subjects in the EG performed 30 10-min sessions of WBV+ES during 12 weeks. In the EG, RD increased compared with the baseline value at Post-6 (9.5%, P<0.01), Post-12 (19.0%, P<0.001) and Post-20 (16.7%, P<0.001). Similarly, in the EG, BF increased compared with the baseline value and with CG only at Post-12 ((33.9%, P<0.01) and (72.5%, P<0.05), respectively). Similarly, WBV+ES increased the MT of the gastrocnemius. BMD of both hips remained invariable during the study. CG showed no change at any point. WBV+ES improved popliteal artery BF, RD and MT after 12 weeks in SCI patients. This increase in RD remained above baseline after 8 weeks. The combination of WBV and ES could be considered a promising alternative to reverse the musculoskeletal atrophy and improve peripheral vascular properties in SCI patients.

  5. Effects of whole body vibration training on balance in adolescents with and without Down syndrome. (United States)

    Villarroya, M Adoración; González-Agüero, Alejandro; Moros, Teresa; Gómez-Trullén, Eva; Casajús, José A


    The present study aimed to determine whether a whole body vibration training program (WBV) is able to improve static standing balance in adolescents with and without Down syndrome (DS). Thirty adolescents with DS aged 11-20 years (DSG) and 27 adolescent, age/sex matched, without DS (CG) joined the study. Participants of each group were divided into two comparable groups, those who performed WVB (in DSG: VDSG; in CG: VCG) and those who did not perform WVB (in DSG: nVDSG; in CG: nVCG). Static-standing-balance under four conditions (C1: open-eyes/fixed-foot-support; C2: closed-eyes/fixed-foot-support; C3: open-eyes/compliant-foot-support; C4: closed-eyes/compliant-foot-support) was examine, before and after a 20-week WBV training program. For balance study, Postural-Parameters (PPs), based on center of pressure (COP) oscillations (anterior/posterior and medial/lateral COP excursion and COP mean velocity), and PPs ratios among the four conditions were calculated. After WBV training, no significant differences were found in any parameter in the VCG and nVCG and neither in the nVDSG, but there was a decrease of mean values in the analyzed PPs under C4, with significant differences in medial/lateral COP excursion and COP mean velocity, and a significant decrease in the ratio C4/C1 of the mean velocity in VDSG. Therefore, WBV training had positive effects in the balance of DS adolescents although only under specific conditions, with vision and somatosensory input altered. The positive results of this study are encouraging and open a wide field of research, looking for the most efficient program for this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The acute effect of whole-body vibration on the hoffmann reflex. (United States)

    Armstrong, W Jeffrey; Nestle, Holly N; Grinnell, David C; Cole, Lindsey D; Van Gilder, Erica L; Warren, Gabriel S; Capizzi, Elizabeth A


    The extent to which motoneuron pool excitability, as measured by the Hoffmann reflex (H-reflex), is affected by an acute bout of whole-body vibration (WBV) was recorded in 19 college-aged subjects (8 male and 11 female; mean age 19 +/- 1 years) after tibial nerve stimulation. H/M recruitment curves were mapped for the soleus muscle by increasing stimulus intensity in 0.2- to 1.0-volt increments with 10-second rest intervals between stimuli, until the maximal M-wave and H-reflex were obtained. After determination of Hmax and Mmax, the intensity necessary to generate an H-reflex approximately 30% of Mmax (mean 31.5% +/- 4.1%) was determined and used for all subsequent measurements. Fatigue was then induced by 1 minute of WBV at 40 Hz and low amplitude (2-4 mm). Successive measurements of the H-reflex were recorded at the test intensity every 30 seconds for 30 minutes post fatigue. All subjects displayed a significant suppression of the H-reflex during the first minute post-WBV; however, four distinct recovery patterns were observed among the participants (alpha = 0.50). There were no significant differences between genders across time (P = 0.401). The differences observed in this study cannot be explained by level or type training. One plausible interpretation of these data is that the multiple patterns of recovery may display variation of muscle fiber content among subjects. Future investigation should consider factors such as training specificity and muscle fiber type that might contribute to the differing H-reflex response, and the effect of WBV on specific performance measures should be interpreted with the understanding that there may be considerable variability among individuals. Recovery times and sample size should be adjusted accordingly.

  7. On gyroscopic effects in vibrating and axially rotating solid and annular discs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Joubert, SV


    Full Text Available , such as cylindrical, hemispherical and planar circular disc rotational sensors. The model of a thin circular disc vibrating in its plane and subjected to inertial rotation is considered. The dynamics of the disc gyroscope are considered in terms of linear elasticity...

  8. The Effect of Rail Fastening System Modifications on Tram Traffic Noise and Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepan Lakušić


    Full Text Available Tram system is a backbone of public transportation in the City of Zagreb. In the last decade, its fleet has been renewed by 142 new low-floor trams. Shortly after their introduction, it was observed that they have a negative impact on the exploitation behavior of tram infrastructure, primarily on the durability of rail fastening systems. Because of that, it was decided to modify existing rail fastening systems to the new track exploitation conditions. When the (reconstruction of tram infrastructure is carried out by applying new systems and technologies, it is necessary to take into account their impact on the future propagation of noise and vibration in the environment. This paper gives a short overview of the characteristics of the two newly developed rail fastening systems for Zagreb tram tracks, their application in construction of experimental track section, and performance and comparison of noise and vibration measurements results. Measured data on track vibrations and noise occurring during passage of the tram vehicles is analyzed in terms of track decay rates and equivalent noise levels of passing referent vehicle. Vibroacoustic performance of new fastening systems is evaluated and compared to referent fastening system, in order to investigate their ability to absorb vibration energy induced by tram operation and to reduce noise emission.

  9. Effect of instantaneous and continuous quenches on the density of vibrational modes in model glasses (United States)

    Lerner, Edan; Bouchbinder, Eran


    Computational studies of supercooled liquids often focus on various analyses of their "underlying inherent states"—the glassy configurations at zero temperature obtained by an infinitely fast (instantaneous) quench from equilibrium supercooled states. Similar protocols are also regularly employed in investigations of the unjamming transition at which the rigidity of decompressed soft-sphere packings is lost. Here we investigate the statistics and localization properties of low-frequency vibrational modes of glassy configurations obtained by such instantaneous quenches. We show that the density of vibrational modes grows as ωβ with β depending on the parent temperature T0 from which the glassy configurations were instantaneously quenched. For quenches from high temperature liquid states we find β ≈3 , whereas β appears to approach the previously observed value β =4 as T0 approaches the glass transition temperature. We discuss the consistency of our findings with the theoretical framework of the soft potential model, and contrast them with similar measurements performed on configurations obtained by continuous quenches at finite cooling rates. Our results suggest that any physical quench at rates sufficiently slower than the inverse vibrational time scale—including all physically realistic quenching rates of molecular or atomistic glasses—would result in a glass whose density of vibrational modes is universally characterized by β =4 .

  10. Effect of Vibration Training on Anaerobic Power and Quardroceps Surface EMG in Long Jumpers (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Luo, Jiong


    Objective: To explore the anaerobic power and surface EMG (sEMG) of quardrocep muscle in lower extremities after single vibration training intervention. Methods: 8 excellent male long jumpers voluntarily participated in this study. Four intervention modes were devised, including high frequency high amplitude (HFHA,30Hz,6mm), low frequency low…

  11. Modelling the Environmental Effects of Railway Vibrations from Different Types of Rolling Stock: A Numerical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Kouroussis


    (normalised metric, defined as the ratio between the peak particle velocity and the nominal axle load, is introduced for a comparison of dynamic excitation. It is concluded that rolling stock dynamics have a significant influence on the free field vibrations at low frequencies, whereas high frequencies are dominated by the presence of track unevenness.

  12. Fluid-Structure Interaction in Combustion System of a Gas Turbine—Effect of Liner Vibrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pozarlik, Artur Krzysztof; Kok, Jacobus B.W.


    Prediction of mutual interaction between flow, combustion, acoustic, and vibration phenomena occurring in a combustion chamber is crucial for the reliable operation of any combustion device. In this paper, this is studied with application to the combustion chamber of a gas turbine. Very dangerous

  13. Descriptive analysis of combine cabin vibrations and their effect on the human body (United States)

    Hostens, I.; Ramon, H.


    All on- and off-road vehicles are exposed to vibrations caused by unevenness of road or soil profile, moving elements within the machine or implements. A higher prevalence of low back pain is found in drivers of off-road machinery than in other drivers. In this study, significantly higher levels of low-frequency vibrations are found in the cabin of a combine, driving at high speed (20 km/h) on a concrete surface, compared to driving slower on field road. Comfort values indicate that injury can result from long-term driving on the field as well as on a concrete road. As seats with suspension systems are the main transmission paths of vibration towards the spine of the driver, their vibration attenuating characteristics play an important role in comfort assessment. The resonant frequency of seats with passive suspension system, used in agricultural machinery, lies in the low-frequency range most excited in agricultural machinery. A seat with air suspension is found to attenuate better frequencies above 4 Hz and provide more comfort to the driver than a seat with a mechanical suspension.

  14. Quantum reaction dynamics study of vibrational excitation effects on the Cl + CHD3/CD4 → HCl/DCl + CD3 reactions (United States)

    Yan, Wei; Wang, Dunyou


    Energy efficiency in surmounting the reaction energy barrier and vibrational enhancement on reactivity of the Cl + CHD3/CD4 → HCl/DCl + CD3 reactions have been studied using the reduced dimensional, time-dependent wavepacket method in six degrees of freedom. All the vibrational excitations of CHD3/CD4 enhance the reactivity and the C-H/C-D stretching motions have the biggest impact on the reactivity. Both reactions’ vibrational energies raise the reactivity more effectively than the translational energies except at very low collision energies. In other words, except at very low collision energies, the Polanyi rules hold for these two late-barrier polyatomic reactions.

  15. PREFACE: First International Workshop on Nonequilibrium Processes in Plasma Physics and Studies of Environment (United States)

    Petrović, Z. Lj; Malović, G.; Tasić, M.; Nikitović, Ž.


    from many different standpoints. A special case of non-equilibrium is that of non-neutral plasmas, i.e. plasmas devoid of ions, as described in the lecture and paper by J Marler (Appleton, USA). Physics of swarms (the low space charge limit of ionized gases) is similar to the previous study in the fact that we may have only one group of charged particles electrons (or ions). But the difference is that the latter has a much higher pressure and therefore number of collisions. In the lecture on one aspect of the application of swarm data (transport coefficients) to determine the electron scattering cross sections R White (Townsville, Australia) addresses a long standing controversy in the vibrational excitation of H2 of an unacceptable discrepancy between swarm results and binary collision experiments and theories, (a problem that has been of particular importance to the host Laboratory). The lecture of N Dyatko (Troitsk, Russian Federation) tackles one of the most interesting recent problems in the transport theory of ionized gases, that of the negative absolute conductivity and attempts to translate it to solid state physics where the stakes are much higher. The swarm studies were always based on excellent experimental data and the leading experimental group today is that of J de Urquijo (Cuernavaca, Mexico) who presents a review of a wide range of transport data that his group obtained in fluorinated gases. The gas breakdown in dc and high frequency fields was addressed by M Radmilović-Rađenović (Belgrade, Serbia) by applying a detailed secondary electron production model in Particle in Cell (PIC) code and comparing the results to a broad range of experimental data. The hybrid (fluid-Monte Carlo) model has been applied in the study by Z Donko and K Kutasi (Budapest, Hungary) of low pressure obstructed glow discharges to decribe the effect of fast neutrals on gas discharges. A study of kinetics of negative ions of hydrogen in glow discharges with positive column and

  16. The Effects of Vibration and Muscle Fatigue on Trunk Sensorimotor Control in Low Back Pain Patients (United States)

    Abboud, Jacques; Nougarou, François; Normand, Martin C.


    Introduction Changes in sensorimotor function and increased trunk muscle fatigability have been identified in patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP). This study assessed the control of trunk force production in conditions with and without local erector spinae muscle vibration and evaluated the influence of muscle fatigue on trunk sensorimotor control. Methods Twenty non-specific cLBP patients and 20 healthy participants were asked to perform submaximal isometric trunk extension torque with and without local vibration stimulation, before and after a trunk extensor muscle fatigue protocol. Constant error (CE), variable error (VE) as well as absolute error (AE) in peak torque were computed and compared across conditions. Trunk extensor muscle activation during isometric contractions and during the fatigue protocol was measured using surface electromyography (sEMG). Results Force reproduction accuracy of the trunk was significantly lower in the patient group (CE = 9.81 ± 2.23 Nm; AE = 18.16 ± 3.97 Nm) than in healthy participants (CE = 4.44 ± 1.68 Nm; AE = 12.23 ± 2.44 Nm). Local erector spinae vibration induced a significant reduction in CE (4.33 ± 2.14 Nm) and AE (13.71 ± 3.45 Nm) mean scores in the patient group. Healthy participants conversely showed a significant increase in CE (8.17 ± 2.10 Nm) and AE (16.29 ± 2.82 Nm) mean scores under vibration conditions. The fatigue protocol induced erector spinae muscle fatigue as illustrated by a significant decrease in sEMG median time-frequency slopes. Following the fatigue protocol, patients with cLBP showed significant decrease in sEMG root mean square activity at L4-5 level and responded in similar manner with and without vibration stimulation in regard to CE mean scores. Conclusions Patients with cLBP have a less accurate force reproduction sense than healthy participants. Local muscle vibration led to significant trunk neuromuscular control improvements in the cLBP patients before and after a muscle

  17. The Effects of Vibration and Muscle Fatigue on Trunk Sensorimotor Control in Low Back Pain Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Alexandre Boucher

    Full Text Available Changes in sensorimotor function and increased trunk muscle fatigability have been identified in patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP. This study assessed the control of trunk force production in conditions with and without local erector spinae muscle vibration and evaluated the influence of muscle fatigue on trunk sensorimotor control.Twenty non-specific cLBP patients and 20 healthy participants were asked to perform submaximal isometric trunk extension torque with and without local vibration stimulation, before and after a trunk extensor muscle fatigue protocol. Constant error (CE, variable error (VE as well as absolute error (AE in peak torque were computed and compared across conditions. Trunk extensor muscle activation during isometric contractions and during the fatigue protocol was measured using surface electromyography (sEMG.Force reproduction accuracy of the trunk was significantly lower in the patient group (CE = 9.81 ± 2.23 Nm; AE = 18.16 ± 3.97 Nm than in healthy participants (CE = 4.44 ± 1.68 Nm; AE = 12.23 ± 2.44 Nm. Local erector spinae vibration induced a significant reduction in CE (4.33 ± 2.14 Nm and AE (13.71 ± 3.45 Nm mean scores in the patient group. Healthy participants conversely showed a significant increase in CE (8.17 ± 2.10 Nm and AE (16.29 ± 2.82 Nm mean scores under vibration conditions. The fatigue protocol induced erector spinae muscle fatigue as illustrated by a significant decrease in sEMG median time-frequency slopes. Following the fatigue protocol, patients with cLBP showed significant decrease in sEMG root mean square activity at L4-5 level and responded in similar manner with and without vibration stimulation in regard to CE mean scores.Patients with cLBP have a less accurate force reproduction sense than healthy participants. Local muscle vibration led to significant trunk neuromuscular control improvements in the cLBP patients before and after a muscle fatigue protocol. Muscle vibration

  18. The Effects of Vibration and Muscle Fatigue on Trunk Sensorimotor Control in Low Back Pain Patients. (United States)

    Boucher, Jean-Alexandre; Abboud, Jacques; Nougarou, François; Normand, Martin C; Descarreaux, Martin


    Changes in sensorimotor function and increased trunk muscle fatigability have been identified in patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP). This study assessed the control of trunk force production in conditions with and without local erector spinae muscle vibration and evaluated the influence of muscle fatigue on trunk sensorimotor control. Twenty non-specific cLBP patients and 20 healthy participants were asked to perform submaximal isometric trunk extension torque with and without local vibration stimulation, before and after a trunk extensor muscle fatigue protocol. Constant error (CE), variable error (VE) as well as absolute error (AE) in peak torque were computed and compared across conditions. Trunk extensor muscle activation during isometric contractions and during the fatigue protocol was measured using surface electromyography (sEMG). Force reproduction accuracy of the trunk was significantly lower in the patient group (CE = 9.81 ± 2.23 Nm; AE = 18.16 ± 3.97 Nm) than in healthy participants (CE = 4.44 ± 1.68 Nm; AE = 12.23 ± 2.44 Nm). Local erector spinae vibration induced a significant reduction in CE (4.33 ± 2.14 Nm) and AE (13.71 ± 3.45 Nm) mean scores in the patient group. Healthy participants conversely showed a significant increase in CE (8.17 ± 2.10 Nm) and AE (16.29 ± 2.82 Nm) mean scores under vibration conditions. The fatigue protocol induced erector spinae muscle fatigue as illustrated by a significant decrease in sEMG median time-frequency slopes. Following the fatigue protocol, patients with cLBP showed significant decrease in sEMG root mean square activity at L4-5 level and responded in similar manner with and without vibration stimulation in regard to CE mean scores. Patients with cLBP have a less accurate force reproduction sense than healthy participants. Local muscle vibration led to significant trunk neuromuscular control improvements in the cLBP patients before and after a muscle fatigue protocol. Muscle vibration stimulation

  19. The effect of surface wave propagation on neural responses to vibration in primate glabrous skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise R Manfredi

    Full Text Available Because tactile perception relies on the response of large populations of receptors distributed across the skin, we seek to characterize how a mechanical deformation of the skin at one location affects the skin at another. To this end, we introduce a novel non-contact method to characterize the surface waves produced in the skin under a variety of stimulation conditions. Specifically, we deliver vibrations to the fingertip using a vibratory actuator and measure, using a laser Doppler vibrometer, the surface waves at different distances from the locus of stimulation. First, we show that a vibration applied to the fingertip travels at least the length of the finger and that the rate at which it decays is dependent on stimulus frequency. Furthermore, the resonant frequency of the skin matches the frequency at which a subpopulation of afferents, namely Pacinian afferents, is most sensitive. We show that this skin resonance can lead to a two-fold increase in the strength of the response of a simulated afferent population. Second, the rate at which vibrations propagate across the skin is dependent on the stimulus frequency and plateaus at 7 m/s. The resulting delay in neural activation across locations does not substantially blur the temporal patterning in simulated populations of afferents for frequencies less than 200 Hz, which has important implications about how vibratory frequency is encoded in the responses of somatosensory neurons. Third, we show that, despite the dependence of decay rate and propagation speed on frequency, the waveform of a complex vibration is well preserved as it travels across the skin. Our results suggest, then, that the propagation of surface waves promotes the encoding of spectrally complex vibrations as the entire neural population is exposed to essentially the same stimulus. We also discuss the implications of our results for biomechanical models of the skin.

  20. Spin-polarization and spin-dependent logic gates in a double quantum ring based on Rashba spin-orbit effect: Non-equilibrium Green's function approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslami, Leila, E-mail:; Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran 16846 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Spin-dependent electron transport in an open double quantum ring, when each ring is made up of four quantum dots and threaded by a magnetic flux, is studied. Two independent and tunable gate voltages are applied to induce Rashba spin-orbit effect in the quantum rings. Using non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, we study the effects of electron-electron interaction on spin-dependent electron transport and show that although the electron-electron interaction induces an energy gap, it has no considerable effect when the bias voltage is sufficiently high. We also show that the double quantum ring can operate as a spin-filter for both spin up and spin down electrons. The spin-polarization of transmitted electrons can be tuned from −1 (pure spin-down current) to +1 (pure spin-up current) by changing the magnetic flux and/or the gates voltage. Also, the double quantum ring can act as AND and NOR gates when the system parameters such as Rashba coefficient are properly adjusted.

  1. The Effect of Vibration during Friction Stir Welding on Corrosion Behavior, Mechanical Properties, and Machining Characteristics of Stir Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Fouladi


    Full Text Available Different methods have been applied to refine various characteristics of the zone (or nugget obtained by friction stir welding (FSW. In the current research, joining components are vibrated normal to the weld line during FSW to refine the zone microstructure. This process is described as friction stir vibration welding (FSVW. The effect of FSVW on mechanical properties, corrosion behavior, and machining characteristics of the zone are investigated. Al5052 alloy specimens are welded using FSW and FSVW processes and their different characteristics are compared and discussed. The results show that the strength and ductility of the welded parts increase when the vibration is applied. The outcomes also show that corrosion resistance of the nugget for FSV-welded specimens is lower than FS welded samples, and machining force of the former specimens is higher than the latter ones. These are related to smaller grain size in the zone of FSV-welded specimens compared to FS welded parts. Smaller grain size leads to a greater volume fraction of grain boundaries and, correspondingly, higher strength and hardness, as well as lower corrosion resistance.

  2. Tool wear in terms of vibration effects in milling medium-density fibreboard with an industrial robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tratar, Janez; Pusavec, Franci; Kopac, Janez [University of Ljubljana, Askerceva (Slovenia)


    Machining with robots represents a promising, highly flexible and cost effective alternative to standard machining and hand labour applications when machining mid tolerance soft material end products. One of the most challenging issues is to know the vibration characteristics in milling with the robots which greatly affect tool life. In general the technological bases of tool life expectancy while milling with robot arms are not available or studied. That's why the purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of attained vibrations analysis during the milling process and correlated tool wear. Primarily the study is focused on tool wear according to the distance between the milling position and the robot's base. Results show that increasing distance between the robot's base and the milling position significantly affects tool wear because of the attained vibrations in proportion to the increasing distance respectively. Tool wear has also proved to be greater in comparison to machining with CNC machine and applicable new information for woodworking industry.

  3. Acute and Chronic Whole-Body Vibration Exercise does not Induce Health-Promoting Effects on The Blood Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodorou Anastasios A.


    Full Text Available Whole-body vibration (WBV exercise is an alternative, popular and easy exercise that can be followed by general public. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of acute and chronic WBV exercise on health-related parameters. Twenty-eight women were allocated into a control group (n=11, mean ±SEM: age, 43.5 ±1.5 yr; body mass, 66.1 ±3.1 kg; height, 160.6 ±1.5 cm and a vibration group (n=17, mean ±SEM: age, 44.0 ±1.0 yr; body mass, 67.1 ±2.2 kg; height, 162.5 ±1.5 cm. After baseline assessments, participants of the experimental group performed WBV training 3 times/week for 8 weeks. Before and after the chronic WBV exercise, the participants of the vibration group performed one session of acute WBV exercise. Blood chemistry measurements (hematology, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin, triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein, thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances, protein carbonyls, total antioxidant capacity, uric acid, albumin and bilirubin were assessed pre-exercise and post-exercise at the first and eighth week of WBV exercise in both control and vibration groups. The results failed to support any effect of both acute and chronic WBV exercise on biochemical health-related parameters. However, it seems that WBV exercise is a safe way of training without a negative impact on muscle and liver functionality.

  4. Vibrational Locomotion Enabling Subsurface Exploration of Unconsolidated Regolith Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The idea of vibrational locomotion is based on vibrational-fluidization in ISRU reactor systems, which has proven very effective for regolith mixing. The vibrating...

  5. Spectral analysis of nonequilibrium molecular dynamics: Spectral phonon temperature and local nonequilibrium in thin films and across interfaces (United States)

    Feng, Tianli; Yao, Wenjun; Wang, Zuyuan; Shi, Jingjing; Li, Chuang; Cao, Bingyang; Ruan, Xiulin


    Although extensive experimental and theoretical works have been conducted to understand the ballistic and diffusive phonon transport in nanomaterials recently, direct observation of temperature and thermal nonequilibrium of different phonon modes has not been realized. Herein, we have developed a method within the framework of molecular dynamics to calculate the temperatures of phonons in both real and phase spaces. Taking silicon thin film and graphene as examples, we directly obtained the spectral phonon temperature (SPT) and observed the local thermal nonequilibrium between the ballistic and diffusive phonons. Such nonequilibrium also generally exists across interfaces and is surprisingly large, and it provides a significant additional thermal interfacial resistance mechanism besides phonon reflection. Our SPT results directly show that the vertical thermal transport across the dimensionally mismatched graphene-substrate interface is through the coupling between flexural acoustic phonons of graphene and the longitudinal phonons in the substrate with mode conversion. In the dimensionally matched interfaces, e.g., graphene-graphene junction and graphene-boron nitride planar interfaces, strong coupling occurs between the acoustic phonon modes on both sides, and the coupling decreases with interfacial mixing. The SPT method together with the spectral heat flux can eliminate the size effect of the thermal conductivity prediction induced from ballistic transport.

  6. Effect of the electromagnetic force on the power-train vibration of the in-wheel motor driving system with rubber bushings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Tan


    Full Text Available For an in-wheel motor driving system with rubber bushings, the driving motor is integrated into the wheel. A magnet gap deformation of the motor will be inevitably caused by the road excitation, which will produce an unbalanced electromagnetic force and influence the power-train vibration. Furthermore, the rim is flexibly connected to the motor rotor by rubber bushings, and a strong coupling and nonlinear vibration of the power-train in all directions can be demonstrated under the electromagnetic excitations. Thus, a 14-degree-of-freedom coupling vibration model of the power-train is first developed for the in-wheel motor driving system with rubber bushings, including the bushing and bearing models. Then, the mathematical model is deduced using a Lagrangian approach. Finally, based on the model, a coupling vibration analysis is conducted under different electromagnetic force excitations. The results indicate that there are coupling vibration components in the torsional direction, except the one-time rotating frequency; however, in the bending direction, the vibration response includes a one-time rotating frequency component and an excitation frequency component of the electromagnetic force. Furthermore, the results indicate that the bushing plays an important role in reducing the power-train vibration, which has a positive effect on the improving vehicle dynamics.

  7. Effect of vibrating electrode on temperature profiles, fluid flow, and pool shape in ESR system based on a comprehensive coupled model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang


    Full Text Available The vibrating electrode method was proposed in the electro-slag remelting (ESR process in this paper, and the effect of vibrating electrode on the solidification structure of ingot was studied. A transient three-dimensional (3D coupled mathematical model was established to simulate the electromagnetic phenomenon, fluid flow as well as pool shape in the ESR process with the vibrating electrode. The finite element volume method is developed to solve the electromagnetic field using ANSYS mechanical APDL software. Moreover, the electromagnetic force and Joule heating are interpolated as the source term of the momentum and energy equations. The multi-physical fields have been investigated and compared between the traditional electrode and the vibrating electrode in the ESR process. The results show that the drop process of metal droplets with the traditional electrode is scattered randomly. However, the drop process of metal droplets with the vibrating electrode is periodic. The highest temperature of slag layer with the vibrating electrode is higher than that with the traditional electrode, which can increase the melting rate due to the enhanced heat transfer in the vicinity of the electrode tip. The results also show that when the amplitude and frequency of the vibrating electrode increase, the cycle of drop process of metal droplets decreases significantly.

  8. Fluctuations When Driving Between Nonequilibrium Steady States (United States)

    Riechers, Paul M.; Crutchfield, James P.


    Maintained by environmental fluxes, biological systems are thermodynamic processes that operate far from equilibrium without detailed-balanced dynamics. Yet, they often exhibit well defined nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). More importantly, critical thermodynamic functionality arises directly from transitions among their NESSs, driven by environmental switching. Here, we identify the constraints on excess heat and dissipated work necessary to control a system that is kept far from equilibrium by background, uncontrolled "housekeeping" forces. We do this by extending the Crooks fluctuation theorem to transitions among NESSs, without invoking an unphysical dual dynamics. This and corresponding integral fluctuation theorems determine how much work must be expended when controlling systems maintained far from equilibrium. This generalizes thermodynamic feedback control theory, showing that Maxwellian Demons can leverage mesoscopic-state information to take advantage of the excess energetics in NESS transitions. We also generalize an approach recently used to determine the work dissipated when driving between functionally relevant configurations of an active energy-consuming complex system. Altogether, these results highlight universal thermodynamic laws that apply to the accessible degrees of freedom within the effective dynamic at any emergent level of hierarchical organization. By way of illustration, we analyze a voltage-gated sodium ion channel whose molecular conformational dynamics play a critical functional role in propagating action potentials in mammalian neuronal membranes.

  9. Analysis the dynamic response of earth dam in free vibration and forced by introducing the effect of the interaction dam foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malika Boumaiza


    Full Text Available The present study concerns the analysis of the dynamic response of earth dam, in free and forced vibration (under the effect of earthquake using the finite element method. The analysis is carried out at the end of dam construction without filling. The behavior of the dam materials and the foundation is linear elastic. In free vibration, to better understand the effect of the dam foundation interaction, we will take into account different site conditions and see their influence on the free vibration characteristics of the dam. In forced vibration, to study the seismic response of the dam, the system is subjected to the acceleration of the Boumerdes earthquake of May 21, 2003 recorded at the station n ° 2 of the dam of Kaddara in the base, with a parametric study taking into account the influence of the main parameters such as the mechanical properties of the soil: rigidity, density.

  10. Toward a new paradigm for sonochemistry: Short review on nonequilibrium plasma observations by means of MBSL spectroscopy in aqueous solutions. (United States)

    Nikitenko, Sergey I; Pflieger, Rachel


    This review summarizes recent studies of multibubble sonoluminescence (MBSL) in aqueous media in order to highlight new insights into the origin of the sonochemical activity. The observation of OH(C(2)Σ(+)-A(2)Σ(+)) emission band and a spectroscopic analysis of OH(A(2)Σ(+)-X(2)Πi) emission band in MBSL of water pre-equilibrated with noble gases revealed the formation of a nonequilibrium plasma inside the collapsing bubble (Te>Tv>Tr, where Te is an electron temperature, Tv is a vibrational temperature and Tr is a rotational (gas) temperature). The Te and Tv estimated using OH(A(2)Σ(+)-X(2)Πi) emission band increase with ultrasonic frequency. In Xe the Tv of OH(A(2)Σ(+)) state is much higher than in Ar most probably due to the lower ionization potential of Xe. The MBSL of C2(∗) Swan band (d(3)Πg-a(3)Πu) measured in aqueous tert-butanol (t-BuOH) solutions correlates with the data obtained for OH(A(2)Σ(+)-X(2)Πi) emission band. Analysis of the gaseous products of t-BuOH sonolysis revealed a significant sonochemical activity even at high t-BuOH concentration when MBSL is totally quenched, indicating that drastic intrabubble conditions (plasma) are not necessarily accompanied by sonoluminescence. The nonequilibrium plasma model of cavitation allows to explain the reverse carbon isotope effect observed during the sonolysis of water in the presence of Ar/CO gas mixture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics theory, algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Billy D


    Written by two specialists with over twenty-five years of experience in the field, this valuable text presents a wide range of topics within the growing field of nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD). It introduces theories which are fundamental to the field - namely, nonequilibrium statistical mechanics and nonequilibrium thermodynamics - and provides state-of-the-art algorithms and advice for designing reliable NEMD code, as well as examining applications for both atomic and molecular fluids. It discusses homogenous and inhomogenous flows and pays considerable attention to highly confined fluids, such as nanofluidics. In addition to statistical mechanics and thermodynamics, the book covers the themes of temperature and thermodynamic fluxes and their computation, the theory and algorithms for homogenous shear and elongational flows, response theory and its applications, heat and mass transport algorithms, applications in molecular rheology, highly confined fluids (nanofluidics), the phenomenon of slip and...

  12. Local entropy of a nonequilibrium fermion system (United States)

    Stafford, Charles A.; Shastry, Abhay


    The local entropy of a nonequilibrium system of independent fermions is investigated and analyzed in the context of the laws of thermodynamics. It is shown that the local temperature and chemical potential can only be expressed in terms of derivatives of the local entropy for linear deviations from local equilibrium. The first law of thermodynamics is shown to lead to an inequality, not equality, for the change in the local entropy as the nonequilibrium state of the system is changed. The maximum entropy principle (second law of thermodynamics) is proven: a nonequilibrium distribution has a local entropy less than or equal to a local equilibrium distribution satisfying the same constraints. It is shown that the local entropy of the system tends to zero when the local temperature tends to zero, consistent with the third law of thermodynamics.

  13. Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics in Multiphase Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Mauri, Roberto


    Non-equilibrium thermodynamics is a general framework that allows the macroscopic description of irreversible processes. This book introduces non-equilibrium thermodynamics and its applications to the rheology of multiphase flows. The subject is relevant to graduate students in chemical and mechanical engineering, physics and material science. This book is divided into two parts. The first part presents the theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, reviewing its essential features and showing, when possible, some applications. The second part of this book deals with how the general theory can be applied to model multiphase flows and, in particular, how to determine their constitutive relations. Each chapter contains problems at the end, the solutions of which are given at the end of the book. No prior knowledge of statistical mechanics is required; the necessary prerequisites are elements of transport phenomena and on thermodynamics. “The style of the book is mathematical, but nonetheless it remains very re...

  14. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of restricted Boltzmann machines (United States)

    Salazar, Domingos S. P.


    In this work, we analyze the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of a class of neural networks known as restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) in the context of unsupervised learning. We show how the network is described as a discrete Markov process and how the detailed balance condition and the Maxwell-Boltzmann equilibrium distribution are sufficient conditions for a complete thermodynamics description, including nonequilibrium fluctuation theorems. Numerical simulations in a fully trained RBM are performed and the heat exchange fluctuation theorem is verified with excellent agreement to the theory. We observe how the contrastive divergence functional, mostly used in unsupervised learning of RBMs, is closely related to nonequilibrium thermodynamic quantities. We also use the framework to interpret the estimation of the partition function of RBMs with the annealed importance sampling method from a thermodynamics standpoint. Finally, we argue that unsupervised learning of RBMs is equivalent to a work protocol in a system driven by the laws of thermodynamics in the absence of labeled data.

  15. Nonequilibrium statistical physics a modern perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Livi, Roberto


    Statistical mechanics has been proven to be successful at describing physical systems at thermodynamic equilibrium. Since most natural phenomena occur in nonequilibrium conditions, the present challenge is to find suitable physical approaches for such conditions: this book provides a pedagogical pathway that explores various perspectives. The use of clear language, and explanatory figures and diagrams to describe models, simulations and experimental findings makes the book a valuable resource for undergraduate and graduate students, and also for lecturers organizing teaching at varying levels of experience in the field. Written in three parts, it covers basic and traditional concepts of nonequilibrium physics, modern aspects concerning nonequilibrium phase transitions, and application-orientated topics from a modern perspective. A broad range of topics is covered, including Langevin equations, Levy processes, directed percolation, kinetic roughening and pattern formation.

  16. How active forces influence nonequilibrium glass transitions (United States)

    Berthier, Ludovic; Flenner, Elijah; Szamel, Grzegorz


    Dense assemblies of self-propelled particles undergo a nonequilibrium form of glassy dynamics. Physical intuition suggests that increasing departure from equilibrium due to active forces fluidifies a glassy system. We falsify this belief by devising a model of self-propelled particles where increasing departure from equilibrium can both enhance or depress glassy dynamics, depending on the chosen state point. We analyze a number of static and dynamic observables and suggest that the location of the nonequilibrium glass transition is primarily controlled by the evolution of two-point static density correlations due to active forces. The dependence of the density correlations on the active forces varies non-trivially with the details of the system, and is difficult to predict theoretically. Our results emphasize the need to develop an accurate liquid state theory for nonequilibrium systems.

  17. Effect of self-ligating bracket type and vibration on frictional force and stick-slip phenomenon in diverse tooth displacement conditions: an in vitro mechanical analysis. (United States)

    Seo, Yu-Jin; Lim, Bum-Soon; Park, Young Guk; Yang, Il-Hyung; Ahn, Seok-Joon; Kim, Tae-Woo; Baek, Seung-Hak


    To evaluate the effects of self-ligating bracket (SLB) type and vibration on frictional force and stick-slip phenomenon (SSP) in diverse tooth displacement conditions when a levelling/alignment wire was drawn. A total of 16 groups were tested (n = 10/group): Two types of SLBs [active SLB (ASLB, In-Ovation R) and passive SLB (PSLB, Damon Q)]; vibration (30 Hz and 0.25 N) and non-vibration conditions; and 4 types of displacement [2mm lingual displacement of the maxillary right lateral incisor (LD), 2mm gingival displacement of the maxillary right canine (GD), combination of LD and GD (LGD), and control]. After applying artificial saliva to the typodont system, 0.018 copper nickel-titanium archwire was drawn by Instron with a speed of 0.5mm/min for 5 minutes at 36.5°C. After static/kinetic frictional forces (SFF/KFF), and frequency/amplitude of SSP were measured, statistical analysis was performed. ASLB exhibited higher SFF, KFF, and SSP amplitude (all P Vibration decreased SFF, KFF, and SSP amplitude and increased SSP frequency in control and all displacement groups (all P vibration condition (P vibration conditions, ASLB demonstrated higher SSP amplitude than PSLB in all displacement groups (all P vibration; all P vibration). Even in tooth displacement conditions, vibration significantly reduced SFF, KFF, SSP amplitude, and increased SPP frequency in both PSLB and ASLB. However, in vivo studies would be needed to confirm the clinical significance. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

  18. Vibrational energy relaxation of a diatomic molecule in a room-temperature ionic liquid. (United States)

    Shim, Youngseon; Kim, Hyung J


    Vibrational energy relaxation (VER) dynamics of a diatomic solute in ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (EMI(+)PF(6) (-)) are studied via equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The time scale for VER is found to decrease markedly with the increasing solute dipole moment, consonant with many previous studies in polar solvents. A detailed analysis of nonequilibrium results shows that for a dipolar solute, dissipation of an excess solute vibrational energy occurs almost exclusively via the Lennard-Jones interactions between the solute and solvent, while an oscillatory energy exchange between the two is mainly controlled by their electrostatic interactions. Regardless of the anharmonicity of the solute vibrational potential, VER becomes accelerated as the initial vibrational energy increases. This is attributed primarily to the enhancement in variations of the solvent force on the solute bond, induced by large-amplitude solute vibrations. One interesting finding is that if a time variable scaled with the initial excitation energy is employed, dissipation dynamics of the excess vibrational energy of the dipolar solute tend to show a universal behavior irrespective of its initial vibrational state. Comparison with water and acetonitrile shows that overall characteristics of VER in EMI(+)PF(6) (-) are similar to those in acetonitrile, while relaxation in water is much faster than the two. It is also found that the Landau-Teller theory predictions for VER time scale obtained via equilibrium simulations of the solvent force autocorrelation function are in reasonable agreement with the nonequilibrium results.

  19. Plasma wave instabilities in nonequilibrium graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aryal, Chinta M.; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang; Jauho, Antti-Pekka


    We study two-stream instabilities in a nonequilibrium system in which a stream of electrons is injected into doped graphene. As with equivalent nonequilibrium parabolic band systems, we find that the graphene systems can support unstable charge-density waves whose amplitudes grow with time. We...... determine the range of wave vectors q that are unstable, and their growth rates. We find no instability for waves with wave vectors parallel or perpendicular to the direction of the injected carriers. We find that, within the small-wave-vector approximation, the angle between q and the direction...

  20. Acute effects of whole body vibration on balance in persons with and without chronic ankle instability. (United States)

    Rendos, Nicole K; Jun, Hyung-Pil; Pickett, Nancy M; Lew Feirman, Karen; Harriell, Kysha; Lee, Sae Yong; Signorile, Joseph F


    Chronic ankle instability (CAI) is a common condition following ankle injury that is associated with compromised balance. Whole body vibration training (WBVT) programmes are linked with improved balance and function in athletic and non-athletic populations and may improve balance in CAI. Twelve healthy and seven CAI participants completed two randomly assigned interventions. Two Power Plate® platforms were attached back to back using a Theraband®. Participants stood on the active plate and inactive plate for WBVT and sham interventions, respectively. Each intervention included vibration of the active plate. Centre of pressure (COP) and the star excursion balance test (SEBT) were measured before and at 3, 15 and 30 min following the interventions. Significant improvements were found in the anterior direction of the SEBT following both interventions in CAI and varying patterns of improvement were observed for COP measurements in all participants. Therefore, WBVT does not appear to acutely improve balance in CAI.