Sample records for vibrational fine structure

  1. Characterization of DPOAE fine structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, Karen; Hammershøi, Dorte


    The distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) fine structure is revealed, when measuring DPOAE with a very fine frequency resolution. It is characterized by consistent maxima and minima with notches of up to 20 dB depth. The fine structure is known also from absolute hearing thresholds...

  2. Structural Stability and Vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiggers, Sine Leergaard; Pedersen, Pauli

    This book offers an integrated introduction to the topic of stability and vibration. Strikingly, it describes stability as a function of boundary conditions and eigenfrequency as a function of both boundary conditions and column force. Based on a post graduate course held by the author at the Uni......This book offers an integrated introduction to the topic of stability and vibration. Strikingly, it describes stability as a function of boundary conditions and eigenfrequency as a function of both boundary conditions and column force. Based on a post graduate course held by the author...... and their derivation, thus stimulating them to write interactive and dynamic programs to analyze instability and vibrational modes....

  3. Observations of substorm fine structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Lazutin


    Full Text Available Particle and magnetic field measurements on the CRRES satellite were used, together with geosynchronous satellites and ground-based observations, to investigate the fine structure of a magnetospheric substorm on February 9, 1991. Using the variations in the electron fluxes, the substorm activity was divided into several intensifications lasting about 3–15 minutes each. The two main features of the data were: (1 the intensifications showed internal fine structure in the time scale of about 2 minutes or less. We call these shorter periods activations. Energetic electrons and protons at the closest geosynchronous spacecraft (1990 095 were found to have comparable activation structure. (2 The energetic (>69 keV proton injections were delayed with respect to electron injections, and actually coincided in time with the end of the intensifications and partial returns to locally more stretched field line configuration. We propose that the energetic protons could be able to control the dynamics of the system locally be quenching the ongoing intensification and possibly preparing the final large-scale poleward movement of the activity. It was also shown that these protons originated from the same intensification as the preceeding electrons. Therefore, the substorm instability responsible for the intensifications could introduce a negative feedback loop into the system, creating the observed fine structure with the intensification time scales.Key words. Magnetospheric Physics (Storms and substorms.

  4. Vibration Control in Periodic Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Jan Becker


    Within the framework of periodic structures, the calibration of RL shunted piezoelectric inclusions is investigated with respect to maximum damping of a particular wave form. A finite element setting is assumed, with local shunted inclusions inside the unit cell. The effect of the shunts is repre....... The presentation contains dispersion diagrams and vibration amplitude curves for the optimally calibrated RL shunt system in a 1-D periodic structure with local piezoelectric inclusions....

  5. Monothiodibenzoylmethane: Structural and vibrational assignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarke Knud Vilster; Gorski, Alexander; Posokhov, Yevgen


    The vibrational structure of the title compound (1,3-diphenyl-3-thioxopropane-1-one, TDBM) was studied by a variety of experimental and theoretical methods. The stable ground state configuration of TDBM was investigated by IR absorption measurements in different media, by LD polarization spectros...... to an “open”, non-chelated enethiol form (t-TCC), thereby supporting the previous conclusions by Posokhov et al. No obvious indications of the contribution of other forms to the observed spectra could be found....

  6. Vibrational Stability of NLC Linac Accelerating Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Le Pimpec, F; Bowden, G B; Doyle, E; McKee, B; Seryi, Andrei; Redaelli, S; Adiga, S


    The vibration of components of the NLC linac, such as accelerating structures and girders, is being studied both experimentally and analytically. Various effects are being considered including structural resonances and vibration caused by cooling water in the accelerating structure. This paper reports the status of ongoing work.

  7. Energy-Saving Vibration Impulse Coal Degradation at Finely Dispersed Coal-Water Slurry Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moiseev V.A.


    Full Text Available Theoretical and experimental research results of processes of finely dispersed coal-water slurry preparation for further generation of energetic gas in direct flow and vortex gas generator plants have been presented. It has been stated that frequency parameters of parabolic vibration impulse mill influence degradation degree. Pressure influence on coal parameters in grinding cavity has been proven. Experimental researches have proven efficiency of vibration impulse mill with unbalanced mass vibrator generator development. Conditions of development on intergranular walls of coal cracks have been defined.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Babak


    Full Text Available  Bridge structure test results with using different types of dynamic force have been considered. It has been shown, that the developed technique of registering and processing vibration signals allows obtaining thin spectrum structure. The analysis of its change that is defined by the type of structure loading applied has been carried out. Key parameters of the vibration signals registered have been defined.

  9. Theory of Arched Structures Strength, Stability, Vibration

    CERN Document Server

    Karnovsky, Igor A


    Theory of Arched Structures: Strength, Stability, Vibration presents detailed procedures for analytical analysis of the strength, stability, and vibration of arched structures of different types, using exact analytical methods of classical structural analysis. The material discussed is divided into four parts. Part I covers stress and strain with a particular emphasis on analysis; Part II discusses stability and gives an in-depth analysis of elastic stability of arches and the role that matrix methods play in the stability of the arches; Part III presents a comprehensive tutorial on dynamics and free vibration of arches, and forced vibration of arches; and Part IV offers a section on special topics which contains a unique discussion of plastic analysis of arches and the optimal design of arches.

  10. Free-Vibration Analysis of Structures (United States)

    Gupta, K. K.


    Unified numerical procedure for free-vibration analysis of structures developed and incorporated into EIGSOL computer program. Dynamic response analysis of primary importance in design of wide range of practical structures such as space-craft, buildings, and rotating machineries. Procedure determines natural frequencies and associated modes in structural design.

  11. Free-Vibration Analysis of Structures (United States)

    Gupta, K. K.


    Improved numerical procedure more than twice as fast as previous methods. Unified numerical algorithm efficiently solves free-vibration problems of stationary or spinning structures with or without viscous or structural damping. Algorithm used to solve static problems involving multiple loads and to solve quadratic matrix eigenvalue problems associated with finite-dynamic-element structural discretization.

  12. The Fine Structure of Herman Rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagella, Nuria; Henriksen, Christian


    We study the geometric structure of the boundary of Herman rings in a model family of Blaschke products of degree 3 (up to quasiconformal deformation). Shishikura’s quasiconformal surgery relates the Herman ring to the Siegel disk of a quadratic polynomial. By studying the regularity properties...... of the maps involved, we transfer McMullen’s results on the fine local geometry of Siegel disks to the Herman ring setting....

  13. Vibration modes and frequencies of structures (United States)

    Durling, R. J.; Kvaternik, R. G.


    SUDAN, Substructuring in Direct Analysis, analyzes natural modes and frequencies of vibration of structural systems. Based on direct method of analysis that employs substructures methodology, program is used with structures that may be represented as equivalent system of beam, springs, and rigid bodies.

  14. Structural, intramolecular hydrogen bonding and vibrational studies ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An extensive theoretical study on the molecular structure and vibrational analysis of 3-amino-4- methoxy benzamide (3A4MBA) was undertaken using density functional theoretical (DFT) method. The possibility of formation of intramolecular hydrogen bonding was identified from structural parameter analysis and confirmed ...

  15. Energetics, structures, vibrational frequencies, vibrational absorption, vibrational circular dichroism and Raman intensities of Leu-enkephalin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalkanen, Karl J.


    Here we present several low energy conformers of Leu-enkephalin (LeuE) calculated with the density functional theory using the Becke 3LYP hybrid functional and the 6-31G* basis set. The structures, conformational energies, vibrational frequencies, vibrational absorption (VA) intensities......, vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) intensities and Raman scattering intensities are reported for the conformers of LeuE which are expected to be populated at room temperature. The species of LeuE-present in non-polar solvents is the neutral non-ionic species with the NH2 and CO2H groups, in contrast...... to the zwitterionic neutral species with the NH3+ and CO2- groups which predominates in aqueous solution and in the crystal. All of our attempts to find the zwitterionic species in the isolated state failed, with the result that a hydrogen atom from the positively charged N-terminus ammonium group transferred either...

  16. Molecular structure, vibrational spectroscopic studies and natural ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pp. 845–860. Molecular structure, vibrational spectroscopic studies and natural bond orbital analysis of 7-amino-4-trifluoromethyl coumarin ..... [15] A Frisch, A B Nielsen and A J Holder, GAUSSIANVIEW Users Manual, Gaussian. Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (2000). [16] S Selladurai and K Subramanian, Acta Crystallogr. C48, 281 ...

  17. Molecular Eigensolution Symmetry Analysis and Fine Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G. Harter


    Full Text Available Spectra of high-symmetry molecules contain fine and superfine level cluster structure related to J-tunneling between hills and valleys on rovibronic energy surfaces (RES. Such graphic visualizations help disentangle multi-level dynamics, selection rules, and state mixing effects including widespread violation of nuclear spin symmetry species. A review of RES analysis compares it to that of potential energy surfaces (PES used in Born-Oppenheimer approximations. Both take advantage of adiabatic coupling in order to visualize Hamiltonian eigensolutions. RES of symmetric and D2 asymmetric top rank-2-tensor Hamiltonians are compared with Oh spherical top rank-4-tensor fine-structure clusters of 6-fold and 8-fold tunneling multiplets. Then extreme 12-fold and 24-fold multiplets are analyzed by RES plots of higher rank tensor Hamiltonians. Such extreme clustering is rare in fundamental bands but prevalent in hot bands, and analysis of its superfine structure requires more efficient labeling and a more powerful group theory. This is introduced using elementary examples involving two groups of order-6 (C6 and D3~C3v, then applied to families of Oh clusters in SF6 spectra and to extreme clusters.

  18. Angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, J.J.


    Measurements of the Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) from the S(1s) core level of a c(2 x 2)S/Ni(001) are analyzed to determine the spacing between the S overlayer and the first and second Ni layers. ARPEFS is a type of photoelectron diffraction measurement in which the photoelectron kinetic energy is swept typically from 100 to 600 eV. By using this wide range of intermediate energies we add high precision and theoretical simplification to the advantages of the photoelectron diffraction technique for determining surface structures. We report developments in the theory of photoelectron scattering in the intermediate energy range, measurement of the experimental photoemission spectra, their reduction to ARPEFS, and the surface structure determination from the ARPEFS by combined Fourier and multiple-scattering analyses. 202 refs., 67 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Smart paint sensor for monitoring structural vibrations (United States)

    Al-Saffar, Y.; Aldraihem, O.; Baz, A.


    A class of smart paint sensors is proposed for monitoring the structural vibration of beams. The sensor is manufactured from an epoxy resin which is mixed with carbon black nano-particles to make it electrically conducting and sensitive to mechanical vibrations. A comprehensive theoretical and experimental investigation is presented to understand the underlying phenomena governing the operation of this class of paint sensors and evaluate its performance characteristics. A theoretical model is presented to model the electromechanical behavior of the sensor system using molecular theory. The model is integrated with an amplifier circuit in order to predict the current and voltage developed by the paint sensor when subjected to loading. Furthermore, the sensor/amplifier circuit models are coupled with a finite element model of a base beam to which the sensor is bonded. The resulting multi-field model is utilized to predict the behavior of both the sensor and the beam when subjected to a wide variety of vibration excitations. The predictions of the multi-field finite element model are validated experimentally and the behavior of the sensor is evaluated both in the time and the frequency domains. The performance of the sensor is compared with the performance of conventional strain gages to emphasize its potential and merits. The presented techniques are currently being extended to sensors that can monitor the vibration and structural power flow of two-dimensional structures.

  20. Active isolation of vibrations with adaptive structures (United States)

    Guigou, C.; Fuller, C. R.; Wagstaff, P. R.


    Vibration transmission in structures is controlled by means of a technique which employs distributed arrays of piezoelectric transducers bonded to the supporting structure. Distributed PVDF piezoelectric strips are employed as error sensors, and a two-channel feedforward adaptive LMS algorithm is used for minimizing error signals and thereby controlling the structure. A harmonic force input excites a thick plate, and a receiving plate is configured with three pairs of piezoelectric actuators. Modal analyses are performed to determine the resonant frequencies of the system, and a scanning laser vibrometer is used to study the shape of the response of the receiving plate during excitation with and without the control algorithm. Efficient active isolation of the vibrations is achieved with modal suppression, and good control is noted in the on-resonance cases in which increased numbers of PVDF sensors and piezoelectric actuators are employed.

  1. Acoustically Driven Vibrations in Cylindrical Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, David H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The purpose of this investigation is to explore the interaction of acoustics and vibration in fluid-filled cylindrical structures. Our emphasis is on describing longitudinal (axial) propagation within the structure for acoustic signals that enter externally. This paper reviews the historical and theoretical treatments of the relevant phenomenon important to the propagation of these signals along pipe structures. Our specific contribution is a detailed analysis of how external acoustic signals are coupled to a free standing pipe. There have been numerous phenomena for which these analyses are applicable. They have ranged from physical property measurements, to indoor environmental noise abatement, and onto quite significant explorations of active and passive submerged structures.

  2. The fine structure of the ionosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Angelo, N.; Michelsen, Poul


    We consider in this note the excitation of ion-acoustic waves by vertical gradients of density in the ionosphere. The conclusion is reached that the fine structure of the ionosphere is probably affected by the resulting instability, as comparison with observations seems to indicate. Recently, Liu...... and Yeh [1966] have examined the excitation of low-frequency imcompressible waves in an inhomogeneous ionosphere. They find that, below the F-region maximum, there may exist instabilities, the growth rate being given approximately by grho'/rhonu, where g is the gravity, rho is the plasma density, rho......' is its height gradients, and nu is the ion-neutral collision frequency. We have examined the stability of the ionosphere against growth of low-frequency quasielectrostatic waves, taking into account the compressibility of the plasma....

  3. Active vibration control of civil structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, C.; Baker, W.; Fales, J.; Shevitz, D.


    This is a final report of a one year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Active vibration control (AVC) of structural and mechanical systems is one of the rapidly advancing areas of engineering research. The multifaceted nature of AVC covers many disciplines, such as sensors and instrumentation, numerical modeling, experimental mechanics, and advanced power systems. This work encompassed a review of the literature on active control of structures focusing both on active control hardware and on control algorithms, a design of an isolation systems using magneto-rheological fluid-filled (MRF) dampers and numerical simulations to study the enhanced vibration mitigation effects of this technology.

  4. Separation Process of Fine Coals by Ultrasonic Vibration Gas-Solid Fluidized Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Wang


    Full Text Available Ultrasonic vibration gas-solid fluidized bed was proposed and introduced to separate fine coals (0.5–0.125 mm fraction. Several technological methods such as XRF, XRD, XPS, and EPMA were used to study the composition of heavy products to evaluate the separation effect. Results show that the ultrasonic vibration force field strengthens the particle separation process based on density when the vibration frequency is 35 kHz and the fluidization number is 1.8. The ash difference between the light and heavy products and the recovery of combustible material obtain the maximum values of 47.30% and 89.59%, respectively. The sulfur content of the heavy product reaches the maximum value of 6.78%. Chemical state analysis of sulfur shows that organic sulfur (-C-S-, sulfate-sulfur (-SO4, and pyrite-sulfur (-S2 are confirmed in the original coal and heavy product. Organic sulfur (-C-S- is mainly concentrated in the light product, and pyrite-sulfur (-S2 is significantly enriched in the heavy product. The element composition, phase composition, backscatter imagery, and surface distribution of elements for heavy product show concentration of high-density minerals including pyrite, quartz, and kaolinite. Some harmful elements such as F, Pb, and As are also concentrated in the heavy product.

  5. Fine-Scale Genetic Structure in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sini Kerminen


    Full Text Available Coupling dense genotype data with new computational methods offers unprecedented opportunities for individual-level ancestry estimation once geographically precisely defined reference data sets become available. We study such a reference data set for Finland containing 2376 such individuals from the FINRISK Study survey of 1997 both of whose parents were born close to each other. This sampling strategy focuses on the population structure present in Finland before the 1950s. By using the recent haplotype-based methods ChromoPainter (CP and FineSTRUCTURE (FS we reveal a highly geographically clustered genetic structure in Finland and report its connections to the settlement history as well as to the current dialectal regions of the Finnish language. The main genetic division within Finland shows striking concordance with the 1323 borderline of the treaty of Nöteborg. In general, we detect genetic substructure throughout the country, which reflects stronger regional genetic differences in Finland compared to, for example, the UK, which in a similar analysis was dominated by a single unstructured population. We expect that similar population genetic reference data sets will become available for many more populations in the near future with important applications, for example, in forensic genetics and in genetic association studies. With this in mind, we report those extensions of the CP + FS approach that we found most useful in our analyses of the Finnish data.

  6. Cell fine structure and function - Past and present (United States)

    Fernandez-Moran, H.


    Electron microscopic studies of nerve membrane fine structure, discussing cell membrane multienzyme and macromolecular energy and information transduction, protein synthesis and nucleic acids interrelations

  7. An Einstein-Cartan Fine Structure Constant Definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone R. A. Jr.


    Full Text Available The fine structure constant definition given in Stone R.A. Jr. Progress in Physics, 2010, v.1, 11-13 is compared to an Einstein-Cartan fine structure constant definition. It is shown that the Einstein-Cartan definition produces the correct pure theory value, just not the measure value. To produce the measured value, the pure theory Einstein-Cartan fine structure constant requires only the new variables and spin coupling of the fine structure constant definition in [1].

  8. Fine structure of charge exchange lines observed in laboratory plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ida, K.; Nishimura, S. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan); Kondo, K.


    The influence of the fine structure of charge exchange lines appears only at the plasma edge or in the recombining phase where the ion temperature is low enough. The observed spectra in Li III and C VI are consistent with the sum of fine-structure components populated by statistical weights (assuming complete l-mixing) not by direct charge exchange cross sections. Some discrepancy was observed in the intensity ratio of fine-structure components between the observation and calculation for C VI in the recombining phase. The fine-structure of charge exchange lines gives an apparent Doppler shift in plasma rotation velocity measurement using charge exchange spectroscopy. (author)

  9. Structural Vibration Monitoring Using Cumulative Spectral Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Goto


    Full Text Available This paper describes a resonance decay estimation for structural health monitoring in the presence of nonstationary vibrations. In structural health monitoring, the structure's frequency response and resonant decay characteristics are very important for understanding how the structure changes. Cumulative spectral analysis (CSA estimates the frequency decay by using the impulse response. However, measuring the impulse response of buildings is impractical due to the need to shake the building itself. In a previous study, we reported on system damping monitoring using cumulative harmonic analysis (CHA, which is based on CSA. The current study describes scale model experiments on estimating the hidden resonance decay under non-stationary noise conditions by using CSA for structural condition monitoring.

  10. Occupant traffic estimation through structural vibration sensing (United States)

    Pan, Shijia; Mirshekari, Mostafa; Zhang, Pei; Noh, Hae Young


    The number of people passing through different indoor areas is useful in various smart structure applications, including occupancy-based building energy/space management, marketing research, security, etc. Existing approaches to estimate occupant traffic include vision-, sound-, and radio-based (mobile) sensing methods, which have placement limitations (e.g., requirement of line-of-sight, quiet environment, carrying a device all the time). Such limitations make these direct sensing approaches difficult to deploy and maintain. An indirect approach using geophones to measure floor vibration induced by footsteps can be utilized. However, the main challenge lies in distinguishing multiple simultaneous walkers by developing features that can effectively represent the number of mixed signals and characterize the selected features under different traffic conditions. This paper presents a method to monitor multiple persons. Once the vibration signals are obtained, features are extracted to describe the overlapping vibration signals induced by multiple footsteps, which are used for occupancy traffic estimation. In particular, we focus on analysis of the efficiency and limitations of the four selected key features when used for estimating various traffic conditions. We characterize these features with signals collected from controlled impulse load tests as well as from multiple people walking through a real-world sensing area. In our experiments, the system achieves the mean estimation error of +/-0.2 people for different occupant traffic conditions (from one to four) using k-nearest neighbor classifier.

  11. Nonlinear frequency response analysis of structural vibrations (United States)

    Weeger, Oliver; Wever, Utz; Simeon, Bernd


    In this paper we present a method for nonlinear frequency response analysis of mechanical vibrations of 3-dimensional solid structures. For computing nonlinear frequency response to periodic excitations, we employ the well-established harmonic balance method. A fundamental aspect for allowing a large-scale application of the method is model order reduction of the discretized equation of motion. Therefore we propose the utilization of a modal projection method enhanced with modal derivatives, providing second-order information. For an efficient spatial discretization of continuum mechanics nonlinear partial differential equations, including large deformations and hyperelastic material laws, we employ the concept of isogeometric analysis. Isogeometric finite element methods have already been shown to possess advantages over classical finite element discretizations in terms of higher accuracy of numerical approximations in the fields of linear vibration and static large deformation analysis. With several computational examples, we demonstrate the applicability and accuracy of the modal derivative reduction method for nonlinear static computations and vibration analysis. Thus, the presented method opens a promising perspective on application of nonlinear frequency analysis to large-scale industrial problems.

  12. Cosmological constant, fine structure constant and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Hao; Zou, Xiao-Bo; Li, Hong-Yu; Xue, Dong-Ze [Beijing Institute of Technology, School of Physics, Beijing (China)


    In the present work, we consider the cosmological constant model Λ ∝ α{sup -6}, which is well motivated from three independent approaches. As is well known, the hint of varying fine structure constant α was found in 1998. If Λ ∝ α{sup -6} is right, it means that the cosmological constant Λ should also be varying. Here, we try to develop a suitable framework to model this varying cosmological constant Λ ∝ α{sup -6}, in which we view it from an interacting vacuum energy perspective. Then we consider the observational constraints on these models by using the 293 Δα/α data from the absorption systems in the spectra of distant quasars. We find that the model parameters can be tightly constrained to the very narrow ranges of O(10{sup -5}) typically. On the other hand, we can also view the varying cosmological constant model Λ ∝ α{sup -6} from another perspective, namely it can be equivalent to a model containing ''dark energy'' and ''warm dark matter'', but there is no interaction between them. We find that this is also fully consistent with the observational constraints on warm dark matter. (orig.)

  13. Cosmological Constant, Fine Structure Constant and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Hao; Li, Hong-Yu; Xue, Dong-Ze


    In this work, we consider the cosmological constant model $\\Lambda\\propto\\alpha^{-6}$, which is well motivated from three independent approaches. As is well known, the evidence of varying fine structure constant $\\alpha$ was found in 1998. If $\\Lambda\\propto\\alpha^{-6}$ is right, it means that the cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ should be also varying. In this work, we try to develop a suitable framework to model this varying cosmological constant $\\Lambda\\propto\\alpha^{-6}$, in which we view it from an interacting vacuum energy perspective. We propose two types of models to describe the evolutions of $\\Lambda$ and $\\alpha$. Then, we consider the observational constraints on these models, by using the 293 $\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha$ data from the absorption systems in the spectra of distant quasars, and the data of type Ia supernovae (SNIa), cosmic microwave background (CMB), baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO). We find that the model parameters can be tightly constrained to the narrow ranges of ${\\cal O}(10^{-5})$ t...

  14. Vibrational Based Inspection of Civil Engineering Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Anders

    and Structural Engineering at the University of Aalborg since the beginning of 1992. Both projects have been supported by the Danish Technical Research Council. Further, the first mentioned project was supported by the Danish Energy Agency. Their financial support is gratefully acknowledged.......The thesis has been written in relation to two different research projects. Firstly, an offshore test programme, Integrated Experimental/Numerical Analysis of the Dynamic behavior of offshore structures, which was performed at the department of Building Technology and Structural Engineering...... at the University of Aalborg from 1988 to 1991. Secondly, a research project, In-Field Vibration Based Inspection of Civil Engineering Structures, which has been performed as a pilot project by the Consulting Engineers Rambøll, Hannemann and Højlund in cooperation with the department of Building Technology...

  15. Vibration-immune compact optical metrology to enable production-line quantification of fine scale features (United States)

    Novak, Erik


    Inspectors attempting to quantify defects and fine-scale features on precision machined surfaces are often limited by the capabilities and form factors of existing measurement techniques. Inspectors most often rely on imprecise and inaccurate visual comparison tools or pin gauges to determine the geometry of surface features. This paper will describe key attributes of a metrology system for quantification of small features in a production environment and present critical performance tests on the system including vertical and lateral resolution and correlation with other techniques. Additionally, various new applications will be discussed which are fundamentally enabled through access to a portable, vibration-immune, system that is both quantitative and easy-to-use.

  16. Vibration health monitoring for tensegrity structures (United States)

    Ashwear, Nasseradeen; Eriksson, Anders


    Tensegrities are assembly structures, getting their equilibrium from the interaction between tension in cables and compression in bars. During their service life, slacking in their cables and nearness to buckling in their bars need to be monitored to avoid a sudden collapse. This paper discusses how to design the tensegrities to make them feasible for vibrational health monitoring methods. Four topics are discussed; suitable finite elements formulation, pre-measurements analysis to find the locations of excitation and sensors for the interesting modes, the effects from some environmental conditions, and the pre-understanding of the effects from different slacking scenarios.

  17. A five-dimensional model of varying fine structure constant

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A five-dimensional model of varying fine structure constant. J P MBELEK. Service d'Astrophysique, C.E. Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France. Abstract. The cosmological variation of the fine structure constant « is explored from an effective theory, under the form of an improved version of the 5D Kaluza-Klein theory.

  18. InAs Band-Edge Exciton Fine Structure (United States)


    modulated by the excitation rate of the nanocrystals, fine-structure broadening is fundamental to the photophysics of nanocrystals and most likely... CdTe ) exhibited the same effective band-edge fine structure, with similar acoustic phonon energies. These extracted relaxation rates are consistent

  19. Model Predictive Vibration Control Efficient Constrained MPC Vibration Control for Lightly Damped Mechanical Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Takács, Gergely


    Real-time model predictive controller (MPC) implementation in active vibration control (AVC) is often rendered difficult by fast sampling speeds and extensive actuator-deformation asymmetry. If the control of lightly damped mechanical structures is assumed, the region of attraction containing the set of allowable initial conditions requires a large prediction horizon, making the already computationally demanding on-line process even more complex. Model Predictive Vibration Control provides insight into the predictive control of lightly damped vibrating structures by exploring computationally efficient algorithms which are capable of low frequency vibration control with guaranteed stability and constraint feasibility. In addition to a theoretical primer on active vibration damping and model predictive control, Model Predictive Vibration Control provides a guide through the necessary steps in understanding the founding ideas of predictive control applied in AVC such as: ·         the implementation of ...

  20. Study on Structure Property of Cantilever Piezoelectric Vibration Generator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yan Zhen; He Qing; Liu Junfeng


      For increasing generating capacity of cantilever piezoelectric vibration generator with limited volume, influence rule of structure parameter to generating capacity of unimorph, bimorph in series...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.І. Marchuk


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the mechanism of origin of structural, structural and technological defects of rollers. The technique for integrated indicator of vibration working surfaces of the rings to determine the level of life of the finished part to the operation as part of the bearing and predict the vibroacoustic characteristics of rolling bearings. It was established that technological defects cause low-frequency and high-frequency vibrations. The question about the extent to which it is necessary to strengthen the tolerances on the parameters of bearings on which vibration level is determined not errors bearing parts and their structural properties. Calculated values of the amplitudes vibroacceleration due to the rigidity of the bearing vibrations are so small that in some cases adopted precision calculations turned enough to detect such vibrations. Thus, when tested on the vibro-acoustic installations structural vibration does not play an important role.

  2. Magnetic sensor for building structural vibrations. (United States)

    García, Alfonso; Morón, Carlos; Tremps, Enrique


    This paper shows a new displacement-to-frequency transducer based on the variation of a coil inductance when a magnetic core is partially or completely inserted inside. This transducer is based on a Colpitts oscillator due its low manufacturing price, behavior and immunity to noise. A tank circuit with a configuration in parallel was used because it can be employed at lower frequencies and it enables it to make a direct analysis. The sensor has a dynamic range equal to the length of the coil. The cores can exchange sensors (coils with its ferromagnetic core) using the same electronic measuring system. In this way, with only an electronic circuit, the core sensor determines the measurement range. The obtained resolution is higher than 1/100,000, and the sensor also allows the measurement and knowing in real time the effect of vibration, thermal expansion, referred overload movements, etc.., that can occur in the structural elements of a building.

  3. Review of vibration effect during piling installation to adjacent structure (United States)

    Rahman, Nurul Aishah Abd; Musir, Adhilla Ainun; Dahalan, Nurol Huda; Ghani, Abdul Naser Abdul; Khalil, Muhamad Kasimi Abd


    Basically, many major structures across the world such as towers, high rise building, houses and bridges utilize pile as a support material. The use of pile is important to strengthen the structures. However, this has led to another problem to the nearest surrounding structures resulted from pile driving. As part of a construction work, unavoidable pile driving activity generates a vibration towards the surrounding structures if uncontrolled may cause damage to the adjacent structure. As the current construction works are frequently located in urban areas where the distance between the nearest building structures is not far, vibration may cause damage to nearby structures. Knowing which part of the building that is mostly affected by various vibration patterns from the impact of pile driving is crucial. Thus, it is very important to predict the impact of vibration during piling installation work. This paper reviews the vibrations generated by piling activity toward surrounding structures in terms sources of vibration, impact of piling installation, pile-soil interaction, and factors affecting the vibration impact of building as well as to study the parameters involved in vibration generation during piling works.

  4. Nonlinear vibration with control for flexible and adaptive structures

    CERN Document Server

    Wagg, David


    This book provides a comprehensive discussion of nonlinear multi-modal structural vibration problems, and shows how vibration suppression can be applied to such systems by considering a sample set of relevant control techniques. It covers the basic principles of nonlinear vibrations that occur in flexible and/or adaptive structures, with an emphasis on engineering analysis and relevant control techniques. Understanding nonlinear vibrations is becoming increasingly important in a range of engineering applications, particularly in the design of flexible structures such as aircraft, satellites, bridges, and sports stadia. There is an increasing trend towards lighter structures, with increased slenderness, often made of new composite materials and requiring some form of deployment and/or active vibration control. There are also applications in the areas of robotics, mechatronics, micro electrical mechanical systems, non-destructive testing and related disciplines such as structural health monitoring. Two broader ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villegas Nancy


    Full Text Available The present document shows strata classification of the Colombian Pacific Ocean - COLUMBIAN PACIFIC OCEAN, done by first time according its fine thermohaline structure, based on temperature and salinity fields analysis. Layers, where different mechanisms of fine structure predominate, were determined and everywhere in the area a stable stratification was observed, although conditions for not stability as a result of the double diffusion were present.

  6. The structure of filled skutterudites and the local vibration behavior of the filling atom (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaojuan; Zong, Peng-an; Chen, Xihong; Tao, Juzhou; Lin, He


    Both of atomic pair distribution function (PDF) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) experiments have been carried out on unfilled and Yb-filled skutterudites YbxCo4Sb12 (x=0, 0.15, 0.2 and 0.25) samples. The structure refinements on PDF data confirm the large amplitude vibration of Yb atom and the dependence of Yb vibration amplitude on the filling content. Temperature dependent EXAFS experiment on filled skutterudites have been carried out at Yb LⅢ-edge in order to explore the local vibration behavior of filled atom. EXAFS experiments show that the Einstein temperature of the filled atom is very low (70.9 K) which agrees with the rattling behavior.

  7. The structure of filled skutterudites and the local vibration behavior of the filling atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xiaojuan [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Dongguan Institute of Neutron Science, Dongguan 523808 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zong, Peng-an [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Chen, Xihong [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Tao, Juzhou, E-mail: [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Dongguan Institute of Neutron Science, Dongguan 523808 (China); Lin, He, E-mail: [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201204 (China)


    Both of atomic pair distribution function (PDF) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) experiments have been carried out on unfilled and Yb-filled skutterudites Yb{sub x}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} (x=0, 0.15, 0.2 and 0.25) samples. The structure refinements on PDF data confirm the large amplitude vibration of Yb atom and the dependence of Yb vibration amplitude on the filling content. Temperature dependent EXAFS experiment on filled skutterudites have been carried out at Yb L{sub Ⅲ}-edge in order to explore the local vibration behavior of filled atom. EXAFS experiments show that the Einstein temperature of the filled atom is very low (70.9 K) which agrees with the rattling behavior.

  8. Finite Element Vibration and Dynamic Response Analysis of Engineering Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Mackerle


    Full Text Available This bibliography lists references to papers, conference proceedings, and theses/dissertations dealing with finite element vibration and dynamic response analysis of engineering structures that were published from 1994 to 1998. It contains 539 citations. The following types of structures are included: basic structural systems; ground structures; ocean and coastal structures; mobile structures; and containment structures.

  9. Innovation in Active Vibration Control Strategy of Intelligent Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moutsopoulou


    Full Text Available Large amplitudes and attenuating vibration periods result in fatigue, instability, and poor structural performance. In light of past approaches in this field, this paper intends to discuss some innovative approaches in vibration control of intelligent structures, particularly in the case of structures with embedded piezoelectric materials. Control strategies are presented, such as the linear quadratic control theory, as well as more advanced theories, such as robust control theory. The paper presents sufficiently a recognizable advance in knowledge of active vibration control in intelligent structures.

  10. Acoustic Agglomeration Process of Fine Particles in a Resonance Structure (United States)

    Shi, Chen-hao; Zhang, Jian; Zhao, Yun; Liang, Jie


    It was proved that the acoustic agglomeration technology has a good application prospect in the removal of fine particles. In this paper, a removal system of acoustic agglomeration is constructed by the acoustic resonance structure. With the finite element simulation model, the effect and condition of sound pressure level (SPL) increment of high intensity sound in the resonance structure are defined. In the experiment, the contrast of the sampling weight and particle size distribution changes of fine particles was compared under different operating conditions to examine the effect of acoustic agglomeration on the removal efficiency of fine particles. The results show the SPL increment of 10dB is obtained with SPL 145-165 dB when the working frequency is changed from 400 to 2000 Hz. Under the action of acoustic agglomeration, fine particles in the aerosol were significantly reduced, and the removal effect is markedly improved with the increase of SPL.

  11. Flow-Induced Vibration of Circular Cylindrical Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shoei-Sheng [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Components Technology Division


    Flow-induced vibration is a term to denote those phenomena associated with the response of structures placed in or conveying fluid flow. More specifically, the terra covers those cases in which an interaction develops between fluid-dynamic forces and the inertia, damping or elastic forces in the structures. The study of these phenomena draws on three disciplines: (1) structural mechanics, (2) mechanical vibration, and (3) fluid dynamics. The vibration of circular cylinders subject to flow has been known to man since ancient times; the vibration of a wire at its natural frequency in response to vortex shedding was known in ancient Greece as aeolian tones. But systematic studies of the problem were not made until a century ago when Strouhal established the relationship between vortex shedding frequency and flow velocity for a given cylinder diameter. The early research in this area has beer summarized by Zdravkovich (1985) and Goldstein (1965). Flow-induced structural vibration has been experienced in numerous fields, including the aerospace industry, power generation/transmission (turbine blades, heat exchanger tubes, nuclear reactor components), civil engineering (bridges, building, smoke stacks), and undersea technology. The problems have usually been encountered or created accidentally through improper design. In most cases, a structural or mechanical component, designed to meet specific objectives, develops problems when the undesired effects of flow field have not been accounted for in the design. When a flow-induced vibration problem is noted in the design stage, the engineer has different options to eliminate the detrimental vibration. Unfortunately, in many situations, the problems occur after the components are already in operation; the "fix" usually is very costly. Flow-induced vibration comprises complex and diverse phenomena; subcritical vibration of nuclear fuel assemblies, galloping of transmission lines, flutter of pipes conveying fluid, and whirling

  12. Vibrations in lightweight structures - Efficiency and reduction of numerical models


    Flodén, Ola


    Multi-storey wood buildings have been increasing in popularity since a century-old ban on the construction of such buildings was lifted in 1994. Compared to conventional concrete structures, it is more difficult to build lightweight structures in such a way that noise and disturbing vibrations is avoided. To design buildings of high performance regarding sound and vibrations, it is desirable to have tools for predicting the effects of structural modifications prior to construction. The long-t...

  13. Nearest-neighbour distribution of distances in crystals from extended X-ray absorption fine structure (United States)

    Fornasini, P.; Grisenti, R.; Dapiaggi, M.; Agostini, G.; Miyanaga, T.


    Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) is a powerful probe of the distribution of nearest-neighbour distances around selected atomic species. We consider here the effect of vibrational disorder in crystals. The potential of EXAFS for the accurate evaluation of the coefficient of bond thermal expansion and its temperature dependence is discussed, with the aim of stimulating and facilitating the comparison with the results from total scattering experiments. The meaning of the distribution asymmetry in crystals and its connection with the effective potential anharmonicity and the bond expansion is quantitatively explored by comparing the results for a number of different systems. The extent of the relative atomic vibrations perpendicular to the bond direction and the perpendicular to parallel anisotropy are correlated with the extent of lattice negative thermal expansion as well as with the ionic mobility in superionic crystals.

  14. Vibration Antiresonance Design for a Spacecraft Multifunctional Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Xu Li


    Full Text Available Spacecraft must withstand rigorous mechanical environment experiences such as acceleration, noise, vibration, and shock during the process of launching, satellite-vehicle separation, and so on. In this paper, a new spacecraft multifunctional structure concept designed by us is introduced. The multifunctional structure has the functions of not only load bearing, but also vibration reduction, energy source, thermal control, and so on, and we adopt a series of viscoelastic parts as connections between substructures. Especially in this paper, a vibration antiresonance design method is proposed to realize the vibration reduction. The complex zero-point equations of the vibration system are firstly established, and then the vibration antiresonance design for the system is achieved. For solving the difficulties due to viscoelastic characteristics of the connecting parts, we present the determining formulas to obtain the structural parameters, so that the complex zero-point equations can be satisfied. Numerical simulation and ground experiment demonstrate the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed method. This method can solve the structural vibration control problem under the function constraints of load bearing and energy supplying and will expand the performance of spacecraft functional modules.

  15. Vibration Response Characteristics of the Cross Tunnel Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Lai


    Full Text Available It is well known that the tunnel structure will lose its function under the long-term repeated function of the vibration effect. A prime example is the Xi’an cross tunnel structure (CTS of Metro Line 2 and the Yongningmen tunnel, where the vibration response of the tunnel vehicle load and metro train load to the structure of shield tunnel was analyzed by applying the three-dimensional (3D dynamic finite element model. The effect of the train running was simulated by applying the time-history curves of vibration force of the track induced by wheel axles, using the fitted formulas for vehicle and train vibration load. The characteristics and the spreading rules of vibration response of metro tunnel structure were researched from the perspectives of acceleration, velocity, displacement, and stress. It was found that vehicle load only affects the metro tunnel within 14 m from the centre, and the influence decreases gradually from vault to spandrel, haunch, and springing. The high-speed driving effect of the train can be divided into the close period, the rising period, the stable period, the declining period, and the leaving period. The stress at haunch should be carefully considered. The research results presented for this case study provide theoretical support for the safety of vibration response of Metro Line 2 structure.

  16. Equilibrium structure and atomic vibrations of Nin clusters (United States)

    Borisova, Svetlana D.; Rusina, Galina G.


    The equilibrium bond lengths and binding energy, second differences in energy and vibrational frequencies of free clusters Nin (2 ≤ n ≤ 20) were calculated with the use of the interaction potential obtained in the tight-binding approximation (TBA). The results show that the minimum vibration frequency plays a significant role in the evaluation of the dynamic stability of the clusters. A nonmonotonic dependence of the minimum vibration frequency of clusters on their size and the extreme values for the number of atoms in a cluster n = 4, 6, 13, and 19 are demonstrated. This result agrees with the theoretical and experimental data on stable structures of small metallic clusters.

  17. A five-dimensional model of varying fine structure constant

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dimensional model of varying fine structure constant. J P Mbelek. Cosmology Volume 62 Issue 3 March 2004 pp 741-743. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  18. Distortion product otoacoustic emission fine structure of symphony orchestra musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, Karen; Hammershøi, Dorte

    losses than puretone audiometry. The distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) fine structure is obtained when the ear is stimulated by dual tone stimuli using a high frequency resolution. It is characterized by quasi-periodic variations across frequency, as it can be observed in the hearing...

  19. Distortion product otoacoustic emission fine structure of symphony orchestra musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, Karen; Hammershøi, Dorte


    losses than pure-tone audiometry. The distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) fine structure is obtained when the ear is stiumulated by dual tone stimuli using a high frequency resolution. It is characterized by quasi-periodic variations across frequency, as it can be observed in the hearing...

  20. Vibration Analysis of Structures with Rotation and Reflection Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baojian Li


    Full Text Available The article applies group representation theory to the vibration analysis of structures with Cnv symmetry, and presents a new structural vibration analysis method. The eigenvalue problem of the whole structure is divided into much smaller subproblems by forming the mass and stiffness matrices of one substructure and than modifying them to form mass and stiffness matrices in each irreducible subspace, resulting in the saving of computer time and memory. The modal characteristics of structures with Cnv symmetry are derived from theoretical analysis. Computation and modal testing are used to verify the validity of the theoretical deductions.

  1. Structure-borne sound structural vibrations and sound radiation at audio frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Cremer, L; Petersson, Björn AT


    Structure-Borne Sound"" is a thorough introduction to structural vibrations with emphasis on audio frequencies and the associated radiation of sound. The book presents in-depth discussions of fundamental principles and basic problems, in order to enable the reader to understand and solve his own problems. It includes chapters dealing with measurement and generation of vibrations and sound, various types of structural wave motion, structural damping and its effects, impedances and vibration responses of the important types of structures, as well as with attenuation of vibrations, and sound radi

  2. Active control of noise radiation from vibrating structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkholt, Jakob

    The thesis is concerned with the active control of randomly vibrating structures by means of feedback control, with particular emphasis on reducing the sound radiation from such structures. A time domain model of the structural and radiation dynamics of an actively controlled plate has been...... optimal and robust discrete-time feedback controllers for active vibration control of multimodal structures have been compared. They have been showed to yield controllers with identical frequency response characteristics, even though they employ completely different methods of numerical solutions...... developed, based on the theory of radiation filters for estimating the sound radiation from multimodal vibrations. This model has then been used in simulations of optimal feedback control, with special emphasis of the stability margins of the optimal control scheme. Two different methods of designing...

  3. Effect of structural design on traffic-induced building vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Peter; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Persson, Kent


    are related to the type of construction material (if it would be a light or heavy structure), and to the slab thickness. The finite element method is employed for discretizing the building structure that is coupled to a semi-analytical model considering a layered ground. © 2017 The Authors. Published......Population growth and urbanization results in densified cities, where new buildings are being built closer to existing vibration sources such as road-, tram- and rail traffic. In addition, new transportation systems are constructed closer to existing buildings. Potential disturbing vibrations...... properties, and type and size of the building are governing factors. In the paper, a study is presented aiming at investigating the influence of various parameters of the building's structural design on vibration levels in the structure caused by ground surface loads, e.g. traffic. Parameters studied...

  4. Efficiency of Nearly Periodic Structures for Mitigation of Ground Vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Peplow, Andrew; Bucinskas, Paulius


    be introduced by periodic inclusions or changes to the ground surface geometry. However, for vibration mitigation in the context of real civil-engineering problems related to ground-borne noise from railways, for example, the excitation is not strictly harmonic and a steady state of the response is usually......Periodic structures are known to produce passbands and stopbands for propagation of vibration energy within the frequency domain. Sources vibrating harmonically at a frequency within a passband can lead to propagation of energy through propagating modes over long distances. However, sources...... vibrating at a frequency within a stopband excite only nearfields in the form of attenuating and evanescent modes, and the energy decays with distance. The decay phenomena are due to destructive interference of waves reflected and scattered by interfaces or obstacles placed periodically within or between...

  5. Evaluation of blast-induced vibration effects on structures 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Rim; Jeon, Gyu Shick; Lee, Dae Soo; Joo, Kwang Ho; Lee, Woong Keon [Korea Electrotechnology Research Inst., Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Chang Ha; Chung, So Keul; Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Hee Soon; Chun, Sun Woo; Park, Yeon Jun; Synn, Joong Ho; Choi, Byung Hee [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    Due to the difficulties of obtaining construction site for new plants, following ones are inevitably being built in the site adjacent to existing power plants. Therefore considerable thought has been recently given to the dynamic loading generated by blasting works near the plants to maintain the safety of structures and facilities in power plants. Our own standard for safety level of blast vibration is not prepared yet, and foreign standards have been generally employed without theoretical and experimental verification. Safety-related structures of power plants and facilities have to be protected against the effects of possible hazards due to blast vibration. Earthquakes have been considered a major dynamic design loading as a requirement of plant design, but the effects of blast-induced vibration are not. In order to ensure the safety, rational safe criterion should be established and blast design should be satisfy it, which requires the development of a model for prediction of vibration level through more systematic measurement and analysis. The main objectives of the study are : to provide background data for establishing the rational safe vibration limits, to develop models for prediction of blast vibration level, to establish safe blast design criterion, and to accumulate techniques for field measurements, data acquisition and analysis (author). 80 refs., 347 figs.

  6. Damage to surface structures due to blast vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.K. Singh; M.P. Roya [Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research, Dhanbad (India). Blasting Research Group


    This paper describes effect of blast produced ground vibration on damage potential to residential structures to determine safe levels of ground vibration for the residential structures and other buildings in mining areas. Impacts of 341 blasts detonated at two mines were monitored at the test structures and 1871 blast vibrations signatures were recorded on or near the test structures. Cosmetic cracks in a native brick-mud-cement house were detected at peak particle velocities (PPV) between 51.6 and 56.3 mm/s. The reinforced concrete and cement mortar (RCC) structure experienced cosmetic cracks at PPVs of 68.6-71.3 mm/s at the first floor, whereas at second floor it was detected at PPV levels of 71.2-72.2 mm/s. Minor damage in brick-mud-cement house was recorded at PPV levels of 81.0-89.7 mm/s. The RCC structure at first and second floors experienced minor damage at PPV levels of 104 and 98.3-118 mm/s, respectively. The brick-mud-cement house experienced major damage at PPV level of 99.6-113.0 mm/s, while major damage was recorded in RCC structure on first floor at PPV of 122 mm/s, the second floor at PPV levels of 128.9-161 mm/s. Recommended threshold limits of vibrations for the different type of structures is based on these measurements and observations.

  7. Structural health monitoring with a wireless vibration sensor network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, T.G.H.; Schiphorst, F.B.A.


    Advanced maintenance strategies for infrastructure assets such as bridges or off shore wind turbines require actual and reliable information of the maintenance status. Structural health monitoring based on vibration sensing can help in supplying the input needed for structural health monitoring


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Макаренко


    Full Text Available In the article the control system is created, which is able to reduce steady-state vibration response of thinwalled flexible structure in the wide band of low frequencies. It is supposed, that the flexible structure is subject to external harmonic force with variable frequencies, and parameters of that force are available for the usage by the control system. The control system is based on pattern search algorithm and suggestion about the dependence of signal, which is formed by the control system, from the steady-state vibration response of the flexible structure. Developed software allows to use pattern search algorithm as the control system for plate vibration in real-time. The influence on control system operation of signal delay of executive device of compensating path and transition process after the change of control signal parameters is done by the usage of the additional idle time. During idle time the control signal is supported. It has parameters that have taken place before the beginning of idle mode. Step reset option for resuming of search after the long-term steady-state vibration of flexible structure do not derange control system operation, because step change take place only after polling cycle termination. The efficiency of proposed system is illustrated experimentally on the example of clamped plate. Experimental results analysis showed the necessity of multiple compensating devices application for vibration reduction in wide frequency range.

  9. Quintessential Nature of the Fine-Structure Constant


    Sherbon, Michael


    7 pages; International audience; An introduction is given to the geometry and harmonics of the Golden Apex in the Great Pyramid, with the metaphysical and mathematical determination of the fine-structure constant of electromagnetic interactions. Newton's gravitational constant is also presented in harmonic form and other fundamental physical constants are then found related to the quintessential geometry of the Golden Apex in the Great Pyramid.

  10. Fine structure of the exciton electroabsorption in semiconductor superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monozon, B.S., E-mail: [Physics Department, Marine Technical University, 3 Lotsmanskaya Str., 190008 St.Petersburg (Russian Federation); Schmelcher, P. [Zentrum für Optische Quantentechnologien, The Hamburg Centre for Ultrafast Imaging, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)


    Wannier-Mott excitons in a semiconductor layered superlattice (SL) are investigated analytically for the case that the period of the superlattice is much smaller than the 2D exciton Bohr radius. Additionally we assume the presence of a longitudinal external static electric field directed parallel to the SL axis. The exciton states and the optical absorption coefficient are derived in the tight-binding and adiabatic approximations. Strong and weak electric fields providing spatially localized and extended electron and hole states, respectively, are studied. The dependencies of the exciton states and the exciton absorption spectrum on the SL parameters and the electric field strength are presented in an explicit form. We focus on the fine structure of the ground quasi-2D exciton level formed by the series of closely spaced energy levels adjacent from the high frequencies. These levels are related to the adiabatically slow relative exciton longitudinal motion governed by the potential formed by the in-plane exciton state. It is shown that the external electric fields compress the fine structure energy levels, decrease the intensities of the corresponding optical peaks and increase the exciton binding energy. A possible experimental study of the fine structure of the exciton electroabsorption is discussed.

  11. Optimal Vibration Control of Civil Engineering Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thesbjerg, Leo

    In designing large civil engineering structures, an important consideration is prospective dynamic loadings which may include earthquake ground motion, wind gusts, severe sea states and moving vehicles, rotating and reciprocating machinery and others. successful design of such structures requires...

  12. Vibration control of active structures an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Preumont, Andre


    This text is an introduction to the dynamics of active structures and to the feedback control of lightly damped flexible structures. The emphasis is placed on basic issues and simple control strategies that work.

  13. Modelling flow-induced vibrations of gates in hydraulic structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erdbrink, C.D.


    The dynamic behaviour of gates in hydraulic structures caused by passing flow poses a potential threat to flood protection. Complex interactions between the turbulent flow and the suspended gate body may induce undesired vibrations. This thesis contributes to a better understanding and prevention of

  14. Formula for Forced Vibration Analysis of Structures Using Static ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This Paper proposed and examined a formula for forced vibration analysis of structures using static factored response as equivalent dynamic response. Some methods of dynamic analysis are based on using static factored response as equivalent dynamic response thereby excluding the formulation of the equations of ...

  15. Prediction of Vibration Transmission within Periodic Bar Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domadiya, Parthkumar Gandalal; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Sorokin, Sergey


    The present analysis focuses on vibration transmission within semi-infinite bar structure. The bar is consisting of two different materials in a periodic manner. A periodic bar model is generated using two various methods: The Finite Element method (FEM) and a Floquet theory approach. A parameter...

  16. Effect of curvature on structures and vibrations of zigzag carbon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First-principles pseudopotential-based density functional theory calculations of atomic and electronic structures, full phonon dispersions and thermal properties of zigzag single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are presented. By determining the correlation between vibrational modes of a graphene sheet and of the ...

  17. Uncertainty Quantification for Monitoring of Civil Structures from Vibration Measurements (United States)

    Döhler, Michael; Mevel, Laurent


    Health Monitoring of civil structures can be performed by detecting changes in the modal parameters of a structure, or more directly in the measured vibration signals. For a continuous monitoring the excitation of a structure is usually ambient, thus unknown and assumed to be noise. Hence, all estimates from the vibration measurements are realizations of random variables with inherent uncertainty due to (unknown) process and measurement noise and finite data length. In this talk, a strategy for quantifying the uncertainties of modal parameter estimates from a subspace-based system identification approach is presented and the importance of uncertainty quantification in monitoring approaches is shown. Furthermore, a damage detection method is presented, which is based on the direct comparison of the measured vibration signals without estimating modal parameters, while taking the statistical uncertainty in the signals correctly into account. The usefulness of both strategies is illustrated on data from a progressive damage action on a prestressed concrete bridge. References E. Carden and P. Fanning. Vibration based condition monitoring: a review. Structural Health Monitoring, 3(4):355-377, 2004. M. Döhler and L. Mevel. Efficient multi-order uncertainty computation for stochastic subspace identification. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 38(2):346-366, 2013. M. Döhler, L. Mevel, and F. Hille. Subspace-based damage detection under changes in the ambient excitation statistics. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 45(1):207-224, 2014.

  18. Vibrational spectra and normal coordinate analysis on structure of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. December 2008 physics pp. 1291–1300. Vibrational spectra and normal coordinate analysis on structure of chlorambucil and thioguanine. S GUNASEKARAN1, S KUMARESAN2,∗, ... methoprexate are most effective in the treatment of leukemia [5–10] in children. Thioguanine interferes with the conversion of ...

  19. Numerical analysis of free vibrations of damped rotating structures (United States)

    Gupta, K. K.


    This paper is concerned with the efficient numerical solution of damped and undamped free vibration problems of rotating structures. While structural discretization is achieved by the finite element method, the associated eigenproblem solution is effected by a combined Sturm sequence and inverse iteration technique that enables the computation of a few required roots only without having to compute any other. For structures of complex configurations, a modal synthesis technique is also presented, which is based on appropriate combinations of eigenproblem solution of various structural components. Such numerical procedures are general in nature, which fully exploit matrix sparsity inherent in finite element discretizations, and prove to be most efficient for the vibration analysis of any damped rotating structure, such as rotating machineries, helicopter and turbine blades, spinning space stations, among others.

  20. Passive and Active Vibration Control of Renewable Energy Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zili

    The present thesis deals with fundamental researches on passive and active vibration control of renewable energy structures, and provides useful models for practical applications. Effective and robust vibration control methods have been explored for mitigating the lightly damped edgewise blade...... solutions for wave energy point absorbers, in order to maximize the mean absorbed power and to deliver more smooth power to the grid. A novel suboptimal causal control law has been established for controlling the motion of the point absorber, and a new type of point absorber has also been proposed...

  1. The ABRAVIBE toolbox for teaching vibration analysis and structural dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, A.


    Vibration analysis is a subject where students often find it hard to comprehend the fundamental theory. The fact that we have, in general, almost no intuition for dynamic phenomena, means that students need to explore various dynamic phenomena in order to grasp the subject. For this reason......, a MATLAB toolbox (the ABRAVIBE toolbox) has been developed as an accompanying toolbox for the recent book "Noise and Vibration Analysis" by the author. This free, open software, published under GNU Public License, can be used with GNU Octave, if an entirely free software platform is wanted, with a few......). In this paper, an overview of the functionality is given and recommended use in teaching is discussed. It is also shown how the toolbox can be used for general vibration analysis using data from multichannel measurements. Finally, some laboratory exercises for structural dynamics teaching are discussed...

  2. Processing of temporal fine structure as a function of age. (United States)

    Grose, John H; Mamo, Sara K


    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the processing of temporal fine structure diminishes with age, even in the presence of relatively normal audiometric hearing. Temporal fine structure processing was assessed by measuring the discrimination of interaural phase differences (IPDs). The hypothesis was that IPD discrimination is more acute in middle-aged observers than in older observers but that acuity in middle-aged observers is nevertheless poorer than in young adults. Two experiments were undertaken. The first measured discrimination of 0- and π-radian interaural phases as a function of carrier frequency. The stimulus was a 5-Hz sinusoidally amplitude-modulated tone in which, in the signal waveform, the interaural phase of the carrier was inverted during alternate modulation periods. The second experiment measured IPD discrimination at fixed frequencies. The stimulus was a pair of tone pulses in which, in the signal, the trailing pulse contained an IPD. A total of 39 adults with normal audiograms ≤2000 Hz participated in this study, of which 15 were younger, 12 middle aged, and 12 older. Experiment 1 showed that the highest carrier frequency at which a π-radian IPD could be discriminated from the diotic, 0-radian standard was significantly lower in middle-aged listeners than young adults, and still lower in older listeners. Experiment 2 indicated that middle-aged listeners were less sensitive to IPDs than young adults at all but the lowest frequencies tested. Older listeners, as a group, had the poorest thresholds. These results suggest that deficits in temporal fine structure processing are evident in the presenescent auditory system. This adds to the accumulating evidence that deficiencies in some aspects of auditory temporal processing emerge relatively early in the aging process. It is possible that early-emerging temporal processing deficits manifest themselves in challenging speech in noise environments.

  3. A data driven control method for structure vibration suppression (United States)

    Xie, Yangmin; Wang, Chao; Shi, Hang; Shi, Junwei


    High radio-frequency space applications have motivated continuous research on vibration suppression of large space structures both in academia and industry. This paper introduces a novel data driven control method to suppress vibrations of flexible structures and experimentally validates the suppression performance. Unlike model-based control approaches, the data driven control method designs a controller directly from the input-output test data of the structure, without requiring parametric dynamics and hence free of system modeling. It utilizes the discrete frequency response via spectral analysis technique and formulates a non-convex optimization problem to obtain optimized controller parameters with a predefined controller structure. Such approach is then experimentally applied on an end-driving flexible beam-mass structure. The experiment results show that the presented method can achieve competitive disturbance rejections compared to a model-based mixed sensitivity controller under the same design criterion but with much less orders and design efforts, demonstrating the proposed data driven control is an effective approach for vibration suppression of flexible structures.

  4. Rotorcraft airframe structural optimization for combined vibration and fatigue constraints (United States)

    Sareen, Ashish K.; Schrage, Daniel P.; Murthy, T. S.


    This paper addresses the application of a formal optimization technique in rotorcraft airframe structural design studies to reduce the structural weight, to lower airframe vibrations, and to enhance fatigue life of the structure. Vibration and fatigue considerations in airframe design are described. An optimization methodology based on the use of a nonlinear programming technique to size airframe structural members subjected to constraints on weight, vibration response and fatigue stresses under dynamic loads, are described. The paper focuses on the development of necessary computational tools for airframe structural optimization and describes the sensitivity analysis procedure for these types of design constraints. Further, the paper describes the optimization procedure as implemented in a computer code called DYNOPT which is a unique operational combination of several newly developed Fortran codes as well as modification of existing codes consisting of the direct matrix abstraction modules of the MSC/NASTRAN Program and CONMIN optimizer. The application of the optimization procedure is demonstrated using an elastic-line model of the Bell AH-1G helicopter airframe structure and computational results are discussed.

  5. Urban, Forest, and Agricultural AIS Data: Fine Spectral Structure (United States)

    Vanderbilt, V. C.


    Spectra acquired by the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) near Lafayette, IN, Ely, MN, and over the Stanford University campus, CA were analyzed for fine spectral structure using two techniques: the ratio of radiance of a ground target to the radiance of a standard and also the correlation coefficient of radiances at adjacent wavelengths. The results show ramp like features in the ratios. These features are due to the biochemical composition of the leaf and to the optical scattering properties of its cuticle. The size and shape of the ramps vary with ground cover.

  6. Investigation of structure and vibrational properties of cyclobutane pirimidine dimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petković Milena M.


    Full Text Available We performed a theoretical analysis of the structure and vibrational properties of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer, which is the main product in a photochemical reaction involving two molecules of 1-methylthymine. Thymine is a pyrimidine base that has the highest yield of the dimerization photoproducts. Methylation in position one was chosen because in this position thymine is linked to sugar in DNA. The calculations were performed at the B3LYP/cc-pVTZ level with a Gaussian program package. All molecular geometries were optimized without symmetry constraints in vacuum and D2O. Vibrational frequencies were calculated in the harmonic approximation. It was shown that there are two stable isomers, CPD(cis-syn and CPD(trans-syn. CPD(trans-syn is more stable both in vacuum and in D2O. By dissolving these molecules in D2O, both structures become more stable, although the stabilization of the less stable isomer is more pronounced due to its larger dipole moment. Thus, the difference in stability of the two isomers in D2O is almost two times lower than in vacuum. Because of the similarity of the two isomers’ structures, the difference in their vibrational spectra is not pronounced. Within the harmonic approximation, there is only a slight difference in the C=O and C-H stretching region. The difference in the N-H stretching region is more pronounced; in the CPD(cis-syn molecule the two bonds vibrate separately, whereas in the CPD(trans-syn the two modes couple, and this coupling results in symmetric and asymmetric N-H stretching. The observation shows that a slight difference in geometry can be reflected in the shape of the infrared spectra. A more detailed analysis of the vibrational properties would involve computation of anharmonic coupling terms, which would enable a more precise determination of the peak positions.

  7. Assements of Level of Comfort on a Vibrating Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars


    The serviceability limit state of structures is subject to increasing attention. Flooring-systems may encounter vertical vibrations that may be perceived as annoying by stationary persons sitting or standing on the structure. This can happen on office floors, on grand stands etc. where humans...... in motion (for instance people walking or jumping) can bring the structure into vibration. The paper looks into human perception of decaying oscillations of floors by doing experiments with a test floor with stationary humans atop. An impulsive load is directed to the floor, and after the decay, the persons...... on the floor are asked to rate the level of discomfort on a scale from 1 to 10, and to assess the size of floor displacement (the initial amplitude of the decay). Tests are carried out with different numbers of people present on the test floor, and with different initial amplitudes of the decay. The paper...

  8. Molecular structure, vibrational spectroscopic studies and natural ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 74; Issue 5. Molecular structure ... The entropy of the title compound was also performed at HF using the hybrid functional BLYP and B3LYP with 6-31 G(d,p) as basis set levels of theory. Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis of the title molecule is also carried out.

  9. 14th International Conference on Acoustics and Vibration of Mechanical Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Marinca, Vasile


    This book is a collection of papers presented at Acoustics and Vibration of Mechanical Structures 2017 – AVMS 2017 – highlighting the current trends and state-of-the-art developments in the field. It covers a broad range of topics, such as noise and vibration control, noise and vibration generation and propagation, the effects of noise and vibration, condition monitoring and vibration testing, modeling, prediction and simulation of noise and vibration, environmental and occupational noise and vibration, noise and vibration attenuators, as well as biomechanics and bioacoustics. The book also presents analytical, numerical and experimental techniques for evaluating linear and non-linear noise and vibration problems (including strong nonlinearity). It is primarily intended for academics, researchers and professionals, as well as PhD students in various fields of the acoustics and vibration of mechanical structures.

  10. Free vibration analysis of spinning flexible space structures (United States)

    Gupta, K. K.


    Efficient computation of natural frequencies and associated free vibration modes of spinning flexible structures is required to accurately determine the nature of interaction between the flexible structure and the attitude control system, which is vital in relating control torques to attitude angles. While structural discretization is effected by the finite element method, the resulting eigenvalue problem is solved by a combined Sturm sequence and inverse iteration procedure that yields a few specified roots and associated vectors. An eigenvalue procedure, based on a simultaneous iteration technique, provides efficient computation of the first few roots and vectors; a modal synthesis procedure proves to be useful for eigenproblem solutions of unusual structures such as spacecraft.

  11. Fine structure study on low concentration zinc substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Wei [Advanced Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Ma, Jun, E-mail: [Advanced Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wang, Jianglin [Advanced Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhang, Shengmin, E-mail: [Advanced Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); China-Korea Center for Biomaterials and Nano-biotechnology, Life Science Building, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)


    The fine structure of zinc substituted hydroxyapatite was studied using experimental analysis and first-principles calculations. The synthetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles containing low Zn concentration show rod-like morphology. The crystallite sizes and unit-cell volumes tended to decrease with the increased Zn concentration according to X-ray diffraction patterns. The Zn K-edge X-ray absorption spectra and fitting results suggest that the hydroxyapatite doped with 0.1 mole% zinc is different in the zinc coordination environments compared with that containing more zinc. The density function theory calculations were performed on zinc substituted hydroxyapatite. Two mechanisms included replacing calcium by zinc and inserting zinc along the hydroxyl column and were investigated, and the related substitution energies were calculated separately. It is found that the substitution energies are negative and lowest for inserting zinc between the two oxygen atoms along the hydroxyl column (c-axis). Combined with the spectral analysis, it is suggested that the inserting mechanism is favored for low concentration zinc substituted hydroxyapatite. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the fine structure of hydroxyapatite with low content of Zn. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XANES spectra are similar but a little different at low zinc content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc ions influence hydroxyapatite crystal formation and lattice parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation energies are calculated according to plane-wave density function theory. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low content of zinc prefers to locate at hydroxyl column in hydroxyapatite lattice.

  12. QED Based Calculation of the Fine Structure Constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestone, John Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Quantum electrodynamics is complex and its associated mathematics can appear overwhelming for those not trained in this field. Here, semi-classical approaches are used to obtain a more intuitive feel for what causes electrostatics, and the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron. These intuitive arguments lead to a possible answer to the question of the nature of charge. Virtual photons, with a reduced wavelength of λ, are assumed to interact with isolated electrons with a cross section of πλ2. This interaction is assumed to generate time-reversed virtual photons that are capable of seeking out and interacting with other electrons. This exchange of virtual photons between particles is assumed to generate and define the strength of electromagnetism. With the inclusion of near-field effects the model presented here gives a fine structure constant of ~1/137 and an anomalous magnetic moment of the electron of ~0.00116. These calculations support the possibility that near-field corrections are the key to understanding the numerical value of the dimensionless fine structure constant.

  13. Influence of musical training on sensitivity to temporal fine structure. (United States)

    Mishra, Srikanta K; Panda, Manasa R; Raj, Swapna


    The objective of this study was to extend the findings that temporal fine structure encoding is altered in musicians by examining sensitivity to temporal fine structure (TFS) in an alternative (non-Western) musician model that is rarely adopted--Indian classical music. The sensitivity to TFS was measured by the ability to discriminate two complex tones that differed in TFS but not in envelope repetition rate. Sixteen South Indian classical (Carnatic) musicians and 28 non-musicians with normal hearing participated in this study. Musicians have significantly lower relative frequency shift at threshold in the TFS task compared to non-musicians. A significant negative correlation was observed between years of musical experience and relative frequency shift at threshold in the TFS task. Test-retest repeatability of thresholds in the TFS tasks was similar for both musicians and non-musicians. The enhanced performance of the Carnatic-trained musicians suggests that the musician advantage for frequency and harmonicity discrimination is not restricted to training in Western classical music, on which much of the previous research on musical training has narrowly focused. The perceptual judgments obtained from non-musicians were as reliable as those of musicians.

  14. Black Holes and Quantum Theory: The Fine Structure Constant Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.


    Full Text Available The new dynamical theory of space is further confirmed by showing that the effective “black hole” masses M BH in 19 spherical star systems, from globular clusters to galaxies, with masses M , satisfy the prediction that M BH = α 2 M , where α is the fine structure constant. As well the necessary and unique generalisations of the Schr ̈ odinger and Dirac equations permit the first derivation of gravity from a deeper theory, showing that gravity is a quantum effect of quantum matter interacting with the dynamical space. As well the necessary generalisation of Maxwell’s equations displays the observed light bending effects. Finally it is shown from the generalised Dirac equation where the spacetime mathematical formalism, and the accompanying geodesic prescription for matter trajectories, comes from. The new theory of space is non-local and we see many parallels between this and quantum theory, in addition to the fine structure constant manifesting in both, so supporting the argument that space is a quantum foam system, as implied by the deeper information-theoretic theory known as Process Physics. The spatial dynamics also provides an explanation for the “dark matter” effect and as well the non-locality of the dynamics provides a mechanism for generating the uniformity of the universe, so explaining the cosmological horizon problem.

  15. Free vibration analysis of spinning structural systems. (United States)

    Gupta, K. K.


    This article presents an efficient digital computer procedure, along with the complete listing of the associated computer program, which may be conveniently utilized for the accurate solution of a wide range of practical eigenvalue problems. Important applications of the present work are envisaged in the natural frequency analysis of spinning structures discretized by the finite element technique, and in the determination of transfer functions associated with the dynamic blocks of control systems of spacecraft utilizing gas jets or reaction wheels for attitude control, as well as of spin-stabilized and dual-spin-stabilized satellites. The validity of the Sturm sequence property is first established for the related matrix formulation involving Hermitian and real symmetric, positive-definite matrices, both being usually of highly banded configuration. A numerically stable algorithm based on the Sturm sequence method is then developed which fully exploits the banded form of the associated matrices.

  16. Vibrations of structurally orthotropic laminated shells under thermal power loading (United States)

    Kogan, E. A.; Lopanitsyn, E. A.


    On the basis of the linearized version of equations obtained in a geometrically nonlinear statement and describing the nonaxisymmetric strain of nonshallow sandwich structure orthotropic shells under thermal power loading, the Rayleigh-Ritz method with polynomial approximation of displacements and shear strains is used to solve the problem of small free vibrations of axisymmetrically thermally preloaded freely supported three-layer conical shell. The causes of dynamical fracture of the shell under study are revealed.

  17. Vibration modeling of structural fuzzy with continuous boundary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Lars; Ohlrich, Mogens


    From experiments it is well known that the vibration response of a main structure with many attached substructures often shows more damping than structural losses in the components can account for. In practice, these substructures, which are not attached in an entirely rigid manner, behave like...... effect of the fuzzy with spatial memory is demonstrated by numerical simulations of a main beam structure with fuzzy attachments. It is shown that the introduction of spatial memory reduces the damping effect of the fuzzy and in certain cases the damping effect may even be eliminated completely....

  18. Vibrational spectroscopic and structural investigations on fullerene: A DFT approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christy, P. Anto; Premkumar, S.; Asath, R. Mohamed; Mathavan, T.; Benial, A. Milton Franklin, E-mail: [Department of Physics, N.M.S.S.V.N. College, Madurai-625 019, Tamil Nadu (India)


    The molecular structure of fullerene (C{sub 60}) molecule was optimized by the DFT/B3LYP method with 6-31G and 6-31G(d,p) basis sets using Gaussian 09 program. The vibrational frequencies were calculated for the optimized molecular structure of the molecule. The calculated vibrational frequencies confirm that the molecular structure of the molecule was located at the minimum energy potential energy surface. The calculated vibrational frequencies were assigned on the basis of functional group analysis and also confirmed using the GaussView 05 software. The frontier molecular orbitals analysis was carried out. The FMOs related molecular properties were predicted. The higher ionization potential, higher electron affinity, higher softness, lower band gap energy and lower hardness values were obtained, which confirm that the fullerene molecule has a higher molecular reactivity. The Mulliken atomic charge distribution of the molecule was also calculated. Hence, these results play an important role due to its potential applications as drug delivery devices.

  19. Minimization of the Vibration Energy of Thin-Plate Structures and the Application to the Reduction of Gearbox Vibration (United States)

    Inoue, Katsumi; Krantz, Timothy L.


    While the vibration analysis of gear systems has been developed, a systematic approach to the reduction of gearbox vibration has been lacking. The technique of reducing vibration by shifting natural frequencies is proposed here for gearboxes and other thin-plate structures using the theories of finite elements, modal analysis, and optimization. A triangular shell element with 18 degrees of freedom is developed for structural and dynamic analysis. To optimize, the overall vibration energy is adopted as the objective function to be minimized at the excitation frequency by varying the design variable (element thickness) under the constraint of overall constant weight. Modal analysis is used to determine the sensitivity of the vibration energy as a function of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors. The optimum design is found by the gradient projection method and a unidimensional search procedure. By applying the computer code to design problems for beams and plates, it was verified that the proposed method is effective in reducing vibration energy. The computer code is also applied to redesign the NASA Lewis gear noise rig test gearbox housing. As one example, only the shape of the top plate is varied, and the vibration energy levels of all the surfaces are reduced, yielding an overall reduction of 1/5 compared to the initial design. As a second example, the shapes of the top and two side plates are varied to yield an overall reduction in vibration energy of 1/30.

  20. The Fine Structure of Equity-Index Option Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben G.; Bondarenko, Oleg; Todorov, Viktor

    We analyze the high-frequency dynamics of S&P 500 equity-index option prices by constructing an assortment of implied volatility measures. This allows us to infer the underlying fine structure behind the innovations in the latent state variables driving the movements of the volatility surface....... In particular, we focus attention on implied volatilities covering a wide range of moneyness (strike/underlying stock price), which load differentially on the different latent state variables. We conduct a similar analysis for high-frequency observations on the VIX volatility index as well as on futures written...... on it. We find that the innovations in the risk-neutral intensity of the negative jumps in the S&P 500 index over small time scales are best described via non-Gaussian shocks, i.e., jumps. On the other hand, the innovations over small time scales of the diffusive volatility are best modeled as Gaussian...

  1. Measurement of the Running of the Fine-Structure Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M.; Adriani, O.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Ambrosi, G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Angelescu, T.; Anselmo, F.; Arefev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Baksay, L.; Balandras, A.; Ball, R.C.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Barone, L.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Bhattacharya, S.; Biasini, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brigljevic, V.; Brochu, F.; Buffini, A.; Buijs, A.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Button, A.; Cai, X.D.; Campanelli, Mario; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.M.; Casaus, J.; Castellini, G.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Cesaroni, F.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chaturvedi, U.K.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Civinini, C.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colijn, A.P.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; Cotorobai, F.; Cozzoni, B.; de la Cruz, B.; Csilling, A.; Cucciarelli, S.; Dai, T.S.; van Dalen, J.A.; D'Alessandro, R.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Degre, A.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; van Dierendonck, D.; Di Lodovico, F.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Dominguez, A.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Dufournaud, D.; Duinker, P.; Duran, I.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Erne, F.C.; Extermann, P.; Fabre, M.; Faccini, R.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Ferroni, F.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Fredj, L.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gau, S.S.; Gentile, S.; Gheordanescu, N.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; van Gulik, R.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hasan, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hidas, P.; Hirschfelder, J.; Hirstius, A.; Hofer, H.; Holzner, G.; Hoorani, H.; Hou, S.R.; Iashvili, I.; Jin, B.N.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Khan, R.A.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, D.; Kim, D.H.; Kim, J.K.; Kim, S.C.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D.; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopp, A.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Krenz, W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Lee, H.J.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Leonardi, Emanuele; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Lubelsmeyer, K.; Luci, C.; Luckey, David; Lugnier, L.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Maity, M.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mangeol, D.; Marchesini, P.; Marian, G.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Massaro, G.G.G.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; von der Mey, M.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Molnar, P.; Monteleoni, B.; Moulik, T.; Muanza, G.S.; Muheim, F.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musy, M.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Niessen, T.; Nisati, A.; Kluge, Hannelies; Oh, Y.D.; Organtini, G.; Oulianov, A.; Palomares, C.; Pandoulas, D.; Paoletti, S.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Park, H.K.; Park, I.H.; Pascale, G.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petersen, B.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pieri, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Postema, H.; Pothier, J.; Produit, N.; Prokofev, D.O.; Prokofev, D.; Quartieri, J.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, M.A.; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Raspereza, A.; Raven, G.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; van Rhee, T.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Robohm, A.; Rodin, J.; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rubio, J.A.; Ruschmeier, D.; Rykaczewski, H.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Sanders, M.P.; Sarakinos, M.E.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmidt-Kaerst, S.; Schmitz, D.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Schwering, G.; Sciacca, C.; Sciarrino, D.; Seganti, A.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Smith, B.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stone, A.; Stone, H.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Sztaricskai, T.; Tang, X.W.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Uchida, Y.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vicinanza, D.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobev, I.; Vorobov, A.A.; Vorvolakos, A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wallraff, W.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, A.; Weber, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wilkens, H.; Wu, S.X.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, H.J.; Yang, M.; Ye, J.B.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, A.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zichichi, A.; Zilizi, G.; Zoller, M.


    Small-angle Bhabha scattering data recorded at the Z resonance and large-angleBhabha scattering data recorded at $\\sqrt{s} = 189$ \\textrm{Ge\\kern -0.1em V} bythe L3 detector at LEP are used to measure the running of the effective fine-structure constant for spacelike momentum transfers. The results are\\begin{eqnarray*} \\alpha^{-1}(-2.1 \\mathrm{Ge\\kern -0.1em V}^{2}) - \\alpha^{-1}(-6.25 \\mathrm{Ge\\kern -0.1em V}^{2}) & = & 0.78 \\pm 0.26 \\\\ \\alpha^{-1}(-12.25 \\mathrm{Ge\\kern -0.1em V}^{2}) - \\alpha^{-1}(-3434 \\mathrm{Ge\\kern -0.1em V}^{2}) & = & 3.80 \\pm 1.29, \\\\\\end{eqnarray*}in agreement with theoretical predictions.

  2. Phase structure of a surface model with many fine holes. (United States)

    Koibuchi, H


    We study the phase structure of a surface model by using the canonical Monte Carlo simulation technique on triangulated, fixed connectivity, and spherical surfaces with many fine holes. The size of a hole is assumed to be of the order of lattice spacing (or bond length) and hence can be negligible compared to the surface size in the thermodynamic limit. We observe in the numerical data that the model undergoes a first-order collapsing transition between the smooth phase and the collapsed phase. Moreover the Hasudorff dimension H remains in the physical bound, i.e., H model in this paper and the previous one with many holes, whose size is of the order of the surface size, because the previous surface model with large-sized holes has only the collapsing transition and no transition of surface fluctuations.

  3. Imaging spectroscopy of solar radio burst fine structures. (United States)

    Kontar, E P; Yu, S; Kuznetsov, A A; Emslie, A G; Alcock, B; Jeffrey, N L S; Melnik, V N; Bian, N H; Subramanian, P


    Solar radio observations provide a unique diagnostic of the outer solar atmosphere. However, the inhomogeneous turbulent corona strongly affects the propagation of the emitted radio waves, so decoupling the intrinsic properties of the emitting source from the effects of radio wave propagation has long been a major challenge in solar physics. Here we report quantitative spatial and frequency characterization of solar radio burst fine structures observed with the Low Frequency Array, an instrument with high-time resolution that also permits imaging at scales much shorter than those corresponding to radio wave propagation in the corona. The observations demonstrate that radio wave propagation effects, and not the properties of the intrinsic emission source, dominate the observed spatial characteristics of radio burst images. These results permit more accurate estimates of source brightness temperatures, and open opportunities for quantitative study of the mechanisms that create the turbulent coronal medium through which the emitted radiation propagates.

  4. NASTRAN nonlinear vibration analysis of beam and frame structures (United States)

    Mei, C.; Rogers, J. L., Jr.


    A capability for the nonlinear vibration analysis of beam and frame structures suitable for use with NASTRAN level 15.5 is described. The nonlinearity considered is due to the presence of axial loads induced by longitudinal end restraints and lateral displacements that are large compared to the beam height. A brief discussion is included of the mathematical analysis and the geometrical stiffness matrix for a prismatic beam (BAR) element. Also included are a brief discussion of the equivalent linearization iterative process used to determine the nonlinear frequency, the required modifications to subroutines DBAR and XMPLBD of the NASTRAN code, and the appropriate vibration capability, four example problems are presented. Comparisons with existing experimental and analytical results show that excellent accuracy is achieved with NASTRAN in all cases.

  5. Numerical Analysis of Vibrations of Structures under Moving Inertial Load

    CERN Document Server

    Bajer, Czeslaw I


    Moving inertial loads are applied to structures in civil engineering, robotics, and mechanical engineering. Some fundamental books exist, as well as thousands of research papers. Well known is the book by L. Frýba, Vibrations of Solids and Structures Under Moving Loads, which describes almost all problems concerning non-inertial loads. This book presents broad description of numerical tools successfully applied to structural dynamic analysis. Physically we deal with non-conservative systems. The discrete approach formulated with the use of the classical finite element method results in elemental matrices, which can be directly added to global structure matrices. A more general approach is carried out with the space-time finite element method. In such a case, a trajectory of the moving concentrated parameter in space and time can be simply defined. We consider structures described by pure hyperbolic differential equations such as strings and structures described by hyperbolic-parabolic differential equations ...

  6. Stabilizing Optical Path Length On A Vibrating Structure (United States)

    Spanos, John T.; Rahman, Zahidul H.


    Prototype apparatus constructed to test feasibility of feedback control concept for stabilization of length of optical path between two points on vibrating flexible structure. In original intended application, structure is truss having dimensions of order of meters and supports optical components of stellar interferometer. Interferometry and feedback control reduce path-length disturbances. Some aspects of present feedback control concept and prototype apparatus described in "Controllable Optical Delay Line for Stellar Interferometry" (NPO-18686), and "Test Bed for Control of Optical-Path Lengths" (NPO-18487).

  7. Feasibility of structural monitoring with vibration powered sensors (United States)

    Elvin, Niell G.; Lajnef, Nizar; Elvin, Alex A.


    Wireless sensors and sensor networks are beginning to be used to monitor structures. In general, the longevity, and hence the efficacy, of these sensors are severely limited by their stored power. The ability to convert abundant ambient energy into electric power would eliminate the problem of drained electrical supply, and would allow indefinite monitoring. This paper focuses on vibration in civil engineering structures as a source of ambient energy; the key question is can sufficient energy be produced from vibrations? Earthquake, wind and traffic loads are used as realistic sources of vibration. The theoretical maximum energy levels that can be extracted from these dynamic loads are computed. The same dynamic loads are applied to a piezoelectric generator; the energy is measured experimentally and computed using a mathematical model. The collected energy levels are compared to the energy requirements of various electronic subsystems in a wireless sensor. For a 5 cm3 sensor node (the volume of a typical concrete stone), it is found that only extreme events such as earthquakes can provide sufficient energy to power wireless sensors consisting of modern electronic chips. The results show that the optimal generated electrical power increases approximately linearly with increasing sensor mass. With current technology, it would be possible to self-power a sensor node with a mass between 100 and 1000 g for a bridge under traffic load. Lowering the energy consumption of electronic components is an ongoing research effort. It is likely that, as electronics becomes more efficient in the future, it will be possible to power a wireless sensor node by harvesting vibrations from a volume generator smaller than 5 cm3.

  8. Passive vibration control: a structure-immittance approach (United States)

    Zhang, Sara Ying; Jiang, Jason Zheng; Neild, Simon A.


    Linear passive vibration absorbers, such as tuned mass dampers, often contain springs, dampers and masses, although recently there has been a growing trend to employ or supplement the mass elements with inerters. When considering possible configurations with these elements broadly, two approaches are normally used: one structure-based and one immittance-based. Both approaches have their advantages and disadvantages. In this paper, a new approach is proposed: the structure-immittance approach. Using this approach, a full set of possible series-parallel networks with predetermined numbers of each element type can be represented by structural immittances, obtained via a proposed general formulation process. Using the structural immittances, both the ability to investigate a class of absorber possibilities together (advantage of the immittance-based approach), and the ability to control the complexity, topology and element values in resulting absorber configurations (advantages of the structure-based approach) are provided at the same time. The advantages of the proposed approach are demonstrated through two case studies on building vibration suppression and automotive suspension design, respectively.

  9. Energy harvesting from structural vibrations of magnetic shape memory alloys (United States)

    Farsangi, Mohammad Amin Askari; Cottone, Francesco; Sayyaadi, Hassan; Zakerzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Orfei, Francesco; Gammaitoni, Luca


    This letter presents the idea of scavenging energy from vibrating structures through magnetic shape memory alloy (MSMA). To this end, a MSMA specimen made of Ni50Mn28Ga22 is coupled to a cantilever beam through a step. Two permanent magnets installed at the top and bottom of the beam create a bias field perpendicular to the magnetization axis of the specimen. When vibrating the device, a longitudinal axial load applies on the MSMA, which in turn changes the magnetization, due to the martensitic variant reorientation mechanism. A pick-up coil wounded around the MSMA converts this variation into voltage according to the Faraday's law. Experimental test confirms the possibility of generating voltage in a vibrating MSMA. In particular, 15 μW power is harvested for acceleration of 0.3 g RMS at a frequency of 19.1 Hz, which is comparable with piezoelectric energy harvesters. It is also found that the optimum bias magnetic field for maximum voltage is lower than the starting field of pseudo elastic behavior.


    Zamboni, Luciano; Mishell, Daniel R.; Bell, James H.; Baca, Manuel


    A penetrated ovum was recovered from the oviduct of a 33 year old surgical patient who had had sexual intercourse 26 hr before the operation. The ovum was in the pronuclear stage. The ooplasmic organelles were mainly represented by mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum components, and Golgi elements. Small vesicles were found in the space between the two sheets of the pronuclear envelope. These vesicles appeared to be morphologically similar to the ER vesicles in the ooplasm and were considered to be involved in pronuclear development. Numerous annulate lamellae were seen in the ooplasm as well as in the pronuclei. Ooplasmic crystalloids were also observed. These were thought to represent cytoplasmic yolk. Remnants of the penetrating spermatozoon were found in close relation to one of the pronuclei. The fine structure of the first and second polar body is also described. The nuclear complement of the first polar body consisted of isolated chromosomes, whereas the second polar body contained a membrane-bounded nucleus. In consideration of the possibility that polar body fertilization may take place, these differences in nuclear organization could be of importance. Other recognizable differences between the two polar bodies were presence of dense cortical granules and microvilli in the first polar body, and absence of these structures in the second. These dissimilarities were considered to be related to the organization of the egg cytoplasm at the time of polar body separation. PMID:6008199

  11. Waves and Fine Structure in Expanding Laser-Produced Plasmas (United States)

    Collette, Andrew; Gekelman, Walter


    The behavior of expanding dense plasmas has long been a topic of interest in space plasma research, particularly in the case of expansion within a magnetized background. Previous laser-plasma experiments at the UCLA Large Plasma Device have observed the creation of strong (δBB > 50%) diamagnetic cavities, along with large-scale wave activity and hints of fine-scale structure. A new series of experiments conducted recently at the LaPD performs direct measurement of the fields inside the expanding plasma via a novel 2D probe drive system. This system combines small-scale (0.5mm-1mm) magnetic and electric field probes with high-accuracy vacuum ceramic motors, to allow measurement of the plasma volume over a 2000-point grid at 1mm resolution. The data reveal both coherent high-amplitude waves associated with the formation of these magnetic features, and complicated small-scale structure in both the magnetic field and floating potential. In addition, we will present correlation techniques using multiple independent B and E field probes. This reveals behavior of turbulent, non-phase-locked phenomena. Both the case of a single expanding plasma and two colliding plasmas were studied.

  12. Vibration Based Methods For Damage Detection In Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoach E.


    Full Text Available Vibration based damage detection methods are among the most popular and promising approaches for health monitoring of structures. In this work a critical review of different methods for damage detection methods of structures is presented. The theoretical bases of the most popular methods based on the changes in the modal properties of the structures are deduced. The review includes the modal displacements, the mode shape slopes, the modal curvatures and the strain energy methods. The efficiency of all these methods is compared by using a finite element analysis of intact and damaged beams. The methods are tested experimentally by using a scanning laser vibrometer to measure the modal properties of specially prepared composite beams with defects. All this methods are compared with the damage detection method based on the analysis of the Poincaré maps of the motion of the structures. Conclusions concerning the advantages and the applicability of the considered methods are deduced.

  13. Acoustically Induced Vibration of Structures: Reverberant Vs. Direct Acoustic Testing (United States)

    Kolaini, Ali R.; O'Connell, Michael R.; Tsoi, Wan B.


    Large reverberant chambers have been used for several decades in the aerospace industry to test larger structures such as solar arrays and reflectors to qualify and to detect faults in the design and fabrication of spacecraft and satellites. In the past decade some companies have begun using direct near field acoustic testing, employing speakers, for qualifying larger structures. A limited test data set obtained from recent acoustic tests of the same hardware exposed to both direct and reverberant acoustic field testing has indicated some differences in the resulting structural responses. In reverberant acoustic testing, higher vibration responses were observed at lower frequencies when compared with the direct acoustic testing. In the case of direct near field acoustic testing higher vibration responses appeared to occur at higher frequencies as well. In reverberant chamber testing and direct acoustic testing, standing acoustic modes of the reverberant chamber or the speakers and spacecraft parallel surfaces can strongly couple with the fundamental structural modes of the test hardware. In this paper data from recent acoustic testing of flight hardware, that yielded evidence of acoustic standing wave coupling with structural responses, are discussed in some detail. Convincing evidence of the acoustic standing wave/structural coupling phenomenon will be discussed, citing observations from acoustic testing of a simple aluminum plate. The implications of such acoustic coupling to testing of sensitive flight hardware will be discussed. The results discussed in this paper reveal issues with over or under testing of flight hardware that could pose unanticipated structural and flight qualification issues. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the structural modal coupling with standing acoustic waves that has been observed in both methods of acoustic testing. This study will assist the community to choose an appropriate testing method and test setup in

  14. Active Vibration Control of a Monopile Offshore Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Thesbjerg, L.


    of the fluid velocity relative to the platform, and only this quantity need to be measured, which is easily performed by a flow meter fixed to the platform. The efficiency of the described closed loop control system has been verified by model tests in a wave flume in both regular and irregular wave conditions......In the Danish part of the North Sea monopile platforms with a cylindrical shaft have been used at the exploitation of marginal fields. In the paper a new principle for active vibration control of such structures is suggested. The principle is based on a control of the boundary layer flow around...

  15. Semi-decentralized Strategies in Structural Vibration Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Palacios-Quiñonero


    Full Text Available In this work, the main ideas involved in the design of overlapping and multi-overlapping controllers via the Inclusion Principle are discussed and illustrated in the context of the Structural Vibration Control of tall buildings under seismic excitation. A detailed theoretical background on the Inclusion Principle and the design of overlapping controllers is provided. Overlapping and multi-overlapping LQR controllers are designed for a simplified five-story building model. Numerical simulations are conducted to asses the performance of the proposed semi-decentralized controllers with positive results.

  16. Ultrasensitive Laser Spectroscopy in Solids: Statistical Fine Structure and Single-Molecule Detection (United States)


    the measurement. Keywords: Statistical fine structure, Atomic properties, Single molecule detection, Molecule properties, Laser spectroscopy of solids, Instrumentation, Pentacene in p-terphenyl, Organic compounds, Near field.

  17. Harvesting Energy from Vibrations of the Underlying Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Bo; Vssilaras, S; Papadias, C.B.


    The use of wireless sensors for structural health monitoring offers several advantages such as small size, easy installation and minimal intervention on existing structures. However the most significant concern about such wireless sensors is the lifetime of the system, which depends heavily on th...... an improved Maximum Power Point Tracking technique on the conversion circuit, the proposed method is shown to maximize the conversion coefficient from kinetic energy to applicable electrical energy....... emerges as a technique that can harvest energy from the surrounding environment. Among all possible energy harvesting solutions, kinetic energy harvesting seems to be the most convenient, especially for sensors placed on structures that experience regular vibrations. Such micro-vibrations can be harmful...... on the type of power supply. No matter how energy efficient the operation of a battery operated sensor is, the energy of the battery will be exhausted at some point. In order to achieve a virtually unlimited lifetime, the sensor node should be able to recharge its battery in an easy way. Energy harvesting...

  18. Vibration control of a flexible structure with electromagnetic actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruzman, Maurício; Santos, Ilmar


    This work presents the model of a shear-frame-type structure composed of six flexible beams and three rigid masses. Fixed on the ground, outside the structure, two voltage-controlled electromagnetic actuators are used for vibration control. To model the flexible beams, unidimensional finite...... elements were used. Nonlinear equations for the actuator electromagnetic force, noise in the position sensor, time delays for the control signal update and voltage saturation were also considered in the model. For controlling purposes, a discrete linear quadratic regulator combined with a predictive full......-order discrete linear observer was employed. Results of numerical simulations, where the structure is submitted to an impulsive disturbance force and to a harmonic force, show that the oscillations can be significantly reduced with the use of the electromagnetic actuators....

  19. Understanding the fine structure of intermediate materials of maize starches. (United States)

    Han, Wenfang; Zhang, Binjia; Li, Jiangtao; Zhao, Siming; Niu, Meng; Jia, Caihua; Xiong, Shanbai


    Here we concern the molecular fine structure of intermediate material (IM) fraction in regular maize starch (RMS) and Starpro 40 maize starch (S40). IM had a branching degree and a molar mass (Mw) somewhere between amylopectin (AP) and amylose (AM). Compared with AP, IM had more extra-long (Fr I) and long (Fr II) chains and fb3-chains (degree of polymerization (DP)>36), with a higher average chain length (CL). Also, IM contained less A-chains but more B-chains (both BS-chains with DP 3-25 and BL-chains with DP≥26), accompanied by longer B- and BL-chains, total internal chains (TICL) and average internal chains (ICL), and a similar average external chain length (ECL). Furthermore, relative to RMS-IM, the IM of S40 (with higher apparent amylose content than RMS) showed increases in relatively-long chains, e.g., Fr II, fb3-chains and BL-chains, but reductions in Mw, relatively-short chains (those with DP 6-12, etc.). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fine structure of seminiferous tubules in antarctic seals. (United States)

    Sinha, A A; Erickson, A W; Seal, U S


    The fine structure of seminiferous tubules from 5 crabeater, 2 leopard and 2 Ross seals showed that during the nonbreeding season the tubules were essentially similar in possessing spermatogenic and Sertoli cells. However, the tubules of leopard and Ross seals had more primary and secondary spermatocytes and spermatids than the crabeater seals. In general, the tubules were devoid of spermatozoa. The spermatids showed stages of maturation such as Golgi phase of acrosome formation, acrosomal cap formation and condensation of nuclei. Some spermatids degenerated in tubules. Both maturing and degenerating spermatids were closely associated with Sertoli cells. Junctional complexes with plaques of filaments were observed between Sertoli cells and the spermatogenic cells. Sertoli cells, irregular and polygonal, contained highly convoluted nuclei, strands of rough endoplasmic reticulum, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complexes, small mitochondria, variable amounts of lipid droplets, lysosomes, lipofuscin granules and highly plicated plasma membranes. In brief, the spermatogenic activity had practically ceased in the testes and the animals probably secreted low levels of testosterone during the nonbreeding season.

  1. Bumblebee Homing: The Fine Structure of Head Turning Movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Boeddeker

    Full Text Available Changes in flight direction in flying insects are largely due to roll, yaw and pitch rotations of their body. Head orientation is stabilized for most of the time by counter rotation. Here, we use high-speed video to analyse head- and body-movements of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris while approaching and departing from a food source located between three landmarks in an indoor flight-arena. The flight paths consist of almost straight flight segments that are interspersed with rapid turns. These short and fast yaw turns ("saccades" are usually accompanied by even faster head yaw turns that change gaze direction. Since a large part of image rotation is thereby reduced to brief instants of time, this behavioural pattern facilitates depth perception from visual motion parallax during the intersaccadic intervals. The detailed analysis of the fine structure of the bees' head turning movements shows that the time course of single head saccades is very stereotypical. We find a consistent relationship between the duration, peak velocity and amplitude of saccadic head movements, which in its main characteristics resembles the so-called "saccadic main sequence" in humans. The fact that bumblebee head saccades are highly stereotyped as in humans, may hint at a common principle, where fast and precise motor control is used to reliably reduce the time during which the retinal images moves.

  2. Control of noise and structural vibration a MATLAB-based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, Qibo


    Control of Noise and Structural Vibration presents a MATLAB®-based approach to solving the problems of undesirable noise generation and transmission by structures and of undesirable vibration within structures in response to environmental or operational forces. The fundamentals of acoustics, vibration and coupling between vibrating structures and the sound fields they generate are introduced including a discussion of the finite element method for vibration analysis. Following this, the treatment of sound and vibration control begins, illustrated by example systems such as beams, plates and double plate structures. Sensor and actuator placement is explained as is the idea of modal sensor–actuators. The design of appropriate feedback systems includes consideration of basic stability criteria and robust active structural acoustic control. Single and multi-mode positive position feedback (PPF) control systems are also described in the context of loudspeaker–duct model with non-collocated loudspeaker–microp...

  3. Fine structural properties of natural and synthetic glycogens. (United States)

    Takata, Hiroki; Kajiura, Hideki; Furuyashiki, Takashi; Kakutani, Ryo; Kuriki, Takashi


    Glycogen, highly branched (1-->4)(1-->6)-linked alpha-d-glucan, can be extracted from natural sources such as animal tissues or shellfish (natural source glycogen, NSG). Glycogen can also be synthesized in vitro from glucose-1-phosphate using the cooperative action of alpha-glucan phosphorylase (GP, EC and branching enzyme (BE, EC, or from short-chain amylose by the cooperative action of BE and amylomaltase (AM, EC It has been shown that enzymatically synthesized glycogen (ESG) has structural and physicochemical properties similar to those of NSG. In this study, the fine structures of ESG and NSG were analyzed using isoamylase and alpha-amylase. Isoamylase completely hydrolyzed the alpha-1,6 linkages of ESG and NSG. The unit-chain distribution (distribution of degrees of polymerization (DP) of alpha-1,4 linked chains) of ESG was slightly narrower than that of NSG. alpha-Amylase treatment revealed that initial profiles of hydrolyses of ESG and NSG were almost the same: both glycogens were digested slowly, compared with starch. The final products from NSG by alpha-amylase hydrolysis were glucose, maltose, maltotriose, branched oligosaccharides with DP4, and highly branched macrodextrin molecules with molecular weights of up to 10,000. When ESG was digested with excess amounts of alpha-amylase, much larger macrodextrins (molecular weight>10(6)) were detected. In contrast, oligosaccharides with DP 4-7 could not be detected from ESG. These results suggest that the alpha-1,6 linkages in ESG molecules are more regularly distributed than those in NSG molecules.

  4. Features of vibrations of structural inhomogeneous solid media (United States)

    Karimbaev, Telman; Baishagirov, Khairulla; Nurgaliyeva, Saltanat


    Homogeneous or quasi-homogeneous classic models of deformation are generally used at a mathematical de-scription of deformation composite materials (CM). These theories, however, are limited within initial conditions and do not cover the most important properties of CM: heterogeneity of inertia and elasticity of components, their interaction when deforming, etc. Among the models that complement the classical theories, it is possible to allocate the so-called theory of mixture where CM is considered as two (or more) interacting homogeneous continuum. Therefore, the model increase of motion freedom degrees of the particles of such heterogeneous medium allows each component of CM to show their inertial properties. This leads to the identification of such exclusive features as "bifurcation of fre-quencies", i.e., to description of motion on each form of normal modes at two different frequencies. In the research this phenomenon was investigated by the analysis of biquadratic equation obtained at solving the proper value problem of heterogeneous medium, and was verified by testing the normal mode of frequencies of blades made of CM. In the particular case there was received a simple calculation formula for determination of bar technical frequencies from CM on the basis of the characteristic equation of natural vibrations. In this case the numerical results for the lower forms of the vibration normal mode coincide with the experimental data for homogeneous medium. The characteristic equation contains the introduced physical parameters of the two-component theory; therefore, it describes the other forms of vibration. However, in this case the freedom of structural fluctuations of CM each component is limited to their coupling and interaction, providing continuity and shared the compound materials.

  5. Steps for Vibration Reduction of 50kg-Class Micro-Satellite Structure (United States)

    Nakamura, Masato; Furukawa, Takuya; Chiba, Masakatsu; Okubo, Hiroshi; Akita, Takeshi; Sugiyama, Yoshihiko; Nakamura, Yosuke; Imamura, Hiroaki; Umehara, Nobuhito

    The paper reports several steps taken to reduce vibration responses of a 50kg-class micro-satellite structure, which is subjected to severe mechanical/vibratory environment during launching. In order to satisfy the required mechanical interface conditions, anti-vibration design of satellite structure was modified to enhance damping capacity of the structure by applying adherent aisogrid-panel, honeycomb panel, polyimid-tape-inserted connections, and damping pads. Considerable reduction of vibration responses was confirmed by vibration test of structural-thermal model.

  6. Vibration measurement on large structures by microwave remote sensing (United States)

    Gentile, Carmelo


    Recent advances in radar techniques and systems have led to the development of microwave interferometers, suitable for the non-contact vibration monitoring of large structures. In the first part of the paper, the main techniques adopted in microwave remote sensing are described, so that advantages and potential issues of these techniques are addressed and discussed. Subsequently, the results of past and recent tests of full-scale structures are presented, in order to demonstrate the reliability and accuracy of microwave remote sensing; furthermore, the simplicity of use of the radar technology is exemplified in practical cases, where the access with conventional techniques is uneasy or even hazardous, such as the stay cables of cable-stayed bridges.

  7. Free vibration analysis of coupled fluid-structure systems (United States)

    Gupta, K. K.


    An efficient numerical technique for the eigenvalue solution in the free vibration analysis of compressible fluid-structure coupled systems is presented. The fluid is assumed to be compressible in nature and the incompressible problem is only a special case of the present generalized algorithm. A natural frequency analysis of the structure in the absence of any fluid is achieved by a combined Sturm sequence and inverse iteration technique that computes only the required eigenvalues and vectors. A special inverse iteration scheme is then developed for the coupled system that uses the computed eigenvalues as starting iteration values for convergence. Numerical results obtained by solving a number of standard test cases indicate the pattern of root convergence corresponding to various simplifying assumptions.

  8. Molecular and vibrational structure of thiosulfonate S-esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luu, Thi Xuan Thi; Duus, Fritz; Spanget-Larsen, Jens


    /cc-pVTZ). The vibrational spectra of 2 and 3 are sensitive to the orientation of the alkyl group attached to the sulfonylic sulfur atom. Rotamers corresponding to anti and gauche conformations are thus predicted to have distinctly different vibrational transitions in the 800–400 cm–1 region. The observed vibrational...

  9. Harnessing data structure for recovery of randomly missing structural vibration responses time history: Sparse representation versus low-rank structure (United States)

    Yang, Yongchao; Nagarajaiah, Satish


    Randomly missing data of structural vibration responses time history often occurs in structural dynamics and health monitoring. For example, structural vibration responses are often corrupted by outliers or erroneous measurements due to sensor malfunction; in wireless sensing platforms, data loss during wireless communication is a common issue. Besides, to alleviate the wireless data sampling or communication burden, certain accounts of data are often discarded during sampling or before transmission. In these and other applications, recovery of the randomly missing structural vibration responses from the available, incomplete data, is essential for system identification and structural health monitoring; it is an ill-posed inverse problem, however. This paper explicitly harnesses the data structure itself-of the structural vibration responses-to address this (inverse) problem. What is relevant is an empirical, but often practically true, observation, that is, typically there are only few modes active in the structural vibration responses; hence a sparse representation (in frequency domain) of the single-channel data vector, or, a low-rank structure (by singular value decomposition) of the multi-channel data matrix. Exploiting such prior knowledge of data structure (intra-channel sparse or inter-channel low-rank), the new theories of ℓ1-minimization sparse recovery and nuclear-norm-minimization low-rank matrix completion enable recovery of the randomly missing or corrupted structural vibration response data. The performance of these two alternatives, in terms of recovery accuracy and computational time under different data missing rates, is investigated on a few structural vibration response data sets-the seismic responses of the super high-rise Canton Tower and the structural health monitoring accelerations of a real large-scale cable-stayed bridge. Encouraging results are obtained and the applicability and limitation of the presented methods are discussed.

  10. Dynamical Performances of a Vibration Absorber for Continuous Structure considering Time-Delay Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuting Sun


    Full Text Available The nonlinear effect incurred by time delay in vibration control is investigated in this study via a vibration absorber coupled with a continuous beam structure. The stability of the vibration absorber coupled structure system with time-delay coupling is firstly studied, which provides a general guideline for the potential time delay to be introduced to the system. Then it is shown that there is a specific region for the time delay which can bring bifurcation modes to the dynamic response of the coupling system, and the vibration energy at low frequencies can be transferred or absorbed due to the bifurcation mode and the vibration in the corresponding frequency range is thus suppressed. The nonlinear mechanism of this vibration suppression incurred by the coupling time delay is discussed in detail, which provides a novel and alternative approach to the analysis, design, and control of vibration absorbers in engineering practice.

  11. A study of the fine structure, enzyme activities and pattern of 14CO2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A detailed study of selected grasses has been made with respect to fine structures characteristics, enzyme activities associated with C-4 and C-3 pathway photosynthesis, and short term carbon dioxide-14 incorporation experiments. A good correlation was obtained between the fine structure, the carbon pathway and the ...

  12. [The role of temporal fine structure in tone recognition and music perception]. (United States)

    Zhou, Q; Gu, X; Liu, B


    The sound signal can be decomposed into temporal envelope and temporal fine structure information. The temporal envelope information is crucial for speech perception in quiet environment, and the temporal fine structure information plays an important role in speech perception in noise, Mandarin tone recognition and music perception, especially the pitch and melody perception.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Tolochko


    Full Text Available The article deals with methods for fine-grained structure of ingots during crystallization depending on the used foundry technologies. It is shown that by using modern scientific and technological advances may improve the traditional and the development of new casting processes, providing production of cast parts with over fine-grained structure and enhanced properties.

  14. Microwave Spectra, Structure, and Ring-Puckering Vibration of Octafluorocyclopentene. (United States)

    Long, B E; Arsenault, Eric A; Obenchain, Daniel A; Choi, Yoon Jeong; Ocola, Esther J; Laane, Jaan; Pringle, Wallace C; Cooke, S A


    The rotational spectra of octafluorocyclopentene (C5F8) has been measured for the first time using pulsed jet Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy in a frequency range of 6 to 16 GHz. As in the molecule cyclopentene, the carbon ring is nonplanar, and inversion through the plane results in an inversion pair of ground state vibrational energy levels with an inversion splitting of 18.4 MHz. This large amplitude motion leads to the vibration-rotation coupling of energy levels. The symmetric double minimum ring-puckering potential function was calculated, resulting in a barrier of 222 cm-1. The rotational constants A0 = 962.9590(1) MHz, B0 = 885.1643(4) MHz, C0 = 616.9523(4) MHz, A1 = 962.9590(1) MHz, B1 = 885.1643(4) MHz, C1 = 616.9528(4) MHz, and two centrifugal distortion constants for each state were determined for the parent species and all 13C isotopologues. A mixed coordinate molecular structure was determined from a least-squares fit of the ground state rotational constants of the parent and each 13C isotopologue combined with the equilibrium bond lengths and angles from quantum chemical calculations.

  15. Fine-Scale Structure Design for 3D Printing (United States)

    Panetta, Francis Julian

    Modern additive fabrication technologies can manufacture shapes whose geometric complexities far exceed what existing computational design tools can analyze or optimize. At the same time, falling costs have placed these fabrication technologies within the average consumer's reach. Especially for inexpert designers, new software tools are needed to take full advantage of 3D printing technology. This thesis develops such tools and demonstrates the exciting possibilities enabled by fine-tuning objects at the small scales achievable by 3D printing. The thesis applies two high-level ideas to invent these tools: two-scale design and worst-case analysis. The two-scale design approach addresses the problem that accurately simulating--let alone optimizing--the full-resolution geometry sent to the printer requires orders of magnitude more computational power than currently available. However, we can decompose the design problem into a small-scale problem (designing tileable structures achieving a particular deformation behavior) and a macro-scale problem (deciding where to place these structures in the larger object). This separation is particularly effective, since structures for every useful behavior can be designed once, stored in a database, then reused for many different macroscale problems. Worst-case analysis refers to determining how likely an object is to fracture by studying the worst possible scenario: the forces most efficiently breaking it. This analysis is needed when the designer has insufficient knowledge or experience to predict what forces an object will undergo, or when the design is intended for use in many different scenarios unknown a priori. The thesis begins by summarizing the physics and mathematics necessary to rigorously approach these design and analysis problems. Specifically, the second chapter introduces linear elasticity and periodic homogenization. The third chapter presents a pipeline to design microstructures achieving a wide range of

  16. Intelligent failure-proof control system for structural vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Kazuo [Keio Univ., Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology; Oba, Takahiro [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan)


    With progress of technology in recent years, gigantism and complication such as high-rise buildings, nuclear reactors and so on have brought about new problems. Particularly, the safety and the reliability for damages in abnormal situations have become more important. Intelligent control systems which can judge whether the situation is normal or abnormal at real time and cope with these situations suitably are demanded. In this study, Cubic Neural Network (CNN) is adopted, which consists of the controllers possessing cubically some levels of information abstracting. In addition to the usual quantitative control, the qualitative control is used for the abnormal situations. And, by selecting a suitable controller, CNN can cope with the abnormal situation. In order to confirm the effectiveness of this system, the structural vibration control problems with sensory failure and elasto-plastic response are dealt with. As a result of simulations, it was demonstrated that CNN can cope with unexpected abnormal situations which are not considered in learning. (author)

  17. Smart nanocoated structure for energy harvesting at low frequency vibration (United States)

    Sharma, Sudhanshu

    Increasing demands of energy which is cleaner and has an unlimited supply has led development in the field of energy harvesting. Piezoelectric materials can be used as a means of transforming ambient vibrations into electrical energy that can be stored and used to power other devices. With the recent surge of micro scale devices, piezoelectric power generation can provide a convenient alternative to traditional power sources. In this research, a piezoelectric power generator composite prototype was developed to maximize the power output of the system. A lead zirconate titanate (PZT) composite structure was formed and mounted on a cantilever bar and was studied to convert vibration energy of the low range vibrations at 30 Hz--1000 Hz. To improve the performance of the PZT, different coatings were made using different percentage of Ferrofluid (FNP) and Zinc Oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) and binder resin. The optimal coating mixture constituent percentage was based on the performance of the composite structure formed by applying the coating on the PZT. The fabricated PZT power generator composite with an effective volume of 0.062 cm3 produced a maximum of 44.5 μW, or 0.717mW/cm3 at its resonant frequency of 90 Hz. The optimal coating mixture had the composition of 59.9%FNP + 40% ZnO + 1% Resin Binder. The coating utilizes the opto-magneto-electrical properties of ZnO and Magnetic properties of FNP. To further enhance the output, the magneto-electric (ME) effect was increased by subjecting the composite to magnetic field where coating acts as a magnetostrictive material. For the effective volume of 0.0062 cm 3, the composite produced a maximum of 68.5 μW, or 1.11mW/cm 3 at its resonant frequency of 90 Hz at 160 gauss. The optimal coating mixture had the composition of 59.9% FNP + 40% ZnO + 1% Resin Binder. This research also focused on improving the efficiency of solar cells by utilizing the magnetic effect along with gas plasma etching to improve the internal reflection

  18. Modelling and visualizing fine-scale linkage disequilibrium structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, David


    or statistically dependent. Current efforts to understand the genetic basis of complex phenotypes are based on the existence of such associations, making study of the extent and distribution of linkage disequilibrium central to this endeavour. The objective of this paper is to develop methods to study fine...

  19. Fine-structure energy levels, oscillator strengths and lifetimes of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The energies of the various levels are fine-tuned with respect to the experimental results by making small adjustments to the diagonal elements of the Hamiltonian matrices [7]. Using accurate energy separations, we have also calculated the transition probabilities and lifetimes of excited levels. The relativistic effects are ...

  20. Reduction of the radiating sound of a submerged finite cylindrical shell structure by active vibration control. (United States)

    Kim, Heung Soo; Sohn, Jung Woo; Jeon, Juncheol; Choi, Seung-Bok


    In this work, active vibration control of an underwater cylindrical shell structure was investigated, to suppress structural vibration and structure-borne noise in water. Finite element modeling of the submerged cylindrical shell structure was developed, and experimentally evaluated. Modal reduction was conducted to obtain the reduced system equation for the active feedback control algorithm. Three Macro Fiber Composites (MFCs) were used as actuators and sensors. One MFC was used as an exciter. The optimum control algorithm was designed based on the reduced system equations. The active control performance was then evaluated using the lab scale underwater cylindrical shell structure. Structural vibration and structure-borne noise of the underwater cylindrical shell structure were reduced significantly by activating the optimal controller associated with the MFC actuators. The results provide that active vibration control of the underwater structure is a useful means to reduce structure-borne noise in water.

  1. Reduction of the Radiating Sound of a Submerged Finite Cylindrical Shell Structure by Active Vibration Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Bok Choi


    Full Text Available In this work, active vibration control of an underwater cylindrical shell structure was investigated, to suppress structural vibration and structure-borne noise in water. Finite element modeling of the submerged cylindrical shell structure was developed, and experimentally evaluated. Modal reduction was conducted to obtain the reduced system equation for the active feedback control algorithm. Three Macro Fiber Composites (MFCs were used as actuators and sensors. One MFC was used as an exciter. The optimum control algorithm was designed based on the reduced system equations. The active control performance was then evaluated using the lab scale underwater cylindrical shell structure. Structural vibration and structure-borne noise of the underwater cylindrical shell structure were reduced significantly by activating the optimal controller associated with the MFC actuators. The results provide that active vibration control of the underwater structure is a useful means to reduce structure-borne noise in water.

  2. Active Vibration Control of a Flexible Structure Using Piezoceramic Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fei


    Full Text Available Considerable attention has been devoted recently to active vibration control using intelligent materials as actuators. This paper presents results on active control schemes for vibration suppression of flexible steel cantilever beam with bonded piezoelectric actuators. The PZT patches are surface bonded near the fixed end of flexible steel cantilever beam. The dynamic model of the flexible steel cantilever beam is derived. Active vibration control methods, strain rate feedback control (SRF, positive position feedback control (PPF are investigated and implemented using xPC Target real-time system. Experimental results demonstrate that the SRF control and PPF control achieve effective vibration suppression results of steel cantilever beam.

  3. Mitigating ground vibration by periodic inclusions and surface structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Bucinskas, Paulius; Persson, Peter


    Ground vibration from traffic is a source of nuisance in urbanized areas. Trenches and wave barriers can provide mitigation of vibrations, but single barriers need to have a large depth to be effective-especially in the low-frequency range relevant to traffic-induced vibration. Alternatively......-dimensional finite-element model. The laboratory model employs soaked mattress foam placed within a box to mimic a finite volume of soil. The dynamic properties of the soaked foam ensure wavelengths representative of ground vibration in small scale. Comparison of the results from the two models leads...

  4. Advances in structural vibration control application of magneto-rheological visco-elastomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuguang Ying


    Full Text Available Magneto-rheological visco-elastomer (MRVE as a new smart material developed in recent years has several significant advantages over magneto-rheological liquid. The adjustability of structural dynamics to random environmental excitations is required in vibration control. MRVE can supply considerably adjustable damping and stiffness for structures, and the adjustment of dynamic properties is achieved only by applied magnetic fields with changeless structure design. Increasing researches on MRVE dynamic properties, modeling, and vibration control application are presented. Recent advances in MRVE dynamic properties and structural vibration control application including composite structural vibration mitigation under uniform magnetic fields, vibration response characteristics improvement through harmonic parameter distribution, and optimal bounded parametric control design based on the dynamical programming principle are reviewed. Relevant main methods and results introduced are beneficial to understanding and researches on MRVE application and development.

  5. Structural coloration of metallic surfaces with micro/nano-structures induced by elliptical vibration texturing (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Pan, Yayue; Guo, Ping


    Creating orderly periodic micro/nano-structures on metallic surfaces, or structural coloration, for control of surface apparent color and optical reflectivity has been an exciting research topic over the years. The direct applications of structural coloration include color marking, display devices, and invisibility cloak. This paper presents an efficient method to colorize metallic surfaces with periodic micro/nano-gratings using elliptical vibration texturing. When the tool vibration is coupled with a constant cutting velocity, controlled periodic ripples can be generated due to the overlapping tool trajectory. These periodic ripples with a wavelength near visible spectrum can act as micro-gratings to introduce iridescent colors. The proposed technique also provides a flexible method for color marking of metallic surfaces with arbitrary patterns and images by precise control of the spacing distance and orientation of induced micro/nano-ripples. Theoretical analysis and experimental results are given to demonstrate structural coloration of metals by a direct mechanical machining technique.

  6. Structured illumination microscopy for vibrational molecular imaging (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Watanabe, Kozue; Palonpon, Almar F.; Smith, Nicholas I.; Chiu, Liang-da; Kasai, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Kawata, Satoshi; Fujita, Katsumasa


    Raman microscopy is a powerful tool for analytical imaging. The wavelength shift of Raman scattering corresponds to molecular vibrational energy. Therefore, we can access rich chemical information, such as distribution, concentration, and chemical environment of sample molecules. Despite these strengths of Raman microscopy, the spatial resolution has been a limiting factor for many practical applications. In this study, we developed a large-area, high-resolution Raman microscope by utilizing structured illumination microscopy (SIM) to overcome the spatial resolution limit. A structured line-illumination (SLI) Raman microscope was constructed. The structured illumination is introduced along the line direction by the interference of two line-shaped beams. In SIM, the spatial frequency mixing between structured illumination and Raman scattering from the sample allows access to the high spatial frequency information beyond the conventional cut-off. As a result, the FWHM of 40-nm fluorescence particle images showed a clear resolution enhancement in the line direction: 366 nm in LI and 199 nm in SLI microscope. Using the developed microscope, we successfully demonstrated high-resolution Raman imaging of various kinds of specimens, such as few-layer graphene, graphite, mouse brain tissue, and polymer nanoparticles. The high resolution Raman images showed the capability to extract original spectral features from the mixed Raman spectra of a multi-component sample because of the enhanced spatial resolution, which is advantageous in observing complex spectral features. The Raman microscopy technique reported here enables us to see the detailed chemical structures of chemical, biological, and medical samples with a spatial resolution smaller than 200 nm.

  7. Distortion product otoacoustic emission fine structure as an early hearing loss predictor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, Karen; Hammershøi, Dorte


    Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are a promising method to monitor early noise-induced hearing losses. When distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) are obtained with a high-frequency resolution, a ripple structure across frequency can be seen, called DPOAE fine structure. In this study DPOAE...... fine structures are obtained from 74 normal-hearing humans using primary levels of L1/L2=65/45 dB. The subjects belong to groups with different ages and exposure histories. A classification algorithm is developed, which quantifies the fine structure by the parameter's ripple place, ripple width, ripple...... and vary from subject to subject within groups. The results do not indicate that the DPOAE fine structure alters with the state of hearing, as it is suggested in the literature. The data analysis is still in process at this stage.  ...

  8. Another approach to vibrational analysis of stepped structures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fedotov, I


    Full Text Available Hz. First resonance is a pendulum mode at which the stepped bar vibrates as “rigid” pendu- lum. All other modes are “longitudinal”. Geometry of the bar was specially chosen so that vibration amplitude of the junction between the cylindrical...

  9. Modelling, structural, thermal, optical and vibrational studies of a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sis of all the fundamental vibration modes using the VEDA. 4 program [21]. Scaling factors used in this study were taken from literature [22]. In order to take into account the effect of intermolecular interactions on geometrical parameters and vibrational spectroscopy, we have considered an appropriate cluster model built up ...

  10. Active structural elements within a general vibration control framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holterman, J.; de Vries, Theodorus J.A.; Isermann, R.


    High-precision machines typically suffer from small but annoying vibrations. As the most appropriate solution to a particular vibration problem is not always obvious, it may be convenient to cast the problem in a more general framework. This framework may then be used for frequency response

  11. Structural characterization of carbon nanotubes via the vibrational density of states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, Albert J.; Jain, Sandeep K.; Barkema, Gerard T.


    The electrical and chemical properties of carbon nanotubes vary significantly with different chirality and diameter, making the experimental determination of these structural properties important. Here, we show that the vibrational density of states (VDOS) contains information on the structure of

  12. Flow induced vibrations of the CLIC X-Band accelerating structures

    CERN Document Server

    Charles, Tessa; Boland, Mark; Riddone, Germana; Samoshkin, Alexandre


    Turbulent cooling water in the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) accelerating structures will inevitably induce some vibrations. The maximum acceptable amplitude of vibrations is small, as vibrations in the accelerating structure could lead to beam jitter and alignment difficulties. A Finite Element Analysis model is needed to identify the conditions under which turbulent instabilities and significant vibrations are induced. Due to the orders of magnitude difference between the fluid motion and the structure’s motion, small vibrations of the structure will not contribute to the turbulence of the cooling fluid. Therefore the resonant conditions of the cooling channels presented in this paper, directly identify the natural frequencies of the accelerating structures to be avoided under normal operating conditions. In this paper a 2D model of the cooling channel is presented finding spots of turbulence being formed from a shear layer instability. This effect is observed through direct visualization and wavelet ana...

  13. Fine structure of the CCl3 UV absorption spectrum and CCl3 kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellermann, T.


    The UV gas-phase spectrum of CCl3 was recorded in the range 220-300 nm using pulse radiolysis of CHCl3/SF6 or CCl4/Ar gas mixtures. The UV spectrum exhibits a pronounced vibrational fine structure which is assigned to transition into the (C2A1'(3s)) Rydberg state. The vibronic progression has...... a band origin around 250 nm and the spacing of 569 +/- 63 cm-1 is ascribed to excitation of the out-of-plane bending mode. The absorption cross section with a maximum of sigma = (1.02 +/- 0.16) x 10(-17) cm2 molecule-1 at 224.80 +/- 0.16 nm was determined relative to sigma(CH3) and sigma(CH3O2). The rate...

  14. Zinc cysteine active sites of metalloproteins: A density functional theory and x-ray absorption fine structure study (United States)

    Dimakis, Nicholas; Farooqi, Mohammed Junaid; Garza, Emily Sofia; Bunker, Grant


    Density functional theory (DFT) and x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy are complementary tools for the biophysical study of active sites in metalloproteins. DFT is used to compute XAFS multiple scattering Debye Waller factors, which are then employed in genetic algorithm-based fitting process to obtain a global fit to the XAFS in the space of fitting parameters. Zn-Cys sites, which serve important functions as transcriptional switches in Zn finger proteins and matrix metalloproteinases, previously have proven intractable by this method; here these limitations are removed. In this work we evaluate optimal DFT nonlocal functionals and basis sets for determining optimal geometries and vibrational densities of states of mixed ligation Zn(His)4-n(Cys)n sites. Theoretical results are compared to experimental XAFS measurements and Raman spectra from the literature and tabulated for use.

  15. Fine structure of high-power microwave-induced resistance oscillations (United States)

    Shi, Qianhui; Zudov, Michael; Dmitriev, Ivan; Baldwin, Kirk; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken; Smet, Jurgen

    We report on a pronounced fine structure of microwave-induced resistance oscillations (MIRO) in an ultra-clean two-dimensional electron gas. This fine structure is manifested by additional sharp extrema residing beside the primary ones and, according to theoretical considerations, originates from multiphoton-assisted scattering off short-range impurities. Unique properties of the fine structure allow us to access all experimental parameters, including microwave power, and to separate different contributions to photoresistance. Finally, we demonstrate that the fine structure can be used to quantitatively assess the correlation properties of the disorder potential. The work at the University of Minnesota was funded by the NSF Grant No. DMR-1309578. The work at Princeton University was funded by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation through the EPiQS initiative Grant GBMF4420, and by the NSF MRSEC Grant DMR-1420541.

  16. Vibration-based localisation of structural deterioration in frame-like civil engineering structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard; Damkilde, Lars


    to other structural systems, for instance, wind turbines—can provide reliable damage localisation in frame-like structures. The performance of the method, which is based on statistical interrogation of changes in a surrogate of the transfer matrix, is tested in a Monte Carlo setting with a numerical steel......With the existing trend of minimising material use in typical frame-like civil engineering structures, such as buildings, bridges, and offshore platforms, these structures will typically be subjected to substantial wind induced vibrations. Besides being a source of disturbance for the occupants...... frame model subjected to white noise excitation....

  17. The existence of the fine electronic structure in LaCoO3


    Ropka, Z.; Radwanski, R. J.


    We argue that in LaCoO3 exists the fine electronic structure associated with the atomic-like states of the Co3+ ions and caused by the crystal-field and intra-atomic spin-orbit interactions. This low-energy fine electronic structure has to be taken into account for any meaningful analysis of electronic and magnetic properties of LaCoO3.

  18. 24 CFR 3280.903 - General requirements for designing the structure to withstand transportation shock and vibration. (United States)


    ... the structure to withstand transportation shock and vibration. 3280.903 Section 3280.903 Housing and... structure to withstand transportation shock and vibration. (a) The cumulative effect of highway transportation shock and vibration upon a manufactured home structure may result in incremental degradation of...

  19. Vibration based structural health monitoring of a composite T-beam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooijevaar, T.H.; Loendersloot, Richard; Warnet, Laurent; de Boer, Andries; Akkerman, Remko


    A vibration based damage identification method is investigated experimentally for a 2.5-dimensional composite structure. The dynamic response of an intact and a locally delaminated 16-layer unidirectional carbon fibre PEKK reinforced T-beam is considered. A force–vibration set-up, including a laser

  20. Free vibration and dynamic response analysis of spinning structures (United States)


    The proposed effort involved development of numerical procedures for efficient solution of free vibration problems of spinning structures. An eigenproblem solution procedure, based on a Lanczos method employing complex arithmetic, was successfully developed. This task involved formulation of the numerical procedure, FORTRAN coding of the algorithm, checking and debugging of software, and implementation of the routine in the STARS program. A graphics package for the E/S PS 300 as well as for the Tektronix terminals was successfully generated and consists of the following special capabilities: (1) a dynamic response plot for the stresses and displacements as functions of time; and (2) a menu driven command module enabling input of data on an interactive basis. Finally, the STARS analysis capability was further improved by implementing the dynamic response analysis package that provides information on nodal deformations and element stresses as a function of time. A number of test cases were run utilizing the currently developed algorithm implemented in the STARS program and such results indicate that the newly generated solution technique is significantly more efficient than other existing similar procedures.

  1. Vibrational spectra and structure of cyclopentane and its isotopomers. (United States)

    Ocola, Esther J; Bauman, Leslie E; Laane, Jaan


    The infrared and Raman spectra of vapor, liquid, and solid state cyclopentane and its d(1), 1,1-d(2), 1,1,2,2,3,3-d(6), and d(10) isotopomers have been recorded and analyzed. The experimental work was complemented by ab initio and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The computations confirm that the two conformational forms of cyclopentane are the twist (C(2)) and bent (C(s)) structures and that they differ very little in energy, less than about 10 cm(-1) (0.1 kJ/mol). The bending angle for the C(s) form is 41.5° and the dihedral angle of twisting is 43.2° for the C(2) form. A reliable and complete vibrational assignment for each of the isotopomers has been achieved for the first time, and these agree very well with the DFT (B3LYP/cc-pVTZ) computations. The ab initio CCSD/cc-pVTZ calculations predict a barrier to planarity of 1887 cm(-1), which is in excellent agreement with the experimental value of 1808 cm(-1).

  2. An investigation on structural, vibrational and nonlinear optical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The electron rich regions residing on all the oxygen atoms O1, O1W, O2, O3, and O3W represent the electronegative regions and so, these are the binding sites for electrophilic attack. The values of HOMO, LUMO and Frontier orbital energy gap are given in table 2. 3.4 Vibrational Assignments. 3.4a C-H Vibration: Generally, ...

  3. Identification for Active Vibration Control of Flexible Structure Based on Prony Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianjun Sheng


    Full Text Available Flexible structures have been widely used in many fields due to the advantages of light quality, small damping, and strong flexibility. However, flexible structures exhibit the vibration in the process of manipulation, which reduces the pointing precision of the system and causes fatigue of the machine. So, this paper focuses on the identification method for active vibration control of flexible structure. The modal parameters and transfer function of the system are identified from the step response signal based on Prony algorithm, while the vibration is attenuated by using the input shaping technique designed according to the parameters identified from the Prony algorithm. Eventually, the proposed approach is applied to the most common flexible structure, a piezoelectric cantilever beam actuated by Macro Fiber Composite (MFC. The experimental results demonstrate that the Prony algorithm is very effective and accurate on the dynamic modeling of flexible structure and input shaper could significantly reduce the vibration and improve the response speed of system.

  4. Fine-tuning structural RNA alignments in the twilight zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schirmer Stefanie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A widely used method to find conserved secondary structure in RNA is to first construct a multiple sequence alignment, and then fold the alignment, optimizing a score based on thermodynamics and covariance. This method works best around 75% sequence similarity. However, in a "twilight zone" below 55% similarity, the sequence alignment tends to obscure the covariance signal used in the second phase. Therefore, while the overall shape of the consensus structure may still be found, the degree of conservation cannot be estimated reliably. Results Based on a combination of available methods, we present a method named planACstar for improving structure conservation in structural alignments in the twilight zone. After constructing a consensus structure by alignment folding, planACstar abandons the original sequence alignment, refolds the sequences individually, but consistent with the consensus, aligns the structures, irrespective of sequence, by a pure structure alignment method, and derives an improved sequence alignment from the alignment of structures, to be re-submitted to alignment folding, etc.. This circle may be iterated as long as structural conservation improves, but normally, one step suffices. Conclusions Employing the tools ClustalW, RNAalifold, and RNAforester, we find that for sequences with 30-55% sequence identity, structural conservation can be improved by 10% on average, with a large variation, measured in terms of RNAalifold's own criterion, the structure conservation index.

  5. Piezoelectric Tailoring with Enhanced Electromechanical Coupling for Concurrent Vibration Control of Mistuned Periodic Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Kon-Well


    The objective of this research is to advance the state of the art of vibration control of mistuned periodic structures utilizing the electromechanical coupling and damping characteristics of piezoelectric networking...

  6. Pulsed EM Field Response of a Thin, High-Contrast, Finely Layered Structure With Dielectric and Conductive Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Hoop, A.T.; Jiang, L.


    The response of a thin, high-contrast, finely layered structure with dielectric and conductive properties to an incident, pulsed, electromagnetic field is investigated theoretically. The fine layering causes the standard spatial discretization techniques to solve Maxwell's equations numerically to

  7. Vibration reduction on a nonlinear flexible structure through resonant control and disturbance estimator (United States)

    Cazzulani, Gabriele; Resta, Ferruccio; Ripamonti, Francesco


    Large mechanical structures are often affected by high level vibrations due to their flexibility. These vibrations can reduce the system performances and lifetime and the use of active vibration control strategies becomes very attractive. In this paper a combination of resonant control and a disturbance estimator is proposed. This solution is able to improve the system performances during the transient motion and also to reject the disturbance forces acting on the system. Both control logics are based on a modal approach, since it allows to describe the structure dynamics considering only few degrees of freedom.

  8. The Anthropic Principle and numerical coincidences involving the cosmological, gravitational and fine structure constants

    CERN Document Server

    Eaves, Laurence


    Christian Beck has proposed a set of Shannon-Khinchin axioms to derive a formula for the cosmological constant, {\\Lambda}. We discuss this result in relation to numerical coincidences involving the measured values of {\\Lambda} and the gravitational and fine structure constants, G and {\\alpha}. The empirical formulae that inter-relate the three constants suggest that the measured values of G and {\\Lambda} are consistent with the apparent anthropic fine-tuning of {\\alpha}.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Аliavdin


    Full Text Available The paper contains investigations on element vibration of a real residential 9-storeyed reinforced-concrete frame building induced by train movement in the shallow subway. A design model for a problem on propagation of bending waves within the limits of the typical fragment of a skeleton is presented in the paper. The steady state vibrations of a column and reinforced-concrete slab induced by an excited force which is equivalent to the impact of the subway trains have been investigated in the paper. The problem has been solved numerically on the basis of the ANSYS FEA program. Numerical results have been compared with an approximate analytical solution and data on full-scale experiment. A prediction technique for vibration propagation in the designed buildings is offered in the paper. 

  10. 2fl-f2 DPOAE fine structure for 12 symphony orchestra musicians before and after rehearsal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, Karen; Hammershøi, Dorte


    and analyzed for 12 symphony orchestra musicians using the same measurement parameters as in the previous study. Only musicians, without known hearing problems, participated in the study. The purpose of this study was to analyze the DPOAE fine structure characteristics in this group of exposed test subjects......The distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) fine structure is revealed, when measuring DPOAE with a very fine frequency resolution. It is characterized by consistent maxima and minima with notches of up to 20 dB depth. The fine structure is known also from absolute hearing thresholds......, and it has been suggested that the fine structures correlate with hearing level. In a previous study the prevalence and character of distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) fine structure was analyzed for 40 young, normal-hearing subjects. In this study the DPOAE fine structure was determined...

  11. Vibration analysis of structural elements using differential quadrature method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Nassar


    Full Text Available The method of differential quadrature is employed to analyze the free vibration of a cracked cantilever beam resting on elastic foundation. The beam is made of a functionally graded material and rests on a Winkler–Pasternak foundation. The crack action is simulated by a line spring model. Also, the differential quadrature method with a geometric mapping are applied to study the free vibration of irregular plates. The obtained results agreed with the previous studies in the literature. Further, a parametric study is introduced to investigate the effects of geometric and elastic characteristics of the problem on the natural frequencies.

  12. Fine structure of endogenous stages of Eimeria turcicus developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ANDERSEN, A.,. HUTCHINSON, W.M. & SlIM, J. Chr. 1977b. Ultrastructural studies on the endogenous development of. Eimeria brunetti IV. Formation and structure of the oocyst wall. Acta path. microbiol. scand. Sect. B 85: 201-211.

  13. Global structural condition assessment of highway bridges by ambient vibration monitoring (United States)

    Feng, Maria Q.; Chen, Yangbo; Tan, Chin-An


    Structural condition assessment of highway bridges has long been relying on visual inspection, which, however, involves subjective judgment of the inspector and detects only local flaws. Local flaws might not affect the global performance of the bridge. By instrumenting bridges with accelerometers and other sensors, one is able to monitor ambient or forced vibration of the bridge and assess its global structural condition. Ambient vibration measurement outwits forced vibration measurement in that it requires no special test arrangement, such as traffic control or a heavy shaker. As a result, it can be continuously executed while the bridge is under its normal serving condition. For short-to mid-span highway bridges, ambient vibration is predominantly due to traffic excitation, inducing the bridge to vibrate mainly in vertical direction. Based on its physical nature, traffic excitation is modeled as moving loads from the passing vehicles whose arrivals and speeds are extracted from digital video. Traffic-induced vibration provides valuable information for assessing the health of super-structure, but is less sensitive to possible seismic damage in the sub-structure. During earthquakes, bridges are excited in all directions by short-duration un-stationary ground motion, and are expected to better reveal their sub-structure integrity. Therefore, traffic-induced and ground-motion-induced ambient vibration data are treated separately in this paper for different assessment objectives, because of the different characteristics and measurability of the excitation. By continuously monitoring the ambient vibration of the instrumented bridge, its global structural conditions of both super- and sub-structures can be evaluated with possible damage locations identified, which will aid local non-destructive evaluation or visual inspection to further localize and access the damage.

  14. Connecting traces of galaxy evolution: the missing core mass-morphological fine structure relation (United States)

    Bonfini, P.; Bitsakis, T.; Zezas, A.; Duc, P.-A.; Iodice, E.; González-Martín, O.; Bruzual, G.; González Sanoja, A. J.


    Deep exposure imaging of early-type galaxies (ETGs) are revealing the second-order complexity of these objects, which have been long considered uniform, dispersion-supported spheroidals. 'Fine structure' features (e.g. ripples, plumes, tidal tails, rings) as well as depleted stellar cores (i.e. central light deficits) characterize a number of massive ETG galaxies, and can be interpreted as the result of galaxy-galaxy interactions. We discuss how the time-scale for the evolution of cores and fine structures are comparable, and hence it is expected that they develop in parallel after the major interaction event which shaped the ETG. Using archival data, we compare the 'depleted stellar mass' (i.e. the mass missing from the depleted stellar core) against the prominence of the fine structure features, and observe that they correlate inversely. This result confirms our expectation that, while the supermassive black hole (SMBH) binary (constituted by the SMBHs of the merger progenitors) excavates the core via three-body interactions, the gravitational potential of the newborn galaxy relaxes, and the fine structures fade below detection levels. We expect the inverse correlation to hold at least within the first Gyr from the merger which created the SMBH binary; after then, the fine structure evolves independently.

  15. A fractional-order controller for vibration suppression of uncertain structures. (United States)

    Aghababa, Mohammad Pourmahmood


    The problem of active control of vibration structures has attracted much attention over the past decades. A general description of the control problem of vibration systems is to design an active controller to suppress the vibrations of the system induced by external disturbances such as an earthquake. In this paper, a novel fractional-order sliding mode control is introduced to attenuate the vibrations of structures with uncertainties and disturbances. After establishing a stable fractional sliding surface, a sliding mode control law is proposed. Then, the global asymptotic stability of the closed-loop system is analytically proved using fractional Lyapunov stability theorem. Finally, the robustness and applicability of the technique are verified using two examples, including a three degree of freedom structure and a two-story shear building. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of Structural Periodicity on Vibration Transmission in a Multi-Storey Wooden Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard


    Noise is a nuisance to people, and buildings should therefore be designed to prevent propagation of sound and vibration in the audible frequency range as well as the range of frequencies relevant to whole-body vibrations of humans. In heavy structures made of concrete and masonry, a source...... with high energy content is required to mobilise the inertia. However, for lightweight building structures made of wood, less energy is required to produce vibrations since the mass is smaller. This leads to a high risk of sound and vibration propagation in terms of direct as well as flanking transmission...... is known to result in pass bands and stop bands regarding wave propagation. The paper focuses on analysing and quantifying the effects that a change in the structure, especially regarding the periodicity, has on the overall dynamic performance in the low to mid frequency range up to 250 Hz. The analysis...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauto José Miranda de Lima


    Full Text Available research was developed with the objective of evaluating the potential use of residues of the productionof Pinus spp. sawnwood, as substitution to the fine aggregate of the concrete used for the production ofblocks for structural masonry. The evaluation of the physical characteristics (density, porosity and waterabsorption and mechanics (compression and tension strength of the concrete was evaluated in agreementwith the ABNT normalization. Substitutions of the fine aggregate were tested by percentages of 0, 20,40, 60, 80 and 100% of residue of Pinus spp. in natura, Pinus spp. in natura and with addition of 4,5%CaCl2.2H2O and residue of Pinus spp. pre-treated with extraction in cold water for 48 hours (AF-48H.The compositions were initially used for the production, in laboratory, of cylindrical specimens of 50 mmdiameter, by the use of a molding system for vibrate-compression and later, for producing blocks, withoptimized compositions, in vibrate-press commercial machine. Satisfactory results were obtained withsubstitutions of up to 50% of the mineral fine aggregate for the residue of Pinus spp.

  18. Structural, vibrational, NMR, quantum chemical, DNA binding and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Smith B C 1996 In Infrared Spectral Interpretation. (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press). 31. Green J H S, Harrison D J and Kynaston W 1971. Spectrochim. Acta A 27 2199. 32. Varsanyi G 1974 In Assignments for Vibrational Spectra of Seven Hundred Benzene Derivatives. Vols. 1 and 2. (Budapest: Adam Hilger). 33. Lutz E T G ...

  19. Effect of curvature on structures and vibrations of zigzag carbon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    By determining the correlation between vibrational modes of a graphene sheet and ... graphene lattice. Thus, each SWCNT is uniquely labeled with a pair of integers (n, m) describing its chirality. (n, n) CNTs are called as 'armchair' nanotubes and (n, 0). CNTs are ... semiconductor transitions can be induced more readily in.

  20. Coupled thermal, structural and vibrational analysis of a hypersonic engine for flight test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sook-Ying, Ho [Defence Science and Technology Organisation, SA (Australia); Paull, A. [Queensland Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering (Australia)


    This paper describes a relatively simple and quick method for implementing aerodynamic heating models into a finite element code for non-linear transient thermal-structural and thermal-structural-vibrational analyses of a Mach 10 generic HyShot scram-jet engine. The thermal-structural-vibrational response of the engine was studied for the descent trajectory from 60 to 26 km. Aerodynamic heating fluxes, as a function of spatial position and time for varying trajectory points, were implemented in the transient heat analysis. Additionally, the combined effect of varying dynamic pressure and thermal loads with altitude was considered. This aero-thermal-structural analysis capability was used to assess the temperature distribution, engine geometry distortion and yielding of the structural material due to aerodynamic heating during the descent trajectory, and for optimising the wall thickness, nose radius of leading edge, etc. of the engine intake. A structural vibration analysis was also performed following the aero-thermal-structural analysis to determine the changes in natural frequencies of the structural vibration modes that occur at the various temperatures associated with the descent trajectory. This analysis provides a unique and relatively simple design strategy for predicting and mitigating the thermal-structural-vibrational response of hypersonic engines. (authors)

  1. Spectroscopic phonon and extended x-ray absorption fine structure measurements on 3C-SiC/Si (001) epifilms (United States)

    Talwar, Devki N.; Wan, Linyu; Tin, Chin-Che; Lin, Hao-Hsiung; Feng, Zhe Chuan


    Comprehensive experimental and theoretical studies are reported to assess the vibrational and structural properties of 3C-SiC/Si (001) epilayers grown by chemical vapor deposition in a vertical reactor configuration. While the phonon features are evaluated using high resolution infrared reflectance (IRR) and Raman scattering spectroscopy (RSS) - the local inter-atomic structure is appraised by synchrotron radiation extended x-ray absorption fine structure (SR-EXAFS) method. Unlike others, our RSS results in the near backscattering geometry revealed markedly indistinctive longitudinal- and transverse-optical phonons in 3C-SiC epifilms of thickness d theory is utilized to explain the observed atypical IRR spectra in 3C-SiC/Si (001) epifilms. High density intrinsic defects present in films and/or epilayer/substrate interface are likely to be responsible for (a) releasing misfit stress/strains, (b) triggering atypical features in IRR spectra, and (c) affecting observed local structural traits in SR-EXAFS.

  2. Fine structure of sprites and proposed global observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mende, S.B; Frey, H.U.; Rairden, R.l.


    In order to understand sprite processes we, have to explain the phenomena from spatial scales of a few meters to the scale of thunderstorm cells. The intricate small-scale vertical structuring of sprites or the so called beads are particularly difficult to understand. From a two-station triangula...

  3. Effect of nonlinearity of connecting dampers on vibration control of connected building structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi eKasagi


    Full Text Available The connection of two building structures with dampers is one of effective vibration control systems. In this vibration control system, both buildings have to possess different vibration properties in order to provide a higher vibration reduction performance. In addition to such condition of different vibration properties of both buildings, the connecting dampers also play an important role in the vibration control mechanism. In this paper, the effect of nonlinearity of connecting dampers on the vibration control of connected building structures is investigated in detail. A high-damping rubber damper and an oil damper with and without relief mechanism are treated. It is shown that, while the high-damping rubber damper is effective in a rather small deformation level, the linear oil damper is effective in a relatively large deformation level. It is further shown that, while the oil dampers reduce the response in the same phase as the case without dampers, the high-damping rubber dampers change the phase. The merit is that the high-damping rubber can reduce the damper deformation and keep the sufficient space between both buildings. This can mitigate the risk of building pounding.

  4. Optimization procedure to control the coupling of vibration modes in flexible space structures (United States)

    Walsh, Joanne L.


    As spacecraft structural concepts increase in size and flexibility, the vibration frequencies become more closely-spaced. The identification and control of such closely-spaced frequencies present a significant challenge. To validate system identification and control methods prior to actual flight, simpler space structures will be flown. To challenge the above technologies, it will be necessary to design these structures with closely-spaced or coupled vibration modes. Thus, there exists a need to develop a systematic method to design a structure which has closely-spaced vibration frequencies. This paper describes an optimization procedure which is used to design a large flexible structure to have closely-spaced vibration frequencies. The procedure uses a general-purpose finite element analysis program for the vibration and sensitivity analyses and a general-purpose optimization program. Results are presented from two studies. The first study uses a detailed model of a large flexible structure to design a structure with one pair of closely-spaced frequencies. The second study uses a simple equivalent beam model of a large flexible structure to obtain a design with two pairs of closely-spaced frequencies.

  5. Deduction of structural information of interfacial proteins by combined vibrational spectroscopic methods. (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Paszti, Zoltan; Clarke, Matthew L; Chen, Xiaoyun; Chen, Zhan


    We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that the combination of vibrational spectroscopic techniques on samples can be used to deduce more detailed structural information of interfacial proteins and peptides. Such an approach can be used to elucidate structures of proteins or peptides at interfaces, such as at the solid/liquid interface or in cell membranes. We also discuss that the controlled perturbations may provide more measured parameters for structural studies on such proteins and peptides. In this paper, we will demonstrate that optical spectroscopic techniques such as polarized Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, and higher order nonlinear vibrational spectroscopies can be used to deduce different and complementary structural information of molecules at interfaces (e.g., orientation information of certain functional groups and secondary structures of interfacial proteins). Also, we believe that controlled perturbations on samples, such as variation of sample temperature, application of electrical fields, and alternation of substrate roughness, can provide more detailed information regarding the interfacial structures of proteins and peptides. The development of nonlinear vibrational spectroscopies, such as SFG and four-wave mixing vibrational spectroscopy, to examine interfacial protein and peptide structures, and introduction of external perturbations on samples should be able to substantially advance our knowledge in understanding structures and thus functions of proteins and peptides at interfaces.

  6. Nondestructive inspection and vibration analysis of disbonds in carbon fibre structures using laser diode shearography (United States)

    Steinchen, Wolfgang; Gan, Ymin; Kupfer, Gerhard; Maeckel, Peter


    University of Kassel and isi-sys have extended the application of shearography to quantitative vibration analysis and developed a portable automatic controlled shearography system. The Vibrograph is already used for vibration measurements in industry for example of electronic boards typically in combination with laboratory shakers in harmonic excitation modes. Now a small portable piezo shaker permits local excitation of the defects such as delaminations and disbonds. Vibrating in their natural mode shapes the Vibrograph detects the location of the defects within the fiber structure.

  7. Simulation of Heat Generating In a Vibrating Structure Using COMSOL Multiphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kamil Jebur


    Full Text Available This paper dealt with heat generating in a beam structure model subjected to small vibrations to know the viscos elastic behavior under heat and vibration. The model first computed coupled thermal – structural interaction. The results obtained from this analysis of the model treated by the finite element method to calculate amount of heat generation in the material. A transient heat transfer analysis then simulated the slow rising temperature in the beam using these heat source terms. The model has been constructed from two blocks, the first block from Aluminum while the second block made from β –Titanium. The model was constrained from one side, while the other side free, so vibrations that occur along the model. These vibrations led to heat generating, so yields that residual stresses through the model. The result obtained represented in curves which give good agreement with international published researches

  8. Cosmological constraints on variations of the fine structure constant at the epoch of recombination (United States)

    Menegoni, E.; Galli, S.; Archidiacono, M.; Calabrese, E.; Melchiorri, A.


    In this brief work we investigate any possible variation of the fine structure constant at the epoch of recombination. The recent measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropies at arcminute angular scales performed by the ACT and SPT experiments are probing the damping regime of Cosmic Microwave Background fluctuations. We study the role of a mechanism that could affect the shape of the Cosmic Microwave Background angular fluctuations at those scales, namely a change in the recombination process through variations in the fine structure constant α.

  9. Vibration test on KMRR reactor structure and primary cooling system piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Seung Hoh; Kim, Tae Ryong; Park, Jin Hoh; Park, Jin Suk; Ryoo, Jung Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    Most equipments, piping systems and reactor structures in nuclear power plants are subjected to flow induced vibration due to high temperature and high pressure coolant flowing inside or outside of the equipments, systems and structures. Because the flow induced vibration sometimes causes significant damage to reactor structures and piping systems, it is important and necessary to evaluate the vibration effect on them and to prove their structural integrity. Korea Multipurpose Research Reactor (KMRR) being constructed by KAERI is 30 MWt pool type research reactor. Since its main structures and piping systems were designed and manufactured in accordance with the standards and guidelines for commercial nuclear power plant, it was decided to evaluate their vibratory response in accordance with the standards and guidelines for commercial NPP. The objective of this vibration test is the assessment of vibration levels of KMRR reactor structure and primary cooling piping system for their structural integrity under the steady-state or transient operating condition. 38 figs, 14 tabs, 2 refs. (Author).

  10. Vibration based structural health monitoring in fibre reinforced composites employing the modal strain energy method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loendersloot, Richard; Ooijevaar, T.H.; Warnet, Laurent; Akkerman, Remko; de Boer, Andries; Meguid, S.A.; Gomes, J.F.S.


    The feasibility of a vibration based damage identification method is investigated. The Modal Strain Energy method is applied to a T–beam structure. The dynamic response of an intact structure and a damaged, delaminated structure is analysed employing a commercially available Finite Element package.

  11. Vibrations in a Multi-Storey Lightweight Building Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning


    This paper provides a quantification of the changes in vibration level that can be expected in a lightweight multi-storey wooden building due to reduced connection stiffness or added nonstructural mass. Firstly, the impact of changes in the floor-to-wall connections is examined. Secondly, a study...... is performed regarding variations of the vibration level due to different placements of nonstructural mass inside the building. The analyses are carried out by means of a modular three-dimensional finite-element model. Each floor and wall panel is modelled in high detail, including door and window openings....... By a substructure approach, the panels are assembled to construct a global building model that allows analysis within a reasonable computation time....

  12. Surface vibrational and structural properties of polymers by HREELS (United States)

    Pireaux, J. J.; Gregoire, C.; Vermeersch, M.; Thiry, P. A.; Caudano, R.


    The extremely promising applications of electron induced vibrational spectroscopy to study the surfaces of polymers and other organic materials are reviewed. It is demonstrated that this technique, which is known as HREELS: high-resolution electron-energy loss spectroscopy, is selectively surface sensitive: information on both the composition and morphology of the polymer surfaces is obtained. However, a quantitative interpretation of the data is not straightforward, as the exact interaction mechanism(s) between the probing electron and the molecular vibrations are not yet ascertained. One of the many illustrations given is the study of the incipient interface formation between a clean cured polyimide film and deposited aluminum which will demonstrate the specific completeness and capabilities of HREELS.

  13. Active vibration control of ring-stiffened cylindrical shell structure using macro fiber composite actuators. (United States)

    Sohn, Jung Woo; Jeon, Juncheol; Choi, Seung-Bok


    Vibration control performance of the ring-stiffened cylindrical shell structure is experimentally evaluated in this work. In order to achieve high control performance, advanced flexible piezoelectric actuator whose commercial name is Macro-Fiber Composite (MFC) is adapted to the shell structure. Governing equation is derived by finite element method and dynamic characteristics are investigated from the modal analysis results. Ring-stiffened cylindrical shell structure is then manufactured and modal test is conducted to verify modal analysis results. An optimal controller is designed and experimentally realized to the proposed shell structure system. Vibration control performance is experimentally evaluated in time domain and verified by simulated control results.

  14. Fine structure analysis of biocompatible ceramic materials based hydroxyapatite and metallic biomaterials 316L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anghelina, F.V.; Ungureanu, D.N.; Bratu, V. [Faculty of Materials Engineering and Mechanics, Valahia University of Targoviste, 18-24 Unirii Bd., 130082 (Romania); Popescu, I.N., E-mail: [Faculty of Materials Engineering and Mechanics, Valahia University of Targoviste, 18-24 Unirii Bd., 130082 (Romania); Rusanescu, C.O. [Politehnica University, 060042 Bucharest (Romania)


    The aim of this paper was to obtain and characterize (surface morphology and fine structure) two types of materials: Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2} hydroxyapatite powder (HAp) as biocompatible ceramic materials and AISI 316L austenitic stainless steels as metallic biomaterials, which are the components of the metal–ceramic composites used for medical implants in reconstructive surgery and prosthetic treatment. The HAp was synthesized by coprecipitation method, heat treated at 200 °C, 800 °C and 1200 °C for 4 h, analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The stainless steel 316L type was made by casting, annealing and machined with a low speed (100 mm/s) in order to obtain a smooth surface and after that has been studied from residual stresses point of view in three polishing regimes conditions: at low speed polishing (150 rpm), at high speed polishing (1500 rpm) and high speed-vibration contact polishing (1500 rpm) using wide angle X-ray diffractions (WAXD). The chemical compositions of AISI 316 steel samples were measured using a Foundry Master Spectrometer equipped with CCD detector for spectral lines and the sparking spots of AISI 316L samples were analyzed using SEM. By XRD the phases of HAp powders have been identified and also the degree of crystallinity and average size of crystallites, and with SEM, we studied the morphology of the HAp. It has been found from XRD analysis that we obtained HAp with a high degree of crystallinity at 800 °C and 1200 °C, no presence of impurity and from SEM analysis we noticed the influence of heat treatment on the ceramic particles morphology. From the study of residual stress profiles of 316L samples were observed that it differs substantially for different machining regimes and from the SEM analysis of sparking spots we revealed the rough surfaces of stainless steel rods necessary for a better adhesion of HAp on it.

  15. Structural and vibrational characterization of sugar arabinitol structures employing micro-Raman spectra and DFT calculations (United States)

    Hédoux, Alain; Guinet, Yannick; Carpentier, Laurent; Paccou, Laurent; Derollez, Patrick; Brandán, Silvia Antonia


    In this work, three monomeric forms of arabinitol, usually named arabitol, and their dimeric species have been structural and vibrationally studied by using the micro-Raman spectra in the solid phase accomplished with theoretical calculations based on the theory of the functional of the density (DFT). The hybrid B3LYP method was used for all the calculations together with the 6-31G* and 6-311++g** basis sets. Two different L structures with minima energies were predicted in accordance to the two polymorphic structures revealed by recent X-ray diffraction experiments. The studies by natural bond orbital (NBO) calculations reveals high stabilities of the L form as compared with the D one but the topological properties by using the atoms in molecules (AIM) suggest a higher stability of the D form due to a strong H bond interactions. The scaled mechanical force fields (SQMFF) procedure was used to perform the complete vibrational assignments for the monomeric forms and their dimer. On the other hand, the similarity in the gap values computed for the three forms of arabitol with those observed for sucrose, trehalose, maltose and lactose in gas phase at the same level of theory could partially explain the sweetening property of this alcohol. In addition, the influences of the size of the basis set on some properties were evidenced.

  16. Fuzzy Semiactive Vibration Control of Structures Using Magnetorheological Elastomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Bao Nguyen


    Full Text Available In this research, a novel variable stiffness vibration isolator that uses magnetorheological elastomers (MREs accompanied with a fuzzy semiactive vibration control was developed. Firstly, the viscoelastic characteristics of MREs in shear mode were clarified systematically in order to achieve a mathematical basis for the controller development. Secondly, the fuzzy semiactive vibration control with a strategy based on the Lyapunov theory and dynamic characteristic of MREs was proposed for minimizing the movement of the isolator. In the conventional semiactive algorithm, the command applied current of MRE-based isolator is set at either minimum or maximum value which causes high acceleration and jerk peaks periodically, thus leading to the degeneration of the overall system quality. However, the fuzzy semiactive algorithm presented here is able to produce the sufficient applied current and thus viscoelastic force is desirably produced. The effectiveness of the developed isolator was evaluated numerically by MATLAB simulation and experimentally in comparison with the performances of a passive system and a system with on-off type semiactive controller. The results showed that the developed controller was successful in overcoming the disadvantages of conventional on-off semiactive control.

  17. Electrostatic energy harvesting device with dual resonant structure for wideband random vibration sources at low frequency. (United States)

    Zhang, Yulong; Wang, Tianyang; Zhang, Ai; Peng, Zhuoteng; Luo, Dan; Chen, Rui; Wang, Fei


    In this paper, we present design and test of a broadband electrostatic energy harvester with a dual resonant structure, which consists of two cantilever-mass subsystems each with a mass attached at the free edge of a cantilever. Comparing to traditional devices with single resonant frequency, the proposed device with dual resonant structure can resonate at two frequencies. Furthermore, when one of the cantilever-masses is oscillating at resonance, the vibration amplitude is large enough to make it collide with the other mass, which provides strong mechanical coupling between the two subsystems. Therefore, this device can harvest a decent power output from vibration sources at a broad frequency range. During the measurement, continuous power output up to 6.2-9.8 μW can be achieved under external vibration amplitude of 9.3 m/s2 at a frequency range from 36.3 Hz to 48.3 Hz, which means the bandwidth of the device is about 30% of the central frequency. The broad bandwidth of the device provides a promising application for energy harvesting from the scenarios with random vibration sources. The experimental results indicate that with the dual resonant structure, the vibration-to-electricity energy conversion efficiency can be improved by 97% when an external random vibration with a low frequency filter is applied.

  18. Vertical vibrations of composite bridge/track structure/high-speed train systems. Part 3: Deterministic and random vibrations of exemplary system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. Podworna; M. Klasztorny


    ...) bridge/track structure/high-speed train system (BTT), developed in Part 2, advanced computer algorithms for the BTT numerical modelling and simulation as well as a computer programme to simulate vertical vibrations of BTT systems are developed...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Many important classes of materials owe their interesting properties to structures and patterns produced by local atomic deviations from ideal crystallographic positions. The pattern scale may vary from a few atomic spacings to many microns. In a macroscopic sample these deviations may still average to an ideal lattice while retaining the intrinsic fine-scale structures, or a phase transition may create a pattern of variants of a new crystallographic structure. We have carried out experiments on the formation of fine-scale structures in a range of materials, particularly those produced by phase transitions. We have used Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy for elastic properties and dissipation, neutron pair-distribution function, and electronic transport measurements to characterize samples. We have carried out extensive dynamical modeling based on Ginzberg-Landau formalisms to simulate the development and appearance of the structures. Our results highlight the importance of long-range strain fields and the intrinsic unstable equilibrium features of the materials studied.

  20. Dual resonant structure for energy harvesting from random vibration sources at low frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Li


    Full Text Available We introduce a design with dual resonant structure which can harvest energy from random vibration sources at low frequency range. The dual resonant structure consists of two spring-mass subsystems with different frequency responses, which exhibit strong coupling and broad bandwidth when the two masses collide with each other. Experiments with piezoelectric elements show that the energy harvesting device with dual resonant structure can generate higher power output than the sum of the two separate devices from random vibration sources.

  1. Component mode synthesis and large deflection vibrations of complex structures. [beams and trusses (United States)

    Mei, C.


    The accuracy of the NASTRAN modal synthesis analysis was assessed by comparing it with full structure NASTRAN and nine other modal synthesis results using a nine-bay truss. A NASTRAN component mode transient response analysis was also performed on the free-free truss structure. A finite element method was developed for nonlinear vibration of beam structures subjected to harmonic excitation. Longitudinal deformation and inertia are both included in the formula. Tables show the finite element free vibration results with and without considering the effects of longitudinal deformation and inertia as well as the frequency ratios for a simply supported and a clamped beam subjected to a uniform harmonic force.

  2. Perception of complex sounds by the green treefrog, Hyla cinerea: envelope and fine-structure cues. (United States)

    Simmons, A M; Buxbaum, R C; Mirin, M P


    1. The envelope periodicity of communication signals is an important feature distinguishing advertisement and aggressive calls for the green treefrog (Hyla cinerea). Envelope periodicity, a cue for periodicity pitch perception in humans, is affected by the fine-structure of the signal, a cue for timbre perception in humans. The present study examined perception of two acoustic features affecting waveform fine-structure--harmonic structure and phase structure--in male green treefrogs. 2. We analyzed evoked vocal responses of male green treefrogs living in laboratory arenas to playbacks of digitally-generated signals resembling either conspecific advertisement or aggressive calls in their first harmonic periodicity. Systematic changes in the harmonic structure of these signals were achieved by varying the harmonic relations between frequency components in the signals, and changes in phase structure were achieved by varying the starting phases of harmonically-related components. 3. Calling was significantly influenced by the first harmonic periodicity of the signals. Males vocalized more to signals with the periodicity of the advertisement than the aggressive call. There were no differences in response to harmonic and inharmonic signals with similar spectral content. Phase structure did not significantly influence vocal responses. 4. These results suggest that the fine-structure ("timbre") of complex acoustic signals is not a significant feature guiding behavior tested using a communication response in this species.

  3. Clonal growth and fine-scale genetic structure in tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus: Fagaceae) (United States)

    Richard S. Dodd; Wasima Mayer; Alejandro Nettel; Zara. Afzal-Rafii


    The combination of sprouting and reproduction by seed can have important consequences on fine-scale spatial distribution of genetic structure (SGS). SGS is an important consideration for species’ restoration because it determines the minimum distance among seed trees to maximize genetic diversity while not prejudicing locally adapted genotypes. Local environmental...

  4. Fine structure of the subradular organ of Lepidochitona cinereus (L), (Mollusca, Polyplacophora). (United States)

    Boyle, P R


    Electron microscopy of the subradular organ of the chiton Lepidochitona cinereus (L) reveals at least three cell types, microvillous, ciliated and mucus-secreting, situated in a single epithelium. The base of the epithelium is abundantly innervated and supplied with muscle cells. The fine structure is consistent with a chemosensory function for the subradular organ.

  5. Elucidation of the chemical fine structure of polysaccharides from soybean and maize kernel cell walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M.M.H.


    The subject of this thesis was the elucidation of the chemical fine structure of polysaccharides from cell walls of soybean and maize kernel. The two species investigated represent different taxonomic groups, soybean belonging to the dicotyledonous and maize to the monocotyledonous plants.

  6. Fine structure of the oesophageal and gastric glands of the red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ultrastructural and cytochemical study of the gastric epithelium in a freshwater teleostean fish (Perca ftuviatitis). Tissue & Ce(( 10: 23 - 37. PORTER, K.R. 1972. Herpetology. Saunders, Philadelphia. REBOLLEDO, I.M. & VIAL, J.D. 1979. Fine structure of the oxynticopeptic cell in the gastric glands of an elasmobranch species.

  7. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure investigation of nitrogen stabilized expanded austenite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Jette; Christiansen, Thomas; Ståhl, Kenny


    As-delivered austenitic stainless steel and nitrogen stabilized expanded austenite, both fully nitrided and denitrided (in H2), were investigated with Cr, Fe and Ni extended X-ray absorption fine structure. The data shows pronounced short-range ordering of Cr and N. For the denitrided specimen...

  8. The architecture and fine structure of gill filaments in the brown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The architecture and fine structure of gill filaments in the brown mussel, Perna perna. MA Gregory' and R.C, George. Electron Microscope Unit' and Department of Zoology, University of Durban-Westville, Private Bag X54001, Durban, 4000,. South Africa. TP. McClurg. CSIR, Division of Water, Environment and Forestry ...

  9. ESR Fine Structure of Manganese Ions in Zeolite A Detects Strong Variations of the Coordination Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, D.E. de; Weckhuysen, B.M.; Bein, T.


    The electron spin resonance spectra of Mn 2+ exchanged zeolite A have been investigated as a function of the monovalent co-cation (K + ,Na + ,Li + ,Cs + ,or NH4 + ), Mn 2+ content, recording frequency, and temperature. Three new Mn 2+ species are observed with a well-resolved fine structure; this

  10. Simulations of fine structures on the zero field steps of Josephson tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuermann, M.; Chi, C. C.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig


    are generated by the interaction of the bias current with the fluxon at the junction edges. On the first zero field step, the voltages of successive fine structures are given by Vn=[h-bar]/2e(2omegap/n), where n is an even integer. Applied Physics Letters is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....

  11. The plasma processes of some solar radio burst and their fine structures on the time (United States)

    Ning, Z.-J.; Lu, Q.-K.; Fu, Q.-J.; Yan, Y.


    We present three special solar radio bursts or fine structures on the frequency band of 1.00-7.60Ghz. Firstly, we study the type III burst pair, which was recorded by spectrometer 1.00-2.00GHz at National Astronomical Observatory of China on Jan. 05, 1994. A plausible model might be thought that this event could be the observational evidence of two electron beams traveling bi-directions simultanuously due to the acceleration of magnetic reconnection in the corona. Secondly, a fine structure of microwave type IV bursts is microwave type M-burst on May 03 1999. Partial N-burst, which is a fine structure of solar III-V bursts recorded on August 251999 by both separated spectrometers 4.50-7.50 GHz at Purple Mountain observatory and 5.20-7.60GHz at NAO respectively, is the third phenomenon studied here. As the N-burst documented before, the last two fine structures are thought to the new observational evidences of electron beam reflected by magnetic mirror in the corona.

  12. Page 1 CHEMISTRY OF THE THAZOLES Part V. Fine Structure and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    (Department of Chemotherapy, Haffkine Institute, Parel, Bombay). (Received September 25, 1952). 1. INTRODUCTION. THE thiazole ring system from the point of view of fine structure remains the least studied of the heterocyclic compounds. None of the customary physical or physico-chemical measurements which give us ...

  13. Collisional excitation of CH2 rotational/fine-structure levels by helium (United States)

    Dagdigian, P. J.; Lique, F.


    Accurate determination of the abundance of CH2 in interstellar media relies on both radiative and collisional rate coefficients. We investigate here the rotational/fine-structure excitation of CH2 induced by collisions with He. We employ a recoupling technique to generate fine-structure-resolved cross-sections and rate coefficients from close coupling spin-free scattering calculations. The calculations are based on a recent, high-accuracy CH2-He potential energy surface computed at the coupled clusters level of theory. The collisional cross-section calculations are performed for all fine-structure transitions among the first 22 and 24 energy levels of ortho- and para-CH2, respectively, and for temperatures up to 300 K. As a first application, we simulate the excitation of CH2 in typical molecular clouds. The excitation temperatures of the CH2 lines are found to be small at typical densities of molecular clouds, showing that the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium approach has to be used to analyse interstellar spectra. We also found that the fine-structure lines connected with the 404 - 313 and 505 - 414 rotational transitions show possible maser emissions so that they can be easily seen in emission. These calculations show that CH2 may have to be detected mainly through absorption spectra.

  14. Molecular equilibrium structures from experimental rotational constants and calculated vibration-rotation interaction constants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, F; Jorgensen, P; Olsen, Jeppe


    A detailed study is carried out of the accuracy of molecular equilibrium geometries obtained from least-squares fits involving experimental rotational constants B(0) and sums of ab initio vibration-rotation interaction constants alpha(r)(B). The vibration-rotation interaction constants have been...... calculated for 18 single-configuration dominated molecules containing hydrogen and first-row atoms at various standard levels of ab initio theory. Comparisons with the experimental data and tests for the internal consistency of the calculations show that the equilibrium structures generated using Hartree......-Fock vibration-rotation interaction constants have an accuracy similar to that obtained by a direct minimization of the CCSD(T) energy. The most accurate vibration-rotation interaction constants are those calculated at the CCSD(T)/cc-pVQZ level. The equilibrium bond distances determined from these interaction...

  15. Fine structures of the capsules of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli K1.


    Amako, K; Meno, Y; Takade, A


    The fine structures of the capsules of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli were determined by the rapid-freezing technique. The capsular layer was seen as a densely packed accumulation of fine fibers. The thickness of the capsule was approximately 160 nm in K. pneumoniae and less than 10 nm in E. coli K1. Two layers were observed in the Klebsiella capsule in which the arrangements of the fibers were different. The inner layer of the capsule was formed by a palisade of thick and dense b...

  16. Transverse Resonant Vibration of Non-Bearing Structures Caused by Wind (United States)

    Jendzelovsky, Norbert; Antal, Roland


    Nowadays, there are increasing use of very thin, subtle and light structures in the field of building constructions. We can find such a structures as part of roofs or design facades. By using these lamellas like, non-bearing structures as a part of architectural design of buildings, it is necessary to consider wind effects on these structures. Subtle structures of this type are prone to vibration in the transverse direction of the wind flow. The fact that the vibration occurs depends on wind parameters (wind velocity, direction of an air flow) and it also depends on the properties of lamella (shape, length, mass, natural frequency, support type). The principal idea of this article is to show susceptibility of lamellae-like structures to transverse resonant vibration caused by the phenomenon called Von Karman effect. Comparison of susceptibility to transverse resonance vibration was analysed on the different shapes of lamellas loaded by different wind speed. Analysis was based on usage of empirically derived equations. Von Karman effect arise from wind flow past an object. Turbulence in the form of vortices are formed at the object and shed into the flowing stream intermittently. The potential problem is that this turbulence can induce vibrations into the lamella itself. In terms of this vibration problem, two frequencies are interesting. Von Karman shedding frequency is the frequency at which the vortices are formed and shed at the object. The vortex-shedding frequency increases with the velocity of the wind flow and decreases with the size of the object. Natural frequency of the object depends on the construction of the lamella itself. Parameters of lamella as a shape, mass, length, elasticity modulus of material and support types are directly involved in the calculation of natural frequency. Worst case scenario in the term of transverse resonant vibration occurs when the natural frequency of lamella is equal to the vortex-shedding frequency. In this case

  17. Fine-structure energy levels, oscillator strengths and lifetimes in Cu XVI (United States)

    Gupta, G. P.; Msezane, A. Z.


    We have performed large-scale CIV3 calculations of excitation energies from ground state for 69 fine-structure levels as well as of oscillator strengths and radiative decay rates for all electric-dipole-allowed and intercombination transitions among the fine-structure levels of the terms belonging to the (1s22s22p6)3s23p2, 3s3p3, 3p4, 3s23p3d, 3s23p4s, 3s23p4p, 3s23p4d, and 3s23p4f configurations of Cu XVI. These states are represented by very extensive configuration-interaction (CI) wave functions obtained with the computer code CIV3 of Hibbert. The important relativistic effects in intermediate coupling are incorporated by means of the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. Small adjustments to the diagonal elements of the Hamiltonian matrices have been made so that the energy splittings are as close as possible to the energy values of those from the National Institute for Standards and Technology. The mixing among several fine-structure levels is found to be very strong. From our radiative decay rates we have also calculated radiative lifetimes of the fine-structure levels. Our calculated lifetime for the high spin level 3s3p3(5S2) is found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental value of Trabert et al (1988 J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5 2173). In this calculation, we also predict new data for several fine-structure levels where no other theoretical and/or experimental results are available. ).

  18. Fine-structure energy levels, oscillator strengths and lifetimes in Al-like chromium (United States)

    Gupta, G. P.; Msezane, A. Z.


    We have performed large scale calculations of excitation energies from ground state for 97 fine-structure levels as well as of oscillator strengths and radiative rates for all electric-dipole-allowed and intercombination transitions among the fine-structure levels of the terms belonging to the (1 s 22 s 22 p 6)3 s 23 p, 3 s3 p 2, 3 s 23 d, 3 p 3, 3 s3 p3 d, 3 p 23 d, 3 s3 d 2, 3 s 24 s, 3 s 24 p, 3 s 24 d, 3 s 24 f and 3 s3 p4 s configurations of Al-like chromium. These states are represented by very extensive configuration-interaction wave functions obtained with the configuration-interaction version 3 computer code of Hibbert. The important relativistic effects in intermediate coupling are included through the Breit-Pauli approximation. Small adjustments to the diagonal elements of Hamiltonian matrices have been made so that energy splittings are as close as possible to the energy values of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. From the radiative rates, we have also calculated radiative lifetimes of fine-structure levels. Generally, the calculated excitation energies, oscillator strengths and the radiative rates are found to be in good agreement with those obtained from other sophisticated calculations. However, significant differences between present calculated lifetimes and those from the calculation of Fischer and co-workers for a few fine-structure levels are noted and discussed. Also the present calculated lifetime for level 3 s 24 s(2 S 0.5) is found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental value given by Thornbury and co-workers. With this calculation, we also predict new data for several fine-structure levels, where no other theoretical and/or experimental results are available.

  19. Communication: interfacial water structure revealed by ultrafast two-dimensional surface vibrational spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Z.; Piatkowski, L.; Bakker, H.J.; Bonn, M.


    Knowledge of the interfacial water structure is essential for a basic understanding of the many environmental, technological, and biophysical systems in which aqueous interfaces appear. Using ultrafast two-dimensional surface-specific vibrational spectroscopy we show that the structure of heavy

  20. Phononic band gaps and vibrations in one- and two-dimensional mass-spring structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard


    The vibrational response of finite periodic lattice structures subjected to periodic loading is investigated. Special attention is devoted to the response in frequency ranges with gaps in the band structure for the corresponding infinite periodic lattice. The effects of boundaries, viscous dampin...

  1. Development of flexural vibration inspection techniques to rapidly assess the structural health of rural bridge systems (United States)

    Brian K. Brashaw; Robert Vatalaro; Xiping Wang; Kevin Sarvela; James P. Wacker


    Approximately 4,000 vehicle bridges in the State of Minnesota contain structural timber members. Recent research at the University of Minnesota Duluth Natural Resources Research Institute (UMD NRRI) has been conducted on vibration testing of timber bridges as a means of developing rapid in-place testing techniques for assessing the structural health of bridges. The...

  2. Structural dynamics in complex liquids studied with multidimensional vibrational spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokmakoff, Andrei [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)


    The development of new sustainable energy sources is linked to our understanding of the molecular properties of water and aqueous solutions. Energy conversion, storage, and transduction processes, particularly those that occur in biology, fuel cells, and batteries, make use of water for the purpose of moving energy in the form of charges and mediating the redox chemistry that allows this energy to be stored as and released from chemical bonds. To build our fundamental knowledge in this area, this project supports work in the Tokmakoff group to investigate the molecular dynamics of water’s hydrogen bond network, and how these dynamics influence its solutes and the mechanism of proton transport in water. To reach the goals of this grant, we developed experiments to observe molecular dynamics in water as directly as possible, using ultrafast multidimensional vibrational spectroscopy. We excite and probe broad vibrational resonances of water, molecular solutes, and protons in water. By correlating how molecules evolve from an initial excitation frequency to a final frequency, we can describe the underlying molecular dynamics. Theoretical modeling of the data with the help of computational spectroscopy coupled with molecular dynamics simulations provided the atomistic insight in these studies.

  3. DFT study of the molecular and crystal structure and vibrational analysis of cisplatin (United States)

    Georgieva, I.; Trendafilova, N.; Dodoff, N.; Kovacheva, D.


    DFT and periodic-DFT (PAW-PBE method, code VASP) calculations have been performed to study the structural and vibrational characteristics of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cisplatin) at molecular and outside molecular level. To estimate the effect of the intermolecular interactions in crystal on the structural and vibrational properties of cisplatin, three theoretical models are considered in the present study: monomer (isolated molecule), hydrogen bonded dimer and periodic solid state structures. The work focused on the role of the theoretical models for correct modeling and prediction of geometrical and vibrational parameters of cisplatin. It has been found that the elaborate three-dimensional intermolecular hydrogen bonding network in the crystalline cisplatin significantly influences the structural and vibrational pattern of cisplatin and therefore the isolated cisplatin molecule is not the correct computational model regardless of the theoretical level used. To account for the whole intermolecular hydrogen bonding network in direction of both a and c axis and for more reliable calculations of structural and vibrational parameters periodic DFT calculations were carried out in the full crystalline periodic environment with the known lattice parameters for each cisplatin polymorph phase. The model calculations performed both at molecular level and for the periodic structures of alpha and beta cisplatin polymorph forms revealed the decisive role of the extended theoretical model for reliable prediction of the structural and vibrational characteristics of cisplatin. The powder diffraction pattern and the calculated IR and Raman spectra predicted beta polymorph form of our cisplatin sample freshly synthesized for the purposes of the present study using the Dhara's method. The various rotamers realized in the polymorph forms of cisplatin were explained by the low population of the large number of rotamers in solution as well as with the high rotamer

  4. The second spectrum of niobium: I. Accurate fine structure study of even-parity levels (United States)

    Bouazza, Safa


    For the first time, a parametric analysis of the fine and hyperfine structure for even-parity levels of Nb II, involving 17 configurations, has been performed. The interpretation has been carried out based on a linked-parameter method of level-fitting calculations in a large multiconfiguration basis. The sets of fine structure parameters, the leading eigenvector percentages of levels, as well as their calculated magnetic Landé g-factors are newly given. Furthermore, we confirm on the whole the validity of the attributions to term designations, previously proposed. The single-electron hyperfine structure parameters are determined in their entirety for 93Nb II for the model space (4d + 5s)4 with a good accuracy and confirmed by ab initio calculations. Finally, a complete list of the predicted magnetic hyperfine structure constants A of all levels of this model space was generated.

  5. A unified solution for vibration analysis of plates with general structural stress distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian Yang


    Full Text Available Complex stress distributions often exist in ocean engineering structures. This stress influences structural vibrations. Finite Element Methods exhibit some shortcomings for solving non-uniform stress problems, such as an unclear physical interpretation, complicated operation, and large number of computations. Analytical methods research considers mainly uniform stress problems, and often, their methods cannot be applied in practical marine structures with non-uniform stress. In this paper, an analytical method is proposed to solve the vibration of plates with general stress distributions. Non-uniform stress is expressed as a special series, and the stress influence is inserted into a vibration equation that is solved through decoupling to obtain an analytical solution. This method has been verified using numerical examples and can be used in arbitrary stress distribution cases. This method requires fewer computations and it provides a clearer physical interpretation, so it has advantages in some qualitative research.

  6. Topological map of the Hofstadter butterfly: Fine structure of Chern numbers and Van Hove singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naumis, Gerardo G., E-mail: [Departamento de Física–Química, Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 México, Distrito Federal (Mexico); Department of Physics and Astronomy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, ESIA-Zacatenco, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D.F. (Mexico)


    The Hofstadter butterfly is a quantum fractal with a highly complex nested set of gaps, where each gap represents a quantum Hall state whose quantized conductivity is characterized by topological invariants known as the Chern numbers. Here we obtain simple rules to determine the Chern numbers at all scales in the butterfly fractal and lay out a very detailed topological map of the butterfly by using a method used to describe quasicrystals: the cut and projection method. Our study reveals the existence of a set of critical points that separates orderly patterns of both positive and negative Cherns that appear as a fine structure in the butterfly. This fine structure can be understood as a small tilting of the projection subspace in the cut and projection method and by using a Chern meeting formula. Finally, we prove that the critical points are identified with the Van Hove singularities that exist at every band center in the butterfly landscape. - Highlights: • Use a higher dimensional approach to build a topological map of the Hofstadter butterfly. • There is a fine structure of Chern numbers around each rational flux. • Van Hove singularities are limiting points for topological sequences of the fine flux.

  7. Distorted Tonotopic Coding of Temporal Envelope and Fine Structure with Noise-Induced Hearing Loss


    Henry, Kenneth S; Kale, Sushrut; Heinz, Michael G.


    People with cochlear hearing loss have substantial difficulty understanding speech in real-world listening environments (e.g., restaurants), even with amplification from a modern digital hearing aid. Unfortunately, a disconnect remains between human perceptual studies implicating diminished sensitivity to fast acoustic temporal fine structure (TFS) and animal studies showing minimal changes in neural coding of TFS or slower envelope (ENV) structure. Here, we used general system-identification...

  8. Determining the velocity fine structure by a laser anemometer with fixed orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, Leif; Kirkegaard, P.; Mikkelsen, Torben


    We have studied the velocity structure functions and spectra which can be determined by a CW-laser anemometer and a (pulsed) lidar anemometer. We have found useful theoretical expressions for both types of anemometers and compared their filtering of the along-beam turbulent velocity. The purpose has been to establish a basis for remote determining of turbulence fine-structure in terms of the rate of dissipation of specific kinetic energy in the atmospheric boundary layer. (Author)

  9. Reduction of Structural Vibrations by Passive and Semiactively Controlled Friction Dampers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gaul


    Full Text Available Reduction of structural vibrations is of major interest in mechanical engineering for lowering sound emission of vibrating structures, improving accuracy of machines, and increasing structure durability. Besides optimization of the mechanical design or various types of passive damping treatments, active structural vibration control concepts are efficient means to reduce unwanted vibrations. In this contribution, two different semiactive control concepts for vibration reduction are proposed that adapt to the normal force of attached friction dampers. Thereby, semiactive control concepts generally possess the advantage over active control in that the closed loop is intrinsically stable and that less energy is required for the actuation than in active control. In the chosen experimental implementation, a piezoelectric stack actuator is used to apply adjustable normal forces between a structure and an attached friction damper. Simulation and experimental results of a benchmark structure with passive and semiactively controlled friction dampers are compared for stationary narrowband excitation. For simulations of the control performance, transient simulations must be employed to predict the achieved vibration damping. It is well known that transient simulation of systems with friction and normal contact requires excessive computational power due to the nonlinear constitutive laws and the high contact stiffnesses involved. However, commercial finite-element codes do not allow simulating feedback control in a general way. As a remedy, a special simulation framework is developed which allows efficiently modeling interfaces with friction and normal contact by appropriate constitutive laws which are implemented by contact elements in a finite-element model. Furthermore, special model reduction techniques using a substructuring approach are employed for faster simulation.

  10. Development of a unified numerical procedure for free vibration analysis of structures (United States)

    Gupta, K. K.


    This paper presents the details of a unified numerical algorithm and the associated computer program developed for the efficient determination of natural frequencies and modes of free vibration of structures. Both spinning and nonspinning structures with or without viscous and/or structural damping may be solved by the current procedure; in addition, the program is capable of solving static problems with multiple load cases as well as the quadratic matrix eigenproblem associated with a finite dynamic element structural discretization.

  11. An Experimental Assessment of Transverse Adaptive Fir Filters as Applied to Vibrating Structures Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Castello


    Full Text Available The present work is aimed at assessing the performance of adaptive Finite Impulse Response (FIR filters on the identification of vibrating structures. Four adaptive algorithms were used: Least Mean Squares (LMS, Normalized Least Mean Squares (NLMS, Transform-Domain Least Mean Squares (TD – LMS and Set-Membership Binormalized Data-Reusing LMS Algorithm (SM – BNDRLMS. The capability of these filters to perform the identification of vibrating structures is shown on real experiments. The first experiment consists of an aluminum cantilever beam containing piezoelectric sensors and actuators and the second one is a steel pinned-pinned beam instrumented with accelerometers and an electromechanical shaker.

  12. Transparent Window Vibrational Probes for the Characterization of Proteins With High Structural and Temporal Resolution. (United States)

    Adhikary, Ramkrishna; Zimmermann, Jörg; Romesberg, Floyd E


    Vibrational spectroscopy provides a direct route to the physicochemical characterization of molecules. While both IR and Raman spectroscopy have been used for decades to provide detailed characterizations of small molecules, similar studies with proteins are largely precluded due to spectral congestion. However, the vibrational spectra of proteins do include a "transparent window", between ∼1800 and ∼2500 cm-1, and progress is now being made to develop site-specifically incorporated carbon-deuterium (C-D), cyano (CN), thiocyanate (SCN), and azide (N3) "transparent window vibrational probes" that absorb within this window and report on their environment to facilitate the characterization of proteins with small molecule-like detail. This Review opens with a brief discussion of the advantages and limitations of conventional vibrational spectroscopy and then discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the different transparent window vibrational probes, methods by which they may be site-specifically incorporated into peptides and proteins, and the physicochemical properties they may be used to study, including electrostatics, stability and folding, hydrogen bonding, protonation, solvation, dynamics, and interactions with inhibitors. The use of the probes to vibrationally image proteins and other biomolecules within cells is also discussed. We then present four case studies, focused on ketosteroid isomerase, the SH3 domain, dihydrofolate reductase, and cytochrome c, where the transparent window vibrational probes have already been used to elucidate important aspects of protein structure and function. The Review concludes by highlighting the current challenges and future potential of using transparent window vibrational probes to understand the evolution and function of proteins and other biomolecules.

  13. Active Vibration Control of a Monopile Offshore Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Thesbjerg, L.


    coefficient should be obtained in order to have a relatively small excitation on the cylinder. The drag coefficient can be controlled if the separation points of the boundary layers can be controlled. It is proposed to control the separation points by blowing compressed air out of the holes in the cylinder....... If the natura1 separation points of the boundary layers are rejected by blowing air out of the holes the drag coefficient will increase while it will decrease if it is possible to attach the boundary layer. The results from the experimental test have shown that it is possible to increase the drag coefficient...... with a factor 1.5-2 by blowing air out of the holes in a cylinder vibrating in a stationary water flow....

  14. Strength and Dislocation Structure Evolution of Small Metals under Vibrations (United States)

    Ngan, Alfonso


    It is well-known that ultrasonic vibration can soften metals, and this phenomenon has been widely exploited in industrial applications concerning metal forming and bonding. In this work, we explore the effects of a superimposed small oscillatory load on metal plasticity, from the nano- to macro-size range, and from audible to ultrasonic frequency ranges. Macroscopic and nano-indentation were performed on aluminum, copper and molybdenum, and the results show that the simultaneous application of oscillatory stresses can lower the hardness of these samples. More interestingly, EBSD and TEM observations show that subgrain formation and reduction in dislocation density generally occurred when stress oscillations were applied. These findings point to an important knowledge gap in metal plasticity - the existing understanding of ultrasound softening in terms of the vibrations either imposing additional stress waves to augment the quasi-static applied load, or heating up the metal, whereas the metal's intrinsic deformation resistance or dislocation interactive processes are assumed unaltered by the ultrasound, is proven wrong by the present results. Furthermore, in the case of nanoindentation, the Continuous Stiffness Measurement technique for contact stiffness measurement assumes that the imposed signal-carrier oscillations do not intrinsically alter the material properties of the specimen, and again, the present results prove that this can be wrong. To understand the enhanced subgrain formation and dislocation annihilation, Discrete Dislocation Dynamics (DDD) simulations were carried out and these show that when an oscillatory stress is superimposed on a quasi-static applied stress, reversals of motion of dislocations may occur, and these allow the dislocations to revisit repeatedly suitable configurations for annihilation. DDD, however, was unable to predict the observed subgrain formation presumably because the number of dislocations that can be handled is not large

  15. Fine Structure Zonal Flow Excitation by Beta-induced Alfven Eigenmode

    CERN Document Server

    Qiu, Zhiyong; Zonca, Fulvio


    Nonlinear excitation of low frequency zonal structure (LFZS) by beta-induced Alfven eigenmode (BAE) is investigated using nonlinear gyrokinetic theory. It is found that electrostatic zonal flow (ZF), rather than zonal current, is preferentially excited by finite amplitude BAE. In addition to the well-known meso-scale radial envelope structure, ZF is also found to exhibit fine radial structure due to the localization of BAE with respect to mode rational surfaces. Specifically, the zonal electric field has an even mode structure at the rational surface where radial envelope peaks.

  16. Electronic fine structure and recombination dynamics in single InAs quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seguin, R.


    In the work at hand single InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) are examined via cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. A thorough analysis of the spectra leads to an unambiguous assignment of the lines to the decay of specific excitonic complexes. A special aspect of the Coulomb interaction, the exchange interaction, gives rise to a fine structure in the initial and final states of an excitonic decay. This leads to a fine structure in the emission spectra that again is unique for every excitonic complex. The exchange interaction is discussed in great detail in this work.QDs of different sizes are investigated and the influence on the electronic properties is monitored. Additionally, the structure is modified ex situ by a thermal annealing process. The changes of the spectra under different annealing temperatures are traced. Finally, recombination dynamics of different excitonic complexes are examined by performing time-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. (orig.)

  17. Exciton fine structure splitting in InP quantum dots in GaInP. (United States)

    Ellström, C; Seifert, W; Pryor, C; Samuelson, L; Pistol, M-E


    We have investigated the electronic structure of excitons in InP quantum dots in GaInP. The exciton is theoretically expected to have four states. Two of the states are allowed to optically decay to the ground (vacuum) state in the dipole approximation. We see these two lines in photoluminescence (PL) experiments and find that the splitting between the lines (the fine structure splitting) is 150(± 30) µeV. The lines were perpendicularly polarized. We verified that the lines arise from neutral excitons by using correlation spectroscopy. The theoretical calculations show that the polarization of the emission lines are along and perpendicular to the major axis of elongated dots. The fine structure splitting depends on the degree of elongation of the dots and is close to zero for dots of cylindrical symmetry, despite the influence of the piezoelectric polarization, which is included in the calculation.

  18. Vibration analysis of hydropower house based on fluid-structure coupling numerical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-he Wei


    Full Text Available By using the shear stress transport (SST model to predict the effect of random flow motion in a fluid zone, and using the Newmark method to solve the oscillation equations in a solid zone, a coupling model of the powerhouse and its tube water was developed. The effects of fluid-structure interaction are considered through the kinematic and dynamic conditions applied to the fluid-structure interfaces (FSI. Numerical simulation of turbulent flow through the whole flow passage of the powerhouse and concrete structure vibration analysis in the time domain were carried out with the model. Considering the effect of coupling the turbulence and the powerhouse structure, the time history response of both turbulent flows through the whole flow passage and powerhouse structure vibration were generated. Concrete structure vibration analysis shows that the displacement, velocity, and acceleration of the dynamo floor respond dramatically to pressure fluctuations in the flow passage. Furthermore, the spectrum analysis suggests that pressure fluctuation originating from the static and dynamic disturbances of hydraulic turbine blades in the flow passage is one of the most important vibration sources.

  19. Vibration Analysis and Design of a Structure Subjected to Human Walking Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Setareh


    Full Text Available Annoying building floor vibrations have become a serious serviceability issue. This is mainly due to decrease in the system mass resulting from the use of higher strength materials; use of computer-assisted design and the Load and Resistance Factor Design Method to optimize the structure based on the strength requirements; fewer partitions and more innovative designs by architects achieving long, column free spans resulting in a reduction in the natural frequency and damping. This paper provides details of the vibration analysis and design of a novel office building. Three-dimensional computer models of the structure were created and various modifications were made to the original structure, designed based on static loads, to reduce the possible excessive floor vibrations when subjected to walking excitations. Tuned mass dampers were also designed as a back-up vibration control system. A series of dynamic tests were conducted on the building floor to identify the dynamic properties of the structure and these were then used to update the original computer model. Finally, various forcing functions representing human walks and the updated computer model of the structure were used to evaluate the accuracy of the walking excitation force models to predict the structural response. Conclusions are made on the validity of each forcing function studied here.

  20. A closer look at dynamic speckles and the use of their fine-structure for object measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Iversen, Theis F.Q.; Jakobsen, Michael Linde


    The possibility to “dress up” the speckles and thereby providing them with a fine structure will be discussed. As these speckles arise from scattering off solid targets, the dynamics of the speckles and their inherent fine structure might vary, providing information on different aspects of the su...

  1. A Nonlinear Transmission Line Model of the Cochlea With Temporal Integration Accounts for Duration Effects in Threshold Fine Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhey, Jesko L.; Mauermann, Manfred; Epp, Bastian


    For normal-hearing listeners, auditory pure-tone thresholds in quiet often show quasi periodic fluctuations when measured with a high frequency resolution, referred to as threshold fine structure. Threshold fine structure is dependent on the stimulus duration, with smaller fluctuations for short ...

  2. Data from: Fine-scale spatial genetic structure in the frankincense tree Boswellia papyrifera (Del.) Hochst. and implications for conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekele, A.A.; Duminil, J.; Wouters, T.C.A.E.; Bongers, F.; Smulders, M.J.M.


    The file "Data fine-scale structure of Boswellia papyrifera TGGE paper.xlsx" contains the microsatellite data used in the study " Fine-scale spatial genetic structure in the frankincense tree Boswellia papyrifera (Del.) Hochst. and implications for conservation", by A. B. Addisalem, J. Duminil, D.

  3. Regarding "A new method for predicting nonlinear structural vibrations induced by ground impact loading" [Journal of Sound and Vibration, 331/9 (2012) 2129-2140 (United States)

    Cartmell, Matthew P.


    The Editor wishes to make the reader aware that the paper "A new method for predicting nonlinear structural vibrations induced by ground impact loading" by Jun Liu, Yu Zhang, Bin Yun, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 331 (2012) 2129-2140, did not contain a direct citation of the fundamental and original work in this field by Dr. Mark Svinkin. The Editor regrets that this omission was not noted at the time that the above paper was accepted and published.

  4. Natural Frequencies and Modal Damping Ratios Identification of Civil Structures from Ambient Vibration Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh-Nghi Ta


    Full Text Available Damping is a mechanism that dissipates vibration energy in dynamic systems and plays a key role in dynamic response prediction, vibration control as well as in structural health monitoring during service. In this paper a time domain and a time-scale domain approaches are used for damping estimation of engineering structures, using ambient response data only. The use of tests under ambient vibration is increasingly popular today because they allow to measure the structural response in service. In this paper we consider two engineering structures excited by ambient forces. The first structure is the 310 m tall TV tower recently constructed in the city of Nanjing in China. The second example concerns the Jinma cable-stayed bridge that connects Guangzhou and Zhaoqing in China. It is a single tower, double row cable-stayed bridge supported by 112 stay cables. Ambient vibration of each cable is carried out using accelerometers. From output data only, the modal parameter are extracted using a subspace method and the wavelet transform method.

  5. Automatic detection and extraction of ultra-fine bright structure observed with new vacuum solar telescope (United States)

    Deng, Linhua


    Solar magnetic structures exhibit a wealth of different spatial and temporal scales. Presently, solar magnetic element is believed to be the ultra-fine magnetic structure in the lower solar atmospheric layer, and the diffraction limit of the largest-aperture solar telescope (New Vacuum Solar Telescope; NVST) of China is close to the spatial scale of magnetic element. This implies that modern solar observations have entered the era of high resolution better than 0.2 arc-second. Since the year of 2011, the NVST have successfully established and obtained huge observational data. Moreover, the ultra-fine magnetic structure rooted in the dark inter-graunlar lanes can be easily resolved. Studies on the observational characteristics and physical mechanism of magnetic bright points is one of the most important aspects in the field of solar physics, so it is very important to determine the statistical and physical parameters of magnetic bright points with the feature extraction techniques and numerical analysis approaches. For identifying such ultra-fine magnetic structure, an automatically and effectively detection algorithm, employed the Laplacian transform and the morphological dilation technique, is proposed and examined. Then, the statistical parameters such as the typical diameter, the area distribution, the eccentricity, and the intensity contrast are obtained. And finally, the scientific meaning for investigating the physical parameters of magnetic bright points are discussed, especially for understanding the physical processes of solar magnetic energy transferred from the photosphere to the corona.

  6. Estimations of cosmological parameters from the observational variation of the fine structure constant (United States)

    Zhai, Zhong-Xu; Liu, Xian-Ming; Zhang, Zhi-Song; Zhang, Tong-Jie


    We present constraints on the quintessence scalar field model from observational data of the variation of the fine structure constant obtained from the Keck telescope and VLT. Within the theoretical frame proposed by Bekenstein, the constraints on the parameters of the quintessence scalar field model are obtained. Considering the prior of Ωm0 as WMAP 7 suggests, we obtain various results from different samples. Based on these results, we also calculate the probability density function of the coupling constant ζ. The best-fit values show a consistent relationship between ζ and the different experimental results. In our work, we test two different potential models, namely, the inverse power law potential and the exponential potential. The results show that both the large value of the parameters in the potential and the strong coupling can cause a variation in the fine structure constant.

  7. Fine structural analysis of the stinger in venom apparatus of the scorpion Euscorpius mingrelicus (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Yigit


    Full Text Available In this study, the morphology, histology and fine structure of the stinger, a part of the venom apparatus of Euscorpius mingrelicus (Kessler, 1874 (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae were studied by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The stinger, located at the end section of the telson, is sickle-shaped. The venom is ejected through a pair of venom pores on its subterminal portion. Both venom ducts extend along the stinger without contact with each other since they are separated by connective tissue cells. The stinger cuticle is composed of two layers. Additionally, there are many pore canals and some hemolymph vessels in the cuticle. This work constitutes the first histological and fine structure study on Euscorpius mingrelicus stinger.

  8. Solar Cycle Fine Structure and Surface Rotation from Ca II K-Line Time Series Data (United States)

    Scargle, Jeff; Keil, Steve; Worden, Pete


    Analysis of three and a half decades of data from the NSO/AFRL/Sac Peak K-line monitoring program yields evidence for four components to the variation: (a) the solar cycle, with considerable fine structure and a quasi-periodicity of 122.4 days; (b) a stochastic process, faster than (a) and largely independent of it, (c) a quasi-periodic signal due to rotational modulation, and of course (d) observational errors (shown to be quite small). Correlation and power spectrum analyses elucidate periodic and aperiodic variation of these chromospheric parameters. Time-frequency analysis is especially useful for extracting information about differential rotation, and in particular elucidates the connection between its behavior and fine structure of the solar cycle on approximately one-year time scales. These results further suggest that similar analyses will be useful at detecting and characterizing differential rotation in stars from stellar light-curves such as those being produced at NASA's Kepler observatory.

  9. Vibration reduction in helicopters using active control of structural response (ACSR) with improved aerodynamic modeling (United States)

    Cribbs, Richard Clay

    This dissertation describes the development of a coupled rotor/flexible fuselage aeroelastic response model including rotor/fuselage aerodynamic interactions. This model is used to investigate fuselage vibrations and their suppression using active control of structural response (ACSR). The fuselage, modeled by a three dimensional structural dynamic finite element model, is combined with a flexible, four-bladed, hingeless rotor. Each rotor blade is structurally modeled as an isotropic Euler-Bernoulli beam with coupled flap-lag-torsional dynamics assuming moderate deflections. A free wake model is incorporated into the aeroelastic response model and is validated against previous studies. Two and three dimensional sources model the fuselage aerodynamics. Direct aerodynamic influences of the rotor and wake on the fuselage are calculated by integrating pressures over the surface of the fuselage. The fuselage distorts the wake and influences the air velocities at the rotor which alters the aerodynamic loading. This produces fully coupled rotor/fuselage aerodynamic interactions. The influence of the aerodynamic refinements on vibrations is studied in detail. Results indicate that a free wake model and the inclusion of fuselage aerodynamic effects on the rotor and wake are necessary for vibration prediction at all forward speeds. The direct influence of rotor and wake aerodynamics on the fuselage plays a minor role in vibrations. Accelerations with the improved aerodynamic model are significantly greater than uniform inflow results. The influence of vertical separation between the rotor and fuselage on vibrations is also studied. An ACSR control algorithm is developed that preferentially reduces accelerations at selected airframe locations of importance. Vibration reduction studies are carried out using this improved control algorithm and a basic algorithm studied previously at UCLA. Both ACSR methods markedly reduce acceleration amplitudes with no impact on the rotor

  10. Structures, vibrational absorption and vibrational circular dichroism spectra of L-alanine in aqueous solution: a density functional theory and RHF study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimand, Kenneth; Bohr, Henrik; Jalkanen, Karl J.


    A detailed comparative study of structures, vibrational absorption (VA) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra has been carried out for the zwitterionic structure of the amino acid L-alanine. Theoretically determined structures necessary for deriving VA and VCD spectra were calculated...... at the density functional theory level using the B3LYP functional with the 6-31G* basis set. The Hessians and atomic polar tensors and atomic axial tensors were all calculated at the B3LYP/6-31G* level of theory. An important result is the method of treating solvent effects by both adding explicit water...

  11. Free vibrations of an arbitrary structure in terms of component modes. (United States)

    Dowell, E. H.


    A method for the analysis of the free vibrations of an arbitrary structure in terms of component modes is presented based upon the use of the normal, free-free modes of the components in a Rayleigh-Ritz analysis with the constraint or continuity conditions

  12. Structure and behaviour of proteins, nucleic acids and viruses from vibrational Raman optical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barron, L.D.; Blanch, E.W.; McColl, I.H.


    On account of its sensitivity to chirality Raman optical activity (ROA), which may be measured as a small difference in vibrational Raman scattering from chiral molecules in right- and left-circularly polarized incident light, is a powerful probe of structure and behaviour of biomolecules in aque...

  13. Structural, vibrational, elastic and topological properties of PaN under pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modak, P.; K. Verma, Ashok; Svane, A.


    Electronic, structural, vibrational and elastic properties of PaN have been studied both at ambient and high pressures, using first principles methods with several commonly used parameterizations of the exchange-correlation energy. The generalized gradient approximation (GGA) reproduces the ground...

  14. Structure and intermolecular vibrations of 7-azaindole-water 2:1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Structure and intermolecular vibrations of 7-azaindole-water 2:1 complex in a supersonic jet expansion: Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and quantum chemistry calculation. #. MONTU K HAZRAa,b, MOITRAYEE MUKHERJEEc, V RAMANATHANa,d and. TAPAS CHAKRABORTYc,∗. aDepartment of Chemistry ...

  15. Structure and intermolecular vibrations of 7-azaindole-water 2: 1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Structure and intermolecular vibrations of 7-azaindole-water 2:1 complex in a supersonic jet expansion: Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and quantum ... Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208 016, India; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San ...

  16. Numerical investigation of fluid structure interaction between unsteady flow and vibrating liner in a combustion chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khatir, Z.; Pozarlik, Artur Krzysztof; Kok, Jacobus B.W.; Cooper, R.K.; Watterson, J.W.; Oñate, E.; Papadrakakis, M.; Schrefler, B.


    Numerical investigations of fluid structure interaction between unsteady flow and vibrating liner in a combustion chamber are undertaken. The computational study consist of two approaches. Firstly, a partioned procedure consists of coupling the LES code AVBP for combustion modelling with the FEM

  17. Fine-structure energy levels and radiative rates in Si-like chlorine (United States)

    Gupta, G. P.; Tayal, Vikas; Msezane, A. Z.


    Excitation energies and radiative rates for electric dipole (E1) transitions among the 86 fine-structure levels belonging to the configurations (1 s 22 s 22 p 6)3 s 23 p 2, 3 s3 p 3, 3 s 23 p3 d, 3 p 4, 3 s 23 p4 s, 3 s 23 p4 p, 3 s3 p 2(2 S)4 s, 3 s3 p 2(2 P)4 s, 3 s3 p 2(4 P)4 s, 3 s3 p 2(2 D)4 s, 3 s 23 p4 d and 3 s 23 p4 f of Cl IV are calculated using extensive configuration-interaction (CI) wave functions obtained with the CIV3 computer code of Hibbert. The relativistic effects in intermediate coupling are incorporated by means of the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. In order to keep the calculated energy splittings close to the energy values of the National Institute for Standards and Technology, we have made small adjustments to the diagonal elements of the Hamiltonian matrices. Our calculated energy levels, including their orderings, are in excellent agreement with the available NIST values. The mixing among several fine-structure levels is found to be very strong. From our radiative rates we have also calculated radiative lifetimes of the fine-structure levels. Significant differences between our calculated lifetimes and those from a sophisticated calculation for a few low lying levels are noted and discussed. In this calculation, we also predict new data for several fine-structure levels where no other theoretical and/or experimental results are available.

  18. The 16th International Conference on X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS16) (United States)

    Grunwaldt, J.-D.; Hagelstein, M.; Rothe, J.


    This preface of the proceedings volume of the 16th International Conference on X- ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS16) gives a glance on the five days of cutting-edge X-ray science which were held in Karlsruhe, Germany, August 23 - 28, 2015. In addition, several satellite meetings took place in Hamburg, Berlin and Stuttgart, a Sino-German workshop, three data analysis tutorials as well as special symposia on industrial catalysis and XFELs were held at the conference venue.

  19. Fine structures in Fe3Al alloy layer of a new hot dip aluminized steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The fine structure in the Fe–Al alloy layer of a new hot dip aluminized steel (HDA) was examined by means of X-ray diffractometry (XRD), electron diffraction technique, etc. The test results indicated that the Fe–Al alloy layer of the new aluminized steel mainly composed of Fe3Al, FeAl and -Fe (Al) solid solution. There was ...

  20. New Constraints on Spatial Variations of the Fine Structure Constant from Clusters of Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan De Martino


    Full Text Available We have constrained the spatial variation of the fine structure constant using multi-frequency measurements of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect of 618 X-ray selected clusters. Although our results are not competitive with the ones from quasar absorption lines, we improved by a factor 10 and ∼2.5 previous results from Cosmic Microwave Background power spectrum and from galaxy clusters, respectively.

  1. ESR Fine Structure of Manganese Ions in Zeolite A Detects Strong Variations of the Coordination Environment


    De Vos, D.E.; Weckhuysen, B.M.; Bein, T.


    The electron spin resonance spectra of Mn 2+ exchanged zeolite A have been investigated as a function of the monovalent co-cation (K + ,Na + ,Li + ,Cs + ,or NH4 + ), Mn 2+ content, recording frequency, and temperature. Three new Mn 2+ species are observed with a well-resolved fine structure; this allows for the first time a direct quantitative determination of the zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameters in zeolites. In hydrated zeolites, three ESR active Mn 2+ species are observed, characterize...

  2. Dirac relation and renormalization group equations for electric and magnetic fine structure constants

    CERN Document Server

    Laperashvili, L V


    The quantum field theory describing electric and magnetic charges and revealing a dual symmetry was developed in the Zwanziger formalism. The renormalization group (RG) equations for both fine structure constants - electric $\\alpha $ and magnetic $\\tilde \\alpha $ - were obtained. It was shown that the Dirac relation is valid for the renormalized $\\alpha $ and $\\tilde perturbatively only in the small region: $0.25 \\stackrel{<}{\\sim} \\alpha, relation: $\\alpha {\\tilde \\alpha} = \\frac 14 $.

  3. Atomic oxygen fine-structure splittings with tunable far-infrared spectroscopy (United States)

    Zink, Lyndon R.; Evenson, Kenneth M.; Matsushima, Fusakazu; Nelis, Thomas; Robinson, Ruth L.


    Fine-structure splittings of atomic oxygen (O-16) in the ground state have been accurately measured using a tunable far-infrared spectrometer. The 3P0-3pl splitting is 2,060,069.09 (10) MHz, and the 3Pl-3P2 splitting is 4,744,777.49 (16) MHz. These frequencies are important for measuring atomic oxygen concentration in earth's atmosphere and the interstellar medium.

  4. Effect of Space Vehicle Structure Vibration on Control Moment Gyroscope Dynamics (United States)

    Dobrinskaya, Tatiana


    Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs) are used for non-propulsive attitude control of satellites and space stations, including the International Space Station (ISS). CMGs could be essential for future long duration space missions due to the fact that they help to save propellant. CMGs were successfully tested on the ground for many years, and have been successfully used on satellites. However, operations have shown that the CMG service life on the ISS is significantly shorter than predicted. Since the dynamic environment of the ISS differs greatly from the nominal environment of satellites, it was important to analyze how operations specific to the station (dockings and undockings, huge solar array motion, crew exercising, robotic operations, etc) can affect the CMG performance. This task became even more important since the first CMG failure onboard the ISS. The CMG failure resulted in the limitation of the attitude control capabilities, more propellant consumption, and additional operational issues. Therefore, the goal of this work was to find out how the vibrations of a space vehicle structure, caused by a variety of onboard operations, can affect the CMG dynamics and performance. The equations of CMG motion were derived and analyzed for the case when the gyro foundation can vibrate in any direction. The analysis was performed for unbalanced CMG gimbals to match the CMG configuration on ISS. The analysis showed that vehicle structure vibrations can amplify and significantly change the CMG motion if the gyro gimbals are unbalanced in flight. The resonance frequencies were found. It was shown that the resonance effect depends on the magnitude of gimbal imbalance, on the direction of a structure vibration, and on gimbal bearing friction. Computer modeling results of CMG dynamics affected by the external vibration are presented. The results can explain some of the CMG vibration telemetry observed on ISS. This work shows that balancing the CMG gimbals decreases the effect

  5. Theoretical studies on the molecular structure, conformational preferences, topological and vibrational analysis of allicin (United States)

    Durlak, Piotr; Berski, Sławomir; Latajka, Zdzisław


    The molecular structure, conformational preferences, topological and vibrational analysis of allicin has been investigated at two different approaches. Calculations have been carried out on static (DFT and MP2) levels with an assortment of Dunning's basis sets and dynamic CPMD simulations. In this both case within the isolated molecule approximation. The results point out that at least twenty different conformers coexist on the PES as confirmed by the flexible character of this molecule. The topological analysis of ELF showed very similar nature of the Ssbnd S and Ssbnd O bonds. The infrared spectrum has been calculated, and a comparative vibrational analysis has been performed.

  6. Development of a finite dynamic element for free vibration analysis of two-dimensional structures (United States)

    Gupta, K. K.


    The paper develops an efficient free-vibration analysis procedure of two-dimensional structures. This is achieved by employing a discretization technique based on a recently developed concept of finite dynamic elements, involving higher order dynamic correction terms in the associated stiffness and inertia matrices. A plane rectangular dynamic element is developed in detail. Numerical solution results of free-vibration analysis presented herein clearly indicate that these dynamic elements combined with a suitable quadratic matrix eigenproblem solution technique effect a most economical and efficient solution for such an analysis when compared with the usual finite element method.

  7. Current Work to Improve Precision in Measurements of Helium Fine Structure (United States)

    Hassan Rezaeian, Nima; Shiner, David


    With the recent improvement on the 23P Helium fine structure calculation by Pachucki and the quest for finding the most precise value for α, spectroscopic measurement of the helium atom has a great advantage to find this primary constant. Distinctively, the 32 GHz atomic fine structure of 23P J2 to J0 interval with uncertainty of 100Hz leads a factor of three better than the best current value of α and an impulsion to the theory to evaluate the largest term of order mα8 is our ambition. This measurement not only tests the quantum electrodynamics, but also establishes the fine structure constant α with uncertainty of 1.6 ppb. The electron g-factor measurement of α, even though, is by far more accurate at 0.37 ppb, our end result would be a examination to the best alternative atom recoil measurements with different approach. To reach on this level of accuracy, we implement our frequency selector with precision better than 1 to 100 along with laser cooling mechanism to enhance the signal to noise ratio by increasing the signal strength. This work is supported by NSF grant.

  8. Atomistic theory of excitonic fine structure in InAs/InP nanowire quantum dot molecules (United States)

    Świderski, M.; Zieliński, M.


    Nanowire quantum dots have peculiar electronic and optical properties. In this work we use atomistic tight binding to study excitonic spectra of artificial molecules formed by a double nanowire quantum dot. We demonstrate a key role of atomistic symmetry and nanowire substrate orientation rather than cylindrical shape symmetry of a nanowire and a molecule. In particular for [001 ] nanowire orientation we observe a nonvanishing bright exciton splitting for a quasimolecule formed by two cylindrical quantum dots of different heights. This effect is due to interdot coupling that effectively reduces the overall symmetry, whereas single uncoupled [001 ] quantum dots have zero fine structure splitting. We found that the same double quantum dot system grown on [111 ] nanowire reveals no excitonic fine structure for all considered quantum dot distances and individual quantum dot heights. Further we demonstrate a pronounced, by several orders of magnitude, increase of the dark exciton optical activity in a quantum dot molecule as compared to a single quantum dot. For [111 ] systems we also show spontaneous localization of single particle states in one of nominally identical quantum dots forming a molecule, which is mediated by strain and origins from the lack of the vertical inversion symmetry in [111 ] nanostructures of overall C3 v symmetry. Finally, we study lowering of symmetry due to alloy randomness that triggers nonzero excitonic fine structure and the dark exciton optical activity in realistic nanowire quantum dot molecules of intermixed composition.

  9. Performance of nonlinear mechanical, resonant-shunted piezoelectric, and electronic vibration absorbers for multi-degree-of-freedom structures (United States)

    Agnes, Gregory Stephen

    Linear vibration absorbers are a valuable tool used to suppress vibrations due to harmonic excitation in structural systems. Limited evaluation of the performance of nonlinear vibration absorbers for nonlinear structures exists in the current literature. The state of the art is extended in this work to vibration absorbers in their three major physical implementations: the mechanical vibration absorber, the inductive-resistive shunted piezoelectric vibration absorber, and the electronic vibration absorber (also denoted a positive position feedback controller). A single, consistent, physically similar model capable of examining the response of all three devices is developed. The performance of vibration absorbers attached to single-degree-of-freedom structures is next examined for performance, robustness, and stability. Perturbation techniques and numerical analysis combine to yield insight into the tuning of nonlinear vibration absorbers for both linear and nonlinear structures. The results both clarify and validate the existing literature on mechanical vibration absorbers. Several new results, including an analytical expression for the suppression region's location and bandwidth and requirements for its robust performance, are derived. Nonlinear multiple-degree-of-freedom structures are next evaluated. The theory of Non-linear Normal Modes is extended to include consideration of modal damping, excitation, and small linear coupling, allowing estimation of vibration absorber performance. The dynamics of the N+1-degree-of-freedom system reduce to those of a two-degree-of-freedom system on a four-dimensional nonlinear modal manifold, thereby simplifying the analysis. Quantitative agreement is shown to require a higher order model which is recommended for future investigation. Finally, experimental investigation on both single and multi-degree-of-freedom systems is performed since few experiments on this topic are reported in the literature. The experimental results

  10. Experimental Active Vibration Control in Truss Structures Considering Uncertainties in System Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Domingues Bueno


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the study of algorithms for robust active vibration control in flexible structures considering uncertainties in system parameters. It became an area of enormous interest, mainly due to the countless demands of optimal performance in mechanical systems as aircraft, aerospace, and automotive structures. An important and difficult problem for designing active vibration control is to get a representative dynamic model. Generally, this model can be obtained using finite element method (FEM or an identification method using experimental data. Actuators and sensors may affect the dynamics properties of the structure, for instance, electromechanical coupling of piezoelectric material must be considered in FEM formulation for flexible and lightly damping structure. The nonlinearities and uncertainties involved in these structures make it a difficult task, mainly for complex structures as spatial truss structures. On the other hand, by using an identification method, it is possible to obtain the dynamic model represented through a state space realization considering this coupling. This paper proposes an experimental methodology for vibration control in a 3D truss structure using PZT wafer stacks and a robust control algorithm solved by linear matrix inequalities.

  11. Bloch oscillations of ultracold atoms and measurement of the fine structure constant; Oscillations de Bloch d'atomes ultrafroids et mesure de la constante de structure fine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clade, P


    From a measurement of the recoil velocity of an atom absorbing a photon, it is possible to deduce a determination of the ratio h/m between the Planck constant and the mass of the atoms and then to deduce a value of the fine structure constant alpha. To do this measurement, we use the technique of Bloch oscillations, which allows us to transfer a large number of recoils to atoms. A velocity sensor, based on velocity selective Raman transition, enables us to measure the momentum transferred to the atoms. A measurement with a statistical uncertainty of 4.4 10{sup -9}, in conjunction with a careful study of systematic effects (5 10{sup -9}), has led us to a determination of alpha with an uncertainty of 6.7 10{sup -9}: {alpha}{sup -1}(Rb) = 137.03599878 (91). This uncertainty is similar to the uncertainty of the best determinations of alpha based on atom interferometry. (author)

  12. Synthesis, structure and Hirshfeld surface analysis, vibrational and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -dimensional architecture. Hirshfeld surface analysis for visually analysing intermolecular interactions in crystal structures employing molecular surfacecontours and 2D fingerprint plots has been used to scrutinize molecular shapes.

  13. Ab initio and DFT studies of the structure and vibrational spectra of anhydrous caffeine (United States)

    Srivastava, Santosh K.; Singh, Vipin B.


    Vibrational spectra and molecular structure of anhydrous caffeine have been systematically investigated by second order Moller-Plesset (MP2) perturbation theory and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Vibrational assignments have been made and many previous ambiguous assignments in IR and Raman spectra are amended. The calculated DFT frequencies and intensities at B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,2p) level, were found to be in better agreement with the experimental values. It was found that DFT with B3LYP functional predicts harmonic vibrational wave numbers more close to experimentally observed value when it was performed on MP2 optimized geometry rather than DFT geometry. The calculated TD-DFT vertical excitation electronic energies of the valence excited states of anhydrous caffeine are found to be in consonance to the experimental absorption peaks.

  14. Ligand effects on the structure and vibrational properties of the thiolated Au18 cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Tlahuice-Flores


    Full Text Available Most of the studies devoted to thiolated gold clusters suppose that their core and Au-S framework do not suffer from distortion independently of the protecting ligands (-SR and it is assumed as correct to simplify the ligand as SCH3. In this work is delivered a systematic study of the structure and vibrational properties (IR and Raman of the Au18(SR14 cluster. The pursued goal is to understand the dependency of the displayed vibrational properties of the thiolated Au18 cluster with the ligands type. A set of six ligands was considered during calculations of the vibrational properties based on density functional theory (DFT and in its dispersion-corrected approach (DFT-D.

  15. Vibrational spectra, theoretical calculations, and structure of 4-silaspiro(3,3)heptane. (United States)

    Ocola, Esther J; Medders, Cross; Cooke, Joel M; Laane, Jaan


    Theoretical computations have been carried out for 4-silaspiro(3,3)heptane (SSH) in order to calculate its structure and vibrational spectra. SSH was found to have two puckered four-membered rings with dihedral angles of 34.2° and a tilt angle of 9.4° between the two rings. The puckering and tilting reduce the D2d symmetry to C2. Nonetheless, the vibrational assignments can be done quite well on the basis of D2d symmetry. This is confirmed by the fact that all but the lowest E vibrations show insignificant splitting into A and B modes of C2 symmetry. However, the observed splittings of the lowest frequency modes do confirm the lower conformational symmetry. The calculated infrared and Raman spectra were compared to the experimental spectra collected for the vapor, liquid, and solid states, and the agreement is excellent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Vibrational spectra, theoretical calculations, and structure of 4-silaspiro(3,3)heptane (United States)

    Ocola, Esther J.; Medders, Cross; Cooke, Joel M.; Laane, Jaan


    Theoretical computations have been carried out for 4-silaspiro(3,3)heptane (SSH) in order to calculate its structure and vibrational spectra. SSH was found to have two puckered four-membered rings with dihedral angles of 34.2° and a tilt angle of 9.4° between the two rings. The puckering and tilting reduce the D2d symmetry to C2. Nonetheless, the vibrational assignments can be done quite well on the basis of D2d symmetry. This is confirmed by the fact that all but the lowest E vibrations show insignificant splitting into A and B modes of C2 symmetry. However, the observed splittings of the lowest frequency modes do confirm the lower conformational symmetry. The calculated infrared and Raman spectra were compared to the experimental spectra collected for the vapor, liquid, and solid states, and the agreement is excellent.

  17. Uncertainty and Variation of Vibration in Lightweight Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickow, Kristoffer Ahrens


    Multi-family dwellings and offices build from lightweight materials are becoming a cost efficient and environmentally friendly alternative to traditional heavy structures.......Multi-family dwellings and offices build from lightweight materials are becoming a cost efficient and environmentally friendly alternative to traditional heavy structures....

  18. Extension of vibrational power flow techniques to two-dimensional structures (United States)

    Cuschieri, Joseph M.


    In the analysis of the vibration response and structure-borne vibration transmission between elements of a complex structure, statistical energy analysis (SEA) or finite element analysis (FEA) are generally used. However, an alternative method is using vibrational power flow techniques which can be especially useful in the mid frequencies between the optimum frequency regimes for SEA and FEA. Power flow analysis has in general been used on 1-D beam-like structures or between structures with point joints. In this paper, the power flow technique is extended to 2-D plate-like structures joined along a common edge without frequency or spatial averaging the results, such that the resonant response of the structure is determined. The power flow results are compared to results obtained using FEA results at low frequencies and SEA at high frequencies. The agreement with FEA results is good but the power flow technique has an improved computational efficiency. Compared to the SEA results the power flow results show a closer representation of the actual response of the structure.

  19. Analytical and Experimental Random Vibration of Nonlinear Aeroelastic Structures. (United States)


    dinamics . Sijthoff- Hilton, H H. and Feigen. M. Minimum weight analysis based on structural Noordhoff Co, Netherlands. reliability. J Aerospace Sc, 27...AEROELASTIC STRUCTURES January 28, 1987 ELECT Tpp. AIM" 0OV 7PTCE OF 9r(’TF1CP RESCH JAMi) NOTI-CE OF wIM 1 T AL TO D .TAC’ ..hirte;h-tz’ l rer)t ’(V...freedom aeroelastic structural model in the neighborhood of combination internal resonance condition. The Fokker:Planck equation approach is used to

  20. Structural, thermal behaviour and vibrational study of a new mixed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These anions show a 4° rotation around the fourfold axis against the cubic arrangement of the K2PtCI6 type structure. The monovalent cations (Cs+/NH 4 + ) are located between the octahedra ensuring the stability of the structure by ionic and hydrogen bonding contacts: Cs…Cl/Br and N-H … … Cl/Br. A DTA/TGA ...

  1. Out-of-plane free vibration analysis of a cable-arch structure (United States)

    Kang, H. J.; Zhao, Y. Y.; Zhu, H. P.


    Cable-arch structure has been widely used in many long-span structures such as cable roofs and cable-stayed arch bridges, but its dynamics is still not well understood. In this paper, the out-of-plane dynamic behavior of a cable-arch structure is investigated. The equations governing the out-of-plane free vibration of the structure are derived using d'Alembert's principle. A transfer matrix method is used to solve the governing equations and determine the frequencies of the out-of-plane vibration. The theories are then used to study two specific cases: free vibration of a model cable-arch and simulation of an arch erection process. The effects of some key parameters of cable and arch, such as tension of cable and radius, open-angle and shape of arch, are examined. The results indicate that in-plane and spatial cables can largely improve the out-of-plane dynamic behavior of arch structures, which are further verified by analyzing the out-of-plane buckling of cable-arch structures. The present work should be valuable and significant not only for the fundamental research but also engineering design of roofs and bridges.

  2. Recentering Shape Memory Alloy Passive Damper for Structural Vibration Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Qian


    Full Text Available This paper presents a preliminary study on the evaluation of an innovative energy dissipation system with shape memory alloys (SMAs for structural seismic protection. A recentering shape memory alloy damper (RSMAD, in which superelastic nitinol wires are utilized as energy dissipation components, is proposed. Improved constitutive equations based on Graesser and Cozzarelli model are proposed for superelastic nitinol wires used in the damper. Cyclic tensile-compressive tests on the damper with various prestrain under different loading frequencies and displacement amplitudes were conducted. The results show that the hysteretic behaviors of the damper can be modified to best fit the needs for passive structural control applications by adjusting the pretension of the nitinol wires, and the damper performance is not sensitive to frequencies greater than 0.5 Hz. To assess the effectiveness of the dampers for structural seismic protection, nonlinear time history analysis on a ten-story steel frame with and without the dampers subjected to representative earthquake ground motions was performed. The simulation results indicate that superelastic SMA dampers are effective in mitigating the structural response of building structures subjected to strong earthquakes.

  3. Fluid-structure finite-element vibrational analysis (United States)

    Feng, G. C.; Kiefling, L.


    A fluid finite element has been developed for a quasi-compressible fluid. Both kinetic and potential energy are expressed as functions of nodal displacements. Thus, the formulation is similar to that used for structural elements, with the only differences being that the fluid can possess gravitational potential, and the constitutive equations for fluid contain no shear coefficients. Using this approach, structural and fluid elements can be used interchangeably in existing efficient sparse-matrix structural computer programs such as SPAR. The theoretical development of the element formulations and the relationships of the local and global coordinates are shown. Solutions of fluid slosh, liquid compressibility, and coupled fluid-shell oscillation problems which were completed using a temporary digital computer program are shown. The frequency correlation of the solutions with classical theory is excellent.

  4. Structural and Vibrational Study on Monomer and Dimer Forms and Water Clusters of Acetazolamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysen E. Ozel


    Full Text Available Experimental IR and Raman spectra of solid acetazolamide have been analysed by computing the molecular structures and vibrational spectra of monomer and dimer forms and water clusters of acetazolamide. The possible stable conformers of free acetazolamide molecule in the ground state were obtained by scanning the potential energy surface through the dihedral angles, D1 (1S-2C-6S-9N, D2 (4N-5C-12N-14C, and D3 (5C-12N-14C-16C. The final geometry parameters for the obtained stable conformers were determined by means of geometry optimization, carried out at DFT/B3LYP/6-31G++(d,p theory level. Afterwards the possible dimer forms of the molecule and acetazolamide-H2O clusters were formed and their energetically preferred conformations were investigated using the same method and the same level of theory. The effect of BSSE on the structure and energy of acetazolamide dimer has been investigated. The assignment of the vibrational modes was performed based on the potential energy distribution of the vibrational modes, calculated by using GAR2PED program. The experimental vibrational wavenumbers of solid acetazolamide are found to be in better agreement with the calculated wavenumbers of dimer form of acetazolamide than those of its monomeric form. NBO analysis has been performed on both monomer and dimer geometries.

  5. pH-dependent effects of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) on proliferation, endocytosis, fine structure and DNP resistance in Tetrahymena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jytte R.


    Biologi, 2,4-dinitrophenol, pH-dependence, fine structure, cell proliferation, phagocytosis, Tetrahymena pyriformis......Biologi, 2,4-dinitrophenol, pH-dependence, fine structure, cell proliferation, phagocytosis, Tetrahymena pyriformis...

  6. Influence of bearing support structures on shaft vibration of large hydraulic pump/turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pistner, C.A.; Greenplate, B.S. [Voith, Hydro, Inc., Pennsylvania, PA (United States); Waddell, A.M. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States)


    Start-up transient loads from pump/turbine impellers can cause excessive vibration problems in the shaft system. If the radial guide bearing supports are structurally soft or loose, or if the bearings are worn, the resulting radial shaft movement causes abnormal wear. The wear normally occurs at the impeller sealing surfaces, main shaft seals, motor/generator components, piping, brackets, foundation connections, etc. This paper explores the critical factors causing shaft system vibration problems at the Tennessee Valley Authority`s Raccoon Mountain Pumped Storage Plant, as well as the unique modifications which were implemented to strengthen and improve the units. The solution involved extensive three-dimensional finite element structural and thermal transient analyses of the original and re-designed turbine shoe bearing, bearing housings, and support structures. The conclusion compares the calculated and measured shaft system response to transient loads of the original and modified system.

  7. Structural Health Monitoring Using Wireless Technologies: An Ambient Vibration Test on the Adolphe Bridge, Luxembourg City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Oth


    Full Text Available Major threats to bridges primarily consist of the aging of the structural elements, earthquake-induced shaking and standing waves generated by windstorms. The necessity of information on the state of health of structures in real-time, allowing for timely warnings in the case of damaging events, requires structural health monitoring (SHM systems that allow the risks of these threats to be mitigated. Here we present the results of a short-duration experiment carried out with low-cost wireless instruments for monitoring the vibration characteristics and dynamic properties of a strategic civil infrastructure, the Adolphe Bridge in Luxembourg City. The Adolphe Bridge is a masonry arch construction dating from 1903 and will undergo major renovation works in the upcoming years. Our experiment shows that a network of these wireless sensing units is well suited to monitor the vibration characteristics of such a historical arch bridge and hence represents a low-cost and efficient solution for SHM.

  8. A structural and vibrational study of the chromyl chlorosulfate, fluorosulfate, and nitrate compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Brandán, Silvia A


    A Structural and Vibrational Study of the Chromyl Chlorosulfate, Fluorosulfate and Nitrate Compounds presents important studies related to the structural and vibrational properties on the chromyl compounds based on Ab-initio calculations. The synthesis and the study of such properties are of chemical importance because the stereo-chemistries and reactivities of these compounds are strongly dependent on the coordination modes that adopt the different ligands linked to the chromyl group. In this book, the geometries of all stable structures in gas phase for chromyl chlorosulfate, fluorosulfate, and nitrate are optimized by using Density functional Theory (DFT). Then, the complete assignments of all observed bands in the infrared and Raman spectra are performed combining DFT calculations with Pulay´s Scaled Quantum Mechanics Force Field (SQMFF) methodology and taking into account the type of coordination adopted by the chlorosulfate, fluorosulfate and nitrate ligands as monodentate and bidentate. Moreover, the ...

  9. Molecular and vibrational structure of 2,2'-dihydroxybenzophenone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birklund Andersen, Kristine; Langgård, M.; Spanget-Larsen, Jens


    2,2'-dihydroxybenzophenone (DHBP) contains similar bifold intramolecular H-bonding as the psoriatic drug anthralin, but because of steric interference the phenolic rings are twisted in a propeller-like manner, resulting in a molecular structure of C2 symmetry. In contrast to the case of C2v...

  10. An active vibration control method of bridge structures by the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the on-growing construction of transport and communication structures in rural and urban zones due to economic requirements, and with occurrence of seismic events in past years in particular in Cameroon, one of the purposes of the present work is to display the feasibility and advantages of applying active tendon ...

  11. Complex modes and frequencies in damped structural vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen


    It is demonstrated that the state space formulation of the equation of motion of damped structural elements like cables and beams leads to a symmetric eigenvalue problem if the stiffness and damping operators are self-adjoint, and that this is typically the case in the absence of gyroscopic force...

  12. Synthesis, structure and Hirshfeld surface analysis, vibrational and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The water molecule is placed between the layers formed by organic cations along the b axis. Net- work hydrogen-bonding and π–π interactions lead to the formation of a three-dimensional architecture. Hirshfeld surface analysis for visually analysing intermolecular interactions in crystal structures employing molecular sur-.

  13. Influence of the precursors in the morphology, structure, vibrational order and optical gap of nano structured Zn O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurado, J. F.; Londono C, A.; Jurado L, F. F.; Romero S, J. D., E-mail: [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Laboratorio de Propiedades Termicas Dielectricas de Compositos, A. A. 127, Manizales (Colombia)


    The synthesis of Zn O by reaction in solid state from two precursor salts (zinc acetate and zinc sulfate), presented significant differences concerning morphology, structure, vibrational order and optical gap. As well as covering in the size of the compounds, a homogeneous distribution of nanoparticles of 21±3 nm and micro stars of 1.03±0.19 μm respectively. The Zn O showed a structural phase with a vibrational state of the hexagonal type (wurtzite). The variation in the morphology due to the precursor is attributed to the disorder within of lattice, which contributes to vibrational changes and is correlated to the degrees of freedom of molecules. Measurements of UV-Vis of nanoparticles displayed a band gap (E{sub g}) lower than the one reported for the bulk material. The structural characterization of the compounds was carried out by using a X-ray Bruker D8 Advance diffractometer. The vibrational order was assessed throughout micro-Raman with a monochromatic radiation source of 473 nm). (Author)

  14. Laminated Thin Shell Structures Subjected to Free Vibration in a Hygrothermal Environment (United States)

    Gotsis, Pascal K.; Guptill, James D.


    Parametric studies were performed to assess the effects of various parameters on the free-vibration behavior (natural frequencies) of (+/- theta)(sub 2) angle-ply, fiber composite, thin shell structures in a hygrothermal environment. Knowledge of the natural frequencies of structures is important in considering their response to various kinds of excitation, especially when structures and force systems are complex and when excitations are not periodic. The three dimensional, finite element structural analysis computer code CSTEM was used in the Cray YMP computer environment. The fiber composite shell was assumed to be cylindrical and made from T300 graphite fibers embedded in an intermediate-modulus, high-strength matrix. The following parameters were investigated: the length and the laminate thickness of the shell, the fiber orientation, the fiber volume fraction, the temperature profile through the thickness of the laminate, and laminates with different ply thicknesses. The results indicate that the fiber orientation and the length of the laminated shell had significant effects on the natural frequencies. The fiber volume fraction, the laminate thickness, and the temperature profile through the shell thickness had weak effects on the natural frequencies. Finally, the laminates with different ply thicknesses had an insignificant influence on the behavior of the vibrated laminated shell. Also, a single through-the-thickness, eight-node, three dimensional composite finite element analysis appears to be sufficient for investigating the free-vibration behavior of thin, composite, angle-ply shell structures.

  15. Fine structure of abscission zones : III. Cytoplasmic changes in abscising pedicels of tobacco and tomato flowers. (United States)

    Jensen, T E; Valdovinos, J G


    Changes in the cells comprising the abscission zones of Lycopersicon esculentum and Nicotiana tabacum flower pedicels were observed, apparently associated with the separation of the flowers from the plants. Special attention is devoted to changes which occurred in the fine structure of intracellular components of the abscission cells. Microbodies with crystalloid cores in cells comprising the abscission tissue of the pedicels were observed to undergo structural changes. These changes occurred prior to the cell-wall degradation which resulted in cell separation. At the time of cell separation, the number of microbodies present in the abscission cells was greatly diminished. The changes in the fine structure of the crystalloid core may represent the release of latent enzymes into an active form which then induces cell separation in the abscission tissue. Other structures in the cells in which changes occurred are the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the nucleolus. Prior to, and during cell-wall disintegration, an abundance of rough ER was observed within the abscission cells. The occurrence of rough ER may represent an increase in the synthesis of protein for export from the cells of the abscission region and/or for the synthesis of certain enzymes associated with the degradation of cell walls in the abscission zone itself. In some abscission cells, prior to the cell-separation phase, nucleoli were observed which appeared as though they had segregated spatially. In such cases, the amorphous zone was the only nucleolar component observed. The possible significance of these observations is discussed.

  16. Accurate Electron Affinity of Iron and Fine Structures of Negative Iron ions. (United States)

    Chen, Xiaolin; Luo, Zhihong; Li, Jiaming; Ning, Chuangang


    Ionization potential (IP) is defined as the amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron of an atom, while electron affinity (EA) is defined as the amount of energy released when an electron is attached to a neutral atom. Both IP and EA are critical for understanding chemical properties of an element. In contrast to accurate IPs and structures of neutral atoms, EAs and structures of negative ions are relatively unexplored, especially for the transition metal anions. Here, we report the accurate EA value of Fe and fine structures of Fe(-) using the slow electron velocity imaging method. These measurements yield a very accurate EA value of Fe, 1235.93(28) cm(-1) or 153.236(34) meV. The fine structures of Fe(-) were also successfully resolved. The present work provides a reliable benchmark for theoretical calculations, and also paves the way for improving the EA measurements of other transition metal atoms to the sub cm(-1) accuracy.

  17. Bi-resonant structure with piezoelectric PVDF films for energy harvesting from random vibration sources at low frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Shanshan; Crovetto, Andrea; Peng, Zhuoteng


    and experiments with piezoelectric elements show that the energy harvesting device with the bi-resonant structure can generate higher power output than that of the sum of the two separate devices from random vibration sources at low frequency, and hence significantly improves the vibration-to- electricity...

  18. Lack of sex-biased dispersal promotes fine-scale genetic structure in alpine ungulates (United States)

    Roffler, Gretchen H.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Luikart, Gordon; Sage, George K.; Pilgrim, Kristy L.; Adams, Layne G.; Schwartz, Michael K.


    Identifying patterns of fine-scale genetic structure in natural populations can advance understanding of critical ecological processes such as dispersal and gene flow across heterogeneous landscapes. Alpine ungulates generally exhibit high levels of genetic structure due to female philopatry and patchy configuration of mountain habitats. We assessed the spatial scale of genetic structure and the amount of gene flow in 301 Dall’s sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) at the landscape level using 15 nuclear microsatellites and 473 base pairs of the mitochondrial (mtDNA) control region. Dall’s sheep exhibited significant genetic structure within contiguous mountain ranges, but mtDNA structure occurred at a broader geographic scale than nuclear DNA within the study area, and mtDNA structure for other North American mountain sheep populations. No evidence of male-mediated gene flow or greater philopatry of females was observed; there was little difference between markers with different modes of inheritance (pairwise nuclear DNA F ST = 0.004–0.325; mtDNA F ST = 0.009–0.544), and males were no more likely than females to be recent immigrants. Historical patterns based on mtDNA indicate separate northern and southern lineages and a pattern of expansion following regional glacial retreat. Boundaries of genetic clusters aligned geographically with prominent mountain ranges, icefields, and major river valleys based on Bayesian and hierarchical modeling of microsatellite and mtDNA data. Our results suggest that fine-scale genetic structure in Dall’s sheep is influenced by limited dispersal, and structure may be weaker in populations occurring near ancestral levels of density and distribution in continuous habitats compared to other alpine ungulates that have experienced declines and marked habitat fragmentation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Nevar


    Full Text Available The influence of boron carbide as fine-dispersed material input into the melt on structure morphology, founding, technological and exploitation characterisstics of cast iron-boron material is shown.

  20. Earthquake Vibration Control of Structures using Tuned Liquid Dampers: Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradipta Banerji


    Full Text Available Earlier studies have shown conclusively that a Tuned Liquid Damper (TLD is effective for controlling vibrations in structures subjected to narrow-banded wind excitations. A recent numerical study has shown that if the design parameters of a TLD are properly set, this device could also be very effective for controlling structural vibration to broad-banded earthquake excitations. Here the results of a reasonably comprehensive set of experiments are presented to investigate the overall effectiveness of TLDs and the specific effect of TLD parameters (depth and mass ratios for earthquake vibration control of structures. Effects of various earthquake ground motions parameters such as amplitude, frequency content, duration of excitation etc. are also evaluated. It is shown that there is good agreement between the numerical simulation and experimental results. This experimental study conclusively shows that a properly designed TLD reduces structural response to broad-band earthquake excitations. It is also observed that effectiveness of TLD increases with increase in mass ratio, depth ratio and amplitude of ground motion.

  1. Structure, isomerism, and vibrational assignment of aluminumtrifluoroacetylacetonate. An experimental and theoretical study (United States)

    Afzali, R.; Vakili, M.; Boluri, E.; Tayyari, S. F.; Nekoei, A.-R.; Hakimi-Tabar, M.; Darugar, V.


    An interpretation of the experimental IR and Raman spectra of Aluminum (III) trifluoroacetylacetonate (Al(TFAA)3) complex, which were synthesized by us, is first reported here. The charge distribution, isomerism, strength of metal‑oxygen binding and vibrational spectral properties for this complex structure were theoretically investigated through population analysis, geometry optimization and harmonic frequency calculations, performed at B3LYP/6-311G* level of theory. In the population analysis, two different approaches reffered to as ;Atoms in molecules (AIM);, and ;Natural Bond Orbital (NBO); were used. According to the calculation resuls, the energy difference between the cis and trans isomers of Al(TFAA)3 is very small and indicates that both isomers coexist in the sample in comparable proportions. Comparison of the calculated frequency and intensity data with the observed IR and Raman spectra of the complex has supported this conclusion. On the other hand, comparison of the structural and vibrational spectral data of Al(TFAA)3, which were experimentally measured and calculated at B3LYP/6-311G* level, with the corresponding data of Aluminum acetylacetonate (Al(AA)3) has revealed the effects of CF3 substitution on the structural and vibrational spectral data associated with the CH3 groups in the complex structure.

  2. 2-Bromohydroquinone: structures, vibrational assignments and RHF, B- and B3-based density functional calculations. (United States)

    Ramoji, Anuradha; Yenagi, Jayashree; Tonannavar, J


    Vibrational spectral measurements, namely, infrared (4000-400 cm(-1)) and Raman (3500-50 cm(-1)) spectra have been made for 2-Bromohydroquinone. Optimized geometrical structures, harmonic vibrational frequencies and intensities have been computed by the ab initio (RHF), B-based (BLYP, BP86) and B3-based (B3P86, B3LYP, B3PW91) density functional methods using 6-31G(d) basis set. A complete assignment of the observed spectra has been proposed. Coupling of vibrations has been determined by calculating potential energy distributions (PEDs) at BP86/6-31G(d) level of theory. In the computed equilibrium geometries by all the levels, the bond lengths and bond angles show changes in the neighborhood of Bromine. Similarly, the vibrational spectra exhibit some marked spectral features unlike in hydroquinone and phenol. On the other hand, the infrared spectrum shows a clear evidence of O-H...O bonding near 3200 cm(-1) as in hydroquinone. Evaluation of the theoretical methods demonstrates that all the levels but the RHF have reproduced frequencies fairly accurately in the 2000-500 cm(-1); below 500 cm(-1) the RHF has performed reasonably well.

  3. Quantum chemical density functional theory studies on the molecular structure and vibrational spectra of mannitol (United States)

    Moorthi, P. P.; Gunasekaran, S.; Swaminathan, S.; Ramkumaar, G. R.


    A collective experimental and theoretical study was conducted on the molecular structure and vibrational spectra of mannitol. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of mannitol were recorded in the solid phase. The molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies, thermodynamic functions and atomic charges of mannitol in the ground state have been calculated by using the ab initio HF (Hartree-Fock) and density functional methods (B3LYP) invoking cc-pVDZ basis set. The complete vibrational assignments were performed on the basis of Total Energy Distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes. The UV absorption spectra of the title compound dissolved in water. Natural bond orbital analysis has been carried out to explain the charge transfer or delocalization of charge due to the intra-molecular interactions. The 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by GIAO methods. The first order hyperpolarizability (β0) of this novel molecular system and related properties (β, α0 and Δα) of mannitol are calculated using B3LYP/cc-pVDZ and HF/cc-pVDZ methods on the finite-field approach. By using TD-DFT calculation, electronic absorption spectra of the title compound have been predicted and a good agreement with experimental one is established. In addition, the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) have been investigated using theoretical calculations, the calculated HOMO and LUMO energies shows that the charge transfer within the molecule.

  4. Regular variation of the fine structure of statistical distributions as a consequence of cosmophysical agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shnoll, S E; Zenchenko, T A; Zenchenko, K I; Pozharskii, E V; Kolombet, V A [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Konradov, Alexander A [Institute for Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    Considered is the statistical ground of the certainty of cosmophysical effects on the fine structure of distributions governing the results of measurements in various physical processes. We show that the previously discussed effects of synchronous variations of histogram shapes in independent processes, and the periodical occurrence of histograms of a particular shape, do not depend on the form of the integral distribution. The adequacy of visual (expert) estimation when comparing the shapes of histograms as an alternative to the standard statistical methods is justified. (letters to the editors)

  5. Development of a compact beam intensity monitor for micro X-ray absorption fine structure measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Hayakawa, S; Oshima, M; Hirokawa, T


    A compact beam intensity monitor detecting an X-ray excited sample current from a thin metal foil was developed for micro X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements. By utilizing gas amplification caused by the ejected photoelectrons or Auger electrons, the monitor can achieve better sensitivity than what can be realized with the ionization chamber. Fluctuation of the beam intensity through the pinhole of 10 mu m was precisely measured by using this monitor, and the XAFS spectrum from a Ni thin foil was successfully measured with adequate normalization.

  6. Evolution of the fine-structure constant in runaway dilaton models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J.A.P. Martins


    Full Text Available We study the detailed evolution of the fine-structure constant α in the string-inspired runaway dilaton class of models of Damour, Piazza and Veneziano. We provide constraints on this scenario using the most recent α measurements and discuss ways to distinguish it from alternative models for varying α. For model parameters which saturate bounds from current observations, the redshift drift signal can differ considerably from that of the canonical ΛCDM paradigm at high redshifts. Measurements of this signal by the forthcoming European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT, together with more sensitive α measurements, will thus dramatically constrain these scenarios.

  7. The fine structure levels for ground states of negative ions of nitrogen and phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Özdemir


    Full Text Available The fine structure levels for negative ions (anions of nitrogen and phosphorus have been investigated using multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock method within the framework of Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian (MCHF+BP. Nitrogen and phosphorus have half-filled outer shell in ground state 1s22s22p3 4S and 1s22s22p33s23p3 4S, respectively. It has been stated in most works that the negative ion of nitrogen is instable whereas the negative ion of phosphorus is stable. The results obtained have been compared with other works.

  8. Fine Structure and Instability of the Ml-a Locus in Barley


    Wise, Roger P.; Ellingboe, Albert H.


    There are many naturally occurring variants at the Ml-a locus in barley that confer resistance to the powdery mildew fungus Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei. Since the Ml-a locus is bracketed by Hor-1 and Hor-2, genes that encode storage proteins in the endosperm, the Ml-a locus is amenable to fine structure analysis. Rare susceptible recombinants, as judged by exchange of flanking markers, were recovered in F3 families from the Ml-a10 x Ml-a1, Ml-a1 x Ml-a15 and Ml-a6 x Ml-a13 crosses. Some...

  9. Ground-based and spaceborn observations of the type II burst with developed fine structure (United States)

    Dorovskyy, V.; Melnik, V.; Konovalenko, A.; Brazhenko, A.; Rucker, H.; Stanislavskyy, A.; Panchenko, M.


    The combination of two huge ground-based radio telescopes (UTR-2 and URAN-2) operated in decameter wavelengths with three spatially separated spacecrafts (SOHO, STEREO-A and STEREO-B) equipped with white light coronagraphs, UV telescopes and decameter-hectometer band radio telescopes created a unique opportunity to investigate the high energy solar transients, such as CMEs and their manifestations in radio bands - type II bursts. In this paper we made detailed analysis of the powerful and complex event occurred on 7 June 2011 consisted of Halo-CME and type II burst with rich fine structure.

  10. Component mode synthesis and large deflection vibration of complex structures. Volume 3: Multiple-mode nonlinear free and forced vibrations of beams using finite element method (United States)

    Mei, Chuh; Shen, Mo-How


    Multiple-mode nonlinear forced vibration of a beam was analyzed by the finite element method. Inplane (longitudinal) displacement and inertia (IDI) are considered in the formulation. By combining the finite element method and nonlinear theory, more realistic models of structural response are obtained more easily and faster.

  11. Three-dimensional fine-scale genetic structure of the neotropical epiphytic orchid, Laelia rubescens. (United States)

    Trapnell, Dorset W; Hamrick, J L; Nason, John D


    Epiphytic plants occupy three-dimensional space, which allows more individuals to be closely clustered spatially than is possible for populations occupying two dimensions. The unique characteristics of epiphytes can act in concert to influence the fine-scale genetic structure of their populations which can, in turn, influence mating patterns and other population phenomena. Three large populations of Laelia rubescens (Orchidaceae) in the Costa Rican seasonal dry forest were sampled at two levels of intensity to determine: (i) whether individual clusters contain more than one genotype, and (ii) the spatial distribution and fine-scale genetic structure of genotypes within populations. Samples were assayed for their multilocus allozyme genotypes and spatial autocorrelation analyses were performed. High levels of genetic diversity, high genotypic diversity and low among-population variation were found. In the larger clusters, multiple genets per cluster were common with discrete clusters containing up to nine genotypes. Spatial autocorrelation analyses indicated significant positive genetic structure at distances of

  12. Fine-scale population structure of blue whale wintering aggregations in the Gulf of California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Costa-Urrutia

    Full Text Available Population differentiation in environments without well-defined geographical barriers represents a challenge for wildlife management. Based on a comprehensive database of individual sighting records (1988-2009 of blue whales from the winter/calving Gulf of California, we assessed the fine-scale genetic and spatial structure of the population using individual-based approaches. Skin samples of 187 individuals were analyzed for nine microsatellite loci. A single population with no divergence among years and months and no isolation by distance (Rxy = 0.1-0.001, p>0.05 were found. We ran two bayesian clustering methods using Structure and Geneland softwares in two different ways: 1 a general analysis including all individuals in which a single cluster was identified with both softwares; 2 a specific analysis of females only in which two main clusters (Loreto Bay and northern areas, and San Jose-La Paz Bay area were revealed by Geneland program. This study provides information indicating that blue whales wintering in the Gulf of California are part of a single population unit and showed a fine-scale structure among females, possibly associated with their high site fidelity, particularly when attending calves. It is likely that the loss of genetic variation is minimized by male mediated gene flow, which may reduce the genetic drift effect. Opportunities for kin selection may also influence calf survival and, in consequence, have a positive impact on population demography in this small and endangered population.

  13. Fine-scale population structure of blue whale wintering aggregations in the Gulf of California. (United States)

    Costa-Urrutia, Paula; Sanvito, Simona; Victoria-Cota, Nelva; Enríquez-Paredes, Luis; Gendron, Diane


    Population differentiation in environments without well-defined geographical barriers represents a challenge for wildlife management. Based on a comprehensive database of individual sighting records (1988-2009) of blue whales from the winter/calving Gulf of California, we assessed the fine-scale genetic and spatial structure of the population using individual-based approaches. Skin samples of 187 individuals were analyzed for nine microsatellite loci. A single population with no divergence among years and months and no isolation by distance (Rxy = 0.1-0.001, p>0.05) were found. We ran two bayesian clustering methods using Structure and Geneland softwares in two different ways: 1) a general analysis including all individuals in which a single cluster was identified with both softwares; 2) a specific analysis of females only in which two main clusters (Loreto Bay and northern areas, and San Jose-La Paz Bay area) were revealed by Geneland program. This study provides information indicating that blue whales wintering in the Gulf of California are part of a single population unit and showed a fine-scale structure among females, possibly associated with their high site fidelity, particularly when attending calves. It is likely that the loss of genetic variation is minimized by male mediated gene flow, which may reduce the genetic drift effect. Opportunities for kin selection may also influence calf survival and, in consequence, have a positive impact on population demography in this small and endangered population.

  14. Fine and Superfine Structure of the Decameter-Hectometer Type II Burst on 7 June 2011 (United States)

    Dorovskyy, V. V.; Melnik, V. N.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Brazhenko, A. I.; Panchenko, M.; Poedts, S.; Mykhaylov, V. A.


    The characteristics of a type II burst with a herringbone structure observed both with ground-based radio telescopes (UTR-2 and URAN-2) and space-borne spectrometers (STEREO-A and B) are discussed. The burst was recorded on 7 June 2011 in the frequency band 3 - 33 MHz. It was characterized by extremely rich fine structure. Statistical analysis of more than 300 herringbone sub-bursts constituting the burst was performed separately for the positively (reverse) and negatively (forward) drifting sub-bursts. The sense and the degree of circular polarization of the herringbone sub-bursts were measured in a wide frequency band (16 - 32 MHz). A second-order fine frequency structure of the herringbone sub-bursts was observed and studied for the first time. Using STEREO/COR1 and SOHO/LASCO-C2 images, we determined the direction and radial speed of the coronal mass ejection responsible for the studied type II burst. The possible location of the type II burst source on the flank of the shock was found.

  15. Ultrafast vibrational and structural dynamics of the proton in liquid water. (United States)

    Woutersen, Sander; Bakker, Huib J


    The dynamical behavior of excess protons in liquid water is investigated using femtosecond vibrational pump-probe spectroscopy. By resonantly exciting the O-H+-stretching mode of the H9O4(+) (Eigen) hydration structure of the proton and probing the subsequent absorption change over a broad frequency range, the dynamics of the proton is observed in real time. The lifetime of the protonic stretching mode is found to be approximately 120 fs, shorter than for any other vibration in liquid water. We also observe the interconversion between the H9O4(+) (Eigen) and H5O2(+) (Zundel) hydration structures of the proton. This interconversion, which constitutes an essential step of proton transport in water, is found to occur on an extremely fast (< 100 fs) time scale.

  16. Acceleration response spectrum for prediction of structural vibration due to individual bouncing (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Wang, Lei; Racic, Vitomir; Lou, Jiayue


    This study is designed to develop an acceleration response spectrum that can be used in vibration serviceability assessment of civil engineering structures, such as floors and grandstands those are dynamically excited by individual bouncing. The spectrum is derived from numerical simulations and statistical analysis of acceleration responses of a single degree of freedom system with variable natural frequency and damping under a large number of experimentally measured individual bouncing loads. Its mathematical representation is fit for fast yet reliable application in design practice and is comprised of three equations that describe three distinct frequency regions observed in the actual data: the first resonant plateau (2-3.5 Hz), the second resonant plateau (4-7 Hz) and a descension region (7-15 Hz). Finally, this paper verifies the proposed response spectrum approach to predict structural vibration by direct comparison against numerical simulations and experimental results.

  17. Vibration-based structural health monitoring of the aircraft large component (United States)

    Pavelko, V.; Kuznetsov, S.; Nevsky, A.; Marinbah, M.


    In the presented paper there are investigated the basic problems of the local system of SHM of large scale aircraft component. Vibration-based damage detection is accepted as a basic condition, and main attention focused to a low-cost solution that would be attractive for practice. The conditions of small damage detection in the full scale structural component at low-frequency excitation were defined in analytical study and modal FEA. In experimental study the dynamic test of the helicopter Mi-8 tail beam was performed at harmonic excitation with frequency close to first natural frequency of the beam. The index of correlation coefficient deviation (CCD) was used for extraction of the features due to embedded pseudo-damage. It is shown that the problem of vibration-based detection of a small damage in the large scale structure at low-frequency excitation can be solved successfully.

  18. Component mode synthesis and large deflection vibration of complex structures. Volume 2: Single-mode large deflection vibrations of beams and plates using finite element method (United States)

    Mei, Chuh


    A finite element method is presented for the large amplitude vibrations of complex structures that can be modelled with beam and rectangular plate elements subjected to harmonic excitation. Both inplane deformation and inertia are considered in the formulation. Derivation of the harmonic force and nonlinear stiffness matrices for a beam and a rectangular plate element are presented. Solution procedures and convergence characteristics of the finite element method are described. Nonlinear response to uniform and concentrated harmonic loadings and improved nonlinear free vibration results are presented for beams and rectangular plates of various boundary conditions.

  19. Density functional theory study of the near edge X-ray absorption fine structure and infrared spectroscopy of acetylene and benzene on group IV semiconductor surfaces (United States)

    Asmuruf, Frans A.; Besley, Nicholas A.


    The near edge X-ray absorption fine structure and infrared spectroscopy of acetylene and benzene adsorbed on C(1 0 0)-2 × 1, Si(1 0 0)-2 × 1 and Ge(1 0 0)-2 × 1 surfaces is studied with density functional theory calculations. Time dependent density functional theory calculations of the near edge X-ray absorption fine structure with a modified exchange-correlation functional agree well with experiment, and show that the spectral features arise from excitation to π∗, σCsbnd H∗ and σXsbnd C∗ orbitals, where X represents C, Si or Ge. The σXsbnd C∗ excitation energies are dependent on the surface, and for acetylene, the location of the π∗ band also varies with the surface. Calculations of the vibrational modes show the Csbnd H stretching frequencies for carbon atoms bonded directly to the surface vary significantly between the three surfaces, while those for carbon atoms not bonded to the surface do not change significantly.

  20. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure studies of GaN epilayers doped with Er (United States)

    Katchkanov, V.; Mosselmans, J. F. W.; O'Donnell, K. P.; Nogales, E.; Hernandez, S.; Martin, R. W.; Steckl, A.; Lee, D. S.


    The structural properties of Er doped GaN epilayers were studied by means of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measured at the Er L III and Ga K-edges. The samples were doped with Er in-situ during growth by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The Ga local structure was found to be the same in all samples studied. Er L III-edge EXAFS showed that when growth conditions were gradually changed from Ga-rich to Ga-poor, an increase in Er concentration from 0.15 at.% to 0.64 at.% is accompanied by the sequential formation of ErGaN, ErGaN clusters with locally high Er content and finally a pure ErN component. This study indicates that Er incorporation into GaN is enhanced under Ga-poor conditions, at the expense of the formation of Er-rich clusters and ErN precipitates.

  1. Improved orthogonality check for measured modes. [from ground vibration testing of structures (United States)

    Berman, A.


    A method is proposed for performing an orthogonality check for normal modes derived from ground vibration testing. The method utilizes partitioned mass and stiffness matrices for a linear undamped representation of a structure. The normalization of the modes by the proposed method inherently includes the effects of significant displacements which were not measured; and the method may allow the use of fewer measurement points than would be necessary with the conventional method.

  2. Ab-initio study of structural, vibrational and optical properties of solid oxidizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yedukondalu, N.; Vaitheeswaran, G., E-mail:


    We report the structural, elastic and vibrational properties of five ionic-molecular solid oxidizers MNO{sub 3} (M = Li, Na, K) and MClO{sub 3} (M = Na, K). By treating long range electron-correlation effects, dispersion corrected method leads to more accurate predictions of structural properties and phase stability of KNO{sub 3} polymorphs. The obtained elastic moduli show soft nature of these materials and are consistent with Ultrasonic Pulse Echo measurements. We made a complete assignment of vibrational modes which are in good accord with available experimental results. From calculated IR and Raman spectra, it is found that the vibrational frequencies show a red-shift from Li → Na → K (Na → K) and N → Cl for nitrates (chlorates) due to increase in mass of metal and non-metal atoms, respectively. The calculated electronic structure using recently developed Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson potential show that the materials are wide band gap insulators with predominant ionic bonding between M{sup +} (metal) and NO{sub 3}{sup −}/ClO{sub 3}{sup −} ions and covalent bonding (N−O and Cl−O) within nitrate and chlorate anionic group. From the calculated optical spectra, we observe that electric-dipole transitions are due to nitrate/chlorate group below 20 eV and cationic transitions occur above 20 eV. The calculated reflectivity spectra are consistent with the available experimental measurements. - Highlights: • Ground state properties with inclusion of dispersion correction method. • Elastic constants and mechanical properties. • Vibrational spectra and their complete assignment. • Raman and IR spectra. • Electronic structure and optical properties using TB-mBJ potential.

  3. Review on structural damage assessment via transmissibility with vibration based measurements (United States)

    Zhou, Yun-Lai; Hongyou, Cao; Zhen, Ni; Abdel Wahab, Magd


    In this study, transmissibility based damage assessment techniques with vibration measurement are reviewed with highlighting the recent advancements since damage might induce severe changes and cause huge economic losses in both civil and mechanical engineering structures. In recent years, transmissibility underwent booming and divergent application for damage assessment both in experimental model and engineering application, and this review provides a fundamental understanding for transmissibility based damage assessment by summarizing those research outputs, which can serve as useful reference for further investigations.

  4. The Shock Vibration Bulletin. Part 4. Structural Dynamics and Modal Test and Analysis (United States)


    Feb. 1971. 17 16. B. Bresler, and A. C. Scordelis , ’Shear Strength of Reinforced Concrete Beams-,Series 100, Issue 13, Structure and Material Research...their adequacy. Dynamic analyses, choice of failure thresholds of failure are even harder to theories , and an accurate dynamic model are estimate...without experimental evidence. shown to be crucial in fulfilling the 29 71 L requirements. Vibration testing data are theories of failure have to be

  5. A Method for Vibration-Based Structural Interrogation and Health Monitoring Based on Signal Cross-Correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trendafilova, I, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Strathclyde, 75 Montrose street, Glasgow, G1 1XJ (United Kingdom)


    Vibration-based structural interrogation and health monitoring is a field which is concerned with the estimation of the current state of a structure or a component from its vibration response with regards to its ability to perform its intended function appropriately. One way to approach this problem is through damage features extracted from the measured structural vibration response. This paper suggests to use a new concept for the purposes of vibration-based health monitoring. The correlation between two signals, an input and an output, measured on the structure is used to develop a damage indicator. The paper investigates the applicability of the signal cross-correlation and a nonlinear alternative, the average mutual information between the two signals, for the purposes of structural health monitoring and damage assessment. The suggested methodology is applied and demonstrated for delamination detection in a composite beam.

  6. Modeling the Structure and Composition of Nanoparticles by Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine-Structure Spectroscopy (United States)

    Frenkel, Anatoly I.; Yevick, Aaron; Cooper, Chana; Vasic, Relja


    Many metal clusters in the 1-nm size range are catalytically active, and their enhanced reactivity is often attributed to their size, structure, morphology, and details of alloying. Synchrotron sources provide a wide range of opportunities for studying catalysis. Among them, extended X-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy is the premier method for investigating structure and composition of nanocatalysts. In this review, we summarize common methods of EXAFS analysis for geometric and compositional characterization of nanoparticles. We discuss several aspects of the experiments and analyses that are critical for reliably modeling EXAFS data. The most important are sample homogeneity, the width of the size and compositional distribution functions, and accounting for multiple-scattering contributions to EXAFS. We focus on the contribution of structural disorder and structural/compositional heterogeneity to the accuracy of three-dimensional modeling.

  7. Structural, electronic, vibrational and optical properties of Bin clusters (United States)

    Liang, Dan; Shen, Wanting; Zhang, Chunfang; Lu, Pengfei; Wang, Shumin


    The neutral, anionic and cationic bismuth clusters with the size n up to 14 are investigated by using B3LYP functional within the regime of density functional theory and the LAN2DZ basis set. By analysis of the geometries of the Bin (n = 2-14) clusters, where cationic and anionic bismuth clusters are largely similar to those of neutral ones, a periodic effect by adding units with one to four atoms into smaller cluster to form larger cluster is drawn for the stable structures of bismuth clusters. An even-odd alteration is shown for the properties of the clusters, such as the calculated binding energies and dissociation energies, as well as frontier orbital energies, electron affinities, ionization energies. All the properties indicate that the Bi4 cluster is the most possible existence in bismuth-containing materials, which supports the most recent experiment. The orbital compositions, infrared and Raman activities and the ultraviolet absorption of the most possible tetramer bismuth cluster are given in detail to reveal the periodic tendency of adding bismuth atoms and the stability of tetramer bismuth cluster.

  8. Structure, Vibrational Spectra and Ring Puckering Barrier of Cyclobutane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Blake, Thomas A.


    We present the results of high level ab initio calculations on the structure and puckering barrier of cyclobutane in an effort to establish the minimum theoretical requirements needed for their accurate description. Our best computed value for the puckering angle is 29.68o. Furthermore we found that accurate estimates for the barrier between the minimum (D2d) and transition state (D4h) configurations require both higher levels of electron correlation [MP4, CCSD(T)] and basis sets of quadruple-z quality or larger. By performing CCSD(T) calculations with basis sets as large as cc-pV5Z we obtained a complete basis set (CBS) estimate of 498 cm-1 for the puckering barrier. Our estimate for the barrier is within 10 cm-1 to the value proposed originally, but it lies ~50 cm-1 higher than the one obtained more recently, therefore revisiting the analysis of the experimental data might be warranted. The results of the current study can serve as a guide for calculations on the substituted four member ring compounds. To this end we present a method for estimating the barrier height at higher levels of electron correlation [MP4, CCSD(T)] from the MP2 results.

  9. Coupled vibrations of a structure and fluid excited by pressure shocks. [BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arros, J.


    The dynamic behavior of an axisymmetric boiling water reactor suppression pool structure and the embedded water under the excitation of the pressure waves from collapsing steam bubbles was studied with a finite element model. The structure was analyzed with thin shell elements. The fluid volume is divided into isoparametric quadrilateral toroidal elements with pressure as the nodal parameter. A water source element was utilized to model the pressure shock excitation. Nonaxisymmetric pressure loads and vibration modes were expressed as a Fourier series in the circumferential coordinate. The system of equations for the structure and fluid was integrated in time using the central difference scheme.

  10. Solution of quadratic matrix equations for free vibration analysis of structures. (United States)

    Gupta, K. K.


    An efficient digital computer procedure and the related numerical algorithm are presented herein for the solution of quadratic matrix equations associated with free vibration analysis of structures. Such a procedure enables accurate and economical analysis of natural frequencies and associated modes of discretized structures. The numerically stable algorithm is based on the Sturm sequence method, which fully exploits the banded form of associated stiffness and mass matrices. The related computer program written in FORTRAN V for the JPL UNIVAC 1108 computer proves to be substantially more accurate and economical than other existing procedures of such analysis. Numerical examples are presented for two structures - a cantilever beam and a semicircular arch.

  11. Fine structure of Tibetan kefir grains and their yeast distribution, diversity, and shift. (United States)

    Lu, Man; Wang, Xingxing; Sun, Guowei; Qin, Bing; Xiao, Jinzhou; Yan, Shuling; Pan, Yingjie; Wang, Yongjie


    Tibetan kefir grains (TKGs), a kind of natural starter for fermented milk in Tibet, China, host various microorganisms of lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, and occasionally acetic acid bacteria in a polysaccharide/protein matrix. In the present study, the fine structure of TKGs was studied to shed light on this unusual symbiosis with stereomicroscopy and thin sections. The results reveal that TKGs consist of numerous small grain units, which are characterized by a hollow globular structure with a diameter between 2.0 and 9.0 mm and a wall thickness of approximately 200 µm. A polyhedron-like net structure, formed mainly by the bacteria, was observed in the wall of the grain units, which has not been reported previously to our knowledge. Towards the inside of the grain unit, the polyhedron-like net structures became gradually larger in diameter and fewer in number. Such fine structures may play a crucial role in the stability of the grains. Subsequently, the distribution, diversity, and shift of yeasts in TKGs were investigated based on thin section, scanning electron microscopy, cloning and sequencing of D1/D2 of the 26S rRNA gene, real-time quantitative PCR, and in situ hybridization with specific fluorescence-labeled oligonucleotide probes. These show that (i) yeasts appear to localize on the outer surface of the grains and grow normally together to form colonies embedded in the bacterial community; (ii) the diversity of yeasts is relatively low on genus level with three dominant species--Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Yarrowia lipolytica; (iii) S. cerevisiae is the stable predominant yeast species, while the composition of Kluyveromyces and Yarrowia are subject to change over time. Our results indicate that TKGs are relatively stable in structure, and culture conditions to some extent shape the microbial community and interaction in kefir grains. These findings pave the way for further study of the specific symbiotic associations between S

  12. Fine structure of Tibetan kefir grains and their yeast distribution, diversity, and shift.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Lu

    Full Text Available Tibetan kefir grains (TKGs, a kind of natural starter for fermented milk in Tibet, China, host various microorganisms of lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, and occasionally acetic acid bacteria in a polysaccharide/protein matrix. In the present study, the fine structure of TKGs was studied to shed light on this unusual symbiosis with stereomicroscopy and thin sections. The results reveal that TKGs consist of numerous small grain units, which are characterized by a hollow globular structure with a diameter between 2.0 and 9.0 mm and a wall thickness of approximately 200 µm. A polyhedron-like net structure, formed mainly by the bacteria, was observed in the wall of the grain units, which has not been reported previously to our knowledge. Towards the inside of the grain unit, the polyhedron-like net structures became gradually larger in diameter and fewer in number. Such fine structures may play a crucial role in the stability of the grains. Subsequently, the distribution, diversity, and shift of yeasts in TKGs were investigated based on thin section, scanning electron microscopy, cloning and sequencing of D1/D2 of the 26S rRNA gene, real-time quantitative PCR, and in situ hybridization with specific fluorescence-labeled oligonucleotide probes. These show that (i yeasts appear to localize on the outer surface of the grains and grow normally together to form colonies embedded in the bacterial community; (ii the diversity of yeasts is relatively low on genus level with three dominant species--Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Yarrowia lipolytica; (iii S. cerevisiae is the stable predominant yeast species, while the composition of Kluyveromyces and Yarrowia are subject to change over time. Our results indicate that TKGs are relatively stable in structure, and culture conditions to some extent shape the microbial community and interaction in kefir grains. These findings pave the way for further study of the specific symbiotic

  13. Study on the coordination structure of pt sorbed on bacterial cells using x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Tanaka

    Full Text Available Biosorption has been intensively investigated as a promising technology for the recovery of precious metals from solution. However, the detailed mechanism responsible for the biosorption of Pt on a biomass is not fully understood because of a lack of spectroscopic studies. We applied X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy to elucidate the coordination structure of Pt sorbed on bacterial cells. We examined the sorption of Pt(II and Pt(IV species on bacterial cells of Bacillus subtilis and Shewanella putrefaciens in NaCl solutions. X-ray absorption near-edge structure and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS of Pt-sorbed bacteria suggested that Pt(IV was reduced to Pt(II on the cell's surface, even in the absence of an organic material as an exogenous electron donor. EXAFS spectra demonstrated that Pt sorbed on bacterial cells has a fourfold coordination of chlorine ions, similar to PtCl42-, which indicated that sorption on the protonated amine groups of the bacterial cells. This work clearly demonstrated the coordination structure of Pt sorbed on bacterial cells. The findings of this study will contribute to the understanding of Pt biosorption on biomass, and facilitate the development of recovery methods for rare metals using biosorbent materials.

  14. Coupling Fine-Scale Root and Canopy Structure Using Ground-Based Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brady S. Hardiman


    Full Text Available Ecosystem physical structure, defined by the quantity and spatial distribution of biomass, influences a range of ecosystem functions. Remote sensing tools permit the non-destructive characterization of canopy and root features, potentially providing opportunities to link above- and belowground structure at fine spatial resolution in functionally meaningful ways. To test this possibility, we employed ground-based portable canopy LiDAR (PCL and ground penetrating radar (GPR along co-located transects in forested sites spanning multiple stages of ecosystem development and, consequently, of structural complexity. We examined canopy and root structural data for coherence (i.e., correlation in the frequency of spatial variation at multiple spatial scales ≤10 m within each site using wavelet analysis. Forest sites varied substantially in vertical canopy and root structure, with leaf area index and root mass more becoming even vertically as forests aged. In all sites, above- and belowground structure, characterized as mean maximum canopy height and root mass, exhibited significant coherence at a scale of 3.5–4 m, and results suggest that the scale of coherence may increase with stand age. Our findings demonstrate that canopy and root structure are linked at characteristic spatial scales, which provides the basis to optimize scales of observation. Our study highlights the potential, and limitations, for fusing LiDAR and radar technologies to quantitatively couple above- and belowground ecosystem structure.

  15. First principles investigation of the structure, elasticity, and vibrational property of the serpentine minerals. (Invited) (United States)

    Tsuchiya, J.; Tsuchiya, T.


    Serpentine is formed by reaction between peridotite and water which is released from hydrous mineral in subducting slab under pressure. Partially serpentinized peridotite may be a significant reservoir for water in the subducted cold slab and is considered to play an important role in subduction zone processes such as generation of arc magmatism. Precise determination of structure, vibrational and elastic properties of serpentine become the basis for understanding the transporting processes of water into deep Earth interior. Here we investigate by first principles calculation, the detailed structures, vibrational and elastic properties of lizardite, chlorite, and antigorite which are major hydrous minerals in the serpentinized peridotite. We found a very sudden softening of the elastic constants at high pressure condition. This anomaly is associated with a slight change in the compressibility of the c axis which corresponds to the layer normal direction. The calculated OH stretching frequencies also increase suddenly associated with the anomaly and these vibrational behaviors are consistent with the previous Raman measurements. Since other hydrous phyllosilicates such as clay minerals, and mica have similar crystal structures to these hydrous minerals, these anomalous softening is also expected in these minerals under pressure. Research supported in part by special coordination funds for promoting science and technology (Supporting Young Researchers with Fixed-term Appointments) and Grants-In-Aid for Scientific Research from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Nos. 21740380, 20103005, and 24740357).

  16. Fine- and hyperfine structure investigations of even configuration system of atomic terbium (United States)

    Stefanska, D.; Elantkowska, M.; Ruczkowski, J.; Furmann, B.


    In this work a parametric study of the fine structure (fs) and the hyperfine structure (hfs) for the even-parity configurations of atomic terbium (Tb I) is presented, based in considerable part on the new experimental results. Measurements on 134 spectral lines were performed by laser induced fluorescence (LIF) in a hollow cathode discharge lamp; on this basis, the hyperfine structure constants A and B were determined for 52 even-parity levels belonging to the configurations 4f85d6s2, 4f85d26s or 4f96s6p; in all the cases those levels were involved in the transitions investigated as the lower levels. For 40 levels the hfs was examined for the first time, and for the remaining 12 levels the new measurements supplement our earlier results. As a by-product, also preliminary values of the hfs constants for 84 odd-parity levels were determined (the investigations of the odd-parity levels system in the terbium atom are still in progress). This huge amount of new experimental data, supplemented by our earlier published results, were considered for the fine and hyperfine structure analysis. A multi-configuration fit of 7 configurations was performed, taking into account second-order of perturbation theory, including the effects of closed shell-open shell excitations. Predicted values of the level energies, as well as of magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole hyperfine structure constants A and B, are quoted in cases when no experimental values are available. By combining our experimental data with our own semi-empirical procedure it was possible to identify correctly the lower and upper level of the line 544.1440 nm measured by Childs with the use of the atomic-beam laser-rf double-resonance technique (Childs, J Opt Soc Am B 9;1992:191-6).

  17. Fine-scale population genetic structure in a fission-fusion society. (United States)

    Archie, Elizabeth A; Maldonado, Jésus E; Hollister-Smith, Julie A; Poole, Joyce H; Moss, Cynthia J; Fleischer, Robert C; Alberts, Susan C


    Nonrandom patterns of mating and dispersal create fine-scale genetic structure in natural populations - especially of social mammals - with important evolutionary and conservation genetic consequences. Such structure is well-characterized for typical mammalian societies; that is, societies where social group composition is stable, dispersal is male-biased, and males form permanent breeding associations in just one or a few social groups over the course of their lives. However, genetic structure is not well understood for social mammals that differ from this pattern, including elephants. In elephant societies, social groups fission and fuse, and males never form permanent breeding associations with female groups. Here, we combine 33 years of behavioural observations with genetic information for 545 African elephants (Loxodonta africana), to investigate how mating and dispersal behaviours structure genetic variation between social groups and across age classes. We found that, like most social mammals, female matrilocality in elephants creates co-ancestry within core social groups and significant genetic differentiation between groups (Phi(ST) = 0.058). However, unlike typical social mammals, male elephants do not bias reproduction towards a limited subset of social groups, and instead breed randomly across the population. As a result, reproductively dominant males mediate gene flow between core groups, which creates cohorts of similar-aged paternal relatives across the population. Because poaching tends to eliminate the oldest elephants from populations, illegal hunting and poaching are likely to erode fine-scale genetic structure. We discuss our results and their evolutionary and conservation genetic implications in the context of other social mammals.

  18. Fine-grained parallel RNAalifold algorithm for RNA secondary structure prediction on FPGA. (United States)

    Xia, Fei; Dou, Yong; Zhou, Xingming; Yang, Xuejun; Xu, Jiaqing; Zhang, Yang


    In the field of RNA secondary structure prediction, the RNAalifold algorithm is one of the most popular methods using free energy minimization. However, general-purpose computers including parallel computers or multi-core computers exhibit parallel efficiency of no more than 50%. Field Programmable Gate-Array (FPGA) chips provide a new approach to accelerate RNAalifold by exploiting fine-grained custom design. RNAalifold shows complicated data dependences, in which the dependence distance is variable, and the dependence direction is also across two dimensions. We propose a systolic array structure including one master Processing Element (PE) and multiple slave PEs for fine grain hardware implementation on FPGA. We exploit data reuse schemes to reduce the need to load energy matrices from external memory. We also propose several methods to reduce energy table parameter size by 80%. To our knowledge, our implementation with 16 PEs is the only FPGA accelerator implementing the complete RNAalifold algorithm. The experimental results show a factor of 12.2 speedup over the RNAalifold (ViennaPackage - 1.6.5) software for a group of aligned RNA sequences with 2981-residue running on a Personal Computer (PC) platform with Pentium 4 2.6 GHz CPU.

  19. The variation of the fine-structure constant from disformal couplings (United States)

    van de Bruck, Carsten; Mifsud, Jurgen; Nunes, Nelson J.


    We study a theory in which the electromagnetic field is disformally coupled to a scalar field, in addition to a usual non-minimal electromagnetic coupling. We show that disformal couplings modify the expression for the fine-structure constant, α. As a result, the theory we consider can explain the non-zero reported variation in the evolution of α by purely considering disformal couplings. We also find that if matter and photons are coupled in the same way to the scalar field, disformal couplings itself do not lead to a variation of the fine-structure constant. A number of scenarios are discussed consistent with the current astrophysical, geochemical, laboratory and the cosmic microwave background radiation constraints on the cosmological evolution of α. The models presented are also consistent with the current type Ia supernovae constraints on the effective dark energy equation of state. We find that the Oklo bound in particular puts strong constraints on the model parameters. From our numerical results, we find that the introduction of a non-minimal electromagnetic coupling enhances the cosmological variation in α. Better constrained data is expected to be reported by ALMA and with the forthcoming generation of high-resolution ultra-stable spectrographs such as PEPSI, ESPRESSO, and ELT-HIRES. Furthermore, an expected increase in the sensitivity of molecular and nuclear clocks will put a more stringent constraint on the theory.

  20. Collaboratively Adaptive Vibration Sensing System for High-fidelity Monitoring of Structural Responses Induced by Pedestrians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijia Pan


    Full Text Available This paper presents a collaboratively adaptive vibration monitoring system that captures high-fidelity structural vibration signals induced by pedestrians. These signals can be used for various human activities’ monitoring by inferring information about the impact sources, such as pedestrian footsteps, door opening and closing, and dragging objects. Such applications often require high-fidelity (high resolution and low distortion signals. Traditionally, expensive high resolution and high dynamic range sensors are adopted to ensure sufficient resolution. However, for sensing systems that use low-cost sensing devices, the resolution and dynamic range are often limited; hence this type of sensing methods is not well explored ubiquitously. We propose a low-cost sensing system that utilizes (1 a heuristic model of the investigating excitations and (2 shared information through networked devices to adapt hardware configurations and obtain high-fidelity structural vibration signals. To further explain the system, we use indoor pedestrian footstep sensing through ambient structural vibration as an example to demonstrate the system performance. We evaluate the application with three metrics that measure the signal quality from different aspects: the sufficient resolution rate to present signal resolution improvement without clipping, the clipping rate to measure the distortion of the footstep signal, and the signal magnitude to quantify the detailed resolution of the detected footstep signal. In experiments conducted in a school building, our system demonstrated up to 2× increase on the sufficient resolution rate and 2× less error rate when used to locate the pedestrians as they walk along the hallway, compared to a fixed sensing setting.

  1. Fine-scale population structure in a deep-sea teleost (orange roughy, Hoplostethus atlanticus) (United States)

    Carlsson, Jens; Shephard, Samuel; Coughlan, James; Trueman, Clive N.; Rogan, Emer; Cross, Tom F.


    Microsatellite and otolith chemistry variability were analysed to assess fine scale genetic structure in the deep-sea teleost orange roughy ( Hoplostethus atlanticus). The Porcupine Bank located on the continental shelf west of Ireland, comprises a complex system of mounds and flat areas that are broken up by canyons. Orange roughy form spawning aggregations on mounds and flat areas, and were heavily fished until the resource was depleted. By analysing adults in spawning condition and juvenile orange roughy from six mounds and one flat area, shallow but significant genetic population structure was evident ( FST=0.0031, Dest across loci=0.0306 and G-test). Most of the structure was accounted for by inclusion of a sample from the flats (six of ten significant pairwise FST estimates and G-tests, and five of the highest Dest estimates included the flat sample). While the flat sample contributed most to the genetic structure, there was still significant (albeit weaker) structure among mound samples. The observed structure was supported by otolith analyses. Fish caught as late juveniles in either the flat or mound areas showed consistent differences in chemistry at the otolith core throughout the initial 10 years of growth, which could indicate site fidelity. We hypothesise that seafloor topographic structures (mounds and flats) may provide discrete spawning areas for orange roughy and that the limited gene flow between these spawning areas is insufficient to counteract genetic drift.

  2. Parametric and Non-Parametric Vibration-Based Structural Identification Under Earthquake Excitation (United States)

    Pentaris, Fragkiskos P.; Fouskitakis, George N.


    The problem of modal identification in civil structures is of crucial importance, and thus has been receiving increasing attention in recent years. Vibration-based methods are quite promising as they are capable of identifying the structure's global characteristics, they are relatively easy to implement and they tend to be time effective and less expensive than most alternatives [1]. This paper focuses on the off-line structural/modal identification of civil (concrete) structures subjected to low-level earthquake excitations, under which, they remain within their linear operating regime. Earthquakes and their details are recorded and provided by the seismological network of Crete [2], which 'monitors' the broad region of south Hellenic arc, an active seismic region which functions as a natural laboratory for earthquake engineering of this kind. A sufficient number of seismic events are analyzed in order to reveal the modal characteristics of the structures under study, that consist of the two concrete buildings of the School of Applied Sciences, Technological Education Institute of Crete, located in Chania, Crete, Hellas. Both buildings are equipped with high-sensitivity and accuracy seismographs - providing acceleration measurements - established at the basement (structure's foundation) presently considered as the ground's acceleration (excitation) and at all levels (ground floor, 1st floor, 2nd floor and terrace). Further details regarding the instrumentation setup and data acquisition may be found in [3]. The present study invokes stochastic, both non-parametric (frequency-based) and parametric methods for structural/modal identification (natural frequencies and/or damping ratios). Non-parametric methods include Welch-based spectrum and Frequency response Function (FrF) estimation, while parametric methods, include AutoRegressive (AR), AutoRegressive with eXogeneous input (ARX) and Autoregressive Moving-Average with eXogeneous input (ARMAX) models[4, 5

  3. A procedure obtaining stiffnesses and masses of a structure from vibration modes and substructure static test data (United States)

    Edighoffer, H. H.


    A component mode desynthesis procedure is developed for determining the unknown vibration characteristics of a structural component (i.e., a launch vehicle) given the vibration characteristics of a structural system composed of that component combined with a known one (i.e., a payload). At least one component static test has to be performed. These data are used in conjunction with the system measured frequencies and mode shapes to obtain the vibration characteristics of each component. The flight dynamics of an empty launch vehicle can be determined from measurements made on a vehicle/payload combination in conjunction with a static test on the payload.

  4. Splittings, Satellites and Fine Structure in the Soft X-ray Spectroscopy of the Actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, J. G.; Yu, S. -W.; Chung, B. W.


    Perhaps the most demanding and powerful actinide spectroscopy is that using soft X-ray and VUV photons. Because of the relatively low energy and fairly small sampling depths of these photons and the corresponding electrons, it is necessary to use un-encapsulated samples with highly cleaned and well-prepared surfaces. This causes a myriad of sample containment problems for these radioactive materials. Despite these hindrances and difficulties, the soft-X-ray and ultra-violet spectroscopy of the actinides can provide an amazing level of detailed information, particularly having to do with 5f electronic structure. In this paper, the splittings, satellites and fine structure of the following actinide soft X-ray spectroscopies will be discussed: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; X-ray absorption spectroscopy; and inverse photoelectron spectroscopy, including Bremstrahlung isochromat spectroscopy and resonant inverse photoelectron spectroscopy.

  5. A new fuzzy sliding mode controller for vibration control systems using integrated-structure smart dampers (United States)

    Dzung Nguyen, Sy; Kim, Wanho; Park, Jhinha; Choi, Seung-Bok


    Vibration control systems using smart dampers (SmDs) such as magnetorheological and electrorheological dampers (MRD and ERD), which are classified as the integrated structure-SmD control systems (ISSmDCSs), have been actively researched and widely used. This work proposes a new controller for a class of ISSmDCSs in which high accuracy of SmD models as well as increment of control ability to deal with uncertainty and time delay are to be expected. In order to achieve this goal, two formualtion steps are required; a non-parametric SmD model based on an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and a novel fuzzy sliding mode controller (FSMC) which can weaken the model error of the ISSmDCSs and hence provide enhanced vibration control performances. As for the formulation of the proposed controller, first, an ANFIS controller is desgned to identify SmDs using the improved control algorithm named improved establishing neuro-fuzzy system (establishing neuro-fuzzy system). Second, a new control law for the FSMC is designed via Lyapunov stability analysis. An application to a semi-active MRD vehicle suspension system is then undertaken to illustrate and evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed control method. It is demonstrated through an experimental realization that the FSMC proposed in this work shows superior vibration control performance of the vehicle suspension compared to other surveyed controller which have similar structures to the FSMC, such as fuzzy logic and sliding mode control.

  6. Ab initio structural and vibrational properties of GaAs diamondoids and nanocrystals

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    Mudar Ahmed Abdulsattar


    Full Text Available Gallium arsenide diamondoids structural and vibrational properties are investigated using density functional theory at the PBE/6-31(d level and basis including polarization functions. Variation of energy gap as these diamondoids increase in size is seen to follow confinement theory for diamondoids having nearly equiaxed dimensions. Density of energy states transforms from nearly single levels to band structure as we reach larger diamondoids. Bonds of surface hydrogen with As atoms are relatively localized and shorter than that bonded to Ga atoms. Ga-As bonds have a distribution range of values due to surface reconstruction and effect of bonding to hydrogen atoms. Experimental bulk Ga-As bond length (2.45 Å is within this distribution range. Tetrahedral and dihedral angles approach values of bulk as we go to higher diamondoids. Optical-phonon energy of larger diamondoids stabilizes at 0.037 eV (297 cm-1 compared to experimental 0.035 eV (285.2 cm-1. Ga-As force constant reaches 1.7 mDyne/Å which is comparable to Ga-Ge force constant (1.74 mDyne/Å. Hydrogen related vibrations are nearly constant and serve as a fingerprint of GaAs diamondoids while Ga-As vibrations vary with size of diamondoids.

  7. Modeling of structures and calculation of IR vibrational spectra of N,N-dimethylformamide dimers by density functional theory (United States)

    Shundalau, M. B.; Chybirai, P. S.; Komyak, A. I.; Zazhogin, A. P.; Ksenofontov, M. A.; Umreiko, D. S.


    We present results of ab initio and DFT calculations of the structure and IR vibrational spectra of the monomer and dimers of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). The calculations were carried out in the B3LYP/cc-pVDZ approximation with subsequent force-field scaling. The calculated characteristics of the vibrational spectra of DMF show satisfactory agreement with experimental values, allowing them to be used in spectral and structural analysis.

  8. Breed locally, disperse globally: fine-scale genetic structure despite landscape-scale panmixia in a fire-specialist.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C Pierson

    Full Text Available An exciting advance in the understanding of metapopulation dynamics has been the investigation of how populations respond to ephemeral patches that go 'extinct' during the lifetime of an individual. Previous research has shown that this scenario leads to genetic homogenization across large spatial scales. However, little is known about fine-scale genetic structuring or how this changes over time in ephemeral patches. We predicted that species that specialize on ephemeral habitats will delay dispersal to exploit natal habitat patches while resources are plentiful and thus display fine-scale structure. To investigate this idea, we evaluated the effect of frequent colonization of ephemeral habitats on the fine-scale genetic structure of a fire specialist, the black-backed woodpecker (Picoides arcticus and found a pattern of fine-scale genetic structure. We then tested for differences in spatial structure between sexes and detected a pattern consistent with male-biased dispersal. We also detected a temporal increase in relatedness among individuals within newly burned forest patches. Our results indicate that specialist species that outlive their ephemeral patches can accrue significant fine-scale spatial structure that does not necessarily affect spatial structure at larger scales. This highlights the importance of both spatial and temporal scale considerations in both sampling and data interpretation of molecular genetic results.

  9. Fine spectral structures in Jovian decametric radio emission observed by ground-based radio telescope. (United States)

    Panchenko, M.; Brazhenko, A. I.; Shaposhnikov, V. E.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Rucker, H. O.


    Jupiter with the largest planetary magnetosphere in the solar system emits intense coherent non-thermal radio emission in a wide frequency range. This emission is a result of a complicated interaction between the dynamic Jovian magnetosphere and energetic particles supplying the free energy from planetary rotation and the interaction between Jupiter and the Galilean moons. Decametric radio emission (DAM) is the strongest component of Jovian radiation observed in a frequency range from few MHz up to 40 MHz. This emission is generated via cyclotron maser mechanism in sources located along Jovian magnetic field lines. Depending on the time scales the Jovian DAMexhibits different complex spectral structures. We present the observations of the Jovian decametric radio emission using the large ground-based radio telescope URAN- 2 (Poltava, Ukraine) operated in the decametric frequency range. This telescope is one of the largest low frequency telescopes in Europe equipped with high performance digital radio spectrometers. The antenna array of URAN-2 consists of 512 crossed dipoles with an effective area of 28 000m2 and beam pattern size of 3.5 x 7 deg. (at 25 MHz). The instrument enables continuous observations of the Jovian radio during long period of times. Jovian DAM was observed continuously since Sep. 2012 (depending on Jupiter visibility) with relatively high time-frequency resolution (4 kHz - 100ms) in the broad frequency range (8-32MHz). We have detected a big amount of the fine spectral structures in the dynamic spectra of DAM such as trains of S-bursts, quasi-continuous narrowband emission, narrow-band splitting events and zebra stripe-like patterns. We analyzed mainly the fine structures associated with non-Io controlled DAM. We discuss how the observed narrowband structures which most probably are related to the propagation of the decametric radiation in the Jupiter's ionosphere can be used to study the plasma parameters in the inner Jovian magnetosphere.

  10. Theoretical structural and vibrational study of 5-trifluoromethyluracil. A comparison with uracil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudyk, Roxana; Ramos, María E.; Checa, María A.; Brandán, Silvia A. [Cátedra de Química General, Instituto de Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Bioquímica, Química y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, Ayacucho 471,(4000), San Miguel de Tucumán, Tucum and #x00E1 (Argentina); Chamorro, Eduardo E. [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andrés Bello, Avda. República 275, 8370146, Santiago (Chile)


    In the present work, a comparative study on the structural and vibrational properties of the 5-trifluoromethyluracil (TFMU) derivative with those corresponding to uracil in gas and aqueous solution phases was performed combining the available H{sup 1}-NMR, C{sup 13}-NMR, F{sup 19}-NMR and FTIR spectra with Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. Three stable conformers were theoretically determined in both media by using the hybrid B3LYP/6-31G* method. The solvent effects were simulated by means of the self-consistent reaction field (SCRF) method employing the integral equation formalism variant (IEFPCM). Complete assignments of the vibrational spectra in both phases were performed combining the internal coordinates analysis and the DFT calculations with the Scaled Quantum Mechanics Force Field (SQMFF) methodology. The atomic charges, bond orders, solvation energies, dipole moments, molecular electrostatic potentials and force constants parameters were calculated for the three conformers of TFMU in gas phase and aqueous solution.

  11. Estimations of non-linearities in structural vibrations of string musical instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Ege, Kerem; Boutillon, Xavier


    Under the excitation of strings, the wooden structure of string instruments is generally assumed to undergo linear vibrations. As an alternative to the direct measurement of the distortion rate at several vibration levels and frequencies, we characterise weak non-linearities by a signal-model approach based on cascade of Hammerstein models. In this approach, in a chain of two non-linear systems, two measurements are sufficient to estimate the non-linear contribution of the second (sub-)system which cannot be directly linearly driven, as a function of the exciting frequency. The experiment consists in exciting the instrument acoustically. The linear and non-linear contributions to the response of (a) the loudspeaker coupled to the room, (b) the instrument can be separated. Some methodological issues will be discussed. Findings pertaining to several instruments - one piano, two guitars, one violin - will be presented.

  12. Surface energy effect on free vibration of nano-sized piezoelectric double-shell structures (United States)

    Fang, Xue-Qian; Zhu, Chang-Song; Liu, Jin-Xi; Liu, Xiang-Lin


    Combining Goldenveizer-Novozhilov shell theory, thin plate theory and electro-elastic surface theory, the size-dependent vibration of nano-sized piezoelectric double-shell structures under simply supported boundary condition is presented, and the surface energy effect on the natural frequencies is discussed. The displacement components of the cylindrical nano-shells and annular nano-plates are expanded as the superposition of standard Fourier series based on Hamilton's principle. The total stresses with consideration of surface energy effect are derived, and the total energy function is obtained by using Rayleigh-Ritz energy method. The free vibration equation is solved, and the natural frequency is analyzed. In numerical examples, it is found that the surface elastic constant, piezoelectric constant and surface residual stress show different effects on the natural frequencies. The effect of surface piezoelectric constant is the maximum. The effect of dimensions of the double-shell under different surface material properties is also examined.

  13. Analysis of vibrational, structural, and electronic properties of rivastigmine by density functional theory (United States)

    Prasad, O.; Sinha, L.; Misra, N.; Narayan, V.; Kumar, N.; Kumar, A.


    The present work deals with the structural, electronic, and vibrational analysis of rivastigmine. Rivastigmine, an antidementia medicament, is credited with significant therapeutic effects on the cognitive, functional, and behavioural problems that are commonly associated with Alzheimer’s dementia. For rivastigmine, a number of minimum energy conformations are possible. The geometry of twelve possible conformers has been analyzed and the most stable conformer was further optimized at a higher basis set. The electronic properties and vibrational frequencies were then calculated using a density functional theory at the B3LYP level with the 6-311+G(d, p) basis set. The different molecular surfaces have also been drawn to understand the activity of the molecule. A narrower frontier orbital energy gap in rivastigmine makes it softer and more reactive than water and dimethylfuran. The calculated value of the dipole moment is 2.58 debye.

  14. Quantum chemical studies on structural, vibrational, nonlinear optical properties and chemical reactivity of indigo carmine dye (United States)

    El-Mansy, M. A. M.


    Structural and vibrational spectroscopic studies were performed on indigo carmine (IC) isomers using FT-IR spectral analysis along with DFT/B3LYP method utilizing Gaussian 09 software. GaussView 5 program has been employed to perform a detailed interpretation of vibrational spectra. Simulation of infrared spectra has led to an excellent overall agreement with the observed spectral patterns. Mulliken population analyses on atomic charges, MEP, HOMO-LUMO, NLO, first order hyperpolarizability and thermodynamic properties have been examined by (DFT/B3LYP) method with the SDD basis set level. Density of state spectra (DOS) were calculated using GaussSum 3 at the same level of theory. Molecular modeling approved that DOS Spectra are the most significant tools for differentiating between two IC isomers so far. Moreover, The IC isomers (cis-isomer) have shown an extended applicability for manufacturing both NLO and photovoltaic devices such as solar cells.

  15. Chain length effects on the vibrational structure and molecular interactions in the liquid normal alkyl alcohols (United States)

    Kiefer, Johannes; Wagenfeld, Sabine; Kerlé, Daniela


    Alkyl alcohols are widely used in academia, industry, and our everyday lives, e.g. as cleaning agents and solvents. Vibrational spectroscopy is commonly used to identify and quantify these compounds, but also to study their structure and behavior. However, a comprehensive investigation and comparison of all normal alkanols that are liquid at room temperature has not been performed, surprisingly. This study aims at bridging this gap with a combined experimental and computational effort. For this purpose, the alkyl alcohols from methanol to undecan-1-ol have been analyzed using infrared and Raman spectroscopy. A detailed assignment of the individual peaks is presented and the influence of the alkyl chain length on the hydrogen bonding network is discussed. A 2D vibrational mapping allows a straightforward visualization of the effects. The conclusions drawn from the experimental data are backed up with results from Monte Carlo simulations using the simulation package Cassandra.

  16. Resonant diffusion of normal alkanes in zeolites: Effect of the zeolite structure and alkane molecule vibrations

    CERN Document Server

    Tsekov, R


    Diffusion of normal alkanes in one-dimensional zeolites is theoretically studied on the basis of the stochastic equation formalism. The calculated diffusion coefficient accounts for the vibrations of the diffusing molecule and zeolite framework, molecule-zeolite interaction, and specific structure of the zeolite. It is shown that when the interaction potential is predominantly determined by the zeolite pore structure, the diffusion coefficient varies periodically with the number of carbon atoms of the alkane molecule, a phenomenon called resonant diffusion. A criterion for observable resonance is obtained from the balance between the interaction potentials of the molecule due to the atomic and pore structures of the zeolite. It shows that the diffusion is not resonant in zeolites without pore structure, such as ZSM-12. Moreover, even in zeolites with developed pore structure no resonant dependence of the diffusion constant can be detected if the pore structure energy barriers are not at least three times high...

  17. High-Performance Reaction Wheel Optimization for Fine-Pointing Space Platforms: Minimizing Induced Vibration Effects on Jitter Performance plus Lessons Learned from Hubble Space Telescope for Current and Future Spacecraft Applications (United States)

    Hasha, Martin D.


    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) applies large-diameter optics (2.5-m primary mirror) for diffraction-limited resolution spanning an extended wavelength range (approx. 100-2500 nm). Its Pointing Control System (PCS) Reaction Wheel Assemblies (RWAs), in the Support Systems Module (SSM), acquired an unprecedented set of high-sensitivity Induced Vibration (IV) data for 5 flight-certified RWAs: dwelling at set rotation rates. Focused on 4 key ratios, force and moment harmonic values (in 3 local principal directions) are extracted in the RWA operating range (0-3000 RPM). The IV test data, obtained under ambient lab conditions, are investigated in detail, evaluated, compiled, and curve-fitted; variational trends, core causes, and unforeseen anomalies are addressed. In aggregate, these values constitute a statistically-valid basis to quantify ground test-to-test variations and facilitate extrapolations to on-orbit conditions. Accumulated knowledge of bearing-rotor vibrational sources, corresponding harmonic contributions, and salient elements of IV key variability factors are discussed. An evolved methodology is presented for absolute assessments and relative comparisons of macro-level IV signal magnitude due to micro-level construction-assembly geometric details/imperfections stemming from both electrical drive and primary bearing design parameters. Based upon studies of same-size/similar-design momentum wheels' IV changes, upper estimates due to transitions from ground tests to orbital conditions are derived. Recommended HST RWA choices are discussed relative to system optimization/tradeoffs of Line-Of-Sight (LOS) vector-pointing focal-plane error driven by higher IV transmissibilities through low-damped structural dynamics that stimulate optical elements. Unique analytical disturbance results for orbital HST accelerations are described applicable to microgravity efforts. Conclusions, lessons learned, historical context/insights, and perspectives on future applications

  18. Real-time vibration-based structural damage detection using one-dimensional convolutional neural networks (United States)

    Abdeljaber, Osama; Avci, Onur; Kiranyaz, Serkan; Gabbouj, Moncef; Inman, Daniel J.


    Structural health monitoring (SHM) and vibration-based structural damage detection have been a continuous interest for civil, mechanical and aerospace engineers over the decades. Early and meticulous damage detection has always been one of the principal objectives of SHM applications. The performance of a classical damage detection system predominantly depends on the choice of the features and the classifier. While the fixed and hand-crafted features may either be a sub-optimal choice for a particular structure or fail to achieve the same level of performance on another structure, they usually require a large computation power which may hinder their usage for real-time structural damage detection. This paper presents a novel, fast and accurate structural damage detection system using 1D Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) that has an inherent adaptive design to fuse both feature extraction and classification blocks into a single and compact learning body. The proposed method performs vibration-based damage detection and localization of the damage in real-time. The advantage of this approach is its ability to extract optimal damage-sensitive features automatically from the raw acceleration signals. Large-scale experiments conducted on a grandstand simulator revealed an outstanding performance and verified the computational efficiency of the proposed real-time damage detection method.

  19. Multi-state analysis of the OCS ultraviolet absorption including vibrational structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johan Albrecht; Johnson, Matthew Stanley; McBane, G.C.


    The first absorption band of OCS (carbonyl sulfide) is analyzed using potential energy surfaces and transition dipole moment functions of the lowest four singlet and the lowest four triplet states. Excitation of the 2 (1)A' state is predominant except at very low photon energies. It is shown that...... that the vibrational structures in the center of the band are due to excitation of the 2 (3)A'' triplet state, whereas the structures at very low energies are caused by bending excitation in the potential wells of states 2 (1)A' and 1 (1)A''....

  20. Structural Analysis of Pressurized Small Diameter Lines in a Random Vibration Environment (United States)

    Davis, Mark; Ridnour, Andrew; Brethen, Mark


    The pressurization and propellant feed lines for the Ares 1 Upper Stage Reaction and Roll Control Systems (ReCS and RoCS) were required to be in a high g-load random vibration flight environment. The lines connected the system components and were filled with both liquid hydrazine and gaseous helium. They are considered small and varied between one fourth to one inch in diameter. The random vibration of the lines was considered to be base excitation through the mating components and mounting hardware. It was found that reducing the amount of support structure for the lines added flexibility to the system and improved the line stresses from random vibration, but caused higher stresses from the static g-loads. The locations and number of brackets were optimized by analyzing the mode shapes of the lines causing high stresses. The use of brackets that only constrain motion in the direction of concern further reduced the stresses in the lines. Finite element analysis was used to perform the analysis. The lines were pre-stressed by temperature and internal pressure with fluid and insulation included as non-structural mass. Base excitation was added to the model using Power Spectral Density (PSD) data for the expected flight loads. The random vibration and static g-load cases were combined to obtain the total stress in the lines. This approach advances the state of the art in line analysis by using FEA to predict the stresses in the lines and to optimize the entire system based on the expected flight environment. Adding flexibility to lines has been used in piping system for temperature loads, but in flight environments flexibility has been limited for the static stresses. Adding flexibility to the system in a flight environment by reducing brackets has the benefit of reducing stresses and weight

  1. Tensor-decomposed vibrational coupled-cluster theory: Enabling large-scale, highly accurate vibrational-structure calculations. (United States)

    Madsen, Niels Kristian; Godtliebsen, Ian H; Losilla, Sergio A; Christiansen, Ove


    A new implementation of vibrational coupled-cluster (VCC) theory is presented, where all amplitude tensors are represented in the canonical polyadic (CP) format. The CP-VCC algorithm solves the non-linear VCC equations without ever constructing the amplitudes or error vectors in full dimension but still formally includes the full parameter space of the VCC[n] model in question resulting in the same vibrational energies as the conventional method. In a previous publication, we have described the non-linear-equation solver for CP-VCC calculations. In this work, we discuss the general algorithm for evaluating VCC error vectors in CP format including the rank-reduction methods used during the summation of the many terms in the VCC amplitude equations. Benchmark calculations for studying the computational scaling and memory usage of the CP-VCC algorithm are performed on a set of molecules including thiadiazole and an array of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The results show that the reduced scaling and memory requirements of the CP-VCC algorithm allows for performing high-order VCC calculations on systems with up to 66 vibrational modes (anthracene), which indeed are not possible using the conventional VCC method. This paves the way for obtaining highly accurate vibrational spectra and properties of larger molecules.

  2. Tensor-decomposed vibrational coupled-cluster theory: Enabling large-scale, highly accurate vibrational-structure calculations (United States)

    Madsen, Niels Kristian; Godtliebsen, Ian H.; Losilla, Sergio A.; Christiansen, Ove


    A new implementation of vibrational coupled-cluster (VCC) theory is presented, where all amplitude tensors are represented in the canonical polyadic (CP) format. The CP-VCC algorithm solves the non-linear VCC equations without ever constructing the amplitudes or error vectors in full dimension but still formally includes the full parameter space of the VCC[n] model in question resulting in the same vibrational energies as the conventional method. In a previous publication, we have described the non-linear-equation solver for CP-VCC calculations. In this work, we discuss the general algorithm for evaluating VCC error vectors in CP format including the rank-reduction methods used during the summation of the many terms in the VCC amplitude equations. Benchmark calculations for studying the computational scaling and memory usage of the CP-VCC algorithm are performed on a set of molecules including thiadiazole and an array of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The results show that the reduced scaling and memory requirements of the CP-VCC algorithm allows for performing high-order VCC calculations on systems with up to 66 vibrational modes (anthracene), which indeed are not possible using the conventional VCC method. This paves the way for obtaining highly accurate vibrational spectra and properties of larger molecules.

  3. In situ structural investigation of iron phthalocyanine monolayer adsorbed on electrode surface by X-ray absorption fine structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Hyun [Konkuk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ohta, Toshiaki [Tokyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Kwag, Gwang Hoon [Kumho Petrochemical Co., Taejon(Korea, Republic of)


    Structural changes of an iron phthalocyanine (FePC) monolayer induced by adsorption and externally applied potential on high area carbon surface have been investigated in situ by iron K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Fine structures shown in the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) for microcrystalline FePC decreased upon adsorption and further diminished under electrochemical conditions. Fe(II)PC(-2) showed a 1s{yields}4p transition as poorly resolved shoulder to the main absorption edge rather than a distinct peak and a weak 1s{yields}3d transition. The absorption edge position measured at half maximum was shifted from 7121.8 eV for Fe(II)PC(-2) to 7124.8 eV for [Fe(III)PC(-2)]{sup +} as well as the 1s{yields}3d pre-edge peak being slightly enhanced. However, essentially no absorption edge shift was observed by the 1-electron reduction of Fe(II)PC(-2), indicating that the species formed is [Fe(II)PC(-3)]{sup -}. Structural parameters were obtained by analyzing extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) oscillations with theoretical phases and amplitudes calculated from FEFF 6.01 using multiple-scattering theory. When applied to the powder FePC, the average iron-to-phthalocyanine nitrogen distance, d(Fe-N{sub p}) and the coordination number were found to be 1.933 A and 3.2, respectively, and these values are the same, within experimental error, as those reported (1.927 A and 4). Virtually no structural changes were found upon adsorption except for the increased Debye-Waller factor of 0.005 A{sup 2} from 0.003 A{sup 2}. Oxidation of Fe(II)PC(-2) to [Fe(III)PC(-2)]{sup +} yielded an increased d(Fe-N{sub p}) (1.98 A) and Debye-Waller factor (0.005 A{sup 2}). The formation of [Fe(II)PC(-3)]{sup -}, however, produced a shorter d(Fe-N{sub p}) of 1.91 A, the same as that of crystalline FePC within experimental error, and about the same Debye-Waller factor (0.006 A{sup 2})

  4. Design of three-element dynamic vibration absorber for damped linear structures (United States)

    Anh, N. D.; Nguyen, N. X.; Hoa, L. T.


    The standard type of dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) called the Voigt DVA is a classical model and has long been investigated. In the paper, we will consider an optimization problem of another model of DVA that is called three-element type DVA for damped primary structures. Unlike the standard absorber configuration, the three-element DVA contains two spring elements in which one is connected to a dashpot in series and the other is placed in parallel. There have been some studies on the design of the three-element DVA for undamped primary structures. Those studies have shown that the three-element DVA produces better performance than the Voigt DVA does. When damping is present at the primary system, to the best knowledge of the authors, there has been no study on the three-element dynamic vibration absorber. This work presents a simple approach to determine the approximate analytical solutions for the H∞ optimization of the three-element DVA attached to the damped primary structure. The main idea of the study is based on the criteria of the equivalent linearization method in order to replace approximately the original damped structure by an equivalent undamped one. Then the approximate analytical solution of the DVA's parameters is given by using known results for the undamped structure obtained. The comparisons have been done to verify the effectiveness of the obtained results.

  5. Sensing site-specific structural characteristics and chirality using vibrational circular dichroism of isotope labeled peptides. (United States)

    Keiderling, Timothy A


    Isotope labeling has a long history in chemistry as a tool for probing structure, offering enhanced sensitivity, or enabling site selection with a wide range of spectroscopic tools. Chirality sensitive methods such as electronic circular dichroism are global structural tools and have intrinsically low resolution. Consequently, they are generally insensitive to modifications to enhance site selectivity. The use of isotope labeling to modify vibrational spectra with unique resolvable frequency shifts can provide useful site-specific sensitivity, and these methods have been recently more widely expanded in biopolymer studies. While the spectral shifts resulting from changes in isotopic mass can provide resolution of modes from specific parts of the molecule and can allow detection of local change in structure with perturbation, these shifts alone do not directly indicate structure or chirality. With vibrational circular dichroism (VCD), the shifted bands and their resultant sign patterns can be used to indicate local conformations in labeled biopolymers, particularly if multiple labels are used and if their coupling is theoretically modeled. This mini-review discusses selected examples of the use of labeling specific amides in peptides to develop local structural insight with VCD spectra. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Structure-borne sound and vibration from building-mounted wind turbines (United States)

    Moorhouse, Andy; Elliott, Andy; Eastwick, Graham; Evans, Tomos; Ryan, Andy; von Hunerbein, Sabine; le Bescond, Valentin; Waddington, David


    Noise continues to be a significant factor in the development of wind energy resources. In the case of building-mounted wind turbines (BMWTs), in addition to the usual airborne sound there is the potential for occupants to be affected by structure-borne sound and vibration transmitted through the building structure. Usual methods for prediction and evaluation of noise from large and small WTs are not applicable to noise of this type. This letter describes an investigation aiming to derive a methodology for prediction of structure-borne sound and vibration inside attached dwellings. Jointly funded by three UK government departments, the work was motivated by a desire to stimulate renewable energy generation by the removal of planning restrictions where possible. A method for characterizing BMWTs as sources of structure-borne sound was first developed during a field survey of two small wind turbines under variable wind conditions. The 'source strength' was established as a function of rotor speed although a general relationship to wind speed could not be established. The influence of turbulence was also investigated. The prediction methodology, which also accounts for the sound transmission properties of the mast and supporting building, was verified in a field survey of existing installations. Significant differences in behavior and subjective character were noted between the airborne and structure-borne noise from BMWTs.

  7. Multiple tuned mass damper based vibration mitigation of offshore wind turbine considering soil-structure interaction (United States)

    Hussan, Mosaruf; Sharmin, Faria; Kim, Dookie


    The dynamics of jacket supported offshore wind turbine (OWT) in earthquake environment is one of the progressing focuses in the renewable energy field. Soil-structure interaction (SSI) is a fundamental principle to analyze stability and safety of the structure. This study focuses on the performance of the multiple tuned mass damper (MTMD) in minimizing the dynamic responses of the structures objected to seismic loads combined with static wind and wave loads. Response surface methodology (RSM) has been applied to design the MTMD parameters. The analyses have been performed under two different boundary conditions: fixed base (without SSI) and flexible base (with SSI). Two vibration modes of the structure have been suppressed by multi-mode vibration control principle in both cases. The effectiveness of the MTMD in reducing the dynamic response of the structure is presented. The dynamic SSI plays an important role in the seismic behavior of the jacket supported OWT, especially resting on the soft soil deposit. Finally, it shows that excluding the SSI effect could be the reason of overestimating the MTMD performance.

  8. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure study of mixed-ligand copper(II) complexes having analogous structures (United States)

    Gaur, Abhijeet; Shrivastava, B. D.; Srivastava, Krishna; Prasad, J.


    X-ray absorption fine structure spectra have been studied at the Cu K-edge in five mixed-ligand copper(II) complexes, viz., [Cu(L-glu)(bipy)] 1, [Cu(L-glu)(phen) (H2O)].3H2O 2, [Cu(L-tyro)(bipy)(ClO4)].2H2O 3, [Cu(L-phen)(bipy)(H2O)] (ClO4) 4, and [Cu(L-tyro)(phen)(H2O)] (ClO4).1.5H2O 5 (where L-glu = L-glutamate dianion, L-tyro = L-tyrosinate anion, bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine, and phen =1,10-phenanthroline), having essentially the same structure. The crystallographic data are available for all the complexes using which five theoretical models have been generated. Firstly, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data of each complex has been analyzed using its own theoretical model and the results obtained are found to be comparable with the crystallographic results. Then, the EXAFS data of each complex has been analyzed using the theoretical models of the remaining four of these complexes. For each complex, the structural parameters obtained by fitting EXAFS data with theoretical models of the four remaining complexes have been found to be comparable with those obtained by fitting its own theoretical model. Thus, it has been found that if the crystal structure is not available for a complex, then the crystal structure of similar or analogous complex can be used satisfactorily for generating the theoretical model for the EXAFS data analysis of that complex, even if different ligands are attached to the central metal atom. On the basis of EXAFS data analysis, the coordination geometries around the central metal ions in these complexes have been depicted.

  9. Fine structure of the mineralized teeth of the chiton Acanthopleura echinata (Mollusca: Polyplacophora). (United States)

    Wealthall, Rosamund J; Brooker, Lesley R; Macey, David J; Griffin, Brendan J


    The major lateral teeth of the chiton Acanthopleura echinata are composite structures composed of three distinct mineral zones: a posterior layer of magnetite; a thin band of lepidocrocite just anterior to this; and apatite throughout the core and anterior regions of the cusp. Biomineralization in these teeth is a matrix-mediated process, in which the minerals are deposited around fibers, with the different biominerals described as occupying architecturally discrete compartments. In this study, a range of scanning electron microscopes was utilized to undertake a detailed in situ investigation of the fine structure of the major lateral teeth. The arrangement of the organic and biomineral components of the tooth is similar throughout the three zones, having no discrete borders between them, and with crystallites of each mineral phase extending into the adjacent mineral zone. Along the posterior surface of the tooth, the organic fibers are arranged in a series of fine parallel lines, but just within the periphery their appearance takes on a "fish scale"-like pattern, reflective of the cross section of a series of units that are overlaid, and offset from each other, in adjacent rows. The units are approximately 2 microm wide and 0.6 microm thick and comprise biomineral plates separated by organic fibers. Two types of subunits make up each "fish scale": one is elongate and curved and forms a trough, in which the other, rod-like unit, is nestled. Adjacent rod and trough units are aligned into large sheets that define the fracture plane of the tooth. The alignment of the plates of rod-trough units is complex and exhibits extreme spatial variation within the tooth cusp. Close to the posterior surface the plates are essentially horizontal and lie in a lateromedial plane, while anteriorly they are almost vertical and lie in the posteroanterior plane. An understanding of the fine structure of the mineralized teeth of chitons, and of the relationship between the organic and

  10. Forced vibration and wave propagation in mono-coupled periodic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlrich, Mogens


    This paper describes the wave propagation and vibration characteristics of mono-coupled structures which are of spatially periodic nature. The receptance approach to periodic structure theory is applied to study undamped periodic systems with composite structural elements; particular emphasis...... is laid on investigating resonant periodic point loading and its pronounced effect on the propagation of longitudinal waves. General mono-coupled periodic systems are first assumed to be infinite in extent; thereafter reflections caused by arbitrary end terminations of finite structures are considered...... and a general `closed form' solution is found for the forced harmonic response at element junctions. This `junction-receptance' is used to determine-discrete junction mode shapes of a finite system. Finally, the forced response of a finite structure with an internal obstruction is derived as a natural extension...

  11. Local structure and vibrational properties of alpha'-Pu martensitein Ga-stabilized delta-Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E.J.; Blobaum, K.J.M.; Wall, M.A.; Allen, P.G.; Schwartz,A.J.; Booth, C.H.


    Extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) is used to investigate the local atomic environment and vibrational properties of plutonium and gallium atoms in the {alpha}{prime} and {delta} phases of a mixed phase Pu-Ga alloy. EXAFS results measured at low temperature compare the structure of the mixed phase sample with a single-phase {delta}-Pu sample. EXAFS spectral components attributed to both {alpha}{prime}-Pu and {delta}-Pu were observed in the mixed phase sample. Ga K-edge EXAFS spectra indicate local atomic environments similar to the Pu LIII-edge EXAFS results, which suggests that Ga is substitutional for Pu atoms in both the monoclinic {alpha}{prime}-Pu and the fcc {delta}-Pu structures. In {delta}-Pu, we measure a Ga-Pu bond length contraction of 0.11 Angstroms with respect to the Pu-Pu bond length. The corresponding bond-length contraction around Ga in {alpha}{prime}-Pu is only 0.03 Angstroms. Results from temperature-dependent Pu LIII-edge EXAFS measurements are fit to a correlated Debye model, and a large difference in the Pu-Pu bond Debye temperature is observed for the {alpha}{prime} and {delta} phases: {theta}{sub cD}({alpha}{prime})=159{+-}13 K versus {theta}{sub cD}({delta})=120{+-}3 K. The corresponding analysis for the Ga K EXAFS determines a Ga-Pu bond Debye temperature of {theta}{sub cD}({delta})=188{+-}12 K in the {delta}-Pu phase. These results are related to the observed solubility of Ga in {delta}-Pu, the ''stabilization'' of {delta}-Pu by Ga at room temperature, and the insolubility of Ga in {alpha}{prime}-Pu.

  12. Vibrational self-trapping in beta-sheet structures observed with femtosecond nonlinear infrared spectroscopy. (United States)

    Bodis, Pavol; Schwartz, Erik; Koepf, Matthieu; Cornelissen, Jeroen J L M; Rowan, Alan E; Nolte, Roeland J M; Woutersen, Sander


    Self-trapping of NH-stretch vibrational excitations in synthetic beta-sheet helices is observed using femtosecond infrared pump-probe spectroscopy. In a dialanine-based beta-sheet helix, the transient-absorption change upon exciting the NH-stretch mode exhibits a negative absorption change at the fundamental frequency and two positive peaks at lower frequencies. These two induced-absorption peaks are characteristic for a state in which the vibrational excitation is self-trapped on essentially a single NH-group in the hydrogen-bonded NH...OC chain, forming a small (Holstein) vibrational polaron. By engineering the structure of the polymer we can disrupt the hydrogen-bonded NH...OC chain, allowing us to eliminate the self-trapping, as is confirmed from the NH-stretch pump-probe response. We also investigate a trialanine-based beta-sheet helix, where each side chain participates in two NH...OC chains with different hydrogen-bond lengths. The chain with short hydrogen bonds shows the same self-trapping behavior as the dialanine-based beta-sheet helix, whereas in the chain with long hydrogen bonds the self-trapping is too weak to be observable.

  13. Analytical Model of Underground Train Induced Vibrations on Nearby Building Structures in Cameroon: Assessment and Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lezin Seba MINSILI


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research paper was to assess and predict the effect of vibrations induced by an underground railway on nearby-existing buildings prior to the construction of projected new railway lines of the National Railway Master Plan of Cameroon and after upgrading of the railway conceded to CAMRAIL linking the two most densely populated cities of Cameroon: Douala and Yaoundé. With the source-transmitter-receiver mathematical model as the train-soil-structure interaction model, taking into account sub-model parameters such as type of the train-railway system, typical geotechnical conditions of the ground and the sensitivity of the nearby buildings, the analysis is carried out over the entire system using the dynamic finite element method in the time domain. This subdivision of the model is a powerful tool that allows to consider different alternatives of sub-models with different characteristics, and thus to determine any critical excessive vibration impact. Based on semi-empirical analytical results obtained from presented models, the present work assesses and predicts characteristics of traffic-induced vibrations as a function of time duration, intensity and vehicle speed, as well as their influence on buildings at different levels.

  14. Zinc oxide nanoparticles with incorporated silver: Structural, morphological, optical and vibrational properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosquera, Edgar, E-mail: [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Av. Tupper 2069, Santiago (Chile); Rojas-Michea, Carolina, E-mail: [Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Biotecnología, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Av. Tupper 2007, Santiago (Chile); Morel, Mauricio, E-mail: [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Av. Tupper 2069, Santiago (Chile); Gracia, Francisco, E-mail: [Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Biotecnología, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Av. Tupper 2007, Santiago (Chile); Fuenzalida, Víctor, E-mail: [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Av. Blanco Encalada 2008, Santiago (Chile); Zárate, Ramón A., E-mail: [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Católica del Norte, Casilla 1280, Antofagasta (Chile)


    Graphical abstract: Local vibrational modes of ZnO:Ag nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Formation of Ag biphases is observed when the Ag content increases. • The SPR property has been monitored in the UV–visible regime. • PL emission of ZnO:Ag nanoparticles are associated to structural defects. • A new local vibrational mode induced by Ag content were observed in the Raman spectra. - Abstract: Zinc oxide nanoparticles with different amounts of incorporated silver (ZnO:Ag; 0.6, 3, 6, and 9 at.% Ag) have been successfully synthesized by a simple sol gel method. The effect of Ag content on the properties of ZnO nanoparticles have been studied by various characterization techniques. The results from X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy (RS) suggest that elemental silver is present as a second phase. The UV–visible absorption and photoluminescence (PL) properties of the samples were also studied. PL data at room temperature reveals a strong blue emission. In addition, Raman spectroscopy results indicate a very strong A{sub 1}(LO) mode resulting from oxygen vacancies and zinc interstitials. A new local vibrational mode (LVM) at 480 cm{sup −1} induced by silver can also be observed in the Raman spectra, suggesting silver incorporation into the ZnO lattice compensating the Zn vacancies, which is consistent with the XRD results.

  15. Comparative studies on molecular structure, vibrational spectra and hyperpolarizabilies of NLO chromophore Ethyl 4-Dimethylaminobenzoate (United States)

    Amalanathan, M.; Jasmine, G. Femina; Roy, S. Dawn Dharma


    The molecular structure, vibrational spectra and polarizabilities of Ethyl 4-Dimethylaminobenzoate (EDAB) was investigated by density functional theory employing Becke's three parameter hybrid exchange functional with Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP) co-relational functional involving 6-311++G(d,p) basis set and compared with some other levels. A detailed interpretation of the IR and Raman spectra of EDBA have been reported and analyzed. Complete vibrational assignments of the vibrational modes have been done on the basis of the potential energy distribution (TED) using VEDA software. The molecular electrostatic potential mapped onto total density surface has been obtained. A study on the electronic properties, such as absorption wavelength, and frontier molecular orbitals energy, was performed using DFT approach. The stability of the molecule arising from hyper conjugative interactions and accompanying charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The natural and Mulliken charge also calculated and compared with different level of calculation. The dipole moment, polarizability and first, second order hyperpolarizabilities of the title molecule were calculated and compared with the experimental values. The energy gap between frontier orbitals has been used along with electric moments and first order hyperpolarizability, to understand the non linear optical (NLO) activity of the molecule. The NLO activity of molecule was confirmed by SHG analysis.

  16. Fine reservoir structure modeling based upon 3D visualized stratigraphic correlation between horizontal wells: methodology and its application (United States)

    Chenghua, Ou; Chaochun, Li; Siyuan, Huang; Sheng, James J.; Yuan, Xu


    As the platform-based horizontal well production mode has been widely applied in petroleum industry, building a reliable fine reservoir structure model by using horizontal well stratigraphic correlation has become very important. Horizontal wells usually extend between the upper and bottom boundaries of the target formation, with limited penetration points. Using these limited penetration points to conduct well deviation correction means the formation depth information obtained is not accurate, which makes it hard to build a fine structure model. In order to solve this problem, a method of fine reservoir structure modeling, based on 3D visualized stratigraphic correlation among horizontal wells, is proposed. This method can increase the accuracy when estimating the depth of the penetration points, and can also effectively predict the top and bottom interfaces in the horizontal penetrating section. Moreover, this method will greatly increase not only the number of points of depth data available, but also the accuracy of these data, which achieves the goal of building a reliable fine reservoir structure model by using the stratigraphic correlation among horizontal wells. Using this method, four 3D fine structure layer models have been successfully built of a specimen shale gas field with platform-based horizontal well production mode. The shale gas field is located to the east of Sichuan Basin, China; the successful application of the method has proven its feasibility and reliability.

  17. Evaluation of seatback vibration based on ISO 2631-1 (1997) standard method: The influence of vehicle seat structural resonance. (United States)

    Ittianuwat, R; Fard, M; Kato, K


    Although much research has been done in developing the current ISO 2631-1 (1997) standard method for assessment seat vibration comfort, little consideration has been given to the influence of vehicle seat structural dynamics on comfort assessment. Previous research has shown that there are inconsistencies between standard methods and subjective evaluation of comfort at around vehicle seat twisting resonant frequencies. This study reports the frequency-weighted r.m.s. accelerations in [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] axes and the total vibration (point vibration total value) at five locations on seatback surface at around vehicle seat twisting resonant frequencies. The results show that the vibration measured at the centre of seatback surface, suggested by current ISO 2631-1 (1997), at around twisting resonant frequencies was the least for all tested vehicle seats. The greatest point vibration total value on the seatback surface varies among vehicle seats. The variations in vibration measured at different locations on seatback surface at around twisting resonant frequencies were sufficiently great that might affect the comfort assessment of vehicle seat.Practitioner Summary: The influence of vehicle seat structural dynamics has not been considered in current ISO 2631-1 (1997). The results of this study show that the vibration measures on seatback surface at around vehicle seat twisting resonant frequency depends on vehicle seats and dominate at the top or the bottom of seatback but not at the centre.

  18. Quantum chemical density functional theory studies on the molecular structure and vibrational spectra of mannitol. (United States)

    Moorthi, P P; Gunasekaran, S; Swaminathan, S; Ramkumaar, G R


    A collective experimental and theoretical study was conducted on the molecular structure and vibrational spectra of mannitol. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of mannitol were recorded in the solid phase. The molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies, thermodynamic functions and atomic charges of mannitol in the ground state have been calculated by using the ab initio HF (Hartree-Fock) and density functional methods (B3LYP) invoking cc-pVDZ basis set. The complete vibrational assignments were performed on the basis of Total Energy Distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes. The UV absorption spectra of the title compound dissolved in water. Natural bond orbital analysis has been carried out to explain the charge transfer or delocalization of charge due to the intra-molecular interactions. The (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by GIAO methods. The first order hyperpolarizability (β0) of this novel molecular system and related properties (β, α0 and Δα) of mannitol are calculated using B3LYP/cc-pVDZ and HF/cc-pVDZ methods on the finite-field approach. By using TD-DFT calculation, electronic absorption spectra of the title compound have been predicted and a good agreement with experimental one is established. In addition, the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) have been investigated using theoretical calculations, the calculated HOMO and LUMO energies shows that the charge transfer within the molecule. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Variations of the fine-structure constant α in exotic singularity models (United States)

    Dąbrowski, Mariusz P.; Denkiewicz, Tomasz; Martins, C. J. A. P.; Vielzeuf, P. E.


    Various classes of exotic singularity models have been studied as possible mimic models for the observed recent acceleration of the Universe. Here we further study one of these classes and, under the assumption that they are phenomenological toy models for the behavior of an underlying scalar field that also couples to the electromagnetic sector of the theory, obtain the corresponding behavior of the fine-structure constant α for particular choices of model parameters that have been previously shown to be in reasonable agreement with cosmological observations. We then compare this predicted behavior with available measurements of α, thus constraining this putative coupling to electromagnetism. We find that values of the coupling that would provide a good fit to spectroscopic measurements of α are in more than three-sigma tension with local atomic clock bounds. Future measurements by ESPRESSO and ELT-HIRES will provide a definitive test of these models.

  20. Strain-driven growth of GaAs(111) quantum dots with low fine structure splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yerino, Christopher D.; Jung, Daehwan; Lee, Minjoo Larry, E-mail: [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Simmonds, Paul J. [Departments of Physics and Materials Science and Engineering, Boise State University, Boise, Idaho 83725 (United States); Liang, Baolai; Huffaker, Diana L. [California NanoSystems Institute and Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Schneider, Christian; Unsleber, Sebastian; Vo, Minh; Kamp, Martin [Technische Physik, Physikalisches Institut and Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen-Research Center for Complex Material Systems, Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); Höfling, Sven [Technische Physik, Physikalisches Institut and Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen-Research Center for Complex Material Systems, Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)


    Symmetric quantum dots (QDs) on (111)-oriented surfaces are promising candidates for generating polarization-entangled photons due to their low excitonic fine structure splitting (FSS). However, (111) QDs are difficult to grow. The conventional use of compressive strain to drive QD self-assembly fails to form 3D nanostructures on (111) surfaces. Instead, we demonstrate that (111) QDs self-assemble under tensile strain by growing GaAs QDs on an InP(111)A substrate. Tensile GaAs self-assembly produces a low density of QDs with a symmetric triangular morphology. Coherent, tensile QDs are observed without dislocations, and the QDs luminescence at room temperature. Single QD measurements reveal low FSS with a median value of 7.6 μeV, due to the high symmetry of the (111) QDs. Tensile self-assembly thus offers a simple route to symmetric (111) QDs for entangled photon emitters.

  1. Fisher matrix forecasts for astrophysical tests of the stability of the fine-structure constant (United States)

    Alves, C. S.; Silva, T. A.; Martins, C. J. A. P.; Leite, A. C. O.


    We use Fisher Matrix analysis techniques to forecast the cosmological impact of astrophysical tests of the stability of the fine-structure constant to be carried out by the forthcoming ESPRESSO spectrograph at the VLT (due for commissioning in late 2017), as well by the planned high-resolution spectrograph (currently in Phase A) for the European Extremely Large Telescope. Assuming a fiducial model without α variations, we show that ESPRESSO can improve current bounds on the Eötvös parameter-which quantifies Weak Equivalence Principle violations-by up to two orders of magnitude, leading to stronger bounds than those expected from the ongoing tests with the MICROSCOPE satellite, while constraints from the E-ELT should be competitive with those of the proposed STEP satellite. Should an α variation be detected, these measurements will further constrain cosmological parameters, being particularly sensitive to the dynamics of dark energy.

  2. Fisher matrix forecasts for astrophysical tests of the stability of the fine-structure constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S. Alves


    Full Text Available We use Fisher Matrix analysis techniques to forecast the cosmological impact of astrophysical tests of the stability of the fine-structure constant to be carried out by the forthcoming ESPRESSO spectrograph at the VLT (due for commissioning in late 2017, as well by the planned high-resolution spectrograph (currently in Phase A for the European Extremely Large Telescope. Assuming a fiducial model without α variations, we show that ESPRESSO can improve current bounds on the Eötvös parameter—which quantifies Weak Equivalence Principle violations—by up to two orders of magnitude, leading to stronger bounds than those expected from the ongoing tests with the MICROSCOPE satellite, while constraints from the E-ELT should be competitive with those of the proposed STEP satellite. Should an α variation be detected, these measurements will further constrain cosmological parameters, being particularly sensitive to the dynamics of dark energy.

  3. Fine structure of kinetin-treated protonema and kinetin-induced gametophore buds in Funaria hygrometrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Młodzianowski


    Full Text Available Besides occasional hypertrophy of grana and disintegration of stroma thylakoids occurring in some chloroplasts, no significant changes were found in ultrastructure of typical protonema cells treated for six days with kinetin. On the other hand, the fine structure of cells in kinetin--induced gametophore buds differed much from that of the protonema cells and showed characteristics of cells of with high metabolic activity and high division rates. The results indicate that cytokinins enhance development and differentiation in the protonema by activating only some of its cells, whereas the others remain unchanged or show symptoms of destruction and ageing. This is supported by the fact that in the presence of chloramphenicol, which prevents bud induction, kinetin acts synergistically with the inhibitor in producing degeneration and destruction of chloroplasts.

  4. Analysis of zirconia films by grazing incidence X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degueldre, C. [LWV, NES, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)]. E-mail:; Dardenne, K. [INE, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76344 Karlsruhe (Germany)


    X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) is used in for its non-destructive capability to probe and investigate nano-pores, dislocations or vacancies in zirconia films. XAFS is a powerful analytical tool that allows the collection of information to describe the atomic environment of component elements. This technique was applied in a grazing incidence (GI) mode to investigate layers obtained by zirconia sputtering on stainless steel and by zirconium alloy corrosion utilising the Zr K edge. XAFS analysis identify a decrease of next neighbour numbers of Zr in the corroded samples versus the sputtered samples. This may be due to the density of distortions for given average atom distances suggesting dislocations and defects. The discussion underlines that the technique reveals nano-pores, dislocations, vacancies or defect features difficult to observe using destructive techniques such as analytical electron microscopy. A strong decrease of the Zr next neighbour number is observed for zirconium alloy corrosion layers.

  5. Non-wetting wings and legs of the cranefly aided by fine structures of the cuticle. (United States)

    Hu, Hsuan-Ming S; Watson, Gregory S; Cribb, Bronwen W; Watson, Jolanta A


    Non-wetting surfaces are imperative to the survival of terrestrial and semi-aquatic insects as they afford resistance to wetting by rain and other liquid surfaces that insects may encounter. Thus, there is an evolutionary pay-off for these insects to adopt hydrophobic technologies, especially on contacting surfaces such as legs and wings. The cranefly is a weak flier, with many species typically found in wet/moist environments where they lay eggs. Water droplets placed on this insect's wings will spontaneously roll off the surface. In addition, the insect can stand on water bodies without its legs penetrating the water surface. The legs and wings of this insect possess thousands of tiny hairs with intricate surface topographies comprising a series of ridges running longitudinally along the long axis of the hair fibre. Here we demonstrate that this fine hair structure enhances the ability of the hairs to resist penetration into water bodies.

  6. Fine-structural changes in the midgut of old Drosophila melanogaster (United States)

    Anton-Erxleben, F.; Miquel, J.; Philpott, D. E.


    Senescent fine-structural changes in the midgut of Drosophila melanogaster are investigated. A large number of midgut mitochondria in old flies exhibit nodular cristae and a tubular system located perpendicular to the normal cristae orientation. Anterior intestinal cells show a senescent accumulation of age pigment, either with a surrounding two-unit membrane or without any membrane. The predominant localization of enlarged mitochondria and pigment in the luminal gut region may be related to the polarized metabolism of the intestinal cells. Findings concur with previous observations of dense-body accumulations and support the theory that mitochondria are involved in the aging of fixed post-mitotic cells. Demonstrated by statistical analyses is that mitochondrial size increase is related to mitochondrial variation increase.

  7. X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy of plutonium complexes with bacillus sphaericus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panak, P.J.; Booth, C.H.; Caulder, D.L.; Bucher, J.J.; Shuh, D.K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Chemical Sciences Div., The Glenn T. Seaborg Center, Berkeley, CA (United States); Nitsche, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Chemical Sciences Div., The Glenn T. Seaborg Center, Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California at Berkeley, Dept. of Chemistry, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Knowledge of the plutonium complexes formed with bacterial cells is critical for predicting the influence of microbial interactions on the migration behavior of actinides in the environment. This investigation describes the interaction of plutonium(VI) with cells of the aerobic soil bacteria, Bacillus sphaericus. The studies include the quantification of carboxylate and phosphate functional groups on the cell walls by potentiometric titration and the determination of the plutonium speciation by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). Extended-XAFS (EXAFS) was used to determine the identity of the Pu(VI) interfacial complex with the bacteria, and the Pu(VI) was found primarily bound to phosphate groups on the cell surface. No carboxylate complexation was detected. (orig.)

  8. Fine-structure processing, frequency selectivity and speech perception in hearing-impaired listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strelcyk, Olaf; Dau, Torsten


    Hearing-impaired people often experience great difficulty with speech communication when background noise is present, even if reduced audibility has been compensated for. Other impairment factors must be involved. In order to minimize confounding effects, the subjects participating in this study...... consisted of groups with homogeneous, symmetric audiograms. The perceptual listening experiments assessed the intelligibility of full-spectrum as well as low-pass filtered speech in the presence of stationary and fluctuating interferers, the individual's frequency selectivity and the integrity of temporal...... modulation were obtained. In addition, these binaural and monaural thresholds were measured in a stationary background noise in order to assess the persistence of the fine-structure processing to interfering noise. Apart from elevated speech reception thresholds, the hearing impaired listeners showed poorer...

  9. Impact of heavy hole-light hole coupling on the exciton fine structure in quantum dots (United States)

    Tsitsishvili, E.


    We present analytical results which describe the properties of the exciton ground state in a single semiconductor quantum dot (QD). Calculations are performed within the Luttinger-Kohn and Bir-Pikus Hamiltonian theory. We show in an explicit form that an interplay of the exchange interaction and the heavy hole-light hole coupling, which is due to the in-plane asymmetries of the dot shape and the strain distribution, plays an essential role. For both the bright and dark exciton, this combined effect leads to a dependence of the fine structure splitting and polarizations on the main anisotropy axis direction relative to the dot orientation. Basing on the obtained analytical expressions, we discuss some special cases in details.

  10. 3-Space In-Flow Theory of Gravity: Boreholes, Blackholes and the Fine Structure Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.


    Full Text Available A theory of 3-space explains the phenomenon of gravity as arising from the time-dependence and inhomogeneity of the differential flow of this 3-space. The emergent theory of gravity has two gravitational constants: GN — Newton’s constant, and a dimensionless constant α. Various experiments and astronomical observations have shown that α is the fine structure constant ≈ 1/137. Here we analyse the Greenland Ice Shelf and Nevada Test Site borehole g anomalies, and confirm with increased precision this value of α. This and other successful tests of this theory of gravity, including the supermassive black holes in globular clusters and galaxies, and the “dark-matter” effect in spiral galaxies, shows the validity of this theory of gravity. This success implies that the non-relativistic Newtonian gravity was fundamentally flawed from the beginning, and that this flaw was inherited by the relativistic General Relativity theory of gravity.

  11. 3-Space In-Flow Theory of Gravity: Boreholes, Blackholes and the Fine Structure Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.


    Full Text Available A theory of 3-space explains the phenomenon of gravity as arising from the time-dependence and inhomogeneity of the differential flow of this 3-space. The emergent theory of gravity has two gravitational constants: G - Newton's constant, and a dimensionless constant alpha. Various experiments and astronomical observations have shown that alpha is the fine structure constant ~1/137. Here we analyse the Greenland Ice Shelf and Nevada Test Site borehole g anomalies, and confirm with increased precision this value of alpha. This and other successful tests of this theory of gravity, including the supermassive black holes in globular clusters and galaxies, and the "dark-matter" effect in spiral galaxies, shows the validity of this theory of gravity. This success implies that the non-relativistic Newtonian gravity was fundamentally flawed from the beginning, and that this flaw was inherited by the relativistic General Relativity theory of gravity.

  12. Fine structure of the copulatory apparatus of the tapeworm Tetrabothrius erostris (Cestoda: Tetrabothriidea). (United States)

    Korneva, Janetta V; Jones, Malcolm K; Kuklin, Vadim V


    The organization and fine structure of the complex copulatory apparatus of Tetrabothrius erostris (Tetrabothriidea) is investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. A diversity of microstructures was found on the surface of genital ducts. The apical surfaces of male gonadoducts possess tubular and blade-like microtriches that have specific structure in each section of the duct. The apical part of the tubular microtriches contains numerous constrictions in the proximal section of the sperm duct; blade-like microtriches of cirrus possess longitudinal striation in the apical part, and their basal part is reinforced with electron-dense strands. Two types of microtriches occur on the surface of cirrus, and their presence may be considered as systematic features. Prostate glands containing granules of medium electron density (up to 130 nm diameter) are localized in the cirrus sac. The genital atrium contains numerous non-ciliated receptors. Paramyosin-like fibers (up to 200 nm) were found in the muscle fibers surrounding the male atrium canal. Microtriches on the surface of the distal region of the male atrial canal are covered by a glycocalyx. Electron-dense, membrane-like structures (up to 40 nm) lie under the apical membrane of the genital atrium and vagina. These structures do not form a continuous layer; its edges turn down and sink into the apical invaginations of epithelium. Hypotheses on the possible ways of copulation in T. erostris based on the observed ultrastructure are discussed.

  13. Optimal fine-scale structures in compliance minimization for a uniaxial load. (United States)

    Kohn, Robert V; Wirth, Benedikt


    We consider the optimization of the topology and geometry of an elastic structure [Formula: see text] subjected to a fixed boundary load, i.e. we aim to minimize a weighted sum of material volume [Formula: see text], structure perimeter [Formula: see text] and structure compliance [Formula: see text] (which is the work done by the load). As a first simple and instructive case, this paper treats the situation of an imposed uniform uniaxial tension load in two dimensions. If the weight ε of the perimeter is small, optimal geometries exhibit very fine-scale structure which cannot be resolved by numerical optimization. Instead, we prove how the minimum energy scales in ε, which involves the construction of a family of near-optimal geometries and thus provides qualitative insights. The construction is based on a classical branching procedure with some features unique to compliance minimization. The proof of the energy scaling also requires an ansatz-independent lower bound, which we derive once via a classical convex duality argument (which is restricted to two dimensions and the uniaxial load) and once via a Fourier-based refinement of the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds for the effective elastic moduli of composite materials. We also highlight the close relation to and the differences from shape optimization with a scalar PDE-constraint and a link to the pattern formation observed in intermediate states of type-I superconductors.

  14. New algorithm improves fine structure of the barley consensus SNP map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endelman Jeffrey B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need to integrate information from multiple linkage maps is a long-standing problem in genetics. One way to visualize the complex ordinal relationships is with a directed graph, where each vertex in the graph is a bin of markers. When there are no ordering conflicts between the linkage maps, the result is a directed acyclic graph, or DAG, which can then be linearized to produce a consensus map. Results New algorithms for the simplification and linearization of consensus graphs have been implemented as a package for the R computing environment called DAGGER. The simplified consensus graphs produced by DAGGER exactly capture the ordinal relationships present in a series of linkage maps. Using either linear or quadratic programming, DAGGER generates a consensus map with minimum error relative to the linkage maps while remaining ordinally consistent with them. Both linearization methods produce consensus maps that are compressed relative to the mean of the linkage maps. After rescaling, however, the consensus maps had higher accuracy (and higher marker density than the individual linkage maps in genetic simulations. When applied to four barley linkage maps genotyped at nearly 3000 SNP markers, DAGGER produced a consensus map with improved fine structure compared to the existing barley consensus SNP map. The root-mean-squared error between the linkage maps and the DAGGER map was 0.82 cM per marker interval compared to 2.28 cM for the existing consensus map. Examination of the barley hardness locus at the 5HS telomere, for which there is a physical map, confirmed that the DAGGER output was more accurate for fine structure analysis. Conclusions The R package DAGGER is an effective, freely available resource for integrating the information from a set of consistent linkage maps.

  15. Speech and music perception with the new fine structure speech coding strategy: preliminary results. (United States)

    Arnoldner, Christoph; Riss, Dominik; Brunner, Markus; Durisin, Martin; Baumgartner, Wolf-Dieter; Hamzavi, Jafar-Sasan


    Taking into account the excellent results with significant improvements in the speech tests and the very high satisfaction of the patients using the new strategy, this first implementation of a fine structure strategy could offer a new quality of hearing with cochlear implants (CIs). This study consisted of an intra-individual comparison of speech recognition, music perception and patient preference when subjects used two different speech coding strategies with a MedEl Pulsar CI: continuous interleaved sampling (CIS) and the new fine structure processing (FSP) strategy. In contrast to envelope-based strategies, the FSP strategy also delivers subtle pitch and timing differences of sound to the user and is thereby supposed to enhance speech perception in noise and increase the quality of music perception. This was a prospective study assessing performance with two different speech coding strategies. The setting was a CI programme at an academic tertiary referral centre. Fourteen post-lingually deaf patients using a MedEl Pulsar CI with a mean CI experience of 0.98 years were supplied with the new FSP speech coding strategy. Subjects consecutively used the two different speech coding strategies. Speech and music tests were performed with the previously fitted CIS strategy, immediately after fitting with the new FSP strategy and 4, 8 and 12 weeks later. The main outcome measures were individual performance and subjective assessment of two different speech processors. Speech and music test scores improved statistically significantly after conversion from CIS to FSP strategy. Twelve of 14 patients preferred the new FSP speech processing strategy over the CIS strategy.

  16. Cultural transmission of tool use combined with habitat specializations leads to fine-scale genetic structure in bottlenose dolphins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopps, Anna M.; Ackermann, Corinne Y.; Sherwin, William B.; Allen, Simon J.; Bejder, Lars; Kruetzen, Michael


    Socially learned behaviours leading to genetic population structure have rarely been described outside humans. Here, we provide evidence of fine-scale genetic structure that has probably arisen based on socially transmitted behaviours in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) in western Shark Bay,

  17. Method and apparatus for conducting structural health monitoring in a cryogenic, high vibration environment (United States)

    Qing, Xinlin (Inventor); Beard, Shawn J. (Inventor); Li, Irene (Inventor)


    Sensors affixed to various such structures, where the sensors can withstand, remain affixed, and operate while undergoing both cryogenic temperatures and high vibrations. In particular, piezoelectric single crystal transducers are utilized, and these sensors are coupled to the structure via a low temperature, heat cured epoxy. This allows the transducers to monitor the structure while the engine is operating, even despite the harsh operating conditions. Aspects of the invention thus allow for real time monitoring and analysis of structures that operate in conditions that previously did not permit such analysis. A further aspect of the invention relates to use of piezoelectric single crystal transducers. In particular, use of such transducers allows the same elements to be used as both sensors and actuators.

  18. Development and applications of two computational procedures for determining the vibration modes of structural systems. [aircraft structures - aerospaceplanes (United States)

    Kvaternik, R. G.


    Two computational procedures for analyzing complex structural systems for their natural modes and frequencies of vibration are presented. Both procedures are based on a substructures methodology and both employ the finite-element stiffness method to model the constituent substructures. The first procedure is a direct method based on solving the eigenvalue problem associated with a finite-element representation of the complete structure. The second procedure is a component-mode synthesis scheme in which the vibration modes of the complete structure are synthesized from modes of substructures into which the structure is divided. The analytical basis of the methods contains a combination of features which enhance the generality of the procedures. The computational procedures exhibit a unique utilitarian character with respect to the versatility, computational convenience, and ease of computer implementation. The computational procedures were implemented in two special-purpose computer programs. The results of the application of these programs to several structural configurations are shown and comparisons are made with experiment.

  19. Structural health monitoring (vibration) as a tool for identifying structural alterations of the lumbar spine: a twin control study. (United States)

    Kawchuk, Gregory N; Hartvigsen, Jan; Edgecombe, Tiffany; Prasad, Narasimha; van Dieen, Jaap H


    Structural health monitoring (SHM) is an engineering technique used to identify mechanical abnormalities not readily apparent through other means. Recently, SHM has been adapted for use in biological systems, but its invasive nature limits its clinical application. As such, the purpose of this project was to determine if a non-invasive form of SHM could identify structural alterations in the spines of living human subjects. Lumbar spines of 10 twin pairs were visualized by magnetic resonance imaging then assessed by a blinded radiologist to determine whether twin pairs were structurally concordant or discordant. Vibration was then applied to each subject's spine and the resulting response recorded from sensors overlying lumbar spinous processes. The peak frequency, area under the curve and the root mean square were computed from the frequency response function of each sensor. Statistical analysis demonstrated that in twins whose structural appearance was discordant, peak frequency was significantly different between twin pairs while in concordant twins, no outcomes were significantly different. From these results, we conclude that structural changes within the spine can alter its vibration response. As such, further investigation of SHM to identify spinal abnormalities in larger human populations is warranted.

  20. Ultrafast time-resolved transient structures of solids and liquids by means of extended X-ray absorption fine structure. (United States)

    Tomov, Ivan V; Rentzepis, Peter M


    Detection of ultrafast transient structures and the evolution of ultrafast structural intermediates during the course of reactions has been a long standing goal of chemists and biologists. This article will be restricted to nanosecond, picosecond and shorter time-resolved extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) studies, its aim being to present the progress and problems encounter in measurements and understanding the structure of transients. The recent advances in source technology has stimulated a wide variety of novel experiments using both synchrotrons and smaller laboratory size systems. With more efficient X-ray lenses and detectors many of the previously difficult experiments to perform, because of the exposure time required and weak signals, will now be easily performed. The experimental system for the detection of ultrafast, time-resolved EXAFS spectra of molecules in liquids is described and the method for the analysis of EXAFS spectra to yield transient structures is given. We believe that utilizing our table-top ultrafast X-ray source and the polycapillary optics in conjunction with dispersive spectrometer and charge coupled devices (CCD) we will be able to determine the structure of many reaction intermediates and excited states of chemical and biological molecules in solid and liquid state.

  1. Uncertainty modeling in vibration, control and fuzzy analysis of structural systems

    CERN Document Server

    Halder, Achintya; Ayyub, Bilal M


    This book gives an overview of the current state of uncertainty modeling in vibration, control, and fuzzy analysis of structural and mechanical systems. It is a coherent compendium written by leading experts and offers the reader a sampling of exciting research areas in several fast-growing branches in this field. Uncertainty modeling and analysis are becoming an integral part of system definition and modeling in many fields. The book consists of ten chapters that report the work of researchers, scientists and engineers on theoretical developments and diversified applications in engineering sy

  2. Vibration based structural assessment of the rehabilitation intervention in r.c. segmental bridge


    Franchetti Paolo; Frizzarin Michele; Leonardi Andrea; Zeni Fabio


    A vibration based structural assessment campaign was carried out on a r.c. segmental bridge in North East Italy. The bridge has a cantilever static scheme, fixed at the top of the piers and with a hinge at the centre of the span. The particular configuration of the hinge consists in a couple of steel elements, each one composed by a tongue and groove joint. Since the year 1960, the hinge was subjected to consumption and degradation, that caused a malfunctioning of the device. An intervention ...

  3. On a finite dynamic element method for free vibration analysis of structures (United States)

    Gupta, K. K.


    This paper explores the concept of finite dynamic elements involving higher order dynamic correction terms in the associated stiffness and mass matrices. Such matrices are then developed for a rectangular prestressed membrane element. Next, efficient analysis techniques for the eigenproblem solution of the resulting quadratic matrix equations are described in detail. These are followed by suitable numerical examples which indicate that employment of such dynamic elements in conjunction with an efficient quadratic matric solution technique will result in a most significant economy in the free vibration analysis of structures.

  4. Development of a block Lanczos algorithm for free vibration analysis of spinning structures (United States)

    Gupta, K. K.; Lawson, C. L.


    This paper is concerned with the development of an efficient eigenproblem solution algorithm and an associated computer program for the economical solution of the free vibration problem of complex practical spinning structural systems. Thus, a detailed description of a newly developed block Lanczos procedure is presented in this paper that employs only real numbers in all relevant computations and also fully exploits sparsity of associated matrices. The procedure is capable of computing multiple roots and proves to be most efficient compared to other existing similar techniques.

  5. Comment on plate modal wavenumber transforms in Sound and structural vibration [Academic Press (1987, 2007)] (L). (United States)

    Shepherd, Micah R; Hambric, Stephen A


    The wavenumber transform for rectangular, simply supported, isotropic thin plates has been rederived to correct a technical error found in the text Sound and Structural Vibration (Academic Press, 1985/2007) by Fahy/Fahy and Gardonio. The text states that the modal wavenumber corresponds to the peak of the wavenumber spectrum. While this is approximately true for higher-order modes, it does not hold for lower-order modes due to coupling between positive and negative wavenumber energy. The modal wavenumber is shown to be related to the zeros in the wavenumber spectrum by an integer multiple of 2π normalized by the plate length.

  6. Structure detection in a libration vibration spectrum of water molecules by methods of nonlinear optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babenko, V A; Sychev, Andrei A [P N Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    In exciting water possessing an enhanced optical strength by the radiation of a YAG : Nd{sup 3+} laser with 20-ps pulses, nonlinear scattering of light was detected in the frequency range of the optical second harmonic. A relationship was established of the signal of the nonlinear scattering with a stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) of the laser radiation in water. Near the SRS threshold, the structure was observed in the spectrum of nonlinear scattering, which is related to intermolecular libration vibrations of water molecules. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  7. Ground vibration test results for Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST)/Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW-1R) aircraft (United States)

    Cox, T. H.; Gilyard, G. B.


    The drones for aerodynamic and structural testing (DAST) project was designed to control flutter actively at high subsonic speeds. Accurate knowledge of the structural model was critical for the successful design of the control system. A ground vibration test was conducted on the DAST vehicle to determine the structural model characteristics. This report presents and discusses the vibration and test equipment, the test setup and procedures, and the antisymmetric and symmetric mode shape results. The modal characteristics were subsequently used to update the structural model employed in the control law design process.

  8. Development of Ultra-Fine-Grained Structure in AISI 321 Austenitic Stainless Steel (United States)

    Tiamiyu, A. A.; Szpunar, J. A.; Odeshi, A. G.; Oguocha, I.; Eskandari, M.


    Ultra-fine-grained (UFG) structure was developed in AISI 321 austenitic stainless steel (ASS) using cryogenic rolling followed by annealing treatments at 923 K, 973 K, 1023 K, and 1073 K (650 °C, 700 °C, 750 °C, and 800 °C) for different lengths of time. The α'-martensite to γ-austenite reversion behavior and the associated texture development were analyzed in the cryo-rolled specimens after annealing. The activation energy, Q, required for the reversion of α'-martensite to γ-austenite in the steel was estimated to be 80 kJ mol-1. TiC precipitates and unreversed triple junction α'-martensite played major roles in the development of UFG structure through the Zener pinning of grain boundaries. The optimum annealing temperature and time for the development of UFG structure in the cryo-rolled AISI 321 steel are (a) 923 K (650 °C) for approximately 28800 seconds and (b) 1023 K (750 °C) for 600 seconds, with average grain sizes of 0.22 and 0.31 µm, respectively. Annealing at 1023 K (750 °C) is considered a better alternative since the volume fraction of precipitated carbides in specimens annealed at 1023 K (750 °C) are less than those annealed at 923 K (650 °C). More so, the energy consumption during prolonged annealing time to achieve an UFG structure at 923 K (650 °C) is higher due to low phase reversion rate. The hardness of the UFG specimens is 195 pct greater than that of the as-received steel. The higher volume fraction of TiC precipitates in the UFG structure may be an additional source of hardening. Micro and macrotexture analysis indicated {110}〈uvw〉 as the major texture component of the austenite grains in the UFG structure. Its intensity is stronger in the specimen annealed at low temperatures.

  9. Studies of X-pinch Plasma Fine Structure Using High Resolution Optical and Imaging Spectroscopy Methods (United States)

    Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Romanova, V. M.; Sarkisov, G. S.; Hammer, D. A.; Acton, D. F.; Kalantar, D. H.


    An X-pinch is formed by placing two or more fine wires between the output electrodes of a high current pulser so that the wires cross and touch in mid-gap. The predictable position of a neck in the resulting plasma at the wire cross point enables the use of high resolution optical systems for studies of the neck-forming plasma dynamics(D.H. Kalantar and D.A. Hammer, Phys. Rev. Lett 71), 3806 (1993); S.A. Pikuz et al., JQSRT 51, 291 (1994)., as well as high resolution imaging x-ray spectroscopy(A.Ya. Faenov et al., X-ray Sci. & Tech. 5), 323 (1995). for studying the internal structure of the neck. The position of the neck in the relation to the cross-point of the X-pinch wires, the neck structure during pinching, plasma parameters in the vicinity of the neck and in the plasma around of the wires cores were investigating using pulsed lasers. The internal structure of the bright spot near the cross point was studied with spatial resolution better than 10 microns using a time integrated pin-hole camera and the radiation of individual spectral lines of highly charged ions such as He-like Ni and Al. Work supported by Sandia Contact AJ-6400.

  10. Effect of fine-grained components on concrete properties and structure formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimakova Galina


    Full Text Available The paper investigates the influence of fine-grained components on the synthesis of new formations and structure of cellular concrete. Grain size composition was defined with the aid of a laser diffraction analyzer of particles ANALYSETTE 22 NanoTecplus. The composition of the obtained hydrated phases was studied using electron microscopy and X-ray phase analysis. The introduction of silica and aluminosilicate components with the specific surface area >350 m2/kg enabled to directly influence the mechanism of the hydrated phases formation. Complex hydrated calcium aluminosilicates of the frame structure of zeolite type and non-permanent composition were identified in the hydration products. The formation of the total set of properties is attributed to the morphological features of the hydrated phases, the nature of connections between the crystalline hydrates, and their location in the material structure. X-ray phase analysis showed that ultra-micro-dispersed components have the stimulating impact on the processes of silicate formation. With the increase in the amount of hydrated new formations and decrease in the liquid phase volume the conditions for building of strong crystal intergrowth contacts were created.

  11. Experimental and theoretical study of the vibrational spectra of oligoureas: helical versus β-sheet-type secondary structures. (United States)

    Cavagnat, Dominique; Claudon, Paul; Fischer, Lucile; Guichard, Gilles; Desbat, Bernard


    Ab initio calculations of two oligoureas stabilized in helix and sheet organization have been performed. The hydrogen bond distances were found to be almost the same for both structures. The vibrational assignment of the two oligourea structures and the direction of the transition moment of each vibration have been determined. From these results, and using the experimental isotropic optical index determined for one oligourea, we have established the anisotropic infrared optical files for the two structures. Interestingly, most urea absorptions vibrate in only one principal direction. Also, the shift of the carbonyl band is weaker and inverse to what was reported for corresponding protein secondary structures. Finally, simulations of the Polarization Modulation Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy (PMIRRAS) and Attenuated Reflection Spectroscopy (ATR) infrared spectra demonstrate the possibility to determine the orientation of the oligoureas in thin or ultrathin films, even if in some cases it may be difficult to unambiguously assign their secondary structure.

  12. The molecular structure and vibrational, 1H and 13C NMR spectra of lidocaine hydrochloride monohydrate (United States)

    Badawi, Hassan M.; Förner, Wolfgang; Ali, Shaikh A.


    The structure, vibrational and NMR spectra of the local anesthetic drug lidocaine hydrochloride monohydrate salt were investigated by B3LYP/6-311G∗∗ calculations. The lidocaine·HCl·H2O salt is predicted to have the gauche structure as the predominant form at ambient temperature with NCCN and CNCC torsional angles of 110° and -123° as compared to 10° and -64°, respectively in the base lidocaine. The repulsive interaction between the two N-H bonds destabilized the gauche structure of lidocaine·HCl·H2O salt. The analysis of the observed vibrational spectra is consistent with the presence of the lidocaine salt in only one gauche conformation at room temperature. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra of lidocaine·HCl·H2O were interpreted by experimental and DFT calculated chemical shifts of the lidocaine salt. The RMSD between experimental and theoretical 1H and 13C chemical shifts for lidocaine·HCl·H2O is 2.32 and 8.21 ppm, respectively.

  13. Anomaly detection for a vibrating structure: A subspace identification/tracking approach. (United States)

    Candy, J V; Franco, S N; Ruggiero, E L; Emmons, M C; Lopez, I M; Stoops, L M


    Mechanical devices operating in noisy environments lead to low signal-to-noise ratios creating a challenging signal processing problem to monitor the vibrational signature of the device in real-time. To detect/classify a particular type of device from noisy vibration data, it is necessary to identify signatures that make it unique. Resonant (modal) frequencies emitted offer a signature characterizing its operation. The monitoring of structural modes to determine the condition of a device under investigation is essential, especially if it is a critical entity of an operational system. The development of a model-based scheme capable of the on-line tracking of structural modal frequencies by applying both system identification methods to extract a modal model and state estimation methods to track their evolution is discussed along with the development of an on-line monitor capable of detecting anomalies in real-time. An application of this approach to an unknown structural device is discussed illustrating the approach and evaluating its performance.

  14. Structural, Electronic, Magnetic, and Vibrational Properties of Graphene and Silicene: A First-Principles Perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.


    This thesis covers the structural, electronic, magnetic, and vibrational properties of graphene and silicene. In Chapter I, we will start with an introduction to graphene and silicene. In Chapter II, we will briefly discuss about the methodology (i. e. density functional theory)In Chapter III, we will introduce band gap opening in graphene either by introducing defects/doping or by creating superlattices with h-BN substrate. In Chapter IV, we will focus on the structural and electronic properties of K and Ge-intercalated graphene on SiC(0001). In addition, the enhancement of the superconducting transition temperature in Li-decorated graphene supported by h-BN substrate will be discussed. In Chapter V, we will discuss the vibrational properties of free-standing silicene. In addition, superlattices of silicene with h-BN as well as the phase transition in silicene by applying an external electric field will be discussed. The electronic and magnetic properties transition metal decorated silicene will be discussed, in particular the realization of the quantum anomalous Hall effect will be addressed. Furthermore, the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of Mn decorated silicene supported by h-BN substrate will be discussed. The conclusion is included in Chapters VI. Finally, we will end with references and a list of publications for this thesis.

  15. Phase influence of combined rotational and transverse vibrations on the structural response (United States)

    Habtour, Ed; Sridharan, Raman; Dasgupta, Abhijit; Robeson, Mark; Vantadori, Sabrina


    The planar dynamic response of a cantilever metallic beam structure under combined harmonic base excitations (consisting of in-plane transverse and rotation about the out-of-plane transverse axis) was investigated experimentally. The important effect of the phase angle between the two simultaneous biaxial excitations on the beam tip displacement was demonstrated. The experiments were performed using a unique six degree-of-freedom (6-DoF) electrodynamic shaker with high control accuracy. The results showed that the beam tip displacement at the first flexural mode was amplified when the phase angle between the rotational and translational base excitations was increased. The beam nonlinear stiffness, on the other hand, simultaneously: (i) decreased due to fatigue damage accumulation, and (ii) increased due to an increase in the phase angle. The results were compared to the uniaxial excitation technique, where the principle of superposition was applied (mathematical addition of the structural response for each uniaxial excitation). The principle of superposition was shown to overestimate the structural response for low phase angles. Thus, the application of the superposition vibration testing as a substitute for multiaxial vibration testing may lead to over-conservatism and erroneous dynamic and reliability predictions.

  16. Correlative Structural Biology: How to Investigate the Fine Details of Viral Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth R. Wright


    Full Text Available Commentary on Byeon, I.J.; Meng, X.; Jung, J.; Zhao, G.; Yang, R.; Ahn, J.; Shi, J.; Concel, J.; Aiken, C.; Zhang, P.; Gronenborn, A.M. Structural convergence between Cryo-EM and NMR reveals intersubunit interactions critical for HIV-1 capsid function. Cell 2009, 139, 780-790.

  17. Effects of structural connectivity on fine scale population genetic structure of muskrat, Ondatra zibethicus (United States)

    Laurence, Sophie; Smith, Matthew J; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I


    In heterogeneous landscapes, physical barriers and loss of structural connectivity have been shown to reduce gene flow and therefore lead to population structuring. In this study, we assessed the influence of landscape features on population genetic structure and gene flow of a semiaquatic species, the muskrat. A total of 97 muskrats were sampled from three watersheds near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. We estimated population genetic structure using 11 microsatellite loci and identified a single genetic cluster and no genetic differences were found among the watersheds as a result of high levels of gene flow. At finer scales, we assessed the correlation between individual pairwise genetic distances and Euclidean distance as well as different models of least cost path (LCP). We used a range of cost values for the landscape types in order to build our LCP models. We found a positive relationship between genetic distance and least cost distance when we considered roads as corridors for movements. Open landscapes and urban areas seemed to restrict but not prevent gene flow within the study area. Our study underlines the high-dispersal ability of generalist species in their use of landscape and highlights how landscape features often considered barriers to animal movements are corridors for other species. PMID:24223287

  18. X-ray absorption fine structure study of multinuclear copper(I) thiourea mixed ligand complexes (United States)

    Gaur, Abhijeet; Shrivastava, B. D.; Srivastava, K.; Prasad, J.; Raghuwanshi, V. S.


    X-ray absorption fine structure spectra of five copper(I) thiourea complexes [Cu4(thu)6 (NO3)4 (H2O)4] (1), [Cu4(thu)9 (NO3)4 (H2O)4] (2), [Cu2(thu)6 (SO4) H2O] (3), [Cu2(thu)5 (SO4) (H2O)3] (4), and [Cu(thu)Cl 0.5H2O] (5) have been investigated. Complexes 1 and 3 are supposed to have one type of copper centers in trigonal planar and tetrahedral environment, respectively. Complexes 2 and 4 are supposed to have two types of copper centers, one center having trigonal planar geometry and another center having tetrahedral geometry. The aim of the present work is to show how extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra of these complexes, having different types of coordination environment, can be analyzed to yield the coordination geometry around one type of copper centers present in complexes 1 and 3, and two types of copper centers present in complexes 2 and 4. The crystal structure of complex 5 is unavailable due to inability of growing its single crystals, and hence the coordination geometry of this complex has been determined from EXAFS. The structural parameters determined from the EXAFS spectra have been reported and the coordination geometry has been depicted for the metal centers present in all the five complexes. Also, the chemical shifts have been used to determine the oxidation state of copper in these complexes. The X-ray absorption near edge spectra features have also been correlated with the coordination geometry. Also, the presence of both three and four coordinated Cu(I) centers in complexes 2 and 4 has been suggested from a comparison of the intensity of the feature at 8984 eV with those of 1 and 3. Further, in case of complex 5, the high intensity of peak A at 8986.5 eV is found to correspond to the presence of Cl coordinated to the copper center.

  19. Regulation of the demographic structure in isomorphic biphasic life cycles at the spatial fine scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Manuel Nobre de Carvalho da Silva Vieira

    Full Text Available Isomorphic biphasic algal life cycles often occur in the environment at ploidy abundance ratios (Haploid:Diploid different from 1. Its spatial variability occurs within populations related to intertidal height and hydrodynamic stress, possibly reflecting the niche partitioning driven by their diverging adaptation to the environment argued necessary for their prevalence (evolutionary stability. Demographic models based in matrix algebra were developed to investigate which vital rates may efficiently generate an H:D variability at a fine spatial resolution. It was also taken into account time variation and type of life strategy. Ploidy dissimilarities in fecundity rates set an H:D spatial structure miss-fitting the ploidy fitness ratio. The same happened with ploidy dissimilarities in ramet growth whenever reproductive output dominated the population demography. Only through ploidy dissimilarities in looping rates (stasis, breakage and clonal growth did the life cycle respond to a spatially heterogeneous environment efficiently creating a niche partition. Marginal locations were more sensitive than central locations. Related results have been obtained experimentally and numerically for widely different life cycles from the plant and animal kingdoms. Spore dispersal smoothed the effects of ploidy dissimilarities in fertility and enhanced the effects of ploidy dissimilarities looping rates. Ploidy dissimilarities in spore dispersal could also create the necessary niche partition, both over the space and time dimensions, even in spatial homogeneous environments and without the need for conditional differentiation of the ramets. Fine scale spatial variability may be the key for the prevalence of isomorphic biphasic life cycles, which has been neglected so far.

  20. 4f fine-structure levels as the dominant error in the electronic structures of binary lanthanide oxides. (United States)

    Huang, Bolong


    The ground-state 4f fine-structure levels in the intrinsic optical transition gaps between the 2p and 5d orbitals of lanthanide sesquioxides (Ln2 O3 , Ln = La…Lu) were calculated by a two-way crossover search for the U parameters for DFT + U calculations. The original 4f-shell potential perturbation in the linear response method were reformulated within the constraint volume of the given solids. The band structures were also calculated. This method yields nearly constant optical transition gaps between Ln-5d and O-2p orbitals, with magnitudes of 5.3 to 5.5 eV. This result verifies that the error in the band structure calculations for Ln2 O3 is dominated by the inaccuracies in the predicted 4f levels in the 2p-5d transition gaps, which strongly and non-linearly depend on the on-site Hubbard U. The relationship between the 4f occupancies and Hubbard U is non-monotonic and is entirely different from that for materials with 3d or 4d orbitals, such as transition metal oxides. This new linear response DFT + U method can provide a simpler understanding of the electronic structure of Ln2 O3 and enables a quick examination of the electronic structures of lanthanide solids before hybrid functional or GW calculations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Determining Orientational Structure of Diamondoid Thiols Attached to Silver Using Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willey, T M; Lee, J I; Fabbri, J D; Wang, D; Nielsen, M; Randel, J C; Schreiner, P R; Fokin, A A; Tkachenko, B A; Fokina, N A; Dahl, J P; Carlson, R K; Terminello, L J; Melosh, N A; van Buuren, T


    Near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) is a powerful tool for determination of molecular orientation in self-assembled monolayers and other surface-attached molecules. A general framework for using NEXAFS to simultaneously determine molecular tilt and twist of rigid molecules attached to surfaces is presented. This framework is applied to self-assembled monolayers of higher diamondoid, hydrocarbon molecules with cubic-diamond-cage structures. Diamondoid monolayers chemisorbed on metal substrates are known to exhibit interesting electronic and surface properties. This work compares molecular orientation in monolayers prepared on silver substrates using two different thiol positional isomers of [121]tetramantane, and thiols derived from two different pentamantane structural isomers, [1212]pentamantane and [1(2,3)4]pentamantane. The observed differences in monolayer structure demonstrate the utility and limitations of NEXAFS spectroscopy and the framework. The results also demonstrate the ability to control diamondoid assembly, in particular the molecular orientational structure, providing a flexible platform for the modification of surface properties with this exciting new class of nanodiamond materials.

  2. Local atomic structure in iron copper binary alloys: An extended X-ray absorption fine structure study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuri, G. [LWV, NES, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)]. E-mail:; Degueldre, C. [LWV, NES, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Bertsch, J. [LWV, NES, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Rothe, J. [INE, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76344 Karlsruhe (Germany)


    Understanding the clustering process and the evolution of the precipitate structure of copper in Fe-Cu system is an important step in the description of material hardening and the embrittlement process normally observed under irradiation conditions. In this work, an extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy characterization of Fe-0.3 wt%Cu and Fe-1.0 wt%Cu binary model alloys has been performed in order to investigate the local structure around Cu and Fe atoms in the matrix. The effect of thermal ageing was studied on one Fe-Cu specimen containing 1.0 wt% Cu annealed at 775 K for a duration of 1 h. The near-neighbour environment of Cu and Fe was examined by determining the best-fit structural parameters after curve fitting to the first-few-shells EXAFS functions. The results provide an indication of the formation of sub-nanometer-size Cu clusters in Fe matrix for the specimens examined. The average structural parameters estimated from the EXAFS data are presented and discussed.

  3. Vibration Analysis of a Framework Structure by Generalized Transfer Stiffness Coefficient Method (United States)

    Bonkobara, Yasuhiro; Kondou, Takahiro; Ayabe, Takashi; Choi, Myung-Soo

    A generalized transfer stiffness coefficient method using graph theory is developed in order to improve the applicability of the transfer stiffness coefficient method. In the new method, an analytical model is expressed by a weighted signal-flow graph, and the graph is contracted according to the series and parallel contraction rules. The computational complexity and the memory requirement for the contraction process are both minimized by choosing the optimal contraction route. In addition, it is possible to develop a data-driving program that is applicable to various structures without updating the source program. An algorithm based on the present method is formulated for the in-plane longitudinal and flexural coupled free and forced vibration analyses of a two-dimensional framework structure. Furthermore, an overview for applying the method to a three-dimensional framework structure is briefly presented. The validity of the present algorithm is confirmed by the results of numerical computations.

  4. Structural, electronic and vibrational properties of lanthanide monophosphide at high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panchal, J. M., E-mail: [Government Engineering College, Gandhinagar382028, Gujarat (India); Department of Physics, University School of Sciences, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad 380009, Gujarat (India); Joshi, Mitesh [Government Polytechnic for Girls, Athwagate, Surat395001, Gujarat (India); Gajjar, P. N., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University School of Sciences, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad 380009, Gujarat (India)


    A first-principles plane wave self-consistent method with the ultra-soft-pseudopotential scheme in the framework of the density functional theory (DFT) is performed to study structural, electronic and vibrational properties of LaP for Rock-salt (NaCl/Bl) and Cesium-chloride (CsCl/B2) phases. The instability of Rock-salt (NaCl/Bl) phases around the transition is discussed. Conclusions based on electronic energy band structure, density of state, phonon dispersion and phonon density of states in both phases are outlined. The calculated results are consistence and confirm the successful applicability of quasi-harmonic phonon theory for structural instability studies for the alloys.

  5. Analysis of vibration characteristics of opening device for deepwater robot cabin door and study of its structural optimization design (United States)

    Zeng, Baoping; Liu, Jipeng; Zhang, Yu; Gong, Yajun; Hu, Sanbao


    Deepwater robots are important devices for human to explore the sea, which is being under development towards intellectualization, multitasking, long-endurance and large depth along with the development of science and technology. As far as a deep-water robot is concerned, its mechanical systems is an important subsystem because not only it influences the instrument measuring precision and shorten the service life of cabin devices but also its overlarge vibration and noise lead to disadvantageous effects to marine life within the operational area. Therefore, vibration characteristics shall be key factor for the deep-water robot system design. The sample collection and recycling system of some certain deepwater robot in a mechanism for opening the underwater cabin door for external operation and recycling test equipment is focused in this study. For improving vibration characteristics of locations of the cabin door during opening processes, a vibration model was established to the opening system; and the structural optimization design was carried out to its important structures by utilizing the multi-objective shape optimization and topology optimization method based on analysis of the system vibration. Analysis of characteristics of exciting forces causing vibration was first carried out, which include characteristics of dynamic loads within the hinge clearances and due to friction effects and the fluid dynamic exciting forces during processes of opening the cabin door. Moreover, vibration acceleration responses for a few important locations of the devices for opening the cabin cover were deduced by utilizing the modal synthesis method so that its rigidity and modal frequency may be one primary factor influencing the system vibration performances based on analysis of weighted acceleration responses. Thus, optimization design was carried out to the cabin cover by utilizing the multi-objective topology optimization method to perform reduction of weighted accelerations

  6. Vibration Control of Structures using Vibro-Impact Nonlinear Energy Sinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahmadi


    Full Text Available Using Vibro-Impact Nonlinear Energy Sinks (VI NESs is one of the novel strategies to control structural vibrations and mitigate their seismic response. In this system, a mass is tuned on the structure floor, so that it has a specific distance from an inelastic constraint connected to the floor mass. In case of structure stimulation, the displaced VI NES mass collides with the  inelastic constraint and upon impacts, energy is dissipated. In the present work, VI NES is studied when its parameters, including clearance and stiffness ratio, are simultaneously optimized. Harmony search as a recent meta-heuristic algorithm is efficiently specialized and utilized for the aforementioned continuous optimization problem. The optimized attached VI NES is thus shown to be capable of interacting with the primary structure over a wide range of frequencies. The resulting controlled response is then investigated, in a variety of low and medium rise steel moment frames, via nonlinear dynamic time history analyses. Capability of the VI NES to dissipate siesmic input energy of earthquakes and their capabilitiy in reducing response of srtructures effectively, through vibro-impacts between the energy sink’s mass and the floor mass, is discussed by extracting several performance indices and the corresponding Fourier spectra. Results of the numerical simulations done on some structural model examples reveal that the optimized VI NES has caused successive redistribution of energy from low-frequency high-amplitude vibration modes to high-frequency low-amplitude modes, bringing about the desired attenuation of the structural responses.

  7. Vibrational Spectroscopy of the CCl[subscript 4] v[subscript 1] Mode: Theoretical Prediction of Isotopic Effects (United States)

    Gaynor, James D.; Wetterer, Anna M.; Cochran, Rea M.; Valente, Edward J.; Mayer, Steven G.


    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful experimental technique, yet it is often missing from the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory curriculum. Tetrachloromethane (CCl[subscript 4]) is the ideal molecule for an introductory vibrational spectroscopy experiment and the symmetric stretch vibration contains fine structure due to isotopic variations…

  8. Rotational and Fine Structure of Pseudo-Jahn Molecules with C_1 Symmetry (United States)

    Liu, Jinjun


    It has been found in our previous works that rotational and fine-structure analysis of spectra involving nearly degenerate electronic states may aid in interpretation and analysis of the vibronic structure, specifically in the case of pseudo-Jahn-Teller (pJT) molecules with C_s symmetry. The spectral analysis of pJT derivatives (isopropoxy and cyclohexoxy of a prototypical JT molecule (the methoxy radical) allowed for quantitative determination of various contributions to the energy separation between the nearly degenerate electronic states, including the relativistic spin-orbit (SO) effect, the electrostatic interaction, and their zero-point energy difference. These states are coupled by SO and Coriolis interactions, which can also be determined accurately in rotational and fine structure analysis. Most recently, the spectroscopic model for rotational analysis of pJT molecules has been extended for analysis of molecules with C_1 symmetry, i.e., no symmetry. This model includes the six independently determinable components of the spin-rotation (SR) tensor and the three components of the SO and Coriolis interactions. It has been employed to simulate and fit high-resolution laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectra of jet-cooled alkoxy radicals with C_1 symmetry, including the 2-hexoxy and the 2-pentoxy radicals, as well as previously recorded LIF spectrum of the trans-conformer (defined by its OCCC dihedral angle) of the 2-butoxy radical. Although the LIF spectra can be reproduced by using either the SR constants or SO and Coriolis constants, the latter simulation offers results that are physically more meaningful whereas the SR constants have to be regarded as effective constants. Furthermore, we will review the SO and Coriolis constants of alkoxy radicals that have been investigated, starting from the well-studied methoxy radical (CH_3O). J. Liu, D. Melnik, and T. A. Miller, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 094308 (2013) J. Liu and T. A. Miller, J. Phys. Chem. A 118, 11871

  9. Distorted Tonotopic Coding of Temporal Envelope and Fine Structure with Noise-Induced Hearing Loss. (United States)

    Henry, Kenneth S; Kale, Sushrut; Heinz, Michael G


    People with cochlear hearing loss have substantial difficulty understanding speech in real-world listening environments (e.g., restaurants), even with amplification from a modern digital hearing aid. Unfortunately, a disconnect remains between human perceptual studies implicating diminished sensitivity to fast acoustic temporal fine structure (TFS) and animal studies showing minimal changes in neural coding of TFS or slower envelope (ENV) structure. Here, we used general system-identification (Wiener kernel) analyses of chinchilla auditory nerve fiber responses to Gaussian noise to reveal pronounced distortions in tonotopic coding of TFS and ENV following permanent, noise-induced hearing loss. In basal fibers with characteristic frequencies (CFs) >1.5 kHz, hearing loss introduced robust nontonotopic coding (i.e., at the wrong cochlear place) of low-frequency TFS, while ENV responses typically remained at CF. As a consequence, the highest dominant frequency of TFS coding in response to Gaussian noise was 2.4 kHz in noise-overexposed fibers compared with 4.5 kHz in control fibers. Coding of ENV also became nontonotopic in more pronounced cases of cochlear damage. In apical fibers, more classical hearing-loss effects were observed, i.e., broadened tuning without a significant shift in best frequency. Because these distortions and dissociations of TFS/ENV disrupt tonotopicity, a fundamental principle of auditory processing necessary for robust signal coding in background noise, these results have important implications for understanding communication difficulties faced by people with hearing loss. Further, hearing aids may benefit from distinct amplification strategies for apical and basal cochlear regions to address fundamentally different coding deficits. Speech-perception problems associated with noise overexposure are pervasive in today's society, even with modern digital hearing aids. Unfortunately, the underlying physiological deficits in neural coding remain

  10. Finely divided methylsilsesquioxane particles with SiO4/2 fragments in structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel A. Averichkin


    Full Text Available Results of structural and morphological investigations of methylsilsesquioxane finely divided particles synthesized by hydrolytic co-condensation of in situ alkoxylated methyltrichlorosilane and tetrachlorous silicon are presented. The silica-type hydrophobe particles have been obtained using the abovementioned method with an output of 98.7–99.4 wt% of the load. These particles have been identified as crystalline formations with a lattice period of 5.5–8.0 nm and an interplane distance of 0.92–1.04 nm in the near order. We show that unlike for well-known crystalline methylsilsesquioxanes, introduction of chemically bonded SiO4/2 fragments to the material structure leads to the formation of 2–3 μm-sized spherical particles from the initial 10–15 nm particles; these particles are responsible for the spherical morphology of the surface. A method of extracting siloxane nanoparticles (2.5–280 nm from the reaction products has been described, the behavior of particles in suspension has been studied and particle dimensional parameters have been determined using helium−neon 0.6328 nm laser correlation spectroscopy.

  11. Growth scheme for quantum dots with low fine structure splitting at telecom wavelengths (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Muller, Tina; Skiba-Szymanska, Joanna; Stevenson, R. Mark; Varnava, Christiana; Felle, Martin; Huwer, Jan; Farrer, Ian; Krysa, Andrey B.; Spencer, Peter; Ritchie, David A.; Heffernan, Jon; Shields, Andrew J.


    Quantum dots based on InAs/InP hold the promise to deliver entangled photons with wavelength suitable for the standard telecom window around 1550 nm, which makes them predestined to be used in future quantum networks applications based on existing fiber optics infrastructure. A prerequisite for the generation of such entangled photons is a small fine structure splitting (FSS) in the quantum dot excitonic eigenstates, as well as the ability to integrate the dot into photonic structures to enhance and direct its emission. Using optical spectroscopy, we show that a growth strategy based on droplet epitaxy can simultaneously address both issues. Contrary to the standard Stranski-Krastanow technique, droplet epitaxy dots do not rely on material strains during growth, which results in a drastic improvement in dot symmetry. As a consequence, the average exciton FSS is reduced by more than a factor 4, which in fact makes all the difference between easily finding a dot with the required FSS and not finding one at all. Furthermore, we demonstrate that droplet epitaxy dots can be grown on the necessary surface (001) for high quality optical microcavities, which increases dot emission count rates by more than a factor of five. Together, these properties make droplet epitaxy quantum dots readily suitable for the generation of entangled photons at telecom wavelengths.

  12. Fine resolution mapping of population age-structures for health and development applications. (United States)

    Alegana, V A; Atkinson, P M; Pezzulo, C; Sorichetta, A; Weiss, D; Bird, T; Erbach-Schoenberg, E; Tatem, A J


    The age-group composition of populations varies considerably across the world, and obtaining accurate, spatially detailed estimates of numbers of children under 5 years is important in designing vaccination strategies, educational planning or maternal healthcare delivery. Traditionally, such estimates are derived from population censuses, but these can often be unreliable, outdated and of coarse resolution for resource-poor settings. Focusing on Nigeria, we use nationally representative household surveys and their cluster locations to predict the proportion of the under-five population in 1 × 1 km using a Bayesian hierarchical spatio-temporal model. Results showed that land cover, travel time to major settlements, night-time lights and vegetation index were good predictors and that accounting for fine-scale variation, rather than assuming a uniform proportion of under 5 year olds can result in significant differences in health metrics. The largest gaps in estimated bednet and vaccination coverage were in Kano, Katsina and Jigawa. Geolocated household surveys are a valuable resource for providing detailed, contemporary and regularly updated population age-structure data in the absence of recent census data. By combining these with covariate layers, age-structure maps of unprecedented detail can be produced to guide the targeting of interventions in resource-poor settings.

  13. Enhanced reflectance X-ray absorption fine structure sensitivity using a whispering-gallery waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Chernov, V A; Kovalenko, N V; Zolotarev, K V


    A new technique of reflectance X-ray absorption fine structure (REFL-XAFS) utilizing waveguides where X-rays are reflected many times along the waveguide surface is discussed. The multiple total reflection (MTR) phenomenon highly increases X-ray interaction with the waveguide surface and hence offers higher sensitivity compared to conventional (single reflection) REFL-XAFS. On the one hand, this technique is a direct structural method for characterizing waveguides (e.g. capillaries) where the application of other methods is very difficult. On the other hand, the conventional thin wafer can be transformed to a whispering-gallery (WG) waveguide by bending to a curved mirror. Ray tracing calculations demonstrate that the WG waveguide is very suitable for REFL-XAFS measurements. This method was experimentally realized for a cylindrically bent silica wafer with the surface covered with a GeO sub 2 monolayer. The Ge K-edge REFL-XAFS measurements were performed using both MTR and conventional techniques. The MTR tec...

  14. Evidence of Recent Fine-Scale Population Structuring in South American Puma concolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno H. Saranholi


    Full Text Available Habitat loss and fragmentation are considered the major treats to worldwide biodiversity. Carnivores in particular can be more sensitive to landscape modification due to their low occurrence density and large home ranges. Population structuring of Puma concolor has been already reported as a consequence of extensive human activities in the North American continent. Here, we investigated the occurrence of fine-scale population structuring in the South American cougar population, contrasting two conservation areas immersed in a highly human-fragmented landscape dominated by the presence of sugar cane monoculture, roads, and urbanization, including a series of dams in the Tietê River which enlarges its water body. Seven microsatellites were amplified using non-invasive DNA obtained from fecal samples. We conducted genetic clustering analyses using Bayesian and factorial components. We also performed genetic differentiation analyses by fixation indices (Fst and Dest. Two genetic clusters represented by individuals from each area were found, indicating the occurrence of gene flow reduction between the areas. The intense human-induced landscape modification—which includes the Tietê River water body enlargement, imposing physical barriers to the movement of the individuals—could explain the gene flow reduction. Increasing connectivity among the preserved areas can mitigate such effects, and the creation of corridors or further management actions such as individual translocation to ensure gene flow in the highly-modified landscape may be essential for maintaining the genetic and demographic health of the species and its long-term persistence.

  15. Retinal pigment epithelial fine structure in the red-tailed hawk (Buto jamaicensis). (United States)

    Braekevelt, C R


    As part of a comparative morphological study, the fine structure of the retinal epithelium (RPE), choriocapillaris and Bruch's membrane (complexus basalis) has been studied by electron microscopy in the red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis). In this species the RPE consists of a single layer of low cuboidal cells which display numerous basal (scleral) infoldings and extensive apical (vitreal) processes which interdigitate with photoreceptor outer segments. These epithelial cells are joined laterally by a series of basally located tight junctions. Internally SER is the most abundant cell organelle while only small amounts of RER are present. Polysomes are however abundant as are mitochondria. The RPE cell nucleus is large and vesicular. Melanosomes are mainly located in the apical processes of the RPE cells in light-adaptation. Myeloid bodies are large and numerous in light-adaptation and often show ribosomes on their outer border. Bruch's membrane (complexus basalis) shows the typical pentalaminate structure noted in most vertebrates but with only a poorly defined central elastic layer. The endothelium of the choriocapillaris is very thin facing the RPE but is only moderately fenestrated. The choriocapillaris in this species is unusual however in that many of the fenestrae show a double-layered diaphragm.

  16. Synthesis, fine structural characterization, and CO2 adsorption capacity of metal organic frameworks-74. (United States)

    Adhikari, Abhijit Krishna; Lin, Kuen-Song


    Two metal organic frameworks of MOF-74 group (zinc and copper-based) were successfully synthesized, characterized, and evaluated for CO2 adsorption. The both samples such as MOF-74(Zn) and MOF-74(Cu) were characterized with FE-SEM for morphology and particle size, XRD patterns for phase structure, FTIR for organic functional groups, nitrogen adsorption for pore textural properties, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy for fine structural parameters and oxidation states of central metal atoms. CO2 adsorption isotherms of MOF-74 samples were measured in a volumetric adsorption unit at 273 K and pressure up to 1.1 bar. The MOF-74(Zn) and MOF-74(Cu) adsorbents have the pore widths of 8.58 and 8.04 angstroms with the BET specific surface areas of 1,474 and 1,345 m2 g(-1), respectively. CO2 adsorption capacities of MOF-74(Zn) and MOF-74(Cu) were 4.10 and 3.38 mmol x g(-1), respectively measured at 273 K and 1.1 bar. The oxidation state of central atoms in MOF-74(Zn) was Zn(II) confirmed by XANES spectra while MOF-74(Cu) was composed of Cu(I) and Cu(II) central atoms. The bond distances of Zn--O and Cu--O were 1.98 and 1.94 angstroms, respectively.

  17. The morphology and fine structure of the giant interneurons of the wood cricket Nemobius sylvestris. (United States)

    Insausti, T C; Lazzari, C R; Casas, J


    The structural and ultrastructural characteristics of giant interneurons in the terminal abdominal ganglion of the cricket Nemobius sylvestris were investigated by means of cobalt and fluorescent dye backfilling and transmission electron microscopy. The projections of the 8 eight pairs of the biggest ascending interneurons (giant interneurons) are described in detail. The somata of all interneurons analyzed are located contralateral to their axons, which project to the posterior region of the terminal ganglion and arborise in the cercal glomerulus. Neuron 7-1a is an exception, because its arborisation is restricted to the anterior region of the ganglion. The fine structure of giant interneurons shows typical features of highly active cells. We observed striking indentations in the perineural layer, enabling the somata of the giant interneurons to be very close to the haemolymph. The cercal glomerulus exhibits a high diversity of synaptic contacts (i.e. axo-dendritic, axo-axonic, dendro-axonic, and dendro-dendritic), as well as areas of tight junctions. Electrical synapses seem to be present, as well as mixed synapses. The anatomical organization of the giant interneurons is finally discussed in terms of functional implications and on a comparative basis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fine Structure of Glycosaminoglycans from Fresh and Decellularized Porcine Cardiac Valves and Pericardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cigliano


    Full Text Available Cardiac valves are dynamic structures, exhibiting a highly specialized architecture consisting of cells and extracellular matrix with a relevant proteoglycan and glycosaminoglycan content, collagen and elastic fibers. Biological valve substitutes are obtained from xenogenic cardiac and pericardial tissues. To overcome the limits of such non viable substitutes, tissue engineering approaches emerged to create cell repopulated decellularized scaffolds. This study was performed to determine the glycosaminoglycans content, distribution, and disaccharides composition in porcine aortic and pulmonary valves and in pericardium before and after a detergent-based decellularization procedure. The fine structural characteristics of galactosaminoglycans chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate were examined by FACE. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of decellularized pericardium and its propensity to be repopulated by in vitro seeded fibroblasts were investigated. Results show that galactosaminoglycans and hyaluronan are differently distributed between pericardium and valves and within heart valves themselves before and after decellularization. The distribution of glycosaminoglycans is also dependent from the vascular district and topographic localization. The decellularization protocol adopted resulted in a relevant but not selective depletion of galactosaminoglycans. As a whole, data suggest that both decellularized porcine heart valves and bovine pericardium represent promising materials bearing the potential for future development of tissue engineered heart valve scaffolds.

  19. Closed-Loop Input Shaping Control of Vibration in Flexible Structures via Adaptive Sliding Mode Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chang Pai


    Full Text Available Input shaping technique is widely used in reducing or eliminating residual vibration of flexible structures. The exact elimination of the residual vibration via input shaping technique depends on the amplitudes and instants of impulse application. However, systems always have parameter uncertainties which can lead to performance degradation. In this paper, a closed-loop input shaping control scheme is developed for uncertain flexible structures. The algorithm is based on input shaping control and adaptive sliding mode control. The proposed scheme does not need a priori knowledge of upper bounds on the norm of the uncertainties, but estimates them by using the adaptation technique. This scheme guarantees closed-loop system stability, and yields good performance and robustness in the presence of parameter uncertainties and external disturbances as well. Furthermore, it is shown that increasing the robustness to parameter uncertainties does not lengthen the duration of the impulse sequence. Simulation results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed closed-loop input shaping control scheme.

  20. A Framework for Occupancy Tracking in a Building via Structural Dynamics Sensing of Footstep Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey D. Poston


    Full Text Available Counting the number of occupants in building areas over time—occupancy tracking—provides valuable information for responding to emergencies, optimizing thermal conditions or managing personnel. This capability is distinct from tracking individual building occupants as they move within a building, has lower complexity than conventional tracking algorithms require, and avoids privacy concerns that tracking individuals may pose. The approach proposed here is a novel combination of data analytics applied to measurements from a building’s structural dynamics sensors (e.g., accelerometers or geophones. Specifically, measurements of footstep-generated structural waves provide evidence of occupancy in a building area. These footstep vibrations can be distinguished from other vibrations, and, once identified, the footsteps can be located. These locations, in turn, form the starting point of estimating occupancy in an area. In order to provide a meaningful occupancy count, however, it is first necessary to associate discrete footsteps with individuals. The proposed framework incorporates a tractable algorithm for this association task. The proposed algorithms operate online, updating occupancy count over time as new footsteps are detected. Experiments with measurements from a public building illustrate the operation of the proposed framework. This approach offers an advantage over others based on conventional technologies by avoiding the cost of a separate sensor system devoted to occupancy tracking.

  1. Analysis of subsystem randomness effects on the mid-frequency vibrations of built-up structures (United States)

    Ji, Lin; Huang, Zhenyu


    The paper concerns the analysis of subsystem randomness effects on the mid-frequency vibration responses of built-up systems. The system model considered, in the first instance, is a long-wavelength finite element (FE) subsystem connected with a short-wavelength statistical energy analysis (SEA) subsystem via discrete couplings. The randomness effects of the SEA subsystem on both the displacement response of the FE subsystem and the energy response of the SEA subsystem are then investigated under the frame of the hybrid FE/SEA theory [P. Shorter, R. Langley, Vibro-acoustic analysis of complex systems, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 288 (2005) 669-700]. It is found that the subsystem randomness effects may be well indicated by a dimensionless parameter α, which is a function of the number of coupling points, the dynamic mismatch between the FE and SEA subsystems and the modal overlap factor of the SEA subsystem. The smaller the value of α is, the more insignificant the randomness effects are. As a result, a so-called "α-criterion" is derived which states that, if a built-up structure satisfies the condition of α≪1, the randomness effects of the SEA subsystem can be neglected. In this case, the SEA subsystem can be simply treated as an infinite (or semi-infinite as appropriate) structure regardless of its mode count being sufficiently high or not. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the validity of the present theory.

  2. Structure of the ethylammonium nitrate surface: an X-ray reflectivity and vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy study. (United States)

    Niga, Petru; Wakeham, Deborah; Nelson, Andrew; Warr, Gregory G; Rutland, Mark; Atkin, Rob


    X-ray reflectivity and vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy are used to probe the structure of the ethylammonium nitrate (EAN)-air interface. X-ray reflectivity reveals that the EAN-air interface is structured and consists of alternating nonpolar and charged layers that extend 31 A into the bulk. Vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy reveals interfacial cations have their ethyl moieties oriented toward air, with the CH(3) C(3) axis positioned approximately 36.5 degrees from interface normal. This structure is invariant between 15 and 51 degrees C. On account of its molecular symmetry, the orientation of the nitrate anion cannot be determined with certainty.

  3. New Insight into the Local Structure of Hydrous Ferric Arsenate Using Full-Potential Multiple Scattering Analysis, Density Functional Theory Calculations, and Vibrational Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Wang, Shaofeng; Ma, Xu; Zhang, Guoqing; Jia, Yongfeng; Hatada, Keisuke


    Hydrous ferric arsenate (HFA) is an important arsenic-bearing precipitate in the mining-impacted environment and hydrometallurgical tailings. However, there is no agreement on its local atomic structure. The local structure of HFA was reprobed by employing a full-potential multiple scattering (FPMS) analysis, density functional theory (DFT) calculations, and vibrational spectroscopy. The FPMS simulations indicated that the coordination number of the As-Fe, Fe-As, or both in HFA was approximately two. The DFT calculations constructed a structure of HFA with the formula of Fe(HAsO4)x(H2AsO4)1-x(OH)y·zH2O. The presence of protonated arsenate in HFA was also evidenced by vibrational spectroscopy. The As and Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectra of HFA were accurately reproduced by FPMS simulations using the chain structure, which was also a reasonable model for extended X-Ray absorption fine structure fitting. The FPMS refinements indicated that the interatomic Fe-Fe distance was approximately 5.2 Å, consistent with that obtained by Mikutta et al. (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2013, 47 (7), 3122-3131) using wavelet analysis. All of the results suggested that HFA was more likely to occur as a chain with AsO4 tetrahedra and FeO6 octahedra connecting alternately in an isolated bidentate-type fashion. This finding is of significance for understanding the fate of arsenic and the formation of ferric arsenate minerals in an acidic environment.

  4. Role of Binaural Temporal Fine Structure and Envelope Cues in Cocktail-Party Listening. (United States)

    Swaminathan, Jayaganesh; Mason, Christine R; Streeter, Timothy M; Best, Virginia; Roverud, Elin; Kidd, Gerald


    While conversing in a crowded social setting, a listener is often required to follow a target speech signal amid multiple competing speech signals (the so-called "cocktail party" problem). In such situations, separation of the target speech signal in azimuth from the interfering masker signals can lead to an improvement in target intelligibility, an effect known as spatial release from masking (SRM). This study assessed the contributions of two stimulus properties that vary with separation of sound sources, binaural envelope (ENV) and temporal fine structure (TFS), to SRM in normal-hearing (NH) human listeners. Target speech was presented from the front and speech maskers were either colocated with or symmetrically separated from the target in azimuth. The target and maskers were presented either as natural speech or as "noise-vocoded" speech in which the intelligibility was conveyed only by the speech ENVs from several frequency bands; the speech TFS within each band was replaced with noise carriers. The experiments were designed to preserve the spatial cues in the speech ENVs while retaining/eliminating them from the TFS. This was achieved by using the same/different noise carriers in the two ears. A phenomenological auditory-nerve model was used to verify that the interaural correlations in TFS differed across conditions, whereas the ENVs retained a high degree of correlation, as intended. Overall, the results from this study revealed that binaural TFS cues, especially for frequency regions below 1500 Hz, are critical for achieving SRM in NH listeners. Potential implications for studying SRM in hearing-impaired listeners are discussed. Acoustic signals received by the auditory system pass first through an array of physiologically based band-pass filters. Conceptually, at the output of each filter, there are two principal forms of temporal information: slowly varying fluctuations in the envelope (ENV) and rapidly varying fluctuations in the temporal fine

  5. Changes in the Fine Structure of Stochastic Distributions as a Consequence of Space-Time Fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shnoll S. E.


    Full Text Available This is a survey of the fine structure stochastic distributions in measurements obtained by me over 50 years. It is shown: (1 The forms of the histograms obtained at each geographic point (at each given moment of time are similar with high probability, even if we register phenomena of completely different nature --- from biochemical reactions to the noise in a gravitational antenna, or alpha-decay. (2 The forms of the histograms change with time. The iterations of the same form have the periods of the stellar day (1.436 min, the solar day (1.440 min, the calendar year (365 solar days, and the sidereal year (365 solar days plus 6 hours and 9 min. (3 At the same instants of the local time, at different geographic points, the forms of the histograms are the same, with high probability. (4 The forms of the histograms depend on the locations of the Moon and the Sun with respect to the horizon. (5 All the facts are proof of the dependance of the form of the histograms on the location of the measured objects with respect to stars, the Sun, and the Moon. (6 At the instants of New Moon and the maxima of solar eclipses there are specific forms of the histograms. (7 It is probable that the observed correlations are not connected to flow power changes (the changes of the gravity force --- we did not find the appropriate periods in changes in histogram form. (8 A sharp anisotropy of space was discovered, registered by alpha-decay detectors armed with collimators. Observations at 54 North (the collimator was pointed at the Pole Star showed no day-long periods, as was also the case for observations at 82 North, near the Pole. Histograms obtained by observations with an Easterly-directed collimator were determined every 718 minutes (half stellar day and with observations using a Westerly-directed collimator. (9 Collimators rotating counter-clockwise, in parallel with the celestial equator, gave the probability of changes in histograms as the number of the

  6. Changes in the Fine Structure of Stochastic Distributions as a Consequence of Space-Time Fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shnoll S. E.


    Full Text Available This is a survey of the fine structure stochastic distributions in measurements obtained by me over 50 years. It is shown: (1 The forms of the histograms obtained at each geographic point (at each given moment of time are similar with high probability, even if we register phenomena of completely different nature — from biochemical reactions to the noise in a gravitational antenna, or α-decay. (2 The forms of the histograms change with time. The iterations of the same form have the periods of the stellar day (1.436 min, the solar day (1.440 min, the calendar year (365 solar days, and the sidereal year (365 solar days plus 6 hours and 9 min. (3 At the same instants of the local time, at different geographic points, the forms of the histograms are the same, with high probability. (4 The forms of the histograms depend on the locations of the Moon and the Sun with respect to the horizon. (5 All the facts are proof of the dependance of the form of the histograms on the location of the measured objects with respect to stars, the Sun, and the Moon. (6 At the instants of New Moon and the maxima of solar eclipses there are specific forms of the histograms. (7 It is probable that the observed correlations are not connected to flow power changes (the changes of the gravity force — we did not find the appropriate periods in changes in histogram form. (8 A sharp anisotropy of space was discovered, registered by α-decay detectors armed with collimators. Observations at 54◦ North (the collimator was pointed at the Pole Star showed no day-long periods, as was also the case for observations at 82◦ North, near the Pole. Histograms obtained by observations with an Easterly-directed collimator were determined every 718 minutes (half stellar day and with observations using a Westerly-directed collimator. (9 Collimators rotating counter-clockwise, in parallel with the celestial equator, gave the probability of changes in histograms as the number of the

  7. Recovery and fine structure variability of RGII sub-domains in wine (Vitis vinifera Merlot). (United States)

    Buffetto, F; Ropartz, D; Zhang, X J; Gilbert, H J; Guillon, F; Ralet, M-C


    Rhamnogalacturonan II (RGII) is a structurally complex pectic sub-domain composed of more than 12 different sugars and 20 different linkages distributed in five side chains along a homogalacturonan backbone. Although RGII has long been described as highly conserved over plant evolution, recent studies have revealed variations in the structure of the polysaccharide. This study examines the fine structure variability of RGII in wine, focusing on the side chains A and B obtained after sequential mild acid hydrolysis. Specifically, this study aims to differentiate intrinsic structural variations in these RGII side chains from structural variations due to acid hydrolysis. RGII from wine (Vitis vinifera Merlot) was sequentially hydrolysed with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and the hydrolysis products were separated by anion-exchange chromatography (AEC). AEC fractions or total hydrolysates were analysed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The optimal conditions to recover non-degraded side chain B, side chain A and RGII backbone were 0·1 m TFA at 40 °C for 16 h, 0·48 m TFA at 40 °C for 16 h (or 0·1 m TFA at 60 °C for 8 h) and 0·1 m TFA at 60 °C for 16 h, respectively. Side chain B was particularly prone to acid degradation. Side chain A and the RGII GalA backbone were partly degraded by 0·1 m TFA at 80 °C for 1-4 h. AEC allowed separation of side chain B, methyl-esterified side chain A and non-methyl-esterified side chain A. The structure of side chain A and the GalA backbone were highly variable. Several modifications to the RGII structure of wine were identified. The observed dearabinosylation and deacetylation were primarily the consequence of acidic treatment, while variation in methyl-esterification, methyl-ether linkages and oxidation reflect natural diversity. The physiological significance of this variability, however, remains to be determined. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights

  8. A close inspection and vibration sensing aerial robot for steel structures with an EPM-based landing device (United States)

    Takeuchi, Kazuya; Masuda, Arata; Akahori, Shunsuke; Higashi, Yoshiyuki; Miura, Nanako


    This paper proposes an aerial robot that can land on and cling to a steel structure using electric permanent magnets to be- have as a vibration sensor probe for use in vibration-based structural health monitoring. In the last decade, structural health monitoring techniques have been studied intensively to tackle with serious social issues that most of the infrastructures in advanced countries are being deteriorated. In the typical concept of the structural health monitoring, vibration sensors like accelerometers are installed in the structure to continuously collect the dynamical response of the operating structure to find a symptom of the structural damage. It is unreasonable, however, to permanently deploy the sensors to numerous infrastructures because most of the infrastructures except for those of primary importance do not need continuous measurement and evaluation. In this study, the aerial robot plays a role of a mobile detachable sensor unit. The design guidelines of the aerial robot that performs the vibration measurement from the analysis model of the robot is shown. Experiments to evaluate the frequency response function of the acceleration measured by the robot with respect to the acceleration at the point where the robot adheres are carried out. And the experimental results show that the prototype robot can measure the acceleration of the host structure accurately up to 150 Hz.

  9. Vibration transmission through periodic structures using a mobility power flow approach (United States)

    Cuschieri, J. M.


    The transmission of vibrational power (time averaged) through multiple coupled (periodic) structures is examined. The analysis is performed in the frequency domain and the coupling between the sub-elements of the periodic structure is expressed in terms of structural mobility functions for the junction points and between the junction points of the sub-elements. Equal length spans between stiffeners or supports of the periodic structure are considered. Through the use of the mobility power flow approach, the influence of sub-element and junction parameters, including damping at the joints, can be investigated. The results from the analysis can be in the form of either structural intensity or alternatively structural power content for each of the sub-elements. The examples discussed are for a thin, perfectly periodic beam with a finite number of spans with different types of stiffeners and/or supports between the spans. The excitation of the structure is by a point load located midway along the first span.

  10. Space structure vibration modes: How many exist? Which ones are important? (United States)

    Hughes, P. C.


    This report attempts to shed some light on the two issues raised in the title, namely, how many vibration modes does a real structure have, and which of these modes are important? The surprise-free answers to these two questions are, respectively, an infinite number and the first several modes. The author argues that the absurd subspace (all but the first billion modes) is not a strength of continuum modeling, but, in fact, a weakness. Partial differential equations are not real structures, only mathematical models. This note also explains (1) that the PDE model and the finite element model are, in fact, the same model, the latter being a numerical method for dealing with the former, (2) that modes may be selected on dynamical grounds other than frequency alone, and (3) that long slender rods are useful as primitive cases but dangerous to extrapolate from.

  11. Exchanging conformations of a hydroformylation catalyst structurally characterized using two-dimensional vibrational spectroscopy. (United States)

    Panman, Matthijs R; Vos, Jannie; Bocokić, Vladica; Bellini, Rosalba; de Bruin, Bas; Reek, Joost H N; Woutersen, Sander


    Catalytic transition-metal complexes often occur in several conformations that exchange rapidly (structures are difficult to characterize with conventional methods. Here, we determine specific bond angles in the two rapidly exchanging solution conformations of the hydroformylation catalyst (xantphos)Rh(CO)2H using two-dimensional vibrational spectroscopy, a method that can be applied to any catalyst provided that the exchange between its conformers occurs on a time scale of a few picoseconds or slower. We find that, in one of the conformations, the OC-Rh-CO angle deviates significantly from the canonical value in a trigonal-bipyramidal structure. On the basis of complementary density functional calculations, we ascribe this effect to attractive van der Waals interaction between the CO and the xantphos ligand.

  12. Numerical solution of quadratic matrix equations for free vibration analysis of structures (United States)

    Gupta, K. K.


    This paper is concerned with the efficient and accurate solution of the eigenvalue problem represented by quadratic matrix equations. Such matrix forms are obtained in connection with the free vibration analysis of structures, discretized by finite 'dynamic' elements, resulting in frequency-dependent stiffness and inertia matrices. The paper presents a new numerical solution procedure of the quadratic matrix equations, based on a combined Sturm sequence and inverse iteration technique enabling economical and accurate determination of a few required eigenvalues and associated vectors. An alternative procedure based on a simultaneous iteration procedure is also described when only the first few modes are the usual requirement. The employment of finite dynamic elements in conjunction with the presently developed eigenvalue routines results in a most significant economy in the dynamic analysis of structures.

  13. Low-frequency and wideband vibration energy harvester with flexible frame and interdigital structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Pengwei, E-mail:; Wang, Yanfen; Luo, Cuixian; Li, Gang; Hu, Jie; Zhang, Wendong [MicroNano System Research Center of College of Information Engineering and Key Lab of Advanced Transducers and Intelligent Control System of the Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, Shanxi (China); Liu, Ying [MicroNano System Research Center of College of Information Engineering and Key Lab of Advanced Transducers and Intelligent Control System of the Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, Shanxi (China); Baicheng Ordnance Test Center of China, Baicheng 137000, Jilin (China); Liu, Wei [Baicheng Ordnance Test Center of China, Baicheng 137000, Jilin (China)


    As an alternative to traditional cantilever beam structures and their evolutions, a flexible beam based, interdigital structure, vibration energy harvester has been presented and investigated. The proposed interdigital-shaped oscillator consists of a rectangular flexible frame and series of cantilever beams interdigitally bonded to it. In order to achieve low frequency and wide-bandwidth harvesting, Young’s modulus of materials, frame size and the amount of the cantilevers have been studied systematically. The measured frequency responses of the designed device (PDMS frame, quintuple piezoelectric cantilever beams) show a 460% increase in bandwidth below 80Hz. When excited at an acceleration of 1.0 g, the energy harvester achieves to a maximum open-circuit voltage of 65V, and the maximum output power 4.5 mW.

  14. Low-frequency and wideband vibration energy harvester with flexible frame and interdigital structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengwei Li


    Full Text Available As an alternative to traditional cantilever beam structures and their evolutions, a flexible beam based, interdigital structure, vibration energy harvester has been presented and investigated. The proposed interdigital-shaped oscillator consists of a rectangular flexible frame and series of cantilever beams interdigitally bonded to it. In order to achieve low frequency and wide-bandwidth harvesting, Young’s modulus of materials, frame size and the amount of the cantilevers have been studied systematically. The measured frequency responses of the designed device (PDMS frame, quintuple piezoelectric cantilever beams show a 460% increase in bandwidth below 80Hz. When excited at an acceleration of 1.0 g, the energy harvester achieves to a maximum open-circuit voltage of 65V, and the maximum output power 4.5 mW.

  15. Fine-scale analysis reveals cryptic landscape genetic structure in desert tortoises.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily K Latch

    Full Text Available Characterizing the effects of landscape features on genetic variation is essential for understanding how landscapes shape patterns of gene flow and spatial genetic structure of populations. Most landscape genetics studies have focused on patterns of gene flow at a regional scale. However, the genetic structure of populations at a local scale may be influenced by a unique suite of landscape variables that have little bearing on connectivity patterns observed at broader spatial scales. We investigated fine-scale spatial patterns of genetic variation and gene flow in relation to features of the landscape in desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii, using 859 tortoises genotyped at 16 microsatellite loci with associated data on geographic location, sex, elevation, slope, and soil type, and spatial relationship to putative barriers (power lines, roads. We used spatially explicit and non-explicit Bayesian clustering algorithms to partition the sample into discrete clusters, and characterize the relationships between genetic distance and ecological variables to identify factors with the greatest influence on gene flow at a local scale. Desert tortoises exhibit weak genetic structure at a local scale, and we identified two subpopulations across the study area. Although genetic differentiation between the subpopulations was low, our landscape genetic analysis identified both natural (slope and anthropogenic (roads landscape variables that have significantly influenced gene flow within this local population. We show that desert tortoise movements at a local scale are influenced by features of the landscape, and that these features are different than those that influence gene flow at larger scales. Our findings are important for desert tortoise conservation and management, particularly in light of recent translocation efforts in the region. More generally, our results indicate that recent landscape changes can affect gene flow at a local scale and that their

  16. Causes and consequences of fine-scale population structure in a critically endangered freshwater seal (United States)


    Background Small, genetically uniform populations may face an elevated risk of extinction due to reduced environmental adaptability and individual fitness. Fragmentation can intensify these genetic adversities and, therefore, dispersal and gene flow among subpopulations within an isolated population is often essential for maintaining its viability. Using microsatellite and mtDNA data, we examined genetic diversity, spatial differentiation, interregional gene flow, and effective population sizes in the critically endangered Saimaa ringed seal (Phoca hispida saimensis), which is endemic to the large but highly fragmented Lake Saimaa in southeastern Finland. Results Microsatellite diversity within the subspecies (HE = 0.36) ranks among the lowest thus far recorded within the order Pinnipedia, with signs of ongoing loss of individual heterozygosity, reflecting very low effective subpopulation sizes. Bayesian assignment analyses of the microsatellite data revealed clear genetic differentiation among the main breeding areas, but interregional structuring was substantially weaker in biparentally inherited microsatellites (FST = 0.107) than in maternally inherited mtDNA (FST = 0.444), indicating a sevenfold difference in the gene flow mediated by males versus females. Conclusions Genetic structuring in the population appears to arise from the joint effects of multiple factors, including small effective subpopulation sizes, a fragmented lacustrine habitat, and behavioural dispersal limitation. The fine-scale differentiation found in the landlocked Saimaa ringed seal is especially surprising when contrasted with marine ringed seals, which often exhibit near-panmixia among subpopulations separated by hundreds or even thousands of kilometres. Our results demonstrate that population structures of endangered animals cannot be predicted based on data on even closely related species or subspecies. PMID:25005257

  17. QUDeX-MS: hydrogen/deuterium exchange calculation for mass spectra with resolved isotopic fine structure. (United States)

    Salisbury, Joseph P; Liu, Qian; Agar, Jeffrey N


    Hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) coupled to mass spectrometry permits analysis of structure, dynamics, and molecular interactions of proteins. HDX mass spectrometry is confounded by deuterium exchange-associated peaks overlapping with peaks of heavy, natural abundance isotopes, such as carbon-13. Recent studies demonstrated that high-performance mass spectrometers could resolve isotopic fine structure and eliminate this peak overlap, allowing direct detection and quantification of deuterium incorporation. Here, we present a graphical tool that allows for a rapid and automated estimation of deuterium incorporation from a spectrum with isotopic fine structure. Given a peptide sequence (or elemental formula) and charge state, the mass-to-charge ratios of deuterium-associated peaks of the specified ion is determined. Intensities of peaks in an experimental mass spectrum within bins corresponding to these values are used to determine the distribution of deuterium incorporated. A theoretical spectrum can then be calculated based on the estimated distribution of deuterium exchange to confirm interpretation of the spectrum. Deuterium incorporation can also be detected for ion signals without a priori specification of an elemental formula, permitting detection of exchange in complex samples of unidentified material such as natural organic matter. A tool is also incorporated into QUDeX-MS to help in assigning ion signals from peptides arising from enzymatic digestion of proteins. MATLAB-deployable and standalone versions are available for academic use at and . Isotopic fine structure HDX-MS offers the potential to increase sequence coverage of proteins being analyzed through mass accuracy and deconvolution of overlapping ion signals. As previously demonstrated, however, the data analysis workflow for HDX-MS data with resolved isotopic fine structure is distinct. QUDeX-MS we hope will aid in the adoption of isotopic fine structure HDX

  18. Stokes shift and fine-structure splitting in CdSe/CdTe invert type-II ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using the atomistic tight-binding (TB) theory and configuration interaction (CI) description, it is showed that the Stokes shift and fine-structure splitting (FSS) in semiconductor core/shell nanocrystals are predominantly affected by the shell thickness and band profiles. CdSe/CdTe invert type-II and CdTe/CdSe type-II core/shell ...

  19. Variation in beta-glucan fine structure, extractability, and flour slurry viscosity in oats due to genotype and environment (United States)

    Effects of genotype and environment on oats on beta-glucan extractability,flour slurry viscosity, and beta-glucan polymer fine structure were tested. Certain environments had unpredictable catastrophic effects on slurry viscosity. Learning the cause of such viscosity loss should be of high priority ...

  20. Fine-scale spatial genetic structure in the frankincense tree Boswellia papyrifera (Del.) Hochst. and implications for conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Addisalem, A.B.; Duminil, J.; Wouters, D.; Bongers, F.; Smulders, M.J.M.


    The fine-scale genetic structure and how it varies between generations depends on the spatial scale of gene dispersal and other fundamental aspects of species’ biology, such as the mating system. Such knowledge is crucial for the design of genetic conservation strategies. This is particularly

  1. An inverse method for the identification of a distributed random excitation acting on a vibrating structure. Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granger, S.; Perotin, L. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France)


    Maintaining the PWR components under reliable operating conditions requires a complex design to prevent various damaging processes, including fatigue and wear problems due to flow-induced vibration. In many practical situations, it is difficult, if not impossible, to perform direct measurements or calculations of the external forces acting on vibrating structures. Instead, vibrational responses can often be conveniently measured. This paper presents an inverse method for estimating a distributed random excitation from the measurement of the structural response at a number of discrete points. This paper is devoted to the presentation of the theoretical development. The force identification method is based on a modal model for the structure and a spatial orthonormal decomposition of the excitation field. The estimation of the Fourier coefficients of this orthonormal expansion is presented. As this problem turns out to be ill-posed, a regularization process is introduced. The minimization problem associated to this process is then formulated and its solutions is developed. (author) 17 refs.

  2. Synthesis, structural, photoluminescence, vibrational and DFT investigation of the bis (4-aminopyridinium) tetrachloridocuprate(II) monohydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessentini, A., E-mail: [Laboratoire Physico-Chimie de l’Etat Solide, Département de Chimie, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, B. P. 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Belhouchet, M. [Laboratoire Physico-Chimie de l’Etat Solide, Département de Chimie, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, B. P. 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Suñol, J.J. [Departamento De Fisica, Universita de Girona, Compus Montilivi, Girona 17071 (Spain); Abid, Y. [Laboratoire de Physique appliquée, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, B. P. 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Mhiri, T. [Laboratoire Physico-Chimie de l’Etat Solide, Département de Chimie, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, B. P. 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia)


    The crystals of the family of alkylammonuim tetrachloridocuprate (II), (C{sub 5}H{sub 7}N{sub 2}){sub 2}CuCl{sub 4}H{sub 2}O, have been grown, structurally characterized and their vibrational as well as optical properties been studied. A preliminary single crystal X-ray diffraction structural analysis has revealed that the title compound belongs to the monoclinic system with space group C2/c. Its unit cell dimensions are: a=8.454 (2) Å, b=14.279 (2) Å, c=14.363 (3) Å, β=95.813 (4)°, with Z=4 and its crystal structure was determined and refined down to R{sub 1}=0.029 and wR{sub 2}=0.080. The crystal lattice is composed of discrete [CuCl{sub 4}]{sup 2−} tetrahedra surrounded by 4-aminopyridinium cations and water molecules which are interconnected by means of hydrogen bonding contacts [N–H…Cl, O–H…Cl and N–H…O]. Furthermore, the room temperature IR and Raman spectra of the title compound were recorded and analyzed. The optimized molecular structure and the vibrational spectra were calculated by the density functional theory (DFT) method using the B3LYP function. The organic–inorganic hybrid crystal thin film can be easily prepared by spin-coating method from the ethanol solution of the (C{sub 5}H{sub 7}N{sub 2}){sub 2}CuCl{sub 4}H{sub 2}O perovskite and it showed characteristic absorptions of CuCl-based layered perovskite centered at 288 and 400 nm, as well as the photoluminescence peak at around 443 nm. The unaided-eye-detectable blue luminescence emission comes from the excitonic transition in the CuCl{sub 4} anions. - Highlights: • A new hybrid compound (C{sub 5}H{sub 7}N{sub 2}){sub 2}CuCl{sub 4}H{sub 2}O was synthesized. • Vibrational properties were studied by IR and Raman spectroscopy and examined theoretically using the DFT/B3LYP/LanL2DZ level of theory. • The UV–vis spectrum shows two absorption peaks at 288 and at 400 nm. • This compound show a strong blue emission at 443 nm.

  3. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure and micro-Raman spectra of Bridgman grown Cd1-xZnxTe ternary alloys (United States)

    Talwar, Devki N.; Feng, Zhe Chuan; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Becla, P.


    We have performed low-temperature micro-Raman scattering and extended x-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) measurements on the Bridgman-grown bulk zinc-blende Cd1-x Zn x Te (1.0 ≧̸ x ≧̸ 0.03) ternary alloys to comprehend their structural and lattice dynamical properties. The micro-Raman results are carefully appraised to authenticate the classical two-phonon mode behavior insinuated by far-infrared (FIR) reflectivity study. The composition-dependent EXAFS experiments have revealed a bimodal distribution of the nearest-neighbor bond lengths—its analysis by first-principles bond-orbital model enabled us to estimate the lattice relaxations around Zn/Cd atoms in CdTe/ZnTe to help evaluate the necessary force constant variations for constructing the impurity-perturbation matrices. The simulated results of impurity vibrational modes by average-t-matrix Green’s function (ATM-GF) theory has put our experimental findings of the gap mode ˜153 cm-1 near x ≈ 1 on a much firmer ground.

  4. Reexamination of the effective fine structure constant of graphene as measured in graphite (United States)

    Gan, Yu; de la Peña, Gilberto A.; Kogar, Anshul; Uchoa, Bruno; Casa, Diego; Gog, Thomas; Fradkin, Eduardo; Abbamonte, Peter


    We present a refined and improved study of the influence of screening on the effective fine structure constant of graphene, α*, as measured in graphite using inelastic x-ray scattering. This followup to our previous study [J. P. Reed et al., Science 330, 805 (2010), 10.1126/science.1190920] was carried out with two times better energy resolution, five times better momentum resolution, and an improved experimental setup with lower background. We compare our results to random-phase approximation (RPA) calculations and evaluate the relative importance of interlayer hopping, excitonic corrections, and screening from high energy excitations involving the σ bands. We find that the static, limiting value of α* falls in the range 0.25-0.35, which is higher than our previous result of 0.14, but still below the value expected from RPA. We show the reduced value is not a consequence of interlayer hopping effects, which were ignored in our previous analysis, but of a combination of excitonic effects in the π →π* particle-hole continuum, and background screening from the σ -bonded electrons. We find that σ -band screening is extremely strong at distances of less than a few nanometers, and should be highly effective at screening out short-distance, Hubbard-like interactions in graphene as well as other carbon allotropes.

  5. Restricted gene flow and fine-scale population structuring in tool using New Caledonian crows (United States)

    Rutz, C.; Ryder, T. B.; Fleischer, R. C.


    New Caledonian crows Corvus moneduloides are the most prolific avian tool users. It has been suggested that some aspects of their complex tool use behaviour are under the influence of cultural processes, involving the social transmission—and perhaps even progressive refinement—of tool designs. Using microsatellite and mt-haplotype profiling of crows from three distinct habitats (dry forest, farmland and beachside habitat), we show that New Caledonian crow populations can exhibit significant fine-scale genetic structuring. Our finding that some sites of differentiated demonstrates considerable potential for genetic and/or cultural isolation of crow groups. Restricted movement of birds between local populations at such small spatial scales, especially across habitat boundaries, illustrates how specific tool designs could be preserved over time, and how tool technologies of different crow groups could diverge due to drift and local selection pressures. Young New Caledonian crows have an unusually long juvenile dependency period, during which they acquire complex tool-related foraging skills. We suggest that the resulting delayed natal dispersal drives population-divergence patterns in this species. Our work provides essential context for future studies that examine the genetic makeup of crow populations across larger geographic areas, including localities with suspected cultural differences in crow tool technologies.

  6. Subaru Telescope limits on cosmological variations in the fine-structure constant (United States)

    Murphy, Michael T.; Cooksey, Kathy L.


    Previous, large samples of quasar absorption spectra have indicated some evidence for relative variations in the fine-structure constant (Δα/α) across the sky. However, they were likely affected by long-range distortions of the wavelength calibration, so it is important to establish a statistical sample of more reliable results from multiple telescopes. Here we triple the sample of Δα/α measurements from the Subaru Telescope which have been `supercalibrated' to correct for long-range distortions. A blinded analysis of the metallic ions in six intervening absorption systems in two Subaru quasar spectra provides no evidence for α variation, with a weighted mean of Δα/α = 3.0 ± 2.8stat ± 2.0sys parts per million (1σ statistical and systematic uncertainties). The main remaining systematic effects are uncertainties in the long-range distortion corrections, absorption profile models, and errors from redispersing multiple quasar exposures on to a common wavelength grid. The results also assume that terrestrial isotopic abundances prevail in the absorbers; assuming only the dominant terrestrial isotope is present significantly lowers Δα/α, though it is still consistent with zero. Given the location of the two quasars on the sky, our results do not support the evidence for spatial α variation, especially when combined with the 21 other recent measurements which were corrected for, or resistant to, long-range distortions. Our spectra and absorption profile fits are publicly available.

  7. The Potamophylax nigricornis group (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae: resolution of phylogenetic species by fine structure analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oláh, J.


    Full Text Available Applying the phylogenetic species concept and the sexual selection theory we have reviewed some natal aspects of incipient species and their accelerated evolution. How can we recognise early stages of divergence? Which selection pressures are at work during speciation? Which pathways accelerate the speed of speciation? Which kinds of trait variabilities makes difficult to find initial split criteria? Elaborating the principles of Fine Structure Analysis (FSA and the morphological Initial Split Criteria (ISP it was discovered that the European spring dwelling caddisfly Potamophylax nigricornis doesn’tbelong to a single species. It represents an entire species group with seventeen peripatric species evolving on the southernperipheries of the distributional area. Four new species subgroups have been erected: Potamophylax nigricornis new species subgroup, P. elegantulus new species subgroup, P. horgos new species subgroup, P. simas new species subgroup. Eleven new species have been described: Potamophylax apados sp. nov., P. fules sp. nov., P. fureses sp. nov., P. hasas sp. novov., P. horgos sp. nov., P. kethas sp. nov., P. lemezes sp. nov., P. peremes sp. nov., P. simas sp. nov., P. tuskes sp. nov., P. ureges sp. nov. One Potamophylax sp. nov. has been differentiated and three new species status have been documented:Potamophylax elegantulus (Klapálek stat. n., P. mista (Navás stat. nov., P. testaceus (Zetterstedt stat. nov.

  8. Fine structure and immunocytochemistry of a new chemosensory system in the Chiton larva (Mollusca: Polyplacophora). (United States)

    Haszprunar, Gerhard; Friedrich, Stefan; Wanninger, Andreas; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard


    Combined electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry of the larvae of several polyplacophoran species (Chiton olivaceus, Lepidochitona aff. corrugata, Mopalia muscosa) revealed a sensory system new to science, a so-called "ampullary system." The cells of the "ampullary system" are arranged in four symmetrically situated pairs lying dorsolaterally and ventrolaterally in the pretrochal part of the trochophore-like larva and they send axons into the cerebral commissure. They are lost at metamorphosis. The fine structure of these cells strongly resembles that of so-called "ampullary cells" known from various sensory organs of other molluscs, such as the apical complex of gastropod and bivalve larvae, osphradia of vetigastropods, and olfactory organs of cephalopods, and nuchal organs of certain polychaetes. The ampullary cells and their nerves are densely stained by anti-FMRF-amide fluorescence dyes, whereas antiserotonin staining is only weak. While cytological homology of the ampullary cells with those of other organs is probable, the ampullary system as a whole is regarded as a synapomorphy of the Polyplacophora or Chitonida. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Ongoing Work to Improve Precision Laser Spectroscopy of Helium Fine Structure. (United States)

    Cameron, Garnet; Currey, Ronnie; Alnasser, Khadijah; Nook, Corey; Khademian, Ali; Shiner, David


    Spectroscopy of the 2P triplet levels of helium provides a nice proving ground for various precision experimental techniques. It also provides a sensitive test of atomic theory, quantum electrodynamics and, with the isotope shift determination of the nuclear size, a test of nuclear few-body theory. It can also provide, with improvements, an important input to the value of the fine structure constant, α. Several improvements to our previous experiments are ongoing, including making the study of potential systematic errors more convenient by increasing the count rate. A straight forward increase results from reducing the source-detector separation. This is accomplished by replacing the static high voltage E-field quench plates used for the elimination of the 2S singlet background, with a more reliable and convenient laser to induce the 2S to 2P singlet resonant quenching transition at 2059 nm. We discuss the theory and performance of the 2059 nm cladding-pumped Tm fiber laser we use. The in-house fabricated Tm fiber laser has required several design iterations. Additional 1083 nm fiber lasers are being implemented to improve signal via pumping to a single ms level (+1 or -1). As emphasized by Hessels and co-workers for these laser transitions, non-resonant transition amplitudes often make contributions that must be included in the data analysis at current and future levels of precision. We discuss this and experimental tests of its proper inclusion. This work is supported by NSF award 1404498.

  10. Fine-grained parallelism accelerating for RNA secondary structure prediction with pseudoknots based on FPGA. (United States)

    Xia, Fei; Jin, Guoqing


    PKNOTS is a most famous benchmark program and has been widely used to predict RNA secondary structure including pseudoknots. It adopts the standard four-dimensional (4D) dynamic programming (DP) method and is the basis of many variants and improved algorithms. Unfortunately, the O(N(6)) computing requirements and complicated data dependency greatly limits the usefulness of PKNOTS package with the explosion in gene database size. In this paper, we present a fine-grained parallel PKNOTS package and prototype system for accelerating RNA folding application based on FPGA chip. We adopted a series of storage optimization strategies to resolve the "Memory Wall" problem. We aggressively exploit parallel computing strategies to improve computational efficiency. We also propose several methods that collectively reduce the storage requirements for FPGA on-chip memory. To the best of our knowledge, our design is the first FPGA implementation for accelerating 4D DP problem for RNA folding application including pseudoknots. The experimental results show a factor of more than 50x average speedup over the PKNOTS-1.08 software running on a PC platform with Intel Core2 Q9400 Quad CPU for input RNA sequences. However, the power consumption of our FPGA accelerator is only about 50% of the general-purpose micro-processors.

  11. Universal Growth Scheme for Quantum Dots with Low Fine-Structure Splitting at Various Emission Wavelengths (United States)

    Skiba-Szymanska, Joanna; Stevenson, R. Mark; Varnava, Christiana; Felle, Martin; Huwer, Jan; Müller, Tina; Bennett, Anthony J.; Lee, James P.; Farrer, Ian; Krysa, Andrey B.; Spencer, Peter; Goff, Lucy E.; Ritchie, David A.; Heffernan, Jon; Shields, Andrew J.


    Efficient sources of individual pairs of entangled photons are required for quantum networks to operate using fiber-optic infrastructure. Entangled light can be generated by quantum dots (QDs) with naturally small fine-structure splitting (FSS) between exciton eigenstates. Moreover, QDs can be engineered to emit at standard telecom wavelengths. To achieve sufficient signal intensity for applications, QDs have been incorporated into one-dimensional optical microcavities. However, combining these properties in a single device has so far proved elusive. Here, we introduce a growth strategy to realize QDs with small FSS in the conventional telecom band, and within an optical cavity. Our approach employs ``droplet-epitaxy'' of InAs quantum dots on (001) substrates. We show the scheme improves the symmetry of the dots by 72%. Furthermore, our technique is universal, and produces low FSS QDs by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs emitting at ˜900 nm , and metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy on InP emitting at ˜1550 nm , with mean FSS 4 × smaller than for Stranski-Krastanow QDs.

  12. Preferred Compression Speed for Speech and Music and Its Relationship to Sensitivity to Temporal Fine Structure. (United States)

    Moore, Brian C J; Sęk, Aleksander


    Multichannel amplitude compression is widely used in hearing aids. The preferred compression speed varies across individuals. Moore (2008) suggested that reduced sensitivity to temporal fine structure (TFS) may be associated with preference for slow compression. This idea was tested using a simulated hearing aid. It was also assessed whether preferences for compression speed depend on the type of stimulus: speech or music. Twenty-two hearing-impaired subjects were tested, and the stimulated hearing aid was fitted individually using the CAM2A method. On each trial, a given segment of speech or music was presented twice. One segment was processed with fast compression and the other with slow compression, and the order was balanced across trials. The subject indicated which segment was preferred and by how much. On average, slow compression was preferred over fast compression, more so for music, but there were distinct individual differences, which were highly correlated for speech and music. Sensitivity to TFS was assessed using the difference limen for frequency at 2000 Hz and by two measures of sensitivity to interaural phase at low frequencies. The results for the difference limens for frequency, but not the measures of sensitivity to interaural phase, supported the suggestion that preference for compression speed is affected by sensitivity to TFS. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Preferred Compression Speed for Speech and Music and Its Relationship to Sensitivity to Temporal Fine Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. J. Moore


    Full Text Available Multichannel amplitude compression is widely used in hearing aids. The preferred compression speed varies across individuals. Moore (2008 suggested that reduced sensitivity to temporal fine structure (TFS may be associated with preference for slow compression. This idea was tested using a simulated hearing aid. It was also assessed whether preferences for compression speed depend on the type of stimulus: speech or music. Twenty-two hearing-impaired subjects were tested, and the stimulated hearing aid was fitted individually using the CAM2A method. On each trial, a given segment of speech or music was presented twice. One segment was processed with fast compression and the other with slow compression, and the order was balanced across trials. The subject indicated which segment was preferred and by how much. On average, slow compression was preferred over fast compression, more so for music, but there were distinct individual differences, which were highly correlated for speech and music. Sensitivity to TFS was assessed using the difference limen for frequency at 2000 Hz and by two measures of sensitivity to interaural phase at low frequencies. The results for the difference limens for frequency, but not the measures of sensitivity to interaural phase, supported the suggestion that preference for compression speed is affected by sensitivity to TFS.

  14. All-Optical dc Nanotesla Magnetometry Using Silicon Vacancy Fine Structure in Isotopically Purified Silicon Carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Simin


    Full Text Available We uncover the fine structure of a silicon vacancy in isotopically purified silicon carbide (4H-^{28}SiC and reveal not yet considered terms in the spin Hamiltonian, originated from the trigonal pyramidal symmetry of this spin-3/2 color center. These terms give rise to additional spin transitions, which would be otherwise forbidden, and lead to a level anticrossing in an external magnetic field. We observe a sharp variation of the photoluminescence intensity in the vicinity of this level anticrossing, which can be used for a purely all-optical sensing of the magnetic field. We achieve dc magnetic field sensitivity better than 100  nT/sqrt[Hz] within a volume of 3×10^{-7}mm^{3} at room temperature and demonstrate that this contactless method is robust at high temperatures up to at least 500 K. As our approach does not require application of radio-frequency fields, it is scalable to much larger volumes. For an optimized light-trapping waveguide of 3  mm^{3}, the projection noise limit is below 100  fT/sqrt[Hz].

  15. The excitation of OH by H2 revisited - I: fine-structure resolved rate coefficients (United States)

    Kłos, J.; Ma, Q.; Dagdigian, P. J.; Alexander, M. H.; Faure, A.; Lique, F.


    Observations of OH in molecular clouds provide crucial constraints on both the physical conditions and the oxygen and water chemistry in these clouds. Accurate modelling of the OH emission spectra requires the calculation of rate coefficients for excitation of OH by collisions with the most abundant collisional partner in the molecular clouds, namely the H2 molecule. We report here theoretical calculations for the fine-structure excitation of OH by H2 (both para- and ortho-H2) using a recently developed highly accurate potential energy surface. Full quantum close coupling rate coefficients are provided for temperatures ranging from 10 to 150 K. Propensity rules are discussed and the new OH-H2 rate coefficients are compared to the earlier values that are currently used in astrophysical modelling. Significant differences were found: the new rate coefficients are significantly larger. As a first application, we simulate the excitation of OH in typical cold molecular clouds and star-forming regions. The new rate coefficients predict substantially larger line intensities. As a consequence, OH abundances derived from observations will be reduced from the values predicted by the earlier rate coefficients.

  16. Dynamic magnetization models for soft ferromagnetic materials with coarse and fine domain structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zirka, S.E., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Technology, Dnepropetrovsk National University, Gagarin 72, 49050 Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine); Moroz, Y.I. [Department of Physics and Technology, Dnepropetrovsk National University, Gagarin 72, 49050 Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine); Steentjes, S.; Hameyer, K. [Institute of Electrical Machines, RWTH Aachen University, Schinkelstr. 4, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Chwastek, K. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czestochowa University of Technology, al. AK 17, 42-201 Czestochowa (Poland); Zurek, S. [Megger Instruments Ltd., Archcliffe Road, Dover, Kent, CT17 9EN (United Kingdom); Harrison, R.G. [Department of Electronics, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada K1S 5B6 (Canada)


    We consider dynamic models, both numerical and analytical, that reproduce the magnetization field H(B) and the energy loss in ferromagnetic sheet materials with different domain structures. Conventional non-oriented (NO) and grain-oriented (GO) electrical steels are chosen as typical representatives of fine-domain and coarse-domain materials. The commonly-accepted loss separation procedures in these materials are critically analyzed. The use of a well-known simplified (“classical”) expression for the eddy-current loss is identified as the primary source of mistaken evaluations of excess loss in NO steel, in which the loss components can only be evaluated using the Maxwell (penetration) equation. The situation is quite different in GO steel, in which the loss separation is uncertain, but the total dynamic loss is several times higher than that explained by any version (numerical or analytical) of the classical approach. To illustrate the uncertainty of the loss separation in GO steel, we show that the magnetization field, and thus the total loss, in this material can be represented with equal accuracy using either the existing three-component approach or our proposed two-component technique, which makes no distinction between classical eddy-current and excess fields and losses. - Highlights: • Critical analysis of a ferromagnetic-material loss-separation principle. • This is to warn materials-science engineers about the inaccuracies resulting from this principle. • A transient model having a single dynamic component is proposed.

  17. Fine-structure transitions of interstellar atomic sulfur and silicon induced by collisions with helium. (United States)

    Lique, F; Kłos, J; Le Picard, S D


    Atomic sulfur and silicon are important constituents of the interstellar matter and are both used as tracers of the physical conditions in interstellar shocks and outflows. We present an investigation of the spin-orbit (de-)excitation of S((3)P) and Si((3)P) atoms induced by collisions with helium with the aim to improve the determination of atomic sulfur and silicon abundances in the interstellar medium from S and Si emission spectra. Quantum-mechanical calculations have been performed in order to determine rate coefficients for the fine-structure transitions in the 5-1000 K temperature range. The scattering calculations are based on new highly correlated ab initio potentials. The theoretical results show that the (de-)excitation of Si is much faster than that of S. The rate coefficients deduced from this study are in good agreement with previous experimental and theoretical findings despite some deviations at low temperatures. From the computation of critical densities defined as the ratios between Einstein coefficients and the sum of the relevant collisional de-excitation rate coefficients, we show that local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions are not fulfilled for analyzing S and Si emission spectra observed in the interstellar medium. Hence, the present rate coefficients will be extremely useful for the accurate determination of interstellar atomic sulfur and silicon abundances.

  18. The fine-scale genetic structure and evolution of the Japanese population. (United States)

    Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Kimura, Ryosuke; Nabika, Toru; Isomura, Minoru; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Tabara, Yasuharu; Yamamoto, Ken; Yokota, Mitsuhiro; Liu, Xuanyao; Saw, Woei-Yuh; Mamatyusupu, Dolikun; Yang, Wenjun; Xu, Shuhua; Teo, Yik-Ying; Kato, Norihiro


    The contemporary Japanese populations largely consist of three genetically distinct groups-Hondo, Ryukyu and Ainu. By principal-component analysis, while the three groups can be clearly separated, the Hondo people, comprising 99% of the Japanese, form one almost indistinguishable cluster. To understand fine-scale genetic structure, we applied powerful haplotype-based statistical methods to genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data from 1600 Japanese individuals, sampled from eight distinct regions in Japan. We then combined the Japanese data with 26 other Asian populations data to analyze the shared ancestry and genetic differentiation. We found that the Japanese could be separated into nine genetic clusters in our dataset, showing a marked concordance with geography; and that major components of ancestry profile of Japanese were from the Korean and Han Chinese clusters. We also detected and dated admixture in the Japanese. While genetic differentiation between Ryukyu and Hondo was suggested to be caused in part by positive selection, genetic differentiation among the Hondo clusters appeared to result principally from genetic drift. Notably, in Asians, we found the possibility that positive selection accentuated genetic differentiation among distant populations but attenuated genetic differentiation among close populations. These findings are significant for studies of human evolution and medical genetics.

  19. Dual-carrier processing to convey temporal fine structure cues: Implications for cochlear implants (United States)

    Apoux, Frédéric; Youngdahl, Carla L.; Yoho, Sarah E.; Healy, Eric W.


    Speech intelligibility in noise can be degraded by using vocoder processing to alter the temporal fine structure (TFS). Here it is argued that this degradation is not attributable to the loss of speech information potentially present in the TFS. Instead it is proposed that the degradation results from the loss of sound-source segregation information when two or more carriers (i.e., TFS) are substituted with only one as a consequence of vocoder processing. To demonstrate this segregation role, vocoder processing involving two carriers, one for the target and one for the background, was implemented. Because this approach does not preserve the speech TFS, it may be assumed that any improvement in intelligibility can only be a consequence of the preserved carrier duality and associated segregation cues. Three experiments were conducted using this “dual-carrier” approach. All experiments showed substantial sentence intelligibility in noise improvements compared to traditional single-carrier conditions. In several conditions, the improvement was so substantial that intelligibility approximated that for unprocessed speech in noise. A foreseeable and potentially promising implication for the dual-carrier approach involves implementation into cochlear implant speech processors, where it may provide the TFS cues necessary to segregate speech from noise. PMID:26428784

  20. ;Long-hissler; fine structure within auroral hiss: A review and synthesis (United States)

    Kim, Howard F.; LaBelle, James; Spasojević, Maria


    One of the most prominent fine-structures of auroral hiss is the ;long-hissler;, defined here as a dispersed feature embedded within broadband auroral hiss emissions in the frequency range 1-40 kHz and lasting longer than 0.3 s. While theory is limited, there is evidence that hisslers can be used in remote sensing of density characteristics at altitudes of thousands of km. By applying an automatic threshold algorithm to VLF data collected at South Pole 2230-0130 UT daily during June-August 2014, 22 h of auroral hiss are identified on 49 of 93 days analyzed, for an occurrence rate of 9.7% during the applicable MLT interval. From manual inspection of these intervals, 414 groups (trains) of long hisslers are identified on 34 of the 49 days on which hiss occurred. Median lower (upper) frequency bounds of these features are 8 (22) kHz, median frequency-time slope is -10 kHz/s, and median hissler repetition time within a train (hissler period) is 1.2 s. Hissler period and frequency-time slope are inversely related. Data from previous studies are reviewed to provide a comprehensive description of the phenomenon. Contrary to some previous studies, subsequent long hissler features are found to commonly overlap in time, and no evidence is found for an inverse relationship between hissler train duration and geomagnetic activity.


    Allen, Richard D.


    An electron microscope study of the cortex of Paramecium caudatum has revealed new details pertinent to several unresolved problems. The lateral boundaries of the alveoli do not regularly follow the crests of the polygonal ridges and thus their staining with silver cannot account for the external lattice seen by light microscopists. A granulo-fibrillar material is present, however, within the peaks of the ridges, which would account for the external lattice if so stained. Perforations are present between adjacent alveoli which make the whole mosaic of alveolar sacs within the cell's cortex continuous—both the membranes and the lumen. A microfibrillar system exhibiting a cross-striated pattern lies in the superficial cortex. These bands are inserted at their ends in the epiplasm and have a fine structure and arrangement suggesting a muscular function. The infraciliary lattice is a branching system of fibers with electron-opaque posts at the center of each branching locus. This system is distinct from the striated bands in morphology and in space. The epiplasm is discontinuous along the crests of the ridges, which may account for the pellicles' disposition to tear along these lines. A three-dimensional drawing is presented to show the interrelationships between the above membranous and microfibrillar systems. PMID:4102004

  2. Discovery of Finely Structured Dynamic Solar Corona Observed in the Hi-C Telescope (United States)

    Winebarger, A.; Cirtain, J.; Golub, L.; DeLuca, E.; Savage, S.; Alexander, C.; Schuler, T.


    In the summer of 2012, the High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew aboard a NASA sounding rocket and collected the highest spatial resolution images ever obtained of the solar corona. One of the goals of the Hi-C flight was to characterize the substructure of the solar corona. We therefore examine how the intensity scales from AIA resolution to Hi-C resolution. For each low-resolution pixel, we calculate the standard deviation in the contributing high-resolution pixel intensities and compare that to the expected standard deviation calculated from the noise. If these numbers are approximately equal, the corona can be assumed to be smoothly varying, i.e. have no evidence of substructure in the Hi-C image to within Hi-C's ability to measure it given its throughput and readout noise. A standard deviation much larger than the noise value indicates the presence of substructure. We calculate these values for each low-resolution pixel for each frame of the Hi-C data. On average, 70 percent of the pixels in each Hi-C image show no evidence of substructure. The locations where substructure is prevalent is in the moss regions and in regions of sheared magnetic field. We also find that the level of substructure varies significantly over the roughly 160 s of the Hi-C data analyzed here. This result indicates that the finely structured corona is concentrated in regions of heating and is highly time dependent.

  3. Restricted gene flow and fine-scale population structuring in tool using New Caledonian crows. (United States)

    Rutz, C; Ryder, T B; Fleischer, R C


    New Caledonian crows Corvus moneduloides are the most prolific avian tool users. It has been suggested that some aspects of their complex tool use behaviour are under the influence of cultural processes, involving the social transmission-and perhaps even progressive refinement-of tool designs. Using microsatellite and mt-haplotype profiling of crows from three distinct habitats (dry forest, farmland and beachside habitat), we show that New Caledonian crow populations can exhibit significant fine-scale genetic structuring. Our finding that some sites of crow groups. Restricted movement of birds between local populations at such small spatial scales, especially across habitat boundaries, illustrates how specific tool designs could be preserved over time, and how tool technologies of different crow groups could diverge due to drift and local selection pressures. Young New Caledonian crows have an unusually long juvenile dependency period, during which they acquire complex tool-related foraging skills. We suggest that the resulting delayed natal dispersal drives population-divergence patterns in this species. Our work provides essential context for future studies that examine the genetic makeup of crow populations across larger geographic areas, including localities with suspected cultural differences in crow tool technologies.

  4. Mode shape combination in a two-dimensional vibration energy harvester through mass loading structural modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpes, Nathan; Kumar, Prashant [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Abdelkefi, Abdessattar; Abdelmoula, Hichem [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 (United States); Adler, Jan [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Institute of Dynamics and Vibration Research (IDS), Leibniz Universität, Hannover 30167 (Germany); Priya, Shashank [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Bio-Inspired Materials and Devices Laboratory (BMDL), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)


    Mode shapes in the design of mechanical energy harvesters, as a means of performance increase, have been largely overlooked. Currently, the vast majority of energy harvester designs employ some variation of a single-degree-of-freedom cantilever, and the mode shapes of such beams are well known. This is especially true for the first bending mode, which is almost exclusively the chosen vibration mode for energy harvesting. Two-dimensional beam shapes (those which curve, meander, spiral, etc., in a plane) have recently gained research interest, as they offer freedom to modify the vibration characteristics of the harvester beam for achieving higher power density. In this study, the second bending mode shape of the “Elephant” two-dimensional beam shape is examined, and its interaction with the first bending mode is evaluated. A combinatory mode shape created by using mass loading structural modification to lower the second bending modal frequency was found to interact with the first bending mode. This is possible since the first two bending modes do not share common areas of displacement. The combined mode shape is shown to produce the most power of any of the considered mode shapes.

  5. Numerical calculation of acoustic radiation from band-vibrating structures via FEM/FAQP method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAO Honglin


    Full Text Available The Finite Element Method (FEM combined with the Frequency Averaged Quadratic Pressure method (FAQP are used to calculate the acoustic radiation of structures excited in the frequency band. The surface particle velocity of stiffened cylindrical shells under frequency band excitation is calculated using finite element software, the normal vibration velocity is converted from the surface particle velocity to calculate the average energy source (frequency averaged across intensity, frequency averaged across pressure and frequency averaged across velocity, and the FAQP method is used to calculate the average sound pressure level within the bandwidth. The average sound pressure levels are then compared with the bandwidth using finite element and boundary element software, and the results show that FEM combined with FAQP is more suitable for high frequencies and can be used to calculate the average sound pressure level in the 1/3 octave band with good stability, presenting an alternative to applying frequency-by-frequency calculation and the average frequency process. The FEM/FAQP method can be used as a prediction method for calculating acoustic radiation while taking the randomness of vibration at medium and high frequencies into consideration.

  6. Molecular, vibrational and electronic structure of 4-bromo-2-halogenobenzaldehydes: Halogen and solvent effects (United States)

    Fernández, David; Parlak, Cemal; Bilge, Metin; Kaya, Mehmet Fatih; Tursun, Mahir; Keşan, Gürkan; Rhyman, Lydia; Ramasami, Ponnadurai; Şenyel, Mustafa


    The halogen and solvent effects on the structure of 4-bromo-2-halogenobenzaldehydes [C7H4BrXO; X = F (BFB), Cl (BCB) or Br (BBB)] were investigated by the density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) methods. The B3LYP functional and HF and MP2 levels of theory were used with the 6-311+G(3df,p) or aug-cc-pVDZ basis sets. Computations were focused on the cis and trans conformers of the investigated compounds in the gas phase and solutions of 18 different polar or non-polar organic solvents. The computed frequencies of the C=O stretching vibration of the compounds were correlated with some empirical solvent parameters such as the Kirkwood-Bauer-Magat (KBM) equation, solvent acceptor number (AN), Swain parameters and linear solvation energy relationships (LSERs). The electronic properties of the compounds were also examined. The present work explores the effects of the medium and halogen on the conformation, geometrical parameters, dipole moment, ν(C=O) vibration, UV data, frontier orbitals and density-of-states diagram of the compounds. The findings of this research can be useful for studies on benzaldehydes.

  7. Optical Fourier transform based in-plane vibration characterization for MEMS comb structure. (United States)

    Gao, Yongfeng; Cao, Liangcai; You, Zheng; Zhao, Jiahao; Zhang, Zichen; Yang, Jianzhong


    On-line and on-wafer characterizations of mechanical properties of Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) with efficiency are very important to the mass production of MEMS foundry in the near future. However, challenges still remain. In this paper, we present an in-plane vibration characterizing method for MEMS comb using optical Fourier transform (OFT). In the experiment, the intensity distribution at the focal plane was captured to characterize the displacement of the vibrator in the MEMS comb structure. A typical MEMS comb was tested to verify the principle. The shape and the movement of MEMS comb was imitated and tested to calibrate the measurement by using a spatial light modulator (SLM). The relative standard deviations (RSD) of the measured displacements were better than 5%, where the RSD is defined as the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean. It is convinced that the presented method is feasible for on-line and on-wafer characterizations for MEMS with great convenience, high efficiency and low cost.

  8. A disk-pivot structure micro piezoelectric actuator using vibration mode B11. (United States)

    Chu, Xiangcheng; Ma, Long; Li, Longtu


    Micro piezoelectric actuator using vibration mode B(11) (B(mn), where m is the number of nodal circles, n is the nodal diameters) is designed. Different from conventional wobble-type ultrasonic motor using piezoelectric rod or cylinder, piezoelectric disc is used to excite wobble modes and metal cylinder stator is used to amplify the transverse displacement, metal rod rotor is actuated to rotate. The outer diameter of the actuator is 14mm. There are features such as low drive voltage, micromation, and convenient control of wobble state by modifying the structure of stator, etc. Finite element analysis (FEA) of the stator has been made. It is found that the resonant frequency of vibration mode B(11) is 49.03kHz, which is measured at 45.7kHz by the laser vibrometer and impedance analyzer. The rotation speed has been measured, which could be as high as 10,071rpm under an alternating current 100V. Such piezoelectric actuator can be optimized and adjusted to fit practical conditions. It can be applied in the fields of precise instrument, bioengineering and other micro actuator system.

  9. Structural Health Monitoring of Precast Concrete Box Girders Using Selected Vibration-Based Damage Detection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengjie Zhou


    Full Text Available Precast, prestressed concrete box girders are commonly used as superstructure components for short and medium span bridges. Their configuration and typical side-by-side placement make large portions of these elements inaccessible for visual inspection or the application of nondestructive testing techniques. This paper demonstrates that vibration-based damage detection (VBDD is an effective alternative for monitoring their structural health. A box girder removed from a dismantled bridge was used to evaluate the ability of five different VBDD algorithms to detect and localize low levels of spalling damage, with a focus on using a small number of sensors and only the fundamental mode of vibration. All methods were capable of detecting and localizing damage to a region within approximately 1.6 times the longitudinal spacing between as few as six uniformly distributed accelerometers. Strain gauges configured to measure curvature were also effective, but tended to be susceptible to large errors in near support damage cases. Finite element analyses demonstrated that increasing the number of sensor locations leads to a proportional increase in localization accuracy, while the use of additional modes provides little advantage and can sometimes lead to a deterioration in the performance of the VBDD techniques.

  10. Vibration Analysis and Models of Adjacent Structures Controlled by Magnetorheological Dampers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Basili


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the vibration analysis of adjacent structures controlled by a magnetorheological (MR damper and with the discussion of a numerical procedure for identification and definition of a reliable finite element model. The paper describes an extensive experimental campaign investigating the dynamic response, through shaking table tests, of a tridimensional four-story structure and a two-story structure connected by an MR device. Several base excitations and intensity levels are considered. The structures were tested in nonconnected and connected configuration, with the MR damper operating in passive or semiactive mode. Moreover, the paper illustrates a procedure for the structural identification and the definition of a reliable numerical model valid for adjacent structures connected by MR dampers. The procedure is applied in the original nonconnected configuration, which represents a linear system, and then in the connected configuration, which represents a nonlinear system due to the MR damper. In the end, the updated finite element model is reliable and suitable for all the considered configurations and the mass, damping, and stiffness matrices are derived. The experimental and numerical responses are compared and the results confirm the effectiveness of the identification procedure and the validation of the finite element model.

  11. Non-stationary random vibration analysis of structures under multiple correlated normal random excitations (United States)

    Li, Yanbin; Mulani, Sameer B.; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Fei, Qingguo; Wu, Shaoqing


    An algorithm that integrates Karhunen-Loeve expansion (KLE) and the finite element method (FEM) is proposed to perform non-stationary random vibration analysis of structures under excitations, represented by multiple random processes that are correlated in both time and spatial domains. In KLE, the auto-covariance functions of random excitations are discretized using orthogonal basis functions. The KLE for multiple correlated random excitations relies on expansions in terms of correlated sets of random variables reflecting the cross-covariance of the random processes. During the response calculations, the eigenfunctions of KLE used to represent excitations are applied as forcing functions to the structure. The proposed algorithm is applied to a 2DOF system, a 2D cantilever beam and a 3D aircraft wing under both stationary and non-stationary correlated random excitations. Two methods are adopted to obtain the structural responses: a) the modal method and b) the direct method. Both the methods provide the statistics of the dynamic response with sufficient accuracy. The structural responses under the same type of correlated random excitations are bounded by the response obtained by perfectly correlated and uncorrelated random excitations. The structural response increases with a decrease in the correlation length and with an increase in the correlation magnitude. The proposed methodology can be applied for the analysis of any complex structure under any type of random excitation.

  12. Structure and Dynamics of Urea/Water Mixtures Investigated by Vibrational Spectroscopy and Molecular Dynamics Simulation (United States)

    Carr, J. K.; Buchanan, L. E.; Schmidt, J. R.; Zanni, M. T.; Skinner, J. L.


    Urea/water is an archetypical “biological” mixture, and is especially well known for its relevance to protein thermodynamics, as urea acts as a protein denaturant at high concentration. This behavior has given rise to an extended debate concerning urea’s influence on water structure. Based on a variety of methods and of definitions of water structure, urea has been variously described as a structure-breaker, a structure-maker, or as remarkably neutral towards water. Because of its sensitivity to microscopic structure and dynamics, vibrational spectroscopy can help resolve these debates. We report experimental and theoretical spectroscopic results for the OD stretch of HOD/H2O/urea mixtures (linear IR, 2DIR, and pump-probe anisotropy decay) and for the CO stretch of urea-D4/D2O mixtures (linear IR only). Theoretical results are obtained using existing approaches for water, and a modification of a frequency map developed for acetamide. All absorption spectra are remarkably insensitive to urea concentration, consistent with the idea that urea only very weakly perturbs water structure. Both this work and experiments by Rezus and Bakker, however, show that water’s rotational dynamics are slowed down by urea. Analysis of the simulations casts doubt on the suggestion that urea immobilizes particular doubly hydrogen bonded water molecules. PMID:23841646

  13. Local structure and vibrational properties of alpha-Pu, alpha-Uand the alpha-U charge density wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E.J.; Allen, P.G.; Blobaum, K.J.M.; Wall, W.A.; Booth, C.H.


    The local atomic environment and vibrational properties of atoms in monoclinic pure {alpha}-plutonium as well as orthorhombic pure a-uranium and its low-temperature charge-density-wave (CDW) modulation are examined by extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). Pu L{sub III}-edge and U L{sub III}-edge EXAFS data measured at low temperatures verify the crystal structures of {alpha}-U and {alpha}-Pu samples previously determined by x-ray diffraction and neutron scattering. Debye-Waller factors from temperature-dependent EXAFS measurements are fit with a correlated Debye model. The observed Pu-Pu bond correlated Debye temperature of {theta}{sub cD}({alpha}-Pu) = 162 {+-} 5 K for the pure {alpha}-Pu phase agrees with our previous measurement of the correlated Debye temperature of the gallium-containing {alpha}{prime}-Pu phase in a mixed phase 1.9 at% Ga-doped {alpha}{prime}-Pu/{delta}-Pu alloy. The temperature dependence of the U-U nearest neighbor Debye-Waller factor exhibits a sharp discontinuity in slope near T{sub CDW} = 43 K, the transition temperature at which the charge-density wave (CDW) in {alpha}-U condenses from a soft phonon mode along the (100) direction. Our measurement of the CDW using EXAFS is the first observation of the structure of the CDW in polycrystalline {alpha}-U. The different temperature dependence of the Debye-Waller factor for T < T{sub CDW} can be modeled by the change in bond length distributions resulting from condensation of the charge density wave. For T > T{sub CDW}, the observed correlated Debye temperature of {theta}{sub cD}({alpha}-U) = 199 {+-} 3 K is in good agreement with other measurements of the Debye temperature for polycrystalline {alpha}-U. CDW structural models fit to the {alpha}-U EXAFS data support a squared CDW at the lowest temperatures, with a displacement amplitude of {var_epsilon} = 0.05 {+-} 0.02 {angstrom}.

  14. A direct pedestrian-structure interaction model to characterize the human induced vibrations on slender footbridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez-Alonso, J. F.


    Full Text Available Although the scientific community had knowledge of the human induced vibration problems in structures since the end of the 19th century, it was not until the occurrence of the vibration phenomenon happened in the Millennium Bridge (London, 2000 that the importance of the problem revealed and a higher level of attention devoted. Despite the large advances achieved in the determination of the human-structure interaction force, one of the main deficiencies of the existing models is the exclusion of the effect of changes in the footbridge dynamic properties due to the presence of pedestrians. In this paper, the formulation of a human-structure interaction model, addresses these limitations, is carried out and its reliability is verified from previously published experimental results.Aunque la comunidad científica tenía conocimiento de los problemas vibratorios inducidos por peatones en estructuras desde finales del siglo xix, no fue hasta la ocurrencia de los eventos vibratorios acontecidos en la pasarela del Milenio (Londres, 2000, cuando la importancia del problema se puso de manifiesto y se le comenzó a dedicar un mayor nivel de atención. A pesar de los grandes avances alcanzados en la caracterización de la fuerza de interacción peatón-estructura una de las principales deficiencias de los modelos existentes es la exclusión del cambio en las propiedades dinámicas de la pasarela por la presencia de peatones. En este artículo, se presenta la formulación de un modelo de interacción peatón-estructura que intenta dar respuesta a dichas limitaciones, y su validación a partir de resultados experimentales previamente publicados por otros autores.

  15. A piezoelectric brace for passive suppression of structural vibration and energy harvesting (United States)

    Yang, Chuang-Sheng Walter; Lai, Yong-An; Kim, Jin-Yeon


    Power outage after an earthquake would cause an additional chaos to the existing aftermath, greatly aggravating the situation if the outage lasts for an extended period. This research aims at developing an innovative piezoelectric brace, which provides both passive energy-dissipating and energy-harvesting capabilities—a passive suppression of structural vibrations and conversion of vibration energy into reusable electricity. The piezoelectric brace has compression modules that exert compressive loads on the piezoelectric material regardless if the brace is in compression or in tension. The compression module consists of a piezoelectric stack and rubber pads. The rubber pads are used to limit the maximum strain in the piezoelectric material below the allowable operational strain. The electro-mechanical equations of motion are derived for a 1-story and a 3-story frame model with the piezoelectric braces. To evaluate the structural behavior and the energy harvesting performance, numerical simulations are executed for the two model buildings (in downtown Los Angeles) that are equipped with the piezoelectric braces. The effects of design parameters including the geometry of the piezoelectric stack and rubber pads and the electric resistance in the electro-mechanical conversion circuit on the performance are investigated. The numerical results indicate that the piezoelectric braces passively dissipate energy through inclined oval-shaped hysteretic loops. The harvested energy is up to approximately 40% of the input energy. The structural displacements are significantly reduced, as compared to the original frames without the piezoelectric braces. Finally, a design procedure for a frame with the proposed passive piezoelectric braces is also presented.



    Gaur, Abhijeet


    In the present thesis, the X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS)spectroscopy has been used to study copper compounds and complexes. Studies have been done using both EXAFS and XANES spectroscopies. Basically, following two types of studies have been made. Firstly, EXAFS study at the K-edge of copper in mixed ligand copper complexes of biological significance have been done to yield useful and important information about the molecular structure of the complexes which are mononuclear, bi...

  17. Observations and modeling of the fine structure of loops in the transition region and corona (United States)

    Brooks, David


    The physical dimensions of loops hold important clues to the coronal heating process. Theoretical arguments universally indicate that coronal heating should operate on very small spatial scales and loops should be unresolvable by current instrumentation. There are a number of observational results, however, that suggest that coronal loops are organized on spatial scales of several hundred km. For example, recent observations from IRIS have discovered a new class of low-lying dynamic loops structures, and it has been argued that they are the long-postulated unresolved fine structures (UFS) that dominate the emission of the solar transition region. Here we show that the properties of the UFS (intensities, lengths, widths, lifetimes) are consistent with 1-D non-equilibrium ionization simulations of an impulsively heated single strand, suggesting that they are resolved, and that the distribution of UFS widths implies that like coronal loops they are also structured on a spatial scale of a few hundred km. Spatial scales of a few hundred kilometers appear to be typical for a range of chromospheric and coronal structures, but it is unclear whether the true distribution of loop widths is normalized around this scale, or whether it extends to much smaller scales - perhaps by a power-law - below the resolution of current instruments. We have extended our previous modeling of the cross-field intensity profiles of coronal loops observed by EIS and AIA, to investigate what the modeled profiles would look like at Hi-C resolution, what they would look like if loops are composed only of < 10km threads, and what they would look like if there is a power-law distribution of loop widths. We find that the models with strands on spatial scales of a few hundred km are most consistent with the data. Very small threads do not produce smooth profiles when their properties are driven by the measured temperatures and densities, and the intensity profiles from the power-law simulations are

  18. Correlation of finite-element structural dynamic analysis with measured free vibration characteristics for a full-scale helicopter fuselage (United States)

    Kenigsberg, I. J.; Dean, M. W.; Malatino, R.


    The correlation achieved with each program provides the material for a discussion of modeling techniques developed for general application to finite-element dynamic analyses of helicopter airframes. Included are the selection of static and dynamic degrees of freedom, cockpit structural modeling, and the extent of flexible-frame modeling in the transmission support region and in the vicinity of large cut-outs. The sensitivity of predicted results to these modeling assumptions are discussed. Both the Sikorsky Finite-Element Airframe Vibration analysis Program (FRAN/Vibration Analysis) and the NASA Structural Analysis Program (NASTRAN) have been correlated with data taken in full-scale vibration tests of a modified CH-53A helicopter.

  19. Simplified Procedure For The Free Vibration Analysis Of Rectangular Plate Structures With Holes And Stiffeners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Dae Seung


    Full Text Available Thin and thick plates, plates with holes, stiffened panels and stiffened panels with holes are primary structural members in almost all fields of engineering: civil, mechanical, aerospace, naval, ocean etc. In this paper, a simple and efficient procedure for the free vibration analysis of such elements is presented. It is based on the assumed mode method and can handle different plate thickness, various shapes and sizes of holes, different framing sizes and types as well as different combinations of boundary conditions. Natural frequencies and modes are determined by solving an eigenvalue problem of a multi-degree-of-freedom system matrix equation derived by using Lagrange’s equations. Mindlin theory is applied for a plate and Timoshenko beam theory for stiffeners. The applicability of the method in the design procedure is illustrated with several numerical examples obtained by the in-house developed code VAPS. Very good agreement with standard commercial finite element software is achieved.

  20. Vibration-based structural health monitoring using output-only measurements under changing environment (United States)

    Deraemaeker, A.; Reynders, E.; De Roeck, G.; Kullaa, J.


    This paper deals with the problem of damage detection using output-only vibration measurements under changing environmental conditions. Two types of features are extracted from the measurements: eigenproperties of the structure using an automated stochastic subspace identification procedure and peak indicators computed on the Fourier transform of modal filters. The effects of environment are treated using factor analysis and damage is detected using statistical process control with the multivariate Shewhart- T control charts. A numerical example of a bridge subject to environmental changes and damage is presented. The sensitivity of the damage detection procedure to noise on the measurements, environment and damage is studied. An estimation of the computational time needed to extract the different features is given, and a table is provided to summarize the advantages and drawbacks of each of the features studied.