Measurement of Optical Feshbach Resonances in an Ideal Gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blatt, S.; Nicholson, T. L.; Bloom, B. J.; Williams, J. R.; Thomsen, J. W.; Ye, J.; Julienne, P. S.
2011-01-01
Using a narrow intercombination line in alkaline earth atoms to mitigate large inelastic losses, we explore the optical Feshbach resonance effect in an ultracold gas of bosonic 88 Sr. A systematic measurement of three resonances allows precise determinations of the optical Feshbach resonance strength and scaling law, in agreement with coupled-channel theory. Resonant enhancement of the complex scattering length leads to thermalization mediated by elastic and inelastic collisions in an otherwise ideal gas. Optical Feshbach resonance could be used to control atomic interactions with high spatial and temporal resolution.
Measurement of optical Feshbach resonances in an ideal gas.
Blatt, S; Nicholson, T L; Bloom, B J; Williams, J R; Thomsen, J W; Julienne, P S; Ye, J
2011-08-12
Using a narrow intercombination line in alkaline earth atoms to mitigate large inelastic losses, we explore the optical Feshbach resonance effect in an ultracold gas of bosonic (88)Sr. A systematic measurement of three resonances allows precise determinations of the optical Feshbach resonance strength and scaling law, in agreement with coupled-channel theory. Resonant enhancement of the complex scattering length leads to thermalization mediated by elastic and inelastic collisions in an otherwise ideal gas. Optical Feshbach resonance could be used to control atomic interactions with high spatial and temporal resolution.
P-wave Feshbach resonances of ultracold 6Li
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, J.; Kempen, E.G.M. van; Bourdel, T.; Cubizolles, J.; Chevy, F.; Teichmann, M.; Tarruell, L.; Salomon, C.; Khaykovich, L.; Kokkelmans, S.J.J.M.F.
2004-01-01
We report the observation of three p-wave Feshbach resonances of 6 Li atoms in the lowest hyperfine state f=1/2. The positions of the resonances are in good agreement with theory. We study the lifetime of the cloud in the vicinity of the Feshbach resonances and show that, depending on the spin states, two- or three-body mechanisms are at play. In the case of dipolar losses, we observe a nontrivial temperature dependence that is well explained by a simple model
Nuclear-excited Feshbach resonances in the electron scattering from hydrogen halides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knoth, G.; Gote, M.; Radle, M.; Jung, K.; Ehrhardt, H.
1989-01-01
The energy dependences of the differential cross sections for the electron impact excitation of the higher vibrational levels (v=2 and v=3) of HF and HCl have been measured. Besides the threshold peak a resonance structure has been observed in the v=3 excitation functions of HF below the cusp structure at the opening of the v=4 channel. This resonance structure is the first experimental proof for the existence of the nuclear-excited Feshbach resonances which are interpreted to be the origin of the threshold peaks in the vibrational excitation channels
Feshbach resonances in cold collisions of potassium atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bambini, A.; Geltman, S.
2002-01-01
In this paper we briefly review the basic steps that allow the calculation of the scattering length in the collision of two alkali-metal atoms in a well defined magnetic polarization state, and in the presence of a static magnetic field. Calculations are actually done for the low-field seeking state F=1, μ F =-1 of bosonic potassium atoms. The electrostatic potentials obtained through Rydberg-Klein-Rees data are connected to a dispersive, long range tail in which the dominant dipole-dipole C 6 term may take different values within a specified range. We show the occurrence of Feshbach resonances in the ultra cold collision of two identical atoms, belonging either to the bosonic species 39 K or 41 K. Our results demonstrate that there is a range of C 6 values for which the collision of two 39 K atoms displays a single resonance, while for other values of C 6 no resonance occurs. On the other hand, Feshbach resonances are present in the collision of two 41 K atoms for almost all values of the dispersion coefficient C 6 in that range. We also show the origin of the different types of Feshbach resonances that occur in the cold collision of two 41 K atoms. The detection of such resonances can help establish the actual value of the dispersive coefficient
Ultracold fermion cooling cycle using heteronuclear Feshbach resonances
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Morales, M. A.; Nygaard, Nicolai; Williams, J. E.
2005-01-01
We consider an ideal gas of Bose and Fermi atoms in a harmonic trap, with a Feshbach resonance in the interspecies atomic scattering that can lead to the formation of fermionic molecules. We map out the phase diagram for this three-component mixture in chemical and thermal equilibrium. Considering...... adiabatic association and dissociation of the molecules, we identify a possible cooling cycle, which in ideal circumstances can yield an exponential increase of the phase-space density....
Novel Feshbach resonances in a ^40K spin-mixture
Walraven, J. T. M.; Ludewig, A.; Tiecke, T. G.
2010-03-01
We present experimental results on novel s-wave Feshbach resonances in ^40K spin-mixtures. Using an extended version of the Asymptotic Bound-state Model (ABM) [1] we predict Feshbach resonances with more promising characteristics than the commonly used resonances in the (|F,mF>) |9/2,-9/2>+|9/2,-7/2> and |9/2,-9/2>+|9/2,-5/2> spin mixtures. We report on an s-wave resonance in the |9/2,-5/2>+|9/2,-3/2> mixture. We have experimentally observed the corresponding loss-feature at B0˜178 G with a width of ˜10G. This resonance is promising due to its large predicted width and the absence of an overlapping p-wave resonance. We present our recent results on measurements of the resonance width and the stability of the system around this and other observed s-wave and p-wave resonances. [4pt] [1] T.G. Tiecke, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 053202 (2010).
Polaronic and dressed molecular states in orbital Feshbach resonances
Xu, Junjun; Qi, Ran
2018-04-01
We consider the impurity problem in an orbital Feshbach resonance (OFR), with a single excited clock state | e ↑⟩ atom immersed in a Fermi sea of electronic ground state | g ↓⟩. We calculate the polaron effective mass and quasi-particle residue, as well as the polaron to molecule transition. By including one particle-hole excitation in the molecular state, we find significant correction to the transition point. This transition point moves toward the BCS side for increasing particle densities, which suggests that the corresponding many-body physics is similar to a narrow resonance.
Controlling interactions between highly magnetic atoms with Feshbach resonances.
Kotochigova, Svetlana
2014-09-01
This paper reviews current experimental and theoretical progress in the study of dipolar quantum gases of ground and meta-stable atoms with a large magnetic moment. We emphasize the anisotropic nature of Feshbach resonances due to coupling to fast-rotating resonant molecular states in ultracold s-wave collisions between magnetic atoms in external magnetic fields. The dramatic differences in the distribution of resonances of magnetic (7)S3 chromium and magnetic lanthanide atoms with a submerged 4f shell and non-zero electron angular momentum is analyzed. We focus on dysprosium and erbium as important experimental advances have been recently made to cool and create quantum-degenerate gases for these atoms. Finally, we describe progress in locating resonances in collisions of meta-stable magnetic atoms in electronic P-states with ground-state atoms, where an interplay between collisional anisotropies and spin-orbit coupling exists.
Systematic assignment of Feshbach resonances via an asymptotic bound state model
Goosen, M.; Kokkelmans, SJ.J.M.F.
2008-01-01
We present an Asymptotic Bound state Model (ABM), which is useful to predict Feshbach resonances. The model utilizes asymptotic properties of the interaction potentials to represent coupled molecular wavefunctions. The bound states of this system give rise to Feshbach resonances, localized at the
Gacesa, Marko; Ghosal, Subhas; Côté, Robin
2010-03-01
We investigate the possibility of forming deeply bound LiRb molecules in a two-color photoassociation experiment. Ultracold ^6Li and ^87Rb atoms colliding in the vicinity of a magnetic Feshbach resonance are photoassociated into an excited electronic state. A wavepacket is then formed by exciting a few vibrational levels of the excited state and allowed to propagate. We calculate the time-dependent overlaps between the wave packet and the lowest vibrational levels of the ground state. After the optimal overlap is obtained we use the second laser pulse to dump the wave packet and efficiently populate the deeply bound ro-vibrational levels of ^6Li^87Rb in the ground state. The resulting combination of Feshbach-optimized photoassociation (FOPA) with the time-dependent pump-dump approach will produce a large number of stable ultracold molecules in the ground state. This technique is general and applicable to other systems.
Electric-field-modified Feshbach resonances in ultracold atom–molecule collision
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng Dong; Li Ya; Feng Eryin; Huang Wuying
2017-01-01
We present a detailed analysis of near zero-energy Feshbach resonances in ultracold collisions of atom and molecule, taking the He–PH system as an example, subject to superimposed electric and magnetic static fields. We find that the electric field can induce Feshbach resonance which cannot occur when only a magnetic field is applied, through couplings of the adjacent rotational states of different parities. We show that the electric field can shift the position of the magnetic Feshbach resonance, and change the amplitude of resonance significantly. Finally, we demonstrate that, for narrow magnetic Feshbach resonance as in most cases of ultracold atom–molecule collision, the electric field may be used to modulate the resonance, because the width of resonance in electric field scale is relatively larger than that in magnetic field scale. (paper)
Multiple-state Feshbach resonances mediated by high-order couplings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hemming, Christopher J.; Krems, Roman V.
2008-01-01
We present a study of multistate Feshbach resonances mediated by high-order couplings. Our analysis focuses on a system with one open scattering state and multiple bound states. The scattering state is coupled to one off-resonant bound state and multiple Feshbach resonances are induced by a sequence of indirect couplings between the closed channels. We derive a general recursive expression that can be used to fit the experimental data on multistate Feshbach resonances involving one continuum state and several bound states and present numerical solutions for several model systems. Our results elucidate general features of multistate Feshbach resonances induced by high-order couplings and suggest mechanisms for controlling collisions of ultracold atoms and molecules with external fields
Radiative neutron capture: Hauser Feshbach vs. statistical resonances
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rochman, D., E-mail: dimitri-alexandre.rochman@psi.ch [Reactor Physics and Systems Behavior Laboratory, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Goriely, S. [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, CP-226, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Koning, A.J. [Nuclear Data Section, IAEA, Vienna (Austria); Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Ferroukhi, H. [Reactor Physics and Systems Behavior Laboratory, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)
2017-01-10
The radiative neutron capture rates for isotopes of astrophysical interest are commonly calculated on the basis of the statistical Hauser Feshbach (HF) reaction model, leading to smooth and monotonically varying temperature-dependent Maxwellian-averaged cross sections (MACS). The HF approximation is known to be valid if the number of resonances in the compound system is relatively high. However, such a condition is hardly fulfilled for keV neutrons captured on light or exotic neutron-rich nuclei. For this reason, a different procedure is proposed here, based on the generation of statistical resonances. This novel technique, called the “High Fidelity Resonance” (HFR) method is shown to provide similar results as the HF approach for nuclei with a high level density but to deviate and be more realistic than HF predictions for light and neutron-rich nuclei or at relatively low sub-keV energies. The MACS derived with the HFR method are systematically compared with the traditional HF calculations for some 3300 neutron-rich nuclei and shown to give rise to significantly larger predictions with respect to the HF approach at energies of astrophysical relevance. For this reason, the HF approach should not be applied to light or neutron-rich nuclei. The Doppler broadening of the generated resonances is also studied and found to have a negligible impact on the calculated MACS.
Feshbach and Efimov Resonances in A 6Li- 133Cs Atomic Mixture
Johansen, Jacob
This thesis reports measurements of interactions in Fermi-Bose 6Li-133Cs mixtures. Precise control of this Bose-Fermi mixture allowed us to probe few-body physics in regimes which were previously inaccessible. In particular, we performed the first model-independent test of geometric scaling of Efimov physics and probed Efimov resonances farther in the weakly coupled, narrow resonance regime than previously possible. For this work, we built a new apparatus which overcomes the many challenges faced by Li-Cs mixtures. We developed several novel dipole trapping schemes which overcome the difficulties of mixing Li and Cs, including the large differences in initial trapping and cooling between these atomic species and a large differential gravitational sag. We also achieved part per million level magnetic field control near 900 G, necessary for the precise measurements near narrow Feshbach resonances undertaken in this thesis, by pioneering a tomographic magnetic field calibration technique. With this apparatus, we first probed the Feshbach resonances of the Li-Cs mixture. This is an essential first step, allowing us to understand and control the two-body interactions between our atoms. Next we began to probe Efimov physics, an important three-body phenomenon wherein an infinite series of three-body bound states arise near two-body scattering resonances, such as Feshbach resonances. We demonstrated the universal scaling expected theoretically for Efimov states near a Feshbach resonance. This task was made feasible in our system by a reduced Efimov scaling constant, yet still required precise magnetic field control. Finally, additional universal behavior of the first Efimov resonance has been observed empirically in a variety of atomic systems. While theory has explained this observed universality, predictions also indicate departures for narrow Feshbach resonances, contrary to previous experimental results. By further improving our magnetic field control to probe a very
Observation of Resonant Effects in Ultracold Collisions between Heteronuclear Feshbach Molecules
Ye, Xin; Wang, Fudong; Zhu, Bing; Guo, Mingyang; Lu, Bo; Wang, Dajun
2016-05-01
Magnetic field dependent dimer-dimer collisional losses are studied with ultracold 23 Na87 Rb Feshbach molecules. By ramping the magnetic field across the 347.8 G inter-species Feshbach resonance and removing residual atoms with a magnetic field gradient, ~ 8000 pure NaRb Feshbach molecules with a temperature below 1 μK are produced. By holding the pure molecule sample in a crossed optical dipole trap and measuring the time-dependent loss curves under different magnetic fields near the Feshbach resonance, the dimer-dimer loss rates with respect to the atomic scattering length a are mapped out. We observe a resonant feature at around a = 600a0 and a rising tail at above a = 1600a0 . This behavior resembles previous theoretical works on homonuclear Feshbach molecule, where resonant effects between dimer-dimer collisions tied to tetramer bound states were predicted. Our work shows the possibility of exploring four-body physics within a heteronuclear system. We are supported by Hong Kong RGC General Research Fund no. CUHK403813.
Dark and bright solitons in a Bose-Einstein condensate with a Feshbach resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuce, C; Kilic, A
2007-01-01
Both dark and bright solitons are constructed exactly for a Bose-Einstein condensation with a time-dependent scattering length in an expulsive parabolic potential. It is shown analytically how the size of the cloud and the sharp peak of the condensate changes via the Feshbach resonance. It is also found that the atom loss due to three-body recombination can be controlled with the help of Feshbach resonance. The exact calculation is performed to compare the rate of the atom loss between the system with time-dependent scattering length in an expulsive parabolic potential and the system with constant scattering length
Dark and bright solitons in a Bose-Einstein condensate with a Feshbach resonance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yuce, C; Kilic, A [Department of Physics, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey)
2007-02-15
Both dark and bright solitons are constructed exactly for a Bose-Einstein condensation with a time-dependent scattering length in an expulsive parabolic potential. It is shown analytically how the size of the cloud and the sharp peak of the condensate changes via the Feshbach resonance. It is also found that the atom loss due to three-body recombination can be controlled with the help of Feshbach resonance. The exact calculation is performed to compare the rate of the atom loss between the system with time-dependent scattering length in an expulsive parabolic potential and the system with constant scattering length.
Efimov Trimers near the Zero-crossing of a Feshbach Resonance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas
2012-01-01
Near a Feshbach resonance, the two-body scattering length can assume any value. When it approaches zero, the next-order term given by the effective range is known to diverge. We consider the question of whether this divergence (and the vanishing of the scattering length) is accompanied by an anom...... by an anomalous solution of the three-boson Schr\\"odinger equation similar to the one found at infinite scattering length by Efimov. Within a simple zero-range model, we find no such solutions, and conclude that higher-order terms do not support Efimov physics.......Near a Feshbach resonance, the two-body scattering length can assume any value. When it approaches zero, the next-order term given by the effective range is known to diverge. We consider the question of whether this divergence (and the vanishing of the scattering length) is accompanied...
Phase diagram of a polarized Fermi gas across a Feshbach resonance in a potential trap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yi, W.; Duan, L.-M.
2006-01-01
We map out the detailed phase diagram of a trapped ultracold Fermi gas with population imbalance across a wide Feshbach resonance. We show that under the local density approximation, the properties of the atoms in any (anisotropic) harmonic traps are universally characterized by three dimensionless parameters: the normalized temperature, the dimensionless interaction strength, and the population imbalance. We then discuss the possible quantum phases in the trap, and quantitatively characterize their phase boundaries in various typical parameter regions
The calculation of Feshbach resonances using coupled propagator equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhan, Hongbin; Zhang, Yinchun; Winkler, P.
1994-01-01
A coupled channel theory of resonances has been formulated within the propagator approach of man-body theory and applied to the 1s3s 2 resonance of e-helium scattering. This system has previously been studied both experimentally and theoretically. These results for the width of the resonance agree well with these earlier findings
Feshbach shape resonance for high Tc superconductivity in superlattices of nanotubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bianconi, Antonio
2006-01-01
The case of a Feshbach shape resonance in the pairing mechanism for high T c superconductivity in a crystalline lattice of doped metallic nanotubes is described. The superlattice of doped metallic nanotubes provides a superconductor with a strongly asymmetric gap. The disparity and different spatial locations of the wave functions of electrons in different subbands at the Fermi level should suppress the single electron impurity interband scattering giving multiband superconductivity in the clean limit. The Feshbach resonances will arise from the component single-particle wave functions out of which the electron pair wave function is constructed: pairs of wave functions which are time inverse of each other. The Feshbach shape resonance increases the critical temperature by tuning the chemical potential at the Lifshitz electronic topological transition (ETT) where the Fermi surface of one of the bands changes from the one dimensional (1D) to the two dimensional (2D) topology (1D/2D ETT). (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Kohn's theorem in a superfluid Fermi gas with a Feshbach resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohashi, Y.
2004-01-01
We investigate the dipole mode in a superfluid gas of Fermi atoms trapped in a harmonic potential. According to Kohn's theorem, the frequency of this collective mode is not affected by an interaction between the atoms and is always equal to the trap frequency. This remarkable property, however, does not necessarily hold in an approximate theory. We explicitly prove that the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov generalized random phase approximation (HFB-GRPA), including a coupling between fluctuations in the density and Cooper channels, is consistent with both Kohn's theorem as well as Goldstone's theorem. This proof can be immediately extended to the strong-coupling superfluid theory developed by Nozieres and Schmitt-Rink (NSR), where the effect of superfluid fluctuations is included within the Gaussian level. As a result, the NSR-GRPA formalism can be used to study collective modes in the BCS-BEC crossover region in a manner which is consistent with Kohn's theorem. We also include the effect of a Feshbach resonance and a condensate of the associated molecular bound states. A detailed discussion is given of the unusual nature of the Kohn mode eigenfunctions in a Fermi superfluid, in the presence and absence of a Feshbach resonance. When the molecular bosons feel a different trap frequency from the Fermi atoms, the dipole frequency is shown to depend on the strength of effective interaction associated with the Feshbach resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu Zengqiang; Zhai Hui; Zhang Shizhong
2011-01-01
We study the properties of dilute bosons immersed in a single-component Fermi sea across a broad boson-fermion Feshbach resonance. The stability of the mixture requires that the bare interaction between bosons exceeds a critical value, which is a universal function of the boson-fermion scattering length, and exhibits a maximum in the unitary region. We calculate the quantum depletion, momentum distribution, and the boson contact parameter across the resonance. The transition from condensate to molecular Fermi gas is also discussed.
Collective molecule formation in a degenerate Fermi gas via a Feshbach resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Javanainen, Juha; Kostrun, Marijan; Zheng Yi; Carmichael, Andrew; Shrestha, Uttam; Meinel, Patrick J.; Mackie, Matt; Dannenberg, Olavi; Suominen, Kalle-Antti
2004-01-01
We model collisionless collective conversion of a degenerate Fermi gas of atoms into bosonic molecules via a Feshbach resonance, treating the bosonic molecules as a classical field and seeding the pairing amplitudes with random phases. A dynamical instability of the Fermi sea against association with molecules drives the conversion. The model qualitatively reproduces several experimental observations [Regal et al., Nature (London) 424, 47 (2003)]. We predict that the initial temperature of the Fermi gas sets the limit for the efficiency of atom-molecule conversion
Feshbach shape resonance for high Tc pairing in superlattices of quantum stripes and quantum wells
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A Bianconi
2006-09-01
Full Text Available The Feshbach shape resonances in the interband pairing in superconducting superlattices of quantum wells or quantum stripes is shown to provide the mechanism for high Tc superconductivity. This mechanism provides the Tc amplification driven by the architecture of material: superlattices of quantum wells (intercalated graphite or diborides and superlattices of quantum stripes (doped high Tc cuprate perovskites where the chemical potential is tuned to a Van Hove-Lifshitz singularity (vHs in the electronic energy spectrum of the superlattice associated with the change of the Fermi surface dimensionality in one of the subbands.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sparenberg, Jean-Marc; Samsonov, Boris F; Foucart, Francois; Baye, Daniel
2006-01-01
A new type of supersymmetric transformations of the coupled-channel radial Schroedinger equation is introduced, which do not conserve the vanishing behaviour of solutions at the origin. Contrary to the usual transformations, these 'non-conservative' transformations allow, in the presence of thresholds, the construction of well-behaved potentials with coupled scattering matrices from uncoupled potentials. As an example, an exactly-solvable potential matrix is obtained which provides a very simple model of the Feshbach-resonance phenomenon. (letter to the editor)
Three-Body Recombination near a Narrow Feshbach Resonance in Li 6
Li, Jiaming; Liu, Ji; Luo, Le; Gao, Bo
2018-05-01
We experimentally measure and theoretically analyze the three-atom recombination rate, L3, around a narrow s -wave magnetic Feshbach resonance of Li 6 - Li 6 at 543.3 G. By examining both the magnetic field dependence and, especially, the temperature dependence of L3 over a wide range of temperatures from a few μ K to above 200 μ K , we show that three-atom recombination through a narrow resonance follows a universal behavior determined by the long-range van der Waals potential and can be described by a set of rate equations in which three-body recombination proceeds via successive pairwise interactions. We expect the underlying physical picture to be applicable not only to narrow s wave resonances, but also to resonances in nonzero partial waves, and not only at ultracold temperatures, but also at much higher temperatures.
Wille, E.; Spiegelhalder, F.M.; Kerner, G.; Naik, D.; Trenkwalder, A.; Hendl, G.; Schreck, F.; Grimm, R.; Tiecke, T.G.; Walraven, J.T.M.; Kokkelmans, S.J.J.M.F.; Tiesinga, E.; Julienne, P.S.
2008-01-01
We report on the observation of Feshbach resonances in an ultracold mixture of two fermionic species, 6Li and 40K. The experimental data are interpreted using a simple asymptotic bound state model and full coupled channels calculations. This unambiguously assigns the observed resonances in terms of
Integrability of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with Feshbach resonance management
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao Dun; Luo Honggang; Chai Huayue
2008-01-01
In this Letter we study the integrability of a class of Gross-Pitaevskii equations managed by Feshbach resonance in an expulsive parabolic external potential. By using WTC test, we find a condition under which the Gross-Pitaevskii equation is completely integrable. Under the present model, this integrability condition is completely consistent with that proposed by Serkin, Hasegawa, and Belyaeva [V.N. Serkin, A. Hasegawa, T.L. Belyaeva, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 (2007) 074102]. Furthermore, this integrability can also be explicitly shown by a transformation, which can convert the Gross-Pitaevskii equation into the well-known standard nonlinear Schroedinger equation. By this transformation, each exact solution of the standard nonlinear Schroedinger equation can be converted into that of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, which builds a systematical connection between the canonical solitons and the so-called nonautonomous ones. The finding of this transformation has a significant contribution to understanding the essential properties of the nonautonomous solitons and the dynamics of the Bose-Einstein condensates by using the Feshbach resonance technique
One-dimensional gas of bosons with Feshbach-resonant interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gurarie, V.
2006-01-01
We present a study of a gas of bosons confined in one dimension with Feshbach-resonant interactions, at zero temperature. Unlike the gas of one-dimensional bosons with non resonant interactions, which is known to be equivalent to a system of interacting spinless fermions and can be described using the Luttinger liquid formalism, the resonant gas possesses additional features. Depending on its parameters, the gas can be in one of three possible regimes. In the simplest of those, it can still be described by the Luttinger liquid theory, but its Fermi momentum cannot be larger than a certain cutoff momentum dependent on the details of the interactions. In the other two regimes, it is equivalent to a Luttinger liquid at low density only. At higher densities its excitation spectrum develops a minimum, similar to the roton minimum in helium, at momenta where the excitations are in resonance with the Fermi sea. As the density of the gas is increased further, the minimum dips below the Fermi energy, thus making the ground state unstable. At this point the standard ground state gets replaced by a more complicated one, where not only the states with momentum below the Fermi points, but also the ones with momentum close to that minimum, get filled, and the excitation spectrum develops several branches. We are unable so far to study this regime in detail due to the lack of the appropriate formalism
Langmack, Christian; Schmidt, Richard; Zwerger, Wilhelm
2018-03-01
We calculate the spectrum of three-body Efimov bound states near a Feshbach resonance within a model which accounts both for the finite range of interactions and the presence of background scattering. The latter may be due to direct interactions in an open channel or a second overlapping Feshbach resonance. It is found that background scattering gives rise to substantial changes in the trimer spectrum as a function of the detuning away from a Feshbach resonance, in particular in the regime where the background channel supports Efimov states on its own. Compared to the situation with negligible background scattering, the regime where van der Waals universality applies is shifted to larger values of the resonance strength if the background scattering length is positive. For negative background scattering lengths, in turn, van der Waals universality extends to even small values of the resonance strength parameter, consistent with experimental results on Efimov states in 39K. Within a simple model, we show that short-range three-body forces do not affect van der Waals universality significantly. Repulsive three-body forces may, however, explain the observed variation between around -8 and -10 of the ratio between the scattering length where the first Efimov trimer appears and the van der Waals length.
Feshbach Resonance due to Coherent {lambda}-{sigma} Coupling in {sup 7}{sub {lambda}}He
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mon, San San; Nwe, Tin Tin [Department of Physics, Mandalay University (Myanmar); Myint, Khin Swe [Pro-Rector, Mandalay University (Myanmar)], E-mail: pro-rector@mptmail.net.mm; Akaishi, Y. [College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, Chiba, Japan and RIKEN Nishina Center, Saitama (Japan)
2010-04-01
Coherent {lambda}-{sigma} coupling effect in {sup 7}{sub {lambda}}He is analyzed within three-body framework of two coupled channels, {lambda}-t-t and {sigma}-{tau}-t, where {tau} represents trinulceon which is either {sup 3}H or {sup 3}He. The hyperon-trinucleon (Y{tau}) and trinucleon-trinucleon ({tau}{tau}) interactions are derived by folding G-matrices of YN and NN interactions with trinucleon density distributions. It is found that the binding energy of {sup 7}{sub {lambda}}He is 4.04 MeV below the {lambda}+t+t threshold without {lambda}-{sigma} coupling and the binding energy is increased to 4.46 MeV when the coupling effect is included. This state is 7.85 MeV above the {sup 6}He+{lambda} threshold and it may have a chance to be observed as a Feshbach resonance in {sup 7}Li (e,e{sup '}K{sup +}){sup 7}{sub {lambda}}He experiment done at Jefferson Lab.
Realizing Fulde-Ferrell Superfluids via a Dark-State Control of Feshbach Resonances
He, Lianyi; Hu, Hui; Liu, Xia-Ji
2018-01-01
We propose that the long-sought Fulde-Ferrell superfluidity with nonzero momentum pairing can be realized in ultracold two-component Fermi gases of K 40 or Li 6 atoms by optically tuning their magnetic Feshbach resonances via the creation of a closed-channel dark state with a Doppler-shifted Stark effect. In this scheme, two counterpropagating optical fields are applied to couple two molecular states in the closed channel to an excited molecular state, leading to a significant violation of Galilean invariance in the dark-state regime and hence to the possibility of Fulde-Ferrell superfluidity. We develop a field theoretical formulation for both two-body and many-body problems and predict that the Fulde-Ferrell state has remarkable properties, such as anisotropic single-particle dispersion relation, suppressed superfluid density at zero temperature, anisotropic sound velocity, and rotonic collective mode. The latter two features can be experimentally probed using Bragg spectroscopy, providing a smoking-gun proof of Fulde-Ferrell superfluidity.
Scattering amplitude of ultracold atoms near the p-wave magnetic Feshbach resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Peng; Naidon, Pascal; Ueda, Masahito
2010-01-01
Most of the current theories on the p-wave superfluid in cold atomic gases are based on the effective-range theory for the two-body scattering, where the low-energy p-wave scattering amplitude f 1 (k) is given by f 1 (k)=-1/[ik+1/(Vk 2 )+1/R]. Here k is the incident momentum, V and R are the k-independent scattering volume and effective range, respectively. However, due to the long-range nature of the van der Waals interaction between two colliding ultracold atoms, the p-wave scattering amplitude of the two atoms is not described by the effective-range theory [J. Math. Phys. 4, 54 (1963); Phys. Rev. A 58, 4222 (1998)]. In this paper we provide an explicit calculation for the p-wave scattering of two ultracold atoms near the p-wave magnetic Feshbach resonance. We show that in this case the low-energy p-wave scattering amplitude f 1 (k)=-1/[ik+1/(V eff k 2 )+1/(S eff k)+1/R eff ] where V eff , S eff , and R eff are k-dependent parameters. Based on this result, we identify sufficient conditions for the effective-range theory to be a good approximation of the exact scattering amplitude. Using these conditions we show that the effective-range theory is a good approximation for the p-wave scattering in the ultracold gases of 6 Li and 40 K when the scattering volume is enhanced by the resonance.
Formation of ultracold NaRb Feshbach molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Fudong; He, Xiaodong; Li, Xiaoke; Zhu, Bing; Chen, Jun; Wang, Dajun
2015-01-01
We report the creation of ultracold bosonic 23 Na 87 Rb Feshbach molecules via magneto-association. By ramping the magnetic field across an interspecies Feshbach resonance (FR), at least 4000 molecules can be produced out of the near degenerate ultracold mixture. Fast loss due to inelastic atom–molecule collisions is observed, which limits the pure molecule number, after residual atoms removal, to 1700. The pure molecule sample can live for 21.8(8) ms in the optical trap, long enough for future molecular spectroscopy studies toward coherently transferring to the singlet ro-vibrational ground state, where these molecules are stable against chemical reaction and have a permanent electric dipole moment of 3.3 Debye. We have also measured the Feshbach molecule’s binding energy near the FR by the oscillating magnetic field method and found these molecules have a large closed-channel fraction. (paper)
Beyer, Maximilian; Merkt, Frederic
2017-06-01
The recent observations [1,2] of shape and Feshbach resonances in the high-resolution photoelectron spectra of H_2, HD and D_2 in the vicinity of the dissociation thresholds of H_2^+, HD^+ and D_2^+ raise questions concerning their potential role in the formation of H_2^+ and its isotopomers in the early universe by radiative association, a topic of astrophysical interest [3]. Close-coupling calculations for the cross sections of the reactions {H}^+ + {H} &\\to {H}_2^+ + hν {H}^+ + {D} &\\to {HD}^+ + hν {D}^+ + {H} &\\to {HD}^+ + hν {D}^+ + {D} &\\to {D}_2^+ + hν, will be presented which take into account nonadiabatic couplings involving rovibronic and hyperfine interactions, as well as relativistic and radiative corrections. The calculated energies and widths will be compared with the experimental results of Ref. [1,2] for H_2^+ and new data for HD^+ and D_2^+. The effect of the resonances on the radiative association rate coefficients will be discussed, also in comparison with earlier studies [4]. [1] M. Beyer and F. Merkt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 093001 (2016). [2] M. Beyer and F. Merkt, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 330, 147 (2016). [3] Molecule formation in dust-poor environments, J. F. Babb and K. P. Kirby, in "The molecular astrophysics of stars and galaxies", T. W. Hartquist and D. A. Williams, eds., Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998, pp. 11-34. [4] D. E. Ramaker and J. M. Peek, Phys. Rev. A 13, 58 (1976).
An efficient nonlinear Feshbach engine
Li, Jing; Fogarty, Thomás; Campbell, Steve; Chen, Xi; Busch, Thomas
2018-01-01
We investigate a thermodynamic cycle using a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) with nonlinear interactions as the working medium. Exploiting Feshbach resonances to change the interaction strength of the BEC allows us to produce work by expanding and compressing the gas. To ensure a large power output from this engine these strokes must be performed on a short timescale, however such non-adiabatic strokes can create irreversible work which degrades the engine’s efficiency. To combat this, we design a shortcut to adiabaticity which can achieve an adiabatic-like evolution within a finite time, therefore significantly reducing the out-of-equilibrium excitations in the BEC. We investigate the effect of the shortcut to adiabaticity on the efficiency and power output of the engine and show that the tunable nonlinearity strength, modulated by Feshbach resonances, serves as a useful tool to enhance the system’s performance.
Siegel, Edward
2011-10-01
Numbers: primality/indivisibility/non-factorization versus compositeness/divisibility /factor-ization, often in tandem but not always, provocatively close analogy to nuclear-physics: (2 + 1)=(fusion)=3; (3+1)=(fission)=4[=2 × 2]; (4+1)=(fusion)=5; (5 +1)=(fission)=6[=2 × 3]; (6 + 1)=(fusion)=7; (7+1)=(fission)=8[= 2 × 4 = 2 × 2 × 2]; (8 + 1) =(non: fission nor fusion)= 9[=3 × 3]; then ONLY composites' Islands of fusion-INstability: 8, 9, 10; then 14, 15, 16,... Could inter-digit Feshbach-resonances exist??? Applications to: quantum-information/computing non-Shore factorization, millennium-problem Riemann-hypotheses proof as Goodkin BEC intersection with graph-theory ``short-cut'' method: Rayleigh(1870)-Polya(1922)-``Anderson'' (1958)-localization, Goldbach-conjecture, financial auditing/accounting as quantum-statistical-physics;... abound!!!
Indirect dissociative recombination of LiHe^{+} ions driven by vibrational Feshbach resonances
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Čurík, Roman; Gianturco, F. A.
2013-01-01
Roč. 87, č. 1 (2013), 012705 ISSN 1050-2947 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC10046; GA ČR GAP208/11/0452 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : QUANTUM -DEFECT THE ORY * ELECTRON -MOLECULE SCATTERING * POTENTIAL-ENERGY CURVES Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; The oretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.991, year: 2013
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoffmann, T H; Ruf, M-W; Hotop, H; Zatsarinny, O; Bartschat, K; Allan, M
2010-01-01
In a joint experimental and theoretical effort, we carried out a detailed study of electron scattering from Kr atoms in the energy range of the low-lying Kr - (4p 5 5s 2 ) Feshbach resonances. Absolute angle-differential cross sections for elastic electron scattering were measured over the energy range 9.3-10.3 eV with an energy width of about 13 meV at scattering angles between 10 deg. and 180 deg. Using several sets of elastic scattering phase shifts, a detailed analysis of the sharp Kr - (4p 5 5s 2 2 P 3/2 ) resonance was carried out, resulting in a resonance width of Γ 3/2 3.6(2) meV. By direct comparison with the position of the Ar - (3p 5 4s 2 2 P 3/2 ) resonance, the energy for the Kr - (4p 5 5s 2 2 P 3/2 ) resonance was determined as E 3/2 = 9.489(3) eV. A Fano-type fit of the higher lying Kr - (4p 5 5s 2 2 P 1/2 ) resonance yielded the resonance parameters Γ 1/2 = 33(5) meV and E 1/2 = 10.126(4) eV. In order to obtain additional insights, B-spline R-matrix calculations were performed for both the elastic and the inelastic cross sections above the threshold for 4p 5 5s excitation. They provide the total and angle-differential cross sections for excitation of long-lived and short-lived levels of the 4p 5 5s configuration in Kr and branching ratios for the decay of the Kr - (4p 5 5s 2 2 P 1/2 ) resonance into the three available exit channels. The results are compared with selected experimental data.
Pitchfork bifurcation and vibrational resonance in a fractional-order ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The fractional-order damping mainly determines the pattern of the vibrational resonance. There is a bifurcation point of the fractional order which, in the case of double-well potential, transforms vibrational resonance pattern from a single resonance to a double resonance, while in the case of single-well potential, transforms ...
Resonant vibration control of wind turbine blades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svendsen, Martin Nymann; Krenk, Steen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker
2010-01-01
. The efficiency of the resonant controller is demonstrated for a representative turbine blade exposed to turbulent wind loading. It is found that the present explicit tuning procedure yields close to optimal tuning, with very limited modal spill-over and effective reduction of the vibration amplitudes.......The paper deals with introduction of damping to specific vibration modes of wind turbine blades, using a resonant controller with acceleration feedback. The wind turbine blade is represented by three-dimensional, two-node finite elements in a local, rotating frame of reference. The element...... formulation accounts for arbitrary mass density distributions, general elastic crosssection properties and geometric stiffness effects due to internal stresses. A compact, linear formulation for aerodynamic forces with associated stiffness and damping terms is established and added to the structural model...
Balanced calibration of resonant shunt circuits for piezoelectric vibration control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Høgsberg, Jan; Krenk, Steen
2012-01-01
Shunting of piezoelectric transducers and suitable electric circuits constitutes an effective passive approach to resonant vibration damping of structures. Most common design concepts for resonant resistor-inductor (RL) shunt circuits rely on either maximization of the attainable modal damping...
Resonant vibrational energy transfer in ice Ih
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shi, L.; Li, F.; Skinner, J. L. [Theoretical Chemistry Institute and Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)
2014-06-28
Fascinating anisotropy decay experiments have recently been performed on H{sub 2}O ice Ih by Timmer and Bakker [R. L. A. Timmer, and H. J. Bakker, J. Phys. Chem. A 114, 4148 (2010)]. The very fast decay (on the order of 100 fs) is indicative of resonant energy transfer between OH stretches on different molecules. Isotope dilution experiments with deuterium show a dramatic dependence on the hydrogen mole fraction, which confirms the energy transfer picture. Timmer and Bakker have interpreted the experiments with a Förster incoherent hopping model, finding that energy transfer within the first solvation shell dominates the relaxation process. We have developed a microscopic theory of vibrational spectroscopy of water and ice, and herein we use this theory to calculate the anisotropy decay in ice as a function of hydrogen mole fraction. We obtain very good agreement with experiment. Interpretation of our results shows that four nearest-neighbor acceptors dominate the energy transfer, and that while the incoherent hopping picture is qualitatively correct, vibrational energy transport is partially coherent on the relevant timescale.
Free-vibration acoustic resonance of a nonlinear elastic bar
Tarumi, Ryuichi; Oshita, Yoshihito
2011-02-01
Free-vibration acoustic resonance of a one-dimensional nonlinear elastic bar was investigated by direct analysis in the calculus of variations. The Lagrangian density of the bar includes a cubic term of the deformation gradient, which is responsible for both geometric and constitutive nonlinearities. By expanding the deformation function into a complex Fourier series, we derived the action integral in an analytic form and evaluated its stationary conditions numerically with the Ritz method for the first three resonant vibration modes. This revealed that the bar shows the following prominent nonlinear features: (i) amplitude dependence of the resonance frequency; (ii) symmetry breaking in the vibration pattern; and (iii) excitation of the high-frequency mode around nodal-like points. Stability of the resonant vibrations was also addressed in terms of a convex condition on the strain energy density.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Bayıroğlu
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Vibrational conveyers with a centrifugal vibration exciter transmit their load based on the jumping method. Common unbalanced-mass driver oscillates the trough. The motion is strictly related to the vibrational parameters. The transition over resonance of a vibratory system, excited by rotating unbalances, is important in terms of the maximum vibrational amplitude produced and the power demand on the drive for the crossover. The mechanical system is driven by the DC motor. In this study, the working ranges of oscillating shaking conveyers with nonideal vibration exciter have been analyzed analytically for superharmonic and subharmonic resonances by the method of multiple scales and numerically. The analytical results obtained in this study agree well with the numerical results.
A vibration energy harvesting device with bidirectional resonance frequency tunability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Challa, Vinod R; Prasad, M G; Shi Yong; Fisher, Frank T
2008-01-01
Vibration energy harvesting is an attractive technique for potential powering of wireless sensors and low power devices. While the technique can be employed to harvest energy from vibrations and vibrating structures, a general requirement independent of the energy transfer mechanism is that the vibration energy harvesting device operate in resonance at the excitation frequency. Most energy harvesting devices developed to date are single resonance frequency based, and while recent efforts have been made to broaden the frequency range of energy harvesting devices, what is lacking is a robust tunable energy harvesting technique. In this paper, the design and testing of a resonance frequency tunable energy harvesting device using a magnetic force technique is presented. This technique enabled resonance tuning to ± 20% of the untuned resonant frequency. In particular, this magnetic-based approach enables either an increase or decrease in the tuned resonant frequency. A piezoelectric cantilever beam with a natural frequency of 26 Hz is used as the energy harvesting cantilever, which is successfully tuned over a frequency range of 22–32 Hz to enable a continuous power output 240–280 µW over the entire frequency range tested. A theoretical model using variable damping is presented, whose results agree closely with the experimental results. The magnetic force applied for resonance frequency tuning and its effect on damping and load resistance have been experimentally determined
Nonlinear resonance ultrasonic vibrations in Czochralski-silicon wafers
Ostapenko, S.; Tarasov, I.
2000-04-01
A resonance effect of generation of subharmonic acoustic vibrations is observed in as-grown, oxidized, and epitaxial silicon wafers. Ultrasonic vibrations were generated into a standard 200 mm Czochralski-silicon (Cz-Si) wafer using a circular ultrasound transducer with major frequency of the radial vibrations at about 26 kHz. By tuning frequency (f) of the transducer within a resonance curve, we observed a generation of intense f/2 subharmonic acoustic mode assigned as a "whistle." The whistle mode has a threshold amplitude behavior and narrow frequency band. The whistle is attributed to a nonlinear acoustic vibration of a silicon plate. It is demonstrated that characteristics of the whistle mode are sensitive to internal stress and can be used for quality control and in-line diagnostics of oxidized and epitaxial Cz-Si wafers.
Nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopic studies of iron-containing biomolecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohta, Takehiro; Seto, Makoto
2014-01-01
In this review, we report recent nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopic (NRVS) studies of iron-containing biomolecules and their model complexes. The NRVS is synchrotron-based element-specific vibrational spectroscopic methods. Unlike Raman and infrared spectroscopy, the NRVS can investigate all iron motions without selection rules, which provide atomic level insights into the structure/reactivity correlation of biologically relevant iron complexes. (author)
A Family of Resonant Vibration Control Formats
Krenk, Steen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker
2012-01-01
Resonant control makes use of a controller with a resonance frequency and an equivalent damping ratio.A simple explicit calibration procedure is presented for a family of resonant controllers in which the frequencyis tuned to the natural frequency of the targeted mode in such a way that the two resulting modes exhibit identicaldamping ratio. This tuning is independent of the imposed controller damping. The controller damping is thenselected as an optimal compromise between too small damping, ...
Intermodal resonance of vibrating suspended cables
Rienstra, S.W.
2010-01-01
The weakly nonlinear free vibrations of a single suspended cable, or a coupled system of suspended cables, may be classified as gravity modes (no tension variations to leading order) and elasto-gravity modes (tension and vertical displacement equally important). It was found earlier [12] that the
Vibrational resonance in the Morse oscillator
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In the damped and biharmonically driven classical Morse oscillator, by applying a theoretical approach, an analytical expression is obtained for the response amplitude at the low-frequency . Conditions are identified on the parameters for the occurrence of resonance. The system shows only one resonance and moreover ...
Predicting vibration-induced displacement for a resonant friction slider
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fidlin, A.; Thomsen, Jon Juel
2001-01-01
A mathematical model is set up to quantify vibration-induced motions of a slider, sandwiched between friction layers with different coefficients of friction, and equipped with an imbedded resonator that oscillates at high frequency and small amplitude. This model is highly nonlinear, involving non...
Rabi-vibronic resonance with large number of vibrational quanta
Glenn, R.; Raikh, M. E.
2011-01-01
We study theoretically the Rabi oscillations of a resonantly driven two-level system linearly coupled to a harmonic oscillator (vibrational mode) with frequency, \\omega_0. We show that for weak coupling, \\omega_p \\ll \\omega_0, where \\omega_p is the polaronic shift, Rabi oscillations are strongly modified in the vicinity of the Rabi-vibronic resonance \\Omega_R = \\omega_0, where \\Omega_R is the Rabi frequency. The width of the resonance is (\\Omega_R-\\omega_0) \\sim \\omega_p^{2/3} \\omega_0^{1/3} ...
Vibrational resonances in biological systems at microwave frequencies.
Adair, Robert K
2002-03-01
Many biological systems can be expected to exhibit resonance behavior involving the mechanical vibration of system elements. The natural frequencies of such resonances will, generally, be in the microwave frequency range. Some of these systems will be coupled to the electromagnetic field by the charge distributions they carry, thus admitting the possibility that microwave exposures may generate physiological effects in man and other species. However, such microwave excitable resonances are expected to be strongly damped by interaction with their aqueous biological environment. Although those dissipation mechanisms have been studied, the limitations on energy transfers that follow from the limited coupling of these resonances to the electromagnetic field have not generally been considered. We show that this coupling must generally be very small and thus the absorbed energy is so strongly limited that such resonances cannot affect biology significantly even if the systems are much less strongly damped than expected from basic dissipation models.
Surface vibrational modes in disk-shaped resonators.
Dmitriev, A V; Gritsenko, D S; Mitrofanov, V P
2014-03-01
The natural frequencies and distributions of displacement components for the surface vibrational modes in thin isotropic elastic disks are calculated. In particular, the research is focused on even solutions for low-lying resonant vibrations with large angular wave numbers. Several families of modes are found which are interpreted as modified surface modes of an infinitely long cylinder and Lamb modes of a plate. The results of calculation are compared with the results of the experimental measurements of vibrational modes generated by means of resonant excitation in duraluminum disk with radius of ≈90 mm and thickness of 16 mm in the frequency range of 130-200 kHz. An excellent agreement between the calculated and measured frequencies is found. Measurements of the structure of the resonant peaks show splitting of some modes. About a half of the measured modes has splitting Δfsplit/fmode at the level of the order of 10(-5). The Q-factors of all modes measured in vacuum lie in the interval (2…3)×10(5). This value is typical for duraluminum mechanical resonators in the ultrasonic frequency range. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A Novel Vibration Mode Testing Method for Cylindrical Resonators Based on Microphones
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yongmeng Zhang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Non-contact testing is an important method for the study of the vibrating characteristic of cylindrical resonators. For the vibratory cylinder gyroscope excited by piezo-electric electrodes, mode testing of the cylindrical resonator is difficult. In this paper, a novel vibration testing method for cylindrical resonators is proposed. This method uses a MEMS microphone, which has the characteristics of small size and accurate directivity, to measure the vibration of the cylindrical resonator. A testing system was established, then the system was used to measure the vibration mode of the resonator. The experimental results show that the orientation resolution of the node of the vibration mode is better than 0.1°. This method also has the advantages of low cost and easy operation. It can be used in vibration testing and provide accurate results, which is important for the study of the vibration mode and thermal stability of vibratory cylindrical gyroscopes.
Nishimura, Makoto; Chiba, Mirei; Ohashi, Toshiro; Sato, Masaaki; Shimizu, Yoshiyuki; Igarashi, Kaoru; Mitani, Hideo
2008-04-01
Accelerating the speed of orthodontic tooth movement should contribute to the shortening of the treatment period. This would be beneficial because long treatment times are a negative aspect of orthodontic treatment. In this study, we evaluated the effects of mechanical stimulation by resonance vibration on tooth movement, and we showed the cellular and molecular mechanisms of periodontal ligament responses. The maxillary first molars of 6-week-old male Wistar rats were moved to the buccal side by using an expansive spring for 21 days (n = 6, control group), and the amount of tooth movement was measured. Additional vibrational stimulation (60 Hz, 1.0 m/s(2)) was applied to the first molars by using a loading vibration system for 8 minutes on days 0, 7, and 14 during orthodontic tooth movement (n = 6, experimental group). The animals were killed under anesthesia, and each maxilla was dissected. The specimens were fixed, decalcified, and embedded in paraffin. Sections were used for immunohistochemical analysis of receptor activator of NF kappa B ligand (RANKL) expression. The number of osteoclasts in the alveolar bone was counted by using TRAP staining, and the amount of root resorption was measured in sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The average resonance frequency of the maxillary first molar was 61.02 +/- 8.38 Hz. Tooth movement in the experimental group was significantly greater than in the control group (P vibration might accelerate orthodontic tooth movement via enhanced RANKL expression in the periodontal ligament without additional damage to periodontal tissues such as root resorption.
Resonances in photoionization. Cross section for vibrationally excited H2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mezei, J.Zs.; Jungen, Ch.
2011-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. Diatomic molecular Hydrogen is the most abundant molecule in interstellar molecular clouds. The modeling of these environments relies on accurate cross sections for the various relevant processes. Among them, the photoionization plays a major role in the kinetics and in the energy exchanges involving H 2 . The recent discovery of vibrationally excited molecular hydrogen in extragalactic environments revealed the need for accurate evaluation of the corresponding photoionization cross sections. In the present work we report theoretical photoionization cross sections for excitation from excited vibrational levels of the ground state, dealing with the Q(N = 1) (ΔN = 0, where N is the total angular momentum of the molecule) transitions which account for roughly one third of the total photoabsorption cross section. We will focus on the v' = 1 excited level of the ground electronic state. Our calculations are based on Multichannel Quantum Defect Theory (MQDT), which allows us to take into account of the full manifold of Rydberg states and their interactions with the electronic continuum. We have carried out two types of MQDT calculations. First, we omitted all open channels and calculated energy levels, wave functions and spontaneous emission Einstein coefficients, making use of the theoretical method presented in [2]. In a second set of calculations we included the open ionization channels in the computations getting the continuum phase shifts, channel mixing coefficients and channel dipole moments and finally the photoabsorption/ photoionization cross section. The cross section is dominated by the presence of resonance structures corresponding to excitation of various vibrational levels of bound electronic states which lie above the ionization threshold. In order to assess the importance of the resonances we have calculated for each vibrational interval (the energy interval between two consecutive ionization thresholds) the
Dynamic range of atomically thin vibrating nanomechanical resonators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Zenghui; Feng, Philip X.-L.
2014-01-01
Atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) crystals offer attractive properties for making resonant nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) operating at high frequencies. While the fundamental limits of linear operation in such systems are important, currently there is very little quantitative knowledge of the linear dynamic range (DR) and onset of nonlinearity in these devices, which are different than in conventional 1D NEMS such as nanotubes and nanowires. Here, we present theoretical analysis and quantitative models that can be directly used to predict the DR of vibrating 2D circular drumhead NEMS resonators. We show that DR has a strong dependence ∝10log(E Y 3/2 ρ 3D -1/2 rtε 5/2 ) on device parameters, in which strain ε plays a particularly important role in these 2D systems, dominating over dimensions (radius r, thickness t). This study formulizes the effects from device physical parameters upon DR and sheds light on device design rules toward achieving high DR in 2D NEMS vibrating at radio and microwave frequencies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spreemann, Dirk; Hoffmann, Daniel; Folkmer, Bernd; Manoli, Yiannos
2008-01-01
This paper presents a design and optimization strategy for resonant electromagnetic vibration energy harvesting devices. An analytic expression for the magnetic field of cylindrical permanent magnets is used to build up an electromagnetic subsystem model. This subsystem is used to find the optimal resting position of the oscillating mass and to optimize the geometrical parameters (shape and size) of the magnet and coil. The objective function to be investigated is thereby the maximum voltage output of the transducer. An additional mechanical subsystem model based on well-known equations describing the dynamics of spring–mass–damper systems is established to simulate both nonlinear spring characteristics and the effect of internal limit stops. The mechanical subsystem enables the identification of optimal spring characteristics for realistic operation conditions such as stochastic vibrations. With the overall transducer model, a combination of both subsystems connected to a simple electrical circuit, a virtual operation of the optimized vibration transducer excited by a measured random acceleration profile can be performed. It is shown that the optimization approach results in an appreciable increase of the converter performance
Universal relations between Feshbach resonances and molecules
Goosen, M.R.
2011-01-01
The susceptibility of ultracold gases to precise manipulation via external fields makes them ideal systems to study fundamental quantum mechanical phenomena. Various regimes, which are not possible to reach in condensed matter or nuclear physics, can be probed with these quantum gases. Especially
Off-resonant vibrational excitation: Orientational dependence and spatial control of photofragments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Machholm, Mette; Henriksen, Niels Engholm
2000-01-01
Off-resonant and resonant vibrational excitation with short intense infrared (IR) laser pulses creates localized oscillating wave packets, but differs by the efficiency of the excitation and surprisingly by the orientational dependence. Orientational selectivity of the vibrational excitation...... of randomly oriented heteronuclear diatomic molecules can be obtained under simultaneous irradiation by a resonant and an off-resonant intense IR laser pulse: Molecules with one initial orientation will be vibrationally excited, while those with the opposite orientation will be at rest. The orientation-dependent...... distribution. (C) 2000 American Institute of Physics....
Stochastic resonance and vibrational resonance in an excitable system: The golden mean barrier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stan, Cristina; Cristescu, C.P.; Alexandroaei, D.; Agop, M.
2009-01-01
We report on stochastic resonance and vibrational resonance in an electric charge double layer configuration as usually found in electrical discharges, biological cell membranes, chemical systems and nanostructures. The experiment and numerical computation show the existence of a barrier expressible in terms of the golden mean above which the two phenomena do not take place. We consider this as new evidence for the importance of the golden mean criticality in the oscillatory dynamics, in agreement with El Naschie's E-infinity theory. In our experiment, the dynamics of a charge double layer generated in the inter-anode space of a twin electrical discharge is investigated under noise-harmonic and harmonic-harmonic perturbations. In the first case, a Gaussian noise can enhance the response of the system to a weak injected periodic signal, a clear mark of stochastic resonance. In the second case, similar enhancement can appear if the noise is replaced by a harmonic perturbation with a frequency much higher than the frequency of the weak oscillation. The amplitude of the low frequency oscillation shows a maximum versus the amplitude of the high frequency perturbation demonstrating vibrational resonance. In order to model these dynamics, we derived an excitable system by modifying a biased van der Pol oscillator. The computational study considers the behaviour of this system under the same types of perturbation as in the experimental investigations and is found to give consistent results in both situations.
Statistical contribution in the giant multipolar resonance decay in hevay nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Teruya, N.
1986-01-01
Statistical calculations are made for the decay in the electric monopole giant resonance in 208 Pb and electric dipole giant resonance in 209 Bi, using the Hauser-Feshbach formalism. Calculations are done using the experimental energy levels of the corresponding residual nuclei. The particle-vibrator model is used for those experimental levels without spin and parity determination. The influence of different parametrizations of the optical potential in the statistical calculation result is also studied. (L.C.) [pt
Bandwidth of reactor internals vibration resonance with coolant pressure oscillations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Proskuryakov, K.N.; Novikov, K.S.; Galivec, E.Yu.
2009-01-01
In a few decades a significant increase in a part of an electricity development on the NPP will require NPP to be operated in non full capacity modes and increase in operation time in transitive modes. Operating in such conditions as compared to the operation on a constant mode will lead to the increase in cyclic dynamical loading. In water cooled water moderated reactors these loading are realized as low-cyclic and high-cyclic loadings. High-cyclic loadings increases are caused by a raised vibration in non stationary modes of operation. It is known, that in some modes of a non full capacity reactor high-cyclic dynamic loadings can increase. It is obvious, that the development of management technologies is necessary for the life time management operation. In the context of this problem one of the main tasks are revealing and the prevention of the conditions of the occurrence of the operation leading to the resonant interaction of the coolant fluctuations and the equipment, reactor vessel (RV), fuel assemblies (FA) and reactor internals (RI) vibration. To prevent the appearance of the conditions for resonance interaction between the fluid flow and the equipments, it is necessary to provide the different frequencies for the self oscillations in the separated elements of the circulating system and also in the parts of the system formed by the comprising of these elements. While solving these problems it is necessary to have a theoretical and settlement substantiation of an oscillation frequency band of coolant outside of which there is no resonant interaction. The presented work is devoted to finding the solution of this problem. There are results of theoretical an estimation of width of such band as well as the examples of a preliminary quantitative estimation of Q - factors of coolant acoustic oscillatory circuit formed by the equipment of the NPP. The accordance of results had been calculated with had been measured are satisfied for practical purposes. These
Statistical decay of giant monopole resonance in 208Pb
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dias, H.; Wolynec, E.
1984-01-01
The neutron spectrum from the decay of the monopole giant resonance in 208 Pb is calculated using the known energy levels of 207 Pb. The particle vibrator model is used to assign spins parities to the measured 207 Pb levels, where these were not avaliable from experiments. The results of the Hauser-Feshbach calculation is in excellent agreement with the experimental spectrum, showing that the observed fast neutrons can be completely explained assuming a statistical decay. (Author) [pt
Statistical decay of the E1 giant resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Teruya, N.; Dias, H.; Wolynec, E.
1987-10-01
Available esperimental data on neutron decay spectra from the E1 giant resonances in 208 Pb and 209 Bi are compared with the predicted spectra for statistical decay. The calculations are performed using the Hauser-Feshbach formalism with the experimental levels of the residual nuclei. The particle-vibrator model is used to assign spins and parities to experimental levels when those are unknown and also to predict the levels where there is not enough experimental information. (author) [pt
Ластівка, Іван Олексійович
2014-01-01
Resonant vibrations of composite electromechanical symmetric three-element system “metal plate - piezoceramic cylindrical panels” are considered. Forced vibrations are made under the influence of external alternating electric field, supplied to the electrodes of piezoceramic segments of cylindrical panels, previously polarized in the tangential direction.Based on the improved theory, such as the S.P. Timoshenko’s, the system of differential equations of forced vibrations of the system, taking...
Role of depth and location of minima of a double-well potential on vibrational resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rajasekar, S; Jeyakumari, S; Chinnathambi, V; Sanjuan, M A F
2010-01-01
We report our investigation into the role of depth and location of minima of a double-well potential on vibrational resonance in both underdamped and overdamped Duffing oscillators. The systems are driven by both low- and high-frequency periodic forces. We obtain theoretical expressions for the amplitude g of the high-frequency force at which resonances occur. The depth and location of the minima of the potential wells have a distinct effect on vibrational resonance in the underdamped and overdamped cases. In the underdamped system at least one resonance and at most two resonances occur and the number of resonances can be altered by varying the depth and location of the minima of the potential wells. We show that in the overdamped system there is always one and only one resonance, and the value of g at which resonance occurs is independent of the depth of the wells, but varies linearly with the locations of the minima of the wells.
Zhang, Yulong; Wang, Tianyang; Zhang, Ai; Peng, Zhuoteng; Luo, Dan; Chen, Rui; Wang, Fei
2016-12-01
In this paper, we present design and test of a broadband electrostatic energy harvester with a dual resonant structure, which consists of two cantilever-mass subsystems each with a mass attached at the free edge of a cantilever. Comparing to traditional devices with single resonant frequency, the proposed device with dual resonant structure can resonate at two frequencies. Furthermore, when one of the cantilever-masses is oscillating at resonance, the vibration amplitude is large enough to make it collide with the other mass, which provides strong mechanical coupling between the two subsystems. Therefore, this device can harvest a decent power output from vibration sources at a broad frequency range. During the measurement, continuous power output up to 6.2-9.8 μW can be achieved under external vibration amplitude of 9.3 m/s 2 at a frequency range from 36.3 Hz to 48.3 Hz, which means the bandwidth of the device is about 30% of the central frequency. The broad bandwidth of the device provides a promising application for energy harvesting from the scenarios with random vibration sources. The experimental results indicate that with the dual resonant structure, the vibration-to-electricity energy conversion efficiency can be improved by 97% when an external random vibration with a low frequency filter is applied.
Yrjämä, M; Tervonen, O; Kurunlahti, M; Vanharanta, H
1997-04-01
The results of two noninvasive methods, magnetic resonance imaging and a bony vibration test, were compared with discographic pain provocation findings. To evaluate whether the combination of magnetic resonance imaging and vibration pain provocation tests could be used to replace discography in low back pain diagnostics. Magnetic resonance imaging gives a wealth of visual information on anatomic changes of the spine with often unknown clinical significance. Discographic examination of the spine is still the only widely accepted diagnostic method that can relate the pathoanatomic changes to the patient's clinical pain. Internal anular rupture has been shown to be one of the sources of back pain. The bony vibration test of the spinal processes has been shown correlate well with discographic pain provocation tests in cases of internal anular rupture. The three lowest lumbar discs of 33 patients with back pain were examined by means of magnetic resonance imaging and a bony vibration stimulation test, and the results were compared with those from computed tomography-discography. In cases of intradiscal magnetic resonance imaging findings, the vibration provocation test showed a sensitivity of 0.88 and a specificity of 0.50 compared with the discographic pain provocation test. If the patients with previous back surgery were excluded, the specificity was 0.75. In the cases of total anular rupture, the sensitivity was 0.50, and the specificity was 0.33. The combination of the two noninvasive methods, vibration stimulation and magnetic resonance imaging, gives more information on the origin of the back pain than magnetic resonance imaging alone. The pathoanatomic changes seen in magnetic resonance imaging can be correlated with the patient's disorder more reliably using the vibration provocation test in the cases of partial anular ruptures. The use of discography can be limited mostly to cases with total anular ruptures detected by magnetic resonance imaging.
Low frequency torsional vibration gaps in the shaft with locally resonant structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu Dianlong; Liu Yaozong; Wang Gang; Cai Li; Qiu Jing
2006-01-01
The propagation of torsional wave in the shaft with periodically attached local resonators is studied with the transfer matrix theory and the finite element method. The analytical dispersion relation and the complex band structure of such a structure is presented for the first time, which indicates the existence of low frequency gaps. The effect of shaft material on the vibration attenuation in band gap is investigated. The frequency response function of the shaft with finite periodic locally resonant oscillators is simulated with finite element method, which shows large vibration attenuation in the frequency range of the gap as expected. The low frequency torsional gap in shafts provides a new idea for vibration control
Band Width of Acoustic Resonance Frequency Relatively Natural Frequency of Fuel Rod Vibration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Proskuryakov, Konstantin Nicolaevich; Moukhine, V.S.; Novikov, K.S.; Galivets, E.Yu. [MPEI - TU, 14, Krasnokazarmennaya str., Moscow, 111250 (Russian Federation)
2009-06-15
In flow induced vibrations the fluid flow is the energy source that causes vibration. Acoustic resonance in piping may lead to severe problems due to over-stressing of components or significant losses of efficiency. Steady oscillatory flow in NPP primary loop can be induced by the pulsating flow introduced by reactor circulating pump or may be set up by self-excitation. Dynamic forces generated by the turbulent flow of coolant in reactor cores cause fuel rods (FR) and fuel assembly (FA) to vibrate. Flow-induced FR and FA vibrations can generally be broken into three groups: large amplitude 'resonance type' vibrations, which can cause immediate rod failure or severe damage to the rod and its support structure, middle amplitude 'within bandwidth of resonance frequency type' vibrations responsible for more gradual wear and fatigue at the contact surface between the fuel cladding and rod support and small amplitude vibrations, 'out of bandwidth of resonance frequency type' responsible for permissible wear and fatigue at the contact surface between the fuel cladding and rod support. Ultimately, these vibration types can result in a cladding breach, and therefore must be accounted for in the thermal hydraulic design of FR and FA and reactor internals. In paper the technique of definition of quality factor (Q) of acoustic contour of the coolant is presented. The value of Q defines a range of frequencies of acoustic fluctuations of the coolant within which the resonance of oscillations of the structure and the coolant is realized. Method of evaluation of so called band width (BW) of acoustic resonance frequency is worked out and presented in the paper. BW characterises the range of the frequency of coolant pressure oscillations within which the frequency of coolant pressure oscillations matches the fuel assembly's natural frequency of vibration (its resonance frequency). Paper show the way of detuning acoustic resonance from natural
Dual resonant structure for energy harvesting from random vibration sources at low frequency
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shanshan Li
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We introduce a design with dual resonant structure which can harvest energy from random vibration sources at low frequency range. The dual resonant structure consists of two spring-mass subsystems with different frequency responses, which exhibit strong coupling and broad bandwidth when the two masses collide with each other. Experiments with piezoelectric elements show that the energy harvesting device with dual resonant structure can generate higher power output than the sum of the two separate devices from random vibration sources.
Resonant frequency function of thickness-shear vibrations of rectangular crystal plates.
Wang, Ji; Yang, Lijun; Pan, Qiaoqiao; Chao, Min-Chiang; Du, Jianke
2011-05-01
The resonant frequencies of thickness-shear vibrations of quartz crystal plates in rectangular and circular shapes are always required in the design and manufacturing of quartz crystal resonators. As the size of quartz crystal resonators shrinks, for rectangular plates we must consider effects of both length and width for the precise calculation of resonant frequency. Starting from the three-dimensional equations of wave propagation in finite crystal plates and the general expression of vibration modes, we obtained the relations between frequency and wavenumbers. By satisfying the major boundary conditions of the dominant thickness-shear mode, three wavenumber solutions are obtained and the frequency equation is constructed. It is shown the resonant frequency of thickness-shear mode is a second-order polynomial of aspect ratios. This conforms to known results in the simplest form and is applicable to further analytical and experimental studies of the frequency equation of quartz crystal resonators.
Long-Lived Feshbach Molecules in a Three-Dimensional Optical Lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thalhammer, G.; Winkler, K.; Lang, F.; Schmid, S.; Denschlag, J. Hecker; Grimm, R.
2006-01-01
We have created and trapped a pure sample of 87 Rb 2 Feshbach molecules in a three-dimensional optical lattice. Compared to previous experiments without a lattice, we find dramatic improvements such as long lifetimes of up to 700 ms and a near unit efficiency for converting tightly confined atom pairs into molecules. The lattice shields the trapped molecules from collisions and, thus, overcomes the problem of inelastic decay by vibrational quenching. Furthermore, we have developed an advanced purification scheme that removes residual atoms, resulting in a lattice in which individual sites are either empty or filled with a single molecule in the vibrational ground state of the lattice
Fractional Bateman—Feshbach Tikochinsky Oscillator
Dumitru, Baleanu; Jihad, H. Asad; Ivo, Petras
2014-02-01
In the last few years the numerical methods for solving the fractional differential equations started to be applied intensively to real world phenomena. Having these things in mind in this manuscript we focus on the fractional Lagrangian and Hamiltonian of the complex Bateman—Feshbach Tikochinsky oscillator. The numerical analysis of the corresponding fractional Euler-Lagrange equations is given within the Grünwald—Letnikov approach, which is power series expansion of the generating function.
Fractional Bateman—Feshbach Tikochinsky Oscillator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baleanu, Dumitru; Asad, Jihad H.; Petras Ivo
2014-01-01
In the last few years the numerical methods for solving the fractional differential equations started to be applied intensively to real world phenomena. Having these things in mind in this manuscript we focus on the fractional Lagrangian and Hamiltonian of the complex Bateman—Feshbach Tikochinsky oscillator. The numerical analysis of the corresponding fractional Euler-Lagrange equations is given within the Grünwald—Letnikov approach, which is power series expansion of the generating function. (physics of elementary particles and fields)
Tiwari, Vivek; Peters, William K.; Jonas, David M.
2017-10-01
Non-adiabatic vibrational-electronic resonance in the excited electronic states of natural photosynthetic antennas drastically alters the adiabatic framework, in which electronic energy transfer has been conventionally studied, and suggests the possibility of exploiting non-adiabatic dynamics for directed energy transfer. Here, a generalized dimer model incorporates asymmetries between pigments, coupling to the environment, and the doubly excited state relevant for nonlinear spectroscopy. For this generalized dimer model, the vibrational tuning vector that drives energy transfer is derived and connected to decoherence between singly excited states. A correlation vector is connected to decoherence between the ground state and the doubly excited state. Optical decoherence between the ground and singly excited states involves linear combinations of the correlation and tuning vectors. Excitonic coupling modifies the tuning vector. The correlation and tuning vectors are not always orthogonal, and both can be asymmetric under pigment exchange, which affects energy transfer. For equal pigment vibrational frequencies, the nonadiabatic tuning vector becomes an anti-correlated delocalized linear combination of intramolecular vibrations of the two pigments, and the nonadiabatic energy transfer dynamics become separable. With exchange symmetry, the correlation and tuning vectors become delocalized intramolecular vibrations that are symmetric and antisymmetric under pigment exchange. Diabatic criteria for vibrational-excitonic resonance demonstrate that anti-correlated vibrations increase the range and speed of vibronically resonant energy transfer (the Golden Rule rate is a factor of 2 faster). A partial trace analysis shows that vibronic decoherence for a vibrational-excitonic resonance between two excitons is slower than their purely excitonic decoherence.
Synchrotron radiation in the Far-Infrared: Adsorbate-substrate vibrations and resonant interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoffmann, F.M.; Williams, G.P.; Hirschmugl, C.J.; Chabal, Y.J.
1991-01-01
Synchrotron radiation in the Far Infrared offers the potential for a broadband source of high brightness and intensity. Recent development of a Far-Infrared Beamline at the NSLS in Brookhaven provides an unique high intensity source in the FIR spectral range (800-10 cm -1 ). This talk reviews its application to surface vibrational spectroscopy of low frequency adsorbate-substrate vibrations and resonant interactions on metal surfaces
Resonance tunneling electron-vibrational spectroscopy of polyoxometalates.
Dalidchik, F I; Kovalevskii, S A; Balashov, E M
2017-05-21
The tunneling spectra of the ordered monolayer films of decamolybdodicobaltate (DMDC) compounds deposited from aqueous solutions on HOPG were measured by scanning tunnel microscopy in air. The DMDC spectra, as well as the tunneling spectra of other polyoxometalates (POMs), exhibit well-defined negative differential resistances (NDRs). The mechanism of formation of these spectral features was established from the collection of revealed NDR dependences on the external varying parameters and found to be common to all systems exhibiting Wannier-Stark localization. A model of biresonance tunneling was developed to provide an explanation for the totality of experimental data, both the literature and original, on the tunneling POM probing. A variant of the tunneling electron-vibrational POM spectroscopy was proposed allowing the determination of the three basic energy parameters-energy gaps between the occupied and unoccupied states, frequencies of the vibrational transitions accompanying biresonance electron-tunneling processes, and electron-vibrational interaction constants on the monomolecular level.
Xu, Zhenlong; Tong, Jie; Wu, Fugen
2018-03-01
Magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) are used as cladding in three-dimensional locally resonant acoustic metamaterial (LRAM) cores. The metamaterial units are combined into a vibration isolator. Two types of LRAMs, namely, cubic and spherical kernels, are constructed. The finite element method is used to analyze the elastic band structures, transmittances, and vibration modes of the incident elastic waves. Results show that the central position and width of the LRAM elastic bandgap can be controlled by the application of an external magnetic field; furthermore, they can be adjusted by changing the MRE cladding thickness. These methods contribute to the design of metamaterial MRE vibration isolators.
Vibrational resonances of nonrigid vehicles: Polygonization and ripple patterns
Dekker, H.
2009-01-01
The well-known phenomenon of ripples on roads has its modern counterpart in ripple patterns on railroads and polygonization of wheels on state-of-the-art lightrail streetcars. Here we study an idealized mechanical suspension model for the vibrational frequency response of a buggy with a nonrigid
Resonant vibrations and acoustic radiation of rotating spherical structures.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Shatalov, M
2006-07-01
Full Text Available involved into rotation (precession) with respect to the inertial space with scale factors depending on nature of elastic modes and their numbers. Corresponding scales factors or Bryan’s factors of the vibrating mode’s precession are calculated depending...
Release and nonvolatile operation of carbon nanotube nanorelay by resonant vibration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kagota, Tatsuya; Takei, Kuniharu; Arie, Takayuki; Akita, Seiji, E-mail: akita@pe.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Electronics, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Nakaku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Nagataki, Atsuko [Department of Physics and Electronics, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Nakaku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Materials Analysis Research Center, KRI, Inc., Osaka 554-0051 (Japan)
2013-11-11
We investigated the release of a stuck carbon nanotube (CNT) cantilever beam in nanorelay applications using a nano-manipulator. Even with strong adhesion induced by electrostatic attraction that is 100 times stronger than the van der Waals interaction, successful release of a nanotube arm from a stuck state was realized by the application of a resonant vibration to the stuck CNT arm. Furthermore, nonvolatile operation of the nanotube nanorelay was demonstrated by the application of the resonant vibration to the stuck CNT arm.
Tiwari, Vivek; Jonas, David M.
2018-02-01
Vibrational-electronic resonance in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes invalidates Förster's adiabatic framework for interpreting spectra and energy transfer, thus complicating determination of how the surrounding protein affects pigment properties. This paper considers the combined effects of vibrational-electronic resonance and inhomogeneous variations in the electronic excitation energies of pigments at different sites on absorption, emission, circular dichroism, and hole-burning spectra for a non-degenerate homodimer. The non-degenerate homodimer has identical pigments in different sites that generate differences in electronic energies, with parameters loosely based on bacteriochlorophyll a pigments in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson antenna protein. To explain the intensity borrowing, the excited state vibrational-electronic eigenvectors are discussed in terms of the vibrational basis localized on the individual pigments, as well as the correlated/anti-correlated vibrational basis delocalized over both pigments. Compared to those in the isolated pigment, vibrational satellites for the correlated vibration have the same frequency and precisely a factor of 2 intensity reduction through vibrational delocalization in both absorption and emission. Vibrational satellites for anti-correlated vibrations have their relaxed emission intensity reduced by over a factor 2 through vibrational and excitonic delocalization. In absorption, anti-correlated vibrational satellites borrow excitonic intensity but can be broadened away by the combination of vibronic resonance and site inhomogeneity; in parallel, their vibronically resonant excitonic partners are also broadened away. These considerations are consistent with photosynthetic antenna hole-burning spectra, where sharp vibrational and excitonic satellites are absent. Vibrational-excitonic resonance barely alters the inhomogeneously broadened linear absorption, emission, and circular dichroism spectra from those for a
Remarkable influence of slack on the vibration of a single-walled carbon nanotube resonator
Ning, Zhiyuan; Fu, Mengqi; Wu, Gongtao; Qiu, Chenguang; Shu, Jiapei; Guo, Yao; Wei, Xianlong; Gao, Song; Chen, Qing
2016-04-01
We for the first time quantitatively investigate experimentally the remarkable influence of slack on the vibration of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) resonator with a changeable channel length fabricated in situ inside a scanning electron microscope, compare the experimental results with the theoretical predictions calculated from the measured geometric and mechanical parameters of the same SWCNT, and find the following novel points. We demonstrate experimentally that as the slack s is increased from about zero to 1.8%, the detected vibration transforms from single-mode to multimode vibration, and the gate-tuning ability gradually attenuates for all the vibration modes. The quadratic tuning coefficient α decreases linearly with when the gate voltage Vdcg is small and the nanotube resonator operates in the beam regime. The linear tuning coefficient γ decreases linearly with when Vdcg has an intermediate value and the nanotube resonator operates in the catenary regime. The calculated α and γ fit the experimental values of the even in-plane mode reasonably well. As the slack is increased, the quality factor Q of the resonator linearly goes up, but the increase is far less steep than that predicted by the previous theoretical study. Our results are important to understand and design resonators based on CNT and other nanomaterials.
Resonant vibration control of three-bladed wind turbine rotors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krenk, Steen; Svendsen, Martin Nymann; Høgsberg, Jan Becker
2012-01-01
Rotors with blades, as in wind turbines, are prone to vibrations due to the flexibility of the blades and the support. In the present paper a theory is developed for active control of a combined set of vibration modes in three-bladed rotors. The control system consists of identical collocated...... to influence of other nonresonant modes. The efficiency of the method isdemonstrated byapplication to a rotor with 42 m blades, where the sensor/actuator system is implemented in the form of an axial extensible strut near the root of each blade. The load is provided by a simple but fully threedimensional...... correlated wind velocity field. It is shown by numerical simulations that the active damping system can provide a significant reduction in the response amplitude of the targeted modes, while applying control moments to the blades that are about 1 order of magnitude smaller than the moments from the external...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lan, C. B.; Qin, W. Y. [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)
2014-09-15
This letter investigates the energy harvesting from the horizontal coherent resonance of a vertical cantilever beam subjected to the vertical base excitation. The potential energy of the system has two symmetric potential wells. So, under vertical excitation, the system can jump between two potential wells, which will lead to the large vibration in horizontal direction. Two piezoelectric patches are pasted to harvest the energy. From experiment, it is found that the vertical excitation can make the beam turn to be bistable. The system can transform vertical vibration into horizontal vibration of low frequency when excited by harmonic motion. The horizontal coherence resonance can be observed when excited by a vertical white noise. The corresponding output voltages of piezoelectric films reach high values.
Vibration-induced displacement using high-frequency resonators and friction layers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomsen, Jon Juel
1998-01-01
A mathematical model is set up to quantify vibration-induced motions of a slider with an imbedded resonator. A simple approximate expression is presented for predicting average velocities of the slider, agreeing fairly well with numerical integration of the full equations of motion. The simple ex...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kyung Ho Sun
2014-10-01
Full Text Available While environmental vibrations are usually in the range of a few hundred Hertz, small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters will have higher resonant frequencies due to the structural size effect. To address this issue, we propose a resonant frequency-down conversion based on the theory of dynamic vibration absorber for the design of a small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvester. The proposed energy harvester consists of two frequency-tuned elastic components for lowering the first resonant frequency of an integrated system but is so configured that an energy harvesting beam component is inverted with respect to the other supporting beam component for a small form factor. Furthermore, in order to change the unwanted modal characteristic of small separation of resonant frequencies, as is the case with an inverted configuration, a proof mass on the supporting beam component is slightly shifted toward a second proof mass on the tip of the energy harvesting beam component. The proposed small-form-factor design capability was experimentally verified using a fabricated prototype with an occupation volume of 20 × 39 × 6.9 mm3, which was designed for a target frequency of as low as 100 Hz.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sun, Kyung Ho; Kim, Young-Cheol [Department of System Dynamics, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 156 Gajeongbuk-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Eun, E-mail: jekim@cu.ac.kr [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Catholic University of Daegu, 13-13 Hayang-Ro, Hayang-Eup, Gyeongsan-Si, Gyeongsangbuk-Do 712-702 (Korea, Republic of)
2014-10-15
While environmental vibrations are usually in the range of a few hundred Hertz, small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters will have higher resonant frequencies due to the structural size effect. To address this issue, we propose a resonant frequency-down conversion based on the theory of dynamic vibration absorber for the design of a small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvester. The proposed energy harvester consists of two frequency-tuned elastic components for lowering the first resonant frequency of an integrated system but is so configured that an energy harvesting beam component is inverted with respect to the other supporting beam component for a small form factor. Furthermore, in order to change the unwanted modal characteristic of small separation of resonant frequencies, as is the case with an inverted configuration, a proof mass on the supporting beam component is slightly shifted toward a second proof mass on the tip of the energy harvesting beam component. The proposed small-form-factor design capability was experimentally verified using a fabricated prototype with an occupation volume of 20 × 39 × 6.9 mm{sup 3}, which was designed for a target frequency of as low as 100 Hz.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paulo, A S; GarcIa-Sanchez, D; Perez-Murano, F; Bachtold, A; Black, J; Bokor, J; Esplandiu, M J; Aguasca, A
2008-01-01
We describe a method based on the use of higher order bending modes of the cantilever of a dynamic force microscope to characterize vibrations of micro and nanomechanical resonators at arbitrarily large resonance frequencies. Our method consists on using a particular cantilever eigenmode for standard feedback control in amplitude modulation operation while another mode is used for detecting and imaging the resonator vibration. In addition, the resonating sample device is driven at or near its resonance frequency with a signal modulated in amplitude at a frequency that matches the resonance of the cantilever eigenmode used for vibration detection. In consequence, this cantilever mode is excited with an amplitude proportional to the resonator vibration, which is detected with an external lock-in amplifier. We show two different application examples of this method. In the first one, acoustic wave vibrations of a film bulk acoustic resonator around 1.6 GHz are imaged. In the second example, bending modes of carbon nanotube resonators up to 3.1 GHz are characterized. In both cases, the method provides subnanometer-scale sensitivity and the capability of providing otherwise inaccessible information about mechanical resonance frequencies, vibration amplitude values and mode shapes
Magnetic resonance imaging for the wrist joint of the coal miners in vibration department
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, X.Z.; Liu, R.L.; Hu, S.D.; Zhang, W.; Xu, W.X.; Ge, L.X. [Central Hospital of Zaozhuang Mine Corporation, Zaozhuang (China)
2006-04-15
To study the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the wrist joint of coal miners who work in excavation and vibration department. Forty-three coal miners with the hand-arm vibration disease served as the observation group while 20 workers who were not working in the vibration department acted as the control group. The patients in the observation group were divided into five subgroups according to the time when they received vibration. The regularity of the development of signs and symptoms of MRI was observed and analyzed. The hydroarthrosis was most found in MRI. There were significant difference in hydroarthrosis osteoporosis and osteomyelitis between the observation group and the control group. The edema of bone marrow and the avascular necrosis of ossa carpi were found only in the observation group and not found in the control group. The hydroarthrosis and the edema of bone marrow occurred most in the early stage of vibration. The signal in the edema of the bone marrow of the distal end of the radius was decreased in the GE sequence with the specificity. Changes in the wrist joint occur in the early stage of the vibration work, and can be found in the MRI. The edema of the bone marrow of the distal end of the radius is of great value in the diagnosis of the hand-arm vibration disease.
Atomic motion of resonantly vibrating quartz crystal visualized by time-resolved X-ray diffraction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aoyagi, Shinobu; Osawa, Hitoshi; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Takeda, Shoichi; Moriyoshi, Chikako; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro
2015-01-01
Transient atomic displacements during a resonant thickness-shear vibration of AT-cut α-quartz are revealed by time-resolved X-ray diffraction under an alternating electric field. The lattice strain resonantly amplified by the alternating electric field is ∼10 4 times larger than that induced by a static electric field. The resonantly amplified lattice strain is achieved by fast displacements of oxygen anions and collateral resilient deformation of Si−O−Si angles bridging rigid SiO 4 tetrahedra, which efficiently transduce electric energy into elastic energy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Montanini, Roberto, E-mail: rmontanini@unime.it; Quattrocchi, Antonino, E-mail: aquattrocchi@unime.it [University of Messina, Dept. of Engineering, Contrada di Dio, Messina (Italy)
2016-06-28
A cantilever-type resonant piezoelectric generator (RPG) has been designed by gluing a PZT patch working in d{sub 31} mode onto a glass fibre reinforced composite cantilever beam with a discrete mass applied on its free end. The electrical and dynamic behaviour of the RPG prototype has been investigated by carrying out laboratory tests aimed to assess the effect of definite design parameters, specifically the electric resistance load and the excitation frequency. Results showed that an optimum resistance load exists, at which power generation is maximized. Moreover, it has been showed that power generation is strongly influenced by the vibration frequency highlighting that, at resonance, output power can be increased by more than one order of magnitude. Possible applications include inertial resonant harvester for energy recovery from vibrating machines, sea waves or wind flux and self-powering of wireless sensor nodes.
Multi-resonant electromagnetic shunt in base isolation for vibration damping and energy harvesting
Pei, Yalu; Liu, Yilun; Zuo, Lei
2018-06-01
This paper investigates multi-resonant electromagnetic shunts applied to base isolation for dual-function vibration damping and energy harvesting. Two multi-mode shunt circuit configurations, namely parallel and series, are proposed and optimized based on the H2 criteria. The root-mean-square (RMS) value of the relative displacement between the base and the primary structure is minimized. Practically, this will improve the safety of base-isolated buildings subjected the broad bandwidth ground acceleration. Case studies of a base-isolated building are conducted in both the frequency and time domains to investigate the effectiveness of multi-resonant electromagnetic shunts under recorded earthquake signals. It shows that both multi-mode shunt circuits outperform traditional single mode shunt circuits by suppressing the first and the second vibration modes simultaneously. Moreover, for the same stiffness ratio, the parallel shunt circuit is more effective at harvesting energy and suppressing vibration, and can more robustly handle parameter mistuning than the series shunt circuit. Furthermore, this paper discusses experimental validation of the effectiveness of multi-resonant electromagnetic shunts for vibration damping and energy harvesting on a scaled-down base isolation system.
A resonant electromagnetic vibration energy harvester for intelligent wireless sensor systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qiu, Jing, E-mail: jingqiu@cqu.edu.cn; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping; Liu, Xin; Chen, Hengjia; Yang, Jin [Sensors and Instruments Research Center, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)
2015-05-07
Vibration energy harvesting is now receiving more interest as a means for powering intelligent wireless sensor systems. In this paper, a resonant electromagnetic vibration energy harvester (VEH) employing double cantilever to convert low-frequency vibration energy into electrical energy is presented. The VEH is made up of two cantilever beams, a coil, and magnetic circuits. The electric output performances of the proposed electromagnetic VEH have been investigated. With the enhancement of turns number N, the optimum peak power of electromagnetic VEH increases sharply and the resonance frequency deceases gradually. When the vibration acceleration is 0.5 g, we obtain the optimum output voltage and power of 9.04 V and 50.8 mW at frequency of 14.9 Hz, respectively. In a word, the prototype device was successfully developed and the experimental results exhibit a great enhancement in the output power and bandwidth compared with other traditional electromagnetic VEHs. Remarkably, the proposed resonant electromagnetic VEH have great potential for applying in intelligent wireless sensor systems.
Elgeti, Thomas; Tzschätzsch, Heiko; Hirsch, Sebastian; Krefting, Dagmar; Klatt, Dieter; Niendorf, Thoralf; Braun, Jürgen; Sack, Ingolf
2012-04-01
Vibration synchronized magnetic resonance imaging of harmonically oscillating tissue interfaces is proposed for cardiac magnetic resonance elastography. The new approach exploits cardiac triggered cine imaging synchronized with extrinsic harmonic stimulation (f = 22.83 Hz) to display oscillatory tissue deformations in magnitude images. Oscillations are analyzed by intensity threshold-based image processing to track wave amplitude variations over the cardiac cycle. In agreement to literature data, results in 10 volunteers showed that endocardial wave amplitudes during systole (0.13 ± 0.07 mm) were significantly lower than during diastole (0.34 ± 0.14 mm, P magnetic resonance imaging improves the temporal resolution of magnetic resonance elastography as it overcomes the use of extra motion encoding gradients, is less sensitive to susceptibility artifacts, and does not suffer from dynamic range constraints frequently encountered in phase-based magnetic resonance elastography. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Tuan, P H; Wen, C P; Chiang, P Y; Yu, Y T; Liang, H C; Huang, K F; Chen, Y F
2015-04-01
The Chladni nodal line patterns and resonant frequencies for a thin plate excited by an electronically controlled mechanical oscillator are experimentally measured. Experimental results reveal that the resonant frequencies can be fairly obtained by means of probing the variation of the effective impedance of the exciter with and without the thin plate. The influence of the extra mass from the central exciter is confirmed to be insignificant in measuring the resonant frequencies of the present system. In the theoretical aspect, the inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation is exploited to derive the response function as a function of the driving wave number for reconstructing experimental Chladni patterns. The resonant wave numbers are theoretically identified with the maximum coupling efficiency as well as the maximum entropy principle. Substituting the theoretical resonant wave numbers into the derived response function, all experimental Chladni patterns can be excellently reconstructed. More importantly, the dispersion relationship for the flexural wave of the vibrating plate can be determined with the experimental resonant frequencies and the theoretical resonant wave numbers. The determined dispersion relationship is confirmed to agree very well with the formula of the Kirchhoff-Love plate theory.
Impact of depth and location of the wells on vibrational resonance in a triple-well system
Chen, Zhijuan; Ning, Lijuan
2018-04-01
The effect of depth and location of a triple-well potential on vibrational resonance is investigated in a quintic oscillator driven by a low-frequency force and a high-frequency force. The values of low-frequency ω and amplitude g of the high-frequency force at which vibrational resonance occurs are derived both numerically and theoretically. It is found that: as ω varies, at most one resonance takes place and the response amplitude at resonance depends on the depth and the location of the potential wells. When g is altered, the depth and location of wells can control the number of resonances, resulting in two, three and four resonances. The system parameters can be adjusted by controlling the depth and position of the wells to achieve optimum vibrational resonance. Furthermore, the changes induced by these two quantities in the tristable system are found to be richer than those induced in bistable systems.
Transverse Resonant Vibration of Non-Bearing Structures Caused by Wind
Jendzelovsky, Norbert; Antal, Roland
2017-10-01
Nowadays, there are increasing use of very thin, subtle and light structures in the field of building constructions. We can find such a structures as part of roofs or design facades. By using these lamellas like, non-bearing structures as a part of architectural design of buildings, it is necessary to consider wind effects on these structures. Subtle structures of this type are prone to vibration in the transverse direction of the wind flow. The fact that the vibration occurs depends on wind parameters (wind velocity, direction of an air flow) and it also depends on the properties of lamella (shape, length, mass, natural frequency, support type). The principal idea of this article is to show susceptibility of lamellae-like structures to transverse resonant vibration caused by the phenomenon called Von Karman effect. Comparison of susceptibility to transverse resonance vibration was analysed on the different shapes of lamellas loaded by different wind speed. Analysis was based on usage of empirically derived equations. Von Karman effect arise from wind flow past an object. Turbulence in the form of vortices are formed at the object and shed into the flowing stream intermittently. The potential problem is that this turbulence can induce vibrations into the lamella itself. In terms of this vibration problem, two frequencies are interesting. Von Karman shedding frequency is the frequency at which the vortices are formed and shed at the object. The vortex-shedding frequency increases with the velocity of the wind flow and decreases with the size of the object. Natural frequency of the object depends on the construction of the lamella itself. Parameters of lamella as a shape, mass, length, elasticity modulus of material and support types are directly involved in the calculation of natural frequency. Worst case scenario in the term of transverse resonant vibration occurs when the natural frequency of lamella is equal to the vortex-shedding frequency. In this case
Mass detection by means of the vibrating nanomechanical resonators
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Stachiv, Ivo; Fedorchenko, Alexander I.; Chen, Y.-L.
2012-01-01
Roč. 100, č. 9 (2012), s. 1-3 ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GCP101/11/J019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514; CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : mass detection * nanomechanical based resonators * mass sensitivity Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 3.794, year: 2012 http://apl.aip.org/ resource /1/applab/v100/i9/p093110_s1?isAuthorized=no
REDUCING THE LOAD OF THE ELASTIC SUPPORT OF THE RESONANCE VIBRATING CONVEYOR MACHINES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. I. Afanas'ev
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The relevance of the work is conditioned by the necessity of improving the efficiency of vibrator machines. This is done by means of increasing the reliability of the elastic reference elements. The purpose of the work is to develop a dynamic resonance system of the vibrator machine with a reduced mass of the working body and loads on elastic supports. The resonance vibrator machines appeared in the USSR in the mid-twentieth century. They were used in the coal industry. The machines of foreign production and some of the domestic machines are now produced according to the balanced scheme. Domestic machines of the "PEV" series are made according to the vibro-isolated scheme, and the vibro-exciter is rigidly connected to the box. The resonant oscillation frequency of these machines is 50 Hz, and the maximum acceleration is significantly greater than the one of free fall. These resonant machines operate with the amplitude up to 2.2 mm and they have a ratio mode greater than unity. The practice of running these machines shows their relatively low efficiency when screening thin products. The common disadvantage of unbalanced resonance vibrator machines is a relatively large loading of elastic elements (supports and the presence of a massive frame. The disadvantage of the balanced ones is the reactive mass or several working bodies with the same mass. One of the ways to achieve the goal is to define a rational dynamic scheme of the resonance vibrator machines. The results and their application. The authors proposed to transform a traditional one-mass oscillatory system into a system equivalent to a dynamic vibration dampener. This system can significantly reduce the weight of the machine. It can reduce the rigidity and loading of the elastic supports at a given frequency of oscillations. The upper mass can be reduced by 2 or 3 times, and the lower mass can be several times smaller than the upper one. At the same time, the dynamic loads on the supports
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liang, Shanshan; Crovetto, Andrea; Peng, Zhuoteng
2016-01-01
and experiments with piezoelectric elements show that the energy harvesting device with the bi-resonant structure can generate higher power output than that of the sum of the two separate devices from random vibration sources at low frequency, and hence significantly improves the vibration-to- electricity......This paper reports on a bi-resonant structure of piezoelectric PVDF films energy harvester (PPEH), which consists of two cantilevers with resonant frequencies of 15 Hz and 22 Hz. With increased acceleration, the vibration amplitudes of the two cantilever-mass structures are increased and collision...
Global transmission coefficients in Hauser-Feshbach calculations for astrophysics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rauscher, T [Inst. fuer Physik, Univ. Basel, Basel (Switzerland)
1998-06-01
The current status of optical potentials employed in the prediction of thermonuclear reaction rates for astrophysics in the Hauser-Feshbach formalism is discussed. Special emphasis is put on {alpha}+nucleus potentials. Further experimental efforts are motivated. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belyaev, A.; Polupan, O.; Dallas, W.; Ostapenko, S.; Hess, D.; Wohlgemuth, J.
2006-01-01
An experimental approach for fast crack detection and length determination in full-size solar-grade crystalline silicon wafers using a resonance ultrasonic vibrations (RUV) technique is presented. The RUV method is based on excitation of the longitudinal ultrasonic vibrations in full-size wafers. Using an external piezoelectric transducer combined with a high sensitivity ultrasonic probe and computer controlled data acquisition system, real-time frequency response analysis can be accomplished. On a set of identical crystalline Si wafers with artificially introduced periphery cracks, it was demonstrated that the crack results in a frequency shift in a selected RUV peak to a lower frequency and increases the resonance peak bandwidth. Both characteristics were found to increase with the length of the crack. The frequency shift and bandwidth increase serve as reliable indicators of the crack appearance in silicon wafers and are suitable for mechanical quality control and fast wafer inspection
Laterally vibrating resonator based elasto-optic modulation in aluminum nitride
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Siddhartha Ghosh
2016-06-01
Full Text Available An integrated strain-based optical modulator driven by a piezoelectric laterally vibrating resonator is demonstrated. The composite structure consists of an acoustic Lamb wave resonator, in which a photonic racetrack resonator is internally embedded to enable overlap of the guided optical mode with the induced strain field. Both types of resonators are defined in an aluminum nitride (AlN thin film, which rests upon a layer of silicon dioxide in order to simultaneously define optical waveguides, and the structure is released from a silicon substrate. Lateral vibrations produced by the acoustic resonator are transferred through a partially etched layer of AlN, producing a change in the effective index of the guided wave through the interaction of the strain components with the AlN elasto-optic (p coefficients. Optical modulation through the elasto-optic effect is demonstrated at electromechanically actuated frequencies of 173 MHz and 843 MHz. This device geometry further enables the development of MEMS-based optical modulators in addition to studying elasto-optic interactions in suspended piezoelectric thin films.
Vibrational Fano resonances in the photodetachment of dipole-bound anions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Edwards, Stephen T; Tully, John C; Johnson, Mark A
2012-01-01
A simple model for the photodetachment of dipole-bound anions is proposed where non-adiabatic coupling of vibrational states leads to a Fano resonance in the spectrum. It is found that the shape of the photodetachment spectrum depends significantly on the parameter representing molecular polarizability. The model is also applied to a Fano profile observed in the photodetachment of small water cluster anions.
Chen, Jun; Zhu, Guang; Yang, Weiqing; Jing, Qingshen; Bai, Peng; Yang, Ya; Hou, Te-Chien; Wang, Zhong Lin
2013-11-13
A harmonic-resonator-based triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) is presented as a sustainable power source and an active vibration sensor. It can effectively respond to vibration frequencies ranging from 2 to 200 Hz with a considerably wide working bandwidth of 13.4 Hz. This work not only presents a new principle in the field of vibration energy harvesting but also greatly expands the applicability of TENGs. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Optical trapping and Feshbach spectroscopy of an ultracold Rb-Cs mixture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pilch, K.
2009-01-01
We investigate quantum-mechanical interactions between ultracold rubidium and cesium in an optical trap at temperatures of a few micro kelvin. Our results provide, on the one hand, an experimental key to understand the collisional properties and, on the other hand, a tool to control the interspecies interactions. By performing loss measurements we locate several Feshbach resonances, which provide insight into the energy structure of weakly bound RbCs molecules near the dissociation threshold and allow for the production of such heteronuclear Feshbach molecules. In the future we will transfer these loosely-bound molecules into the absolute internal ground state. The availability of ultracold heteronuclear ground state molecules will open the door to investigate phenomena associated with ultracold polar quantum gases. In our new experimental set-up we are able to trap and cool rubidium and cesium atoms in their lowest internal states. First we load both species into a two-color magneto-optical trap, having full control over the single-species atom number. We extend the technique of degenerate Raman-sideband cooling to a two-color version, which is able to simultaneously cool and polarize both rubidium and cesium. Thereafter we load the atoms into a levitated crossed optical dipole trap. Because of the presence of the gradient magnetic field the trap is highly state selective and consequently provides perfect spin-polarization of the sample. Furthermore, a coincidence of the magnetic-moment-to-mass ratios of the two species allows for simultaneous levitation of both, which assures an almost perfect spatial overlap between the species. We perform Feshbach spectroscopy in two dierent spin channels of the mixture within a magnetic field ranging from 20 to 300 Gauss. In the lowest spin combination of the species we locate 23 interspecies Feshbach resonances, while in a higher spin mixture we find 2 resonances. The high number of resonances found within this range of
Krasnoshchekov, Sergey V; Stepanov, Nikolay F
2013-11-14
In the theory of anharmonic vibrations of a polyatomic molecule, mixing the zero-order vibrational states due to cubic, quartic and higher-order terms in the potential energy expansion leads to the appearance of more-or-less isolated blocks of states (also called polyads), connected through multiple resonances. Such polyads of states can be characterized by a common secondary integer quantum number. This polyad quantum number is defined as a linear combination of the zero-order vibrational quantum numbers, attributed to normal modes, multiplied by non-negative integer polyad coefficients, which are subject to definition for any particular molecule. According to Kellman's method [J. Chem. Phys. 93, 6630 (1990)], the corresponding formalism can be conveniently described using vector algebra. In the present work, a systematic consideration of polyad quantum numbers is given in the framework of the canonical Van Vleck perturbation theory (CVPT) and its numerical-analytic operator implementation for reducing the Hamiltonian to the quasi-diagonal form, earlier developed by the authors. It is shown that CVPT provides a convenient method for the systematic identification of essential resonances and the definition of a polyad quantum number. The method presented is generally suitable for molecules of significant size and complexity, as illustrated by several examples of molecules up to six atoms. The polyad quantum number technique is very useful for assembling comprehensive basis sets for the matrix representation of the Hamiltonian after removal of all non-resonance terms by CVPT. In addition, the classification of anharmonic energy levels according to their polyad quantum numbers provides an additional means for the interpretation of observed vibrational spectra.
Single and multiple vibrational resonance in a quintic oscillator with monostable potentials.
Jeyakumari, S; Chinnathambi, V; Rajasekar, S; Sanjuan, M A F
2009-10-01
We analyze the occurrence of vibrational resonance in a damped quintic oscillator with three cases of single well of the potential V(x)=1/2omega(0)(2)x(2)+1/4betax(4)+1/6gammax(6) driven by both low-frequency force f cos omegat and high-frequency force g cos Omegat with Omega > omega. We restrict our analysis to the parametric choices (i) omega(0)(2), beta, gamma > 0 (single well), (ii) omega(0)(2), gamma > 0, beta 0, beta arbitrary, gamma choice (i) at most one resonance occur while for the other two choices (ii) and (iii) multiple resonance occur. Further, g(VR) is found to be independent of the damping strength d while omega(VR) depends on d. The theoretical predictions are found to be in good agreement with the numerical result. We illustrate that the vibrational resonance can be characterized in terms of width of the orbit also.
Vibrational Resonance in an Overdamped System with a Sextic Double-Well Potential
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Can-Jun
2011-01-01
The phenomenon of vibrational resonance (VR) in an overdamped system with a sextic double-well potential under the excitation of two different periodic signals is investigated. The approximate analytical expression of the resonance amplitude Q at the low-frequency u is obtained. The VR is observed, and the values of B (the amplitude of the high-frequency signal) and Q (the frequency of the high-frequency signal) at which VR occurs are determined. Moreover, the relationship between B and Q is revealed. The theoretical predictions are found to be in good agreement with the numerical results.%@@ The phenomenon of vibrational resonance(VR)in an overdamped system with a sextic double-well potential under the excitation of two different periodic signals is investigated.The approximate analytical expression of the resonance amplitude Q at the low-frequency ω is obtained.The VR is observed,and the values of B(the amplitude of the high-frequency signal)and Ω(the frequency of the high-frequency signal)at which VR occurs are determined.Moreover,the relationship between B and Ω is revealed.The theoretical predictions are found to be in good agreement with the numerical results.
Lifetime-vibrational interference effects in resonantly excited x-ray emission spectra of CO
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Skytt, P.; Glans, P.; Gunnelin, K. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [and others
1997-04-01
The parity selection rule for resonant X-ray emission as demonstrated for O{sub 2} and N{sub 2} can be seen as an effect of interference between coherently excited degenerate localized core states. One system where the core state degeneracy is not exact but somewhat lifted was previously studied at ALS, namely the resonant X-ray emission of amino-substituted benzene (aniline). It was shown that the X-ray fluorescence spectrum resulting from excitation of the C1s at the site of the {open_quotes}aminocarbon{close_quotes} could be described in a picture separating the excitation and the emission processes, whereas the spectrum corresponding to the quasi-degenerate carbons could not. Thus, in this case it was necessary to take interference effects between the quasi-degenerate intermediate core excited states into account in order to obtain agreement between calculations and experiment. The different vibrational levels of core excited states in molecules have energy splittings which are of the same order of magnitude as the natural lifetime broadening of core excitations in the soft X-ray range. Therefore, lifetime-vibrational interference effects are likely to appear and influence the band shapes in resonant X-ray emission spectra. Lifetime-vibrational interference has been studied in non-resonant X-ray emission, and in Auger spectra. In this report the authors discuss results of selectively excited soft X-ray fluorescence spectra of molecules, where they focus on lifetime-interference effects appearing in the band shapes.
Vibrational structures in electron-CO2 scattering below the 2Πu shape resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allan, Michael
2002-01-01
Structures of vibrational origin were discovered in vibrationally inelastic electron-CO 2 cross sections in the energy range 0.4-0.9 eV, well below the 2 Π u shape resonance. They appear in the excitation of higher vibrational levels, in particular the highest members of the Fermi polyads of the type (n, 2m, 0) with n+m=2-4. The lowest two structures, at 0.445 and 0.525 eV, are narrow; higher-lying structures are broader and boomerang-like. The structures are absent when the antisymmetric stretch is co-excited. The structures are interpreted in terms of a wavepacket of the nuclei reflected from a potential surface of the CO 2 - anion in a bent and stretched geometry. A state emerging from the virtual state upon bending and stretching and the state resulting from bending the 2 Π u shape resonance are discussed as possibly being responsible for the structures. (author). Letter-to-the-editor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Libo Zhao
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Methods to calculate fluid density and viscosity using a micro-cantilever and based on the resonance principle were put forward. Their measuring mechanisms were analyzed and the theoretical equations to calculate the density and viscosity were deduced. The fluid-solid coupling simulations were completed for the micro-cantilevers with different shapes. The sensing chips with micro-cantilevers were designed based on the simulation results and fabricated using the micro electromechanical systems (MEMS technology. Finally, the MEMS resonant sensor was packaged with the sensing chip to measure the densities and viscosities of eight different fluids under the flexural and torsional vibrating modes separately. The relative errors of the measured densities from 600 kg/m3 to 900 kg/m3 and viscosities from 200 μPa·s to 1000 μPa·s were calculated and analyzed with different microcantilevers under various vibrating modes. The experimental results showed that the effects of the shape and vibrating mode of micro-cantilever on the measurement accuracies of fluid density and viscosity were analyzed in detail.
McCaffery, Anthony J.
2018-03-01
This study of near-resonant, vibration-vibration (V-V) gas-phase energy transfer in diatomic molecules uses the theoretical/computational method, of Marsh & McCaffery (Marsh & McCaffery 2002 J. Chem. Phys. 117, 503 (doi:10.1063/1.1489998)) The method uses the angular momentum (AM) theoretical formalism to compute quantum-state populations within the component molecules of large, non-equilibrium, gas mixtures as the component species proceed to equilibration. Computed quantum-state populations are displayed in a number of formats that reveal the detailed mechanism of the near-resonant V-V process. Further, the evolution of quantum-state populations, for each species present, may be followed as the number of collision cycles increases, displaying the kinetics of evolution for each quantum state of the ensemble's molecules. These features are illustrated for ensembles containing vibrationally excited N2 in H2, O2 and N2 initially in their ground states. This article is part of the theme issue `Modern theoretical chemistry'.
Vibration-response due to thickness loss on steel plate excited by resonance frequency
Kudus, S. A.; Suzuki, Y.; Matsumura, M.; Sugiura, K.
2018-04-01
The degradation of steel structure due to corrosion is a common problem found especially in the marine structure due to exposure to the harsh marine environment. In order to ensure safety and reliability of marine structure, the damage assessment is an indispensable prerequisite for plan of remedial action on damaged structure. The main goal of this paper is to discuss simple vibration measurement on plated structure to give image on overview condition of the monitored structure. The changes of vibration response when damage was introduced in the plate structure were investigated. The damage on plate was simulated in finite element method as loss of thickness section. The size of damage and depth of loss of thickness were varied for different damage cases. The plate was excited with lower order of resonance frequency in accordance estimate the average remaining thickness based on displacement response obtain in the dynamic analysis. Significant reduction of natural frequency and increasing amplitude of vibration can be observed in the presence of severe damage. The vibration analysis summarized in this study can serve as benchmark and reference for researcher and design engineer.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cisneros S, A.; McIntosh, H.V.
1982-01-01
A discussion of the nature of quantum mechanical resonances is presented from the point of view of the spectral theory of operators. In the case of Bohr-Feshbach resonances, graphs are presented to illustrate the theory showing the decay of a doubly excited metastable state and the excitation of the resonance by an incident particle with proper energy. A characterization of resonances is given as well as a procedure to determine widths using the spectral density function. A sufficient condition is given for the validity of the Breit-Wigner formula for Bohr-Feshbach resonances. (author)
Analysis of factors influencing fire damage to concrete using nonlinear resonance vibration method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Gang Kyu; Park, Sun Jong; Kwak, Hyo Gyoung [Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Hong Jae [Dept. of Construction and Disaster Prevention Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Sangju (Korea, Republic of)
2015-04-15
In this study, the effects of different mix proportions and fire scenarios (exposure temperatures and post-fire-curing periods) on fire-damaged concrete were analyzed using a nonlinear resonance vibration method based on nonlinear acoustics. The hysteretic nonlinearity parameter was obtained, which can sensitively reflect the damage level of fire-damaged concrete. In addition, a splitting tensile strength test was performed on each fire-damaged specimen to evaluate the residual property. Using the results, a prediction model for estimating the residual strength of fire-damaged concrete was proposed on the basis of the correlation between the hysteretic nonlinearity parameter and the ratio of splitting tensile strength.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krasnoshchekov, Sergey V.; Isayeva, Elena V.; Stepanov, Nikolay F.
2014-01-01
The second-order vibrational Hamiltonian of a semi-rigid polyatomic molecule when resonances are present can be reduced to a quasi-diagonal form using second-order vibrational perturbation theory. Obtaining exact vibrational energy levels requires subsequent numerical diagonalization of the Hamiltonian matrix including the first- and second-order resonance coupling coefficients. While the first-order Fermi resonance constants can be easily calculated, the evaluation of the second-order Darling-Dennison constants requires more complicated algebra for seven individual cases with different numbers of creation-annihilation vibrational quanta. The difficulty in precise evaluation of the Darling-Dennison coefficients is associated with the previously unrecognized interference with simultaneously present Fermi resonances that affect the form of the canonically transformed Hamiltonian. For the first time, we have presented the correct form of the general expression for the evaluation of the Darling-Dennison constants that accounts for the underlying effect of Fermi resonances. The physically meaningful criteria for selecting both Fermi and Darling-Dennison resonances are discussed and illustrated using numerical examples
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laporta, V.; Chakrabarti, K.; Celiberto, R.; Janev, R. K.; Mezei, J. Zs.; Niyonzima, S.; Tennyson, J.; Schneider, I.F.
2017-01-01
A theoretical study of resonant vibrational excitation, dissociative recombination and dissociative excitation processes of the beryllium monohydride cation, BeH"+ , induced by electron impact, is reported. Full sets of ro-vibrationally-resolved cross sections and of the corresponding Maxwellian rate coefficients are presented for the three processes. Particular emphasis is given to the high-energy behaviour. Potential curves of "2σ"+, "2σ and "2δ symmetries and the corresponding resonance widths, obtained from R-matrix calculations, provide the input for calculations which use a local complex-potential model for resonant collisions in each of the three symmetries. Rotational motion of nuclei and isotopic effects are also discussed. The relevant results are compared with those obtained using a multichannel quantum defect theory method. Full results are available from the Phys4Entry database.
Vibration energy harvester with low resonant frequency based on flexible coil and liquid spring
Wang, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Zhao, L.; Tang, Y.; Shkel, A.; Kim, E. S.
2016-11-01
This paper reports an electromagnetic vibration-energy harvester with low resonant frequency based on liquid spring composed of ferrofluid. Cylinder magnet array formed by four disc NdFeB magnets is suspended by ferrofluid in a laser-machined acrylic tube which is wrapped by flexible planar coil fabricated with microfabrication process. The magnet array and coil are aligned automatically by the ferrofluid. Restoring force when the magnet array is deviated from the balance position is proportional to the deviated distance, which makes the ferrofluid work as a liquid spring obeying Hook's law. Experimental results show that the electromagnetic energy harvester occupying 1.8 cc and weighing 5 g has a resonant frequency of 16 Hz and generates an induced electromotive force of Vrms = 2.58 mV (delivering 79 nW power into matched load of 21 Ω) from 3 g acceleration at 16 Hz.
Fatigue of 1 {mu}m-scale gold by vibration with reduced resonant frequency
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sumigawa, Takashi, E-mail: sumigawa@cyber.kues.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Science, Kyoto University, Yoshidahommachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Matsumoto, Kenta [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Science, Kyoto University, Yoshidahommachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Tsuchiya, Toshiyuki [Department of Micro Engineering, Kyoto University, Yoshidahommachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Kitamura, Takayuki [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Science, Kyoto University, Yoshidahommachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)
2012-10-30
In order to investigate the fatigue strength of micro-metal (1 {mu}m-scale), a testing method using resonant vibration is developed. Although the loading by vibration can solve the difficulties associated with the fatigue experiment of micro-specimen (e.g., specimen gripping and high-cycle loading under tension-compression), it inherently has an excessively high resonance frequency (more than several GHz at least) in a 1 {mu}m-scale metal specimen. For control of the fatigue cycle, the resonance frequency must be reduced to several hundreds of kHz by tuning the specimen shape. We design a cantilever specimen of 1 {mu}m scale gold with a weight at the tip, which reduces the resonant frequency to about 330 kHz. The unique specimen with the test section of 1.26 {mu}m Multiplication-Sign 0.94 {mu}m Multiplication-Sign 1.52 {mu}m is successfully fabricated by a novel technique using a focused ion beam and the tension-compression fatigue cycle is applied to it by means of a piezoelectric actuator. The test section breaks at about 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} cycles under {Delta}{sigma}/2=230 MPa, which is within the targeted range of this project. It is easy to extend this method to high-cycle fatigue for actual use (including the failure cycles of over 10{sup 8} cycles). The slip bands observed on the surface, which have concavity and convexity similar to the intrusions/extrusions of PSBs, indicate that the failure is induced by the fatigue.
Miedzińska, D.; Gieleta, R.; Osiński, J.
2015-02-01
A vibratory pile hammer (VPH) is a mechanical device used to drive steel piles as well as tube piles into soil to provide foundation support for buildings or other structures. In order to increase the stability and the efficiency of the VPH work in the over-resonance frequency, a new VPH construction was developed at the Military University of Technology. The new VPH contains a system of counter-rotating eccentric weights, powered by hydraulic motors, and designed in such a way that horizontal vibrations cancel out, while vertical vibrations are transmitted into the pile. This system is suspended in the static parts by the adaptive variable stiffness pillows based on a smart material, magnetorheological elastomer (MRE), whose rheological and mechanical properties can be reversibly and rapidly controlled by an external magnetic field. The work presented in the paper is a part of the modified VPH construction design process. It concerns the experimental research on the vibrations during the piling process and the analytical analyses of the gained signal. The results will be applied in the VPH control system.
Fermi resonance effects on the vibration modes of hydrogen-passivated boron in silicon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watkins, G.D.; Fowler, W.B.; Deleo, G.G.; Stavola, M.; Kozuch, D.M.; Pearton, S.J.; Lopata, J.
1990-01-01
10 B - 11 B isotope shifts have been reported recently for the vibrational frequencies of hydrogen (H) and its isotope deuterium (D) in the H-B complex in silicon. The D- 10 B-D 11 B shift was found to be anomalously large. The authors show that this effect finds a natural explanation in a phenomenon called Fermi resonance, arising from a weak anharmonic coupling between the second harmonic of the transverse B vibration and the longitudinal D vibration. The authors present a simple classical explanation of the effect in terms of a parametric oscillator, or a child pumping a swing. They outline a simple quantum mechanical treatment that provides a satisfactory quantitative explanation of the results. The author's calculations also predict infrared absorption at the boron second harmonic frequencies. These are observed for both 10 B and 11 B with intensities and polarization as predicted, providing direct confirmation of the interpretation. The Pankove Si-H-B model, therefore, remains intact
Optimum Design of a Nonlinear Vibration Absorber Coupled to a Resonant Oscillator: A Case Study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. F. Abundis-Fong
2018-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the optimal design of a passive autoparametric cantilever beam vibration absorber for a linear mass-spring-damper system subject to harmonic external force. The design of the autoparametric vibration absorber is obtained by using an approximation of the nonlinear frequency response function, computed via the multiple scales method. Based on the solution given by the perturbation method mentioned above, a static optimization problem is formulated in order to determine the optimum parameters (mass and length of the nonlinear absorber which minimizes the steady state amplitude of the primary mass under resonant conditions; then, a PZT actuator is cemented to the base of the beam, so the nonlinear absorber is made active, thus enabling the possibility of controlling the effective stiffness associated with the passive absorber and, as a consequence, the implementation of an active vibration control scheme able to preserve, as possible, the autoparametric interaction as well as to compensate varying excitation frequencies and parametric uncertainty. Finally, some simulations and experimental results are included to validate and illustrate the dynamic performance of the overall system.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Jia Nen; Liu, Jun [Tianjin Key Laboratory of the Design and Intelligent Control of the Advanced Mechatronical System, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin (China); Zhang, Wei; Yao, Ming Hui [College of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing (China); Sun, Min [School of Science, Tianjin Chengjian University, Tianjin (China)
2016-09-15
Nonlinear vibrations of carbon fiber reinforced composite sandwich plate with pyramidal truss core are investigated. The governing equation of motion for the sandwich plate is derived by using a Zig-Zag theory under consideration of geometrically nonlinear. The natural frequencies of sandwich plates with different dimensions are calculated and compared with those obtained from the classic laminated plate theory and Reddy's third-order shear deformation plate theory. The frequency responses and waveforms of the sandwich plate when 1:3 internal resonance occurs are obtained, and the characteristics of the internal resonance are discussed. The influences of layer number of face sheet, strut radius, core height and inclination angle on the nonlinear responses of the sandwich plate are analyzed. The results demonstrate that the strut radius and inclination angle mainly affect the resonance frequency band of the sandwich plate, and the layer number and core height not only influence the resonance frequency band but also significantly affect the response amplitude.
Elfering, Achim; Schade, Volker; Stoecklin, Lukas; Baur, Simone; Burger, Christian; Radlinger, Lorenz
2014-05-01
Slip, trip, and fall injuries are frequent among health care workers. Stochastic resonance whole-body vibration training was tested to improve postural control. Participants included 124 employees of a Swiss university hospital. The randomized controlled trial included an experimental group given 8 weeks of training and a control group with no intervention. In both groups, postural control was assessed as mediolateral sway on a force plate before and after the 8-week trial. Mediolateral sway was significantly decreased by stochastic resonance whole-body vibration training in the experimental group but not in the control group that received no training (p < .05). Stochastic resonance whole-body vibration training is an option in the primary prevention of balance-related injury at work. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.
Nammari, Abdullah; Caskey, Logan; Negrete, Johnny; Bardaweel, Hamzeh
2018-03-01
This article presents a non-resonant magneto-mechanical vibration energy harvester. When externally excited, the energy harvester converts vibrations into electric charge using a guided levitated magnet oscillating inside a multi-turn coil that is fixed around the exterior of the energy harvester. The levitated magnet is guided using four oblique mechanical springs. A prototype of the energy harvester is fabricated using additive manufacturing. Both experiment and model are used to characterize the static and dynamic behavior of the energy harvester. Measured restoring forces show that the fabricated energy harvester retains a mono-stable potential energy well with desired stiffness nonlinearities. Results show that magnetic spring results in hardening effect which increases the resonant frequency of the energy harvester. Additionally, oblique mechanical springs introduce geometric, negative, nonlinear stiffness which improves the harvester's response towards lower frequency spectrum. The unique design can produce a tunable energy harvester with multi-well potential energy characteristics. A finite element model is developed to estimate the average radial flux density experienced by the multi-turn coil. Also, a lumped parameter model of the energy harvester is developed and validated against measured data. Both upward and downward frequency sweeps are performed to determine the frequency response of the harvester. Results show that at higher excitation levels hardening effects become more apparent, and the system dynamic response turns into non-resonant. Frequency response curves exhibit frequency jump phenomena as a result of coexistence of multiple energy states at the frequency branch. The fabricated energy harvester is hand-held and measures approximately 100.5 [cm3] total volume. For a base excitation of 1.0 g [m/s2], the prototype generates a peak voltage and normalized power density of approximately 3.5 [V] and 0.133 [mW/cm3 g2], respectively, at 15.5 [Hz].
Canonical quantization of the Bateman-Morse-Feshbach damped oscillator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rideau, G.; Anderson, R.L.; Hebda, P.W.
1991-01-01
The Bateman-Morse-Feshbach classical formulation of the damped oscillator is canonically quantized. The spectrum of the Hamiltonian is given. It is shown that the wavefunctions behave asymptotically as a superposition of damped oscillators when their initial values belong to an appropriately-selected dense subset of the Hilbert space. (orig.)
Edler, J.; Hamm, P.
2003-08-01
Two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy is applied to investigate acetanilide, a molecular crystal consisting of quasi-one-dimensional hydrogen bonded peptide units. The amide-I band exhibits a double peak structure, which has been attributed to different mechanisms including vibrational self-trapping, a Fermi resonance, or the existence of two conformational substates. The 2D-IR spectrum of crystalline acetanilide is compared with that of two different molecular systems: (i) benzoylchloride, which exhibits a strong symmetric Fermi resonance and (ii) N-methylacetamide dissolved in methanol which occurs in two spectroscopically distinguishable conformations. Both 2D-IR spectra differ significantly from that of crystalline acetanilide, proving that these two alternative mechanisms cannot account for the anomalous spectroscopy of crystalline acetanilide. On the other hand, vibrational self-trapping of the amide-I band can naturally explain the 2D-IR response.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Ken Chin
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Inspired by vortex induced vibration energy harvesting development as a new source of renewable energy, a T-shaped design vibration energy harvester is introduced with the aim of enhancing its performance through vortex induced vibration at near resonance conditions. The T-shaped structural model designed consists of a fixed boundary aluminum bluff splitter body coupled with a cantilever piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters (PVEH plate model which is a piezoelectric bimorph plate made of a brass plate sandwiched between 2 lead zirconate titanate (PZT plates. A 3-dimensional Fluid-Structure Interaction simulation analysis is carried out with Reynolds Stress Turbulence Model under wind speed of 7, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 19, 20, 22.5, and 25 m/s. The results showed that with 19 m/s wind speed, the model generates 75.758 Hz of vortex frequency near to the structural model’s natural frequency of 76.9 Hz. Resonance lock-in therefore occurred, generating a maximum displacement amplitude of 2.09 mm or a 49.76% increment relatively in vibrational amplitude. Under the effect of resonance at the PVEH plate’s fundamental natural frequency, it is able to generate the largest normalized power of 13.44 mW/cm3g2.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lawrence, Jane M. [University Hospital of Zurich, Institute of Neuroradiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Manitoba, Department of Physiology, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Stroman, Patrick W. [Queen' s University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Kollias, Spyros S. [University Hospital of Zurich, Institute of Neuroradiology, Zurich (Switzerland)
2008-03-15
We investigated noninvasively areas of the healthy human spinal cord that become active in response to vibration stimulation of different dermatomes using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine the patterns of consistent activity in the spinal cord during vibration stimulation of the skin, and (2) investigate the rostrocaudal distribution of active pixels when stimulation was applied to different dermatomes. FMRI of the cervical and lumbar spinal cord of seven healthy human subjects was carried out during vibration stimulation of six different dermatomes. In separate experiments, vibratory stimulation (about 50 Hz) was applied to the right biceps, wrist, palm, patella, Achilles tendon and left palm. The segmental distribution of activity observed by fMRI corresponded well with known spinal cord neuroanatomy. The peak number of active pixels was observed at the expected level of the spinal cord with some activity in the adjacent segments. The rostrocaudal distribution of activity was observed to correspond to the dermatome being stimulated. Cross-sectional localization of activity was primarily in dorsal areas but also spread into ventral and intermediate areas of the gray matter and a distinct laterality ipsilateral to the stimulated limb was not observed. We demonstrated that fMRI can detect a dermatome-dependent pattern of spinal cord activity during vibratory stimulation and can be used as a passive stimulus for the noninvasive assessment of the functional integrity of the human spinal cord. Demonstration of cross-sectional selectivity of the activation awaits further methodological and experimental refinements. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lawrence, Jane M.; Stroman, Patrick W.; Kollias, Spyros S.
2008-01-01
We investigated noninvasively areas of the healthy human spinal cord that become active in response to vibration stimulation of different dermatomes using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine the patterns of consistent activity in the spinal cord during vibration stimulation of the skin, and (2) investigate the rostrocaudal distribution of active pixels when stimulation was applied to different dermatomes. FMRI of the cervical and lumbar spinal cord of seven healthy human subjects was carried out during vibration stimulation of six different dermatomes. In separate experiments, vibratory stimulation (about 50 Hz) was applied to the right biceps, wrist, palm, patella, Achilles tendon and left palm. The segmental distribution of activity observed by fMRI corresponded well with known spinal cord neuroanatomy. The peak number of active pixels was observed at the expected level of the spinal cord with some activity in the adjacent segments. The rostrocaudal distribution of activity was observed to correspond to the dermatome being stimulated. Cross-sectional localization of activity was primarily in dorsal areas but also spread into ventral and intermediate areas of the gray matter and a distinct laterality ipsilateral to the stimulated limb was not observed. We demonstrated that fMRI can detect a dermatome-dependent pattern of spinal cord activity during vibratory stimulation and can be used as a passive stimulus for the noninvasive assessment of the functional integrity of the human spinal cord. Demonstration of cross-sectional selectivity of the activation awaits further methodological and experimental refinements. (orig.)
Resonant passive–active vibration absorber with integrated force feedback control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Høgsberg, Jan; Brodersen, Mark L; Krenk, Steen
2016-01-01
A general format of a two-terminal vibration absorber is constructed by placing a passive unit in series with a hybrid unit, composed of an active actuator in parallel with a second passive element. The displacement of the active actuator is controlled by an integrated feedback control with the difference in force between the two passive elements as input. This format allows passive and active contributions to be combined arbitrarily within the hybrid unit, which results in a versatile absorber format with guaranteed closed-loop stability. This is demonstrated for resonant absorbers with inertia realized passively by a mechanical inerter or actively by the integrated force feedback. Accurate calibration formulae are presented for two particular absorber configurations and the performance is subsequently demonstrated with respect to both equal modal damping and effective response reduction. (technical note)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Proskuryakov, K.N.; Yang Shan Afshar, E.; Polyakov, N.I. [Nuclear Power Plant Department of Moscow Power Engineering Institute Technical Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation)
2007-07-01
The experimental data that have been obtained from the measurements of noise signals in primary circuit of NPP with reactor of WWER-1000 are presented. The causes of resonant interaction between Eigen-Frequencies of Oscillations of the Coolant Pressure (EFOCP) and structure vibrations are discussed. An application-oriented approach to the problem of identification of abnormal phenomena of thermal-hydraulic parameters is proposed. Logarithmic Decrement {delta} is determined. The bigger damping ratio {zeta} provides bigger {delta} and correspondingly smaller values of Q-factor and amplitude X(t)max. All experimental units intended for NPP severe accident investigation must satisfy to the NPP Q-factor criterion of similarity. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Proskuryakov, K.N.; Yang Shan Afshar, E.; Polyakov, N.I.
2007-01-01
The experimental data that have been obtained from the measurements of noise signals in primary circuit of NPP with reactor of WWER-1000 are presented. The causes of resonant interaction between Eigen-Frequencies of Oscillations of the Coolant Pressure (EFOCP) and structure vibrations are discussed. An application-oriented approach to the problem of identification of abnormal phenomena of thermal-hydraulic parameters is proposed. Logarithmic Decrement δ is determined. The bigger damping ratio ζ provides bigger δ and correspondingly smaller values of Q-factor and amplitude X(t)max. All experimental units intended for NPP severe accident investigation must satisfy to the NPP Q-factor criterion of similarity. (authors)
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with laser irradiation resonant with vibrational transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khachatrian, Ani; Dagdigian, Paul J.
2010-01-01
An investigation of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of polymers, both in bulk form and spin coated on Si wafers, with laser irradiation in the mid-infrared spectral region is presented. Of particular interest is whether the LIBS signals are enhanced when the laser wavelength is resonant with a fundamental vibrational transition of the polymer. Significant increases in the LIBS signals were observed for irradiation on hydride stretch fundamental transitions, and the magnitude of the enhancement showed a strong dependence on the mode excited. The role of the substrate was investigated by comparison of results for bulk and spin-coated samples. The polymers investigated were Nylon 12 and poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nichols, W.L.; Weare, J.H.
1986-01-01
One-phonon cross sections calculated from sagittally polarized vibrational normal modes account for most salient inelastic-scattering intensities seen in He-LiF(001) and measurements published by Brusdeylins, Doak, and Toennies. We have found that most inelastic intensities which cannot be attributed to potential resonances can be explained as kinematically enhanced scattering from both surface and pseudosurface bulk modes
Tsushima, Takafumi; Asahi, Yoichi; Tanigawa, Hiroshi; Furutsuka, Takashi; Suzuki, Kenichiro
2018-06-01
In this paper, we describe p–n diode actuators that are formed in the lateral direction on resonators. Because previously reported p–n diode actuators, which were driven by a force parallel to the electrostatic force induced in a p–n diode, were fabricated in the perpendicular direction to the surface, the fabrication process to satisfy the requirement of realizing a p–n junction set in the middle of the plate thickness has been difficult. The resonators in this work are driven by p–n diodes formed in the lateral direction, making the process easy. We have fabricated a silicon ring resonator that has in-plane vibration using p–n–p and n–p–n diode actuators formed in the lateral direction. First, we consider a space charge model that can sufficiently accurately describe the force induced in p–n diode actuators and compare it with the capacitance model used in most computer simulations. Then, we show that multiplying the vibration amplitude calculated by computer simulation by the modification coefficient of 4/3 provides the vibration amplitude in the p–n diode actuators. Good agreement of the theory with experimental results of the in-plane vibration measured for silicon ring resonators is obtained. The computer simulation is very useful for evaluating various vibration modes in resonators driven by the p–n diode actuators. The small amplitude of the p–n diode actuator measured in this work is expected to increase greatly with increased doping of the actuator.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasse, R.W.; Ghosh, G.
1982-01-01
The long-mean-free-path nuclear fluid dynamics is extended to include damping. First the damping stress is derived from the solution of the Boltzmann equation for a breathing spherical container filled with a Fermi gas. Then the corresponding damping force is incorporated into Euler equations of motion and energies and widths of low lying collective resonances are computed as eigenfrequencies of a vibrating nucleus under surface tension and Coulomb potential as well as the high lying isoscalar giant resonances as eigenfrequencies of an elastic nucleus. Maximum damping is obtained if the particle frequency approximately resonates with the wall frequency. Theoretical results are compared with experimental data and future improvements are indicated
Vibrational analysis of HOCl up to 98% of the dissociation energy with a Fermi resonance Hamiltonian
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jost, R.; Joyeux, M.; Skokov, S.; Bowman, J.
1999-01-01
We have analyzed the vibrational energies and wave functions of HOCl obtained from previous ab initio calculations [J. Chem. Phys. 109, 2662 (1998); 109, 10273 (1998)]. Up to approximately 13 and h;000 cm -1 , the normal modes are nearly decoupled, so that the analysis is straightforward with a Dunham model. In contrast, above 13 and h;000 cm -1 the Dunham model is no longer valid for the levels with no quanta in the OH stretch (v 1 =0). In addition to v 1 , these levels can only be assigned a so-called polyad quantum number P=2v 2 +v 3 , where 2 and 3 denote, respectively, the bending and OCl stretching normal modes. In contrast, the levels with v 1 ≥2 remain assignable with three v i quantum numbers up to the dissociation (D 0 =19 and h;290 and h;cm -1 ). The interaction between the bending and the OCl stretch (ω 2 congruent 2ω 3 ) is well described with a simple, fitted Fermi resonance Hamiltonian. The energies and wave functions of this model Hamiltonian are compared with those obtained from ab initio calculations, which in turn enables the assignment of many additional ab initio vibrational levels. Globally, among the 809 bound levels calculated below dissociation, 790 have been assigned, the lowest unassigned level, No. 736, being located at 18 and h;885 cm -1 above the (0,0,0) ground level, that is, at about 98% of D 0 . In addition, 84 resonances located above D 0 have also been assigned. Our best Fermi resonance Hamiltonian has 29 parameters fitted with 725 ab initio levels, the rms deviation being of 5.3 cm -1 . This set of 725 fitted levels includes the full set of levels up to No. 702 at 18 and h;650 cm -1 . The ab initio levels, which are assigned but not included in the fit, are reasonably predicted by the model Hamiltonian, but with a typical error of the order of 20 cm -1 . The classical analysis of the periodic orbits of this Hamiltonian shows that two bifurcations occur at 13 and h;135 and 14 and h;059 cm -1 for levels with v 1 =0. Above each
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Celiberto, R.; Janev, R.K.; Wadehra, J.M.; Tennyson, J.
2012-01-01
Graphical abstract: Dissociative electron attachment cross sections as a function of the incident electron energy and for the initial vibration levels v i = 0–5, 10 of the H 2 molecule. Highlights: ► We calculated electron–hydrogen dissociative attachment cross sections and rates coefficients. ► Collision processes occurring through a resonant Rydberg state are considered. ► Cross sections and rates were obtained for vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules. ► The cross sections exhibit pronounced oscillatory structures. ► A comparison with the process involving the electron–hydrogen resonant ground state is discussed. - Abstract: Dissociative electron attachment cross sections (DEA) on vibrationally excited H 2 molecule taking place via the 2 Σ g + Rydberg-excited resonant state are studied using the local complex potential (LCP) model for resonant collisions. The cross sections are calculated for all initial vibrational levels (v i = 0–14) of the neutral molecule. In contrast to the previously noted dramatic increase in the DEA cross sections with increasing v i , when the process proceeds via the X 2 Σ u + shape resonance of H 2 , for the 2 Σ g + Rydberg resonance the cross sections increase only gradually up to v i = 3 and then decrease. Moreover, the cross sections for v i ⩾ 6 exhibit pronounced oscillatory structures. A discussion of the origin of the observed behavior of calculated cross sections is given. The DEA rate coefficients for all v i levels are also calculated in the 0.5–1000 eV temperature range.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mingming Lu
2017-10-01
Full Text Available The poor machinability of Ti-6Al-4V alloy makes it hard to process by conventional processing methods even though it has been widely used in military and civilian enterprise fields. Non-resonant three-dimensional elliptical vibration cutting (3D-EVC is a novel cutting technique which is a significant development potential for difficult-to-cut materials. However, few studies have been conducted on processing the Ti-6Al-4V alloy using the non-resonant 3D-EVC technique, the effect of surface quality, roughness, topography and freeform surface has not been clearly researched yet. Therefore, the machinability of Ti-6Al-4V alloy using the non-resonant 3D-EVC apparatus is studied in this paper. Firstly, the principle of non-resonant 3D-EVC technique and the model of cutter motion are introduced. Then the tool path is synthesized. The comparison experiments are carried out with traditional continuous cutting (TCC, two-dimension elliptical vibration cutting (2D-EVC, and the non-resonant 3D-EVC method. The experimental results shown that the excellent surface and lower roughness (77.3 nm could be obtained using the non-resonant 3D-EVC method; the shape and dimension of elliptical cutting mark also relates to the cutting speed and vibration frequency, and the concave/convex spherical surface topography are achieved by non-resonant 3D-EVC in the Ti-6Al-4V alloy. This proved that the non-resonant 3D-EVC technique has the better machinability compared with the TCC and 2D-EVC methods.
Lipovsky, Bradley P.; Dunham, Eric M.
2015-02-01
Oscillatory seismic signals arising from resonant vibrations of hydraulic fractures are observed in many geologic systems, including volcanoes, glaciers and ice sheets, and hydrocarbon and geothermal reservoirs. To better quantify the physical dimensions of fluid-filled cracks and properties of the fluids within them, we study wave motion along a thin hydraulic fracture waveguide. We present a linearized analysis, valid at wavelengths greater than the fracture aperture, that accounts for quasi-static elastic deformation of the fracture walls, as well as fluid viscosity, inertia, and compressibility. In the long-wavelength limit, anomalously dispersed guided waves known as crack or Krauklis waves propagate with restoring force from fracture wall elasticity. At shorter wavelengths, the waves become sound waves within the fluid channel. Wave attenuation in our model is due to fluid viscosity, rather than seismic radiation from crack tips or fracture wall roughness. We characterize viscous damping at both low frequencies, where the flow is always fully developed, and at high frequencies, where the flow has a nearly constant velocity profile away from viscous boundary layers near the fracture walls. Most observable seismic signals from resonating fractures likely arise in the boundary layer crack wave limit, where fluid-solid coupling is pronounced and attenuation is minimal. We present a method to estimate the aperture and length of a resonating hydraulic fracture using both the seismically observed quality factor and characteristic frequency. Finally, we develop scaling relations between seismic moment and characteristic frequency that might be useful when interpreting the statistics of hydraulic fracture events.
Oshmarin, D.; Sevodina, N.; Iurlov, M.; Iurlova, N.
2017-06-01
In this paper, with the aim of providing passive control of structure vibrations a new approach has been proposed for selecting optimal parameters of external electric shunt circuits connected to piezoelectric elements located on the surface of the structure. The approach is based on the mathematical formulation of the natural vibration problem. The results of solution of this problem are the complex eigenfrequencies, the real part of which represents the vibration frequency and the imaginary part corresponds to the damping ratio, characterizing the rate of damping. A criterion of search for optimal parameters of the external passive shunt circuits, which can provide the system with desired dissipative properties, has been derived based on the analysis of responses of the real and imaginary parts of different complex eigenfrequencies to changes in the values of the parameters of the electric circuit. The efficiency of this approach has been verified in the context of natural vibration problem of rigidly clamped plate and semi-cylindrical shell, which is solved for series-connected and parallel -connected external resonance (consisting of resistive and inductive elements) R-L circuits. It has been shown that at lower (more energy-intensive) frequencies, a series-connected external circuit has the advantage of providing lower values of the circuit parameters, which renders it more attractive in terms of practical applications.
Alpha-decay within Feshbach theory of nuclear reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sandulescu, A.; Silisteanu, I.; Wunsch, R.
1977-01-01
In the frame of Feshbach theory of nuclear reactions the alpha-decay widths are determined by the alpha-daughter nucleus optical potential and by the formation factors. It is shown that the calculated absolute values of the alpha widths for Po light isotopes are in good agreement with experimental data, if the real part of the optical potential with the parameters fitted by the low energy α-scattering is used
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Proskuryakov, Konstantin Nicolaevich [NPP, NPEI, 14, Krasnokazarmennaya str. Moscow, 111250 (Russian Federation)
2009-06-15
To prevent the appearance of the conditions for resonance interaction between the fluid flow and the reactor internals (RI), fuel rod (FR ) and fuel assemblies (FA) it is necessary to de-tune Eigen frequency of coolant pressure oscillations (EFCPO) and natural frequency of mechanical element's oscillations and also of the system which is formed by the comprising of these elements. Other words it is necessary to de-tune acoustic resonance frequency and natural frequencies of RI, FR and FA. While solving these problems it is necessary to have a theoretical and settlement substantiation of an oscillation frequency band of the coolant outside of which there is no resonant interaction with structure vibrations. The presented work is devoted to finding the solution of this problem. There are results of an estimation of width of such band as well as the examples of a preliminary quantitative estimation of Q - factors of coolant acoustic oscillatory circuit formed by the equipment of the NPP. Abnormal growth of intensity of pressure pulsations in a mode with definite value of reactor capacity have been found out by measurements on VVER - 1000 reactor. This phenomenon has been found out casually and its original reason had not been identified. Paper shows that disappearance of this effect could be reached by realizing outlet of EFCPO from so-called, pass bands of frequencies (PBF). PBF is located symmetrical on both parties from frequency of own oscillations of FA. Methods, algorithms of calculations and quantitative estimations are developed for EFCPO, Q and PBF in various modes of operation NPP with VVER-1000. Results of calculations allow specifying area of resonant interaction EFCPO with vibrations of FR, FA and a basket of reactor core. For practical realization of the received results it is offered to make corresponding additions to the design documentation and maintenance instructions of the equipment of the NPP with VVER-1000. The improvement of these documents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tasgal, Richard S.; Menabde, G.; Band, Y. B.
2006-01-01
We propose a scheme for making a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of molecules from a BEC of atoms in a strongly confining two-dimensional optical lattice and a weak one-dimensional optical lattice in the third dimension. The stable solutions obtained for the order parameters take the form of a different type of gap soliton, with both atomic and molecular BECs, and also standard gap solitons with only a molecular BEC. The strongly confining dimensions of the lattice stabilize the BEC against inelastic energy transfer in atom-molecule collisions. The solitons with atoms and molecules may be obtained by starting with an atomic BEC, and gradually tuning the resonance by changing the external magnetic-field strength until the desired atom-molecule soliton is obtained. A gap soliton of a BEC of only molecules may be obtained nonadiabatically by starting from an atom-only gap soliton, far from a Feshbach resonance and adjusting the magnetic field to near Feshbach resonance. After a period of time in which the dimer field grows, change the magnetic field such that the detuning is large and negative and Feshbach effects wash out, turn off the optical lattice in phase with the atomic BEC, and turn on an optical lattice in phase with the molecules. The atoms disperse, leaving a gap soliton composed of a molecular BEC. Regarding instabilities in the dimension of the weak optical lattice, the solitons which are comprised of both atoms and molecules are sometimes stable and sometimes unstable--we present numerically obtained results. Gap solitons comprised of only molecules have the same stability properties as the standard gap solitons: stable from frequencies slightly below the middle of the band gap to the top, and unstable below that point. Instabilities are only weakly affected by the soliton velocities, and all instabilities are oscillatory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Friedt, J.M.
1976-01-01
The change in the hyperfine line intensities is discussed for various Moessbauer transitions in cases involving axial vibrational lattice anisotropy and axial electric field gradient at the resonant nucleus. The change in the relative intensities of the spectral components has been calculed numerically for the different types of Moessbauer transitions. Polynomial expansions are given to describe the functional dependence of the relative intensities on the magnitude of the vibration anisotropy. They may be used to extract the relevant parameters from experimental data without requiring the numerical integrations implied in the description of the Goldanskii-Karyagin effect [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoon, Sang Won; Lee, Sangwoo; Najafi, Khalil; Perkins, Noel C
2011-01-01
This paper presents the analysis and preliminary design, fabrication, and measurement for mechanical vibration-isolation platforms especially designed for resonating MEMS devices including gyroscopes. Important parameters for designing isolation platforms are specified and the first platform (in designs with cascaded multiple platforms) is crucial for improving vibration-isolation performance and minimizing side-effects on integrated gyroscopes. This isolation platform, made from a thick silicon wafer substrate for an environment-resistant MEMS package, incorporates the functionalities of a previous design including vacuum packaging and thermal resistance with no additional resources. This platform consists of platform mass, isolation beams, vertical feedthroughs, and bonding pads. Two isolation platform designs follow from two isolation beam designs: lateral clamped–clamped beams and vertical torsion beams. The beams function simultaneously as mechanical springs and electrical interconnects. The vibration-isolation platform can yield a multi-dimensional, high-order mechanical low pass filter. The isolation platform possesses eight interconnects within a 12.2 × 12.2 mm 2 footprint. The contact resistance ranges from 4–11 Ω depending on the beam design. Vibration measurements using a laser-Doppler vibrometer demonstrate that the lateral vibration-isolation platform suppresses external vibration having frequencies exceeding 2.1 kHz.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rossikhin Yury A.
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Non-linear damped vibrations of a cylindrical shell embedded into a fractional derivative medium are investigated for the case of the combinational internal resonance, resulting in modal interaction, using two different numerical methods with further comparison of the results obtained. The damping properties of the surrounding medium are described by the fractional derivative Kelvin-Voigt model utilizing the Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives. Within the first method, the generalized displacements of a coupled set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations of the second order are estimated using numerical solution of nonlinear multi-term fractional differential equations by the procedure based on the reduction of the problem to a system of fractional differential equations. According to the second method, the amplitudes and phases of nonlinear vibrations are estimated from the governing nonlinear differential equations describing amplitude-and-phase modulations for the case of the combinational internal resonance. A good agreement in results is declared.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Slavko Rogan
2013-07-01
Full Text Available This study assessed the feasibility of stochastic resonance whole-body vibration (SR-WBV training and its impact on isometric maximal voluntary contraction (IMVC, isometric rate of force development (IRFD and a drop jump test (DJ in healthy female students. Twelve participants were randomised to static squats during SR-WBV 6 Hz, noise level 4, over 4 weeks or to a control group (no training. Feasibility outcomes included the number of students agreeing to participate, the number of drop-outs, the adherence to the SR-WBV and the evaluation of the protocol. Secondary outcomes were IMVC, IRFD and DJ. Results: Among 35 eligible students, 12 agreed to participate and two dropped out. The adherence was 41 of 60 possible sessions. There were moderate to large, but statistically non-significant, gains in the secondary outcomes. Conclusion: These results suggest that such a study would be feasible although with some modifications such as a better familiarisation to the DJ.
Wang, Hongxin; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Dong, Weibing; Huang, Songping D
2013-09-01
The conventional energy calibration for nuclear resonant vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) is usually long. Meanwhile, taking NRVS samples out of the cryostat increases the chance of sample damage, which makes it impossible to carry out an energy calibration during one NRVS measurement. In this study, by manipulating the 14.4 keV beam through the main measurement chamber without moving out the NRVS sample, two alternative calibration procedures have been proposed and established: (i) an in situ calibration procedure, which measures the main NRVS sample at stage A and the calibration sample at stage B simultaneously, and calibrates the energies for observing extremely small spectral shifts; for example, the 0.3 meV energy shift between the 100%-(57)Fe-enriched [Fe4S4Cl4](=) and 10%-(57)Fe and 90%-(54)Fe labeled [Fe4S4Cl4](=) has been well resolved; (ii) a quick-switching energy calibration procedure, which reduces each calibration time from 3-4 h to about 30 min. Although the quick-switching calibration is not in situ, it is suitable for normal NRVS measurements.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ram, P.N.; Dederichs, P.H.
1981-07-01
Some aspects of resonant vibrations of self-interstitials in the 100-dumbbell configuration in fcc-metals are discussed by extending previous calculations of Zeller et al. and Schober et al. Employing a simple defect model with nearest-neighbour interaction the local frequency spectrum of the defect is calculated showing several localized modes and low-frequency resonant modes. The change in the total density of states due to the defects is expressed as the derivative of a generalized phase shift which is used to calculate the change in the lattic specific heat due to single interstitials. Inelastic neutron scattering away from the one-phonon lines is proposed as a method to observe the resonant modes induced by self-interstitials. The model calculation in Cu shows that the well defined resonant modes due to dumbbell vibrations have appreciable intensity and could presumably be detected in neutron scattering measurements. The effect of di-interstitials on the phonon dispersion in Al is also discussed. (orig./GSCH)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Vatankhah
Full Text Available Abstract This paper investigates the vibration behavior of micro-resonators based on the strain gradient theory, a non-classical continuum theory capable of capturing the size effect appearing in micro-scale structures. The micro-resonator is modeled as a clamped-clamped micro-beam with an attached mass subjected to an axial force. The governing equations of motion and both classical and non-classical sets of boundary conditions are developed based on the strain gradient theory. The normalized natural frequency of the micro-resonator is evaluated and the influences of various parameters are assessed. In addition, the current results are compared to those of the classical and modified couple stress continuum theories.
Nakamura, K.; Naito, Y.; Onishi, K.; Kawakatsu, H.
2012-12-01
In industrial applications of a micromechanical silicon resonator as a physical sensor, a high-quality factor Q and a low-temperature coefficient of Q (TCQ) are required for high sensitivity in a wide temperature range. Although the newly developed thin film encapsulation technique enables a beam to operate with low viscous damping in a vacuum cavity, the Q of a flexural vibration mode is limited by thermo-elastic damping (TED). We proposed a torsional beam resonator which features both a high Q and a low TCQ because theoretically the torsional vibration mode does not suffer from TED. From experiments, Q of 267 000 and TCQ of 1.4 for the 20 MHz torsional vibration mode were observed which were superior to those of the flexural mode. The pressure of the residual gas in the cavity of only 20 pl volume, which is one of the energy loss factors limiting the Q, was successfully estimated to be 1-14 Pa. Finally, the possibilities of improving the Q and the difference of the measured TCQ from a theoretical value were discussed.
Lehnert, Nicolai; Galinato, Mary Grace I; Paulat, Florian; Richter-Addo, George B; Sturhahn, Wolfgang; Xu, Nan; Zhao, Jiyong
2010-05-03
This study presents Nuclear Resonance Vibrational Spectroscopy (NRVS) data on the five-coordinate (5C) ferrous heme-nitrosyl complex [Fe(OEP)(NO)] (1, OEP(2-) = octaethylporphyrinato dianion) and the corresponding (15)N(18)O labeled complex. The obtained spectra identify two isotope sensitive features at 522 and 388 cm(-1), which shift to 508 and 381 cm(-1), respectively, upon isotope labeling. These features are assigned to the Fe-NO stretch nu(Fe-NO) and the in-plane Fe-N-O bending mode delta(ip)(Fe-N-O), the latter has been unambiguously assigned for the first time for 1. The obtained NRVS data were simulated using our quantum chemistry centered normal coordinate analysis (QCC-NCA). Since complex 1 can potentially exist in 12 different conformations involving the FeNO and peripheral ethyl orientations, extended density functional theory (DFT) calculations and QCC-NCA simulations were performed to determine how these conformations affect the NRVS properties of [Fe(OEP)NO]. These results show that the properties and force constants of the FeNO unit are hardly affected by the conformational changes involving the ethyl substituents. On the other hand, the NRVS-active porphyrin-based vibrations around 340-360, 300-320, and 250-270 cm(-1) are sensitive to the conformational changes. The spectroscopic changes observed in these regions are due to selective mechanical couplings of one component of E(u)-type (in ideal D(4h) symmetry) porphyrin-based vibrations with the in-plane Fe-N-O bending mode. This leads to the observed variations in Fe(OEP) core mode energies and NRVS intensities without affecting the properties of the FeNO unit. The QCC-NCA simulated NRVS spectra of 1 show excellent agreement with experiment, and indicate that conformer F is likely present in the samples of this complex investigated here. The observed porphyrin-based vibrations in the NRVS spectra of 1 are also assigned based on the QCC-NCA results. The obtained force constants of the Fe-NO and N
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adrian, H.
1981-01-01
The influence of crystal defects on the phonon spectra was studied for fcc lead using superconducting tunneling spectroscopy. The theory predicts low frequency modes for the vibrational states of interstitials in (100) dumbbell configuration. Low temperature irradiation of superconducting point contacts with fast ions (point contact thickness small compared to the average ion range) showed radiation-induced structures in the low-energy part of the Eliashberg function for lead. These resonant modes are reduced by annealing at 18.5 K; they are attributed to small interstitial clusters. The radiation-induced structures are completely removed by room temperature annealing. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martin Silge
2018-04-01
Full Text Available This contribution presents a novel design approach for vibration assisted machining (VAM. A lot of research has already been done regarding the influence of superimposed vibrations during a milling process, but there is almost no information about how to design a VAM tool where the tool is actually rotating. The proposed system consists of a piezoelectric actuator for vibration excitation, an inductive contactless energy transfer system and an electronic circuit for powering the actuated tool. The main benefit of transferring the required power without mechanical contact is that the maximum spindle speed is no longer restricted by friction of slip rings. A detailed model is shown that enables for preliminary estimation of the system’s response to different excitation signals. Experimental data are provided to validate the model. Finally, some parts are shown that have been manufactured using the contactlessly actuated milling tool.
Eiras, J N; Monzó, J; Payá, J; Kundu, T; Popovics, J S
2014-02-01
Dynamic non-classical nonlinear analyses show promise for improved damage diagnostics in materials that exhibit such structure at the mesoscale, such as concrete. In this study, nonlinear non-classical dynamic material behavior from standard vibration test data, using pristine and frost damaged cement mortar bar samples, is extracted and quantified. The procedure is robust and easy to apply. The results demonstrate that the extracted nonlinear non-classical parameters show expected sensitivity to internal damage and are more sensitive to changes owing to internal damage levels than standard linear vibration parameters.
Semiclassical theory of resonance inelastic electron-molecule collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kazanskij, A.K.
1986-01-01
Semiclassical approach to the theory of resonance electron-molecule collisions, unlocal with respect to interatomic distance was developed. Two problems were considered: modified adiabatic approach for sigle-pole approximation of R-matrix and Fano-Feshbach-Bardsley theory. It is shown that these problems are similar in semiclassical approximation. A simple equation system with coefficients expressed in quadratures was obtained. It enables to determine amplitudes of all processes (including dissociation adhesion, association ejection, free-free and free-bound transitions) in energetic representation with respect to nucleus vibrations in molecule with allowance for both descrete and continuous spectra of nucleus motion in molecule. Quantitative investigation of the system results to the notion of dynamic energy curve of intermediate state, generalizing the motion of such curve in boomerang theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomason, M.D.
1982-07-01
Rates for resonant vibrational and rotational energy transfer from the 001 state by CO 2 + CO 2 collisions have been measured. All data were obtained by double resonance spectroscopy with CO 2 lasers in a 2.5 meter absorption cell at 700 0 K. Results for rotation transfer include pumped-level relaxation and the response of other 001 levels with ΔJ up to 18. These data are compared to four relevant collision models via a 35-level rate equation analysis. Sequence-band (002 → 101) and hot-band (011 → 110) lasting have been used to observe resonant nu 3 -transfer relaxation involving 001 + 001 reversible 002 + 000, 001 + 100 reversible 101 + 000, and 001 + 010 reversible 011 + 000. A multilevel rate analysis has been utilized to determine the rate coefficients for 001 going to the 002, the 101, and the 011 levels. Part of the hot-band data has been interpreted as due to 110 + 000 reversible 100 + 010, and the associated rate constant has been estimated. The results of the study are compared to the theory and to other experiments
Time delay for resonant vibrational excitation in electron--molecule collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gauyacq, J.P.
1990-01-01
An analysis of the time delay associated with vibrational excitation in electron--molecule collision is presented. It consists of a direct study of the time dependence of the process for three model systems. An electron wave packet, that is narrow in time, is sent on the target and the amplitudes in the different inelastic channels are studied as functions of time. The time delay is found to correspond to very different time effects: broadenings, shifts in time of the wave packet, but also complex distortions that cannot be represented by a time delay. The direct analysis of the scattered wave also provides new insights into the vibrational excitation process. It should be a useful tool to analyze complex collision processes
Laterally Vibrating Resonator Based Elasto-Optic Modulation in Aluminum Nitride
2016-08-15
the adjoining test setup used to probe the devices. Following the design of a laterally vibrating piezoelectric contour...licenses/by/4.0/). [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4945356] The interaction of acoustic waves with light provides a useful resource to perform optical signal...recent years, several types of acousto-optic interactions have been demonstrated in a wide va- riety of devices, including the use of
Electron paramagnetic resonance of Cu(II) and vibrational spectrum of chalcanthite
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reddy, B.J.; Sreeramulu, P.; Ramesh, K.; Reddy, Y.P.; Botto, I.L.
1988-01-01
The EPR spectrum of Cu(II) in Chalcanthite has the characteristic features of D 4h symmetry. Optical and EPR results are correlated. The parameters g parallel, g perpendicular, k parallel and k perpendicular are evaluated. The nature of the bonding between the metal ion and the ligand environment is analized. On the other hand, the vibrational spectrum confirms the information about the site symmetry of the SO 4 group in the lattice. (Author) [es
Lutz, O
1940-01-01
Using a previously developed method, the boundary process of four-stroke-cycle engines are set up. The results deviate considerably from those obtained under the assumption that the velocity fluctuation is proportional to the cylinder piston motion. The deviation is less at the position of resonance frequencies. By the method developed, the effect of the resonance vibrations on the volumetric efficiency can be demonstrated.
García-Vela, A; Janda, K C
2006-01-21
Wave-packet simulations of the Ne-Br2(B,upsilon') vibrational predissociation dynamics in the range upsilon' = 16-29 are reported. The aim is to interpret recent time-dependent pump-probe experiments [Cabrera et al., J. Chem. Phys. 123, 054311 (2005)]. Good agreement is found between the calculated and the experimental lifetimes corresponding to decay of the Ne-Br2(B,upsilon') initial state and to appearance of Br2(B,upsilonBr2(B,upsilonBr2(B,upsilonBr2 distances greater than 15 angstroms. In the light of the results, a structure of the spectrum of continuum resonances is suggested and discussed.
Nonlinear Forced Vibration of a Viscoelastic Buckled Beam with 2 : 1 Internal Resonance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu-Yang Xiong
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Nonlinear dynamics of a viscoelastic buckled beam subjected to primary resonance in the presence of internal resonance is investigated for the first time. For appropriate choice of system parameters, the natural frequency of the second mode is approximately twice that of the first providing the condition for 2 : 1 internal resonance. The ordinary differential equations of the two mode shapes are established using the Galerkin method. The problem is replaced by two coupled second-order differential equations with quadratic and cubic nonlinearities. The multiple scales method is applied to derive the modulation-phase equations. Steady-state solutions of the system as well as their stability are examined. The frequency-amplitude curves exhibit the steady-state response in the directly excited and indirectly excited modes due to modal interaction. The double-jump, the saturation phenomenon, and the nonperiodic region phenomena are observed illustrating the influence of internal resonance. The validity range of the analytical approximations is assessed by comparing the analytical approximate results with a numerical solution by the Runge-Kutta method. The unstable regions in the internal resonance are explored via numerical simulations.
Effect of a liquid failure on its vibrations in a resonator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galiev, Sh.U.; Yakovtsov, A.V.; Zelenyuk, N.I.
1987-01-01
Formation of powerful hydroshocks in pipelines at excitation frequencies far from natural vibration frequencies of an ideal single fluid column is considered in terms of continuum mechanics. The algorithm for computing transient processes in a liquid is based on the Lax-Vedroff combined method with the flow correction. Data of numerical and experimental calculations are compared. The appearance of hydroshocks is accounted for by a rise in the gas content and drop in the natural vibraion frequency of a fluid column up to the value equal to that of the excitation frequency
Equal modal damping design for a family of resonant vibration control formats
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krenk, Steen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker
2013-01-01
derivative term in the control coupling can change these properties into balanced position and velocity peaks, respectively. In particular this gives an improved control format based on measurement of structural displacement or deformation. In all cases the optimal calibration in terms of a root locus......The principle of equal modal damping is used to give a unified presentation and calibration of resonant control of structures for different control formats, based on velocity, acceleration–position or position feedback. When introducing a resonant controller the original resonant mode splits...... identification leads to a simple explicit pair of design formulae for controller frequency and damping ratio based on a simple two -degrees-of-freedom system. Unconditional stability is demonstrated for a general multi-degrees-of-freedom system with multiple controllers for the velocity and acceleration...
Numerical Study of Forced Vibration Suppression by Parametric Anti-Resonance
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pešek, Luděk; Šulc, Petr; Půst, Ladislav
2016-01-01
Roč. 41, č. 3 (2016), s. 527-533 ISSN 0137-5075 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-04546S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : active damping * parametric anti -resonance * external harmonic excitation Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 0.816, year: 2016
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gersonde, K.; Yu, N.T.; Lin, S.H.; Smith, K.M.; Parish, D.W.
1989-01-01
We have investigated the resonance Raman spectra of monomeric insect cyanomethemoglobins (CTT III and CTT IV) reconstituted with (1) protohemes IX selectively deuterated at the 4-vinyl as well as the 2,4-divinyls, (2) monovinyl-truncated hemes such as pemptoheme (2-hydrogen, 4-vinyl) and isopemptoheme (2-vinyl, 4-hydrogen), (3) symmetric hemes such as protoheme III (with 2- and 3-vinyls) and protoheme XIII (with 1- and 4-vinyls), and (4) hemes without 2- and 4-vinyls such as mesoheme IX, deuteroheme IX, 2,4-dimethyldeuteroheme IX, and 2,4-dibromodeuteroheme IX. Evidence is presented that the highly localized vinyl C = C stretching vibrations at the 2- and 4-positions of the heme in these cyanomet CTT hemoglobins are noncoupled and inequivalent; i.e., the 1631- and 1624-cm-1 lines have been assigned to 2-vinyl and 4-vinyl, respectively. The elimination of the 2-vinyl (in pemptoheme) or the 4-vinyl (in isopemptoheme) does not affect the C = C stretching frequency of the remaining vinyl. Furthermore, two low-frequency vinyl bending modes at 412 and 591 cm-1 exhibit greatly different resonance Raman intensities between 2-vinyl and 4-vinyl. The observed intensity at 412 cm-1 is primarily derived from 4-vinyl, whereas the 591-cm-1 line results exclusively from the 2-vinyl. Again, there is no significant coupling between 2-vinyl and 4-vinyl for these two bending modes
The direct l-type resonance spectrum of CF3CCH in the vibrational state ν 10 = 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woetzel, Ulf; Maeder, Heinrich; Harder, Hauke; Pracna, Petr; Sarka, Kamil
2005-01-01
The direct l-type resonance spectrum of CF 3 CCH in the vibrational state ν 10 = 2 has been measured by means of waveguide microwave Fourier transform spectroscopy in the range 8-26 GHz. Two types of direct l-type resonance transitions induced by the (Δk = ±2, Δl = ±2) interaction could be observed: 262 transitions following the ΔJ = 0, Δk = Δl = 2 selection rule covering values of J = 17-64 and G vertical bar k - l vertical bar from 2 to 15, and 75 transitions following the ΔJ = 0, Δk = Δl = 4 selection rule covering values of J = 44-70 and G up to 3. The strong (2, 2) resonance furthermore allowed the observation of A 1 -A 2 splittings of the k = l = ±2 states from J = 63-70. The transitions with G = 3 showed splittings due to the (4, -2) and (0, 6) interactions. The corresponding energy level systems and part of the Hamiltonian matrix are discussed. Strong perturbations due to Δ(k - l) = 3 interactions coupling the states k = ±1, l = ±2 and k = ±4, l ±2 made possible the observation of perturbation-allowed transitions with selection rule k = ±1, l =± 2 ↔ k = 0, l = ±2. Additionally, the J = 2-1 and 3-2 rotational transitions have been measured. A multiple fitting analysis has been performed in which the experimental data have been fitted using five reduced forms of the effective Hamiltonian as proposed by Sarka and Harder [J. Mol. Spectrosc. 197 (1999) 254]. Parameters up to sixth order have been determined including the axial rotational constant A for both values of vertical bar l vertical bar and the unitary equivalence of the determined parameter sets has been demonstrated
Arjunan, V; Thillai Govindaraja, S; Jayapraksh, A; Mohan, S
2013-04-15
Quantum chemical calculations of energy, structural parameters and vibrational wavenumbers of 4-bromoisoquinoline (4BIQ) were carried out by using B3LYP method using 6-311++G(**), cc-pVTZ and LANL2DZ basis sets. The optimised geometrical parameters obtained by DFT calculations are in good agreement with electron diffraction data. Interpretations of the experimental FTIR and FT-Raman spectra have been reported with the aid of the theoretical wavenumbers. The differences between the observed and scaled wavenumber values of most of the fundamentals are very small. The thermodynamic parameters have also been computed. Electronic properties of the molecule were discussed through the molecular electrostatic potential surface, HOMO-LUMO energy gap and NBO analysis. To provide precise assignments of (1)H and (13)CNMR spectra, isotropic shielding and chemical shifts were calculated with the Gauge-Invariant Atomic Orbital (GIAO) method. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gongora, J. S. Totero
2017-02-01
One of the most fascinating possibilities enabled by metamaterials is the strong reduction of the electromagnetic scattering from nanostructures. In dielectric nanoparticles, the formation of a minimal scattering state at specific wavelengths is associated with the excitation of photonic anapoles, which represent a peculiar type of radiationless state and whose existence has been demonstrated experimentally. In this work, we investigate the formation of anapole states in generic dielectric structures by applying a Fano-Feshbach projection scheme, a general technique widely used in the study of quantum mechanical open systems. By expressing the total scattering from the structure in terms of an orthogonal set of internal and external modes, defined in the interior and in the exterior of the dielectric structure, respectively, we show how anapole states are the result of a complex interaction among the resonances of the system and the surrounding environment. We apply our approach to a circular resonator, where we observe the formation of higher-order anapole states, which are originated by the superposition of several internal resonances of the system.
Pelmenschikov, Vladimir; Birrell, James A; Pham, Cindy C; Mishra, Nakul; Wang, Hongxin; Sommer, Constanze; Reijerse, Edward; Richers, Casseday P; Tamasaku, Kenji; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Rauchfuss, Thomas B; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Cramer, Stephen P
2017-11-22
[FeFe]-hydrogenases are metalloenzymes that reversibly reduce protons to molecular hydrogen at exceptionally high rates. We have characterized the catalytically competent hydride state (H hyd ) in the [FeFe]-hydrogenases from both Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans using 57 Fe nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) and density functional theory (DFT). H/D exchange identified two Fe-H bending modes originating from the binuclear iron cofactor. DFT calculations show that these spectral features result from an iron-bound terminal hydride, and the Fe-H vibrational frequencies being highly dependent on interactions between the amine base of the catalytic cofactor with both hydride and the conserved cysteine terminating the proton transfer chain to the active site. The results indicate that H hyd is the catalytic state one step prior to H 2 formation. The observed vibrational spectrum, therefore, provides mechanistic insight into the reaction coordinate for H 2 bond formation by [FeFe]-hydrogenases.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiří Přibil
2018-04-01
Full Text Available This article compares open-air and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI equipment working with a weak magnetic field as regards the methods of its generation, spectral properties of mechanical vibration and acoustic noise produced by gradient coils during the scanning process, and the measured noise intensity. These devices are used for non-invasive MRI reconstruction of the human vocal tract during phonation with simultaneous speech recording. In this case, the vibration and noise have negative influence on quality of speech signal. Two basic measurement experiments were performed within the paper: mapping sound pressure levels in the MRI device vicinity and picking up vibration and noise signals in the MRI scanning area. Spectral characteristics of these signals are then analyzed statistically and compared visually and numerically.
Přibil, Jiří; Přibilová, Anna; Frollo, Ivan
2018-04-05
This article compares open-air and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment working with a weak magnetic field as regards the methods of its generation, spectral properties of mechanical vibration and acoustic noise produced by gradient coils during the scanning process, and the measured noise intensity. These devices are used for non-invasive MRI reconstruction of the human vocal tract during phonation with simultaneous speech recording. In this case, the vibration and noise have negative influence on quality of speech signal. Two basic measurement experiments were performed within the paper: mapping sound pressure levels in the MRI device vicinity and picking up vibration and noise signals in the MRI scanning area. Spectral characteristics of these signals are then analyzed statistically and compared visually and numerically.
Ujj, L.; Jäger, F.; Popp, A.; Atkinson, G. H.
1996-12-01
The vibrational spectrum of the K-590 intermediate, thought to contribute significantly to the energy storage and transduction mechanism in the bacteriorhodopsin (BR) photocycle, is measured at room temperature using picosecond time-resolved resonance coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (PTR/CARS). The room-temperature BR photocycle is initiated by the 3 ps, 570 nm excitation of the ground-state species, BR-570, prepared in both H 2O and D 2O suspensions of BR. PTR/CARS data, recorded 50 ps after BR-570 excitation, at which time only BR-570 and K-590 are present, have an excellent S/N which provides a significantly more detailed view of the K-590 vibrational degrees of freedom than previously available. Two picosecond (6 ps FWHM) laser pulses, ω1 (633.4 nm) and ωS (675-700 nm), are used to record PTR/CARS data via electronic resonance enhancement in both BR-570 and K-590, each of which contains a distinct retinal structure (assigned as 13- rans, 15- anti, 13- cis, respectively). To obtain the vibrational spectrum of K-590 separately, the PTR/CARS spectra from the mixture of isomeric retinals is quantitatively analyzed in terms of third-order susceptibility ( η(3)) relationships. PTR/CARS spectra of K-590 recorded from both H 2O and D 2O suspensions of BR are compared with the analogous vibrational data obtained via spontaneous resonance Raman (RR) scattering at both low (77 K) and room temperature. Analyses of these vibrational spectra identify temperature-dependent effects and changes assignable to the substitution of deuterium at the Schiff-base nitrogen not previously reported.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chakraborty, Saumen; Reed, Julian; Sage, Timothy; Branagan, Nicole C.; Petrik, Igor D.; Miner, Kyle D.; Hu, Michael Y.; Zhao, Jiyong; Alp, E. Ercan; Lu, Yi
2015-10-05
This Forum Article focuses on recent advances in structural and spectroscopic studies of biosynthetic models of nitric oxide reductases (NORs). NORs are complex metalloenzymes found in the denitrification pathway of Earth's nitrogen cycle where they catalyze the proton-dependent twoelectron reduction of nitric oxide (NO) to nitrous oxide (N_{2}O). While much progress has been made in biochemical and biophysical studies of native NORs and their variants, a. clear mechanistic understanding of this important metalloenzyme related to its function is still elusive. We report herein UV vis and nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) studies of mononitrosylated intermediates of the NOR reaction of a biosynthetic model. The ability to selectively substitute metals at either heme or nonheme metal sites allows the introduction of independent ^{57}Fe probe atoms at either site, as well as allowing the preparation of analogues of stable reaction intermediates by replacing either metal with a redox inactive metal. Together with previous structural and spectroscopic results, we summarize insights gained from studying these biosynthetic models toward understanding structural features responsible for the NOR activity and its mechanism. As a result, the outlook on NOR modeling is also discussed, with an emphasis on the design of models capable of catalytic turnovers designed based on close mimics of the secondary coordination sphere of native NORs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eriksson, Daniel
2010-07-01
Combustion of fuel in thermal power plants emits particles which creates coatings on the super heater tubes. The coatings isolate the tubes and impairs the efficiency of the heat transfer. Cleaning the tubes occurs while the power plant is running but without any knowledge of the actual coating. A change in frequency corresponds to a change in mass of the coatings. This thesis has been focusing in estimating resonance frequencies in vibration measurements made by strain gauges on the tubes. To improve the estimations a target tracking algorithm had been added. The results indicates that it is possible to estimate the resonance frequencies but the algorithms need to be verified on more signals.
Chizhevsky, V. N.
2018-01-01
For the first time, it is demonstrated experimentally that a vibrational resonance in a polarization-bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser can be used to increase the laser response in autodyne detection of microvibrations from reflecting surfaces. In this case, more than 25-fold signal amplification is achieved. The influence of the asymmetry of the bistable potential on the microvibration-detection efficiency is studied.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fleming, P.; Wright, A. D.; Finersh, L. J.
2010-12-01
The CART3 (Controls Advanced Research Turbine, 3-bladed) at the National Wind Technology Center has recently been converted from a 2-bladed constant speed machine to a 3-bladed variable speed machine designed specically for controls research. The purpose of this conversion was to develop an advanced controls field-testing platform which has the more typical 3-bladed configuration. A result of this conversion was the emergence of several resonant vibrations, some of which initially prevented operation of the turbine until they could be explained and resolved. In this paper, the investigations into these vibrations are presented as 'lessons-learned'. Additionally, a frequency-domain technique called waterfall plotting is discussed and its usefulness in this research is illustrated.
Single and double charge transfer in Be/sup 4+/+He collisions: A molecular (Feshbach) approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, F.; Riera, A.; Yaez, M.
1986-01-01
In recent articles, we pointed out the fundamental difference between the molecular treatment of processes involving a multicharged ion and hydrogen or helium atoms, which is the (formal) autoionizing character of the molecular channels, and we reported a (new) implementation of the Feshbach method to calculate the molecular energies and couplings. In the present work we use the wave functions calculated with this Feshbach method for the BeHe/sup 4+/ quasimolecule, introduce a common translation factor in the formalism, and calculate the single and double charge-exchange cross sections in Be/sup 4+/+He(1s 2 ) collisions for impact energies 0.2--20 keV/amu. The mechanisms of the processes are discussed in detail
Single and double charge transfer in Be/sup 4+/+He collisions: A molecular (Feshbach) approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martin, F.; Riera, A.; Yaez, M.
1986-12-01
In recent articles, we pointed out the fundamental difference between the molecular treatment of processes involving a multicharged ion and hydrogen or helium atoms, which is the (formal) autoionizing character of the molecular channels, and we reported a (new) implementation of the Feshbach method to calculate the molecular energies and couplings. In the present work we use the wave functions calculated with this Feshbach method for the BeHe/sup 4+/ quasimolecule, introduce a common translation factor in the formalism, and calculate the single and double charge-exchange cross sections in Be/sup 4+/+He(1s/sup 2/) collisions for impact energies 0.2--20 keV/amu. The mechanisms of the processes are discussed in detail.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laporta, V. [Istituto di Metodologie Inorganiche e dei Plasmi, CNR, Bari, Italy and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Celiberto, R. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale, del Territorio, Edile e di Chimica, Politecnico di Bari, Italy and Istituto di Metodologie Inorganiche e dei Plasmi, CNR, Bari (Italy); Tennyson, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)
2014-12-09
Rate coefficients for dissociative electron attachment and electron-impact dissociation processes, involving vibrationally excited molecular oxygen, are presented. Analytical fits of the calculated numerical data, useful in the applications, are also provided.
Sarma, Manabendra; Adhikari, S; Mishra, Manoj K
2007-01-28
Vibrational excitation (nu(f), where psi(nu(i))(R,t) approximately =e(-iH(A(2))-(R)t/h phi(nu(i))(R) with time evolution under the influence of the resonance anionic Hamiltonian H(A(2) (-))(A(2) (-)=N(2)(-)/H(2) (-)) implemented using Lanczos and fast Fourier transforms. The target (A(2)) vibrational eigenfunctions phi(nu(i))(R) and phi(nu(f))(R) are calculated using Fourier grid Hamiltonian method applied to potential energy (PE) curves of the neutral target. Application of this simple systematization to calculate vibrational structure in e-N(2) and e-H(2) scattering cross-sections provides mechanistic insights into features underlying presence/absence of structure in e-N(2) and e-H(2) scattering cross-sections. The results obtained with approximate PE curves are in reasonable agreement with experimental/calculated cross-section profiles, and cross correlation functions provide a simple demarcation between the boomerang and impulse models.
Saariaho, Anna-Maija; Jääskeläinen, Anna-Stiina; Nuopponen, Mari; Vuorinen, Tapani
2003-01-01
Raman spectroscopy of wood and lignin samples is preferably carried out in the near-infrared region because lignin produces an intense laser-induced fluorescence background at visible excitation wavelengths. However, excitation of aromatic and conjugated lignin structures with deep ultra violet (UV) light gives resonance-enhanced Raman signals while the overlapping fluorescence is eliminated. In this study, ultra violet resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopy was used to define characteristic vibration bands of model compounds of p-hydroxyphenyl, guaiacyl, and syringyl lignin structures at three excitation wavelengths (229, 244, and 257 nm). The intensities of each band, relative to the intensity of the aromatic vibration band at 1600 cm-1, were defined and the most suitable excitation wavelength was suggested for each structure. p-Hydroxyphenyl structures showed intensive characteristic bands at 1217-1214 and 1179-1167 cm-1 with excitation at 244 nm, whereas the bands of guaiacyl structures were more intensive with 257 nm excitation. Most intensive characteristic bands of guaiacyl structures were found at 1289-1279, 1187-1185, 1158-1155, and 791-704 cm-1. Syringyl structures had almost identical spectra with 244 and 257 nm excitations with characteristic bands at 1514-1506, 1333-1330, and 981-962 cm-1. The characteristic bands of the three structural units were also found from the compression wood, softwood, and hardwood samples, indicating that UVRR spectroscopy can be applied for the determination of chemical structures of lignin.
Binoy, J; Marchewka, M K; Jayakumar, V S
2013-03-01
The molecular geometry and vibrational spectral investigations of melaminium formate, a potential material known for toxicity and NLO activity, has been performed. The FT IR and FT Raman spectral investigations of melaminium formate is performed aided by the computed spectra of melaminium formate, triazine, melamine, melaminium and formate ion, along with bond orders and PED, computed using the density functional method (B3LYP) with 6-31G(d) basis set and XRD data, to reveal intermolecular interactions of amino groups with neighbor formula units in the crystal, intramolecular H⋯H repulsion of amino group hydrogen with protonating hydrogen, consequent loss of resonance in the melaminium ring, restriction of resonance to N(3)C(1)N(1) moiety leading to special type resonance of the ring and the resonance structure of CO(2) group of formate ion. The 3D matrix of hyperpolarizability tensor components has been computed to quantify NLO activity of melamine, melaminium and melaminium formate and the hyperpolarizability enhancement is analyzed using computed plots of HOMO and LUMO orbitals. A new mechanism of proton transfer responsible for NLO activity has been suggested, based on anomalous IR spectral bands in the high wavenumber region. The computed MEP contour maps have been used to analyze the interaction of melaminium and formate ions in the crystal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Binoy, J.; Marchewka, M. K.; Jayakumar, V. S.
2013-03-01
The molecular geometry and vibrational spectral investigations of melaminium formate, a potential material known for toxicity and NLO activity, has been performed. The FT IR and FT Raman spectral investigations of melaminium formate is performed aided by the computed spectra of melaminium formate, triazine, melamine, melaminium and formate ion, along with bond orders and PED, computed using the density functional method (B3LYP) with 6-31G(d) basis set and XRD data, to reveal intermolecular interactions of amino groups with neighbor formula units in the crystal, intramolecular H⋯H repulsion of amino group hydrogen with protonating hydrogen, consequent loss of resonance in the melaminium ring, restriction of resonance to N3C1N1 moiety leading to special type resonance of the ring and the resonance structure of CO2 group of formate ion. The 3D matrix of hyperpolarizability tensor components has been computed to quantify NLO activity of melamine, melaminium and melaminium formate and the hyperpolarizability enhancement is analyzed using computed plots of HOMO and LUMO orbitals. A new mechanism of proton transfer responsible for NLO activity has been suggested, based on anomalous IR spectral bands in the high wavenumber region. The computed MEP contour maps have been used to analyze the interaction of melaminium and formate ions in the crystal.
Statistical decay of giant resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dias, H.; Teruya, N.; Wolynec, E.
1986-01-01
Statistical calculations to predict the neutron spectrum resulting from the decay of Giant Resonances are discussed. The dependence of the resutls on the optical potential parametrization and on the level density of the residual nucleus is assessed. A Hauser-Feshbach calculation is performed for the decay of the monople giant resonance in 208 Pb using the experimental levels of 207 Pb from a recent compilation. The calculated statistical decay is in excelent agreement with recent experimental data, showing that the decay of this resonance is dominantly statistical, as predicted by continuum RPA calculations. (Author) [pt
Statistical decay of giant resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dias, H.; Teruya, N.; Wolynec, E.
1986-02-01
Statistical calculations to predict the neutron spectrum resulting from the decay of Giant Resonances are discussed. The dependence of the results on the optical potential parametrization and on the level density of the residual nucleus is assessed. A Hauser-Feshbach calculation is performed for the decay of the monopole giant resonance in 208 Pb using the experimental levels of 207 Pb from a recent compilation. The calculated statistical decay is in excellent agreement with recent experimental data, showing that decay of this resonance is dominantly statistical, as predicted by continuum RPA calculations. (Author) [pt
2010-05-13
see the inset of Fig. 1). Thus, the two-body pairing process becomes for- bidden when the binding energy ∼ 1/ ma2 exceeds the maxi- mum energy that can...matrix in vacuum. For each value of the scattering length, the T-matrix has a line of poles on the BEC side located at ωq = Ωq+i∆q = −1/ ma2 + mq2/4
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Nils Holger
2014-01-01
A chapter in a book about terminology within the field of medievalism: the chapter discusses the resonance of medieval music and ritual in modern (classical) music culture and liturgical practice.......A chapter in a book about terminology within the field of medievalism: the chapter discusses the resonance of medieval music and ritual in modern (classical) music culture and liturgical practice....
Resonance superfluidity in a quantum degenerate Fermi gas
Kokkelmans, S.J.J.M.F.; Holland, M.; Walser, R.; Chiofalo, M.L.; Chu, S.; Vuletic, V.; Kerman, A.J.; Chin, C.
2002-01-01
We consider the superfluid phase transition that arises when a Feshbach resonance pairing occurs in a dilute Fermi gas. This is related to the phenomenon of superconductivity described by the seminal Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory. In superconductivity, the phase transition is caused by a
Dressed molecules in resonantly interacting ultracold atomic Fermi gases
Falco, G.M.; Stoof, H.T.C.
2007-01-01
We present a detailed analysis of the two-channel atom-molecule effective Hamiltonian for an ultracold two-component homogeneous Fermi gas interacting near a Feshbach resonance. We particularly focus on the two-body and many-body properties of the dressed molecules in such a gas. An exact result
SASSI, Total and Differential Elastic and Inelastic Neutron Cross-Sections by Hauser-Feshbach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benzi, V.; Fabbri, F.; Zuffi, L.
2001-01-01
1 - Nature of physical problem solved: Neutron total and differential elastic and inelastic cross-section evaluation by means of the statistical model of Hauser-Feshbach (1) as modified by D. Goldman (2) (3). The Goldman modification includes the effect of spin-orbit coupling on transmission coefficients. 2 - Method of solution: For numerical integration the Fox-Goodwins method is used. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Angular momentum I less than or equal to 50. Number of excited levels less than or equal to 30
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Proskuryakov, K.N.; Zaporozhets, M.V.; Fedorov, A.I.
2015-01-01
Forecasting are carried out for external loads in relation to the main circulation circuit - dynamic loads caused by the rotation of the MCP, dynamic loads caused by the earthquake, dynamic loads caused by damage to the MCP in the earthquake. A comparison of the response spectrum of one of the variants of the base of the NPP, with the frequency vibration of the primary circuit equipment for NPP with WWER-1000 and self-frequency of elastic waves in the fluid. Analysis of the comparison results shows that the frequency of vibration of the main equipment of the reactor plant and elastic waves are in the frequency band in the spectrum response corresponding to the maximum amplitude of the seismic action [ru
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wong, C.F.; Light, J.C.
1984-01-01
Based on the R-matrix approach of Schneider et al. [J. Phys. B 12, L 365 (1979)] to reactive electron-molecule scattering, a new propagative R-matrix method (PRMM) is presented which is more appropriate for polyatomic systems. The new method should be useful in other calculations where complicated integrals need to be propagated. We also introduce an effective R-matrix model (ERMM) in which the usual resonance parameters (potential and width) can be used as input in model R-matrix calculations. The PRMM and ERMM have been applied to the electron-N 2 system and the electron-F 2 system. The results agree very well with previous calculations for both vibrationally inelastic scattering and dissociative attachment when identical potentials and parameters are used
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chunyu Zhao
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The paper focuses on the quantitative analysis of the coupling dynamic characteristics of two non-identical exciters in a non-resonant vibrating system. The load torque of each motor consists of three items, including the torque of sine effect of phase angles, that of coupling sine effect and that of coupling cosine effect. The torque of frequency capture results from the torque of coupling cosine effect, which is equal to the product of the coupling kinetic energy, the coefficient of coupling cosine effect, and the sine of phase difference of two exciters. The motions of the system excited by two exciters in the same direction make phase difference close to π and that in opposite directions makes phase difference close to 0. Numerical results show that synchronous operation is stable when the dimensionless relative moments of inertia of two exciters are greater than zero and four times of their product is greater than the square of their coefficient of coupling cosine effect. The stability of the synchronous operation is only dependent on the structural parameters of the system, such as the mass ratios of two exciters to the vibrating system, and the ratio of the distance between an exciter and the centroid of the system to the equivalent radius of the system about its centroid.
PELINSCA, Elastic Scattering and Total Cross-Sections and Polarization by Hauser-Feshbach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Engelbrecht, C.A.; Fiedeldey, H.; Tepel, J.W.
1979-01-01
1 - Nature of the physical problem solved: Calculates differential and total Cross sections as well as polarization for nuclear elastic scattering of spin 0 or spin 1/2 particles. Calculates Cross sections (differential and total) and decay gamma ray angular correlation for inelastic processes by means of standard Hauser-Feshbach (HF) theory or with modified HF theory including width fluctuation corrections. In elastic scattering optical model parameters may be optimized in a least squares procedure involving experimental measurements. 2 - Method of solution: Schroedinger equation for complex potentials is solved according to Fox-Goodwin method of numerical integration. Coulomb wave functions are calculated by using recurrence relations depending on range of Coulomb and energy parameters. Least squares fits are made using parameter grid and direction of steepest descent. Statistical model calculations are made using closed mathematical expressions. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Elastic scattering calculations limited to spin 0 or spin 1/2 particles. Number of partial waves limited to 51. Statistical model calculations on targets with spin less or equal to 5 and with partial waves up to l=6. Not suitable for heavy-ion Hauser- Feshbach calculations without first removing dimensional limitations. Program handles up to 3 reaction types simultaneously, e.g. (p,p), (p,n) and (p,alpha), each reaction channel having up to 33 final nuclear states
Andiamo, a Graphical User Interface for Ohio University's Hauser-Feshbach Implementation
Brooks, Matthew
2017-09-01
First and foremost, I am not a physicist. I am an undergraduate computer science major/Japanese minor at Ohio University. However, I am working for Zach Meisel, in the Ohio University's physics department. This is the first software development project I've ever done. My charge is/was to create a graphical program that can be used to more easily set up Hauser-Feshbach equation input files. The input files are of the format expected by the Hauser-Feshbach 2002 code developed by a handful of people at the university. I regularly attend group meetings with Zach and his other subordinates, but these are mostly used as a way for us to discuss our progress and any troubles or roadblocks we may have encountered. I was encouraged to try to come with his group to this event because it could help expose me to the scientific culture of astrophysics research. While I know very little about particles and epic space events, my poster would be an informative and (hopefully) inspiring one that could help get other undergraduates interested in doing object oriented programming. This could be more exposure for them, as I believe a lot of physics majors only learn scripting languages.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
an impetus or drive to that account: change, innovation, rupture, or discontinuity. Resonances: Historical Essays on Continuity and Change explores the historiographical question of the modes of interrelation between these motifs in historical narratives. The essays in the collection attempt to realize...
Gongora, J. S. Totero; Favraud, Gael; Fratalocchi, Andrea
2017-01-01
by applying a Fano-Feshbach projection scheme, a general technique widely used in the study of quantum mechanical open systems. By expressing the total scattering from the structure in terms of an orthogonal set of internal and external modes, defined
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hartman, A.; Siemaszko, M.; Zipper, W.
1975-01-01
The program CORA was prepared on the basis of Hauser and Feshbach compound reaction formalism. It allows the differential cross-section distributions for the elastic and inelastic scattering of alpha particles (via compound nucleus state) to be calculated. The transmission coefficients are calculated on the basis of a four parameter optical model. The search procedure is also included. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dallinger, R.F.; Farquharson, S.; Woodruff, W.H.; Rodgers, M.A.J.
1981-01-01
Resonance Raman and electronic absorption spectra are reported for the S 0 and T 1 states of the carotenoids β-carotene, zeaxanthin, echinenone, canthaxanthin, dihydroxylycopene, astaxanthin, decapreno(C 50 )-β-carotene, β-apo-8'-carotenal, and ethyl β-apo-8'-carotenoate. The results reveal qualitatively similar ground-state spectra and similar frequency shifts in all observed resonance Raman modes between S 0 and T 1 , regardless of carotenoid structure. Examinations of the relationship of the putative C--C and C==C frequencies in S 0 and T 1 reveals anomalous shifts to lower frequency in the ''single-bond'' mode upon electronic excitation. These shifts may be due to molecular distortions in the excited state which force changes in molecular motions comprising the observed modes. However, another possibility requiring no distortion is that the interaction (off-diagonal) force constants connecting the C--C and C==C modes change sign upon electronic excitation. This latter phenomenon may provide a unitary explanation for the ''anomalous'' frequency shifts in the C--C and C==C modes, both in the T 1 states of carotenoids and in the S 1 states of simpler polyenes, without postulating large, unpredicted structural changes upon excitation or general errors in existing vibrational or theoretical analyses. Resonance Raman and absorbance studies with 35-ps time resolution suggest that S 1 lifetime (of the 1 B/sub u/ and/or the 1 A/sub g/* states) of β-carotene in benzene is less than 1 ps
Doubly excited P-wave resonance states of H− in Debye plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiao, L. G.; Ho, Y. K.
2013-01-01
We investigate the doubly excited P-wave resonance states of H − system in Debye plasmas modeled by static screened Coulomb potentials. The screening effects of the plasma environment on resonance parameters (energy and width) are investigated by employing the complex-scaling method with Hylleraas-type wave functions for both the shape and Feshbach resonances associated with the H(N = 2 to 6) thresholds. Under the screening conditions, the H(N) threshold states are no longer l degenerate, and all the H − resonance energy levels are shifted away from their unscreened values toward the continuum. The influence of Debye plasmas on resonance widths has also been investigated. The shape resonance widths are broadened with increasing plasma screening strength, whereas the Feshbach resonance widths would generally decrease. Our results associated with the H(N = 2) and H(N = 3) thresholds are compared with others in the literature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uno, Tadayuki; Hatano, Keiichiro; Nishimura, Yoshifumi; Arata, Yoji
1988-01-01
The influence of axial ligand basicity on the bonding of iron(III) in cyano adducts of octaethylporphyrin has been studied by resonance Raman spectroscopy. In a six-coordinate ferric low-spin complex, cyano(pyridine)(octaethylporphinato)iron(III), Fe(OEP)(CN)(py), Raman lines at 449 and 191 cm -1 were assigned to the ν(Fe-CN) and ν(Fe-py) stretching modes, respectively. When pyridine was displaced with its derivatives, py-X, where X = 4-cyano, 3-acetyl, 3-methyl, 4-methyl, 3,4-dimethyl, and 4-dimethylamino, the ν(Fe-CN) stretching frequency was found to decrease in the complex with a high pyridine basicity. It was concluded that the stronger the trans pyridine basicity, the weaker the iron-carbon (cyanide) bond. A clear frequency shift was observed in the ν 4 model, though most of the porphyrin vibrations were insensitive to the ligand substitution. The frequency of the ν 4 mode, which is the C a -N(pyrrole) breathing vibration of the porphyrin skeleton, was found to increase with an increase in pyridine basicity. This is contrary to what was found in ferrous low-spin hemes as CO complexes. The ν 4 shift in the CN complexes was explained in terms of forward π donation; donation of electrons from the porphyrin π orbital to the d π vacancy of the low-spin iron(III) weakened the C a -N(pyrrole) bonds and hence decreased the ν 4 frequency. 32 references, 8 figures
Molecular (Feshbach) treatment of charge exchange Li3++He collisions. I. Energies and couplings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, F.; Riera, A.; Yanez, M.
1986-01-01
We point out a fundamental difference between the molecular treatment of charge exchange X/sup n/++H(1s) and X/sup n/++He(1s 2 ) collisions, which is that the latter process involves molecular states that are formally autoionizing. Then standard ab initio methods do not, in general, yield the relevant wave functions that are needed in the collision treatment, irrespective of whether quasimolecular autoionization be significant or not during the collision. We implement a particularly simple and useful form of the Feshbach formalism to calculate the energies of those two electron systems, and a method to evaluate the corresponding dynamical couplings is presented for the first time. Our implementation of this formalism together with the new computational techniques involved are presented in detail
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martin, F.; Riera, A.; Yanez, M.
1986-05-15
We point out a fundamental difference between the molecular treatment of charge exchange X/sup n/++H(1s) and X/sup n/++He(1s/sup 2/) collisions, which is that the latter process involves molecular states that are formally autoionizing. Then standard ab initio methods do not, in general, yield the relevant wave functions that are needed in the collision treatment, irrespective of whether quasimolecular autoionization be significant or not during the collision. We implement a particularly simple and useful form of the Feshbach formalism to calculate the energies of those two electron systems, and a method to evaluate the corresponding dynamical couplings is presented for the first time. Our implementation of this formalism together with the new computational techniques involved are presented in detail.
International nuclear model code comparison study of Hauser-Feshbach calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hodgson, P.E.
1991-03-01
The present comparison concerns Hauser-Feshbach calculations with and without the width fluctuation correction. Participants were invited to calculate the elastic and inelastic scattering of neutrons from a fictitious nucleus Co60 (Z=27, N=33) at incident laboratory energies of 0.2, 0.5, 1 and 2 MeV. The optical potential was specified. The differential shape elastic, compound elastic and inelastic cross-sections were tabulated. Among the twenty-five sets of results, twelve were sufficiently consistent with each other to be accepted as benchmark values. These fell into two sets, corresponding to calculations with and without the width fluctuation correction. The differences between the results corresponding to different forms of the width fluctuation correction were less than 2 percent
Relationship between Feshbach's and Green's function theories of the nucleon-nucleus mean field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Capuzzi, F.; Mahaux, C.
1995-01-01
We clarify the relationship and difference between theories of the optical-model potential which had previously been developed in the framework of Feshbach's projection operator approach to nuclear reactions and of Green's function theory, respectively. For definiteness, we consider the nucleon-nucleus system but all results can readily be adapted to the atomic case. The effects of antisymmetrization are properly taken into account. It is shown that one can develop along closely parallel lines the theories of open-quotes holeclose quotes and open-quotes particleclose quotes mean fields. The open-quotes holeclose quotes one-body Hamiltonians describe the single-particle properties of the system formed when one nucleon is taken away from the target ground state, for instance in knockout of pickup processes. The particle one-body Hamiltonians are associated with the system formed when one nucleon is elastically scattered from the ground state, or is added to it by means of stripping reactions. An infinite number of particle, as well as of hole, Hamiltonians are constructed which all yield exactly the same single-particle wave functions. Many open-quotes equivalentclose quotes one-body Hamiltonians can coexist because these operators have a complicated structure: they are nonlocal, complex, and energy-dependent. They do not have the same analytic properties in the complex energy plane. Their real and imaginary parts fulfill dispersion relations which may be different. It is shown that hole and particle Hamiltonians can also be constructed by decomposing any vector of the Hilbert space into two parts which are not orthogonal to one another, in contrast to Feshbach's original theory; one interest of this procedure is that the construction and properties of the corresponding hole Hamiltonian can be justified in a mathematically rigorous way. We exhibit the relationship between the hole and particle Hamiltonians and the open-quotes mass operator.close quotes
Direct vs statistical decay of nuclear giant multipole resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dias, H.; Hussein, M.S.; Carlson, B.V.; Merchant, A.C.; Adhikari, S.K.
1986-01-01
A theoretical framework for the description of the decay of giant multipole resonances id developed. Besides the direct decay, both the pre-equilibrium and statistical (compound) decays are taken into account in a consistent way. It is shown that the statistical decay of the giant resonance is not necessarily described by the Hauser-Feshbach theory owing to the presence of a mixing parameter, which measures the degree of fragmentation. Applications are made to several cases. (Author) [pt
An analysis of stripping to isolated analog resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pessoa, E.F.; Toledo Piza, A.F.R. de.
1983-04-01
The Feshbach projection formalism is used to calculate the form factors for the (d,n) stripping process to isolated analog resonances. These are used in a standard DWBA stripping calculation in which the radial integration over all space is accomplished by including outerspace contributions evaluated along the complex contours of Vincent and Fortune. It turns out that the shape and magnitude of the predicted cross section is quite insensitive to the continuum proton wave emanating from the resonant residual state. (Author) [pt
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xue-Liang Zhang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we give some theoretical analyses and experimental results on synchronization of the two non-identical exciters. Using the average method of modified small parameters, the dimensionless coupling equation of the two exciters is deduced. The synchronization criterion for the two exciters is derived as the torque of frequency capture being equal to or greater than the absolute value of difference between the residual electromagnetic torques of the two motors. The stability criterion of synchronous state is verified to satisfy the Routh-Hurwitz criterion. The regions of implementing synchronization and that of stability of phase difference for the two exciters are manifested by numeric method. Synchronization of the two exciters stems from the coupling dynamic characteristic of the vibrating system having selecting motion, especially, under the condition that the parameters of system are complete symmetry, the torque of frequency capture stemming from the circular motion of the rigid frame drives the phase difference to approach PI and carry out the swing of the rigid frame; that from the swing of the rigid frame forces the phase difference to near zero and achieve the circular motion of the rigid frame. In the steady state, the motion of rigid frame will be one of three types: pure swing, pure circular motion, swing and circular motion coexistence. The numeric and experiment results derived thereof show that the two exciters can operate synchronously as long as the structural parameters of system satisfy the criterion of stability in the regions of frequency capture. In engineering, the distance between the centroid of the rigid frame and the rotational centre of exciter should be as far as possible. Only in this way, can the elliptical motion of system required in engineering be realized.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chunyu Zhao
2009-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper an analytical approach is proposed to study the feature of frequency capture of two non-identical coupled exciters in a non-resonant vibrating system. The electromagnetic torque of an induction motor in the quasi-steady-state operation is derived. With the introduction of two perturbation small parameters to average angular velocity of two exciters and their phase difference, we deduce the Equation of Frequency Capture by averaging two motion equations of two exciters over their average period. It converts the synchronization problem of two exciters into that of existence and stability of zero solution for the Equation of Frequency Capture. The conditions of implementing frequency capture and that of stabilizing synchronous operation of two motors have been derived. The concept of torque of frequency capture is proposed to physically explain the peculiarity of self-synchronization of the two exciters. An interesting conclusion is reached that the moments of inertia of the two exciters in the Equation of Frequency Capture reduce and there is a coupling moment of inertia between the two exciters. The reduction of moments of inertia and the coupling moment of inertia have an effect on the stability of synchronous operation.
Chanbi, Daoud; Ogam, Erick; Amara, Sif Eddine; Fellah, Z E A
2018-05-07
Precise but simple experimental and inverse methods allowing the recovery of mechanical material parameters are necessary for the exploration of materials with novel crystallographic structures and elastic properties, particularly for new materials and those existing only in theory. The alloys studied herein are of new atomic compositions. This paper reports an experimental study involving the synthesis and development of methods for the determination of the elastic properties of binary (Fe-Al, Fe-Ti and Ti-Al) and ternary (Fe-Ti-Al) intermetallic alloys with different concentrations of their individual constituents. The alloys studied were synthesized from high purity metals using an arc furnace with argon flow to ensure their uniformity and homogeneity. Precise but simple methods for the recovery of the elastic constants of the isotropic metals from resonant ultrasound vibration data were developed. These methods allowed the fine analysis of the relationships between the atomic concentration of a given constituent and the Young’s modulus or alloy density.
STAX-2, Neutron Scattering Cross-Sections by Optical Model and Moldauer Theory with Hauser-Feshbach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tomita, Y.
1972-01-01
1 - Nature of physical problem solved: The program calculates neutron scattering cross sections by means of the optical model and Moldauer's theory, and can search for potential parameters which reproduce measured cross sections. The Hauser-Feshbach calculation is also possible. 2 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The maximum number of levels is 25. The largest value of the orbital angular momentum is 10
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kneebone, Jared L. [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Daifuku, Stephanie L. [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Kehl, Jeffrey A. [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Wu, Gang [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chung, Hoon T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hu, Michael Y. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Alp, E. Ercan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); More, Karren L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zelenay, Piotr [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Holby, Edward F. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Neidig, Michael L. [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States)
2017-07-06
While non-precious metal M-N-C (M = Fe or Co) catalysts have been developed that are effective for the oxygen reduction reaction in polymer electrolyte fuel cells, no consensus has yet been reached regarding the nature of the M sites in these heterogeneous catalysts that are responsible for reaction with dioxygen (O_{2}). While multiple studies have developed correlations between Fe distributions in as-prepared catalysts and ORR activity, the direct identification of sites reactive towards O_{2} or O_{2}-analog molecules remains a significant challenge. In the present study, we demonstrate a new approach to identifying and characterizing potential Fe active sites in complex ORR catalysts that combines an effective probe molecule (NO_{(g)}) Mössbauer spectroscopy and nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Mössbauer spectroscopic studies demonstrate that NO_{(g)} treatment of electrochemically reduced PANI-57Fe-C leads to selective reaction with only a sub-set of the Fe species present. Nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopic studies identified new Fe-ligand vibrations associated with the site reactive towards NO_{(g)}. DFT calculations of vibrational properties of a small selection of previously proposed active site structures suggest that graphene zig-zag edge hosted Fe-N structures may be responsible for the observed vibrational behavior with NO_{(g)} probe molecules. Moreover, such sites are likely also reactive to O_{2}, possibly serving as the ORR active sites in the synthesized materials.
The Feshbach-Kerman-Koonin multistep reaction theory and its application to data evaluation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hodgson, P.E.; Chadwick, M.B.
1994-01-01
The development of the multistep nuclear reaction theory of Feshbach, Kerman, and Koonin (FKK) is reviewed, with particular attention to recent work. We present methodologies for unambiguously separating multistep direct and multistep compound contributions, and analyze neutron inelastic scattering by 93 Nb at 14: MeV to illustrate the approaches. Modification of the FKK theory to include transitions from the multistep direct to the multistep compound chain (''P→Q transitions'') is discussed. We also describe developments to the theory in order to calculate inelastic cross sections for incident nucleon energies to 200 MeV. At these high energies multiple preequilibrium emission processes must be included, and a theory for their determination is described and compared with experimental measurements of proton reactions on 90 Zr. The usefulness of the FKK theory for a range of nuclear data applications, including intermediate energy reactions of importance in Accelerator Transmutation of Waste, reactions on biologically-important elements for cancer radiation treatment, and reactions of importance in fusion technology, is assessed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adamczyk, Anne M.; Norbury, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.
2013-01-01
The Weisskopf–Ewing (WE) and Hauser–Feshbach (HF) theory are statistical methods, which are often used to calculate photonuclear cross sections for compound nucleus reactions. In our past work, WE methodology was presented and photonuclear reaction cross sections for nucleon emission were calculated using WE theory. Here, our previous results, which neglect pre-equilibrium emissions and do not include multiple particle emission, are compared to those calculated with HF theory and experimental data. For the reactions considered herein, it is found that the WE theory and HF method are in reasonable agreement below the two neutron separation energy assuming an energy dependent branching ratio for intermediate and heavy nuclei. In addition, qualitative confidence of WE theory for electromagnetic dissociation (EMD) cross section calculations was found. - Author-Highlights: • The Weisskopf–Ewing (WE) theory is reviewed. • Photonuclear cross sections calculated with WE theory are compared to HF predictions. • The WE theory and the HF method give similar photonuclear cross sections. • Qualitative confidence of WE theory for EMD cross section calculations is found
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu, C.Y.
1988-01-01
A unified Hauser-Feshbach/Pre-Equilibrium model is extended and simplified. The extension involves the addition of correlations among states of different total quantum numbers (J and J') and the introduction of consistent level density formulas for the H-F and the P-E parts of the calculation. The simplification, aimed at reducing the computational cost, is achieved mainly by keeping only the off-diagonal terms that involve strongly correlated 2p-1h states. A correlation coefficient is introduced to fit the experimental data. The model has been incorporated into the multistep H-F model code TNG. Calculated double differential (n,xn) cross sections at 14 and 25.7 MeV for iron, niobium, and bismuth are in good agreement with experiments. In use at ORNL and JAERI, the TNG code in various stages of development has been applied with success to the evaluation of double differential (n,xn) cross sections from 1 to 20 MeV for the dominant isotopes of chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, copper, and lead. 11 refs., 2 figs
SUNF, Simplified UNF Code, Fast Neutron Calculation by Unified Hauser-Feshbach Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Jingshang
2001-01-01
1 - Description of program or function: The SUNF code is the simplified version of UNF code and is based on the unified Hauser-Feshbach and exciton model. SUNF code has been developed for calculations of fast neutron data for structural materials with neutron energies below 20 MeV. Besides elastic scattering channel, the code may handle decay sequence up to (n,3n) reaction, including 14 reaction channels. The energy spectra can be obtained and the output form is in the ENDF/B-6 format, but in file 5 form. For the ENDF-B-6 output, the incident energies are divided into two types: only cross section calculation; and those including neutron energy spectra. 2 - Methods: Gaussian integration is used for all numerical integration. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The incident energies of neutrons are from 1 KeV to 20 MeV. There are two parameters in this code: incident neutron energies number 'NEL'; and the number of discrete levels of residual nuclei for the first particle emissions 'NLV'. The users can set the values of NEL and NLV according to the storage size of the computer used. The number of discrete levels of residual nuclei for the multi-particle emissions is not greater than 20
Direct vs statistical decay of nuclear giant multipole resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hussein, M.S.
1986-07-01
A theoretical framework for the description of the decay of giant multipole resonances is developed. Besides the direct decay, both the pre-equilibrium and statistical (compound) decays are taken into account in a consistent way. It is shown that the statistical decay of the GR is not necessarily correctly described by the Hauser-Feshbach theory owing to the presence of a mixing parameter, which measures the degree of fragmentation. Applications are made to several cases. (Author) [pt
Adaptive learning algorithms for vibration energy harvesting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ward, John K; Behrens, Sam
2008-01-01
By scavenging energy from their local environment, portable electronic devices such as MEMS devices, mobile phones, radios and wireless sensors can achieve greater run times with potentially lower weight. Vibration energy harvesting is one such approach where energy from parasitic vibrations can be converted into electrical energy through the use of piezoelectric and electromagnetic transducers. Parasitic vibrations come from a range of sources such as human movement, wind, seismic forces and traffic. Existing approaches to vibration energy harvesting typically utilize a rectifier circuit, which is tuned to the resonant frequency of the harvesting structure and the dominant frequency of vibration. We have developed a novel approach to vibration energy harvesting, including adaptation to non-periodic vibrations so as to extract the maximum amount of vibration energy available. Experimental results of an experimental apparatus using an off-the-shelf transducer (i.e. speaker coil) show mechanical vibration to electrical energy conversion efficiencies of 27–34%
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alekhin, S.A.; Chernov, V.S.; Denisenko, V.V.; Gorodnyanskiy, I.F.; Prokopov, L.I.; Tikhonov, Yu.P.
1983-01-01
The vibration mixer is proposed which contains a housing, vibration drive with rod installed in the upper part of the mixing mechanism made in the form of a hollow shaft with blades. In order to improve intensity of mixing and dispersion of the mud, the shaft with the blades is arranged on the rod of the vibrator and is equipped with a cam coupling whose drive disc is attached to the vibration rod. The rod is made helical, while the drive disc of the cam coupling is attached to the helical surface of the rod. In addition, the vibration mixer is equipped with perforated discs installed on the ends of the rods.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Viyogi, Y.P.; Ganguly, N.K.
1975-01-01
The FORTRAN code described in the report has been developed for the BESM-6 computer with a view to calculate the cross-section of reactions proceeding via the formation of compound nucleus for all open two-body reaction channels using Hauser-Feshbach theory with Moldauer's correction for the fluctuation of level widths. The code can also be used to analyse data from 'crystal blocking' experiments to obtain nuclear level densities. The report describes the input-output specifications along with a short account of the algorithm of the program. (author)
A new theoretical approach to resonant dtμ formation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Armour, E.A.G.
1996-01-01
A key process in the muon-catalysed fusion cycle is a low-energy collision of Tμ with a D 2 molecule which leads, at appropriate incident energies, to the formation of a resonant complex containing DTμ. In this paper the result is described of a formal derivation of the partial wave cross section for resonant DTμ formation, which makes use of elements of Feshbach's treatment of resonances. The expression obtained is similar to the Breit-Wigner formula. Full details of the calculation will be published elsewhere. (orig.)
Adjustable Nonlinear Springs to Improve Efficiency of Vibration Energy Harvesters
Boisseau, S.; Despesse, G.; Seddik, B. Ahmed
2012-01-01
Vibration Energy Harvesting is an emerging technology aimed at turning mechanical energy from vibrations into electricity to power microsystems of the future. Most of present vibration energy harvesters are based on a mass spring structure introducing a resonance phenomenon that allows to increase the output power compared to non-resonant systems, but limits the working frequency bandwidth. Therefore, they are not able to harvest energy when ambient vibrations' frequencies shift. To follow sh...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chadwick, M.B.; Young, P.G.
1993-01-01
We have implemented multistep compound (MSC) and multistep direct (MSD) preequilibrium theories of Feshbach, Kerman, and Koonin (FKK) for the calculation of nucleon-induced reactions. Unlike most previous analyses, which have concentrated on just one of these multistep mechanisms, we consider both mechanisms as well as subsequent Hauser-Feshbach equilibrium emission, and describe the complete nucleon emission spectra and angular distributions quantum mechanically. We compare theoretical calculations of (n,n') and (n,p) reactions on 93 Nb at energies of 14, 20, and 25.7 MeV with experimental data. Our analysis suggests that the FKK theory should be modified to allow transitions from the MSD to MSC preequilibrium chains, and shows MSC processes to be less important than previously thought. We find that the MSD mechanism dominates preequilibrium emission even for incident neutron energies as low as 14 MeV. A model to account for preequilibrium flux cascading from the MSD to MSC chain is presented, and we check its validity with a least-squares fit to data which establishes the experimentally observed partitioning between MSD and MSC
Bhatia, Anand K.
2008-01-01
Applications of the hybrid theory to the scattering of electrons from Ile+ and Li++ and resonances in these systems, A. K. Bhatia, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center- The Hybrid theory of electron-hydrogen elastic scattering [I] is applied to the S-wave scattering of electrons from He+ and Li++. In this method, both short-range and long-range correlations are included in the Schrodinger equation at the same time. Phase shifts obtained in this calculation have rigorous lower bounds to the exact phase shifts and they are compared with those obtained using the Feshbach projection operator formalism [2], the close-coupling approach [3], and Harris-Nesbet method [4]. The agreement among all the calculations is very good. These systems have doubly-excited or Feshbach resonances embedded in the continuum. The resonance parameters for the lowest ' S resonances in He and Li+ are calculated and they are compared with the results obtained using the Feshbach projection operator formalism [5,6]. It is concluded that accurate resonance parameters can be obtained by the present method, which has the advantage of including corrections due to neighboring resonances and the continuum in which these resonances are embedded.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Herman
1997-01-01
Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board......Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board...
Vetoshkin, Evgeny; Babikov, Dmitri
2007-09-28
For the first time Feshbach-type resonances important in recombination reactions are characterized using the semiclassical wave packet method. This approximation allows us to determine the energies, lifetimes, and wave functions of the resonances and also to observe a very interesting correlation between them. Most important is that this approach permits description of a quantum delta-zero-point energy effect in recombination reactions and reproduces the anomalous rates of ozone formation.
Resonant scattering in the presence of an electromagnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosenberg, L.
1983-01-01
The theory of resonant reactions, in the projection-operator formulation of Feshbach, is generalized to account for the presence of an external electromagnetic field. The theory is used as the basis for the construction of low-frequency approximations for the transition amplitude. Results obtained here for scattering in a laser field confirm earlier versions of the low-frequency approximation when the resonances are isolated. However, if there are several closely spaced resonances additional terms must be included (their importance magnified by the appearance of near singularities) which account for the effect of radiative transitions between pairs of nearly degenerate resonant states. The weak-field limit of this result yields a low-frequency approximation for single-photon spontaneous bremsstrahlung which, through the inclusion of correction terms associated with closely spaced resonances, provides an improvement over the Feshbach-Yennie version derived some time ago. A separate treatment is required to deal with the limiting case of a static external field and this is worked out here in the context of a time-dependent formulation of the scattering problem. Linear and quadratic Stark splitting of the resonance positions, and resonance broadening due to the tunneling mechanism, are expected to play a significant role in the static limit and these effects are included in the approximation derived here for the transition amplitude
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andrejeva, Anna; Tuttle, William D.; Harris, Joe P.; Wright, Timothy G., E-mail: Tim.Wright@nottingham.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)
2015-12-28
We report vibrationally resolved spectra of the S{sub 1}←S{sub 0} transition of bromobenzene using resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization spectroscopy. We study bromobenzene-h{sub 5} as well as its perdeuterated isotopologue, bromobenzene-d{sub 5}. The form of the vibrational modes between the isotopologues and also between the S{sub 0} and S{sub 1} electronic states is discussed for each species, allowing assignment of the bands to be achieved and the activity between states and isotopologues to be established. Vibrational bands are assigned utilizing quantum chemical calculations, previous experimental results, and isotopic shifts. Previous work and assignments of the S{sub 1} spectra are discussed. Additionally, the vibrations in the ground state cation, D{sub 0}{sup +}, are considered, since these have also been used by previous workers in assigning the excited neutral state spectra. We also examine the vibrations of iodobenzene in the S{sub 0} and D{sub 0}{sup +} states and comment on the previous assignments of these. In summary, we have been able to assign the corresponding vibrations across the whole monohalobenzene series of molecules, in the S{sub 0}, S{sub 1}, and D{sub 0}{sup +} states, gaining insight into vibrational activity and vibrational couplings.
Study of inelastic proton scattering at isobaric analog resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davis, S.L.
1974-01-01
Inelastic proton scattering at isobaric analog resonances (IAR's) was studied using the targets 138 Ba and 92 Mo. Differential cross sections and analyzing powers were measured at the 10.00, 10.63, 11.09, 11.45, and 11.70 MeV resonances in 138 Ba + p and at the 5.89, 6.09, and 6.55 MeV resonances in 92 Mo + p. In addition, a new measurement, the spin flip asymmetry, was developed. The experiment was performed by using a polarized beam to make spin flip measurements. Angular distributions for the spin flip probability and spin flip asymmetry were measured at all of the above energies except for the lowest three resonances in 138 Ba, where only the spin flip probability was measured. A DWBA code modified to include the coherent addition of resonance amplitudes was used to analyze the 138 Ba data. The partial widths extracted from this analysis were converted to expansion coefficients for parent states in 139 Ba. The coefficients were found to be in good agreement with unified model calculations. For 92 Mo, inelastic polarizations, deduced from the spin flip and spin flip asymmetry, were found to be large. Attempts using Hauser Feshbach theory to describe both the cross section and polarization data repeatedly failed for both the 6.55 and 5.87 MeV IAR's. This failure represents strong evidence that Hauser Feshbach theory is not valid when extended to describe scattering at an IAR. The 92 Mo data were analyzed using a reaction theory modified to include channel-channel correlations. This theory predicts that the enhanced compound scattering is identical to the resonance scattering. Good fits have been obtained with the use of this modified Hauser Feshbach theory. (U.S.)
Vibration mode and vibration shape under excitation of a three phase model transformer core
Okabe, Seiji; Ishigaki, Yusuke; Omura, Takeshi
2018-04-01
Structural vibration characteristics and vibration shapes under three-phase excitation of a archetype transformer core were investigated to consider their influences on transformer noise. Acoustic noise and vibration behavior were measured in a three-limb model transformer core. Experimental modal analysis by impact test was performed. The vibration shapes were measured by a laser scanning vibrometer at different exciting frequencies. Vibration amplitude of the core in out-of-plane direction were relatively larger than those in other two in-plane directions. It was consistent with the result that the frequency response function of the core in out-of-plane direction was larger by about 20 dB or more than those in in-plane directions. There were many vibration modes having bending deformation of limbs in out-of-plane direction. The vibration shapes of the core when excited at 50 Hz and 60 Hz were almost the same because the fundamental frequencies of the vibration were not close to the resonance frequencies. When excitation frequency was 69 Hz which was half of one of the resonance frequencies, the vibration shape changed to the one similar to the resonance vibration mode. Existence of many vibration modes in out-of-plane direction of the core was presumed to be a reason why frequency characteristics of magnetostriction and transformer noise do not coincide.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Falcetta, Michael F., E-mail: mffalcetta@gcc.edu; Fair, Mark C.; Tharnish, Emily M.; Williams, Lorna M.; Hayes, Nathan J. [Department of Chemistry, Grove City College, Grove City, Pennsylvania 16127 (United States); Jordan, Kenneth D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States)
2016-03-14
The stabilization method is used to calculate the complex potential energy curve of the {sup 2}Π state of CO{sup −} as a function of bond length, with the refinement that separate potentials are determined for p-wave and d-wave attachment and detachment of the excess electron. Using the resulting complex potentials, absolute vibrational excitation cross sections are calculated as a function of electron energy and scattering angle. The calculated cross sections agree well with experiment.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Dračínský, Martin; Kaminský, Jakub; Bouř, Petr
2009-01-01
Roč. 130, č. 9 (2009), 094106/1-094106/13 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/06/0420; GA ČR GA202/07/0732; GA AV ČR IAA400550702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : NMR * anharmonic forces * vibrational averaging Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.093, year: 2009
Shifts and widths of p-wave confinement induced resonances in atomic waveguides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saeidian, Shahpoor; Melezhik, Vladimir S; Schmelcher, Peter
2015-01-01
We develop and analyze a theoretical model to study p-wave Feshbach resonances of identical fermions in atomic waveguides by extending the two-channel model of Lange et al (2009 Phys. Rev. A 79 013622) and Saeidian et al (2012 Phys. Rev. A 86 062713). The experimentally known parameters of Feshbach resonances in free space are used as input of the model. We calculate the shifts and widths of p-wave magnetic Feshbach resonance of 40 K atoms emerging in harmonic waveguides as p-wave confinement induced resonance (CIR). Particularly, we show a possibility to control the width and shift of the p-wave CIR by the trap frequency and the applied magnetic field which could be used in corresponding experiments. Our analysis also demonstrates the importance of the inclusion of the effective range in the computational schemes for the description of the p-wave CIRs contrary to the case of s-wave CIRs where the influence of this term is negligible. (paper)
A consistent analysis of (p,p`) and (n,n`) reactions using the Feshbach-Kerman-Koonin model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoshioka, S.; Watanabe, Y.; Harada, M. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)] [and others
1997-03-01
Double-differential proton emission cross sections were measured for proton-induced reactions on several medium-heavy nuclei ({sup 54,56}Fe, {sup 60}Ni, {sup 90}Zr, and {sup 93}Nb) at two incident energies of 14.1 and 26 MeV. The (p,p`) data for {sup 56}Fe and {sup 93}Nb were compared with available data of (n,n`) scattering for the same target nuclei and incident energies, and both data were analyzed using the Feshbach-Kerman-Koonin model to extract the strength V{sub 0} of the effective N-N interaction which is the only free parameter used in multistep direct calculations. (author)
Magnetically levitated autoparametric broadband vibration energy harvesting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurmann, L.; Jia, Y.; Manoli, Y.; Woias, P.
2016-01-01
Some of the lingering challenges within the current paradigm of vibration energy harvesting (VEH) involve narrow operational frequency range and the inevitable non-resonant response from broadband noise excitations. Such VEHs are only suitable for limited applications with fixed sinusoidal vibration, and fail to capture a large spectrum of the real world vibration. Various arraying designs, frequency tuning schemes and nonlinear vibratory approaches have only yielded modest enhancements. To fundamentally address this, the paper proposes and explores the potentials in using highly nonlinear magnetic spring force to activate an autoparametric oscillator, in order to realize an inherently broadband resonant system. Analytical and numerical modelling illustrate that high spring nonlinearity derived from magnetic levitation helps to promote the 2:1 internal frequency matching required to activate parametric resonance. At the right internal parameters, the resulting system can intrinsically exhibit semi-resonant response regardless of the bandwidth of the input vibration, including broadband white noise excitation. (paper)
Hybrid model for the decay of nuclear giant resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hussein, M.S.
1986-12-01
The decay properties of nuclear giant multipole resonances are discussed within a hybrid model that incorporates, in a unitary consistent way, both the coherent and statistical features. It is suggested that the 'direct' decay of the GR is described with continuum first RPA and the statistical decay calculated with a modified Hauser-Feshbach model. Application is made to the decay of the giant monopole resonance in 208 Pb. Suggestions are made concerning the calculation of the mixing parameter using the statistical properties of the shell model eigenstates at high excitation energies. (Author) [pt
Gejo, T.; Oura, M.; Tokushima, T.; Horikawa, Y.; Arai, H.; Shin, S.; Kimberg, V.; Kosugi, N.
2017-07-01
High-resolution resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) and low-energy photoemission spectra of oxygen molecules have been measured for investigating the electronic structure of Rydberg states in the O 1s → σ* energy region. The electronic characteristics of each Rydberg state have been successfully observed, and new assignments are made for several states. The RIXS spectra clearly show that vibrational excitation is very sensitive to the electronic characteristics because of Rydberg-valence mixing and vibronic coupling in O2. This observation constitutes direct experimental evidence that the Rydberg-valence mixing characteristic depends on the vibrational excitation near the avoided crossing of potential surfaces. We also measured the photoemission spectra of metastable oxygen atoms (O*) from O2 excited to 1s → Rydberg states. The broadening of the 4p Rydberg states of O* has been found with isotropic behavior, implying that excited oxygen molecules undergo dissociation with a lifetime of the order of 10 fs in 1s → Rydberg states.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Morrison, Ann; Knudsen, L.; Andersen, Hans Jørgen
2012-01-01
In this paper we describe a field study conducted with a wearable vibration belt where we test to determine the vibration intensity sensitivity ranges on a large diverse group of participants with evenly distributed ages and...
Ultrafast vibrations of gold nanorings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kelf, T; Tanaka, Y; Matsuda, O
2011-01-01
We investigate the vibrational modes of gold nanorings on a silica substrate with an ultrafast optical technique. By comparison with numerical simulations, we identify several resonances in the gigahertz range associated with axially symmetric deformations of the nanoring and substrate. We...
Ultrafast vibrations of gold nanorings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kelf, T; Tanaka, Y; Matsuda, O
2011-01-01
We investigate the vibrational modes of gold nanorings on a silica substrate with an ultrafast optical technique. By comparison with numerical simulations, we identify several resonances in the gigahertz range associated with axially symmetric deformations of the nanoring and substrate. We elucid...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kreisbeck, Christoph; Kramer, Tobias; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2014-01-01
high-performance many-core platforms using the Open Compute Language (OpenCL). For the light-harvesting complex II (LHC II) found in spinach, the HEOM results deviate from predictions of approximate theories and clarify the time-scale of the transfer-process. We investigate the impact of resonantly...
On aspects of vibration of axially moving continua
Hageraats-Ponomareva, S.
2009-01-01
In axially moving structures like conveyor belt systems, magnetic tapes, and so on, vibrations occur due to the presence of different kinds of imperfections in the systems. For these structures internal resonances can lead to severe vibrations. Resonance free conveyor belt systems can be constructed
Dynamical response of vibrating ferromagnets
Gaganidze, E; Ziese, M
2000-01-01
The resonance frequency of vibrating ferromagnetic reeds in a homogeneous magnetic field can be substantially modified by intrinsic and extrinsic field-related contributions. Searching for the physical reasons of the field-induced resonance frequency change and to study the influence of the spin glass state on it, we have measured the low-temperature magnetoelastic behavior and the dynamical response of vibrating amorphous and polycrystalline ferromagnetic ribbons. We show that the magnetoelastic properties depend strongly on the direction of the applied magnetic field. The influence of the re-entrant spin glass transition on these properties is discussed. We present clear experimental evidence that for applied fields perpendicular to the main area of the samples the behavior of ferromagnetic reeds is rather independent of the material composition and magnetic state, exhibiting a large decrease of the resonance frequency. This effect can be very well explained with a model based on the dynamical response of t...
2009-01-01
Ed Witten is one of the leading scientists in the field of string theory, the theory that describes elementary particles as vibrating strings. This week he leaves CERN after having spent a few months here on sabbatical. His wish is that the LHC will unveil supersymmetry.
Umesh P. Agarwal; Rajai Atalla
2010-01-01
Vibrational spectroscopy is an important tool in modern chemistry. In the past two decades, thanks to significant improvements in instrumentation and the development of new interpretive tools, it has become increasingly important for studies of lignin. This chapter presents the three important instrumental methods-Raman spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and...
A Resonant Damping Study Using Piezoelectric Materials
Min, J. B.; Duffy, K. P.; Choi, B. B.; Morrison, C. R.; Jansen, R. H.; Provenza, A. J.
2008-01-01
Excessive vibration of turbomachinery blades causes high cycle fatigue (HCF) problems requiring damping treatments to mitigate vibration levels. Based on the technical challenges and requirements learned from previous turbomachinery blade research, a feasibility study of resonant damping control using shunted piezoelectric patches with passive and active control techniques has been conducted on cantilever beam specimens. Test results for the passive damping circuit show that the optimum resistive shunt circuit reduces the third bending resonant vibration by almost 50%, and the optimum inductive circuit reduces the vibration by 90%. In a separate test, active control reduced vibration by approximately 98%.
Pairing and condensation in a resonant Bose-Fermi mixture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fratini, Elisa; Pieri, Pierbiagio
2010-01-01
We study by diagrammatic means a Bose-Fermi mixture, with boson-fermion coupling tuned by a Fano-Feshbach resonance. For increasing coupling, the growing boson-fermion pairing correlations progressively reduce the boson condensation temperature and make it eventually vanish at a critical coupling. Such quantum critical point depends very weakly on the population imbalance and, for vanishing boson densities, coincides with that found for the polaron-molecule transition in a strongly imbalanced Fermi gas, thus bridging two quite distinct physical systems.
Fission decay properties of nuclear giant multipole resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dias, H.; Arruda Neto, J.D.T.; Hussein, M.S.; Carlson, B.V.
1986-05-01
The statistical fission decay properties of the giant dipole, quadrupole and monopole resonances in 236 U are investigated with the aid of the Hauser-Feshbach model. It is found, contrary to several recent claims, that the GQR fission decay probability is as large as that of the GDR, at energies higher than the fission barrier. At energies close to the f.b., the GQR fission probability is found to be appreciably larger than that of the GDR. The GMR fission probability follows closely that of the GQR. (Author) [pt
Optical fiber grating vibration sensor for vibration monitoring of hydraulic pump
Zhang, Zhengyi; Liu, Chuntong; Li, Hongcai; He, Zhenxin; Zhao, Xiaofeng
2017-06-01
In view of the existing electrical vibration monitoring traditional hydraulic pump vibration sensor, the high false alarm rate is susceptible to electromagnetic interference and is not easy to achieve long-term reliable monitoring, based on the design of a beam of the uniform strength structure of the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) vibration sensor. In this paper, based on the analysis of the vibration theory of the equal strength beam, the principle of FBG vibration tuning based on the equal intensity beam is derived. According to the practical application of the project, the structural dimensions of the equal strength beam are determined, and the optimization design of the vibrator is carried out. The finite element analysis of the sensor is carried out by ANSYS, and the first order resonant frequency is 94.739 Hz. The vibration test of the sensor is carried out by using the vibration frequency of 35 Hz and the vibration source of 50 Hz. The time domain and frequency domain analysis results of test data show that the sensor has good dynamic response characteristics, which can realize the accurate monitoring of the vibration frequency and meet the special requirements of vibration monitoring of hydraulic pump under specific environment.
Resonant Impulsive Stimulated Raman Scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mokhtari, A; Chesnoy, J
1988-03-15
Using a femtosecond dye laser, we observe in real-time vibrational oscillations excited by impulsive stimulated Raman scattering (ISRS) close to an electronic resonance. We perform single-beam Raman excitation and probe the driven coherence by a polarization-sensitive detection. We demonstrate for the first time impulsively Raman-induced dichroism, birefringence as well as frequency and time delay shifts. We analyse the characteristics of resonant ISRS on a vibrational mode of a dye molecule (malachite green) in solution.
Resonant Impulsive Stimulated Raman Scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mokhtari, A.; Chesnoy, J.
1988-01-01
Using a femtosecond dye laser, we observe in real-time vibrational oscillations excited by impulsive stimulated Raman scattering (ISRS) close to an electronic resonance. We perform single-beam Raman excitation and probe the driven coherence by a polarization-sensitive detection. We demonstrate for the first time impulsively Raman-induced dichroism, birefringence as well as frequency and time delay shifts. We analyse the characteristics of resonant ISRS on a vibrational mode of a dye molecule (malachite green) in solution
Vibration of imperfect rotating disk
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Půst L.
2011-12-01
Full Text Available This study is concerned with the theoretical and numerical calculations of the flexural vibrations of a bladed disk. The main focus of this study is to elaborate the basic background for diagnostic and identification methods for ascertaining the main properties of the real structure or an experimental model of turbine disks. The reduction of undesirable vibrations of blades is proposed by using damping heads, which on the experimental model of turbine disk are applied only on a limited number of blades. This partial setting of damping heads introduces imperfection in mass, stiffness and damping distribution on the periphery and leads to more complicated dynamic properties than those of a perfect disk. Calculation of FEM model and analytic—numerical solution of disk behaviour in the limited (two modes frequency range shows the splitting of resonance with an increasing speed of disk rotation. The spectrum of resonance is twice denser than that of a perfect disk.
A Miniature Coupled Bistable Vibration Energy Harvester
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu, D; Arthur, D C; Beeby, S P
2014-01-01
This paper reports the design and test of a miniature coupled bistable vibration energy harvester. Operation of a bistable structure largely depends on vibration amplitude rather than frequency, which makes it very promising for wideband vibration energy harvesting applications. A coupled bistable structure consists of a pair of mobile magnets that create two potential wells and thus the bistable phenomenon. It requires lower excitation to trigger bistable operation compared to conventional bistable structures. Based on previous research, this work focused on miniaturisation of the coupled bistable structure for energy harvesting application. The proposed bistable energy harvester is a combination of a Duffing's nonlinear structure and a linear assisting resonator. Experimental results show that the output spectrum of the miniature coupled bistable vibration energy harvester was the superposition of several spectra. It had a higher maximum output power and a much greater bandwidth compared to simply the Duffing's structure without the assisting resonator
Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvesting for Railway Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bradai S.
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Safe localization of trains via GPS and wireless sensors is essential for railway traffic supervision. Especially for freight trains and because normally no power source is available on the wagons, special solutions for energy supply have to be developed based on energy harvesting techniques. Since vibration is available in this case, it provides an interesting source of energy. Nevertheless, in order to have an efficient design of the harvesting system, the existing vibration needs to be investigated. In this paper, we focus on the characterization of vibration parameters in railway application. We propose an electromagnetic vibration converter especially developed to this application. Vibration profiles from a train traveling between two German cities were measured using a data acquisition system installed on the train’s wagon. Results show that the measured profiles present multiple frequency signals in the range of 10 to 50 Hz and an acceleration of up to 2 g. A prototype for a vibration converter is designed taking into account the real vibration parameters, robustness and integrability requirements. It is based on a moving coil attached to a mechanical spring. For the experimental emulation of the train vibrations, a shaker is used as an external artificial vibration source controlled by a laser sensor in feedback. A maximum voltage of 1.7 V peak to peak which corresponds to a maximum of 10 mW output power where the applied excitation frequency is close to the resonant frequency of the converter which corresponds to 27 Hz.
Issues in vibration energy harvesting
Zhang, Hui; Corr, Lawrence R.; Ma, Tianwei
2018-05-01
In this study, fundamental issues related to bandwidth and nonlinear resonance in vibrational energy harvesting devices are investigated. The results show that using bandwidth as a criterion to measure device performance can be misleading. For a linear device, an enlarged bandwidth is achieved at the cost of sacrificing device performance near resonance, and thus widening the bandwidth may offer benefits only when the natural frequency of the linear device cannot match the dominant excitation frequency. For a nonlinear device, since the principle of superposition does not apply, the ''broadband" performance improvements achieved for single-frequency excitations may not be achievable for multi-frequency excitations. It is also shown that a large-amplitude response based on the traditional ''nonlinear resonance" does not always result in the optimal performance for a nonlinear device because of the negative work done by the excitation, which indicates energy is returned back to the excitation. Such undesired negative work is eliminated at global resonance, a generalized resonant condition for both linear and nonlinear systems. While the linear resonance is a special case of global resonance for a single-frequency excitation, the maximum potential of nonlinear energy harvesting can be reached for multi-frequency excitations by using global resonance to simultaneously harvest energy distributed over multiple frequencies.
Mechanism of bubble detachment from vibrating walls
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Dongjun; Park, Jun Kwon, E-mail: junkeun@postech.ac.kr; Kang, Kwan Hyoung [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31, Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, In Seok [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31, Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)
2013-11-15
We discovered a previously unobserved mechanism by which air bubbles detach from vibrating walls in glasses containing water. Chaotic oscillation and subsequent water jets appeared when a wall vibrated at greater than a critical level. Wave forms were developed at water-air interface of the bubble by the wall vibration, and water jets were formed when sufficiently grown wave-curvatures were collapsing. Droplets were pinched off from the tip of jets and fell to the surface of the glass. When the solid-air interface at the bubble-wall attachment point was completely covered with water, the bubble detached from the wall. The water jets were mainly generated by subharmonic waves and were generated most vigorously when the wall vibrated at the volume resonant frequency of the bubble. Bubbles of specific size can be removed by adjusting the frequency of the wall's vibration.
Frequency adjustable MEMS vibration energy harvester
Podder, P.; Constantinou, P.; Amann, A.; Roy, S.
2016-10-01
Ambient mechanical vibrations offer an attractive solution for powering the wireless sensor nodes of the emerging “Internet-of-Things”. However, the wide-ranging variability of the ambient vibration frequencies pose a significant challenge to the efficient transduction of vibration into usable electrical energy. This work reports the development of a MEMS electromagnetic vibration energy harvester where the resonance frequency of the oscillator can be adjusted or tuned to adapt to the ambient vibrational frequency. Micro-fabricated silicon spring and double layer planar micro-coils along with sintered NdFeB micro-magnets are used to construct the electromagnetic transduction mechanism. Furthermore, another NdFeB magnet is adjustably assembled to induce variable magnetic interaction with the transducing magnet, leading to significant change in the spring stiffness and resonance frequency. Finite element analysis and numerical simulations exhibit substantial frequency tuning range (25% of natural resonance frequency) by appropriate adjustment of the repulsive magnetic interaction between the tuning and transducing magnet pair. This demonstrated method of frequency adjustment or tuning have potential applications in other MEMS vibration energy harvesters and micromechanical oscillators.
Frequency adjustable MEMS vibration energy harvester
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Podder, P; Constantinou, P; Roy, S; Amann, A
2016-01-01
Ambient mechanical vibrations offer an attractive solution for powering the wireless sensor nodes of the emerging “Internet-of-Things”. However, the wide-ranging variability of the ambient vibration frequencies pose a significant challenge to the efficient transduction of vibration into usable electrical energy. This work reports the development of a MEMS electromagnetic vibration energy harvester where the resonance frequency of the oscillator can be adjusted or tuned to adapt to the ambient vibrational frequency. Micro-fabricated silicon spring and double layer planar micro-coils along with sintered NdFeB micro-magnets are used to construct the electromagnetic transduction mechanism. Furthermore, another NdFeB magnet is adjustably assembled to induce variable magnetic interaction with the transducing magnet, leading to significant change in the spring stiffness and resonance frequency. Finite element analysis and numerical simulations exhibit substantial frequency tuning range (25% of natural resonance frequency) by appropriate adjustment of the repulsive magnetic interaction between the tuning and transducing magnet pair. This demonstrated method of frequency adjustment or tuning have potential applications in other MEMS vibration energy harvesters and micromechanical oscillators. (paper)
An analytic approach to probability tables for the unresolved resonance region
Brown, David; Kawano, Toshihiko
2017-09-01
The Unresolved Resonance Region (URR) connects the fast neutron region with the Resolved Resonance Region (RRR). The URR is problematic since resonances are not resolvable experimentally yet the fluctuations in the neutron cross sections play a discernible and technologically important role: the URR in a typical nucleus is in the 100 keV - 2 MeV window where the typical fission spectrum peaks. The URR also represents the transition between R-matrix theory used to described isolated resonances and Hauser-Feshbach theory which accurately describes the average cross sections. In practice, only average or systematic features of the resonances in the URR are known and are tabulated in evaluations in a nuclear data library such as ENDF/B-VII.1. Codes such as AMPX and NJOY can compute the probability distribution of the cross section in the URR under some assumptions using Monte Carlo realizations of sets of resonances. These probability distributions are stored in the so-called PURR tables. In our work, we begin to develop a scheme for computing the covariance of the cross section probability distribution analytically. Our approach offers the possibility of defining the limits of applicability of Hauser-Feshbach theory and suggests a way to calculate PURR tables directly from systematics for nuclei whose RRR is unknown, provided one makes appropriate assumptions about the shape of the cross section probability distribution.
An analytic approach to probability tables for the unresolved resonance region
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brown David
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The Unresolved Resonance Region (URR connects the fast neutron region with the Resolved Resonance Region (RRR. The URR is problematic since resonances are not resolvable experimentally yet the fluctuations in the neutron cross sections play a discernible and technologically important role: the URR in a typical nucleus is in the 100 keV – 2 MeV window where the typical fission spectrum peaks. The URR also represents the transition between R-matrix theory used to described isolated resonances and Hauser-Feshbach theory which accurately describes the average cross sections. In practice, only average or systematic features of the resonances in the URR are known and are tabulated in evaluations in a nuclear data library such as ENDF/B-VII.1. Codes such as AMPX and NJOY can compute the probability distribution of the cross section in the URR under some assumptions using Monte Carlo realizations of sets of resonances. These probability distributions are stored in the so-called PURR tables. In our work, we begin to develop a scheme for computing the covariance of the cross section probability distribution analytically. Our approach offers the possibility of defining the limits of applicability of Hauser-Feshbach theory and suggests a way to calculate PURR tables directly from systematics for nuclei whose RRR is unknown, provided one makes appropriate assumptions about the shape of the cross section probability distribution.
Controlling flexible rotor vibrations using parametric excitation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Atepor, L, E-mail: katepor@yahoo.co [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)
2009-08-01
This paper presents both theoretical and experimental studies of an active vibration controller for vibration in a flexible rotor system. The paper shows that the vibration amplitude can be modified by introducing an axial parametric excitation. The perturbation method of multiple scales is used to solve the equations of motion. The steady-state responses, with and without the parametric excitation terms, is investigated. An experimental test machine uses a piezoelectric exciter mounted on the end of the shaft. The results show a reduction in the rotor response amplitude under principal parametric resonance, and some good correlation between theory and experiment.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Darewych, J.W.
1997-01-01
The complex scalar (Klein-Gordon) quantum field theory (QFT) with a λ(var-phi * var-phi) 2 interaction is considered in the Feshbach-Villars formulation. It is shown that exact few-particle eigenstates of the QFT Hamiltonian can be obtained. The resulting relativistic few-body equations correspond to Klein-Gordon particles interacting via delta-function, or open-quotes contact,close quotes potentials. Momentum-space solutions of the two-body equation yield a open-quotes trivialclose quotes unity S matrix. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomas, J.; Zirnbauer, M.R.; Langanke, K.
1986-01-01
We have calculated the 26 Al(n,p) 26 Mg reaction rate using an exact expression for the compound-nucleus cross section derived recently by Verbaarschot et al. This reaction is astrophysically important, and it happens to fall in a kinematic regime where the exact expression is expected to yield large deviations from the standard Hauser-Feshbach formula. We find that the exact statistical cross section is 20% lower at energies greater than 300 keV, and drops to 40% lower at 0 energy but still does not describe the available data. These deviations are quite similar to those predicted by the formula of Tepel et al
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ground vibration tests or modal surveys are routinely conducted to support flutter analysis for subsonic and supersonic vehicles. However, vibration testing...
Spectroscopy of vibrationally hot molecules: Hydrogen cyanide and acetylene
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jonas, D.M.
1992-01-01
An efficient formula for calculating nuclear spin statistical weights is presented. New experimental methods to distinguish electric and magnetic multipole transitions are proposed and used to prove that the formaldehyde A - X 0-0 transition is a magnetic dipole transition. HIgh resolution vacuum ultraviolet studies of the A → X fluorescence excitation spectrum of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) have: (i) determined that only the (0,1,0) vibrational level of the HCN A-state has a sufficiently long fluorescence lifetime to be suitable for Stimulated Emission Pumping (SEP) studies; and (ii) measured the electric dipole moment of the A-state. Several transitions in the hydrogen cyanide A → X SEP spectrum are shown to be due to the axis-switching mechanism. From a Franck-Condon plot of the intensities and a comparison between sums of predicted rotational constants and sums of observed rotational constants, all of the remaining transitions in the SEP spectrum can be securly assigned. Two weak resonances; a 2:3 CH:CN stretch Fermi resonance and a 6:2 bend:CN stretch resonance appear in the SEP spectrum. Excitation of the CH stretching vibration is predicted and shown to be entirely absent, apart from resonances, in the HCN SEP spectrum. A → X SEP spectra of acetylene (HCCH) near E VIB = 7,000 cm -1 display a wealth of strong and fully assignable anharmonic resonances and forbidden rotational transitions. It is proved that Darling-Dennison resonance between the cis and trans bending vibrations is the crucial first step in a series of anharmonic resonances which can transfer nearly all the vibrational energy out of the initial CC stretch/trans-bend excitation at high vibrational energy. Secondary steps in the vibrational energy flow are vibrational-l-resonance and the '2345' Fermi resonance. For short times, the vibrational energy redistribution obeys very restrictive rules
Theory of vibration protection
Karnovsky, Igor A
2016-01-01
This text is an advancement of the theory of vibration protection of mechanical systems with lumped and distributed parameters. The book offers various concepts and methods of solving vibration protection problems, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different methods, and the fields of their effective applications. Fundamental approaches of vibration protection, which are considered in this book, are the passive, parametric and optimal active vibration protection. The passive vibration protection is based on vibration isolation, vibration damping and dynamic absorbers. Parametric vibration protection theory is based on the Shchipanov-Luzin invariance principle. Optimal active vibration protection theory is based on the Pontryagin principle and the Krein moment method. The book also contains special topics such as suppression of vibrations at the source of their occurrence and the harmful influence of vibrations on humans. Numerous examples, which illustrate the theoretical ideas of each chapter, ar...
The direct neutron decay of giant resonances in 208Pb
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bracco, A.
1988-01-01
The neutron decay of the giant multipole resonance region from 9 to 15 MeV of excitation energy in 208 Pb has been studied. Neutron branching ratios for the decay to the ground state and to the low-lying excited states of 207 Pb were measured as a function of the excitation energy of 208 Pb and compared to Hauser-Feshbach calculations. While the neutron branching ratios from the energy region of the isoscalar giant quadrupole resonance are reproduced by the calculations, the ratios from the energy region of the isoscalar giant monopole resonance show a conspicuous excess with respect to the statistical model predictions. The neutron yield from this energy region was analysed in terms of a multistep model of the compound nucleus which includes collective doorway channels. The total direct escape width as well as the associated direct partial escape widths to the lowest five valence hole states of 207 Pb were determined. (orig.)
Benefits of Spacecraft Level Vibration Testing
Gordon, Scott; Kern, Dennis L.
2015-01-01
NASA-HDBK-7008 Spacecraft Level Dynamic Environments Testing discusses the approaches, benefits, dangers, and recommended practices for spacecraft level dynamic environments testing, including vibration testing. This paper discusses in additional detail the benefits and actual experiences of vibration testing spacecraft for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) flight projects. JPL and GSFC have both similarities and differences in their spacecraft level vibration test approach: JPL uses a random vibration input and a frequency range usually starting at 5 Hz and extending to as high as 250 Hz. GSFC uses a sine sweep vibration input and a frequency range usually starting at 5 Hz and extending only to the limits of the coupled loads analysis (typically 50 to 60 Hz). However, both JPL and GSFC use force limiting to realistically notch spacecraft resonances and response (acceleration) limiting as necessary to protect spacecraft structure and hardware from exceeding design strength capabilities. Despite GSFC and JPL differences in spacecraft level vibration test approaches, both have uncovered a significant number of spacecraft design and workmanship anomalies in vibration tests. This paper will give an overview of JPL and GSFC spacecraft vibration testing approaches and provide a detailed description of spacecraft anomalies revealed.
Heterodyne Angle Deviation Interferometry in Vibration and Bubble Measurements
Ming-Hung Chiu; Jia-Ze Shen; Jian-Ming Huang
2016-01-01
We proposed heterodyne angle deviation interferometry (HADI) for angle deviation measurements. The phase shift of an angular sensor (which can be a metal film or a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) prism) is proportional to the deviation angle of the test beam. The method has been demonstrated in bubble and speaker’s vibration measurements in this paper. In the speaker’s vibration measurement, the voltage from the phase channel of a lock-in amplifier includes the vibration level and frequency. ...
Vibrational Stability of NLC Linac and Final Focus Components
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Le Pimpec, Frederic
2002-09-25
Vertical vibration of linac components (accelerating structures, girders and quadrupoles) in the NLC has been studied experimentally and analytically. Effects such as structural resonances and vibration caused by cooling water both in accelerating structure and quadrupoles have been considered. Experimental data has been compared with analytical predictions and simulations using ANSYS. Design to properly decouple the structure vibrations from the linac quadrupoles is being pursued.
Granular metamaterials for vibration mitigation
Gantzounis, G.; Serra-Garcia, M.; Homma, K.; Mendoza, J. M.; Daraio, C.
2013-09-01
Acoustic metamaterials that allow low-frequency band gaps are interesting for many practical engineering applications, where vibration control and sound insulation are necessary. In most prior studies, the mechanical response of these structures has been described using linear continuum approximations. In this work, we experimentally and theoretically address the formation of low-frequency band gaps in locally resonant granular crystals, where the dynamics of the system is governed by discrete equations. We investigate the quasi-linear behavior of such structures. The analysis shows that a stopband can be introduced at about one octave lower frequency than in materials without local resonances. Broadband and multi-frequency stopband characteristics can also be achieved by strategically tailoring the non-uniform local resonance parameters.
Vibrational frame transformation for electron-molecule scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greene, C.H.; Jungen, C.
1985-01-01
The frame-transformation theory of electron interaction with a vibrating diatomic core is extended to allow for energy dependence of its parameters. The Born-Oppenheimer separation of electron and nuclear motion is preserved when the electron penetrates the molecular core. The extended theory reproduces the boomerang-model treatment of vibrational excitation in resonant e-N 2 collisions
Vibrational relaxation in OCS mixtures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simpson, C.J.S.M.; Gait, P.D.; Simmie, J.M.
1976-01-01
Experimental measurements are reported of vibrational relaxation times which may be used to show whether there is near resonant vibration-rotation energy transfer between OCS and H 2 , D 2 or HD. Vibrational relaxation times have been measured in OCS and OCS mixtures over the temperature range 360 to 1000 K using a shock tube and a laser schlieren system. The effectiveness of the additives in reducing the relaxation time of OCS is in the order 4 He 3 He 2 2 and HD. Along this series the effect of an increase in temperature changes from the case of speeding up the rate with 4 He to retarding it with D 2 , HD and H 2 . There is no measurable difference in the effectiveness of n-D 2 and o-D 2 and little, or no, difference between n-H 2 and p-H 2 . Thus the experimental results do not give clear evidence for rotational-vibration energy transfer between hydrogen and OCS. This contrasts with the situation for CO 2 + H 2 mixtures. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwak, Mun Gyu; Na, Sung Su; Baek, Gwang Hyeon; Song, Chul Gi; Han, Sang Bo
2001-09-01
This book deals with vibration of machine which gives descriptions of free vibration using SDOF system, forced vibration using SDOF system, vibration of multi-degree of freedom system like introduction and normal form, distribution system such as introduction, free vibration of bar and practice problem, approximate solution like lumped approximations and Raleigh's quotient, engineering by intuition and experience, real problem and experimental method such as technology of signal, fourier transform analysis, frequency analysis and sensor and actuator.
Topology of the Adiabatic Potential Energy Surfaces for theResonance States of the Water Anion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haxton, Daniel J.; Rescigno, Thomas N.; McCurdy, C. William
2005-04-15
The potential energy surfaces corresponding to the long-lived fixed-nuclei electron scattering resonances of H{sub 2}O relevant to the dissociative electron attachment process are examined using a combination of ab initio scattering and bound-state calculations. These surfaces have a rich topology, characterized by three main features: a conical intersection between the {sup 2}A{sub 1} and {sup 2}B{sub 2} Feshbach resonance states; charge-transfer behavior in the OH ({sup 2}{Pi}) + H{sup -} asymptote of the {sup 2}B{sub 1} and {sup 2}A{sub 1} resonances; and an inherent double-valuedness of the surface for the {sup 2}B{sub 2} state the C{sub 2v} geometry, arising from a branch-point degeneracy with a {sup 2}B{sub 2} shape resonance. In total, eight individual seams of degeneracy among these resonances are located.
Enhanced vibration diagnostics using vibration signature analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmed, S.; Shehzad, K.; Zahoor, Y.; Mahmood, A.; Bibi, A.
2001-01-01
Symptoms will appear in equipment, as well as in human beings. when 'suffering from sickness. Symptoms of abnormality in equipment are vibration, noise, deformation, temperature, pressure, electric current, crack, wearing, leakage etc. these are called modes of failure. If the mode of failure is vibration then the vibration signature analysis can be effectively used in order to diagnose the machinery problems. Much valuable information is contained within these vibration 'Spectra' or 'Signatures' but is only of use if the analyst can unlock its 'Secrets'. This paper documents a vibration problem in the motor of a centrifugal pump (Type ETA). It focuses mainly on the roll of modern vibration monitoring system in problem analysis. The problem experienced was the motor unstability and noise due to high vibration. Using enhanced vibration signature data, the problem was analyzed. which suggested that the rotor eccentricity was the cause of excessive noise and vibration in the motor. In conclusion, advanced electronic monitoring and diagnostic systems provide powerful information for machine's condition assessment and problem analysis. Appropriate interpretation and use of this information is important for accurate and effective vibration analysis. (author)
A Family of Resonant Vibration Control Formats
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krenk, Steen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker
resulting modes exhibit identical damping ratio. This tuning is independent of the imposed controller damping. The controller damping is then selected as an optimal compromise between too small damping, and too large damping at which the modal frequencies coincide, and thereby produce undesirable...
Vibrational resonance in the Morse oscillator
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Tulipán s/n, 28933 Móstoles, Madrid, Spain ... and detection of weak signals are important in many branches of science. ... considerable attention in recent years after the seminal paper by Landa and McClintock.
Enriched vibrational resonance in certain discrete systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
didate in achieving transmission of strong signals even to much longer distances without the need ... with T = 2π/ω and N is an integer taken as 500. ... when the value of g is increased, the number of peaks are also increased (refer figure 3a).
Piezoelectric energy harvesting from broadband random vibrations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adhikari, S; Friswell, M I; Inman, D J
2009-01-01
Energy harvesting for the purpose of powering low power electronic sensor systems has received explosive attention in the last few years. Most works using deterministic approaches focusing on using the piezoelectric effect to harvest ambient vibration energy have concentrated on cantilever beams at resonance using harmonic excitation. Here, using a stochastic approach, we focus on using a stack configuration and harvesting broadband vibration energy, a more practically available ambient source. It is assumed that the ambient base excitation is stationary Gaussian white noise, which has a constant power-spectral density across the frequency range considered. The mean power acquired from a piezoelectric vibration-based energy harvester subjected to random base excitation is derived using the theory of random vibrations. Two cases, namely the harvesting circuit with and without an inductor, have been considered. Exact closed-form expressions involving non-dimensional parameters of the electromechanical system have been given and illustrated using numerical examples
Piezoelectric energy harvesting from broadband random vibrations
Adhikari, S.; Friswell, M. I.; Inman, D. J.
2009-11-01
Energy harvesting for the purpose of powering low power electronic sensor systems has received explosive attention in the last few years. Most works using deterministic approaches focusing on using the piezoelectric effect to harvest ambient vibration energy have concentrated on cantilever beams at resonance using harmonic excitation. Here, using a stochastic approach, we focus on using a stack configuration and harvesting broadband vibration energy, a more practically available ambient source. It is assumed that the ambient base excitation is stationary Gaussian white noise, which has a constant power-spectral density across the frequency range considered. The mean power acquired from a piezoelectric vibration-based energy harvester subjected to random base excitation is derived using the theory of random vibrations. Two cases, namely the harvesting circuit with and without an inductor, have been considered. Exact closed-form expressions involving non-dimensional parameters of the electromechanical system have been given and illustrated using numerical examples.
Hetmańczyk, Joanna; Hetmańczyk, Lukasz; Migdał-Mikuli, Anna; Mikuli, Edward; Florek-Wojciechowska, Małgorzata; Harańczyk, Hubert
2014-04-24
Vibrational-reorientational dynamics of H2O ligands in the high- and low-temperature phases of [Sr(H2O)6]Cl2 was investigated by Raman Spectroscopy (RS), proton magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), quasielastic and inelastic incoherent Neutron Scattering (QENS and IINS) methods. Neutron powder diffraction (NPD) measurements, performed simultaneously with QENS, did not indicated a change of the crystal structure at the phase transition (detected earlier by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) at TC(h)=252.9 K (on heating) and at TC(c)=226.5K (on cooling)). Temperature dependence of the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of νs(OH) band at ca. 3248 cm(-1) in the RS spectra indicated small discontinuity in the vicinity of phase transition temperature, what suggests that the observed phase transition may be associated with a change of the H2O reorientational dynamics. However, an activation energy value (Ea) for the reorientational motions of H2O ligands in both phases is nearly the same and equals to ca. 8 kJ mol(-1). The QENS peaks, registered for low temperature phase do not show any broadening. However, in the high temperature phase a small QENS broadening is clearly visible, what implies that the reorientational dynamics of H2O ligands undergoes a change at the phase transition. (1)H NMR line is a superposition of two powder Pake doublets, differentiated by a dipolar broadening, suggesting that there are two types of the water molecules in the crystal lattice of [Sr(H2O)6]Cl2 which are structurally not equivalent average distances between the interacting protons are: 1.39 and 1.18 Å. However, their reorientational dynamics is very similar (τc=3.3⋅10(-10) s). Activation energies for the reorientational motion of these both kinds of H2O ligands have nearly the same values in an experimental error limit: and equal to ca. 40 kJ mole(-1). The phase transition is not seen in the (1)H NMR spectra temperature dependencies. Infrared (IR), Raman (RS) and inelastic
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Speelman, Amy L.; Zhang, Bo; Silakov, Alexey; Skodje, Kelsey M.; Alp, E. Ercan; Zhao, Jiyong; Hu, Michael Y.; Kim, Eunsuk; Krebs, Karsten; Lehnert, Nicolai
2016-06-06
Dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNICs) are among the most abundant NO-derived cellular species. Monomeric DNICs can exist in the {Fe(NO)_{2}}^{9} or {Fe(NO)_{2}}^{10} oxidation state (in the Enemark -Feltham notation). However, experimental studies of analogous DNICs in both oxidation states are rare, which prevents a thorough understanding of the di ff erences in the electronic structures of these species. Here, the {Fe(NO)_{2}}^{9} DNIC [Fe(dmp)(NO)_{2}](OTf) ( 1 ; dmp = 2,9-dimethyl-1,10- phenanthroline) is synthesized from a ferrous precursor via an unusual pathway, involving disproportionation of an {FeNO}^{7} complex to yield the {Fe(NO)_{2}}^{9} DNIC and a ferric species, which is subsequently reduced by NO gas to generate a ferrous complex that re-enters the reaction cycle. In contrast to most {Fe(NO)_{2}}^{9} DNICs with neutral N-donor ligands, 1 exhibits high solution stability and can be characterized structurally and spectroscopically. Reduction of 1 yields the corresponding {Fe(NO)_{2}}^{10} DNIC [Fe(dmp)(NO)_{2}](2). The Mo ssbauer isomer shift of 2 is 0.08 mm/s smaller than that of 1 , which indicates that the iron center is slightly more oxidized in the reduced complex. The nuclear resonance vibrational spectra (NRVS) of 1 and 2 are distinct and provide direct experimental insight into di ff erences in bonding in these complexes. In particular, the symmetric out-of-plane Fe -N - O bending mode is shifted to higher energy by 188 cm^{-1} in 2 in comparison to 1 . Using quantum chemistry centered normal coordinate analysis (QCC-NCA), this is shown to arise from an increase in Fe - NO bond order and a sti ff ening of the Fe(NO)_{2} unit upon reduction of 1 to 2 . DFT calculations demonstrate that the changes in bonding arise from an iron- centered reduction which leads to a distinct increase in Fe - NO π -back-bonding in
Review of Energy Harvesters Utilizing Bridge Vibrations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farid Ullah Khan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available For health monitoring of bridges, wireless acceleration sensor nodes (WASNs are normally used. In bridge environment, several forms of energy are available for operating WASNs that include wind, solar, acoustic, and vibration energy. However, only bridge vibration has the tendency to be utilized for embedded WASNs application in bridge structures. This paper reports on the recent advancements in the area of vibration energy harvesters (VEHs utilizing bridge oscillations. The bridge vibration is narrowband (1 to 40 Hz with low acceleration levels (0.01 to 3.8 g. For utilization of bridge vibration, electromagnetic based vibration energy harvesters (EM-VEHs and piezoelectric based vibration energy harvesters (PE-VEHs have been developed. The power generation of the reported EM-VEHs is in the range from 0.7 to 1450000 μW. However, the power production by the developed PE-VEHs ranges from 0.6 to 7700 μW. The overall size of most of the bridge VEHs is quite comparable and is in mesoscale. The resonant frequencies of EM-VEHs are on the lower side (0.13 to 27 Hz in comparison to PE-VEHs (1 to 120 Hz. The power densities reported for these bridge VEHs range from 0.01 to 9539.5 μW/cm3 and are quite enough to operate most of the commercial WASNs.
Flow induced vibration in shell and tube heat exchangers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soper, B.M.H.
1981-01-01
Assessing heat exchanger designs, from the standpoint of flow induced vibration, is becoming increasingly important as shell side flow velocities are increased in a quest for better thermal performance. This paper reviews the state of the art concerning the main sources of vibration excitation, i.e. vortex shedding resonance, turbulent buffeting, fluidelastic instability and acoustic resonance, as well as the structural dynamics of the tubes. It is concluded that there are many areas which require further investigation but there are sufficient data available at present to design, with reasonable confidence, units that will be free from flow induced vibration. Topics which are considered to be key areas for further work are listed
[Occupational standing vibration rate and vibrational diseases].
Karnaukh, N G; Vyshchipan, V F; Haumenko, B S
2003-12-01
Occupational standing vibration rate is proposed in evaluating a degree of impairment of an organism activity. It will allow more widely to introduce specification of quality and quantity in assessment of the development of vibrational disease. According out-patient and inpatient obtained data we have established criterial values of functional changes in accordance with accumulated occupational standing vibration rate. The nomogram was worked out for defining a risk of the development of vibrational disease in mine workers. This nomogram more objectively can help in diagnostics of the disease.
Franck-Condon fingerprinting of vibration-tunneling spectra.
Berrios, Eduardo; Sundaradevan, Praveen; Gruebele, Martin
2013-08-15
We introduce Franck-Condon fingerprinting as a method for assigning complex vibration-tunneling spectra. The B̃ state of thiophosgene (SCCl2) serves as our prototype. Despite several attempts, assignment of its excitation spectrum has proved difficult because of near-degenerate vibrational frequencies, Fermi resonance between the C-Cl stretching mode and the Cl-C-Cl bending mode, and large tunneling splittings due to the out-of-plane umbrella mode. Hence, the spectrum has never been fitted to an effective Hamiltonian. Our assignment approach replaces precise frequency information with intensity information, eliminating the need for double resonance spectroscopy or combination differences, neither of which have yielded a full assignment thus far. The dispersed fluorescence spectrum of each unknown vibration-tunneling state images its character onto known vibrational progressions in the ground state. By using this Franck-Condon fingerprint, we were able to determine the predominant character of several vibration-tunneling states and assign them; in other cases, the fingerprinting revealed that the states are strongly mixed and cannot be characterized with a simple normal mode assignment. The assigned transitions from vibration-tunneling wave functions that were not too strongly mixed could be fitted within measurement uncertainty by an effective vibration-tunneling Hamiltonian. A fit of all observed vibration-tunneling states will require a full resonance-tunneling Hamiltonian.
Development of an innovative device for ultrasonic elliptical vibration cutting.
Zhou, Ming; Hu, Linhua
2015-07-01
An innovative ultrasonic elliptical vibration cutting (UEVC) device with 1st resonant mode of longitudinal vibration and 3rd resonant mode of bending vibration was proposed in this paper, which can deliver higher output power compared to previous UEVC devices. Using finite element method (FEM), resonance frequencies of the longitudinal and bending vibrations were tuned to be as close as possible in order to excite these two vibrations using two-phase driving voltages at a single frequency, while wave nodes of the longitudinal and bending vibrations were also adjusted to be as coincident as possible for mounting the device at a single fixed point. Based on the simulation analysis results a prototype device was fabricated, then its vibration characteristics were evaluated by an impedance analyzer and a laser displacement sensor. With two-phase sinusoidal driving voltages both of 480 V(p-p) at an ultrasonic frequency of 20.1 kHz, the developed prototype device achieved an elliptical vibration with a longitudinal amplitude of 8.9 μm and a bending amplitude of 11.3 μm. The performance of the developed UEVC device is assessed by the cutting tests of hardened steel using single crystal diamond tools. Experimental results indicate that compared to ordinary cutting process, the tool wear is reduced significantly by using the proposed device. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A Vibration Control Method for the Flexible Arm Based on Energy Migration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yushu Bian
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A vibration control method based on energy migration is proposed to decrease vibration response of the flexible arm undergoing rigid motion. A type of vibration absorber is suggested and gives rise to the inertial coupling between the modes of the flexible arm and the absorber. By analyzing 1 : 2 internal resonance, it is proved that the internal resonance can be successfully created and the exchange of vibration energy is existent. Due to the inertial coupling, the damping enhancement effect is revealed. Via the inertial coupling, vibration energy of the flexible arm can be dissipated by not only the damping of the vibration absorber but also its own enhanced damping, thereby effectively decreasing vibration. Through numerical simulations and analyses, it is proven that this method is feasible in controlling nonlinear vibration of the flexible arm undergoing rigid motion.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Punia, D. T.; Donnermeyer, D.; Pope, M.
1984-01-01
An apparatus to monitor and record, for an industrial environment, two natural frequencies with respect to a ''seated spinal system'', namely, approximately 10 Hz and approximately 4 Hz, the natural resonant frequencies of the spine. Raw acceleration signals are amplified, conditioned and filtered to allow only 20 Hz or less to pass. The signals are then divided into two respective channels, namely, below 20 Hz and below 8 Hz, following parallel paths through an amplitude detector and through a zero crossover detector, rectifier and digital filter. In each path the amplitude detector controls a storage flip-flop, which enables an associated decade counter when amplitude criteria are met. The digital filter supplies an output, via an AND gate, to the counter if both amplitude and frequency criteria are met. Thus, a count is stored in the counter if both amplitude and frequency criteria are met. EAch channel has an LED display which can be turned on, after exposure, to display the number of events recorded
Beecher, L. C.; Williams, F. T.
1970-01-01
Gas-driven vibration exciter produces a sinusoidal excitation function controllable in frequency and in amplitude. It allows direct vibration testing of components under normal loads, removing the possibility of component damage due to high static pressure.
Resonant Electromagnetic Shunt Damping of Flexible Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Høgsberg, Jan Becker
2016-01-01
Electromagnetic transducers convert mechanical energy to electrical energy and vice versa. Effective passive vibration damping of flexible structures can therefore be introduced by shunting with an accurately calibrated resonant electrical network thatcontains a capacitor to create the desired...
Pietanza, L D; Colonna, G; Laporta, V; Celiberto, R; D'Ammando, G; Laricchiuta, A; Capitelli, M
2016-05-05
A new set of electron-vibrational (e-V) processes linking the first 10 vibrational levels of the symmetric mode of CO2 is derived by using a decoupled vibrational model and inserted in the Boltzmann equation for the electron energy distribution function (eedf). The new eedf and dissociation rates are in satisfactory agreement with the corresponding ones obtained by using the e-V cross sections reported in the database of Hake and Phelps (H-P). Large differences are, on the contrary, found when the experimental dissociation cross sections of Cosby and Helm are inserted in the Boltzman equation. Comparison of the corresponding rates with those obtained by using the low-energy threshold energy, reported in the H-P database, shows differences up to orders of magnitude, which decrease with the increasing of the reduced electric field. In all cases, we show the importance of superelastic vibrational collisions in affecting eedf and dissociation rates either in the direct electron impact mechanism or in the pure vibrational mechanism.
Far from Equilibrium Percolation, Stochastic and Shape Resonances in the Physics of Life
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antonio Bianconi
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Key physical concepts, relevant for the cross-fertilization between condensed matter physics and the physics of life seen as a collective phenomenon in a system out-of-equilibrium, are discussed. The onset of life can be driven by: (a the critical fluctuations at the protonic percolation threshold in membrane transport; (b the stochastic resonance in biological systems, a mechanism that can exploit external and self-generated noise in order to gain efficiency in signal processing; and (c the shape resonance (or Fano resonance or Feshbach resonance in the association and dissociation processes of bio-molecules (a quantum mechanism that could play a key role to establish a macroscopic quantum coherence in the cell.
Experimental study of acoustic vibration in BWRs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumagai, Kosuke; Someya, Satoshi; Okamoto, Koji
2009-01-01
In recent years, the power uprate of Boiling Water Reactors have been conducted at several existing power plants as a way to improve plant economy. In one of the power uprated plants (117.8% uprates) in the United States, the steam dryer breakages due to fatigue fracture occurred. It is conceivable that the increased steam flow passing through the branches caused a self-induced vibration with the propagation of sound wave into the steam-dome. The resonance among the structure, flow and the pressure fluctuation resulted in the breakages. To understand the basic mechanism of the resonance, previous researches were done by a point measurement of the pressure and by a phase averaged measurement of the flow, while it was difficult to detect the interaction among them by the conventional method. In this study, Dynamic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) System was applied to investigate the effect of sound on natural convection and forced convection. Dynamic PIV system is the newest entrant to the field of fluid flow measurement. Its paramount advantage is the instantaneous global evaluation of conditions over plane extended across the whole velocity field. Also, to evaluate the coupling between the acoustic wave and structure (simulated as tuning fork vibrator in this experiment), in the resonance frequency of tuning fork vibrator, fluid behavior and the motion of tuning fork vibrator are measured simultaneously. (author)
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We make music by causing strings, membranes, or air columns to vibrate. Engineers design safe structures by control- ling vibrations. I will describe to you a very simple vibrating system and the mathematics needed to analyse it. The ideas were born in the work of Joseph-Louis Lagrange (1736–1813), and I begin by quot-.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herring, G.; Kevrekidis, P.G.; Williams, F.; Christodoulakis, T.; Frantzeskakis, D.J.
2008-01-01
In this work we revisit the topic of two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates under the influence of time-dependent magnetic confinement and time-dependent scattering length. A moment approach reduces the examination of moments of the wavefunction (in particular, of its width) to an Ermakov-Pinney (EP) ordinary differential equation (ODE). We use the well-known structure of the solutions of this nonlinear ODE to 'engineer' trapping and interatomic interaction conditions that lead to condensates dispersing, breathing or even collapsing. The advantage of the approach is that it is fully tractable analytically, in excellent agreement with our numerical observations. As an aside, we also discuss how similar time-dependent EP equations may arise in the description of anisotropic scalar field cosmologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herring, G.; Kevrekidis, P.G.; Williams, F.; Christodoulakis, T.; Frantzeskakis, D.J.
2007-01-01
In this work we revisit the topic of two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates under the influence of time-dependent magnetic confinement and time-dependent scattering length. A moment approach reduces the examination of moments of the wavefunction (in particular, of its width) to an Ermakov-Pinney (EP) ordinary differential equation (ODE). We use the well-known structure of the solutions of this nonlinear ODE to 'engineer' trapping and interatomic interaction conditions that lead to condensates dispersing, breathing or even collapsing. The advantage of the approach is that it is fully tractable analytically, in excellent agreement with our numerical observations. As an aside, we also discuss how similar time-dependent EP equations may arise in the description of anisotropic scalar field cosmologies
Vibration of hydraulic machinery
Wu, Yulin; Liu, Shuhong; Dou, Hua-Shu; Qian, Zhongdong
2013-01-01
Vibration of Hydraulic Machinery deals with the vibration problem which has significant influence on the safety and reliable operation of hydraulic machinery. It provides new achievements and the latest developments in these areas, even in the basic areas of this subject. The present book covers the fundamentals of mechanical vibration and rotordynamics as well as their main numerical models and analysis methods for the vibration prediction. The mechanical and hydraulic excitations to the vibration are analyzed, and the pressure fluctuations induced by the unsteady turbulent flow is predicted in order to obtain the unsteady loads. This book also discusses the loads, constraint conditions and the elastic and damping characters of the mechanical system, the structure dynamic analysis, the rotor dynamic analysis and the system instability of hydraulic machines, including the illustration of monitoring system for the instability and the vibration in hydraulic units. All the problems are necessary for vibration pr...
Hewitt, Sue; Dong, Ren G; Welcome, Daniel E; McDowell, Thomas W
2015-03-01
For exposure to hand-transmitted vibration (HTV), personal protective equipment is sold in the form of anti-vibration (AV) gloves, but it remains unclear how much these gloves actually reduce vibration exposure or prevent the development of hand-arm vibration syndrome in the workplace. This commentary describes some of the issues that surround the classification of AV gloves, the assessment of their effectiveness and their applicability in the workplace. The available information shows that AV gloves are unreliable as devices for controlling HTV exposures. Other means of vibration control, such as using alternative production techniques, low-vibration machinery, routine preventative maintenance regimes, and controlling exposure durations are far more likely to deliver effective vibration reductions and should be implemented. Furthermore, AV gloves may introduce some adverse effects such as increasing grip force and reducing manual dexterity. Therefore, one should balance the benefits of AV gloves and their potential adverse effects if their use is considered. © Crown copyright 2014.
Silicon Micromachined Sensor for Broadband Vibration Analysis
Gutierrez, Adolfo; Edmans, Daniel; Cormeau, Chris; Seidler, Gernot; Deangelis, Dave; Maby, Edward
1995-01-01
The development of a family of silicon based integrated vibration sensors capable of sensing mechanical resonances over a broad range of frequencies with minimal signal processing requirements is presented. Two basic general embodiments of the concept were designed and fabricated. The first design was structured around an array of cantilever beams and fabricated using the ARPA sponsored multi-user MEMS processing system (MUMPS) process at the Microelectronics Center of North Carolina (MCNC). As part of the design process for this first sensor, a comprehensive finite elements analysis of the resonant modes and stress distribution was performed using PATRAN. The dependence of strain distribution and resonant frequency response as a function of Young's modulus in the Poly-Si structural material was studied. Analytical models were also studied. In-house experimental characterization using optical interferometry techniques were performed under controlled low pressure conditions. A second design, intended to operate in a non-resonant mode and capable of broadband frequency response, was proposed and developed around the concept of a cantilever beam integrated with a feedback control loop to produce a null mode vibration sensor. A proprietary process was used to integrat a metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) sensing device, with actuators and a cantilever beam, as part of a compatible process. Both devices, once incorporated as part of multifunction data acquisition and telemetry systems will constitute a useful system for NASA launch vibration monitoring operations. Satellite and other space structures can benefit from the sensor for mechanical condition monitoring functions.
A vibration powered wireless mote on the Forth Road Bridge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jia, Yu; Yan, Jize; Feng, Tao; Du, Sijun; Fidler, Paul; Soga, Kenichi; Middleton, Campbell; Seshia, Ashwin A
2015-01-01
The conventional resonant-approaches to scavenge kinetic energy are typically confined to narrow and single-band frequencies. The vibration energy harvester device reported here combines both direct resonance and parametric resonance in order to enhance the power responsiveness towards more efficient harnessing of real-world ambient vibration. A packaged electromagnetic harvester designed to operate in both of these resonant regimes was tested in situ on the Forth Road Bridge. In the field-site, the harvester, with an operational volume of ∼126 cm 3 , was capable of recovering in excess of 1 mW average raw AC power from the traffic-induced vibrations in the lateral bracing structures underneath the bridge deck. The harvester was integrated off-board with a power conditioning circuit and a wireless mote. Duty- cycled wireless transmissions from the vibration-powered mote was successfully sustained by the recovered ambient energy. This limited duration field test provides the initial validation for realising vibration-powered wireless structural health monitoring systems in real world infrastructure, where the vibration profile is both broadband and intermittent. (paper)
A vibration powered wireless mote on the Forth Road Bridge
Jia, Yu; Yan, Jize; Feng, Tao; Du, Sijun; Fidler, Paul; Soga, Kenichi; Middleton, Campbell; Seshia, Ashwin A.
2015-12-01
The conventional resonant-approaches to scavenge kinetic energy are typically confined to narrow and single-band frequencies. The vibration energy harvester device reported here combines both direct resonance and parametric resonance in order to enhance the power responsiveness towards more efficient harnessing of real-world ambient vibration. A packaged electromagnetic harvester designed to operate in both of these resonant regimes was tested in situ on the Forth Road Bridge. In the field-site, the harvester, with an operational volume of ∼126 cm3, was capable of recovering in excess of 1 mW average raw AC power from the traffic-induced vibrations in the lateral bracing structures underneath the bridge deck. The harvester was integrated off-board with a power conditioning circuit and a wireless mote. Duty- cycled wireless transmissions from the vibration-powered mote was successfully sustained by the recovered ambient energy. This limited duration field test provides the initial validation for realising vibration-powered wireless structural health monitoring systems in real world infrastructure, where the vibration profile is both broadband and intermittent.
Nanoantenna using mechanical resonance
Chang Hwa Lee,
2010-11-01
Nanoantenna using mechanical resonance vibration is made from an indium tin oxide (ITO) coated vertically aligned nanorod array. Only this structure works as a radio with demodulator without any electrical circuit using field emission phenomenon. A top-down fabrication method of an ITO coated nanorod array is proposed using a modified UV lithography. The received radio frequency and the resonance frequency of nanoantenna can be controlled by the fabrication condition through the height of a nanorod array. The modulated signals are received successfully with the transmission carrier wave frequency (248MHz) and the proposed nanoantenna is expected to be used in communication system for ultra small scale sensor. ©2010 IEEE.
Force Limited Vibration Test of HESSI Imager
Amato, Deborah; Pankow, David; Thomsen, Knud
2000-01-01
The High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (HESSI) is a solar x-ray and gamma-ray observatory scheduled for launch in November 2000. Vibration testing of the HESSI imager flight unit was performed in August 1999. The HESSI imager consists of a composite metering tube, two aluminum trays mounted to the tube on titanium flexure mounts, and nine modulation grids mounted on each tray. The vibration tests were acceleration controlled and force limited, in order to prevent overtesting. The force limited strategy reduced the shaker force and notched the acceleration at resonances. The test set-up, test levels, and results are presented. The development of the force limits is also discussed. The imager successfully survived the vibration testing.
Electronically excited negative ion resonant states in chloroethylenes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khvostenko, O.G., E-mail: khv@mail.ru; Lukin, V.G.; Tuimedov, G.M.; Khatymova, L.Z.; Kinzyabulatov, R.R.; Tseplin, E.E.
2015-02-15
Highlights: • Several novel dissociative negative ion channels were revealed in chloroethylenes. • The electronically excited resonant states were recorded in all chloroethylenes under study. • The states were assigned to the inter-shell types, but not to the core-excited Feshbach one. - Abstract: The negative ion mass spectra of the resonant electron capture by molecules of 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethylene-cis, 1,2-dichloroethylene-trans, trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene have been recorded in the 0–12 eV range of the captured electron energy using static magnetic sector mass spectrometer modified for operation in the resonant electron capture regime. As a result, several novel low-intensive dissociation channels were revealed in the compounds under study. Additionally, the negative ion resonant states were recorded at approximately 3–12 eV, mostly for the first time. These resonant states were assigned to the electronically excited resonances of the inter-shell type by comparing their energies with those of the parent neutral molecules triplet and singlet electronically excited states known from the energy-loss spectra obtained by previous studies.
Bandshapes in vibrational spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dijkman, F.G.
1978-01-01
A detailed account is given of the development of modern bandshape theories since 1965. An investigation into the relative contributions of statistical irreversible relaxation processes is described, for a series of molecules in which gradually the length of one molecular axis is increased. An investigation into the theoretical and experimental investigation of the broadening brought about by the effect of fluctuating intermolecular potentials on the vibrational frequency is also described. The effect of an intermolecular perturbative potential on anharmonic and Morse oscillators is discussed and the results are presented of a computation on the broadening of the vibrational band of some diatomic molecules in a rigid lattice type solvent. The broadening of the OH-stretching vibration in a number of aliphatic alcohols, the vibrational bandshapes of the acetylenic C-H stretching vibration and of the symmetric methyl stretching vibration are investigated. (Auth./ C.F.)
Design of a nonlinear torsional vibration absorber
Tahir, Ammaar Bin
Tuned mass dampers (TMD) utilizing linear spring mechanisms to mitigate destructive vibrations are commonly used in practice. A TMD is usually tuned for a specific resonant frequency or an operating frequency of a system. Recently, nonlinear vibration absorbers attracted attention of researchers due to some potential advantages they possess over the TMDs. The nonlinear vibration absorber, or the nonlinear energy sink (NES), has an advantage of being effective over a broad range of excitation frequencies, which makes it more suitable for systems with several resonant frequencies, or for a system with varying excitation frequency. Vibration dissipation mechanism in an NES is passive and ensures that there is no energy backflow to the primary system. In this study, an experimental setup of a rotational system has been designed for validation of the concept of nonlinear torsional vibration absorber with geometrically induced cubic stiffness nonlinearity. Dimensions of the primary system have been optimized so as to get the first natural frequency of the system to be fairly low. This was done in order to excite the dynamic system for torsional vibration response by the available motor. Experiments have been performed to obtain the modal parameters of the system. Based on the obtained modal parameters, the design optimization of the nonlinear torsional vibration absorber was carried out using an equivalent 2-DOF modal model. The optimality criterion was chosen to be maximization of energy dissipation in the nonlinear absorber attached to the equivalent 2-DOF system. The optimized design parameters of the nonlinear absorber were tested on the original 5-DOF system numerically. A comparison was made between the performance of linear and nonlinear absorbers using the numerical models. The comparison showed the superiority of the nonlinear absorber over its linear counterpart for the given set of primary system parameters as the vibration energy dissipation in the former is
Transfer vibration through spine
Benyovszky, Adam
2012-01-01
Transfer Vibration through Spine Abstract In the bachelor project we deal with the topic of Transfer Vibration through Spine. The problem of TVS is trying to be solved by the critical review method. We analyse some diagnostic methods and methods of treatment based on this principle. Close attention is paid to the method of Transfer Vibration through Spine that is being currently solved by The Research Institute of Thermomechanics in The Czech Academy of Sciences in cooperation with Faculty of...
Mechanisms of Coupled Vibrational Relaxation and Dissociation in Carbon Dioxide.
Armenise, Iole; Kustova, Elena
2018-05-21
A complete vibrational state-specific kinetic scheme describing dissociating carbon dioxide mixtures is proposed. CO 2 symmetric, bending and asymmetric vibrations and dissociation-recombination are strongly coupled through inter-mode vibrational energy transfers. Comparative study of state-resolved rate coefficients is carried out; the effect of different transitions may vary considerably with temperature. A non-equilibrium 1-D boundary layer flow typical to hypersonic planetary entry is studied in the state-to-state approach. To assess the sensitivity of fluid-dynamic variables and heat transfer to various vibrational transitions and chemical reactions, corresponding processes are successively included to the kinetic scheme. It is shown that vibrational-translational (VT) transitions in the symmetric and asymmetric modes do not alter the flow and can be neglected whereas the VT 2 exchange in the bending mode is the main channel of vibrational relaxation. Inter-mode vibrational exchanges affect the flow implicitly, through energy redistribution enhancing VT relaxation; the dominating role belongs to near-resonant transitions between symmetric and bending modes as well as between CO molecules and CO 2 asymmetric mode. Strong coupling between VT 2 relaxation and chemical reactions is emphasized. While vibrational distributions and average vibrational energy show strong dependence on the kinetic scheme, the heat flux is more sensitive to chemical reactions.
Measurements of ground motion and SSC dipole vibrations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parkhomchuk, V.V.; Shiltsev, V.D.; Weaver, H.J.
1993-06-01
The results of seismic ground measurements at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) site and investigations of vibrational properties of superconducting dipoles for the SSC are presented. Spectral analysis of the data obtained in the large frequency band from 0.05 Hz to 2000 Hz is done. Resonant behavior and the dipole-to-ground transform ratio are investigated. The influence of measured vibrations on SSC operations is considered
Giant resonances on excited states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Besold, W.; Reinhard, P.G.; Toepffer, C.
1984-01-01
We derive modified RPA equations for small vibrations about excited states. The temperature dependence of collective excitations is examined. The formalism is applied to the ground state and the first excited state of 90 Zr in order to confirm a hypothesis which states that not only the ground state but every excited state of a nucleus has a giant resonance built upon it. (orig.)
Vertical Vibration Characteristics of a High-Temperature Superconducting Maglev Vehicle System
Jiang, Jing; Li, Ke Cai; Zhao, Li Feng; Ma, Jia Qing; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Yong
2013-06-01
The vertical vibration characteristics of a high-temperature superconducting maglev vehicle system are investigated experimentally. The displacement variations of the maglev vehicle system are measured with different external excitation frequency, in the case of a certain levitation gap. When the external vibration frequency is low, the amplitude variations of the response curve are small. With the increase of the vibration frequency, chaos status can be found. The resonance frequencies with difference levitation gap are also investigated, while the external excitation frequency range is 0-100 Hz. Along with the different levitation gap, resonance frequency is also different. There almost is a linear relationship between the levitation gap and the resonance frequency.
Shape resonances in molecular fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dehmer, J.L.
1984-01-01
A shape resonance is a quasibound state in which a particle is temporarily trapped by a potential barrier (i.e., the shape of the potential), through which it may eventually tunnel and escape. This simple mechanism plays a prominent role in a variety of excitation processes in molecules, ranging from vibrational excitation by slow electrons to ionization of deep core levels by x-rays. Moreover, their localized nature makes shape resonances a unifying link between otherwise dissimilar circumstances. One example is the close connection between shape resonances in electron-molecule scattering and in molecular photoionization. Another is the frequent persistence of free-molecule shape resonant behavior upon adsorption on a surface or condensation into a molecular solid. The main focus of this article is a discussion of the basic properties of shape resonances in molecular fields, illustrated by the more transparent examples studied over the last ten years. Other aspects to be discussed are vibrational effects of shape resonances, connections between shape resonances in different physical settings, and examples of shape resonant behavior in more complex cases, which form current challenges in this field
Geometrical nonlinear free vibration of multi-layered graphene sheets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Jinbao; He Xiaoqiao; Kitipornchai, S; Zhang Hongwu
2011-01-01
A nonlinear continuum model is developed for the nonlinear vibration analysis of multi-layered graphene sheets (MLGSs), in which the nonlinear van der Waals (vdW) interaction between any two layers is formulated explicitly. The nonlinear equations of motion are studied by the harmonic-balance methods. Based on the present model, the nonlinear stiffened amplitude-frequency relations of double-layered graphene sheets (DLGSs) are investigated in the spectral neighbourhood of lower frequencies. The influence of the vdW interaction on the vibration properties of DLGSs is well illustrated by plotting the resulting modes' shapes, in which in-phase and anti-phase vibrations of DLGSs are studied. In particular, the large-amplitude vibration which associates with the anti-phase resonant frequencies, separating DLGS into single-layered GSs, is a promising application that needs to be explored further. In contrast, the vibration modes that are associated with the resonant frequencies are nonidentical and give various vibration patterns, which indicates that MLGSs are highly suited to being used as high-frequency resonators.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chadwick, M.B.; Young, P.G.
1993-01-01
The 178m2 Hf(16+) isomeric state has a 31-yr half life and could pose serious radioactive problems in nuclear fusion reactors if its production in 14 MeV neutron-induced reactions is significant. We present statistical/preequilibrium model calculations for the production of this isomer in the 179 Hf(n, 2n) 178m2 Hf reaction, as well as the 25-days 12.5 - isomer in the 179 Hf(n,n') 179m2 Hf reaction, using two different preequilibrium models: the exciton model and the Feshbach-Kerman-Koonin (FKK) theory. Our calculations which use the exciton model agree well with measurements, but those with the FKK theory underestimate measurements. Our calculations axe the first to probe angular momentum transfer effects in the FKK theory and suggest that, as it is presently applied, high spin-transfer reactions are underestimated. We suggest modifications to the FKK statistical averaging procedure which may result in an improved agreement with experiment
Environmental vibration reduction utilizing an array of mass scatterers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Peplow, Andrew; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Bucinskas, Paulius
2017-01-01
.g. concrete or stone blocks, specially designed brick walls, etc.). The natural frequencies of vibration for such blocks depend on the local ground stiffness and on the mass of the blocks which can be chosen to provide resonance at specified frequencies. This work concerns the effectiveness of such “blocking......Ground vibration generated by rail and road traffic is a major source of environmental noise and vibration pollution in the low-frequency range. A promising and cost effective mitigation method can be the use of heavy masses placed as a periodic array on the ground surface near the road or track (e...
Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic spectroscopy
Courtney, Trevor L.; Fox, Zachary W.; Slenkamp, Karla M.; Khalil, Munira
2015-10-01
Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic (2D VE) spectroscopy is a femtosecond Fourier transform (FT) third-order nonlinear technique that creates a link between existing 2D FT spectroscopies in the vibrational and electronic regions of the spectrum. 2D VE spectroscopy enables a direct measurement of infrared (IR) and electronic dipole moment cross terms by utilizing mid-IR pump and optical probe fields that are resonant with vibrational and electronic transitions, respectively, in a sample of interest. We detail this newly developed 2D VE spectroscopy experiment and outline the information contained in a 2D VE spectrum. We then use this technique and its single-pump counterpart (1D VE) to probe the vibrational-electronic couplings between high frequency cyanide stretching vibrations (νCN) and either a ligand-to-metal charge transfer transition ([FeIII(CN)6]3- dissolved in formamide) or a metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) transition ([(CN)5FeIICNRuIII(NH3)5]- dissolved in formamide). The 2D VE spectra of both molecules reveal peaks resulting from coupled high- and low-frequency vibrational modes to the charge transfer transition. The time-evolving amplitudes and positions of the peaks in the 2D VE spectra report on coherent and incoherent vibrational energy transfer dynamics among the coupled vibrational modes and the charge transfer transition. The selectivity of 2D VE spectroscopy to vibronic processes is evidenced from the selective coupling of specific νCN modes to the MMCT transition in the mixed valence complex. The lineshapes in 2D VE spectra report on the correlation of the frequency fluctuations between the coupled vibrational and electronic frequencies in the mixed valence complex which has a time scale of 1 ps. The details and results of this study confirm the versatility of 2D VE spectroscopy and its applicability to probe how vibrations modulate charge and energy transfer in a wide range of complex molecular, material, and biological systems.
Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic spectroscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Courtney, Trevor L.; Fox, Zachary W.; Slenkamp, Karla M.; Khalil, Munira, E-mail: mkhalil@uw.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Box 351700, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)
2015-10-21
Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic (2D VE) spectroscopy is a femtosecond Fourier transform (FT) third-order nonlinear technique that creates a link between existing 2D FT spectroscopies in the vibrational and electronic regions of the spectrum. 2D VE spectroscopy enables a direct measurement of infrared (IR) and electronic dipole moment cross terms by utilizing mid-IR pump and optical probe fields that are resonant with vibrational and electronic transitions, respectively, in a sample of interest. We detail this newly developed 2D VE spectroscopy experiment and outline the information contained in a 2D VE spectrum. We then use this technique and its single-pump counterpart (1D VE) to probe the vibrational-electronic couplings between high frequency cyanide stretching vibrations (ν{sub CN}) and either a ligand-to-metal charge transfer transition ([Fe{sup III}(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3−} dissolved in formamide) or a metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) transition ([(CN){sub 5}Fe{sup II}CNRu{sup III}(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}]{sup −} dissolved in formamide). The 2D VE spectra of both molecules reveal peaks resulting from coupled high- and low-frequency vibrational modes to the charge transfer transition. The time-evolving amplitudes and positions of the peaks in the 2D VE spectra report on coherent and incoherent vibrational energy transfer dynamics among the coupled vibrational modes and the charge transfer transition. The selectivity of 2D VE spectroscopy to vibronic processes is evidenced from the selective coupling of specific ν{sub CN} modes to the MMCT transition in the mixed valence complex. The lineshapes in 2D VE spectra report on the correlation of the frequency fluctuations between the coupled vibrational and electronic frequencies in the mixed valence complex which has a time scale of 1 ps. The details and results of this study confirm the versatility of 2D VE spectroscopy and its applicability to probe how vibrations modulate charge and energy transfer in a
Wideband MEMS Resonator Using Multifrequency Excitation
Jaber, Nizar; Ramini, Abdallah; Al Hennawi, Qais M.; Younis, Mohammad I.
2016-01-01
We demonstrate the excitation of combination resonances of additive and subtractive types and their exploitations to realize a large bandwidth micro-machined resonator of large amplitude even at higher harmonic modes of vibrations. The investigation is conducted on a Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) clamped-clamped microbeam fabricated using polyimide as a structural layer coated with nickel from top and chromium and gold layers from bottom. The microbeam is excited by a two-source harmonic excitation, where the first frequency source is swept around the targeted resonance (first or third mode of vibration) while the second source frequency is kept fixed. We report for the first time a large bandwidth and large amplitude response near the higher order modes of vibration. Also, we show that by properly tuning the frequency and amplitude of the excitation force, the frequency bandwidth of the resonator is controlled.
Wideband MEMS Resonator Using Multifrequency Excitation
Jaber, Nizar
2016-03-09
We demonstrate the excitation of combination resonances of additive and subtractive types and their exploitations to realize a large bandwidth micro-machined resonator of large amplitude even at higher harmonic modes of vibrations. The investigation is conducted on a Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) clamped-clamped microbeam fabricated using polyimide as a structural layer coated with nickel from top and chromium and gold layers from bottom. The microbeam is excited by a two-source harmonic excitation, where the first frequency source is swept around the targeted resonance (first or third mode of vibration) while the second source frequency is kept fixed. We report for the first time a large bandwidth and large amplitude response near the higher order modes of vibration. Also, we show that by properly tuning the frequency and amplitude of the excitation force, the frequency bandwidth of the resonator is controlled.
Mechanical vibration and shock analysis, sinusoidal vibration
Lalanne, Christian
2014-01-01
Everything engineers need to know about mechanical vibration and shock...in one authoritative reference work! This fully updated and revised 3rd edition addresses the entire field of mechanical vibration and shock as one of the most important types of load and stress applied to structures, machines and components in the real world. Examples include everything from the regular and predictable loads applied to turbines, motors or helicopters by the spinning of their constituent parts to the ability of buildings to withstand damage from wind loads or explosions, and the need for cars to m
High quality factor gigahertz frequencies in nanomechanical diamond resonators
Gaidarzhy, Alexei; Imboden, Matthias; Mohanty, Pritiraj; Rankin, Janet; Sheldon, Brian W.
2007-01-01
We report actuation and detection of gigahertz-range resonance frequencies in nano-crystalline diamond mechanical resonators. High order transverse vibration modes are measured in coupled-beam resonators exhibiting frequencies up to 1.441 GHz. The cantilever-array design of the resonators translates the gigahertz-range resonant motion of micron-long cantilever elements to the displacement of the central supporting structure. Use of nano-crystalline diamond further increases the frequency comp...
Hydroelastic Vibrations of Ships
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Folsø, Rasmus
2002-01-01
A formula for the necessary hull girder bending stiffness required to avoid serious springing vibrations is derived. The expression takes into account the zero crossing period of the waves, the ship speed and main dimensions. For whipping vibrations the probability of exceedance for the combined...
Surface vibrational spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erskine, J.L.
1984-01-01
A brief review of recent studies which combine measurements of surface vibrational energies with lattice dynamical calculations is presented. These results suggest that surface vibrational spectroscopy offers interesting prospects for use as a molecular-level probe of surface geometry, adsorbate bond distances and molecular orientations
Gearbox vibration diagnostic analyzer
1992-01-01
This report describes the Gearbox Vibration Diagnostic Analyzer installed in the NASA Lewis Research Center's 500 HP Helicopter Transmission Test Stand to monitor gearbox testing. The vibration of the gearbox is analyzed using diagnostic algorithms to calculate a parameter indicating damaged components.
Handbook Of Noise And Vibration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1995-12-01
This book is about noise and vibration. The first chapter has explanations of noise such as basic of sound, influence of noise, assessment of noise, measurement of prevention of noise and technology, case of noise measurement and soundproof. The second chapter describes vibration with outline, theory of vibration, interpretation of vibration, measurement for reduction of vibration, case of design of protection against vibration. It deals with related regulation and method of measurement.
Vibration insensitive interferometry
Millerd, James; Brock, Neal; Hayes, John; Kimbrough, Brad; North-Morris, Michael; Wyant, James C.
2017-11-01
The largest limitation of phase-shifting interferometry for optical testing is the sensitivity to the environment, both vibration and air turbulence. An interferometer using temporal phase-shifting is very sensitive to vibration because the various phase shifted frames of interferometric data are taken at different times and vibration causes the phase shifts between the data frames to be different from what is desired. Vibration effects can be reduced by taking all the phase shifted frames simultaneously and turbulence effects can be reduced by averaging many measurements. There are several techniques for simultaneously obtaining several phase-shifted interferograms and this paper will discuss two such techniques: 1) Simultaneous phase-shifting interferometry on a single detector array (PhaseCam) and 2) Micropolarizer phase-shifting array. The application of these techniques for the testing of large optical components, measurement of vibrational modes, the phasing of segmented optical components, and the measurement of deformations of large diffuse structures is described.
Vibrations of rotating machinery
Matsushita, Osami; Kanki, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masao; Keogh, Patrick
2017-01-01
This book opens with an explanation of the vibrations of a single degree-of-freedom (dof) system for all beginners. Subsequently, vibration analysis of multi-dof systems is explained by modal analysis. Mode synthesis modeling is then introduced for system reduction, which aids understanding in a simplified manner of how complicated rotors behave. Rotor balancing techniques are offered for rigid and flexible rotors through several examples. Consideration of gyroscopic influences on the rotordynamics is then provided and vibration evaluation of a rotor-bearing system is emphasized in terms of forward and backward whirl rotor motions through eigenvalue (natural frequency and damping ratio) analysis. In addition to these rotordynamics concerning rotating shaft vibration measured in a stationary reference frame, blade vibrations are analyzed with Coriolis forces expressed in a rotating reference frame. Other phenomena that may be assessed in stationary and rotating reference frames include stability characteristic...
Evaluation and analysis of nuclear resonance data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frohner, F.H.
2000-01-01
A probabilistic foundations of data evaluation are reviewed, with special emphasis on parameter estimation based on Bayes' theorem and a quadratic loss function, and on modern methods for the assignment of prior probabilities. The data reduction process leading from raw experimental data to evaluated computer files of nuclear reaction cross sections is outlined, with a discussion of systematic and statistical errors and their propagation and of the generalized least squares formalism including prior information and nonlinear theoretical models. It is explained how common errors induce correlations between data, what consequences they have for uncertainty propagation and sensitivity studies, and how evaluators can construct covariance matrices from the usual error information provided by experimentalists. New techniques for evaluation of inconsistent data are also presented. The general principles are then applied specifically to the analysis and evaluation of neutron resonance data in terms of theoretical models - R-matrix theory (and especially its practically used multi-level Breit-Wigner and Reich-Moore variants) in the resolved region, and resonance-averaged R-matrix theory (Hauser-Feshbach theory with width-fluctuation corrections) in the unresolved region. Complications arise because the measured transmission data, capture and fission yields, self-indication ratios and other observables are not yet the wanted cross sections. These are obtained only by means of parametrisation. The intervening effects - Doppler and resolution broadening, self-shielding, multiple scattering, backgrounds, sample impurities, energy-dependent detector efficiencies, inaccurate reference data etc - are therefore also discussed. (author)
Flow induced vibrations of piping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gibert, R.J.; Axisa, F.
1977-01-01
In order to design the supports of piping systems, estimations of the vibrations induced by the fluid conveyed through the pipes are generally needed. For that purpose it is necessary to calculate the model parameters of liquid containing pipes. In most computer codes, fluid effects are accounted for just by adding the fluid mass to the structure. This may lead to serious errors. This paper presents a method to take into account these effects, by solving a coupled mechanical-acoustical problem: the computer code TEDEL of the C.E.A /D.E.M.T. System, based on the finite-elements method, has been extended to calculate simultaneously the pressure fluctuations in the fluid and the vibrations of the pipe. By this way the mechanical-acoustical coupled eigenmodes of any piping system can be obtained. These eigenmodes are used to determine the response of the system to various sources. Equations have been written in the hypohesis that acoustical wave lengths remain large compared to the diameter of the pipe. The method has been checked by an experiment performed on the GASCOGNE loop at D.E.M.T. The piping system under test consists of a tube with four elbows. The circuit is ended at each extremity by a large vessel which performs acoustical isolation by generating modes for the pressure. Excitation of the circuit is caused by a valve located near the downstream vessel. This provides an efficient localised broad band acoustical source. The comparison between the test results and the calculations has shown that the low frequency resonant characteristics of the pipe and the vibrational amplitude at various flow-rates can be correctly predicted
Coherent lattice vibrations in superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kadin, Alan M.
2008-01-01
A recent analysis has shown that the pair wavefunction within the BCS theory may be represented in real-space as a spherical electronic orbital (on the scale of the coherence length ξ 0 ) coupled to a standing-wave lattice vibration with wavevector 2k F and a near-resonant phonon frequency. The present paper extends this picture to a coherent pattern of phonon standing-waves on the macroscopic scale, with electrons forming Bloch waves and an energy gap much like those in the classic band theory of crystals. These parallel planes form a diffractive waveguide permitting electron waves to traveling parallel to the planes, corresponding to lossless supercurrent. A similar picture may be extended to unconventional superconductors such as the cuprates, with an array of standing spin waves rather than phonons. Such coherent lattice vibrations should be universal indicators of the superconducting state, and should be observable below T c using X-ray and neutron diffraction techniques. Further implications of this picture are discussed
Efficient primary and parametric resonance excitation of bistable resonators
Ramini, Abdallah
2016-09-12
We experimentally demonstrate an efficient approach to excite primary and parametric (up to the 4th) resonance of Microelectromechanical system MEMS arch resonators with large vibrational amplitudes. A single crystal silicon in-plane arch microbeam is fabricated such that it can be excited axially from one of its ends by a parallel-plate electrode. Its micro/nano scale vibrations are transduced using a high speed camera. Through the parallel-plate electrode, a time varying electrostatic force is applied, which is converted into a time varying axial force that modulates dynamically the stiffness of the arch resonator. Due to the initial curvature of the structure, not only parametric excitation is induced, but also primary resonance. Experimental investigation is conducted comparing the response of the arch near primary resonance using the axial excitation to that of a classical parallel-plate actuation where the arch itself forms an electrode. The results show that the axial excitation can be more efficient and requires less power for primary resonance excitation. Moreover, unlike the classical method where the structure is vulnerable to the dynamic pull-in instability, the axial excitation technique can provide large amplitude motion while protecting the structure from pull-in. In addition to primary resonance, parametrical resonances are demonstrated at twice, one-half, and two-thirds the primary resonance frequency. The ability to actuate primary and/or parametric resonances can serve various applications, such as for resonator based logic and memory devices. (C) 2016 Author(s). All article content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license
Super-multiplex vibrational imaging
Wei, Lu; Chen, Zhixing; Shi, Lixue; Long, Rong; Anzalone, Andrew V.; Zhang, Luyuan; Hu, Fanghao; Yuste, Rafael; Cornish, Virginia W.; Min, Wei
2017-04-01
The ability to visualize directly a large number of distinct molecular species inside cells is increasingly essential for understanding complex systems and processes. Even though existing methods have successfully been used to explore structure-function relationships in nervous systems, to profile RNA in situ, to reveal the heterogeneity of tumour microenvironments and to study dynamic macromolecular assembly, it remains challenging to image many species with high selectivity and sensitivity under biological conditions. For instance, fluorescence microscopy faces a ‘colour barrier’, owing to the intrinsically broad (about 1,500 inverse centimetres) and featureless nature of fluorescence spectra that limits the number of resolvable colours to two to five (or seven to nine if using complicated instrumentation and analysis). Spontaneous Raman microscopy probes vibrational transitions with much narrower resonances (peak width of about 10 inverse centimetres) and so does not suffer from this problem, but weak signals make many bio-imaging applications impossible. Although surface-enhanced Raman scattering offers high sensitivity and multiplicity, it cannot be readily used to image specific molecular targets quantitatively inside live cells. Here we use stimulated Raman scattering under electronic pre-resonance conditions to image target molecules inside living cells with very high vibrational selectivity and sensitivity (down to 250 nanomolar with a time constant of 1 millisecond). We create a palette of triple-bond-conjugated near-infrared dyes that each displays a single peak in the cell-silent Raman spectral window; when combined with available fluorescent probes, this palette provides 24 resolvable colours, with the potential for further expansion. Proof-of-principle experiments on neuronal co-cultures and brain tissues reveal cell-type-dependent heterogeneities in DNA and protein metabolism under physiological and pathological conditions, underscoring the
Radiofrequency/infrared double resonance spectroscopy of the HD+ ion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carrington, Alan; McNab, I.R.; Montgomerie, C.A.
1989-01-01
We describe a double resonance technique for obtaining radiofrequency spectra of the HD + ion in vibration-rotation levels close to the dissociation limit. Infrared transitions are driven by Doppler tuning an HD + ion beam into resonance with a carbon dioxide infrared laser, and are detected by measuring H + fragment ions produced by electric field dissociation of the upper vibration-rotation level. Radiofrequency transitions between nuclear hyperfine components of the lower vibration-rotation level are then detected through resonant increases in the H + fragment ion current. The high spectroscopic resolution obtained, and the ability to measure magnetic dipole hyperfine transitions, will enable the hyperfine constants to be determined accurately. (author)
Hasan, M. H.
2018-01-12
Achieving large signal-noise ratio using low levels of excitation signal is key requirement for practical applications of micro and nano electromechanical resonators. In this work, we introduce the double electromechanical resonance drive concept to achieve an order-of-magnitude dynamic signal amplification in micro resonators. The concept relies on simultaneously activating the micro-resonator mechanical and electrical resonance frequencies. We report an input voltage amplification up to 15 times for a micro-resonator when its electrical resonance is tuned to match the mechanical resonance that leads to dynamic signal amplification in air (Quality factor enhancement). Furthermore, using a multi-frequency excitation technique, input voltage and vibrational amplification of up to 30 times were shown for the same micro-resonator while relaxing the need to match its mechanical and electrical resonances.
Hasan, M. H.; Alsaleem, F. M.; Jaber, Nizar; Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al; Younis, Mohammad I.
2018-01-01
Achieving large signal-noise ratio using low levels of excitation signal is key requirement for practical applications of micro and nano electromechanical resonators. In this work, we introduce the double electromechanical resonance drive concept to achieve an order-of-magnitude dynamic signal amplification in micro resonators. The concept relies on simultaneously activating the micro-resonator mechanical and electrical resonance frequencies. We report an input voltage amplification up to 15 times for a micro-resonator when its electrical resonance is tuned to match the mechanical resonance that leads to dynamic signal amplification in air (Quality factor enhancement). Furthermore, using a multi-frequency excitation technique, input voltage and vibrational amplification of up to 30 times were shown for the same micro-resonator while relaxing the need to match its mechanical and electrical resonances.
Apparatus and method for non-contact, acoustic resonance determination of intraocular pressure
Sinha, D.N.; Wray, W.O.
1994-12-27
The apparatus and method for measuring intraocular pressure changes in an eye under investigation by detection of vibrational resonances therein. An ultrasonic transducer operating at its resonant frequency is amplitude modulated and swept over a range of audio frequencies in which human eyes will resonate. The output therefrom is focused onto the eye under investigation, and the resonant vibrations of the eye observed using a fiber-optic reflection vibration sensor. Since the resonant frequency of the eye is dependent on the pressure therein, changes in intraocular pressure may readily be determined after a baseline pressure is established. 3 figures.
Silicon micromachined vibrating gyroscopes
Voss, Ralf
1997-09-01
This work gives an overview of silicon micromachined vibrating gyroscopes. Market perspectives and fields of application are pointed out. The advantage of using silicon micromachining is discussed and estimations of the desired performance, especially for automobiles are given. The general principle of vibrating gyroscopes is explained. Vibrating silicon gyroscopes can be divided into seven classes. for each class the characteristic principle is presented and examples are given. Finally a specific sensor, based on a tuning fork for automotive applications with a sensitivity of 250(mu) V/degrees is described in detail.
System Detects Vibrational Instabilities
Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.
1990-01-01
Sustained vibrations at two critical frequencies trigger diagnostic response or shutdown. Vibration-analyzing electronic system detects instabilities of combustion in rocket engine. Controls pulse-mode firing of engine and identifies vibrations above threshold amplitude at 5.9 and/or 12kHz. Adapted to other detection and/or control schemes involving simultaneous real-time detection of signals above or below preset amplitudes at two or more specified frequencies. Potential applications include rotating machinery and encoders and decoders in security systems.
Lanzani, Guglielmo; De Silvestri, Sandro
2007-01-01
Vibrational spectroscopy is a powerful investigation tool for a wide class of materials covering diverse areas in physics, chemistry and biology. The continuous development in the laser field regarding ultrashort pulse generation has led to the possibility of producing light pulses that can follow vibrational motion coupled to the electronic transitions in molecules and solids in real time. Aimed at researchers and graduate students using vibrational spectroscopy, this book provides both introductory chapters as well as more advanced contents reporting on recent progress. It also provides a good starting point for scientists seeking a sound introduction to ultrafast optics and spectroscopic techniques.
Vibrational excitation in a hydrogen volume source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eenshuistra, P.J.
1989-01-01
In this thesis the complex of processes which determines the D - or H - density in a volume source, a hydrogen discharge, is studied. D - beams are of interest for driving the current of a fusion plasma in a TOKAMAK. Densities of vibrationally excited molecules, of H atoms, and of metastable hydrogen molecules were determined using Resonance-Enhanced MultiPhoton Ionization (REMPI). An experiment in which vibrationally highly excited molecules are formed by recombination of atoms in a cold metal surface, is described. The production and destruction of vibrationally excited molecules and atoms in the discharge is discussed. The vibrational distribution for 3≤ν≤5 (ν = vibrational quantumnumber) is strongly super-thermal. This effect is more apparent at higher discharge current and lower gas pressure. The analysis with a model based on rate equations, which molecules are predominantly produced by primary electron excitation of hydrogen molecules and deexcited upon one wall collision. The atom production is compatible with dissociation of molecules by primary electrons, dissociation of molecules on the filaments, and collisions between positive ions and electrons. The electrons are predominantly destroyed by recombination on the walls. Finally the production and destruction of H - in the discharge are discussed. The density of H - in the plasma, the electron density and temperature were determined. H - extraction was measured. The ratio of the extracted H - current and the H - density in the plasma gives an indication of the drift velocity of H - in the plasma. This velocity determines the emittance of the extracted beam. It was found that the H - velocity scales with the square root of the electron temperature. The measured H - densities are compatible with a qualitative model in which dissociative attachment of plasma electrons to vibrationally excited molecules is the most important process. (author). 136 refs.; 39 figs.; 10 tabs
PREFACE: Vibrations at surfaces Vibrations at surfaces
Rahman, Talat S.
2011-12-01
This special issue is dedicated to the phenomenon of vibrations at surfaces—a topic that was indispensible a couple of decades ago, since it was one of the few phenomena capable of revealing the nature of binding at solid surfaces. For clean surfaces, the frequencies of modes with characteristic displacement patterns revealed how surface geometry, as well as the nature of binding between atoms in the surface layers, could be different from that in the bulk solid. Dispersion of the surface phonons provided further measures of interatomic interactions. For chemisorbed molecules on surfaces, frequencies and dispersion of the vibrational modes were also critical for determining adsorption sites. In other words, vibrations at surfaces served as a reliable means of extracting information about surface structure, chemisorption and overlayer formation. Experimental techniques, such as electron energy loss spectroscopy and helium-atom-surface scattering, coupled with infra-red spectroscopy, were continually refined and their resolutions enhanced to capture subtleties in the dynamics of atoms and molecules at surfaces. Theoretical methods, whether based on empirical and semi-empirical interatomic potential or on ab initio electronic structure calculations, helped decipher experimental observations and provide deeper insights into the nature of the bond between atoms and molecules in regions of reduced symmetry, as encountered on solid surfaces. Vibrations at surfaces were thus an integral part of the set of phenomena that characterized surface science. Dedicated workshops and conferences were held to explore the variety of interesting and puzzling features revealed in experimental and theoretical investigations of surface vibrational modes and their dispersion. One such conference, Vibrations at Surfaces, first organized by Harald Ibach in Juelich in 1980, continues to this day. The 13th International Conference on Vibrations at Surfaces was held at the University of
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Søren R. K.
The present textbook has been written based on previous lecture notes for a course on stochastic vibration theory that is being given on the 9th semester at Aalborg University for M. Sc. students in structural engineering. The present 4th edition of this textbook on linear stochastic vibration th...... theory is unchanged in comparison to the 3rd edition. Only a few errors have been corrected.......The present textbook has been written based on previous lecture notes for a course on stochastic vibration theory that is being given on the 9th semester at Aalborg University for M. Sc. students in structural engineering. The present 4th edition of this textbook on linear stochastic vibration...
Improved Laser Vibration Radar
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Hilaire, Pierre
1998-01-01
.... This thesis reconfigured an existing CO2 laboratory laser radar system that is capable of measuring the frequencies of vibration of a simulated target into a more compact and rugged form for field testing...
NIF Ambient Vibration Measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noble, C.R.; Hoehler, M.S.; S.C. Sommer
1999-01-01
LLNL has an ongoing research and development project that includes developing data acquisition systems with remote wireless communication for monitoring the vibrations of large civil engineering structures. In order to establish the capability of performing remote sensing over an extended period of time, the researchers needed to apply this technology to a real structure. The construction of the National Ignition Facility provided an opportunity to test the data acquisition system on a large structure to monitor whether the facility is remaining within the strict ambient vibration guidelines. This document will briefly discuss the NIF ambient vibration requirements and summarize the vibration measurements performed during the Spring and Summer of 1999. In addition, a brief description of the sensors and the data acquisition systems will be provided in Appendix B
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alekhin, S.A.; Denisenko, V.V.; Dzhalalov, M.G.; Kirichek, F.P.; Pitatel, Yu.A.; Prokopov, L.I.; Tikhonov, Yu.P.
1982-01-01
A vibration sieve is proposed which includes a vibration drive, a body and a screen installed on shock absorbers, a device for washing out the screen, and a subassembly for loading the material. To increase the operational reliability and effectiveness of the vibration sieve by improving the cleaning of the screen, the loading subassembly is equipped with a baffle with a lever which is hinged to it. The device for washing out the screen is made in the form of an electromagnet with a connecting rod, a switch and an eccentric, a friction ratchet mechanism and sprinkling systems. Here, the latter are interconnected, using a connecting rod, while the sprinkling system is installed on rollers under the screen. The electromagnetic switch is installed under the lever. The body is made with grooves for installing the sprinkling system. The vibration sieve is equipped with a switch which interacts with the connecting rod. The friction ratchet mechanism is equipped with a lug.
Structural Stability and Vibration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wiggers, Sine Leergaard; Pedersen, Pauli
This book offers an integrated introduction to the topic of stability and vibration. Strikingly, it describes stability as a function of boundary conditions and eigenfrequency as a function of both boundary conditions and column force. Based on a post graduate course held by the author at the Uni...... and their derivation, thus stimulating them to write interactive and dynamic programs to analyze instability and vibrational modes....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Philip J. Reid
2009-09-21
The conference focuses on using vibrational spectroscopy to probe structure and dynamics of molecules in gases, liquids, and interfaces. The goal is to bring together a collection of researchers who share common interests and who will gain from discussing work at the forefront of several connected areas. The intent is to emphasize the insights and understanding that studies of vibrations provide about a variety of systems.
Projection-operator calculations of the lowest e(-)-He resonance
Berk, A.; Bhatia, A. K.; Junker, B. R.; Temkin, A.
1986-01-01
The 1s (2s)2:2S Schulz resonance of He(-) is investigated theoretically, applying the full projection-operator formalism developed by Temkin and Bhatia (1985) in a Rayleigh-Ritz variational calculation. The technique is described in detail, and results for five different approximations of the He target state are presented in a table. Good convergence is obtained, but it is found that even the best calculated value of the resonance is about 130 meV higher than the experimentally measured value of 19.367 + or - 0.007 eV (Brunt et al., 1977), a discrepancy attributed to the contribution of the shift in the Feshbach formalism.
Fluid elastic vibration of nuclear fuel assemblies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, S. N.; Jung, S. Y.
1998-01-01
Since utilities and fuel venders have adopted the fuel design of high burn-up and improved thermal margin flow mixing vane, several PWR nuclear power plants have in recent years experienced fretting wear fuel rod failure due to flow induced vibration. Flow induced vibration can be resulted from fluidelastic instability, periodic shedding, turbulence-induced excitation, and acoustic resonance (1). Among these mechanisms found in the core of nuclear power plant, the governing mechanism that is fluidelastic instability, could be inferred from the analysis of fuel failure patterns. Therefore, to simulate the fuel failure in nuclear power plants, Tanaka's model (2) was chosen as most suitable one, which is well explaining the damage pattern, in particular it's second row damage characteristics. In the model, unsteady fluid dynamic forces acting on the vibrating cyclinders were included which consists of the inertia forces due to the added mass of fluid, damping forces of fluid in phase to the cylinder vibrating velocity, and stiffness forces proportional to cylinder displacements. However, the model did not account for radiation effect-spring forces deflection. So, the model was modified to account for the spring force relaxation due to radiation exposure. The stiffness of spring was fitted with experimental data. Finally the critical velocities were calculated with the modified spring force at beginning and end of cycle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergeman, T.; Moore, M.G.; Olshanii, M.
2003-01-01
It was recently predicted [Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 938 (1998)10.1103/PhysRevLett.81.938] that atom-atom scattering under transverse harmonic confinement is subject to a 'confinement-induced resonance' where the effective one-dimensional coupling strength diverges at a particular ratio of the confinement and scattering lengths. As the initial prediction made use of the zero-range pseudopotential approximation, we now report numerical results for finite-range interaction potentials that corroborate this resonance. In addition, we now present a physical interpretation of this effect as a novel type of Feshbach resonance in which the transverse modes of the confining potential assume the roles of 'open' and 'closed' scattering channels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhou Danfeng
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The maglev vehicle-girder coupled vibration problem has been encountered in many maglev test or commercial lines, which significantly degrade the performance of the maglev train. In previous research on the principle of the coupled vibration problem, it has been discovered that the fundamental model of the maglev girder can be simplified as a series of mass-spring resonators of different but related resonance frequencies, and that the stability of the vehicle-girder coupled system can be investigated by separately examining the stability of each mass-spring resonator – electromagnet coupled system. Based on this conclusion, a maglev test platform, which includes a single electromagnetic suspension control system, is built for experimental study of the coupled vibration problem. The guideway of the test platform is supported by a number of springs so as to change its flexibility. The mass of the guideway can also be changed by adjusting extra weights attached to it. By changing the flexibility and mass of the guideway, the rules of the maglev vehicle-girder coupled vibration problem are to be examined through experiments, and related theory on the vehicle-girder self-excited vibration proposed in previous research is also testified.
Performance Study of Diagonally Segmented Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvester
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Jae Eun [Catholic Univ. of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)
2013-08-15
This study proposes a piezoelectric vibration energy harvester composed of two diagonally segmented energy harvesting units. An auxiliary structural unit is attached to the tip of a host structural unit cantilevered to a vibrating base, where the two components have beam axes in opposite directions from each other and matched short-circuit resonant frequencies. Contrary to the usual observations in two resonant frequency-matched structures, the proposed structure shows little eigenfrequency separation and yields a mode sequence change between the first two modes. These lead to maximum power generation around a specific frequency. By using commercial finite element software, it is shown that the magnitude of the output power from the proposed vibration energy harvester can be substantially improved in comparison with those from conventional cantilevered energy harvesters with the same footprint area and magnitude of a tip mass.
Damping Estimation Using Free Decays and Ambient Vibration Tests
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Magalhães, Filipe; Brincker, Rune; Cunha, Álvaro
2007-01-01
The accurate identification of modal damping ratios of Civil Engineering structures is a subject of major importance, as the amplitude of structural vibrations in resonance is inversely proportional to these coefficients. Their experimental identification can be performed either from ambient vibr...
Generation of three-mode nonclassical vibrational states of ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen Ba An; Truong Minh Duc
2002-01-01
We propose using eight lasers with appropriate orientations and conditions to generate stable trio coherent states of an ion in a three-dimensional isotropic trap. Seven lasers whose orientations are important should be detuned to the third lower sideband of the ion vibrational motion. The eighth laser whose direction is not important should be in resonance with the ionic transition
Spectroscopic probes of vibrationally excited molecules at chemically significant energies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rizzo, T.R. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)
1993-12-01
This project involves the application of multiple-resonance spectroscopic techniques for investigating energy transfer and dissociation dynamics of highly vibrationally excited molecules. Two major goals of this work are: (1) to provide information on potential energy surfaces of combustion related molecules at chemically significant energies, and (2) to test theoretical modes of unimolecular dissociation rates critically via quantum-state resolved measurements.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arjmand, F. [Aligarh Muslim Univ., Aligarh (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Sharma, S. [Aligarh Muslim Univ., Aligarh (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Usman, M. [Aligarh Muslim Univ., Aligarh (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Leu, B. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS); Hu, M. Y. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS); Toupet, L. [Univ. de Rennes, Rennes (France). Inst. de Physique de Rennes; Gosztola, David J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Nanoscale Materials; Tabassum, S. [Aligarh Muslim Univ., Aligarh (India). Dept. of Chemistry
2016-06-21
The vibrational dynamics of a newly synthesized tetrastannoxane was characterized with a combination of experimental (Raman, IR and tin-based nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy) and computational (DFT/B3LYP) methods, with an emphasis on the vibrations of the tin sites. The cytotoxic activity revealed a significant regression selectively against the human pancreatic cell lines.
Experimental Investigation of 2:1 and 3:1 Internal Resonances in Nonlinear MEMS Arch Resonators
Ramini, Abdallah
2016-12-05
We demonstrate experimentally internal resonances in MEMS resonators. The investigation is conducted on in-plane MEMS arch resonators fabricated with a highly doped silicon. The resonators are actuated electrostatically and their stiffness are tuned by electrothermal loading by passing an electrical current though the microstructures. We show that through this tuning, the ratio of the various resonance frequencies can be varied and set at certain ratios. Particularly, we adjust the resonance frequencies of two different vibrational modes to 2:1 and 3:1. Finally, we validate the internal resonances at these ratios through frequency-response curves and FFTs.
Experimental Investigation of 2:1 and 3:1 Internal Resonances in Nonlinear MEMS Arch Resonators
Ramini, Abdallah; Hajjaj, Amal Z.; Younis, Mohammad I.
2016-01-01
We demonstrate experimentally internal resonances in MEMS resonators. The investigation is conducted on in-plane MEMS arch resonators fabricated with a highly doped silicon. The resonators are actuated electrostatically and their stiffness are tuned by electrothermal loading by passing an electrical current though the microstructures. We show that through this tuning, the ratio of the various resonance frequencies can be varied and set at certain ratios. Particularly, we adjust the resonance frequencies of two different vibrational modes to 2:1 and 3:1. Finally, we validate the internal resonances at these ratios through frequency-response curves and FFTs.
The vibration measurements at the photon factory storage ring building
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haga, K.; Nakayama, M.; Masuda, K.; Ishizaki, H.; Kura, M.; Meng, L.; Oku, Y.
1999-01-01
The Photon Factory is a 2.5 GeV electron storage ring and has been operating since 1982 as a dedicated SR source. At the Photon Factory, we have been pursuing the various sources of the beam instabilities which deteriorated the SR beam quality in the wide frequency range. Some of the sources were the vibrations of magnets and floor of the ring tunnel, temperature change of the cooling water and the elongation of the storage ring building roof due to sunshine that induced the diurnal motion of the SR beam axis. This article presents the results of the vibration measurements that have been performed at the Photon Factory storage ring building. (1) The vibrations of the ring tunnel floor and the experimental hall floor, comparing with the vibration of the ground surrounding the storage ring building, are same order in the 1 ∼ 5 Hz range, and 1/3 ∼ 1/5 in the 5 ∼ 100 Hz range, in the vertical and the horizontal direction. (2) The effects of the vibration arising from the operating eight air-conditioners can be seen in the Fourier spectrum of the vibration of the ring tunnel floor, experimental floor, Q-magnets and BPM vacuum duct. (3) The vibrations of the Q-magnet and girder at frequencies near their fundamental resonant frequencies have been amplified 100 limes in the lateral direction comparing to the floor vibration. (4) Correlation between the vibration of the BPM vacuum duct and the vibration of the electron beam motion is unknown for the lack of the precise data. (authors)
Scott, Aubrey D; Pelmenschikov, Vladimir; Guo, Yisong; Yan, Lifen; Wang, Hongxin; George, Simon J; Dapper, Christie H; Newton, William E; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Yoshihito; Cramer, Stephen P
2014-11-12
The properties of CO-inhibited Azotobacter vinelandii (Av) Mo-nitrogenase (N2ase) have been examined by the combined application of nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), and density functional theory (DFT). Dramatic changes in the NRVS are seen under high-CO conditions, especially in a 188 cm(-1) mode associated with symmetric breathing of the central cage of the FeMo-cofactor. Similar changes are reproduced with the α-H195Q N2ase variant. In the frequency region above 450 cm(-1), additional features are seen that are assigned to Fe-CO bending and stretching modes (confirmed by (13)CO isotope shifts). The EXAFS for wild-type N2ase shows evidence for a significant cluster distortion under high-CO conditions, most dramatically in the splitting of the interaction between Mo and the shell of Fe atoms originally at 5.08 Å in the resting enzyme. A DFT model with both a terminal -CO and a partially reduced -CHO ligand bound to adjacent Fe sites is consistent with both earlier FT-IR experiments, and the present EXAFS and NRVS observations for the wild-type enzyme. Another DFT model with two terminal CO ligands on the adjacent Fe atoms yields Fe-CO bands consistent with the α-H195Q variant NRVS. The calculations also shed light on the vibrational "shake" modes of the interstitial atom inside the central cage, and their interaction with the Fe-CO modes. Implications for the CO and N2 reactivity of N2ase are discussed.
Piezoelectric transducer vibrations in a one-dimensional approximation
Hilke, H J
1973-01-01
The theory of piezoelectric transducer vibrations, which may be treated as one-dimensional, is developed in detail for thin discs vibrating in a pure thickness extensional mode. An effort has been made to obtain relations of general validity, which include losses, and which are in a simple explicit form convenient for practical calculations. The behaviour of transducers is discussed with special attention to their characteristics at the two fundamental frequencies, the so-called parallel and series resonances. Several peculiarities occur when transducers are coupled to media with considerably different acoustic impedances. These peculiarities are discussed and illustrated by numerical results for quartz and PZT 4 piezoelectric discs radiating into water, air and liquid hydrogen. The application of the theory to different types of vibrations is briefly illustrated for thin bars vibrating longitudinally. Short discussions are included on compound transducer systems, and on the properties of thin discs as receiv...
OPTIMAL AUTOMOBILE MUFFLER VIBRATION AND NOISE ANALYSIS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sujit Kumar Jha
2013-06-01
Full Text Available The muffler is the main part of the Automobile Exhaust System, consisting of fibrous and porous materials to absorb noise and vibrations. The exhaust gas mass coming from the engine can produce resonance, which may be the source of fatigue failure in the exhaust pipe due to the presence of continuous resonance. The modes on the muffler should be located away from the engine’s operating frequencies in order to minimise the resonance. The objective of this paper is to determine the frequencies that appear at the modes, which have the more adverse effect during the operation of the automobile. An impact test has been conducted by applying the force using a hard head hammer, and data generated have been used for plotting a graph of the transfer functions using MATLAB. Six points have been selected, namely 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 11 on the muffler for the impact test. The collected data from theses six points have been analysed for the addition of damping. Results suggests that increasing the mass increases the damping and lowers the modes of the transfer function. Further research will identify higher strength materials that can withstand the higher gas temperatures as well as the corrosion and erosion by the gas emitted from the engine. muffler, noise, vibration,modal analysis,
Vibrational Characteristics of ring-type ultrasonic motor stator using ESPI
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jung, Hyun Kyu; Paik, Sung Hoon; Kim, Seung Ho; Park, Ki Jun; Wang, Young Sung
2001-01-01
A stator of ring-type ultrasonic motor composed of the piezoelectric ceramic and the elastic metal was made to generate the travelling wave. Vibrational behavior of the stator was simulated by a finite element analysis using ATILA program and was measured by the electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) method. The resonance frequencies and vibration modes were analysed depending upon the comparison between the finite element analysis and ESPI measurement. The optimal vibration mode and frequency was estimated to be 7th resonant mode which was corresponded to the measured frequency of 39 KHz. It could be concluded that this fabricated stator can be applied for ring-type ultrasonic motor.
Bates, Alan
2017-12-01
The measurement of the speed of sound in air with the resonance tube is a popular experiment that often yields accurate results. One approach is to hold a vibrating tuning fork over an air column that is partially immersed in water. The column is raised and lowered in the water until the generated standing wave produces resonance: this occurs at the point where sound is perceived to have maximum loudness, or at the point where the amplitude of the standing wave has maximum value, namely an antinode. An antinode coincides with the position of the tuning fork, beyond the end of the air column, which consequently introduces an end correction. One way to minimize this end correction is to measure the distance between consecutive antinodes.
Vibration transducer calibration techniques
Brinkley, D. J.
1980-09-01
Techniques for the calibration of vibration transducers used in the Aeronautical Quality Assurance Directorate of the British Ministry of Defence are presented. Following a review of the types of measurements necessary in the calibration of vibration transducers, the performance requirements of vibration transducers, which can be used to measure acceleration, velocity or vibration amplitude, are discussed, with particular attention given to the piezoelectric accelerometer. Techniques for the accurate measurement of sinusoidal vibration amplitude in reference-grade transducers are then considered, including the use of a position sensitive photocell and the use of a Michelson laser interferometer. Means of comparing the output of working-grade accelerometers with that of previously calibrated reference-grade devices are then outlined, with attention given to a method employing a capacitance bridge technique and a method to be used at temperatures between -50 and 200 C. Automatic calibration procedures developed to speed up the calibration process are outlined, and future possible extensions of system software are indicated.
Optimal Damping of Stays in Cable-Stayed Bridges for In-Plane Vibrations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, C.N.; Nielsen, S.R.K.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2002-01-01
cable-stayed bridges are often designed as twin cables with a spacing of, say 1m. In such cases, it is suggested in the paper to suppress the mentioned in-plane types of vibrations by means of a tuned mass–damper (TMD) placed between the twin cables at their midpoints. The TMD divides the stay into four......Significant vibrations have been reported in stays of recently constructed cable stayed bridges. The vibrations appear as in-plane vibrations that may be caused by rain–wind- induced aeroelastic interaction or by resonance excitation of the cables from the motion of the pylons. The stays of modern...
Lyu, Bai-cheng; Wu, Wen-hua; Yao, Wei-an; Du, Yu
2017-06-01
Mooring system is the key equipment of FPSO safe operation. The soft yoke mooring system is regarded as one of the best shallow water mooring strategies and widely applied to the oil exploitation in the Bohai Bay in China and the Gulf of Mexico. Based on the analysis of numerous monitoring data obtained by the prototype monitoring system of one FPSO in the Bohai Bay, the on-site lateral vibration behaviors found on the site of the soft yoke subject to wave load were analyzed. ADAMS simulation and model experiment were utilized to analyze the soft yoke lateral vibration and it was determined that lateral vibration was resonance behaviors caused by wave excitation. On the basis of the soft yoke longitudinal restoring force being guaranteed, a TLD-based vibration damper system was constructed and the vibration reduction experiments with multi-tank space and multi-load conditions were developed. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed TLD vibration reduction system can effectively reduce lateral vibration of soft yoke structures.
Resonant tunneling of electrons in quantum wires
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krive, I.V.; Shekhter, R.I.; Jonson, M.; Krive, I.V.
2010-01-01
We considered resonant electron tunneling in various nanostructures including single wall carbon nanotubes, molecular transistors and quantum wires formed in two-dimensional electron gas. The review starts with a textbook description of resonant tunneling of noninteracting electrons through a double-barrier structure. The effects of electron-electron interaction in sequential and resonant electron tunneling are studied by using Luttinger liquid model of electron transport in quantum wires. The experimental aspects of the problem (fabrication of quantum wires and transport measurements) are also considered. The influence of vibrational and electromechanical effects on resonant electron tunneling in molecular transistors is discussed.
Nakadate, S; Isshiki, M
1997-01-01
Real-time vibration measurement by a tilted holographic interferogram is presented that utilizes the real-time digital fringe processor of a video signal. Three intensity data sampled at every one-third of the fringe spacing of the tilted fringes are used to calculate the modulation term of the fringe that is a function of a vibration amplitude. A three-dimensional lookup table performs the calculation in a TV repetition rate to give a new fringe profile that contours the vibration amplitude. Vibration modes at the resonant frequencies of a flat speaker were displayed on a monitor as changing the exciting frequency of vibration.
Recovering Intrinsic Fragmental Vibrations Using the Generalized Subsystem Vibrational Analysis.
Tao, Yunwen; Tian, Chuan; Verma, Niraj; Zou, Wenli; Wang, Chao; Cremer, Dieter; Kraka, Elfi
2018-05-08
Normal vibrational modes are generally delocalized over the molecular system, which makes it difficult to assign certain vibrations to specific fragments or functional groups. We introduce a new approach, the Generalized Subsystem Vibrational Analysis (GSVA), to extract the intrinsic fragmental vibrations of any fragment/subsystem from the whole system via the evaluation of the corresponding effective Hessian matrix. The retention of the curvature information with regard to the potential energy surface for the effective Hessian matrix endows our approach with a concrete physical basis and enables the normal vibrational modes of different molecular systems to be legitimately comparable. Furthermore, the intrinsic fragmental vibrations act as a new link between the Konkoli-Cremer local vibrational modes and the normal vibrational modes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lyashenko Mikhail
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes mechanism and control algorithm for pneumatic relaxation system of suspension with vibration energy recuperation applied to standard vehicle operator seat (“Sibeko” company. Mathematical model of the seat pneumatic relaxation suspension with two additional air volumes was created. Pneumatic motor – recuperator activated by means of air flow from the one additional volume to another is installed in air piping between additional volumes. Computational research was made in Matlab/Simulink. Amplitude-frequency characteristics of transmission coefficient for standard and proposed suspensions were plotted for preliminary evaluation of vibration protection properties of seat suspension. Performed comparative analysis of amplitude-frequency characteristics shows that noticeable improvement of vibration protection properties of pneumatic relaxation suspension system with vibration energy recuperation in comparison with standard system both in region of resonance disturbances and in above-resonance region. Main ways for further improvement of vibration protection properties of proposed system were marked out.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Y. Z.; Ding, X. D.; Xiong, X. M.; Zhang, J. X.
2007-01-01
Relations between various values of the internal friction (tgδ, Q -1 , Q -1* , and Λ/π) measured by free decay and forced vibration are analyzed systemically based on a fundamental mechanical model in this paper. Additionally, relations between various natural frequencies, such as vibration frequency of free decay ω FD , displacement-resonant frequency of forced vibration ω d , and velocity-resonant frequency of forced vibration ω 0 are calculated. Moreover, measurement of natural frequencies of a copper specimen of 99.9% purity has been made to demonstrate the relation between the measured natural frequencies of the system by forced vibration and free decay. These results are of importance for not only more accurate measurement of the elastic modulus of materials but also the data conversion between different internal friction measurements
Energy scavenging from environmental vibration.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Galchev, Tzeno (University of Michigan); Apblett, Christopher Alan; Najafi, Khalil (University of Michigan)
2009-10-01
The goal of this project is to develop an efficient energy scavenger for converting ambient low-frequency vibrations into electrical power. In order to achieve this a novel inertial micro power generator architecture has been developed that utilizes the bi-stable motion of a mechanical mass to convert a broad range of low-frequency (< 30Hz), and large-deflection (>250 {micro}m) ambient vibrations into high-frequency electrical output energy. The generator incorporates a bi-stable mechanical structure to initiate high-frequency mechanical oscillations in an electromagnetic scavenger. This frequency up-conversion technique enhances the electromechanical coupling and increases the generated power. This architecture is called the Parametric Frequency Increased Generator (PFIG). Three generations of the device have been fabricated. It was first demonstrated using a larger bench-top prototype that had a functional volume of 3.7cm3. It generated a peak power of 558{micro}W and an average power of 39.5{micro}W at an input acceleration of 1g applied at 10 Hz. The performance of this device has still not been matched by any other reported work. It yielded the best power density and efficiency for any scavenger operating from low-frequency (<10Hz) vibrations. A second-generation device was then fabricated. It generated a peak power of 288{micro}W and an average power of 5.8{micro}W from an input acceleration of 9.8m/s{sup 2} at 10Hz. The device operates over a frequency range of 20Hz. The internal volume of the generator is 2.1cm{sup 3} (3.7cm{sup 3} including casing), half of a standard AA battery. Lastly, a piezoelectric version of the PFIG is currently being developed. This device clearly demonstrates one of the key features of the PFIG architecture, namely that it is suitable for MEMS integration, more so than resonant generators, by incorporating a brittle bulk piezoelectric ceramic. This is the first micro-scale piezoelectric generator capable of <10Hz operation. The
Nokes, L D; Thorne, G C
1988-01-01
Measurements of various mechanical properties of skeletal material using vibration techniques have been reported. The purposes of such investigations include the monitoring of pathogenic disorders such as osteoporosis, the rate and extent of fracture healing, and the status of internal fixations. Early investigations pioneered the application of conventional vibration measurement equipment to biological systems. The more recent advent of the microcomputer has made available to research groups more sophisticated techniques for data acquisition and analysis. The economical advantages of such equipment has led to the development of portable research instrumentation which lends itself to use in a clinical environment. This review article reports on the developments and progression of the various vibrational techniques and theories as applied to musculoskeletal systems.
Optomechanical proposal for monitoring microtubule mechanical vibrations
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Barzanjeh, Sh.; Salari, V.; Tuszynski, J. A.; Cifra, Michal; Simon, C.
2017-01-01
Roč. 96, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 012404. ISSN 2470-0045 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-17102S Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) SAV-15-22 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Vibrational modes * Microtubule * Resonance frequencies Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 2.366, year: 2016
Nested trampoline resonators for optomechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weaver, M. J., E-mail: mweaver@physics.ucsb.edu; Pepper, B.; Luna, F.; Perock, B. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Buters, F. M.; Eerkens, H. J.; Welker, G.; Heeck, K.; Man, S. de [Huygens-Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium, Universiteit Leiden, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Bouwmeester, D. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Huygens-Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium, Universiteit Leiden, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands)
2016-01-18
Two major challenges in the development of optomechanical devices are achieving a low mechanical and optical loss rate and vibration isolation from the environment. We address both issues by fabricating trampoline resonators made from low pressure chemical vapor deposition Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} with a distributed Bragg reflector mirror. We design a nested double resonator structure with 80 dB of mechanical isolation from the mounting surface at the inner resonator frequency, and we demonstrate up to 45 dB of isolation at lower frequencies in agreement with the design. We reliably fabricate devices with mechanical quality factors of around 400 000 at room temperature. In addition, these devices were used to form optical cavities with finesse up to 181 000 ± 1000. These promising parameters will enable experiments in the quantum regime with macroscopic mechanical resonators.
Nested trampoline resonators for optomechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weaver, M. J.; Pepper, B.; Luna, F.; Perock, B.; Buters, F. M.; Eerkens, H. J.; Welker, G.; Heeck, K.; Man, S. de; Bouwmeester, D.
2016-01-01
Two major challenges in the development of optomechanical devices are achieving a low mechanical and optical loss rate and vibration isolation from the environment. We address both issues by fabricating trampoline resonators made from low pressure chemical vapor deposition Si 3 N 4 with a distributed Bragg reflector mirror. We design a nested double resonator structure with 80 dB of mechanical isolation from the mounting surface at the inner resonator frequency, and we demonstrate up to 45 dB of isolation at lower frequencies in agreement with the design. We reliably fabricate devices with mechanical quality factors of around 400 000 at room temperature. In addition, these devices were used to form optical cavities with finesse up to 181 000 ± 1000. These promising parameters will enable experiments in the quantum regime with macroscopic mechanical resonators
Nested trampoline resonators for optomechanics
Weaver, M. J.; Pepper, B.; Luna, F.; Buters, F. M.; Eerkens, H. J.; Welker, G.; Perock, B.; Heeck, K.; de Man, S.; Bouwmeester, D.
2016-01-01
Two major challenges in the development of optomechanical devices are achieving a low mechanical and optical loss rate and vibration isolation from the environment. We address both issues by fabricating trampoline resonators made from low pressure chemical vapor deposition Si3N4 with a distributed Bragg reflector mirror. We design a nested double resonator structure with 80 dB of mechanical isolation from the mounting surface at the inner resonator frequency, and we demonstrate up to 45 dB of isolation at lower frequencies in agreement with the design. We reliably fabricate devices with mechanical quality factors of around 400 000 at room temperature. In addition, these devices were used to form optical cavities with finesse up to 181 000 ± 1000. These promising parameters will enable experiments in the quantum regime with macroscopic mechanical resonators.
Vibrational spectra of aminoacetonitrile
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bak, B.; Hansen, E.L.; Nicolaisen, F.M.; Nielsen, O.F.
1975-01-01
The preparation of pure, stable aminoacetonitrile(1-amino, 1'-cyanomethane)CH 2 NH 2 CN (1) is described. The Raman spectrum, now complete, and a novel infrared spectrum extending over the 50-3600 cm -1 region are reported. A tentative normal vibration analysis is presented and supported by Raman and infrared data from the spectra of CH 2 NHDCN (2) and CH 2 ND 2 CN (3). The predominance of the trans rotamer may be attributed to intramolecular hydrogen bonding but this is too unimportant to influence the vibrational frequencies of gaseous 1, 2, and 3. However, large gas/liquid frequency shifts occur. (author)
Kaliski, S
2013-01-01
This book gives a comprehensive overview of wave phenomena in different media with interacting mechanical, electromagnetic and other fields. Equations describing wave propagation in linear and non-linear elastic media are followed by equations of rheological models, models with internal rotational degrees of freedom and non-local interactions. Equations for coupled fields: thermal, elastic, electromagnetic, piezoelectric, and magneto-spin with adequate boundary conditions are also included. Together with its companion volume Vibrations and Waves. Part A: Vibrations this work provides a wealth
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Søren R. K.
The present textbook has been written based on previous lecture notes for a course on stochastic vibration theory that is being given on the 9th semester at Aalborg University for M. Sc. students in structural engineering. The present 2nd edition of this textbook on linear stochastic vibration th...... theory is basically unchanged in comparison to the 1st edition. Only section 4.2 on single input - single output systems and chapter 6 on offshore structures have been modified in order to enhance the clearness....
Effect of vibration on microstructures and mechanical properties of 304 stainless steel GTA welds
Hsieh, Chih-Chun; Lai, Chien-Hong; Wu, Weite
2013-07-01
This study investigates the microstructures and mechanical properties of 304 stainless steel at various vibration frequencies during simultaneous vibration welding. The experimental results demonstrated that simultaneous vibration welding could accelerate the nucleation and grain refinement of the microstructures. The effect of the grain refinement was more evident at the resonant frequency (375 Hz) and a minimum content of residual δ-ferrite (4.0%). The γ phase grew in the preferential orientation of the (111) direction with and without vibration. The full width at half maximum of the diffraction peak widened after the vibration, which was attributed to the grain refinement. The residual stress could be efficiently removed through simultaneous vibration welding when the amplitude of the vibration was increased. Furthermore, the lowest residual stress (139 MPa) was found when the vibration frequency was 375 Hz. The hardness and Young's modulus exhibited slight increases with low and medium frequencies. The hardness values were increased by 7.6% and Young's modulus was increased by 15% when the vibration frequency was resonant (375 Hz).
B (E2) values of transitions from kπ= 0+→ 2+ vibrational bands in some well deformed heavy nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, M.; Varshney, Mani; Gupta, D.K.; Bihari, Chhail; Singh, Yuvraj; Varshney, A.K.; Gupta, K.K
2009-01-01
There is simultaneous reduced B (E2) values of low-lying K π= 0 + → 2 + states, indicating a beta vibration like structure as well as the two particle transfer cross-section which suggest a pairing vibration like character and interpreted that low-lying k π= 0 + → 2 + resonance are classical beta vibrations. Recently, similar doubts about the origin of beta vibrations from surface oscillation have also been published
Heterogeneous Dynamics of Coupled Vibrations
Cringus, Dan; Jansen, Thomas I. C.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Schoenlein, RW; Corkum, P; DeSilvestri, S; Nelson, KA; Riedle, E
2009-01-01
Frequency-dependent dynamics of coupled stretch vibrations of a water molecule are revealed by 2D IR correlation spectroscopy. These are caused by non-Gaussian fluctuations of the environment around the individual OH stretch vibrations.
Hansson, J E; Eklund, L; Kihlberg, S; Ostergren, C E
1987-03-01
The main objective of the study was to find efficient hand tools which caused only minor vibration loading. Vibration measurements were carried out under standardised working conditions. The time during which car body repairers in seven companies were exposed to vibration was determined. Chisel hammers, impact wrenches, sanders and saws were the types of tools which generated the highest vibration accelerations. The average daily exposure at the different garages ranged from 22 to 70 min. The risk of vibration injury is currently rated as high. The difference between the highest and lowest levels of vibration was considerable in most tool categories. Therefore the choice of tool has a major impact on the magnitude of vibration exposure. The importance of choosing the right tools and working methods is discussed and a counselling service on vibration is proposed.
Vibrational states in deformed nuclei. Chaos, order and individual nature of nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soloviev, V.G.
1993-01-01
General properties of the vibrational states in doubly-even well-deformed are formulated. The large many-quasiparticle components of the wave functions of the neutron resonance state are responsible for enhance E1- and M1-transitions rates from the neutron resonances states to the levels lying 1-2 MeV below them. 44 refs.; 4 tabs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johannessen, Christian; Abdali, Salim; White, Peter C.
2007-01-01
High quality Resonance Raman (RR) and resonance Raman Optical Activity (ROA) spectra of cytochrome c were obtained in order to perform full assignment of spectral features of the resonance ROA spectrum. The resonance ROA spectrum of cytochrome c revealed a distinct spectral signature pattern due...... to resonance enhanced skeletal porphyrin vibrations, more pronounced than any contribution from the protein back-bone. Combining the intrinsic resonance enhancement of cytochrome c with surface plasmon enhancement by colloidal silver particles, the Surface Enhanced Resonance Raman Scattering (SERRS) and Chiral...... Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (ChERS) spectra of the protein were successfully obtained at very low concentration (as low as 1 µM). The assignment of spectral features was based on the information obtained from the RR and resonance ROA spectra. Excellent agreement between RR and SERRS spectra is reported...
Vibration characterization procedure of piezoelectric ceramic parameters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Meyer Yann
2015-01-01
Full Text Available To integrate new functionalities inside the mechanical structures for active vibration control, mechatronic, energy harvesting or fatigue management, it is necessary to developp a real fully distributed set of transducers and to include them at the heart of composite materials. To reach this goal, it is absolutely necessary to limit the cost of the numerous transducing elements with respect to the global system cost and, in the same time, to well-know the electromechanical behavior of theses transducers in order to well-design the system controller. In this paper, an experimental non-destructive procedure based on the analysis of anti-resonance and resonance frequencies of the transducers is proposed for determining the material coefficients of interest. This measurement process is applied to low-cost thin disks made of piezoceramics.
Isolated resonator gyroscope with a drive and sense plate
Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor)
2006-01-01
The present invention discloses a resonator gyroscope comprising a vibrationally isolated resonator including a proof mass, a counterbalancing plate having an extensive planar region, and one or more flexures interconnecting the proof mass and counterbalancing plate. A baseplate is affixed to the resonator by the one or more flexures and sense and drive electrodes are affixed to the baseplate proximate to the extensive planar region of the counterbalancing plate for exciting the resonator and sensing movement of the gyroscope. The isolated resonator transfers substantially no net momentum to the baseplate when the resonator is excited.
Structural Stability and Vibration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wiggers, Sine Leergaard; Pedersen, Pauli
at the University of Southern Denmark, it reports on fundamental formulas and makes uses of graphical representation to promote understanding. Thanks to the emphasis put on analytical methods and numerical results, the book is meant to make students and engineers familiar with all fundamental equations...... and their derivation, thus stimulating them to write interactive and dynamic programs to analyze instability and vibrational modes....
Vibrational Spectroscopy and Astrobiology
Chaban, Galina M.; Kwak, D. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Role of vibrational spectroscopy in solving problems related to astrobiology will be discussed. Vibrational (infrared) spectroscopy is a very sensitive tool for identifying molecules. Theoretical approach used in this work is based on direct computation of anharmonic vibrational frequencies and intensities from electronic structure codes. One of the applications of this computational technique is possible identification of biological building blocks (amino acids, small peptides, DNA bases) in the interstellar medium (ISM). Identifying small biological molecules in the ISM is very important from the point of view of origin of life. Hybrid (quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics) theoretical techniques will be discussed that may allow to obtain accurate vibrational spectra of biomolecular building blocks and to create a database of spectroscopic signatures that can assist observations of these molecules in space. Another application of the direct computational spectroscopy technique is to help to design and analyze experimental observations of ice surfaces of one of the Jupiter's moons, Europa, that possibly contains hydrated salts. The presence of hydrated salts on the surface can be an indication of a subsurface ocean and the possible existence of life forms inhabiting such an ocean.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The vibrating string problem is the source of much mathe- matics and physics. ... ing this science [mechanics],and the art of solving the problems pertaining to it, to .... used tools for finding maxima and minima of functions of several variables.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richards, D.J.W.
1977-01-01
The heat exchangers of various types are common items of plant in the generation and transmission of electricity. The amount of attention given to the flow-induced vibrations of heat exchangers by designers is usually related to the operational history of similar items of plant. Consequently, if a particular design procedure yields items of plant which behave in a satisfactory manner during their operational life, there is little incentive to improve or refine the design procedure. On the other hand, failures of heat exchangers clearly indicate deficiencies in the design procedures or in the data available to the designer. When such failures are attributable to flow-induced vibrations, the identification of the mechanisms involved is a prime importance. Ideally, basic research work provides the background understanding and the techniques necessary to be able to identify the important mechanisms. In practice, the investigation of a flow-induced vibration problem may identify the presence of mechanisms but may not be able to quantify their effects adequately. In these circumstances the need for additional work is established and the objectives of the research programme emerge. The purpose of this paper is to outline the background to the current research programme at C.E.R.L. on heat exchanger vibration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jönsson, Jeppe; Hansen, Lars Pilegaard
1994-01-01
work has been done on the measurement of the exact load functions and related reponse analysis. A recent work using a spectral description has been performed by Per-Erik Erikson and includes a good literature survey. Bachmann and Ammann give a good overview of vibrations caused by human activity. Other...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Richards, D J.W. [CERL, CEGB, Leatherhead, Surrey (United Kingdom)
1977-12-01
The heat exchangers of various types are common items of plant in the generation and transmission of electricity. The amount of attention given to the flow-induced vibrations of heat exchangers by designers is usually related to the operational history of similar items of plant. Consequently, if a particular design procedure yields items of plant which behave in a satisfactory manner during their operational life, there is little incentive to improve or refine the design procedure. On the other hand, failures of heat exchangers clearly indicate deficiencies in the design procedures or in the data available to the designer. When such failures are attributable to flow-induced vibrations, the identification of the mechanisms involved is a prime importance. Ideally, basic research work provides the background understanding and the techniques necessary to be able to identify the important mechanisms. In practice, the investigation of a flow-induced vibration problem may identify the presence of mechanisms but may not be able to quantify their effects adequately. In these circumstances the need for additional work is established and the objectives of the research programme emerge. The purpose of this paper is to outline the background to the current research programme at C.E.R.L. on heat exchanger vibration.
General principles of vibrational spectroscopies
Weckhuysen, B.M.; Schoonheydt, R.A.
2000-01-01
Atoms in molecules and solids do not remain in fixed relative positions, but vibrate about some mean position. This vibrational motion is quantized and at room temperature, most of the molecules in a given sample are in their lowest vibrational state. Absorption of electromagnetic radiation with
High-Temperature Vibration Damper
Clarke, Alan; Litwin, Joel; Krauss, Harold
1987-01-01
Device for damping vibrations functions at temperatures up to 400 degrees F. Dampens vibrational torque loads as high as 1,000 lb-in. but compact enough to be part of helicopter rotor hub. Rotary damper absorbs energy from vibrating rod, dissipating it in turbulent motion of viscous hydraulic fluid forced by moving vanes through small orifices.
A method for regulating strong nonlinear vibration energy of the flexible arm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yushu Bian
2015-07-01
Full Text Available For an oscillating system, large amplitude indicates strong vibration energy. In this article, modal interaction is used as a useful means to regulate strong nonlinear vibration energy of the flexible arm undergoing rigid motion. A method is put forward to migrate and dissipate vibration energy based on modal interaction. By means of multiple-scale perturbation analysis, it is proven that internal resonance can be successfully established between modes of the flexible arm and the vibration absorber. Through examples and analyses, it is verified that this control method is effective in regulating strong vibration energy and can be used to suppress strong nonlinear vibration of the flexible arm undergoing rigid motion.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shore, B.W.
1977-01-01
The long-time average of level populations in a coherently-excited anharmonic sequence of energy levels (e.g., an anharmonic oscillator) exhibits sharp resonances as a function of laser frequency. For simple linearly-increasing anharmonicity, each resonance is a superposition of various multiphoton resonances (e.g., a superposition of 3, 5, 7, . . . photon resonances), each having its own characteristic width predictable from perturbation theory
Resonance reactions and enhancement of weak interactions in collisions of cold molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Flambaum, V. V.; Ginges, J. S. M.
2006-01-01
With the creation of ultracold atoms and molecules, a new type of chemistry - 'resonance' chemistry - emerges: chemical reactions can occur when the energy of colliding atoms and molecules matches a bound state of the combined molecule (Feshbach resonance). This chemistry is rather similar to reactions that take place in nuclei at low energies. In this paper we suggest some problems for future experimental and theoretical work related to the resonance chemistry of ultracold molecules. Molecular Bose-Einstein condensates are particularly interesting because in this system collisions and chemical reactions are extremely sensitive to weak fields; also, a preferred reaction channel may be enhanced due to a finite number of final states. The sensitivity to weak fields arises due to the high density of narrow compound resonances and the macroscopic number of molecules with kinetic energy E=0 (in the ground state of a mean-field potential). The high sensitivity to the magnetic field may be used to measure the distribution of energy intervals, widths, and magnetic moments of compound resonances and study the onset of quantum chaos. A difference in the production rate of right-handed and left-handed chiral molecules may be produced by external electric E and magnetic B fields and the finite width Γ of the resonance (correlation ΓE·B). The same effect may be produced by the parity-violating energy difference in chiral molecules
Influence of vibrations of gas molecules on neutron reaction cross sections
Bowman, C. D.; Schrack, R. A.
1980-01-01
The change in molecular vibrational energy upon absorption of a neutron by a nucleus bound in a free molecule can influence resonance shape and other aspects of neutron reaction cross sections. A formalism is developed for centrosymmetric molecules such as UF6 and applied to the shape of the 6.67 eV resonance in 238U. The ratio of the resonance shape for 238UF6 gas and for solid 238U3O8 has been measured and compared with the calculation. Reasonable agreement is obtained indicating the validity of the calculation and the necessity to include vibration effects to avoid large errors in measurements and calculations on gascontaining systems. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 238U(n,γ) measured at 6.67 eV resonance; Effect of molecular vibrations studied experimentally and theoretically.
Isotope separation process by transfer of vibrational energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Angelie, C.; Cauchetier, M.; Paris, J.
1983-01-01
This process consists in exciting A molecules by absorption of a pulsed light beam, then in exciting until their dissociation X molecules, present in several isotopic forms, by a vibrational transfer between the A molecules and the X molecules, the A molecules having a dissociation energy greater than that of the X molecules, the duration and energy of the light pulses being such that the absorption time by the A molecules is less than the excitation time of the X molecules and the temperature conditions such that the thermal width of the vibration rays is at the most near the isotopic difference between the resonance rays of the two isotopic varieties [fr
Theoretical rotation-vibration spectrum of thioformaldehyde
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yachmenev, Andrey; Polyak, Iakov; Thiel, Walter
2013-01-01
We present a variational calculation of the first comprehensive T = 300 K rovibrational line list for thioformaldehyde, H 2 CS. It covers 41 809 rovibrational levels for states up to J max = 30 with vibrational band origins up to 5000 cm −1 and provides the energies and line intensities for 547 926 transitions from the ground vibrational state to these levels. It is based on our previously reported accurate ab initio potential energy surface and a newly calculated ab initio dipole moment surface. Minor empirical adjustments are made to the ab initio equilibrium geometry to reduce systematic errors in the predicted intra-band rotational energy levels. The rovibrational energy levels and transition intensities are computed variationally by using the methods implemented in the computer program TROVE. Transition wavelengths and intensities are found to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental data. The present calculations correctly reproduce the observed resonance effects, such as intensity borrowing, thus reflecting the high accuracy of the underlying ab initio surfaces. We report a detailed analysis of several vibrational bands, especially those complicated by strong Coriolis coupling, to facilitate future laboratory assignments
Theoretical rotation-vibration spectrum of thioformaldehyde
Yachmenev, Andrey; Polyak, Iakov; Thiel, Walter
2013-11-01
We present a variational calculation of the first comprehensive T = 300 K rovibrational line list for thioformaldehyde, H2CS. It covers 41 809 rovibrational levels for states up to Jmax = 30 with vibrational band origins up to 5000 cm-1 and provides the energies and line intensities for 547 926 transitions from the ground vibrational state to these levels. It is based on our previously reported accurate ab initio potential energy surface and a newly calculated ab initio dipole moment surface. Minor empirical adjustments are made to the ab initio equilibrium geometry to reduce systematic errors in the predicted intra-band rotational energy levels. The rovibrational energy levels and transition intensities are computed variationally by using the methods implemented in the computer program TROVE. Transition wavelengths and intensities are found to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental data. The present calculations correctly reproduce the observed resonance effects, such as intensity borrowing, thus reflecting the high accuracy of the underlying ab initio surfaces. We report a detailed analysis of several vibrational bands, especially those complicated by strong Coriolis coupling, to facilitate future laboratory assignments.
Theoretical rotation-vibration spectrum of thioformaldehyde
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yachmenev, Andrey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Polyak, Iakov; Thiel, Walter [Max-Planck-Institut für Kohlenforschung, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Platz 1, D–45470 Mülheim an der Ruhr (Germany)
2013-11-28
We present a variational calculation of the first comprehensive T = 300 K rovibrational line list for thioformaldehyde, H{sub 2}CS. It covers 41 809 rovibrational levels for states up to J{sub max} = 30 with vibrational band origins up to 5000 cm{sup −1} and provides the energies and line intensities for 547 926 transitions from the ground vibrational state to these levels. It is based on our previously reported accurate ab initio potential energy surface and a newly calculated ab initio dipole moment surface. Minor empirical adjustments are made to the ab initio equilibrium geometry to reduce systematic errors in the predicted intra-band rotational energy levels. The rovibrational energy levels and transition intensities are computed variationally by using the methods implemented in the computer program TROVE. Transition wavelengths and intensities are found to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental data. The present calculations correctly reproduce the observed resonance effects, such as intensity borrowing, thus reflecting the high accuracy of the underlying ab initio surfaces. We report a detailed analysis of several vibrational bands, especially those complicated by strong Coriolis coupling, to facilitate future laboratory assignments.
The effects of vibration-reducing gloves on finger vibration
Welcome, Daniel E.; Dong, Ren G.; Xu, Xueyan S.; Warren, Christopher; McDowell, Thomas W.
2015-01-01
Vibration-reducing (VR) gloves have been used to reduce the hand-transmitted vibration exposures from machines and powered hand tools but their effectiveness remains unclear, especially for finger protection. The objectives of this study are to determine whether VR gloves can attenuate the vibration transmitted to the fingers and to enhance the understanding of the mechanisms of how these gloves work. Seven adult male subjects participated in the experiment. The fixed factors evaluated include hand force (four levels), glove condition (gel-filled, air bladder, no gloves), and location of the finger vibration measurement. A 3-D laser vibrometer was used to measure the vibrations on the fingers with and without wearing a glove on a 3-D hand-arm vibration test system. This study finds that the effect of VR gloves on the finger vibration depends on not only the gloves but also their influence on the distribution of the finger contact stiffness and the grip effort. As a result, the gloves increase the vibration in the fingertip area but marginally reduce the vibration in the proximal area at some frequencies below 100 Hz. On average, the gloves reduce the vibration of the entire fingers by less than 3% at frequencies below 80 Hz but increase at frequencies from 80 to 400 Hz. At higher frequencies, the gel-filled glove is more effective at reducing the finger vibration than the air bladder-filled glove. The implications of these findings are discussed. Relevance to industry Prolonged, intensive exposure to hand-transmitted vibration can cause hand-arm vibration syndrome. Vibration-reducing gloves have been used as an alternative approach to reduce the vibration exposure. However, their effectiveness for reducing finger-transmitted vibrations remains unclear. This study enhanced the understanding of the glove effects on finger vibration and provided useful information on the effectiveness of typical VR gloves at reducing the vibration transmitted to the fingers. The new
A Sub-Hertz, Low-Frequency Vibration Isolation Platform
Ortiz, Gerardo, G.; Farr, William H.; Sannibale, Virginio
2011-01-01
One of the major technical problems deep-space optical communication (DSOC) systems need to solve is the isolation of the optical terminal from vibrations produced by the spacecraft navigational control system and by the moving parts of onboard instruments. Even under these vibration perturbations, the DSOC transceivers (telescopes) need to be pointed l000 fs of times more accurately than an RF communication system (parabolic antennas). Mechanical resonators have been extensively used to provide vibration isolation for groundbased, airborne, and spaceborne payloads. The effectiveness of these isolation systems is determined mainly by the ability of designing a mechanical oscillator with the lowest possible resonant frequency. The Low-Frequency Vibration Isolation Platform (LFVIP), developed during this effort, aims to reduce the resonant frequency of the mechanical oscillators into the sub-Hertz region in order to maximize the passive isolation afforded by the 40 dB/decade roll-off response of the resonator. The LFVIP also provides tip/tilt functionality for acquisition and tracking of a beacon signal. An active control system is used for platform positioning and for dampening of the mechanical oscillator. The basic idea in the design of the isolation platform is to use a passive isolation strut with an approximately equal to 100-mHz resonance frequency. This will extend the isolation range to lower frequencies. The harmonic oscillator is a second-order lowpass filter for mechanical disturbances. The resonance quality depends on the dissipation mechanisms, which are mainly hysteretic because of the low resonant frequency and the absence of any viscous medium. The LFVIP system is configured using the well-established Stewart Platform, which consists of a top platform connected to a base with six extensible struts (see figure). The struts are attached to the base and to the platform via universal joints, which permit the extension and contraction of the struts. The
Piezoelectric Vibration Damping Study for Rotating Composite Fan Blades
Min, James B.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Choi, Benjamin B.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Kray, Nicholas
2012-01-01
Resonant vibrations of aircraft engine blades cause blade fatigue problems in engines, which can lead to thicker and aerodynamically lower performing blade designs, increasing engine weight, fuel burn, and maintenance costs. In order to mitigate undesirable blade vibration levels, active piezoelectric vibration control has been investigated, potentially enabling thinner blade designs for higher performing blades and minimizing blade fatigue problems. While the piezoelectric damping idea has been investigated by other researchers over the years, very little study has been done including rotational effects. The present study attempts to fill this void. The particular objectives of this study were: (a) to develop and analyze a multiphysics piezoelectric finite element composite blade model for harmonic forced vibration response analysis coupled with a tuned RLC circuit for rotating engine blade conditions, (b) to validate a numerical model with experimental test data, and (c) to achieve a cost-effective numerical modeling capability which enables simulation of rotating blades within the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Dynamic Spin Rig Facility. A numerical and experimental study for rotating piezoelectric composite subscale fan blades was performed. It was also proved that the proposed numerical method is feasible and effective when applied to the rotating blade base excitation model. The experimental test and multiphysics finite element modeling technique described in this paper show that piezoelectric vibration damping can significantly reduce vibrations of aircraft engine composite fan blades.
Vibration mechanism of fuel rod in axial flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kang, Heung Seok; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Song, Kee Nam
1998-08-01
This is a review on the previous researches for the vibration of fuel rod induced by axial flow. The analysis methods are classified into three categories accordingly as the researchers postulate the vibration to be self-excited, forced and parametric; the self-excited mechanism by Burgreen and Quinn, the forced one by Reavis, Gorman, kanazawa, and S. Chen, and the parametric one by Y. Chen. Quinn supposed that the centrifugal force by flow exaggerated the natural bow in the cylinder, and the flexural force by it diminished the bow by turns; this interactive motion leaded cylinder to vibration. The supporters to the forced mechanism considered the forces arising from pressure perturbation within the boundary layers as vibrating sources. Y. Chen insisted that the cylinder could only be excited to vibration in resonance by the small oscillation of mean flow velocity. The previous studies were based on the simple boundary conditions such as hinged-hinged or fixed-fixed single span. Therefore, for the more accurate prediction of the fuel rod vibration in reactor, the further studies need to reflect the actual boundary conditions of the fuel rod like axial force and continuous supports by grids. (author). 25 refs
Improving Vibration Energy Harvesting Using Dynamic Magnifier
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Almuatasim Alomari
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper reports on the design and evaluation of vibration-based piezoelectric energy-harvesting devices based on a polyvinylidene fluoride unimorph cantilever beam attached to the front of a dynamic magnifier. Experimental studies of the electromechanical frequency response functions are studied for the first three resonance frequencies. An analytical analysis is undertaken by applying the chain matrix in order to predict output voltage and output power with respect to the vibration frequency. The proposed harvester was modeled using MATLAB software and COMSOL multi- physics to study the mode shapes and electrical output parameters. The voltage and power output of the energy harvester with a dynamic magnifier was 2.62 V and 13.68 mW, respectively at the resonance frequency of the second mode. The modeling approach provides a basis to design energy harvesters exploiting dynamic magnification for improved performance and bandwidth. The potential application of such energy harvesting devices in the transport sector include autonomous structural health monitoring systems that often include embedded sensors, data acquisition, wireless communication, and energy harvesting systems.
Vibrations used to talk to quantum circuits
Cho, Adrian
2018-03-01
The budding discipline of quantum acoustics could shake up embryonic quantum computers. Such machines run by flipping quantum bits, or qubits, that can be set not only to zero or one, but, bizarrely, to zero and one at the same time. The most advanced qubits are circuits made of superconducting metal, and to control or read out a qubit, researchers make it interact with a microwave resonator—typically a strip of metal on the qubit chip or a finger-size cavity surrounding it—which rings with microwave photons like an organ pipe rings with sound. But some physicists see advantages to replacing the microwave resonator with a mechanical one that rings with quantized vibrations, or phonons. A well-designed acoustic resonator could ring longer than a microwave one does and could be far smaller, enabling researchers to produce more compact technologies. But first scientists must gain quantum control over vibrations. And several groups are on the cusp of doing that, as they reported at a recent meeting.
Application of vibration to wrist and hand skin affects fingertip tactile sensation
Lakshminarayanan, Kishor; Lauer, Abigail W; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Webster, John G; Seo, Na Jin
2015-01-01
A recent study showed that fingertip pads’ tactile sensation can improve by applying imperceptible white-noise vibration to the skin at the wrist or dorsum of the hand in stroke patients. This study further examined this behavior by investigating the effect of both imperceptible and perceptible white-noise vibration applied to different locations within the distal upper extremity on the fingertip pads’ tactile sensation in healthy adults. In 12 healthy adults, white-noise vibration was applied to one of four locations (dorsum hand by the second knuckle, thenar and hypothenar areas, and volar wrist) at one of four intensities (zero, 60%, 80%, and 120% of the sensory threshold for each vibration location), while the fingertip sensation, the smallest vibratory signal that could be perceived on the thumb and index fingertip pads, was assessed. Vibration intensities significantly affected the fingertip sensation (P sensation (P sensation (P sensation (P > 0.01), all compared with the zero vibration condition. This effect with vibration intensity conforms to the stochastic resonance behavior. Nonspecificity to the vibration location suggests the white-noise vibration affects higher level neuronal processing for fingertip sensing. Further studies are needed to elucidate the neural pathways for distal upper extremity vibration to impact fingertip pad tactile sensation. PMID:26177959
Acoustic resonance spectroscopy (ARS): ARS300 operations manual, software version 2.01
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1996-07-25
Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (ARS) is a nondestructive evaluation technology developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The ARS technique is a fast, safe, and nonintrusive technique that is particularly useful when a large number of objects need to be tested. Any physical object, whether solid, hollow, or fluid filled, has many modes of vibration. These modes of vibration, commonly referred to as the natural resonant modes or resonant frequencies, are determined by the object`s shape, size, and physical properties, such as elastic moduli, speed of sound, and density. If the object is mechanically excited at frequencies corresponding to its characteristic natural vibrational modes, a resonance effect can be observed when small excitation energies produce large amplitude vibrations in the object. At other excitation frequencies, i.e., vibrational response of the object is minimal.
Resonance – Journal of Science Education | Indian Academy of ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. S Kesavan. Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 3 Issue 9 September 1998 pp 26-34 General Article. Listening to the Shape of a Drum - The Mathematics of Vibrating Drums · S Kesavan · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 3 ...
Otto, Cornelis; Voroshilov, A.; Voroshilov, Artemy; Kruglik, S.; Kruglik, S.G.; Greve, Jan
2001-01-01
Polarization-sensitive, multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (ps-MCARS) has been used to detect the vibrational bands of the highly luminescent zinc(II)-octaethylporphyrin (Zn-OEP). We show here that ps-MCARS can be used to measure the vibrational bands under resonant conditions.
Theoretical study of the electron paramagnetic resonance ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
conveniently investigated by means of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). In ... ion Ir2+ can experience the Jahn–Teller effect by means of vibration interaction, ... Similarly, k. (and k ) are the orbital reduction factors arising from the anisotropic interactions of the orbital angular momentum operator. From the cluster ...
Stability of the giant dipole resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Espino, J.M.; Gallardo, M.
1987-01-01
The Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR), because of its stability and its typical period of vibration, can be used as a test for compound nucleus reactions at high temperatures. This stability is studied in a simple model up to 6 MeV of temperature. The experimental methods for getting the properties of the GDR at T ≠ 0 are also commented. (author)
Zhou, Danfeng; Yu, Peichang; Wang, Lianchun; Li, Jie
2017-11-01
The levitation gap of the urban maglev train is around 8 mm, which puts a rather high requirement on the smoothness of the track. In practice, it is found that the track irregularity may cause stability problems when the maglev train is traveling. In this paper, the dynamic response of the levitation module, which is the basic levitation structure of the urban maglev train, is investigated in the presence of track irregularities. Analyses show that due to the structural configuration of the levitation module, the vibration of the levitation gap may be amplified and "resonances" may be observed under some specified track wavelengths and train speeds; besides, it is found that the gap vibration of the rear levitation unit in a levitation module is more significant than that of the front levitation unit, which agrees well with practice. To suppress the vibration of the rear levitation gap, an adaptive vibration control method is proposed, which utilizes the information of the front levitation unit as a reference. A pair of mirror FIR (finite impulse response) filters are designed and tuned by an adaptive mechanism, and they produce a compensation signal for the rear levitation controller to cancel the disturbance brought by the track irregularity. Simulations under some typical track conditions, including the sinusoidal track profile, random track irregularity, as well as track steps, indicate that the adaptive vibration control scheme can significantly reduce the amplitude of the rear gap vibration, which provides a method to improve the stability and ride comfort of the maglev train.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Challa, Vinod R; Prasad, M G; Fisher, Frank T
2011-01-01
Future deployment of wireless sensor networks will ultimately require a self-sustainable local power source for each sensor, and vibration energy harvesting is a promising approach for such applications. A requirement for efficient vibration energy harvesting is to match the device and source frequencies. While techniques to tune the resonance frequency of an energy harvesting device have recently been described, in many applications optimization of such systems will require the energy harvesting device to be able to autonomously tune its resonance frequency. In this work a vibration energy harvesting device with autonomous resonance frequency tunability utilizing a magnetic stiffness technique is presented. Here a piezoelectric cantilever beam array is employed with magnets attached to the free ends of cantilever beams to enable magnetic force resonance frequency tuning. The device is successfully tuned from − 27% to + 22% of its untuned resonance frequency while outputting a peak power of approximately 1 mW. Since the magnetic force tuning technique is semi-active, energy is only consumed during the tuning process. The developed prototype consumed maximum energies of 3.3 and 3.9 J to tune to the farthest source frequencies with respect to the untuned resonance frequency of the device. The time necessary for this prototype device to harvest the energy expended during its most energy-intensive (largest resonant frequency adjustment) tuning operation is 88 min in a low amplitude 0.1g vibration environment, which could be further optimized using higher efficiency piezoelectric materials and system components
High-Power Piezoelectric Vibration Characteristics of Textured SrBi2Nb2O9 Ceramics
Kawada, Shinichiro; Ogawa, Hirozumi; Kimura, Masahiko; Shiratsuyu, Kosuke; Niimi, Hideaki
2006-09-01
The high-power piezoelectric vibration characteristics of textured SrBi2Nb2O9 (SBN) ceramics, that is bismuth-layer-structured ferroelectrics, were studied in the longitudinal mode (33-mode) by constant current driving method and compared with those of ordinary randomly oriented SBN and widely used Pb(Ti,Zr)O3 (PZT) ceramics. In the case of textured SBN ceramics, resonant properties are stable up to a vibration velocity of 2.6 m/s. Vibration velocity at resonant frequency increases proportionally with the applied electric field, and resonant frequency is almost constant in high-vibration-velocity driving. On the other hand, in the case of randomly oriented SBN and PZT ceramics, the increase in vibration velocity is not proportional to the applied high electric field, and resonant frequency decreases with increasing vibration velocity. The resonant sharpness Q of textured SBN ceramics is about 2000, even at a vibration velocity of 2.6 m/s. Therefore, textured SBN ceramics are good candidates for high-power piezoelectric applications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, S.S.
1975-06-01
Several mathematical models have been proposed for calculating fuel rod responses in axial flows based on a single rod consideration. The spacing between fuel rods in liquid metal fast breeder reactors is small; hence fuel rods will interact with one another due to fluid coupling. The objective of this paper is to study the coupled vibration of fuel bundles. To account for the fluid coupling, a computer code, AMASS, is developed to calculate added mass coefficients for a group of circular cylinders based on the potential flow theory. The equations of motion for rod bundles are then derived including hydrodynamic forces, drag forces, fluid pressure, gravity effect, axial tension, and damping. Based on the equations, a method of analysis is presented to study the free and forced vibrations of rod bundles. Finally, the method is applied to a typical LMFBR fuel bundle consisting of seven rods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yushu Bian
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Due to the presence of system flexibility, impact can excite severe large amplitude vibration responses of the flexible robotic manipulator. This impact vibration exhibits characteristics of remarkable nonlinearity and strong energy. The main goal of this study is to put forward an energy-based control method to absorb and attenuate large amplitude impact vibration of the flexible robotic manipulator. The method takes advantage of internal resonance and is implemented through a vibration absorber based on the transfer and dissipation of energy. The addition of the vibration absorber to the flexible arm generates a coupling effect between vibration modes of the system. By means of analysis on 2:1 internal resonance, the exchange of energy is proven to be existent. The impact vibrational energy can be transferred from the arm to the absorber and dissipated through the damping of the absorber. The results of numerical simulations are promising and preliminarily verify that the method is feasible and can be used to combat large amplitude impact vibration of the flexible manipulator undergoing rigid motion.
Katarina Anthony
2015-01-01
In preparation for the civil engineering work on the HL-LHC, vibration measurements were carried out at the LHC’s Point 1 last month. These measurements will help evaluate how civil engineering work could impact the beam, and will provide crucial details about the site’s geological make-up before construction begins. A seismic truck at Point 1 generated wave-like vibrations measured by EN/MME. From carrying out R&D to produce state-of-the-art magnets to developing innovative, robust materials capable of withstanding beam impact, the HL-LHC is a multi-faceted project involving many groups and teams across CERN’s departments. It was in this framework that the project management mandated CERN's Mechanical and Materials Engineering (EN/MME) group to measure the propagation of vibrations around Point 1. Their question: can civil engineering work for the HL-LHC – the bulk of which is scheduled for LS2 – begin while the LHC is running? Alth...
Vibrational stability of graphene
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yangfan Hu
2013-05-01
Full Text Available The mechanical stability of graphene as temperature rises is analyzed based on three different self-consistent phonon (SCP models. Compared with three-dimensional (3-D materials, the critical temperature Ti at which instability occurs for graphene is much closer to its melting temperature Tm obtained from Monte Carlo simulation (Ti ≃ 2Tm, K. V. Zakharchenko, A. Fasolino, J. H. Los, and M. I. Katsnelson, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23, 202202. This suggests that thermal vibration plays a significant role in melting of graphene while melting for 3-D materials is often dominated by topologic defects. This peculiar property of graphene derives from its high structural anisotropy, which is characterized by the vibrational anisotropic coefficient (VAC, defined upon its Lindermann ratios in different directions. For any carbon based material with a graphene-like structure, the VAC value must be smaller than 5.4 to maintain its stability. It is also found that the high VAC value of graphene is responsible for its negative thermal expansion coefficient at low temperature range. We believe that the VAC can be regarded as a new criterion concerning the vibrational stability of any low-dimensional (low-D materials.
Task-specific recruitment of motor units for vibration damping.
Wakeling, James M; Liphardt, Anna-Maria
2006-01-01
Vibrations occur within the soft tissues of the lower extremities due to the heel-strike impact during walking. Increases in muscle activity in the lower extremities result in increased damping to reduce this vibration. The myoelectric intensity spectra were compared using principal component analysis from the tibialis anterior and lateral gastrocnemius of 40 subjects walking with different shoe conditions. The soft insert condition resulted in a significant, simultaneous increase in muscle activity with a shift to higher myoelectric frequencies in the period 0-60 ms after heel-strike which is the period when the greater vibration damping occurred. These increases in myoelectric frequency match the spectral patterns which indicate increases in recruitment of faster motor units. It is concluded that fast motor units are recruited during the task of damping the soft-tissue resonance that occurs following heel-strike.
Energy harvesting from vibration using a piezoelectric membrane
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ericka, M.; Vasic, D.; Costa, F.; Tliba, S. [Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan, Systemes et Applications des Technologies de l' Information et de l' Energie (SATIE, UMR 8029), 94 - Cachan (France); Poulin, G. [Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Ingenieurs Electriciens de Grenoble, Laboratoire d' Automatique de Grenoble, 38 (France)
2005-09-01
In this paper we investigate the capability of harvesting the electric energy from mechanical vibrations in a dynamic environment through a piezoelectric membrane transducer. This transducer consists of 2 layers lead zirconate titanate (PZT)/brass, the brass layer is embedded over the whole circumference by epoxy adhesive. A very small vibration gives a consequent deformation of the membrane which generates electric energy. Due to the impedance matrices connecting the efforts and flows of the membrane, we have established the dynamic electric equivalent circuit of the transducer. In a first study and in order to validate theoretical results, we performed experiments with a vibrating machine moving a macroscopic 25 mm diameter piezoelectric membrane. A power of 1.8 mW was generated at the resonance frequency (2.58 kHz) across a 56 k{omega} optimal resistor and for a 2 g acceleration. (authors)
Flow induced vibration of secondary piping of LMFBR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gibert, R.J.; Axisa, F.
1977-01-01
This paper presents a method for evaluating the characteristics of vibrations caused by internal flow in three-dimensional piping systems conveying high density fluids. The excitation of the circuit is mainly caused by the flow singularities, and it is shown that the problem may be reduced to calculate the response of the circuit to an acoustical pressure discontinuity, localised at each flow singularity. The paper is divided into two main parts: First part is devoted to the theoretical formulation of the coupled acoustical-mechanical problem and to its numerical solution by the french computer code TEDEL. Second part describes an experimental test of the method. The tested piping system consists of a stainless steel tube circuit comprising four 909 bends, conveying water. Vibrations are excited by a half closed gate valve. Satisfactory results are obtained concerning both the frequencies of resonance of the circuit and the level of the vibrations observed
Active control of noise radiation from vibrating structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mørkholt, Jakob
developed, based on the theory of radiation filters for estimating the sound radiation from multimodal vibrations. This model has then been used in simulations of optimal feedback control, with special emphasis of the stability margins of the optimal control scheme. Two different methods of designing...... optimal and robust discrete-time feedback controllers for active vibration control of multimodal structures have been compared. They have been showed to yield controllers with identical frequency response characteristics, even though they employ completely different methods of numerical solutions...... and result in different representations of the controllers. The Internal Model Control structure combined with optimal filtering is suggested as an alternative to state space optimal control techniques for designing robust optimal controllers for audio frequency vibration control of resonant structures....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1977-03-01
At the 1975 Particle Accelerator Conference it was reported that a class of resonances were observed in SPEAR II that had not appeared before in SPEAR I. While the existence of sideband resonances of the main betatron oscillation frequencies has been previously observed and analyzed, the resonances observed in SPEAR do not appear to be of the same variety. Experiments were performed at SPEAR to identify the mechanism believed to be the most likely explanation. Some of the current experimental knowledge and theoretical views on the source of these resonances are presented
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tepikian, S.
1988-01-01
Siberian Snakes provide a practical means of obtaining polarized proton beams in large accelerators. The effect of snakes can be understood by studying the dynamics of spin precession in an accelerator with snakes and a single spin resonance. This leads to a new class of energy independent spin depolarizing resonances, called snake resonances. In designing a large accelerator with snakes to preserve the spin polarization, there is an added constraint on the choice of the vertical betatron tune due to the snake resonances. 11 refs., 4 figs
Toward, Martin G. R.; Griffin, Michael J.
2011-12-01
The transmission of vibration through a seat depends on the impedance of the seat and the apparent mass of the seat occupant. This study was designed to determine how factors affecting the apparent mass of the body (age, gender, physical characteristics, backrest contact, and magnitude of vibration) affect seat transmissibility. The transmission of vertical vibration through a car seat was measured with 80 adults (41 males and 39 females aged 18-65) at frequencies between 0.6 and 20 Hz with two backrest conditions (no backrest and backrest), and with three magnitudes of random vibration (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 m s -2 rms). Linear regression models were used to study the effects of subject physical characteristics (age, gender, and anthropometry) and features of their apparent mass (resonance frequency, apparent mass at resonance and at 12 Hz) on the measured seat transmissibility. The strongest predictor of both the frequency of the principal resonance in seat transmissibility and the seat transmissibility at resonance was subject age, with other factors having only marginal effects. The transmissibility of the seat at 12 Hz depended on subject age, body mass index, and gender. Although subject weight was strongly associated with apparent mass, weight was not strongly associated with seat transmissibility. The resonance frequency of the seat decreased with increases in the magnitude of the vibration excitation and increased when subjects made contact with the backrest. Inter-subject variability in the resonance frequency and transmissibility at resonance was less with greater vibration excitation, but was largely unaffected by backrest contact. A lumped parameter seat-person model showed that changes in seat transmissibility with age can be predicted from changes in apparent mass with age, and that the dynamic stiffness of the seat appeared to increase with increased loading so as to compensate for increases in subject apparent mass associated with increased sitting
Random vibrations theory and practice
Wirsching, Paul H; Ortiz, Keith
1995-01-01
Random Vibrations: Theory and Practice covers the theory and analysis of mechanical and structural systems undergoing random oscillations due to any number of phenomena— from engine noise, turbulent flow, and acoustic noise to wind, ocean waves, earthquakes, and rough pavement. For systems operating in such environments, a random vibration analysis is essential to the safety and reliability of the system. By far the most comprehensive text available on random vibrations, Random Vibrations: Theory and Practice is designed for readers who are new to the subject as well as those who are familiar with the fundamentals and wish to study a particular topic or use the text as an authoritative reference. It is divided into three major sections: fundamental background, random vibration development and applications to design, and random signal analysis. Introductory chapters cover topics in probability, statistics, and random processes that prepare the reader for the development of the theory of random vibrations a...
VIBRATION ISOLATION SYSTEM PROBABILITY ANALYSIS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Smirnov Vladimir Alexandrovich
2012-10-01
Full Text Available The article deals with the probability analysis for a vibration isolation system of high-precision equipment, which is extremely sensitive to low-frequency oscillations even of submicron amplitude. The external sources of low-frequency vibrations may include the natural city background or internal low-frequency sources inside buildings (pedestrian activity, HVAC. Taking Gauss distribution into account, the author estimates the probability of the relative displacement of the isolated mass being still lower than the vibration criteria. This problem is being solved in the three dimensional space, evolved by the system parameters, including damping and natural frequency. According to this probability distribution, the chance of exceeding the vibration criteria for a vibration isolation system is evaluated. Optimal system parameters - damping and natural frequency - are being developed, thus the possibility of exceeding vibration criteria VC-E and VC-D is assumed to be less than 0.04.
Electromagnetic energy harvesting from vibrations of multiple frequencies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Bin; Lee Chengkuo; Xie Jin; Han He, Johnny; Kotlanka, Rama Krishna; Feng Hanhua; Xiang Wenfeng; Low, Siew Ping
2009-01-01
A novel multi-frequency energy harvester has been designed and fabricated, which consists of three permanent magnets, three sets of two-layer copper coils and a supported beam of acrylic, while these coils are made of thin fire resistant 4 (FR4) substrates using a standard printed circuit board. The energy under the first, second and third resonant modes can be harvested, corresponding to the resonant frequencies of 369 Hz, 938 Hz and 1184 Hz, respectively. The maximum output voltage and power of the first and second vibration modes are 1.38 mV, 0.6 µW and 3.2 mV, 3.2 µW for a 14 µm exciting vibration amplitude and a 0.4 mm gap between the magnet and coils, respectively. The feasibility study results are in good agreement with the theoretical calculations and show promising application potentials
Vibrations in water-gas heat exchangers. Design and tests
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alexandre, M.; Allard, G.; Vangedhen, A.
1981-01-01
It is shown on an example how to make a complete list of the possible vibrations and how to use the data of tests and technical literature to predict damaging vibrations. The water-heavy gas tubular heat-exchanger in case is briefly described. The sources of mechanical excitations are a compressor and earthquake loadings. The various eigenmodes are described and it is shown that no resonance is possible with the compressor and that the effect of the earthquake is negligible. The excitation of the tubes by the gas flow is examined by means of Connors stability criterion; and there is no resonance with the Benard-von Karman vortices. The magnification of this latter excitation by acoustical waves is not to be feared. Satisfactory tests have been carried successively on tubes, on the casing, on the casing plus part of the tubes, on a complete prototype in workshop and in operation on site [fr
Vibration damping method and apparatus
Redmond, James M.; Barney, Patrick S.; Parker, Gordon G.; Smith, David A.
1999-01-01
The present invention provides vibration damping method and apparatus that can damp vibration in more than one direction without requiring disassembly, that can accommodate varying tool dimensions without requiring re-tuning, and that does not interfere with tool tip operations and cooling. The present invention provides active dampening by generating bending moments internal to a structure such as a boring bar to dampen vibration thereof.
Atomic beams probe surface vibrations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robinson, A.L.
1982-01-01
In the last two years, surface scientist have begun trying to obtain the vibrational frequencies of surface atoms in both insulating and metallic crystals from beams of helium atoms. It is the inelastic scattering that researchers use to probe surface vibrations. Inelastic atomic beam scattering has only been used to obtain vibrational frequency spectra from clean surfaces. Several experiments using helium beams are cited. (SC)
Micro-machined resonator oscillator
Koehler, Dale R.; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; Bivens, Hugh M.; Wessendorf, Kurt O.
1994-01-01
A micro-miniature resonator-oscillator is disclosed. Due to the miniaturization of the resonator-oscillator, oscillation frequencies of one MHz and higher are utilized. A thickness-mode quartz resonator housed in a micro-machined silicon package and operated as a "telemetered sensor beacon" that is, a digital, self-powered, remote, parameter measuring-transmitter in the FM-band. The resonator design uses trapped energy principles and temperature dependence methodology through crystal orientation control, with operation in the 20-100 MHz range. High volume batch-processing manufacturing is utilized, with package and resonator assembly at the wafer level. Unique design features include squeeze-film damping for robust vibration and shock performance, capacitive coupling through micro-machined diaphragms allowing resonator excitation at the package exterior, circuit integration and extremely small (0.1 in. square) dimensioning. A family of micro-miniature sensor beacons is also disclosed with widespread applications as bio-medical sensors, vehicle status monitors and high-volume animal identification and health sensors. The sensor family allows measurement of temperatures, chemicals, acceleration and pressure. A microphone and clock realization is also available.
The monopole and quadrupole vibrations of a hot nucleus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okolowicz, J.; Drozdz, S.; Ploszajczak, M.; Caurier, E.
1989-03-01
An extended time-dependent Hartree-Fock approach has been applied to a description of the isoscalar giant monopole and quadrupole vibration modes in the excited nuclear system at finite temperature. The temperature dependence of the resonance characteristics is established for both modes. In anticipation of some anharmonic effects the principle of regularity and single-valuedness has been used to extract the energies of the collective modes. (orig.)
Measurement of stress strain and vibrational properties of tendons
Revel, Gian Marco; Scalise, Alessandro; Scalise, Lorenzo
2003-08-01
The authors present a new non-intrusive experimental procedure based on laser techniques for the measurement of mechanical properties of tendons. The procedure is based on the measurement of the first resonance frequency of the tendon by laser Doppler vibrometry during in vitro tensile experiments, with the final aim of establishing a measurement procedure to perform the mechanical characterization of tendons by extracting parameters such as the resonance frequency, also achievable during in vivo investigation. The experimental procedure is reported, taking into account the need to simulate the physiological conditions of the Achilles tendon, and the measurement technique used for the non-invasive determination of tendon cross-sectional area during tensile vibration tests at different load levels is described. The test procedure is based on a tensile machine, which measures longitudinal tendons undergoing controlled load conditions. Cross-sectional area is measured using a new non-contact procedure for the measurement of tendon perimeter (repeatability of 99% and accuracy of 2%). For each loading condition, vibration resonance frequency and damping, cross-sectional area and tensile force are measured, allowing thus a mechanical characterization of the tendon. Tendon stress-strain curves are reported. Stress-strain curves have been correlated to the first vibration resonance frequency and damping of the tendon measured using a single-point laser Doppler vibrometer. Moreover, experimental results have been compared with a theoretical model of a vibrating cord showing discrepancies. In vitro tests are reported, demonstrating the validity of the method for the comparison of different aged rabbit tendons.
Forced Vibrations of a Two-Layer Orthotropic Shell with an Incomplete Contact Between Layers
Ghulghazaryan, L. G.; Khachatryan, L. V.
2018-01-01
Forced vibrations of a two-layer orthotropic shell, with incomplete contact conditions between layers, when the upper face of the shell is free and the lower one is subjected to a dynamic action are considered. By an asymptotic method, the solution of the corresponding dynamic equations and correlations of a 3D problem of elasticity theory is obtained. The amplitudes of forced vibrations are determined, and resonance conditions are established.
Collective vibrations as doorway states in the damping of nuclear motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broglia, R.A.
1983-01-01
The damping of single-particle and giant resonances is studied. Doorway states containing low-lying surface vibrations are found to play a central role in this process. The coupling to these states lead to damping widths consistent with the empirical systematics. It is however not possible to directly relate these two quantities because of the central role played by the correlation between the particles and the hole in the vibration. (Auth.)
Digital analysis of vibrations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bohnstedt, H.J.; Walter, G.
1982-01-01
Vibrational measurements, e.g. on turbomachinery, can be evaluated rapidly and economically with the aid of a combination of the following instruments: a desk-top computer, a two-channel vector filter and a FFT spectral analyzer. This equipment combination is available within the Allianz Centre for Technology and has also been used for mobile, on-site investigations during the last year. It enables calculation and display of time functions, kinetic shaft orbits, displacement diagrams. Bode plots, polar-coordinate plots, cascade diagrams and histograms. (orig.) [de
Turbine blade vibration dampening
Cornelius, C.C.; Pytanowski, G.P.; Vendituoli, J.S.
1997-07-08
The present turbine wheel assembly increases component life and turbine engine longevity. The combination of the strap and the opening combined with the preestablished area of the outer surface of the opening and the preestablished area of the outer circumferential surface of the strap and the friction between the strap and the opening increases the life and longevity of the turbine wheel assembly. Furthermore, the mass ``M`` or combined mass ``CM`` of the strap or straps and the centrifugal force assist in controlling vibrations and damping characteristics. 5 figs.
Lattice Vibrations in Chlorobenzenes:
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reynolds, P. A.; Kjems, Jørgen; White, J. W.
1974-01-01
Lattice vibrational dispersion curves for the ``intermolecular'' modes in the triclinic, one molecule per unit cell β phase of p‐C6D4Cl2 and p‐C6H4Cl2 have been obtained by inelastic neutron scattering. The deuterated sample was investigated at 295 and at 90°K and a linear extrapolation to 0°K...... was applied in order to correct for anharmonic effects. Calculations based on the atom‐atom model for van der Waals' interaction and on general potential parameters for the aromatic compounds agree reasonably well with the experimental observations. There is no substantial improvement in fit obtained either...
Vibration control, machine diagnostics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1990-01-01
Changing vibrations announce damage in the form of wear or cracks on components of, e.g., engine rotors, pumps, power plant turbo sets, rounding-up tools, or marine diesel engines. Therefore, machine diagnostics use frequency analyses, system tests, trend analyses as well as expert systems to localize or estimate the causes of these damages and malfunctions. Data acquisistion, including not only sensors, but also reliable and redundant data processing systems and analyzing systems, play an important role. The lectures pertaining to the data base are covered in detail. (DG) [de
Rajasekar, Shanmuganathan
2016-01-01
This introductory text presents the basic aspects and most important features of various types of resonances and anti-resonances in dynamical systems. In particular, for each resonance, it covers the theoretical concepts, illustrates them with case studies, and reviews the available information on mechanisms, characterization, numerical simulations, experimental realizations, possible quantum analogues, applications and significant advances made over the years. Resonances are one of the most fundamental phenomena exhibited by nonlinear systems and refer to specific realizations of maximum response of a system due to the ability of that system to store and transfer energy received from an external forcing source. Resonances are of particular importance in physical, engineering and biological systems - they can prove to be advantageous in many applications, while leading to instability and even disasters in others. The book is self-contained, providing the details of mathematical derivations and techniques invo...
Takayanagi, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Kento; Yoshida, Takahiko; Kita, Yukiumi; Tachikawa, Masanori
2017-05-01
We present computational results of vibrationally enhanced positron annihilation in the e+ + HCN/DCN collisions within a local complex potential model. Vibrationally elastic and inelastic cross sections and effective annihilation rates were calculated by solving a time-dependent complex-potential Schrödinger equation under the ab initio potential energy surface for the positron attached HCN molecule, [HCN; e+], with multi-component configuration interaction level (Kita and Tachikawa, 2014). We discuss the effect of vibrational excitation on the positron affinities from the obtained vibrational resonance features.
Ultraminiature resonator accelerometer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koehler, D.R.; Kravitz, S.H.; Vianco, P.T.
1996-04-01
A new family of microminiature sensors and clocks is being developed with widespread application potential for missile and weapons applications, as biomedical sensors, as vehicle status monitors, and as high-volume animal identification and health sensors. To satisfy fundamental technology development needs, a micromachined clock and an accelerometer have initially been undertaken as development projects. A thickness-mode quartz resonator housed in a micromachined silicon package is used as the frequency-modulated basic component of the sensor family. Resonator design philosophy follows trapped energy principles and temperature compensation methodology through crystal orientation control, with operation in the 20--100 MHz range, corresponding to quartz wafer thicknesses in the 75--15 micron range. High-volume batch-processing manufacturing is utilized, with package and resonator assembly at the wafer level. Chemical etching of quartz, as well as micromachining of silicon, achieves the surface and volume mechanical features necessary to fashion the resonating element and the mating package. Integration of the associated oscillator and signal analysis circuitry into the silicon package is inherent to the realization of a size reduction requirement. A low temperature In and In/Sn bonding technology allows assembly of the dissimilar quartz and silicon materials, an otherwise challenging task. Unique design features include robust vibration and shock performance, capacitance sensing with micromachined diaphragms, circuit integration, capacitance-to-frequency transduction, and extremely small dimensioning. Accelerometer sensitivities were measured in the 1--3 ppm/g range for the milligram proof-mass structures employed in the prototypes evaluated to date.
Off-axis Modal Active Vibration Control Of Rotational Vibrations
Babakhani, B.; de Vries, Theodorus J.A.; van Amerongen, J.
Collocated active vibration control is an effective and robustly stable way of adding damping to the performance limiting vibrations of a plant. Besides the physical parameters of the Active Damping Unit (ADU) containing the collocated actuator and sensor, its location with respect to the
OPTIMAL AUTOMOBILE MUFFLER VIBRATION AND NOISE ANALYSIS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sujit Kumar Jha
2013-06-01
Full Text Available The muffler is the main part of the Automobile Exhaust System, consisting of fibrous and porous materials to absorb noise and vibrations. The exhaust gas mass coming from the engine can produce resonance, which may be the source of fatigue failure in the exhaust pipe due to the presence of continuous resonance. The modes on the muffler should be located away from the engine’s operating frequencies in order to minimise the resonance. The objective of this paper is to determine the frequencies that appear at the modes, which have the more adverse effect during the operation of the automobile. An impact test has been conducted by applying the force using a hard head hammer, and data generated have been used for plotting a graph of the transfer functions using MATLAB. Six points have been selected, namely 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 11 on the muffler for the impact test. The collected data from theses six points have been analysed for the addition of damping. Results suggests that increasing the mass increases the damping and lowers the modes of the transfer function. Further research will identify higher strength materials that can withstand the higher gas temperatures as well as the corrosion and erosion by the gas emitted from the engine.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dhote, Sharvari, E-mail: sharvari.dhote@mail.utoronto.ca; Zu, Jean; Zhu, Yang [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S-3G8 (Canada)
2015-04-20
In this paper, a nonlinear wideband multi-mode piezoelectric vibration-based energy harvester (PVEH) is proposed based on a compliant orthoplanar spring (COPS), which has an advantage of providing multiple vibration modes at relatively low frequencies. The PVEH is made of a tri-leg COPS flexible structure, where three fixed-guided beams are capable of generating strong nonlinear oscillations under certain base excitation. A prototype harvester was fabricated and investigated through both finite-element analysis and experiments. The frequency response shows multiple resonance which corresponds to a hardening type of nonlinear resonance. By adding masses at different locations on the COPS structure, the first three vibration modes are brought close to each other, where the three hardening nonlinear resonances provide a wide bandwidth for the PVEH. The proposed PVEH has enhanced performance of the energy harvester in terms of a wide frequency bandwidth and a high-voltage output under base excitations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gu, Lei; Livermore, Carol
2011-01-01
This paper presents experiments and models of an energy harvesting device in which a low frequency resonator impacts a high frequency energy harvesting resonator, resulting in energy harvesting predominantly at the system's coupled vibration frequency. Analysis shows that a reduced mechanical damping ratio during coupled vibration enables increased electrical power generation as compared with conventional technology. Experiments demonstrate that the efficiency of electrical power transfer is significantly improved with the coupled vibration approach. An average power output of 0.43 mW is achieved under 0.4g acceleration at 8.2 Hz, corresponding to a power density of 25.5 µW cm −3 . The measured power and power density at the resonant frequency are respectively 4.8 times and 13 times the measured peak values for a conventional harvester created from a low frequency beam alone
Nonlinear vibration of a hemispherical dome under external water pressure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ross, C T F; McLennan, A; Little, A P F
2011-01-01
The aim of this study was to analyse the behaviour of a hemi-spherical dome when vibrated under external water pressure, using the commercial computer package ANSYS 11.0. In order to achieve this aim, the dome was modelled and vibrated in air and then in water, before finally being vibrated under external water pressure. The results collected during each of the analyses were compared to the previous studies, and this demonstrated that ANSYS was a suitable program and produced accurate results for this type of analysis, together with excellent graphical displays. The analysis under external water pressure, clearly demonstrated that as external water pressure was increased, the resonant frequencies decreased and a type of dynamic buckling became likely; because the static buckling eigenmode was similar to the vibration eigenmode. ANSYS compared favourably with the in-house software, but had the advantage that it produced graphical displays. This also led to the identification of previously undetected meridional modes of vibration; which were not detected with the in-house software.
Nonlinear vibration of a hemispherical dome under external water pressure
Ross, C. T. F.; McLennan, A.; Little, A. P. F.
2011-07-01
The aim of this study was to analyse the behaviour of a hemi-spherical dome when vibrated under external water pressure, using the commercial computer package ANSYS 11.0. In order to achieve this aim, the dome was modelled and vibrated in air and then in water, before finally being vibrated under external water pressure. The results collected during each of the analyses were compared to the previous studies, and this demonstrated that ANSYS was a suitable program and produced accurate results for this type of analysis, together with excellent graphical displays. The analysis under external water pressure, clearly demonstrated that as external water pressure was increased, the resonant frequencies decreased and a type of dynamic buckling became likely; because the static buckling eigenmode was similar to the vibration eigenmode. ANSYS compared favourably with the in-house software, but had the advantage that it produced graphical displays. This also led to the identification of previously undetected meridional modes of vibration; which were not detected with the in-house software.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Zhongsheng; Yang Yongmin; Lu Zhimiao; Luo Yanting
2013-01-01
Nowadays broadband vibration energy harvesting using piezoelectric effect has become a research hotspot. The innovation in this paper is the widening of the resonant bandwidth of a piezoelectric harvester based on phononic band gaps, which is called one-dimensional phononic piezoelectric cantilever beams (PPCBs). Broadband characteristics of one-dimensional PPCBs are analyzed deeply and the vibration band gap can be calculated. The effects of different parameters on the vibration band gap are presented by both numerical and finite element simulations. Finally experimental tests are conducted to validate the proposed method. It can be concluded that it is feasible to use the PPCB for broadband vibration energy harvesting and there should be a compromise among related parameters for low-frequency vibrations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen Zhongsheng, E-mail: czs_study@sina.com [Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Integrated Logistics Support, College of Mechatronic Engineering and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410073 (China); Yang Yongmin; Lu Zhimiao; Luo Yanting [Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Integrated Logistics Support, College of Mechatronic Engineering and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410073 (China)
2013-02-01
Nowadays broadband vibration energy harvesting using piezoelectric effect has become a research hotspot. The innovation in this paper is the widening of the resonant bandwidth of a piezoelectric harvester based on phononic band gaps, which is called one-dimensional phononic piezoelectric cantilever beams (PPCBs). Broadband characteristics of one-dimensional PPCBs are analyzed deeply and the vibration band gap can be calculated. The effects of different parameters on the vibration band gap are presented by both numerical and finite element simulations. Finally experimental tests are conducted to validate the proposed method. It can be concluded that it is feasible to use the PPCB for broadband vibration energy harvesting and there should be a compromise among related parameters for low-frequency vibrations.
Thermal noise and the incessant vibration of the outer hair cells in the cochlea
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. Fritze
1998-01-01
Full Text Available The continual exposure of outer hair cells (OHCs to thermal noise causes vibrations in resonant frequency. As these vibrations are backprojected, they should be recordable as audiofrequencies in the outer ear canal. But even though they are likely to be amplified in some areas by clustering in terms of the chaos theory, they cannot be picked up in the outer ear canal by currently available recording technologies. Conditions change in the presence of pathology, e.g. loss of OHCs and fibrous replacement: Clusters grow in size and amplitudes become larger so that the vibrations can be picked up as spontaneous oto-acoustic emissions (SOAEs in the outer ear canal. Efforts are needed to demonstrate the presence of physiological OHC vibrations (emission by incessant vibration, EIV by processing auditory recordings with statistical methods.
Flow induced vibrations of the CLIC X-Band accelerating structures
Charles, Tessa; Boland, Mark; Riddone, Germana; Samoshkin, Alexandre
2011-01-01
Turbulent cooling water in the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) accelerating structures will inevitably induce some vibrations. The maximum acceptable amplitude of vibrations is small, as vibrations in the accelerating structure could lead to beam jitter and alignment difficulties. A Finite Element Analysis model is needed to identify the conditions under which turbulent instabilities and significant vibrations are induced. Due to the orders of magnitude difference between the fluid motion and the structure’s motion, small vibrations of the structure will not contribute to the turbulence of the cooling fluid. Therefore the resonant conditions of the cooling channels presented in this paper, directly identify the natural frequencies of the accelerating structures to be avoided under normal operating conditions. In this paper a 2D model of the cooling channel is presented finding spots of turbulence being formed from a shear layer instability. This effect is observed through direct visualization and wavelet ana...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
DONG Peng
2017-01-01
Full Text Available When one end of a fluid-filled pipe with an elastic wall is fixed and a harmonic force effect acts on the other end,a steady longitudinal vibration will be produced. Compared to the pipeline resonance mode,the amplitude of the steady longitudinal vibration of an elastic pipe is greater,and the effect on the sound is also greater. The study of the steady longitudinal vibration of pipes can better describe the effects of fluid-filled pipelines on the radiation sound field of the pipe opening. Through the contrast between the analysis calculation of the equivalent beam model and the experimental results,the accuracy of the equivalent beam model for the calculation of the steady longitudinal vibration of pipelines is verified,and a method of isolating the steady longitudinal vibration state is proposed and verified.
Shunted Piezoelectric Vibration Damping Analysis Including Centrifugal Loading Effects
Min, James B.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Provenza, Andrew J.
2011-01-01
Excessive vibration of turbomachinery blades causes high cycle fatigue problems which require damping treatments to mitigate vibration levels. One method is the use of piezoelectric materials as passive or active dampers. Based on the technical challenges and requirements learned from previous turbomachinery rotor blades research, an effort has been made to investigate the effectiveness of a shunted piezoelectric for the turbomachinery rotor blades vibration control, specifically for a condition with centrifugal rotation. While ample research has been performed on the use of a piezoelectric material with electric circuits to attempt to control the structural vibration damping, very little study has been done regarding rotational effects. The present study attempts to fill this void. Specifically, the objectives of this study are: (a) to create and analyze finite element models for harmonic forced response vibration analysis coupled with shunted piezoelectric circuits for engine blade operational conditions, (b) to validate the experimental test approaches with numerical results and vice versa, and (c) to establish a numerical modeling capability for vibration control using shunted piezoelectric circuits under rotation. Study has focused on a resonant damping control using shunted piezoelectric patches on plate specimens. Tests and analyses were performed for both non-spinning and spinning conditions. The finite element (FE) shunted piezoelectric circuit damping simulations were performed using the ANSYS Multiphysics code for the resistive and inductive circuit piezoelectric simulations of both conditions. The FE results showed a good correlation with experimental test results. Tests and analyses of shunted piezoelectric damping control, demonstrating with plate specimens, show a great potential to reduce blade vibrations under centrifugal loading.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shiohata, K.; Nemoto, K.; Nagawa, Y.; Sakamoto, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Ito, M.; Koharagi, H. [Hitachi, Ltd, Tokyo (Japan)
1998-11-01
In this analysis method, electromagnetic force calculated by 2-dimensional analysis is transformed into external force for 3-dimensional structural-vibration analysis. And a modeling procedure for a vibrating structure is developed. Further, a space-modal-resonance criteria which relates electromagnetic force to structural-vibration or noise is introduced. In the structural-vibration analysis, the finite element method is used; and in the noise analysis, the boundary element method is used. Finally, vibration and noise of an induction motor are calculated using this criteria. Consequently, high-accuracy modeling is achieved and noise the calculated by the simulation almost coincides with that obtained by experiments. And it is clarified that the-space-modal resonance criteria is effective in numerical simulation. 11 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.
Wang, Yuxi; Niu, Shengkai; Hu, Yuantai
2017-06-01
The paper proposes a new piezoelectric smart structure with the integrated passive/active vibration-reduction performances, which is made of a series of periodic structural units. Every structural unit is made of two layers, one is an array of piezoelectric bimorphs (PBs) and one is an array of metal beams (MBs), both are connected as a whole by a metal plate. Analyses show that such a periodic smart structure possesses two aspects of vibration-reduction performance: one comes from its phonon crystal characteristics which can isolate those vibrations with the driving frequency inside the band gap(s). The other one comes from the electromechanical conversion of bent PBs, which is actively aimed at those vibrations with the driving frequency outside the band gap(s). By adjusting external inductance, the equivalent circuit of the proposed structure can be forced into parallel resonance such that most of the vibration energy is converted into electrical energy for dissipation by a resistance. Thus, an external circuit under the parallel resonance state is equivalent to a strong damping to the interrelated vibrating structure, which is just the action mechanism of the active vibration reduction performance of the proposed smart structure.
Krajnak, Kristine; Miller, G R; Waugh, Stacey
2018-01-01
Repetitive exposure to hand-transmitted vibration is associated with development of peripheral vascular and sensorineural dysfunctions. These disorders and symptoms associated with it are referred to as hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). Although the symptoms of the disorder have been well characterized, the etiology and contribution of various exposure factors to development of the dysfunctions are not well understood. Previous studies performed using a rat-tail model of vibration demonstrated that vascular and peripheral nervous system adverse effects of vibration are frequency-dependent, with vibration frequencies at or near the resonant frequency producing the most severe injury. However, in these investigations, the amplitude of the exposed tissue was greater than amplitude typically noted in human fingers. To determine how contact with vibrating source and amplitude of the biodynamic response of the tissue affects the risk of injury occurring, this study compared the influence of frequency using different levels of restraint to assess how maintaining contact of the tail with vibrating source affects the transmission of vibration. Data demonstrated that for the most part, increasing the contact of the tail with the platform by restraining it with additional straps resulted in an enhancement in transmission of vibration signal and elevation in factors associated with vascular and peripheral nerve injury. In addition, there were also frequency-dependent effects, with exposure at 250 Hz generating greater effects than vibration at 62.5 Hz. These observations are consistent with studies in humans demonstrating that greater contact and exposure to frequencies near the resonant frequency pose the highest risk for generating peripheral vascular and sensorineural dysfunction.
Vibrational spectra of ordered perovskites
Corsmit, A.F.; Hoefdraad, H.E.; Blasse, G.
1972-01-01
The vibrational spectra of the molecular M6+O6 (M = Mo, Te, W) group in ordered perovskites of the type Ba2M2+M6+O6 are reported. These groups have symmetry Oh, whereas their site symmetry is also Oh. An assignment of the internal vibrations is presented.
Vibrations and Stability: Solved Problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomsen, Jon Juel
Worked out solutions for exercise problems in J. J. Thomsen 'Vibrations and Stability: Advanced Theory, Analysis, and Tools', Springer, Berlin - Heidelberg, 2003.......Worked out solutions for exercise problems in J. J. Thomsen 'Vibrations and Stability: Advanced Theory, Analysis, and Tools', Springer, Berlin - Heidelberg, 2003....
Monopole Giant Resonances and TDHF boundary conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stevenson, P.D.; Almehed, D.; Reinhard, P.-G.; Maruhn, J.A.
2007-01-01
Using time-dependent Hartree-Fock, we induce isoscalar and isovector monopole vibrations and follow the subsequent vibrations of both the same and opposite isospin nature in the N Z nucleus 132 Sn. By suitable scaling of the proton and neutron parts of the excitation operators, the coupling between the modes is studied, and the approximate normal modes found. Chaotic dynamics are then analysed in the isoscalar giant monopole resonance by using reflecting boundaries in a large space to build up a large number of 0 + states whose spacings are then analysed. A Wigner-like distribution is found
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Muto, N. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kagomiya, K.; Kurosawa, T.; Konya, M>
1998-03-01
Horizontal vibrations of elevator cars mainly occur because a car swings as roller guides installed at corners of a car frame move on a winding guide rail at high speeds. Rider comfort in high speed elevators is worsened by these vibrations. Conventional active dampers suppressing horizontal vibrations using ac servo motors make cars heavier so driving power becomes larger, and they are not easily applied to existing elevators. An active damping control method suited to super-high-speed elevators is which can solve these problems. The method suppresses vibrations by generating only enough magnetic force needed to suppress them only when vibrations of the car franc are produced. The vibrations are detected using acceleration detectors and magnets installed on left and right sides of the car frame. A computer simulator was made to analyze phenomena of car vibrations and to verify effects of the proposed magnetic damping controller. It was found that the vibrations generated on the cabin floor were remarkably large when left and right sides at the upper and lower parts of the car frame were swung by sine waves with the same phase. The vibrations bad two resonant modes. Results obtained with the computer simulator and a full scale running simulator showed that the acceleration on the cabin floor, even at the resonant frequencies, could be reduced by the magnetic damping control to around 0.1m/s{sup 2} which would provide a comfortable ride. 10 refs., 14 figs.
Low Cost Digital Vibration Meter.
Payne, W Vance; Geist, Jon
2007-01-01
This report describes the development of a low cost, digital Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) vibration meter that reports an approximation to the RMS acceleration of the vibration to which the vibration meter is subjected. The major mechanical element of this vibration meter is a cantilever beam, which is on the order of 500 µm in length, with a piezoresistor deposited at its base. Vibration of the device in the plane perpendicular to the cantilever beam causes it to bend, which produces a measurable change in the resistance of a piezoresistor. These changes in resistance along with a unique signal-processing scheme are used to determine an approximation to the RMS acceleration sensed by the device.
Forced vibrations of a cantilever beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Repetto, C E; Roatta, A; Welti, R J
2012-01-01
The theoretical and experimental solutions for vibrations of a vertical-oriented, prismatic, thin cantilever beam are studied. The beam orientation is ‘downwards’, i.e. the clamped end is above the free end, and it is subjected to a transverse movement at a selected frequency. Both the behaviour of the device driver and the beam's weak-damping resonance response are compared for the case of an elastic beam made from PVC plastic excited over a frequency range from 1 to 30 Hz. The current analysis predicts the presence of ‘pseudo-nodes’ in the normal modes of oscillation. It is important to note that our results were obtained using very simple equipment, present in the teaching laboratory. (paper)
Nuclear surface vibrations in bag models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tomio, L.
1984-01-01
The main difficulties found in the hadron bag models are reviewed from the original version of the MIT bag model. Following, with the aim to answer two of the main difficulties in bag models, viz., the parity and the divergence illness, a dynamical model is presented. In the model, the confinement surface of the quarks (bag) is treated like a real physical object which interacts with the quarks and is exposed to vibrations. The model is applied to the nucleon, being observed that his spectrum, in the first excited levels, can be reproduced with resonable precision and obeying to the correct parity order. In the same way that in a similar work of Brown et al., it is observed to be instrumental the inclusion of the effect due to pions. (L.C.) [pt
Mechanical system diagnostics using vibration testing techniques
Mcleod, Catherine D.; Raju, P. K.; Crocker, M. J.
1990-01-01
The 'Cepstrum' technique of vibration-path identification allows the recovery of the transfer function of a system with little knowledge as to its excitation force, by means of a mathematical manipulation of the system output in conjunction with subtraction of part of the output and suitable signal processing. An experimental program has been conducted to evaluate the usefulness of this technique in the cases of simple, cantilever-beam and free-free plate structures as well as in that of a complex mechanical system. On the basis of the transfer functions thus recovered, it was possible to evaluate the shifts in the resonance frequencies of a structure due to the presence of defects.
Soap film vibration: origin of the dissipation.
Acharige, Sébastien Kosgodagan; Elias, Florence; Derec, Caroline
2014-11-07
We investigate the complex dispersion relationship of a transverse antisymmetric wave on a horizontal soap film. Experimentally, the complex wave number k at a fixed forcing frequency is determined by measuring the vibrating amplitude of the soap film: the wavelength (linked to the real part of k) is determined by the spatial variation of the amplitude; the decay length (linked to the imaginary part of k) is determined by analyzing the resonance curves of the vibrating wave as a function of frequency. Theoretically, we compute the complex dispersion relationship taking into account the physical properties of the bulk liquid and gas phase, and of the gas-liquid interfaces. The comparison between the computation (developed to the leading order under our experimental conditions) and the experimental results confirms that the phase velocity is fixed by the interplay between surface tension, and liquid and air inertia, as reported in previous studies. Moreover, we show that the attenuation of the transverse antisymmetric wave originates from the viscous dissipation in the gas phase surrounding the liquid film. This result is an important step in understanding the propagation of an acoustic wave in liquid foam, using a bottom-up approach.
Gas Bubble Dynamics under Mechanical Vibrations
Mohagheghian, Shahrouz; Elbing, Brian
2017-11-01
The scientific community has a limited understanding of the bubble dynamics under mechanical oscillations due to over simplification of Navier-Stockes equation by neglecting the shear stress tensor and not accounting for body forces when calculating the acoustic radiation force. The current work experimental investigates bubble dynamics under mechanical vibration and resulting acoustic field by measuring the bubble size and velocity using high-speed imaging. The experimental setup consists of a custom-designed shaker table, cast acrylic bubble column, compressed air injection manifold and an optical imaging system. The mechanical vibrations resulted in accelerations between 0.25 to 10 times gravitational acceleration corresponding to frequency and amplitude range of 8 - 22Hz and 1 - 10mm respectively. Throughout testing the void fraction was limited to <5%. The bubble size is larger than resonance size and smaller than acoustic wavelength. The amplitude of acoustic pressure wave was estimated using the definition of Bjerknes force in combination with Rayleigh-Plesset equation. Physical behavior of the system was capture and classified. Bubble size, velocity as well as size and spatial distribution will be presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lutz, H.D.; Willich, P.
1977-01-01
The FIR absorption spectra of pyrite type compounds RuS 2 , RuSsub(2-x)Sesub(x), RuSe 2 , RuTe 2 , OsS 2 , OsSe 2 , and PtP 2 as well as loellingite type phosphides FeP 2 , RuP 2 , and OsP 2 are reported. For RuS 2 , RuSe 2 , RuTe 2 , OsS 2 , and PtP 2 all of the five infrared allowed modes (k = 0) are observed. As a first result of a numerical normal coordinate treatment vibration forms of pyrite structure are communicated. The spectra show that lattice forces of corresponding sulfides, tellurides, and phosphides are about the same strength, but increase strongly by substitution of iron by ruthenium and especially of ruthenium by osmium. The lattice constants of the RuSsub(2-x)Sesub(x) solid solution obey Vegard's rule. (author)
Calculation of vibrational excitation cross-sections in resonant ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
WINTEC
ample1–12 of enduring interest and the decay mechanism is popularly labeled as the ... sections in the e-CO scattering using a simple UHF. LCP for this system. ..... (DST), Government of India for partial financial support. References. 1.
On the resonant behavior of longitudinally vibrating accreting rods
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Shatalov, M
2012-09-01
Full Text Available The theory of accreting structures is a new and fast developing branch of analytical mechanics basing on the theory of partial differential and integral equations. In the present paper the authors analyze qualitative properties of accreting rods...
Nondestructive evaluation of turbine blades vibrating in resonant modes
Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Ahmadshahi, Mansour A.
1991-12-01
The paper presents the analysis of the strain distribution of turbine blades. The holographic moire technique is used in conjunction with computer analysis of the fringes. The application of computer fringe analysis technique reduces the number of holograms to be recorded to two. Stroboscopic illumination is used to record the patterns. Strains and stresses are computed.
The Effect of Vibration Characteristics on the Atomization Rate in a Micro-Tapered Aperture Atomizer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qiufeng Yan
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Because little is known about the atomization theory of a micro-tapered aperture atomizer, we investigated the vibration characteristics of this type of atomizer. The atomization mechanism of a micro-tapered aperture atomizer was described, and the atomization rate equation was deduced. As observed via microscopy, the angle of the micro-tapered aperture changes with the applied voltage, which proved the existence of a dynamic cone angle. The forward and reverse atomization rates were measured at various voltages, and the influence of the micro-tapered aperture and its variation on the atomization rate was characterized. The resonance frequency of the piezoelectric vibrator was obtained using a laser vibrometer, and the atomization rates were measured at each resonance frequency. From experiments, we found that the atomization rates at the first five resonance frequencies increased as the working frequency increased. At the fifth resonance frequency (121.1 kHz, the atomization rate was maximized (0.561 mL/min, and at the sixth resonance frequency (148.3 kHz, the atomization rate decreased significantly (0.198 mL/min. The experimental results show that the vibration characteristics of the piezoelectric vibrator have a relatively strong impact on the atomization rate. This research is expected to contribute to the manufacture of micro-tapered aperture atomizers.
Yan, Qiufeng; Zhang, Jianhui; Huang, Jun; Wang, Ying
2018-03-21
Because little is known about the atomization theory of a micro-tapered aperture atomizer, we investigated the vibration characteristics of this type of atomizer. The atomization mechanism of a micro-tapered aperture atomizer was described, and the atomization rate equation was deduced. As observed via microscopy, the angle of the micro-tapered aperture changes with the applied voltage, which proved the existence of a dynamic cone angle. The forward and reverse atomization rates were measured at various voltages, and the influence of the micro-tapered aperture and its variation on the atomization rate was characterized. The resonance frequency of the piezoelectric vibrator was obtained using a laser vibrometer, and the atomization rates were measured at each resonance frequency. From experiments, we found that the atomization rates at the first five resonance frequencies increased as the working frequency increased. At the fifth resonance frequency (121.1 kHz), the atomization rate was maximized (0.561 mL/min), and at the sixth resonance frequency (148.3 kHz), the atomization rate decreased significantly (0.198 mL/min). The experimental results show that the vibration characteristics of the piezoelectric vibrator have a relatively strong impact on the atomization rate. This research is expected to contribute to the manufacture of micro-tapered aperture atomizers.
Vibrational Spectroscopy of Ionic Liquids.
Paschoal, Vitor H; Faria, Luiz F O; Ribeiro, Mauro C C
2017-05-24
Vibrational spectroscopy has continued use as a powerful tool to characterize ionic liquids since the literature on room temperature molten salts experienced the rapid increase in number of publications in the 1990's. In the past years, infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies have provided insights on ionic interactions and the resulting liquid structure in ionic liquids. A large body of information is now available concerning vibrational spectra of ionic liquids made of many different combinations of anions and cations, but reviews on this literature are scarce. This review is an attempt at filling this gap. Some basic care needed while recording IR or Raman spectra of ionic liquids is explained. We have reviewed the conceptual basis of theoretical frameworks which have been used to interpret vibrational spectra of ionic liquids, helping the reader to distinguish the scope of application of different methods of calculation. Vibrational frequencies observed in IR and Raman spectra of ionic liquids based on different anions and cations are discussed and eventual disagreements between different sources are critically reviewed. The aim is that the reader can use this information while assigning vibrational spectra of an ionic liquid containing another particular combination of anions and cations. Different applications of IR and Raman spectroscopies are given for both pure ionic liquids and solutions. Further issues addressed in this review are the intermolecular vibrations that are more directly probed by the low-frequency range of IR and Raman spectra and the applications of vibrational spectroscopy in studying phase transitions of ionic liquids.
Development of varying magnetic field analysis technology caused by vibration of MRI apparatus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Imamura, Yukinobu; Motoshiromizu, Hirofumi; Abe, Mitsushi; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Hiroyuki
2015-01-01
In Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) apparatus, pulse current is energized to the gradient coils in a strong static magnetic field generated by the static magnetic poles. Since electromagnetic force (i.e. Lorentz force) is generated in the gradient coils, the MRI magnet system vibrates. On the other hand, vibration of the MRI magnet system is affected by electromagnetic force caused by static magnetic poles vibration. As the vibration of MRI magnet system causes magnetic field disturbance (so-called 'error magnetic field') and affect image quality, it is important to evaluate them in the design process. In this study, a varying magnetic field evaluation method for MRI magnet system was developed. Vibration and electromagnetic force is considered in the weak coupling formation using the Modal Magnetic Dumping (MMD) method. In the eddy current analysis by vibration, the displacement was considered in the magnetic field changes in the finite elements. Error magnetic field caused by equipment vibration was obtained by superposition of the static magnetic field fluctuation and the eddy current magnetic field. Then open type MRI magnet was evaluated by the proposed methodology. A a result, vibration of static magnet poles were suppressed by magnetic dumping at 50 Hz or less and eddy current magnetic field was dominant at 50 Hz or more. (author)
Effendi Tri Bahtiar; Naresworo Nugroho; Dede Hermawan; Wilis Wirawan; Khuschandra
2018-01-01
Periodical control and measurement revealed that vibration level of motor and gearbox which was supported by Cooling Tower Unit 1 at PT Star Energy Geothermal (Wayang Windu) Ltd was significantly increasing since 2013. The vibration was not caused by machinery component failure, but induced by resonance of process flow. Decreasing stiffness of cooling tower structure was suspected causing the increasing vibration level. The physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of wood was deteriorate...
Molecular vibrations the theory of infrared and Raman vibrational spectra
Wilson, E Bright; Cross, Paul C
1980-01-01
Pedagogical classic and essential reference focuses on mathematics of detailed vibrational analyses of polyatomic molecules, advancing from application of wave mechanics to potential functions and methods of solving secular determinant.
Active Piezoelectric Vibration Control of Subscale Composite Fan Blades
Duffy, Kirsten P.; Choi, Benjamin B.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Min, James B.; Kray, Nicholas
2012-01-01
As part of the Fundamental Aeronautics program, researchers at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) are investigating new technologies supporting the development of lighter, quieter, and more efficient fans for turbomachinery applications. High performance fan blades designed to achieve such goals will be subjected to higher levels of aerodynamic excitations which could lead to more serious and complex vibration problems. Piezoelectric materials have been proposed as a means of decreasing engine blade vibration either through a passive damping scheme, or as part of an active vibration control system. For polymer matrix fiber composite blades, the piezoelectric elements could be embedded within the blade material, protecting the brittle piezoceramic material from the airflow and from debris. To investigate this idea, spin testing was performed on two General Electric Aviation (GE) subscale composite fan blades in the NASA GRC Dynamic Spin Rig Facility. The first bending mode (1B) was targeted for vibration control. Because these subscale blades are very thin, the piezoelectric material was surface-mounted on the blades. Three thin piezoelectric patches were applied to each blade two actuator patches and one small sensor patch. These flexible macro-fiber-composite patches were placed in a location of high resonant strain for the 1B mode. The blades were tested up to 5000 rpm, with patches used as sensors, as excitation for the blade, and as part of open- and closed-loop vibration control. Results show that with a single actuator patch, active vibration control causes the damping ratio to increase from a baseline of 0.3% critical damping to about 1.0% damping at 0 RPM. As the rotor speed approaches 5000 RPM, the actively controlled blade damping ratio decreases to about 0.5% damping. This occurs primarily because of centrifugal blade stiffening, and can be observed by the decrease in the generalized electromechanical coupling with rotor speed.
Effects of Proof Mass Geometry on Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdul Hafiz Alameh
2018-05-01
Full Text Available Piezoelectric energy harvesters have proven to have the potential to be a power source in a wide range of applications. As the harvester dimensions scale down, the resonance frequencies of these devices increase drastically. Proof masses are essential in micro-scale devices in order to decrease the resonance frequency and increase the strain along the beam to increase the output power. In this work, the effects of proof mass geometry on piezoelectric energy harvesters are studied. Different geometrical dimension ratios have significant impact on the resonance frequency, e.g., beam to mass lengths, and beam to mass widths. A piezoelectric energy harvester has been fabricated and tested operating at a frequency of about 4 kHz within the audible range. The responses of various prototypes were studied, and an optimized T-shaped piezoelectric vibration energy harvester design is presented for improved performance.