Heterogeneous Dynamics of Coupled Vibrations
Cringus, Dan; Jansen, Thomas I. C.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Schoenlein, RW; Corkum, P; DeSilvestri, S; Nelson, KA; Riedle, E
2009-01-01
Frequency-dependent dynamics of coupled stretch vibrations of a water molecule are revealed by 2D IR correlation spectroscopy. These are caused by non-Gaussian fluctuations of the environment around the individual OH stretch vibrations.
Lanzani, Guglielmo; De Silvestri, Sandro
2007-01-01
Vibrational spectroscopy is a powerful investigation tool for a wide class of materials covering diverse areas in physics, chemistry and biology. The continuous development in the laser field regarding ultrashort pulse generation has led to the possibility of producing light pulses that can follow vibrational motion coupled to the electronic transitions in molecules and solids in real time. Aimed at researchers and graduate students using vibrational spectroscopy, this book provides both introductory chapters as well as more advanced contents reporting on recent progress. It also provides a good starting point for scientists seeking a sound introduction to ultrafast optics and spectroscopic techniques.
Dynamics and vibrations progress in nonlinear analysis
Kachapi, Seyed Habibollah Hashemi
2014-01-01
Dynamical and vibratory systems are basically an application of mathematics and applied sciences to the solution of real world problems. Before being able to solve real world problems, it is necessary to carefully study dynamical and vibratory systems and solve all available problems in case of linear and nonlinear equations using analytical and numerical methods. It is of great importance to study nonlinearity in dynamics and vibration; because almost all applied processes act nonlinearly, and on the other hand, nonlinear analysis of complex systems is one of the most important and complicated tasks, especially in engineering and applied sciences problems. There are probably a handful of books on nonlinear dynamics and vibrations analysis. Some of these books are written at a fundamental level that may not meet ambitious engineering program requirements. Others are specialized in certain fields of oscillatory systems, including modeling and simulations. In this book, we attempt to strike a balance between th...
Dynamical response of vibrating ferromagnets
Gaganidze, E; Ziese, M
2000-01-01
The resonance frequency of vibrating ferromagnetic reeds in a homogeneous magnetic field can be substantially modified by intrinsic and extrinsic field-related contributions. Searching for the physical reasons of the field-induced resonance frequency change and to study the influence of the spin glass state on it, we have measured the low-temperature magnetoelastic behavior and the dynamical response of vibrating amorphous and polycrystalline ferromagnetic ribbons. We show that the magnetoelastic properties depend strongly on the direction of the applied magnetic field. The influence of the re-entrant spin glass transition on these properties is discussed. We present clear experimental evidence that for applied fields perpendicular to the main area of the samples the behavior of ferromagnetic reeds is rather independent of the material composition and magnetic state, exhibiting a large decrease of the resonance frequency. This effect can be very well explained with a model based on the dynamical response of t...
Vibration dynamics of single atomic nanocontacts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khater, A; Bourahla, B; Tigrine, R
2007-01-01
The motivation for this work is to introduce a model for an atomic nanocontact, whereby its mechanical properties can be analysed via the local spectra. The model system consists of two sets of triple parallel semi-infinite atomic chains joined by a single atom in between. We calculate the vibration spectra and the local densities of vibration states, in the harmonic approximation, for the irreducible set of sites that constitute the nanocontact domain. The nanocontact observables are numerically calculated for different cases of elastic hardening and softening, to investigate how the local dynamics can respond to changes in the microscopic environment on the domain. We have also calculated the phonon scattering and coherent conductance at the nanocontact, derived in a Landauer-Buettiker matrix approach. The analysis of the spectra, of the densities of vibration states, and of the phonon conductance, identifies characteristic features and demonstrates the central role of a core subset of sites in the nanocontact domain
Cases of coupled vibrations and prametric instability in rotating machines
Luneno, Jean-Claude
2012-01-01
The principal task in this research project was to analyse the causes and consequences of coupled vibrations and parametric instability in hydropower rotors; where both horizontal and vertical machines are involved. Vibration is a well-known undesirable behavior of dynamical systems characterised by persistent periodic, quasi-periodic or chaotic motions. Vibrations generate noise and cause fatigue, which initiates cracks in mechanical structures. Motions coupling can in some cases augment the...
Dissimilar Dynamics of Coupled Water Vibrations
Jansen, Thomas L. C.; Cringus, Dan; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.
2009-01-01
Dissimilar dynamics of coupled stretch vibrations of a water molecule are revealed by two-dimensional, IR correlation spectroscopy. These are caused by essentially non-Gaussian fluctuations of the electric field exerted by the environment on the individual OH stretch vibrations. Non-Gaussian
Vibrational dynamics of ice in reverse micelles
Dokter, A.M.; Petersen, C.; Woutersen, S.; Bakker, H.J.
2008-01-01
he ultrafast vibrational dynamics of HDO:D2O ice at 180 K in anionic reverse micelles is studied by midinfrared femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. Solutions containing reverse micelles are cooled to low temperatures by a fast-freezing procedure. The heating dynamics of the micellar solutions is
Improving Vibration Energy Harvesting Using Dynamic Magnifier
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Almuatasim Alomari
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper reports on the design and evaluation of vibration-based piezoelectric energy-harvesting devices based on a polyvinylidene fluoride unimorph cantilever beam attached to the front of a dynamic magnifier. Experimental studies of the electromechanical frequency response functions are studied for the first three resonance frequencies. An analytical analysis is undertaken by applying the chain matrix in order to predict output voltage and output power with respect to the vibration frequency. The proposed harvester was modeled using MATLAB software and COMSOL multi- physics to study the mode shapes and electrical output parameters. The voltage and power output of the energy harvester with a dynamic magnifier was 2.62 V and 13.68 mW, respectively at the resonance frequency of the second mode. The modeling approach provides a basis to design energy harvesters exploiting dynamic magnification for improved performance and bandwidth. The potential application of such energy harvesting devices in the transport sector include autonomous structural health monitoring systems that often include embedded sensors, data acquisition, wireless communication, and energy harvesting systems.
Apparatus and method for vibrating a casing string during cementing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rankin, R.E.; Rankin, K.T.
1992-01-01
This patent describes a method of cementing a string of casing in a well. It comprises: securing a vibrating device into the string of casing near the lower end of the string of casing; lowering the string of casing into the well to the desired depth; pumping a cement slurry down the string of casing; causing a portion of the cement slurry being pumped down the string of casing to vibrate the vibrating device; and wherein the vibrating device is secured in the string of casing by cementing the vibrating device within a sub, then securing the sub into the string of casing prior to lowering the string of casing into the well
The photodissociation and reaction dynamics of vibrationally excited molecules
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Crim, F.F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States)
1993-12-01
This research determines the nature of highly vibrationally excited molecules, their unimolecular reactions, and their photodissociation dynamics. The goal is to characterize vibrationally excited molecules and to exploit that understanding to discover and control their chemical pathways. Most recently the author has used a combination of vibrational overtone excitation and laser induced fluorescence both to characterize vibrationally excited molecules and to study their photodissociation dynamics. The author has also begun laser induced grating spectroscopy experiments designed to obtain the electronic absorption spectra of highly vibrationally excited molecules.
Gas Bubble Dynamics under Mechanical Vibrations
Mohagheghian, Shahrouz; Elbing, Brian
2017-11-01
The scientific community has a limited understanding of the bubble dynamics under mechanical oscillations due to over simplification of Navier-Stockes equation by neglecting the shear stress tensor and not accounting for body forces when calculating the acoustic radiation force. The current work experimental investigates bubble dynamics under mechanical vibration and resulting acoustic field by measuring the bubble size and velocity using high-speed imaging. The experimental setup consists of a custom-designed shaker table, cast acrylic bubble column, compressed air injection manifold and an optical imaging system. The mechanical vibrations resulted in accelerations between 0.25 to 10 times gravitational acceleration corresponding to frequency and amplitude range of 8 - 22Hz and 1 - 10mm respectively. Throughout testing the void fraction was limited to <5%. The bubble size is larger than resonance size and smaller than acoustic wavelength. The amplitude of acoustic pressure wave was estimated using the definition of Bjerknes force in combination with Rayleigh-Plesset equation. Physical behavior of the system was capture and classified. Bubble size, velocity as well as size and spatial distribution will be presented.
Vibrational dynamics of hydration water in amylose
Cavatorta, F; Albanese, G; Angelini, N
2002-01-01
We present a study of the dynamical properties of hydration water associated with amylose helices, based on low-temperature vibrational spectra collected using the TOSCA inelastic spectrometer at ISIS. The structural constraints of the polysaccharidic chains favour the formation of a high-density structure for water, which has been suggested by Imberty and Perez on the basis of conformational analysis. According to this model, hydration water can only enter the pores formed by six adjacent helices and completely fills the pores at a hydration level of about 0.27-g water/g dry amylose. Our measurements show that the dynamical behaviour of hydration water is similar to that observed in high-density amorphous ice. (orig.)
DYNAMIC MODELLING OF VIBRATIONS ASSISTED DRILLING
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Mathieu LADONNE
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The number of multi-materials staking configurations for aeronautical structures is increasing, with the evolution of composite and metallic materials. For drilling the fastening holes, the processes of Vibration Assisted Drilling (VAD expand rapidly, as it permits to improve reliability of drilling operations on multilayer structures. Among these processes of VAD, the solution with forced vibrations added to conventional feed to create a discontinuous cutting is the more developed in industry. The back and forth movement allows to improve the evacuation of chips by breaking it. This technology introduces two new operating parameters, the frequency and the amplitude of the oscillation. To optimize the process, the choice of those parameters requires first to model precisely the operation cutting and dynamics. In this paper, a kinematic modelling of the process is firstly proposed. The limits of the model are analysed through comparison between simulations and measurements. The proposed model is used to develop a cutting force model that allows foreseeing the operating conditions which ensure good chips breaking and tool life improvement.
Vibrational mechanics nonlinear dynamic effects, general approach, applications
Blekhman, Iliya I
2000-01-01
This important book deals with vibrational mechanics - the new, intensively developing section of nonlinear dynamics and the theory of nonlinear oscillations. It offers a general approach to the study of the effect of vibration on nonlinear mechanical systems.The book presents the mathematical apparatus of vibrational mechanics which is used to describe such nonlinear effects as the disappearance and appearance under vibration of stable positions of equilibrium and motions (i.e. attractors), the change of the rheological properties of the media, self-synchronization, self-balancing, the vibrat
Nonlinear dynamics and control of a vibrating rectangular plate
Shebalin, J. V.
1983-01-01
The von Karman equations of nonlinear elasticity are solved for the case of a vibrating rectangular plate by meams of a Fourier spectral transform method. The amplification of a particular Fourier mode by nonlinear transfer of energy is demonstrated for this conservative system. The multi-mode system is reduced to a minimal (two mode) system, retaining the qualitative features of the multi-mode system. The effect of a modal control law on the dynamics of this minimal nonlinear elastic system is examined.
Girardeau, Vadim; Goloni, Carolina; Jacquin, Olivier; Hugon, Olivier; Inglebert, Mehdi; Lacot, Eric
2016-12-01
In this article, we study the nonlinear dynamics of a laser subjected to frequency shifted optical reinjection coming back from a vibrating target. More specifically, we study the nonlinear dynamical coupling between the carrier and the vibration signal. The present work shows how the nonlinear amplification of the vibration spectrum is related to the strength of the carrier and how it must be compensated to obtain accurate (i.e., without bias) vibration measurements. The theoretical predictions, confirmed by numerical simulations, are in good agreement with the experimental data. The main motivation of this study is the understanding of the nonlinear response of a laser optical feedback imaging sensor for quantitative phase measurements of small vibrations in the case of strong optical feedback.
Role of theoretical dynamics in vibration diagnostics of pipe systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rejent, B.
1992-01-01
The importance of vibration diagnostics of pipe systems and the relevance of theoretical dynamics are shown using examples. The problems are discussed of vibration diagnostics of the primary circuit of a nuclear power plant with viscous seismic dampers installed. (M.D.) 7 figs., 5 refs
Flow vibrations and dynamic instability of heat exchanger tube bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Granger, S.; Langre, E. de
1995-01-01
This paper presents a review of external-flow-induced vibration of heat exchanger tube bundles. Attention is focused on a dynamic instability, known as ''fluidelastic instability'', which can develop when flow is transverse to the tube axis. The main physical models proposed in the literature are successively reviewed in a critical way. As a consequence, some concepts are clarified, some a priori plausible misinterpretations are rejected and finally, certain basic mechanisms, induced by the flow-structure interaction and responsible for the ultimate onset of fluidelastic instability, are elucidated. Design tools and methods for predictive analysis of industrial cases are then presented. The usual design tool is the ''stability map'', i.e. an empirical correlation which must be interpreted in a conservative way. Of course, when using this approach, the designer must also consider reasonable safety margins. In the area of predictive analysis, the ''unsteady semi-analytical models'' seem to be a promising and efficient methodology. A modern implementation of these ideas mix an original experimental approach for taking fluid dynamic forces into account, together with non-classical numerical methods of mechanical vibration. (authors). 20 refs., 9 figs
Structural dynamics and vibration 1995. PD-Volume 70
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ovunc, B.A.; Esat, I.I.; Sabir, A.B.; Karadag, V.
1995-01-01
The themes of this symposium focused on: dynamic responses to temperature cycles and wind excitation; the influence of the hydraulic feedback on stability; structural reliability; vibratory stress relief; fault detection by signal processing; dynamic contact in mechanisms; vibration of thick flexible mechanisms; higher order mechanisms in flexible mechanisms; natural circular frequencies by finite element method; elastic buckling, stability, and vibration of linear and nonlinear structures; buckling of stiffened plates and rings; mixed variable optimization; vibration optimization; and optimization in a constrained space. Separate abstracts were prepared for 20 papers in this book
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhu Dapeng
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Presently, foundation pit support structures are generally regarded as the temporary structures and the impact of vibration loads is often overlooked. As opposed to static and seismic loads, the vibration loads of subway trains are a type of cyclic load with a relatively long duration of action and a definite cycle; it is of great importance for the design of foundation pit support structures to correctly evaluate the impact of subway train vibrations on deep foundation pit and support works. In this paper, a dynamic three-dimensional numerical model is built that considers the vibration load of subway trains on the basis of the static numerical model for deep foundation pit support structures and simplified train loads to study the impact of train vibrations on deep foundation pit and permanent support structures. Studies have shown that the dynamic response of surface displacement mainly occurs in the early period of dynamic load, the vibration load of subway trains has little impact on ground subsidence, the support pile structure is in an elastic state during dynamic response under the action of subway train vibrations, and the action of train vibration loads is inimical to the safety of foundation pit support structures and should be closely studied.
Universality in the dynamical properties of seismic vibrations
Chatterjee, Soumya; Barat, P.; Mukherjee, Indranil
2018-02-01
We have studied the statistical properties of the observed magnitudes of seismic vibration data in discrete time in an attempt to understand the underlying complex dynamical processes. The observed magnitude data are taken from six different geographical locations. All possible magnitudes are considered in the analysis including catastrophic vibrations, foreshocks, aftershocks and commonplace daily vibrations. The probability distribution functions of these data sets obey scaling law and display a certain universality characteristic. To investigate the universality features in the observed data generated by a complex process, we applied Random Matrix Theory (RMT) in the framework of Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble (GOE). For all these six places the observed data show a close fit with the predictions of RMT. This reinforces the idea of universality in the dynamical processes generating seismic vibrations.
Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis of a Vibrating Turbine Blade
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Osama N. Alshroof
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This study presents the numerical fluid-structure interaction (FSI modelling of a vibrating turbine blade using the commercial software ANSYS-12.1. The study has two major aims: (i discussion of the current state of the art of modelling FSI in gas turbine engines and (ii development of a “tuned” one-way FSI model of a vibrating turbine blade to investigate the correlation between the pressure at the turbine casing surface and the vibrating blade motion. Firstly, the feasibility of the complete FSI coupled two-way, three-dimensional modelling of a turbine blade undergoing vibration using current commercial software is discussed. Various modelling simplifications, which reduce the full coupling between the fluid and structural domains, are then presented. The one-way FSI model of the vibrating turbine blade is introduced, which has the computational efficiency of a moving boundary CFD model. This one-way FSI model includes the corrected motion of the vibrating turbine blade under given engine flow conditions. This one-way FSI model is used to interrogate the pressure around a vibrating gas turbine blade. The results obtained show that the pressure distribution at the casing surface does not differ significantly, in its general form, from the pressure at the vibrating rotor blade tip.
Laser-induced vibrational dynamics of ozone in solid argon
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Amstrup, B.; Henriksen, Niels Engholm
1997-01-01
We consider the vibrational dynamics, induced by an intense infrared laser pulse, in an ozone molecule with isotopic substitution, that is, (OOO)-O-16-O-16-O-18 and compare the dynamics in the gas phase and in solid ar on. not perturbed by argon on a time-scale of a few picoseconds and selective...
2018-01-01
The structural heterogeneity of water at various interfaces can be revealed by time-resolved sum-frequency generation spectroscopy. The vibrational dynamics of the O–H stretch vibration of interfacial water can reflect structural variations. Specifically, the vibrational lifetime is typically found to increase with increasing frequency of the O–H stretch vibration, which can report on the hydrogen-bonding heterogeneity of water. We compare and contrast vibrational dynamics of water in contact with various surfaces, including vapor, biomolecules, and solid interfaces. The results reveal that variations in the vibrational lifetime with vibrational frequency are very typical, and can frequently be accounted for by the bulk-like heterogeneous response of interfacial water. Specific interfaces exist, however, for which the behavior is less straightforward. These insights into the heterogeneity of interfacial water thus obtained contribute to a better understanding of complex phenomena taking place at aqueous interfaces, such as photocatalytic reactions and protein folding. PMID:29490138
Dynamic tire pressure sensor for measuring ground vibration.
Wang, Qi; McDaniel, James Gregory; Wang, Ming L
2012-11-07
This work presents a convenient and non-contact acoustic sensing approach for measuring ground vibration. This approach, which uses an instantaneous dynamic tire pressure sensor (DTPS), possesses the capability to replace the accelerometer or directional microphone currently being used for inspecting pavement conditions. By measuring dynamic pressure changes inside the tire, ground vibration can be amplified and isolated from environmental noise. In this work, verifications of the DTPS concept of sensing inside the tire have been carried out. In addition, comparisons between a DTPS, ground-mounted accelerometer, and directional microphone are made. A data analysis algorithm has been developed and optimized to reconstruct ground acceleration from DTPS data. Numerical and experimental studies of this DTPS reveal a strong potential for measuring ground vibration caused by a moving vehicle. A calibration of transfer function between dynamic tire pressure change and ground acceleration may be needed for different tire system or for more accurate application.
Vibrations of bioionic liquids by ab initio molecular dynamics and vibrational spectroscopy.
Tanzi, Luana; Benassi, Paola; Nardone, Michele; Ramondo, Fabio
2014-12-26
Density functional theory and vibrational spectroscopy are used to investigate a class of bioionic liquids consisting of a choline cation and carboxylate anions. Through quantum mechanical studies of motionless ion pairs and molecular dynamics of small portions of the liquid, we have characterized important structural features of the ionic liquid. Hydrogen bonding produces stable ion pairs in the liquid and induces vibrational features of the carboxylate groups comparable with experimental results. Infrared and Raman spectra of liquids have been measured, and main bands have been assigned on the basis of theoretical spectra.
Dynamic stiffness of suction caissons - vertical vibrations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, M.; Andersen, Lars
2006-12-15
The dynamic response of offshore wind turbines are affected by the properties of the foundation and the subsoil. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the dynamic soil-structure interaction of suction caissons for offshore wind turbines. The investigation is limited to a determination of the vertical dynamic stiffness of suction caissons. The soil surrounding the foundation is homogenous with linear viscoelastic properties. The dynamic stiffness of the suction caisson is expressed by dimensionless frequency-dependent dynamic stiffness coefficients corresponding to the vertical degree of freedom. The dynamic stiffness coefficients for the foundations are evaluated by means of a dynamic three-dimensional coupled Boundary Element/Finite Element model. Comparisons are made with known analytical and numerical solutions in order to evaluate the static and dynamic behaviour of the Boundary Element/Finite Element model. The vertical frequency dependent stiffness has been determined for different combinations of the skirt length, Poisson's ratio and the ratio between soil stiffness and skirt stiffness. Finally the dynamic behaviour at high frequencies is investigated. (au)
Dynamic Wetting Behavior of Vibrated Droplets on a Micropillared Surface
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Zhi-hai Jia
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The dynamical wetting behavior has been observed under vertical vibration of a water droplet placed on a micropillared surface. The wetting transition takes place under the different processes. In compression process, the droplet is transited from Cassie state to Wenzel state. The droplet undergoes a Wenzel-Cassie wetting transition in restoring process and the droplet bounces off from the surface in bouncing process. Meanwhile, the wetting and dewetting models during vibration are proposed. The wetting transition is confirmed by the model calculation. This study has potential to be used to control the wetting state.
Advances in molecular vibrations and collision dynamics molecular clusters
Bacic, Zatko
1998-01-01
This volume focuses on molecular clusters, bound by van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonds. Twelve chapters review a wide range of recent theoretical and experimental advances in the areas of cluster vibrations, spectroscopy, and reaction dynamics. The authors are leading experts, who have made significant contributions to these topics.The first chapter describes exciting results and new insights in the solvent effects on the short-time photo fragmentation dynamics of small molecules, obtained by combining heteroclusters with femtosecond laser excitation. The second is on theoretical work on effects of single solvent (argon) atom on the photodissociation dynamics of the solute H2O molecule. The next two chapters cover experimental and theoretical aspects of the energetics and vibrations of small clusters. Chapter 5 describes diffusion quantum Monte Carlo calculations and non additive three-body potential terms in molecular clusters. The next six chapters deal with hydrogen-bonded clusters, refle...
Dynamic stiffness of horizontally vibrating suction caissons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Latini, Chiara; Zania, Varvara; Cisternino, Michele
2016-01-01
The promising potential for offshore wind market is on developing wind farms in deeper waters with bigger turbines. In deeper waters the design foundation configuration may consist of jacket structures supported by floating piles or by suction caissons. Taking the soil-structure interaction effects...... into consideration requires the prior estimation of the dynamic impedances of the foundation. Even though numerous studies exist for piles, only limited number of publications can be found for suction caissons subjected to dynamic loads. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine the dynamic response...... of this type of foundation using the finite element method (FEM) to account for the interaction with the soil. 3D numerical models for both the soil and the suction caisson are formulated in a frequency domain. The response of the soil surrounding the foundation is considered linear viscoelastic...
DYNAMICS OF VIBRATION FEEDERS WITH A NONLINEAR ELASTIC CHARACTERISTIC
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V. I. Dyrda
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Purpose. Subject to the smooth and efficient operation of each production line, is the use of vehicles transporting high specification. It worked well in practice for transporting construction machines, which are used during the vibration. The use of vibration machines requires optimization of their operation modes. In the form of elastic link in them are increasingly using rubber-metallic elements, which are characterized by nonlinear damping properties. So it is necessary to search for new, more modern, methods of calculation of dynamic characteristics of the vibration machines on the properties of rubber as a cushioning material. Methodology. The dynamics of vibration machine that is as elastic rubber block units and buffer shock absorbers limiting the amplitude of the vibrations of the working body. The method of determining amplitude-frequency characteristics of the vibrating feeder is based on the principle of Voltaire, who in the calculations of the damping properties of the dampers will allow for elastic-hereditary properties of rubber. When adjusting the basic dynamic stiffness of the elastic ties and vibratory buffers, using the principle of heredity rubber properties, determine the dependence of the amplitude of the working body of the machine vibrations. This method is called integro-operator using the fractional-exponential kernels of relaxation. Findings. Using the derived formula for determining the amplitude of the resonance curve is constructed one-mass nonlinear system. It is established that the use of the proposed method of calculation will provide a sufficiently complete description of the damping parameters of rubber-metallic elements and at the same time be an effective means of calculating the amplitude-frequency characteristics of nonlinear vibration systems. Originality. The authors improved method of determining damping characteristics of rubber-metallic elements and the amplitude-frequency characteristics of nonlinear
Sensitivity of molecular vibrational dynamics to energy exchange rate constants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Billing, G D; Coletti, C; Kurnosov, A K; Napartovich, A P
2003-01-01
The sensitivity of molecular vibrational population dynamics, governing the CO laser operated in fundamental and overtone transitions, to vibration-to-vibration rate constants is investigated. With this aim, three rate constant sets have been used, differing in their completeness (i.e. accounting for single-quantum exchange only, or for multi-quantum exchange with a limited number of rate constants obtained by semiclassical calculations, and, finally, with an exhaustive set of rate constants including asymmetric exchange processes, as well) and in the employed interaction potential. The most complete set among these three is introduced in this paper. An existing earlier kinetic model was updated to include the latter new data. Comparison of data produced by kinetic modelling with the above mentioned sets of rate constants shows that the vibrational distribution function, and, in particular, the CO overtone laser characteristics, are very sensitive to the choice of the model. The most complete model predicts slower evolution of the vibrational distribution, in qualitative agreement with experiments
The role of ro-vibrational coupling in the revival dynamics of diatomic molecular wave packets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banerji, J; Ghosh, Suranjana
2006-01-01
We study the revival and fractional revivals of a diatomic molecular wave packet of circular states whose weighing coefficients are peaked about a vibrational quantum number ν-bar and a rotational quantum number j-bar. Furthermore, we show that the interplay between the rotational and vibrational motion is determined by a parameter γ =√D/C, where D is the dissociation energy and C is inversely proportional to the reduced mass of the two nuclei. Using I 2 and H 2 as examples, we show, both analytically and visually (through animations), that for γ>>ν-bar, j-bar, the rotational and vibrational time scales are so far apart that the ro-vibrational motion gets decoupled and the revival dynamics depends essentially on one time scale. For γ∼ν-bar, j-bar, on the other hand, the evolution of the wave packet depends crucially on both the rotational and vibrational time scales of revival. In the latter case, an interesting rotational-vibrational fractional revival is predicted and explained
Vibrational and orientational dynamics of water in aqueous hydroxide solutions.
Hunger, Johannes; Liu, Liyuan; Tielrooij, Klaas-Jan; Bonn, Mischa; Bakker, Huib
2011-09-28
We report the vibrational and orientational dynamics of water molecules in isotopically diluted NaOH and NaOD solutions using polarization-resolved femtosecond vibrational spectroscopy and terahertz time-domain dielectric relaxation measurements. We observe a speed-up of the vibrational relaxation of the O-D stretching vibration of HDO molecules outside the first hydration shell of OH(-) from 1.7 ± 0.2 ps for neat water to 1.0 ± 0.2 ps for a solution of 5 M NaOH in HDO:H(2)O. For the O-H vibration of HDO molecules outside the first hydration shell of OD(-), we observe a similar speed-up from 750 ± 50 fs to 600 ± 50 fs for a solution of 6 M NaOD in HDO:D(2)O. The acceleration of the decay is assigned to fluctuations in the energy levels of the HDO molecules due to charge transfer events and charge fluctuations. The reorientation dynamics of water molecules outside the first hydration shell are observed to show the same time constant of 2.5 ± 0.2 ps as in bulk liquid water, indicating that there is no long range effect of the hydroxide ion on the hydrogen-bond structure of liquid water. The terahertz dielectric relaxation experiments show that the transfer of the hydroxide ion through liquid water involves the simultaneous motion of ~7 surrounding water molecules, considerably less than previously reported for the proton. © 2011 American Institute of Physics
Monitoring Bridge Dynamic Deformation in Vibration by Digital Photography
Yu, Chengxin; Zhang, Guojian; Liu, Xiaodong; Fan, Li; Hai, Hua
2018-01-01
This study adopts digital photography to monitor bridge dynamic deformation in vibration. Digital photography in this study is based on PST-TBPM (photographing scale transformation-time baseline parallax method). Firstly, we monitor the bridge in static as a zero image. Then, we continuously monitor the bridge in vibration as the successive images. Based on the reference points on each image, PST-TBPM is used to calculate the images to obtain the dynamic deformation values of these deformation points. Results show that the average measurement accuracies are 0.685 pixels (0.51mm) and 0.635 pixels (0.47mm) in X and Z direction, respectively. The maximal deformations in X and Z direction of the bridge are 4.53 pixels and 5.21 pixels, respectively. PST-TBPM is valid in solving the problem that the photographing direction is not perpendicular to the bridge. Digital photography in this study can be used to assess bridge health through monitoring the dynamic deformation of a bridge in vibration. The deformation trend curves also can warn the possible dangers over time.
Dynamic Characteristics of Buildings from Signal Processing of Ambient Vibration
Dobre, Daniela; Sorin Dragomir, Claudiu
2017-10-01
The experimental technique used to determine the dynamic characteristics of buildings is based on records of low intensity oscillations of the building produced by various natural factors, such as permanent agitation type microseismic motions, city traffic, wind etc. The possibility of recording these oscillations is provided by the latest seismic stations (Geosig and Kinemetrics digital accelerographs). The permanent microseismic agitation of the soil is a complex form of stationary random oscillations. The building filters the soil excitation, selects and increases the components of disruptive vibrations corresponding to its natural vibration periods. For some selected buildings, with different instrumentation schemes for the location of sensors (in free-field, at basement, ground floor, roof level), a correlation between the dynamic characteristics resulted from signal processing of ambient vibration and from a theoretical analysis will be presented. The interpretation of recording results could highlight the behavior of the whole structure. On the other hand, these results are compared with those from strong motions, or obtained from a complex dynamic analysis, and they are quite different, but they are explicable.
Prediction of dynamic loads and induced vibrations in stall
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thirstrup Petersen, J.; Aagaard Madsen, H. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Bjoerck, A. [Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden (Sweden); Enevoldsen, P. [Bonus Energy A/S (Denmark); Oeye, S. [The Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark); Ganander, H. [Teknikgruppen AB (Sweden); Winkelaar, D. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (Netherlands)
1998-05-01
Results from research in an EC Joule-III project and from national projects are presented. The objectives are improvement of design methods for stall regulated wind turbines with emphasis on stall induced vibrations and dynamic stall. The primary concern is limitation of the edgewise vibrations in the fundamental blade natural mode shape, which have caused trouble on modern wind turbines of approximate size 500 kW nominal power and 40 m rotor diameter. A theoretical study of quasi-steady aerodynamics confirms that the vibrations are driven basically by energy supplied from the aerodynamic forces during stalled operation. This energy exchange is equivalent to negative aerodynamic damping. The theoretical approach identifies the main parameters controlling the phenomenon. These parameters describe the steady and the dynamic airfoil characteristics, the overall aerodynamic layout of the blade, e.g. chord length and twist, the structural properties of the blade, e.g. structural damping and properties controlling the resulting vibration direction. Furthermore, full aeroelastic calculations and comparison with measurements show that the properties of the supporting structure, i.e. the main shaft, the nacelle and the tower, are important, as the global vibration of the rotor on its support may exchange energy with the blade vibration, when the blade natural frequency is close to one of the frequencies of the coupled rotor tilt-yaw mode shapes, usually denoted the global rotor whirl frequencies. It is confirmed that the influence of changing the primary design parameters can be determined by use of qualified aeroelastic calculations. Presented design guidelines therefore build on both the simple quasi-steady models, which can be used for the preliminary choice of the design variables mentioned above, and on full aeroelastic calculations. The aeroelastic calculations refine the design basis and should be used for choosing the final design variables and for final
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xu Liu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Unsteady aerodynamic system modeling is widely used to solve the dynamic stability problems encountering aircraft design. In this paper, single degree-of-freedom (SDF vibration model and forced simple harmonic motion (SHM model for dynamic derivative prediction are developed on the basis of modified Etkin model. In the light of the characteristics of SDF time domain solution, the free vibration identification methods for dynamic stability parameters are extended and applied to the time domain numerical simulation of blunted cone calibration model examples. The dynamic stability parameters by numerical identification are no more than 0.15% deviated from those by experimental simulation, confirming the correctness of SDF vibration model. The acceleration derivatives, rotary derivatives, and combination derivatives of Army-Navy Spinner Rocket are numerically identified by using unsteady N-S equation and solving different SHV patterns. Comparison with the experimental result of Army Ballistic Research Laboratories confirmed the correctness of the SHV model and dynamic derivative identification. The calculation result of forced SHM is better than that by the slender body theory of engineering approximation. SDF vibration model and SHM model for dynamic stability parameters provide a solution to the dynamic stability problem encountering aircraft design.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Sang-Myeong; Kim, Heungseob; Boo, Kwangsuck; Brennan, Michael J
2013-01-01
This paper describes an experimental study into the vibration control of a servo system comprising a servo motor and a flexible manipulator. Two modes of the system are controlled by using the servo motor and an accelerometer attached to the tip of the flexible manipulator. The control system is thus non-collocated. It consists of two electrical dynamic absorbers, each of which consists of a modal filter and, in case of an out-of-phase mode, a phase inverter. The experimental results show that each absorber acts as a mechanical dynamic vibration absorber attached to each mode and significantly reduces the settling time for the system response to a step input. (technical note)
Meng, Deshan; Wang, Xueqian; Xu, Wenfu; Liang, Bin
2017-05-01
For a space robot with flexible appendages, vibrations of flexible structure can be easily excited during both orbit and/or attitude maneuvers of the base and the operation of the manipulators. Hence, the pose (position and attitude) of the manipulator's end-effector will greatly deviate from the desired values, and furthermore, the motion of the manipulator will trigger and exacerbate vibrations of flexible appendages. Given lack of the atmospheric damping in orbit, the vibrations will last for quite a while and cause the on-orbital tasks to fail. We derived the rigid-flexible coupling dynamics of a space robot system with flexible appendages and established a coupling model between the flexible base and the space manipulator. A specific index was defined to measure the coupling degree between the flexible motion of the appendages and the rigid motion of the end-effector. Then, we analyzed the dynamic coupling for different conditions, such as modal displacements, joint angles (manipulator configuration), and mass properties. Moreover, the coupling map was adopted and drawn to represent the coupling motion. Based on this map, a trajectory planning method was addressed to suppress structure vibration. Finally, simulation studies of typical cases were performed, which verified the proposed models and method. This work provides a theoretic basis for the system design, performance evaluation, trajectory planning, and control of such space robots.
Effect of Space Vehicle Structure Vibration on Control Moment Gyroscope Dynamics
Dobrinskaya, Tatiana
2008-01-01
Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs) are used for non-propulsive attitude control of satellites and space stations, including the International Space Station (ISS). CMGs could be essential for future long duration space missions due to the fact that they help to save propellant. CMGs were successfully tested on the ground for many years, and have been successfully used on satellites. However, operations have shown that the CMG service life on the ISS is significantly shorter than predicted. Since the dynamic environment of the ISS differs greatly from the nominal environment of satellites, it was important to analyze how operations specific to the station (dockings and undockings, huge solar array motion, crew exercising, robotic operations, etc) can affect the CMG performance. This task became even more important since the first CMG failure onboard the ISS. The CMG failure resulted in the limitation of the attitude control capabilities, more propellant consumption, and additional operational issues. Therefore, the goal of this work was to find out how the vibrations of a space vehicle structure, caused by a variety of onboard operations, can affect the CMG dynamics and performance. The equations of CMG motion were derived and analyzed for the case when the gyro foundation can vibrate in any direction. The analysis was performed for unbalanced CMG gimbals to match the CMG configuration on ISS. The analysis showed that vehicle structure vibrations can amplify and significantly change the CMG motion if the gyro gimbals are unbalanced in flight. The resonance frequencies were found. It was shown that the resonance effect depends on the magnitude of gimbal imbalance, on the direction of a structure vibration, and on gimbal bearing friction. Computer modeling results of CMG dynamics affected by the external vibration are presented. The results can explain some of the CMG vibration telemetry observed on ISS. This work shows that balancing the CMG gimbals decreases the effect
On the mechanical vibrator-earth contact geometry and its dynamics
Noorlandt, R.P.; Drijkoningen, G.G.
2016-01-01
The geometry of the contact between a vibrator and the earth underneath influences the dynamics of the vibrator. Although a vibrator might appear to be well-coupled with the earth on a macroscale, perfect coupling certainly does not occur on the microscale. With the aid of contact mechanical
Nonlinear quantum dynamics in diatomic molecules: Vibration, rotation and spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, Ciann-Dong; Weng, Hung-Jen
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► This paper reveals the internal nonlinear dynamics embedded in a molecular quantum state. ► Analyze quantum molecular dynamics in a deterministic way, while preserving the consistency with probability interpretation. ► Molecular vibration–rotation interaction and spin–orbital coupling are considered simultaneously. ► Spin is just the remnant angular motion when orbital angular momentum is zero. ► Spin is the “zero dynamics” of nonlinear quantum dynamics. - Abstract: For a given molecular wavefunction Ψ, the probability density function Ψ ∗ Ψ is not the only information that can be extracted from Ψ. We point out in this paper that nonlinear quantum dynamics of a diatomic molecule, completely consistent with the probability prediction of quantum mechanics, does exist and can be derived from the quantum Hamilton equations of motion determined by Ψ. It can be said that the probability density function Ψ ∗ Ψ is an external representation of the quantum state Ψ, while the related Hamilton dynamics is an internal representation of Ψ, which reveals the internal mechanism underlying the externally observed random events. The proposed internal representation of Ψ establishes a bridge between nonlinear dynamics and quantum mechanics, which allows the methods and tools already developed by the former to be applied to the latter. Based on the quantum Hamilton equations of motion derived from Ψ, vibration, rotation and spin motions of a diatomic molecule and the interactions between them can be analyzed simultaneously. The resulting dynamic analysis of molecular motion is compared with the conventional probability analysis and the consistency between them is demonstrated.
Dynamic range of atomically thin vibrating nanomechanical resonators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Zenghui; Feng, Philip X.-L.
2014-01-01
Atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) crystals offer attractive properties for making resonant nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) operating at high frequencies. While the fundamental limits of linear operation in such systems are important, currently there is very little quantitative knowledge of the linear dynamic range (DR) and onset of nonlinearity in these devices, which are different than in conventional 1D NEMS such as nanotubes and nanowires. Here, we present theoretical analysis and quantitative models that can be directly used to predict the DR of vibrating 2D circular drumhead NEMS resonators. We show that DR has a strong dependence ∝10log(E Y 3/2 ρ 3D -1/2 rtε 5/2 ) on device parameters, in which strain ε plays a particularly important role in these 2D systems, dominating over dimensions (radius r, thickness t). This study formulizes the effects from device physical parameters upon DR and sheds light on device design rules toward achieving high DR in 2D NEMS vibrating at radio and microwave frequencies
Vibrational dynamics of aqueous hydroxide solutions probed using broadband 2DIR spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mandal, Aritra; Tokmakoff, Andrei
2015-01-01
We employed ultrafast transient absorption and broadband 2DIR spectroscopy to study the vibrational dynamics of aqueous hydroxide solutions by exciting the O–H stretch vibrations of the strongly hydrogen-bonded hydroxide solvation shell water and probing the continuum absorption of the solvated ion between 1500 and 3800 cm −1 . We observe rapid vibrational relaxation processes on 150–250 fs time scales across the entire probed spectral region as well as slower vibrational dynamics on 1–2 ps time scales. Furthermore, the O–H stretch excitation loses its frequency memory in 180 fs, and vibrational energy exchange between bulk-like water vibrations and hydroxide-associated water vibrations occurs in ∼200 fs. The fast dynamics in this system originate in strong nonlinear coupling between intra- and intermolecular vibrations and are explained in terms of non-adiabatic vibrational relaxation. These measurements indicate that the vibrational dynamics of the aqueous hydroxide complex are faster than the time scales reported for long-range transport of protons in aqueous hydroxide solutions
Free vibration analysis of multi-span pipe conveying fluid with dynamic stiffness method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Baohui; Gao Hangshan; Zhai Hongbo; Liu Yongshou; Yue Zhufeng
2011-01-01
Research highlights: → The dynamic stiffness method was proposed to analysis the free vibration of multi-span pipe conveying fluid. → The main advantage of the proposed method is that it can hold a high precision even though the element size is large. → The flowing fluid can weaken the pipe stiffness, when the fluid velocity increases, the natural frequencies of pipe are decreasing. - Abstract: By taking a pipe as Timoshenko beam, in this paper the original 4-equation model of pipe conveying fluid was modified by taking the dynamic effects of fluid into account. The shape function that always used in the finite element method was replaced by the exact wave solution of the modified four equations. And then the dynamic stiffness was deduced for the free vibration of pipe conveying fluid. The proposed method was validated by comparing the results of critical velocity with analytical solution for a simply supported pipe at both ends. In the example, the proposed method was applied to calculate the first three natural frequencies of a three span pipe with twelve meters long in three different cases. The results of natural frequency for the pipe conveying stationary fluid fitted well with that calculated by finite element software Abaqus. It was shown that the dynamic stiffness method can still hold high precision even though the element's size was quite large. And this is the predominant advantage of the proposed method comparing with conventional finite element method.
Barroso, Luciana R.; Morgan, James R.
2012-01-01
This paper describes the creation and evolution of an undergraduate dynamics and vibrations course for civil engineering students. Incorporating vibrations into the course allows students to see and study "real" civil engineering applications of the course content. This connection of academic principles to real life situations is in…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paulo, A S; GarcIa-Sanchez, D; Perez-Murano, F; Bachtold, A; Black, J; Bokor, J; Esplandiu, M J; Aguasca, A
2008-01-01
We describe a method based on the use of higher order bending modes of the cantilever of a dynamic force microscope to characterize vibrations of micro and nanomechanical resonators at arbitrarily large resonance frequencies. Our method consists on using a particular cantilever eigenmode for standard feedback control in amplitude modulation operation while another mode is used for detecting and imaging the resonator vibration. In addition, the resonating sample device is driven at or near its resonance frequency with a signal modulated in amplitude at a frequency that matches the resonance of the cantilever eigenmode used for vibration detection. In consequence, this cantilever mode is excited with an amplitude proportional to the resonator vibration, which is detected with an external lock-in amplifier. We show two different application examples of this method. In the first one, acoustic wave vibrations of a film bulk acoustic resonator around 1.6 GHz are imaged. In the second example, bending modes of carbon nanotube resonators up to 3.1 GHz are characterized. In both cases, the method provides subnanometer-scale sensitivity and the capability of providing otherwise inaccessible information about mechanical resonance frequencies, vibration amplitude values and mode shapes
Vibration control of ultrasonic cutting via dynamic absorber
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amer, Y.A. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig (Egypt)]. E-mail: yasser31270@yahoo.com
2007-08-15
Ultrasonic machining (USM) is one of the most effective non-conventional techniques. Its application especially to hard-to-machine material (HTM) is growing rapidly. The main operation condition of USM is at resonance where an exciter derives a tuned blade or a tool. In this paper, the coupling of two non-linear oscillators of the main system and absorber representing ultrasonic cutting process are investigated. This leads to a two-degree-of-freedom Duffing's oscillator in which such non-linear effects can be neutralized under certain dynamic conditions. The aim of this work is the control of the system behavior at principal parametric resonance condition where the system damage is probable. An approximate solution is derived up to the second order for the coupled system. A threshold value of linear damping has been obtained, where the system vibration can be reduced dramatically. The stability of the system is investigated applying both phase-plane and frequency response techniques. The effects of the different parameters of the absorber on system behavior are studied numerically. Comparison with the available published work is reported.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Yingli; Xu Daolin; Fu Yiming; Zhou Jiaxi
2012-01-01
In this paper, the average method is adopted to analysis dynamic characteristics of nonlinear vibration isolation floating raft system with feedback control. The analytic results show that the purposes of reducing amplitude of oscillation and complicating the motion can be achieved by adjusting properly the system parameters, exciting frequency and control gain. The conclusions can provide some available evidences for the design and improvement of both the passive and active control of the vibration isolation systems. By altering the exciting frequency and control gain, complex motion of the system can be obtained. Numerical simulations show the system exhibits period vibration, double period vibration and quasi-period motion.
Effect of vibrational excitation on the dynamics of ion-molecule reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderson, S.L.
1981-11-01
A new experimental technique for the study of vibrational effects on ion-molecule reaction cross sections is described. Vibrational and collision energy dependent cross sections are presented for proton and H atom transfer, charge transfer and collision induced dissociation reactions in various isotopic H 2 + + H 2 systems. Charge and proton transfer cross sections are presented for the reactions of H 2 + and D 2 + with Ar, N 2 , CO, and O 2 . All the reactions are shown to be highly influenced by avoided crossings between the ground and first excited potential energy surfaces. Because of the nature of the crossings, vibrational motion of the systems can cause both adiabatic and non-adiabatic behavior of the system. This makes the vibrational dependences of the various cross sections a very sensitive probe of the dynamics of the collisions particularly, their behavior in the region of the crossings. Evidence is seen for charge transfer between reagents as they approach each other, transition to and in some cases reactions on excited potential energy surfaces, competition between different channels, and strong coupling of proton and charge transfer channels which occurs only for two of the systems studied (H 2 + + Ar, N 2 ). Oscillatory structure is observed in the collision energy dependence of the endoergic H 2 + (v = 0) + Ar charge transfer reaction for the first time, and a simple model which is commonly used for atom-atom charge transfer is used to fit the peaks. Finally a simple model is used to assess the importance of energy resonance and Franck-Condon effects on molecular charge transfer
Some problems of control of dynamical conditions of technological vibrating machines
Kuznetsov, N. K.; Lapshin, V. L.; Eliseev, A. V.
2017-10-01
The possibility of control of dynamical condition of the shakers that are designed for vibration treatment of parts interacting with granular media is discussed. The aim of this article is to develop the methodological basis of technology of creation of mathematical models of shake tables and the development of principles of formation of vibrational fields, estimation of their parameters and control of the structure vibration fields. Approaches to build mathematical models that take into account unilateral constraints, the relationships between elements, with the vibrating surface are developed. Methods intended to construct mathematical model of linear mechanical oscillation systems are used. Small oscillations about the position of static equilibrium are performed. The original method of correction of vibration fields by introduction of the oscillating system additional ties to the structure are proposed. Additional ties are implemented in the form of a mass-inertial device for changing the inertial parameters of the working body of the vibration table by moving the mass-inertial elements. The concept of monitoring the dynamic state of the vibration table based on the original measuring devices is proposed. Estimation for possible changes in dynamic properties is produced. The article is of interest for specialists in the field of creation of vibration technology machines and equipment.
Ji, Pengfei; Zhang, Yuwen; Yang, Mo
2016-01-01
The structural, dynamic, and vibrational properties during the heat transfer process in Si/Ge superlattices, are studied by analyzing the trajectories generated by the ab initio Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulation. The radial distribution functions and mean square displacements are calculated and further discussions are made to explain and probe the structural changes relating to the heat transfer phenomenon. Furthermore, the vibrational density of states of the two layers (Si/Ge) ar...
Exploring the vibrational fingerprint of the electronic excitation energy via molecular dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deyne, Andy Van Yperen-De; Pauwels, Ewald; Ghysels, An; Waroquier, Michel; Van Speybroeck, Veronique; Hemelsoet, Karen; De Meyer, Thierry; De Clerck, Karen
2014-01-01
A Fourier-based method is presented to relate changes of the molecular structure during a molecular dynamics simulation with fluctuations in the electronic excitation energy. The method implies sampling of the ground state potential energy surface. Subsequently, the power spectrum of the velocities is compared with the power spectrum of the excitation energy computed using time-dependent density functional theory. Peaks in both spectra are compared, and motions exhibiting a linear or quadratic behavior can be distinguished. The quadratically active motions are mainly responsible for the changes in the excitation energy and hence cause shifts between the dynamic and static values of the spectral property. Moreover, information about the potential energy surface of various excited states can be obtained. The procedure is illustrated with three case studies. The first electronic excitation is explored in detail and dominant vibrational motions responsible for changes in the excitation energy are identified for ethylene, biphenyl, and hexamethylbenzene. The proposed method is also extended to other low-energy excitations. Finally, the vibrational fingerprint of the excitation energy of a more complex molecule, in particular the azo dye ethyl orange in a water environment, is analyzed
1980-09-01
Smallwood and D. L. Gregory, Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM A NEW METHOD OF IMPROVING SPECTRA SHAPING IN REVERBERANT CHAMBERS...DAMPING M. M. Wallace and C. W. Bert, The University of Oklahoma, Norman , OK CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF MAGLEV VEHICLES ON ELEVATED GUIDEWAYS...RANDOM VIBRATION EXTRENAL CONTROL STRATEGY D. 0. Smallwood D. L. Gregory Sandia Laboratories Albuquerque, NM This paper discusses the theoretical basis for
CHECKING OF TECHNICAL BRIDGES’ STATE BY PASSIVE VIBRATIONAL DYNAMICS METHODS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. P. Redchenko
2010-03-01
Full Text Available In the article the results of studies of the passive vibration test methods and the possibilities of using them for determining and monitoring of technical condition of bridges are presented.
Isotopic effects in vibrational relaxation dynamics of H on a Si(100) surface
Bouakline, F.; Lorenz, U.; Melani, G.; Paramonov, G. K.; Saalfrank, P.
2017-10-01
a net exponential decay of the time-dependent survival probability for the H-Si initial vibrational state, allowing an easy extraction of the bending mode "lifetime." This is in contrast with the D-Si system, whose survival probability exhibits a non-monotonic decay, making it difficult to define such a lifetime. This different behavior of the vibrational decay is rationalized in terms of the power spectrum of the adsorbate-surface system. In the case of D-Si, it consists of several, non-uniformly distributed peaks around the bending mode frequency, whereas the H-Si spectrum exhibits a single Lorentzian lineshape, whose width corresponds to the calculated lifetime. The present work gives some insight into mechanisms of vibration-phonon coupling at surfaces. It also serves as a benchmark for multidimensional system-bath quantum dynamics, for comparison with approximate schemes such as reduced, open-system density matrix theory (where the bath is traced out and a Liouville-von Neumann equation is solved) or approximate wavefunction methods to solve the combined system-bath Schrödinger equation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schulze, Jan; Kühn, Oliver, E-mail: oliver.kuehn@uni-rostock.de [Institut für Physik, Universität Rostock, Albert-Einstein-Str. 23-24, 18059 Rostock (Germany); Shibl, Mohamed F., E-mail: mfshibl@qu.edu.qa; Al-Marri, Mohammed J. [Gas Processing Center, College of Engineering, Qatar University, P.O. Box 2713, Doha (Qatar)
2016-05-14
The coupled quantum dynamics of excitonic and vibrational degrees of freedom is investigated for high-dimensional models of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex. This includes a seven- and an eight-site model with 518 and 592 harmonic vibrational modes, respectively. The coupling between local electronic transitions and vibrations is described within the Huang-Rhys model using parameters that are obtained by discretization of an experimental spectral density. Different pathways of excitation energy flow are analyzed in terms of the reduced one-exciton density matrix, focussing on the role of vibrational and vibronic excitations. Distinct features due to both competing time scales of vibrational and exciton motion and vibronically assisted transfer are observed. The question of the effect of initial state preparation is addressed by comparing the case of an instantaneous Franck-Condon excitation at a single site with that of a laser field excitation.
Qin, Yechen; He, Chenchen; Shao, Xinxin; Du, Haiping; Xiang, Changle; Dong, Mingming
2018-04-01
This paper presents a new approach for vibration mitigation based on a dynamic vibration absorbing structure (DVAS) for electric vehicles (EVs) that use in-wheel switched reluctance motors (SRMs). The proposed approach aims to alleviate the negative effects of vibration caused by the unbalanced electromagnetic force (UMEF) that arises from road excitations. The analytical model of SRMs is first formulated using Fourier series, and then a model of the coupled longitudinal-vertical dynamics is developed taking into consideration the external excitations consisting of the aerodynamic drag force and road unevenness. In addition, numerical simulations for a conventional SRM-suspension system and two novel DVASs are carried out for varying road levels specified by ISO standards and vehicle velocities. The results of the comparison reveal that a 35% improvement in ride comfort, 30% improvement of road handling, and 68% improvement in air gap between rotor and stator can be achieved by adopting the novel DVAS compared to the conventional SRM-suspension system. Finally, multi-body simulation (MBS) is performed using LMS Motion to validate the feasibility of the proposed DVAS. Analysis of the results shows that the proposed method can augment the effective application of SRMs in EVs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jingli Du
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Cable-driven parallel manipulators are one of the best solutions to achieving large workspace since flexible cables can be easily stored on reels. However, due to the negligible flexural stiffness of cables, long cables will unavoidably vibrate during operation for large workspace applications. In this paper a finite element model for cable-driven parallel manipulators is proposed to mimic small amplitude vibration of cables around their desired position. Output feedback of the cable tension variation at the end of the end-effector is utilized to design the vibration attenuation controller which aims at attenuating the vibration of cables by slightly varying the cable length, thus decreasing its effect on the end-effector. When cable vibration is attenuated, motion controller could be designed for implementing precise large motion to track given trajectories. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the dynamic model and the control algorithm.
Experimental Studies on Dynamic Vibration Absorber using Shape Memory Alloy (NiTi) Springs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, V. Raj; Kumar, M. B. Bharathi Raj; Kumar, M. Senthil
2011-01-01
Shape memory alloy (SMA) springs have been used as actuators in many applications although their use in the vibration control area is very recent. Since shape memory alloys differ from conventional alloy materials in many ways, the traditional design approach for springs is not completely suitable for designing SMA springs. Some vibration control concepts utilizing unique characteristics of SMA's will be presented in this paper.A dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) using shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator is developed for attenuation of vibration in a cantilever beam. The design procedure of the DVA is presented. The system consists of a cantilever beam which is considered to generate the real-time vibration using shaker. A SMA spring is used with a mass attached to its end. The stiffness of the SMA spring is dynamically varied in such a way to attenuate the vibration. Both simulation and experimentation are carried out using PID controller. The experiments were carried out by interfacing the experimental setup with a computer using LabVIEW software, Data acquisition and control are implemented using a PCI data acquisition card. Standard PID controllers have been used to control the vibration of the beam. Experimental results are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the controllers designed and the usefulness of the proposed test platform by exciting the structure at resonance. In experimental setup, an accelerometer is used to measure the vibration which is fed to computer and correspondingly the SMA spring is actuated to change its stiffness to control the vibration. The results obtained illustrate that the developed DVA using SMA actuator is very effective in reducing structural response and have great potential to be an active vibration control medium.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kamel, Lebchek; Outtas, T. [Laboratory of Structural Mechanics and Materials faculty of technology - University of Batna, Batha (Algeria)
2013-07-01
The aim of this work is the study of behavior of rotor dynamics of industrial turbines, using numerical simulation. Finite element model was developed by introducing a new hysteresis parameter to control more precisely the behavior of rolling bearings. The finite element model is used to extract the natural frequencies and modal deformed rotor vibration, as it identifies the constraints acting on the system and predict the dynamic behavior of the rotor transient. Results in Campbell diagram and those relating to the unbalance responses show significant amplitude differences in the parameters of hysteresis imposed . Key words: rotor dynamics, hysteresis, finite element, rotor vibration, unbalance responses, Campbell diagram.
Sumner, Isaiah; Iyengar, Srinivasan S
2007-10-18
We have introduced a computational methodology to study vibrational spectroscopy in clusters inclusive of critical nuclear quantum effects. This approach is based on the recently developed quantum wavepacket ab initio molecular dynamics method that combines quantum wavepacket dynamics with ab initio molecular dynamics. The computational efficiency of the dynamical procedure is drastically improved (by several orders of magnitude) through the utilization of wavelet-based techniques combined with the previously introduced time-dependent deterministic sampling procedure measure to achieve stable, picosecond length, quantum-classical dynamics of electrons and nuclei in clusters. The dynamical information is employed to construct a novel cumulative flux/velocity correlation function, where the wavepacket flux from the quantized particle is combined with classical nuclear velocities to obtain the vibrational density of states. The approach is demonstrated by computing the vibrational density of states of [Cl-H-Cl]-, inclusive of critical quantum nuclear effects, and our results are in good agreement with experiment. A general hierarchical procedure is also provided, based on electronic structure harmonic frequencies, classical ab initio molecular dynamics, computation of nuclear quantum-mechanical eigenstates, and employing quantum wavepacket ab initio dynamics to understand vibrational spectroscopy in hydrogen-bonded clusters that display large degrees of anharmonicities.
The vibrational dynamics of carbon monoxide in a confined space-CO in zeolites.
Nachtigallová, Dana; Bludský, Ota; Otero Areán, Carlos; Bulánek, Roman; Nachtigall, Petr
2006-11-14
Based on theoretical calculations, and a survey of infrared spectra of CO adsorbed on different cation exchanged zeolites, a model is proposed to explain the influence of the zeolite framework on the vibrational behaviour of CO confined into small void spaces (zeolite channels and cavities). The concepts developed should help to understand a number of details relevant to both, precise interpretation of IR spectra and a better understanding of the vibrational dynamics of small molecules in a confined space.
Eddy currents self-tuning dynamic vibration absorber for machine tool chatter suppression
Aguirre , Gorka; Gorostiaga , Mikel; Porchez , Thomas; Munoa , Jokin
2013-01-01
International audience; The current trend in machine tool design aims at stiffer machines with lowerinfluence of friction, leading to faster and more precise machines. However, this is atthe expense of reducing the machine damping, which is mainly produced by friction,and thus increasing the risk of suffering from a self-excited vibration named chatter,which limits the productivity of the process. Dynamic vibration absorbers (DVAs)offer a relatively simple and low cost solution to reduce chat...
Application of Time-Delay Absorber to Suppress Vibration of a Dynamical System to Tuned Excitation.
El-Ganaini, W A A; El-Gohary, H A
2014-08-01
In this work, we present a comprehensive investigation of the time delay absorber effects on the control of a dynamical system represented by a cantilever beam subjected to tuned excitation forces. Cantilever beam is one of the most widely used system in too many engineering applications, such as mechanical and civil engineering. The main aim of this work is to control the vibration of the beam at simultaneous internal and combined resonance condition, as it is the worst resonance case. Control is conducted via time delay absorber to suppress chaotic vibrations. Time delays often appear in many control systems in the state, in the control input, or in the measurements. Time delay commonly exists in various engineering, biological, and economical systems because of the finite speed of the information processing. It is a source of performance degradation and instability. Multiple time scale perturbation method is applied to obtain a first order approximation for the nonlinear differential equations describing the system behavior. The different resonance cases are reported and studied numerically. The stability of the steady-state solution at the selected worst resonance case is investigated applying Runge-Kutta fourth order method and frequency response equations via Matlab 7.0 and Maple11. Time delay absorber is effective, but within a specified range of time delay. It is the critical factor in selecting such absorber. Time delay absorber is better than the ordinary one as from the effectiveness point of view. The effects of the different absorber parameters on the system behavior and stability are studied numerically. A comparison with the available published work showed a close agreement with some previously published work.
Research on dynamic creep strain and settlement prediction under the subway vibration loading.
Luo, Junhui; Miao, Linchang
2016-01-01
This research aims to explore the dynamic characteristics and settlement prediction of soft soil. Accordingly, the dynamic shear modulus formula considering the vibration frequency was utilized and the dynamic triaxial test conducted to verify the validity of the formula. Subsequently, the formula was applied to the dynamic creep strain function, with the factors influencing the improved dynamic creep strain curve of soft soil being analyzed. Meanwhile, the variation law of dynamic stress with sampling depth was obtained through the finite element simulation of subway foundation. Furthermore, the improved dynamic creep strain curve of soil layer was determined based on the dynamic stress. Thereafter, it could to estimate the long-term settlement under subway vibration loading by norms. The results revealed that the dynamic shear modulus formula is straightforward and practical in terms of its application to the vibration frequency. The values predicted using the improved dynamic creep strain formula closed to the experimental values, whilst the estimating settlement closed to the measured values obtained in the field test.
Raman study of vibrational dynamics of aminopropylsilanetriol in gas phase
Volovšek, V.; Dananić, V.; Bistričić, L.; Movre Šapić, I.; Furić, K.
2014-01-01
Raman spectrum of aminopropylsilanetriol (APST) in gas phase has been recorded at room temperature in macro chamber utilizing two-mirror technique over the sample tube. Unlike predominantly trans molecular conformation in condensed phase, the spectra of vapor show that the molecules are solely in gauche conformation with intramolecular hydrogen bond N⋯Hsbnd O which reduces the molecular energy in respect to trans conformation by 0.152 eV. The assignment of the molecular spectra based on the DFT calculation is presented. The strong vibrational bands at 354 cm-1, 588 cm-1 and 3022 cm-1 are proposed for verifying the existence of the ring like, hydrogen bonded structure. Special attention was devoted to the high frequency region, where hydrogen bond vibrations are coupled to stretchings of amino and silanol groups.
Experimental dynamic characterizations and modelling of disk vibrations for HDDs.
Pang, Chee Khiang; Ong, Eng Hong; Guo, Guoxiao; Qian, Hua
2008-01-01
Currently, the rotational speed of spindle motors in HDDs (Hard-Disk Drives) are increasing to improve high data throughput and decrease rotational latency for ultra-high data transfer rates. However, the disk platters are excited to vibrate at their natural frequencies due to higher air-flow excitation as well as eccentricities and imbalances in the disk-spindle assembly. These factors contribute directly to TMR (Track Mis-Registration) which limits achievable high recording density essential for future mobile HDDs. In this paper, the natural mode shapes of an annular disk mounted on a spindle motor used in current HDDs are characterized using FEM (Finite Element Methods) analysis and verified with SLDV (Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer) measurements. The identified vibration frequencies and amplitudes of the disk ODS (Operating Deflection Shapes) at corresponding disk mode shapes are modelled as repeatable disturbance components for servo compensation in HDDs. Our experimental results show that the SLDV measurements are accurate in capturing static disk mode shapes without the need for intricate air-flow aero-elastic models, and the proposed disk ODS vibration model correlates well with experimental measurements from a LDV.
Depth-kymography: high-speed calibrated 3D imaging of human vocal fold vibration dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
George, Nibu A; Mul, Frits F M de; Qiu Qingjun; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Schutte, Harm K
2008-01-01
We designed and developed a laser line-triangulation endoscope compatible with any standard high-speed camera for a complete three-dimensional profiling of human vocal fold vibration dynamics. With this novel device we are able to measure absolute values of vertical and horizontal vibration amplitudes, length and width of vocal folds as well as the opening and closing velocities from a single in vivo measurement. We have studied, for the first time, the generation and propagation of mucosal waves by locating the position of its maximum vertical position and the propagation velocity. Precise knowledge about the absolute dimensions of human vocal folds and their vibration parameters has significant importance in clinical diagnosis and treatment as well as in fundamental research in voice. The new device can be used to investigate different kinds of pathological conditions including periodic or aperiodic vibrations. Consequently, the new device has significant importance in investigating vocal fold paralysis and in phonosurgical applications
Depth-kymography: high-speed calibrated 3D imaging of human vocal fold vibration dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
George, Nibu A; Mul, Frits F M de; Qiu Qingjun; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Schutte, Harm K [Groningen Voice Research Lab, Department of Biomedical Engineering, University Medical Center Groningen and University of Groningen, 9700 AD Groningen (Netherlands)
2008-05-21
We designed and developed a laser line-triangulation endoscope compatible with any standard high-speed camera for a complete three-dimensional profiling of human vocal fold vibration dynamics. With this novel device we are able to measure absolute values of vertical and horizontal vibration amplitudes, length and width of vocal folds as well as the opening and closing velocities from a single in vivo measurement. We have studied, for the first time, the generation and propagation of mucosal waves by locating the position of its maximum vertical position and the propagation velocity. Precise knowledge about the absolute dimensions of human vocal folds and their vibration parameters has significant importance in clinical diagnosis and treatment as well as in fundamental research in voice. The new device can be used to investigate different kinds of pathological conditions including periodic or aperiodic vibrations. Consequently, the new device has significant importance in investigating vocal fold paralysis and in phonosurgical applications.
Vibrational and vibronic coherences in the dynamics of the FMO complex
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Xiaomeng; Kühn, Oliver, E-mail: oliver.kuehn@uni-rostock.de
2016-12-20
The coupled exciton–vibrational dynamics of a seven site Frenkel exciton model of the Fenna–Matthews–Olson (FMO) complex is investigated using a Quantum Master Equation approach. Thereby, one vibrational mode per monomer is treated explicitly as being part of the relevant system. Emphasis is put on the comparison of this model with that of a purely excitonic relevant system. Further, the effects of two different approximations to the exciton–vibrational basis are investigated, namely the one- and two-particle description. Analysis of the vibronic and vibrational density matrix in the site basis points to the importance of on- and inter-site coherences for the exciton transfer. Here, one- and two-particle approximations give rise to qualitatively different results.
Simpkins, Blake S.; Fears, Kenan P.; Dressick, Walter J.; Dunkelberger, Adam D.; Spann, Bryan T.; Owrutsky, Jeffrey C.
2016-09-01
Coherent coupling between an optical transition and confined optical mode have been investigated for electronic-state transitions, however, only very recently have vibrational transitions been considered. Here, we demonstrate both static and dynamic results for vibrational bands strongly coupled to optical cavities. We experimentally and numerically describe strong coupling between a Fabry-Pérot cavity and carbonyl stretch ( 1730 cm 1) in poly-methylmethacrylate and provide evidence that the mixed-states are immune to inhomogeneous broadening. We investigate strong and weak coupling regimes through examination of cavities loaded with varying concentrations of a urethane monomer. Rabi splittings are in excellent agreement with an analytical description using no fitting parameters. Ultrafast pump-probe measurements reveal transient absorption signals over a frequency range well-separated from the vibrational band, as well as drastically modified relaxation rates. We speculate these modified kinetics are a consequence of the energy proximity between the vibration-cavity polariton modes and excited state transitions and that polaritons offer an alternative relaxation path for vibrational excitations. Varying the polariton energies by angle-tuning yields transient results consistent with this hypothesis. Furthermore, Rabi oscillations, or quantum beats, are observed at early times and we see evidence that these coherent vibration-cavity polariton excitations impact excited state population through cavity losses. Together, these results indicate that cavity coupling may be used to influence both excitation and relaxation rates of vibrations. Opening the field of polaritonic coupling to vibrational species promises to be a rich arena amenable to a wide variety of infrared-active bonds that can be studied in steady state and dynamically.
Optimal design of a beam-based dynamic vibration absorber using fixed-points theory
Hua, Yingyu; Wong, Waion; Cheng, Li
2018-05-01
The addition of a dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) to a vibrating structure could provide an economic solution for vibration suppressions if the absorber is properly designed and located onto the structure. A common design of the DVA is a sprung mass because of its simple structure and low cost. However, the vibration suppression performance of this kind of DVA is limited by the ratio between the absorber mass and the mass of the primary structure. In this paper, a beam-based DVA (beam DVA) is proposed and optimized for minimizing the resonant vibration of a general structure. The vibration suppression performance of the proposed beam DVA depends on the mass ratio, the flexural rigidity and length of the beam. In comparison with the traditional sprung mass DVA, the proposed beam DVA shows more flexibility in vibration control design because it has more design parameters. With proper design, the beam DVA's vibration suppression capability can outperform that of the traditional DVA under the same mass constraint. The general approach is illustrated using a benchmark cantilever beam as an example. The receptance theory is introduced to model the compound system consisting of the host beam and the attached beam-based DVA. The model is validated through comparisons with the results from Abaqus as well as the Transfer Matrix method (TMM) method. Fixed-points theory is then employed to derive the analytical expressions for the optimum tuning ratio and damping ratio of the proposed beam absorber. A design guideline is then presented to choose the parameters of the beam absorber. Comparisons are finally presented between the beam absorber and the traditional DVA in terms of the vibration suppression effect. It is shown that the proposed beam absorber can outperform the traditional DVA by following this proposed guideline.
Picosecond dynamics of the glutamate receptor in response to agonist-induced vibrational excitation.
Kubo, Minoru; Shiomitsu, Eiji; Odai, Kei; Sugimoto, Tohru; Suzuki, Hideo; Ito, Etsuro
2004-02-01
Conformational changes of proteins are dominated by the excitation and relaxation processes of their vibrational states. To elucidate the mechanism of receptor activation, the conformation dynamics of receptors must be analyzed in response to agonist-induced vibrational excitation. In this study, we chose the bending vibrational mode of the guanidinium group of Arg485 of the glutamate receptor subunit GluR2 based on our previous studies, and we investigated picosecond dynamics of the glutamate receptor caused by the vibrational excitation of Arg485 via molecular dynamics simulations. The vibrational excitation energy in Arg485 in the ligand-binding site initially flowed into Lys730, and then into the J-helix at the subunit interface of the ligand-binding domain. Consequently, the atomic displacement in the subunit interface around an intersubunit hydrogen bond was evoked in about 3 ps. This atomic displacement may perturb the subunit packing of the receptor, triggering receptor activation. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Yang, Zheng; Bahar, Ivet; Widom, Michael
2009-06-03
Coarse-grained elastic network models elucidate the fluctuation dynamics of proteins around their native conformations. Low-frequency collective motions derived by simplified normal mode analysis are usually involved in biological function, and these motions often possess noteworthy symmetries related to the overall shape of the molecule. Here, insights into these motions and their frequencies are sought by considering continuum models with appropriate symmetry and boundary conditions to approximately represent the true atomistic molecular structure. We solve the elastic wave equations analytically for the case of spherical symmetry, yielding a symmetry-based classification of molecular motions together with explicit predictions for their vibrational frequencies. We address the case of icosahedral symmetry as a perturbation to the spherical case. Applications to lumazine synthase, satellite tobacco mosaic virus, and brome mosaic virus show that the spherical elastic model efficiently provides insights on collective motions that are otherwise obtained by detailed elastic network models. A major utility of the continuum models is the possibility of estimating macroscopic material properties such as the Young's modulus or Poisson's ratio for different types of viruses.
The ABRAVIBE toolbox for teaching vibration analysis and structural dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brandt, A.
2013-01-01
, a MATLAB toolbox (the ABRAVIBE toolbox) has been developed as an accompanying toolbox for the recent book "Noise and Vibration Analysis" by the author. This free, open software, published under GNU Public License, can be used with GNU Octave, if an entirely free software platform is wanted, with a few...... functional limitations. The toolbox includes functionality for simulation of mechanical models as well as advanced analysis such as time series analysis, spectral analysis, frequency response and correlation function estimation, modal parameter extraction, and rotating machinery analysis (order tracking...
The acute effects of stretching with vibration on dynamic flexibility in young female gymnasts.
Johnson, Aaron W; Warcup, Caisa N; Seeley, Matthew K; Eggett, Dennis; Feland, Jeffery B
2018-01-10
While stretching with vibration has been shown to improve static flexibility; the effect of stretching with vibration on dynamic flexibility is not well known. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of stretching with vibration on acute dynamic flexibility and jump height in novice and advanced competitive female gymnasts during a split jump. Female gymnast (n=27, age: 11.5 ± 1.7 years, Junior Olympic levels 5-10) participated in this cross-over study. Dynamic flexibility during gymnastic split jumps were video recorded and analyzed with Dartfish software. All participants completed both randomized stretching protocols with either the vibration platform turned on (VIB) (frequency of 30 Hz and 2 mm amplitude) or off (NoVIB) separated by 48 h. Participants performed 4 sets of three stretches on the vibration platform. Each stretch was held for 30 s with 5 s rest for a total of 7 min of stretch. Split jump flexibility decreased significantly from pre to post measurement in both VIB (-5.8°±5.9°) (p<0.001) and NoVIB (-2.6°±6.1°) (p=0.041) conditions (adjusted for gymnast level). This effect was greatest in lower skill level gymnasts (p=0.003), while the highest skill level gymnasts showed no significant decrease in the split jump (p=0.105). Jump height was not significantly different between conditions (p=0.892) or within groups (p=0.880). An acute session of static stretching with or without vibration immediately before performance does not alter jump height. Stretching with vibration immediately prior to gymnastics competition decreases split jump flexibility in lower level gymnasts more than upper level gymnasts.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pomogaev, Vladimir; Pomogaeva, Anna; Avramov, Pavel
2011-01-01
Three polycyclic organic molecules in various solvents focused on thermo-dynamical aspects were theoretically investigated using the recently developed statistical quantum mechanical/classical molecular dynamics method for simulating electronic-vibrational spectra. The absorption bands of estradiol...
Carr, J. K.; Buchanan, L. E.; Schmidt, J. R.; Zanni, M. T.; Skinner, J. L.
2013-01-01
Urea/water is an archetypical “biological” mixture, and is especially well known for its relevance to protein thermodynamics, as urea acts as a protein denaturant at high concentration. This behavior has given rise to an extended debate concerning urea’s influence on water structure. Based on a variety of methods and of definitions of water structure, urea has been variously described as a structure-breaker, a structure-maker, or as remarkably neutral towards water. Because of its sensitivity to microscopic structure and dynamics, vibrational spectroscopy can help resolve these debates. We report experimental and theoretical spectroscopic results for the OD stretch of HOD/H2O/urea mixtures (linear IR, 2DIR, and pump-probe anisotropy decay) and for the CO stretch of urea-D4/D2O mixtures (linear IR only). Theoretical results are obtained using existing approaches for water, and a modification of a frequency map developed for acetamide. All absorption spectra are remarkably insensitive to urea concentration, consistent with the idea that urea only very weakly perturbs water structure. Both this work and experiments by Rezus and Bakker, however, show that water’s rotational dynamics are slowed down by urea. Analysis of the simulations casts doubt on the suggestion that urea immobilizes particular doubly hydrogen bonded water molecules. PMID:23841646
Vibration measurement-based simple technique for damage detection of truss bridges: A case study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sudath C. Siriwardane
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The bridges experience increasing traffic volume and weight, deteriorating of components and large number of stress cycles. Therefore, assessment of the current condition of steel railway bridges becomes necessary. Most of the commonly available approaches for structural health monitoring are based on visual inspection and non-destructive testing methods. The visual inspection is unreliable as those depend on uncertainty behind inspectors and their experience. Also, the non-destructive testing methods are found to be expensive. Therefore, recent researches have noticed that dynamic modal parameters or vibration measurement-based structural health monitoring methods are economical and may also provide more realistic predictions to damage state of civil infrastructure. Therefore this paper proposes a simple technique to locate the damage region of railway truss bridges based on measured modal parameters. The technique is discussed with a case study. Initially paper describes the details of considered railway bridge. Then observations of visual inspection, material testing and in situ load testing are discussed under separate sections. Development of validated finite element model of the considered bridge is comprehensively discussed. Hence, variations of modal parameters versus position of the damage are plotted. These plots are considered as the main reference for locating the damage of the railway bridge in future periodical inspection by comparing the measured corresponding modal parameters. Finally the procedure of periodical vibration measurement and damage locating technique are clearly illustrated.
On damping of screw dislocation bending vibrations in dissipative crystal: limiting cases
Dezhin, V. V.
2018-03-01
The expression for the generalized susceptibility of the dislocation obtained earlier was used. The electronic drag mechanism of dislocations is considered. The study of small dislocation oscillations was limited. The contribution of the attenuation of low-frequency bending screw dislocation vibrations to the overall coefficient of dynamic dislocation drag in the long-wave and short-wave limits is calculated. The damping of short-wave bending screw dislocation vibrations caused by an external action of an arbitrary frequency has been investigated. The contribution of long-wave bending screw dislocation vibrations damping in the total drag coefficient at an arbitrary frequency is found.
A broadband frequency-tunable dynamic absorber for the vibration control of structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Komatsuzaki, T; Inoue, T; Terashima, O
2016-01-01
A passive-type dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) is basically a mass-spring system that suppresses the vibration of a structure at a particular frequency. Since the natural frequency of the DVA is usually tuned to a frequency of particular excitation, the DVA is especially effective when the excitation frequency is close to the natural frequency of the structure. Fixing the physical properties of the DVA limits the application to a narrowband, harmonically excited vibration problem. A frequency-tunable DVA that can modulate its stiffness provides adaptability to the vibration control device against non-stationary disturbances. In this paper, we suggest a broadband frequency-tunable DVA whose natural frequency can be extended by 300% to the nominal value using the magnetorheological elastomers (MREs). The frequency adjustability of the proposed absorber is first shown. The real-time vibration control performance of the frequency-tunable absorber for an acoustically excited plate having multiple resonant peaks is then evaluated. Investigations show that the vibration of the structure can be effectively reduced with an improved performance by the DVA in comparison to the conventional passive- type absorber. (paper)
Baharudin, M. E.; Nor, A. M.; Saad, A. R. M.; Yusof, A. M.
2018-03-01
The motion of vibration-driven robots is based on an internal oscillating mass which can move without legs or wheels. The oscillation of the unbalanced mass by a motor is translated into vibration which in turn produces vertical and horizontal forces. Both vertical and horizontal oscillations are of the same frequency but the phases are shifted. The vertical forces will deflect the bristles which cause the robot to move forward. In this paper, the horizontal motion direction caused by the vertically vibrated bristle is numerically simulated by tuning the frequency of their oscillatory actuation. As a preliminary work, basic equations for a simple off-centered vibration location on the robot platform and simulation model for vibration excitement are introduced. It involves both static and dynamic vibration analysis of robots and analysis of different type of parameters. In addition, the orientation of the bristles and oscillators are also analysed. Results from the numerical integration seem to be in good agreement with those achieved from the literature. The presented numerical integration modeling can be used for designing the bristles and controlling the speed and direction of the robot.
The vibrational dynamics of carbon monoxide in a confined space-CO in zeolites
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Nachtigallová, Dana; Bludský, Ota; Areán, C. O.; Bulánek, R.; Nachtigall, Petr
2006-01-01
Roč. 8, č. 42 (2006), s. 4849-4852 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC512; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/06/0324 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : vibrational dynamics * IR spectroscopy * modeling Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.892, year: 2006
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ji, Pengfei; Zhang, Yuwen, E-mail: zhangyu@missouri.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States); Yang, Mo [College of Energy and Power Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China)
2013-12-21
The structural, dynamic, and vibrational properties during heat transfer process in Si/Ge superlattices are studied by analyzing the trajectories generated by the ab initio Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulation. The radial distribution functions and mean square displacements are calculated and further discussions are made to explain and probe the structural changes relating to the heat transfer phenomenon. Furthermore, the vibrational density of states of the two layers (Si/Ge) are computed and plotted to analyze the contributions of phonons with different frequencies to the heat conduction. Coherent heat conduction of the low frequency phonons is found and their contributions to facilitate heat transfer are confirmed. The Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulation outputs in the work show reasonable thermophysical results of the thermal energy transport process and shed light on the potential applications of treating the heat transfer in the superlattices of semiconductor materials from a quantum mechanical molecular dynamics simulation perspective.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ji, Pengfei; Zhang, Yuwen; Yang, Mo
2013-01-01
The structural, dynamic, and vibrational properties during heat transfer process in Si/Ge superlattices are studied by analyzing the trajectories generated by the ab initio Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulation. The radial distribution functions and mean square displacements are calculated and further discussions are made to explain and probe the structural changes relating to the heat transfer phenomenon. Furthermore, the vibrational density of states of the two layers (Si/Ge) are computed and plotted to analyze the contributions of phonons with different frequencies to the heat conduction. Coherent heat conduction of the low frequency phonons is found and their contributions to facilitate heat transfer are confirmed. The Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulation outputs in the work show reasonable thermophysical results of the thermal energy transport process and shed light on the potential applications of treating the heat transfer in the superlattices of semiconductor materials from a quantum mechanical molecular dynamics simulation perspective
Ji, Pengfei; Zhang, Yuwen; Yang, Mo
2013-12-01
The structural, dynamic, and vibrational properties during heat transfer process in Si/Ge superlattices are studied by analyzing the trajectories generated by the ab initio Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulation. The radial distribution functions and mean square displacements are calculated and further discussions are made to explain and probe the structural changes relating to the heat transfer phenomenon. Furthermore, the vibrational density of states of the two layers (Si/Ge) are computed and plotted to analyze the contributions of phonons with different frequencies to the heat conduction. Coherent heat conduction of the low frequency phonons is found and their contributions to facilitate heat transfer are confirmed. The Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulation outputs in the work show reasonable thermophysical results of the thermal energy transport process and shed light on the potential applications of treating the heat transfer in the superlattices of semiconductor materials from a quantum mechanical molecular dynamics simulation perspective.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monti, G.; Quaranta, G.; Fumagalli, F.; Marano, G.C.; Rea, R.; Nazzaro, B.
2015-01-01
Growing awareness of the negative effects due to ambient vibrations caused by transportations infrastructures in Historical centres is attributable to the high vulnerability of heritage buildings as a consequence of deterioration phenomena and damages that reduced the structural capacity of such valuable constructions over the past centuries. As the mobility demand increases, several cities hosting heritage buildings are subjected to raising traffic loadings, so that constructions of new infrastructures is often required. Hence, assessing the effects of short-term vibrations due to construction activities or the consequences of the long-term vibrations caused by traffic is very important for the preservation of cultural heritage. An operative approach for evaluating the effects of ambient vibrations based on experimental measurements is a useful tool when a new infrastructure is being built, and can support strategic decisions for the elaboration of transportation plans at the urban level. Therefore, an overview is here presented of existing studies, guidelines and codes that provide pertinent information on this topic. Of special importance is the analysis of existing proposed thresholds, i.e. limit values that, if compiled with, damage due to ambient vibrations is not likely to occur. On the basis of such overview, the selection of threshold values for the Flavian Amphitheater is discussed, along with current efforts towards a wireless dynamic monitoring of its dynamic response.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fan Kang-Qi; Ming Zheng-Feng; Xu Chun-Hui; Chao Feng-Bo
2013-01-01
As an alternative power solution for low-power devices, harvesting energy from the ambient mechanical vibration has received increasing research interest in recent years. In this paper we study the transient dynamic characteristics of a piezoelectric energy harvesting system including a piezoelectric energy harvester, a bridge rectifier, and a storage capacitor. To accomplish this, this energy harvesting system is modeled, and the charging process of the storage capacitor is investigated by employing the in-phase assumption. The results indicate that the charging voltage across the storage capacitor and the gathered power increase gradually as the charging process proceeds, whereas the charging rate slows down over time as the charging voltage approaches to the peak value of the piezoelectric voltage across the piezoelectric materials. In addition, due to the added electrical damping and the change of the system natural frequency when the charging process is initiated, a sudden drop in the vibration amplitude is observed, which in turn affects the charging rate. However, the vibration amplitude begins to increase as the charging process continues, which is caused by the decrease in the electrical damping (i.e., the decrease in the energy removed from the mechanical vibration). This electromechanical coupling characteristic is also revealed by the variation of the vibration amplitude with the charging voltage. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Dynamical Behavior of a Pseudoelastic Vibration Absorber Using Shape Memory Alloys
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hugo De S. Oliveira
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The tuned vibration absorber (TVA provides vibration reduction of a primary system subjected to external excitation. The idea is to increase the number of system degrees of freedom connecting a secondary system to the primary system. This procedure promotes vibration reduction at its design forcing frequency but two new resonance peaks appear introducing critical behaviors that must be avoided. The use of shape memory alloys (SMAs can improve the performance of the classical TVA establishing an adaptive TVA (ATVA. This paper deals with the nonlinear dynamics of a passive pseudoelastic tuned vibration absorber with an SMA element. In this regard, a single degree of freedom elastic oscillator is used to represent the primary system, while an extra oscillator with an SMA element represents the secondary system. Temperature dependent behavior of the system allows one to change the system response avoiding undesirable responses. Nevertheless, hysteretic behavior introduces complex characteristics to the system dynamics. The influence of the hysteretic behavior due to stress-induced phase transformation is investigated. The ATVA performance is evaluated by analyzing primary system maximum vibration amplitudes for different forcing amplitudes and frequencies. Numerical simulations establish comparisons of the ATVA results with those obtained from the classical TVA. A parametric study is developed showing the best performance conditions and this information can be useful for design purposes.
Dynamic modeling and adaptive vibration suppression of a high-speed macro-micro manipulator
Yang, Yi-ling; Wei, Yan-ding; Lou, Jun-qiang; Fu, Lei; Fang, Sheng; Chen, Te-huan
2018-05-01
This paper presents a dynamic modeling and microscopic vibration suppression for a flexible macro-micro manipulator dedicated to high-speed operation. The manipulator system mainly consists of a macro motion stage and a flexible micromanipulator bonded with one macro-fiber-composite actuator. Based on Hamilton's principle and the Bouc-Wen hysteresis equation, the nonlinear dynamic model is obtained. Then, a hybrid control scheme is proposed to simultaneously suppress the elastic vibration during and after the motor motion. In particular, the hybrid control strategy is composed of a trajectory planning approach and an adaptive variable structure control. Moreover, two optimization indices regarding the comprehensive torques and synthesized vibrations are designed, and the optimal trajectories are acquired using a genetic algorithm. Furthermore, a nonlinear fuzzy regulator is used to adjust the switching gain in the variable structure control. Thus, a fuzzy variable structure control with nonlinear adaptive control law is achieved. A series of experiments are performed to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the established system model and hybrid control strategy. The excited vibration during the motor motion and the residual vibration after the motor motion are decreased. Meanwhile, the settling time is shortened. Both the manipulation stability and operation efficiency of the manipulator are improved by the proposed hybrid strategy.
Dynamic analysis to establish normal shock and vibration of radioactive material shipping packages
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fields, S.R.
1980-01-01
A computer model, CARDS (Cask-Railcar Dynamic Simulator) was developed to provide input data for a broad range of radioactive material package-tiedown structural assessments. CARDS simulates the dynamic behavior of shipping packages and their transporters during normal transport conditions. The model will be used to identify parameters which significantly affect the normal shock and vibration environments which, in turn, provide the basis for determining the forces transmitted to the packages
Dynamic vibrations in wind energy systems: Application to vertical axis wind turbine
Mabrouk, Imen Bel; El Hami, Abdelkhalak; Walha, Lassâad; Zghal, Bacem; Haddar, Mohamed
2017-02-01
Dynamic analysis of Darrieus turbine bevel spur gear subjected to transient aerodynamic loads is carried out in the present study. The aerodynamic torque is obtained by solving the two dimensional unsteady incompressible Navies Stocks equation with the k-ω shear stress transport turbulence model. The results are presented for several values of tip speed ratio. The two-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics model is validated with experimental results. The optimum tip speed ratio is achieved, giving the best overall performance. In this study, we developed a lamped mass dynamic model with 14 degrees of freedom. This model is excited by external and internal issues sources. The main factors of these excitations are the periodic fluctuations of the gear meshes' stiffness and the unsteady aerodynamic torque oscillations. The vibration responses are obtained in time and frequency domains. The originality of our work is the correlation between the complexity of the aerodynamic phenomenon and the non-stationary dynamics vibration of the mechanical gearing system. The effect of the rotational speed on the dynamic behavior of the Darrieus turbine is also discussed. The present study shows that the variation of rotor rotational speed directly affects the torque production. However, there is a small change in the dynamic vibration of the studied gearing system.
Relaxation Dynamics of a Granular Pile on a Vertically Vibrating Plate
Tsuji, Daisuke; Otsuki, Michio; Katsuragi, Hiroaki
2018-03-01
Nonlinear relaxation dynamics of a vertically vibrated granular pile is experimentally studied. In the experiment, the flux and slope on the relaxing pile are measured by using a high-speed laser profiler. The relation of these quantities can be modeled by the nonlinear transport law assuming the uniform vibrofluidization of an entire pile. The fitting parameter in this model is only the relaxation efficiency, which characterizes the energy conversion rate from vertical vibration into horizontal transport. We demonstrate that this value is a constant independent of experimental conditions. The actual relaxation is successfully reproduced by the continuity equation with the proposed model. Finally, its specific applicability toward an astrophysical phenomenon is shown.
Exploring of PST-TBPM in Monitoring Bridge Dynamic Deflection in Vibration
Zhang, Guojian; Liu, Shengzhen; Zhao, Tonglong; Yu, Chengxin
2018-01-01
This study adopts digital photography to monitor bridge dynamic deflection in vibration. Digital photography used in this study is based on PST-TBPM (photographing scale transformation-time baseline parallax method). Firstly, a digital camera is used to monitor the bridge in static as a zero image. Then, the digital camera is used to monitor the bridge in vibration every three seconds as the successive images. Based on the reference system, PST-TBPM is used to calculate the images to obtain the bridge dynamic deflection in vibration. Results show that the average measurement accuracies are 0.615 pixels and 0.79 pixels in X and Z direction. The maximal deflection of the bridge is 7.14 pixels. PST-TBPM is valid in solving the problem-the photographing direction not perpendicular to the bridge. Digital photography used in this study can assess the bridge health through monitoring the bridge dynamic deflection in vibration. The deformation trend curves depicted over time also can warn the possible dangers.
Random Vibration and Dynamic Analysis of a Planetary Gear Train in a Wind Turbine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianming Yang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Premature failure of gearboxes is a big challenge facing the wind power industry. It highly depends on fully understanding the embedded dynamics to solve this problem. To this end, this paper investigates the random vibration and dynamics of planetary gear trains (PGTs in wind turbines under the excitation of wind turbulence. The turbulence is represented by the Von Karmon spectrum and implemented by passing white noise through a 2nd-order shaping filter. Then, extra equations are formed and added to the original governing equations of motion. With this augmented equation set, a recursive numerical algorithm based on stochastic Newmark scheme is applied to solve for the statistics of the responses starting from initial conditions. After simulation, the variances of the vibration responses and the dynamic meshing forces at gear meshes are obtained.
Molecular rotation-vibration dynamics of low-symmetric hydrate crystal in the terahertz region.
Fu, Xiaojian; Wu, Hongya; Xi, Xiaoqing; Zhou, Ji
2014-01-16
The rotational and vibrational dynamics of molecules in copper sulfate pentahydrate crystal are investigated with terahertz dielectric spectra. It is shown that the relaxation-like dielectric dispersion in the low frequency region is related to the reorientation of water molecules under the driving of terahertz electric field, whereas the resonant dispersion can be ascribed to lattice vibration. It is also found that, due to the hydrogen-bond effect, the vibrational mode at about 1.83 THz along [-111] direction softens with decreasing temperature, that is, the crystal expands in this direction when cooled. On the contrary, the mode hardens in the direction perpendicular to [-111] during the cooling process. This contributes to the further understanding of the molecular structure and bonding features of hydrate crystals.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schröter, M.; Ivanov, S.D.; Schulze, J.; Polyutov, S.P.; Yan, Y.; Pullerits, T.; Kühn, O.
2015-01-01
The influence of exciton–vibrational coupling on the optical and transport properties of molecular aggregates is an old problem that gained renewed interest in recent years. On the experimental side, various nonlinear spectroscopic techniques gave insight into the dynamics of systems as complex as photosynthetic antennae. Striking evidence was gathered that in these protein–pigment complexes quantum coherence is operative even at room temperature conditions. Investigations were triggered to understand the role of vibrational degrees of freedom, beyond that of a heat bath characterized by thermal fluctuations. This development was paralleled by theory, where efficient methods emerged, which could provide the proper frame to perform non-Markovian and non-perturbative simulations of exciton–vibrational dynamics and spectroscopy. This review summarizes the state of affairs of the theory of exciton–vibrational interaction in molecular aggregates and photosynthetic antenna complexes. The focus is put on the discussion of basic effects of exciton–vibrational interaction from the stationary and dynamics points of view. Here, the molecular dimer plays a prominent role as it permits a systematic investigation of absorption and emission spectra by numerical diagonalization of the exciton–vibrational Hamiltonian in a truncated Hilbert space. An extension to larger aggregates, having many coupled nuclear degrees of freedom, becomes possible with the Multi-Layer Multi-Configuration Time-Dependent Hartree (ML-MCTDH) method for wave packet propagation. In fact it will be shown that this method allows one to approach the limit of almost continuous spectral densities, which is usually the realm of density matrix theory. Real system–bath situations are introduced for two models, which differ in the way strongly coupled nuclear coordinates are treated, as a part of the relevant system or the bath. A rather detailed exposition of the Hierarchy Equations Of Motion (HEOM
Cheng Guan; Houjiang Zhang; Lujing Zhou; Xiping Wang
2015-01-01
A vibration testing method based on free vibration theory in a ââfreeâfreeâ support condition was investigated for evaluating the modulus of elasticity (MOE) of full-size wood composite panels (WCPs). Vibration experiments were conducted on three types of WCPs (medium density fibreboard, particleboard, and plywood) to determine the dynamic MOE of the panels. Static...
Peters, William K.; Tiwari, Vivek; Jonas, David M.
2017-11-01
The nonadiabatic states and dynamics are investigated for a linear vibronic coupling Hamiltonian with a static electronic splitting and weak off-diagonal Jahn-Teller coupling through a single vibration with a vibrational-electronic resonance. With a transformation of the electronic basis, this Hamiltonian is also applicable to the anti-correlated vibration in a symmetric homodimer with marginally strong constant off-diagonal coupling, where the non-adiabatic states and dynamics model electronic excitation energy transfer or self-exchange electron transfer. For parameters modeling a free-base naphthalocyanine, the nonadiabatic couplings are deeply quantum mechanical and depend on wavepacket width; scalar couplings are as important as the derivative couplings that are usually interpreted to depend on vibrational velocity in semiclassical curve crossing or surface hopping theories. A colored visualization scheme that fully characterizes the non-adiabatic states using the exact factorization is developed. The nonadiabatic states in this nested funnel have nodeless vibrational factors with strongly avoided zeroes in their vibrational probability densities. Vibronic dynamics are visualized through the vibrational coordinate dependent density of the time-dependent dipole moment in free induction decay. Vibrational motion is amplified by the nonadiabatic couplings, with asymmetric and anisotropic motions that depend upon the excitation polarization in the molecular frame and can be reversed by a change in polarization. This generates a vibrational quantum beat anisotropy in excess of 2/5. The amplitude of vibrational motion can be larger than that on the uncoupled potentials, and the electronic population transfer is maximized within one vibrational period. Most of these dynamics are missed by the adiabatic approximation, and some electronic and vibrational motions are completely suppressed by the Condon approximation of a coordinate-independent transition dipole between
Long-Range Vibrational Dynamics Are Directed by Watson-Crick Base Pairing in Duplex DNA.
Hithell, Gordon; Shaw, Daniel J; Donaldson, Paul M; Greetham, Gregory M; Towrie, Michael; Burley, Glenn A; Parker, Anthony W; Hunt, Neil T
2016-05-05
Ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy of a 15-mer A-T DNA duplex in solution has revealed structure-dependent vibrational coupling and energy transfer processes linking bases with the sugar-phosphate backbone. Duplex melting induces significant changes in the positions of off-diagonal peaks linking carbonyl and ring-stretching vibrational modes of the adenine and thymine bases with vibrations of the phosphate group and phosphodiester linkage. These indicate that Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding and helix formation lead to a unique vibrational coupling arrangement of base vibrational modes with those of the phosphate unit. On the basis of observations from time-resolved 2D-IR data, we conclude that rapid energy transfer processes occur between base and backbone, mediated by additional modes located on the deoxyribose moiety within the same nucleotide. These relaxation dynamics are insensitive to duplex melting, showing that efficient intramolecular energy relaxation to the solvent via the phosphate groups is the key to excess energy dissipation in both single- and double-stranded DNA.
Meer, David W.; Lewandowski, Edward J.
2010-01-01
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Lockheed Martin Corporation (LM), and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) have been developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system for space science missions. As part of the extended operation testing of this power system, the Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASC) at NASA GRC undergo a vibration test sequence intended to simulate the vibration history that an ASC would experience when used in an ASRG for a space mission. During these tests, a data system collects several performance-related parameters from the convertor under test for health monitoring and analysis. Recently, an additional sensor recorded the slip table position during vibration testing to qualification level. The System Dynamic Model (SDM) integrates Stirling cycle thermodynamics, heat flow, mechanical mass, spring, damper systems, and electrical characteristics of the linear alternator and controller. This Paper presents a comparison of the performance of the ASC when exposed to vibration to that predicted by the SDM when exposed to the same vibration.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhongsheng Chen
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Nonlinear magnetic forces are always used to enlarge resonant bandwidth of vibration energy harvesting systems with piezoelectric cantilever beams. However, how to determine properly the distance between two magnets is one of the key engineering problems. In this paper, the Melnikov theory is introduced to overcome it. Firstly, the Melnikov state-space model of the nonlinear piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting (PVEH system is built. Based on it, chaotic dynamics mechanisms of achieving broadband PVEH by nonlinearity are exposed by potential function of the unperturbed nonlinear PVEH system. Then the corresponding Melnikov function of the nonlinear PVEH system is defined, based on which two Melnikov necessary conditions of determining the distance are obtained. Finally, numerical simulations are done to testify the theoretic results. The results demonstrate that the distance is closely related to the excitation amplitude and frequency once geometric and material parameters are fixed. Under a single-frequency excitation, the nonlinear PVEH system can generate a periodic vibration around a stable point, a large-amplitude vibration around two stable points, or a chaotic vibration. The proposed method is very valuable for optimally designing and utilizing nonlinear broadband PVEH devices in engineering applications.
Dynamic characteristics of heterogeneous media in vibrational and wave processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fedotovskij, V.S.; Sinyavskij, V.F.; Terenik, L.V.; Spirov, V.S.; Kokorev, B.V.
1986-01-01
The complex mechanic systems involving a great quantity of the same type elements, in particular, the rod systems flowed around by the one- or two-phase flow are considered as the two- or three-phase heterogeneous media with certain effective properties. Some recommendations for calculating effective properties and determining those on a base of the dynamic characteristics of various heterogeneous systems are given. (author)
Application of ESPI techniques for the study of dynamic vibrations
Krupka, Rene
2004-06-01
Full field optical measurement techniques have already entered into various fields of industrial applications covering static as well as dynamic phenomena. The electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) allows the non contact, sensitive and three dimensional measurement of displacements in the sub micron range of objects with dimensions from mm2 to m2. For dynamic and transient phenomena, the use of pulsed laser have already been reported for various applications and successfully proven for the determination of the structural response of different components. In this paper we would like to present recent developments in the field of pulsed ESPI applications where emphasis is put onto the full field measurement result. The use of a completely computer controlled system allows easy access to mode shape characterization, deformation measurements and the characterization of transient events like shock wave propagation. Recent developments of the 3D-PulseESPI technique led to a very compact and complete system with improved characteristics regarding robustness and operation. The integrated design of the illumination laser and sensors for image acquisition allows easy aiming and adjustments with respect to the object of inspection. The laser is completely computer controlled which is advantageously used in a completely automatic brake squeal inspection system, which captures the squealing signal, automatically fires the laser and provides the complete deformation map of the component under test. Examples of recent applications in the field of dynamic structure response, with an emphasis in the field of automotive applications are given.
Measurement of dynamic interaction between a vibrating fuel element and its support
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fisher, N.J.; Tromp, J.H.; Smith, B.A.W. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada). Chalk River Labs.
1996-12-01
Flow-induced vibration of CANDU{reg_sign} fuel can result in fretting damage of the fuel and its support. A WOrk-Rate Measuring Station (WORMS) was developed to measure the relative motion and contact forces between a vibrating fuel element and its support. The fixture consists of a small piece of support structure mounted on a micrometer stage. This arrangement permits position of the support relative to the fuel element to be controlled to within {+-} {micro}m. A piezoelectric triaxial load washer is positioned between the support and micrometer stage to measure contact forces, and a pair of miniature eddy-current displacement probes are mounted on the stage to measure fuel element-to-support relative motion. WORMS has been utilized to measure dynamic contact forces, relative displacements and work-rates between a vibrating fuel element and its support. For these tests, the fuel element was excited with broadband random force excitation to simulate flow-induced vibration due to axial flow. The relationship between fuel element-to-support gap or preload (i.e., interference or negative gap) and dynamic interaction (i.e., relative motion, contact forces and work-rates) was derived. These measurements confirmed numerical simulations of in-reactor interaction predicted earlier using the VIBIC code.
Hu, Zhan; Zheng, Gangtie
2016-08-01
A combined analysis method is developed in the present paper for studying the dynamic properties of a type of geometrically nonlinear vibration isolator, which is composed of push-pull configuration rings. This method combines the geometrically nonlinear theory of curved beams and the Harmonic Balance Method to overcome the difficulty in calculating the vibration and vibration transmissibility under large deformations of the ring structure. Using the proposed method, nonlinear dynamic behaviors of this isolator, such as the lock situation due to the coulomb damping and the usual jump resulting from the nonlinear stiffness, can be investigated. Numerical solutions based on the primary harmonic balance are first verified by direct integration results. Then, the whole procedure of this combined analysis method is demonstrated and validated by slowly sinusoidal sweeping experiments with different amplitudes of the base excitation. Both numerical and experimental results indicate that this type of isolator behaves as a hardening spring with increasing amplitude of the base excitation, which makes it suitable for isolating both steady-state vibrations and transient shocks.
Free vibration of functionally graded beams and frameworks using the dynamic stiffness method
Banerjee, J. R.; Ananthapuvirajah, A.
2018-05-01
The free vibration analysis of functionally graded beams (FGBs) and frameworks containing FGBs is carried out by applying the dynamic stiffness method and deriving the elements of the dynamic stiffness matrix in explicit algebraic form. The usually adopted rule that the material properties of the FGB vary continuously through the thickness according to a power law forms the fundamental basis of the governing differential equations of motion in free vibration. The differential equations are solved in closed analytical form when the free vibratory motion is harmonic. The dynamic stiffness matrix is then formulated by relating the amplitudes of forces to those of the displacements at the two ends of the beam. Next, the explicit algebraic expressions for the dynamic stiffness elements are derived with the help of symbolic computation. Finally the Wittrick-Williams algorithm is applied as solution technique to solve the free vibration problems of FGBs with uniform cross-section, stepped FGBs and frameworks consisting of FGBs. Some numerical results are validated against published results, but in the absence of published results for frameworks containing FGBs, consistency checks on the reliability of results are performed. The paper closes with discussion of results and conclusions.
Effects of quadriceps strength after static and dynamic whole-body vibration exercise.
Bush, Jill A; Blog, Gabriel L; Kang, Jie; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Ratamess, Nicholas A
2015-05-01
Numerous studies have shown performance benefits including whole-body vibration (WBV) as a training modality or an acute exercise protocol when used as a component of the resistance training program. Some studies have indicated that performing dynamic exercises as compared with static position exercises while exposed to WBV might be beneficial; however, evidence is lacking. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine if an acute bout of dynamic versus static squats performed during WBV results in increase in quadriceps force production by means of dynamic isokinetic knee extension and flexion exercise. Nonresistance-trained healthy young men and women (N = 21) of 18-25 years participated in 4 protocols with 2-week rest in-between. Protocol 1 consisted of 5 sets of 10 dynamic squats without vibration; Protocol 2: 5 sets of 30-second static squats without vibration; Protocol 3: 5 sets of 10 dynamic squats with 30-Hz WBV for a total of 2.5 minutes; and Protocol 4: 5 sets of 30-second static squats with 30-Hz WBV for a total of 2.5 minutes. Prestrength tests (1 set of 4 repetitions at 100° · s(-1) for the knee extension exercise) was performed within 5 minutes of starting each protocol, and poststrength testing was performed within 1 minute of completing each protocol. Strength outcomes were analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance with a significance level set at p ≤ 0.05. A significant decrease in strength was observed after dynamic and static squats without WBV (p = 0.002); an increase in strength after dynamic squats with WBV (p = 0.003); and a decrease in strength after static squats with WBV (p = 0.003). The inclusion of WBV to dynamic resistance exercise can be an added modality to increase strength. Whole-body vibration can have varied effects in altering muscle strength in untrained individuals according to the type of resistance training performed. As a dynamic squat with WBV seems to immediately potentiate neuromuscular functioning, the
Nonlinear normal vibration modes in the dynamics of nonlinear elastic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikhlin, Yu V; Perepelkin, N V; Klimenko, A A; Harutyunyan, E
2012-01-01
Nonlinear normal modes (NNMs) are a generalization of the linear normal vibrations. By the Kauderer-Rosenberg concept in the regime of the NNM all position coordinates are single-values functions of some selected position coordinate. By the Shaw-Pierre concept, the NNM is such a regime when all generalized coordinates and velocities are univalent functions of a couple of dominant (active) phase variables. The NNMs approach is used in some applied problems. In particular, the Kauderer-Rosenberg NNMs are analyzed in the dynamics of some pendulum systems. The NNMs of forced vibrations are investigated in a rotor system with an isotropic-elastic shaft. A combination of the Shaw-Pierre NNMs and the Rauscher method is used to construct the forced NNMs and the frequency responses in the rotor dynamics.
Torsional vibration of crankshaft in an engine propeller nonlinear dynamical system
Zhang, X.; Yu, S. D.
2009-01-01
Theoretical and experimental studies on torsional vibration of an aircraft engine-propeller system are presented in this paper. Two system models—a rigid body model and a flexible body model, are developed for predicting torsional vibrations of the crankshaft under different engine powers and propeller pitch settings. In the flexible body model, the distributed torsional flexibility and mass moment of inertia of the crankshaft are considered using the finite element method. The nonlinear autonomous equations of motion for the engine-propeller dynamical system are established using the augmented Lagrange equations, and solved using the Runge-Kutta method after a degrees of freedom reduction scheme is applied. Experiments are carried out on a three-cylinder four-stroke engine. Both theoretical and experimental studies reveal that the crankshaft flexibility has significant influence on the system dynamical behavior.
Bonding and vibrational dynamics of a large π-conjugated molecule on a metal surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Temirov, R; Soubatch, S; Lassise, A; Tautz, F S
2008-01-01
The interplay between the substrate bonding of a large π-conjugated semiconductor molecule and the dynamical properties of the metal-organic interface is studied, employing the prototypical PTCDA/Ag(111) monolayer as an example. Both the coupling of molecular vibrations to the electron-hole-pair continuum of the metal surface and the inelastic scattering of tunnelling electrons by the molecular vibrations on their passage through the molecule are considered. The results of both types of experiment are consistent with the findings of measurements which probe the geometric and electronic structure of the adsorbate-substrate complex directly; generally speaking, they can be understood in the framework of standard theories for the electron-vibron coupling. While the experiments reported here in fact provide additional qualitative insights into the substrate bonding of our π-conjugated model molecule, their detailed quantitative understanding would require a full calculation of the dynamical interface properties, which is currently not available
Magnetic suspension motorized spindle-cutting system dynamics analysis and vibration control review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoli QIAO
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The performance of high-speed spindle directly determines the development of high-end machine tools. The cutting system's dynamic characteristics and vibration control effect are inseparable with the performance of the spindle,which influence each other, synergistic effect together the cutting efficiency, the surface quality of the workpiece and tool life in machining process. So, the review status on magnetic suspension motorized spindle, magnetic suspension bearing-flexible rotor system dynamics modeling theory and status of active control technology of flexible magnetic suspension motorized spindle rotor vibration are studied, and the problems which present in the magnetic suspension flexible motorized spindle rotor systems are refined, and the development trend of magnetic levitation motorized spindle and the application prospect is forecasted.
Vibration detection with 100 Hz GPS PVAT during a dynamic flight
Bischof, Christian; Schön, Steffen
2017-06-01
This investigation gives insights into real 100 Hz GPS velocity and acceleration estimates from a position, velocity, acceleration and time (PVAT) extended Kalman filter (EKF) during a highly dynamic flight trial with a Dornier Do 128-6 aircraft. We investigated the accelerations during take-off, landing and wing shaking manoeuvres in order to compare the vibration behaviour of the given aircraft determined by means of GPS against an onboard IMU. We found that 100 Hz GPS acceleration is useful for characterising vibrations and giving valuable insights during highly dynamic flights. Potential latency of 0.12 s and amplitude misestimation of up to 80% w.r.t. the reference amplitude occur that should be determined beforehand in order to correctly interpret the results.
INTRODUCTION: Surface Dynamics, Phonons, Adsorbate Vibrations and Diffusion
Bruch, L. W.
2004-07-01
Dilute nitrides have emerged from conventional III-V semiconductors such as GaAs or InP by the insertion of nitrogen into the group V sub-lattice, which has a profound influence on the electronic properties of these materials and allows widely extended band structure engineering. This is expected to lead to novel devices, e.g. for optical data transmission, solar cells, biophotonics or gas sensing, some of which are already making their way into the market. Unlike in all other cases, where a reduction in bandgap energy is achieved by inserting an element that increases the lattice constant, N accomplishes this and at the same time reduces the lattice constant. Thus smaller bandgaps can be achieved and the unusual role of N in the lattice also allows a tailoring of band alignments. Both of these effects have opened up a new dimension of bandgap engineering and the rapid progress in the field led to the demonstration of high quality 1300 nm lasers on GaAs and eventually to the realization of the first VCSELs that can be mass produced at low cost and emit at 1300 nm. This in turn will allow extending inexpensive data transmission through optical fibers from the present range of about 300 m to a distance of 10 to 20 km and at the same time increasing the data rate by about a factor of four. Thus it will enable metro-area data links, which are presently considered to be the bottleneck for large-scale optical communications. Furthermore, the fact that GaNP and related alloys can be grown lattice-matched on Si substrates has offered intriguing new possibilities of OEIC and integration of efficient III-V optoelectronic devices with the mainstream microelectronics based on Si. Despite their promising applications and the first encouraging experimental results, very little is known about the physical properties of such alloys. For instance the difficulty of incorporating nitrogen into GaInAs while maintaining good optical quality has provoked much work to establish an
OH vibrational activation and decay dynamics of CH4-OH entrance channel complexes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wheeler, Martyn D.; Tsiouris, Maria; Lester, Marsha I.; Lendvay, Gyoergy
2000-01-01
Infrared spectroscopy has been utilized to examine the structure and vibrational decay dynamics of CH 4 -OH complexes that have been stabilized in the entrance channel to the CH 4 +OH hydrogen abstraction reaction. Rotationally resolved infrared spectra of the CH 4 -OH complexes have been obtained in the OH fundamental and overtone regions using an IR-UV (infrared-ultraviolet) double-resonance technique. Pure OH stretching bands have been identified at 3563.45(5) and 6961.98(4) cm-1 (origins), along with combination bands involving the simultaneous excitation of OH stretching and intermolecular bending motions. The infrared spectra exhibit extensive homogeneous broadening arising from the rapid decay of vibrationally activated CH 4 -OH complexes due to vibrational relaxation and/or reaction. Lifetimes of 38(5) and 25(3) ps for CH 4 -OH prepared with one and two quanta of OH excitation, respectively, have been extracted from the infrared spectra. The nascent distribution of the OH products from vibrational predissociation has been evaluated by ultraviolet probe laser-induced fluorescence measurements. The dominant inelastic decay channel involves the transfer of one quantum of OH stretch to the pentad of CH 4 vibrational states with energies near 3000 cm-1. The experimental findings are compared with full collision studies of vibrationally excited OH with CH 4 . In addition, ab initio electronic structure calculations have been carried out to elucidate the minimum energy configuration of the CH 4 -OH complex. The calculations predict a C 3v geometry with the hydrogen of OH pointing toward one of four equivalent faces of the CH 4 tetrahedron, consistent with the analysis of the experimental infrared spectra. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics
Vibrational dynamics and heat capacity of polyglycine I.
Porwal, Vikas; Misra, Radha Mohan; Tandon, Poonam; Gupta, Vishwambhar Dayal
2004-02-01
Earlier works on polyglycine I suffer from several infirmities, such as the dynamic methylene group being replaced by a mass unit and the use of poorly resolved inelastic neutron spectra, which have resulted in wrong assignments and imprecise profile of dispersion curves. In addition, the density-of-states and heat capacity variation as a function of temperature are being reported for the first time. The heat capacity is in good agreement with the measurements reported earlier by Roles and Wunderlich within a certain range (230-350 K). Deviations set in beyond this could be due to the presence of two crystalline states (I and II) in the sample used for the heat capacity measurements.
Static and dynamic stability of pneumatic vibration isolators and systems of isolators
Ryaboy, Vyacheslav M.
2014-01-01
Pneumatic vibration isolation is the most widespread effective method for creating vibration-free environments that are vital for precise experiments and manufacturing operations in optoelectronics, life sciences, microelectronics, nanotechnology and other areas. The modeling and design principles of a dual-chamber pneumatic vibration isolator, basically established a few decades ago, continue to attract attention of researchers. On the other hand, behavior of systems of such isolators was never explained in the literature in sufficient detail. This paper covers a range of questions essential for understanding the mechanics of pneumatic isolation systems from both design and application perspectives. The theory and a model of a single standalone isolator are presented in concise form necessary for subsequent analysis. Then the dynamics of a system of isolators supporting a payload is considered with main attention directed to two aspects of their behavior: first, the static stability of payloads with high positions of the center of gravity; second, dynamic stability of the feedback system formed by mechanical leveling valves. The direct method of calculating the maximum stable position of the center of gravity is presented and illustrated by three-dimensional stability domains; analytic formulas are given that delineate these domains. A numerical method for feedback stability analysis of self-leveling valve systems is given, and the results are compared with the analytical estimates for a single isolator. The relation between the static and dynamic phenomena is discussed.
Dynamics Analysis and Experiment of Vibrating Screen for Asphalt Mixing Equipment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
He ZHAO-XIA
2014-04-01
Full Text Available A dynamics model of vibration screen for asphalt mixing equipment is established in order to investigate the working performance of the system, which combines the lumped parameter method and substructure method in this paper. In order to acquire accurate results, the spring support stiffness, bearing stiffness and torsional stiffness of connecting link are considered in this model. The mass and stiffness matrixes of link are transformed to the master nodes according to the substructure method. Then the part is combined with the whole dynamics model by support points. Furthermore, the differential equations of motion are given by the Newton Second Law, and it is solved by Newmark time integration method. The centroid trajectory of vibrating screen is computed. At the same time, the reaction force of support springs and bearings are also acquired. And the strength of the product can meet the requirements of design by simulations. A vibration experiment is executed in factory, and the dynamics model is validated by comparing the results.
Zhou, Shihua; Song, Guiqiu; Sun, Maojun; Ren, Zhaohui; Wen, Bangchun
2018-01-01
In order to analyze the nonlinear dynamics and stability of a novel design for the monowheel inclined vehicle-vibration platform coupled system (MIV-VPCS) with intermediate nonlinearity support subjected to a harmonic excitation, a multi-degree of freedom lumped parameter dynamic model taking into account the dynamic interaction of the MIV-VPCS with quadratic and cubic nonlinearities is presented. The dynamical equations of the coupled system are derived by applying the displacement relationship, interaction force relationship at the contact position and Lagrange's equation, which are further discretized into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations with coupled terms by Galerkin's truncation. Based on the mathematical model, the coupled multi-body nonlinear dynamics of the vibration system is investigated by numerical method, and the parameters influences of excitation amplitude, mass ratio and inclined angle on the dynamic characteristics are precisely analyzed and discussed by bifurcation diagram, Largest Lyapunov exponent and 3-D frequency spectrum. Depending on different ranges of system parameters, the results show that the different motions and jump discontinuity appear, and the coupled system enters into chaotic behavior through different routes (period-doubling bifurcation, inverse period-doubling bifurcation, saddle-node bifurcation and Hopf bifurcation), which are strongly attributed to the dynamic interaction of the MIV-VPCS. The decreasing excitation amplitude and inclined angle could reduce the higher order bifurcations, and effectively control the complicated nonlinear dynamic behaviors under the perturbation of low rotational speed. The first bifurcation and chaotic motion occur at lower value of inclined angle, and the chaotic behavior lasts for larger intervals with higher rotational speed. The investigation results could provide a better understanding of the nonlinear dynamic behaviors for the dynamic interaction of the MIV-VPCS.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khomenko Andrei P.
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The article deals with the development of mathematical models and evaluation criteria of the vibration field in the dynamic interactions of the elements of the vibrational technological machines for the processes of vibrational strengthening of long-length parts with help of a steel balls working medium. The study forms a theoretical understanding of the modes of motions of material particles in interaction with a vibrating surface of the working body of the vibration machine. The generalized approach to the assessment of the dynamic quality of the work of vibrating machines in multiple modes of tossing, when the period of free flight of particles is a multiple of the period of the surface oscillations of the working body, is developed in the article. For the correction of vibration field of the working body, the characteristics of dynamic interactions of granular elements of the medium are taken into account using original sensors. The sensors that can detect different particularities of interaction of the granular medium elements at different points of the working body are proposed to evaluate the deviation from a homogeneous and one-dimensional mode of vibration field. Specially developed sensors are able to register interactions between a single granule, a system of granules in filamentous structures, and multipoint interactions of the elements in a close-spaced cylindrical structure. The system of regularization of the structure of vibration fields based on the introduction of motion translation devices is proposed using the multi-point sensor locations on the working body. The article refers to analytical approaches of the theory of vibration displacements. For the experimental data assessment, the methods of statistical analysis are applied. It is shown that the peculiar features of the motion of granular medium registered by the sensors can be used to build active control systems of field vibration.
The dance of molecules: new dynamical perspectives on highly excited molecular vibrations.
Kellman, Michael E; Tyng, Vivian
2007-04-01
At low energies, molecular vibrational motion is described by the normal modes model. This model breaks down at higher energy, with strong coupling between normal modes and onset of chaotic dynamics. New anharmonic modes are born in bifurcations, or branchings of the normal modes. Knowledge of these new modes is obtained through the window of frequency-domain spectroscopy, using techniques of nonlinear classical dynamics. It may soon be possible to "watch" molecular rearrangement reactions spectroscopically. Connections are being made with reaction rate theories, condensed phase systems, and motions of electrons in quantum dots.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chun-Yu, Zhao; Yi-Min, Zhang; Bang-Chun, Wen
2010-01-01
We derive the non-dimensional coupling equation of two exciters, including inertia coupling, stiffness coupling and load coupling. The concept of general dynamic symmetry is proposed to physically explain the synchronisation of the two exciters, which stems from the load coupling that produces the torque of general dynamic symmetry to force the phase difference between the two exciters close to the angle of general dynamic symmetry. The condition of implementing synchronisation is that the torque of general dynamic symmetry is greater than the asymmetric torque of the two motors. A general Lyapunov function is constructed to derive the stability condition of synchronisation that the non-dimensional inertia coupling matrix is positive definite and all its elements are positive. Numeric results show that the structure of the vibrating system can guarantee the stability of synchronisation of the two exciters, and that the greater the distances between the installation positions of the two exciters and the mass centre of the vibrating system are, the stronger the ability of general dynamic symmetry is
Xu, Tengfei; Castel, Arnaud
2016-04-01
In this paper, a model, initially developed to calculate the stiffness of cracked reinforced concrete beams under static loading, is used to assess the dynamic stiffness. The model allows calculating the average inertia of cracked beams by taking into account the effect of bending cracks (primary cracks) and steel-concrete bond damage (i.e. interfacial microcracks). Free and forced vibration experiments are used to assess the performance of the model. The respective influence of bending cracks and steel-concrete bond damage on both static and dynamic responses is analyzed. The comparison between experimental and simulated deflections confirms that the effects of both bending cracks and steel-concrete bond loss should be taken into account to assess reinforced concrete stiffness under service static loading. On the contrary, comparison of experimental and calculated dynamic responses reveals that localized steel-concrete bond damages do not influence significantly the dynamic stiffness and the fundamental frequency.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fedotovskii, V.S.
1988-02-01
The vibration of tanks with liquid and non deformed cylindrical or spherical inclusions are considered. It is shown that for calculating dynamic characteristics of such systems it is advisable to use continual approach i.e. consider-heterogeneous media formed by liquid and weighted inclusions in it as homogeneous media with effective or vibroreological properties. On the base of the problem on vibrations of the tank, containing liquid and localized inclusions, rod assemblies vibrations are considered and relationships for the added mass and resistance coefficient determining dynamic characteristics of such systems are obtained. Considered are also liquid tank vibrations containing spherical inclusions. The results obtained are used for calculating dynamic characteristics of two-phase flow pipelines at bubble and annular flow mode. The theoretical relationships are compared with available experimental data [fr
Ribonuclease S dynamics measured using a nitrile label with 2D IR vibrational echo spectroscopy.
Bagchi, Sayan; Boxer, Steven G; Fayer, Michael D
2012-04-05
A nitrile-labeled amino acid, p-cyanophenylalanine, is introduced near the active site of the semisynthetic enzyme ribonuclease S to serve as a probe of protein dynamics and fluctuations. Ribonuclease S is the limited proteolysis product of subtilisin acting on ribonuclease A, and consists of a small fragment including amino acids 1-20, the S-peptide, and a larger fragment including residues 21-124, the S-protein. A series of two-dimensional vibrational echo experiments performed on the nitrile-labeled S-peptide and the RNase S are described. The time-dependent changes in the two-dimensional infrared vibrational echo line shapes are analyzed using the center line slope method to obtain the frequency-frequency correlation function (FFCF). The observations show that the nitrile probe in the S-peptide has dynamics that are similar to, but faster than, those of the single amino acid p-cyanophenylalanine in water. In contrast, the dynamics of the nitrile label when the peptide is bound to form ribonuclease S are dominated by homogeneous dephasing (motionally narrowed) contributions with only a small contribution from very fast inhomogeneous structural dynamics. The results provide insights into the nature of the structural dynamics of the ribonuclease S complex. The equilibrium dynamics of the nitrile labeled S-peptide and the ribonuclease S complex are also investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. The experimentally determined FFCFs are compared to the FFCFs obtained from the molecular dynamics simulations, thereby testing the capacity of simulations to determine the amplitudes and time scales of protein structural fluctuations on fast time scales under thermal equilibrium conditions.
Influence of intra-pigment vibrations on dynamics of photosynthetic exciton.
Sato, Yoshihiro; Doolittle, Brian
2014-11-14
We have numerically investigated the effect of an underdamped intra-pigment vibrational mode on an exciton's quantum coherence and energy transfer efficiency. Our model describes a bacteriochlorophyll a pigment-protein dimer under the conditions at which photosynthetic energy transfer occurs. The dimer is modeled using a theoretical treatment of a vibronic exciton, and its dynamics are numerically analyzed using a non-Markovian and non-perturbative method. We examined the system's response to various values of the Huang-Rhys factor, site energy difference, reorganization energy, and reorganization energy difference. We found that the inclusion of the intra-pigment vibronic mode allows for long-lived oscillatory quantum coherences to occur. This excitonic coherence is robust against static site-energy disorder. The vibrational mode also promotes exciton transfer along the site-energy landscape thus improving the overall energy transfer efficiency.
Influence of intra-pigment vibrations on dynamics of photosynthetic exciton
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, Yoshihiro; Doolittle, Brian
2014-01-01
We have numerically investigated the effect of an underdamped intra-pigment vibrational mode on an exciton's quantum coherence and energy transfer efficiency. Our model describes a bacteriochlorophyll a pigment-protein dimer under the conditions at which photosynthetic energy transfer occurs. The dimer is modeled using a theoretical treatment of a vibronic exciton, and its dynamics are numerically analyzed using a non-Markovian and non-perturbative method. We examined the system's response to various values of the Huang-Rhys factor, site energy difference, reorganization energy, and reorganization energy difference. We found that the inclusion of the intra-pigment vibronic mode allows for long-lived oscillatory quantum coherences to occur. This excitonic coherence is robust against static site-energy disorder. The vibrational mode also promotes exciton transfer along the site-energy landscape thus improving the overall energy transfer efficiency
Influence of intra-pigment vibrations on dynamics of photosynthetic exciton
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sato, Yoshihiro, E-mail: sato.yoshihiro77@nihon-u.ac.jp, E-mail: ysato.colby@gmail.com; Doolittle, Brian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Colby College, Waterville, Maine 04901 (United States)
2014-11-14
We have numerically investigated the effect of an underdamped intra-pigment vibrational mode on an exciton's quantum coherence and energy transfer efficiency. Our model describes a bacteriochlorophyll a pigment-protein dimer under the conditions at which photosynthetic energy transfer occurs. The dimer is modeled using a theoretical treatment of a vibronic exciton, and its dynamics are numerically analyzed using a non-Markovian and non-perturbative method. We examined the system's response to various values of the Huang-Rhys factor, site energy difference, reorganization energy, and reorganization energy difference. We found that the inclusion of the intra-pigment vibronic mode allows for long-lived oscillatory quantum coherences to occur. This excitonic coherence is robust against static site-energy disorder. The vibrational mode also promotes exciton transfer along the site-energy landscape thus improving the overall energy transfer efficiency.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mehralian, Fahimeh [Mechanical Engineering Department, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tadi Beni, Yaghoub, E-mail: tadi@eng.sku.ac.ir [Faculty of Engineering, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimi Zeverdejani, Mehran [Mechanical Engineering Department, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-06-01
Featured by two small length scale parameters, nonlocal strain gradient theory is utilized to investigate the free vibration of nanotubes. A new size-dependent shell model formulation is developed by using the first order shear deformation theory. The governing equations and boundary conditions are obtained using Hamilton's principle and solved for simply supported boundary condition. As main purpose of this study, since the values of two small length scale parameters are still unknown, they are calibrated by the means of molecular dynamics simulations (MDs). Then, the influences of different parameters such as nonlocal parameter, scale factor, length and thickness on vibration characteristics of nanotubes are studied. It is also shown that increase in thickness and decrease in length parameters intensify the effect of nonlocal parameter and scale factor.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ajori, S.; Ansari, R.
2015-01-01
Functionalization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be viewed as an important process by which the dispersion and solubility of CNTs in the matrices of nanocomposites are improved. Covalent functionalization can affect the mechanical behavior of CNTs. In this paper, the vibrational behavior of diethyltoluenediamines (DETDA) functionalized CNTs is investigated utilizing molecular dynamics simulations in canonical ensemble at room temperature. The models of simulations are divided into two categories of functionalized CNTs with regular and random distributions of DETDA polymers. The results demonstrate that natural frequency of functionalized CNTs is lower than that of pristine ones. Also, it is observed that buckling phenomenon occurs during vibration for functionalized CNTs with regular distribution of polymers. It is further observed that polymer mass and van der Waals (vdW) forces are responsible for frequency changes in functionalized CNTs with random and regular distribution patterns of CNTs, respectively
Dynamics and stability of transverse vibrations of nonlocal nanobeams with a variable axial load
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, C; Yu, J L; Lim, C W
2011-01-01
This paper investigates the natural frequency, steady-state resonance and stability for the transverse vibrations of a nanobeam subjected to a variable initial axial force, including axial tension and axial compression, based on nonlocal elasticity theory. It is reported that the nonlocal nanoscale has significant effects on vibration behavior, which results in a new effective nonlocal bending moment different to but dependent on the corresponding nonlocal bending moment. The effects of nonlocal nanoscale and the variation of initial axial force on the natural frequency as well as the instability regions are analyzed by the perturbation method. It concludes that both the nonlocal nanoscale and the initial tension, including static and dynamic tensions, cause an increase in natural frequency, while an initial compression causes the natural frequency to decrease. Instability regions are also greatly influenced by the nonlocal nanoscale and initial tension and they become smaller with stronger nonlocal effects or larger initial tension
First principles study of vibrational dynamics of ceria-titania hybrid clusters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Majid, Abdul, E-mail: abdulmajid40@yahoo.com; Bibi, Maryam [University of Gujrat, Department of Physics (Pakistan)
2017-04-15
Density functional theory based calculations were performed to study vibrational properties of ceria, titania, and ceria-titania hybrid clusters. The findings revealed the dominance of vibrations related to oxygen when compared to those of metallic atoms in the clusters. In case of hybrid cluster, the softening of normal modes related to exterior oxygen atoms in ceria and softening/hardening of high/low frequency modes related to titania dimmers are observed. The results calculated for monomers conform to symmetry predictions according to which three IR and three Raman active modes were detected for TiO{sub 2}, whereas two IR active and one Raman active modes were observed for CeO{sub 2}. The comparative analysis indicates that the hybrid cluster CeTiO{sub 4} contains simultaneous vibrational fingerprints of the component dimmers. The symmetry, nature of vibrations, IR and Raman activity, intensities, and atomic involvement in different modes of the clusters are described in detail. The study points to engineering of CeTiO{sub 4} to tailor its properties for technological visible region applications in photocatalytic and electrochemical devices.
Vibrational dynamics of thiocyanate and selenocyanate bound to horse heart myoglobin
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maj, Michał; Oh, Younjun; Park, Kwanghee; Lee, Jooyong; Cho, Minhaeng, E-mail: mcho@korea.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Kyung-Won [Department of Chemistry, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756, SouthKorea (Korea, Republic of)
2014-06-21
The structure and vibrational dynamics of SCN- and SeCN-bound myoglobin have been investigated using polarization-controlled IR pump-probe measurements and quantum chemistry calculations. The complexes are found to be in low and high spin states, with the dominant contribution from the latter. In addition, the Mb:SCN high spin complex exhibits a doublet feature in the thiocyanate stretch IR absorption spectra, indicating two distinct molecular conformations around the heme pocket. The binding mode of the high spin complexes was assigned to occur through the nitrogen atom, contrary to the binding through the sulfur atom that was observed in myoglobin derived from Aplysia Limacina. The vibrational energy relaxation process has been found to occur substantially faster than those of free SCN{sup −} and SeCN{sup −} ions and neutral SCN- and SeCN-derivatized molecules reported previously. This supports the N-bound configurations of MbNCS and MbNCSe, because S- and Se-bound configurations are expected to have significantly long lifetimes due to the insulation effect by heavy bridge atom like S and Se in such IR probes. Nonetheless, even though their lifetimes are much shorter than those of corresponding free ions in water, the vibrational lifetimes determined for MbNCS and MbNCSe are still fairly long compared to those of azide and cyanide myoglobin systems studied before. Thus, thiocyanate and selenocyanate can be good local probes of local electrostatic environment in the heme pocket. The globin dependence on binding mode and vibrational dynamics is also discussed.
Li, Shuai; Long, Jinyou; Ling, Fengzi; Wang, Yanmei; Song, Xinli; Zhang, Song; Zhang, Bing
2017-07-01
The vibrational wavepacket dynamics at the very early stages of the S1-T1 intersystem crossing in photoexcited pyrimidine is visualized in real time by femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron imaging and time-resolved mass spectroscopy. A coherent superposition of the vibrational states is prepared by the femtosecond pump pulse at 315.3 nm, resulting in a vibrational wavepacket. The composition of the prepared wavepacket is directly identified by a sustained quantum beat superimposed on the parent-ion transient, possessing a frequency in accord with the energy separation between the 6a1 and 6b2 states. The dephasing time of the vibrational wavepacket is determined to be 82 ps. More importantly, the variable Franck-Condon factors between the wavepacket components and the dispersed cation vibrational levels are experimentally illustrated to identify the dark state and follow the energy-flow dynamics on the femtosecond time scale. The time-dependent intensities of the photoelectron peaks originated from the 6a1 vibrational state exhibit a clear quantum beating pattern with similar periodicity but a phase shift of π rad with respect to those from the 6b2 state, offering an unambiguous picture of the restricted intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution dynamics in the 6a1/6b2 Fermi resonance.
Vibrational dynamics and band structure of methyl-terminated Ge(111)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States))" data-affiliation=" (The James Franck Institute and Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, 929 E. 57th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States))" >Hund, Zachary M.; th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States))" data-affiliation=" (The James Franck Institute and Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, 929 E. 57th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States))" >Nihill, Kevin J.; th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States))" data-affiliation=" (The James Franck Institute and Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, 929 E. 57th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States))" >Sibener, S. J.; Campi, Davide; Bernasconi, M.; Wong, Keith T.; Lewis, Nathan S.; Benedek, G.
2015-01-01
A combined synthesis, experiment, and theory approach, using elastic and inelastic helium atom scattering along with ab initio density functional perturbation theory, has been used to investigate the vibrational dynamics and band structure of a recently synthesized organic-functionalized semiconductor interface. Specifically, the thermal properties and lattice dynamics of the underlying Ge(111) semiconductor crystal in the presence of a commensurate (1 × 1) methyl adlayer were defined for atomically flat methylated Ge(111) surfaces. The mean-square atomic displacements were evaluated by analysis of the thermal attenuation of the elastic He diffraction intensities using the Debye-Waller model, revealing an interface with hybrid characteristics. The methyl adlayer vibrational modes are coupled with the Ge(111) substrate, resulting in significantly softer in-plane motion relative to rigid motion in the surface normal. Inelastic helium time-of-flight measurements revealed the excitations of the Rayleigh wave across the surface Brillouin zone, and such measurements were in agreement with the dispersion curves that were produced using density functional perturbation theory. The dispersion relations for H-Ge(111) indicated that a deviation in energy and lineshape for the Rayleigh wave was present along the nearest-neighbor direction. The effects of mass loading, as determined by calculations for CD 3 -Ge(111), as well as by force constants, were less significant than the hybridization between the Rayleigh wave and methyl adlayer librations. The presence of mutually similar hybridization effects for CH 3 -Ge(111) and CH 3 -Si(111) surfaces extends the understanding of the relationship between the vibrational dynamics and the band structure of various semiconductor surfaces that have been functionalized with organic overlayers
Vibrational dynamics and band structure of methyl-terminated Ge(111)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hund, Zachary M.; Nihill, Kevin J.; Sibener, S. J., E-mail: s-sibener@uchicago.edu [The James Franck Institute and Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, 929 E. 57" t" h Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Campi, Davide; Bernasconi, M. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Wong, Keith T.; Lewis, Nathan S. [Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beckman Institute and Kavli Nanoscience Institute, California Institute of Technology, 210 Noyes Laboratory, 127-72, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Benedek, G. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Universidad del País Vasco (EHU), 20018 Donostia/San Sebastian (Spain)
2015-09-28
A combined synthesis, experiment, and theory approach, using elastic and inelastic helium atom scattering along with ab initio density functional perturbation theory, has been used to investigate the vibrational dynamics and band structure of a recently synthesized organic-functionalized semiconductor interface. Specifically, the thermal properties and lattice dynamics of the underlying Ge(111) semiconductor crystal in the presence of a commensurate (1 × 1) methyl adlayer were defined for atomically flat methylated Ge(111) surfaces. The mean-square atomic displacements were evaluated by analysis of the thermal attenuation of the elastic He diffraction intensities using the Debye-Waller model, revealing an interface with hybrid characteristics. The methyl adlayer vibrational modes are coupled with the Ge(111) substrate, resulting in significantly softer in-plane motion relative to rigid motion in the surface normal. Inelastic helium time-of-flight measurements revealed the excitations of the Rayleigh wave across the surface Brillouin zone, and such measurements were in agreement with the dispersion curves that were produced using density functional perturbation theory. The dispersion relations for H-Ge(111) indicated that a deviation in energy and lineshape for the Rayleigh wave was present along the nearest-neighbor direction. The effects of mass loading, as determined by calculations for CD{sub 3}-Ge(111), as well as by force constants, were less significant than the hybridization between the Rayleigh wave and methyl adlayer librations. The presence of mutually similar hybridization effects for CH{sub 3}-Ge(111) and CH{sub 3}-Si(111) surfaces extends the understanding of the relationship between the vibrational dynamics and the band structure of various semiconductor surfaces that have been functionalized with organic overlayers.
A case report of vibration-induced hand comorbidities in a postwoman
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Violante Francesco S
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolonged exposure to hand-transmitted vibration is associated with an increased occurrence of symptoms and signs of disorders in the vascular, neurological and osteoarticular systems of the upper limbs. However, the available epidemiological evidence is derived from studies on high vibration levels caused by vibratory tools, whereas little is known about possible upper limb disorders caused by chronic exposure to low vibration levels emitted by fixed sources. Case presentation We present the case of a postwoman who delivered mail for 15 years using a low-powered motorcycle. The woman was in good health until 2002, when she was diagnosed with bilateral Raynaud's phenomenon. In March 2003 a bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome was electromyographically diagnosed; surgical treatment was ineffective. Further examinations in 2005 highlighted the presence of chronic tendonitis (right middle finger flexor. Risk assessment From 1987, for 15 years, our patient rode her motorcycle for 4 h/day, carrying a load of 20-30 kg. For about a quarter of the time she drove over country roads. Using the information collected about the tasks carried out every day by the postwoman and some measurements performed on both handles of the motorcycle, as well as on both iron parts of the handlebars, we reconstructed the woman's previous exposure to hand-arm vibration. 8-hour energy-equivalent frequency weighted acceleration was about 2.4 m/s2. The lifetime dose was 1.5 × 109(m2/s4hd. Conclusions The particular set of comorbidities presented by our patient suggests a common pathophysiological basis for all the diseases. Considering the level of exposure to vibrations and the lack of specific knowledge on the effects of vibration in women, we hypothesize an association between the work exposure and the onset of the diseases.
Vibrational dynamics of adsorbed CO2: Separability of the CO2 asymmetric stretching mode
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Bludský, Ota; Nachtigall, Petr; Špirko, Vladimír
2011-01-01
Roč. 76, č. 6 (2011), s. 669-682 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512; GA ČR GAP208/11/0436; GA MŠk(CZ) ME10032 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) KONTAKT-II(LH)-CH022 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : adsorption of CO2 * vibrational dynamics * DFT calculations Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.283, year: 2011
Giri, Ashutosh; Hopkins, Patrick E.
2017-12-01
Fullerene condensed-matter solids can possess thermal conductivities below their minimum glassy limit while theorized to be stiffer than diamond when crystallized under pressure. These seemingly disparate extremes in thermal and mechanical properties raise questions into the pressure dependence on the thermal conductivity of C60 fullerite crystals, and how the spectral contributions to vibrational thermal conductivity changes under applied pressure. To answer these questions, we investigate the effect of strain on the thermal conductivity of C60 fullerite crystals via pressure-dependent molecular dynamics simulations under the Green-Kubo formalism. We show that the thermal conductivity increases rapidly with compressive strain, which demonstrates a power-law relationship similar to their stress-strain relationship for the C60 crystals. Calculations of the density of states for the crystals under compressive strains reveal that the librational modes characteristic in the unstrained case are diminished due to densification of the molecular crystal. Over a large compression range (0-20 GPa), the Leibfried-Schlömann equation is shown to adequately describe the pressure dependence of thermal conductivity, suggesting that low-frequency intermolecular vibrations dictate heat flow in the C60 crystals. A spectral decomposition of the thermal conductivity supports this hypothesis.
Nuclear quantum many-body dynamics: from collective vibrations to heavy-ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simenel, Cedric
2012-01-01
This report gives a summary of my research on nuclear dynamics during the past ten years. The choice of this field has been motivated by the desire to understand the physics of complex systems obeying quantum mechanics. In particular, the interplay between collective motion and single-particle degrees of freedom is a source of complex and fascinating behaviours. For instance, giant resonances are characterised by a collective vibration of many nucleons, but their decay may occur by the emission of a single nucleon. Another example could be taken from the collision of nuclei where the transfer of few nucleons may have a strong impact on the formation of a compound system is non trivial. To describe these complex systems, one needs to solve the quantum many-body problem. The description of the dynamics of composite systems can be very challenging, especially when two such systems interact. An important goal of nuclear physics is to find a unified way to describe the dynamics of nuclear systems. Ultimately, the same theoretical model should be able to describe vibrations, rotations, fission, all the possible outcomes of heavy-ion collisions (elastic and inelastic scattering, particle transfer, fusion, and multifragmentation), and even the dynamics of neutron star crust. This desire for a global approach to nuclear dynamics has strongly influenced my research activities. In particular, all the numerical applications presented in this report have been obtained from few numerical codes solving equations derived from the same variational principle. Beside the quest for a unified model of nuclear dynamics, possible applications of heavy-ion collisions such as the formation of new nuclei is also a strong motivation for the experimental and theoretical studies of reaction mechanisms. This report is not a review article, but should be considered as a reading guide of the main papers my collaborators and myself have published. It also gives the opportunity to detail some
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Plattner, Nuria; Meuwly, Markus
2014-01-01
Vibrational frequency shifts of H 2 in clathrate hydrates are important to understand the properties and elucidate details of the clathrate structure. Experimental spectra of H 2 in clathrate hydrates have been measured for different clathrate compositions, temperatures, and pressures. In order to establish reliable relationships between the clathrate structure, dynamics, and observed frequencies, calculations of vibrational frequency shifts in different clathrate environments are required. In this study, a combination of classical molecular dynamics simulations, electronic structure calculations, and quantum dynamical simulation is used to calculate relative vibrational frequencies of H 2 in clathrate hydrates. This approach allows us to assess dynamical effects and simulate the change of vibrational frequencies with temperature and pressure. The frequency distributions of the H 2 vibrations in the different clathrate cage types agree favorably with experiment. Also, the simulations demonstrate that H 2 in the 5 12 cage is more sensitive to the details of the environment and to quantum dynamical effects, in particular when the cage is doubly occupied. We show that for the 5 12 cage quantum effects lead to frequency increases and double occupation is unlikely. This is different for the 5 12 6 4 cages for which higher occupation numbers than one H 2 per cage are likely
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arjmand, F. [Aligarh Muslim Univ., Aligarh (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Sharma, S. [Aligarh Muslim Univ., Aligarh (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Usman, M. [Aligarh Muslim Univ., Aligarh (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Leu, B. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS); Hu, M. Y. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS); Toupet, L. [Univ. de Rennes, Rennes (France). Inst. de Physique de Rennes; Gosztola, David J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Nanoscale Materials; Tabassum, S. [Aligarh Muslim Univ., Aligarh (India). Dept. of Chemistry
2016-06-21
The vibrational dynamics of a newly synthesized tetrastannoxane was characterized with a combination of experimental (Raman, IR and tin-based nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy) and computational (DFT/B3LYP) methods, with an emphasis on the vibrations of the tin sites. The cytotoxic activity revealed a significant regression selectively against the human pancreatic cell lines.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saalfrank, Peter [Institut für Chemie, Universität Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain); Juaristi, J. I. [Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain); Centro de Física de Materiales CFM/MPC (CSIC-UPV/EHU), Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 5, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain); Departamento de Física de Materiales, Facultad de Químicas UPV/EHU, Apartado 1072, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain); Alducin, M.; Muiño, R. Díez [Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain); Centro de Física de Materiales CFM/MPC (CSIC-UPV/EHU), Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 5, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain); Blanco-Rey, M. [Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain); Departamento de Física de Materiales, Facultad de Químicas UPV/EHU, Apartado 1072, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain)
2014-12-21
Using density functional theory and Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics with Electronic Friction (AIMDEF), we study the adsorption and dissipative vibrational dynamics of hydrogen atoms chemisorbed on free-standing lead films of increasing thickness. Lead films are known for their oscillatory behaviour of certain properties with increasing thickness, e.g., energy and electron spillout change in discontinuous manner, due to quantum size effects [G. Materzanini, P. Saalfrank, and P. J. D. Lindan, Phys. Rev. B 63, 235405 (2001)]. Here, we demonstrate that oscillatory features arise also for hydrogen when chemisorbed on lead films. Besides stationary properties of the adsorbate, we concentrate on finite vibrational lifetimes of H-surface vibrations. As shown by AIMDEF, the damping via vibration-electron hole pair coupling dominates clearly over the vibration-phonon channel, in particular for high-frequency modes. Vibrational relaxation times are a characteristic function of layer thickness due to the oscillating behaviour of the embedding surface electronic density. Implications derived from AIMDEF for frictional many-atom dynamics, and physisorbed species will also be given.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Uranga-Piña, L. [Facultad de Física, Universidad de la Habana, San Lázaro y L, Vedado, 10400 Havana (Cuba); Institute for Chemistry and Biochemistry, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustr. 3, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Tremblay, J. C., E-mail: jean.c.tremblay@gmail.com [Institute for Chemistry and Biochemistry, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustr. 3, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)
2014-08-21
We investigate the effect of inter-mode coupling on the vibrational relaxation dynamics of molecules in weak dissipative environments. The simulations are performed within the reduced density matrix formalism in the Markovian regime, assuming a Lindblad form for the system-bath interaction. The prototypical two-dimensional model system representing two CO molecules approaching a Cu(100) surface is adapted from an ab initio potential, while the diatom-diatom vibrational coupling strength is systematically varied. In the weak system-bath coupling limit and at low temperatures, only first order non-adiabatic uni-modal coupling terms contribute to surface-mediated vibrational relaxation. Since dissipative dynamics is non-unitary, the choice of representation will affect the evolution of the reduced density matrix. Two alternative representations for computing the relaxation rates and the associated operators are thus compared: the fully coupled spectral basis, and a factorizable ansatz. The former is well-established and serves as a benchmark for the solution of Liouville-von Neumann equation. In the latter, a contracted grid basis of potential-optimized discrete variable representation is tailored to incorporate most of the inter-mode coupling, while the Lindblad operators are represented as tensor products of one-dimensional operators, for consistency. This procedure results in a marked reduction of the grid size and in a much more advantageous scaling of the computational cost with respect to the increase of the dimensionality of the system. The factorizable method is found to provide an accurate description of the dissipative quantum dynamics of the model system, specifically of the time evolution of the state populations and of the probability density distribution of the molecular wave packet. The influence of intra-molecular vibrational energy redistribution appears to be properly taken into account by the new model on the whole range of coupling strengths. It
Free Vibration Analysis for Shells of Revolution Using an Exact Dynamic Stiffness Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xudong Chen
2016-01-01
Full Text Available An exact generalised formulation for the free vibration of shells of revolution with general shaped meridians and arbitrary boundary conditions is introduced. Starting from the basic shell theories, the vibration governing equations are obtained in the Hamilton form, from which dynamic stiffness is computed using the ordinary differential equations solver COLSYS. Natural frequencies and modes are determined by employing the Wittrick-Williams (W-W algorithm in conjunction with the recursive Newton’s method, thus expanding the applications of the abovementioned techniques from one-dimensional skeletal structures to two-dimensional shells of revolution. A solution for solving the number of clamped-end frequencies J0 in the W-W algorithm is presented for both uniform and nonuniform shell segment members. Based on these theories, a FORTRAN program is written. Numerical examples on circular cylindrical shells, hyperboloidal cooling tower shells, and spherical shells are given, and error analysis is performed. The convergence of the proposed method on J0 is verified, and comparisons with frequencies from existing literature show that the dynamic stiffness method is robust, reliable, and accurate.
Study of V-OTDR stability for dynamic strain measurement in piezoelectric vibration
Ren, Meiqi; Lu, Ping; Chen, Liang; Bao, Xiaoyi
2016-09-01
In a phase-sensitive optical-time domain reflectometry (Φ-OTDR) system, the challenge for dynamic strain measurement lies in large intensity fluctuations from trace to trace. The intensity fluctuation caused by stochastic characteristics of Rayleigh backscattering sets detection limit for the minimum strength of vibration measurement and causes the large measurement uncertainty. Thus, a trace-to-trace correlation coefficient is introduced to quantify intensity fluctuation of Φ-OTDR traces and stability of the sensor system theoretically and experimentally. A novel approach of measuring dynamic strain induced by various driving voltages of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) in Φ-OTDR is also demonstrated. Piezoelectric vibration signals are evaluated through analyzing peak values of fast Fourier transform spectra at the fundamental frequency and high-order harmonics based on Bessel functions. High trace-to-trace correlation coefficients varying from 0.824 to 0.967 among 100 measurements are obtained in experimental results, showing the good stability of our sensor system, as well as small uncertainty of measured peak values.
Experimental Investigations on the Dynamic Behaviour of O-Type Wire-Cable Vibration Isolators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hong-Xia Wang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A series of periodic loading experiments were carried out on the O-type wire-cable vibration isolators. The isolators were loaded under shear, roll, and tension-compression loadings. When subjected to shear and roll loads, the restoring force-deformation curves generated by the isolators formed symmetric hysteresis loops. However, when the isolators were loaded with tension-compression loads, the isolator produced asymmetric hysteresis loops. It is found through the experiment that the dynamic characteristics of the isolator are determined by the loading amplitude as well as the geometric parameters of the isolator while they are almost independent of loading frequency within the testing frequency range. Based on the experimental data, the dynamic response of the isolator was modeled by a modified normalized Bouc-Wen model. The parameters of this model were identified through an identification procedure that does not involve any nonlinear iterative algorithms. Comparison between the identification results and the experimental data suggests that the identification method is effective. With the model and the identified parameters, the frequency response of an O-type wire-cable vibration isolator-mass system was evaluated. Typical nonlinear response behaviors were found when the isolator was used in tension-compression mode while the response appears to be similar to that of a linear system when the isolator was used in shear and roll mode.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishimura, Tamio; Gianturco, Franco A.
2002-01-01
We report the quantum dynamical close-coupling equations relevant for vibrationally inelastic processes in low-energy collisions between a beam of positrons and the CH 4 molecule in the gas phase. The interaction potential is described in detail and we report also our numerical technique for solving the scattering equations. The cross sections are obtained for the excitations of all the modes of the title molecule and are compared both with simpler computational approximations and with the recent experiments for the two distinct energy regions that correspond to the combined symmetric and antisymmetric stretching modes and to twisting and scissoring modes, respectively. Our calculations reproduce well the shape and the values of the experimental findings and give useful insights into the microscopic dynamics for molecular excitation processes activated by low-energy positron scattering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bo Zhu
2016-03-01
Full Text Available It has always been a critical issue to understand the material removal behavior of Vibration-Assisted Machining (VAM, especially on atomic level. To find out the effects of vibration frequency on material removal response, a three-dimensional molecular dynamics (MD model has been established in this research to investigate the effects of scratched groove, crystal defects on the surface quality, comparing with the Von Mises shear strain and tangential force in simulations during nano-scratching process. Comparisons are made among the results of simulations from different vibration frequency with the same scratching feed, depth, amplitude and crystal orientation. Copper potential in this simulation is Embedded-Atom Method (EAM potential. Interaction between copper and carbon atoms is Morse potential. Simulational results show that higher frequency can make groove smoother. Simulation with high frequency creates more dislocations to improve the machinability of copper specimen. The changing frequency does not have evident effects on Von Mises shear strain. Higher frequency can decrease the tangential force to reduce the consumption of cutting energy and tool wear. In conclusion, higher vibration frequency in VAM on mono-crystalline copper has positive effects on surface finish, machinablility and tool wear reduction.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhu, Bo; Zhao, Hongwei, E-mail: hwzhao@jlu.edu.cn, E-mail: khl69@163.com; Zhao, Dan; Zhang, Peng; Yang, Yihan; Han, Lei [School of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Jilin University, 5988 Renmin Street, Changchun, Jilin 130025 (China); Kui, Hailin, E-mail: hwzhao@jlu.edu.cn, E-mail: khl69@163.com [School of Transportation, Jilin University, 5988 Renmin Street, Changchun, Jilin 130025 (China)
2016-03-15
It has always been a critical issue to understand the material removal behavior of Vibration-Assisted Machining (VAM), especially on atomic level. To find out the effects of vibration frequency on material removal response, a three-dimensional molecular dynamics (MD) model has been established in this research to investigate the effects of scratched groove, crystal defects on the surface quality, comparing with the Von Mises shear strain and tangential force in simulations during nano-scratching process. Comparisons are made among the results of simulations from different vibration frequency with the same scratching feed, depth, amplitude and crystal orientation. Copper potential in this simulation is Embedded-Atom Method (EAM) potential. Interaction between copper and carbon atoms is Morse potential. Simulational results show that higher frequency can make groove smoother. Simulation with high frequency creates more dislocations to improve the machinability of copper specimen. The changing frequency does not have evident effects on Von Mises shear strain. Higher frequency can decrease the tangential force to reduce the consumption of cutting energy and tool wear. In conclusion, higher vibration frequency in VAM on mono-crystalline copper has positive effects on surface finish, machinablility and tool wear reduction.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rong Bao; Rui Xiaoting; Tao Ling
2012-01-01
In this paper, a dynamic modeling method and an active vibration control scheme for a smart flexible four-bar linkage mechanism featuring piezoelectric actuators and strain gauge sensors are presented. The dynamics of this smart mechanism is described by the Discrete Time Transfer Matrix Method of Multibody System (MS-DTTMM). Then a nonlinear fuzzy neural network control is employed to suppress the vibration of this smart mechanism. For improving the dynamic performance of the fuzzy neural network, a genetic algorithm based on the MS-DTTMM is designed offline to tune the initial parameters of the fuzzy neural network. The MS-DTTMM avoids the global dynamics equations of the system, which results in the matrices involved are always very small, so the computational efficiency of the dynamic analysis and control system optimization can be greatly improved. Formulations of the method as well as a numerical simulation are given to demonstrate the proposed dynamic method and control scheme.
Rong, Bao; Rui, Xiaoting; Lu, Kun; Tao, Ling; Wang, Guoping; Ni, Xiaojun
2018-05-01
In this paper, an efficient method of dynamics modeling and vibration control design of a linear hybrid multibody system (MS) is studied based on the transfer matrix method. The natural vibration characteristics of a linear hybrid MS are solved by using low-order transfer equations. Then, by constructing the brand-new body dynamics equation, augmented operator and augmented eigenvector, the orthogonality of augmented eigenvector of a linear hybrid MS is satisfied, and its state space model expressed in each independent model space is obtained easily. According to this dynamics model, a robust independent modal space-fuzzy controller is designed for vibration control of a general MS, and the genetic optimization of some critical control parameters of fuzzy tuners is also presented. Two illustrative examples are performed, which results show that this method is computationally efficient and with perfect control performance.
Parker, Robert G.; Guo, Yi; Eritenel, Tugan; Ericson, Tristan M.
2012-01-01
Vibration and noise caused by gear dynamics at the meshing teeth propagate through power transmission components to the surrounding environment. This study is devoted to developing computational tools to investigate the vibro-acoustic propagation of gear dynamics through a gearbox using different bearings. Detailed finite element/contact mechanics and boundary element models of the gear/bearing/housing system are established to compute the system vibration and noise propagation. Both vibration and acoustic models are validated by experiments including the vibration modal testing and sound field measurements. The effectiveness of each bearing type to disrupt vibration propagation is speed-dependent. Housing plays an important role in noise radiation .It, however, has limited effects on gear dynamics. Bearings are critical components in drivetrains. Accurate modeling of rolling element bearings is essential to assess vibration and noise of drivetrain systems. This study also seeks to fully describe the vibro-acoustic propagation of gear dynamics through a power-transmission system using rolling element and fluid film wave bearings. Fluid film wave bearings, which have higher damping than rolling element bearings, could offer an energy dissipation mechanism that reduces the gearbox noise. The effectiveness of each bearing type to disrupt vibration propagation in explored using multi-body computational models. These models include gears, shafts, rolling element and fluid film wave bearings, and the housing. Radiated noise is mapped from the gearbox surface to surrounding environment. The effectiveness of rolling element and fluid film wave bearings in breaking the vibro-acoustic propagation path from the gear to the housing is investigated.
Turbine engine rotor blade fault diagnostics through casing pressure and vibration sensors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cox, J; Anusonti-Inthra, P
2014-01-01
In this study, an exact solution is provided for a previously indeterminate equation used for rotor blade fault diagnostics. The method estimates rotor blade natural frequency through turbine engine casing pressure and vibration sensors. The equation requires accurate measurements of low-amplitude sideband signals in the frequency domain. With this in mind, statistical evaluation was also completed with the goal of determining the effect of sampling time and frequency on sideband resolution in the frequency domain
Chouvion, B.; McWilliam, S.; Popov, A. A.
2018-06-01
This paper investigates the dynamic behaviour of capacitive ring-based Coriolis Vibrating Gyroscopes (CVGs) under severe shock conditions. A general analytical model is developed for a multi-supported ring resonator by describing the in-plane ring response as a finite sum of modes of a perfect ring and the electrostatic force as a Taylor series expansion. It is shown that the supports can induce mode coupling and that mode coupling occurs when the shock is severe and the electrostatic forces are nonlinear. The influence of electrostatic nonlinearity is investigated by numerically simulating the governing equations of motion. For the severe shock cases investigated, when the electrode gap reduces by ∼ 60 % , it is found that three ring modes of vibration (1 θ, 2 θ and 3 θ) and a 9th order force expansion are needed to obtain converged results for the global shock behaviour. Numerical results when the 2 θ mode is driven at resonance indicate that electrostatic nonlinearity introduces mode coupling which has potential to reduce sensor performance under operating conditions. Under some circumstances it is also found that severe shocks can cause the vibrating response to jump to another stable state with much lower vibration amplitude. This behaviour is mainly a function of shock amplitude and rigid-body motion damping.
A Case Study of Dynamic Response Analysis and Safety Assessment for a Suspended Monorail System.
Bao, Yulong; Li, Yongle; Ding, Jiajie
2016-11-10
A suspended monorail transit system is a category of urban rail transit, which is effective in alleviating traffic pressure and injury prevention. Meanwhile, with the advantages of low cost and short construction time, suspended monorail transit systems show vast potential for future development. However, the suspended monorail has not been systematically studied in China, and there is a lack of relevant knowledge and analytical methods. To ensure the health and reliability of a suspended monorail transit system, the driving safety of vehicles and structure dynamic behaviors when vehicles are running on the bridge should be analyzed and evaluated. Based on the method of vehicle-bridge coupling vibration theory, the finite element method (FEM) software ANSYS and multi-body dynamics software SIMPACK are adopted respectively to establish the finite element model for bridge and the multi-body vehicle. A co-simulation method is employed to investigate the vehicle-bridge coupling vibration for the transit system. The traffic operation factors, including train formation, track irregularity and tire stiffness, are incorporated into the models separately to analyze the bridge and vehicle responses. The results show that the coupling of dynamic effects of the suspended monorail system between vehicle and bridge are significant in the case studied, and it is strongly suggested to take necessary measures for vibration suppression. The simulation of track irregularity is a critical factor for its vibration safety, and the track irregularity of A-level road roughness negatively influences the system vibration safety.
A Case Study of Dynamic Response Analysis and Safety Assessment for a Suspended Monorail System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yulong Bao
2016-11-01
Full Text Available A suspended monorail transit system is a category of urban rail transit, which is effective in alleviating traffic pressure and injury prevention. Meanwhile, with the advantages of low cost and short construction time, suspended monorail transit systems show vast potential for future development. However, the suspended monorail has not been systematically studied in China, and there is a lack of relevant knowledge and analytical methods. To ensure the health and reliability of a suspended monorail transit system, the driving safety of vehicles and structure dynamic behaviors when vehicles are running on the bridge should be analyzed and evaluated. Based on the method of vehicle-bridge coupling vibration theory, the finite element method (FEM software ANSYS and multi-body dynamics software SIMPACK are adopted respectively to establish the finite element model for bridge and the multi-body vehicle. A co-simulation method is employed to investigate the vehicle-bridge coupling vibration for the transit system. The traffic operation factors, including train formation, track irregularity and tire stiffness, are incorporated into the models separately to analyze the bridge and vehicle responses. The results show that the coupling of dynamic effects of the suspended monorail system between vehicle and bridge are significant in the case studied, and it is strongly suggested to take necessary measures for vibration suppression. The simulation of track irregularity is a critical factor for its vibration safety, and the track irregularity of A-level road roughness negatively influences the system vibration safety.
Hazell, Tom J; Kenno, Kenji A; Jakobi, Jennifer M
2010-07-01
The purpose of this investigation was to examine if the addition of a light external load would enhance whole-body vibration (WBV)-induced increases in muscle activity during dynamic squatting in 4 leg muscles. Thirteen recreationally active male university students performed a series of dynamic squats (unloaded with no WBV, unloaded with WBV, loaded with no WBV, and loaded with WBV). The load was set to 30% of body mass and WBV included 25-, 35-, and 45-Hz frequencies with 4-mm amplitude. Muscle activity was recorded with surface electromyography (EMG) on the vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), and gastrocnemius (GC) and is reported as EMGrms (root mean square) normalized to %maximal voluntary exertion. During unloaded dynamic squats, exposure to WBV (45 Hz) significantly (p squat exercise in all muscles but decreased the TA. This loaded level of muscle activity was further increased with WBV (45 Hz) in all muscles. The WBV-induced increases in muscle activity in the loaded condition (approximately 3.5%) were of a similar magnitude to the WBV-induced increases during the unloaded condition (approximately 2.5%) demonstrating the addition of WBV to unloaded or loaded dynamic squatting results in an increase in muscle activity. These results demonstrate the potential effectiveness of using external loads with exposure to WBV.
An experimental investigation of composite floor vibration due to human activities. A case study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yasser G. Mohamed Fahmy
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Composite steel floor decks are used in a large variety of constructions with long spans, such as administration and commercial buildings, hotels and bridges. Due to decreased floor mass and longer span lengths, floor vibrations have become an area of concern. Floor decks with low frequencies may be in resonance with the vibrations due to human activities and the resulting acceleration may exceed human comfort levels. The design of slender floor structures, with steel or composite cross sections, is often limited by the serviceability criteria such as deflection limits and vibration behavior, rather than the strength criteria. Control of deflections under AISC specifications requirement is not enough to satisfy the serviceability requirements of the floor systems for vibration. In addition, vibration analysis procedures introduced by AISC design Guide No. 11 are based on regularly-shaped structures and simple boundary conditions. In this paper, a case study for full scale testing of a composite floor system proposed for a tower at Kuwait state that was tested prior to construction. The heel-drop and walking tests are performed on floor systems with and without raised floor respectively. Since heel-drop and walking test results would vary in light of person performance, both tests are carried out three or four times to reduce uncertainty. The fundamental frequencies and damping ratio of the floor system are measured. Comparison of the experimental results with results based on the AISC hand calculations shows that there is no significant difference; therefore the results based on AISC are generally acceptable.
Li, Yingmin; Wang, Jiaxi; Clark, Melissa L.; Kubiak, Clifford P.; Xiong, Wei
2016-04-01
We report the first fourth-order 3D SFG spectroscopy of a monolayer of the catalyst Re(diCN-bpy)(CO)3Cl on a gold surface. Besides measuring the vibrational coherences of single vibrational modes, the fourth-order 3D SFG spectrum also measures the dynamics of interstate coherences and vibrational coherences states between two vibrational modes. By comparing the 3D SFG to the corresponding 2D and third-order 3D IR spectroscopy of the same molecules in solution, we found that the interstate coherences exist in both liquid and surface systems, suggesting that the interstate coherence is not disrupted by surface interactions. However, by analyzing the 3D spectral lineshape, we found that the interstate coherences also experience non-negligible homogenous dephasing dynamics that originate from surface interactions. This unique ability of determining interstate vibrational coherence dynamics of the molecular monolayer can help in understanding of how energy flows within surface catalysts and other molecular monolayers.
Vibrational excitation from heterogeneous catalysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Purvis, G.D. III; Redmon, M.J.; Woken, G. Jr.
1979-01-01
Classical trajectories have been used by numerous researchers to investigate the dynamics of exothermic chemical reactions (atom + diatom) with a view toward understanding what leads to vibrational excitation of the product molecule. Unlike these studies, the case where the reaction is catalyzed by a solid surface is considered. The trajectory studies indicate that there should be conditions under which considerable vibrational energy appears in the product molecules without being lost to the solid during the course of the reaction. 2 figures, 3 tables
Dynamics of Transition Regime in Bi-stable Vibration Energy Harvesters
Ibrahim, Alwathiqbellah
2017-04-20
Vibration energy harvesting can be an effective method for scavenging wasted mechanical energy for use by wireless sensors that have limited battery life. Two major goals in designing energy harvesters are enhancing the power scavenged at low frequency and improving efficiency by increasing the frequency bandwidth. To achieve these goals, we derived a magneto-elastic beam operated at the transition between mono- and bi-stable regions. By improving the mathematical model of the interaction of magnetic force and beam dynamics, we obtained a precise prediction of natural frequencies as the distance of magnets varies. Using the shooting technique for the improved model, we present a fundamental understanding of interesting combined softening and hardening responses that happen at the transition between the two regimes. The transition regime is proposed as the optimal region for energy conversion in terms of frequency bandwidth and output voltage. Using this technique, low frequency vibration energy harvesting at around 17 Hz was possible. The theoretical results were in good agreement with the experimental results. The target application is to power wildlife bio-logging devices from bird flights that have consistent high power density around 16 Hz [1].
On the Free Vibration Modeling of Spindle Systems: A Calibrated Dynamic Stiffness Matrix
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Omar Gaber
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The effect of bearings on the vibrational behavior of machine tool spindles is investigated. This is done through the development of a calibrated dynamic stiffness matrix (CDSM method, where the bearings flexibility is represented by massless linear spring elements with tuneable stiffness. A dedicated MATLAB code is written to develop and to assemble the element stiffness matrices for the system’s multiple components and to apply the boundary conditions. The developed method is applied to an illustrative example of spindle system. When the spindle bearings are modeled as simply supported boundary conditions, the DSM model results in a fundamental frequency much higher than the system’s nominal value. The simply supported boundary conditions are then replaced by linear spring elements, and the spring constants are adjusted such that the resulting calibrated CDSM model leads to the nominal fundamental frequency of the spindle system. The spindle frequency results are also validated against the experimental data. The proposed method can be effectively applied to predict the vibration characteristics of spindle systems supported by bearings.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jeffrey D. Poston
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Counting the number of occupants in building areas over time—occupancy tracking—provides valuable information for responding to emergencies, optimizing thermal conditions or managing personnel. This capability is distinct from tracking individual building occupants as they move within a building, has lower complexity than conventional tracking algorithms require, and avoids privacy concerns that tracking individuals may pose. The approach proposed here is a novel combination of data analytics applied to measurements from a building’s structural dynamics sensors (e.g., accelerometers or geophones. Specifically, measurements of footstep-generated structural waves provide evidence of occupancy in a building area. These footstep vibrations can be distinguished from other vibrations, and, once identified, the footsteps can be located. These locations, in turn, form the starting point of estimating occupancy in an area. In order to provide a meaningful occupancy count, however, it is first necessary to associate discrete footsteps with individuals. The proposed framework incorporates a tractable algorithm for this association task. The proposed algorithms operate online, updating occupancy count over time as new footsteps are detected. Experiments with measurements from a public building illustrate the operation of the proposed framework. This approach offers an advantage over others based on conventional technologies by avoiding the cost of a separate sensor system devoted to occupancy tracking.
Dynamics of Transition Regime in Bi-stable Vibration Energy Harvesters
Ibrahim, Alwathiqbellah; Towfighian, Shahrzad; Younis, Mohammad I.
2017-01-01
Vibration energy harvesting can be an effective method for scavenging wasted mechanical energy for use by wireless sensors that have limited battery life. Two major goals in designing energy harvesters are enhancing the power scavenged at low frequency and improving efficiency by increasing the frequency bandwidth. To achieve these goals, we derived a magneto-elastic beam operated at the transition between mono- and bi-stable regions. By improving the mathematical model of the interaction of magnetic force and beam dynamics, we obtained a precise prediction of natural frequencies as the distance of magnets varies. Using the shooting technique for the improved model, we present a fundamental understanding of interesting combined softening and hardening responses that happen at the transition between the two regimes. The transition regime is proposed as the optimal region for energy conversion in terms of frequency bandwidth and output voltage. Using this technique, low frequency vibration energy harvesting at around 17 Hz was possible. The theoretical results were in good agreement with the experimental results. The target application is to power wildlife bio-logging devices from bird flights that have consistent high power density around 16 Hz [1].
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morini, Filippo; Deleuze, Michael S.; Watanabe, Noboru; Takahashi, Masahiko
2015-01-01
The influence of thermally induced nuclear dynamics (molecular vibrations) in the initial electronic ground state on the valence orbital momentum profiles of furan has been theoretically investigated using two different approaches. The first of these approaches employs the principles of Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, whereas the so-called harmonic analytical quantum mechanical approach resorts to an analytical decomposition of contributions arising from quantized harmonic vibrational eigenstates. In spite of their intrinsic differences, the two approaches enable consistent insights into the electron momentum distributions inferred from new measurements employing electron momentum spectroscopy and an electron impact energy of 1.2 keV. Both approaches point out in particular an appreciable influence of a few specific molecular vibrations of A 1 symmetry on the 9a 1 momentum profile, which can be unravelled from considerations on the symmetry characteristics of orbitals and their energy spacing
Optimum Design of a Nonlinear Vibration Absorber Coupled to a Resonant Oscillator: A Case Study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. F. Abundis-Fong
2018-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the optimal design of a passive autoparametric cantilever beam vibration absorber for a linear mass-spring-damper system subject to harmonic external force. The design of the autoparametric vibration absorber is obtained by using an approximation of the nonlinear frequency response function, computed via the multiple scales method. Based on the solution given by the perturbation method mentioned above, a static optimization problem is formulated in order to determine the optimum parameters (mass and length of the nonlinear absorber which minimizes the steady state amplitude of the primary mass under resonant conditions; then, a PZT actuator is cemented to the base of the beam, so the nonlinear absorber is made active, thus enabling the possibility of controlling the effective stiffness associated with the passive absorber and, as a consequence, the implementation of an active vibration control scheme able to preserve, as possible, the autoparametric interaction as well as to compensate varying excitation frequencies and parametric uncertainty. Finally, some simulations and experimental results are included to validate and illustrate the dynamic performance of the overall system.
Application of Local Vibrations in Delayed and Non-Union Fractures: a Case Study
Trombetta, Chiara; Abundo, Paolo; Foti, Calogero; Rosato, Nicola
2011-02-01
The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of local vibration treatments (LV) in delayed-union and non-union fractures, through therapeutic exercise vibration (TEV) practice, analysing the radiological trend. The Medical Engineering Service of the Fondazione Policlinico Tor Vergata in collaboration with the Chair-Department of Rehabilitation Medicine of the University of Rome Tor Vergata and the Boscosystem company, is developing a device dedicated to LV application, to favour bone regeneration and muscle strengthening. This case report analyses the bone activity of a male patient presenting a right tibial fracture, treated with TEV. At the end of the TEV program, clinical results confirmed independent ambulation with disappearance of perimalleolar edema, while radiographic images revealed the presence of bone repair activity around the fracture line.
Application of Local Vibrations in Delayed and Non-Union Fractures: a Case Study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trombetta, Chiara; Abundo, Paolo; Foti, Calogero; Rosato, Nicola
2011-01-01
The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of local vibration treatments (LV) in delayed-union and non-union fractures, through therapeutic exercise vibration (TEV) practice, analysing the radiological trend. The Medical Engineering Service of the Fondazione Policlinico Tor Vergata in collaboration with the Chair-Department of Rehabilitation Medicine of the University of Rome Tor Vergata and the Boscosystem company, is developing a device dedicated to LV application, to favour bone regeneration and muscle strengthening. This case report analyses the bone activity of a male patient presenting a right tibial fracture, treated with TEV. At the end of the TEV program, clinical results confirmed independent ambulation with disappearance of perimalleolar edema, while radiographic images revealed the presence of bone repair activity around the fracture line.
Integrated vibration-based maintenance: an approach for continuous reduction in LCC. A case study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Najjar, B. [ER Konsult Utveckling AB, Vaexjoe (Sweden)
1998-12-31
The biggest thread in achieving and maintaining high equipment effectiveness can be stated as: whether the improved manufacturing processes capable of producing quality products at a competitive cost. The effect of a new vibration-based maintenance concept, called Total Quality Maintenance (TQMain), is introduced. It aims to make intensive use of the real-time data acquisition and analysis to detect causes behind product quality deviation and failures in machinery, and following defect development at an early stage to increase machine mean effective life and improve company`s economics. The effect of TQMain on LCC of machinery and company`s economics is discussed. A case study to reveal savings in maintenance cost when a vibration-based policy involved, is presented. Using TQMain, company`s economics can be improved effectively through continuous improvement of the technical and economic effectiveness of production processes. (orig.) 14 refs.
Integrated vibration-based maintenance: an approach for continuous reduction in LCC. A case study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Najjar, B [ER Konsult Utveckling AB, Vaexjoe (Sweden)
1999-12-31
The biggest thread in achieving and maintaining high equipment effectiveness can be stated as: whether the improved manufacturing processes capable of producing quality products at a competitive cost. The effect of a new vibration-based maintenance concept, called Total Quality Maintenance (TQMain), is introduced. It aims to make intensive use of the real-time data acquisition and analysis to detect causes behind product quality deviation and failures in machinery, and following defect development at an early stage to increase machine mean effective life and improve company`s economics. The effect of TQMain on LCC of machinery and company`s economics is discussed. A case study to reveal savings in maintenance cost when a vibration-based policy involved, is presented. Using TQMain, company`s economics can be improved effectively through continuous improvement of the technical and economic effectiveness of production processes. (orig.) 14 refs.
Yang, HongJiang; Wang, Enliang; Dong, WenXiu; Gong, Maomao; Shen, Zhenjie; Tang, Yaguo; Shan, Xu; Chen, Xiangjun
2018-05-01
The a b i n i t i o molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using an atom-centered density matrix propagation method have been carried out to investigate the fragmentation of the ground-state triply charged carbon dioxide, CO23 +→C+ + Oa+ + Ob+ . Ten thousands of trajectories have been simulated. By analyzing the momentum correlation of the final fragments, it is demonstrated that the sequential fragmentation dominates in the three-body dissociation, consistent with our experimental observations which were performed by electron collision at impact energy of 1500 eV. Furthermore, the MD simulations allow us to have detailed insight into the ultrafast evolution of the molecular bond breakage at a very early stage, within several tens of femtoseconds, and the result shows that the initial nuclear vibrational mode plays a decisive role in switching the dissociation pathways.
Dynamic Properties of the Painter Street Overpass at Different Levels of Vibration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ventura, C. E.; Brincker, Rune; Andersen, P.
2005-01-01
This paper describes the results from a series of ambient vibration studies conducted on the Painter Street Overpass in Rio Dell, California. Painter Street is a two-span, skewed reinforced concrete bridge with two single piers near the middle and monolithic abutments, typical of bridge overpasses...... from analyses of selected strong motion records. The magnitude of the events investigated ranges from ML=4.4 to ML=6.9, which produced accelerations of up to 0.54g at the free field site, 1.3g at the abutments, and 0.86g on the deck. The results of this study indicate that the overall dynamic...... properties of the bridge are very sensitive to the level of ground shaking and that soil-structure interaction is very important for this type structural system. Although the superstructure exhibited a nearly elastic response, the motions at the abutments and base of piers were significantly different...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lianchao Sheng
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Due to the complexity of the dynamic model of a planar 3-RRR flexible parallel manipulator (FPM, it is often difficult to achieve active vibration control algorithm based on the system dynamic model. To establish a simple and efficient dynamic model of the planar 3-RRR FPM to study its dynamic characteristics and build a controller conveniently, firstly, considering the effect of rigid-flexible coupling and the moment of inertia at the end of the flexible intermediate link, the modal function is determined with the pinned-free boundary condition. Then, considering the main vibration modes of the system, a high-efficiency coupling dynamic model is established on the basis of guaranteeing the model control accuracy. According to the model, the modal characteristics of the flexible intermediate link are analyzed and compared with the modal test results. The results show that the model can effectively reflect the main vibration modes of the planar 3-RRR FPM; in addition the model can be used to analyze the effects of inertial and coupling forces on the dynamics model and the drive torque of the drive motor. Because this model is of the less dynamic parameters, it is convenient to carry out the control program.
Liang, Feng; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Wei; Qian, Ying-Jing
2018-03-01
In this paper, a dynamical model of simply-supported spinning pipes conveying fluid with axial deployment is proposed and the transverse free vibration and stability for such a doubly gyroscopic system involving time-dependent parameters are investigated. The partial differential equations of motion are derived by the extended Hamilton principle and then truncated by the Galerkin technique. The time-variant frequencies, mode shapes and responses to initial conditions are comprehensively investigated to reveal the dynamical essence of the system. It is indicated that the qualitative stability evolution of the system mainly depends on the effect of fluid-structure interaction (FSI), while the spinning motion will enhance the pipe rigidity and eliminate the buckling instability. The dynamical evolution of a retracting pipe is almost inverse to that of the deploying one. The pipe possesses different mode configurations of spatial curves as the pipe length increases and some modal and response characteristics of the present system are found rather distinct from those of deploying cantilevered structures.
Ohto, Tatsuhiko; Hunger, Johannes; Backus, Ellen H G; Mizukami, Wataru; Bonn, Mischa; Nagata, Yuki
2017-03-08
The osmolyte molecule trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) stabilizes the structure of proteins. As functional proteins are generally found in aqueous solutions, an important aspect of this stabilization is the interaction of TMAO with water. Here, we review, using vibrational spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations, recent studies on the structure and dynamics of TMAO with its surrounding water molecules. This article ends with an outlook on the open questions on TMAO-protein and TMAO-urea interactions in aqueous environments.
Dynamic Analysis of an Office Building due to Vibration from Road Construction Activities
Chik, T. N. T.; Kamil, M. R. H.; Yusoff, N. A.; Ibrahim, M. H. W.
2018-04-01
Construction activities are widely known as one of the predominant sources of man-made vibrations that able to create nuisance towards any adjacent building, and this includes the road construction operations. Few studies conclude the construction-induced vibration may be harmful directly and indirectly towards the neighbouring building. This lead to the awareness of study the building vibration response of concrete masonry load bearing system and its vibrational performance towards the road construction activities. This study will simulate multi-storey office building of Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan (SMK) Bandar Enstek at Negeri Sembilan by using finite element vibration analyses. The excitation of transient loads from ground borne vibrations which triggered by the road construction activities are modelled into the building. The vibration response was recorded during in-situ ambient vibration test by using Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV), which specifically performed on four different locations. The finite element simulation process was developed in the commercial FEA software ABAQUS. Then, the experimental data was processed and evaluated in MATLAB ModalV to assess the vibration criteria of the floor in building. As a result, the vibration level of floor in building is fall under VC-E curve which was under the maximum permissible level for office building (VC-ISO). The vibration level on floor is acceptable within the limit that have been referred.
Contributions to the Study of Dynamic Absorbers, a Case Study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Monica Balcau
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Dynamic absorbers are used to reduce torsional vibrations. This paper studies the effect of a dynamic absorber attached to a mechanical system formed of three reduced masses which are acted on by one, two or three order x harmonics of a disruptive force.
Aircraft gas turbine engine vibration diagnostics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stanislav Fábry
2017-11-01
Full Text Available In the Czech and Slovak aviation are in service elderly aircrafts, usually produced in former Soviet Union. Their power units can be operated in more efficient way, in case of using additional diagnostic methods that allow evaluating their health. Vibration diagnostics is one of the methods indicating changes of rotational machine dynamics. Ground tests of aircraft gas turbine engines allow vibration recording and analysis. Results contribute to airworthiness evaluation and making corrections, if needed. Vibration sensors distribution, signal recording and processing are introduced in a paper. Recorded and re-calculated vibration parameters are used in role of health indicators.
Shen, Tonghao; Su, Neil Qiang; Wu, Anan; Xu, Xin
2014-03-05
In this work, we first review the perturbative treatment of an oscillator with cubic anharmonicity. It is shown that there is a quantum-classical correspondence in terms of mean displacement, mean-squared displacement, and the corresponding variance in the first-order perturbation theory, provided that the amplitude of the classical oscillator is fixed at the zeroth-order energy of quantum mechanics EQM (0). This correspondence condition is realized by proposing the extended Langevin dynamics (XLD), where the key is to construct a proper driving force. It is assumed that the driving force adopts a simple harmonic form with its amplitude chosen according to EQM (0), while the driving frequency chosen as the harmonic frequency. The latter can be improved by using the natural frequency of the system in response to the potential if its anharmonicity is strong. By comparing to the accurate numeric results from discrete variable representation calculations for a set of diatomic species, it is shown that the present method is able to capture the large part of anharmonicity, being competitive with the wave function-based vibrational second-order perturbation theory, for the whole frequency range from ∼4400 cm(-1) (H2 ) to ∼160 cm(-1) (Na2 ). XLD shows a substantial improvement over the classical molecular dynamics which ceases to work for hard mode when zero-point energy effects are significant. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Vibrational properties of the amide group in acetanilide: A molecular-dynamics study
Campa, Alessandro; Giansanti, Andrea; Tenenbaum, Alexander
1987-09-01
A simplified classical model of acetanilide crystal is built in order to study the mechanisms of vibrational energy transduction in a hydrogen-bonded solid. The intermolecular hydrogen bond is modeled by an electrostatic interaction between neighboring excess charges on hydrogen and oxygen atoms. The intramolecular interaction in the peptide group is provided by a dipole-charge interaction. Forces are calculated up to second-order terms in the atomic displacements from equilibrium positions; the model is thus a chain of nonlinear coupled oscillators. Numerical molecular-dynamics experiments are performed on chain segments of five molecules. The dynamics is ordered, at all temperatures. Energy is widely exchanged between the stretching and the bending of the N-H bond, with characteristic times of the order of 0.2 ps. Energy transduction through the H bond is somewhat slower and of smaller amplitude, and is strongly reduced when the energies of the two bound molecules are very different: This could reduce the dissipation of localized energy fluctuations.
A Case with Systemic Sclerosis Following Exposure To Silica and Vibration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aslı Ürkmez
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis is an autoimmune disease characterized by inflammatory, vascular and sclerotic changes in the internal organs. Although the etiology is not known with certainty; silica dust, which is one of the environmental risk factors, can lead to scleroderma by some immunological changes. In this case, a mine worker, who worked in a mercury mine during a 15-year period, developed systemic sclerosis due to exposure to chronic silica and vibration, is presented. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 45-7
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. F. Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Support looseness fault is a type of common fault in aeroengine. Serious looseness fault would emerge under larger unbalanced force, which would cause excessive vibration and even lead to rubbing fault, so it is important to analyze and recognize looseness fault effectively. In this paper, based on certain type turbofan engine structural features, a rotor-support-casing whole model for certain type turbofan aeroengine is established. The rotor and casing systems are modeled by means of the finite element beam method; the support systems are modeled by lumped-mass model; the support looseness fault model is also introduced. The coupled system response is obtained by numerical integral method. In this paper, based on the casing acceleration signals, the impact characteristics of symmetrical stiffness and asymmetric stiffness models are analyzed, finding that the looseness fault would lead to the longitudinal asymmetrical characteristics of acceleration time domain wave and the multiple frequency characteristics, which is consistent with the real trial running vibration signals. Asymmetric stiffness looseness model is verified to be fit for aeroengine looseness fault model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fry-Petit, A. M.; Sheckelton, J. P.; McQueen, T. M.; Rebola, A. F.; Fennie, C. J.; Mourigal, M.; Valentine, M.; Drichko, N.
2015-01-01
For over a century, vibrational spectroscopy has enhanced the study of materials. Yet, assignment of particular molecular motions to vibrational excitations has relied on indirect methods. Here, we demonstrate that applying group theoretical methods to the dynamic pair distribution function analysis of neutron scattering data provides direct access to the individual atomic displacements responsible for these excitations. Applied to the molecule-based frustrated magnet with a potential magnetic valence-bond state, LiZn 2 Mo 3 O 8 , this approach allows direct assignment of the constrained rotational mode of Mo 3 O 13 clusters and internal modes of MoO 6 polyhedra. We anticipate that coupling this well known data analysis technique with dynamic pair distribution function analysis will have broad application in connecting structural dynamics to physical properties in a wide range of molecular and solid state systems
Padula, Daniele; Lee, Myeong H; Claridge, Kirsten; Troisi, Alessandro
2017-11-02
In this paper, we adopt an approach suitable for monitoring the time evolution of the intramolecular contribution to the spectral density of a set of identical chromophores embedded in their respective environments. We apply the proposed method to the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex, with the objective to quantify the differences among site-dependent spectral densities and the impact of such differences on the exciton dynamics of the system. Our approach takes advantage of the vertical gradient approximation to reduce the computational demands of the normal modes analysis. We show that the region of the spectral density that is believed to strongly influence the exciton dynamics changes significantly in the timescale of tens of nanoseconds. We then studied the impact of the intramolecular vibrations on the exciton dynamics by considering a model of FMO in a vibronic basis and neglecting the interaction with the environment to isolate the role of the intramolecular exciton-vibration coupling. In agreement with the assumptions in the literature, we demonstrate that high frequency modes at energy much larger than the excitonic energy splitting have negligible influence on exciton dynamics despite the large exciton-vibration coupling. We also find that the impact of including the site-dependent spectral densities on exciton dynamics is not very significant, indicating that it may be acceptable to apply the same spectral density on all sites. However, care needs to be taken for the description of the exciton-vibrational coupling in the low frequency part of intramolecular modes because exciton dynamics is more susceptible to low frequency modes despite their small Huang-Rhys factors.
Adaptive Piezoelectric Absorber for Active Vibration Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sven Herold
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Passive vibration control solutions are often limited to working reliably at one design point. Especially applied to lightweight structures, which tend to have unwanted vibration, active vibration control approaches can outperform passive solutions. To generate dynamic forces in a narrow frequency band, passive single-degree-of-freedom oscillators are frequently used as vibration absorbers and neutralizers. In order to respond to changes in system properties and/or the frequency of excitation forces, in this work, adaptive vibration compensation by a tunable piezoelectric vibration absorber is investigated. A special design containing piezoelectric stack actuators is used to cover a large tuning range for the natural frequency of the adaptive vibration absorber, while also the utilization as an active dynamic inertial mass actuator for active control concepts is possible, which can help to implement a broadband vibration control system. An analytical model is set up to derive general design rules for the system. An absorber prototype is set up and validated experimentally for both use cases of an adaptive vibration absorber and inertial mass actuator. Finally, the adaptive vibration control system is installed and tested with a basic truss structure in the laboratory, using both the possibility to adjust the properties of the absorber and active control.
Theory of vibration protection
Karnovsky, Igor A
2016-01-01
This text is an advancement of the theory of vibration protection of mechanical systems with lumped and distributed parameters. The book offers various concepts and methods of solving vibration protection problems, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different methods, and the fields of their effective applications. Fundamental approaches of vibration protection, which are considered in this book, are the passive, parametric and optimal active vibration protection. The passive vibration protection is based on vibration isolation, vibration damping and dynamic absorbers. Parametric vibration protection theory is based on the Shchipanov-Luzin invariance principle. Optimal active vibration protection theory is based on the Pontryagin principle and the Krein moment method. The book also contains special topics such as suppression of vibrations at the source of their occurrence and the harmful influence of vibrations on humans. Numerous examples, which illustrate the theoretical ideas of each chapter, ar...
Improving hand sensibility in vibration induced neuropathy: A case-series
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lundborg Göran
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives We report a long-term series of nine workers suffering from vibration-induced neuropathy, after many years of exposure to hand-held vibrating tools at high or low frequency. They were treated with temporary selective cutaneous anaesthesia (EMLA® cream of the forearm repeatedly for a period up to one year (in two cases four years. The aim was to improve their capacity to perceive touch and thereby improve hand function and diminish disability. The treatment principle is based on current concepts of brain plasticity, where a deafferentation of a skin area results in improved sensory function in adjacent skin areas. Methods All participants had sensory hand problems in terms of numbness (median touch thresholds > 70 mg and impaired hand function influencing ADL (mean DASH score 22. After an initial identical self-administered treatment period of 8 weeks (12-15 treatments with increasing intervals they did one treatment every 2-3 month. Results After one year sensibility (touch thresholds and tactile discrimination as well as hand function (mean DASH score 13 were improved in a majority of the cases. Seven of the participants choose to continue the treatment after the first year and two of them have continued at a regular basis for up to four years. A surprising, secondary finding was diminishing nocturnal numbness of the hand and arm in eight of the nine subjects from "frequently" to "hardly ever or never". Conclusions Our observations open new perspectives for treatment of impaired sensibility and hand function in a group of patients with vibration induced hand problems where we have no treatment to offer today.
Carrier dynamics and surface vibration-assisted Auger recombination in porous silicon
Zakar, Ammar; Wu, Rihan; Chekulaev, Dimitri; Zerova, Vera; He, Wei; Canham, Leigh; Kaplan, Andrey
2018-04-01
Excitation and recombination dynamics of the photoexcited charge carriers in porous silicon membranes were studied using a femtosecond pump-probe technique. Near-infrared pulses (800 nm, 60 fs) were used for the pump while, for the probe, we employed different wavelengths in the range between 3.4 and 5 μ m covering the medium wavelength infrared range. The data acquired in these experiments consist of simultaneous measurements of the transmittance and reflectance as a function of the delay time between the pump and probe for different pump fluences and probe wavelengths. To evaluate the results, we developed an optical model based on the two-dimensional Maxwell-Garnett formula, incorporating the free-carrier Drude contribution and nonuniformity of the excitation by the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin model. This model allowed the retrieval of information about the carrier density as a function of the pump fluence, time, and wavelength. The carrier density data were analyzed to reveal that the recombination dynamics is governed by Shockley-Read-Hall and Auger processes, whereas the diffusion has an insignificant contribution. We show that, in porous silicon samples, the Auger recombination process is greatly enhanced at the wavelength corresponding to the infrared-active vibrational modes of the molecular impurities on the surface of the pores. This observation of surface-vibration-assisted Auger recombination is not only for porous silicon in particular, but for low-dimension and bulk semiconductors in general. We estimate the time constants of Shockley-Read-Hall and Auger processes, and demonstrate their wavelength dependence for the excited carrier density in the range of 1018-10191 /cm3 . We demonstrate that both processes are enhanced by up to three orders of magnitude with respect to the bulk counterpart. In addition, we provide a plethora of the physical parameters evaluated from the experimental data, such as the dielectric function and its dependence on the
Dynamic analysis and vibration testing of CFRP drive-line system used in heavy-duty machine tool
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mo Yang
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Low critical rotary speed and large vibration in the metal drive-line system of heavy-duty machine tool affect the machining precision seriously. Replacing metal drive-line with the CFRP drive-line can effectively solve this problem. Based on the composite laminated theory and the transfer matrix method (TMM, this paper puts forward a modified TMM to analyze dynamic characteristics of CFRP drive-line system. With this modified TMM, the CFRP drive-line of a heavy vertical miller is analyzed. And the finite element modal analysis model of the shafting is established. The results of the modified TMM and finite element analysis (FEA show that the modified TMM can effectively predict the critical rotary speed of CFRP drive-line. And the critical rotary speed of CFRP drive-line is 20% higher than that of the original metal drive-line. Then, the vibration of the CFRP and the metal drive-line were tested. The test results show that application of the CFRP drive shaft in the drive-line can effectively reduce the vibration of the heavy-duty machine tool. Keywords: CFRP drive-line system, Dynamic behavior, Transfer matrix, Vibration measurement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xijun Liu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The nonlinear dynamic behavior of rain-wind-induced vibration of inclined cable is investigated with the consideration of the equilibrium position of the moving rivulet. The partial differential governing equations of three-degree-of-freedom on the model of rain-wind-induced cable vibration are established, which are proposed for describing the nonlinear interactions among the in-plane, out-of-plane vibration of the cable and the oscillation of the moving rivulet. The Galerkin method is applied to discretize the partial differential governing equations. The approximately analytic solution is obtained by using the method of averaging. The unique correspondence between the wind and the equilibrium position of the rivulet is ascertained. The presence of rivulet at certain positions on the surface of cable is then proved to be one of the trigger for wind-rain-induced cable vibration. The nonlinear dynamic phenomena of the inclined cable subjected to wind and rain turbulence are then studied by varying the parameters including mean wind velocity, Coulomb damping force, damping ratio, the span length, and the initial tension of the inclined cable on the model. The jump phenomenon is also observed which occurs when there are multiple solutions in the system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zili Zhang
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Lateral tower vibrations of offshore wind turbines are normally lightly damped, and large amplitude vibrations induced by wind and wave loads in this direction may significantly shorten the fatigue life of the tower. This paper proposes the modeling and control of lateral tower vibrations in offshore wind turbines using active generator torque. To implement the active control algorithm, both the mechanical and power electronic aspects have been taken into consideration. A 13-degrees-of-freedom aeroelastic wind turbine model with generator and pitch controllers is derived using the Euler–Lagrangian approach. The model displays important features of wind turbines, such as mixed moving frame and fixed frame-defined degrees-of-freedom, couplings of the tower-blade-drivetrain vibrations, as well as aerodynamic damping present in different modes of motions. The load transfer mechanisms from the drivetrain and the generator to the nacelle are derived, and the interaction between the generator torque and the lateral tower vibration are presented in a generalized manner. A three-dimensional rotational sampled turbulence field is generated and applied to the rotor, and the tower is excited by a first order wave load in the lateral direction. Next, a simple active control algorithm is proposed based on active generator torques with feedback from the measured lateral tower vibrations. A full-scale power converter configuration with a cascaded loop control structure is also introduced to produce the feedback control torque in real time. Numerical simulations have been carried out using data calibrated to the referential 5-MW NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory offshore wind turbine. Cases of drivetrains with a gearbox and direct drive to the generator are considered using the same time series for the wave and turbulence loadings. Results show that by using active generator torque control, lateral tower vibrations can be significantly mitigated for
Designing a hand rest tremor dynamic vibration absorber using H{sub 2} optimization method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rahnavard, Mostafa; Dizaji, Ahmad F. [Tehran University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, Mojtaba [Amirkabir University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faramand, Farzam [Sharif University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2014-05-15
An optimal single DOF dynamic absorber is presented. A tremor has a random nature and then the system is subjected to a random excitation instead of a sinusoidal one; so the H{sub 2} optimization criterion is probably more desirable than the popular H{sub ∞} optimization method and was implemented in this research. The objective of H{sub 2} optimization criterion is to reduce the total vibration energy of the system for overall frequencies. An objective function, considering the elbow joint angle, θ {sub 2}, tremor suppression as the main goal, was selected. The optimization was done by minimization of this objective function. The optimal system, including the absorber, performance was analyzed in both time and frequency domains. Implementing the optimal absorber, the frequency response amplitude of θ{sub 2} was reduced by more than 98% and 80% at the first and second natural frequencies of the primary system, respectively. A reduction of more than 94% and 78%, was observed for the shoulder joint angle, θ{sub 1}. The objective function also decreased by more than 46%. Then, two types of random inputs were considered. For the first type, θ{sub 1} and θ {sub 2} revealed 60% and 39% reduction in their rms values, whereas for the second type, 33% and 50% decrease was observed.
Designing a hand rest tremor dynamic vibration absorber using H2 optimization method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rahnavard, Mostafa; Dizaji, Ahmad F.; Hashemi, Mojtaba; Faramand, Farzam
2014-01-01
An optimal single DOF dynamic absorber is presented. A tremor has a random nature and then the system is subjected to a random excitation instead of a sinusoidal one; so the H 2 optimization criterion is probably more desirable than the popular H ∞ optimization method and was implemented in this research. The objective of H 2 optimization criterion is to reduce the total vibration energy of the system for overall frequencies. An objective function, considering the elbow joint angle, θ 2 , tremor suppression as the main goal, was selected. The optimization was done by minimization of this objective function. The optimal system, including the absorber, performance was analyzed in both time and frequency domains. Implementing the optimal absorber, the frequency response amplitude of θ 2 was reduced by more than 98% and 80% at the first and second natural frequencies of the primary system, respectively. A reduction of more than 94% and 78%, was observed for the shoulder joint angle, θ 1 . The objective function also decreased by more than 46%. Then, two types of random inputs were considered. For the first type, θ 1 and θ 2 revealed 60% and 39% reduction in their rms values, whereas for the second type, 33% and 50% decrease was observed.
Dynamic Characteristics of Flow Induced Vibration in a Rotor-Seal System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nan Zhang
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Flow induced vibration is an important factor affecting the performance of the rotor-seal system. From the point of view of flow induced vibration, the nonlinear models of the rotor-seal system are presented for the analysis of the fluid force, which is induced by the interaction between the unstable fluid flow in the seal and the vibrating rotor. The nonlinear characteristics of flow induced vibration in the rotor-seal system are analyzed, and the nonlinear phenomena in the unbalanced rotor-seal system are investigated using the nonlinear models. Various nonlinear phenomena of flow induced vibration in the rotor-seal system, such as synchronization phenomenon and amplitude mutation, are reproduced.
Tubino, Federica
2018-03-01
The effect of human-structure interaction in the vertical direction for footbridges is studied based on a probabilistic approach. The bridge is modeled as a continuous dynamic system, while pedestrians are schematized as moving single-degree-of-freedom systems with random dynamic properties. The non-dimensional form of the equations of motion allows us to obtain results that can be applied in a very wide set of cases. An extensive Monte Carlo simulation campaign is performed, varying the main non-dimensional parameters identified, and the mean values and coefficients of variation of the damping ratio and of the non-dimensional natural frequency of the coupled system are reported. The results obtained can be interpreted from two different points of view. If the characterization of pedestrians' equivalent dynamic parameters is assumed as uncertain, as revealed from a current literature review, then the paper provides a range of possible variations of the coupled system damping ratio and natural frequency as a function of pedestrians' parameters. Assuming that a reliable characterization of pedestrians' dynamic parameters is available (which is not the case at present, but could be in the future), the results presented can be adopted to estimate the damping ratio and natural frequency of the coupled footbridge-pedestrian system for a very wide range of real structures.
Vibrational relaxation dynamics of SD molecules in As2S3: Observation of an anomalous isotope effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Engholm, J.R.; Happek, U.; Rella, C.W.
1995-01-01
It is generally assumed that the vibrational relaxation of molecular impurities in crystals and glasses mainly depends on the order of the decay process, with lower order processes leading to more rapid relaxation (a behavior that is known under the term open-quotes gap-lawclose quotes). Here we present measurements that contradict this assumption. Using high intensity psec pulses of the Stanford FEL we measured the relaxation rate of the SD vibrational stretch mode (at a frequency of 1800 cm) by applying a pump-probe technique. We find relaxation rates on the order of 2x10 9 sec -1 , which are a factor of 2 lower than those found for the isotope molecule SH (at a frequency of about 2500 cm - 1 ) in the same host 1 . We recall that the relaxation of the SD vibrational stretch mode is controlled by a lower order process as compared to the SH molecule, which is due to the smaller number of host vibrational quanta to match the energy of the stretch mode; a fact we have confirmed experimentally by temperature dependent relaxation measurements. Thus our remits are in marked contrast to the so-called open-quotes Gap-Lawclose quotes and emphasize the importance of the molecule - host coupling in the relaxation dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francesco Castellani
2017-11-01
Full Text Available A wind turbine is a very well-known archetype of energy conversion system working at non-stationary regimes. Despite this, a deep mechanical comprehension of wind turbines operating in complicated conditions is still challenging, especially as regards the analysis of experimental data. In particular, wind turbines in complex terrain represent a very valuable testing ground because of the possible combination of wake effects among nearby turbines and flow accelerations caused by the terrain morphology. For these reasons, in this work, a cluster of four full-scale wind turbines from a very complex site is studied. The object of investigation is vibrations, at the level of the structure (tower and drive-train. Data collected by the on-board condition monitoring system are analyzed and interpreted in light of the knowledge of wind conditions and operating parameters collected by the Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA. A free flow Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulation is also performed, and it allows one to better interpret the vibration analysis. The main outcome is the interpretation of how wakes and flow turbulences appear in the vibration signals, both at the structural level and at the drive-train level. Therefore, this wind to gear approach builds a connection between flow phenomena and mechanical phenomena in the form of vibrations, representing a precious tool for assessing loads in different working conditions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burgin, Julien
2007-01-01
In this Ph.D. work we have investigated the electronic and vibrational properties of metallic nano objects as a function of their size, shape and composition, and studied the vibrational modes in glasses, using femtosecond time-resolved spectroscopy. In mono-metallic copper clusters, acceleration of the electron-lattice energy exchanges for sizes smaller than 10 nm has been demonstrated, confirming previous results in gold and silver clusters. The small size regime, i.e., nanoparticles smaller than 2 nm, has been addressed. The results show the limit of the classical confined material approach. In bi-metallic clusters, electron-lattice interaction has been shown to reflect their composition for gold-silver materials, but exhibits a more complex behavior in the case of segregated nickel-silver particles. The impact of shape, structure and environment on the acoustic vibrations of metallic nano-objects has also been studied. Measurements performed in ensemble or pairs of prisms yielded evidence for local fluctuations of their coupling with the substrate. Nano-structuration effects have been demonstrated in nano-columns and segregated components. The vibrational modes associated to local order in glasses have been investigated using a high sensitivity impulsive stimulated Raman scattering technique. The 'defect modes' of normal and densified silica, associated to vibrations of ring structures, have been observed and characterized, yielding information on the evolution of the ring density. Performing similar measurements in germania, we have demonstrated the existence of a vibrational mode due to a similar ring structure and determined its characteristics [fr
Tachikawa, Hiroto
2017-06-30
Reactions of water dimer cation (H2O)2+ following ionization have been investigated by means of a direct ab initio molecular dynamics method. In particular, the effects of zero point vibration and zero point energy (ZPE) on the reaction mechanism were considered in this work. Trajectories were run on two electronic potential energy surfaces (PESs) of (H2O)2+: ground state ( 2 A″-like state) and the first excited state ( 2 A'-like state). All trajectories on the ground-state PES lead to the proton-transferred product: H 2 O + (Wd)-H 2 O(Wa) → OH(Wd)-H 3 O + (Wa), where Wd and Wa refer to the proton donor and acceptor water molecules, respectively. Time of proton transfer (PT) varied widely from 15 to 40 fs (average time of PT = 30.9 fs). The trajectories on the excited-state PES gave two products: an intermediate complex with a face-to-face structure (H 2 O-OH 2 ) + and a PT product. However, the proton was transferred to the opposite direction, and the reverse PT was found on the excited-state PES: H 2 O(Wd)-H 2 O + (Wa) → H 3 O + (Wd)-OH(Wa). This difference occurred because the ionizing water molecule in the dimer switched between the ground and excited states. The reaction mechanism of (H2O)2+ and the effects of ZPE are discussed on the basis of the results. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Yu, Pingchao; Zhang, Dayi; Ma, Yanhong; Hong, Jie
2018-06-01
Fan Blade Out (FBO) from a running rotor of the turbofan engine will not only introduce the sudden unbalance and inertia asymmetry into the rotor, but also apply large impact load and induce rotor-to-stator rubbing on the rotor, which makes the mass, gyroscopic and stiffness matrixes of the dynamic equation become time-varying and highly nonlinear, consequently leads to the system's complicated vibration. The dynamic analysis of the aero-engine rotor system is one essential requirement of the authorities and is vital to the aero-engine's safety. The paper aims at studying the dynamic responses of the complicated dual-rotor systems at instantaneous and windmilling statuses when FBO event occurs. The physical process and mechanical characteristics of the FBO event are described qualitatively, based on which the dynamic modeling for an aero-engine dual-rotor system is carried out considering several excitations caused by FBO. Meanwhile the transient response during the instantaneous status and steady-state response at the windmilling status are obtained. The results reveal that the sudden unbalance can induce impact load to the rotor, and lead to the sharp increase of the vibration amplitude and reaction force. The rub-impact will apply constraint effects on the rotor and restrict the transient vibration amplitude, while the inertia asymmetry has little influence on the transient response. When the rotor with huge unbalance operates at windmilling status, the rub-impact turns to be the main factor determining the rotor's dynamic behavior, and several potential motion states, such as instable dry whip, intermittent rubbing and synchronous full annular rubbing would happen on certain conditions.
Thermal and vibration dynamic analysis of an induction motor using optical fiber Bragg gratings
Sousa, Kleiton d. M.; Dreyer, Uilian J.; Martelli, Cicero; Cardozo da Silva, Jean Carlos
2015-09-01
In this paper it is presented the results of temperature and vibration measurements in a Three-phase Induction Motor (TIM) running at no-load condition. Vibration and temperature analysis are the most successful techniques used for condition monitoring of induction motors. The vibration is measured using two FBGs installed inside of the motor between two subsequent stator teeth. The motor spectrum of vibration when power is at 60 Hz presents the frequencies 60 Hz, 120 Hz, 180 Hz, and 240 Hz as theoretically expected. For the temperature measurement two FBGs are encapsulated in an alumina tube fixed along the stator. The results show 0.9°C difference between the two FBG caused by the motor ventilation nearer of one FBG. These measurements can be used to determine TIM parameters and still be predictive maintenance tool.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dashan Zhang
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The development of image sensor and optics enables the application of vision-based techniques to the non-contact dynamic vibration analysis of large-scale structures. As an emerging technology, a vision-based approach allows for remote measuring and does not bring any additional mass to the measuring object compared with traditional contact measurements. In this study, a high-speed vision-based sensor system is developed to extract structure vibration signals in real time. A fast motion extraction algorithm is required for this system because the maximum sampling frequency of the charge-coupled device (CCD sensor can reach up to 1000 Hz. Two efficient subpixel level motion extraction algorithms, namely the modified Taylor approximation refinement algorithm and the localization refinement algorithm, are integrated into the proposed vision sensor. Quantitative analysis shows that both of the two modified algorithms are at least five times faster than conventional upsampled cross-correlation approaches and achieve satisfactory error performance. The practicability of the developed sensor is evaluated by an experiment in a laboratory environment and a field test. Experimental results indicate that the developed high-speed vision-based sensor system can extract accurate dynamic structure vibration signals by tracking either artificial targets or natural features.
Halász, Gábor J; Csehi, András; Vibók, Ágnes; Cederbaum, Lorenz S
2014-12-26
Previous works have shown that dressing of diatomic molecules by standing or by running laser waves gives rise to the appearance of so-called light-induced conical intersections (LICIs). Because of the strong nonadiabatic couplings, the existence of such LICIs may significantly change the dynamical properties of a molecular system. In our former paper (J. Phys. Chem. A 2013, 117, 8528), the photodissociation dynamics of the D(2)(+) molecule were studied in the LICI framework starting the initial vibrational nuclear wave packet from the superposition of all the vibrational states initially produced by ionizing D(2). The present work complements our previous investigation by letting the initial nuclear wave packets start from different individual vibrational levels of D(2)(+), in particular, above the energy of the LICI. The kinetic energy release spectra, the total dissociation probabilities, and the angular distributions of the photofragments are calculated and discussed. An interesting phenomenon has been found in the spectra of the photofragments. Applying the light-induced adiabatic picture supported by LICI, explanations are given for the unexpected structure of the spectra.
Barashkov, M. V.; Komyak, A. I.; Shashkov, S. N.
2000-03-01
The IR spectra and polarized Raman spectra of crystals of hexahydrates of zinc potassium and ammonium sulfates have been obtained experimentally at 93 K and at room temperature. The frequencies and modes of normal vibrations of the octahedral complex [Zn(H2O)6]2+ have been calculated. The assignment of the observed lines of the internal and external vibrations of the crystal cell has been made by calculations and by factor-group analysis.
Dynamic analysis of ITER tokamak. Based on results of vibration test using scaled model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takeda, Nobukazu; Kakudate, Satoshi; Nakahira, Masataka
2005-01-01
The vibration experiments of the support structures with flexible plates for the ITER major components such as toroidal field coil (TF coil) and vacuum vessel (VV) were performed using small-sized flexible plates aiming to obtain its basic mechanical characteristics such as dependence of the stiffness on the loading angle. The experimental results were compared with the analytical ones in order to estimate an adequate analytical model for ITER support structure with flexible plates. As a result, the bolt connection of the flexible plates on the base plate strongly affected on the stiffness of the flexible plates. After studies of modeling the connection of the bolts, it is found that the analytical results modeling the bolts with finite stiffness only in the axial direction and infinite stiffness in the other directions agree well with the experimental ones. Based on this, numerical analysis regarding the actual support structure of the ITER VV and TF coil was performed. The support structure composed of flexible plates and connection bolts was modeled as a spring composed of only two spring elements simulating the in-plane and out-of-plane stiffness of the support structure with flexible plates including the effect of connection bolts. The stiffness of both spring models for VV and TF coil agree well with that of shell models, simulating actual structures such as flexible plates and connection bolts based on the experimental results. It is therefore found that the spring model with the only two values of stiffness enables to simplify the complicated support structure with flexible plates for the dynamic analysis of the VV and TF coil. Using the proposed spring model, the dynamic analysis of the VV and TF coil for the ITER were performed to estimate the integrity under the design earthquake. As a result, it is found that the maximum relative displacement of 8.6 mm between VV and TF coil is much less than 100 mm, so that the integrity of the VV and TF coil of the
Handbook Of Noise And Vibration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1995-12-01
This book is about noise and vibration. The first chapter has explanations of noise such as basic of sound, influence of noise, assessment of noise, measurement of prevention of noise and technology, case of noise measurement and soundproof. The second chapter describes vibration with outline, theory of vibration, interpretation of vibration, measurement for reduction of vibration, case of design of protection against vibration. It deals with related regulation and method of measurement.
Maj, Michał; Ahn, Changwoo; Kossowska, Dorota; Park, Kwanghee; Kwak, Kyungwon; Han, Hogyu; Cho, Minhaeng
2015-05-07
An infrared (IR) probe based on isonitrile (NC)-derivatized alanine 1 was synthesized and the vibrational properties of its NC stretching mode were investigated using FTIR and femtosecond IR pump-probe spectroscopy. It is found that the NC stretching mode is very sensitive to the hydrogen-bonding ability of solvent molecules. Moreover, its transition dipole strength is larger than that of nitrile (CN) in nitrile-derivatized IR probe 2. The vibrational lifetime of the NC stretching mode is found to be 5.5 ± 0.2 ps in both D2O and DMF solvents, which is several times longer than that of the azido (N3) stretching mode in azido-derivatized IR probe 3. Altogether these properties suggest that the NC group can be a very promising sensing moiety of IR probes for studying the solvation structure and dynamics of biomolecules.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Friedt, J.M.
1976-01-01
The change in the hyperfine line intensities is discussed for various Moessbauer transitions in cases involving axial vibrational lattice anisotropy and axial electric field gradient at the resonant nucleus. The change in the relative intensities of the spectral components has been calculed numerically for the different types of Moessbauer transitions. Polynomial expansions are given to describe the functional dependence of the relative intensities on the magnitude of the vibration anisotropy. They may be used to extract the relevant parameters from experimental data without requiring the numerical integrations implied in the description of the Goldanskii-Karyagin effect [fr
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Padhi, S.N. [DGMS, Bhubaneswar (India)
1994-12-31
Blast vibrations may be felt in intensities as small as 1/100 of that required to cause any damage to structures. Therefore, the public response and thus complaints regarding damages are often imaginary. The paper deals with three case studies, involving alleged damage from blasting in surface and underground coal mines where public litigations and agitations resulted due to such apprehensions. The paper is written in simple technical language as the situations warranted that the blast vibration studies should be understood by the general public. 7 tabs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanson, A., E-mail: andrea.sanson@unipd.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia - Università di Padova, Padova (Italy); Mathon, O.; Pascarelli, S. [ESRF - European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)
2014-06-14
The local vibrational dynamics of hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) has been investigated by temperature-dependent extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. The local dynamics of both the short and long nearest-neighbor Fe–O distances has been singled out, i.e., their local thermal expansion and the parallel and perpendicular mean-square relative atomic displacements have been determined, obtaining a partial agreement with molecular dynamics. No evidence of the Morin transition has been observed. More importantly, the strong anisotropy of relative thermal vibrations found for the short Fe–O distance has been related to its negative thermal expansion. The differences between the local dynamics of short and long Fe–O distances are discussed in terms of projection and correlation of atomic motion. As a result, we can conclude that the short Fe–O bond is stiffer to stretching and softer to bending than the long Fe–O bond.
Aircraft gas turbine engine vibration diagnostics
Stanislav Fábry; Marek Češkovič
2017-01-01
In the Czech and Slovak aviation are in service elderly aircrafts, usually produced in former Soviet Union. Their power units can be operated in more efficient way, in case of using additional diagnostic methods that allow evaluating their health. Vibration diagnostics is one of the methods indicating changes of rotational machine dynamics. Ground tests of aircraft gas turbine engines allow vibration recording and analysis. Results contribute to airworthiness evaluation and making corrections...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sang-Wook Kang
2016-03-01
Full Text Available A new formulation for the non-dimensional dynamic influence function method, which was developed by the authors, is proposed to efficiently extract eigenvalues and mode shapes of clamped plates with arbitrary shapes. Compared with the finite element and boundary element methods, the non-dimensional dynamic influence function method yields highly accurate solutions in eigenvalue analysis problems of plates and membranes including acoustic cavities. However, the non-dimensional dynamic influence function method requires the uneconomic procedure of calculating the singularity of a system matrix in the frequency range of interest for extracting eigenvalues because it produces a non-algebraic eigenvalue problem. This article describes a new approach that reduces the problem of free vibrations of clamped plates to an algebraic eigenvalue problem, the solution of which is straightforward. The validity and efficiency of the proposed method are illustrated through several numerical examples.
Lu, Cheng; Liu, Guodong; Liu, Bingguo; Chen, Fengdong; Zhuang, Zhitao; Xu, Xinke; Gan, Yu
2015-10-01
Absolute distance measurement systems are of significant interest in the field of metrology, which could improve the manufacturing efficiency and accuracy of large assemblies in fields such as aircraft construction, automotive engineering, and the production of modern windmill blades. Frequency scanning interferometry demonstrates noticeable advantages as an absolute distance measurement system which has a high precision and doesn't depend on a cooperative target. In this paper , the influence of inevitable vibration in the frequency scanning interferometry based absolute distance measurement system is analyzed. The distance spectrum is broadened as the existence of Doppler effect caused by vibration, which will bring in a measurement error more than 103 times bigger than the changes of optical path difference. In order to decrease the influence of vibration, the changes of the optical path difference are monitored by a frequency stabilized laser, which runs parallel to the frequency scanning interferometry. The experiment has verified the effectiveness of this method.
On generalized fractional vibration equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dai, Hongzhe; Zheng, Zhibao; Wang, Wei
2017-01-01
Highlights: • The paper presents a generalized fractional vibration equation for arbitrary viscoelastically damped system. • Some classical vibration equations can be derived from the developed equation. • The analytic solution of developed equation is derived under some special cases. • The generalized equation is particularly useful for developing new fractional equivalent linearization method. - Abstract: In this paper, a generalized fractional vibration equation with multi-terms of fractional dissipation is developed to describe the dynamical response of an arbitrary viscoelastically damped system. It is shown that many classical equations of motion, e.g., the Bagley–Torvik equation, can be derived from the developed equation. The Laplace transform is utilized to solve the generalized equation and the analytic solution under some special cases is derived. Example demonstrates the generalized transfer function of an arbitrary viscoelastic system.
PREFACE: Vibrations at surfaces Vibrations at surfaces
Rahman, Talat S.
2011-12-01
Central Florida, Orlando, in March 2010. Several speakers at this meeting were invited to contribute to the special section in this issue. As is clear from the articles in this special section, the phenomenon of vibrations at surfaces continues to be a dynamic field of investigation. In fact, there is a resurgence of effort because the insights provided by surface dynamics are still fundamental to the development of an understanding of the microscopic factors that control surface structure formation, diffusion, reaction and structural stability. Examination of dynamics at surfaces thus complements and supplements the wealth of information that is obtained from real-space techniques such as scanning tunneling microscopy. Vibrational dynamics is, of course, not limited to surfaces. Surfaces are important since they provide immediate deviation from the bulk. They display how lack of symmetry can lead to new structures, new local atomic environments and new types of dynamical modes. Nanoparticles, large molecules and nanostructures of all types, in all kinds of local environments, provide further examples of regions of reduced symmetry and coordination, and hence display characteristic vibrational modes. Given the tremendous advance in the synthesis of a variety of nanostructures whose functionalization would pave the way for nanotechnology, there is even greater need to engage in experimental and theoretical techniques that help extract their vibrational dynamics. Such knowledge would enable a more complete understanding and characterization of these nanoscale systems than would otherwise be the case. The papers presented here provide excellent examples of the kind of information that is revealed by vibrations at surfaces. Vibrations at surface contents Poisoning and non-poisoning oxygen on Cu(410)L Vattuone, V Venugopal, T Kravchuk, M Smerieri, L Savio and M Rocca Modifying protein adsorption by layers of glutathione pre-adsorbed on Au(111)Anne Vallée, Vincent Humblot
Dynamic analysis and vibration testing of CFRP drive-line system used in heavy-duty machine tool
Yang, Mo; Gui, Lin; Hu, Yefa; Ding, Guoping; Song, Chunsheng
2018-03-01
Low critical rotary speed and large vibration in the metal drive-line system of heavy-duty machine tool affect the machining precision seriously. Replacing metal drive-line with the CFRP drive-line can effectively solve this problem. Based on the composite laminated theory and the transfer matrix method (TMM), this paper puts forward a modified TMM to analyze dynamic characteristics of CFRP drive-line system. With this modified TMM, the CFRP drive-line of a heavy vertical miller is analyzed. And the finite element modal analysis model of the shafting is established. The results of the modified TMM and finite element analysis (FEA) show that the modified TMM can effectively predict the critical rotary speed of CFRP drive-line. And the critical rotary speed of CFRP drive-line is 20% higher than that of the original metal drive-line. Then, the vibration of the CFRP and the metal drive-line were tested. The test results show that application of the CFRP drive shaft in the drive-line can effectively reduce the vibration of the heavy-duty machine tool.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasse, R.W.; Ghosh, G.
1982-01-01
The long-mean-free-path nuclear fluid dynamics is extended to include damping. First the damping stress is derived from the solution of the Boltzmann equation for a breathing spherical container filled with a Fermi gas. Then the corresponding damping force is incorporated into Euler equations of motion and energies and widths of low lying collective resonances are computed as eigenfrequencies of a vibrating nucleus under surface tension and Coulomb potential as well as the high lying isoscalar giant resonances as eigenfrequencies of an elastic nucleus. Maximum damping is obtained if the particle frequency approximately resonates with the wall frequency. Theoretical results are compared with experimental data and future improvements are indicated
Dynamic analysis and vibration testing of CFRP drive-line system used in heavy-duty machine tool
Mo Yang; Lin Gui; Yefa Hu; Guoping Ding; Chunsheng Song
2018-01-01
Low critical rotary speed and large vibration in the metal drive-line system of heavy-duty machine tool affect the machining precision seriously. Replacing metal drive-line with the CFRP drive-line can effectively solve this problem. Based on the composite laminated theory and the transfer matrix method (TMM), this paper puts forward a modified TMM to analyze dynamic characteristics of CFRP drive-line system. With this modified TMM, the CFRP drive-line of a heavy vertical miller is analyzed. ...
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Shatalov, M
2009-05-01
Full Text Available stream_source_info Shatalov2_2009.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 22572 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Shatalov2_2009.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 1 DYNAMICS OF ROTATING... AND VIBRATING THIN HEMISPHERICAL SHELL WITH MASS AND DAMPING IMPERFECTIONS AND PARAMETRICALLY DRIVEN BY DISCRETE ELECTRODES Michael Shatalov1,2 and Charlotta Coetzee2 1Sensor Science and Technology (SST) of CSIR Material Science and Manufacturing (MSM...
A Study on the Vibration Measurement and Analysis of Rotating Machine Foundations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Jong Rim; Jeon, Kyu Sik; Suh, Young Pyo; Cho, Chul Hwan; Kim, Sung Taeg; Lee, Myung Kyu [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1996-12-31
To search for the cause of vibration problem of rotating machine in the power plant, first the rotating machine is classified according to their type and each vibration characteristic is reviewed. The criteria for the evaluation of mechanical vibration effect on the structure and human being during the design of machine foundation is described below. The foundation of rotating machine is classified according to its shape and some factors are described which should be considered during dynamic modeling analysis for its correct result. Also the methods of incorporating foundation vibration into mechanical vibration analysis are reviewed. Type of vibration measurement and analysis which is used to find out the dynamic characteristic of structure is described in accordance with its signal processing and measuring method. Measurement of vibration and its analysis when there occurs real vibration troubles in power plant are compared with the results of numerical modeling as case studies. (author). 16 refs., 23 figs.
Coherent dynamics of the localized vibrational modes of hydrogen in CaF2
Wells, J. P. R.; Rella, C. W.; Bradley, I. V.; Galbraith, I.; Pidgeon, C. R.
2000-01-01
We report the observation of giant quantum coherence effects in the localized modes of ionized hydrogen in synthetic fluorite. Infrared free induction decay experiments on the substitutional H+ center thew dramatic modulations at negative delay times due to interference between multiple vibrational
Effects of reagent translational and vibrational energy on the dynamics of endothermic reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krajnovich, D.; Zhang, Z.; Huisken, F.; Shen, Y.R.; Lee, Y.T.
1981-07-01
The endothermic reactions Br + CH 3 I → CH 3 + IBr (ΔH 0 0 = 13 kcal/mole) and Br + CF 3 I → CF 3 + IBr (ΔH 0 0 = 11 kcal/mole) have been studied by the crossed molecular beams method. Detailed center-of-mass contour maps of the IBr product flux as a function of recoil velocity and scattering angle are derived. For both systems it is found that the IBr product is sharply backward scattered with respect to the incident Br dirction, and that most of the available energy goes into product translation. Vibrational enhancement of the Br + CF 3 I reaction was investigated by using the infrared multiphoton absorption process to prepare highly vibrationally excited CF 3 I. At a collision energy of 31 kcal/mole (several times the barrier height), reagent vibrational energy appears to be less effective than an equivalent amount of (additional) translational energy in promoting reaction. More forward scattered IBr is produced in reactions of Br with vibrationally hot CF 3 I
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chu, P.M.Y.
1991-10-01
The vibrational to translational (V→T) energy transfer in collisions between large highly vibrationally excited polyatomics and rare gases was investigated by time-of-flight techniques. Two different methods, UV excitation followed by intemal conversion and infrared multiphoton excitation (IRMPE), were used to form vibrationally excited molecular beams of hexafluorobenzene and sulfur hexafluoride, respectively. The product translational energy was found to be independent of the vibrational excitation. These results indicate that the probability distribution function for V→T energy transfer is peaked at zero. The collisional relaxation of large polyatomic molecules with rare gases most likely occurs through a rotationally mediated process. Photodissociation of nitrobenzene in a molecular beam was studied at 266 nm. Two primary dissociation channels were identified including simple bond rupture to produce nitrogen dioxide and phenyl radical and isomerization to form nitric oxide and phenoxy radical. The time-of-flight spectra indicate that simple bond rupture and isomerization occurs via two different mechanisms. Secondary dissociation of the phenoxy radicals to carbon monoxide and cyclopentadienyl radicals was observed as well as secondary photodissociation of phenyl radical to give H atom and benzyne. A supersonic methyl radical beam source is developed. The beam source configuration and conditions were optimized for CH 3 production from the thermal decomposition of azomethane. Elastic scattering of methyl radical and neon was used to differentiate between the methyl radicals and the residual azomethane in the molecular beam
Effects of reagent translational and vibrational energy on the dynamics of endothermic reactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krajnovich, D.; Zhang, Z.; Huisken, F.; Shen, Y.R.; Lee, Y.T.
1981-07-01
The endothermic reactions Br + CH/sub 3/I ..-->.. CH/sub 3/ + IBr (..delta..H/sub 0//sup 0/ = 13 kcal/mole) and Br + CF/sub 3/I ..-->.. CF/sub 3/ + IBr (..delta..H/sub 0//sup 0/ = 11 kcal/mole) have been studied by the crossed molecular beams method. Detailed center-of-mass contour maps of the IBr product flux as a function of recoil velocity and scattering angle are derived. For both systems it is found that the IBr product is sharply backward scattered with respect to the incident Br dirction, and that most of the available energy goes into product translation. Vibrational enhancement of the Br + CF/sub 3/I reaction was investigated by using the infrared multiphoton absorption process to prepare highly vibrationally excited CF/sub 3/I. At a collision energy of 31 kcal/mole (several times the barrier height), reagent vibrational energy appears to be less effective than an equivalent amount of (additional) translational energy in promoting reaction. More forward scattered IBr is produced in reactions of Br with vibrationally hot CF/sub 3/I.
The Shock and Vibration Bulletin. Part 4. Damping and Machinery Dynamics
1983-05-01
VIBRATION CHALLENGES IN J^.CROELECTRONICS MANUFACTURING Dr. Eric Ungar, Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc., Cambridge, MA and Colin G. Gordon, Bolt...Modes)," Shock and Vibra- tion Bulletin No. 48, Sept. 1978. B.K. Wada, R. Bamford , and J.A. Garba, "Equivalent Spring-Mass Sys- tems: A Physical
Vibrational entropies in metallic alloys
Ozolins, Vidvuds; Asta, Mark; Wolverton, Christopher
2000-03-01
Recently, it has been recognized that vibrational entropy can have significant effects on the phase stability of metallic alloys. Using density functional linear response calculations and molecular dynamics simulations we study three representative cases: (i) phase diagram of Al-rich Al-Sc alloys, (ii) stability of precipitate phases in CuAl_2, and (iii) phonon dynamics in bcc Zr. We find large vibrational entropy effects in all cases. In the Al-Sc system, vibrations increase the solid solubility of Sc in Al by decreasing the stability of the L12 (Al_3Sc) phase. This leads to a nearly ten-fold increase in the solid solubility of Sc in Al at T=800 K. In the Cu-Al system, our calculations predict that the tetragonal Laves phase of CuAl2 has 0.35 kB/atom higher vibrational entropy than the cubic CaF_2-type phase (the latter is predicted to be the T=0 K ground state of CuAl_2). This entropy difference causes a structural transformation in CuAl2 precipitates from the fluorite to the tetragonal Laves phase around T=500 K. Finally, we analyze the highly unusual dynamics of anharmonically stabilized bcc Zr, finding large diffuse-scattering intensity streaks between the bcc Bragg peaks.
Vibration of hydraulic machinery
Wu, Yulin; Liu, Shuhong; Dou, Hua-Shu; Qian, Zhongdong
2013-01-01
Vibration of Hydraulic Machinery deals with the vibration problem which has significant influence on the safety and reliable operation of hydraulic machinery. It provides new achievements and the latest developments in these areas, even in the basic areas of this subject. The present book covers the fundamentals of mechanical vibration and rotordynamics as well as their main numerical models and analysis methods for the vibration prediction. The mechanical and hydraulic excitations to the vibration are analyzed, and the pressure fluctuations induced by the unsteady turbulent flow is predicted in order to obtain the unsteady loads. This book also discusses the loads, constraint conditions and the elastic and damping characters of the mechanical system, the structure dynamic analysis, the rotor dynamic analysis and the system instability of hydraulic machines, including the illustration of monitoring system for the instability and the vibration in hydraulic units. All the problems are necessary for vibration pr...
Vibration analysis diagnostics by continuous-time models: A case study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pedregal, Diego J.; Carmen Carnero, Ma.
2009-01-01
In this paper a forecasting system in condition monitoring is developed based on vibration signals in order to improve the diagnosis of a certain critical equipment at an industrial plant. The system is based on statistical models capable of forecasting the state of the equipment combined with a cost model consisting of defining the time of preventive replacement when the minimum of the expected cost per unit of time is reached in the future. The most relevant features of the system are that (i) it is developed for bivariate signals; (ii) the statistical models are set up in a continuous-time framework, due to the specific nature of the data; and (iii) it has been developed from scratch for a real case study and may be generalised to other pieces of equipment. The system is thoroughly tested on the equipment available, showing its correctness with the data in a statistical sense and its capability of producing sensible results for the condition monitoring programme
Vibration analysis diagnostics by continuous-time models: A case study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pedregal, Diego J. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)], E-mail: Diego.Pedregal@uclm.es; Carmen Carnero, Ma. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)], E-mail: Carmen.Carnero@uclm.es
2009-02-15
In this paper a forecasting system in condition monitoring is developed based on vibration signals in order to improve the diagnosis of a certain critical equipment at an industrial plant. The system is based on statistical models capable of forecasting the state of the equipment combined with a cost model consisting of defining the time of preventive replacement when the minimum of the expected cost per unit of time is reached in the future. The most relevant features of the system are that (i) it is developed for bivariate signals; (ii) the statistical models are set up in a continuous-time framework, due to the specific nature of the data; and (iii) it has been developed from scratch for a real case study and may be generalised to other pieces of equipment. The system is thoroughly tested on the equipment available, showing its correctness with the data in a statistical sense and its capability of producing sensible results for the condition monitoring programme.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Effendi Tri Bahtiar
2018-06-01
Full Text Available Periodical control and measurement revealed that vibration level of motor and gearbox which was supported by Cooling Tower Unit 1 at PT Star Energy Geothermal (Wayang Windu Ltd was significantly increasing since 2013. The vibration was not caused by machinery component failure, but induced by resonance of process flow. Decreasing stiffness of cooling tower structure was suspected causing the increasing vibration level. The physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of wood was deteriorated. The residual strength of the wood had been measured and the data was used to perform dynamic structural analysis on the cooling tower. Several scenarios of structure modification were modelled and drawn, and the best one which the most effectively reducing the vibration level among others was constructed in the field. Triangle inner structure was chosen and applied to modify the cooling tower structure to achieve stiffer and more rigid structure. The vibration level before and after structure modification were measured, and it was proved that the vibration level was significantly reduced after structure modification. Furthermore the cooling tower was not in zone D (danger anymore and the vibration level was accepted according to ISO 10816-3. Keywords: Cooling tower, Dynamic structural analysis, Geothermal power plant, Structural failure, Vibration level
Heat exchanger vibrations - a case study (Paper No. 5.12)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khilnaney, V.K.
1992-01-01
The satisfactory performance of heat exchangers is crucial to the reliability of the plant. Thorough vibration analysis is essential at design stage to avoid failures at the time of operation. Detailed vibration analysis techniques were not available at the time of designing these exchangers and the exchangers were designed as per general guidelines and prevalent good engineering practices. The designs were not checked especially from the point of view of their proneness to excessive flow induced vibration. The present paper gives a study of revamping of cooling water heat exchanger at Heavy Water Plant, Kota. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bauchy, M.; Kachmar, A.; Micoulaut, M.
2014-01-01
The structural, vibrational, electronic, and dynamic properties of amorphous and liquid As x Se 1-x (0.10
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bauchy, M. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1593 (United States); Kachmar, A. [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique de la Matière Condensée, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Qatar Foundation, P.O. Box 5825, Doha (Qatar); Micoulaut, M., E-mail: mmi@lptl.jussieu.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique de la Matière Condensée, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)
2014-11-21
The structural, vibrational, electronic, and dynamic properties of amorphous and liquid As{sub x}Se{sub 1-x} (0.10
Theoretical study of molecular vibration and Application to linear triatomic molecules: case of OCS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrianavalomahefa, A.
2014-01-01
Our aim is to give a theoretical approach to the calculation of vibrational energy levels of polyatomic molecules. By using matrix calculation, we have to solve an eigenvalue equation that gives normal vibration frequencies of the system. A basis change introduces normal coordinates of vibration, which diagonalize the Hamiltonian. The harmonic approximation gives a rough evaluation of parameters which describe the system. Then, we introduce nonlinear terms to take into account the anharmonicity of interatomic bounds. Morse oscillator gives good approximation for diatomic molecules. We consider cubic and quartic potential terms for polyatomic molecules. We treat the problem both in classical and quantum approach. The results thus obtained are applied to study longitudinal vibration of carbonyl sulfide. [fr
STUDY OF THE VIBRATION LEVEL IN CASE OF MANUFACTURING ON A CNC MACHINE-TOOL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ioan Călin ROȘCA
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the results of an experimental research performed on a CNC machine tool type ISEL-GFV considering the vibration level developed during the manufacturing of different pieces of particleboard at six processing regimes. There were recorded signals on both time and frequency domains on the three main directions. Based on recorded data there are presented the main conclusions referring to the level of vibrations and the frequencies associated to the highest levels.
Vibrational dynamics of amorphous metals by inelastic neutron and raman scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lustig, N.E.
1986-01-01
Time-of-flight inelastic neutron scattering and Raman measurements were performed on amorphous (a-) metals. The neutron-weighted vibrational density of states, G(E), obtained for a-Fe 78 P 22 , a-Ni 82 B 18 and a-Ni 67 B 33 transition metal metalloid alloys (TM-m), indicated two major vibrational bands: a low frequency acoustic-like band and a high frequency optic-like band, derived from TM-TM and TM-m interactions, respectively. Similar neutron measurements were performed on the corresponding polycrystalline (c-) alloys, c-Fe 3 P and c-Ni 2 B. A comparison of the amorphous and crystalline densities of states indicates the elimination of sharp features and the addition of vibrational states at low and high frequencies upon amorphization. The experimental G(E) results for a-Fe 78 P 22 are in good agreement with the theoretically predicted spectrum. A comparison between the a-Ni 67 B 33 and the phenomenologically broadened c-Ni 2 B spectrum indicates a change in the short-range order. This finding is consistent with structural measurements on this alloy. Raman measurements were carried out using interference enhanced Raman spectroscopy (IERS) on thin film Ni-B alloys. The measured spectra provide information about the weighted phonon density of states, and is in good agreement with the neutron results
McCaffery, Anthony J.
2018-03-01
This study of near-resonant, vibration-vibration (V-V) gas-phase energy transfer in diatomic molecules uses the theoretical/computational method, of Marsh & McCaffery (Marsh & McCaffery 2002 J. Chem. Phys. 117, 503 (doi:10.1063/1.1489998)) The method uses the angular momentum (AM) theoretical formalism to compute quantum-state populations within the component molecules of large, non-equilibrium, gas mixtures as the component species proceed to equilibration. Computed quantum-state populations are displayed in a number of formats that reveal the detailed mechanism of the near-resonant V-V process. Further, the evolution of quantum-state populations, for each species present, may be followed as the number of collision cycles increases, displaying the kinetics of evolution for each quantum state of the ensemble's molecules. These features are illustrated for ensembles containing vibrationally excited N2 in H2, O2 and N2 initially in their ground states. This article is part of the theme issue `Modern theoretical chemistry'.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mizuno, Takeshi; Takasaki, Masaya; Ishino, Yuji
2016-01-01
Switching stiffness control is applied to attenuate vibration in the lateral directions in an active magnetic suspension system with electromagnets operated in differential mode. The magnetic suspension system using the attractive force between magnetized bodies is inherently unstable in the normal direction so that feedback control is necessary to achieve stable suspension. In contrast, it can be stable in the lateral directions due to the edge effects in the magnetic circuits. In several applications, such passive suspension is used in combination with the active one to reduce cost and space. However, damping in the lateral directions is generally small. As a result, induced vibrations in these directions are hardly attenuated. To suppress such vibration without any additional actuator (electromagnet), switching stiffness control is applied to an magnetic suspension system operated in the differential mode. The stiffness in the lateral direction is adjusted by varying the bias currents of an opposed pair of electromagnets located in the normal direction simultaneously according to the motion of the suspended object. When the varied bias currents are adjusted for the additive normal forces cancel each other, such control does not affect the suspension in the normal direction. The effectiveness of the proposed control methods is confirmed experimentally. (paper)
Wyjadłowski, Marek
2017-12-01
The constant development of geotechnical technologies imposes the necessity of monitoring techniques to provide a proper quality and the safe execution of geotechnical works. Several monitoring methods enable the preliminary design of work process and current control of hydrotechnical works (pile driving, sheet piling, ground improvement methods). Wave parameter measurements and/or continuous histogram recording of shocks and vibrations and its dynamic impact on engineering structures in the close vicinity of the building site enable the modification of the technology parameters, such as vibrator frequency or hammer drop height. Many examples of practical applications have already been published and provide a basis for the formulation of guidelines, for work on the following sites. In the current work the author's experience gained during sheet piling works for the reconstruction of City Channel in Wrocław (Poland) was presented. The examples chosen describe ways of proceedings in the case of new and old residential buildings where the concrete or masonry walls were exposed to vibrations and in the case of the hydrotechnical structures (sluices, bridges).
Vibrations and stability of complex beam systems
Stojanović, Vladimir
2015-01-01
This book reports on solved problems concerning vibrations and stability of complex beam systems. The complexity of a system is considered from two points of view: the complexity originating from the nature of the structure, in the case of two or more elastically connected beams; and the complexity derived from the dynamic behavior of the system, in the case of a damaged single beam, resulting from the harm done to its simple structure. Furthermore, the book describes the analytical derivation of equations of two or more elastically connected beams, using four different theories (Euler, Rayleigh, Timoshenko and Reddy-Bickford). It also reports on a new, improved p-version of the finite element method for geometrically nonlinear vibrations. The new method provides more accurate approximations of solutions, while also allowing us to analyze geometrically nonlinear vibrations. The book describes the appearance of longitudinal vibrations of damaged clamped-clamped beams as a result of discontinuity (damage). It...
Xian, Guangming
2018-03-01
A method for predicting the optimal vibration field parameters by least square support vector machine (LS-SVM) is presented in this paper. One convenient and commonly used technique for characterizing the the vibration flow field of polymer melts films is small angle light scattering (SALS) in a visualized slit die of the electromagnetism dynamic extruder. The optimal value of vibration vibration frequency, vibration amplitude, and the maximum light intensity projection area can be obtained by using LS-SVM for prediction. For illustrating this method and show its validity, the flowing material is used with polypropylene (PP) and fifteen samples are tested at the rotation speed of screw at 36rpm. This paper first describes the apparatus of SALS to perform the experiments, then gives the theoretical basis of this new method, and detail the experimental results for parameter prediction of vibration flow field. It is demonstrated that it is possible to use the method of SALS and obtain detailed information on optimal parameter of vibration flow field of PP melts by LS-SVM.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Malika Boumaiza
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The present study concerns the analysis of the dynamic response of earth dam, in free and forced vibration (under the effect of earthquake using the finite element method. The analysis is carried out at the end of dam construction without filling. The behavior of the dam materials and the foundation is linear elastic. In free vibration, to better understand the effect of the dam foundation interaction, we will take into account different site conditions and see their influence on the free vibration characteristics of the dam. In forced vibration, to study the seismic response of the dam, the system is subjected to the acceleration of the Boumerdes earthquake of May 21, 2003 recorded at the station n ° 2 of the dam of Kaddara in the base, with a parametric study taking into account the influence of the main parameters such as the mechanical properties of the soil: rigidity, density.
Usuki, Fusako; Tohyama, Satsuki
2016-04-01
Fetal-type Minamata disease is caused by the exposure to high concentrations of methylmercury in the fetal period and shows cerebral palsy-like clinical features. Relief of spasticity is a major task of rehabilitation to improve their activities of daily living. Here we report the effect of long-term vibration therapy on bilateral lower-limb spasticity in 3 patients with fetal-type Minamata disease. We used a simple, inexpensive, and noninvasive approach with hand-held vibration massagers, which were applied to the plantar fascia at 90 Hz for 15 minutes. The effect was observed soon after the first treatment and resulted in better performance of the repetitive facilitation. Vibration therapy for 1 year improved Modified Ashworth Scale for the ankle flexors in 2 cases. The labored gait improved and gait speed increased in another case. Continued vibration therapy for another 1 year further improved Modified Ashworth Scale score and range of motion of ankle dorsiflexion in 1 case. This case showed the decreased amplitude of soleus H-reflex after the 15-minute vibration therapy, suggesting that α-motor neuron excitability was suppressed. Vibration therapy using a hand-held vibration massager may offer safe and effective treatment for lower-limb spasticity in patients with chronic neurological disorders.
Jha, Santosh Kumar; Ji, Minbiao; Gaffney, Kelly J.; Boxer, Steven G.
2012-01-01
Little is known about the reorganization capacity of water molecules at the active sites of enzymes and how this couples to the catalytic reaction. Here, we study the dynamics of water molecules at the active site of a highly proficient enzyme, Δ5-3-ketosteroid isomerase (KSI), during a light-activated mimic of its catalytic cycle. Photo-excitation of a nitrile containing photo-acid, coumarin183 (C183), mimics the change in charge density that occurs at the active site of KSI during the first step of the catalytic reaction. The nitrile of C183 is exposed to water when bound to the KSI active site, and we used time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy as a site-specific probe to study the solvation dynamics of water molecules in the vicinity of the nitrile. We observed that water molecules at the active site of KSI are highly rigid, during the light-activated catalytic cycle, compared to the solvation dynamics observed in bulk water. Based upon this result we hypothesize that rigid water dipoles at the active site might help in the maintenance of the pre-organized electrostatic environment required for efficient catalysis. The results also demonstrate the utility of nitrile probes in measuring the dynamics of local (H-bonded) water molecules in contrast to the commonly used fluorescence methods which measure the average behavior of primary and subsequent spheres of solvation. PMID:22931297
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Andrushchenko, Valery; Benda, Ladislav; Páv, Ondřej; Dračínský, Martin; Bouř, Petr
2015-01-01
Roč. 119, č. 33 (2015), s. 10682-10692 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-26526S; GA ČR GAP208/11/0105; GA ČR GA13-03978S; GA ČR GA15-09072S Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M200550902; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010005; GA MŠk(CZ) ED3.2.00/08.0144 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : DNA phosphate group * vibrational spectroscopy * spectra simulations * MD/DFT Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.187, year: 2015
Vibrations versus collisions and the iterative structure of two-body dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pfitzner, A.; Cassing, W.; Peter, A.
1993-11-01
The two-body correlation function is decomposed into two channel correlation functions for the pp- and the ph-channel. The associated coupled equations describe the evolution in the respective channels as well as their mixing. Integration of the ph-channel in terms of vibrational RPA-states yields a closed equation for the correlations in the pp-channel comprising phonon-particle coupling and a memory term. In the stationary limit the equation for a generalised effective interaction is derived which iterates both the G-matrix (ladders) and the polarisation matrix (loops), thus accounting nonperturbatively for the mixing of ladders and loops. (orig.)
Mondal, Anirban; Balasubramanian, Sundaram
2015-02-05
Hydrogen bonding in alkylammonium based protic ionic liquids was studied using density functional theory (DFT) and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations. Normal-mode analysis within the harmonic approximation and power spectra of velocity autocorrelation functions were used as tools to obtain the vibrational spectra in both the gas phase and the crystalline phases of these protic ionic liquids. The hydrogen bond vibrational modes were identified in the 150-240 cm(-1) region of the far-infrared (far-IR) spectra. A blue shift in the far-IR mode was observed with an increasing number of hydrogen-bonding sites on the cation; the exact peak position is modulated by the cation-anion hydrogen bond strength. Sub-100 cm(-1) bands in the far-IR spectrum are assigned to the rattling motion of the anions. Calculated NMR chemical shifts of the acidic protons in the crystalline phase of these salts also exhibit the signature of cation-anion hydrogen bonding.
Morishita, Tetsuya
2009-05-21
We report a first-principles study of the structural, electronic, and dynamical properties of high-density amorphous (HDA) silicon, which was found to be formed by pressurizing low-density amorphous (LDA) silicon (a normal amorphous Si) [T. Morishita, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 055503 (2004); P. F. McMillan, M. Wilson, D. Daisenberger, and D. Machon, Nature Mater. 4, 680 (2005)]. Striking structural differences between HDA and LDA are revealed. The LDA structure holds a tetrahedral network, while the HDA structure contains a highly distorted tetrahedral network. The fifth neighboring atom in HDA tends to be located at an interstitial position of a distorted tetrahedron composed of the first four neighboring atoms. Consequently, the coordination number of HDA is calculated to be approximately 5 unlike that of LDA. The electronic density of state (EDOS) shows that HDA is metallic, which is consistent with a recent experimental measurement of the electronic resistance of HDA Si. We find from local EDOS that highly distorted tetrahedral configurations enhance the metallic nature of HDA. The vibrational density of state (VDOS) also reflects the structural differences between HDA and LDA. Some of the characteristic vibrational modes of LDA are dematerialized in HDA, indicating the degradation of covalent bonds. The overall profile of the VDOS for HDA is found to be an intermediate between that for LDA and liquid Si under pressure (high-density liquid Si).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Inazaki, T [Public Works Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan)
1997-05-27
With an objective to measure a behavior of the surface ground during a strong earthquake directly on the actual ground and make evaluation thereon, a proposal was made on an original location measuring and analyzing method using an S-wave vibrator and seismic cones. This system consists of an S-wave vibrator and a static cone penetrating machine, and different types of measuring cones. A large number of measuring cones are inserted initially in the object bed of the ground, and variation in the vibration generated by the vibrator is measured. This method can derive decrease in rigidity rate of the actual ground according to dynamic strain levels, or in other words, the dynamic nonlinearity. The strain levels can be controlled with a range from 10 {sup -5} to 10 {sup -3} by varying the distance from the S-wave vibrator. Furthermore, the decrease in the rigidity rate can be derived by measuring variations in the S-wave velocity by using the plank hammering method during the vibration. Field measurement is as easy as it can be completed in about half a day including preparatory works, and the data analysis is also simple. The method is superior in mobility and workability. 9 figs.
Rossi, Mariana; Liu, Hanchao; Paesani, Francesco; Bowman, Joel; Ceriotti, Michele
2014-11-14
Including quantum mechanical effects on the dynamics of nuclei in the condensed phase is challenging, because the complexity of exact methods grows exponentially with the number of quantum degrees of freedom. Efforts to circumvent these limitations can be traced down to two approaches: methods that treat a small subset of the degrees of freedom with rigorous quantum mechanics, considering the rest of the system as a static or classical environment, and methods that treat the whole system quantum mechanically, but using approximate dynamics. Here, we perform a systematic comparison between these two philosophies for the description of quantum effects in vibrational spectroscopy, taking the Embedded Local Monomer model and a mixed quantum-classical model as representatives of the first family of methods, and centroid molecular dynamics and thermostatted ring polymer molecular dynamics as examples of the latter. We use as benchmarks D2O doped with HOD and pure H2O at three distinct thermodynamic state points (ice Ih at 150 K, and the liquid at 300 K and 600 K), modeled with the simple q-TIP4P/F potential energy and dipole moment surfaces. With few exceptions the different techniques yield IR absorption frequencies that are consistent with one another within a few tens of cm(-1). Comparison with classical molecular dynamics demonstrates the importance of nuclear quantum effects up to the highest temperature, and a detailed discussion of the discrepancies between the various methods let us draw some (circumstantial) conclusions about the impact of the very different approximations that underlie them. Such cross validation between radically different approaches could indicate a way forward to further improve the state of the art in simulations of condensed-phase quantum dynamics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dimitrievska, Mirjana; White, James L.; Zhou, Wei; Stavila, Vitalie; Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Udovic, Terrence J.
2016-01-01
The structure-dependent vibrational properties of different Mg(BH4)2 polymorphs (..alpha.., ..beta.., ..gamma.., and ..delta.. phases) were investigated with a combination of neutron vibrational spectroscopy (NVS) measurements and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, with emphasis placed on the effects of the local structure and orientation of the BH4- anions. DFT simulations closely match the neutron vibrational spectra. The main bands in the low-energy region (20-80 meV) are associated with the BH4- librational modes. The features in the intermediate energy region (80-120 meV) are attributed to overtones and combination bands arising from the lower-energy modes. The features in the high-energy region (120-200 meV) correspond to the BH4- symmetric and asymmetric bending vibrations, of which four peaks located at 140, 142, 160, and 172 meV are especially intense. There are noticeable intensity distribution variations in the vibrational bands for different polymorphs. This is explained by the differences in the spatial distribution of BH4- anions within various structures. An example of the possible identification of products after the hydrogenation of MgB2, using NVS measurements, is presented. These results provide fundamental insights of benefit to researchers currently studying these promising hydrogen-storage materials.
García-Vela, A; Janda, K C
2006-01-21
Wave-packet simulations of the Ne-Br2(B,upsilon') vibrational predissociation dynamics in the range upsilon' = 16-29 are reported. The aim is to interpret recent time-dependent pump-probe experiments [Cabrera et al., J. Chem. Phys. 123, 054311 (2005)]. Good agreement is found between the calculated and the experimental lifetimes corresponding to decay of the Ne-Br2(B,upsilon') initial state and to appearance of Br2(B,upsilonBr2(B,upsilonBr2(B,upsilonBr2 distances greater than 15 angstroms. In the light of the results, a structure of the spectrum of continuum resonances is suggested and discussed.
Fayer, M D
2009-01-01
A wide variety of molecular systems undergo fast structural changes under thermal equilibrium conditions. Such transformations are involved in a vast array of chemical problems. Experimentally measuring equilibrium dynamics is a challenging problem that is at the forefront of chemical research. This review describes ultrafast 2D IR vibrational echo chemical exchange experiments and applies them to several types of molecular systems. The formation and dissociation of organic solute-solvent complexes are directly observed. The dissociation times of 13 complexes, ranging from 4 ps to 140 ps, are shown to obey a relationship that depends on the complex's formation enthalpy. The rate of rotational gauche-trans isomerization around a carbon-carbon single bond is determined for a substituted ethane at room temperature in a low viscosity solvent. The results are used to obtain an approximate isomerization rate for ethane. Finally, the time dependence of a well-defined single structural transformation of a protein is measured.
Fournier, Frédéric; Zheng, Wanquan; Carrez, Serge; Dubost, Henri; Bourguignon, Bernard
2004-09-01
Interaction of CO adsorbed on Pt(111) with electrons and phonons is studied experimentally by means of a pump-probe experiment where CO is probed by IR+visible sum frequency generation under a pump laser intensity that allows photodesorption. Vibrational spectra of CO internal stretch are obtained as a function of pump-probe delay. A two-temperature and anharmonic coupling model is used to extract from the spectra the real time variations of CO peak frequency and dephasing time. The main conclusions are the following: (i) The CO stretch is perturbed by two low-frequency modes, assigned to frustrated rotation and frustrated translation. (ii) The frustrated rotation is directly coupled to electrons photoexcited in Pt(111) by the pump laser. (iii) There is no evidence of Pt-CO stretch excitation in the spectra. The implications for the photodesorption dynamics are discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahn, Chang Kee; Shim, Joo Sup [Shinwa Technology Information, Seoul (Korea)
2001-04-01
The objective of this study is to deduce the dynamic correlation between the fuel assembly and the reactor structure. Dynamic characteristics analyses for reactor structure related with vibration of HANARO fuel assembly have been performed For the dynamic characteristic analysis, the in-air models of the round and hexagonal flow tubes, 18-element and 36-element fuel assemblies, and reactor structure were developed. By calculating the hydrodynamic mass and distributing it on the in-air models, the in-water models of the flow tubes, the fuel assemblies, and the reactor structure were developed. Then, modal analyses for developed in-air and in-water models have been performed. Especially, two 18-element fuel assemblies and three 36-element fuel assemblies were included in the in-water reactor models. For the verification of the modal analysis results, the natural frequencies and the mode shapes of the fuel assembly were compared with those obtained from the experiment. Finally the analysis results of the reactor structure were compared with them performed by AECL Based on the reactor model without PCS piping, the in-water reactor model including the fuel assemblies was developed, and its modal analysis was performed. The analysis results demonstrate that there are no resonance between the fuel assembly and the reactor structures. 26 refs., 419 figs., 85 tabs. (Author)
DETERMINING THE RESPONSE IN CASE OF VIBRATIONS OF STRAIGHT BARS WITH RANDOM EXCITATIONS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Monica BALDEA
2012-05-01
Full Text Available By applying the finite element calculus to the study of bar vibrations, one obtains a system of linear diferential equations. One carries out the determination of the response to random stimulations by calculating the statistical terms as a function of the statistical terms of the stimulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xie, Changjian [Key Laboratory of Mesoscopic Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Institute of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhu, Xiaolei; Yarkony, David R., E-mail: jianyi.m@gmail.com, E-mail: yarkony@jhu.edu, E-mail: dqxie@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: hguo@unm.edu [Department of Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Ma, Jianyi, E-mail: jianyi.m@gmail.com, E-mail: yarkony@jhu.edu, E-mail: dqxie@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: hguo@unm.edu [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610065 (China); Xie, Daiqian, E-mail: jianyi.m@gmail.com, E-mail: yarkony@jhu.edu, E-mail: dqxie@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: hguo@unm.edu [Key Laboratory of Mesoscopic Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Institute of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Guo, Hua, E-mail: jianyi.m@gmail.com, E-mail: yarkony@jhu.edu, E-mail: dqxie@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: hguo@unm.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States)
2015-03-07
Non-adiabatic processes play an important role in photochemistry, but the mechanism for conversion of electronic energy to chemical energy is still poorly understood. To explore the possibility of vibrational control of non-adiabatic dynamics in a prototypical photoreaction, namely, the A-band photodissociation of NH{sub 3}(X{sup ~1}A{sub 1}), full-dimensional state-to-state quantum dynamics of symmetric or antisymmetric stretch excited NH{sub 3}(X{sup ~1}A{sub 1}) is investigated on recently developed coupled diabatic potential energy surfaces. The experimentally observed H atom kinetic energy distributions are reproduced. However, contrary to previous inferences, the NH{sub 2}(A{sup ~2}A{sub 1})/NH{sub 2}(X{sup ~2}B{sub 1}) branching ratio is found to be small regardless of the initial preparation of NH{sub 3}(X{sup ~1}A{sub 1}), while the internal state distribution of the preeminent fragment, NH{sub 2}(X{sup ~2}B{sub 1}), is found to depend strongly on the initial vibrational excitation of NH{sub 3}(X{sup ~1}A{sub 1}). The slow H atoms in photodissociation mediated by the antisymmetric stretch fundamental state are due to energy sequestered in the internally excited NH{sub 2}(X{sup ~2}B{sub 1}) fragment, rather than in NH{sub 2}(A{sup ~2}A{sub 1}) as previously proposed. The high internal excitation of the NH{sub 2}(X{sup ~2}B{sub 1}) fragment is attributed to the torques exerted on the molecule as it passes through the conical intersection seam to the ground electronic state of NH{sub 3}. Thus in this system, contrary to previous assertions, the control of electronic state branching by selective excitation of ground state vibrational modes is concluded to be ineffective. The juxtaposition of precise quantum mechanical results with complementary results based on quasi-classical surface hopping trajectories provides significant insights into the non-adiabatic process.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Uruba, Václav
2015-01-01
Roč. 55, May (2015), s. 372-383 ISSN 0889-9746 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP101/10/1230 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : airfoil * vibrations * boundary layer separation * oscillation pattern decomposition Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.709, year: 2015
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morini, F; Deleuze, M S; Watanabe, N; Takahashi, M
2015-01-01
The role of molecular vibrations has been theoretically investigated in the electronic ground state on the (e, 2e) valence orbital momentum profiles of furan by means of two complementary approaches. The first one relies upon the principles of Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics (BOMD), whereas the second one, referred as Harmonic Analytical Quantum Mechanical (HAQM) approach, includes on quantum-mechanical (paper)
Dynamics of vibration isolation system with rubber-cord-pneumatic spring with damping throttle
Burian, Yu A.; Silkov, M. V.
2017-06-01
The study refers to the important area of applied mechanics; it is the theory of vibration isolation of vibroactive facilities. The design and the issues of mathematical modeling of pneumatic spring perspective design made on the basis of rubber-cord shell with additional volume connected with its primary volume by means of throttle passageway are considered in the text. Damping at the overflow of air through the hole limits the amplitude of oscillation at resonance. But in contrast to conventional systems with viscous damping it does not increase transmission ratio at high frequencies. The mathematical model of suspension allowing selecting options to reduce the power transmission ratio on the foundation, especially in the high frequency range is obtained
Luzi, Guido; Crosetto, Michele; Fernández, Enric
2017-03-24
The potential of a coherent microwave sensor to monitor the vibration characteristics of civil structures has been investigated in the past decade, and successful case studies have been published by different research teams. This remote sensing technique is based on the interferometric processing of real aperture radar acquisitions. Its capability to estimate, simultaneously and remotely, the displacement of different parts of the investigated structures, with high accuracy and repeatability, is its main advantage with respect to conventional sensors. A considerable amount of literature on this technique is available, including various case studies aimed at testing the ambient vibration of bridges, buildings, and towers. In the last years, this technique has been used in Spain for civil structures monitoring. In this paper, three examples of such case studies are described: the monitoring of the suspended bridge crossing the Ebro River at Amposta, the communications tower of Collserola in Barcelona, and an urban building located in Vilafranca del Penedès, a small town close to Barcelona. This paper summarizes the main outcomes of these case studies, underlining the advantages and limitations of the sensors currently available, and concluding with the possible improvements expected from the next generation of sensors.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yamaguchi, H. [Saitama University, Saitama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Takano, H.; Ogasawara, M.; Shimosato, T. [Metropolitan Expressway Public Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kato, M.; Okada, J. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan)
1996-07-21
Field vibration test of the Tsurumi Tsubasa Bridge, a long span cable stayed bridge, has been conducted. Focusing on its dynamic characteristics, an identification method from test results and its validity were investigated. The natural frequency identified using mode circle and resonance curve from steady vibration test agreed with that identified by the peak method from free damping test. Accordingly, there was no difference due to identification methods, and both methods provided appropriate accuracy. The natural vibration mode obtained from the steady vibration test agreed with that obtained by the eigenvalue analysis. The dispersion of experimental values, which indicates the adaptation to mode circle method, became a scale indicating reliability of identified values. When the damping obtained by the half power method for the microtremors test is compared with that identified from the steady vibration test and free damping test, it is required to compare them at lower amplitude level region, considering that the amplitude level of microtremors test is very low. For the dynamic characteristics of the Tsurumi Tsubasa Bridge, it was found that it has lower natural frequency and higher modal damping compared with other cable stayed bridges with similar scale of span. 18 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.
Ekrami, Yasamin; Cook, Joseph S.
2011-01-01
In order to mitigate catastrophic failures on future generation space vehicles, engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration have begun to integrate a novel crew abort systems that could pull a crew module away in case of an emergency at the launch pad or during ascent. The Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) is a recent test vehicle that was designed as an alternative to the baseline Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) to demonstrate the performance of a "tower-less" LAS configuration under abort conditions. The MLAS II test vehicle will execute a propulsive coast stabilization maneuver during abort to control the vehicles trajectory and thrust. To accomplish this, the spacecraft will integrate an Attitude Control System (ACS) with eight hypergolic monomethyl hydrazine liquid propulsion engines that are capable of operating in a quick pulsing mode. Two main elements of the ACS include a propellant distribution subsystem and a pressurization subsystem to regulate the flow of pressurized gas to the propellant tanks and the engines. The CAD assembly of the Attitude Control System (ACS) was configured and integrated into the Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) design. A dynamic random vibration analysis was conducted on the Main Propulsion System (MPS) helium pressurization panels to assess the response of the panel and its components under increased gravitational acceleration loads during flight. The results indicated that the panels fundamental and natural frequencies were farther from the maximum Acceleration Spectral Density (ASD) vibrations which were in the range of 150-300 Hz. These values will direct how the components will be packaged in the vehicle to reduce the effects high gravitational loads.
Vibrational and Rotational Energy Relaxation in Liquids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Jakob
Vibrational and rotational energy relaxation in liquids are studied by means of computer simulations. As a precursor for studying vibrational energy relaxation of a solute molecule subsequent to the formation of a chemical bond, the validity of the classical Bersohn-Zewail model for describing......, the vibrational energy relaxation of I2 subsequent to photodissociation and recombination in CCl4 is studied using classical Molecular Dynamics simulations. The vibrational relaxation times and the time-dependent I-I pair distribution function are compared to new experimental results, and a qualitative agreement...... is found in both cases. Furthermore, the rotational energy relaxation of H2O in liquid water is studied via simulations and a power-and-work analysis. The mechanism of the energy transfer from the rotationally excited H2O molecule to its water neighbors is elucidated, i.e. the energy-accepting degrees...
Surface vibrational spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erskine, J.L.
1984-01-01
A brief review of recent studies which combine measurements of surface vibrational energies with lattice dynamical calculations is presented. These results suggest that surface vibrational spectroscopy offers interesting prospects for use as a molecular-level probe of surface geometry, adsorbate bond distances and molecular orientations
Dynamic Error Analysis Method for Vibration Shape Reconstruction of Smart FBG Plate Structure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hesheng Zhang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Shape reconstruction of aerospace plate structure is an important issue for safe operation of aerospace vehicles. One way to achieve such reconstruction is by constructing smart fiber Bragg grating (FBG plate structure with discrete distributed FBG sensor arrays using reconstruction algorithms in which error analysis of reconstruction algorithm is a key link. Considering that traditional error analysis methods can only deal with static data, a new dynamic data error analysis method are proposed based on LMS algorithm for shape reconstruction of smart FBG plate structure. Firstly, smart FBG structure and orthogonal curved network based reconstruction method is introduced. Then, a dynamic error analysis model is proposed for dynamic reconstruction error analysis. Thirdly, the parameter identification is done for the proposed dynamic error analysis model based on least mean square (LMS algorithm. Finally, an experimental verification platform is constructed and experimental dynamic reconstruction analysis is done. Experimental results show that the dynamic characteristics of the reconstruction performance for plate structure can be obtained accurately based on the proposed dynamic error analysis method. The proposed method can also be used for other data acquisition systems and data processing systems as a general error analysis method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diesselhorst, T.; Diatschuk, P.; Schnellhammer, W.
2005-01-01
Concerning the design for hydraulic load cases there is always a sequence of fluid- and structural dynamic calculations, where the structural vibrations are induced by the time depending fluid forces. Therefore, in order to prevent excessive structural reactions, it is most important to avoid conservative fluid dynamic results. That refers to the maximum value of the pressure surge as well as to the damping of pressure oscillations. This is especially relevant in case of fluid-structure resonance. To meet these requirements the effect of dynamic wall friction was implemented in our fluid dynamic code. Thus, a more realistic damping behavior of the fluid forces was achieved. In the structural analysis code the damping of the pipe structure could be more accurate adapted to the real conditions. Additionally the local damping by viscous damper was included in the model. At supports now non-linear behavior like clearances can be simulated. The possibility of coupled calculation was installed to consider the effect of fluid structure interaction. The programmed effects are validated against measurement results from power plant systems. The favorable effects of the program improvements are demonstrated by typical examples. These included the realistic damping of pressure oscillations as well as a case of fluid-structure resonance. Additionally the effectiveness of the improved models of piping supports is demonstrated. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nour, Ali [Hydro Québec, Montréal, Québec H2L4P5 (Canada); École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3C3A7 (Canada); Cherfaoui, Abdelhalim; Gocevski, Vladimir [Hydro Québec, Montréal, Québec H2L4P5 (Canada); Léger, Pierre [École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3C3A7 (Canada)
2016-08-01
Highlights: • In this case study, the seismic PSA methodology adopted for a CANDU 6 is presented. • Ambient vibrations testing to calibrate a 3D FEM and to reduce uncertainties is performed. • Procedure for the development of FRS for the RB considering wave incoherency effect is proposed. • Seismic fragility analysis for the RB is presented. - Abstract: Following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in Japan there is a worldwide interest in reducing uncertainties in seismic safety assessment of existing nuclear power plant (NPP). Within the scope of a Canadian refurbishment project of a CANDU 6 (NPP) put in service in 1983, structures and equipment must sustain a new seismic demand characterised by the uniform hazard spectrum (UHS) obtained from a site specific study defined for a return period of 1/10,000 years. This UHS exhibits larger spectral ordinates in the high-frequency range than those used in design. To reduce modeling uncertainties as part of a seismic probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), Hydro-Québec developed a procedure using ambient vibrations testing to calibrate a detailed 3D finite element model (FEM) of the containment and reactor building (RB). This calibrated FE model is then used for generating floor response spectra (FRS) based on ground motion time histories compatible with the UHS. Seismic fragility analyses of the reactor building (RB) and structural components are also performed in the context of a case study. Because the RB is founded on a large circular raft, it is possible to consider the effect of the seismic wave incoherency to filter out the high-frequency content, mainly above 10 Hz, using the incoherency transfer function (ITF) method. This allows reducing significantly the non-necessary conservatism in resulting FRS, an important issue for an existing NPP. The proposed case study, and related methodology using ambient vibration testing, is particularly useful to engineers involved in seismic re-evaluation of
Towards Trustworthy Adaptive Case Management with Dynamic Condition Response Graphs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Slaats, Tijs
2013-01-01
We describe how the declarative Dynamic Condition Response (DCR) Graphs process model can be used for trustworthy adaptive case management by leveraging the flexible execution, dynamic composition and adaptation supported by DCR Graphs. The dynamically composed and adapted graphs are verified for...
Making System Dynamics Cool IV : Teaching & Testing with Cases & Quizzes
Pruyt, E.
2012-01-01
This follow-up paper presents cases and multiple choice questions for teaching and testing System Dynamics modeling. These cases and multiple choice questions were developed and used between January 2012 and April 2012 a large System Dynamics course (250+ 2nd year BSc and 40+ MSc students per year)
Making System Dynamics Cool III : New Hot Teaching & Testing Cases
Pruyt, E.
2011-01-01
This follow-up paper presents seven actual cases for testing and teaching System Dynamics developed and used between January 2010 and January 2011 for one of the largest System Dynamics courses (250+ students per year) at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. The cases presented in this
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yufei Liu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the dynamic of a flexible robotic manipulator (FRM which consists of rigid driving base, flexible links, and flexible joints. With considering the motion fluctuations caused by the coupling effect, such as the motor parameters and mechanism inertias, as harmonic disturbances, the system investigated in this paper remains a parametrically excited system. An elastic restraint model of the FRM with elastic joints (FRMEJ is proposed, which considers the elastic properties of the connecting joints between the flexible arm and the driving base, as well as the harmonic disturbances aroused by the electromechanical coupling effect. As a consequence, the FRMEJ accordingly remains a flexible multibody system which conveys the effects of rigid-flexible couple and electromechanical couple. The Lagrangian function and Hamilton’s principle are used to establish the dynamic model of the FRMEJ. Based on the dynamic model proposed, the vibration power flow is introduced to show the vibration energy distribution. Numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the effect of the joint elasticities and the disturbance excitations, and the influences of the structure parameters and motion parameters on the vibration power flow are studied. The results obtained in this paper contribute to the structure design, motion optimization, and vibration control of FRMs.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Monni, R.; Auböck, G.; Kinschel, D.; Aziz-Lange, K. M.; Gray, H. B.; Vlček, Antonín; Chergui, M.
2017-01-01
Roč. 683, SEP 2017 (2017), s. 112-120 ISSN 0009-2614 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD14129; GA ČR GA17-01137S Grant - others:COST(XE) CM1201 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : vibrational energy * electronic energy * diplatinum complexes Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry OBOR OECD: Electrochemistry (dry cells, batteries, fuel cells, corrosion metals, electrolysis) Impact factor: 1.815, year: 2016
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Xiaofei; Ye, Xuan; Li, Xide
2016-01-01
In this paper, we present a cantilever-probe system excited by a piezoelectric actuator, and use it to measure the dynamic mechanical properties of a micro- and nanoscale fiber. Coupling the fiber to the free end of the cantilever probe, we found the dynamic stiffness and damping coefficient of the fiber from the resonance frequency and the quality factor of the fiber-cantilever-probe system. The properties of Bacillus subtilis fibers measured using our proposed system agreed with tensile measurements, validating our method. Our measurements show that the piezoelectric actuator coupled to cantilever probe can be made equivalent to a clamped cantilever with an effective length, and calculated results show that the errors of measured natural frequency of the system can be ignored if the coupled fiber has an inclination angle of alignment of less than 10°. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the first or second resonant mode is the sensitive mode to test the sample’s dynamic stiffness, while the damping property has different sensitivities for the first four modes. Our theoretical analysis demonstrates that the double-cantilever probe is also an effective sensitive structure that can be used to perform dynamic loading and characterize dynamic response. Our method has the advantage of using amplitude-frequency curves to obtain the dynamic mechanical properties without directly measuring displacements and forces as in tensile tests, and it also avoids the effects of the complex surface structure and deformation presenting in contact resonance method. Our method is effective for measuring the dynamic mechanical properties of fiber-like one-dimensional (1D) materials. (paper)
Zhang, Xiaofei; Ye, Xuan; Li, Xide
2016-08-01
In this paper, we present a cantilever-probe system excited by a piezoelectric actuator, and use it to measure the dynamic mechanical properties of a micro- and nanoscale fiber. Coupling the fiber to the free end of the cantilever probe, we found the dynamic stiffness and damping coefficient of the fiber from the resonance frequency and the quality factor of the fiber-cantilever-probe system. The properties of Bacillus subtilis fibers measured using our proposed system agreed with tensile measurements, validating our method. Our measurements show that the piezoelectric actuator coupled to cantilever probe can be made equivalent to a clamped cantilever with an effective length, and calculated results show that the errors of measured natural frequency of the system can be ignored if the coupled fiber has an inclination angle of alignment of less than 10°. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the first or second resonant mode is the sensitive mode to test the sample’s dynamic stiffness, while the damping property has different sensitivities for the first four modes. Our theoretical analysis demonstrates that the double-cantilever probe is also an effective sensitive structure that can be used to perform dynamic loading and characterize dynamic response. Our method has the advantage of using amplitude-frequency curves to obtain the dynamic mechanical properties without directly measuring displacements and forces as in tensile tests, and it also avoids the effects of the complex surface structure and deformation presenting in contact resonance method. Our method is effective for measuring the dynamic mechanical properties of fiber-like one-dimensional (1D) materials.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scherrer, Arne [Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Institut für Chemie, von-Danckelmann-Platz 4, 06120 Halle (Germany); Département de Chimie, École Normale supérieure, PSL Research University, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, PASTEUR, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, ENS, CNRS, PASTEUR, 75005 Paris (France); Vuilleumier, Rodolphe, E-mail: rodolphe.vuilleumier@ens.fr [Département de Chimie, École Normale supérieure, PSL Research University, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, PASTEUR, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, ENS, CNRS, PASTEUR, 75005 Paris (France); Sebastiani, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.sebastiani@chemie.uni-halle.de [Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Institut für Chemie, von-Danckelmann-Platz 4, 06120 Halle (Germany)
2016-08-28
We report the first fully ab initio calculation of dynamical vibrational circular dichroism spectra in the liquid phase using nuclear velocity perturbation theory (NVPT) derived electronic currents. Our approach is rigorous and general and thus capable of treating weak interactions of chiral molecules as, e.g., chirality transfer from a chiral molecule to an achiral solvent. We use an implementation of the NVPT that is projected along the dynamics to obtain the current and magnetic dipole moments required for accurate intensities. The gauge problem in the liquid phase is resolved in a twofold approach. The electronic expectation values are evaluated in a distributed origin gauge, employing maximally localized Wannier orbitals. In a second step, the gauge invariant spectrum is obtained in terms of a scaled molecular moments, which allows to systematically include solvent effects while keeping a significant signal-to-noise ratio. We give a thorough analysis and discussion of this choice of gauge for the liquid phase. At low temperatures, we recover the established double harmonic approximation. The methodology is applied to chiral molecules ((S)-d{sub 2}-oxirane and (R)-propylene-oxide) in the gas phase and in solution. We find an excellent agreement with the theoretical and experimental references, including the emergence of signals due to chirality transfer from the solute to the (achiral) solvent.
The nonlinear dynamics of a spacecraft coupled to the vibration of a contained fluid
Peterson, Lee D.; Crawley, Edward F.; Hansman, R. John
1988-01-01
The dynamics of a linear spacecraft mode coupled to a nonlinear low gravity slosh of a fluid in a cylindrical tank is investigated. Coupled, nonlinear equations of motion for the fluid-spacecraft dynamics are derived through an assumed mode Lagrangian method. Unlike linear fluid slosh models, this nonlinear slosh model retains two fundamental slosh modes and three secondary modes. An approximate perturbation solution of the equations of motion indicates that the nonlinear coupled system response involves fluid-spacecraft modal resonances not predicted by either a linear, or a nonlinear, uncoupled slosh analysis. Experimental results substantiate the analytical predictions.
A Nonlinear Dynamic Model and Free Vibration Analysis of Deployable Mesh Reflectors
Shi, H.; Yang, B.; Thomson, M.; Fang, H.
2011-01-01
This paper presents a dynamic model of deployable mesh reflectors, in which geometric and material nonlinearities of such a space structure are fully described. Then, by linearization around an equilibrium configuration of the reflector structure, a linearized model is obtained. With this linearized model, the natural frequencies and mode shapes of a reflector can be computed. The nonlinear dynamic model of deployable mesh reflectors is verified by using commercial finite element software in numerical simulation. As shall be seen, the proposed nonlinear model is useful for shape (surface) control of deployable mesh reflectors under thermal loads.
Spiekermann, Georg; Steele-MacInnis, Matthew; Schmidt, Christian; Jahn, Sandro
2012-04-21
Vibrational spectroscopy techniques are commonly used to probe the atomic-scale structure of silica species in aqueous solution and hydrous silica glasses. However, unequivocal assignment of individual spectroscopic features to specific vibrational modes is challenging. In this contribution, we establish a connection between experimentally observed vibrational bands and ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) of silica species in solution and in hydrous silica glass. Using the mode-projection approach, we decompose the vibrations of silica species into subspectra resulting from several fundamental structural subunits: The SiO(4) tetrahedron of symmetry T(d), the bridging oxygen (BO) Si-O-Si of symmetry C(2v), the geminal oxygen O-Si-O of symmetry C(2v), the individual Si-OH stretching, and the specific ethane-like symmetric stretching contribution of the H(6)Si(2)O(7) dimer. This allows us to study relevant vibrations of these subunits in any degree of polymerization, from the Q(0) monomer up to the fully polymerized Q(4) tetrahedra. Demonstrating the potential of this approach for supplementing the interpretation of experimental spectra, we compare the calculated frequencies to those extracted from experimental Raman spectra of hydrous silica glasses and silica species in aqueous solution. We discuss observed features such as the double-peaked contribution of the Q(2) tetrahedral symmetric stretch, the individual Si-OH stretching vibrations, the origin of the experimentally observed band at 970 cm(-1) and the ethane-like vibrational contribution of the H(6)Si(2)O(7) dimer at 870 cm(-1).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergiu Bejan
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The natural soil used in filling the embankment of the road communications is characterized by the following factors: humidity, porosity, toughness. For certain factor values that describe the soil state is distinguished a certain soil behavior under the influence of the external forces applied through static or dynamic mechanical means.
Marble, Erik; Morton, Christopher; Yarusevych, Serhiy
2018-05-01
Vortex-induced vibrations of a pivoted cylinder are investigated experimentally at a fixed Reynolds number of 3100, a mass ratio of 10.8, and a range of reduced velocities, 4.42 ≤ U^* ≤ 9.05. For these conditions, the cylinder traces elliptic trajectories, with the experimental conditions producing three out of four possible combinations of orbiting direction and primary axis alignment relative to the incoming flow. The study focuses on the quantitative analysis of wake topology and its relation to this type of structural response. Velocity fields were measured using time-resolved, two-component particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV). These results show that phase-averaged wake topology generally agrees with the Morse and Williamson (J Fluids Struct 25(4):697-712, 2009) shedding map for one-degree-of-freedom vortex-induced vibrations, with 2S, 2{P}o, and 2P shedding patterns observed within the range of reduced velocities studied here. Vortex tracking and vortex strength quantification are used to analyze the vortex shedding process and how it relates to cylinder response. In the case of 2S vortex shedding, vortices are shed when the cylinder is approaching the maximum transverse displacement and reaches the streamwise equilibrium. 2P vortices are shed approximately half a period earlier in the cylinder's elliptic trajectory. Leading vortices shed immediately after the peak in transverse oscillation and trailing vortices shed near the equilibrium of transverse oscillation. The orientation and direction of the cylinder's elliptic trajectory are shown to influence the timing of vortex shedding, inducing changes in the 2P wake topology.
Vertical vibration dynamics of acoustically levitated drop containing two immiscible liquids
Zang, Duyang; Zhai, Zhicong; Li, Lin; Lin, Kejun; Li, Xiaoguang; Geng, Xingguo
2016-09-01
We have studied the levitation and oscillation dynamics of complex drops containing two immiscible liquids. Two types of drops, core-shell drop and abnormal-shaped drop, have been obtained depending on the levitation procedures. The oscillation dynamics of the drops have been studied using a high speed camera. It has been found that the oscillation of the abnormal-shaped drop has a longer oscillation period and decays much faster than that of the core-shell drop, which cannot be accounted for by the air resistance itself. The acoustic streaming induced by ultrasound may bring an additional force against the motion of the drop due to the Bernoulli effect. This is responsible for the enhanced damping during the oscillation in acoustic levitation.
1985-06-01
purposes. 55 15 525 + 2 225L L53 + L3 ) + 2G3(L 2 + L35L4 + L45)" For the present system identification + 2G(L45 2 + L45L5 + L5 "L 1 technique, the...orbital model is comprised of 257 nodes and 819 dynamic:"DOF’s. k; were compared to ITD results for a wide variety of TD input parameters. Overall, the
Worst-Case-Optimal Dynamic Reinsurance for Large Claims
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Korn, Ralf; Menkens, Olaf; Steffensen, Mogens
2012-01-01
We control the surplus process of a non-life insurance company by dynamic proportional reinsurance. The objective is to maximize expected (utility of the) surplus under the worst-case claim development. In the large claim case with a worst-case upper limit on claim numbers and claim sizes, we fin...
Lee, Hyoseong; Rhee, Huinam; Oh, Jae Hong; Park, Jin Ho
2016-01-01
This paper deals with an improved methodology to measure three-dimensional dynamic displacements of a structure by digital close-range photogrammetry. A series of stereo images of a vibrating structure installed with targets are taken at specified intervals by using two daily-use cameras. A new methodology is proposed to accurately trace the spatial displacement of each target in three-dimensional space. This method combines the correlation and the least-square image matching so that the sub-pixel targeting can be obtained to increase the measurement accuracy. Collinearity and space resection theory are used to determine the interior and exterior orientation parameters. To verify the proposed method, experiments have been performed to measure displacements of a cantilevered beam excited by an electrodynamic shaker, which is vibrating in a complex configuration with mixed bending and torsional motions simultaneously with multiple frequencies. The results by the present method showed good agreement with the measurement by two laser displacement sensors. The proposed methodology only requires inexpensive daily-use cameras, and can remotely detect the dynamic displacement of a structure vibrating in a complex three-dimensional defection shape up to sub-pixel accuracy. It has abundant potential applications to various fields, e.g., remote vibration monitoring of an inaccessible or dangerous facility. PMID:26978366
Takayanagi, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Kento; Yoshida, Takahiko; Kita, Yukiumi; Tachikawa, Masanori
2017-05-01
We present computational results of vibrationally enhanced positron annihilation in the e+ + HCN/DCN collisions within a local complex potential model. Vibrationally elastic and inelastic cross sections and effective annihilation rates were calculated by solving a time-dependent complex-potential Schrödinger equation under the ab initio potential energy surface for the positron attached HCN molecule, [HCN; e+], with multi-component configuration interaction level (Kita and Tachikawa, 2014). We discuss the effect of vibrational excitation on the positron affinities from the obtained vibrational resonance features.
Li, Xintao; Zhang, Weiwei; Gao, Chuanqiang
2018-03-01
Wake-induced vibration (WIV) contains rich and complex phenomena due to the flow interference between cylinders. The aim of the present study is to gain physical insight into the intrinsic dynamics of WIV via linear stability analysis (LSA) of the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) system. A reduced-order-model-based linear dynamic model, combined with the direct computational fluid dynamics/computational structural dynamics simulation method, is adopted to investigate WIV in two identical tandem cylinders at low Re. The spacing ratio L/D, with L as the center-to-center distance and D as the diameter of cylinders, is selected as 2.0 to consider the effect of proximity flow interference. Results show that extensive WIV along with the vortex shedding could occur at subcritical Re conditions due to the instability of one coupled mode (i.e., coupled mode I, CM-I) of the FSI system. The eigenfrequency of CM-I transfers smoothly from close to the reduced natural frequency of structure to the eigenfrequency of uncoupled wake mode as the reduced velocity U* increases. Thus, CM-I characterizes as the structure mode (SM) at low U*, while it characterizes as the wake mode (WM) at large U*. Mode conversion of CM-I is the primary cause of the "frequency transition" phenomenon observed in WIV responses. Furthermore, LSA indicates that there exists a critical mass ratio mcr*, below which no upper instability boundary of CM-I exists (Uup p e r *→∞ ). The unbounded instability of CM-I ultimately leads to the "infinite WIV" phenomenon. The neutral stability boundaries for WIV in the (Re, U*) plane are determined through LSA. It is shown that the lowest Re possible for WIV regarding the present configuration is R el o w e s t≈34 . LSA accurately captures the dynamics of WIV at subcritical Re and reveals that it is essentially a fluid-elastic instability problem. This work lays a good foundation for the investigation of WIV at supercritical high Re and gives enlightenment to the
The Shock and Vibration Bulletin. Part 3. Analytical Methods, Dynamic Analysis, Vehicle Systems
1981-05-01
1 Strnge Spcingramtr Fig 3% aito fma qaedslcmn ihsrne pcn 654 12 100 0 0 0 4 0 s 0 2 Distance along peal edge in - - Fig. 4 - Variation of...7 ~ ! v’j 4 pq -1 iijiL - -bp(C) I bpp ’ (24) L V* ki k2K 2 + (1 (ZT~~ - !I + !- 2) Y(IJ) and the value of bpp ’ can be tabulated as in 101 L .’blel1I...mI Table It. Values of bpp in Equation (24) The assembling of equations for a gun dynamics problem is more involved. The basic r1 procedures
Momentum distribution, vibrational dynamics, and the potential of mean force in ice
Lin, Lin; Morrone, Joseph A.; Car, Roberto; Parrinello, Michele
2011-06-01
By analyzing the momentum distribution obtained from path integral and phonon calculations we find that the protons in hexagonal ice experience an anisotropic quasiharmonic effective potential with three distinct principal frequencies that reflect molecular orientation. Due to the importance of anisotropy, anharmonic features of the environment cannot be extracted from existing experimental distributions that involve the spherical average. The full directional distribution is required, and we give a theoretical prediction for this quantity that could be verified in future experiments. Within the quasiharmonic context, anharmonicity in the ground-state dynamics of the proton is substantial and has quantal origin, a finding that impacts the interpretation of several spectroscopies.
The Generalized Coherent State ansatz: Application to quantum electron-vibrational dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borrelli, Raffaele, E-mail: raffaele.borrelli@unito.it [DISAFA, Università di Torino, I-10095 Grugliasco (Italy); Gelin, Maxim F. [Departement of Chemistry, Technische Universität München, D-85747 Garching (Germany)
2016-12-20
A new ansatz for molecular vibronic wave functions based on a superposition of time-dependent Generalized Coherent States is developed and analysed. The methodology is specifically tailored to describe the time evolution of the wave function of a system in which several interacting electronic states are coupled to a bath of harmonic oscillators. The equations of motion for the wave packet parameters are obtained by using the Dirac–Frenkel time-dependent variational principle. The methodology is used to describe the quantum dynamical behavior of a model polaron system and its scaling and convergence properties are discussed and compared with numerically exact results.
El-Hafidi, Ali; Birame Gning, Papa; Piezel, Benoit; Fontaine, Stéphane
2017-10-01
Experimental and numerical methods to identify the linear viscoelastic properties of flax fibre reinforced epoxy (FFRE) composite are presented in this study. The method relies on the evolution of storage modulus and loss factor as observed through the frequency response. Free-free symmetrically guided beams were excited on the dynamic range of 10 Hz to 4 kHz with a swept sine excitation focused around their first modes. A fractional derivative Zener model has been identified to predict the complex moduli. A modified ply constitutive law has been then implemented in a classical laminates theory calculation (CLT) routine.
1977-09-01
FUNDAMENTAL FREQUENCIES OF ORTHOTROPIC PLATES WITH VARIOUS PLANFORMS AND EDGE CONDITIONS C.W. Bert, The University of Oklahoma, Norman , OK DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF...OF AN ADAPTIVE FILTER AS A DIGITAL TRACKING FILTER D.O. Smallwood and D.L. Gregory, Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM TOTAL MISSION ENVIRONMENTAL...Engineering, July 1962 . , 6. John D. Favour, MaClom C. Mitchell and 18. S.R. Ibrahim and E.C. Mikulcik, "A Time Norman L. Olson, "Transient Test Tech
Vibration study of the APS magnet support assemblies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wambsganss, M.W.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Chen, S.S.
1990-11-01
Stability of the positron closed orbit is a requirement for successful operation of the Advanced Photon Source. The fact that vibration of the storage ring quadrupole magnets can lead to distortion of the positron closed orbit and to potentially unacceptable beam emittance growth provides the motivation for the subject studies. Low frequency vibrations can be controlled with steering magnets using feedback systems, provided the vibration amplitudes are within the dynamic range of the controllers. High frequency vibration amplitudes, on the other hand, are out of the range of the controller and, therefore must be limited to ensure the emittance growth will not exceed a prescribed value. Vibration criteria were developed based on the requirement that emittance growth be limited to 10 percent. Recognizing that the quadrupole magnets have the most significant effect, three different scenarios were considered: vibration of a single quadrupole within the storage ring, random vibration of all the quadrupoles in the ring, and the hypothetical case of a plane wave sweeping across the site and the quadrupoles following the motion of the plane wave. The maximum allowable peak vibration amplitudes corresponding to these three vibration scenarios are given. The criteria associated with the passage of a plane wave is dependent on wavelength, or, alternatively, on frequency given the wave speed. The wave speed used is that measured as a part of the geotechnical investigation at the APS site
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Myung Soo; Yang, Kyong Uk [Chonnam National University, Yeosu (Korea, Republic of); Kondou, Takahiro [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Bonkobara, Yasuhiro [University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki (Japan)
2016-03-15
We developed a method for analyzing the free vibration of a structure regarded as a distributed system, by combining the Wittrick-Williams algorithm and the transfer dynamic stiffness coefficient method. A computational algorithm was formulated for analyzing the free vibration of a straight-line beam regarded as a distributed system, to explain the concept of the developed method. To verify the effectiveness of the developed method, the natural frequencies of straight-line beams were computed using the finite element method, transfer matrix method, transfer dynamic stiffness coefficient method, the exact solution, and the developed method. By comparing the computational results of the developed method with those of the other methods, we confirmed that the developed method exhibited superior performance over the other methods in terms of computational accuracy, cost and user convenience.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Du Gi
2005-08-01
This book introduces summary of structural dynamics, the reason of learning of structural dynamics, single-degree of freedom system, simple harmonic vibration and application, numerical analysis method, such as time domain and frequency domain and nonlinear system, multi-degree of freedom system random vibration over discrete distribution, continuous distribution and extreme value distribution, circumstance vibration, earth quake vibration, including input earthquake, and earthquake-resistant design and capacity spectrum method, wind oscillation wave vibration, vibration control and maintenance control.
Poverty Dynamics: the case of the Maldives
J.L. de Kruijk (Hans)
2010-01-01
textabstractPoverty dynamics research leads to a better understanding of poverty than point-in-time studies. We have executed a comprehensive longitudinal poverty study based on 3 large-scale household surveys carried out on all 200 inhabited islands in the Maldives. The first wave was conducted in
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fukada, S.; Kajikawa, Y. [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan)] Tsunomoto, M. [Oriental Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)
1998-10-21
In this study, experiments on and simulation analyses of the travels of vehicles on a 2 span continuous PC cable-stayed bridge were conducted, and the propriety of the analysis method, vibration characteristics of traveling vehicles, and characteristics of the effective amplitude and dynamic increment factor concerning various traveling states were discussed. The results show that actually measured value of strain to a dynamic load substantially agreed with the value of strain obtained in the case of analysis in which the end fulcrums were movable. The actually measured value of natural frequency was between the value of natural frequency in the case of analysis in which the end fulcrums were movable and the value in the case of analysis in which the end fulcrums were in a pin state. The actually measured value of mode damping constant agreed exactly with the value of mode damping constant calculated on the assumption that the damping constant of the main beam is 1.0%, those of the main tower and bridge pier 5.0%, and that of the cables 0.1%. Therefore, the damping matrix in the dynamic response analysis was determined on the basis of the damping constants of these members. The characteristics of the effective amplitude and dynamic increment factor in various traveling states of the results of the simulation analysis are in comparatively good agreement with those of experiments. 20 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fokin, B.S.; Gol'dberg, E.N.
1979-01-01
Analytical results of statistical nature of forces exciting vibrations of tubular elements, which are flown around with two-phase flows, are given. Relationships for the calculation of a mean-square amplitude and vibration frequency of a tubular element flown around with a two-phase mixture have been obtained. The relationships are confirmed experimentally
Making System Dynamics Cool? Using Hot Testing & Teaching Cases
Pruyt, E.
2009-01-01
This paper deals with the use of ‘hot’ real-world cases for both testing and teaching purposes such as in the Introductory System Dynamics course at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. The paper starts with a brief overview of the System Dynamics curriculum. Then the problem-oriented
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deininger, Klaus [KTW Umweltschutztechnik GmbH, Mellingen (Germany)
2013-06-01
The author of the contribution under consideration reports on dynamic vibration measurements at the foundations of wind power plants. Typical damages at these foundations as well as various options of sealing are described. The author recommends the installation of condition monitoring systems which punctually display critical states of wind power plants using the global positioning system or direct involvement in the entire data of the wind power plant.
Peter W. Tse; Dong Wang
2017-01-01
Bearings are widely used in various industries to support rotating shafts. Their failures accelerate failures of other adjacent components and may cause unexpected machine breakdowns. In recent years, nonlinear vibration responses collected from a dynamic rotor-bearing system have been widely analyzed for bearing diagnostics. Numerous methods have been proposed to identify different bearing faults. However, these methods are unable to predict the future health conditions of bearings. To exten...
Analysis of dynamic enhancement of natural convection cooling by a discrete vibrating plate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Florio, L.A.; Harnoy, A. [New Jersey Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Newark, NJ (United States)
2006-12-15
A dynamic means of locally enhancing laminar natural convection cooling in a vertical channel through the localized application of fluid oscillations is numerically investigated. The two-dimensional system considered for these purposes is a vertical channel with a small transversely oscillating plate placed near a constant heat flux channel wall. The flow and heat transfer in the system resulting from the combined effects of the natural convection and the oscillating plate were determined. The results indicate that for displacement amplitudes of at least one-third of the mean spacing and with dimensionless frequencies (Re/{radical}(Gr)) of at least 2{pi}, the local heat transfer coefficient can be enhanced by as much as 41%. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suxian Cai
2013-01-01
detected with the fixed threshold in the time domain. To perform a better classification over the data set of 89 VAG signals, we applied a novel classifier fusion system based on the dynamic weighted fusion (DWF method to ameliorate the classification performance. For comparison, a single leastsquares support vector machine (LS-SVM and the Bagging ensemble were used for the classification task as well. The results in terms of overall accuracy in percentage and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve obtained with the DWF-based classifier fusion method reached 88.76% and 0.9515, respectively, which demonstrated the effectiveness and superiority of the DWF method with two distinct features for the VAG signal analysis.
Wang, Guangqing; Liao, Wei-Hsin; Yang, Binqiang; Wang, Xuebao; Xu, Wentan; Li, Xiuling
2018-05-01
Bistable piezoelectric energy harvesters are being increasingly seen as an alternative to batteries in low-power devices. However, their energy harvesting characteristics are limited. To enhance these, we use a configuration including an elastic magnifier to amplify base excitation and provide sufficient kinetic energy to overcome potential well barriers, thus leading to large-amplitude bistable motion. We derive the distributed parameter mathematical model of this configuration by using Hamilton's principle. We then investigate the nonlinear dynamic behaviors and energetic characteristics and analyze the bifurcation for the equilibrium solution of the model. The simulations and experiments show high electromechanical responses and energy generation characteristics of the proposed system over a broad frequency band. The results suggest that, compared with a typical bistable piezoelectric energy harvester, the proposed energy harvester system with an elastic magnifier can provide higher output over a broader frequency band at lower excitation levels by adjusting the system's mass and stiffness ratios.
Simon, Aude; Rapacioli, Mathias; Mascetti, Joëlle; Spiegelman, Fernand
2012-05-21
This paper reports structures, energetics, dynamics and spectroscopy of H2O and (H2O)2 systems adsorbed on coronene (C24H12), a compact polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). On-the-fly Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations are performed for temperatures T varying from 10 to 300 K, on a potential energy surface obtained within the self-consistent-charge density-functional based tight-binding (SCC-DFTB) approach. Anharmonic infrared (IR) spectra are extracted from these simulations. We first benchmark the SCC-DFTB semi-empirical hamiltonian vs. DFT (Density Functional Theory) calculations that include dispersion, on (C6H6)(H2O)1,2 small complexes. We find that charge corrections and inclusion of dispersion contributions in DFTB are necessary to obtain consistent structures, energetics and IR spectra. Using this Hamiltonian, the structures, energetics and IR features of the low-energy isomers of (C24H12)(H2O)1,2 are found to be similar to the DFT ones, with evidence for a stabilizing edge-coordination. The temperature dependence of the motions of H2O and (H2O)2 on the surface of C24H12 is analysed, revealing ultra-fast periodic motion. The water dimer starts diffusing at a higher temperature than the water monomer (150 K vs. 10 K respectively), which appears to be consistent with the binding energies. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the effects of T on the IR spectra are performed. Anharmonic factors in particular are derived and it is shown that they can be used as signatures for the presence of PAH-water complexes. Finally, this paper lays the foundations for the studies of larger (PAH)m(H2O)n clusters, that can be treated with the efficient computational approach benchmarked in this paper.
Vibrational treatment of the formic acid double minimum case in valence coordinates
Richter, Falk; Carbonnière, P.
2018-02-01
One single full dimensional valence coordinate HCOOH ground state potential energy surface accurate for both cis and trans conformers for all levels up to 6000 cm-1 relative to trans zero point energy has been generated at CCSD(T)-F12a/aug-cc-pVTZ level. The fundamentals and a set of eigenfunctions complete up to about 3120 and 2660 cm-1 for trans- and cis-HCOOH, respectively, have been calculated and assigned using the improved relaxation method of the Heidelberg multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree package and an exact expression for the kinetic energy in valence coordinates generated by the TANA program. The calculated trans fundamental transition frequencies agree with experiment to within 5 cm-1. A few reassignments are suggested. Our results discard any cis trans delocalization effects for vibrational eigenfunctions up to 3640 cm-1 relative to trans zero point energy.
Sensitivity case study in dynamic reliability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kopustinskas, V.
2001-01-01
Recent trends in the risk assessments of the complex industrial plants show increased interest in dynamical models arising from the coupling of the probabilistic and deterministic approaches. Conventionally used static system models, represented by the fault/event trees can not reflect dynamic behaviour of the system and complex interaction between the process variables, components and human actions. The nature of the most complex industrial systems, like nuclear power plants (NPP) suggests that Markov type stochastic differential equations (SDEs) consisting of jump and drift components can be successfully used to represent and analyze the phenomena. This paper discuss possible applications of the SDEs in reliability problems. In particular, Accident Localization System (ALS) of the Ignalina NPP was analyzed as a benchmark for further investigations in this area. (author)
Flow-Induced Vibration of Circular Cylindrical Structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Shoei-Sheng [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Components Technology Division
1985-06-01
Flow-induced vibration is a term to denote those phenomena associated with the response of structures placed in or conveying fluid flow. More specifically, the terra covers those cases in which an interaction develops between fluid-dynamic forces and the inertia, damping or elastic forces in the structures. The study of these phenomena draws on three disciplines: (1) structural mechanics, (2) mechanical vibration, and (3) fluid dynamics. The vibration of circular cylinders subject to flow has been known to man since ancient times; the vibration of a wire at its natural frequency in response to vortex shedding was known in ancient Greece as aeolian tones. But systematic studies of the problem were not made until a century ago when Strouhal established the relationship between vortex shedding frequency and flow velocity for a given cylinder diameter. The early research in this area has beer summarized by Zdravkovich (1985) and Goldstein (1965). Flow-induced structural vibration has been experienced in numerous fields, including the aerospace industry, power generation/transmission (turbine blades, heat exchanger tubes, nuclear reactor components), civil engineering (bridges, building, smoke stacks), and undersea technology. The problems have usually been encountered or created accidentally through improper design. In most cases, a structural or mechanical component, designed to meet specific objectives, develops problems when the undesired effects of flow field have not been accounted for in the design. When a flow-induced vibration problem is noted in the design stage, the engineer has different options to eliminate the detrimental vibration. Unfortunately, in many situations, the problems occur after the components are already in operation; the "fix" usually is very costly. Flow-induced vibration comprises complex and diverse phenomena; subcritical vibration of nuclear fuel assemblies, galloping of transmission lines, flutter of pipes conveying fluid, and whirling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
SW Kang
2015-02-01
Full Text Available This article introduces an improved non-dimensional dynamic influence function method using a sub-domain method for efficiently extracting the eigenvalues and mode shapes of concave membranes with arbitrary shapes. The non-dimensional dynamic influence function method (non-dimensional dynamic influence function method, which was developed by the authors in 1999, gives highly accurate eigenvalues for membranes, plates, and acoustic cavities, compared with the finite element method. However, it needs the inefficient procedure of calculating the singularity of a system matrix in the frequency range of interest for extracting eigenvalues and mode shapes. To overcome the inefficient procedure, this article proposes a practical approach to make the system matrix equation of the concave membrane of interest into a form of algebraic eigenvalue problem. It is shown by several case studies that the proposed method has a good convergence characteristics and yields very accurate eigenvalues, compared with an exact method and finite element method (ANSYS.
Trachsel, Maria A.; Lobsiger, Simon; Schär, Tobias; Blancafort, Lluís; Leutwyler, Samuel
2017-06-01
We measure the S0 → S1 spectrum and time-resolved S1 state nonradiative dynamics of the "clamped" cytosine derivative 5,6-trimethylenecytosine (TMCyt) in a supersonic jet, using two-color resonant two-photon ionization (R2PI), UV/UV holeburning, and ns time-resolved pump/delayed ionization. The experiments are complemented with spin-component scaled second-order approximate coupled cluster (SCS-CC2), time-dependent density functional theory, and multi-state second-order perturbation-theory (MS-CASPT2) ab initio calculations. While the R2PI spectrum of cytosine breaks off ˜500 cm-1 above its 000 band, that of TMCyt extends up to +4400 cm-1 higher, with over a hundred resolved vibronic bands. Thus, clamping the cytosine C5-C6 bond allows us to explore the S1 state vibrations and S0 → S1 geometry changes in detail. The TMCyt S1 state out-of-plane vibrations ν1', ν3', and ν5' lie below 420 cm-1, and the in-plane ν11', ν12', and ν23' vibrational fundamentals appear at 450, 470, and 944 cm-1. S0 → S1 vibronic simulations based on SCS-CC2 calculations agree well with experiment if the calculated ν1', ν3', and ν5' frequencies are reduced by a factor of 2-3. MS-CASPT2 calculations predict that the ethylene-type S1 ⇝ S0 conical intersection (CI) increases from +366 cm-1 in cytosine to >6000 cm-1 in TMCyt, explaining the long lifetime and extended S0 → S1 spectrum. The lowest-energy S1 ⇝ S0 CI of TMCyt is the "amino out-of-plane" (OPX) intersection, calculated at +4190 cm-1. The experimental S1 ⇝ S0 internal conversion rate constant at the S1(v'=0 ) level is kI C=0.98 -2.2 ṡ1 08 s-1, which is ˜10 times smaller than in 1-methylcytosine and cytosine. The S1(v'=0 ) level relaxes into the T1(3π π *) state by intersystem crossing with kI S C=0.41 -1.6 ṡ1 08 s-1. The T1 state energy is measured to lie 24 580 ±560 cm-1 above the S0 state. The S1(v'=0 ) lifetime is τ =2.9 ns, resulting in an estimated fluorescence quantum yield of Φf l=24 %. Intense
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ravi Kumar, Venkatraman; Umapathy, Siva, E-mail: umapathy@ipc.iisc.ernet.in, E-mail: chandra@bii.a-star.edu.sg [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Department, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Verma, Chandra, E-mail: umapathy@ipc.iisc.ernet.in, E-mail: chandra@bii.a-star.edu.sg [Bioinformatics Institute - A*STAR, 30 Biopolis Street, # 07-01 Matrix, Singapore 138671 (Singapore); School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, 14 Science Drive 4, Singapore 117543 (Singapore)
2016-02-14
Solvent plays a key role in diverse physico-chemical and biological processes. Therefore, understanding solute-solvent interactions at the molecular level of detail is of utmost importance. A comprehensive solvatochromic analysis of benzophenone (Bzp) was carried out in various solvents using Raman and electronic spectroscopy, in conjunction with Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations of supramolecular solute-solvent clusters generated using classical Molecular Dynamics Simulations (c-MDSs). The >C=O stretching frequency undergoes a bathochromic shift with solvent polarity. Interestingly, in protic solvents this peak appears as a doublet: c-MDS and ad hoc explicit solvent ab initio calculations suggest that the lower and higher frequency peaks are associated with the hydrogen bonded and dangling carbonyl group of Bzp, respectively. Additionally, the dangling carbonyl in methanol (MeOH) solvent is 4 cm{sup −1} blue-shifted relative to acetonitrile solvent, despite their similar dipolarity/polarizability. This suggests that the cybotactic region of the dangling carbonyl group in MeOH is very different from its bulk solvent structure. Therefore, we propose that this blue-shift of the dangling carbonyl originates in the hydrophobic solvation shell around it resulting from extended hydrogen bonding network of the protic solvents. Furthermore, the 1{sup 1}nπ{sup ∗} (band I) and 1{sup 1}ππ{sup ∗} (band II) electronic transitions show a hypsochromic and bathochromic shift, respectively. In particular, these shifts in protic solvents are due to differences in their excited state-hydrogen bonding mechanisms. Additionally, a linear relationship is obtained for band I and the >C=O stretching frequency (cm{sup −1}), which suggests that the different excitation wavelengths in band I correspond to different solvation states. Therefore, we hypothesize that the variation in excitation wavelengths in band I could arise from different solvation states leading to
Exploring of PST-TBPM in Monitoring Dynamic Deformation of Steel Structure in Vibration
Chen, Mingzhi; Zhao, Yongqian; Hai, Hua; Yu, Chengxin; Zhang, Guojian
2018-01-01
In order to monitor the dynamic deformation of steel structure in the real-time, digital photography is used in this paper. Firstly, the grid method is used correct the distortion of digital camera. Then the digital cameras are used to capture the initial and experimental images of steel structure to obtain its relative deformation. PST-TBPM (photographing scale transformation-time baseline parallax method) is used to eliminate the parallax error and convert the pixel change value of deformation points into the actual displacement value. In order to visualize the deformation trend of steel structure, the deformation curves are drawn based on the deformation value of deformation points. Results show that the average absolute accuracy and relative accuracy of PST-TBPM are 0.28mm and 1.1‰, respectively. Digital photography used in this study can meet accuracy requirements of steel structure deformation monitoring. It also can warn the safety of steel structure and provide data support for managers’ safety decisions based on the deformation curves on site.
A spectral dynamic stiffness method for free vibration analysis of plane elastodynamic problems
Liu, X.; Banerjee, J. R.
2017-03-01
A highly efficient and accurate analytical spectral dynamic stiffness (SDS) method for modal analysis of plane elastodynamic problems based on both plane stress and plane strain assumptions is presented in this paper. First, the general solution satisfying the governing differential equation exactly is derived by applying two types of one-dimensional modified Fourier series. Then the SDS matrix for an element is formulated symbolically using the general solution. The SDS matrices are assembled directly in a similar way to that of the finite element method, demonstrating the method's capability to model complex structures. Any arbitrary boundary conditions are represented accurately in the form of the modified Fourier series. The Wittrick-Williams algorithm is then used as the solution technique where the mode count problem (J0) of a fully-clamped element is resolved. The proposed method gives highly accurate solutions with remarkable computational efficiency, covering low, medium and high frequency ranges. The method is applied to both plane stress and plane strain problems with simple as well as complex geometries. All results from the theory in this paper are accurate up to the last figures quoted to serve as benchmarks.
Velarde, Luis; Wang, Hong-fei
2013-08-01
While in principle the frequency-domain and time-domain spectroscopic measurements should generate identical information for a given molecular system, the inhomogeneous character of surface vibrations in sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) studies has only been studied with time-domain SFG-VS by mapping the decay of the vibrational polarization using ultrafast lasers, this due to the lack of SFG vibrational spectra with high enough spectral resolution and accurate enough lineshape. Here, with the recently developed high-resolution broadband SFG-VS (HR-BB-SFG-VS) technique, we show that the inhomogeneous lineshape can be obtained in the frequency-domain for the anchoring CN stretch of the 4-n-octyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (8CB) Langmuir monolayer at the air-water interface, and that an excellent agreement with the time-domain SFG free-induction-decay can be established. We found that the 8CB CN stretch spectrum consists of a single peak centered at 2234.00 ± 0.01 cm-1 with a total linewidth of 10.9 ± 0.3 cm-1 at half maximum. The Lorentzian contribution accounts only for 4.7 ± 0.4 cm-1 to this width and the Gaussian (inhomogeneous) broadening for as much as 8.1 ± 0.2 cm-1. Polarization analysis of the -CN spectra showed that the -CN group is tilted 57° ± 2° from the surface normal. The large heterogeneity in the -CN spectrum is tentatively attributed to the -CN group interactions with the interfacial water molecules penetrated/accommodated into the 8CB monolayer, a unique phenomenon for the nCB Langmuir monolayers reported previously.
System Dynamic Modelling for a Balanced Scorecard: A Case Study
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Steen; Nielsen, Erland Hejn
Purpose - The purpose of this research is to make an analytical model of the BSC foundation by using a dynamic simulation approach for a 'hypothetical case' model, based on only part of an actual case study of BSC. Design/methodology/approach - The model includes five perspectives and a number...
Drobyshev, V A; Efremov, A V; Loseva, M I; Sukharevskaia, T M; Michurin, A I
2002-01-01
Low-frequency magnetic fields and EHF-therapy have been used in correction of autonomic homeostasis in workers exposed to vibration for different periods of time. The workers suffered from early arterial hypertension. Vegetative status and central hemodynamics improved best in workers exposed to vibration for less than 5 years. If the exposure was 6-15 years, a positive trend occurred in the tension of regulatory mechanisms. Workers with long exposure to vibration suffering from vagotonia showed an inadequate response of the autonomic parameters to treatment. This necessitates enhancement of therapeutic measures with medicines.
Goodman, Lawrence E
2001-01-01
Beginning text presents complete theoretical treatment of mechanical model systems and deals with technological applications. Topics include introduction to calculus of vectors, particle motion, dynamics of particle systems and plane rigid bodies, technical applications in plane motions, theory of mechanical vibrations, and more. Exercises and answers appear in each chapter.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barjau, Ana, E-mail: ana.barjau@upc.edu; Batlle, Joaquim A., E-mail: agullo.batlle@upc.edu; Font-Llagunes, Josep M., E-mail: josep.m.font@upc.edu [Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Biomedical Engineering Research Centre (Spain)
2015-11-15
This article proposes a linear-by-part approach for elastoplastic 3D multiple-point smooth impacts in multibody systems with perfect constraints. The model is an extension of a previous version, restricted to the perfectly elastic case, able to account for the high sensitivity to initial conditions and for redundancy without assuming any particular collision sequence (Barjau et al., Multibody Syst. Dyn. 31:497–517, 2014). Energy losses associated with compression and expansion in percussive analysis is a matter as complex as the physical phenomena involved, at the nanoscale level, for different materials. Simplified models can be developed for specific purposes, which can retain the most relevant trends of internal damping and at the same time be suitable for a particular analytical approach of impact mechanics. In the context of this article, energy dissipation due to material deformation is introduced through a linear-by-part elastoplastic model consisting on two elementary sets of springs and dry-friction dampers. The first set accounts for inelastic behavior (energy loss without permanent indentation), whereas the second one introduces plasticity (that is, permanent indentation). In inelastic and plastic collisions, instantaneous unilateral constraints may appear, thus reducing the number of degrees of freedom (DOF) of the system. The calculation of the corresponding normal contact force at the constrained points is then necessary in order to detect whether the constraint holds or disappears (either because a new compression or an expansion phase starts, or because contact is lost). Different simulated application examples are presented and thoroughly discussed.
Damping of vibrational excitations in glasses at terahertz frequency: The case of 3-methylpentane
Baldi, Giacomo
2017-10-24
We report a compared analysis of inelastic X ray scattering (IXS) and of low frequency Raman data of glassy 3-methylpentane. The IXS spectra have been analysed allowing for the existence of two distinct excitations at each scattering wavevector obtaining a consistent interpretation of the spectra. In particular, this procedure allows us to interpret the linewidth of the modes in terms of a simple model which relates them to the width of the first sharp diffraction peak in the static structure factor. In this model, the width of the modes arises from the blurring of the dispersion curves which increases approaching the boundary of the first pseudo-Brillouin zone. The position of the boson peak contribution to the density of vibrational states derived from the Raman scattering measurements is in agreement with the interpretation of the two excitations in terms of a longitudinal mode and a transverse mode, the latter being a result of the mixed character of the transverse modes away from the center of the pseudo-Brillouin zone.
Damping of vibrational excitations in glasses at terahertz frequency: The case of 3-methylpentane
Baldi, Giacomo; Benassi, Paola; Fontana, Aldo; Giugni, Andrea; Monaco, Giulio; Nardone, Michele; Rossi, Flavio
2017-01-01
We report a compared analysis of inelastic X ray scattering (IXS) and of low frequency Raman data of glassy 3-methylpentane. The IXS spectra have been analysed allowing for the existence of two distinct excitations at each scattering wavevector obtaining a consistent interpretation of the spectra. In particular, this procedure allows us to interpret the linewidth of the modes in terms of a simple model which relates them to the width of the first sharp diffraction peak in the static structure factor. In this model, the width of the modes arises from the blurring of the dispersion curves which increases approaching the boundary of the first pseudo-Brillouin zone. The position of the boson peak contribution to the density of vibrational states derived from the Raman scattering measurements is in agreement with the interpretation of the two excitations in terms of a longitudinal mode and a transverse mode, the latter being a result of the mixed character of the transverse modes away from the center of the pseudo-Brillouin zone.
Structural Stability and Vibration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wiggers, Sine Leergaard; Pedersen, Pauli
This book offers an integrated introduction to the topic of stability and vibration. Strikingly, it describes stability as a function of boundary conditions and eigenfrequency as a function of both boundary conditions and column force. Based on a post graduate course held by the author at the Uni...... and their derivation, thus stimulating them to write interactive and dynamic programs to analyze instability and vibrational modes....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Philip J. Reid
2009-09-21
The conference focuses on using vibrational spectroscopy to probe structure and dynamics of molecules in gases, liquids, and interfaces. The goal is to bring together a collection of researchers who share common interests and who will gain from discussing work at the forefront of several connected areas. The intent is to emphasize the insights and understanding that studies of vibrations provide about a variety of systems.
Interfacial instabilities in vibrated fluids
Porter, Jeff; Laverón-Simavilla, Ana; Tinao Perez-Miravete, Ignacio; Fernandez Fraile, Jose Javier
2016-07-01
Vibrations induce a range of different interfacial phenomena in fluid systems depending on the frequency and orientation of the forcing. With gravity, (large) interfaces are approximately flat and there is a qualitative difference between vertical and horizontal forcing. Sufficient vertical forcing produces subharmonic standing waves (Faraday waves) that extend over the whole interface. Horizontal forcing can excite both localized and extended interfacial phenomena. The vibrating solid boundaries act as wavemakers to excite traveling waves (or sloshing modes at low frequencies) but they also drive evanescent bulk modes whose oscillatory pressure gradient can parametrically excite subharmonic surface waves like cross-waves. Depending on the magnitude of the damping and the aspect ratio of the container, these locally generated surfaces waves may interact in the interior resulting in temporal modulation and other complex dynamics. In the case where the interface separates two fluids of different density in, for example, a rectangular container, the mass transfer due to vertical motion near the endwalls requires a counterflow in the interior region that can lead to a Kelvin-Helmholtz type instability and a ``frozen wave" pattern. In microgravity, the dominance of surface forces favors non-flat equilibrium configurations and the distinction between vertical and horizontal applied forcing can be lost. Hysteresis and multiplicity of solutions are more common, especially in non-wetting systems where disconnected (partial) volumes of fluid can be established. Furthermore, the vibrational field contributes a dynamic pressure term that competes with surface tension to select the (time averaged) shape of the surface. These new (quasi-static) surface configurations, known as vibroequilibria, can differ substantially from the hydrostatic state. There is a tendency for the interface to orient perpendicular to the vibrational axis and, in some cases, a bulge or cavity is induced
Tse, Peter W; Wang, Dong
2017-02-14
Bearings are widely used in various industries to support rotating shafts. Their failures accelerate failures of other adjacent components and may cause unexpected machine breakdowns. In recent years, nonlinear vibration responses collected from a dynamic rotor-bearing system have been widely analyzed for bearing diagnostics. Numerous methods have been proposed to identify different bearing faults. However, these methods are unable to predict the future health conditions of bearings. To extend bearing diagnostics to bearing prognostics, this paper reports the design of a state space formulation of nonlinear vibration responses collected from a dynamic rotor-bearing system in order to intelligently predict bearing remaining useful life (RUL). Firstly, analyses of nonlinear vibration responses were conducted to construct a bearing health indicator (BHI) so as to assess the current bearing health condition. Secondly, a state space model of the BHI was developed to mathematically track the health evolution of the BHI. Thirdly, unscented particle filtering was used to predict bearing RUL. Lastly, a new bearing acceleration life testing setup was designed to collect natural bearing degradation data, which were used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed bearing prognostic method. Results show that the prediction accuracy of the proposed bearing prognostic method is promising and the proposed bearing prognostic method is able to reflect future bearing health conditions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter W. Tse
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Bearings are widely used in various industries to support rotating shafts. Their failures accelerate failures of other adjacent components and may cause unexpected machine breakdowns. In recent years, nonlinear vibration responses collected from a dynamic rotor-bearing system have been widely analyzed for bearing diagnostics. Numerous methods have been proposed to identify different bearing faults. However, these methods are unable to predict the future health conditions of bearings. To extend bearing diagnostics to bearing prognostics, this paper reports the design of a state space formulation of nonlinear vibration responses collected from a dynamic rotor-bearing system in order to intelligently predict bearing remaining useful life (RUL. Firstly, analyses of nonlinear vibration responses were conducted to construct a bearing health indicator (BHI so as to assess the current bearing health condition. Secondly, a state space model of the BHI was developed to mathematically track the health evolution of the BHI. Thirdly, unscented particle filtering was used to predict bearing RUL. Lastly, a new bearing acceleration life testing setup was designed to collect natural bearing degradation data, which were used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed bearing prognostic method. Results show that the prediction accuracy of the proposed bearing prognostic method is promising and the proposed bearing prognostic method is able to reflect future bearing health conditions.
Rotor-to-stator rub vibration in centrifugal compressor
Gao, J. J.; Qi, Q. M.
1985-01-01
One example of excessive vibration encountered during loading of a centrifugal compressor train (H type compressor with HP casing) is discussed. An investigation was made of the effects of the dynamic load on the bearing stiffness and the rotor-bearing system critical speed. The high vibration occurred at a "threshold load," but the machine didn't run smoothly due to rubs even when it had passed through the threshold load. The acquisition and discussion of the data taken in the field as well as a description of the case history which utilizes background information to identify the malfunction conditions is presented. The analysis shows that the failures, including full reverse precession rub and exact one half subharmonic vibration, were caused by the oversize bearings and displacement of the rotor center due to foundation deformation and misalignment between gear shafts, etc. The corrective actions taken to alleviate excessive vibration and the problems which remain to be solved are also presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Egorov, Yu. V.; Afanasiev, A. V.; Makarov, V. V.; Matvienko, I. V.
2013-01-01
For substantiation of vibration stability it is necessary to determine the ultimate permissible vibration levels which do not cause fretting, to compare them with the level of fuel rod vibration caused by coolant flow. Another approach is feasible if there is experience of successful operation of FA-prototypes. In this case in order to justify vibration stability it may be sufficient to demonstrate that the new element does not cause increased vibration of the fuel rod. It can be done by comparing the levels of hydro-dynamic fuel rod vibration and FA new designs. Program of vibration tests of TVS-2M model included studies of forced oscillations of 12 fuel rods in the coolant flow in the spans containing intensifiers, in the reference span without intensifiers, in the lower spans with assembled ADF and after its disassembly. The experimental results for TVS-2M show that in the spans with intensifier «Sector run» the level of movements is 6% higher on the average than in the span without intensifiers, in the spans with intensifier «Eddy» it is 2% higher. The level of fuel rod vibration movements in the spans with set ADF is 2 % higher on the average than without ADF. During the studies of TVS-KVADRAT fuel rod vibration, the following tasks were solved: determination of acceleration of the middle of fuel rod spans at vibration excited due to hydrodynamics; determination of influence of coolant thermal- hydraulic parameters (temperature, flowrate, dynamic pressure) on fuel rod vibration response; determination of influence of span lengths on the vibration level. Conclusions: 1) The vibration tests of the full-scale model of TVS-2M in the coolant flow showed that the new elements of TVS-2M design (intensifiers of heat exchange and ADF) are not the source of fuel rod increased vibration. Considering successful operation of similar fuel rod spans in the existing TVS-2M design, vibration stability of TVS-2M fuel rods with new elements is ensured on the mechanism of
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.M. Rahman
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Trains and cars are the most important modes of transportation throughout the world. In highly developed countries, trains have become essential for human use as the most well-known form of public transportation, whereas the car plays a significant role in prompt human travel from one place to another. The high magnitude of vibration caused by trains and cars may cause health problems in humans, especially low back pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate and validate the values of daily exposure to vibration A(8 and the vibration dose value (VDV in passengers travelling by train and car and to assess the effects produced by this exposure on the human body. Moreover, this study introduces a newly developed whole-body vibration measurement instrumentation system. One train travelling from the east coast to the south of Malaysia was chosen to conduct the study. Whole-body vibration exposure was measured over 8 hours, which is equal to the duration of normal occupational exposure. One car was chosen randomly and whole-body vibration exposure was measured for 5 min and 10 min. All the data were computed using an IEPE(ICPTM accelerometer sensor connected to a DT9837 device which is capable of effectively measuring and analysing vibration. The vibration results were displayed on a personal computer using a custom graphical user interface (GUI. Matlab software was used to interpret the data. From the results, the whole-body vibration exposure level could be determined. It can be concluded that the whole-body vibration absorbed by the human body is enhanced when the magnitude of the vibration exposure experienced by the passengers increased. This was shown by the increased values of daily exposure to vibration A(8 and VDV calculated in the study.
Adeyeri, Michael Kanisuru; Mpofu, Khumbulani; Kareem, Buliaminu
2016-01-01
This article describes the integration of temperature and vibration models for maintenance monitoring of conventional machinery parts in which their optimal andbest functionalities are affected by abnormal changes in temperature and vibration values thereby resulting in machine failures, machines breakdown, poor quality of products, inability to meeting customers' demand, poor inventory control and just to mention a few. The work entails the use of temperature and vibration sensors as monitor...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
de Pontes B. R.
2012-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we deal with the research of a vibrating model of an energy harvester device, including the nonlinearities in the model of the piezoelectric coupling and the non-ideal excitation. We show, using numerical simulations, in the analysis of the dynamic responses, that the harvested power is influenced by non-linear vibrations of the structure. Chaotic behavior was also observed, causing of the loss of energy throughout the simulation time. Using a perturbation technique, we find an approximate analytical solution for the non-ideal system. Then, we apply both two control techniques, to keep the considered system, into a stable condition. Both the State Dependent Ricatti Equation (SDRE control as the feedback control by changing the energy of the oscillator, were efficient in controlling of the considered non-ideal system.
Liu, Jianbo; Song, Kihyung; Hase, William L; Anderson, Scott L
2005-12-22
Quasiclassical, direct dynamics trajectories have been used to study the reaction of formaldehyde cation with molecular hydrogen, simulating the conditions in an experimental study of H2CO+ vibrational effects on this reaction. Effects of five different H2CO+ modes were probed, and we also examined different approaches to treating zero-point energy in quasiclassical trajectories. The calculated absolute cross-sections are in excellent agreement with experiments, and the results provide insight into the reaction mechanism, product scattering behavior, and energy disposal, and how they vary with impact parameter and reactant state. The reaction is sharply orientation-dependent, even at high collision energies, and both trajectories and experiment find that H2CO+ vibration inhibits reaction. On the other hand, the trajectories do not reproduce the anomalously strong effect of nu2(+) (the CO stretch). The origin of the discrepancy and approaches for minimizing such problems in quasiclassical trajectories are discussed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kumpf, C.; Müller, A.; Weigand, W.
2003-01-01
The atomic structure and lattice dynamics of epitaxial BeTe(001) thin films are derived from surface x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. On the Te-rich BeTe(001) surface [1 (1) over bar0]-oriented Te dimers are identified. They cause a (2 X 1) superstructure and induce a pronounced buckling...... in the underlying Te layer. The Be-rich surface exhibits a (4 X 1) periodicity with alternating Te dimers and Te-Be-Te trimers. A vibration eigenfrequency of 165 cm(-1) is observed for the Te-rich surface, while eigenmodes at 157 and 188 cm(-1) are found for the Be-rich surface. The experimentally derived atomic...... geometry and the vibration modes are in very good agreement with the results of density functional theory calculations....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Campetella, M.; Caminiti, R.; Bencivenni, L.; Gontrani, L.; Bovi, D.; Guidoni, L.
2016-01-01
In this work we report an analysis of the bulk phase of 2-methoxyethylammonium nitrate based on ab initio molecular dynamics. The structural and dynamical features of the ionic liquid have been characterized and the computational findings have been compared with the experimental X-ray diffraction patterns, with infrared spectroscopy data, and with the results obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. The experimental infrared spectrum was interpreted with the support of calculated vibrational density of states as well as harmonic frequency calculations of selected gas phase clusters. Particular attention was addressed to the high frequency region of the cation (ω > 2000 cm −1 ), where the vibrational motions involve the NH 3 + group responsible for hydrogen bond formation, and to the frequency range 1200-1400 cm −1 where the antisymmetric stretching mode (ν 3 ) of nitrate is found. Its multiple absorption lines in the liquid arise from the removal of the degeneracy present in the D 3h symmetry of the isolated ion. Our ab initio molecular dynamics leads to a rationalization of the frequency shifts and splittings, which are inextricably related to the structural modifications induced by a hydrogen bonding environment. The DFT calculations lead to an inhomogeneous environment.
Zeng, Zhihui; Liu, Menglong; Xu, Hao; Liu, Weijian; Liao, Yaozhong; Jin, Hao; Zhou, Limin; Zhang, Zhong; Su, Zhongqing
2016-06-01
Inspired by an innovative sensing philosophy, a light-weight nanocomposite sensor made of a hybrid of carbon black (CB)/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) has been developed. The nanoscalar architecture and percolation characteristics of the hybrid were optimized in order to fulfil the in situ acquisition of dynamic elastic disturbance from low-frequency vibration to high-frequency ultrasonic waves. Dynamic particulate motion induced by elastic disturbance modulates the infrastructure of the CB conductive network in the sensor, with the introduction of the tunneling effect, leading to dynamic alteration in the piezoresistivity measured by the sensor. Electrical analysis, morphological characterization, and static/dynamic electromechanical response interrogation were implemented to advance our insight into the sensing mechanism of the sensor, and meanwhile facilitate understanding of the optimal percolation threshold. At the optimal threshold (˜6.5 wt%), the sensor exhibits high fidelity, a fast response, and high sensitivity to ultrafast elastic disturbance (in an ultrasonic regime up to 400 kHz), yet with an ultralow magnitude (on the order of micrometers). The performance of the sensor was evaluated against a conventional strain gauge and piezoelectric transducer, showing excellent coincidence, yet a much greater gauge factor and frequency-independent piezoresistive behavior. Coatable on a structure and deployable in a large quantity to form a dense sensor network, this nanocomposite sensor has blazed a trail for implementing in situ sensing for vibration- or ultrasonic-wave-based structural health monitoring, by striking a compromise between ‘sensing cost’ and ‘sensing effectiveness’.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Campetella, M.; Caminiti, R.; Bencivenni, L.; Gontrani, L., E-mail: lorenzo.gontrani@uniroma1.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Roma, “La Sapienza,” P. le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Bovi, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma, “La Sapienza,” P. le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Guidoni, L. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, Università degli Studi dell’Aquila, Via Vetoio, Coppito, I-67100 L’Aquila (Italy)
2016-07-14
In this work we report an analysis of the bulk phase of 2-methoxyethylammonium nitrate based on ab initio molecular dynamics. The structural and dynamical features of the ionic liquid have been characterized and the computational findings have been compared with the experimental X-ray diffraction patterns, with infrared spectroscopy data, and with the results obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. The experimental infrared spectrum was interpreted with the support of calculated vibrational density of states as well as harmonic frequency calculations of selected gas phase clusters. Particular attention was addressed to the high frequency region of the cation (ω > 2000 cm{sup −1}), where the vibrational motions involve the NH{sub 3}+ group responsible for hydrogen bond formation, and to the frequency range 1200-1400 cm{sup −1} where the antisymmetric stretching mode (ν{sub 3}) of nitrate is found. Its multiple absorption lines in the liquid arise from the removal of the degeneracy present in the D{sub 3h} symmetry of the isolated ion. Our ab initio molecular dynamics leads to a rationalization of the frequency shifts and splittings, which are inextricably related to the structural modifications induced by a hydrogen bonding environment. The DFT calculations lead to an inhomogeneous environment.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wahyu Rachma Efendy
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Getaran banyak terjadi pada mesin-mesin di industri. Salah satu solusi untuk mereduksi getaran berlebih adalah dengan menambahkan Dynamic Vibration Absorber (DVA. Prinsip kerja dari Dynamic Vibration Absorber adalah penambahan massa absorber dan pegas pada sistem utama. DVA akan mereduksi getaran sistem utama dengan menghasilkan getaran yang arahnya berlawanan dengan arah getar dari sistem utama. Berdasarkan penelitian yang dilakukan oleh Pachpute [1], penggunaan DVA telah terbukti dapat mereduksi getaran dari sistem utama yang dioperasikan di frekuensi natural secara signifikan. Dalam penelitian Tugas Akhir ini telah dirancang sebuah mekanisme alat vibration absorber dan energy harvesting metode Cantilever Piezoelectric Vibration Absorber (CPVA. Sistem utama yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah plat datar yang ditopang oleh empat pegas. Plat tersebut akan menerima gaya eksitasi dari pegas dibawahnya yang dihubungkan dengan massa eksentris pada motor DC. Koefisien pegas yang digunakan untuk menumpu plat datar memiliki nilai yang sama, yaitu sebesar 300 N/m. Sehingga eksitasi yang terjadi pada plat datar hanya ke arah translasi. Pada penelitian ini, dilakukan analisa dengan variasi amplitudo massa eksentris sebesar 0.025 m, 0.030 m, dan 0.035 m. Kecepatan putaran motor sebesar 20.61 rad/s (frekuensi natural, 22.05 rad/s (frekuensi panen, dan 25 rad/s (frekuensi lembah. Sedangkan variasi jumlah cantilever piezoelectric yang digunakan adalah 2600, 2800, dan 3000 buah. Dari simulasi yang telah dilakukan, daya bangkitan dan nilai persentase reduksi terbesar dari CPVA terjadi ketika sistem dioperasikan di frekuensi naturalnya, yaitu sebesar 3.52E-7 watt dan 20.36%. Selain itu, dari simulasi juga didapatkan karakteristik CPVA dengan memvariasikan jumlah piezoelectric, didapatkan rentang jumlah piezoelectric optimum adalah 1400 hingga 2400 buah. Pada rentang tersebut, daya bangkitan dan persentase reduksi perpindahan massa utama terbesar yang
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alekhin, S.A.; Chernov, V.S.; Denisenko, V.V.; Gorodnyanskiy, I.F.; Prokopov, L.I.; Tikhonov, Yu.P.
1983-01-01
The vibration mixer is proposed which contains a housing, vibration drive with rod installed in the upper part of the mixing mechanism made in the form of a hollow shaft with blades. In order to improve intensity of mixing and dispersion of the mud, the shaft with the blades is arranged on the rod of the vibrator and is equipped with a cam coupling whose drive disc is attached to the vibration rod. The rod is made helical, while the drive disc of the cam coupling is attached to the helical surface of the rod. In addition, the vibration mixer is equipped with perforated discs installed on the ends of the rods.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2016-01-01
This volume contains the papers presented at the Thirteenth International Conference on Motion and Vibration Control (MoViC), together with the Twelfth International Conference on Recent Advances in Structural Dynamics (RASD). MoViC is an event that started in Yokohama, Japan in 1992 and has been organised every two years alternating between Japan, USA and Europe. The eleven previous RASD conferences have been held every three years or so since 1980 primarily in Southampton, UK. The idea of joining the two conferences came quite naturally because of the common ground of the two conferences and the chances of cross-pollination between two otherwise separate research groups. This joint conference is devoted to theoretical, numerical and experimental developments in motion/vibration/structural dynamics, their control and application to all types of structures and dynamical systems. The conference reflects the state-of-the- art in these topics, and is an excellent opportunity to exchange scientific, technical and experimental ideas. The Conference Proceedings include over 250 papers by authors from over 20 countries, forty technical sessions and five plenary presentations. The five invited speakers are Professor Roger Goodall (Loughborough University, UK) presenting “Motion and vibration control for railway vehicles”, Professor Takeshi Mizuno (Saitama University, Japan) presenting “Recent advances in magnetic suspension technology”, Professor Kevin Murphy (University of Louisville, USA) presenting “Dynamics of Passive Balancing Rings for Rotating Systems”, Professor David Wagg (University of Sheffield, UK) presenting “Reducing vibrations in structures using structural control”, and Professor Kon-Well Wang (University of Michigan, USA) presenting “From Muscles to Plants - Nature-Inspired Adaptive Metastructures for Structural Dynamics Enhancement”. I would like to thank members of the Organising Committee for their help, over the last year or so, in
Chiariello, Maria Gabriella; Rega, Nadia
2018-03-22
Advances in time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy techniques provided a new stimulus for understanding the transient molecular dynamics triggered by the electronic excitation. The detailed interpretation of such time-dependent spectroscopic signals is a challenging task from both experimental and theoretical points of view. We simulated and analyzed the transient photorelaxation of the pyranine photoacid in aqueous solution, with special focus on structural parameters and low frequency skeleton modes that are possibly preparatory for the photoreaction occurring at later time, as suggested by experimental spectroscopic studies. To this aim, we adopted an accurate computational protocol that combines excited state ab initio molecular dynamics within an hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanics framework and a time-resolved vibrational analysis based on the Wavelet transform. According to our results, the main nuclear relaxation on the excited potential energy surface is completed in about 500 fs, in agreement with experimental data. The rearrangement of C-C bonds occurs according to a complex vibrational dynamics, showing oscillatory patterns that are out of phase and modulated by modes below 200 cm -1 . We also analyzed in both the ground and the excited state the evolution of some structural parameters involved in excited state proton transfer reaction, namely, those involving the pyranine and the water molecule hydrogen bonded to the phenolic O-H group. Both the hydrogen bond distance and the intermolecular orientation are optimized in the excited state, resulting in a tighter proton donor-acceptor couple. Indeed, we found evidence that collective low frequency skeleton modes, such as the out of plane wagging at 108 cm -1 and the deformation at 280 cm -1 , are photoactivated by the ultrafast part of the relaxation and modulate the pyranine-water molecule rearrangement, favoring the preparatory step for the photoreactivity.
Análisis vibrodinámico de motores eléctricos // Vibrational and dynamic analysis of electric motors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Orestes González-Quintero
2010-01-01
Full Text Available ResumenEl artículo aborda el estudio vibrodinámico ejecutado en motores eléctricos de la fábrica de azúcar“Cristino Naranjo” durante la implementación del mantenimiento predictivo. En el mismo seexponen los trabajos realizados en las diferentes etapas de implementación del mantenimiento y eldiagnóstico de defectos mediante la utilización del análisis espectral de vibraciones. Se muestranespectros de motor con problemas y en funcionamiento normal.Palabras claves: Ingeniería de Mantenimiento, Mantenimiento Predictivo, análisis, vibraciones.__________________________________________________________________________________AbstractThis work is concerned with the vibrational and dynamic study of electrical motors located inCristino Naranjo sugar mill. It is done during the predictive maintenance implementation. At thesome time some works are shown during this process as well the failures diagnostic by means ofthe use of spectrum analysis of vibration. The spectrums shown are related to motors withdifficulties or well working.Key words: Maintenance Engineering, Predictive Maintenance, vibration, análisis.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pique, J.P.; Chen, Y.; Field, R.W.; Kinsey, J.L.
1987-01-01
A recently proposed technique based on the Fourier transform of the spectrum is applied to the stimulated-emission pumping spectrum of acetylene at --26 500 cm/sup -1/ above the vibrational ground state. Correlations on two different time scales (--3 and --45 ps) were found from analysis of low-resolution (0.3 cm/sup -1/) and high-resolution (0.05 cm/sup -1/) spectra, respectively. Additional structure produced dynamic information on a wider (0.5--300 ps) time scale. The results show that acetylene at 26 500 cm/sup -1/ is in the transition from the regular to the chaotic regime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prosmiti, Rita; Valdés, Álvaro; Delgado-Barrio, Gerardo
2014-01-01
The recent increased interest on research studies of the H + 5 cation, and its isotopologues, is due to the postulation for their presence, although still not detected, in the interstellar medium. There is no doubt, particularly in the light of the recent laboratory observations, that the spectroscopy of these systems is also a great challenge for the theorists. Thus, we report the first fully converged coupled anharmonic quantum study on vibrational dynamics of these highly fluxional cations, providing important information on their spectroscopy in a rigorous manner, and open perspectives for further investigations
Dynamic Safety Cases for Through-Life Safety Assurance
Denney, Ewen; Pai, Ganesh; Habli, Ibrahim
2015-01-01
We describe dynamic safety cases, a novel operationalization of the concept of through-life safety assurance, whose goal is to enable proactive safety management. Using an example from the aviation systems domain, we motivate our approach, its underlying principles, and a lifecycle. We then identify the key elements required to move towards a formalization of the associated framework.
Immigration and urban housing market dynamics : the case of Haifa
van der Vlist, Arno J.; Czamanski, Daniel; Folmer, Henk
2011-01-01
This paper addresses the interplay between demographics and housing market dynamics in Haifa, Israel. In the 1990s the city of Haifa, with a population of approximately 220,000, absorbed about 45,000 immigrants. The case of Haifa offers a typical non-controlled experiment on how demographic shocks
Planning Intervention Using Dynamic Assessments: A Case Study
Hasson, Natalie; Dodd, Barbara
2014-01-01
Dynamic assessments (DA) of language have been shown to be a useful addition to the battery of tests used to diagnose language impairments in children, and to evaluate their skills. The current article explores the value of the information gained from a DA in planning intervention for a child with language impairment. A single case study was used…
Kortyna, A.; Lesko, D. M. B.; Nesbitt, D. J.
2018-05-01
The combination of a pulsed supersonic slit-discharge source and single-mode difference frequency direct absorption infrared spectroscopy permit first high resolution infrared study of the iodomethyl (CH2I) radical, with the CH2I radical species generated in a slit jet Ne/He discharge and cooled to 16 K in the supersonic expansion. Dual laser beam detection and collisional collimation in the slit expansion yield sub-Doppler linewidths (60 MHz), an absolute frequency calibration of 13 MHz, and absorbance sensitivities within a factor of two of the shot-noise limit. Fully rovibrationally resolved direct absorption spectra of the CH2 symmetric stretch mode (ν2) are obtained and fitted to a Watson asymmetric top Hamiltonian with electron spin-rotation coupling, providing precision rotational constants and spin-rotation tensor elements for the vibrationally excited state. Analysis of the asymmetric top rotational constants confirms a vibrationally averaged planar geometry in both the ground- and first-excited vibrational levels. Sub-Doppler resolution permits additional nuclear spin hyperfine structures to be observed, with splittings in excellent agreement with microwave measurements on the ground state. Spectroscopic data on CH2I facilitate systematic comparison with previous studies of halogen-substituted methyl radicals, with the periodic trends strongly correlated with the electronegativity of the halogen atom. Interestingly, we do not observe any asymmetric CH2 stretch transitions, despite S/N ≈ 25:1 on strongest lines in the corresponding symmetric CH2 stretch manifold. This dramatic reversal of the more typical 3:1 antisymmetric/symmetric CH2 stretch intensity ratio signals a vibrational transition moment poorly described by simple "bond-dipole" models. Instead, the data suggest that this anomalous intensity ratio arises from "charge sloshing" dynamics in the highly polar carbon-iodine bond, as supported by ab initio electron differential density plots and
Marcotte, Pierre; Beaugrand, Sylvie; Boutin, Jérôme; Larue, Christian
2010-01-01
Subway operators have complained about discomfort caused by whole-body vibration. To address this problem, a suspension seat with extensive ergonomic features has been adapted to the confined space of the subway operator cab. The suspension was modified from an existing suspension in order to reduce the dominant frequency of the subway vertical vibration (2.4 Hz). The suspension seat has been extensively tested on a vertical hydraulic shaker. These tests have shown that the SEAT value was lower for a higher vibration level, for higher subject weight, and for the suspension adjusted at median height. The seat also produces a lower SEAT value when there was a predominance of the 6 Hz vibration component. The horizontal seat adjustments had no influence on the suspension SEAT value. Removing the suspension damper also decreases the SEAT value for all the tested configurations. The final version of the suspension seat prototype was validated during normal subway operation with 19 different operators having weight in the 5th, 50th and 95th percentile of the operator population. Accelerations were measured with triaxial accelerometers at the seat cushion, above the suspension and on the floor. In addition to the vibration measurements, each operator was asked about his perceived discomfort from vibration exposure. Globally, the suspension seat attenuated the vertical vibration (SEAT values from 0.86 to 0.99), but discomfort due to amplification of the 2.4 Hz component occurred when the suspension height was adjusted at the minimum, even when the global weighted acceleration was lower (SEAT value < 1). These results suggest that in order to reduce the discomfort caused by whole-body vibration, the transmissibility of the seat should also be considered, in particular when there is a dominant frequency in the vibration spectra.
Xu, L.; Cardinale, M.; Rabotti, C.; Beju, B.; Mischi, M.
2016-01-01
Vibration exercise (VE) has been suggested as an effective method to improve strength and power capabilities. However, the underlying mechanisms in response to VE are still unclear. A pulley-like VE system, characterized by sinusoidal force applications has been developed and tested for proof of
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianfeng Wang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The contact mechanics for a rigid wheel and deformable terrain are complicated owing to the rigid flexible coupling characteristics. Bekker’s equations are used as the basis to establish the equations of the sinking rolling wheel, to vertical load pressure relationship. Since vehicle movement on the Moon is a complex and on-going problem, the researcher is poised to simplify this problem of vertical loading of the wheel. In this paper, the quarter kinetic models of a manned lunar rover, which are both based on the rigid road and deformable lunar terrain, are used as the simulation models. With these kinetic models, the vibration simulations were conducted. The simulation results indicate that the quarter kinetic model based on the deformable lunar terrain accurately reflects the deformable terrain’s influence on the vibration characteristics of a manned lunar rover. Additionally, with the quarter kinetic model of the deformable terrain, the vibration simulations of a manned lunar rover were conducted, which include a parametric analysis of the wheel parameters, vehicle speed, and suspension parameters. The results show that a manned lunar rover requires a lower damping value and stiffness to achieve better vibration performance.
Vibration suppression of composite laminated beams using distributed piezoelectric patches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foda, M A; Almajed, A A; ElMadany, M M
2010-01-01
The focus of this paper is to develop an analytical and straightforward approach to suppress the steady state transverse vibration of a symmetric cross-ply laminated composite beam that is excited by an external harmonic force. This is achieved by bonding patches of piezoelectric material at selected locations along the beam. The governing equations for the system are formulated and the dynamic Green's functions are used to obtain an exact solution for the problem. A scheme is proposed for determining the values of the driving voltages, the dimensions of the PZT patches and their locations along the beam, in order to confine the vibration in a certain chosen region where the vibration is not harmful and leave the other chosen region stationary or vibrating with very small amplitudes. Beams with different boundary conditions are considered. Numerical case studies are presented to verify the utility of the proposed scheme
The influence of para-seismic vibrations, induced by blasting works, on structures: a Case Study
Andrusikiewicz, Wacław
2018-04-01
Underground mining operations are often associated with the necessity to use explosives. Several hundreds of kilograms of explosives, subdivided into small charges suitable for a specific mining job, are used each time in a blasting operation. In many cases, mining engineers carry out remote central blasting works, which means that all the charges placed at faces are initiated from one control point (usually, a control room in the mine) at the same time. Such coordinated explosions generate para-seismic movements whose consequences can be felt on land surface, with subsequent effects identified in buildings and structures. This paper discusses briefly selected standards applicable to the harmful para-seismic impacts. The author presents the results of the research conducted with the intention to identify harmful effects of the basting works carried out in the "Kłodawa" Salt Mine.
Worst-case-efficient dynamic arrays in practice
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Katajainen, Jyrki
2016-01-01
The basic operations of a dynamic array are operator[], push back, and pop back. This study is an examination of variations of dynamic arrays that support these operations at O(1) worst-case cost. In the literature, many solutions have been proposed, but little information is available on their m......The basic operations of a dynamic array are operator[], push back, and pop back. This study is an examination of variations of dynamic arrays that support these operations at O(1) worst-case cost. In the literature, many solutions have been proposed, but little information is available...... on their mutual superiority. Most library implementations only guarantee O(1) amortized cost per operation. Four variations with good worst-case performance were benchmarked: (1) resizable array relying on doubling, halving, and incremental copying; (2) level-wiseallocated pile; (3) sliced array with fixed......-capacity slices; and (4) blockwise-allocated pile. Let |V| denote the size of the values of type V and |V*| the size of the pointers to values of type V, both measured in bytes. For an array of n values and a slice of S values, the space requirements of the considered variations were at most 12|V|n+O(|V*|), 2|V...
Ziemkiewicz, Michael P; Pluetzer, Christian; Nesbitt, David J; Scribano, Yohann; Faure, Alexandre; van der Avoird, Ad
2012-08-28
First results are reported on overtone (v(OH) = 2 ← 0) spectroscopy of weakly bound H(2)-H(2)O complexes in a slit supersonic jet, based on a novel combination of (i) vibrationally mediated predissociation of H(2)-H(2)O, followed by (ii) UV photodissociation of the resulting H(2)O, and (iii) UV laser induced fluorescence on the nascent OH radical. In addition, intermolecular dynamical calculations are performed in full 5D on the recent ab initio intermolecular potential of Valiron et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 129, 134306 (2008)] in order to further elucidate the identity of the infrared transitions detected. Excellent agreement is achieved between experimental and theoretical spectral predictions for the most strongly bound van der Waals complex consisting of ortho (I = 1) H(2) and ortho (I = 1) H(2)O (oH(2)-oH(2)O). Specifically, two distinct bands are seen in the oH(2)-oH(2)O spectrum, corresponding to internal rotor states in the upper vibrational manifold of Σ and Π rotational character. However, none of the three other possible nuclear spin modifications (pH(2)-oH(2)O, pH(2)-pH(2)O, or oH(2)-pH(2)O) are observed above current signal to noise level, which for the pH(2) complexes is argued to arise from displacement by oH(2) in the expansion mixture to preferentially form the more strongly bound species. Direct measurement of oH(2)-oH(2)O vibrational predissociation in the time domain reveals lifetimes of 15(2) ns and <5(2) ns for the Σ and Π states, respectively. Theoretical calculations permit the results to be interpreted in terms of near resonant energy levels and intermolecular alignment of the H(2) and H(2)O wavefunctions, providing insight into predissociation dynamical pathways from these metastable levels.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Inoue, Ken-ichi; Singh, Prashant C. [Molecular Spectroscopy Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Nihonyanagi, Satoshi; Tahara, Tahei, E-mail: tahei@riken.jp [Molecular Spectroscopy Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ultrafast Spectroscopy Research Team, RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Shoichi [Molecular Spectroscopy Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Applied Chemistry, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan)
2015-06-07
Two-dimensional heterodyne-detected vibrational sum-frequency generation (2D HD-VSFG) spectroscopy is applied to study the ultrafast vibrational dynamics of water at positively charged aqueous interfaces, and 2D HD-VSFG spectra of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)/water interfaces in the whole hydrogen-bonded OH stretch region (3000 cm{sup −1} ≤ ω{sub pump} ≤ 3600 cm{sup −1}) are measured. 2D HD-VSFG spectrum of the CTAB/isotopically diluted water (HOD-D{sub 2}O) interface exhibits a diagonally elongated bleaching lobe immediately after excitation, which becomes round with a time constant of ∼0.3 ps due to spectral diffusion. In contrast, 2D HD-VSFG spectrum of the CTAB/H{sub 2}O interface at 0.0 ps clearly shows two diagonal peaks and their cross peaks in the bleaching region, corresponding to the double peaks observed at 3230 cm{sup −1} and 3420 cm{sup −1} in the steady-state HD-VSFG spectrum. Horizontal slices of the 2D spectrum show that the relative intensity of the two peaks of the bleaching at the CTAB/H{sub 2}O interface gradually change with the change of the pump frequency. We simulate the pump-frequency dependence of the bleaching feature using a model that takes account of the Fermi resonance and inhomogeneity of the OH stretch vibration, and the simulated spectra reproduce the essential features of the 2D HD-VSFG spectra of the CTAB/H{sub 2}O interface. The present study demonstrates that heterodyne detection of the time-resolved VSFG is critically important for studying the ultrafast dynamics of water interfaces and for unveiling the underlying mechanism.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stephen M Talai
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This article pertains to the prediction of structural vibration frequencies from frictional temperature evolution through numerical simulation. To achieve this, a finite element analysis was carried on AISI 304 steel cantilever beam-like structures coupled with a lacing wire using the commercial software ABAQUS/CAE. The coupled temperature–displacement transient analysis simulated the frictional thermal generation. Furthermore, an experimental analysis was carried out with infrared cameras capturing the interfacial thermal images while the beams were subjected to forced excitation, thus validating the finite element analysis results. The analysed vibration frequencies using a MATLAB fast Fourier transform algorithm confirmed the validity of its prediction from the frictional temperature time domain waveform. This finding has a great significance to the mechanical and aerospace engineering communities for the effective structural health monitoring of dynamic structures online using infrared thermography, thus reducing the downtime and maintenance cost, leading to increased efficiency.
Fonari, A.; Corbin, N. S.; Vermeulen, D.; Goetz, K. P.; Jurchescu, O. D.; McNeil, L. E.; Bredas, Jean-Luc; Coropceanu, V.
2015-01-01
We establish a reliable quantum-mechanical approach to evaluate the vibrational properties of donor-acceptor molecular crystals. The anthracene-PMDA (PMDA = pyromellitic dianhydride) crystal, where anthracene acts as the electron donor and PMDA as the electron acceptor, is taken as a representative system for which experimental non-resonance Raman spectra are also reported. We first investigate the impact that the amount of nonlocal Hartree-Fock exchange (HFE) included in a hybrid density functional has on the geometry, normal vibrational modes, electronic coupling, and electron-vibrational (phonon) couplings. The comparison between experimental and theoreticalRaman spectra indicates that the results based on the αPBE functional with 25%-35% HFE are in better agreement with the experimental results compared to those obtained with the pure PBE functional. Then, taking αPBE with 25% HFE, we assign the vibrational modes and examine their contributions to the relaxation energy related to the nonlocal electron-vibration interactions. The results show that the largest contribution (about 90%) is due to electron interactions with low-frequency vibrational modes. The relaxation energy in anthracene-PMDA is found to be about five times smaller than the electronic coupling.
Fonari, A.
2015-12-10
We establish a reliable quantum-mechanical approach to evaluate the vibrational properties of donor-acceptor molecular crystals. The anthracene-PMDA (PMDA = pyromellitic dianhydride) crystal, where anthracene acts as the electron donor and PMDA as the electron acceptor, is taken as a representative system for which experimental non-resonance Raman spectra are also reported. We first investigate the impact that the amount of nonlocal Hartree-Fock exchange (HFE) included in a hybrid density functional has on the geometry, normal vibrational modes, electronic coupling, and electron-vibrational (phonon) couplings. The comparison between experimental and theoreticalRaman spectra indicates that the results based on the αPBE functional with 25%-35% HFE are in better agreement with the experimental results compared to those obtained with the pure PBE functional. Then, taking αPBE with 25% HFE, we assign the vibrational modes and examine their contributions to the relaxation energy related to the nonlocal electron-vibration interactions. The results show that the largest contribution (about 90%) is due to electron interactions with low-frequency vibrational modes. The relaxation energy in anthracene-PMDA is found to be about five times smaller than the electronic coupling.
First international conference on vibration control in optics and metrology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, L.R.
1987-01-01
This book contains 27 selections. Some of the titles are: Use of optics for vibration analysis of automotive components; Use of pulsed lasers for vibration analysis in the nuclear power industry; Vibration analysis of photocopiers; Control of ground vibrations; Design of low-vibration buildings: two case histories; and Continuous pulsed electronic speckle pattern interferometry
Structural Stability and Vibration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wiggers, Sine Leergaard; Pedersen, Pauli
at the University of Southern Denmark, it reports on fundamental formulas and makes uses of graphical representation to promote understanding. Thanks to the emphasis put on analytical methods and numerical results, the book is meant to make students and engineers familiar with all fundamental equations...... and their derivation, thus stimulating them to write interactive and dynamic programs to analyze instability and vibrational modes....
Derro, Erika L.
The hydrogen trioxy (HOOO) radical has been implicated as an important intermediate in key processes in the atmosphere. In the present studies, HOOO is produced by the combination of O2 and photolytically generated OH radicals in the collisional region of a pulsed supersonic expansion. Rotationally cooled HOOO is probed in the effectively collision-free region of the expansion using infrared action spectroscopy, an infrared-pump, ultraviolet-probe technique, in which HOOO is vibrationally excited and the nascent OH products of vibrational predissociation are probed via laser-induced fluorescence. High resolution infrared spectra of HOOO and DOOO were observed in the fundamental and overtone OH/D stretching regions (nui and 2nu 1), which comprise a rotationally structured band attributed to the trans conformer, and an unstructured component assigned to the cis conformer. Infrared spectra of HOOO and DOOO combination bands composed of the OH stretch and a low frequency mode (nu1 + nun) were also observed. This allowed identification of vibrational frequencies for five of the six modes for trans-H/DOOO and four of the six modes for cis-HOOO and DOOO. Identification of low frequency modes provides critical information on the vibrational dynamics and thermochemical properties of the HOOO radical, and furthermore, provides a potential means for detecting HOOO in situ in the atmosphere. In addition, the nascent OH X2pi products following vibrational predissociation of HOOO have been investigated. The product state distributions reveal a distinct preference for population of pi(A ') Λ-doublets in OH that is indicative of a planar dissociation of trans-HOOO in which the symmetry of the bonding orbital is maintained. The highest observed OH quantum state allows determination of the stability of HOOO relative to the OH + O 2 asymptote using a conservation of energy approach. In conjunction with a similar investigation of DOOO, the binding energy is determined to be ≤ 5
Arefi, Mohammad; Zenkour, Ashraf M.
2017-09-01
In this paper, size-dependent free vibration analysis of a sandwich nanoplate is presented. The sandwich nanoplate is including an elastic nano core and two piezo-electro-magnetic face-sheets as sensor and actuator actuated by electric and magnetic potentials. The sandwich nanoplate is resting on visco-Pasternak's foundation. Hamilton's principle is employed to derive the governing equations of motion based on Kirchhoff plate and nonlocal elasticity theory. The numerical results are presented to study the influence of important parameters of the problem such as applied electric and magnetic potentials, nonlocal parameter and visco-Pasternak's parameters. Furthermore, the influence of various boundary conditions is discussed on the vibration characteristics of the sandwich nanoplate.
Mikheev, A A; Volchkova, O A; Voronitskiĭ, N E
2010-01-01
The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of a combined treatment including vibrostimulation and magnetotherapy on the working capacity of athletes. Participants of the study were 8 male judo wrestlers. It was shown that implementation of a specialized training program comprising seances of vibration loading and general magnetotherapy 40 and 60 min in duration respectively during 3 consecutive days produced marked beneficial effect on the hormonal status of the athletes. Specifically, the three-day long treatment resulted in a significant increase of blood cortisol and testosterone levels considered to be an objective sign of improved performance parameters in athletes engaged in strength and speed sports. The optimal length of vibration training during 3 days of specialized training is estimated at 20 to 40 minutes supplemented by general magnetotherapy for 60 minutes.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Herman
1997-01-01
Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board......Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board...
Dynamic strategic responses among advertisers: the case of meat products
Jeffrey Hyde; Brent Gloy
2007-01-01
The case of strategic advertising response is examined for branded and generic meat products (beef, pork, and poultry). A dynamic conceptual model is developed to identify the determinants of advertising expenditures. A time-series model is then used to examine the competitive behavior of branded and generic meat advertisers. The results identify two types of advertising strategies those based upon changes in revenues and those based upon changes in competitor advertising expenditures. Most g...
Emergency Gate Vibration of the Pipe-Turbine Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrej Predin
2000-01-01
Full Text Available The vibration behavior of an emergency gate situated on a horizontal-shaft Kaplan turbine is studied. The analysis and transfer of the dynamic movements of the gate are quite complex. In particular the behavior is examined of the emergency gate for the case when the power unit is disconnected from the system or there is a breakdown of the guide vane system at the moment when the maximal head and capacity are achieved. Experimental-numerical methods both in the time domain and in the frequency domain are employed. Natural vibrations characterize a first zone, corresponding to relatively small gate openings. As the gate opening increases, the vibration behavior of the gate becomes increasingly dependent on the swirl pulsations in the draft tube of the turbine. Finally, the data transfer from the model to the prototype by use of the dynamic similitude law is discussed.
Adeyeri, Michael Kanisuru; Mpofu, Khumbulani; Kareem, Buliaminu
2016-03-01
This article describes the integration of temperature and vibration models for maintenance monitoring of conventional machinery parts in which their optimal and best functionalities are affected by abnormal changes in temperature and vibration values thereby resulting in machine failures, machines breakdown, poor quality of products, inability to meeting customers' demand, poor inventory control and just to mention a few. The work entails the use of temperature and vibration sensors as monitoring probes programmed in microcontroller using C language. The developed hardware consists of vibration sensor of ADXL345, temperature sensor of AD594/595 of type K thermocouple, microcontroller, graphic liquid crystal display, real time clock, etc. The hardware is divided into two: one is based at the workstation (majorly meant to monitor machines behaviour) and the other at the base station (meant to receive transmission of machines information sent from the workstation), working cooperatively for effective functionalities. The resulting hardware built was calibrated, tested using model verification and validated through principles pivoted on least square and regression analysis approach using data read from the gear boxes of extruding and cutting machines used for polyethylene bag production. The results got therein confirmed related correlation existing between time, vibration and temperature, which are reflections of effective formulation of the developed concept.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhuang, Z.-H.; Liu, G. K.; Beitz, J. V.
2000-01-01
Laser spectroscopic and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra have shown that uranium in B 2 O 3 glass matrix forms uranyl in the electronic configuration of (UO 2 ) 2+ ,but its surrounding structure is not well known. Understanding of uranyl local structure, ion-ligand interaction, and chemical stability on the nanometer scale in glasses is essential in management of long-term performance of high-level nuclear wastes after disposal in a geologic repository. In the present work, the structure, phonon density of states, and vibrational spectrum of vitreous B 2 O 3 and the surrounding environment that contains a uranyl ion have been studied using a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation method that utilizes the Born-Mayer-Huggins and Coulomb pair potentials and the Stillinger-Weber three-body potential. A system of 406 ions was considered in our calculation. Simulation of a thermal quenching from 3000 K to 300 K was performed to generate a uniform and equilibrium model glass matrix before structure configuration and vibrational frequencies were obtained from the system. The structure of the simulated glass is in agreement with that reported by Krogh-Moe and Mozzi et al. The characteristic network of planar boroxol (B 3 O 6 ) rings is evident in the simulated system. A configuration of a U 6+ cation in the vitreous B 2 O 3 matrix is shown in Fig. 1. It is shown that a nearly linear (UO 2 ) 2+ uranyl ion is coordinated by four equatorial oxygen anions in an approximately planar arrangement. The U-O bond length is approximately 0.178 nm for the axial oxygen and 0.254 nm for the equatorial oxygen, which is in good agreement with the U-O distances obtained from fitting EXAFS spectra. Based on the simulated model structure, the uranyl vibrational spectrum is simulated and compared with experimental results obtained using site-selective fluorescence line narrowing (FLN) techniques
Sebastianelli, Francesco; Xu, Minzhong; Bačić, Zlatko
2008-12-01
We report diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) calculations of the quantum translation-rotation (T-R) dynamics of one to five para-H2 (p-H2) and ortho-D2 (o-D2) molecules inside the large hexakaidecahedral (51264) cage of the structure II clathrate hydrate, which was taken to be rigid. These calculations provide a quantitative description of the size evolution of the ground-state properties, energetics, and the vibrationally averaged geometries, of small (p-H2)n and (o-D2)n clusters, n=1-5, in nanoconfinement. The zero-point energy (ZPE) of the T-R motions rises steeply with the cluster size, reaching 74% of the potential well depth for the caged (p-H2)4. At low temperatures, the rapid increase of the cluster ZPE as a function of n is the main factor that limits the occupancy of the large cage to at most four H2 or D2 molecules, in agreement with experiments. Our DMC results concerning the vibrationally averaged spatial distribution of four D2 molecules, their mean distance from the cage center, the D2-D2 separation, and the specific orientation and localization of the tetrahedral (D2)4 cluster relative to the framework of the large cage, agree very well with the low-temperature neutron diffraction experiments involving the large cage with the quadruple D2 occupancy.
Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Borguet, Eric
2014-02-06
The dephasing dynamics of a vibrational coherence may reveal the interactions of chemical functional groups with their environment. To investigate this process at a surface, we employ free induction decay sum frequency generation (FID-SFG) to measure the time that it takes for free OH stretch oscillators at the charged (pH ≈ 13, KOH) interface of alumina/water (Al2O3/H2O) to lose their collective coherence. By employing noncollinear optical parametric amplification (NOPA) technology and nonlinear vibrational spectroscopy, we showed that the single free OH peak actually corresponds to two distinct oscillators oriented opposite to each other and measured the total dephasing time, T2, of the free OH stretch modes at the Al2O3/H2O interface with a sub-40 fs temporal resolution. Our results suggested that the free OH oscillators associated with interfacial water dephase on the time scale of 89.4 ± 6.9 fs, whereas the homogeneous dephasing of interfacial alumina hydroxyls is an order of magnitude slower.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Morrison, Ann; Knudsen, L.; Andersen, Hans Jørgen
2012-01-01
In this paper we describe a field study conducted with a wearable vibration belt where we test to determine the vibration intensity sensitivity ranges on a large diverse group of participants with evenly distributed ages and...
Belt Conveyor Dynamic Characteristics and Influential Factors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Junxia Li
2018-01-01
Full Text Available This paper uses the Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic model to establish the continuous dynamic equations for tail hammer tension belt conveyors. The viscoelastic continuity equations are solved using the generalized coordinate method. We analyze various factors influencing longitudinal vibration of the belt conveyor by simulation and propose a control strategy to limit the vibration. The proposed approach and control strategy were verified by several experimental researches and cases. The proposed approach provides improved accuracy for dynamic design of belt conveyors.
Networks dynamics in the case of emerging technologies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rotolo, D
2016-07-01
This research in progress aims at increasing our understanding of how collaborative networks form, evolve and are configured in the case of emerging technologies. The architecture of the relationships among the variety of organisational actors involved in the emergence process exerts a significant influence in shaping technological change in certain directions rather than others, especially in the early stage of emergence. As a result, socially optimal or desirable technological trajectories may be ‘opportunistically’ rejected. Our empirical analysis is based on a case-study of an emerging medical technology, namely ‘microneedles’. On the basis of co-authorship data reported in 1,943 publications on the topic from 1990 to 2014, longitudinal collaboration (co-authorship) networks were built at two levels: affiliation and author. We examined the dynamics of co-authorship networks by building on recent methodological advancements in network analysis, i.e. Exponential Random Graph Models (ERGMs). These models enable us to make statistical inferences about on the extent to which a network configuration occurs more than could be expected by chance and to identify which social mechanisms may be shaping the network in certain configurations. The findings of the statistical analyses (currently in progress) combined with the qualitative understanding of the case will increase our understanding of which mechanisms are more likely to drive the network dynamics in the case of emerging technologies. These include evidence of the extent to which the likelihood of forming, maintaining, or terminating ties among actors (authors or affiliations) is affected by actors’ covariates such as types of organisations, diversity/specialisation of the research undertaken, and status. These findings have potential to provide important inputs for policymaking process in the case of emerging technologies. (Author)
Networks dynamics in the case of emerging technologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rotolo, D
2016-01-01
This research in progress aims at increasing our understanding of how collaborative networks form, evolve and are configured in the case of emerging technologies. The architecture of the relationships among the variety of organisational actors involved in the emergence process exerts a significant influence in shaping technological change in certain directions rather than others, especially in the early stage of emergence. As a result, socially optimal or desirable technological trajectories may be ‘opportunistically’ rejected. Our empirical analysis is based on a case-study of an emerging medical technology, namely ‘microneedles’. On the basis of co-authorship data reported in 1,943 publications on the topic from 1990 to 2014, longitudinal collaboration (co-authorship) networks were built at two levels: affiliation and author. We examined the dynamics of co-authorship networks by building on recent methodological advancements in network analysis, i.e. Exponential Random Graph Models (ERGMs). These models enable us to make statistical inferences about on the extent to which a network configuration occurs more than could be expected by chance and to identify which social mechanisms may be shaping the network in certain configurations. The findings of the statistical analyses (currently in progress) combined with the qualitative understanding of the case will increase our understanding of which mechanisms are more likely to drive the network dynamics in the case of emerging technologies. These include evidence of the extent to which the likelihood of forming, maintaining, or terminating ties among actors (authors or affiliations) is affected by actors’ covariates such as types of organisations, diversity/specialisation of the research undertaken, and status. These findings have potential to provide important inputs for policymaking process in the case of emerging technologies. (Author)
Ajori, S; Ansari, R; Darvizeh, M
2016-03-01
The adsorption of biomolecules on the walls of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in an aqueous environment is of great importance in the field of nanobiotechnology. In this study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to understand the mechanical vibrational behavior of single- and double-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and DWCNTs) under the physical adsorption of four important biomolecules (L-alanine, guanine, thymine, and uracil) in vacuum and an aqueous environment. It was observed that the natural frequencies of these CNTs in vacuum reduce under the physical adsorption of biomolecules. In the aqueous environment, the natural frequency of each pure CNT decreased as compared to its natural frequency in vacuum. It was also found that the frequency shift for functionalized CNTs as compared to pure CNTs in the aqueous environment was dependent on the radius and the number of walls of the CNT, and could be positive or negative.
Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Shirai, Shinnosuke; Okumura, Tomoaki; Morita, Akihiro
2018-06-01
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of KCl, NaCl, and CaCl2 solution/dipalmytoylphosphatidylcholine lipid interfaces were performed to analyze heterodyne-detected vibrational sum frequency generation (HD-VSFG) spectra in relation to the interfacial water structure. The present MD simulation well reproduces the experimental spectra and elucidates a specific cation effect on the interfacial structure. The K+, Na+, and Ca2+ cation species penetrate in the lipid layer more than the anions in this order, due to the electrostatic interaction with negative polar groups of lipid, and the electric double layer between the cations and anions cancels the intrinsic orientation of water at the water/lipid interface. These mechanisms explain the HD-VSFG spectrum of the water/lipid interface and its spectral perturbation by adding the ions. The lipid monolayer reverses the order of surface preference of the cations at the solution/lipid interface from that at the solution/air interface.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chodos, Steven L.; Berg, Rolf W.
1979-01-01
This paper deals with the observation and identification of phonon frequencies resulting from the low temperature phase transitions in K2XY6 crystals. By means of a simple lattice dynamical model, the vibrational Raman and IR data available in the literature and obtained here have been analyzed. ...
Gu, Fengshou; Ball, Andrew; Rao, K K
1996-01-01
Part 2 of this paper presents the experimental and analytical procedures used in the estimation of injection parameters from monitored vibration. The mechanical and flow‐induced sources of vibration in a fuel injector are detailed and the features of the resulting vibration response of the injector body are discussed. Experimental engine test and data acquisition procedures are described, and the use of an out‐of‐the‐engine test facility to confirm injection dependent vibration response is ou...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, B.N.; Lal, Achchhe
2010-01-01
This study deals with the stochastic post-buckling and nonlinear free vibration analysis of a laminated composite plate resting on a two parameters Pasternak foundation with Winkler cubic nonlinearity having uncertain system properties. The system properties are modeled as basic random variables. A C 0 nonlinear finite element formulation of the random problem based on higher-order shear deformation theory in the von Karman sense is presented. A direct iterative method in conjunction with a stochastic nonlinear finite element method proposed earlier by the authors is extended to analyze the effect of uncertainty in system properties on the post-buckling and nonlinear free vibration of the composite plates having Winler type of geometric nonlinearity. Mean as well as standard deviation of the responses have been obtained for various combinations of geometric parameters, foundation parameters, stacking sequences and boundary conditions and compared with those available in the literature and Monte Carlo simulation.
Teixeira, Filipe; Melo, André; Cordeiro, M. Natália D. S.
2010-09-01
A linear least-squares methodology was used to determine the vibrational scaling factors for the X3LYP density functional. Uncertainties for these scaling factors were calculated according to the method devised by Irikura et al. [J. Phys. Chem. A 109, 8430 (2005)]. The calibration set was systematically partitioned according to several of its descriptors and the scaling factors for X3LYP were recalculated for each subset. The results show that the scaling factors are only significant up to the second digit, irrespective of the calibration set used. Furthermore, multivariate statistical analysis allowed us to conclude that the scaling factors and the associated uncertainties are independent of the size of the calibration set and strongly suggest the practical impossibility of obtaining vibrational scaling factors with more than two significant digits.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pirali, O.; Gruet, S.; Kisiel, Z.; Goubet, M.; Martin-Drumel, M. A.; Cuisset, A.; Hindle, F.; Mouret, G.
2015-01-01
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are highly relevant for astrophysics as possible, though controversial, carriers of the unidentified infrared emission bands that are observed in a number of different astronomical objects. In support of radio-astronomical observations, high resolution laboratory spectroscopy has already provided the rotational spectra in the vibrational ground state of several molecules of this type, although the rotational study of their dense infrared (IR) bands has only recently become possible using a limited number of experimental set-ups. To date, all of the rotationally resolved data have concerned unperturbed spectra. We presently report the results of a high resolution study of the three lowest vibrational states of quinoline C 9 H 7 N, an N-bearing naphthalene derivative. While the pure rotational ground state spectrum of quinoline is unperturbed, severe complications appear in the spectra of the ν 45 and ν 44 vibrational modes (located at about 168 cm −1 and 178 cm −1 , respectively). In order to study these effects in detail, we employed three different and complementary experimental techniques: Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy, millimeter-wave spectroscopy, and Fourier-transform far-infrared spectroscopy with a synchrotron radiation source. Due to the high density of states in the IR spectra of molecules as large as PAHs, perturbations in the rotational spectra of excited states should be ubiquitous. Our study identifies for the first time this effect and provides some insights into an appropriate treatment of such perturbations
Pirali, O.; Kisiel, Z.; Goubet, M.; Gruet, S.; Martin-Drumel, M. A.; Cuisset, A.; Hindle, F.; Mouret, G.
2015-03-01
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are highly relevant for astrophysics as possible, though controversial, carriers of the unidentified infrared emission bands that are observed in a number of different astronomical objects. In support of radio-astronomical observations, high resolution laboratory spectroscopy has already provided the rotational spectra in the vibrational ground state of several molecules of this type, although the rotational study of their dense infrared (IR) bands has only recently become possible using a limited number of experimental set-ups. To date, all of the rotationally resolved data have concerned unperturbed spectra. We presently report the results of a high resolution study of the three lowest vibrational states of quinoline C9H7N, an N-bearing naphthalene derivative. While the pure rotational ground state spectrum of quinoline is unperturbed, severe complications appear in the spectra of the ν45 and ν44 vibrational modes (located at about 168 cm-1 and 178 cm-1, respectively). In order to study these effects in detail, we employed three different and complementary experimental techniques: Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy, millimeter-wave spectroscopy, and Fourier-transform far-infrared spectroscopy with a synchrotron radiation source. Due to the high density of states in the IR spectra of molecules as large as PAHs, perturbations in the rotational spectra of excited states should be ubiquitous. Our study identifies for the first time this effect and provides some insights into an appropriate treatment of such perturbations.
Passive and active vibration isolation systems using inerter
Alujević, N.; Čakmak, D.; Wolf, H.; Jokić, M.
2018-03-01
This paper presents a theoretical study on passive and active vibration isolation schemes using inerter elements in a two degree of freedom (DOF) mechanical system. The aim of the work is to discuss basic capabilities and limitations of the vibration control systems at hand using simple and physically transparent models. Broad frequency band dynamic excitation of the source DOF is assumed. The purpose of the isolator system is to prevent vibration transmission to the receiving DOF. The frequency averaged kinetic energy of the receiving mass is used as the metric for vibration isolation quality. It is shown that the use of inerter element in the passive vibration isolation scheme can enhance the isolation effect. In the active case, a feedback disturbance rejection scheme is considered. Here, the error signal is the receiving body absolute velocity which is directly fed to a reactive force actuator between the source and the receiving bodies. In such a scheme, the so-called subcritical vibration isolation problems exist. These problems are characterised by the uncoupled natural frequency of the receiving body larger than the uncoupled natural frequency of the source body. In subcritical vibration isolation problems, the performance of the active control is limited by poor stability margins. This is because the stable feedback gain is restricted in a narrow range between a minimum and a maximum. However, with the inclusion of an inerter in the isolator, one of the two stability margins can be opened. This enables large, theoretically unlimited negative feedback gains and large active damping of the receiving body vibration. A simple expression for the required inertance is derived.
Local vibrations and lift performance of low Reynolds number airfoil
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
TariqAmin Khan
2017-06-01
Full Text Available The 2D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved based on the finite volume method and dynamic mesh technique is used to carry out partial fluid structure interaction. The local flexible structure (hereinafter termed as flexible structure vibrates in a single mode located on the upper surface of the airfoil. The Influence of vibration frequency and amplitude are examined and the corresponding fluid flow characteristics are investigated which add complexity to the inherent problem in unsteady flow. The study is conducted for flow over NACA0012 airfoil at 600≤Re≤3000 at a low angle of attack. Vibration of flexible structure induces a secondary vortex which modifies the pressure distribution and lift performance of the airfoil. At some moderate vibration amplitude, frequency synchronization or lock-in phenomenon occurs when the vibration frequency is close to the characteristic frequency of rigid airfoil. Evolution and shedding of vortices corresponding to the deformation of flexible structure depends on the Reynolds number. In the case of Re≤1000, the deformation of flexible structure is considered in-phase with the vortex shedding i.e., increasing maximum lift is linked with the positive deformation of flexible structure. At Re=1500 a phase shift of about 1/π exists while they are out-of-phase at Re>1500. Moreover, the oscillation amplitude of lift coefficient increases with increasing vibration amplitude for Re≤1500 while it decreases with increasing vibration amplitude for Re>1500. As a result of frequency lock-in, the average lift coefficient is increased with increasing vibration amplitude for all investigated Reynolds numbers (Re. The maximum increase in the average lift coefficient is 19.72% within the range of investigated parameters.
Adhikari, Aniruddha
2016-10-10
Lipid/water interaction is essential for many biological processes. The water structure at the nonionic lipid interface remains little known, and there is no scope of a priori prediction of water orientation at nonionic interfaces, either. Here, we report our study combining advanced nonlinear spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation on the water orientation at the ceramide/water interface. We measured χ spectrum in the OH stretch region of ceramide/isotopically diluted water interface using heterodyne-detected vibrational sum-frequency generation spectroscopy and found that the interfacial water prefers an overall hydrogen-up orientation. Molecular dynamics simulation indicates that this preferred hydrogen-up orientation of water is determined by a delicate balance between hydrogen-up and hydrogen-down orientation induced by lipid-water and intralipid hydrogen bonds. This mechanism also suggests that water orientation at neutral lipid interfaces depends highly on the chemical structure of the lipid headgroup, in contrast to the charged lipid interfaces where the net water orientation is determined solely by the charge of the lipid headgroup.
Shrestha, Rebika; Cardenas, Alfredo E; Elber, Ron; Webb, Lauren J
2015-02-19
The magnitude of the membrane dipole field was measured using vibrational Stark effect (VSE) shifts of nitrile oscillators placed on the unnatural amino acid p-cyanophenylalanine (p-CN-Phe) added to a peptide sequence at four unique positions. These peptides, which were based on a repeating alanine-leucine motif, intercalated into small unilamellar DMPC vesicles which formed an α-helix as confirmed by circular dichroic (CD) spectroscopy. Molecular dynamics simulations of the membrane-intercalated helix containing two of the nitrile probes, one near the headgroup region of the lipid (αLAX(25)) and one buried in the interior of the bilayer (αLAX(16)), were used to examine the structure of the nitrile with respect to the membrane normal, the assumed direction of the dipole field, by quantifying both a small tilt of the helix in the bilayer and conformational rotation of the p-CN-Phe side chain at steady state. Vibrational absorption energies of the nitrile oscillator at each position showed a systematic blue shift as the nitrile was stepped toward the membrane interior; for several different concentrations of peptide, the absorption energy of the nitrile located in the middle of the bilayer was ∼3 cm(-1) greater than that of the nitrile closest to the surface of the membrane. Taken together, the measured VSE shifts and nitrile orientations within the membrane resulted in an absolute magnitude of 8-11 MV/cm for the dipole field, at the high end of the range of possible values that have been accumulated from a variety of indirect measurements. Implications for this are discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsukada, Raphael I.; Morooka, Celso K. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica; Franciss, Ricardo; Matt, Cyntia G.C. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)
2009-07-01
Hydrocarbon discoveries in ultra deep waters and the recent pre-salt deep carbonate reservoirs along the Brazilian coast demand further technological development in order to exploit these resources. These developments usually require new concepts for offshore sea surface structures and subsea systems for the petroleum and gas production, which means cost effective solutions that provides higher operational safety on drilling and production operations. In this scenario, the effect of the natural phenomenon of Vortex-Induced Vibration (VIV) on risers is one of the concerns for its design due to the tendency of VIV to increase levels of stresses in the riser structure. Therefore the correct prediction of stresses and displacements due to VIV is of great importance for designing riser systems. The present work presents new developments based on previous results for VIV in vertical risers extended to curved risers such as steel catenary risers (SCR). Numerical simulations have been performed in time domain, and experimental results from model tests with a scaled SCR in a towing tank have been used to evaluate the proposed developments. Finally, the conclusions from the analysis of the results bring very promising results. (author)
FEM Updating of Tall Buildings using Ambient Vibration Data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ventura, C. E.; Lord, J. F.; Turek, M.
2005-01-01
Ambient vibration testing is the most economical non-destructive testing method to acquire vibration data from large civil engineering structures. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how ambient vibration Modal Identification techniques can be effectively used with Model Updating tools...... to develop reliable finite element models of large civil engineering structures. A fifteen story and a forty-eight story reinforced concrete buildings are used as case studies for this purpose. The dynamic characteristics of interest for this study were the first few lateral and torsional natural frequencies...... the information provided in the design documentation of the building. Different parameters of the model were then modified using an automated procedure to improve the correlation between measured and calculated modal parameters. Careful attention was placed to the selection of the parameters to be modified...
Schiepek, Günter K; Stöger-Schmidinger, Barbara; Aichhorn, Wolfgang; Schöller, Helmut; Aas, Benjamin
2016-01-01
Objective: The aim of this case report is to demonstrate the feasibility of a systemic procedure (synergetic process management) including modeling of the idiographic psychological system and continuous high-frequency monitoring of change dynamics in a case of dissociative identity disorder. The psychotherapy was realized in a day treatment center with a female client diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and dissociative identity disorder. Methods: A three hour long co-creative session at the beginning of the treatment period allowed for modeling the systemic network of the client's dynamics of cognitions, emotions, and behavior. The components (variables) of this idiographic system model (ISM) were used to create items for an individualized process questionnaire for the client. The questionnaire was administered daily through an internet-based monitoring tool (Synergetic Navigation System, SNS), to capture the client's individual change process continuously throughout the therapy and after-care period. The resulting time series were reflected by therapist and client in therapeutic feedback sessions. Results: For the client it was important to see how the personality states dominating her daily life were represented by her idiographic system model and how the transitions between each state could be explained and understood by the activating and inhibiting relations between the cognitive-emotional components of that system. Continuous monitoring of her cognitions, emotions, and behavior via SNS allowed for identification of important triggers, dynamic patterns, and psychological mechanisms behind seemingly erratic state fluctuations. These insights enabled a change in management of the dynamics and an intensified trauma-focused therapy. Conclusion: By making use of the systemic case formulation technique and subsequent daily online monitoring, client and therapist continuously refer to detailed visualizations of the mental and behavioral network and
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guenter Karl Schiepek
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this case report is to demonstrate the feasibility of a systemic procedure (synergetic process management including modeling of the idiographic psychological system and continuous high-frequency monitoring of change dynamics in a case of dissociative identity disorder. The psychotherapy was realized in a day treatment center with a female client diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD and dissociative identity disorder. Methods. A three hour long co-creative session at the beginning of the treatment period allowed for modeling the systemic network of the client’s dynamics of cognitions, emotions, and behavior. The components (variables of this idiographic system model (ISM were used to create items for an individualized process questionnaire for the client. The questionnaire was administered daily through an internet-based monitoring tool (Synergetic Navigation System, SNS, to capture the client’s individual change process continuously throughout the therapy and after-care period. The resulting time series were reflected by therapist and client in therapeutic feedback sessions. Results. For the client it was important to see how the personality states dominating her daily life were represented by her idiographic system model and how the transitions between each state could be explained and understood by the activating and inhibiting relations between the cognitive-emotional components of that system. Continuous monitoring of her cognitions, emotions, and behavior via SNS allowed for identification of important triggers, dynamic patterns, and psychological mechanisms behind seemingly erratic state fluctuations. These insights enabled a change in management of the dynamics and an intensified trauma-focused therapy. Conclusion. By making use of the systemic case formulation technique and subsequent daily online monitoring, client and therapist continuously refer to detailed visualizations of the mental and
A study on leakage-flow-induced vibrations: Pt. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inada, F.; Hayama, S.
1990-01-01
The viscous fluid-dynamic forces and the moments acting on the walls of a one-dimensional, narrow, tapered passage when one wall is vibrating in coupled translational and rotational modes are analyzed, and fluid-dynamic mass, damping and stiffness matrices are determined. By this means the mechanism of instability generated from the flow through a narrow passage is examined. In the case of a single-degree-of-freedom translational or rotational system, only diagonal components of the fluid-dynamic matrices are estimated, and it is found that both negative fluid-dynamic damping caused by the phase delay due to the fluid inertia and negative fluid-dynamic stiffness can occur. In the case of a single-degree-of-freedom translational system, if the passage is divergent, both negative fluid-dynamic damping and fluid-dynamic stiffness can occur. In the case of a single-degree-of-freedom rotational system, the area increment ratio of the passage, at which negative fluid-dynamic damping and fluid-dynamic stiffness can occur, changes remarkably with the location of the pivot. In the case of a two-degree-of-freedom translational and rotational system, it is difficult to conclude directly from the fluid-dynamic matrices whether the fluid-dynamic forces stabilize the system or not. (author)
2009-01-01
Ed Witten is one of the leading scientists in the field of string theory, the theory that describes elementary particles as vibrating strings. This week he leaves CERN after having spent a few months here on sabbatical. His wish is that the LHC will unveil supersymmetry.
Umesh P. Agarwal; Rajai Atalla
2010-01-01
Vibrational spectroscopy is an important tool in modern chemistry. In the past two decades, thanks to significant improvements in instrumentation and the development of new interpretive tools, it has become increasingly important for studies of lignin. This chapter presents the three important instrumental methods-Raman spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and...
Vibration control of a cluster of buildings through the Vibrating Barrier
Tombari, A.; Garcia Espinosa, M.; Alexander, N. A.; Cacciola, P.
2018-02-01
A novel device, called Vibrating Barrier (ViBa), that aims to reduce the vibrations of adjacent structures subjected to ground motion waves has been recently proposed. The ViBa is a structure buried in the soil and detached from surrounding buildings that is able to absorb a significant portion of the dynamic energy arising from the ground motion. The working principle exploits the dynamic interaction among vibrating structures due to the propagation of waves through the soil, namely the structure-soil-structure interaction. In this paper the efficiency of the ViBa is investigated to control the vibrations of a cluster of buildings. To this aim, a discrete model of structures-site interaction involving multiple buildings and the ViBa is developed where the effects of the soil on the structures, i.e. the soil-structure interaction (SSI), the structure-soil-structure interaction (SSSI) as well as the ViBa-soil-structures interaction are taken into account by means of linear elastic springs. Closed-form solutions are derived to design the ViBa in the case of harmonic excitation from the analysis of the discrete model. Advanced finite element numerical simulations are performed in order to assess the efficiency of the ViBa for protecting more than a single building. Parametric studies are also conducted to identify beneficial/adverse effects in the use of the proposed vibration control strategy to protect cluster of buildings. Finally, experimental shake table tests are performed to a prototype of a cluster of two buildings protected by the ViBa device for validating the proposed numerical models.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pirali, O.; Gruet, S. [AILES Beamline, Synchrotron SOLEIL, l’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d’Orsay, UMR8214 CNRS – Université Paris-Sud, Bât. 210, 91405 Orsay cedex (France); Kisiel, Z. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Goubet, M. [Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, Atomes et Molécules, UMR 8523 CNRS - Université Lille 1, Bâtiment P5, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Martin-Drumel, M. A.; Cuisset, A.; Hindle, F.; Mouret, G. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie de l’Atmosphère, EA-4493, Université du Littoral – Côte d’Opale, 59140 Dunkerque (France)
2015-03-14
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are highly relevant for astrophysics as possible, though controversial, carriers of the unidentified infrared emission bands that are observed in a number of different astronomical objects. In support of radio-astronomical observations, high resolution laboratory spectroscopy has already provided the rotational spectra in the vibrational ground state of several molecules of this type, although the rotational study of their dense infrared (IR) bands has only recently become possible using a limited number of experimental set-ups. To date, all of the rotationally resolved data have concerned unperturbed spectra. We presently report the results of a high resolution study of the three lowest vibrational states of quinoline C{sub 9}H{sub 7}N, an N-bearing naphthalene derivative. While the pure rotational ground state spectrum of quinoline is unperturbed, severe complications appear in the spectra of the ν{sub 45} and ν{sub 44} vibrational modes (located at about 168 cm{sup −1} and 178 cm{sup −1}, respectively). In order to study these effects in detail, we employed three different and complementary experimental techniques: Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy, millimeter-wave spectroscopy, and Fourier-transform far-infrared spectroscopy with a synchrotron radiation source. Due to the high density of states in the IR spectra of molecules as large as PAHs, perturbations in the rotational spectra of excited states should be ubiquitous. Our study identifies for the first time this effect and provides some insights into an appropriate treatment of such perturbations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cap, J.S.
1997-01-01
Defining the maximum expected shock and vibration responses for an on-road truck transportation environment is strongly dependent on the amount of response data that can be obtained. One common test scheme consists of measuring response data over a relatively short prescribed road course and then reviewing that data to obtain the maximum response levels. The more mathematically rigorous alternative is to collect an unbiased ensemble of response data during a long road trip. This paper compares data gathered both ways during a recent on-road certification test for a tractor trailer van being designed by Sandia
Coupled vibrations in horizontal and vertical rotor-bearing systems
Luneno, Jean-Claude
2011-01-01
For dynamical systems having several degrees of freedom, motion in one direction can induce motion in the other. This means that there is a certain coupling between these two motions. Coupling can in some cases be a source of instability that causes self-excited vibrations in rotating machinery. In classical modeling of rotor systems, couplings other than those that are the result of gyroscopic effect are normally not considered. This is due to thecomplexity of the reasons for coupling which ...
Torsional vibration signal analysis as a diagnostic tool for planetary gear fault detection
Xue, Song; Howard, Ian
2018-02-01
This paper aims to investigate the effectiveness of using the torsional vibration signal as a diagnostic tool for planetary gearbox faults detection. The traditional approach for condition monitoring of the planetary gear uses a stationary transducer mounted on the ring gear casing to measure all the vibration data when the planet gears pass by with the rotation of the carrier arm. However, the time variant vibration transfer paths between the stationary transducer and the rotating planet gear modulate the resultant vibration spectra and make it complex. Torsional vibration signals are theoretically free from this modulation effect and therefore, it is expected to be much easier and more effective to diagnose planetary gear faults using the fault diagnostic information extracted from the torsional vibration. In this paper, a 20 degree of freedom planetary gear lumped-parameter model was developed to obtain the gear dynamic response. In the model, the gear mesh stiffness variations are the main internal vibration generation mechanism and the finite element models were developed for calculation of the sun-planet and ring-planet gear mesh stiffnesses. Gear faults on different components were created in the finite element models to calculate the resultant gear mesh stiffnesses, which were incorporated into the planetary gear model later on to obtain the faulted vibration signal. Some advanced signal processing techniques were utilized to analyses the fault diagnostic results from the torsional vibration. It was found that the planetary gear torsional vibration not only successfully detected the gear fault, but also had the potential to indicate the location of the gear fault. As a result, the planetary gear torsional vibration can be considered an effective alternative approach for planetary gear condition monitoring.
Dynamics of railway bridges, analysis and verification by field tests
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andersson Andreas
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The following paper discusses different aspects of railway bridge dynamics, comprising analysis, modelling procedures and experimental testing. The importance of realistic models is discussed, especially regarding boundary conditions, load distribution and soil-structure interaction. Two theoretical case studies are presented, involving both deterministic and probabilistic assessment of a large number of railway bridges using simplified and computationally efficient models. A total of four experimental case studies are also introduced, illustrating different aspects and phenomena in bridge dynamics. The excitation consists of both ambient vibrations, train induced vibrations, free vibrations after train passages and controlled forced excitation.
Mork, Steven W.; Miller, C. Cameron; Philips, Laura A.
1992-09-01
The high resolution infrared spectrum of 1,2-difluoroethane (DFE) in a molecular beam has been obtained over the 2978-2996 cm-1 spectral region. This region corresponds to the symmetric combination of asymmetric C-H stretches in DFE. Observed rotational fine structure indicates that this C-H stretch is undergoing vibrational mode coupling to a single dark mode. The dark mode is split by approximately 19 cm-1 due to tunneling between the two identical gauche conformers. The mechanism of the coupling is largely anharmonic with a minor component of B/C plane Coriolis coupling. Effects of centrifugal distortion along the molecular A-axis are also observed. Analysis of the fine structure identifies the dark state as being composed of C-C torsion, CCF bend, and CH2 rock. Coupling between the C-H stretches and the C-C torsion is of particular interest because DFE has been observed to undergo vibrationally induced isomerization from the gauche to trans conformer upon excitation of the C-H stretch.
Minimum cost dynamic flows: The series-parallel case
Klinz, Bettina; Woeginger, Gerhard
2004-01-01
A dynamic network consists of a directed graph with capacities, costs, and integral transit times on the arcs. In the minimum-cost dynamic flow problem (MCDFP), the goal is to compute, for a given dynamic network with source s, sink t, and two integers v and T, a feasible dynamic flow from s to t of
Zentel, Tobias; Overbeck, Viviane; Michalik, Dirk; Kühn, Oliver; Ludwig, Ralf
2018-02-01
The properties of the hydrogen bonds in ethylammonium nitrate (EAN) are analyzed by using molecular dynamics simulations and infrared as well as nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. EAN features a flexible three-dimensional network of hydrogen bonds with moderate strengths, which makes it distinct from related triethylammonium-based ionic liquids. First, the network’s flexibility is manifested in a not very pronounced correlation of the hydrogen bond geometries, which is caused by rapid interchanges of bonding partners. The large flexibility of the network also leads to a substantial broadening of the mid-IR absorption band, with the contributions due to N-H stretching motions ranging from 2800 to 3250 cm-1. Finally, the different dynamics are also seen in the rotational correlation of the N-H bond vector, where a correlation time as short as 16.1 ps is observed.
2012-02-28
dimethylsulfoxide ( DMSO ). When chloroform is dissolved in a mixed solvent consisting of acetone and DMSO , both types of hydrogen bonded complexes exist. The...transition (negative) in the 2D IR spectrum. Also, line shape distortions caused by solvent background absorption and finite pulse durations do not affect...conditions as = 7 1 ps. This is the first direct measurement of hydrogen bond exchange. b. Solute- Solvent Complex Switching Dynamics3 Hydrogen
2012-02-28
dimethylsulfoxide ( DMSO ). When chloroform is dissolved in a mixed solvent consisting of acetone and DMSO , both types of hydrogen bonded complexes exist. The...transition (negative) in the 2D IR spectrum. Also, line shape distortions caused by solvent background absorption and finite pulse durations do not affect...conditions as = 7 1 ps. This is the first direct measurement of hydrogen bond exchange. b. Solute- Solvent Complex Switching Dynamics3 Hydrogen
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Dynamics Lab replicates vibration environments for every Navy platform. Testing performed includes: Flight Clearance, Component Improvement, Qualification, Life...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Irina YUTKINA
2014-03-01
Full Text Available An engineering method of design, worked out by the authors, is considered in the paper. It allows to carry out design of amplitude-frequency specter and vibration loading of cylinder cases of the diesel engine of locomotive with account of cavitation-erosion damage. Offered method of design of parameters of cavitation-erosion damage may be used in design of new structures of diesel engines of locomotives and systems of cooling.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kessler, Jiří; Kiederling, T. A.; Bouř, Petr
2014-01-01
Roč. 118, č. 24 (2014), s. 6937-6945 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/11/0105; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11033 Grant - others:MŠMT(CZ) LM2010005; AV ČR(CZ) M200550902; MŠMT(CZ) ED3.2.00/08.0144 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : insulin amyloid superstructures * DFT * VCD * molecular dynamics Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.302, year: 2014
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Kohji Tashiro
2007-01-01
The crystalline phase transition of aliphatic nylon 10/10 has been investigated on the basis of the simultaneous measurement of wide-angle and small-angle X-ray scatterings, the infrared spectral measurement and the molecular dynamics calculation. An interpretation of infrared spectra taken for a series of nylon samples and the corresponding model compounds was successfully made, allowing us to assign the infrared bands of the planar-zigzag methylene segments reasonably. As a result the methylene segmental parts of molecular chains were found to experience an order-to-disorder transition in the Brill transition region, where the intermolecular hydrogen bonds are kept alive although the bond strength becomes weaker at higher temperature. The small-angle X-ray scattering data revealed a slight change in lamellar stacking mode in the transition region. The crystal structure has been found to change more remarkably in the temperature region immediately below the melting point, where the conformationally disordered chains experienced drastic rotational and translational motions without any constraints by hydrogen bonds, and the lamellar thickness increased largely along the chain axis. These experimental results were reasonably reproduced by the molecular dynamics calculation performed at the various temperatures.
Protection of historic buildings against environmental pollution of vibrations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kowalska-Koczwara Alicja
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Historic buildings in Poland are largely neglected objects that small percentage is preserved in its original form. Unrelenting in the case of historic buildings is a time that brings with it the natural processes of aging of buildings, but also the history of the object which is often marked by military conflicts, fires or even incompetently carried out reconstruction. Nowadays historic buildings are also destroyed by the rapid development of infrastructure and residential construction. This development could lead to changes of water in the soil, make changes in the geologic al structure or cause exposure of the historic building to the new influences (eg. traffic vibrations, to which building has not been subjected so far. Vibrations are often omitted in environmental issues, although the protection against noise and vibration has its place in the Law on Environmental Protection. This article presents the methodology for the measurement and interpretation of vibration influence on historic buildings and the assessment methods of technical condition of historic building on the example of dynamic measurements made on St. Nicholas Church in Krakow. The importance of well-done crack-by-crack documentation and characterization of damages based on damage index is shown. Difficulties that can be encountered when determining the causes of technical condition of historic buildings are also shown. Based on the example of the Church in the article are also given the possible protection solutions of historic structures from vibrations.
Fluid-elastic vibration in two-phase cross flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sasakawa, T.; Serizawa, A.; Kawara, Z.
2003-01-01
The present work aims at clarifying the mechanisms of fluid elastic vibration of tube bundles in two-phase cross flow. The experiment is conducted using air-water two-phase flow under atmospheric pressure. The test section is a 1.03m long transparent acrylic square duct with 128 x 128 mm 2 cross section, which consists of 3 rod-rows with 5 rods in each row. The rods are 125mm long aluminum rods with 22 mm in diameter (p/D=1.45). The natural frequency of rod vibration is about 30Hz. The result indicated a diversion of observed trend in vibration behavior depending on two-phase flow patterns either bubbly flow or churn flow. Specifically, in churn flow, the fluid elastic vibration has been observed to occur when the frequency in void fraction fluctuation approached to the natural frequency of the rods, but this was not the case in fluid elastic vibration in bubbly flow. This fact suggests the existence of mechanisms closely coupled with two-phase flow structures depending on the flow patterns, that is, static two-phase character-controlled mechanism in bubbly flow and dynamic character- controlled in churn flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Gaigong [Computational Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lin, Lin, E-mail: linlin@math.berkeley.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Computational Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hu, Wei, E-mail: whu@lbl.gov [Computational Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Yang, Chao, E-mail: cyang@lbl.gov [Computational Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Pask, John E., E-mail: pask1@llnl.gov [Physics Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)
2017-04-15
Recently, we have proposed the adaptive local basis set for electronic structure calculations based on Kohn–Sham density functional theory in a pseudopotential framework. The adaptive local basis set is efficient and systematically improvable for total energy calculations. In this paper, we present the calculation of atomic forces, which can be used for a range of applications such as geometry optimization and molecular dynamics simulation. We demonstrate that, under mild assumptions, the computation of atomic forces can scale nearly linearly with the number of atoms in the system using the adaptive local basis set. We quantify the accuracy of the Hellmann–Feynman forces for a range of physical systems, benchmarked against converged planewave calculations, and find that the adaptive local basis set is efficient for both force and energy calculations, requiring at most a few tens of basis functions per atom to attain accuracies required in practice. Since the adaptive local basis set has implicit dependence on atomic positions, Pulay forces are in general nonzero. However, we find that the Pulay force is numerically small and systematically decreasing with increasing basis completeness, so that the Hellmann–Feynman force is sufficient for basis sizes of a few tens of basis functions per atom. We verify the accuracy of the computed forces in static calculations of quasi-1D and 3D disordered Si systems, vibration calculation of a quasi-1D Si system, and molecular dynamics calculations of H{sub 2} and liquid Al–Si alloy systems, where we show systematic convergence to benchmark planewave results and results from the literature.
Lattice dynamics and vibration modes frequencies for substitutional impurities in InP, GaP and ZnS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vandevyver, Michel; Plumelle, Pierre.
1977-01-01
The model used is a rigid-ion model with an effective ionic charge including general interactions for nearest and next nearest neighbours and long range Coulomb interactions. It provides a good fit with available neutron data and with infrared absorption results for InP. In this model, no hypothesis is made a priori on the interatomic forces and the eleven parameters given by the model are used. A mathematical model which employs a Green's function technique in the mass defect and the nearest neighbour force constant defect approximation is used to calculate the lattice dynamics of the imperfect crystal. The frequencies of the local modes, the gap modes and the band modes, are given for isolated substitutional impurities. The same calculation is achieved for GaP and ZnS and the results are compared with infrared data [fr
Tool-specific performance of vibration-reducing gloves for attenuating fingers-transmitted vibration
Welcome, Daniel E.; Dong, Ren G.; Xu, Xueyan S.; Warren, Christopher; McDowell, Thomas W.
2016-01-01
BACKGROUND Fingers-transmitted vibration can cause vibration-induced white finger. The effectiveness of vibration-reducing (VR) gloves for reducing hand transmitted vibration to the fingers has not been sufficiently examined. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to examine tool-specific performance of VR gloves for reducing finger-transmitted vibrations in three orthogonal directions (3D) from powered hand tools. METHODS A transfer function method was used to estimate the tool-specific effectiveness of four typical VR gloves. The transfer functions of the VR glove fingers in three directions were either measured in this study or during a previous study using a 3D laser vibrometer. More than seventy vibration spectra of various tools or machines were used in the estimations. RESULTS When assessed based on frequency-weighted acceleration, the gloves provided little vibration reduction. In some cases, the gloves amplified the vibration by more than 10%, especially the neoprene glove. However, the neoprene glove did the best when the assessment was based on unweighted acceleration. The neoprene glove was able to reduce the vibration by 10% or more of the unweighted vibration for 27 out of the 79 tools. If the dominant vibration of a tool handle or workpiece was in the shear direction relative to the fingers, as observed in the operation of needle scalers, hammer chisels, and bucking bars, the gloves did not reduce the vibration but increased it. CONCLUSIONS This study confirmed that the effectiveness for reducing vibration varied with the gloves and the vibration reduction of each glove depended on tool, vibration direction to the fingers, and finger location. VR gloves, including certified anti-vibration gloves do not provide much vibration reduction when judged based on frequency-weighted acceleration. However, some of the VR gloves can provide more than 10% reduction of the unweighted vibration for some tools or workpieces. Tools and gloves can be matched for
Wesolowski, Steven S; Pivonka, Don E
2013-07-15
The absolute stereochemistry of chiral drugs is usually established via X-ray crystallography. However, vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy coupled with quantum mechanics simulations offers a rapid alternative to crystallography and is readily applied to both crystalline and non-crystalline samples. VCD is an effective complement to X-ray analysis of drug candidates, and it can be used as a high-throughput means of assessing absolute stereochemistry at all phases of the discovery process (hundreds of assignments per year). The practical implementation (or fee-for-service outsourcing) of VCD and selected case studies are illustrated with an emphasis on providing utility and impact to pharmaceutical discovery programs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dissipation enhanced vibrational sensing in an olfactory molecular switch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chęcińska, Agata; Heaney, Libby; Pollock, Felix A.; Nazir, Ahsan
2015-01-01
Motivated by a proposed olfactory mechanism based on a vibrationally activated molecular switch, we study electron transport within a donor-acceptor pair that is coupled to a vibrational mode and embedded in a surrounding environment. We derive a polaron master equation with which we study the dynamics of both the electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom beyond previously employed semiclassical (Marcus-Jortner) rate analyses. We show (i) that in the absence of explicit dissipation of the vibrational mode, the semiclassical approach is generally unable to capture the dynamics predicted by our master equation due to both its assumption of one-way (exponential) electron transfer from donor to acceptor and its neglect of the spectral details of the environment; (ii) that by additionally allowing strong dissipation to act on the odorant vibrational mode, we can recover exponential electron transfer, though typically at a rate that differs from that given by the Marcus-Jortner expression; (iii) that the ability of the molecular switch to discriminate between the presence and absence of the odorant, and its sensitivity to the odorant vibrational frequency, is enhanced significantly in this strong dissipation regime, when compared to the case without mode dissipation; and (iv) that details of the environment absent from previous Marcus-Jortner analyses can also dramatically alter the sensitivity of the molecular switch, in particular, allowing its frequency resolution to be improved. Our results thus demonstrate the constructive role dissipation can play in facilitating sensitive and selective operation in molecular switch devices, as well as the inadequacy of semiclassical rate equations in analysing such behaviour over a wide range of parameters
Vibration isolation using nonlinear damping implemented by a feedback-controlled MR damper
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ho, C; Lang, Z Q; Billings, S A; Sapiński, B
2013-01-01
The main problem of using a conventional linear damper on a vibration isolation system is that the reduction of the resonant peak in many cases inevitably results in the degradation of the high-frequency transmissibility. Instead of using active control methods which normally depend on the model of the controlled plant and where unmodelled dynamics may induce stability concerns, recent studies have revealed that optimal vibration isolation over a wide frequency range can be achieved by using nonlinear damping. The present study is concerned with the realization of the ideal nonlinear damping characteristic using a feedback-controlled MR damper. Both simulation and experimental studies are conducted to demonstrate the advantages of the simple but effective vibration control strategy. This research work has significant implications for the effective use of MR dampers in the vibration control of a wide range of engineering systems. (paper)
Vibrational fatigue failures in short cantilevered piping with socket-welding fittings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, J.K.
1996-01-01
Approximately 80% of the vibrational fatigue failures in nuclear power plants have been caused by high cycle vibrational fatigue. Many of these failures have occurred in short, small bore (2 in. nominal diameter and smaller), unbraced, cantilevered piping with socket-welding fittings. The fatigue failures initiated in the socket welds. These failures have been unexpected, and have caused costly, unscheduled outages in some cases. In order to reduce the number of vibrational fatigue failures in these short cantilevered pipes, an acceleration based vibrational fatigue screening criteria was developed under Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) sponsorship. In this paper, the acceleration based criteria will be compared to the results obtained from detailed dynamic modeling of a short, cantilevered pipe
Vibration measurements of automobile catalyst
Aatola, Seppo
1994-09-01
Vibration of catalyst cell, which is inside the casing of the catalyst, is difficult to measure with usual measuring instrumentation. When catalyst is in use, there is hot exhaust gas flow though the catalyst cell and temperature of the cell is approximately +900 degree(s)C. Therefore non-contact Laser- Doppler-Vibrometer was used to measure vibration velocity of the catalyst cell. The laser beam was directed towards the cell through pipe which was put through and welded to the casing of the catalyst. The outer end of the pipe was screw down with a tempered class to prevent exhaust gas flow from the pipe. The inner end of the pipe was open and few millimeters away from the measuring point. Catalyst was attached to the engine with two ways, rigidly close to the engine and flexible under the engine. The engine was running in test bench under controlled conditions. Vibration measurements were carried out during constant running speeds of the engine. Vibration signals were captured and analyzed with FFT-analyzer. Vibration of catalyst cell was strongest at running speed of 5000 rpm, from 10 to 20 g (1 g equals 9.81 ms-2), when catalyst was attached rigidly close to the engine. At running speed of 3000 rpm, vibration of catalyst cell was from 2 to 3 g in most cases, when catalyst was attached either rigidly or flexible to the engine. It is estimated that in real life, i.e. when catalyst is attached to car with same engine, vibration of catalyst cell at running speed of 5000 rpm is somewhere between 1 and 10 g. At running speed of 3000 rpm, which may be more often used when driving car (car speed approximately 100 kmh-1), vibration of catalyst cell is probably few g's.
Customized shaping of vibration modes by acoustic metamaterial synthesis
Xu, Jiawen; Li, Shilong; Tang, J.
2018-04-01
Acoustic metamaterials have attractive potential in elastic wave guiding and attenuation over specific frequency ranges. The vast majority of related investigations are on transient waves. In this research we focus on stationary wave manipulation, i.e., shaping of vibration modes. Periodically arranged piezoelectric transducers shunted with inductive circuits are integrated to a beam structure to form a finite-length metamaterial beam. We demonstrate for the first time that, under a given operating frequency of interest, we can facilitate a metamaterial design such that this frequency becomes a natural frequency of the integrated system. Moreover, the vibration mode corresponding to this natural frequency can be customized and shaped to realize tailored/localized response distribution. This is fundamentally different from previous practices of utilizing geometry modification and/or feedback control to achieve mode tailoring. The metamaterial design is built upon the combinatorial effects of the bandgap feature and the effective resonant cavity feature, both attributed to the dynamic characteristics of the metamaterial beam. Analytical investigations based on unit-cell dynamics and modal analysis of the metamaterial beam are presented to reveal the underlying mechanism. Case illustrations are validated by finite element analyses. Owing to the online tunability of circuitry integrated, the proposed mode shaping technique can be online adjusted to fit specific requirements. The customized shaping of vibration modes by acoustic metamaterial synthesis has potential applications in vibration suppression, sensing enhancement and energy harvesting.
Callahan, Karen M; Casillas-Ituarte, Nadia N; Roeselová, Martina; Allen, Heather C; Tobias, Douglas J
2010-04-22
Magnesium dication plays many significant roles in biochemistry. While it is available to the environment from both ocean waters and mineral salts on land, its roles in environmental and atmospheric chemistry are still relatively unknown. Several pieces of experimental evidence suggest that contact ion pairing may not exist at ambient conditions in solutions of magnesium chloride up to saturation concentrations. This is not typical of most ions. There has been disagreement in the molecular dynamics literature concerning the existence of ion pairing in magnesium chloride solutions. Using a force field developed during this study, we show that contact ion pairing is not energetically favorable. Additionally, we present a concentration-dependent Raman spectroscopic study of the Mg-O(water) hexaaquo stretch that clearly supports the absence of ion pairing in MgCl(2) solutions, although a transition occurring in the spectrum between 0.06x and 0.09x suggests a change in solution structure. Finally, we compare experimental and calculated observables to validate our force field as well as two other commonly used magnesium force fields, and in the process show that ion pairing of magnesium clearly is not observed at higher concentrations in aqueous solutions of magnesium chloride, independent of the choice of magnesium force field, although some force fields give better agreement to experimental results than others.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Noh
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Long-term dynamic monitoring of the masonry façade of Palazzo Ducale known as Doge’s palace in Venice, Italy was performed from September 2010 to October 2012. This article demonstrates the results of preliminary analysis on the data set of the first 12-month long monitoring campaign for out-of-plumb dynamic responses of the medieval façade of the monument. The aim of the analysis of the dynamic signals is to validate the data set and investigate dynamic characteristics of the vibration signature of the historical masonry wall in the long-term. Palazzo Ducale is a heavily visited heritage due to its high cultural importance and architectural value. Nevertheless, little is known about the dynamic behaviour of the double-leaf masonry façade. In this study, the dynamic properties of the structure are presented by dynamic identification carried out with the effect of the ambient vibration measured at four different locations on the façade and portico level. The trend and intensity of the vibration at each measurement locations are identified over the year. In addition, the issue on eliminating the noise blended in the signals for reliable analysis are also discussed.
Noh, J.; Russo, S.
2017-08-01
Long-term dynamic monitoring of the masonry façade of Palazzo Ducale known as Doge's palace in Venice, Italy was performed from September 2010 to October 2012. This article demonstrates the results of preliminary analysis on the data set of the first 12-month long monitoring campaign for out-of-plumb dynamic responses of the medieval façade of the monument. The aim of the analysis of the dynamic signals is to validate the data set and investigate dynamic characteristics of the vibration signature of the historical masonry wall in the long-term. Palazzo Ducale is a heavily visited heritage due to its high cultural importance and architectural value. Nevertheless, little is known about the dynamic behaviour of the double-leaf masonry façade. In this study, the dynamic properties of the structure are presented by dynamic identification carried out with the effect of the ambient vibration measured at four different locations on the façade and portico level. The trend and intensity of the vibration at each measurement locations are identified over the year. In addition, the issue on eliminating the noise blended in the signals for reliable analysis are also discussed.
Belt Conveyor Dynamic Characteristics and Influential Factors
Li, Junxia; Pang, Xiaoxu
2018-01-01
This paper uses the Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic model to establish the continuous dynamic equations for tail hammer tension belt conveyors. The viscoelastic continuity equations are solved using the generalized coordinate method. We analyze various factors influencing longitudinal vibration of the belt conveyor by simulation and propose a control strategy to limit the vibration. The proposed approach and control strategy were verified by several experimental researches and cases. The proposed a...
Making System Dynamics Cool II : New Hot Teaching and Testing Cases of Increasing Complexity
Pruyt, E.
2010-01-01
This follow-up paper presents several actual cases for testing and teaching System Dynamics. The cases were developed between April 2009 and January 2010 for the Introductory System Dynamics courses at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. They can be used for teaching and testing
Groundwater recharge dynamics in unsaturated fractured chalk: a case study
Cherubini, Claudia; Pastore, Nicola; Giasi, Concetta I.; Allegretti, Nicolaetta M.
2016-04-01
The heterogeneity of the unsaturated zone controls its hydraulic response to rainfall and the extent to which pollutants are delayed or attenuated before reaching groundwater. It plays therefore a very important role in the recharge of aquifers and the transfer of pollutants because of the presence of temporary storage zones and preferential flows. A better knowledge of the physical processes in the unsaturated zone would allow an improved assessment of the natural recharge in a heterogeneous aquifer and of its vulnerability to surface-applied pollution. The case study regards the role of the thick unsaturated zone of the Cretaceous chalk aquifer in Picardy (North of France) that controls the hydraulic response to rainfall. In the North Paris Basin, much of the recharge must pass through a regional chalk bed that is composed of a porous matrix with embedded fractures. Different types of conceptual models have been formulated to explain infiltration and recharge processes in the unsaturated fractured rock. The present study analyses the episodic recharge in fractured Chalk aquifer using the kinematic diffusion theory to predict water table fluctuation in response to rainfall. From an analysis of the data, there is the evidence of 1) a seasonal behavior characterized by a constant increase in the water level during the winter/spring period and a recession period, 2) a series of episodic behaviors during the summer/autumn. Kinematic diffusion models are useful for predict preferential fluxes and dynamic conditions. The presented approach conceptualizes the unsaturated flow as a combination of 1) diffusive flow refers to the idealized portion of the pore space of the medium within the flow rate is driven essentially by local gradient of potential; 2) preferential flow by which water moves across macroscopic distances through conduits of macropore length.
DOE/ANL/HTRI heat exchanger tube vibration data bank
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Halle, H.; Chenoweth, J.M.; Wambsganss, M.W.
1981-01-01
This addendum to the DOE/ANL/HTRI Heat Exchanger Tube Vibration Data Bank includes 16 new case histories of field experiences. The cases include several exchangers that did not experience vibration problems and several for which acoustic vibration was reported.
Vibrational properties of amorphous semiconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schulz, P.A.B.
1985-01-01
A model for the lattice dynamics of a-Si 1-X N X is introduced. This model is based on a Born hamiltonian, solved in the Bethe lattice approximation. Starting from the local density of vibrational states, we analize the infrared absoption spectra of this material. (author) [pt
Steffen, T; Tanimura, Y
The quantum Fokker-Planck equation is derived for a system nonlinearly coupled to a harmonic oscillator bath. The system-bath interaction is assumed to be linear in the bath coordinates but quadratic in the system coordinate. The relaxation induced dynamics of a harmonic system are investigated by
Approximate Series Solutions for Nonlinear Free Vibration of Suspended Cables
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yaobing Zhao
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents approximate series solutions for nonlinear free vibration of suspended cables via the Lindstedt-Poincare method and homotopy analysis method, respectively. Firstly, taking into account the geometric nonlinearity of the suspended cable as well as the quasi-static assumption, a mathematical model is presented. Secondly, two analytical methods are introduced to obtain the approximate series solutions in the case of nonlinear free vibration. Moreover, small and large sag-to-span ratios and initial conditions are chosen to study the nonlinear dynamic responses by these two analytical methods. The numerical results indicate that frequency amplitude relationships obtained with different analytical approaches exhibit some quantitative and qualitative differences in the cases of motions, mode shapes, and particular sag-to-span ratios. Finally, a detailed comparison of the differences in the displacement fields and cable axial total tensions is made.
Allee effects on population dynamics in continuous (overlapping) case
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Merdan, H.; Duman, O.; Akin, O.; Celik, C.
2009-01-01
This paper presents the stability analysis of equilibrium points of a continuous population dynamics with delay under the Allee effect which occurs at low population density. The mathematical results and numerical simulations show the stabilizing role of the Allee effects on the stability of the equilibrium point of this population dynamics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kurashima, D.; Naka, Y.; Fukagata, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Obi, S., E-mail: obsn@mech.keio.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)
2011-06-15
The complex flow features inside hard disk drive models are investigated in an axisymmetric and a semi-open shroud configurations. For the axisymmetric case, we have employed both experimental and computational approaches. The experiment focuses on both flow dynamics and the disk vibration, where measurements of the fluctuating pressure and velocity are undertaken at some representative points. The correlation between the disk vibration and the fluctuating pressure in the turbulent flow between disks is evident from the spectral analysis. The experimentally observed fluctuating pressure and velocity are partly due to the disk vibration and its contribution could be estimated by comparing the experiment with the results of a large eddy simulation. For the semi-open shroud case, although the characteristic peaks attributable to the large-scale vortical structure are still observed in the power spectra, the pressure fluctuation and the disk vibration are suppressed when the arm is inserted.
Effendi Tri Bahtiar; Naresworo Nugroho; Dede Hermawan; Wilis Wirawan; Khuschandra
2018-01-01
Periodical control and measurement revealed that vibration level of motor and gearbox which was supported by Cooling Tower Unit 1 at PT Star Energy Geothermal (Wayang Windu) Ltd was significantly increasing since 2013. The vibration was not caused by machinery component failure, but induced by resonance of process flow. Decreasing stiffness of cooling tower structure was suspected causing the increasing vibration level. The physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of wood was deteriorate...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ground vibration tests or modal surveys are routinely conducted to support flutter analysis for subsonic and supersonic vehicles. However, vibration testing...
Spindle vibration and sound field measurement using optical vibrometry
Tatar, Kourosh
2008-01-01
Mechanical systems often produce a considerable amount of vibration and noise. To be able to obtain a complete picture of the dynamic behaviour of these systems, vibration and sound measurements are of significant importance. Optical metrology is well-suited for non-intrusive measurements on complex objects. The development and the use of remote non-contact vibration measurement methods for spindles are described and vibration measurements on thin- walled structures and sound field measuremen...
Investigation of vibration characteristics of electric motors
Bakshis, A. K.; Tamoshyunas, Y. K.
1973-01-01
The vibration characteristics of electric motors were analyzed using mathematical statistics methods. The equipment used and the method of conducting the test are described. Curves are developed to show the visualization of the electric motor vibrations in the vertical direction. Additional curves are included to show the amplitude-phase frequency characteristic of dynamic rotor-housing vibrations at the first lug and the same data for the second lug of the electric motor. Mathematical models were created to show the transmission function of the dynamic rotor housing system.
Proceedings of second international conference on vibration engineering and technology of machinery
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2002-12-01
This volume of proceedings of the conference on vibration engineering cover a wide range of fields spanning diagnostics and condition monitoring, dynamics of rotors, dynamics of structures, computational methods, vehicle dynamics, vibration control, fluid-structure interaction, random and non-linear vibration. Many of these topics are also important to nuclear industry. The papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately
Dynamic capabilities and innovation capabilities: The case of the ‘Innovation Clinic’
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fred Strønen
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this explorative study, we investigate the relationship between dynamic capabilities and innovation capabilities. Dynamic capabilities are at the core of strategic management in terms of how firms can ensure adaptation to changing environments over time. Our paper follows two paths of argumentation. First, we review and discuss some major contributions to the theories on ordinary capabilities, dynamic capabilities, and innovation capabilities. We seek to identify different understandings of the concepts in question, in order to clarify the distinctions and relationships between dynamic capabilities and innovation capabilities. Second, we present a case study of the ’Innovation Clinic’ at a major university hospital, including four innovation projects. We use this case study to explore and discuss how dynamic capabilities can be extended, as well as to what extent innovation capabilities can be said to be dynamic. In our conclusion, we discuss the conditions for nurturing ‘dynamic innovation capabilities’ in organizations.
Evaluation of vibration and vibration fatigue life for small bore pipe in nuclear power plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Zhaoxi; Xue Fei; Gong Mingxiang; Ti Wenxin; Lin Lei; Liu Peng
2011-01-01
The assessment method of the steady state vibration and vibration fatigue life of the small bore pipe in the supporting system of the nuclear power plants is proposed according to the ASME-OM3 and EDF evaluation methods. The GGR supporting pipe system vibration is evaluated with this method. The evaluation process includes the filtration of inborn sensitivity, visual inspection, vibration tests, allowable vibration effective velocity calculation and vibration stress calculation. With the allowable vibration effective velocity calculated and the vibration velocity calculated according to the acceleration data tested, the filtrations are performed. The vibration stress at the welding coat is calculated with the spectrum method and compared with the allowable value. The response of the stress is calculated with the transient dynamic method, with which the fatigue life is evaluated with the Miners linear accumulation model. The vibration stress calculated with the spectrum method exceeds the allowable value, while the fatigue life calculated from the transient dynamic method is larger than the designed life with a big safety margin. (authors)
Dynamics of Technological Innovation Systems. The Case of Biomass Energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Negro, S.O.
2007-01-01
The starting point is that the current energy system largely depends on fossil fuels. This phenomenon, which is labelled as carbon lock-in, causes a long breakthrough period for renewable energy. The most suitable theoretical approach to analyse the development, diffusion and implementation of emergent technologies, such as renewable energy, is the Technological Innovation Systems' (TIS) perspective. This approach focuses on a particular technology and includes all those factors (institutions, actors, and networks) that influence its development. Recent research has identified several so-called System Functions that need to be fulfilled for a TIS to support successfully the evolution of a technology. In this paper we will use the following set of System Functions: F1: Entrepreneurial Activities, F2: Knowledge Development (learning), F3: Knowledge Diffusion through Networks, F4: Guidance of the Search, F5: Market Formation, F6: Resources Mobilisation, F7: Counteracting Resistance to Change (also Support from Advocacy Coalitions). By focusing on the System Functions the key processes that occur in a system which influence the development, diffusion and implementation of that technology will be identified and insight will be gained in the system dynamics. The System Functions are not independent but interact and influence each other. The nature of interactions whether they are positive or negative will influence the performance of the system respectively. Positive System Function fulfilment can lead to positive, i.e. virtuous cycles of processes that strengthen each other and lead to the building up of momentum that creates a process of creative destruction within the incumbent system. According to the same reasoning, a system in decline is characterised by one or more vicious cycles, where the System Functions interact and reinforce each other in a negative way. The results from the case studies showed that different functional patterns occurred for the Biomass
Inflation dynamics in a dollarised economy: The case of Zimbabwe ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
During the local currency era, inflation dynamics in Zimbabwe were ... era was attributed to excess money supply growth, lagged infl ation and political factors. ... an impact on price formation, might not be applicable in a dollarised economy.
Dynamic Analysis of Money Demand Function: Case of Turkey*
doğru, bülent
2013-01-01
In this paper, the dynamic determinants of money demand function and the long-run and short-run relationships between money demand, income and nominal interest rates are examined in Turkey for the time period 1980-2012. In particular we estimate a dynamic specification of a log money demand function based on Keynesian liquidity preference theory to ascertain the relevant elasticity of money demand. The empirical results of the study show that in Turkey inflation, exchange rate and money deman...
Optical fiber grating vibration sensor for vibration monitoring of hydraulic pump
Zhang, Zhengyi; Liu, Chuntong; Li, Hongcai; He, Zhenxin; Zhao, Xiaofeng
2017-06-01
In view of the existing electrical vibration monitoring traditional hydraulic pump vibration sensor, the high false alarm rate is susceptible to electromagnetic interference and is not easy to achieve long-term reliable monitoring, based on the design of a beam of the uniform strength structure of the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) vibration sensor. In this paper, based on the analysis of the vibration theory of the equal strength beam, the principle of FBG vibration tuning based on the equal intensity beam is derived. According to the practical application of the project, the structural dimensions of the equal strength beam are determined, and the optimization design of the vibrator is carried out. The finite element analysis of the sensor is carried out by ANSYS, and the first order resonant frequency is 94.739 Hz. The vibration test of the sensor is carried out by using the vibration frequency of 35 Hz and the vibration source of 50 Hz. The time domain and frequency domain analysis results of test data show that the sensor has good dynamic response characteristics, which can realize the accurate monitoring of the vibration frequency and meet the special requirements of vibration monitoring of hydraulic pump under specific environment.
Yuan, Yongliang; Song, Xueguan; Sun, Wei; Wang, Xiaobang
2018-05-01
The dynamic performance of a belt drive system is composed of many factors, such as the efficiency, the vibration, and the optimal parameters. The conventional design only considers the basic performance of the belt drive system, while ignoring its overall performance. To address all these challenges, the study on vibration characteristics and optimization strategies could be a feasible way. This paper proposes a new optimization strategy and takes a belt drive design optimization as a case study based on the multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO). The MDO of the belt drive system is established and the corresponding sub-systems are analyzed. The multidisciplinary optimization is performed by using an improved genetic algorithm. Based on the optimal results obtained from the MDO, the three-dimension (3D) model of the belt drive system is established for dynamics simulation by virtual prototyping. From the comparison of the results with respect to different velocities and loads, the MDO method can effectively reduce the transverse vibration amplitude. The law of the vibration displacement, the vibration frequency, and the influence of velocities on the transverse vibrations has been obtained. Results show that the MDO method is of great help to obtain the optimal structural parameters. Furthermore, the kinematics principle of the belt drive has been obtained. The belt drive design case indicates that the proposed method in this paper can also be used to solve other engineering optimization problems efficiently.
30th IMAC, A Conference on Structural Dynamics
Catbas, FN; Mayes, R; Rixen, D; Griffith, DT; Allemang, R; Clerck, J; Klerk, D; Simmermacher, T; Cogan, S; Chauhan, S; Cunha, A; Racic, V; Reynolds, P; Salyards, K; Adams, D; Kerschen, G; Carrella, A; Voormeeren, SN; Allen, MS; Horta, LG; Barthorpe, R; Niezrecki, C; Blough, JR; Vol.1 Topics on the Dynamics of Civil Structures; Vol.2 Topics in Experimental Dynamics Substructuring and Wind Turbine Dynamics; Vol.3 Topics in Nonlinear Dynamics; Vol.4 Topics in Model Validation and Uncertainty Quantification; Vol.5 Topics in Modal Analysis I; Vol.6 Topics in Modal Analysis II
2012-01-01
Topics on the Dynamics of Civil Structures, Volume 1, Proceedings of the 30th IMAC, A Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics, 2012, the first volume of six from the Conference, brings together 45 contributions to this important area of research and engineering. The collection presents early findings and case studies on fundamental and applied aspects of Structural Dynamics, including papers on: Human Induced Vibrations Bridge Dynamics Operational Modal Analysis Experimental Techniques and Modeling for Civil Structures System Identification for Civil Structures Method and Technologies for Bridge Monitoring Damage Detection for Civil Structures Structural Modeling Vibration Control Method and Approaches for Civil Structures Modal Testing of Civil Structures.
Cleaning device for vibrational hose filter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Engels, R
1978-01-05
Filter hoses out of web in dust separators can be cleaned by enforced vibrations. The efficiency of the cleaning is a maximum if the vibrations are at about the individual frequency of the whole arrangement. In the interior of the hose a cage from bars parallel to the wall of the hose is placed on its total length. The bars are fixed at one end and connected with a vibration exciter at the other end. The unilaterally fixed vibration bars can be adjusted to the individual frequency of the vibration exciter. If the hose filter is flown through from the outer to the inner side the vibration bars serve as a supporting body. In the reverse case the bars are placed on the outer side of the hose filter.
Benefits of Spacecraft Level Vibration Testing
Gordon, Scott; Kern, Dennis L.
2015-01-01
NASA-HDBK-7008 Spacecraft Level Dynamic Environments Testing discusses the approaches, benefits, dangers, and recommended practices for spacecraft level dynamic environments testing, including vibration testing. This paper discusses in additional detail the benefits and actual experiences of vibration testing spacecraft for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) flight projects. JPL and GSFC have both similarities and differences in their spacecraft level vibration test approach: JPL uses a random vibration input and a frequency range usually starting at 5 Hz and extending to as high as 250 Hz. GSFC uses a sine sweep vibration input and a frequency range usually starting at 5 Hz and extending only to the limits of the coupled loads analysis (typically 50 to 60 Hz). However, both JPL and GSFC use force limiting to realistically notch spacecraft resonances and response (acceleration) limiting as necessary to protect spacecraft structure and hardware from exceeding design strength capabilities. Despite GSFC and JPL differences in spacecraft level vibration test approaches, both have uncovered a significant number of spacecraft design and workmanship anomalies in vibration tests. This paper will give an overview of JPL and GSFC spacecraft vibration testing approaches and provide a detailed description of spacecraft anomalies revealed.
An analysis of 'obstructive type' renography cases in 99mTc-DTPA renal dynamic imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Xinhui
1991-01-01
99m Tc-DTPA renal dynamic imaging and computed renography were performed in 61 cases. Renal blood perfusion imaging was also performed in some cases. Renography curves, which did not decrease in 20 min on all 61 cases (90 kidneys), are analysed in combination with renal dynamic imaging and renal perfusion imaging. 11 cases (12 kidneys) are only obstructive. 24 cases (32 kidneys) are obstructive and renal function impaired. Other 26 cases (46 kidneys) are renal function impaired or blood perfusion insufficient, but are not obstructive. The result demonstrated that the obstructive type renography may be obstructive or may be renal function impaired or blood supply insufficient. An analysis of renography in combination with renal dynamic imaging and blood perfusion imaging is more accurate than renography alone
Dynamics of dilute disordered models: A solvable case
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Semerjian, Guilhem; Cugliandolo, Leticia F.
2003-09-01
We study the dynamics of a dilute spherical model with two body interactions and random exchanges. We analyze the Langevin equations and we introduce a functional variational method to study generic dilute disordered models. A crossover temperature replaces the dynamic transition of the fully-connected limit. There are two asymptotic regimes, one determined by the central band of the spectral density of the interactions and a slower one determined by localized configurations on sites with high connectivity. We confront the behavior of this model to the one of real glasses. (author)
Dynamics of large rotors on spring supported foundations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Puttonen, J. [IVO Power Engineering Ltd., Vantaa (Finland)] Luukkanen, P. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)
1998-12-31
This article presents some case studies relating to the dynamics of the large machines on spring isolated foundations. The studies comprise both vibration calculations and measurements also introducing the accuracy of numerical methods available in practical engineering. A summary of the pros and cons of spring isolated foundations in power plants is included. The cases described are from the lately built power plants of the IVO-group. The auxiliary feed water pump analysed consists of an electric motor (7 MW), a gear and two pumps. During the trial runs, severe vibrations were observed calling for thorough vibration measurements. The modelling of the whole vibrating entity in the rotating machinery, including the shaft train, oil films of bearings and the foundation is demonstrated by a turbine generator set of 100 MW. Finally, some results of a test comparing the acoustic emission and traditional vibration measurements for recognizing the rub between the shaft and the hydrodynamic bearing are presented. (orig.) 6 refs.
Dynamics of large rotors on spring supported foundations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Puttonen, J. [IVO Power Engineering Ltd., Vantaa (Finland)] Luukkanen, P. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)
1997-12-31
This article presents some case studies relating to the dynamics of the large machines on spring isolated foundations. The studies comprise both vibration calculations and measurements also introducing the accuracy of numerical methods available in practical engineering. A summary of the pros and cons of spring isolated foundations in power plants is included. The cases described are from the lately built power plants of the IVO-group. The auxiliary feed water pump analysed consists of an electric motor (7 MW), a gear and two pumps. During the trial runs, severe vibrations were observed calling for thorough vibration measurements. The modelling of the whole vibrating entity in the rotating machinery, including the shaft train, oil films of bearings and the foundation is demonstrated by a turbine generator set of 100 MW. Finally, some results of a test comparing the acoustic emission and traditional vibration measurements for recognizing the rub between the shaft and the hydrodynamic bearing are presented. (orig.) 6 refs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwak, Mun Gyu; Na, Sung Su; Baek, Gwang Hyeon; Song, Chul Gi; Han, Sang Bo
2001-09-01
This book deals with vibration of machine which gives descriptions of free vibration using SDOF system, forced vibration using SDOF system, vibration of multi-degree of freedom system like introduction and normal form, distribution system such as introduction, free vibration of bar and practice problem, approximate solution like lumped approximations and Raleigh's quotient, engineering by intuition and experience, real problem and experimental method such as technology of signal, fourier transform analysis, frequency analysis and sensor and actuator.
Dynamic Assessment or Schema Theory: The Case of Listening Comprehension
Farangi, Mohamad Reza; Kheradmand Saadi, Zahra
2017-01-01
Not only is listening considered as an active skill nowadays, but also different approaches are suggested to incorporate it effectively into language classrooms. Our purpose, here, is to compare two approaches claiming to be effective in enhancing EFL learners' listening capabilities including schema theory and dynamic assessment. Through a…
Modeling Asteroid Dynamics using AMUSE: First Test Cases
Frantseva, Kateryna; Mueller, Michael; van der Tak, Floris; Helmich, Frank P.
2015-01-01
We are creating a dynamic model of the current asteroid population. The goal is to reproduce measured impact rates in the current Solar System, from which we'll derive delivery rates of water and organic material by tracing low-albedo C-class asteroids (using the measured albedo distribution from
Patch dynamics and metapopulation theory: the case of successional species.
Amarasekare, P; Possingham, H
2001-04-07
We present a mathematical framework that combines extinction-colonization dynamics with the dynamics of patch succession. We draw an analogy between the epidemiological categorization of individuals (infected, susceptible, latent and resistant) and the patch structure of a spatially heterogeneous landscape (occupied-suitable, empty-suitable, occupied-unsuitable and empty-unsuitable). This approach allows one to consider life-history attributes that influence persistence in patchy environments (e.g., longevity, colonization ability) in concert with extrinsic processes (e.g., disturbances, succession) that lead to spatial heterogeneity in patch suitability. It also allows the incorporation of seed banks and other dormant life forms, thus broadening patch occupancy dynamics to include sink habitats. We use the model to investigate how equilibrium patch occupancy is influenced by four critical parameters: colonization rate, extinction rate, disturbance frequency and the rate of habitat succession. This analysis leads to general predictions about how the temporal scaling of patch succession and extinction-colonization dynamics influences long-term persistence. We apply the model to herbaceous, early-successional species that inhabit open patches created by periodic disturbances. We predict the minimum disturbance frequency required for viable management of such species in the Florida scrub ecosystem. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
Vibration analysis and vibration damage assessment in nuclear and process equipment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pettigrew, M.J.; Taylor, C.E.; Fisher, N.J.; Yetisir, M.; Smith, B.A.W.
1997-01-01
Component failures due to excessive flow-induced vibration are still affecting the performance and reliability of process and nuclear components. The purpose of this paper is to discuss flow-induced vibration analysis and vibration damage prediction. Vibration excitation mechanisms are described with particular emphasis on fluid elastic instability. The dynamic characteristics of process and power equipment are explained. The statistical nature of some parameters, in particular support conditions, is discussed. The prediction of fretting-wear damage is approached from several points-of-view. An energy approach to formulate fretting-wear damage is proposed. (author)
Gravity Effects on the Free Vibration of a Graphite Column
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ki, Dong-Ok; Kim, Jong-Bum; Park, Keun-Bae; Lee, Won-Jae
2006-01-01
The gravity effects on the free vibration of a graphite column are studied. Graphite block is a key component of a HTGR (High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor). The major core elements, such as the fuel blocks and neutron reflector blocks, of HTTR (High Temperature Test Reactor, Japan) and GT-MHR (Gas Turbine- Modular Helium Reactor, USA) consist of stacked hexagonal graphite blocks forming a group of columns. The vibration of the columns induced by earthquakes may lead to solid impacts between graphite blocks and structural integrity problems. The study of free vibration characteristics of the graphite block column is the first step in the core internal structure dynamic analysis. Gravity force bring a negative stiffness term to the transverse vibration analysis of heavy long column structures, and results in natural frequency reductions. Generally it is not considered in the not so tall structure cases, because the gravity term makes the analysis and design complicated. Therefore it is important to check whether the gravity effect is severe or not
Anomalous vibrational properties in the continuum limit of glasses
Shimada, Masanari; Mizuno, Hideyuki; Ikeda, Atsushi
2018-02-01
The low-temperature thermal properties of glasses are anomalous with respect to those of crystals. These thermal anomalies indicate that the low-frequency vibrational properties of glasses differ from those of crystals. Recent studies revealed that, in the simplest model of glasses, i.e., the harmonic potential system, phonon modes coexist with soft localized modes in the low-frequency (continuum) limit. However, the nature of low-frequency vibrational modes of more realistic models is still controversial. In the present work, we study the Lennard-Jones (LJ) system using large-scale molecular-dynamics (MD) simulation and establish that the vibrational property of the LJ glass converges to coexistence of the phonon modes and the soft localized modes in the continuum limit as in the case of the harmonic potential system. Importantly, we find that the low-frequency vibrations are rather sensitive to the numerical scheme of potential truncation, which is usually implemented in the MD simulation, and this is the reason why contradictory arguments have been reported by previous works. We also discuss the physical origin of this sensitiveness by means of a linear stability analysis.
Enhanced vibration diagnostics using vibration signature analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmed, S.; Shehzad, K.; Zahoor, Y.; Mahmood, A.; Bibi, A.
2001-01-01
Symptoms will appear in equipment, as well as in human beings. when 'suffering from sickness. Symptoms of abnormality in equipment are vibration, noise, deformation, temperature, pressure, electric current, crack, wearing, leakage etc. these are called modes of failure. If the mode of failure is vibration then the vibration signature analysis can be effectively used in order to diagnose the machinery problems. Much valuable information is contained within these vibration 'Spectra' or 'Signatures' but is only of use if the analyst can unlock its 'Secrets'. This paper documents a vibration problem in the motor of a centrifugal pump (Type ETA). It focuses mainly on the roll of modern vibration monitoring system in problem analysis. The problem experienced was the motor unstability and noise due to high vibration. Using enhanced vibration signature data, the problem was analyzed. which suggested that the rotor eccentricity was the cause of excessive noise and vibration in the motor. In conclusion, advanced electronic monitoring and diagnostic systems provide powerful information for machine's condition assessment and problem analysis. Appropriate interpretation and use of this information is important for accurate and effective vibration analysis. (author)
Issanchou, Clara; Bilbao, Stefan; Le Carrou, Jean-Loïc; Touzé, Cyril; Doaré, Olivier
2017-04-01
This article is concerned with the vibration of a stiff linear string in the presence of a rigid obstacle. A numerical method for unilateral and arbitrary-shaped obstacles is developed, based on a modal approach in order to take into account the frequency dependence of losses in strings. The contact force of the barrier interaction is treated using a penalty approach, while a conservative scheme is derived for time integration, in order to ensure long-term numerical stability. In this way, the linear behaviour of the string when not in contact with the barrier can be controlled via a mode by mode fitting, so that the model is particularly well suited for comparisons with experiments. An experimental configuration is used with a point obstacle either centered or near an extremity of the string. In this latter case, such a pointwise obstruction approximates the end condition found in the tanpura, an Indian stringed instrument. The second polarisation of the string is also analysed and included in the model. Numerical results are compared against experiments, showing good accuracy over a long time scale.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Mohammadi
Full Text Available In this study, the vibration behavior of annular and circular graphene sheet coupled with temperature change and under in-plane pre-stressed is studied. Influence of the surrounding elastic medium 011 the fundamental frequencies of the single-layered graphene sheets (SLGSs is investigated. Both Winkler-type and Pasternak- type models are employed to simulate the interaction of the graphene sheets with a surrounding elastic medium. By using the nonlocal elasticity theory the governing equation is derived for SLGSs. The closed-form solution for frequency vibration of circular graphene sheets lias been obtained and nonlocal parameter, inplane pre-stressed, the parameters of elastic medium and temperature change appears into arguments of Bessel functions. The results are subsequently compared with valid result reported in the literature and the molecular dynamics (MD results. The effects of the small scale, pre-stressed, mode number, temperature change, elastic medium and boundary conditions on natural frequencies are investigated. The non-dimensional frequency decreases at high temperature case with increasing the temperature change for all boundary conditions. The effect of temperature change 011 the frequency vibration becomes the opposite at high temperature case in compression with the low temperature case. The present research work thus reveals that the nonlocal parameter, boundary conditions and temperature change have significant effects on vibration response of the circular nanoplates. The present results can be used for the design of the next generation of nanodevices that make use of the thermal vibration properties of the graphene.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pazsit, I.; Glockler, O.
1984-01-01
In an earlier publication, using the theory of neutron fluctuations induced by a vibrating control rod, a complete formal solution of rod vibration diagnostics based on neutron noise measurements was given in terms of Fourier-transformed neutron detector time signals. The suggested procedure was checked in numerical simulation tests where only periodic vibrations could be considered. The procedure and its numerical testing are elaborated for stochastic two-dimensional vibrations. A simple stochastic theory of two-dimensional flow-induced vibrations is given; then the diagnostic method is formulated in the stochastic case, that is, in terms of neutron detector auto- and crosspower spectra. A previously suggested approximate rod localization technique is also formulated in the stochastic case. Applicability of the methods is then investigated in numerical simulation tests, using the proposed model of stochastic two-dimensional vibrations when generating neutron detector spectra that simulate measured data
Dynamic capabilities and innovation: a Multiple-Case Study
Bravo Ibarra, Edna Rocío; Mundet Hiern, Joan; Suñé Torrents, Albert
2009-01-01
After a detailed survey of the scientific literature, it was found that several characteristics of dynamic capabilities were similar to those of innovation capability. Therefore, with a deeper study of the first ones, it could be possible to design a model aimed to structure innovation capability. Thus, this work presents a conceptual model, where the innovation capability is shown as result of three processes: knowledge absorption and creation capability, knowledge integration and knowledge ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Costa, Pedro Alvares; Cardoso Silva, Antonio; Calçada, Rui; Lopes, Patricia; Fernandez, Jesus
2016-01-01
n this communication, a numerical approach for the prediction of vibrations induced in buildings due to railway traffic in tunnels is presented. The numerical model is based on the concept of dynamic sub structuring, being composed by three autonomous models to simulate the following main parts of the problem: i) generation of vibrations (train-track interaction); ii) propagation of vibrations (track - tunnel-ground system); iii) reception of vibrations (building coupled to the ground). The methodology proposed allows dealing with the three-dimensional characteristics of the problem with a reasonable computational effort [ 1 , 2 ] . After the brief description of the model, its experimental validation is performed. For that, a case study about vibrations inside of a building close to a shallow railway tunnel in Madrid are simulated and the experimental data [ 3 ] is compared with the predicted results [ 4 ]. Finally, the communication finishes with some insights about the potentialities and challenges of this numerical modelling approach on the prediction of the behavior of ancient structures subjected to vibrations induced by human sources (railway and road traffic, pile driving, etc)
Zhu, Qiao; Yue, Jun-Zhou; Liu, Wei-Qun; Wang, Xu-Dong; Chen, Jun; Hu, Guang-Di
2017-04-01
This work is focused on the active vibration control of piezoelectric cantilever beam, where an adaptive feedforward controller (AFC) is utilized to reject the vibration with unknown multiple frequencies. First, the experiment setup and its mathematical model are introduced. Due to that the channel between the disturbance and the vibration output is unknown in practice, a concept of equivalent input disturbance (EID) is employed to put an equivalent disturbance into the input channel. In this situation, the vibration control can be achieved by setting the control input be the identified EID. Then, for the EID with known multiple frequencies, the AFC is introduced to perfectly reject the vibration but is sensitive to the frequencies. In order to accurately identify the unknown frequencies of EID in presence of the random disturbances and un-modeled nonlinear dynamics, the time-frequency-analysis (TFA) method is employed to precisely identify the unknown frequencies. Consequently, a TFA-based AFC algorithm is proposed to the active vibration control with unknown frequencies. Finally, four cases are given to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed TFA-based AFC algorithm by experiment.
Neck muscle vibration can improve sensorimotor function in patients with neck pain.
Beinert, Konstantin; Keller, Martin; Taube, Wolfgang
2015-03-01
People with neck pain display a diminished joint position sense and disturbed postural control, which is thought to be a result of impaired somatosensory afferent activity and/or integration. Afferent processing can be artificially manipulated by vibration and was shown to reduce motor performance in healthy subjects. However, the effect of vibration on sensorimotor function in neck pain patients is scarcely investigated. To assess the effect of neck muscle vibration on joint position sense and postural control in neck pain subjects and healthy controls. Case control study. Thirteen neck pain patients and 10 healthy controls participated in the present study. Cervical joint position sense and dynamic and static postural stability. Short-term, targeted neck muscle vibration with 100 Hz was applied after baseline measurement. Vibration had opposite effects in patients and healthy subjects. Patients showed improved joint position sense (pneck pain. Thus, vibration may be used to counteract sensorimotor impairment of the cervical spine. Potential underlying mechanisms are discussed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
selective excitation of vibrational modes of polyatomic molecule
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Mode-selective dynamics of triatomic molecule in the electronic ground state under continuous wave laser pulse is investigated for the discrete vibrational bound states. A non-perturbative approach has been used to analyse the vibrational couplings and dynamics of the molecule. Keywords. Polyatomic molecule ...
Vibration of fusion reactor components with magnetic damping
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D’Amico, Gabriele; Portone, Alfredo [Fusion for Energy – Torres Diagonal Litoral B3 – c/Josep Plá n.2, Barcelona (Spain); Rubinacci, Guglielmo [Department of Electrical Eng. and Information Technologies, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio, 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Testoni, Pietro, E-mail: pietro.testoni@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy – Torres Diagonal Litoral B3 – c/Josep Plá n.2, Barcelona (Spain)
2016-11-01
The aim of this paper is to assess the importance of the magnetic damping in the dynamic response of the main plasma facing components of fusion machines, under the strong Lorentz forces due to Vertical Displacement Events. The additional eddy currents due to the vibration of the conducting structures give rise to volume loads acting as damping forces, a kind of viscous damping, being these additional loads proportional to the vibration speed. This effect could play an important role when assessing, for instance, the inertial loads associated to VV movements in case of VDEs. In this paper, we present the results of a novel numerical formulation, in which the field equations are solved by adopting a very effective fully 3D integral formulation, not limited to the analysis of thin shell structures, as already successfully done in several approaches previously published.
"Vibrational bonding": a new type of chemical bond is discovered.
Rhodes, Christopher J; Macrae, Roderick M
2015-01-01
A long-sought but elusive new type of chemical bond, occurring on a minimum-free, purely repulsive potential energy surface, has recently been convincingly shown to be possible on the basis of high-level quantum-chemical calculations. This type of bond, termed a vibrational bond, forms because the total energy, including the dynamical energy of the nuclei, is lower than the total energy of the dissociated products, including their vibrational zero-point energy. For this to be the case, the ZPE of the product molecule must be very high, which is ensured by replacing a conventional hydrogen atom with its light isotope muonium (Mu, mass = 1/9 u) in the system Br-H-Br, a natural transition state in the reaction between Br and HBr. A paramagnetic species observed in the reaction Mu +Br2 has been proposed as a first experimental sighting of this species, but definitive identification remains challenging.
Response of APS storage ring basemat to ambient vibration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Wambsganss, M.W.; Smith, R.K.
1992-08-01
The storage ring of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) facility at Argonne is very sensitive to vibration. Large vibration amplitudes would result in degraded machine performance. Because the storage ring assembly is supported on the storage ring basemat, the dynamics of the basemat are critical to successful operation. Before construction began, a survey of site ground vibration indicated that the site was acceptable from a vibration standpoint. When construction of the linear accelerator (Linac) floor slab and shielding walls was completed, dynamic-response measurements were conducted. The slab/wall system showed attenuation of soilborne vibrations in the horizontal directions, but an amplification (approximately a factor of 1.5) of vertical vibration at a frequency of 7.7 Hz. Vibration response of the slab/wall system at all other frequencies showed attenuation of soilborne vibrations. Dynamic-response measurements were also conducted on an incomplete section of the storage ring basemat. Although this section was not prototypical, results were similar to those of the Linac floor in the horizontal direction, showing large damping and attenuation of horizontal soilborne vibrations. While the basemat followed the soil vibration in the vertical direction, no large amplification was observed. However, measured vertical amplitudes on the basemat were a function of location, indicating a modal response. A series of vibration response measurements was conducted on a completed section of the storage ring basemat/tunnel adjacent and to the west of the Early Assembly Area (EAA) on May 21, 1992, and is the subject of this report
Phosphate vibrations as reporters of DNA hydration
Corcelli, Steven
The asymmetric phosphate stretch vibrational frequency is extraordinarily sensitive to its local solvent environment. Using density functional theory calculations on the model compound dimethyl phosphate, the asymmetric phosphate stretch vibrational frequency was found to shift linearly with the magnitude of an electric field along the symmetry axis of the PO2 moiety (i.e. the asymmetric phosphate stretch is an excellent linear vibrational Stark effect probe). With this linear relationship established, asymmetric phosphate stretch vibrational frequencies were computed during the course of a molecular dynamics simulation of fully hydrated DNA. Moreover, contributions to shifts in the frequencies from subpopulations of water molecules (e.g. backbone, minor groove, major groove, etc.) were calculated to reveal how phosphate vibrations report the onset of DNA hydration in experiments that vary the relative humidity of non-condensing (dry) DNA samples.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schrader, K.-H.; Kaiser, A.; Krutzik, N.
1978-01-01
For the design of equipment and components of nuclear power plants with respect to their dynamic behavior it is necessary to know the dynamic load due to shock, or vibrating excitations, which might arise during the life time of the plant. In Germany these load cases are those listed in the heading. The objective of the paper is to compare the characteristics of the responses of the structure, which then have to serve as dynamic loads for the equipment. The paper deals with the following subjects:-survey and introduction of the code in Germany -conclusions concerning the mathematical model and the mechanical system for the computation of the dynamic response-comparison of the results which includes eigensystems, an overall picture of max/min values for displacements, as well as times histories and response spectra for critical points of the structure. For the F.E. Model, composed structures of ring elements and the method of the modal analysis have been used. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Compton, Ryan; Gerardi, Helen K.; Weidinger, Daniel; Brown, Douglas J.; Dressick, Walter J.; Heilweil, Edwin J.; Owrutsky, Jeffrey C.
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► Static and transient infrared spectroscopy of pseudohalide bipyridine ruthenium complexes. ► Vibrational energy relaxes faster for the azide than the thiocyanate and cyanide analogs. ► Intramolecular vibrational relaxation is prevalent in cis-Ru(bpy) 2 (N 3 ) 2 . - Abstract: Static and transient infrared spectroscopy were used to investigate cis-Ru(bpy) 2 (N 3 ) 2 (bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine), cis-Ru(bpy) 2 (NCS) 2 , and cis-Ru(bpy) 2 (CN) 2 in solution. The NC stretching IR band for cis-Ru(bpy) 2 (NCS) 2 appears at higher frequency (∼2106 cm −1 in DMSO) than for the free NCS − anion while the IR bands for the azide and cyanide complexes are closer to those of the respective free anions. The vibrational energy relaxation (VER) lifetime for the azide complex is found to be much shorter (∼5 ps) than for either the NCS or CN species (both ∼70 ps in DMSO) and the lifetimes resemble those for each corresponding free anion in solution. However, for cis-Ru(bpy) 2 (N 3 ) 2 , it is determined that the transition frequency depends more on the solvent than the VER lifetime implying that intramolecular vibrational relaxation is predominant over solvent energy-extracting interactions. These results are compared to the behavior of other related metal complexes in solution
Generalization of the Bogoliubov-Zubarev Theorem for Dynamic Pressure to the Case of Compressibility
Rudoi, Yu. G.
2018-01-01
We present the motivation, formulation, and modified proof of the Bogoliubov-Zubarev theorem connecting the pressure of a dynamical object with its energy within the framework of a classical description and obtain a generalization of this theorem to the case of dynamical compressibility. In both cases, we introduce the volume of the object into consideration using a singular addition to the Hamiltonian function of the physical object, which allows using the concept of the Bogoliubov quasiaverage explicitly already on a dynamical level of description. We also discuss the relation to the same result known as the Hellmann-Feynman theorem in the framework of the quantum description of a physical object.
[Occupational standing vibration rate and vibrational diseases].
Karnaukh, N G; Vyshchipan, V F; Haumenko, B S
2003-12-01
Occupational standing vibration rate is proposed in evaluating a degree of impairment of an organism activity. It will allow more widely to introduce specification of quality and quantity in assessment of the development of vibrational disease. According out-patient and inpatient obtained data we have established criterial values of functional changes in accordance with accumulated occupational standing vibration rate. The nomogram was worked out for defining a risk of the development of vibrational disease in mine workers. This nomogram more objectively can help in diagnostics of the disease.
Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvesting for Railway Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bradai S.
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Safe localization of trains via GPS and wireless sensors is essential for railway traffic supervision. Especially for freight trains and because normally no power source is available on the wagons, special solutions for energy supply have to be developed based on energy harvesting techniques. Since vibration is available in this case, it provides an interesting source of energy. Nevertheless, in order to have an efficient design of the harvesting system, the existing vibration needs to be investigated. In this paper, we focus on the characterization of vibration parameters in railway application. We propose an electromagnetic vibration converter especially developed to this application. Vibration profiles from a train traveling between two German cities were measured using a data acquisition system installed on the train’s wagon. Results show that the measured profiles present multiple frequency signals in the range of 10 to 50 Hz and an acceleration of up to 2 g. A prototype for a vibration converter is designed taking into account the real vibration parameters, robustness and integrability requirements. It is based on a moving coil attached to a mechanical spring. For the experimental emulation of the train vibrations, a shaker is used as an external artificial vibration source controlled by a laser sensor in feedback. A maximum voltage of 1.7 V peak to peak which corresponds to a maximum of 10 mW output power where the applied excitation frequency is close to the resonant frequency of the converter which corresponds to 27 Hz.
Vibrational lifetimes of protein amide modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peterson, K.A.; Rella, C.A.
1995-01-01
Measurement of the lifetimes of vibrational modes in proteins has been achieved with a single frequency infrared pump-probe technique using the Stanford Picosecond Free-electron Laser, These are the first direct measurements of vibrational dynamics in the polyamide structure of proteins. In this study, modes associated with the protein backbone are investigated. Results for the amide I band, which consists mainly of the stretching motion of the carbonyl unit of the amide linkage, show that relaxation from the first vibrational excited level (v=1) to the vibrational ground state (v=0) occurs within 1.5 picoseconds with apparent first order kinetics. Comparison of lifetimes for myoglobin and azurin, which have differing secondary structures, show a small but significant difference. The lifetime for the amide I band of myoglobin is 300 femtoseconds shorter than for azurin. Further measurements are in progress on other backbone vibrational modes and on the temperature dependence of the lifetimes. Comparison of vibrational dynamics for proteins with differing secondary structure and for different vibrational modes within a protein will lead to a greater understanding of energy transfer and dissipation in biological systems. In addition, these results have relevance to tissue ablation studies which have been conducted with pulsed infrared lasers. Vibrational lifetimes are necessary for calculating the rate at which the energy from absorbed infrared photons is converted to equilibrium thermal energy within the irradiated volume. The very fast vibrational lifetimes measured here indicate that mechanisms which involve direct vibrational up-pumping of the amide modes with consecutive laser pulses, leading to bond breakage or weakening, are not valid
Dynamic International Competitiveness of Transition Economies: The Case of Poland
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller
2003-01-01
This paper shows that the reform on the structures of the Polish economy has had an impressively fast effect on the numbers of different products this country exports to Western countries. The time path may well be described by a logistic curve. The change in the exports of this country may...... therefore be characterised by a widening, instead of a deepening in specialisation. The paper introduces a new empirical methodology to evaluate the dynamic changes in export activities of a country. The result of this new methodology is that quality competition is becoming increasingly important for Poland...
Dynamics of a Protected Housing Market: The Case of Switzerland
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borowiecki, Karol
2012-01-01
We analyze the determinants and dynamics of a highly protected housing market. Based on Swiss data for the time period 1990 to 2009 we model house prices and construction activity. We find that house prices exhibit a positive association with construction price, working age population as well...... as GDP and a negative with interest rates, whereas construction activity is positively related to working age population and GDP and negatively with construction price and interest rates. These estimates are broadly consistent with previous theoretical and empirical research....
Interchanging parameters and integrals in dynamical systems: the mapping case
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roberts, John A.G. [Department of Mathematics, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC (Australia) and School of Mathematics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia)]. E-mail: jagr@maths.unsw.edu.au; Apostolos, Iatrou; Quispel, G.R.W. [Department of Mathematics, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC (Australia)]. E-mails: A.Iatrou@latrobe.edu.au; R.Quispel@latrobe.edu.au
2002-03-08
We consider dynamical systems with discrete time (maps) that possess one or more integrals depending upon parameters. We show that integrals can be used to replace parameters in the original map so as to construct a different map with different integrals. We also highlight a process of reparametrization that can be used to increase the number of parameters in the original map prior to using integrals to replace them. Properties of the original map and the new map are compared. The theory is motivated by, and illustrated with, examples of a three-dimensional trace map and some four-dimensional maps previously shown to be integrable. (author)
Dynamic ulnar impaction syndrome in tennis players: report of two cases
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Edgard de Novaes França Bisneto
Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this report, two tennis players with symptoms of ulnar impaction syndrome are reviewed. Both players have neutral ulnar variance. These cases represent dynamic ulnar impaction syndrome, when the impact between ulna and carpus occurs during conditions of pronated grip. The literature and the treatment of these two cases are discussed.
Vibration modelling and verifications for whole aero-engine
Chen, G.
2015-08-01
In this study, a new rotor-ball-bearing-casing coupling dynamic model for a practical aero-engine is established. In the coupling system, the rotor and casing systems are modelled using the finite element method, support systems are modelled as lumped parameter models, nonlinear factors of ball bearings and faults are included, and four types of supports and connection models are defined to model the complex rotor-support-casing coupling system of the aero-engine. A new numerical integral method that combines the Newmark-β method and the improved Newmark-β method (Zhai method) is used to obtain the system responses. Finally, the new model is verified in three ways: (1) modal experiment based on rotor-ball bearing rig, (2) modal experiment based on rotor-ball-bearing-casing rig, and (3) fault simulations for a certain type of missile turbofan aero-engine vibration. The results show that the proposed model can not only simulate the natural vibration characteristics of the whole aero-engine but also effectively perform nonlinear dynamic simulations of a whole aero-engine with faults.
Dynamic Condition Response Graphs for Trustworthy Adaptive Case Management
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Slaats, Tijs
2013-01-01
semantics that supports both run time changes and formal verification. We show how these techniques are being implemented in industry as a component of the Exformatics case management tools. Finally we discuss the planned future work, which will aim to allow changes to be tested for conformance wrt policies...
Mind map learning for advanced engineering study: case study in system dynamics
Woradechjumroen, Denchai
2018-01-01
System Dynamics (SD) is one of the subjects that were use in learning Automatic Control Systems in dynamic and control field. Mathematical modelling and solving skills of students for engineering systems are expecting outcomes of the course which can be further used to efficiently study control systems and mechanical vibration; however, the fundamental of the SD includes strong backgrounds in Dynamics and Differential Equations, which are appropriate to the students in governmental universities that have strong skills in Mathematics and Scientifics. For private universities, students are weak in the above subjects since they obtained high vocational certificate from Technical College or Polytechnic School, which emphasize the learning contents in practice. To enhance their learning for improving their backgrounds, this paper applies mind maps based problem based learning to relate the essential relations of mathematical and physical equations. With the advantages of mind maps, each student is assigned to design individual mind maps for self-leaning development after they attend the class and learn overall picture of each chapter from the class instructor. Four problems based mind maps learning are assigned to each student. Each assignment is evaluated via mid-term and final examinations, which are issued in terms of learning concepts and applications. In the method testing, thirty students are tested and evaluated via student learning backgrounds in the past. The result shows that well-design mind maps can improve learning performance based on outcome evaluation. Especially, mind maps can reduce time-consuming and reviewing for Mathematics and Physics in SD significantly.
Vibration behavior optimization of planetary gear sets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farshad Shakeri Aski
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a global optimization method focused on planetary gear vibration reduction by means of tip relief profile modifications. A nonlinear dynamic model is used to study the vibration behavior. In order to investigate the optimal radius and amplitude, Brute Force method optimization is used. One approach in optimization is straightforward and requires considerable computation power: brute force methods try to calculate all possible solutions and decide afterwards which one is the best. Results show the influence of optimal profile on planetary gear vibrations.
RESEARCH OF BRIDGE STRUCTURE VIBRATION CHARACTERISTICS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V.P. Babak
2005-02-01
Full Text Available Bridge structure test results with using different types of dynamic force have been considered. It has been shown, that the developed technique of registering and processing vibration signals allows obtaining thin spectrum structure. The analysis of its change that is defined by the type of structure loading applied has been carried out. Key parameters of the vibration signals registered have been defined.
Dynamic stall - The case of the vertical axis wind turbine
Laneville, A.; Vittecoq, P.
1986-05-01
This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on a driven Darrieus turbine rotating at different tip speed ratios. For a Reynolds number of 3.8 x 10 to the 4th, the results indicate the presence of dynamic stall at tip speed ratio less than 4, and that helicopter blade aerodynamics can be used in order to explain some aspects of the phenomenon. It was observed that in deep stall conditions, a vortex is formed at the leading edge; this vortex moves over the airfoil surface with 1/3 of the airfoil speed and then is shed at the trailing edge. After its shedding, the vortex can interact with the airfoil surface as the blade passes downstream.
Coupled vibrations in horizontal and vertical rotor-bearings systems
Luneno, Jean-Claude
2010-01-01
For dynamical systems having several degrees of freedom, motion in one direction can induce motion in the other and/or vice versa. This means that there is a certain coupling between these two motions. Coupling can in some cases be a source of instability that causes self-excited vibrations in rotating machinery. In modeling hydropower rotors, couplings other than those that are the result of gyroscopic effect are normally not considered. This is due to the complexity of the reasons for coupl...
Vibration analysis of thin-wall structures containing piezoactive layers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guz, I A; Kashtalyan, M; Zhuk, Y A
2010-01-01
A coupled dynamic problem of electro-mechanics for a layered beam is formulated based on the Kirchhoff-Love hypotheses. In the case of harmonic loading, a simplified formulation is given using the single frequency approximation and the concept of complex moduli. As an example, the problem of forced vibration of a three-layer sandwich beam (aluminium alloy core covered with piezoelectric layers) with hinged ends is solved in order to investigate the accuracy and applicability of the approximate monoharmonic approach. Different aspects of the beam response to the mechanical and electric excitation are studied.
Beecher, L. C.; Williams, F. T.
1970-01-01
Gas-driven vibration exciter produces a sinusoidal excitation function controllable in frequency and in amplitude. It allows direct vibration testing of components under normal loads, removing the possibility of component damage due to high static pressure.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pazsit, I.; Glockler, O.
1983-01-01
Based on the theory of neutron noise arising from the vibration of a localized absorber, the possibility of rod vibration diagnostics is investigated. It is found that noise source characteristics, namely rod position and vibration trajectory and spectra, can be unfolded from measured neutron noise signals. For the localization process, the first and more difficult part of the diagnostics, a procedure is suggested whose novelty is that it is applicable in case of arbitrary vibration trajectories. Applicability of the method is investigated in numerical experiments where effects of background noise are also accounted for
Vibration Analysis of Beam and Block Precast Slab System due to Human Vibrations
Chik, T. N. T.; Kamil, M. R. H.; Yusoff, N. A.
2018-04-01
Beam and block precast slabs system are very efficient which generally give maximum structural performance where their voids based on the design of the unit soffit block allow a significant reduction of the whole slab self-weight. Initially for some combinations of components or the joint connection of the structural slab, this structural system may be susceptible to excessive vibrations that could effects the performance and also serviceability. Dynamic forces are excited from people walking and jumping which produced vibrations to the slab system in the buildings. Few studies concluded that human induced vibration on precast slabs system may be harmful to structural performance and mitigate the human comfort level. This study will investigate the vibration analysis of beam and block precast slab by using finite element method at the school building. Human activities which are excited from jumping and walking will induce the vibrations signal to the building. Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) was used to measure the dynamic responses of slab towards the vibration sources. Five different points were assigned specifically where each of location will determine the behaviour of the entire slabs. The finite element analyses were developed in ABAQUS software and the data was further processed in MATLAB ModalV to assess the vibration criteria. The results indicated that the beam and block precast systems adequate enough to the vibration serviceability and human comfort criteria. The overall vibration level obtained was fell under VC-E curve which it is generally under the maximum permissible level of vibrations. The vibration level on the slab is acceptable within the limit that have been used by Gordon.
Education-growth dynamics for Australia: A case study approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kunofiwa Tsaurai
2015-04-01
Full Text Available The main focus of this research is to establish the relevancy of the Keynesian theory in explaining education expenditure on the economy of Austria using a case study approach. Wagner (1890 and Keynes (1936 have been for a long time been the two major theorists on the relationship between education expenditure and economic growth. Both theoretical and empirical literature review concludes that the two variables relate to each other in two distinct ways, the popular one being that education boost the economy (Keynes view followed by the Wagner view that says it is the economy that is doing well that pushes investment in education. A case study review for Austria clearly shows that an increase in education expenditure does not only constitute a significant portion of the GDP per capita in Austria but also provided a positive influence on economic growth and development. The author recommends Austria policymakers and responsible authorities to up their education development programmes and budgets in order to lay a strong foundation for sustainable economic growth and prosperity.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We make music by causing strings, membranes, or air columns to vibrate. Engineers design safe structures by control- ling vibrations. I will describe to you a very simple vibrating system and the mathematics needed to analyse it. The ideas were born in the work of Joseph-Louis Lagrange (1736–1813), and I begin by quot-.
Simulation of Vibrations in Real Time Plane Milling with Spindle Speed Correction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. I. Ivanov
2017-01-01
forces, and geometrical models of cutting edges and work-piece surface. The model is used to study an impact of described control system on the milling process dynamics. Simulations were performed for different values of rotation frequency, and two cases were considered: without and with control. Analysis of the simulations showed that the developed control system provides considerable reduction of vibration amplitudes when milling.
Two centuries of economic territorial dynamics: the case of France
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Magali Talandier
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We propose an analysis of the socio-economic development processes at work in territories at the scale of French communes from 1806 to 2010. This is an extremely fine scale for such analysis, given that there are 36,000 communes in mainland France. The diachronic dimension, spanning two centuries, makes it possible to consider the temporal depth of territorial development. But the primary interest is not so much demographics as the socio-economic dimension of these variations over two centuries. We have analysed demographic changes as the expression of the socio-economic processes that shaped French territory over two centuries. Dynamic mapping of long-term population shifts reflects the industrial expansion of certain territories, decline due to the end of traditional farming practices, the shock produced by two world wars, the Fordist period and the post-war boom; the subsequent impact of an increasingly globalized, metropolitan economy then becomes apparent. We thus identify, map and analyse several historico-socio-economic phases.
Using dynamic software in mathematics: the case of reflection symmetry
Tatar, Enver; Akkaya, Adnan; Berrin Kağizmanli, Türkan
2014-10-01
This study was carried out to examine the effects of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) using dynamic software on the achievement of students in mathematics in the topic of reflection symmetry. The study also aimed to ascertain the pre-service mathematics teachers' opinions on the use of CAI in mathematics lessons. In the study, a mixed research method was used. The study group of this research consists of 30 pre-service mathematics teachers. The data collection tools used include a reflection knowledge test, a survey and observations. Based on the analysis of the data obtained from the study, the use of CAI had a positive effect on achievement in the topic of reflection symmetry of the pre-service mathematics teachers. The pre-service mathematics teachers were found to largely consider that a mathematics education which is carried out utilizing CAI will be more beneficial in terms of 'visualization', 'saving of time' and 'increasing interest/attention in the lesson'. In addition, it was found that the vast majority of them considered using computers in their teaching on the condition that the learning environment in which they would be operating has the appropriate technological equipment.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Wahlroos, Mikko; Syri, Sanna
2018-01-01
District heating markets are often dominated by monopolies in both Denmark and Finland. The same companies, often owned by local municipalities, are usually operating both supplying plants and district heating networks, while the pricing mechanisms are rigid, often agreed upon for one year...... in advance. The mentioned ownership scheme may cause problems, when one tries to gain a third party access in order to deliver excess heat or heat from cheaper heating plants. In this paper, two case studies were carried out to simulate the district heating systems based on dynamic pricing. Case studies were...... carried out for Sønderborg, Denmark and Espoo, Finland. The results showed that dynamic pricing fosters feeding the waste heat into the grid, as dynamic pricing reduced the total primary energy consumption and CO2 emissions in both case studies. In the best scenarios, the weighted average heat price...