WorldWideScience

Sample records for vibration thresholds estimated

  1. Near-threshold vibrational excitation of acetylene by positron impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Eliane M.; Lima, Marco A. P.; Sanchez, Sergio D.'A.; Varella, Márcio T. Do N.

    2010-01-01

    We report vibrational excitation cross sections for C-C and C-H symmetric stretch modes of acetylene by positron impact. The contribution of these infrared inactive modes to the annihilation parameter is also addressed. The Feshbach projection operator approach was employed to vibrationally resolve e+-acetylene scattering phase shifts obtained with the Schwinger multichannel method. The present results point out a virtual state pole at the equilibrium geometry of acetylene that becomes a bound state as either bond is stretched, in qualitative agreement with previous calculations for small hydrocarbons. The vibrational couplings are stronger for the C-C mode, giving rise to a bound state pole within the Franck-Condon region of the vibrational ground state. These bound and virtual states give rise to sharp threshold structures (vibrational resonances) in both the vibrational excitation cross sections and the annihilation parameter (Zeff). We found fair agreement between the present calculations and previously reported e+-acetylene vibrational excitation cross sections.

  2. Heritability estimates derived from threshold analyses for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heritability estimates derived from threshold analyses for reproduction and stayability traits in a beef cattle herd. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... The object of this study was to estimate heritabilities and sire breeding values for stayability and reproductive traits in a composite multibreed beef cattle herd using a ...

  3. The Single-trial Analysis of P300 and the Difference Threshold of Modulated Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Reiko; Uchida, Masahumi; Nozawa, Akio; Ide, Hideto

    This study reports the estimation of different-threshold (DT) when humans recognize various modulated vibrations using their tactile sensor. The modulated vibration consists of two frequency components. A psychological or the event related potential (ERP) measurement was used to estimate DT. ERP appears in an electro-encephalogram (EEG) when a human recognizes the information emitted by an external stimulus, and this study detects P300, which is a component of ERP. This paper proposes a single-trial analysis that uses the T-test, which deviates from the conventional method for detecting P300 called the averaged EEG method. Finally, the proposed method estimates DT. As a result, the effectiveness of the proposed method is assured by estimating DTs on five subjects.

  4. Heritability estimates derived from threshold analyses for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Abstract. The object of this study was to estimate heritabilities and sire breeding values for stayability and reproductive traits in a composite multibreed beef cattle herd using a threshold model. A GFCAT set of programmes was used to analyse reproductive data. Heritabilities and product-moment correlations between.

  5. A Robust Threshold for Iterative Channel Estimation in OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kalaycioglu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel threshold computation method for pilot symbol assisted iterative channel estimation in OFDM systems is considered. As the bits are transmitted in packets, the proposed technique is based on calculating a particular threshold for each data packet in order to select the reliable decoder output symbols to improve the channel estimation performance. Iteratively, additional pilot symbols are established according to the threshold and the channel is re-estimated with the new pilots inserted to the known channel estimation pilot set. The proposed threshold calculation method for selecting additional pilots performs better than non-iterative channel estimation, no threshold and fixed threshold techniques in poor HF channel simulations.

  6. Occupant traffic estimation through structural vibration sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shijia; Mirshekari, Mostafa; Zhang, Pei; Noh, Hae Young

    2016-04-01

    The number of people passing through different indoor areas is useful in various smart structure applications, including occupancy-based building energy/space management, marketing research, security, etc. Existing approaches to estimate occupant traffic include vision-, sound-, and radio-based (mobile) sensing methods, which have placement limitations (e.g., requirement of line-of-sight, quiet environment, carrying a device all the time). Such limitations make these direct sensing approaches difficult to deploy and maintain. An indirect approach using geophones to measure floor vibration induced by footsteps can be utilized. However, the main challenge lies in distinguishing multiple simultaneous walkers by developing features that can effectively represent the number of mixed signals and characterize the selected features under different traffic conditions. This paper presents a method to monitor multiple persons. Once the vibration signals are obtained, features are extracted to describe the overlapping vibration signals induced by multiple footsteps, which are used for occupancy traffic estimation. In particular, we focus on analysis of the efficiency and limitations of the four selected key features when used for estimating various traffic conditions. We characterize these features with signals collected from controlled impulse load tests as well as from multiple people walking through a real-world sensing area. In our experiments, the system achieves the mean estimation error of +/-0.2 people for different occupant traffic conditions (from one to four) using k-nearest neighbor classifier.

  7. The Effects of Vibration on the Gait Pattern and Vibration Perception Threshold of Children With Idiopathic Toe Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanchiang, Hsinchen Daniel; Geil, Mark; Wu, Jianhua; Chen, Yu-Ping; Wang, Yong Tai

    2015-07-01

    The effectiveness of idiopathic toe walking treatments is not conclusive. The study investigated the use of vibration as a therapeutic/treatment method for children with idiopathic toe walking. Fifteen children with idiopathic toe walking and 15 typically developing children, aged 4 to 10 years, completed the study. The study included a barefoot gait examination and a vibration perception threshold test before and after standing on a whole body vibration machine for 60 seconds. Temporal-spatial parameters were recorded along with HR32, a calculation designed to distinguish on aspects of the toe-walking pattern. No significant gait pattern differences were found between children with idiopathic toe walking and typically developing children after one bout of vibration intervention. HR32 was found to be a means to identify the toe-walking pattern (P vibration of children with idiopathic toe walking was not found in the current study (P = .921). © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Estimating the optimal growth-maximising public debt threshold for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts to estimate an optimal growth-maximising public debt threshold for Zimbabwe. The public debt threshold is estimated by assessing the relationship between public debt and economic growth. The analysis is undertaken to determine the tipping point beyond which increases in public debt adversely affect ...

  9. Measurement of Vibration Detection Threshold and Tactile Spatial Acuity in Human Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshourab, Rabih; Frenzel, Henning; Lechner, Stefan; Haseleu, Julia; Bégay, Valérie; Omerbašić, Damir; Lewin, Gary R

    2016-09-01

    Tests that allow the precise determination of psychophysical thresholds for vibration and grating orientation provide valuable information about mechanosensory function that are relevant for clinical diagnosis as well as for basic research. Here, we describe two psychophysical tests designed to determine the vibration detection threshold (automated system) and tactile spatial acuity (handheld device). Both procedures implement a two-interval forced-choice and a transformed-rule up and down experimental paradigm. These tests have been used to obtain mechanosensory profiles for individuals from distinct human cohorts such as twins or people with sensorineural deafness.

  10. VIBRATION PERCEPTION THRESHOLD, COMPLAINTS AND SENSORY EXAMINATION IN DIABETIC-PATIENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERNAALT, J; FIDLER, [No Value; OOSTERHUIS, HJGH

    The vibration perception threshold (VPT) was investigated by means of a biothesiometer among 40 patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. The age as well as the duration of the disease affected the VPT. However, a correlation between the VPT and the rate of metabolic control measured

  11. Estimating the optimal growth-maximising public debt threshold for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    debt threshold for Zimbabwe. The public debt threshold is estimated by assessing the relationship between public debt and economic growth. The analysis is undertaken to determine the tipping point beyond which increases in public debt adversely affect economic growth. The paper contributes to the debate on the link ...

  12. The conventional tuning fork as a quantitative tool for vibration threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazy, Mohammed H; Alfurayh, Nuha A; Almweisheer, Shaza N; Aljafen, Bandar N; Muayqil, Taim

    2018-01-01

    This study was undertaken to describe a method for quantifying vibration when using a conventional tuning fork (CTF) in comparison to a Rydel-Seiffer tuning fork (RSTF) and to provide reference values. Vibration thresholds at index finger and big toe were obtained in 281 participants. Spearman's correlations were performed. Age, weight, and height were analyzed for their covariate effects on vibration threshold. Reference values at the fifth percentile were obtained by quantile regression. The correlation coefficients between CTF and RSTF values at finger/toe were 0.59/0.64 (P = 0.001 for both). Among covariates, only age had a significant effect on vibration threshold. Reference values for CTF at finger/toe for the age groups 20-39 and 40-60 years were 7.4/4.9 and 5.8/4.6 s, respectively. Reference values for RSTF at finger/toe for the age groups 20-39 and 40-60 years were 6.9/5.5 and 6.2/4.7, respectively. CTF provides quantitative values that are as good as those provided by RSTF. Age-stratified reference data are provided. Muscle Nerve 57: 49-53, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Factors affecting perception thresholds of vertical whole-body vibration in recumbent subjects: Gender and age of subjects, and vibration duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Y.; Maeda, S.; Iwane, Y.; Iwata, Y.

    2011-04-01

    Some factors that may affect human perception thresholds of the vertical whole-body vibrations were investigated in two laboratory experiments with recumbent subjects. In the first experiment, the effects of gender and age of subjects on perception were investigated with three groups of 12 subjects, i.e., young males, young females and old males. For continuous sinusoidal vibrations at 2, 4, 8, 16, 31.5 and 63 Hz, there were no significant differences in the perception thresholds between male and female subjects, while the thresholds of young subjects tended to be significantly lower than the thresholds of old subjects. In the second experiment, the effect of vibration duration was investigated by using sinusoidal vibrations, at the same frequencies as above, modulated by the Hanning windows with different lengths (i.e., 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 s) for 12 subjects. It was found that the peak acceleration at the threshold tended to decrease with increasing duration of vibration. The perception thresholds were also evaluated by the running root-mean-square (rms) acceleration and the fourth power acceleration method defined in the current standards. The differences in the threshold of the transient vibrations for different durations were less with the fourth power acceleration method. Additionally, the effect of the integration time on the threshold was investigated for the running rms acceleration and the fourth power acceleration. It was found that the integration time that yielded less differences in the threshold of vibrations for different durations depended on the frequency of vibration.

  14. Threshold vibrational excitation of CO{sub 2} by slow electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanroose, Wim; Zhang, Zhiyong; McCurdy, C.W.; Rescigno, T.N.

    2003-07-08

    Threshold structures, reminiscent of those seen in the polar hydrogen halides, have recently been observed in the cross sections for electron impact excitation of certain vibrational levels of the non-polar CO2 molecule. These structures occur at energies outside the range where shape resonances dominate the dynamics. We propose a virtual state model that describes the multi-dimensional nuclear dynamics during the collision and explains quantitatively the selectivity observed in the excitation of the Fermi dyad, as well as the pattern of threshold peaks and oscillations seen in the upper levels of the higher polyads.

  15. Estimating modal instability threshold for photonic crystal rod fiber amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mette Marie; Hansen, Kristian Rymann; Laurila, Marko

    2013-01-01

    We present a semi-analytic numerical model to estimate the transverse modal instability (TMI) threshold for photonic crystal rod amplifiers. The model includes thermally induced waveguide perturbations in the fiber cross section modeled with finite element simulations, and the relative intensity ...... noise (RIN) of the seed laser, which seeds mode coupling between the fundamental and higher order mode. The TMI threshold is predicted to ~370 W – 440 W depending on RIN for the distributed modal filtering rod fiber....

  16. Estimating the epidemic threshold on networks by deterministic connections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kezan, E-mail: lkzzr@sohu.com; Zhu, Guanghu [School of Mathematics and Computing Science, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Fu, Xinchu [Department of Mathematics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Small, Michael [School of Mathematics and Statistics, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009 (Australia)

    2014-12-15

    For many epidemic networks some connections between nodes are treated as deterministic, while the remainder are random and have different connection probabilities. By applying spectral analysis to several constructed models, we find that one can estimate the epidemic thresholds of these networks by investigating information from only the deterministic connections. Nonetheless, in these models, generic nonuniform stochastic connections and heterogeneous community structure are also considered. The estimation of epidemic thresholds is achieved via inequalities with upper and lower bounds, which are found to be in very good agreement with numerical simulations. Since these deterministic connections are easier to detect than those stochastic connections, this work provides a feasible and effective method to estimate the epidemic thresholds in real epidemic networks.

  17. Estimation in Discretely Observed Diffusions Killed at a Threshold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bibbona, Enrico; Ditlevsen, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    are modelled as discretely observed diffusions which are killed when the threshold is reached. Statistical inference is often based on a misspecified likelihood ignoring the presence of the threshold causing severe bias, e.g. the bias incurred in the drift parameters of the Ornstein–Uhlenbeck model....... Parametric bootstrap is effective in correcting the bias. Standard asymptotic results do not apply, but consistency and asymptotic normality may be recovered when multiple trajectories are observed, if the mean first-passage time through the threshold is finite. Numerical examples illustrate the results......Parameter estimation in diffusion processes from discrete observations up to a first-passage time is clearly of practical relevance, but does not seem to have been studied so far. In neuroscience, many models for the membrane potential evolution involve the presence of an upper threshold. Data...

  18. Rapid Estimation of Gustatory Sensitivity Thresholds with SIAM and QUEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Höchenberger

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive methods provide quick and reliable estimates of sensory sensitivity. Yet, these procedures are typically developed for and applied to the non-chemical senses only, i.e., to vision, audition, and somatosensation. The relatively long inter-stimulus-intervals in gustatory studies, which are required to minimize adaptation and habituation, call for time-efficient threshold estimations. We therefore tested the suitability of two adaptive yes-no methods based on SIAM and QUEST for rapid estimation of taste sensitivity by comparing test-retest reliability for sucrose, citric acid, sodium chloride, and quinine hydrochloride thresholds. We show that taste thresholds can be obtained in a time efficient manner with both methods (within only 6.5 min on average using QUEST and ~9.5 min using SIAM. QUEST yielded higher test-retest correlations than SIAM in three of the four tastants. Either method allows for taste threshold estimation with low strain on participants, rendering them particularly advantageous for use in subjects with limited attentional or mnemonic capacities, and for time-constrained applications during cohort studies or in the testing of patients and children.

  19. Somatosensory Nerve Function, Measured by Vibration Thresholds in Asymptomatic Tennis Players: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Harrisson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tennis players are vulnerable to injury in their upper limbs due to the repetitive exposure to racket vibrations and torsional forces during play, leading to musculoskeletal adaptations in the dominant arm including some evidence of changes in nerve function (Colak et al., 2004. Vibration is a sensitive technique for diagnosing mild pathology in clinically asymptomatic participant groups. It has been used in participants with various musculoskeletal disorders (Laursen et al., 2006 (Tucker et al., 2007 showing widespread and bilateral increases in vibration threshold. Tests of somatosensory function by vibration will be abnormal prior to changes in nerve conduction velocity. Thus vibration testing in a sub-clinical group of participants may a more sensitive measure of nerve function compared to nerve conduction by electrodiagnostic testing. The aim of this pilot study was to conduct an exploratory investigation to establish whether tennis players have a reduction in their somatosensory nerve function compared to non- tennis playing controls. It also set out to compare the somatosensory nerve function of the dominant compared to the non-dominant upper limb in tennis players. Healthy tennis players (males, n = 8, females, n = 2, mean age 22 years and control non- tennis playing volunteers (males, n = 6, females, n = 4, mean age 22 years were recruited on an opportunistic basis from a tennis centre in London UK. Participants were excluded if they had any history of neurological impairment, serious injury or fracture or any arthritic condition affecting the upper limbs, cervical or thoracic spine. Control participants were excluded if it was deemed that they played a sport where there was exposure to repetitive use of the upper body. Ethical approval was obtained from the University College London Ethics Committee and all participants gave written informed consent. A preliminary clinical examination was carried out on all participants followed by

  20. Optimal threshold estimation for binary classifiers using game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Ignacio Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Many bioinformatics algorithms can be understood as binary classifiers. They are usually compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristic ( ROC) curve. On the other hand, choosing the best threshold for practical use is a complex task, due to uncertain and context-dependent skews in the abundance of positives in nature and in the yields/costs for correct/incorrect classification. We argue that considering a classifier as a player in a zero-sum game allows us to use the minimax principle from game theory to determine the optimal operating point. The proposed classifier threshold corresponds to the intersection between the ROC curve and the descending diagonal in ROC space and yields a minimax accuracy of 1-FPR. Our proposal can be readily implemented in practice, and reveals that the empirical condition for threshold estimation of "specificity equals sensitivity" maximizes robustness against uncertainties in the abundance of positives in nature and classification costs.

  1. PROBABILISTIC ESTIMATION OF VIBRATION INFLUENCE ON SENSITIVE SYSTEM ELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem pertaining to an estimation of vibration influence on sensitive system elements. Dependences of intensity and probability of a process exit characterizing a condition of a system element for the preset range that allow to estimate serviceability and no-failure operation of the system have been obtained analytically in the paper

  2. Comparison of a Vibrating Foam Roller and a Non-vibrating Foam Roller Intervention on Knee Range of Motion and Pressure Pain Threshold: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatham, Scott W; Stull, Kyle R; Kolber, Morey J

    2017-08-08

    The use of foam rollers to provide soft-tissue massage has become a common intervention among health and fitness professionals. Recently, manufacturers have merged the science of vibration therapy and foam rolling with the development of vibrating foam rollers. To date, no peer reviewed investigations have been published on this technology. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a vibrating roller and non-vibrating roller intervention on prone knee flexion passive range of motion (ROM) and pressure pain thresholds (PPT) of the quadriceps musculature. Forty-five recreationally active adults were randomly allocated to one of three groups: vibrating roller, non-vibrating roller, and control. Each roll intervention lasted a total of 2 minutes. The control group did not roll. Dependent variables included prone knee flexion ROM and PPT measures. Statistical analysis included parametric and non-parametric tests to measure changes among groups. The vibrating roller demonstrated the greatest increase in PPT (180kPa, p< 0.001), followed by the non-vibrating roller (112kPa, p< 0.001), and control (61kPa, p<0.001). For knee ROM, the vibrating roller demonstrated the greatest increase in ROM (7 degrees, p< 0.001), followed by the non-vibrating roller (5 degrees, p< 0.001), and control (2 degrees, p<0.001). Between groups, there was significant difference in PPT between the vibrating and non-vibrating roller (p=.03) and vibrating roller and control (p<.001). There was also a significant difference between the non-vibrating roller and control (p<.001). For knee ROM, there was no significant difference between the vibrating and non-vibrating roller (p=.31). A significant difference was found between the vibrating roller and control group (p<.001) and non-vibrating roller and control (p<.001). The results suggest that a vibrating roller may increase an individual's tolerance to pain greater than a non-vibrating roller. This investigation should be considered

  3. [Vibration perception threshold in diagnosing diabetic peripheral neuropathy by receiver operating characteristic curve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yu; Liu, Sha; Zhu, Tingting; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Gang; Zhu, Yan; Chen, Huiling

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of vibration perception threshold (VPT) in diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) by the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) and to establish its cut-off threshold. All patients had the VPT examination and nerve conduction velocity (NCV) examination. NCV examination showed that 283 patients with Type 2 diabetes were divided into a DPN group (n=151) and an NDPN group (n=132). The VPT diagnosis was evaluated by Youden index, sensitivity, specificity and the area under ROC curve. The best cut-off threshold was defined by the Youden index. 1) The NCV was significantly slower, while the VPT was higher in the DPN group than those in the NDPN group (both P values <0.05). 2) The VPT and NCV of both sides of the limb had no difference in all patients. 3) With NCV as the golden diagnosis criterion, the area under ROC of VPT was 0.707, the best cut-off threshold was 10.54 V, the sensitivity was 0.596, the specificity was 0.848, and the Youden index was 0.445. 4) The diagnosis ratio of NCV combined with VPT was 60.4%, significantly higher than that of NCV alone (P<0.05). Compared with NCV examination, VPT has good diagnostic value for DPN. The best cut-off value is 10.54 V.

  4. Estimate capital for operational risk using peak over threshold method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputri, Azizah Anugrahwati; Noviyanti, Lienda; Soleh, Achmad Zanbar

    2015-12-01

    Operational risk is inherent in bank activities. To cover this risk a bank reserves a fund called as capital. Often a bank uses Basic Indicator approach (BIA), Standardized Approach (SA), or Advanced Measurement Approach (AMA) for estimating the capital amount. BIA and SA are less-objective in comparison to AMA, since BIA and SA use non-actual loss data while AMA use the actual one. In this research, we define the capital as an OpVaR (i.e. the worst loss at a given confidence level) which will be estimated by Peak Over Threshold Method.

  5. Near threshold vibrational excitation of molecules by positron impact: A projection operator approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varella, Marcio T. do N [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: mvarella@if.usp.br; Oliveira, Eliane M. de; Lima, Marco A.P. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2008-02-15

    We report vibrational excitation ({nu}{sub i}=0{yields}{nu}{sub f}=1) cross-sections for positron scattering by H{sub 2} and model calculations for the ({nu}{sub i}=0{yields}{nu}{sub f}=1) excitation of the C-C symmetric stretch mode of C{sub 2}H{sub 2}. The Feshbach projection operator formalism was employed to vibrationally resolve the fixed-nuclei phase shifts obtained with the Schwinger multichannel method. The near threshold behavior of H{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} significantly differ in the sense that no low lying singularity (either virtual or bound state) was found for the former, while a e{sup +}-acetylene virtual state was found at the equilibrium geometry (this virtual state becomes a bound state upon stretching the molecule). For C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, we also performed model calculations comparing excitation cross-sections arising from virtual (-i{kappa}{sub 0}) and bound (+i{kappa}{sub 0}) states symmetrically located around the origin of the complex momentum plane (i.e. having the same {kappa}{sub 0}). The virtual state is seen to significantly couple to vibrations, and similar cross-sections were obtained for shallow bound and virtual states.

  6. Nerve conduction studies and current perception thresholds in workers assessed for hand-arm vibration syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Lina; Lou, Wendy; House, Ron

    2007-06-01

    Workers exposed to hand-arm vibration are at risk of developing the neurological abnormalities of hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). The Stockholm classification of the neurological component of HAVS is based on history and physical examination. There is a need to determine the association between neurological tests and the Stockholm scale. The main objective of this study was to compare the Stockholm neurological scale and the results of current perception threshold (CPT) tests and nerve conduction studies (NCS). Detailed physical examinations were done on 162 subjects referred for HAVS assessment at a specialist occupational health clinic. All subjects had NCS and measurement of CPT. The Stockholm neurological classification was carried out blinded to the results of these neurological tests and compared to the test results. The nerve conduction results indicated that median and ulnar neuropathies proximal to the hand are common in workers being assessed for HAVS. Digital sensory neuropathy was found in only one worker. Neither the nerve conduction results nor the current perception results had a strong association with the Stockholm neurological scale. Exposure to vibration in total hours was the main variable associated with the Stockholm neurological scale [right hand: OR 1.30, 95% CI (1.10-1.54); left hand: OR 1.18, 95% CI (1.0-1.39)]. Workers being assessed for HAVS should have nerve conduction testing to detect neuropathies proximal to the hand. Quantitative sensory tests such as current perception measurement are insufficient for diagnostic purposes but may have a role in screening workers exposed to vibration.

  7. Uncertainty Estimates of Psychoacoustic Thresholds Obtained from Group Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathsam, Jonathan; Christian, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive psychoacoustic test methods, in which the next signal level depends on the response to the previous signal, are the most efficient for determining psychoacoustic thresholds of individual subjects. In many tests conducted in the NASA psychoacoustic labs, the goal is to determine thresholds representative of the general population. To do this economically, non-adaptive testing methods are used in which three or four subjects are tested at the same time with predetermined signal levels. This approach requires us to identify techniques for assessing the uncertainty in resulting group-average psychoacoustic thresholds. In this presentation we examine the Delta Method of frequentist statistics, the Generalized Linear Model (GLM), the Nonparametric Bootstrap, a frequentist method, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo Posterior Estimation and a Bayesian approach. Each technique is exercised on a manufactured, theoretical dataset and then on datasets from two psychoacoustics facilities at NASA. The Delta Method is the simplest to implement and accurate for the cases studied. The GLM is found to be the least robust, and the Bootstrap takes the longest to calculate. The Bayesian Posterior Estimate is the most versatile technique examined because it allows the inclusion of prior information.

  8. On Modal Parameter Estimates from Ambient Vibration Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agneni, A.; Brincker, Rune; Coppotelli, B.

    2004-01-01

    Modal parameter estimates from ambient vibration testing are turning into the preferred technique when one is interested in systems under actual loadings and operational conditions. Moreover, with this approach, expensive devices to excite the structure are not needed, since it can be adequately...

  9. Obtaining and Estimating Low Noise Floors in Vibration Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard

    2007-01-01

    For some applications like seismic applications and measuring ambient vibrations in structures, it is essential that the noise floors of the sensors and other system components are low and known to the user. Some of the most important noise sources are reviewed and it is discussed how the sensor...... can be designed in order to obtain a low noise floor. Techniques to estimate the noise floors for sensors are reviewed and are demonstrated on a commercial commonly used sensor for vibration testing. It is illustrated how the noise floor can be calculated using the coherence between simultaneous...

  10. Sound Power Estimation by Laser Doppler Vibration Measurement Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Revel

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose simple and quick methods for the determination of the sound power emitted by a vibrating surface, by using non-contact vibration measurement techniques. In order to calculate the acoustic power by vibration data processing, two different approaches are presented. The first is based on the method proposed in the Standard ISO/TR 7849, while the second is based on the superposition theorem. A laser-Doppler scanning vibrometer has been employed for vibration measurements. Laser techniques open up new possibilities in this field because of their high spatial resolution and their non-intrusivity. The technique has been applied here to estimate the acoustic power emitted by a loudspeaker diaphragm. Results have been compared with those from a commercial Boundary Element Method (BEM software and experimentally validated by acoustic intensity measurements. Predicted and experimental results seem to be in agreement (differences lower than 1 dB thus showing that the proposed techniques can be employed as rapid solutions for many practical and industrial applications. Uncertainty sources are addressed and their effect is discussed.

  11. Dental age estimation: the role of probability estimates at the 10 year threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Victoria S; McDonald, Fraser; Neil, Monica; Roberts, Graham

    2014-08-01

    The use of probability at the 18 year threshold has simplified the reporting of dental age estimates for emerging adults. The availability of simple to use widely available software has enabled the development of the probability threshold for individual teeth in growing children. Tooth development stage data from a previous study at the 10 year threshold were reused to estimate the probability of developing teeth being above or below the 10 year thresh-hold using the NORMDIST Function in Microsoft Excel. The probabilities within an individual subject are averaged to give a single probability that a subject is above or below 10 years old. To test the validity of this approach dental panoramic radiographs of 50 female and 50 male children within 2 years of the chronological age were assessed with the chronological age masked. Once the whole validation set of 100 radiographs had been assessed the masking was removed and the chronological age and dental age compared. The dental age was compared with chronological age to determine whether the dental age correctly or incorrectly identified a validation subject as above or below the 10 year threshold. The probability estimates correctly identified children as above or below on 94% of occasions. Only 2% of the validation group with a chronological age of less than 10 years were assigned to the over 10 year group. This study indicates the very high accuracy of assignment at the 10 year threshold. Further work at other legally important age thresholds is needed to explore the value of this approach to the technique of age estimation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Association of SUDOSCAN Values with Vibration Perception Threshold in Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims/Introduction. SUDOSCAN has been proved to be an efficient method in detecting diabetic microvascular complications. In this study, we determine to detect the possible relationship between vibration perception threshold (VPT and cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN values produced by SUDOSCAN. Materials and Methods. A total of 920 Chinese patients with T2DM were enrolled in the study. Spearman correlation analysis and multivariate regression analysis were performed to determine the relation between CAN and VPT values. Mean VPT values across the CAN value tertiles were analyzed stratified by HbA1c status. Results. In the study, we discovered a relatively high correlation between CAN value and both VPT values from dorsal feet and toes. Multivariate regression analyses also showed a significant relation between VPT and CAN values after adjusting all covariates. The mean value of VPT decreased across the SUDOSCAN-CAN value quartiles in both groups, and it was higher in patients with HbA1C > 9% than in patients with HbA1C < 9% across all quartiles of the SUDOSCAN-CAN except for the VPT mean in the low quartile of the SUDOSCAN-CAN value. Conclusions. All these results suggested that SUDOSCAN-CAN result was associated with VPT value which indicated a probable link between VPT value and cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction.

  13. Long-term daily vibration exposure alters current perception threshold (CPT) sensitivity and myelinated axons in a rat-tail model of vibration-induced injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajnak, Kristine; Raju, Sandya G; Miller, G Roger; Johnson, Claud; Waugh, Stacey; Kashon, Michael L; Riley, Danny A

    2016-01-01

    Repeated exposure to hand-transmitted vibration through the use of powered hand tools may result in pain and progressive reductions in tactile sensitivity. The goal of the present study was to use an established animal model of vibration-induced injury to characterize changes in sensory nerve function and cellular mechanisms associated with these alterations. Sensory nerve function was assessed weekly using the current perception threshold test and tail-flick analgesia test in male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 28 d of tail vibration. After 28 d of exposure, Aβ fiber sensitivity was reduced. This reduction in sensitivity was partly attributed to structural disruption of myelin. In addition, the decrease in sensitivity was also associated with a reduction in myelin basic protein and 2',3'- cyclic nucleotide phosphodiasterase (CNPase) staining in tail nerves, and an increase in circulating calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) concentrations. Changes in Aβ fiber sensitivity and CGRP concentrations may serve as early markers of vibration-induced injury in peripheral nerves. It is conceivable that these markers may be utilized to monitor sensorineural alterations in workers exposed to vibration to potentially prevent additional injury.

  14. Vibration perception threshold in relation to postural control and fall risk assessment in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mettelinge, Tine Roman; Calders, Patrick; Palmans, Tanneke; Vanden Bossche, Luc; Van Den Noortgate, Nele; Cambier, Dirk

    2013-09-01

    This study investigates (i) the potential discriminative role of a clinical measure of peripheral neuropathy (PN) in assessing postural performance and fall risk and (ii) whether the integration of a simple screening vibration perception threshold (VPT) for PN in any physical (fall risk) assessment among elderly should be recommended, even if they do not suffer from DM. One hundred and ninety-five elderly were entered in a four-group model: DM with PN (D+; n = 75), DM without PN (D-; n = 28), non-diabetic elderly with idiopathic PN (C+; n = 31) and non-diabetic elderly without PN (C-; n = 61). Posturographic sway parameters were captured during different static balance conditions (AMTI AccuGait, Watertown, MA). VPT, fall data, Mini-Mental State Examination and Clock Drawing Test were registered. Two-factor repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare between groups and across balance conditions. The groups with PN demonstrated a strikingly comparable, though bigger sway, and a higher prospective fall incidence than their peers without PN. The indication of PN, irrespective of its cause, interferes with postural control and fall incidence. The integration of a simple screening for PN (like bio-thesiometry) in any fall risk assessment among elderly is highly recommended. Implications for Rehabilitation The indication of peripheral neuropathy (PN), irrespective of its cause, interferes with postural control and fall incidence. Therefore, the integration of a simple screening for PN (like bio-thesiometry) in any fall risk assessment among elderly is highly recommended. It might be useful to integrate somatosensory stimulation in rehabilitation programs designed for fall prevention.

  15. Estimation of spinal loading in vertical vibrations by numerical simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verver, M.M.; Hoof, J.F.A.M. van; Oomens, C.W.J.; Wouw, N. van de; Wismans, J.S.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Objective. This paper describes the prediction of spinal forces in car occupants during vertical vibrations using a numerical multi-body occupant model. Background. An increasing part of the population is exposed to whole body vibrations in vehicles. In literature, vertical vibrations and low back

  16. Inflation and Economic Growth: An Estimate of the Threshold Level ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the relationship between inflation and economic growth in Nigeria, from 1970 to 2009. It adapted the Khan and Sendhadji's (2001) threshold regression technique to examine the existence of optimal inflation. The Granger causality test was utilised to test the causal relationship between inflation and ...

  17. Efficient estimation of quantum error correction thresholds in the presence of errors outside the Clifford group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Mauricio; Brown, Kenneth

    2015-03-01

    Classical simulations of noisy stabilizer circuits are often used to estimate the threshold of a quantum error-correcting code (QECC). It is common to model the noise as a depolarizing Pauli channel. However, it is not clear how sensitive a code's threshold is to the noise model, and whether or not a depolarizing channel is a good approximation for realistic errors. We have shown that, at the physical single-qubit level, efficient and more accurate approximations can be obtained. We now examine the feasibility of employing these approximations to obtain better estimates of a QECC's threshold. We calculate the level-1 pseudo-threshold for the Steane [[7,1,3

  18. Estimation of Detection Thresholds for Audiovisual Rotation Gains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Niels Chr.; Suma, Evan; Nordahl, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Redirection techniques allow users to explore large virtual environments on foot while remaining within a limited physical space. However, research has primarily focused on redirection through manipulation of visual stimuli. We describe a within-subjects study (n=31) exploring if participants......’ ability to detect differences between real and virtual rotations is influenced by the addition of sound that is spatially aligned with its virtual source. The results revealed similar detection thresholds for conditions involving moving audio, static audio, and no audio. This may be viewed...

  19. Damping Estimation Using Free Decays and Ambient Vibration Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magalhães, Filipe; Brincker, Rune; Cunha, Álvaro

    2007-01-01

    The accurate identification of modal damping ratios of Civil Engineering structures is a subject of major importance, as the amplitude of structural vibrations in resonance is inversely proportional to these coefficients. Their experimental identification can be performed either from ambient...... vibration or from free vibration tests. In the last case, the structural response after application of an impulse or after the application of harmonic loads can be used. Ambient vibration tests have the strong advantage of being more practical and economical. However, recent applications of both approaches...

  20. Estimation of physical properties of laminated composites via the method of inverse vibration problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balci, Murat [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Bayburt University, Bayburt (Turkmenistan); Gundogdu, Omer [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkmenistan)

    2017-01-15

    In this study, estimation of some physical properties of a laminated composite plate was conducted via the inverse vibration problem. Laminated composite plate was modelled and simulated to obtain vibration responses for different length-to-thickness ratio in ANSYS. Furthermore, a numerical finite element model was developed for the laminated composite utilizing the Kirchhoff plate theory and programmed in MATLAB for simulations. Optimizing the difference between these two vibration responses, inverse vibration problem was solved to obtain some of the physical properties of the laminated composite using genetic algorithms. The estimated parameters are compared with the theoretical results, and a very good correspondence was observed.

  1. IMPLICATION OF ALTERNATIVE MINIMAL CLINICALLY IMPORTANT DIFFERENCE THRESHOLD ESTIMATION METHODS ON TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brixner, Diana; Meltzer, Eli O; Morland, Kellie; Carroll, Cathryn A; Munzel, Ullrich; Lipworth, Brian J

    2016-01-01

    Various minimal clinically important difference (MCID) threshold estimation techniques have been applied to seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR). The objectives of this study are to (i) assess the difference in magnitude of alternative SAR MCID threshold estimates and (ii) evaluate the impact of alternative MCID estimates on health technology assessment (HTA). Data describing change from baseline of the reflective Total Nasal Symptom Score (rTNSS) for four intranasal SAR treatments were obtained from United States Food and Drug Administration-approved prescribing information. Treatment effects were then compared with anchor-based MCID thresholds derived by Barnes et al. and thresholds obtained from an Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) panel. The change in rTNSS score from baseline, represented as the average of the twice-daily recorded scores of the rTNSS, was -2.1 (p MCID threshold and the AHRQ panel estimates. Comparison of the observed treatment effect to the anchor-based and AHRQ panel MCID thresholds results in different conclusions, with clinically important differences being inferred when anchor-based estimates serve as the reference point. The AHRQ panel MCID threshold for the rTNSS was twelve times larger than the anchor-based estimates resulting in conflicting recommendations on whether different SAR treatments provide clinically meaningful benefit.

  2. Vibration Penalty Estimates for Indoor Annoyance Caused by Sonic Boom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathsam, Jonathan; Klos, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Commercial supersonic flight is currently forbidden over land because sonic booms have historically caused unacceptable annoyance levels in overflown communities. NASA is providing data and expertise to noise regulators as they consider relaxing the ban for future quiet supersonic aircraft. One key objective is a predictive model for indoor annoyance based on factors such as noise and indoor vibration levels. The current study quantified the increment in indoor sonic boom annoyance when sonic booms can be felt directly through structural vibrations in addition to being heard. A shaker mounted below each chair in the sonic boom simulator emulated vibrations transmitting through the structure to that chair. The vibration amplitudes were determined from numeric models of a large range of residential structures excited by the same sonic boom waveforms used in the experiment. The analysis yielded vibration penalties, which are the increments in sound level needed to increase annoyance as much as the vibration does. For sonic booms at acoustic levels from 75 to 84 dB Perceived Level, vibration signals with lower amplitudes (+1 sigma) yielded penalties from 0 to 5 dB, and vibration signals with higher amplitudes (+3 sigma) yielded penalties from 6 to 10 dB.

  3. Stapes Vibration in the Chinchilla Middle Ear: Relation to Behavioral and Auditory-Nerve Thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Luis; Temchin, Andrei N; Fan, Yun-Hui; Ruggero, Mario A

    2015-08-01

    The vibratory responses to tones of the stapes and incus were measured in the middle ears of deeply anesthetized chinchillas using a wide-band acoustic-stimulus system and a laser velocimeter coupled to a microscope. With the laser beam at an angle of about 40 ° relative to the axis of stapes piston-like motion, the sensitivity-vs.-frequency curves of vibrations at the head of the stapes and the incus lenticular process were very similar to each other but larger, in the range 15-30 kHz, than the vibrations of the incus just peripheral to the pedicle. With the laser beam aligned with the axis of piston-like stapes motion, vibrations of the incus just peripheral to its pedicle were very similar to the vibrations of the lenticular process or the stapes head measured at the 40 ° angle. Thus, the pedicle prevents transmission to the stapes of components of incus vibration not aligned with the axis of stapes piston-like motion. The mean magnitude curve of stapes velocities is fairly flat over a wide frequency range, with a mean value of about 0.19 mm(.)(s Pa(-1)), has a high-frequency cutoff of 25 kHz (measured at -3 dB re the mean value), and decreases with a slope of about -60 dB/octave at higher frequencies. According to our measurements, the chinchilla middle ear transmits acoustic signals into the cochlea at frequencies exceeding both the bandwidth of responses of auditory-nerve fibers and the upper cutoff of hearing. The phase lags of stapes velocity relative to ear-canal pressure increase approximately linearly, with slopes equivalent to pure delays of about 57-76 μs.

  4. Weighted-noise threshold based channel estimation for OFDM ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) technology is the key to evolving telecommunication standards including 3GPP-LTE Advanced and WiMAX. Reliability of any OFDM system increases with improvedmean square error performance (MSE) of its channel estimator (CE). Particularly, a least squares (LS) ...

  5. Weighted-noise threshold based channel estimation for OFDM ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In Kashyap & Mehta. (2014), in the context of driving power control in underlay cognitive radio, impact of various channel estimation errors has been studied. ...... Minn H and Bhargava V 2000 An investigation into time-domain approach for OFDM channel estima- tion. IEEE Trans. Broadcasting 46(4): 240–248, doi: 10.1109/ ...

  6. Embryotoxic thresholds of mercury: estimates from individual mallard eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    Eighty pairs of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed an uncontaminated diet until each female had laid 15 eggs. After each female had laid her 15th egg, the pair was randomly assigned to a control diet or diets containing 5, 10, or 20 ?g/g mercury as methylmercury until she had laid a second set of 15 eggs. There were 20 pairs in each group. After the second set of 15 eggs, the pair was returned to an uncontaminated diet, and the female was permitted to lay another 30 eggs. For those pairs fed the mercury diets, the even-numbered eggs were incubated and the odd-numbered eggs were saved for possible mercury analysis. Mercury in the even-numbered eggs was estimated as the average of what was in the neighboring odd-numbered eggs. Neurological signs of methylmercury poisoning were observed in ducklings that hatched from eggs containing as little as 2.3 ?g/g estimated mercury on a wet-weight basis, and deformities were seen in embryos from eggs containing about 1 ?g/g estimated mercury. Although embryo mortality was seen in eggs estimated to contain as little as 0.74 ?g/g mercury, there were considerable differences in the sensitivity of mallard embryos, especially from different parents, with some embryos surviving as much as 30 or more ?g/g mercury in the egg.

  7. Position Estimation for Switched Reluctance Motor Based on the Single Threshold Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Pang; Yu, Yue

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a position estimate model of switched reluctance motor based on the single threshold angle. In view of the relationship of between the inductance and rotor position, the position is estimated by comparing the real-time dynamic flux linkage with the threshold angle position flux linkage (7.5° threshold angle, 12/8SRM). The sensorless model is built by Maltab/Simulink, the simulation are implemented under the steady state and transient state different condition, and verified its validity and feasibility of the method..

  8. Radar rainfall estimation for the identification of debris-flow precipitation thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Francesco; Nikolopoulos, Efthymios I.; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Borga, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Identification of rainfall thresholds for the prediction of debris-flow occurrence is a common approach for warning procedures. Traditionally the debris-flow triggering rainfall is derived from the closest available raingauge. However, the spatial and temporal variability of intense rainfall on mountainous areas, where debris flows take place, may lead to large uncertainty in point-based estimates. Nikolopoulos et al. (2014) have shown that this uncertainty translates into a systematic underestimation of the rainfall thresholds, leading to a step degradation of the performances of the rainfall threshold for identification of debris flows occurrence under operational conditions. A potential solution to this limitation lies on use of rainfall estimates from weather radar. Thanks to their high spatial and temporal resolutions, these estimates offer the advantage of providing rainfall information over the actual debris flow location. The aim of this study is to analyze the value of radar precipitation estimations for the identification of debris flow precipitation thresholds. Seven rainfall events that triggered debris flows in the Adige river basin (Eastern Italian Alps) are analyzed using data from a dense raingauge network and a C-Band weather radar. Radar data are elaborated by using a set of correction algorithms specifically developed for weather radar rainfall application in mountainous areas. Rainfall thresholds for the triggering of debris flows are identified in the form of average intensity-duration power law curves using a frequentist approach by using both radar rainfall estimates and raingauge data. Sampling uncertainty associated to the derivation of the thresholds is assessed by using a bootstrap technique (Peruccacci et al. 2012). Results show that radar-based rainfall thresholds are largely exceeding those obtained by using raingauge data. Moreover, the differences between the two thresholds may be related to the spatial characteristics (i.e., spatial

  9. A de-noising method using the improved wavelet threshold function based on noise variance estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Wang, Weida; Xiang, Changle; Han, Lijin; Nie, Haizhao

    2018-01-01

    The precise and efficient noise variance estimation is very important for the processing of all kinds of signals while using the wavelet transform to analyze signals and extract signal features. In view of the problem that the accuracy of traditional noise variance estimation is greatly affected by the fluctuation of noise values, this study puts forward the strategy of using the two-state Gaussian mixture model to classify the high-frequency wavelet coefficients in the minimum scale, which takes both the efficiency and accuracy into account. According to the noise variance estimation, a novel improved wavelet threshold function is proposed by combining the advantages of hard and soft threshold functions, and on the basis of the noise variance estimation algorithm and the improved wavelet threshold function, the research puts forth a novel wavelet threshold de-noising method. The method is tested and validated using random signals and bench test data of an electro-mechanical transmission system. The test results indicate that the wavelet threshold de-noising method based on the noise variance estimation shows preferable performance in processing the testing signals of the electro-mechanical transmission system: it can effectively eliminate the interference of transient signals including voltage, current, and oil pressure and maintain the dynamic characteristics of the signals favorably.

  10. Estimating Alarm Thresholds for Process Monitoring Data under Different Assumptions about the Data Generating Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Burr

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Process monitoring (PM for nuclear safeguards sometimes requires estimation of thresholds corresponding to small false alarm rates. Threshold estimation dates to the 1920s with the Shewhart control chart; however, because possible new roles for PM are being evaluated in nuclear safeguards, it is timely to consider modern model selection options in the context of threshold estimation. One of the possible new PM roles involves PM residuals, where a residual is defined as residual = data − prediction. This paper reviews alarm threshold estimation, introduces model selection options, and considers a range of assumptions regarding the data-generating mechanism for PM residuals. Two PM examples from nuclear safeguards are included to motivate the need for alarm threshold estimation. The first example involves mixtures of probability distributions that arise in solution monitoring, which is a common type of PM. The second example involves periodic partial cleanout of in-process inventory, leading to challenging structure in the time series of PM residuals.

  11. Mode selection of modal expansion method estimating vibration field of washing machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, B. K.; Jeong, W. B.

    2015-03-01

    This paper is about a study estimating the vibration and radiated noise of a washing machine by using a mode selection-applied modal expansion method (MEM). MEM is a technique that identifies the vibration field from a portion of eigenvectors (or mode shapes) of a structure, and thus, the selection of the eigenvectors has a big impact on the vibration results identified. However, there have been few studies about selecting the eigenvectors with respect to the structural vibration and radiated noise estimation. Accordingly, this paper proposes the use of a new mode selection method to identify the vibration based on the MEM and then calculate radiated noise of a washing machine. The results gained from the experiment were also compared. The vibration and noise results of numerical analysis using the proposed selection method are in line with the measured results. The selection method proposed in this paper corresponds well with the MEM and this process seems to be applicable to the estimation of various structure vibrations and radiated noise.

  12. The Dirac Equation in Two Dimensions: Dispersive Estimates and Classification of Threshold Obstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğan, M. Burak; Green, William R.

    2017-06-01

    We investigate dispersive estimates for the two dimensional Dirac equation with a potential. In particular, we show that the Dirac evolution satisfies a t -1 decay rate as an operator from the Hardy space H 1 to BMO, the space of functions of bounded mean oscillation. This estimate, along with the L 2 conservation law allows one to deduce a family of Strichartz estimates. We classify the structure of threshold obstructions as being composed of s-wave resonances, p-wave resonances and eigenfunctions. We show that, as in the case of the Schrödinger evolution, the presence of a threshold s-wave resonance does not destroy the t -1 decay rate. As a consequence of our analysis we obtain a limiting absorption principle in the neighborhood of the threshold, and show that there are only finitely many eigenvalues in the spectral gap.

  13. Comparison of Classical and Robust Estimates of Threshold Auto-regression Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Goryainov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study object is the first-order threshold auto-regression model with a single zero-located threshold. The model describes a stochastic temporal series with discrete time by means of a piecewise linear equation consisting of two linear classical first-order autoregressive equations. One of these equations is used to calculate a running value of the temporal series. A control variable that determines the choice between these two equations is the sign of the previous value of the same series.The first-order threshold autoregressive model with a single threshold depends on two real parameters that coincide with the coefficients of the piecewise linear threshold equation. These parameters are assumed to be unknown. The paper studies an estimate of the least squares, an estimate the least modules, and the M-estimates of these parameters. The aim of the paper is a comparative study of the accuracy of these estimates for the main probabilistic distributions of the updating process of the threshold autoregressive equation. These probability distributions were normal, contaminated normal, logistic, double-exponential distributions, a Student's distribution with different number of degrees of freedom, and a Cauchy distribution.As a measure of the accuracy of each estimate, was chosen its variance to measure the scattering of the estimate around the estimated parameter. An estimate with smaller variance made from the two estimates was considered to be the best. The variance was estimated by computer simulation. To estimate the smallest modules an iterative weighted least-squares method was used and the M-estimates were done by the method of a deformable polyhedron (the Nelder-Mead method. To calculate the least squares estimate, an explicit analytic expression was used.It turned out that the estimation of least squares is best only with the normal distribution of the updating process. For the logistic distribution and the Student's distribution with the

  14. Vibration reduction on a nonlinear flexible structure through resonant control and disturbance estimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzulani, Gabriele; Resta, Ferruccio; Ripamonti, Francesco

    2012-04-01

    Large mechanical structures are often affected by high level vibrations due to their flexibility. These vibrations can reduce the system performances and lifetime and the use of active vibration control strategies becomes very attractive. In this paper a combination of resonant control and a disturbance estimator is proposed. This solution is able to improve the system performances during the transient motion and also to reject the disturbance forces acting on the system. Both control logics are based on a modal approach, since it allows to describe the structure dynamics considering only few degrees of freedom.

  15. Comparison of different automatic adaptive threshold selection techniques for estimating discharge from river width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmi, Omid; Javad Tourian, Mohammad; Sneeuw, Nico

    2015-04-01

    The importance of river discharge monitoring is critical for e.g., water resource planning, climate change, hazard monitoring. River discharge has been measured at in situ gauges for more than a century. Despite various attempts, some basins are still ungauged. Moreover, a reduction in the number of worldwide gauging stations increases the interest to employ remote sensing data for river discharge monitoring. Finding an empirical relationship between simultaneous in situ measurements of discharge and river widths derived from satellite imagery has been introduced as a straightforward remote sensing alternative. Classifying water and land in an image is the primary task for defining the river width. Water appears dark in the near infrared and infrared bands in satellite images. As a result low values in the histogram usually represent the water content. In this way, applying a threshold on the image histogram and separating into two different classes is one of the most efficient techniques to build a water mask. Beside its simple definition, finding the appropriate threshold value in each image is the most critical issue. The threshold is variable due to changes in the water level, river extent, atmosphere, sunlight radiation, onboard calibration of the satellite over time. These complexities in water body classification are the main source of error in river width estimation. In this study, we are looking for the most efficient adaptive threshold algorithm to estimate the river discharge. To do this, all cloud free MODIS images coincident with the in situ measurement are collected. Next a number of automatic threshold selection techniques are employed to generate different dynamic water masks. Then, for each of them a separate empirical relationship between river widths and discharge measurements are determined. Through these empirical relationships, we estimate river discharge at the gauge and then validate our results against in situ measurements and also

  16. Vibration Suppression for Improving the Estimation of Kinematic Parameters on Industrial Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Alejandro Elvira-Ortiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration is a phenomenon that is present on every industrial system such as CNC machines and industrial robots. Moreover, sensors used to estimate angular position of a joint in an industrial robot are severely affected by vibrations and lead to wrong estimations. This paper proposes a methodology for improving the estimation of kinematic parameters on industrial robots through a proper suppression of the vibration components present on signals acquired from two primary sensors: accelerometer and gyroscope. A Kalman filter is responsible for the filtering of spurious vibration. Additionally, a sensor fusion technique is used to merge information from both sensors and improve the results obtained using each sensor separately. The methodology is implemented in a proprietary hardware signal processor and tested in an ABB IRB 140 industrial robot, first by analyzing the motion profile of only one joint and then by estimating the path tracking of two welding tasks: one rectangular and another one circular. Results from this work prove that the sensor fusion technique accompanied by proper suppression of vibrations delivers better estimation than other proposed techniques.

  17. Comparison of electrochemical skin conductance and vibration perception threshold measurement in the detection of early diabetic neuropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Goel

    Full Text Available The early diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN is challenging. Sudomotor dysfunction is one of the earliest detectable abnormalities in DPN. The present study aimed to determine the diagnostic performance of the electrochemical skin conductance (ESC test in detecting early DPN, compared with the vibration perception threshold (VPT test and diabetic neuropathy symptom (DNS score, using the modified neuropathy disability score (NDS as the reference standard. Five hundred and twenty-three patients with type 2 diabetes underwent an NDS-based clinical assessment for neuropathy. Participants were classified into the DPN and non-DPN groups based on the NDS (≥ 6. Both groups were evaluated further using the DNS, and VPT and ESC testing. A receiver-operator characteristic (ROC curve analysis was performed to compare the efficacy of ESC measurements with those of DNS and VPT testing in detecting DPN. The DPN group (n = 110, 21% had significantly higher HbA1c levels and longer diabetes durations compared with the non-DPN group (n = 413. The sensitivity of feet ESC 15 V, and DNS ≥ 1, were 16.4, 10.9 and 1.8, respectively. ESC measurement is an objective and sensitive technique for the early detection of DPN. Feet ESC measurement was superior to VPT testing for identifying patients with early DPN.

  18. Comparison of electrochemical skin conductance and vibration perception threshold measurement in the detection of early diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Amit; Shivaprasad, Channabasappa; Kolly, Anish; Sarathi H A, Vijaya; Atluri, Sridevi

    2017-01-01

    The early diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is challenging. Sudomotor dysfunction is one of the earliest detectable abnormalities in DPN. The present study aimed to determine the diagnostic performance of the electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) test in detecting early DPN, compared with the vibration perception threshold (VPT) test and diabetic neuropathy symptom (DNS) score, using the modified neuropathy disability score (NDS) as the reference standard. Five hundred and twenty-three patients with type 2 diabetes underwent an NDS-based clinical assessment for neuropathy. Participants were classified into the DPN and non-DPN groups based on the NDS (≥ 6). Both groups were evaluated further using the DNS, and VPT and ESC testing. A receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to compare the efficacy of ESC measurements with those of DNS and VPT testing in detecting DPN. The DPN group (n = 110, 21%) had significantly higher HbA1c levels and longer diabetes durations compared with the non-DPN group (n = 413). The sensitivity of feet ESC 15 V, and DNS ≥ 1, were 16.4, 10.9 and 1.8, respectively. ESC measurement is an objective and sensitive technique for the early detection of DPN. Feet ESC measurement was superior to VPT testing for identifying patients with early DPN.

  19. Ambient Vibration Testing for Story Stiffness Estimation of a Heritage Timber Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Won Min

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates dynamic characteristics of a historic wooden structure by ambient vibration testing, presenting a novel estimation methodology of story stiffness for the purpose of vibration-based structural health monitoring. As for the ambient vibration testing, measured structural responses are analyzed by two output-only system identification methods (i.e., frequency domain decomposition and stochastic subspace identification to estimate modal parameters. The proposed methodology of story stiffness is estimation based on an eigenvalue problem derived from a vibratory rigid body model. Using the identified natural frequencies, the eigenvalue problem is efficiently solved and uniquely yields story stiffness. It is noteworthy that application of the proposed methodology is not necessarily confined to the wooden structure exampled in the paper.

  20. Vision-based online vibration estimation of the in-vessel inspection flexible robot with short-time Fourier transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hesheng [Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China (China); Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Chen, Weidong, E-mail: wdchen@sjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China (China); Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Xu, Lifei; He, Tao [Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China (China); Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Vision-based online vibration estimation method for a flexible arm is proposed. • The vibration signal is obtained by image processing in unknown environments. • Vibration parameters are estimated by short-time Fourier transformation. - Abstract: The vibration should be suppressed if it happens during the motion of a flexible robot or under the influence of external disturbance caused by its structural features and material properties, because the vibration may affect the positioning accuracy and image quality. In Tokamak environment, we need to get the real-time vibration information on vibration suppression of robotic arm, however, some sensors are not allowed in the extreme Tokamak environment. This paper proposed a vision-based method for online vibration estimation of a flexible manipulator, which is achieved by utilizing the environment image information from the end-effector camera to estimate its vibration. Short-time Fourier Transformation with adaptive window length method is used to estimate vibration parameters of non-stationary vibration signals. Experiments with one-link flexible manipulator equipped with camera are carried out to validate the feasibility of this method in this paper.

  1. In situ estimation of erosion and deposition thresholds by Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T.J.; Fredsøe, Jørgen; Pejrup, M.

    2007-01-01

    Field-based estimations of bed shear stress have been made using SonTek/YSI 10 MHz ADVs (Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter) at the Kongsmark mudflat, Danish Wadden Sea, in order to test if it was possible to estimate erosion and deposition thresholds in situ by use of unidirectional tidal and orbital...... (wave) currents. The results were promising and erosion thresholds were in the same range as those observed in EROMES erosion experiments carried out at the same site. Similarly, the short-term erosion rates which could be calculated matched closely those obtained with EROMES, and were in the same range...... as those published for a large annular flume (Sea Carousel) from another fine-grained site. This indicates that the erosion rates obtained with those two erosion-instruments are reasonable estimates of the actual erosion taking place under natural tidal current and waves. One advantage of the use of ADVs...

  2. Estimation of the running speed and bearing defect frequencies of an induction motor from vibration data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocak, Hasan; Loparo, Kenneth A.

    2004-05-01

    This paper presents two separate algorithms for estimating the running speed and the bearing key frequencies of an induction motor using vibration data. Bearing key frequencies are frequencies at which roller elements pass over a defect point. Most frequency domain-based bearing fault detection and diagnosis techniques (e.g. envelope analysis) rely on vibration measurements and the bearing key frequencies. Thus, estimation of the running speed and the bearing key frequencies are required for failure detection and diagnosis. The paper also incorporates the estimation algorithms with the most commonly used bearing fault detection technique, high-frequency demodulation, to detect bearing faults. Experimental data were used to verify the validity of the algorithms. Data were collected through an accelerometer measuring the vibration from the drive-end ball bearing of an induction motor (Reliance Electric 2HP IQPreAlert)-driven mechanical system. Both inner and outer race defects were artificially introduced to the bearing using electrical discharge machining. A linear vibration model was also developed for generating simulated vibration data. The simulated data were also used to validate the performance of the algorithms. The test results proved the algorithms to be very reliable.

  3. Effects of Matrix Composition on Detection Threshold Estimates for Methyl Anthranilate and 2-Aminoacetophenone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetra M. Perry

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Conceptually, a detection threshold represents the lowest concentration at which an individual or a group of individuals can reliably perceive a given stimulus, with a commonly used operational definition of 50% performance above chance. Estimated detection thresholds (DTs, however, are often reported in the literature with little attention given to the matrix in which the stimuli were evaluated. Here, we highlight the influence of matrix effects on DTs for two odor-active compounds commonly found in Vitis Labrusca wines. Differences in orthonasal DTs for methyl anthranilate (MA and 2-aminoacetophenone (2AAP in water, a model wine system, and wine were demonstrated using a within-subject design and forced choice (i.e., criterion free psychophysical methods. Six sample triads, each containing two blanks and one spiked sample, were presented to participants with the instructions to choose the “different” sample, and this was repeated in different matrices (water, model wine, and wine. The estimated DTs for both compounds were significantly lower in water versus the model wine system and wine. This finding recapitulates the strong need to carefully consider the nature of the delivery matrix when determining and comparing threshold estimates across studies. Additionally, data from prior reports have suggested DTs for MA and 2AAP may differ by two orders of magnitude in spite of their structural similarity. We failed to confirm this difference here: although 2AAP thresholds were somewhat lower than MA thresholds, differences were much smaller than what had been suggested previously. This, again, emphasizes the need to make comparisons within the same individuals, using appropriate methods with sufficient numbers of participants.

  4. Effects of Matrix Composition on Detection Threshold Estimates for Methyl Anthranilate and 2-Aminoacetophenone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Demetra M.; Hayes, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Conceptually, a detection threshold represents the lowest concentration at which an individual or a group of individuals can reliably perceive a given stimulus, with a commonly used operational definition of 50% performance above chance. Estimated detection thresholds (DTs), however, are often reported in the literature with little attention given to the matrix in which the stimuli were evaluated. Here, we highlight the influence of matrix effects on DTs for two odor-active compounds commonly found in Vitis Labrusca wines. Differences in orthonasal DTs for methyl anthranilate (MA) and 2-aminoacetophenone (2AAP) in water, a model wine system, and wine were demonstrated using a within-subject design and forced choice (i.e., criterion free) psychophysical methods. Six sample triads, each containing two blanks and one spiked sample, were presented to participants with the instructions to choose the “different” sample, and this was repeated in different matrices (water, model wine, and wine). The estimated DTs for both compounds were significantly lower in water versus the model wine system and wine. This finding recapitulates the strong need to carefully consider the nature of the delivery matrix when determining and comparing threshold estimates across studies. Additionally, data from prior reports have suggested DTs for MA and 2AAP may differ by two orders of magnitude in spite of their structural similarity. We failed to confirm this difference here: although 2AAP thresholds were somewhat lower than MA thresholds, differences were much smaller than what had been suggested previously. This, again, emphasizes the need to make comparisons within the same individuals, using appropriate methods with sufficient numbers of participants. PMID:28231131

  5. Using click-evoked auditory brainstem response thresholds in infants to estimate the corresponding pure-tone audiometry thresholds in children referred from UNHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tsun-Min; Wu, Fang-Wei; Chang, Hsiuwen; Lin, Hung-Ching

    2017-04-01

    To examine whether behavioral pure-tone audiometry (PTA) thresholds in children can be accurately estimated from the corresponding infants' click-evoked auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds through a retrospective review of data from a universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) program in Taiwan. According to medical records from Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei Hospital District, 45,450 newborns received hearing screening during January 1999-December 2011. Among these newborns, 104 (82, both ears; 22, one ear; total, 186 ears) received regular follow-up and were recruited as subjects. The relationship between infant click-evoked ABR thresholds and the corresponding child PTA thresholds was determined through Pearson correlation coefficient and linear regression analyses. The correlation coefficient between click-evoked ABR thresholds and behavioral PTA thresholds at the average of frequencies of 1-4 and 2-4 kHz was 0.76 and 0.76, respectively. Linear regression analysis showed that behavioral audiometry thresholds at the average of frequencies of 1-4 and 2-4 kHz were accurately estimated from click-evoked ABR thresholds in 57% and 58% children, respectively. Click-evoked ABR testing is a reliable tool to cautiously estimate behavioral PTA thresholds at the average of frequencies of 1-4 and 2-4 kHz. For accurately performing hearing aid fitting and auditory rehabilitation in congenitally deaf infants, a combination of frequency-specific tone-burst ABR and click-evoked ABR should be used. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A new EC-PC threshold estimation method for in vivo neural spike detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi; Liu, Wentai; Keshtkaran, Mohammad Reza; Zhou, Yin; Xu, Jian; Pikov, Victor; Guan, Cuntai; Lian, Yong

    2012-08-01

    This paper models in vivo neural signals and noise for extracellular spike detection. Although the recorded data approximately follow Gaussian distribution, they clearly deviate from white Gaussian noise due to neuronal synchronization and sparse distribution of spike energy. Our study predicts the coexistence of two components embedded in neural data dynamics, one in the exponential form (noise) and the other in the power form (neural spikes). The prediction of the two components has been confirmed in experiments of in vivo sequences recorded from the hippocampus, cortex surface, and spinal cord; both acute and long-term recordings; and sleep and awake states. These two components are further used as references for threshold estimation. Different from the conventional wisdom of setting a threshold at 3×RMS, the estimated threshold exhibits a significant variation. When our algorithm was tested on synthesized sequences with a different signal to noise ratio and on/off firing dynamics, inferred threshold statistics track the benchmarks well. We envision that this work may be applied to a wide range of experiments as a front-end data analysis tool.

  7. Using consumer electronic devices to estimate whole-body vibration exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgang, Rebecca; Burgess-Limerick, Robin

    2014-01-01

    The cost and complexity of commercially available devices for measuring whole-body vibration is a barrier to the systematic collection of the information required to manage this hazard at workplaces. The potential for a consumer electronic device to be used to estimate whole-body vibration was assessed by use of an accelerometer calibrator, and by collecting 42 simultaneous pairs of measurements from a fifth-generation iPod Touch and one of two gold standard vibration measurement devices (Svantech SV111 [Svantech, Warsaw, Poland] or Brüel & Kjær 4447 [Brüel & Kjær Sound & Vibration Measurement A/S, Nærum, Denmark]) while driving light vehicles on a variety of different roadway surfaces. While sampling rate limitations make the accelerometer data collected from the iPod Touch unsuitable for frequency analysis, the vibration amplitudes recorded are sufficiently accurate (errors less than 0.1 m/s(2)) to assist workplaces manage whole-body vibration exposures.

  8. Reproducibility of vibration perception threshold values in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louraki, M; Tsentidis, C; Kallinikou, D; Katsalouli, M; Kanaka-Gantenbein, C; Kafassi, N; Papathanasiou, A; Karavanaki, K

    2014-07-01

    To define the reproducibility of vibration perception thresholds (VPTs) and the possible associated factors, as an early index of peripheral diabetic neuropathy (PDN) in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) children and adolescents. A single examiner studied 118 T1DM subjects (aged 13.5±3.4 years) and 79 controls (aged 12.0±3.07 years). Glycaemic control was assessed with HbA1c levels. VPT was measured twice on upper and lower limbs, using a Biothesiometer. Concordance between the two VPT measurements was evaluated using the Cohen's Weighted Kappa statistic (Kappa=0.41-0.60→moderate concordance, Kappa=0.61-0.80→substantial concordance). T1DM children had significantly higher VPTs than controls at all sites (p=0.001), but with lower Kappa values (0.64-0.70). VPT values increased in parallel with HbA1c (a.9.5%) and T1DM duration (a.10 years). However, Kappa values were lower in the groups with the poorest control (HbA1c>9.5%) (Kappa=0.54-0.76) or the longest T1DM duration (>10 years) (Kappa=0.49-0.71). Although VPTs increased with stature and male gender, no effect on VPT reproducibility was observed. However, obesity was associated with lower VPT values and poorer concordance. These findings suggest that the reproducibility of VPTs is lower in the high-risk patients for early subclinical PDN development, who need a regular follow-up. Copyright © 2013 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Metaanalysis of ketosis milk indicators in terms of their threshold estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oto Hanuš

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Real time analyses of main milk components are attended in milking parlours today. Regular day information without delay is advantageous. Farmers can know milk composition every day. They can calculate milk energy quotients, identified subclinical ketosis in early lactation of dairy cows and thus improve ketosis prevention and avoid economical losses. Aim was to improve the estimation reliability of thresholds of milk indicators of energy metabolism for subclinical ketosis detection and its prevention support by metaanalysis. This can have higher result reliability than individual studies. Results of similar papers were analysed. These were focused on ketosis indicators in milk (acetone (AC and milk energy quotients (fat/crude protein, F/CP; fat/lactose, F/L and their thresholds for subclinical ketosis. Methods for threshold derivation were specified: – statistically to reference procedure; – calculation according to relevant data frequency distribution; – qualified estimation; – combinations of mentioned procedures. This was as weight source. Variability in AC subclinical ketosis cut–off values was high (78.5% and in ketosis milk quotients was low (from 5 to 8%. The value 10.57 mg.l−1 could be the validated estimation of milk AC cut–off limit for subclinical ketosis identification. Similarly the milk quotients F/CP and F/L 1.276 and 0.82. The F/CP F/L relationship is closer in 1st third of lactation (0.89; P < 0.001 than in whole lactation (0.86; P < 0.001. This could be one of proofs of ability for subclinical ketosis identification because the majority of cases occurs in early lactation. The improved estimations of thresholds of milk indicators in early lactation for subclinical ketosis can be used at this technological innovation. Combined use of both quotients could bring an improvement of regular diagnosis of subclinical ketosis.

  10. Optimal and robust feedback controller estimation for a vibrating plate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraanje, P.R.; Verhaegen, M.; Doelman, N.J.; Berkhoff, A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a method to estimate the H2 optimal and a robust feedback controller by means of Subspace Model Identification using the internal model control (IMC) approach. Using IMC an equivalent feed forward control problem is obtained, which is solved by the Causal Wiener filter for the H2

  11. Estimation of sound pressure levels of voiced speech from skin vibration of the neck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svec, JG; Titze, IR; Popolo, PS

    How accurately can sound pressure levels (SPLs) of speech be estimated from skin vibration of the neck? Measurements using a small accelerometer were carried out in 27 subjects (10 males and 17 females) who read Rainbow and Marvin Williams passages in soft, comfortable, and loud voice, while skin

  12. Errors in the estimation method for the rejection of vibrations in adaptive optics systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Dariusz

    2017-06-01

    In recent years the problem of the mechanical vibrations impact in adaptive optics (AO) systems has been renewed. These signals are damped sinusoidal signals and have deleterious effect on the system. One of software solutions to reject the vibrations is an adaptive method called AVC (Adaptive Vibration Cancellation) where the procedure has three steps: estimation of perturbation parameters, estimation of the frequency response of the plant, update the reference signal to reject/minimalize the vibration. In the first step a very important problem is the estimation method. A very accurate and fast (below 10 ms) estimation method of these three parameters has been presented in several publications in recent years. The method is based on using the spectrum interpolation and MSD time windows and it can be used to estimate multifrequency signals. In this paper the estimation method is used in the AVC method to increase the system performance. There are several parameters that affect the accuracy of obtained results, e.g. CiR - number of signal periods in a measurement window, N - number of samples in the FFT procedure, H - time window order, SNR, b - number of ADC bits, γ - damping ratio of the tested signal. Systematic errors increase when N, CiR, H decrease and when γ increases. The value for systematic error is approximately 10^-10 Hz/Hz for N = 2048 and CiR = 0.1. This paper presents equations that can used to estimate maximum systematic errors for given values of H, CiR and N before the start of the estimation process.

  13. Evaluation of damping estimates by automated Operational Modal Analysis for offshore wind turbine tower vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajrić, Anela; Høgsberg, Jan Becker; Rüdinger, Finn

    2018-01-01

    Reliable predictions of the lifetime of offshore wind turbine structures are influenced by the limited knowledge concerning the inherent level of damping during downtime. Error measures and an automated procedure for covariance driven Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) techniques has been proposed...... techniques are discussed and illustrated with respect to signal noise, measurement time, vibration amplitudes and stationarity of the ambient response. The best bias-variance error trade-off of damping estimates is obtained by the COV-SSI. The proposed automated procedure is validated by real vibration...

  14. Analysis of Vibration Exercise at Varying Frequencies by Different Fatigue Estimators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lin; Rabotti, Chiara; Mischi, Massimo

    2016-12-01

    Vibration exercise (VE) has been suggested to improve muscle strength and power performance, due to enhanced neuromuscular demand. However, understanding of the most appropriate VE protocols is lacking, limiting the optimal use of VE in rehabilitation programs. In this study, the fatiguing effect of vibration at different frequencies was investigated by employing a force-modulation VE system. Twenty volunteers performed 12-s isometric contractions of the biceps brachii with a load consisting of a baseline force of 80% of their maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and a superimposed sinusoidal force at 0 (control condition with no vibration), 20, 30, and 40 Hz. Mechanical fatigue was estimated by assessment of MVC decay after each task while myoelectric fatigue was estimated by analysis of multichannel electromyography (EMG) signals recorded during VE. EMG conduction velocity, spectral compression, power, and fractal dimension were estimated as indicators of myoelectric fatigue. Our results suggest vibration, in particular at 30 Hz, to produce a larger degree of fatigue as compared to control condition. These results motivate further research aiming at introducing VE in rehabilitation programs with improved training protocols.

  15. A simple algorithm to estimate genetic variance in an animal threshold model using Bayesian inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heringstad Bjørg

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the genetic analysis of binary traits with one observation per animal, animal threshold models frequently give biased heritability estimates. In some cases, this problem can be circumvented by fitting sire- or sire-dam models. However, these models are not appropriate in cases where individual records exist on parents. Therefore, the aim of our study was to develop a new Gibbs sampling algorithm for a proper estimation of genetic (covariance components within an animal threshold model framework. Methods In the proposed algorithm, individuals are classified as either "informative" or "non-informative" with respect to genetic (covariance components. The "non-informative" individuals are characterized by their Mendelian sampling deviations (deviance from the mid-parent mean being completely confounded with a single residual on the underlying liability scale. For threshold models, residual variance on the underlying scale is not identifiable. Hence, variance of fully confounded Mendelian sampling deviations cannot be identified either, but can be inferred from the between-family variation. In the new algorithm, breeding values are sampled as in a standard animal model using the full relationship matrix, but genetic (covariance components are inferred from the sampled breeding values and relationships between "informative" individuals (usually parents only. The latter is analogous to a sire-dam model (in cases with no individual records on the parents. Results When applied to simulated data sets, the standard animal threshold model failed to produce useful results since samples of genetic variance always drifted towards infinity, while the new algorithm produced proper parameter estimates essentially identical to the results from a sire-dam model (given the fact that no individual records exist for the parents. Furthermore, the new algorithm showed much faster Markov chain mixing properties for genetic parameters (similar to

  16. Vibration-based angular speed estimation for multi-stage wind turbine gearboxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Cédric; Leclère, Quentin; Antoni, Jérôme; Guillaume, Patrick; Helsen, Jan

    2017-05-01

    Most processing tools based on frequency analysis of vibration signals are only applicable for stationary speed regimes. Speed variation causes the spectral content to smear, which encumbers most conventional fault detection techniques. To solve the problem of non-stationary speed conditions, the instantaneous angular speed (IAS) is estimated. Wind turbine gearboxes however are typically multi-stage gearboxes, consisting of multiple shafts, rotating at different speeds. Fitting a sensor (e.g. a tachometer) to every single stage is not always feasible. As such there is a need to estimate the IAS of every single shaft based on the vibration signals measured by the accelerometers. This paper investigates the performance of the multi-order probabilistic approach for IAS estimation on experimental case studies of wind turbines. This method takes into account the meshing orders of the gears present in the system and has the advantage that a priori it is not necessary to associate harmonics with a certain periodic mechanical event, which increases the robustness of the method. It is found that the MOPA has the potential to easily outperform standard band-pass filtering techniques for speed estimation. More knowledge of the gearbox kinematics is beneficial for the MOPA performance, but even with very little knowledge about the meshing orders, the MOPA still performs sufficiently well to compete with the standard speed estimation techniques. This observation is proven on two different data sets, both originating from vibration measurements on the gearbox housing of a wind turbine.

  17. Objective Estimation of Frequency-Specific Pure-Tone Hearing Thresholds following Bone-Conduction Hearing Aid Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Rahne, Torsten; Ehelebe, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Patients suffering from conductive or mixed hearing loss may benefit from bone-conduction hearing systems (BAHS). The amount of amplification provided by the hearing system is selected based on the individual’s sensorineural frequency-specific threshold. With patients who are not able to provide thresholds behaviorally, such as young children, objective methods are required to estimate the unaided and aided hearing threshold and thus the success of the hearing system fitting. In a prospective...

  18. Express method of estimating laser-induced surface damage threshold for optical components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirazetdinov, V. S.; Alekseev, V. N.; Dmitriev, D. I.; Charukhchev, A. V.; Chernov, V. N.; Kotilev, V. N.; Liber, V. I.; Rukavishnikov, N. N.

    2002-01-01

    The present measurements of the components' surface resistance to laser-induced damage has been completed to facilitate development and construction of the “Luch” laser system, a four-channel Nd-phosphate glass laser with a full output energy of E = 14 16 kJ. The study describes a method that, with a series of experimental data obtained from a single sample, allows us not only to estimate the threshold fluences, but to take into account the statistical nature of the surface damage. In a number of experimental situations this method makes it possible to estimate damaging fluences even from the result of a single exposure of the studied surface. Estimated threshold fluences for various optical elements are presented: K8 glass, experimental phosphate laser glass KGSS-0180, high-reflecting and antireflecting thin-film coating of elements. The 1.054-[mu]m radiation pulse with half-height duration of 4 ns and the irradiation spot of [similar]4 mm in diameter were used in the experiment.

  19. Developing Bayesian adaptive methods for estimating sensitivity thresholds (d’ in Yes-No and Forced-Choice tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Andres Lesmes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by Signal Detection Theory (SDT, we developed a family of novel adaptive methods that estimate the sensitivity threshold – the signal intensity corresponding to a pre-defined sensitivity level ( d' = 1-- in Yes-No (YN and Forced-Choice (FC detection tasks. Rather than focus stimulus sampling to estimate a single level of %Yes or %Correct, the current methods sample psychometric functions more broadly, to concurrently estimate sensitivity and decision factors, and thereby estimate thresholds that are independent of decision confounds. Developed for four tasks --(1 simple YN detection, (2 cued YN detection, which cues the observer’s response state before each trial, (3 rated YN detection, which incorporates a Not Sure response, and (4 forced-choice detection -- the quick YN and quick FC methods yield sensitivity thresholds that are independent of the task’s decision structure (YN or FC and/or the observer’s subjective response state. Results from simulation and psychophysics suggest that 25 trials (and sometimes less are sufficient to estimate YN thresholds with reasonable precision (s.d.=.10-.15 decimal log units, but more trials are needed for forced-choice thresholds. When the same subjects were tested across tasks of simple, cued, rated, and forced-choice detection, adaptive threshold estimates exhibited excellent agreement with the method of constant stimuli, and with each other. These YN adaptive methods deliver criterion-free thresholds that have previously been exclusive to FC methods.

  20. Estimating severity of seismically induced landslides and lateral spreads using threshold water levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jae-won; Rogers, J. David; Watkins, Conor M.

    2014-01-01

    The potential for an earthquake-induced landslide increases when the shear strength of a slope decreases and the hydrostatic pressure increases from the dynamic stresses induced by seismic shaking and/or heavy rainfalls. This paper presents an assessment of seismically induced slope failure in the St. Louis, MO, USA, area; it emphasizes water elevations as the controlling factor, realizing that such levels vary over space and time. We estimated the threshold water table depths to initiate seismically induced landslides in the uplands and liquefaction-induced lateral spreads in the alluvial floodplains under an M7.5 earthquake with a peak ground acceleration of 0.20 to 0.40 g. These threshold water table depths were computed as a function of ground steepness using the Newmark model for rigid block landslides and an empirical regression for lateral spreads. The seismic microzonation was prepared by comparing the map of threshold water table depths and maps of average water levels. The resultant hazard maps suggest that the river bluffs are prone to seismically induced landslides only when the water reaches its highest recorded levels, while much of the floodplains are prone to lateral spreads. Lateral spreads occur more extensively when the water exceeds its normal level.

  1. Introduction and validation of a less painful algorithm to estimate the nociceptive flexion reflex threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtner, Gregor; Golebiewski, Anna; Schneider, Martin H; von Dincklage, Falk

    2015-05-22

    The nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR) is a widely used tool to investigate spinal nociception for scientific and diagnostic purposes, but its clinical use is currently limited due to the painful measurement procedure, especially restricting its applicability for patients suffering from chronic pain disorders. Here we introduce a less painful algorithm to assess the NFR threshold. Application of this new algorithm leads to a reduction of subjective pain ratings by over 30% compared to the standard algorithm. We show that the reflex threshold estimates resulting from application of the new algorithm can be used interchangeably with those of the standard algorithm after adjusting for the constant difference between the algorithms. Furthermore, we show that the new algorithm can be applied at shorter interstimulus intervals than are commonly used with the standard algorithm, since reflex threshold values remain unchanged and no habituation effects occur when reducing the interstimulus interval for the new algorithm down to 3s. Finally we demonstrate the utility of the new algorithm to investigate the modulation of nociception through different states of attention. Taken together, the here presented new algorithm could increase the utility of the NFR for investigation of nociception in subjects who were previously not able to endure the measurement procedure, such as chronic pain patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Estimation of variance components for somatic cell counts to determine thresholds for uninfected quarters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, A J; Lam, T J; Schukken, Y H; Wilmink, J B; Hanekamp, W J

    1997-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the factors affecting somatic cell count (SCC), to estimate variance components of these factors, and to calculate and evaluate the thresholds for intramammary infection based on SCC. The infection status from 22,467 quarter milk samples from 544 cows in seven herds was determined. Infections status was the most important factor affecting SCC. The increase in SCC was more pronounced for major pathogens than for minor pathogens. Even after adjustment for infection status, the interaction between stage of lactation and parity was significant. For culture-negative samples within a lactation, the shape of the SCC curve was inversely related to the shape of the milk production curve. The shape of the SCC curve was flat for first lactation cows compared with the shape of the SCC curve for cows in subsequent lactations. The effect of clinical mastitis on SCC was significant. The use of SCC thresholds for specific parities and stages of lactation to detect intramammary infection improved quality parameters only slightly over a fixed threshold of 200,000 cells/ml.

  3. Evaluation of methods for the estimation of threshold concentrations by the skin prick test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreborg, Sten; Holgersson, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The allergen dose-response curve is flat; thus, small changes in wheal size reflect large differences in skin sensitivity. The sensitivity as measured by provocation tests is given by the threshold concentration that causes symptoms and/or objective signs. The threshold concentrations differ by several magnitudes between the most and the least sensitive individuals clinically allergic to the same allergen. Variation in technique can be minimized by relating allergen responses to that to histamine. The aim here is to present and validate simple methods for estimation of the skin sensitivity given as the concentration inducing a wheal of the same size as that with the positive reference, 10 mg/ml of histamine HCl, in the same patient. Data from previously reported trials on the biological equilibration of allergen extracts were used to document a method to calculate the concentration of allergen required to induce a wheal of the same size as that with 10 mg/ml of histamine dihydrochloride in the same patient, and to validate the methods using the parallel line bioassay as the gold standard. The validated methods correlated well with the results obtained using the gold standard method and provide results of skin prick testing based on threshold concentrations of allergen. The validated methods reduce the error of differences in testing techniques and make it possible to report skin sensitivity at threshold concentrations. A simple method to be used in clinical practice and a method suitable to describe changes in skin reactivity over time or during treatment are proposed. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Modification of electrical pain threshold by voluntary breathing-controlled electrical stimulation (BreEStim in healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengai Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pain has a distinct sensory and affective (i.e., unpleasantness component. BreEStim, during which electrical stimulation is delivered during voluntary breathing, has been shown to selectively reduce the affective component of post-amputation phantom pain. The objective was to examine whether BreEStim increases pain threshold such that subjects could have improved tolerance of sensation of painful stimuli. METHODS: Eleven pain-free healthy subjects (7 males, 4 females participated in the study. All subjects received BreEStim (100 stimuli and conventional electrical stimulation (EStim, 100 stimuli to two acupuncture points (Neiguan and Weiguan of the dominant hand in a random order. The two different treatments were provided at least three days apart. Painful, but tolerable electrical stimuli were delivered randomly during EStim, but were triggered by effortful inhalation during BreEStim. Measurements of tactile sensation threshold, electrical sensation and electrical pain thresholds, thermal (cold sensation, warm sensation, cold pain and heat pain thresholds were recorded from the thenar eminence of both hands. These measurements were taken pre-intervention and 10-min post-intervention. RESULTS: There was no difference in the pre-intervention baseline measurement of all thresholds between BreEStim and EStim. The electrical pain threshold significantly increased after BreEStim (27.5±6.7% for the dominant hand and 28.5±10.8% for the non-dominant hand, respectively. The electrical pain threshold significantly decreased after EStim (9.1±2.8% for the dominant hand and 10.2±4.6% for the non-dominant hand, respectively (F[1, 10] = 30.992, p = .00024. There was no statistically significant change in other thresholds after BreEStim and EStim. The intensity of electrical stimuli was progressively increased, but no difference was found between BreEStim and EStim. CONCLUSION: Voluntary breathing controlled electrical stimulation

  5. Objective estimation of frequency-specific pure-tone hearing thresholds following bone-conduction hearing aid stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahne, Torsten; Ehelebe, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Patients suffering from conductive or mixed hearing loss may benefit from bone-conduction hearing systems (BAHS). The amount of amplification provided by the hearing system is selected based on the individual's sensorineural frequency-specific threshold. With patients who are not able to provide thresholds behaviorally, such as young children, objective methods are required to estimate the unaided and aided hearing threshold and thus the success of the hearing system fitting. In a prospective study with ten adult Baha softband users, aided and unaided frequency-specific thresholds were estimated. Aided thresholds to tone bursts via Baha stimulation were obtained behaviorally and electrophysiologically using cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) and were compared to pure-tone thresholds using routine clinical audiometry. For all stimulation frequencies, the frequency-specific electrophysiological and behavioral hearing thresholds measured with Baha stimulation were highly correlated and not different. Increased thresholds were observed only with the 0.5 kHz Baha stimulation as compared to the pure-tone audiogram. Objective measurement of frequency-specific hearing thresholds with CAEPs is applicable to BAHS users.

  6. Objective Estimation of Frequency-Specific Pure-Tone Hearing Thresholds following Bone-Conduction Hearing Aid Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Rahne

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients suffering from conductive or mixed hearing loss may benefit from bone-conduction hearing systems (BAHS. The amount of amplification provided by the hearing system is selected based on the individual’s sensorineural frequency-specific threshold. With patients who are not able to provide thresholds behaviorally, such as young children, objective methods are required to estimate the unaided and aided hearing threshold and thus the success of the hearing system fitting. In a prospective study with ten adult Baha softband users, aided and unaided frequency-specific thresholds were estimated. Aided thresholds to tone bursts via Baha stimulation were obtained behaviorally and electrophysiologically using cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs and were compared to pure-tone thresholds using routine clinical audiometry. For all stimulation frequencies, the frequency-specific electrophysiological and behavioral hearing thresholds measured with Baha stimulation were highly correlated and not different. Increased thresholds were observed only with the 0.5 kHz Baha stimulation as compared to the pure-tone audiogram. Objective measurement of frequency-specific hearing thresholds with CAEPs is applicable to BAHS users.

  7. Estimation of Subjective Difficulty and Psychological Stress by Ambient Sensing of Desk Panel Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaguchi, Nana; Yamamoto, Keiko; Iwai, Daisuke; Sato, Kosuke

    We investigate ambient sensing techniques that recognize writer's psychological states by measuring vibrations of handwriting on a desk panel using a piezoelectric contact sensor attached to its underside. In particular, we describe a technique for estimating the subjective difficulty of a question for a student as the ratio of the time duration of thinking to the total amount of time spent on the question. Through experiments, we confirm that our technique correctly recognizes whether or not a person writes something down on paper by measured vibration data at the accuracy of over 80 %, and that the order of computed subjective difficulties of three questions is coincident with that reported by the subject in 60 % of experiments. We also propose a technique to estimate a writer's psychological stress by using the standard deviation of the spectrum of the measured vibration. Results of a proof-of-concept experiment show that the proposed technique correctly estimates whether or not the subject feels stress at least 90 % of the time.

  8. Adaptive Model Predictive Vibration Control of a Cantilever Beam with Real-Time Parameter Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Takács

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive-predictive vibration control system using extended Kalman filtering for the joint estimation of system states and model parameters. A fixed-free cantilever beam equipped with piezoceramic actuators serves as a test platform to validate the proposed control strategy. Deflection readings taken at the end of the beam have been used to reconstruct the position and velocity information for a second-order state-space model. In addition to the states, the dynamic system has been augmented by the unknown model parameters: stiffness, damping constant, and a voltage/force conversion constant, characterizing the actuating effect of the piezoceramic transducers. The states and parameters of this augmented system have been estimated in real time, using the hybrid extended Kalman filter. The estimated model parameters have been applied to define the continuous state-space model of the vibrating system, which in turn is discretized for the predictive controller. The model predictive control algorithm generates state predictions and dual-mode quadratic cost prediction matrices based on the updated discrete state-space models. The resulting cost function is then minimized using quadratic programming to find the sequence of optimal but constrained control inputs. The proposed active vibration control system is implemented and evaluated experimentally to investigate the viability of the control method.

  9. A decision model to estimate a risk threshold for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in hospitalized medical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, P; Martinez, K A; Pappas, M A; Rothberg, M B

    2017-06-01

    Essentials Low risk patients don't require venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis; low risk is unquantified. We used a Markov model to estimate the risk threshold for VTE prophylaxis in medical inpatients. Prophylaxis was cost-effective for an average medical patient with a VTE risk of ≥ 1.0%. VTE prophylaxis can be personalized based on patient risk and age/life expectancy. Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common preventable condition in medical inpatients. Thromboprophylaxis is recommended for inpatients who are not at low risk of VTE, but no specific risk threshold for prophylaxis has been defined. Objective To determine a threshold for prophylaxis based on risk of VTE. Patients/Methods We constructed a decision model with a decision-tree following patients for 3 months after hospitalization, and a lifetime Markov model with 3-month cycles. The model tracked symptomatic deep vein thromboses and pulmonary emboli, bleeding events and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Long-term complications included recurrent VTE, post-thrombotic syndrome and pulmonary hypertension. For the base case, we considered medical inpatients aged 66 years, having a life expectancy of 13.5 years, VTE risk of 1.4% and bleeding risk of 2.7%. Patients received enoxaparin 40 mg day-1 for prophylaxis. Results Assuming a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of $100 000/ quality-adjusted life year (QALY), prophylaxis was indicated for an average medical inpatient with a VTE risk of ≥ 1.0% up to 3 months after hospitalization. For the average patient, prophylaxis was not indicated when the bleeding risk was > 8.1%, the patient's age was > 73.4 years or the cost of enoxaparin exceeded $60/dose. If VTE risk was 19%, the risks of prophylaxis outweighed benefits. The prophylaxis threshold was relatively insensitive to low-molecular-weight heparin cost and bleeding risk, but very sensitive to patient age and life expectancy. Conclusions The decision to offer prophylaxis should be

  10. Noninvasive method to estimate anaerobic threshold in individuals with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sales Marcelo M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While several studies have identified the anaerobic threshold (AT through the responses of blood lactate, ventilation and blood glucose others have suggested the response of the heart rate variability (HRV as a method to identify the AT in young healthy individuals. However, the validity of HRV in estimating the lactate threshold (LT and ventilatory threshold (VT for individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D has not been investigated yet. Aim To analyze the possibility of identifying the heart rate variability threshold (HRVT by considering the responses of parasympathetic indicators during incremental exercise test in type 2 diabetics subjects (T2D and non diabetics individuals (ND. Methods Nine T2D (55.6 ± 5.7 years, 83.4 ± 26.6 kg, 30.9 ± 5.2 kg.m2(-1 and ten ND (50.8 ± 5.1 years, 76.2 ± 14.3 kg, 26.5 ± 3.8 kg.m2(-1 underwent to an incremental exercise test (IT on a cycle ergometer. Heart rate (HR, rate of perceived exertion (RPE, blood lactate and expired gas concentrations were measured at the end of each stage. HRVT was identified through the responses of root mean square successive difference between adjacent R-R intervals (RMSSD and standard deviation of instantaneous beat-to-beat R-R interval variability (SD1 by considering the last 60 s of each incremental stage, and were known as HRVT by RMSSD and SD1 (HRVT-RMSSD and HRVT-SD1, respectively. Results No differences were observed within groups for the exercise intensities corresponding to LT, VT, HRVT-RMSSD and HHVT-SD1. Furthermore, a strong relationship were verified among the studied parameters both for T2D (r = 0.68 to 0.87 and ND (r = 0.91 to 0.98 and the Bland & Altman technique confirmed the agreement among them. Conclusion The HRVT identification by the proposed autonomic indicators (SD1 and RMSSD were demonstrated to be valid to estimate the LT and VT for both T2D and ND.

  11. Simulation of images of CDMAM phantom and the estimation of measurement uncertainties of threshold gold thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Alistair; Eales, Timothy D; Dunn, Hannah L; Yip Braidley, Mary; Dance, David R; Young, Kenneth C

    2017-07-01

    To demonstrate a method of simulating mammography images of the CDMAM phantom and to investigate the coefficient of variation (CoV) in the threshold gold thickness (t T ) measurements associated with use of the phantom. The noise and sharpness of Hologic Dimensions and GE Essential mammography systems were characterized to provide data for the simulation. The simulation method was validated by comparing the t T results of real and simulated images of the CDMAM phantom for three different doses and the two systems. The detection matrices produced from each of 64 images using CDCOM software were randomly resampled to create 512 sets of 8, 16 and 32 images to estimate the CoV of t T . Sets of simulated images for a range of doses were used to estimate the CoVs for a range of diameters and threshold thicknesses. No significant differences were found for t T or the CoV between real and simulated CDMAM images. It was shown that resampling from 256 images was required for estimating the CoV. The CoV was around 4% using 16 images for most of the phantom but is over double that for details near the edge of the phantom. We have demonstrated a method to simulate images of the CDMAM phantom for different systems at a range of doses. We provide data for calculating uncertainties in t T . Any future review of the European guidelines should take into consideration the calculated uncertainties for the 0.1mm detail. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Estimation of the mechanical properties of the eye through the study of its vibrational modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloy, M Á; Adsuara, J E; Cerdá-Durán, P; Obergaulinger, M; Esteve-Taboada, J J; Ferrer-Blasco, T; Montés-Micó, R

    2017-01-01

    Measuring the eye's mechanical properties in vivo and with minimally invasive techniques can be the key for individualized solutions to a number of eye pathologies. The development of such techniques largely relies on a computational modelling of the eyeball and, it optimally requires the synergic interplay between experimentation and numerical simulation. In Astrophysics and Geophysics the remote measurement of structural properties of the systems of their realm is performed on the basis of (helio-)seismic techniques. As a biomechanical system, the eyeball possesses normal vibrational modes encompassing rich information about its structure and mechanical properties. However, the integral analysis of the eyeball vibrational modes has not been performed yet. Here we develop a new finite difference method to compute both the spheroidal and, specially, the toroidal eigenfrequencies of the human eye. Using this numerical model, we show that the vibrational eigenfrequencies of the human eye fall in the interval 100 Hz-10 MHz. We find that compressible vibrational modes may release a trace on high frequency changes of the intraocular pressure, while incompressible normal modes could be registered analyzing the scattering pattern that the motions of the vitreous humour leave on the retina. Existing contact lenses with embebed devices operating at high sampling frequency could be used to register the microfluctuations of the eyeball shape we obtain. We advance that an inverse problem to obtain the mechanical properties of a given eye (e.g., Young's modulus, Poisson ratio) measuring its normal frequencies is doable. These measurements can be done using non-invasive techniques, opening very interesting perspectives to estimate the mechanical properties of eyes in vivo. Future research might relate various ocular pathologies with anomalies in measured vibrational frequencies of the eye.

  13. Country-Level Cost-Effectiveness Thresholds: Initial Estimates and the Need for Further Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Beth; Revill, Paul; Sculpher, Mark; Claxton, Karl

    2016-12-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis can guide policymakers in resource allocation decisions. It assesses whether the health gains offered by an intervention are large enough relative to any additional costs to warrant adoption. When there are constraints on the health care system's budget or ability to increase expenditures, additional costs imposed by interventions have an "opportunity cost" in terms of the health foregone because other interventions cannot be provided. Cost-effectiveness thresholds (CETs) are typically used to assess whether an intervention is worthwhile and should reflect health opportunity cost. Nevertheless, CETs used by some decision makers-such as the World Health Organization that suggested CETs of 1 to 3 times the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita-do not. To estimate CETs based on opportunity cost for a wide range of countries. We estimated CETs based on recent empirical estimates of opportunity cost (from the English National Health Service), estimates of the relationship between country GDP per capita and the value of a statistical life, and a series of explicit assumptions. CETs for Malawi (the country with the lowest income in the world), Cambodia (with borderline low/low-middle income), El Salvador (with borderline low-middle/upper-middle income), and Kazakhstan (with borderline high-middle/high income) were estimated to be $3 to $116 (1%-51% GDP per capita), $44 to $518 (4%-51%), $422 to $1967 (11%-51%), and $4485 to $8018 (32%-59%), respectively. To date, opportunity-cost-based CETs for low-/middle-income countries have not been available. Although uncertainty exists in the underlying assumptions, these estimates can provide a useful input to inform resource allocation decisions and suggest that routinely used CETs have been too high. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Estimations of non-linearities in structural vibrations of string musical instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Ege, Kerem; Boutillon, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Under the excitation of strings, the wooden structure of string instruments is generally assumed to undergo linear vibrations. As an alternative to the direct measurement of the distortion rate at several vibration levels and frequencies, we characterise weak non-linearities by a signal-model approach based on cascade of Hammerstein models. In this approach, in a chain of two non-linear systems, two measurements are sufficient to estimate the non-linear contribution of the second (sub-)system which cannot be directly linearly driven, as a function of the exciting frequency. The experiment consists in exciting the instrument acoustically. The linear and non-linear contributions to the response of (a) the loudspeaker coupled to the room, (b) the instrument can be separated. Some methodological issues will be discussed. Findings pertaining to several instruments - one piano, two guitars, one violin - will be presented.

  15. Threshold-based detection for amplify-and-forward cooperative communication systems with channel estimation error

    KAUST Repository

    Abuzaid, Abdulrahman I.

    2014-09-01

    Efficient receiver designs for cooperative communication systems are becoming increasingly important. In previous work, cooperative networks communicated with the use of $L$ relays. As the receiver is constrained, it can only process $U$ out of $L$ relays. Channel shortening and reduced-rank techniques were employed to design the preprocessing matrix. In this paper, a receiver structure is proposed which combines the joint iterative optimization (JIO) algorithm and our proposed threshold selection criteria. This receiver structure assists in determining the optimal $U-{opt}$. Furthermore, this receiver provides the freedom to choose $U ≤ U-{opt}$ for each frame depending upon the tolerable difference allowed for mean square error (MSE). Our study and simulation results show that by choosing an appropriate threshold, it is possible to gain in terms of complexity savings without affecting the BER performance of the system. Furthermore, in this paper the effect of channel estimation errors is investigated on the MSE performance of the amplify-and-forward (AF) cooperative relaying system.

  16. Removing damped sinusoidal vibrations in adaptive optics systems using a DFT-based estimation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Dariusz

    2017-06-01

    The problem of a vibrations rejection in adaptive optics systems is still present in publications. These undesirable signals emerge because of shaking the system structure, the tracking process, etc., and they usually are damped sinusoidal signals. There are some mechanical solutions to reduce the signals but they are not very effective. One of software solutions are very popular adaptive methods. An AVC (Adaptive Vibration Cancellation) method has been presented and developed in recent years. The method is based on the estimation of three vibrations parameters and values of frequency, amplitude and phase are essential to produce and adjust a proper signal to reduce or eliminate vibrations signals. This paper presents a fast (below 10 ms) and accurate estimation method of frequency, amplitude and phase of a multifrequency signal that can be used in the AVC method to increase the AO system performance. The method accuracy depends on several parameters: CiR - number of signal periods in a measurement window, N - number of samples in the FFT procedure, H - time window order, SNR, THD, b - number of A/D converter bits in a real time system, γ - the damping ratio of the tested signal, φ - the phase of the tested signal. Systematic errors increase when N, CiR, H decrease and when γ increases. The value of systematic error for γ = 0.1%, CiR = 1.1 and N = 32 is approximately 10^-4 Hz/Hz. This paper focuses on systematic errors of and effect of the signal phase and values of γ on the results.

  17. Robust estimate of dynamo thresholds in the von K\\'arm\\'an sodium experiment using the Extreme Value Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Faranda, Davide; Miralles, Sophie; Odier, Philippe; Pinton, Jean-Francois; Plihon, Nicolas; Daviaud, François; Dubrulle, Bérengère

    2014-01-01

    We apply a new threshold detection method based on the extreme value theory to the von K\\'arm\\'an sodium (VKS) experiment data. The VKS experiment is a successful attempt to get a dynamo magnetic field in a laboratory liquid-metal experiment. We first show that the dynamo threshold is associated to a change of the probability density function of the extreme values of the magnetic field. This method does not require the measurement of response functions from applied external perturbations, and thus provides a simple threshold estimate. We apply our method to different configurations in the VKS experiment showing that it yields a robust indication of the dynamo threshold as well as evidence of hysteretic behaviors. Moreover, for the experimental configurations in which a dynamo transition is not observed, the method provides a way to extrapolate an interval of possible threshold values.

  18. Real-time moving horizon estimation for a vibrating active cantilever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahpouri, Mohammad; Takács, Gergely; Rohaľ-Ilkiv, Boris

    2017-03-01

    Vibrating structures may be subject to changes throughout their operating lifetime due to a range of environmental and technical factors. These variations can be considered as parameter changes in the dynamic model of the structure, while their online estimates can be utilized in adaptive control strategies, or in structural health monitoring. This paper implements the moving horizon estimation (MHE) algorithm on a low-cost embedded computing device that is jointly observing the dynamic states and parameter variations of an active cantilever beam in real time. The practical behavior of this algorithm has been investigated in various experimental scenarios. It has been found, that for the given field of application, moving horizon estimation converges faster than the extended Kalman filter; moreover, it handles atypical measurement noise, sensor errors or other extreme changes, reliably. Despite its improved performance, the experiments demonstrate that the disadvantage of solving the nonlinear optimization problem in MHE is that it naturally leads to an increase in computational effort.

  19. Methods for the estimation of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence cost-effectiveness threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, Karl; Martin, Steve; Soares, Marta; Rice, Nigel; Spackman, Eldon; Hinde, Sebastian; Devlin, Nancy; Smith, Peter C; Sculpher, Mark

    2015-02-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis involves the comparison of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of a new technology, which is more costly than existing alternatives, with the cost-effectiveness threshold. This indicates whether or not the health expected to be gained from its use exceeds the health expected to be lost elsewhere as other health-care activities are displaced. The threshold therefore represents the additional cost that has to be imposed on the system to forgo 1 quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) of health through displacement. There are no empirical estimates of the cost-effectiveness threshold used by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. (1) To provide a conceptual framework to define the cost-effectiveness threshold and to provide the basis for its empirical estimation. (2) Using programme budgeting data for the English NHS, to estimate the relationship between changes in overall NHS expenditure and changes in mortality. (3) To extend this mortality measure of the health effects of a change in expenditure to life-years and to QALYs by estimating the quality-of-life (QoL) associated with effects on years of life and the additional direct impact on QoL itself. (4) To present the best estimate of the cost-effectiveness threshold for policy purposes. Earlier econometric analysis estimated the relationship between differences in primary care trust (PCT) spending, across programme budget categories (PBCs), and associated disease-specific mortality. This research is extended in several ways including estimating the impact of marginal increases or decreases in overall NHS expenditure on spending in each of the 23 PBCs. Further stages of work link the econometrics to broader health effects in terms of QALYs. The most relevant 'central' threshold is estimated to be £12,936 per QALY (2008 expenditure, 2008-10 mortality). Uncertainty analysis indicates that the probability that the threshold is estimate is, if anything, likely to be an

  20. A Truncated-Probit Item Response Model for Estimating Psychophysical Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Richard D.; Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Speckman, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    Human abilities in perceptual domains have conventionally been described with reference to a threshold that may be defined as the maximum amount of stimulation which leads to baseline performance. Traditional psychometric links, such as the probit, logit, and "t", are incompatible with a threshold as there are no true scores corresponding to…

  1. A truncated-probit item response model for estimating psychophysical thresholds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morey, R.D.; Rouder, J.N.; Speckman, P.

    2009-01-01

    Human abilities in perceptual domains have conventionally been described with reference to a threshold that may be defined as the maximum amount of stimulation which leads to baseline performance. Traditional psychometric links, such as the probit, logit, and t, are incompatible with a threshold as

  2. Approach for estimating the dynamic physical thresholds of phytoplankton production and biomass in the tropical-subtropical Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ocampo, E.; Gaxiola-Castro, G.; Durazo, Reginaldo

    2017-06-01

    Threshold is defined as the point where small changes in an environmental driver produce large responses in the ecosystem. Generalized additive models (GAMs) were used to estimate the thresholds and contribution of key dynamic physical variables in terms of phytoplankton production and variations in biomass in the tropical-subtropical Pacific Ocean off Mexico. The statistical approach used here showed that thresholds were shallower for primary production than for phytoplankton biomass (pycnocline Ekman pumping (ADT 0 cm d-1 versus ADT 4 cm d-1). The relatively high productivity on seasonal (spring) and interannual (La Niña 2008) scales was linked to low ADT (45-60 cm) and shallow pycnocline depth (9-68 m) and mixed layer (8-40 m). Statistical estimations from satellite data indicated that the contributions of ocean circulation to phytoplankton variability were 18% (for phytoplankton biomass) and 46% (for phytoplankton production). Although the statistical contribution of models constructed with in situ integrated chlorophyll a and primary production data was lower than the one obtained with satellite data (11%), the fits were better for the former, based on the residual distribution. The results reported here suggest that estimated thresholds may reliably explain the spatial-temporal variations of phytoplankton in the tropical-subtropical Pacific Ocean off the coast of Mexico.

  3. Estimate of the effect of micro-vibration on the performance of the Algerian satellite (Alsat-1B) imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serief, Chahira

    2017-11-01

    Alsat-1B, launched into a 670 km sun-synchronous orbit on board the PSLV launch vehicle from the Sriharikota launch site in India on 26 September 2016, is a medium resolution Earth Observation satellite with a mass of 100 kg. Alsat-1B will be used for agricultural and resource monitoring, disaster management, land use mapping and urban planning. It is based on the SSTL-100 platform, and flies a 24 m multispectral imager and a 12 m panchromatic imager delivering images with a swath width of 140 km. One of the main factors affecting the performance of satellite-borne optical imaging systems is micro-vibration. Micro-vibration is a low level mechanical disturbance inevitably generated from moving parts on a satellite and exceptionally difficult to be controlled by the attitude and orbital control system (AOCS) of a spacecraft. Micro-vibration usually causes problems for optical imaging systems onboard Earth Observation satellites. The major effect of micro-vibration is the excitation of the support structures for the optical elements during imaging operations which can result in severe degradation of image quality by smearing and distortion. Quantitative characterization of image degradation caused by micro-vibration is thus quite useful and important as part of system level analysis which can help preventing micro-vibration influence by proper design and restoring the degraded image. The aim of this work is to provide quantitative estimates of the effect of micro-vibration on the performance of Alsat-1B imager, which may be experienced operationally, in terms of the modulation transfer function (MTF) and based on ground micro-vibration tests results.

  4. Bayesian methods for jointly estimating genomic breeding values of one continuous and one threshold trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chonglong; Li, Xiujin; Qian, Rong; Su, Guosheng; Zhang, Qin; Ding, Xiangdong

    2017-01-01

    Genomic selection has become a useful tool for animal and plant breeding. Currently, genomic evaluation is usually carried out using a single-trait model. However, a multi-trait model has the advantage of using information on the correlated traits, leading to more accurate genomic prediction. To date, joint genomic prediction for a continuous and a threshold trait using a multi-trait model is scarce and needs more attention. Based on the previously proposed methods BayesCπ for single continuous trait and BayesTCπ for single threshold trait, we developed a novel method based on a linear-threshold model, i.e., LT-BayesCπ, for joint genomic prediction of a continuous trait and a threshold trait. Computing procedures of LT-BayesCπ using Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm were derived. A simulation study was performed to investigate the advantages of LT-BayesCπ over BayesCπ and BayesTCπ with regard to the accuracy of genomic prediction on both traits. Factors affecting the performance of LT-BayesCπ were addressed. The results showed that, in all scenarios, the accuracy of genomic prediction obtained from LT-BayesCπ was significantly increased for the threshold trait compared to that from single trait prediction using BayesTCπ, while the accuracy for the continuous trait was comparable with that from single trait prediction using BayesCπ. The proposed LT-BayesCπ could be a method of choice for joint genomic prediction of one continuous and one threshold trait.

  5. Modal mass estimation from ambient vibrations measurement: A method for civil buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acunzo, G.; Fiorini, N.; Mori, F.; Spina, D.

    2018-01-01

    A new method for estimating the modal mass ratios of buildings from unscaled mode shapes identified from ambient vibrations is presented. The method is based on the Multi Rigid Polygons (MRP) model in which each floor of the building is ideally divided in several non-deformable polygons that move independent of each other. The whole mass of the building is concentrated in the centroid of the polygons and the experimental mode shapes are expressed in term of rigid translations and of rotations. In this way, the mass matrix of the building can be easily computed on the basis of simple information about the geometry and the materials of the structure. The modal mass ratios can be then obtained through the classical equation of structural dynamics. Ambient vibrations measurement must be performed according to this MRP models, using at least two biaxial accelerometers per polygon. After a brief illustration of the theoretical background of the method, numerical validations are presented analysing the method sensitivity for possible different source of errors. Quality indexes are defined for evaluating the approximation of the modal mass ratios obtained from a certain MRP model. The capability of the proposed model to be applied to real buildings is illustrated through two experimental applications. In the first one, a geometrically irregular reinforced concrete building is considered, using a calibrated Finite Element Model for validating the results of the method. The second application refers to a historical monumental masonry building, with a more complex geometry and with less information available. In both cases, MRP models with a different number of rigid polygons per floor are compared.

  6. The short term effects of straight leg raise neurodynamic treatment on pressure pain and vibration thresholds in individuals with spinally referred leg pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridehalgh, Colette; Moore, Ann; Hough, Alan

    2016-06-01

    Limited research exists for the effects of neurodynamic treatment techniques. Understanding short term physiological outcomes could help to better understand immediate benefits or harm of treatment. To assess the short-term effects of a straight leg raise (SLR) tensioner 'intervention' on pressure pain thresholds (PPT) and vibration thresholds (VT), and establish if additional factors influence outcome in individuals with spinally referred leg pain. Experimental, repeated measures. Sixty seven participants (mean age (SD) 52.9 (13.3), 33 female) with spinally referred leg pain were divided into 3 sub-groups: somatic referred pain, radicular pain and radiculopathy. Individuals were assessed for central sensitisation (CS) and completed 5 disability and psychosocial questionnaires. PPT and VT were measured pre and post a 3 × 1 min SLR tensioner intervention. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were found between the 3 groups for either outcome measure, or after treatment. Slight improvements in VT were seen in the radiculopathy group after treatment, but were not significant. Only 2 participants were identified with CS. Disability and psychological factors were not significantly different at baseline between the 3 sub-groups, and did not correlate with the outcome measures. No beneficial effects of treatment were found, but the trend for a decrease in VT indicated that even in individuals with radiculopathy, no detrimental changes to nerve function occurred. Psychosocial factors and levels of disability did not influence short term outcome of SLR treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimation of Oil Production Rates in Reservoirs Exposed to Focused Vibrational Energy

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Chanseok

    2014-01-01

    Elastic wave-based enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is being investigated as a possible EOR method, since strong wave motions within an oil reservoir - induced by earthquakes or artificially generated vibrations - have been reported to improve the production rate of remaining oil from existing oil fields. To date, there are few theoretical studies on estimating how much bypassed oil within an oil reservoir could be mobilized by such vibrational stimulation. To fill this gap, this paper presents a numerical method to estimate the extent to which the bypassed oil is mobilized from low to high permeability reservoir areas, within a heterogeneous reservoir, via wave-induced cross-flow oscillation at the interface between the two reservoir permeability areas. This work uses the finite element method to numerically obtain the pore fluid wave motion within a one-dimensional fluid-saturated porous permeable elastic solid medium embedded in a non-permeable elastic semi-infinite solid. To estimate the net volume of mobilized oil from the low to the high permeability area, a fluid flow hysteresis hypothesis is adopted to describe the behavior at the interface between the two areas. Accordingly, the fluid that is moving from the low to the high permeability areas is assumed to transport a larger volume of oil than the fluid moving in the opposite direction. The numerical experiments were conducted by using a prototype heterogeneous oil reservoir model, subjected to ground surface dynamic loading operating at low frequencies (1 to 50 Hz). The numerical results show that a sizeable amount of oil could be mobilized via the elastic wave stimulation. It is observed that certain wave frequencies are more effective than others in mobilizing the remaining oil. We remark that these amplification frequencies depend on the formation’s elastic properties. This numerical work shows that the wave-based mobilization of the bypassed oil in a heterogeneous oil reservoir is feasible, especially

  8. Heat-related deaths in hot cities: estimates of human tolerance to high temperature thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlan, Sharon L; Chowell, Gerardo; Yang, Shuo; Petitti, Diana B; Morales Butler, Emmanuel J; Ruddell, Benjamin L; Ruddell, Darren M

    2014-03-20

    In this study we characterized the relationship between temperature and mortality in central Arizona desert cities that have an extremely hot climate. Relationships between daily maximum apparent temperature (ATmax) and mortality for eight condition-specific causes and all-cause deaths were modeled for all residents and separately for males and females ages heat. For this condition-specific cause of death, the heat thresholds in all gender and age groups (ATmax = 90-97 °F; 32.2-36.1 °C) were below local median seasonal temperatures in the study period (ATmax = 99.5 °F; 37.5 °C). Heat threshold was defined as ATmax at which the mortality ratio begins an exponential upward trend. Thresholds were identified in younger and older females for cardiac disease/stroke mortality (ATmax = 106 and 108 °F; 41.1 and 42.2 °C) with a one-day lag. Thresholds were also identified for mortality from respiratory diseases in older people (ATmax = 109 °F; 42.8 °C) and for all-cause mortality in females (ATmax = 107 °F; 41.7 °C) and males Heat-related mortality in a region that has already made some adaptations to predictable periods of extremely high temperatures suggests that more extensive and targeted heat-adaptation plans for climate change are needed in cities worldwide.

  9. The usefulness of vibration perception threshold as a significant indicator for erectile dysfunction in patients with diabetes mellitus at a primary diabetes mellitus clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Toshiyasu; Imao, Tetsuya; Seki, Masaya; Takemae, Katsurou; Ohta, Yasuharu; Sakai, Sumi; Ohta, Hisae

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify the relationship of erectile dysfunction (ED) and diabetes mellitus (DM) parameters (referred to with '1'), including peripheral neuropathy (referred to with '2'). (1) The DM parameters including age, serum levels of blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c, duration of DM and number of DM complications were obtained from 145 patients at a general DM clinic. (2) The peripheral neuropathy examinations by vibration perception threshold (VPT) and Achilles tendon reflex were performed in 97 DM patients. Erectile functions in DM patients were evaluated by the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF 5). The DM patients' parameters were compared with the IIEF 5 scores. (1) The data showed IIEF 5 scores were significantly correlated with patient age, duration of DM and number of DM complications. (2) IIEF 5 scores were significantly correlated with VPT time. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis revealed that patient age and VPT time were independent risk factors for predicting ED in DM patients. The severity of ED in DM patients depended on age, duration of DM, number of DM complications and VPT. Significantly, the age of DM patients and the measurement of VPT are considered to be simple and useful indicators to diagnose ED in DM patients. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Vibration-based estimation of tension for an axially travelling web in roll-to-roll manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liang; Chen, Jiankui; Tang, Wei; Yin, Zhouping

    2018-01-01

    Precise estimation of web tension in roll-to-roll manufacturing is critical to ensure product quality. A vibration-based method to estimate web tension is proposed in this paper. By employing the Hamilton principle, the governing equations of motion are derived, which are discretized and solved by the Galerkin method. The natural frequencies are computed from the eigenvalue equation. This study attempts to derive an approximate fitting formula among the axial tension, the travelling speed and the natural frequency, from which the web tension can be calculated conveniently and quickly by employing the measured natural frequencies. A laser displacement sensor is used to measure the transverse vibration displacements of the travelling web and detect free vibration frequency. A major advantage of the proposed method is its contactless, which is more useful under conditions where load cells are not available. An experimental test is carried out to confirm the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed approach. The web tensions estimated by the vibration method are compared with the measured tensions by load cells.

  11. Estimation of Signal Coherence Threshold and Concealed Spectral Lines Applied to Detection of Turbofan Engine Combustion Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Jeffrey Hilton

    2010-01-01

    Combustion noise from turbofan engines has become important, as the noise from sources like the fan and jet are reduced. An aligned and un-aligned coherence technique has been developed to determine a threshold level for the coherence and thereby help to separate the coherent combustion noise source from other noise sources measured with far-field microphones. This method is compared with a statistics based coherence threshold estimation method. In addition, the un-aligned coherence procedure at the same time also reveals periodicities, spectral lines, and undamped sinusoids hidden by broadband turbofan engine noise. In calculating the coherence threshold using a statistical method, one may use either the number of independent records or a larger number corresponding to the number of overlapped records used to create the average. Using data from a turbofan engine and a simulation this paper shows that applying the Fisher z-transform to the un-aligned coherence can aid in making the proper selection of samples and produce a reasonable statistics based coherence threshold. Examples are presented showing that the underlying tonal and coherent broad band structure which is buried under random broadband noise and jet noise can be determined. The method also shows the possible presence of indirect combustion noise. Copyright 2011 Acoustical Society of America. This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the author and the Acoustical Society of America.

  12. Predicting molybdenum toxicity to higher plants: Estimation of toxicity threshold values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, S.P., E-mail: steve.mcgrath@bbsrc.ac.u [Soil Science Department, Centre for Soils and Ecosystems Function, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Mico, C.; Zhao, F.J.; Stroud, J.L. [Soil Science Department, Centre for Soils and Ecosystems Function, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Zhang, H.; Fozard, S. [Division of Environmental Science, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    Four plant species (oilseed rape, Brassica napus L.; red clover, Trifolium pratense L.; ryegrass, Lolium perenne L.; and tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum L.) were tested on ten soils varying widely in soil properties to assess molybdenum (Mo) toxicity. A larger range (66-fold-609-fold) of added Mo concentrations resulting in 50% inhibition of yield (ED{sub 50}) was found among soils than among plant species (2-fold-38-fold), which illustrated that the soils differed widely in the expression of Mo toxicity. Toxicity thresholds based on soil solution Mo narrowed the variation among soils compared to thresholds based on added Mo concentrations. We conclude that plant bioavailability of Mo in soil depends on Mo solubility, but this alone did not decrease the variability in observed toxicity enough to be used in risk assessment and that other soil properties influencing Mo toxicity to plants need to be considered. - Mo toxicity thresholds varied widely in different soils and therefore soil properties need to be taken into account in order to assess the risk of Mo exposure.

  13. Theoretical estimation of the vibrational temperatures of N2 molecules in the ionosphere and in the laboratory simulated plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpuri, K. S.; Oyama, K.-I.

    1991-06-01

    The vibrational temperature of excited nitrogen molecules (N2) are estimated theoretically for the case of ionosphere as well as for the lab simulated plasma, considering the various chemical reactions leading to the production and loss of N2 molecules. It was found that even in the case when quenching of the excited molecules by O and CO2 is considered, the vibrational temperature, T sub v, is higher than the neutral temperature, T sub n, below about 105 km but the difference decreases and about 120 km, the value of T sub v is less than T sub n. However, for no quenching case, the vibrational temperature can be as high as 1600 K at 150 km. The vibrational temperature for the lab simulated plasma on the other hand was found to be high (1500 K or more), the absolute value being dependent upon the concentration of O2 in the gas mixture taken and the intensity of UV light used for excitation of nitrogen molecules.

  14. GPR measurements and estimation for road subgrade damage caused by neighboring train vibration load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yonghui; Lu, Gang; Ge, Shuangcheng

    2015-04-01

    Generally, road can be simplified as a three-layer structure, including subgrade, subbase and pavement. Subgrade is the native material underneath a constructed road. It is commonly compacted before the road construction, and sometimes stabilized by the addition of asphalt, lime or other modifiers. As the mainly supporting structure, subgrade damage would lead in pavement settlement, displacement and crack. Assessment and monitoring of the subgrade condition currently involves trial pitting and subgrade sampling. However there is a practical limit on spatial density at which trail pits and cores can be taken. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been widely used to characterize highway pavement profiling, concrete structure inspection and railroad track ballast estimation. GPR can improve the economics of road maintenance. Long-term train vibration load might seriously influence the stability of the subgrade of neighboring road. Pavement settlement and obvious cracks have been found at a municipal road cross-under a railway with culvert box method. GPR test was conducted to estimate the subgrade and soil within 2.0 m depth for the further road maintenance. Two survey lines were designed in each lane, and total 12 GPR sections have been implemented. Considering both the penetrating range and the resolution, a antenna with a 500 MHz central frequency was chosen for on-site GPR data collection. For data acquisition, we used the default operating environment and scanning parameters for the RAMAC system: 60kHz transmission rate, 50 ns time window, 1024 samples per scan and 0.1 m step-size. Continuous operation was used; the antenna was placed on the road surface and slowly moved along the road. The strong surrounding disturbance related to railroad and attachments, might decrease the reliability of interpretation results. Some routine process methods (including the background removing, filtering) have been applied to suppress the background noise. Additionally, attribute

  15. A Simplified Approach for Estimating the Ventilatory and Respiratory Compensation Thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Condello

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate whether ventilatory (VT and respiratory compensation (RCT thresholds could be derived from percentages of maximal running speed (Vmax. During the model building phase (1, VT & RCT of 31 competitive level athletes were identified with respiratory gas exchange. During the cross-validation phase (2, 20 subjects performed a treadmill test to identify Vmax and then they performed 30-min runs at velocities 2SE below or above the velocity at VT and RCT derived from (1, with measurement of blood lactate [BL], RPE, heart rate (HR, and speech comfort. Phase (1 revealed that VT and RCT were reached at 67 ± 9% and 84 ± 6% of Vmax. In (2 sustained running 2SE below VT (64% Vmax was associated with the ability to finish 30-min, with low and constant [BL] (~2.5 mmol.l-1, moderate RPE (~3.0-3.5, a small HR drift, and ability to speak comfortably. Conversely, running at 2SE above RCT (86% Vmax was associated with the inability to finish 30-min (18.5 ± 2.5 min to fatigue, increasing [BL] (end-exercise = 11.9 ± 0.9 mmol.l-1, high RPE (end-exercise = 8.9 ± 1.0, large HR drift (end-exercise = 98 ± 3% HRmax, and inability to speak comfortably. Simple percentages of Vmax (≤64% and ≥86% obtained from a treadmill test without gas exchange, may be useful for prescribing exercise training intensities.

  16. Estimation of thresholds for the signals of the BLMs around the LHC final focus triplet magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Sapinski, M; Dehning, B; Ferrari, A; Hoa, C; Lechner, A; Mauri, M; Mereghetti, A

    2012-01-01

    The Interaction Points of the Large Hadron Collider are the regions where the two circulating beams collide. Hence, the magnets closest to any Interaction Point are exposed to an elevated radiation field due to the collision debris. In this study the signal in the Beam Loss Monitors due to the debris is estimated and compared with the measurements. In addition, the energy density in the coils and the signal in the Beam Loss Monitors at quench are estimated for a beam loss scenario. It is shown that the Beam Loss Monitors, as presently installed on the vacuum vessel of the magnets, cannot disentangle the signal due to a localized loss from the constant signal due to the debris in case of steady-state losses.

  17. Empirical improvements for estimating earthquake response spectra with random‐vibration theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boore, David; Thompson, Eric M.

    2012-01-01

    The stochastic method of ground‐motion simulation is often used in combination with the random‐vibration theory to directly compute ground‐motion intensity measures, thereby bypassing the more computationally intensive time‐domain simulations. Key to the application of random‐vibration theory to simulate response spectra is determining the duration (Drms) used in computing the root‐mean‐square oscillator response. Boore and Joyner (1984) originally proposed an equation for Drms , which was improved upon by Liu and Pezeshk (1999). Though these equations are both substantial improvements over using the duration of the ground‐motion excitation for Drms , we document systematic differences between the ground‐motion intensity measures derived from the random‐vibration and time‐domain methods for both of these Drms equations. These differences are generally less than 10% for most magnitudes, distances, and periods of engineering interest. Given the systematic nature of the differences, however, we feel that improved equations are warranted. We empirically derive new equations from time‐domain simulations for eastern and western North America seismological models. The new equations improve the random‐vibration simulations over a wide range of magnitudes, distances, and oscillator periods.

  18. Vibrational Diver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Victor; Ivanova, Alevtina; Schipitsyn, Vitalii; Stambouli, Moncef

    2014-10-01

    The paper is concerned with dynamics of light solid in cavity with liquid subjected to rotational vibration in the external force field. New vibrational phenomenon - diving of a light cylinder to the cavity bottom is found. The experimental investigation of a horizontal annulus with a partition has shown that under vibration a light body situated in the upper part of the layer is displaced in a threshold manner some distance away from the boundary. In this case the body executes symmetric tangential oscillations. An increase of the vibration intensity leads to a tangential displacement of the body near the external boundary. This displacement is caused by the tangential component of the vibrational lift force, which appears as soon as the oscillations lose symmetry. In this case the trajectory of the body oscillatory motion has the form of a loop. The tangential lift force makes stable the position of the body on the inclined section of the layer and even in its lower part. A theoretical interpretation has been proposed, which explains stabilization of a quasi-equilibrium state of a light body near the cavity bottom in the framework of vibrational hydromechanics.

  19. Adaptive estimation of contrast thresholds using the visual evoked potential (VEP); Die adaptive Bestimmung von Kontrastschwellen mit dem visuell evozierten Potenzial (VEP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meigen, T.; Kley, F. [Elektrophysiologisches Lab., Universitaets-Augenklinik Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The visual evoked potential (VEP) can be used to objectively estimate sensory thresholds. Recently, we developed an adaptive procedure for this threshold estimation based on a Fourier analysis of steady-state responses during the recording. In this study we quantified the reduction in recording time of this adaptive procedure. Steady-state VEPs to pattern reversal (f=8.3 Hz) of checkerboards with 8 contrast values between 0.64% and 82% were recorded monocularly. Adaptive and non-adaptive recordings were performed for full correction (fc) and for blurred stimulus patterns (+1.5 D and +3.0 D). VEP contrast thresholds were defined by the lowest contrast condition that showed a significant response. An ANOVA of the VEP thresholds showed significant effects (p<0.0001) of the factors 'procedure' (psychophysics, adaptive VEP, non-adaptive VEP) and 'correction' (fc, fc+1.5D, fc+3.0D). Compared to non-adaptive recordings, adaptive recordings showed thresholds that were significantly reduced and closer to psychophysical contrast thresholds. By applying the adaptive procedure the recording time can be reduced by a factor of about 2 when compared to the non-adaptive procedure. The new adaptive VEP procedure may help to improve the correlation of electrophysiological and psychophysical estimates of sensory thresholds and may accelerate functional testing in the clinical routine. (orig.)

  20. Estimation of Threshold for the Signals of the BLMs around the LHC Final Focus Triplet Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Cerutti, F; Ferrari, A; Hoa, C; Mauri, M; Mereghetti, A; Sapinski, M; Wildner, E; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2012-01-01

    The Interaction Points of the Large Hadron Collider are the regions where the two circulating beams collide. Hence, the magnets the closest to any Interaction Point are exposed to an elevated radiation field due to the collision debris. In this study the signal in the Beam Loss Monitors due to the debris is estimated. In addition, for three different scenarios of beam losses, the energy density in the coils and the signal in the Beam Loss Monitors at quench are computed. It is shown that the Beam Loss Monitors, as presently installed on the vacuum vessel of the magnets, cannot disentangle the signal due to a localised loss from the constant signal due to the debris in case of steady-state losses.

  1. Fitting psychometric functions using a fixed-slope parameter: an advanced alternative for estimating odor thresholds with data generated by ASTM E679.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Mei; Jaeger, Sara R; Hautus, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    Psychometric functions are predominately used for estimating detection thresholds in vision and audition. However, the requirement of large data quantities for fitting psychometric functions (>30 replications) reduces their suitability in olfactory studies because olfactory response data are often limited (ASTM) E679. The slope parameter of the individual-judge psychometric function is fixed to be the same as that of the group function; the same-shaped symmetrical sigmoid function is fitted only using the intercept. This study evaluated the proposed method by comparing it with 2 available methods. Comparison to conventional psychometric functions (fitted slope and intercept) indicated that the assumption of a fixed slope did not compromise precision of the threshold estimates. No systematic difference was obtained between the proposed method and the ASTM method in terms of group threshold estimates or threshold distributions, but there were changes in the rank, by threshold, of judges in the group. Overall, the fixed-slope psychometric function is recommended for obtaining relatively reliable individual threshold estimates when the quantity of data is limited.

  2. A procedure to estimate the dynamic damped behavior of fiber reinforced composite beams submitted to flexural vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volnei Tita

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes a procedure to estimate the dynamic damped behavior of fiber reinforced composite beams in flexural vibrations. A set of experimental dynamic tests were carried out in order to investigate the natural frequencies and modal shapes. These results are used to evaluate the damping factors by the program FREQ. These damping factors are then used as input to a damped dynamic analysis by the Finite Element Method, using Rayleigh Model. A good agreement between theoretical and experimental results was obtained. Thus, it became possible to validate the proposed procedure to evaluate dynamic damped behavior of composite beams.

  3. Evaluation of hand-arm vibration reducing effect of anti-vibration glove

    OpenAIRE

    樹野, 淳也; 前田, 節雄; 横田, 和樹; 平, 雄一郎

    2015-01-01

    Many kinds of the anti-vibration glove have been developed for reducing hand-arm vibration during the operation with vibration tools. International standard ISO 10819 evaluates the physical effect of gloves' vibration transmissibility but not evaluates the physiological effect of human hands. Thus, in this paper, we proposed the evaluation using the temporary threshold shift of vibrotactile perception threshold to evaluate the hand-arm vibration reducing effect of anti-vibration glove. We per...

  4. Use of Heart Rate Variability to Estimate Lactate Threshold in Coronary Artery Disease Patients during Resistance Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Rodrigo P; Mendes, Renata G; Castello-Simões, Viviane; Catai, Aparecida M; Arena, Ross; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether it is possible to identify the first turn point of blood lactate (BL) concentration (1 st lactate threshold - LT1) during a discontinuous resistance exercise protocol in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients and verify if heart rate variability (HRV) responses are consistent with BL responses. A total of 22 elderly men, 12 with CAD and 10 apparently healthy (control group = CG), underwent one-repetition maximum (1RM) testing on an inclined leg press. Discontinuous resistance exercise testing (DRET) was initiated at 10% of the 1RM with subsequent increases of 10% until 30% and after this percentage, 5% increments of 1RM was carried out. The load corresponding to LT1 was approximately 30% 1RM in both groups; and the LT1 estimate by HRV was associated with BL responses. HRV indices representing parasympathetic modulation decreased with increasing loads until LT1 and stabilized thereafter in both groups, and HRV indices representing sympathetic and parasympathetic modulations only increased in the CAD group from 30% 1RM with higher values after this load in relation to the CG. We conclude HRV appears to be an effective tool to estimate the LT1 during discontinuous resistance exercise in patients with CAD. In addition, these results may have an impact on the prescription of endurance resistance exercise in the CAD population, as cardiac vagal modulation is an important indicator of cardiovascular protection and the over-activity of sympathetic modulation is related to cardiovascular risk.

  5. Use of Heart Rate Variability to Estimate Lactate Threshold in Coronary Artery Disease Patients during Resistance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo P. Simões, Renata G. Mendes, Viviane Castello-Simões, Aparecida M. Catai, Ross Arena, Audrey Borghi-Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether it is possible to identify the first turn point of blood lactate (BL concentration (1st lactate threshold - LT1 during a discontinuous resistance exercise protocol in coronary artery disease (CAD patients and verify if heart rate variability (HRV responses are consistent with BL responses. A total of 22 elderly men, 12 with CAD and 10 apparently healthy (control group = CG, underwent one-repetition maximum (1RM testing on an inclined leg press. Discontinuous resistance exercise testing (DRET was initiated at 10% of the 1RM with subsequent increases of 10% until 30% and after this percentage, 5% increments of 1RM was carried out. The load corresponding to LT1 was approximately 30% 1RM in both groups; and the LT1 estimate by HRV was associated with BL responses. HRV indices representing parasympathetic modulation decreased with increasing loads until LT1 and stabilized thereafter in both groups, and HRV indices representing sympathetic and parasympathetic modulations only increased in the CAD group from 30% 1RM with higher values after this load in relation to the CG. We conclude HRV appears to be an effective tool to estimate the LT1 during discontinuous resistance exercise in patients with CAD. In addition, these results may have an impact on the prescription of endurance resistance exercise in the CAD population, as cardiac vagal modulation is an important indicator of cardiovascular protection and the over-activity of sympathetic modulation is related to cardiovascular risk.

  6. A simple algorithm to estimate genetic variance in an animal threshold model using Bayesian inference Genetics Selection Evolution 2010, 42:29

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødegård, Jørgen; Meuwissen, Theo HE; Heringstad, Bjørg

    2010-01-01

    Background In the genetic analysis of binary traits with one observation per animal, animal threshold models frequently give biased heritability estimates. In some cases, this problem can be circumvented by fitting sire- or sire-dam models. However, these models are not appropriate in cases where...... individual records exist on parents. Therefore, the aim of our study was to develop a new Gibbs sampling algorithm for a proper estimation of genetic (co)variance components within an animal threshold model framework. Methods In the proposed algorithm, individuals are classified as either "informative...... data sets, the standard animal threshold model failed to produce useful results since samples of genetic variance always drifted towards infinity, while the new algorithm produced proper parameter estimates essentially identical to the results from a sire-dam model (given the fact that no individual...

  7. Influence of drug load on dissolution behavior of tablets containing a poorly water-soluble drug: estimation of the percolation threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Tim; Stillhart, Cordula; Kleinebudde, Peter; Szepes, Anikó

    2017-08-01

    Drug load plays an important role in the development of solid dosage forms, since it can significantly influence both processability and final product properties. The percolation threshold of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) corresponds to a critical concentration, above which an abrupt change in drug product characteristics can occur. The objective of this study was to identify the percolation threshold of a poorly water-soluble drug with regard to the dissolution behavior from immediate release tablets. The influence of the API particle size on the percolation threshold was also studied. Formulations with increasing drug loads were manufactured via roll compaction using constant process parameters and subsequent tableting. Drug dissolution was investigated in biorelevant medium. The percolation threshold was estimated via a model dependent and a model independent method based on the dissolution data. The intragranular concentration of mefenamic acid had a significant effect on granules and tablet characteristics, such as particle size distribution, compactibility and tablet disintegration. Increasing the intragranular drug concentration of the tablets resulted in lower dissolution rates. A percolation threshold of approximately 20% v/v could be determined for both particle sizes of the API above which an abrupt decrease of the dissolution rate occurred. However, the increasing drug load had a more pronounced effect on dissolution rate of tablets containing the micronized API, which can be attributed to the high agglomeration tendency of micronized substances during manufacturing steps, such as roll compaction and tableting. Both methods that were applied for the estimation of percolation threshold provided comparable values.

  8. Fast Hearing-Threshold Estimation Using Multiple Auditory Steady-State Responses with Narrow-Band Chirps and Adaptive Stimulus Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Mühler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the estimation of hearing thresholds in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired subjects on the basis of multiple-frequency auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs. The ASSR was measured using two new techniques: (i adaptive stimulus patterns and (ii narrow-band chirp stimuli. ASSR thresholds in 16 normal-hearing and 16 hearing-impaired adults were obtained simultaneously at both ears at 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000?Hz, using a multiple-frequency stimulus built up of four one-octave-wide narrow-band chirps with a repetition rate of 40?Hz. A statistical test in the frequency domain was used to detect the response. The recording of the steady-state responses was controlled in eight independent recording channels with an adaptive, semiautomatic algorithm. The average differences between the behavioural hearing thresholds and the ASSR threshold estimate were 10, 8, 13, and 15?dB for test frequencies of 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000?Hz, respectively. The average overall test duration of 18.6 minutes for the threshold estimations at the four frequencies and both ears demonstrates the benefit of an adaptive recording algorithm and the efficiency of optimised narrow-band chirp stimuli.

  9. Radiation degradation prediction for InGaP solar cells by using appropriate estimation method for displacement threshold energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Y.; Okuda, S.; Akiyoshi, M.; Oka, T.; Harumoto, M.; Omura, K.; Kawakita, S.; Imaizumi, M.; Messenger, S. R.; Lee, K. H.; Yamaguchi, M.

    2017-09-01

    InGaP solar cells are not predicted to be susceptible to displacement damage by irradiation with electrons at energies lower than 100 keV from non-ionizing energy loss (NIEL) calculations. However, it is recently observed that InGaP solar cells are shown to degrade by irradiation with 60 keV electrons. This degradation is considered to be caused by radiation defects but is not clear. In this study, the kind of the defects generated by electrons at energies lower than 100 keV is found by deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). The result of DLTS indicates that the prediction of primary knock-on atoms by using the radiation damage model is different from the experiment. In order to suggest the generation mechanism of radiation defects, we propose a new displacement threshold energy (Ed) by using a new technique in which NIEL and the introduction rate of radiation defects are combined. The degradation prediction by using estimated Ed is found to agree well with the degradation of electric power of InGaP solar cells irradiated by low-energy electrons. From the theory of radiation defects, we propose a new obtaining process of suitable degradation prediction by the displacement damage dose method.

  10. User guide for HCR Estimator 2.0: software to calculate cost and revenue thresholds for harvesting small-diameter ponderosa pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis R. Becker; Debra Larson; Eini C. Lowell; Robert B. Rummer

    2008-01-01

    The HCR (Harvest Cost-Revenue) Estimator is engineering and financial analysis software used to evaluate stand-level financial thresholds for harvesting small-diameter ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) in the Southwest United States. The Windows-based program helps contractors and planners to identify costs associated with tree...

  11. Comparison of electrically evoked compound action potential thresholds and loudness estimates for the stimuli used to program the Advanced Bionics cochlear implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eun Kyung; Brown, Carolyn J; Etler, Christine P; O'Brien, Sara; Chiou, Li-Kuei; Abbas, Paul J

    2010-01-01

    the individual data revealed considerable discrepancy between the contour of ECAP threshold versus electrode function and the behavioral loudness estimates used for programming. ECAP thresholds recorded from Advanced Bionics cochlear implant users always indicated levels where the programming stimulus was audible for the listener. However, the correlation between ECAP thresholds and M-levels (the primary metric used to program the speech processor of the Advanced Bionics CI), while statistically significant, was quite modest. If programming levels are to be determined on the basis of ECAP thresholds, care should be taken to ensure that stimulation is not uncomfortably loud, particularly on the basal electrodes in the array.

  12. Principal axes estimation using the vibration modes of physics-based deformable models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinidis, Stelios; Chatzis, Vassilios

    2008-06-01

    This paper addresses the issue of accurate, effective, computationally efficient, fast, and fully automated 2-D object orientation and scaling factor estimation. The object orientation is calculated using object principal axes estimation. The approach relies on the object's frequency-based features. The frequency-based features used by the proposed technique are extracted by a 2-D physics-based deformable model that parameterizes the objects shape. The method was evaluated on synthetic and real images. The experimental results demonstrate the accuracy of the method, both in orientation and the scaling estimations.

  13. Behavioral and electrophysiological estimates of visual thresholds in awake rats treated with 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, A M; Bushnell, P J; Rice, D C

    2000-01-01

    Visual thresholds for luminance increments were obtained behaviorally and electrophysiologically from rats exposed to a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) during development. Male Long-Evans rats exposed to 0, 0.25, or 1.0 microg/kg/day of 3,3',4,4', 5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) through gestation and weaning were trained as adults to perform a signal detection task. Estimates of threshold were derived from psychometric functions for each animal relating the proportion of hits to signal intensity. Thresholds derived under three luminance conditions did not differ significantly among the PCB-treated groups. After behavioral testing was completed, flash-evoked potentials were recorded from dark-adapted awake animals. Peak amplitudes increased linearly over approximately 3 log units of intensity. Extrapolations to 0 amplitude along the linear portion of the amplitude-log intensity functions produced estimates of absolute threshold of -5.44 to -5.53 log cd/m(2)-s. Waveforms recorded from awake animals had a large late negative component that was absent in previously reported anesthetized preparations. Developmental exposure to PCB 126 had no significant effect on absolute threshold or peak amplitudes and latencies.

  14. Hidden dangers revealed by misdiagnosed diabetic neuropathy: A comparison of simple clinical tests for the screening of vibration perception threshold at primary care level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi, Kurt; Gatt, Alfred; Chockalingam, Nachiappan; Formosa, Cynthia

    2017-10-10

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is an important complication and contributes to the morbidity of diabetes mellitus. Evidence indicates early detection of diabetic peripheral neuropathy results in fewer foot ulcers and amputations. The aim of this study was to compare different screening modalities in the detection of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in a primary care setting. A prospective non-experimental comparative multi-centre cross sectional study was conducted in various Primary Health Centres. One hundred participants living with Type 2 diabetes for at least 10 years were recruited using a convenience sampling method. The Vibratip, 128Hz tuning fork and neurothesiometer were compared in the detection of vibration perception. This study showed different results of diabetic peripheral neuropathy screening tests, even in the same group of participants. This study has shown that the percentage of participants who did not perceive vibrations was highest when using the VibraTip (28.5%). This was followed by the neurothesiometer (21%) and the 128Hz tuning fork (12%) (pneuropathy in patients with diabetes is crucial. This study demonstrates that some instruments are more sensitive to vibration perception than others. We recommend that different modalities should be used in patients with diabetes and when results do not concur, further neurological evaluation should be performed. This would significantly reduce the proportion of patients with diabetes who would be falsely identified as having no peripheral neuropathy and subsequently denied the benefit of beneficial and effective secondary risk factor control. Copyright © 2017 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of Bayesian estimation of a hidden continuous-time Markov chain model with application to threshold violation in water-quality indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deviney, Frank A.; Rice, Karen; Brown, Donald E.

    2012-01-01

    Natural resource managers require information concerning  the frequency, duration, and long-term probability of occurrence of water-quality indicator (WQI) violations of defined thresholds. The timing of these threshold crossings often is hidden from the observer, who is restricted to relatively infrequent observations. Here, a model for the hidden process is linked with a model for the observations, and the parameters describing duration, return period, and long-term probability of occurrence are estimated using Bayesian methods. A simulation experiment is performed to evaluate the approach under scenarios based on the equivalent of a total monitoring period of 5-30 years and an observation frequency of 1-50 observations per year. Given constant threshold crossing rate, accuracy and precision of parameter estimates increased with longer total monitoring period and more-frequent observations. Given fixed monitoring period and observation frequency, accuracy and precision of parameter estimates increased with longer times between threshold crossings. For most cases where the long-term probability of being in violation is greater than 0.10, it was determined that at least 600 observations are needed to achieve precise estimates.  An application of the approach is presented using 22 years of quasi-weekly observations of acid-neutralizing capacity from Deep Run, a stream in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia. The time series also was sub-sampled to simulate monthly and semi-monthly sampling protocols. Estimates of the long-term probability of violation were unbiased despite sampling frequency; however, the expected duration and return period were over-estimated using the sub-sampled time series with respect to the full quasi-weekly time series.

  16. Local distributed estimation. [for flexible spacecraft vibration mode optimal feedback control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaechter, D. B.

    1980-01-01

    Based on partial differential equations of motion the closed form solution for the optimal estimation of a spatially continuous state vector is derived, using a continuously distributed sensor. Local control is shown to be the feedback that minimizes a quadratic performance index of sensor and process disturbances. A detailed example of the control of a string in tension is presented.

  17. Online Structural Health Monitoring and Parameter Estimation for Vibrating Active Cantilever Beams Using Low-Priced Microcontrollers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Takács

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a structural health monitoring and parameter estimation system for vibrating active cantilever beams using low-cost embedded computing hardware. The actuator input and the measured position are used in an augmented nonlinear model to observe the dynamic states and parameters of the beam by the continuous-discrete extended Kalman filter (EKF. The presence of undesirable structural change is detected by variations of the first resonance estimate computed from the observed equivalent mass, stiffness, damping, and voltage-force conversion coefficients. A fault signal is generated upon its departure from a predetermined nominal tolerance band. The algorithm is implemented using automatically generated and deployed machine code on an electronics prototyping platform, featuring an economically feasible 8-bit microcontroller unit (MCU. The validation experiments demonstrate the viability of the proposed system to detect sudden or gradual mechanical changes in real-time, while the functionality on low-cost miniaturized hardware suggests a strong potential for mass-production and structural integration. The modest computing power of the microcontroller and automated code generation designates the proposed system only for very flexible structures, with a first dominant resonant frequency under 4 Hz; however, a code-optimized version certainly allows much stiffer structures or more complicated models on the same hardware.

  18. HERITABILITY AND BREEDING VALUE OF SHEEP FERTILITY ESTIMATED BY MEANS OF THE GIBBS SAMPLING METHOD USING THE LINEAR AND THRESHOLD MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DARIUSZ Piwczynski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out on 4,030 Polish Merino ewes born in the years 1991- 2001, kept in 15 flocks from the Pomorze and Kujawy region. Fertility of ewes in subsequent reproduction seasons was analysed with the use of multiple logistic regression. The research showed that there is a statistical influence of the flock, year of birth, age of dam, flock year interaction of birth on the ewes fertility. In order to estimate the genetic parameters, the Gibbs sampling method was applied, using the univariate animal models, both linear as well as threshold. Estimates of fertility depending on the model equalled 0.067 to 0.104, whereas the estimates of repeatability equalled respectively: 0.076 and 0.139. The obtained genetic parameters were then used to estimate the breeding values of the animals in terms of controlled trait (Best Linear Unbiased Prediction method using linear and threshold models. The obtained animal breeding values rankings in respect of the same trait with the use of linear and threshold models were strongly correlated with each other (rs = 0.972. Negative genetic trends of fertility (0.01-0.08% per year were found.

  19. Estimating the vibration level of an L-shaped beam using power flow techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuschieri, J. M.; Mccollum, M.; Rassineux, J. L.; Gilbert, T.

    1986-01-01

    The response of one component of an L-shaped beam, with point force excitation on the other component, is estimated using the power flow method. The transmitted power from the source component to the receiver component is expressed in terms of the transfer and input mobilities at the excitation point and the joint. The response is estimated both in narrow frequency bands, using the exact geometry of the beams, and as a frequency averaged response using infinite beam models. The results using this power flow technique are compared to the results obtained using finite element analysis (FEA) of the L-shaped beam for the low frequency response and to results obtained using statistical energy analysis (SEA) for the high frequencies. The agreement between the FEA results and the power flow method results at low frequencies is very good. SEA results are in terms of frequency averaged levels and these are in perfect agreement with the results obtained using the infinite beam models in the power flow method. The narrow frequency band results from the power flow method also converge to the SEA results at high frequencies. The advantage of the power flow method is that detail of the response can be retained while reducing computation time, which will allow the narrow frequency band analysis of the response to be extended to higher frequencies.

  20. Instability Threshold “Hysteresis”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Muszynska

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient process which starts at the instability threshold of a rotor rotating in a fluid environment, and ends up in the limit cycle of self-excited vibrations known as fluid whirl or fluid whip, is discussed in this paper. A one-lateral-mode, isotropic, nonlinear model of the rotor with fluid interaction allows for exact particular solutions and an estimation of the transient process. The fluid interacting with the rotor is contained in a small radial clearance area, such as in bearings, seals, or rotor-to-stator clearances, and its effects are represented by fluid film radial stiffness, damping, and fluid inertia rotating at a different angular velocities.

  1. Quantitative estimation of the influence of external vibrations on the measurement error of a coriolis mass-flow meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Ridder, Bert; Hakvoort, Wouter; van Dijk, Johannes; Lötters, Joost Conrad; de Boer, Andries; Dimitrovova, Z.; de Almeida, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the quantitative influence of external vibrations on the measurement value of a Coriolis Mass-Flow Meter for low flows is investigated, with the eventual goal to reduce the influence of vibrations. Model results are compared with experimental results to improve the knowledge on how

  2. Optimal design for the precise estimation of an interaction threshold: the impact of exposure to a mixture of 18 polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeatts, Sharon D; Gennings, Chris; Crofton, Kevin M

    2012-10-01

    Traditional additivity models provide little flexibility in modeling the dose-response relationships of the single agents in a mixture. While the flexible single chemical required (FSCR) methods allow greater flexibility, its implicit nature is an obstacle in the formation of the parameter covariance matrix, which forms the basis for many statistical optimality design criteria. The goal of this effort is to develop a method for constructing the parameter covariance matrix for the FSCR models, so that (local) alphabetic optimality criteria can be applied. Data from Crofton et al. are provided as motivation; in an experiment designed to determine the effect of 18 polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons on serum total thyroxine (T(4)), the interaction among the chemicals was statistically significant. Gennings et al. fit the FSCR interaction threshold model to the data. The resulting estimate of the interaction threshold was positive and within the observed dose region, providing evidence of a dose-dependent interaction. However, the corresponding likelihood-ratio-based confidence interval was wide and included zero. In order to more precisely estimate the location of the interaction threshold, supplemental data are required. Using the available data as the first stage, the Ds-optimal second-stage design criterion was applied to minimize the variance of the hypothesized interaction threshold. Practical concerns associated with the resulting design are discussed and addressed using the penalized optimality criterion. Results demonstrate that the penalized Ds-optimal second-stage design can be used to more precisely define the interaction threshold while maintaining the characteristics deemed important in practice. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. Use of Heart Rate Variability to Estimate Lactate Threshold in Coronary Artery Disease Patients during Resistance Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Simões, Rodrigo P.; Mendes, Renata G.; Castello-Simões, Viviane; Catai, Aparecida M.; Arena, Ross; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether it is possible to identify the first turn point of blood lactate (BL) concentration (1st lactate threshold - LT1) during a discontinuous resistance exercise protocol in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients and verify if heart rate variability (HRV) responses are consistent with BL responses. A total of 22 elderly men, 12 with CAD and 10 apparently healthy (control group = CG), underwent one-repetition maximum (1RM) testing on an inclined leg ...

  4. Susceptibility mapping and estimation of rainfall threshold using space based input for assessment of landslide hazard in Guwahati city in North East India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhusan, K.; Kundu, S. S.; Goswami, K.; Sudhakar, S.

    2014-11-01

    Slopes are the most common landforms in North Eastern Region (NER) of India and because of its relatively immature topography, active tectonics, and intense rainfall activities; the region is susceptible to landslide incidences. The scenario is further aggravated due to unscientific human activities leading to destabilization of slopes. Guwahati, the capital city of Assam also experiences similar hazardous situation especially during monsoon season thus demanding a systematic study towards landslide risk reduction. A systematic assessment of landslide hazard requires understanding of two components, "where" and "when" that landslides may occur. Presently no such system exists for Guwahati city due to lack of landslide inventory data, high resolution thematic maps, DEM, sparse rain gauge network, etc. The present study elucidates the potential of space-based inputs in addressing the problem in absence of field-based observing networks. First, Landslide susceptibility map in 1 : 10,000 scale was derived by integrating geospatial datasets interpreted from high resolution satellite data. Secondly, the rainfall threshold for dynamic triggering of landslide was estimated using rainfall estimates from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis. The 3B41RT data for 1 hourly rainfall estimates were used to make Intensity-Duration plot. Critical rainfall was estimated for every incidence by analysing cumulative rainfall leading to a landslide for total of 19 incidences and an empirical rainfall intensity-duration threshold for triggering shallow debris slides was developed (Intensity = 5.9 Duration-0.479).

  5. Preliminary Investigation of the Passively Evoked N400 as a Tool for Estimating Speech-in-Noise Thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, Caroline; Aiken, Steve J; Kiefte, Michael; Newman, Aaron J; Bance, Manohar; Sculthorpe-Petley, Lauren

    2016-12-01

    Speech-in-noise testing relies on a number of factors beyond the auditory system, such as cognitive function, compliance, and motor function. It may be possible to avoid these limitations by using electroencephalography. The present study explored this possibility using the N400. Eleven adults with typical hearing heard high-constraint sentences with congruent and incongruent terminal words in the presence of speech-shaped noise. Participants ignored all auditory stimulation and watched a video. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was varied around each participant's behavioral threshold during electroencephalography recording. Speech was also heard in quiet. The amplitude of the N400 effect exhibited a nonlinear relationship with SNR. In the presence of background noise, amplitude decreased from high (+4 dB) to low (+1 dB) SNR but increased dramatically at threshold before decreasing again at subthreshold SNR (-2 dB). The SNR of speech in noise modulates the amplitude of the N400 effect to semantic anomalies in a nonlinear fashion. These results are the first to demonstrate modulation of the passively evoked N400 by SNR in speech-shaped noise and represent a first step toward the end goal of developing an N400-based physiological metric for speech-in-noise testing.

  6. Bayesian estimation of genetic parameters for multivariate threshold and continuous phenotypes and molecular genetic data in simulated horse populations using Gibbs sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoeschele Ina

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Requirements for successful implementation of multivariate animal threshold models including phenotypic and genotypic information are not known yet. Here simulated horse data were used to investigate the properties of multivariate estimators of genetic parameters for categorical, continuous and molecular genetic data in the context of important radiological health traits using mixed linear-threshold animal models via Gibbs sampling. The simulated pedigree comprised 7 generations and 40000 animals per generation. Additive genetic values, residuals and fixed effects for one continuous trait and liabilities of four binary traits were simulated, resembling situations encountered in the Warmblood horse. Quantitative trait locus (QTL effects and genetic marker information were simulated for one of the liabilities. Different scenarios with respect to recombination rate between genetic markers and QTL and polymorphism information content of genetic markers were studied. For each scenario ten replicates were sampled from the simulated population, and within each replicate six different datasets differing in number and distribution of animals with trait records and availability of genetic marker information were generated. (CoVariance components were estimated using a Bayesian mixed linear-threshold animal model via Gibbs sampling. Residual variances were fixed to zero and a proper prior was used for the genetic covariance matrix. Results Effective sample sizes (ESS and biases of genetic parameters differed significantly between datasets. Bias of heritability estimates was -6% to +6% for the continuous trait, -6% to +10% for the binary traits of moderate heritability, and -21% to +25% for the binary traits of low heritability. Additive genetic correlations were mostly underestimated between the continuous trait and binary traits of low heritability, under- or overestimated between the continuous trait and binary traits of moderate

  7. Estimating economic thresholds for site-specific weed control using manual weed counts and sensor technology: an example based on three winter wheat trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Martina; Gutjahr, Christoph; Möhring, Jens; Weis, Martin; Sökefeld, Markus; Gerhards, Roland

    2014-02-01

    Precision experimental design uses the natural heterogeneity of agricultural fields and combines sensor technology with linear mixed models to estimate the effect of weeds, soil properties and herbicide on yield. These estimates can be used to derive economic thresholds. Three field trials are presented using the precision experimental design in winter wheat. Weed densities were determined by manual sampling and bi-spectral cameras, yield and soil properties were mapped. Galium aparine, other broad-leaved weeds and Alopecurus myosuroides reduced yield by 17.5, 1.2 and 12.4 kg ha(-1) plant(-1)  m(2) in one trial. The determined thresholds for site-specific weed control with independently applied herbicides were 4, 48 and 12 plants m(-2), respectively. Spring drought reduced yield effects of weeds considerably in one trial, since water became yield limiting. A negative herbicide effect on the crop was negligible, except in one trial, in which the herbicide mixture tended to reduce yield by 0.6 t ha(-1). Bi-spectral cameras for weed counting were of limited use and still need improvement. Nevertheless, large weed patches were correctly identified. The current paper presents a new approach to conducting field trials and deriving decision rules for weed control in farmers' fields. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Estimation of the effects of rain-wind induced vibration in the design stage of inclined stay cables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, C.P.W.; Staalduinen, P.C. van

    1999-01-01

    Rain-wind induced vibration of stay cables is a great concern for the designers of cable stayed bridges. Despite numerous experimental investigations, an accurate quantitative prediction of this effect in the design stage is not feasible without extensive experiments. This paper presents a model to

  9. Feedback of threshold via estimating sources and composition of sedimentary organic matter across trophic gradients in freshwater lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoguang; Li, Wei; Fujibayashi, Megumu; Nomura, Munehiro; Sakamaki, Takashi; Nishimura, Osamu; Li, Xianning

    2014-12-01

    The quantity and quality of sedimentary organic matter (SOM) in relation to material and energy flows are crucial for understanding the current state and future development of lake systems, yet, characterization of organic matter sources and assessment of their relative contributions in different trophic-state lakes caused by anthropogenic impacts are scarcely known. In this study, for obtaining information concerning the source of SOM and its compositional diversity along different trophic gradients, a total of thirty-one sampling sites from four freshwater lakes located in China and Japan were performed by the molecular level analysis using source-specific fatty acid biomarkers. Results indicated that SOM in these lakes was composed of microalgae-, aquatic plant-, terrestrial plant- and bacteria-derived organic matters based on their fatty acid profiles. The scatter plot matrix exhibited correlations between these sources, however, only terrestrial plant-derived organic carbon was a well predictor for sediment TOC with strong, spatiotemporal dynamics. The source and composition of SOM were evidently influenced by lake trophic state with redundancy analysis. Moreover, increase of lake trophic state led to the relatively higher contribution of aquatic organic matter sources to SOM pool compared with terrigenous sources, as evidenced by significant correlations between the trophic state index [TSI (TP)] and the ratio of terrigenous to aquatic fatty acids (TARFA ratio). Yet, this changing trend became more gradual with higher trophic state and prevented the occurrence of regime shift from allochthonous to autochthonous dominant state by a threshold (0.683) of TARFA ratio. Together, a conceptual diagram was proposed, which highlighted the prevailing state of allochthonous source and implicated sedimentary organics in biogeochemistry cycle within freshwater lakes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Improved practical formulas for estimation of cable tension by vibration method; Shindoho ni yoru cable choryoku jitsuyo santeishiki no hosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zui, H. [Setsunan University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Shinke, T. [Kobe Technical College, Kobe, Kobe (Japan); Hamazaki, Y. [Kobe Steel, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1995-10-21

    The vibration method is usually utilized on the measurement of cable tension during construction of cable bridge such as Nielsen bridges or cable stayed bridges. Practical formula for the vibration method previously proposed by authors is often used where bending rigidity is taken into account. These formula, however, have a certain limit of application and do not yield good results when the cable is not slender or not enough mentioned. The practical formula is modified to improve the accuracy and new formulas are made. The new practical formulas are applicable to any cables, regardless of its length and tension in it. The accuracy is confirmed through comparison of the value obtained by practical formulas with measured values and calculated value by F.E.M. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Simulated vibrational spectra of aflatoxins and their demethylated products and the estimation of the energies of the demethylation reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billes, Ferenc; Móricz, Ágnes M.; Tyihák, Ernő; Mikosch, Hans

    2006-06-01

    The structure of four natural mycotoxins, the aflatoxin B 1, B 2, G 1 and G 2 and their demethylated products were optimized with quantum chemical method. The energies and the thermodynamic functions of the molecules were calculated and applied to calculation of the reaction energies of the demethylations. Further results of the calculations are the vibrational force constants, the infrared spectra of the molecules and the assignments of the spectral bands.

  12. A fully automatic, threshold-based segmentation method for the estimation of the Metabolic Tumor Volume from PET images: validation on 3D printed anthropomorphic oncological lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallivanone, F.; Interlenghi, M.; Canervari, C.; Castiglioni, I.

    2016-01-01

    18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a standard functional diagnostic technique to in vivo image cancer. Different quantitative paramters can be extracted from PET images and used as in vivo cancer biomarkers. Between PET biomarkers Metabolic Tumor Volume (MTV) has gained an important role in particular considering the development of patient-personalized radiotherapy treatment for non-homogeneous dose delivery. Different imaging processing methods have been developed to define MTV. The different proposed PET segmentation strategies were validated in ideal condition (e.g. in spherical objects with uniform radioactivity concentration), while the majority of cancer lesions doesn't fulfill these requirements. In this context, this work has a twofold objective: 1) to implement and optimize a fully automatic, threshold-based segmentation method for the estimation of MTV, feasible in clinical practice 2) to develop a strategy to obtain anthropomorphic phantoms, including non-spherical and non-uniform objects, miming realistic oncological patient conditions. The developed PET segmentation algorithm combines an automatic threshold-based algorithm for the definition of MTV and a k-means clustering algorithm for the estimation of the background. The method is based on parameters always available in clinical studies and was calibrated using NEMA IQ Phantom. Validation of the method was performed both in ideal (e.g. in spherical objects with uniform radioactivity concentration) and non-ideal (e.g. in non-spherical objects with a non-uniform radioactivity concentration) conditions. The strategy to obtain a phantom with synthetic realistic lesions (e.g. with irregular shape and a non-homogeneous uptake) consisted into the combined use of standard anthropomorphic phantoms commercially and irregular molds generated using 3D printer technology and filled with a radioactive chromatic alginate. The proposed segmentation algorithm was feasible in a

  13. A New Fuzzy Sliding Mode Controller with a Disturbance Estimator for Robust Vibration Control of a Semi-Active Vehicle Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Keun Song

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new fuzzy sliding mode controller (FSMC to improve control performances in the presence of uncertainties related to model errors and external disturbance (UAD. As a first step, an adaptive control law is designed using Lyapunov stability analysis. The control law can update control parameters of the FSMC with a disturbance estimator (DE in which the closed-loop stability and finite-time convergence of tracking error are guaranteed. A solution for estimating the compensative quantity of the impact of UAD on a control system and a set of solutions are then presented in order to avoid the singular cases of the fuzzy-based function approximation, increase convergence ability, and reduce the calculating cost. Subsequently, the effectiveness of the proposed controller is verified through the investigation of vibration control performances of a semi-active vehicle suspension system featuring a magnetorheological damper (MRD. It is shown that the proposed controller can provide better control ability of vibration control with lower consumed power compared with two existing fuzzy sliding mode controllers.

  14. Improving vehicle tracking rate and speed estimation in dusty and snowy weather conditions with a vibrating camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghoobi Ershadi, Nastaran

    2017-01-01

    Traffic surveillance systems are interesting to many researchers to improve the traffic control and reduce the risk caused by accidents. In this area, many published works are only concerned about vehicle detection in normal conditions. The camera may vibrate due to wind or bridge movement. Detection and tracking of vehicles is a very difficult task when we have bad weather conditions in winter (snowy, rainy, windy, etc.), dusty weather in arid and semi-arid regions, at night, etc. Also, it is very important to consider speed of vehicles in the complicated weather condition. In this paper, we improved our method to track and count vehicles in dusty weather with vibrating camera. For this purpose, we used a background subtraction based strategy mixed with an extra processing to segment vehicles. In this paper, the extra processing included the analysis of the headlight size, location, and area. In our work, tracking was done between consecutive frames via a generalized particle filter to detect the vehicle and pair the headlights using the connected component analysis. So, vehicle counting was performed based on the pairing result, with Centroid of each blob we calculated distance between two frames by simple formula and hence dividing it by the time between two frames obtained from the video. Our proposed method was tested on several video surveillance records in different conditions such as dusty or foggy weather, vibrating camera, and in roads with medium-level traffic volumes. The results showed that the new proposed method performed better than our previously published method and other methods, including the Kalman filter or Gaussian model, in different traffic conditions.

  15. Estimating the dim light melatonin onset of adolescents within a 6-h sampling window: the impact of sampling rate and threshold method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Stephanie J; Suh, Christina; Molina, Thomas A; Fogg, Louis F; Sharkey, Katherine M; Carskadon, Mary A

    2016-04-01

    Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders (CRSWDs) often manifest during the adolescent years. Measurement of circadian phase such as the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) improves diagnosis and treatment of these disorders, but financial and time costs limit the use of DLMO phase assessments in clinic. The current analysis aims to inform a cost-effective and efficient protocol to measure the DLMO in older adolescents by reducing the number of samples and total sampling duration. A total of 66 healthy adolescents (26 males) aged 14.8-17.8 years participated in a study; they were required to sleep on a fixed baseline schedule for a week before which they visited the laboratory for saliva collection in dim light (<20 lux). Two partial 6-h salivary melatonin profiles were derived for each participant. Both profiles began 5 h before bedtime and ended 1 h after bedtime, but one profile was derived from samples taken every 30 min (13 samples) and the other from samples taken every 60 min (seven samples). Three standard thresholds (first three melatonin values mean + 2 SDs, 3 pg/mL, and 4 pg/mL) were used to compute the DLMO. An agreement between DLMOs derived from 30-min and 60-min sampling rates was determined using Bland-Altman analysis; agreement between the sampling rate DLMOs was defined as ± 1 h. Within a 6-h sampling window, 60-min sampling provided DLMO estimates within ± 1 h of DLMO from 30-min sampling, but only when an absolute threshold (3 or 4 pg/mL) was used to compute the DLMO. Future analyses should be extended to include adolescents with CRSWDs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Acoustic Reflexes in Normal-Hearing Adults, Typically Developing Children, and Children with Suspected Auditory Processing Disorder: Thresholds, Real-Ear Corrections, and the Role of Static Compliance on Estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Udit; Allan, Chris; Allen, Prudence

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies have suggested elevated reflex thresholds in children with auditory processing disorders (APDs). However, some aspects of the child's ear such as ear canal volume and static compliance of the middle ear could possibly affect the measurements of reflex thresholds and thus impact its interpretation. Sound levels used to elicit reflexes in a child's ear may be higher than predicted by calibration in a standard 2-cc coupler, and lower static compliance could make visualization of very small changes in impedance at threshold difficult. For this purpose, it is important to evaluate threshold data with consideration of differences between children and adults. A set of studies were conducted. The first compared reflex thresholds obtained using standard clinical procedures in children with suspected APD to that of typically developing children and adults to test the replicability of previous studies. The second study examined the impact of ear canal volume on estimates of reflex thresholds by applying real-ear corrections. Lastly, the relationship between static compliance and reflex threshold estimates was explored. The research is a set of case-control studies with a repeated measures design. The first study included data from 20 normal-hearing adults, 28 typically developing children, and 66 children suspected of having an APD. The second study included 28 normal-hearing adults and 30 typically developing children. In the first study, crossed and uncrossed reflex thresholds were measured in 5-dB step size. Reflex thresholds were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA). In the second study, uncrossed reflex thresholds, real-ear correction, ear canal volume, and static compliance were measured. Reflex thresholds were measured using a 1-dB step size. The effect of real-ear correction and static compliance on reflex threshold was examined using RM-ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient, respectively. Study 1 replicated previous

  17. Future needs and recommendations in the development of species sensitivity distributions: Estimating toxicity thresholds for aquatic ecological communities and assessing impacts of chemical exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Scott; Barron, Mace; Craig, Peter; Dyer, Scott; Galay-Burgos, Malyka; Hamer, Mick; Marshall, Stuart; Posthuma, Leo; Raimondo, Sandy; Whitehouse, Paul

    2017-07-01

    A species sensitivity distribution (SSD) is a probability model of the variation of species sensitivities to a stressor, in particular chemical exposure. The SSD approach has been used as a decision support tool in environmental protection and management since the 1980s, and the ecotoxicological, statistical, and regulatory basis and applications continue to evolve. This article summarizes the findings of a 2014 workshop held by the European Centre for Toxicology and Ecotoxicology of Chemicals and the UK Environment Agency in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, on the ecological relevance, statistical basis, and regulatory applications of SSDs. An array of research recommendations categorized under the topical areas of use of SSDs, ecological considerations, guideline considerations, method development and validation, toxicity data, mechanistic understanding, and uncertainty were identified and prioritized. A rationale for the most critical research needs identified in the workshop is provided. The workshop reviewed the technical basis and historical development and application of SSDs, described approaches to estimating generic and scenario-specific SSD-based thresholds, evaluated utility and application of SSDs as diagnostic tools, and presented new statistical approaches to formulate SSDs. Collectively, these address many of the research needs to expand and improve their application. The highest priority work, from a pragmatic regulatory point of view, is to develop a guidance of best practices that could act as a basis for global harmonization and discussions regarding the SSD methodology and tools. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:664-674. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  18. Evidence towards improved estimation of respiratory muscle effort from diaphragm mechanomyographic signals with cardiac vibration interference using sample entropy with fixed tolerance values.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Sarlabous

    Full Text Available The analysis of amplitude parameters of the diaphragm mechanomyographic (MMGdi signal is a non-invasive technique to assess respiratory muscle effort and to detect and quantify the severity of respiratory muscle weakness. The amplitude of the MMGdi signal is usually evaluated using the average rectified value or the root mean square of the signal. However, these estimations are greatly affected by the presence of cardiac vibration or mechanocardiographic (MCG noise. In this study, we present a method for improving the estimation of the respiratory muscle effort from MMGdi signals that is robust to the presence of MCG. This method is based on the calculation of the sample entropy using fixed tolerance values (fSampEn, that is, with tolerance values that are not normalized by the local standard deviation of the window analyzed. The behavior of the fSampEn parameter was tested in synthesized mechanomyographic signals, with different ratios between the amplitude of the MCG and clean mechanomyographic components. As an example of application of this technique, the use of fSampEn was explored also in recorded MMGdi signals, with different inspiratory loads. The results with both synthetic and recorded signals indicate that the entropy parameter is less affected by the MCG noise, especially at low signal-to-noise ratios. Therefore, we believe that the proposed fSampEn parameter could improve estimates of respiratory muscle effort from MMGdi signals with the presence of MCG interference.

  19. An SVM-Based Classifier for Estimating the State of Various Rotating Components in Agro-Industrial Machinery with a Vibration Signal Acquired from a Single Point on the Machine Chassis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Ruiz-Gonzalez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to assess the feasibility of estimating the state of various rotating components in agro-industrial machinery by employing just one vibration signal acquired from a single point on the machine chassis. To do so, a Support Vector Machine (SVM-based system is employed. Experimental tests evaluated this system by acquiring vibration data from a single point of an agricultural harvester, while varying several of its working conditions. The whole process included two major steps. Initially, the vibration data were preprocessed through twelve feature extraction algorithms, after which the Exhaustive Search method selected the most suitable features. Secondly, the SVM-based system accuracy was evaluated by using Leave-One-Out cross-validation, with the selected features as the input data. The results of this study provide evidence that (i accurate estimation of the status of various rotating components in agro-industrial machinery is possible by processing the vibration signal acquired from a single point on the machine structure; (ii the vibration signal can be acquired with a uniaxial accelerometer, the orientation of which does not significantly affect the classification accuracy; and, (iii when using an SVM classifier, an 85% mean cross-validation accuracy can be reached, which only requires a maximum of seven features as its input, and no significant improvements are noted between the use of either nonlinear or linear kernels.

  20. The Shock Vibration Bulletin. Part 4. Structural Dynamics and Modal Test and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Feb. 1971. 17 16. B. Bresler, and A. C. Scordelis , ’Shear Strength of Reinforced Concrete Beams-,Series 100, Issue 13, Structure and Material Research...their adequacy. Dynamic analyses, choice of failure thresholds of failure are even harder to theories , and an accurate dynamic model are estimate...without experimental evidence. shown to be crucial in fulfilling the 29 71 L requirements. Vibration testing data are theories of failure have to be

  1. VIBRATION ISOLATION SYSTEM PROBABILITY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov Vladimir Alexandrovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the probability analysis for a vibration isolation system of high-precision equipment, which is extremely sensitive to low-frequency oscillations even of submicron amplitude. The external sources of low-frequency vibrations may include the natural city background or internal low-frequency sources inside buildings (pedestrian activity, HVAC. Taking Gauss distribution into account, the author estimates the probability of the relative displacement of the isolated mass being still lower than the vibration criteria. This problem is being solved in the three dimensional space, evolved by the system parameters, including damping and natural frequency. According to this probability distribution, the chance of exceeding the vibration criteria for a vibration isolation system is evaluated. Optimal system parameters - damping and natural frequency - are being developed, thus the possibility of exceeding vibration criteria VC-E and VC-D is assumed to be less than 0.04.

  2. Monitoring vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiryaki, B. [Hacettepe University (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2003-12-01

    The paper examines the prediction and optimisation of machine vibrations in longwall shearers. Underground studies were carried out at the Middle Anatolian Lignite Mine, between 1993 and 1997. Several shearer drums with different pick lacing arrangements were designed and tested on double-ended ranging longwall shearers employed at the mine. A computer program called the Vibration Analysis Program (VAP) was developed for analysing machine vibrations in longwall shearers. Shearer drums that were tested underground, as well as some provided by leading manufacturers, were analyzed using these programs. The results of the experiments and computer analyses are given in the article. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  3. The effects of sound level and vibration magnitude on the relative discomfort of noise and vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Griffin, Michael J

    2012-06-01

    The relative discomfort caused by noise and vibration, how this depends on the level of noise and the magnitude of vibration, and whether the noise and vibration are presented simultaneously or sequentially has been investigated in a laboratory study with 20 subjects. Noise and vertical vibration were reproduced with all 49 combinations of 7 levels of noise and 7 magnitudes of vibration to allow the discomfort caused by one of the stimuli to be judged relative to the other stimulus using magnitude estimation. In four sessions, subjects judged noise relative to vibration and vibration relative to noise, with both simultaneous and sequential presentations of the stimuli. The equivalence of noise and vibration was not greatly dependent on whether the stimuli were simultaneous or sequential, but highly dependent on whether noise was judged relative to vibration or vibration was judged relative to noise. When judging noise, higher magnitude vibrations appeared to mask the discomfort caused by low levels of noise. When judging vibration, higher level noises appeared to mask the discomfort caused by low magnitudes of vibration. The judgment of vibration discomfort was more influenced by noise than the judgment of noise discomfort was influenced by vibration.

  4. Extent and Area of Swidden in Montane Mainland Southeast Asia: Estimation by Multi-Step Thresholds with Landsat-8 OLI Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Information on the distribution, area and extent of swidden agriculture landscape is necessary for implementing the program of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD, biodiversity conservation and local livelihood improvement. To our knowledge, explicit spatial maps and accurate area data on swidden agriculture remain surprisingly lacking. However, this traditional farming practice has been transforming into other profit-driven land use, like tree plantations and permanent cash agriculture. Swidden agriculture is characterized by a rotational and dynamic nature of agroforestry, with land cover changing from natural forests, newly-cleared swiddens to different-aged fallows. The Operational Land Imager (OLI onboard the Landsat-8 satellite has visible, near-infrared and shortwave infrared bands, which are sensitive to the changes in vegetation cover, land surface moisture content and soil exposure, and therefore, four vegetation indices (VIs were calculated, including the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, the Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI, the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR and the Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI. In this study, we developed a multi-step threshold approach that uses a combination of thresholds of four VIs and local elevation range (LER and applied it to detect and map newly-opened swiddens and different-aged fallows using OLI imagery acquired between 2013 and 2015. The resultant Landsat-derived swidden agriculture maps have high accuracy with an overall accuracy of 86.9% and a Kappa coefficient of 0.864. The results of this study indicated that the Landsat-based multi-step threshold algorithms could potentially be applied to monitor the long-term change pattern of swidden agriculture in montane mainland Southeast Asia since the late 1980s and also in other tropical regions, like insular Southeast Asia, South Asia, Latin America and Central Africa, where swidden agriculture is

  5. Fundamental study on the new method to estimate vibration level on a ship. Formulation of the damping matrix based on dissipation energy caused by fluid viscosity; Senpaku no shindo level suitei ni kansuru kisoteki kenkyu. Ryutai no nensei ni yoru san`itsu energy ni motozuku gensui matrix no teishikika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funaki, T.; Hayashi, S. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of engineering

    1996-12-31

    It is known in estimating vibration characteristics of a ship that fluid range affects largely a structure. In order to analyze the compound vibration therein, a method was proposed, which estimates vibration levels without using the finite element method. However, the problem of mode decay ratio has not been solved. Therefore, this paper first describes a method to introduce an equivalent linear decay matrix. The paper then mentions difference in the decay effects due to fluid viscosity in a shallow and deep water regions. Furthermore, vibration levels in the deep water region were estimated in a model experiment to verify the estimation result. Under a hypothesis that two-node vibration in a rotating ellipse has displacement distributions in the deep and shallow water regions equivalent, and when a case of vibration in a layer flow condition is calculated, dissipation energy in the shallow region is larger than that in the deep region by about 26%. About 5% of the total dissipation energy is consumed at bottom of the sea. According to a frequency response calculation, estimated values for the response levels still differ from experimental values, although the trend that the vibration levels change can be reproduced. 6 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Vibrating minds

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Ed Witten is one of the leading scientists in the field of string theory, the theory that describes elementary particles as vibrating strings. This week he leaves CERN after having spent a few months here on sabbatical. His wish is that the LHC will unveil supersymmetry.

  7. The estimation of convective rainfall by area integrals. I - The theoretical and empirical basis. II - The height-area rainfall threshold (HART) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Daniel; Short, David A.; Atlas, David

    1990-01-01

    A theory is developed which establishes the basis for the use of rainfall areas within present thresholds as a measure of either the instantaneous areawide rain rate of convective storms or the total volume of rain from an individual storm over its lifetime. The method is based upon the existence of a well-behaved pdf of rain rate either from the many storms at one instant or from a single storm during its life. The generality of the instantaneous areawide method was examined by applying it to quantitative radar data sets from the GARP Tropical Atlantic Experiment for South Africa, Texas, and Darwin (Australia). It is shown that the pdf's developed for each of these areas are consistent with the theory.

  8. Setting thresholds to varying blood pressure monitoring intervals differentially affects risk estimates associated with white-coat and masked hypertension in the population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asayama, Kei; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan; Gu, Yu-Mei; Hara, Azusa; Liu, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Zhenyu; Wei, Fang-Fei; Lujambio, Inés; Mena, Luis J; Boggia, José; Hansen, Tine W; Björklund-Bodegård, Kristina; Nomura, Kyoko; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Dolan, Eamon; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Malyutina, Sofia; Casiglia, Edoardo; Nikitin, Yuri; Lind, Lars; Luzardo, Leonella; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Sandoya, Edgardo; Filipovský, Jan; Maestre, Gladys E; Wang, Jiguang; Imai, Yutaka; Franklin, Stanley S; O'Brien, Eoin; Staessen, Jan A

    2014-11-01

    Outcome-driven recommendations about time intervals during which ambulatory blood pressure should be measured to diagnose white-coat or masked hypertension are lacking. We cross-classified 8237 untreated participants (mean age, 50.7 years; 48.4% women) enrolled in 12 population studies, using ≥140/≥90, ≥130/≥80, ≥135/≥85, and ≥120/≥70 mm Hg as hypertension thresholds for conventional, 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime blood pressure. White-coat hypertension was hypertension on conventional measurement with ambulatory normotension, the opposite condition being masked hypertension. Intervals used for classification of participants were daytime, nighttime, and 24 hours, first considered separately, and next combined as 24 hours plus daytime or plus nighttime, or plus both. Depending on time intervals chosen, white-coat and masked hypertension frequencies ranged from 6.3% to 12.5% and from 9.7% to 19.6%, respectively. During 91 046 person-years, 729 participants experienced a cardiovascular event. In multivariable analyses with normotension during all intervals of the day as reference, hazard ratios associated with white-coat hypertension progressively weakened considering daytime only (1.38; P=0.033), nighttime only (1.43; P=0.0074), 24 hours only (1.21; P=0.20), 24 hours plus daytime (1.24; P=0.18), 24 hours plus nighttime (1.15; P=0.39), and 24 hours plus daytime and nighttime (1.16; P=0.41). The hazard ratios comparing masked hypertension with normotension were all significant (Phypertension requires setting thresholds simultaneously to 24 hours, daytime, and nighttime blood pressure. Although any time interval suffices to diagnose masked hypertension, as proposed in current guidelines, full 24-hour recordings remain standard in clinical practice. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Setting Thresholds to Varying Blood Pressure Monitoring Intervals Differentially Affects Risk Estimates Associated With White-Coat and Masked Hypertension in the Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asayama, Kei; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan; Gu, Yu-Mei; Hara, Azusa; Liu, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Zhenyu; Wei, Fang-Fei; Lujambio, Inés; Mena, Luis J.; Boggia, José; Hansen, Tine W.; Björklund-Bodegård, Kristina; Nomura, Kyoko; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Dolan, Eamon; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Malyutina, Sofia; Casiglia, Edoardo; Nikitin, Yuri; Lind, Lars; Luzardo, Leonella; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Sandoya, Edgardo; Filipovský, Jan; Maestre, Gladys E.; Wang, Jiguang; Imai, Yutaka; Franklin, Stanley S.; O’Brien, Eoin; Staessen, Jan A.

    2015-01-01

    Outcome-driven recommendations about time intervals during which ambulatory blood pressure should be measured to diagnose white-coat or masked hypertension are lacking. We cross-classified 8237 untreated participants (mean age, 50.7 years; 48.4% women) enrolled in 12 population studies, using ≥140/≥90, ≥130/≥80, ≥135/≥85, and ≥120/≥70 mm Hg as hypertension thresholds for conventional, 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime blood pressure. White-coat hypertension was hypertension on conventional measurement with ambulatory normotension, the opposite condition being masked hypertension. Intervals used for classification of participants were daytime, nighttime, and 24 hours, first considered separately, and next combined as 24 hours plus daytime or plus nighttime, or plus both. Depending on time intervals chosen, white-coat and masked hypertension frequencies ranged from 6.3% to 12.5% and from 9.7% to 19.6%, respectively. During 91 046 person-years, 729 participants experienced a cardiovascular event. In multivariable analyses with normotension during all intervals of the day as reference, hazard ratios associated with white-coat hypertension progressively weakened considering daytime only (1.38; P=0.033), nighttime only (1.43; P=0.0074), 24 hours only (1.21; P=0.20), 24 hours plus daytime (1.24; P=0.18), 24 hours plus nighttime (1.15; P=0.39), and 24 hours plus daytime and nighttime (1.16; P=0.41). The hazard ratios comparing masked hypertension with normotension were all significant (Phypertension requires setting thresholds simultaneously to 24 hours, daytime, and nighttime blood pressure. Although any time interval suffices to diagnose masked hypertension, as proposed in current guidelines, full 24-hour recordings remain standard in clinical practice. PMID:25135185

  10. Estimating sediment quality thresholds to prevent restrictions on fish consumption: Application to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins-furans in the Canadian Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Gewurtz, Sarah B; Helm, Paul A; Labencki, Tanya L; Marvin, Christopher H; Fletcher, Rachael; Hayton, Alan; Reiner, Eric J; Boyd, Duncan

    2010-10-01

    Sediment quality thresholds (SQTs) are used by a variety of agencies to assess the potential for adverse impact of sediment-associated contaminants on aquatic biota, typically benthic invertebrates. However, sedimentary contaminants can also result in elevated fish contaminant levels, triggering consumption advisories that are protective of humans. As such, SQTs that would result in fish concentrations below consumption advisory levels should also be considered. To illustrate how this can be addressed, we first calculate biota sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for polychlorinated biphenyls (total PCB) and polychlorinated dioxins-furans (PCDD/Fs) in the Canadian Great Lakes using measured lake sediment and fish tissue concentrations in 4 fish species, namely, lake trout, whitefish, rainbow trout, and channel catfish. Using these BSAFs and tissue residue values for fish consumption advisories employed by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment (OMOE, Canada), we derive fish consumption advisory-based SQTs (fca-SQTs) that are likely to result in fish tissue residues that are safe to eat without restriction. The PCDD/Fs fca-SQTs ranged from 6 to 128 pg toxic equivalents (TEQ)/g dry weight (dw) and were above the Canadian Council of the Ministers of the Environment (CCME) threshold effect level (TEL) of 0.85 pg TEQ/g dw. In contrast, the total PCB fca-SQTs ranged from 1 to 60 ng/g dw and were generally below the CCME's TEL of 34.1 ng/g and OMOE's lowest effect level (LEL) of 70 ng/g; however, they were consistent with the OMOE's no effect level (NEL) of 10 ng/g. The fca-SQTs derived using the BSAF as well as food chain multiplier (FCM) approach for a smaller scale system (Hamilton Harbour in Lake Ontario) corresponded well with average lakewide Lake Ontario fca-SQTs. This analysis provides approximate sediment concentrations necessary for reducing fish consumption advisories for each of the Canadian Great Lakes and emphasizes the impacts of historical

  11. CARA Risk Assessment Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejduk, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Warning remediation threshold (Red threshold): Pc level at which warnings are issued, and active remediation considered and usually executed. Analysis threshold (Green to Yellow threshold): Pc level at which analysis of event is indicated, including seeking additional information if warranted. Post-remediation threshold: Pc level to which remediation maneuvers are sized in order to achieve event remediation and obviate any need for immediate follow-up maneuvers. Maneuver screening threshold: Pc compliance level for routine maneuver screenings (more demanding than regular Red threshold due to additional maneuver uncertainty).

  12. Evaluation of Growth Indices and Estimation Seed Yield Loss Threshold of Canola in Response to Various Densities of Crop and Wild Mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Anafjeh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In order to study the effect of various densities of wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L. on growth indices of Canola (Brassica napus L. in climate of Molathani, Ahvaz, an experiment was conducted in the experimental field of Ramin Agricultural and Natural Resources University, in 2006-2007. The split-plot set of treatments was arranged within randomized complete block design with four replications. Treatments included of wild mustard at five levels (0, 7, 14, 21 and 35 plants m2 and Canola at three densities (60, 80 and 100 plants m2. The results showed that the increase in mustard density rates lead to decreasing total dry matter, leaf area index, crop growth rate, relative growth rate and mean pod dry matter in three canola densities (60, 80 and 100 plants m2. Somewhat the lowest growth indices was obtained in 35 plants mustard (that is the highest mustard density. In addition damage rate of mustard decreased canola seed yield for 7, 14, 21 and 35 plants mustard up to 61, 71, 76 and 91%, respectively. Keywords: Plant density, Competition, Yield loss threshold, Growth indices, Canola, Mustard

  13. Body composition estimation from selected slices: equations computed from a new semi-automatic thresholding method developed on whole-body CT scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Chiara; Brůžek, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Background Estimating volumes and masses of total body components is important for the study and treatment monitoring of nutrition and nutrition-related disorders, cancer, joint replacement, energy-expenditure and exercise physiology. While several equations have been offered for estimating total body components from MRI slices, no reliable and tested method exists for CT scans. For the first time, body composition data was derived from 41 high-resolution whole-body CT scans. From these data, we defined equations for estimating volumes and masses of total body AT and LT from corresponding tissue areas measured in selected CT scan slices. Methods We present a new semi-automatic approach to defining the density cutoff between adipose tissue (AT) and lean tissue (LT) in such material. An intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to validate the method. The equations for estimating the whole-body composition volume and mass from areas measured in selected slices were modeled with ordinary least squares (OLS) linear regressions and support vector machine regression (SVMR). Results and Discussion The best predictive equation for total body AT volume was based on the AT area of a single slice located between the 4th and 5th lumbar vertebrae (L4-L5) and produced lower prediction errors (|PE| = 1.86 liters, %PE = 8.77) than previous equations also based on CT scans. The LT area of the mid-thigh provided the lowest prediction errors (|PE| = 2.52 liters, %PE = 7.08) for estimating whole-body LT volume. We also present equations to predict total body AT and LT masses from a slice located at L4-L5 that resulted in reduced error compared with the previously published equations based on CT scans. The multislice SVMR predictor gave the theoretical upper limit for prediction precision of volumes and cross-validated the results. PMID:28533960

  14. Tactile thresholds in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metka Moharić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The assessment of sensory thresholds provides a method of examining the function of peripheral nerve fibers and their central connections. Quantitative sensory testing is a variant of conventional sensory testing wherein the goal is the quantification of the level of stimulation needed to produce a particular sensation. While thermal and vibratory testing are established methods in assessment of sensory thresholds, assessment of tactile thresholds with monofilaments is not used routinely. The purpose of this study was to assess the tactile thresholds in normal healthy population.Methods: In 39 healthy volunteers (19 men aged 21 to 71 years, tactile thresholds were assessed with von Frey’s hair in 7 parts of the body bilaterally.Results: We found touch sensitivity not to be dependent on age or gender. The right side was significantly more sensitive in the lateral part of the leg (p=0.011 and the left side in the medial part of the arm (p=0.022. There were also significant differences between sites (p<0.001, whereby distal parts of the body were more sensitive.Conclusions: Von Frey filaments allow the estimation of tactile thresholds without the need for complicated instrumentation.

  15. A Review of Feature Extraction Methods in Vibration-Based Condition Monitoring and Its Application for Degradation Trend Estimation of Low-Speed Slew Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Caesarendra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical study of feature extraction methods for the application of low-speed slew bearing condition monitoring. The aim of the study is to find the proper features that represent the degradation condition of slew bearing rotating at very low speed (≈ 1 r/min with naturally defect. The literature study of existing research, related to feature extraction methods or algorithms in a wide range of applications such as vibration analysis, time series analysis and bio-medical signal processing, is discussed. Some features are applied in vibration slew bearing data acquired from laboratory tests. The selected features such as impulse factor, margin factor, approximate entropy and largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE show obvious changes in bearing condition from normal condition to final failure.

  16. Urban vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Ann; Knudsen, L.; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2012-01-01

      lab   studies   in   that   we   found   a   decreased   detection   rate   in   busy   environments.   Here   we   test   with   a   much   larger   sample   and   age   range,   and   contribute   with   the   first   vibration  sensitivity  testing  outside  the  lab  in  an  urban   public...

  17. Deterministic estimation of hydrological thresholds for shallow landslide initiation and slope stability models: case study from the Somma-Vesuvius area of southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Rex L.; Godt, Jonathan W.; De Vita, P.; Napolitano, E.

    2012-01-01

    interrupted. These results lead to the identification of a comprehensive hydrogeomorphological model of susceptibility to initial landslides that links morphological, stratigraphical and hydrological conditions. The calculation of intensities and durations of rainfall necessary for slope instability allowed the identification of deterministic hydrological thresholds that account for uncertainty in properties and observed rainfall intensities.

  18. Sensibilidade vibratória: valor semiótico em algumas afecções do sistema nervoso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Martins Canelas

    1958-12-01

    vibration perception thresholds show wide variations according to the bodily area which is tested. 2. The variations of the vibration perception thresholds among subjects, although great, are lesser than the changes among bodily areas. 3. Among the bodily areas studied, the fingers and toes were the most sensitive to vibratory stimuli. 4. The vibration perception thresholds in the head are very high and are prone to great individual variations. 5. The least individual variations were shown by the bodily areas more sensitive to vibratory stimuli. 6. All these facts point to the selection of the fingers and toes as the bodily areas more suitable for the quantitative test of pallesthesia, with diagnostic purposes or to estimate the course of nervous diseases. 7. The variations of the vibration perception thresholds during regular time intervals (3 days have not been significant in relation to the variations among bodily areas and subjects. 8. The average vibration perception thresholds of the left side of the body were lesser than those of the right side, although only in the great toes the difference was statistically significant. 9. It has been statistically proved that the method used in this work is a trustful procedure for the quantitative study of vibration sense. Third part - The study of 126 cases of nervous diseases due to lesions of various topographies, using the same quantitative method, allowed the following conclusions: 1. Vibration sense can be the only form of sensation impaired in several kinds of nervous diseases. 2. The quantitative test of pallesthesia has great semiotic significance since the increase of the vibration perception thresholds can be the only sign of damage of the sensory pathways. 3. Dissociation between pallesthesia and kinesthesia can be observed in several nervous diseases and as well in peripheral as in central lesions. 4. In cases of diabetic neuropathy the impairment of vibration sense is frequent and sometimes very conspicuous; it

  19. Estimate of the 3,5 MMOL.L-¹ lactate threshold by maximal and submaximal variables during treadmill incremental test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kiss

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In predictive models, there is a lack of studies that have associated maximal and submaximal variables to attain lactate threshold (LT. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to investigate the possibility for predicting 3.5 mmol.l-1 LT velocity (V3.5 using maximal and submaximal variables. The heart rate (HR corresponding to 12 km.h-1 velocity (HR12, the peak heart rate (HRPEAK, the velocity corresponding to HR of 170 bpm (V170 and the peak velocity (VPEAK were the independent variables used. Forty-six runners underwent to progressive test with initial velocity between 6 and 10.8 km.h-1, and increments of 1.2 km.h-1 every three minutes. The subjects were randomly assigned to validation group (n= 30 or cross-validation group (n= 16. Multiple regression analysis (Enter selection resulted in the following predictive equation (p RESUMO Em modelos preditivos, há uma ausência de estudos que tenham associado variáveis máximas e submáximas para a obtenção dos limiares de lactato. Desta maneira, o objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a possibilidade de estimativa do limiar de lactato, referente à concentração de lactato sangüíneo de 3,5 mmol.l-1 (LL3,5, a partir de variáveis máximas e submáximas obtidas em protocolo progressivo, em esteira rolante. Como variáveis preditoras, foram utilizadas a freqüência cardíaca (FC referente à velocidade de 12 km.h-1 (FC12, a FC de pico (FCPICO, a velocidade correspondente à FC de 170 bpm (VEL170 e a velocidade de pico (VELPICO. Após executar protocolo progressivo, com velocidade inicial entre 6,0 e 10,8 km.h-1, e incrementos de 1,2 km.h-1 a cada estágio de 3 minutos 5, 46 atletas aeróbios foram divididos aleatoriamente em grupo de validação (n= 30 e grupo de validação cruzada (n= 16. A análise de regressão múltipla (método Enter resultou na seguinte equação de predição (p< 0,05: LL3,5 (km.h1= -3,650 + (1,042 x VELPICO, com EPE de 1,2 km.h1 (7,7% e R² de 0,74. Não houve diferen

  20. Exact Threshold Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Podolskii, Vladimir V.

    2010-01-01

    with the well-studied corresponding hierarchies defined using ordinary threshold gates. A major open problem in Boolean circuit complexity is to provide an explicit super-polynomial lower bound for depth two threshold circuits. We identify the class of depth two exact threshold circuits as a natural subclass...

  1. Threshold Concepts in Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loertscher, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Threshold concepts can be identified for any discipline and provide a framework for linking student learning to curricular design. Threshold concepts represent a transformed understanding of a discipline, without which the learner cannot progress and are therefore pivotal in learning in a discipline. Although threshold concepts have been…

  2. Sub-threshold synchronizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, J.; Ashouei, M.; Kinniment, D.; Huisken, J.; Russell, G.; Yakovlev, A.

    2011-01-01

    Sub-threshold operation has been proven to be very effective to reduce the power consumption of circuits when high performance is not required. Future low power systems on chip are likely to consist of many sub-systems operating at different frequencies and VDDs from super-threshold to sub-threshold

  3. The Weighted Average Method 'WAM' for dental age estimation: a simpler method for children at the 10 year threshold: "it is vain to do with more when less will suffice" William of Ockham 1288-1358.".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Graham J; McDonald, Fraser; Neil, Monica; Lucas, Victoria S

    2014-08-01

    The mathematical principle of weighting averages to determine the most appropriate numerical outcome is well established in economic and social studies. It has seen little application in forensic dentistry. This study re-evaluated the data from a previous study of age assessment at the 10 year threshold. A semiautomatic process of weighting averages by n-td, x-tds, sd-tds, se-tds, 1/sd-tds, 1/se-tds was prepared in an Excel worksheet and the different weighted mean values reported. In addition the Fixed Effects and Random Effects models for Meta-Analysis were used and applied to the same data sets. In conclusion it has been shown that the most accurate age estimation method is to use the Random Effects Model for the mathematical procedures. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Improved analysis of ground vibrations produced by man-made sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainalis, Daniel; Ducarne, Loïc; Kaufmann, Olivier; Tshibangu, Jean-Pierre; Verlinden, Olivier; Kouroussis, Georges

    2018-03-01

    Man-made sources of ground vibration must be carefully monitored in urban areas in order to ensure that structural damage and discomfort to residents is prevented or minimised. The research presented in this paper provides a comparative evaluation of various methods used to analyse a series of tri-axial ground vibration measurements generated by rail, road, and explosive blasting. The first part of the study is focused on comparing various techniques to estimate the dominant frequency, including time-frequency analysis. The comparative evaluation of the various methods to estimate the dominant frequency revealed that, depending on the method used, there can be significant variation in the estimates obtained. A new and improved analysis approach using the continuous wavelet transform was also presented, using the time-frequency distribution to estimate the localised dominant frequency and peak particle velocity. The technique can be used to accurately identify the level and frequency content of a ground vibration signal as it varies with time, and identify the number of times the threshold limits of damage are exceeded. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Theory of vibration protection

    CERN Document Server

    Karnovsky, Igor A

    2016-01-01

    This text is an advancement of the theory of vibration protection of mechanical systems with lumped and distributed parameters. The book offers various concepts and methods of solving vibration protection problems, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different methods, and the fields of their effective applications. Fundamental approaches of vibration protection, which are considered in this book, are the passive, parametric and optimal active vibration protection. The passive vibration protection is based on vibration isolation, vibration damping and dynamic absorbers. Parametric vibration protection theory is based on the Shchipanov-Luzin invariance principle. Optimal active vibration protection theory is based on the Pontryagin principle and the Krein moment method. The book also contains special topics such as suppression of vibrations at the source of their occurrence and the harmful influence of vibrations on humans. Numerous examples, which illustrate the theoretical ideas of each chapter, ar...

  6. Vibration reduces thermal pain in adjacent dermatomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnitsky, D; Kunin, M; Brik, R; Sprecher, E

    1997-01-01

    Spatial summation of thermal pain crosses dermatomal boundaries. In this study we examined whether a vibrational stimulus applied to adjacent or remote dermatomes affects thermal pain perception to the volar forearm. Contact heat at 2 degrees C above thermal pain threshold was applied, and a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was used for pain assessment. We found a significant decrease in mean VAS rating when simultaneous vibratory stimuli were given to the dermatome adjacent to that receiving thermal stimulation, or to the same dermatome on the contralateral side. There was no change in VAS rating when vibration was given two or more dermatomes away. Vibration within the same dermatome also did not yield a significant change in VAS rating, possibly due to difficulty in magnitude assessment of stimuli given simultaneously within a single dermatome. The finding that vibration can reduce pain across dermatomes may allow for more flexible design of stimulation therapy for pain.

  7. Sound and vibration sensitivity of VIIIth nerve fibers in the grassfrog, Rana temporaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Jørgensen, M B

    1996-01-01

    We have studied the sound and vibration sensitivity of 164 amphibian papilla fibers in the VIIIth nerve of the grassfrog, Rana temporaria. The VIIIth nerve was exposed using a dorsal approach. The frogs were placed in a natural sitting posture and stimulated by free-field sound. Furthermore...... at the threshold for sound. However, these results are only valid for the present physical configuration of the setup and the high vibration-sensitivities of the fibers warrant caution whenever the auditory fibers are stimulated with free-field sound. Thus, the experiments suggest that the low-frequency sound......, the animals were stimulated with dorso-ventral vibrations, and the sound-induced vertical vibrations in the setup could be canceled by emitting vibrations in antiphase from the vibration exciter. All low-frequency fibers responded to both sound and vibration with sound thresholds from 23 dB SPL and vibration...

  8. Polynomial threshold functions and Boolean threshold circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Podolskii, Vladimir V.

    2013-01-01

    We study the complexity of computing Boolean functions on general Boolean domains by polynomial threshold functions (PTFs). A typical example of a general Boolean domain is 12n . We are mainly interested in the length (the number of monomials) of PTFs, with their degree and weight being of second......We study the complexity of computing Boolean functions on general Boolean domains by polynomial threshold functions (PTFs). A typical example of a general Boolean domain is 12n . We are mainly interested in the length (the number of monomials) of PTFs, with their degree and weight being...

  9. Resistive Threshold Logic

    OpenAIRE

    James, A. P.; Francis, L. R. V. J.; Kumar, D.

    2013-01-01

    We report a resistance based threshold logic family useful for mimicking brain like large variable logic functions in VLSI. A universal Boolean logic cell based on an analog resistive divider and threshold logic circuit is presented. The resistive divider is implemented using memristors and provides output voltage as a summation of weighted product of input voltages. The output of resistive divider is converted into a binary value by a threshold operation implemented by CMOS inverter and/or O...

  10. Probabilistic Threshold Criterion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gresshoff, M; Hrousis, C A

    2010-03-09

    The Probabilistic Shock Threshold Criterion (PSTC) Project at LLNL develops phenomenological criteria for estimating safety or performance margin on high explosive (HE) initiation in the shock initiation regime, creating tools for safety assessment and design of initiation systems and HE trains in general. Until recently, there has been little foundation for probabilistic assessment of HE initiation scenarios. This work attempts to use probabilistic information that is available from both historic and ongoing tests to develop a basis for such assessment. Current PSTC approaches start with the functional form of the James Initiation Criterion as a backbone, and generalize to include varying areas of initiation and provide a probabilistic response based on test data for 1.8 g/cc (Ultrafine) 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) and LX-17 (92.5% TATB, 7.5% Kel-F 800 binder). Application of the PSTC methodology is presented investigating the safety and performance of a flying plate detonator and the margin of an Ultrafine TATB booster initiating LX-17.

  11. Establishing Ground Vibration Threshold Level for Open Pit Mining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To assess the impact of blasting activities on building structures in open pit mining districts in Ghana a study was carried out in Prestea, a township very close to the perimeter of the Plant North pit of the Bogoso Gold Ltd (now Golden Star Resources Bogoso/Prestea Mines), in the Western Region of Ghana. It was observed ...

  12. Heritability estimates derived from threshold analyses for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Linear model methodology, such as Henderson's method III, has frequently been used for the analysis of discontinuous as well as continuous data (Olivier et al. 1998). This method of analysing discontinuous data with linear procedures is based on continuous phenotypic distributions and does not take the discontinuity of ...

  13. Intelligent Mechanical Fault Diagnosis Based on Multiwavelet Adaptive Threshold Denoising and MPSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The condition diagnosis of rotating machinery depends largely on the feature analysis of vibration signals measured for the condition diagnosis. However, the signals measured from rotating machinery usually are nonstationary and nonlinear and contain noise. The useful fault features are hidden in the heavy background noise. In this paper, a novel fault diagnosis method for rotating machinery based on multiwavelet adaptive threshold denoising and mutation particle swarm optimization (MPSO is proposed. Geronimo, Hardin, and Massopust (GHM multiwavelet is employed for extracting weak fault features under background noise, and the method of adaptively selecting appropriate threshold for multiwavelet with energy ratio of multiwavelet coefficient is presented. The six nondimensional symptom parameters (SPs in the frequency domain are defined to reflect the features of the vibration signals measured in each state. Detection index (DI using statistical theory has been also defined to evaluate the sensitiveness of SP for condition diagnosis. MPSO algorithm with adaptive inertia weight adjustment and particle mutation is proposed for condition identification. MPSO algorithm effectively solves local optimum and premature convergence problems of conventional particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. It can provide a more accurate estimate on fault diagnosis. Practical examples of fault diagnosis for rolling element bearings are given to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Threshold Concepts in Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine threshold concepts in the context of teaching and learning first-year university economics. It outlines some of the arguments for using threshold concepts and provides examples using opportunity cost as an exemplar in economics. Design/ Methodology/Approach: The paper provides an overview of the…

  15. A New Fuzzy Sliding Mode Controller with a Disturbance Estimator for Robust Vibration Control of a Semi-Active Vehicle Suspension System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Byung-Keun Song; Jin-Hee An; Seung-Bok Choi

    2017-01-01

    .... A solution for estimating the compensative quantity of the impact of UAD on a control system and a set of solutions are then presented in order to avoid the singular cases of the fuzzy-based function...

  16. Anaerobic Threshold and Salivary α-amylase during Incremental Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akizuki, Kazunori; Yazaki, Syouichirou; Echizenya, Yuki; Ohashi, Yukari

    2014-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the validity of salivary α-amylase as a method of quickly estimating anaerobic threshold and to establish the relationship between salivary α-amylase and double-product breakpoint in order to create a way to adjust exercise intensity to a safe and effective range. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven healthy young adults performed an incremental exercise test using a cycle ergometer. During the incremental exercise test, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and ventilatory equivalent were measured using a breath-by-breath gas analyzer. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured to calculate the double product, from which double-product breakpoint was determined. Salivary α-amylase was measured to calculate the salivary threshold. [Results] One-way ANOVA revealed no significant differences among workloads at the anaerobic threshold, double-product breakpoint, and salivary threshold. Significant correlations were found between anaerobic threshold and salivary threshold and between anaerobic threshold and double-product breakpoint. [Conclusion] As a method for estimating anaerobic threshold, salivary threshold was as good as or better than determination of double-product breakpoint because the correlation between anaerobic threshold and salivary threshold was higher than the correlation between anaerobic threshold and double-product breakpoint. Therefore, salivary threshold is a useful index of anaerobic threshold during an incremental workload.

  17. Elicitation threshold of cobalt chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Louise A; Johansen, Jeanne D; Voelund, Aage

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cobalt is a strong skin sensitizer (grade 5 of 5 in the guinea-pig maximization test) that is used in various industrial and consumer applications. To prevent sensitization to cobalt and elicitation of allergic cobalt dermatitis, information about the elicitation threshold level...... of cobalt is important. OBJECTIVE: To identify the dermatitis elicitation threshold levels in cobalt-allergic individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Published patch test dose-response studies were reviewed to determine the elicitation dose (ED) levels in dermatitis patients with a previous positive patch test...... reaction to cobalt. A logistic dose-response model was applied to data collected from the published literature to estimate ED values. The 95% confidence interval (CI) for the ratio of mean doses that can elicit a reaction in 10% (ED(10)) of a population was calculated with Fieller's method. RESULTS...

  18. Noise-Induced Building Vibrations Caused by Concorde and Conventional Aircraft Operations at Dulles and Kennedy International Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, W. H.; Stephens, D. G.; Holmes, H. K.; Lewis, R. B.; Holliday, B. G.; Ward, D. W.; Deloach, R.; Cawthorn, J. M.; Finley, T. D.; Lynch, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    Outdoor and indoor noise levels resulting from aircraft flyovers and certain nonaircraft events were recorded, as were the associated vibration levels in the walls, windows, and floors at building test sites. In addition, limited subjective tests were conducted to examine the human detection and annoyance thresholds for building vibration and rattle caused by aircraft noise. Representative peak levels of aircraft noise-induced building vibrations are reported and comparisons are made with structural damage criteria and with vibration levels induced by common domestic events. In addition, results of a pilot study are reported which indicate the human detection threshold for noise-induced floor vibrations.

  19. Estimates of site response based on spectral ratio between horizontal and vertical components of ambient vibrations in the source zone of 2001 Bhuj earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Thulasiraman; Rajendran, Kusala

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the site response characteristics of Kachchh rift basin over the meizoseismal area of the 2001, Mw 7.6, Bhuj (NW India) earthquake using the spectral ratio of the horizontal and vertical components of ambient vibrations. Using the available knowledge on the regional geology of Kachchh and well documented ground responses from the earthquake, we evaluated the H/V curves pattern across sediment filled valleys and uplifted areas generally characterized by weathered sandstones. Although our H/V curves showed a largely fuzzy nature, we found that the hierarchical clustering method was useful for comparing large numbers of response curves and identifying the areas with similar responses. Broad and plateau shaped peaks of a cluster of curves within the valley region suggests the possibility of basin effects within valley. Fundamental resonance frequencies (f0) are found in the narrow range of 0.1-2.3 Hz and their spatial distribution demarcated the uplifted regions from the valleys. In contrary, low H/V peak amplitudes (A0 = 2-4) were observed on the uplifted areas and varying values (2-9) were found within valleys. Compared to the amplification factors, the liquefaction indices (kg) were able to effectively indicate the areas which experienced severe liquefaction. The amplification ranges obtained in the current study were found to be comparable to those obtained from earthquake data for a limited number of seismic stations located on uplifted areas; however the values on the valley region may not reflect their true amplification potential due to basin effects. Our study highlights the practical usefulness as well as limitations of the H/V method to study complex geological settings as Kachchh.

  20. Threshold concepts in prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Sophie

    2017-12-01

    Curriculum documents identify key concepts within learning prosthetics. Threshold concepts provide an alternative way of viewing the curriculum, focussing on the ways of thinking and practicing within prosthetics. Threshold concepts can be described as an opening to a different way of viewing a concept. This article forms part of a larger study exploring what students and staff experience as difficult in learning about prosthetics. To explore possible threshold concepts within prosthetics. Qualitative, interpretative phenomenological analysis. Data from 18 students and 8 staff at two universities with undergraduate prosthetics and orthotics programmes were generated through interviews and questionnaires. The data were analysed using an interpretative phenomenological analysis approach. Three possible threshold concepts arose from the data: 'how we walk', 'learning to talk' and 'considering the person'. Three potential threshold concepts in prosthetics are suggested with possible implications for prosthetics education. These possible threshold concepts involve changes in both conceptual and ontological knowledge, integrating into the persona of the individual. This integration occurs through the development of memories associated with procedural concepts that combine with disciplinary concepts. Considering the prosthetics curriculum through the lens of threshold concepts enables a focus on how students learn to become prosthetists. Clinical relevance This study provides new insights into how prosthetists learn. This has implications for curriculum design in prosthetics education.

  1. Hearing with an atympanic ear: good vibration and poor sound-pressure detection in the royal python, Python regius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Christian Bech; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Brandt, Christian

    2012-01-01

    are sensitive to sound pressure and (2) snakes are sensitive to vibrations, but cannot hear the sound pressure per se. Vibration and sound-pressure sensitivities were quantified by measuring brainstem evoked potentials in 11 royal pythons, Python regius. Vibrograms and audiograms showed greatest sensitivity...... at low frequencies of 80-160 Hz, with sensitivities of -54 dB re. 1 m s(-2) and 78 dB re. 20 μPa, respectively. To investigate whether pythons detect sound pressure or sound-induced head vibrations, we measured the sound-induced head vibrations in three dimensions when snakes were exposed to sound...... pressure at threshold levels. In general, head vibrations induced by threshold-level sound pressure were equal to or greater than those induced by threshold-level vibrations, and therefore sound-pressure sensitivity can be explained by sound-induced head vibration. From this we conclude that pythons...

  2. Tunable Passive Vibration Suppressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boechler, Nicholas (Inventor); Dillon, Robert Peter (Inventor); Daraio, Chiara (Inventor); Davis, Gregory L. (Inventor); Shapiro, Andrew A. (Inventor); Borgonia, John Paul C. (Inventor); Kahn, Daniel Louis (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An apparatus and method for vibration suppression using a granular particle chain. The granular particle chain is statically compressed and the end particles of the chain are attached to a payload and vibration source. The properties of the granular particles along with the amount of static compression are chosen to provide desired filtering of vibrations.

  3. Vibrations and Eigenvalues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We make music by causing strings, membranes, or air columns to vibrate. Engineers design safe structures by control- ling vibrations. I will describe to you a very simple vibrating system and the mathematics needed to analyse it. The ideas were born in the work of Joseph-Louis Lagrange (1736–1813), and I begin by quot-.

  4. Regional Seismic Threshold Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kvaerna, Tormod

    2006-01-01

    ... model to be used for predicting the travel times of regional phases. We have applied these attenuation relations to develop and assess a regional threshold monitoring scheme for selected subregions of the European Arctic...

  5. Threshold concepts in prosthetics

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Curriculum documents identify key concepts within learning prosthetics. Threshold concepts provide an alternative way of viewing the curriculum, focussing on the ways of thinking and practicing within prosthetics. Threshold concepts can be described as an opening to a different way of viewing a concept. This article forms part of a larger study exploring what students and staff experience as difficult in learning about prosthetics. Objectives: To explore possible thresh...

  6. Human comfort in relation to sinusoidal vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B.; Rao, B. K. N.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was made to assess the overall subjective comfort levels to sinusoidal excitations over the range 1 to 19 Hz using a two axis electrohydraulic vibration simulator. Exposure durations of 16 minutes, 25 minutes, 1 hour, and 2.5 hours have been considered. Subjects were not exposed over such durations, but were instructed to estimate the overall comfort levels preferred had they been constantly subjected to vibration over such durations.

  7. Vibration analysis of cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaru, Takayuki; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Shintomi, Takakazu; Yamamoto, Akira; Koyama, Tomohiro; Li, Rui

    2004-05-01

    The vibrations of Gifford-McMahon (GM) and pulse-tube (PT) cryocoolers were measured and analyzed. The vibrations of the cold-stage and cold-head were measured separately to investigate their vibration mechanisms. The measurements were performed while maintaining the thermal conditions of the cryocoolers at a steady state. We found that the vibration of the cold-head for the 4 K PT cryocooler was two orders of magnitude smaller than that of the 4 K GM cryocooler. On the other hand, the vibration of the cold-stages for both cryocoolers was of the same order of magnitude. From a spectral analysis of the vibrations and a simulation, we concluded that the vibration of the cold-stage is caused by an elastic deformation of the pulse tubes (or cylinders) due to the pressure oscillation of the working gas.

  8. Vibration analysis of cryocoolers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaru, Takayuki; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Shintomi, Takakazu; Yamamoto, Akira [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Koyama, Tomohiro; Rui Li [Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-05-01

    The vibrations of Gifford-McMahon (GM) and pulse-tube (PT) cryocoolers were measured and analyzed. The vibrations of the cold-stage and cold-head were measured separately to investigate their vibration mechanisms. The measurements were performed while maintaining the thermal conditions of the cryocoolers at a steady state. We found that the vibration of the cold-head for the 4 K PT cryocooler was two orders of magnitude smaller than that of the 4 K GM cryocooler. On the other hand, the vibration of the cold-stages for both cryocoolers was of the same order of magnitude. From a spectral analysis of the vibrations and a simulation, we concluded that the vibration of the cold-stage is caused by an elastic deformation of the pulse tubes (or cylinders) due to the pressure oscillation of the working gas. (Author)

  9. Vibration of hydraulic machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yulin; Liu, Shuhong; Dou, Hua-Shu; Qian, Zhongdong

    2013-01-01

    Vibration of Hydraulic Machinery deals with the vibration problem which has significant influence on the safety and reliable operation of hydraulic machinery. It provides new achievements and the latest developments in these areas, even in the basic areas of this subject. The present book covers the fundamentals of mechanical vibration and rotordynamics as well as their main numerical models and analysis methods for the vibration prediction. The mechanical and hydraulic excitations to the vibration are analyzed, and the pressure fluctuations induced by the unsteady turbulent flow is predicted in order to obtain the unsteady loads. This book also discusses the loads, constraint conditions and the elastic and damping characters of the mechanical system, the structure dynamic analysis, the rotor dynamic analysis and the system instability of hydraulic machines, including the illustration of monitoring system for the instability and the vibration in hydraulic units. All the problems are necessary for vibration pr...

  10. Analysis of Vibration Diagnostics Methods for Induction Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Kalinov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of existing vibration diagnostics methods. In order to evaluate an efficiency of method application the following criteria have been proposed: volume of input data required for establishing diagnosis, data content, software and hardware level, execution time for vibration diagnostics. According to the mentioned criteria a classification of vibration diagnostics methods for determination of their advantages and disadvantages, search for their development and improvement has been presented in paper. The paper contains a comparative estimation of methods in accordance with the proposed  criteria. According to this estimation the most efficient methods are a spectral analysis and spectral analysis of the vibration signal envelope.

  11. Melanin microcavitation threshold in the near infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Morgan S.; Kennedy, Paul K.; Vincelette, Rebecca L.; Schuster, Kurt J.; Noojin, Gary D.; Wharmby, Andrew W.; Thomas, Robert J.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.

    2014-02-01

    Thresholds for microcavitation of isolated bovine and porcine melanosomes were determined using single nanosecond (ns) laser pulses in the NIR (1000 - 1319 nm) wavelength regime. Average fluence thresholds for microcavitation increased non-linearly with increasing wavelength. Average fluence thresholds were also measured for 10-ns pulses at 532 nm, and found to be comparable to visible ns pulse values published in previous reports. Fluence thresholds were used to calculate melanosome absorption coefficients, which decreased with increasing wavelength. This trend was found to be comparable to the decrease in retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) layer absorption coefficients reported over the same wavelength region. Estimated corneal total intraocular energy (TIE) values were determined and compared to the current and proposed maximum permissible exposure (MPE) safe exposure levels. Results from this study support the proposed changes to the MPE levels.

  12. Mechanisms of pain relief by vibration and movement.

    OpenAIRE

    Kakigi, R; Shibasaki, H

    1992-01-01

    Mechanisms of pain relief induced by vibration and movement were investigated. A CO2 laser beam, which is useful for pure nociceptive stimulation, was used for recording pain-related somatosensory evoked potentials (pain SEPs) and for measuring pain threshold and reaction time (RT). Concurrently applied vibratory stimuli to and active movements of the fingers significantly reduced and prolonged pain SEPs, increased pain threshold, and prolonged RT, indicating that an increase in the inhibitor...

  13. Kinetic theory for DNA melting with vibrational entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensale, Sebastian; Peng, Zhangli; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2017-10-01

    By treating DNA as a vibrating nonlinear lattice, an activated kinetic theory for DNA melting is developed to capture the breakage of the hydrogen bonds and subsequent softening of torsional and bending vibration modes. With a coarse-grained lattice model, we identify a key bending mode with GHz frequency that replaces the hydrogen vibration modes as the dominant out-of-phase phonon vibration at the transition state. By associating its bending modulus to a universal in-phase bending vibration modulus at equilibrium, we can hence estimate the entropic change in the out-of-phase vibration from near-equilibrium all-atom simulations. This and estimates of torsional and bending entropy changes lead to the first predictive and sequence-dependent theory with good quantitative agreement with experimental data for the activation energy of melting of short DNA molecules without intermediate hairpin structures.

  14. Concorde noise-induced building vibrations, John F. Kennedy International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, W. H.; Deloach, R.; Stephens, D. G.; Cawthorn, J. M.; Holmes, H. K.; Lewis, R. B.; Holliday, B. G.; Miller, W. T.; Ward, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    The outdoor/indoor noise levels and associated vibration levels resulting from aircraft and nonaircraft events were recorded at eight homesites and a school. In addition, limited subjective tests were conducted to examine the human detection/annoyance thresholds for building vibration and rattle caused by aircraft noise. Presented herein are the majority of the window and wall vibration data recorded during Concorde and subsonic aircraft overflights.

  15. Hydrometeorological threshold conditions for debris flow initiation in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Meyer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Debris flows, triggered by extreme precipitation events and rapid snow melt, cause considerable damage to the Norwegian infrastructure every year. To define intensity-duration (ID thresholds for debris flow initiation critical water supply conditions arising from intensive rainfall or snow melt were assessed on the basis of daily hydro-meteorological information for 502 documented debris flow events. Two threshold types were computed: one based on absolute ID relationships and one using ID relationships normalized by the local precipitation day normal (PDN. For each threshold type, minimum, medium and maximum threshold values were defined by fitting power law curves along the 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles of the data population. Depending on the duration of the event, the absolute threshold intensities needed for debris flow initiation vary between 15 and 107 mm day−1. Since the PDN changes locally, the normalized thresholds show spatial variations. Depending on location, duration and threshold level, the normalized threshold intensities vary between 6 and 250 mm day−1. The thresholds obtained were used for a frequency analysis of over-threshold events giving an estimation of the exceedance probability and thus potential for debris flow events in different parts of Norway. The absolute thresholds are most often exceeded along the west coast, while the normalized thresholds are most frequently exceeded on the west-facing slopes of the Norwegian mountain ranges. The minimum thresholds derived in this study are in the range of other thresholds obtained for regions with a climate comparable to Norway. Statistics reveal that the normalized threshold is more reliable than the absolute threshold as the former shows no spatial clustering of debris flows related to water supply events captured by the threshold.

  16. Hadron production near threshold

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Final state interaction effects in → + and → 3He reactions are explored near threshold to study the sensitivity of the cross-sections to the potential and the scattering matrix. The final state scattering wave functions between and and and 3He are described rigorously. The production is ...

  17. Elaborating on Threshold Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rountree, Janet; Robins, Anthony; Rountree, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    We propose an expanded definition of Threshold Concepts (TCs) that requires the successful acquisition and internalisation not only of knowledge, but also its practical elaboration in the domains of applied strategies and mental models. This richer definition allows us to clarify the relationship between TCs and Fundamental Ideas, and to account…

  18. Vibration-based testing of bolted joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel; Sah, Si Mohamed; Fidlin, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    In recent pilot studies we have started investigating how to possibly use measured flexural (i.e. transverse/bending) vibrations, induced by bolt-tapping, to estimate bolt tightness. Some of the vibration features we investigated showed strong correlation with bolt tightness. For example, the low...... to bolt tension, but also to slenderness ratio. Thus, if only the natural frequency feature were to be used for estimating bolt tension, accuracy will drop off for the short and thick bolts that are often used in critical joints....

  19. Evaluation of Bus Vibration Comfort Based on Passenger Crowdsourcing Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration comfort is an important factor affecting the quality of service (QoS of bus. In order to make people involved in supervising bus’s vibration comfort and improve passengers’ riding experience, a novel mode of passenger crowdsourcing is introduced. In this paper, comfort degree of bus vibration is calculated from bus’s vibration signals collected by passengers’ smartphones and sent through WiFi to the Boa web server which shows the vibration comfort on the LCD deployed in bus and maybe trigger alarm lamp when the vibration is beyond the threshold. Three challenges here have been overcome: firstly, space coordinate transformation algorithm is used to solve the constant drift of signals collected; secondly, a low-pass filter is designed to isolate gravity from signals real-timely via limited computing resources; thirdly, an embedded evaluation system is developed according to the calculation procedure specified by criterion ISO 2631-1997. Meanwhile, the model proposed is tested in a practical running environment, the vibration data in whole travel are recorded and analyzed offline. The results show that comfort degree of vibration obtained from the experimental system is identical with the truth, and this mode is proved to be effective.

  20. Chromatic-contrast threshold impairment in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tregear, S J; Knowles, P J; Ripley, L G; Casswell, A G

    1997-01-01

    A prospective study was carried out to investigate acquired colour-vision deficits in diabetics using an automated, computer-controlled, cathode-ray-tube based test of chromatic contrast. Chromatic-contrast thresholds estimates were measured along both a red/ green (constant S-cone) confusion axis and a tritan (constant M/L-cone) confusion axis for 305 eyes of 305 diabetics. The diabetic data were partitioned into groups based on a clinical categorisation of retinopathy. The diabetic data were compared with both age-matched and 'lens-equated' control data obtained from a bank of 347 normal subjects. Further analysis of differences between diabetic-status groups was performed. Associations between chromatic contrast threshold estimates and age, duration of disease, and severity of both macular oedema and ischaemia were investigated. The diabetic group was found to have significantly reduced chromatic-contrast threshold estimates when compared with normal controls, even in the absence of retinopathy. This reduction in chromatic contrast was predominantly tritanopic in nature. Interestingly, no reduction in red/green chromatic-contrast threshold estimate was found in diabetics without retinopathy. The tritan deficit seen in diabetics without retinopathy was strongly correlated with duration of disease, but when adjustments were made to account for the effects of duration-dependent lens yellowing, the tritan deficit was no longer apparent. A correlation between both the severity of macular oedema and severity of ischaemia with chromatic-contrast loss was established. Acquired reductions in both red/green and tritan chromatic-contrast threshold estimates seen in diabetics are strongly correlated with the severity of retinopathy. The results provide evidence that the specific tritan deficits seen in diabetics can be explained by the effects of lens yellowing rather than by selective damage of the blue cone system as has been hypothesised by other groups. The results

  1. Hadron production near threshold

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Final state interaction effects in pp → pΛK+ and pd → 3He η reactions are explored near threshold to study the sensitivity of the cross-sections to the pΛ potential and the ηN scattering matrix. The final state scattering wave functions between Λ and p and η and 3He are described rigorously. The Λ production is ...

  2. Model Indepedent Vibration Control

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Jing

    2010-01-01

    A NMIFC system is proposed for broadband vibration control. It has two important features. Feature F1 is that the NMIFC is stable without introducing any invasive effects, such as probing signals or controller perturbations, into the vibration system; feature F2 is

  3. Vibration Theory, Vol. 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    The present textbook has been written based on previous lecture notes for a course on stochastic vibration theory that is being given on the 9th semester at Aalborg University for M. Sc. students in structural engineering. The present 4th edition of this textbook on linear stochastic vibration...

  4. Vibration Theory, Vol. 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    The present textbook has been written based on previous lecture notes for a course on stochastic vibration theory that is being given on the 9th semester at Aalborg University for M. Sc. students in structural engineering. The present 2nd edition of this textbook on linear stochastic vibration...

  5. Hydroelastic Vibrations of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Folsø, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    A formula for the necessary hull girder bending stiffness required to avoid serious springing vibrations is derived. The expression takes into account the zero crossing period of the waves, the ship speed and main dimensions. For whipping vibrations the probability of exceedance for the combined...

  6. Gearbox vibration diagnostic analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Gearbox Vibration Diagnostic Analyzer installed in the NASA Lewis Research Center's 500 HP Helicopter Transmission Test Stand to monitor gearbox testing. The vibration of the gearbox is analyzed using diagnostic algorithms to calculate a parameter indicating damaged components.

  7. Mechanical vibration and shock analysis, sinusoidal vibration

    CERN Document Server

    Lalanne, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Everything engineers need to know about mechanical vibration and shock...in one authoritative reference work! This fully updated and revised 3rd edition addresses the entire field of mechanical vibration and shock as one of the most important types of load and stress applied to structures, machines and components in the real world. Examples include everything from the regular and predictable loads applied to turbines, motors or helicopters by the spinning of their constituent parts to the ability of buildings to withstand damage from wind loads or explosions, and the need for cars to m

  8. Zero-point vibrational effects on optical rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruud, K.; Taylor, P.R.; Åstrand, P.-O.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the effects of molecular vibrations on the optical rotation in two chiral molecules, methyloxirane and trans-2,3-dimethylthiirane. It is shown that the magnitude of zero-point vibrational corrections increases as the electronic contribution to the optical rotation increases....... Vibrational effects thus appear to be important for an overall estimate of the molecular optical rotation, amounting to about 20-30% of the electronic counterpart. We also investigate the special case of chirality introduced in a molecule through isotopic substitution. In this case, the zero-point vibrational...

  9. Vibrations of rotating machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Osami; Kanki, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masao; Keogh, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    This book opens with an explanation of the vibrations of a single degree-of-freedom (dof) system for all beginners. Subsequently, vibration analysis of multi-dof systems is explained by modal analysis. Mode synthesis modeling is then introduced for system reduction, which aids understanding in a simplified manner of how complicated rotors behave. Rotor balancing techniques are offered for rigid and flexible rotors through several examples. Consideration of gyroscopic influences on the rotordynamics is then provided and vibration evaluation of a rotor-bearing system is emphasized in terms of forward and backward whirl rotor motions through eigenvalue (natural frequency and damping ratio) analysis. In addition to these rotordynamics concerning rotating shaft vibration measured in a stationary reference frame, blade vibrations are analyzed with Coriolis forces expressed in a rotating reference frame. Other phenomena that may be assessed in stationary and rotating reference frames include stability characteristic...

  10. Magnitude-dependence of equivalent comfort contours for fore-and-aft, lateral, and vertical vibration at the foot for seated persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, Miyuki; Griffin, Michael J.

    2010-07-01

    Vibration at the feet can contribute to discomfort in many forms of transport and in some buildings. Knowledge of the frequency-dependence of discomfort caused by foot vibration, and how this varies with vibration magnitude, will assist the prediction of discomfort caused by vibration. With groups of 12 seated subjects, this experimental study determined absolute thresholds for the perception of foot vibration and quantified the discomfort caused by vibration at the foot. The study investigated a wide range of magnitudes (from the threshold of perception to levels associated with severe discomfort) over a wide range of frequencies (from 8 to 315 Hz in one-third octave steps) in each of the three orthogonal translational axes (fore-and-aft, lateral, and vertical). The effects of gender and shoes on absolute thresholds for the perception of vertical vibration at the foot were also investigated. Within each of the three axes, the vibration acceleration corresponding to the absolute thresholds for the perception of vibration, and also all contours showing conditions producing equivalent discomfort, were highly frequency-dependent at frequencies greater than about 40 Hz. The acceleration threshold contours were U-shaped at frequencies greater than 80 Hz in all three axes of excitation, suggesting the involvement of the Pacinian channel in vibration perception. At supra-threshold levels, the frequency-dependence of the equivalent comfort contours in each of the three axes was highly dependent on vibration magnitude. With increasing vibration magnitude, the conditions causing similar discomfort across the frequency range approximated towards constant velocity. Thresholds were not greatly affected by wearing shoes or subject gender. The derived frequency weightings imply that no single linear frequency weighting can provide accurate predictions of discomfort caused by a wide range of magnitudes of foot vibration.

  11. The Shock Vibration Bulletin. Part 3. Isolation and Damping, Vibration Test Criteria, and Vibration Analysis and Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    fatigae equivalent test time of 45-mimates. 1. BACKGROUND subjected to both vibration and loose cargo testing as well an the type and amount of...Environmental Test the track laying environment. Nethods, 10 March 1975. 8. FUTURE EFFORTS 11. Soci, Darrell F., Fatigae Life Estimation Techniques, Technical

  12. Glaucoma affects steady state VEP contrast thresholds before psychophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaegan; Rahman, Anmar M A; Sanderson, Gordon F

    2008-07-01

    Frequency doubling technology (FDT) is a recent psychophysical test for glaucoma. It measures the contrast threshold to low spatial frequency, high temporal frequency sinusoidal luminance profile bars. We wanted to confirm, with stricter controls, Vaegan and Hollow's report that contrast thresholds of steady state visual evoked potentials (ssVEPs) to a stimulus resembling the central field of the FDT test was more sensitive to glaucoma than the subjective threshold to the same stimulus and to start to optimize the technique. A double masked trial using 57 eyes of 42 subjects. Both thresholds were estimated by modified binary search. In psychophysical testing, subjects were given a two alternative forced choice task. In ssVEP testing a significant signal in any one of eight channels was deemed to be a detection. In some subjects electrode positions were compared, both eyes were tested, tests were repeated to estimate reliability, stimulus frequencies were varied or full contrast functions were obtained. Thresholds and percent abnormal increased as a function of glaucoma severity for ssVEPs but not for psychophysics. Both threshold measures were reliable. Interocular correlations were low. SsVEP amplitude against contrast functions had similar thresholds to those found by modified binary search. The data was too irregular for individual thresholds to be estimated from a fitted exponential. Amplitudes were greatest at 7 to 10 Hz, psychophysical thresholds at 18.29 Hz, when formal controls were used, as they had in a less controlled previous study at 7.14 Hz.

  13. Relevance of motion artifact in electromyography recordings during vibration treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratini, Antonio; Cesarelli, Mario; Bifulco, Paolo; Romano, Maria

    2009-08-01

    Electromyography readings (EMGs) from quadriceps of fifteen subjects were recorded during whole body vibration treatment at different frequencies (10-50 Hz). Additional electrodes were placed on the patella to monitor the occurrence of motion artifact, triaxial accelerometers were placed onto quadriceps to monitor motion. Signal spectra revealed sharp peaks corresponding to vibration frequency and its harmonics, in accordance with the accelerometer data. EMG total power was compared to that associated with vibration harmonics narrow bands, before and during vibration. On average, vibration associated power resulted in only 3% (+/-0.9%) of the total power prior to vibration and 29% (+/-13.4%) during vibration. Often, studies employ surface EMG to quantitatively evaluate vibration evoked muscular activity and to set stimulation frequency. However, previous research has not accounted for motion artifacts. The data presented in this study emphasize the need for the removal of motion artifacts, as they consistently affect RMS estimation, which is often used as a concise muscle activity index during vibrations. Such artifacts, rather unpredictable in amplitude, might be the cause of large inter-study differences and must be eliminated before analysis. Motion artifact filtering will contribute to thorough and precise interpretation of neuromuscular response to vibration treatment.

  14. Threshold Concepts in Research Education and Evidence of Threshold Crossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiley, Margaret; Wisker, Gina

    2009-01-01

    Most work on threshold concepts has hitherto related to discipline-specific undergraduate education, however, the idea of generic doctoral-level threshold concepts appeared to us to provide a strong and useful framework to support research learning and teaching at the graduate level. The early work regarding research-level threshold concepts is…

  15. Vibration Measurements on the Frejlev Mast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Hansen, Lars Pilegaard

    The present report presents full-scale measurements on the Frejlev-mast which is a 200 meter hight guyed steel mast located 10 km. from Aalborg. The goal of the research was to investigate various techniques which could be used to estimate cable forces from vibration measurements. The cables...

  16. Niger - Threshold (IMAGINE)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This impact evaluation uses random assignment at the village level to estimate impacts of the IMAGINE program on enrollment, attendance, learning and other education...

  17. Structural Stability and Vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiggers, Sine Leergaard; Pedersen, Pauli

    This book offers an integrated introduction to the topic of stability and vibration. Strikingly, it describes stability as a function of boundary conditions and eigenfrequency as a function of both boundary conditions and column force. Based on a post graduate course held by the author at the Uni......This book offers an integrated introduction to the topic of stability and vibration. Strikingly, it describes stability as a function of boundary conditions and eigenfrequency as a function of both boundary conditions and column force. Based on a post graduate course held by the author...... and their derivation, thus stimulating them to write interactive and dynamic programs to analyze instability and vibrational modes....

  18. Dependence of cavitation, chemical effect, and mechanical effect thresholds on ultrasonic frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh Nguyen, Tam; Asakura, Yoshiyuki; Koda, Shinobu; Yasuda, Keiji

    2017-11-01

    Cavitation, chemical effect, and mechanical effect thresholds were investigated in wide frequency ranges from 22 to 4880kHz. Each threshold was measured in terms of sound pressure at fundamental frequency. Broadband noise emitted from acoustic cavitation bubbles was detected by a hydrophone to determine the cavitation threshold. Potassium iodide oxidation caused by acoustic cavitation was used to quantify the chemical effect threshold. The ultrasonic erosion of aluminum foil was conducted to estimate the mechanical effect threshold. The cavitation, chemical effect, and mechanical effect thresholds increased with increasing frequency. The chemical effect threshold was close to the cavitation threshold for all frequencies. At low frequency below 98kHz, the mechanical effect threshold was nearly equal to the cavitation threshold. However, the mechanical effect threshold was greatly higher than the cavitation threshold at high frequency. In addition, the thresholds of the second harmonic and the first ultraharmonic signals were measured to detect bubble occurrence. The threshold of the second harmonic approximated to the cavitation threshold below 1000kHz. On the other hand, the threshold of the first ultraharmonic was higher than the cavitation threshold below 98kHz and near to the cavitation threshold at high frequency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Vibration Analysis and the Accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Have you ever put your hand on an electric motor or motor-driven electric appliance and felt it vibrate? Ever wonder why it vibrates? What is there about the operation of the motor, or the object to which it is attached, that causes the vibrations? Is there anything "regular" about the vibrations, or are they the result of random causes? In this…

  20. Variability in Hand-Arm Vibration During Grinding Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Liljelind, Ingrid; Wahlström, Jens; Nilsson, Leif; Toomingas, Allan; Burström, Lage

    2011-01-01

    Background: Measurements of exposure to vibrations from hand-held tools are often conducted on a single occasion. However, repeated measurements may be crucial for estimating the actual dose with good precision. In addition, knowledge of determinants of exposure could be used to improve working conditions. The aim of this study was to assess hand–arm vibration (HAV) exposure during different grinding operations, in order to obtain estimates of the variance components and to evaluate the effec...

  1. Free vibration of arches flexible in shear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, W. J.; Veletsos, A. S.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis reported by Veletsos et al. (1972) concerning the free vibrational characteristics of circular arches vibrating in their own planes is considered. The analysis was based on a theory which neglects the effects of rotatory inertia and shearing deformation. A supplementary investigation is conducted to assess the effects of the previously neglected factors and to identify the conditions under which these effects are of practical significance or may be neglected. A simple approximate procedure is developed for estimating the natural frequencies of arches, giving due consideration to the effects of the previously neglected factors.

  2. Vibrations and Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    About this textbook An ideal text for students that ties together classical and modern topics of advanced vibration analysis in an interesting and lucid manner. It provides students with a background in elementary vibrations with the tools necessary for understanding and analyzing more complex...... dynamical phenomena that can be encountered in engineering and scientific practice. It progresses steadily from linear vibration theory over various levels of nonlinearity to bifurcation analysis, global dynamics and chaotic vibrations. It trains the student to analyze simple models, recognize nonlinear...... phenomena and work with advanced tools such as perturbation analysis and bifurcation analysis. Explaining theory in terms of relevant examples from real systems, this book is user-friendly and meets the increasing interest in non-linear dynamics in mechanical/structural engineering and applied mathematics...

  3. Modelos bayesianos de limiar e linear na estimação de parâmetros genéticos para características morfológicas de bovinos da raça Nelore Threshold and linear bayesian models in the genetic parameters estimation for morphological traits in Nelore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Ulhôa Magnabosco

    2010-09-01

    linear and threshold models. Visual scores obtained from 4,155 Nelore cattle at yearling, belonging to the Brazilian Nelore Program, were used. The animals were evaluated visually by method SAM (System of Morphologic Evaluation. Genetic parameters were estimated by single-trait bayesian analysis considering linear and threshold models (morphological traits and two-trait bayesian analysis considering linear-linear and linear-threshold models (including the weight to the 120 days. In single-trait analysis, it was verified that heritability estimated were similar for both the models. When considering two-trait analysis, the heritability estimates obtained in the linear-linear model had presented greater magnitude than that in the linear-threshold model. However, the Spearman correlations among the breeding values for different models (linear or threshold and linear-linear or linear-threshold showed low alteration in the placement of the animals, and it was an insufficient modification to alter their classification as for the percentile, in other words, all the animals TOP1%, when linear models were used, continued being TOP1% when used threshold models. In the genetic evaluation of animals for morphological traits, the linear or threshold model can be used in genetic improvement programs.

  4. Sesame allergy threshold dose distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dano, D; Remington, B C; Astier, C; Baumert, J L; Kruizinga, A G; Bihain, B E; Taylor, S L; Kanny, G

    2015-09-01

    Sesame is a relevant food allergen in France. Compared to other allergens there is a lack of food challenge data and more data could help sesame allergy risk management. The aim of this study is to collect more sesame challenge data and investigate the most efficient food challenge method for future studies. Records of patients at University Hospital in Nancy (France) with objective symptoms to sesame challenges were collected and combined with previously published data. An estimation of the sesame allergy population threshold was calculated based on individual NOAELs and LOAELs. Clinical dosing schemes at Nancy were investigated to see if the optimal protocol for sesame is currently used. Fourteen patients (10 M/4 F, 22 ± 14.85 years old) with objective symptoms were added to previously published data making a total of 35 sesame allergic patients. The most sensitive patient reacted to the first dose at challenge of 1.02 mg sesame protein. The ED05 ranges between 1.2 and 4.0 mg of sesame protein (Log-Normal, Log-Logistic, and Weibull models) and the ED10 between 4.2 and 6.2 mg. The optimal food challenge dosing scheme for sesame follows semi-log dose increases from 0.3 to 3000 mg protein. This article provides a valuable update to the existing clinical literature regarding sesame NOAELs and LOAELs. Establishment of a population threshold for sesame could help in increasing the credibility of precautionary labelling and decrease the costs associated with unexpected allergic reactions. Also, the use of an optimal dosing scheme would decrease time spent on diagnostic and thereafter on the economic burden of sesame allergy diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Threshold photoelectron spectroscopy of the imidogen radical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Gustavo A., E-mail: gustavo.garcia@synchrotron-soleil.fr [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, St. Aubin, BP 48, 91192 Gif sur Yvette (France); Gans, Bérenger [Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d’Orsay, Univ Paris-Sud, CNRS, Bât 210, Univ Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Tang, Xiaofeng [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, St. Aubin, BP 48, 91192 Gif sur Yvette (France); Ward, Michael; Batut, Sébastien [PC2A, Université de Lille 1, UMR CNRS-USTL 8522, Cité Scientifique Bât. C11, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Nahon, Laurent [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, St. Aubin, BP 48, 91192 Gif sur Yvette (France); Fittschen, Christa [PC2A, Université de Lille 1, UMR CNRS-USTL 8522, Cité Scientifique Bât. C11, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Loison, Jean-Christophe [ISM, Université de Bordeaux, CNRS, 351 cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence Cedex (France)

    2015-08-15

    We present the threshold photoelectron spectroscopy of the imidogen radical (NH) recorded in the photon energy region up to 1 eV above its first ionization threshold. The radical was produced by reaction of NH{sub 3} and F in a microwave discharge flow-tube and photoionized using vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation. A double imaging coincidence spectrometer was used to record mass-selected spectra and avoid contributions from the byproducts present in the reactor and background gas. The energy region includes the ground X{sup +2}Π and first electronically excited a{sup +4}Σ{sup −} states of NH{sup +}. Strong adiabatic transitions and weak vibrational progressions up to v{sup +} = 2 are observed for both electronic states. The rotational profile seen in the origin band has been modeled using existing neutral and cationic spectroscopic constants leading to a precise determination of the adiabatic ionization energy at 13.480 ± 0.002 eV.

  6. Concorde noise-induced building vibrations: John F. Kennedy International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, W. H.; Stephens, D. G.; Deloach, R.; Cawthorn, J. M.; Holmes, H. K.; Lewis, R. B.; Holliday, B. G.; Ward, D. W.; Miller, W. T.

    1978-01-01

    Outdoor and indoor noise levels resulting from aircraft flyovers and certain nonaircraft events were recorded at eight homesites and a school along with the associated vibration levels in the walls, windows, and floors at these test sites. Limited subjective tests were conducted to examine the human detection and annoyance thresholds for building vibration and rattle caused by aircraft noise. Both vibration and rattle were detected subjectively in several houses for some operations of both the Concorde and subsonic aircraft. Seated subjects more readily detected floor vibrations than wall or window vibrations. Aircraft noise generally caused more window vibrations than common nonaircraft events such as walking and closing doors. Nonaircraft events and aircraft flyovers resulted in comparable wall vibration levels, while floor vibrations were generally greater for nonaircraft events than for aircraft flyovers. The relationship between structural vibration and aircraft noise is linear, with vibration levels being accurately predicted from overall sound pressure levels (OASPL) measured near the structure. Relatively high levels of structural vibration measured during Concorde operations are due more to higher OASPL levels than to unique Concorde-source characteristics.

  7. Nanoscale piezoelectric vibration energy harvester design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foruzande, Hamid Reza; Hajnayeb, Ali; Yaghootian, Amin

    2017-09-01

    Development of new nanoscale devices has increased the demand for new types of small-scale energy resources such as ambient vibrations energy harvesters. Among the vibration energy harvesters, piezoelectric energy harvesters (PEHs) can be easily miniaturized and fabricated in micro and nano scales. This change in the dimensions of a PEH leads to a change in its governing equations of motion, and consequently, the predicted harvested energy comparing to a macroscale PEH. In this research, effects of small scale dimensions on the nonlinear vibration and harvested voltage of a nanoscale PEH is studied. The PEH is modeled as a cantilever piezoelectric bimorph nanobeam with a tip mass, using the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory in conjunction with Hamilton's principle. A harmonic base excitation is applied as a model of the ambient vibrations. The nonlocal elasticity theory is used to consider the size effects in the developed model. The derived equations of motion are discretized using the assumed-modes method and solved using the method of multiple scales. Sensitivity analysis for the effect of different parameters of the system in addition to size effects is conducted. The results show the significance of nonlocal elasticity theory in the prediction of system dynamic nonlinear behavior. It is also observed that neglecting the size effects results in lower estimates of the PEH vibration amplitudes. The results pave the way for designing new nanoscale sensors in addition to PEHs.

  8. Nanoscale piezoelectric vibration energy harvester design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Foruzande

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of new nanoscale devices has increased the demand for new types of small-scale energy resources such as ambient vibrations energy harvesters. Among the vibration energy harvesters, piezoelectric energy harvesters (PEHs can be easily miniaturized and fabricated in micro and nano scales. This change in the dimensions of a PEH leads to a change in its governing equations of motion, and consequently, the predicted harvested energy comparing to a macroscale PEH. In this research, effects of small scale dimensions on the nonlinear vibration and harvested voltage of a nanoscale PEH is studied. The PEH is modeled as a cantilever piezoelectric bimorph nanobeam with a tip mass, using the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory in conjunction with Hamilton’s principle. A harmonic base excitation is applied as a model of the ambient vibrations. The nonlocal elasticity theory is used to consider the size effects in the developed model. The derived equations of motion are discretized using the assumed-modes method and solved using the method of multiple scales. Sensitivity analysis for the effect of different parameters of the system in addition to size effects is conducted. The results show the significance of nonlocal elasticity theory in the prediction of system dynamic nonlinear behavior. It is also observed that neglecting the size effects results in lower estimates of the PEH vibration amplitudes. The results pave the way for designing new nanoscale sensors in addition to PEHs.

  9. Multimodal distribution of human cold pain thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lötsch, Jörn; Dimova, Violeta; Lieb, Isabel; Zimmermann, Michael; Oertel, Bruno G; Ultsch, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    It is assumed that different pain phenotypes are based on varying molecular pathomechanisms. Distinct ion channels seem to be associated with the perception of cold pain, in particular TRPM8 and TRPA1 have been highlighted previously. The present study analyzed the distribution of cold pain thresholds with focus at describing the multimodality based on the hypothesis that it reflects a contribution of distinct ion channels. Cold pain thresholds (CPT) were available from 329 healthy volunteers (aged 18 - 37 years; 159 men) enrolled in previous studies. The distribution of the pooled and log-transformed threshold data was described using a kernel density estimation (Pareto Density Estimation (PDE)) and subsequently, the log data was modeled as a mixture of Gaussian distributions using the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm to optimize the fit. CPTs were clearly multi-modally distributed. Fitting a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) to the log-transformed threshold data revealed that the best fit is obtained when applying a three-model distribution pattern. The modes of the identified three Gaussian distributions, retransformed from the log domain to the mean stimulation temperatures at which the subjects had indicated pain thresholds, were obtained at 23.7 °C, 13.2 °C and 1.5 °C for Gaussian #1, #2 and #3, respectively. The localization of the first and second Gaussians was interpreted as reflecting the contribution of two different cold sensors. From the calculated localization of the modes of the first two Gaussians, the hypothesis of an involvement of TRPM8, sensing temperatures from 25 - 24 °C, and TRPA1, sensing cold from 17 °C can be derived. In that case, subjects belonging to either Gaussian would possess a dominance of the one or the other receptor at the skin area where the cold stimuli had been applied. The findings therefore support a suitability of complex analytical approaches to detect mechanistically determined patterns from pain phenotype data.

  10. The effects of pre-exercise vibration stimulation on the exercise-induced muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Yun; Kang, Da-Haeng; Lee, Joon-Hee; O, Se-Min; Jeon, Jae-Keun

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of pre-induced muscle damage vibration stimulation on the pressure-pain threshold and muscle-fatigue-related metabolites of exercise-induced muscle damage. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy, adult male subjects were randomly assigned to the pre-induced muscle damage vibration stimulation group, post-induced muscle damage vibration stimulation group, or control group (n=10 per group). To investigate the effects of pre-induced muscle damage vibration stimulation, changes in the pressure-pain threshold (lb), creatine kinase level (U/L), and lactate dehydrogenase level (U/L) were measured and analyzed at baseline and at 24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours after exercise. [Results] The pressure-pain thresholds and concentrations of creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase varied significantly in each group and during each measurement period. There were interactions between the measurement periods and groups, and results of the post-hoc test showed that the pre-induced muscle damage vibration stimulation group had the highest efficacy among the groups. [Conclusion] Pre-induced muscle damage vibration stimulation is more effective than post-induced muscle damage vibration stimulation for preventing muscle damage.

  11. Vibration fatigue using modal decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mršnik, Matjaž; Slavič, Janko; Boltežar, Miha

    2018-01-01

    Vibration-fatigue analysis deals with the material fatigue of flexible structures operating close to natural frequencies. Based on the uniaxial stress response, calculated in the frequency domain, the high-cycle fatigue model using the S-N curve material data and the Palmgren-Miner hypothesis of damage accumulation is applied. The multiaxial criterion is used to obtain the equivalent uniaxial stress response followed by the spectral moment approach to the cycle-amplitude probability density estimation. The vibration-fatigue analysis relates the fatigue analysis in the frequency domain to the structural dynamics. However, once the stress response within a node is obtained, the physical model of the structure dictating that response is discarded and does not propagate through the fatigue-analysis procedure. The structural model can be used to evaluate how specific dynamic properties (e.g., damping, modal shapes) affect the damage intensity. A new approach based on modal decomposition is presented in this research that directly links the fatigue-damage intensity with the dynamic properties of the system. It thus offers a valuable insight into how different modes of vibration contribute to the total damage to the material. A numerical study was performed showing good agreement between results obtained using the newly presented approach with those obtained using the classical method, especially with regards to the distribution of damage intensity and critical point location. The presented approach also offers orders of magnitude faster calculation in comparison with the conventional procedure. Furthermore, it can be applied in a straightforward way to strain experimental modal analysis results, taking advantage of experimentally measured strains.

  12. Learning foraging thresholds for lizards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, L.A. [Univ. of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom). Dept. of Computer Science; Hart, W.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wilson, D.B. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-01-12

    This work gives a proof of convergence for a randomized learning algorithm that describes how anoles (lizards found in the Carribean) learn a foraging threshold distance. This model assumes that an anole will pursue a prey if and only if it is within this threshold of the anole`s perch. This learning algorithm was proposed by the biologist Roughgarden and his colleagues. They experimentally confirmed that this algorithm quickly converges to the foraging threshold that is predicted by optimal foraging theory our analysis provides an analytic confirmation that the learning algorithm converses to this optimal foraging threshold with high probability.

  13. Albania - Thresholds I and II

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — From 2006 to 2011, the government of Albania (GOA) received two Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) Threshold Programs totaling $29.6 million. Albania received...

  14. Reconstruction of Input Excitation Acting on Vibration Isolation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration isolation systems are widely employed in automotive, marine, aerospace, and other engineering fields. Accurate input forces are of great significance for mechanical design, vibration prediction, and structure modification and optimization. One-stage vibration isolation system including engine, vibration isolators, and flexible supporting structure is modeled theoretically in this paper. Input excitation acting on the vibration isolation system is reconstructed using dynamic responses measured on engine and supporting structure under in-suit condition. The reconstructed forces reveal that dynamic responses on rigid body are likely to provide more accurate estimation results. Moreover, in order to improve the accuracy of excitation reconstructed by dynamic responses on flexible supporting structure, auto/cross-power spectral density function is utilized to reduce measurement noise.

  15. The vibration discomfort of standing people: evaluation of multi-axis vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuong, Olivier; Griffin, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have investigated discomfort caused by multi-axis vibration and none has explored methods of predicting the discomfort of standing people from simultaneous fore-and-aft, lateral and vertical vibration of a floor. Using the method of magnitude estimation, 16 subjects estimated their discomfort caused by dual-axis and tri-axial motions (octave-bands centred on either 1 or 4 Hz with various magnitudes in the fore-and-aft, lateral and vertical directions) and the discomfort caused by single-axis motions. The method of predicting discomfort assumed in current standards (square-root of the sums of squares of the three components weighted according to their individual contributions to discomfort) provided reasonable predictions of the discomfort caused by multi-axis vibration. Improved predictions can be obtained for specific stimuli, but no single simple method will provide accurate predictions for all stimuli because the rate of growth of discomfort with increasing magnitude of vibration depends on the frequency and direction of vibration.

  16. Vibrational spectroscopy of resveratrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billes, Ferenc; Mohammed-Ziegler, Ildikó; Mikosch, Hans; Tyihák, Ernő

    2007-11-01

    In this article the authors deal with the experimental and theoretical interpretation of the vibrational spectra of trans-resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy- trans-stilbene) of diverse beneficial biological activity. Infrared and Raman spectra of the compound were recorded; density functional calculations were carried out resulting in the optimized geometry and several properties of the molecule. Based on the calculated force constants, a normal coordinate analysis yielded the character of the vibrational modes and the assignment of the measured spectral bands.

  17. Bumblebee vibration activated foraging

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Dan Kuan-Nien

    2009-01-01

    The ability use vibrational signals to activate nestmate foraging is found in the highly social bees, stingless bees and honey bees, and has been hypothesized to exist in the closely related, primitively eusocial bumble bees. We provide the first strong and direct evidence that this is correct. Inside the nest, bumble bee foragers produce brief bursts of vibration (foraging activation pulses) at 594.5 Hz for 63±26 ms (velocityRMS=0.46±0.02mm/s, forceRMS=0.8±0.2 mN. Production of these vibrati...

  18. Man-Induced Vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Hansen, Lars Pilegaard

    1994-01-01

    concerned with spectator-induced vertical vibrations on grandstands. The idea is to use impulse response analysis and base the load description on the load impulse. If the method is feasable, it could be used in connection with the formulation of requirements in building codes. During the last two decades...... work has been done on the measurement of the exact load functions and related reponse analysis. A recent work using a spectral description has been performed by Per-Erik Erikson and includes a good literature survey. Bachmann and Ammann give a good overview of vibrations caused by human activity. Other...

  19. Vibrations and waves

    CERN Document Server

    Kaliski, S

    2013-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive overview of wave phenomena in different media with interacting mechanical, electromagnetic and other fields. Equations describing wave propagation in linear and non-linear elastic media are followed by equations of rheological models, models with internal rotational degrees of freedom and non-local interactions. Equations for coupled fields: thermal, elastic, electromagnetic, piezoelectric, and magneto-spin with adequate boundary conditions are also included. Together with its companion volume Vibrations and Waves. Part A: Vibrations this work provides a wealth

  20. Using Johnson Distribution for Automatic Threshold Setting in Wind Turbine Condition Monitoring System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marhadi, Kun Saptohartyadi; Skrimpas, Georgios Alexandros

    2014-01-01

    not rep- resent the whole operating conditions of a turbine, which re- sults in uncertainty in the parameters of the fitted probabil- ity distribution and the thresholds calculated. In this study Johnson distribution is used to identify shape, location, and scale parameters of distribution that can best...... fit vibration data. This study shows that using Johnson distribution can elim- inate testing or fitting various distributions to the data, and have more direct approach to obtain optimal thresholds. To quantify uncertainty in the thresholds due to limited data, im- plementations with bootstrap method...

  1. Percolation thresholds on elongated lattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marrink, S.J.; Knackstedt, Mark A.

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the percolation thresholds of both random and invasion percolation in two and three dimensions on elongated lattices; lattices with a geometry of L^(d−1) × nL in d dimensions, where n denotes the aspect ratio of the lattice. Scaling laws for the threshold and spanning cluster density

  2. Threshold Hypothesis: Fact or Artifact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwowski, Maciej; Gralewski, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    The threshold hypothesis (TH) assumes the existence of complex relations between creative abilities and intelligence: linear associations below 120 points of IQ and weaker or lack of associations above the threshold. However, diverse results have been obtained over the last six decades--some confirmed the hypothesis and some rejected it. In this…

  3. Threshold Concepts and Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Lori; Brunetti, Korey; Hofer, Amy R.

    2011-01-01

    What do we teach when we teach information literacy in higher education? This paper describes a pedagogical approach to information literacy that helps instructors focus content around transformative learning thresholds. The threshold concept framework holds promise for librarians because it grounds the instructor in the big ideas and underlying…

  4. Heterogeneous Dynamics of Coupled Vibrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cringus, Dan; Jansen, Thomas I. C.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Schoenlein, RW; Corkum, P; DeSilvestri, S; Nelson, KA; Riedle, E

    2009-01-01

    Frequency-dependent dynamics of coupled stretch vibrations of a water molecule are revealed by 2D IR correlation spectroscopy. These are caused by non-Gaussian fluctuations of the environment around the individual OH stretch vibrations.

  5. Comparison of Annoyance from Railway Noise and Railway Vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ögren, Mikael; Gidlöf-Gunnarsson, Anita; Smith, Michael; Gustavsson, Sara; Persson Waye, Kerstin

    2017-07-19

    The aim of this study is to compare vibration exposure to noise exposure from railway traffic in terms of equal annoyance, i.e., to determine when a certain noise level is equally annoying as a corresponding vibration velocity. Based on questionnaire data from the Train Vibration and Noise Effects (TVANE) research project from residential areas exposed to railway noise and vibration, the dose response relationship for annoyance was estimated. By comparing the relationships between exposure and annoyance for areas both with and without significant vibration exposure, the noise levels and vibration velocities that had an equal probability of causing annoyance was determined using logistic regression. The comparison gives a continuous mapping between vibration velocity in the ground and a corresponding noise level at the facade that are equally annoying. For equivalent noise level at the facade compared to maximum weighted vibration velocity in the ground the probability of annoyance is approximately 20% for 59 dB or 0.48 mm/s, and about 40% for 63 dB or 0.98 mm/s.

  6. Comparison of Annoyance from Railway Noise and Railway Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidlöf-Gunnarsson, Anita; Gustavsson, Sara

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare vibration exposure to noise exposure from railway traffic in terms of equal annoyance, i.e., to determine when a certain noise level is equally annoying as a corresponding vibration velocity. Based on questionnaire data from the Train Vibration and Noise Effects (TVANE) research project from residential areas exposed to railway noise and vibration, the dose response relationship for annoyance was estimated. By comparing the relationships between exposure and annoyance for areas both with and without significant vibration exposure, the noise levels and vibration velocities that had an equal probability of causing annoyance was determined using logistic regression. The comparison gives a continuous mapping between vibration velocity in the ground and a corresponding noise level at the facade that are equally annoying. For equivalent noise level at the facade compared to maximum weighted vibration velocity in the ground the probability of annoyance is approximately 20% for 59 dB or 0.48 mm/s, and about 40% for 63 dB or 0.98 mm/s. PMID:28753921

  7. VIBRATIONS DETECTION IN INDUSTRIAL PUMPS BASED ON SPECTRAL ANALYSIS TO INCREASE THEIR EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belhadef RACHID

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectral analysis is the key tool for the study of vibration signals in rotating machinery. In this work, the vibration analy-sis applied for conditional preventive maintenance of such machines is proposed, as part of resolved problems related to vibration detection on the organs of these machines. The vibration signal of a centrifugal pump was treated to mount the benefits of the approach proposed. The obtained results present the signal estimation of a pump vibration using Fourier transform technique compared by the spectral analysis methods based on Prony approach.

  8. Vibrations of post-buckled rods: The singular inextensible limit

    KAUST Repository

    Neukirch, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    The small-amplitude in-plane vibrations of an elastic rod clamped at both extremities are studied. The rod is modeled as an extensible, shearable, planar Kirchhoff elastic rod under large displacements and rotations, and the vibration frequencies are computed both analytically and numerically as a function of the loading. Of particular interest is the variation of mode frequencies as the load is increased through the buckling threshold. While for some modes there are no qualitative changes in the mode frequencies, other frequencies experience rapid variations after the buckling threshold, the thinner the rod, the more abrupt the variations. Eventually, a mismatch for half of the frequencies at buckling arises between the zero thickness limit of the extensible model and the inextensible model. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Composite Struts Would Damp Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgin, Benjamin P.

    1991-01-01

    New design of composite-material (fiber/matrix laminate) struts increases damping of longitudinal vibrations without decreasing longitudinal stiffness or increasing weight significantly. Plies with opposing chevron patterns of fibers convert longitudinal vibrational stresses into shear stresses in intermediate viscoelastic layer, which dissipate vibrational energy. Composite strut stronger than aluminum strut of same weight and stiffness.

  10. Nonlinear Psychometric Thresholds for Physics and Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu, Stephen D H

    2010-01-01

    We analyze 5 years of student records at the University of Oregon to estimate the probability of success (as defined by superior undergraduate record; sufficient for admission to graduate school) in Physics and Mathematics as a function of SAT-M score. We find evidence of a nonlinear threshold: below SAT-M score of roughly 600, the probability of success is very low. Interestingly, no similar threshold exists in other majors, such as Sociology, History, English or Biology, whether on SAT combined, SAT-R or SAT-M. Our findings have significant implications for the demographic makeup of graduate populations in mathematically intensive subjects, given the current distribution of SAT-M scores.

  11. LHC Longitudinal Single-Bunch Stability Threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Esteban Muller, Juan Federico; Baudrenghien, Philippe; Lasheen, Alexandre; Roggen, Toon; Shaposhnikova, Elena; Timko, Helga; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the MD studies presented here was to determine with a reasonable accuracy the single-bunch longitudinal stability threshold in the LHC. The measurements were performed by placing along the ring 8 or 20 ‘single’ bunches with different intensities but similar longitudinal emittances. Then they were accelerated and bunch stability was observed at arrival to flat top. Combining the results of two measurement sessions, the single bunch stability threshold is estimated to be (2.4 ± 0.2) × 10^11 ppb for an emittance of 1.89 eVs (1.0 ns) at 6.5 TeV with 12 MV RF voltage. Measurements were taken during the MD session MD472 from 22:00 on 20th to 05:00 on 21st July 2015 and session MD365 from 17:00 on 26th to 01:00 on 27th August 2015.

  12. Lattice vibrational modes and their frequency shifts in semiconductor nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Chou, M Y

    2011-07-13

    We have performed first-principles calculations to study the lattice vibrational modes and their Raman activities in silicon nanowires (SiNWs). Two types of characteristic vibrational modes are examined: high-frequency optical modes and low-frequency confined modes. Their frequencies have opposite size dependence with a red shift for the optical modes and a blue shift for the confined modes as the diameter of SiNWs decreases. In addition, our calculations show that these vibrational modes can be detected by Raman scattering measurements, providing an efficient way to estimate the size of SiNWs.

  13. Ship Vibration Design Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    Frachtschiffen," Werft Reederie Hafen, 1925. 4-21 Noonan, E. F. "Vibration Considerations for 120,000 CM LNG Ships," NKF: Preliminary Report No. 7107, 25...Ship Response to Ice - A Second Season by C. Daley, J. W. St. John, R. Brown, J. Meyer , and I. Glen 1990 SSC-340 Ice Forces and Ship Response to Ice

  14. Compact Vibration Damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanco, Thomas G. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A vibration damper includes a rigid base with a mass coupled thereto for linear movement thereon. Springs coupled to the mass compress in response to the linear movement along either of two opposing directions. A converter coupled to the mass converts the linear movement to a corresponding rotational movement. A rotary damper coupled to the converter damps the rotational movement.

  15. Vibrations and Eigenvalues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The vibrating string problem is the source of much mathematicsand physics. This article describes Lagrange's formulationof a discretised version of the problem and its solution.This is also the first instance of an eigenvalue problem. Author Affiliations. Rajendra Bhatia1. Ashoka University, Rai, Haryana 131 029, India.

  16. Blade Vibration Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The Phase I project successfully demonstrated that an advanced noncontacting stress measurement system (NSMS) could improve classification of blade vibration response in terms of mistuning and closely spaced modes. The Phase II work confirmed the microwave sensor design process, modified the sensor so it is compatible as an upgrade to existing NSMS, and improved and finalized the NSMS software. The result will be stand-alone radar/tip timing radar signal conditioning for current conventional NSMS users (as an upgrade) and new users. The hybrid system will use frequency data and relative mode vibration levels from the radar sensor to provide substantially superior capabilities over current blade-vibration measurement technology. This frequency data, coupled with a reduced number of tip timing probes, will result in a system capable of detecting complex blade vibrations that would confound traditional NSMS systems. The hardware and software package was validated on a compressor rig at Mechanical Solutions, Inc. (MSI). Finally, the hybrid radar/tip timing NSMS software package and associated sensor hardware will be installed for use in the NASA Glenn spin pit test facility.

  17. Vibration Sensitive Keystroke Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopatka, M.; Peetz, M.-H.; van Erp, M.; Stehouwer, H.; van Zaanen, M.

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel method for performing non-invasive biometric analysis on habitual keystroke patterns using a vibration-based feature space. With the increasing availability of 3-D accelerometer chips in laptop computers, conventional methods using time vectors may be augmented using a distinct

  18. Shaft Crack Identification Based on Vibration and AE Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxiu Lu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The shaft crack is one of the main serious malfunctions that often occur in rotating machinery. However, it is difficult to locate the crack and determine the depth of the crack. In this paper, the acoustic emission (AE signal and vibration response are used to diagnose the crack. The wavelet transform is applied to AE signal to decompose into a series of time-domain signals, each of which covers a specific octave frequency band. Then an improved union method based on threshold and cross-correlation method is applied to detect the location of the shaft crack. The finite element method is used to build the model of the cracked rotor, and the crack depth is identified by comparing the vibration response of experiment and simulation. The experimental results show that the AE signal is effective and convenient to locate the shaft crack, and the vibration signal is feasible to determine the depth of shaft crack.

  19. Comparison between Accelerometer and Laser Vibrometer to Measure Traffic Excited Vibrations on Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, G.; Marsili, R.; Gusella, V.; Gioffrè, M.

    2002-01-01

    The use of accelerometer based measurement techniques for evaluating bridge forced vibrations or to perform bridge modal analysis is well established. It is well known to all researchers who have experience in vibration measurements that values of acceleration amplitude can be very low at low frequencies and that a limitation to the use of accelerometer can be due to the threshold parameter of this kind of transducer. Under this conditions the measurement of displacement seems more appropriat...

  20. A Novel Control System Design for Vibrational MEMS Gyroscopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zheng

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available There are two major control problems associated with vibrational MEMS gyroscopes: to control two vibrating axes (or modes of the gyroscope, and to estimate a time-varying rotation rate. This paper demonstrates how a novel active disturbance rejection control addresses these problems in the presence of the mismatch of natural frequencies between two axes, mechanical-thermal noises, Quadrature errors, and parameter variations. A demodulation approach based on the estimated dynamics of the system by an extended state observer is used to estimate the rotation rate. The simulation results on a Z-axis MEMS gyroscope show that the controller is very effective by driving the output of the drive axis to a desired trajectory, forcing the vibration of the sense axis to zero for a force-to-rebalance operation and precisely estimating the rotation rate.

  1. Animal Communications Through Seismic Vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Peggy (University of Tulsa)

    2001-05-02

    Substrate vibration has been important to animals as a channel of communication for millions of years, but our literature on vibration in this context of biologically relevant information is only decades old. The jaw mechanism of the earliest land vertebrates allowed them to perceive substrate vibrations as their heads lay on the ground long before airborne sounds could be heard. Although the exact mechanism of vibration production and the precise nature of the wave produced are not always understood, recent development of affordable instrumentation to detect and measure vibrations has allowed researchers to answer increasingly sophisticated questions about how animals send and receive vibration signals. We now know that vibration provides information used in predator defense, prey detection, recruitment to food, mate choice, intrasexual competition, and maternal/brood social interactions in a variety of insect orders, spiders, crabs, scorpions, chameleons, frogs, golden moles, mole rats, kangaroos rats, wallabies, elephants and bison.

  2. Parton distributions with threshold resummation

    CERN Document Server

    Bonvini, Marco; Rojo, Juan; Rottoli, Luca; Ubiali, Maria; Ball, Richard D.; Bertone, Valerio; Carrazza, Stefano; Hartland, Nathan P.

    2015-01-01

    We construct a set of parton distribution functions (PDFs) in which fixed-order NLO and NNLO calculations are supplemented with soft-gluon (threshold) resummation up to NLL and NNLL accuracy respectively, suitable for use in conjunction with any QCD calculation in which threshold resummation is included at the level of partonic cross sections. These resummed PDF sets, based on the NNPDF3.0 analysis, are extracted from deep-inelastic scattering, Drell-Yan, and top quark pair production data, for which resummed calculations can be consistently used. We find that, close to threshold, the inclusion of resummed PDFs can partially compensate the enhancement in resummed matrix elements, leading to resummed hadronic cross-sections closer to the fixed-order calculation. On the other hand, far from threshold, resummed PDFs reduce to their fixed-order counterparts. Our results demonstrate the need for a consistent use of resummed PDFs in resummed calculations.

  3. Vibration Attenuation of Plate Using Multiple Vibration Absorbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaman Izzuddin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Vibrations are undesired phenomenon and it can cause harm, distress and unsettling influence to the systems or structures, for example, aircraft, automobile, machinery and building. One of the approach to limit this vibration by introducing passive vibration absorber attached to the structure. In this paper, the adequacy of utilizing passive vibration absorbers are investigated. The vibration absorber system is designed to minimize the vibration of a thin plate fixed along edges. The plate’s vibration characteristics, such as, natural frequency and mode shape are determined using three techniques: theoretical equations, finite element (FE analysis and experiment. The results demonstrate that the first four natural frequencies of fixed-fixed ends plate are 48, 121, 193 and 242 Hz, and these results are corroborated well with theoretical, FE simulation and experiment. The experiment work is further carried out with attached single and multiple vibration absorbers onto plate by tuning the absorber’s frequency to match with the excitation frequency. The outcomes depict that multiple vibration absorbers are more viable in lessening the global structural vibration.

  4. Piezoelectric actuators in the active vibration control system of journal bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tůma, J.; Šimek, J.; Mahdal, M.; Pawlenka, M.; Wagnerova, R.

    2017-07-01

    The advantage of journal hydrodynamic bearings is high radial load capacity and operation at high speeds. The disadvantage is the excitation of vibrations, called an oil whirl, after crossing a certain threshold of the rotational speed. The mentioned vibrations can be suppressed using the system of the active vibration control with piezoactuators which move the bearing bushing. The motion of the bearing bushing is controlled by a feedback controller, which responds to the change in position of the bearing journal which is sensed by a pair of capacitive sensors. Two stacked linear piezoactuators are used to actuate the position of the bearing journal. This new bearing enables not only to damp vibrations but also serves to maintain the desired bearing journal position with an accuracy of micrometers. The paper will focus on the effect of active vibration control on the performance characteristics of the journal bearing.

  5. Good vibrations. [Hydraulic turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, P.

    1994-07-01

    The latest developments in the Voith Turbine Control and Automation System (VTLS), which couples digital control technology to hydropower plant equipment, are described. Prominent among these is the vibration diagnostics module for hydraulic turbines. It provides machine-specific diagnostic logic for a vibration monitoring and analysis system. Of the two other VTLS modules described, the operation module optimizes the control of a power plant with three or more turbines by considering the individual properties of each in turn, recommending which should be run, and how, in order to partition the load for a required power output. The cavitation module is a diagnostic system which enables the limits of operation of the turbines to be extended to bands just outside those determined by cavitation calculations. (3 figures). (UK)

  6. Technology Thresholds for Microgravity: Status and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noever, D. A.

    1996-01-01

    The technological and economic thresholds for microgravity space research are estimated in materials science and biotechnology. In the 1990s, the improvement of materials processing has been identified as a national scientific priority, particularly for stimulating entrepreneurship. The substantial US investment at stake in these critical technologies includes six broad categories: aerospace, transportation, health care, information, energy, and the environment. Microgravity space research addresses key technologies in each area. The viability of selected space-related industries is critically evaluated and a market share philosophy is developed, namely that incremental improvements in a large markets efficiency is a tangible reward from space-based research.

  7. Pickin’ up good vibrations

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    In preparation for the civil engineering work on the HL-LHC, vibration measurements were carried out at the LHC’s Point 1 last month. These measurements will help evaluate how civil engineering work could impact the beam, and will provide crucial details about the site’s geological make-up before construction begins.   A seismic truck at Point 1 generated wave-like vibrations measured by EN/MME. From carrying out R&D to produce state-of-the-art magnets to developing innovative, robust materials capable of withstanding beam impact, the HL-LHC is a multi-faceted project involving many groups and teams across CERN’s departments. It was in this framework that the project management mandated CERN's Mechanical and Materials Engineering (EN/MME) group to measure the propagation of vibrations around Point 1. Their question: can civil engineering work for the HL-LHC – the bulk of which is scheduled for LS2 – begin while the LHC is running? Alth...

  8. Vibrational stability of graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangfan Hu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical stability of graphene as temperature rises is analyzed based on three different self-consistent phonon (SCP models. Compared with three-dimensional (3-D materials, the critical temperature Ti at which instability occurs for graphene is much closer to its melting temperature Tm obtained from Monte Carlo simulation (Ti ≃ 2Tm, K. V. Zakharchenko, A. Fasolino, J. H. Los, and M. I. Katsnelson, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23, 202202. This suggests that thermal vibration plays a significant role in melting of graphene while melting for 3-D materials is often dominated by topologic defects. This peculiar property of graphene derives from its high structural anisotropy, which is characterized by the vibrational anisotropic coefficient (VAC, defined upon its Lindermann ratios in different directions. For any carbon based material with a graphene-like structure, the VAC value must be smaller than 5.4 to maintain its stability. It is also found that the high VAC value of graphene is responsible for its negative thermal expansion coefficient at low temperature range. We believe that the VAC can be regarded as a new criterion concerning the vibrational stability of any low-dimensional (low-D materials.

  9. Multimodal Distribution of Human Cold Pain Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lötsch, Jörn; Dimova, Violeta; Lieb, Isabel; Zimmermann, Michael; Oertel, Bruno G.; Ultsch, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    Background It is assumed that different pain phenotypes are based on varying molecular pathomechanisms. Distinct ion channels seem to be associated with the perception of cold pain, in particular TRPM8 and TRPA1 have been highlighted previously. The present study analyzed the distribution of cold pain thresholds with focus at describing the multimodality based on the hypothesis that it reflects a contribution of distinct ion channels. Methods Cold pain thresholds (CPT) were available from 329 healthy volunteers (aged 18 – 37 years; 159 men) enrolled in previous studies. The distribution of the pooled and log-transformed threshold data was described using a kernel density estimation (Pareto Density Estimation (PDE)) and subsequently, the log data was modeled as a mixture of Gaussian distributions using the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm to optimize the fit. Results CPTs were clearly multi-modally distributed. Fitting a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) to the log-transformed threshold data revealed that the best fit is obtained when applying a three-model distribution pattern. The modes of the identified three Gaussian distributions, retransformed from the log domain to the mean stimulation temperatures at which the subjects had indicated pain thresholds, were obtained at 23.7 °C, 13.2 °C and 1.5 °C for Gaussian #1, #2 and #3, respectively. Conclusions The localization of the first and second Gaussians was interpreted as reflecting the contribution of two different cold sensors. From the calculated localization of the modes of the first two Gaussians, the hypothesis of an involvement of TRPM8, sensing temperatures from 25 – 24 °C, and TRPA1, sensing cold from 17 °C can be derived. In that case, subjects belonging to either Gaussian would possess a dominance of the one or the other receptor at the skin area where the cold stimuli had been applied. The findings therefore support a suitability of complex analytical approaches to detect mechanistically

  10. Multimodal distribution of human cold pain thresholds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörn Lötsch

    Full Text Available It is assumed that different pain phenotypes are based on varying molecular pathomechanisms. Distinct ion channels seem to be associated with the perception of cold pain, in particular TRPM8 and TRPA1 have been highlighted previously. The present study analyzed the distribution of cold pain thresholds with focus at describing the multimodality based on the hypothesis that it reflects a contribution of distinct ion channels.Cold pain thresholds (CPT were available from 329 healthy volunteers (aged 18 - 37 years; 159 men enrolled in previous studies. The distribution of the pooled and log-transformed threshold data was described using a kernel density estimation (Pareto Density Estimation (PDE and subsequently, the log data was modeled as a mixture of Gaussian distributions using the expectation maximization (EM algorithm to optimize the fit.CPTs were clearly multi-modally distributed. Fitting a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM to the log-transformed threshold data revealed that the best fit is obtained when applying a three-model distribution pattern. The modes of the identified three Gaussian distributions, retransformed from the log domain to the mean stimulation temperatures at which the subjects had indicated pain thresholds, were obtained at 23.7 °C, 13.2 °C and 1.5 °C for Gaussian #1, #2 and #3, respectively.The localization of the first and second Gaussians was interpreted as reflecting the contribution of two different cold sensors. From the calculated localization of the modes of the first two Gaussians, the hypothesis of an involvement of TRPM8, sensing temperatures from 25 - 24 °C, and TRPA1, sensing cold from 17 °C can be derived. In that case, subjects belonging to either Gaussian would possess a dominance of the one or the other receptor at the skin area where the cold stimuli had been applied. The findings therefore support a suitability of complex analytical approaches to detect mechanistically determined patterns from pain

  11. A STUDY OF CONDITION MONITORING IN WATER PIPE USING VIBRATION SENSOR

    OpenAIRE

    角田, 裕紀; KAKUTA, Hironori

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a study of condition monitoring in water pipe using vibration sensor. The vibration sensor composed of condenser microphone is placed at water pipe. This sensor picks up vibration by water flow. We estimate of flow rate from the output voltage waveform. It is high cost that any conventional flowmeter which use at outside pipe such as ultrasonic flowmeter. We develop a lower cost system and make measurement of flow rate in water pipe easier. The validity of sensing pipe vi...

  12. Random vibrations theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Wirsching, Paul H; Ortiz, Keith

    1995-01-01

    Random Vibrations: Theory and Practice covers the theory and analysis of mechanical and structural systems undergoing random oscillations due to any number of phenomena— from engine noise, turbulent flow, and acoustic noise to wind, ocean waves, earthquakes, and rough pavement. For systems operating in such environments, a random vibration analysis is essential to the safety and reliability of the system. By far the most comprehensive text available on random vibrations, Random Vibrations: Theory and Practice is designed for readers who are new to the subject as well as those who are familiar with the fundamentals and wish to study a particular topic or use the text as an authoritative reference. It is divided into three major sections: fundamental background, random vibration development and applications to design, and random signal analysis. Introductory chapters cover topics in probability, statistics, and random processes that prepare the reader for the development of the theory of random vibrations a...

  13. Rainfall thresholds and flood warning: an operative case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Montesarchio

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available An operative methodology for rainfall thresholds definition is illustrated, in order to provide at critical river section optimal flood warnings. Threshold overcoming could produce a critical situation in river sites exposed to alluvial risk and trigger the prevention and emergency system alert. The procedure for the definition of critical rainfall threshold values is based both on the quantitative precipitation observed and the hydrological response of the basin. Thresholds values specify the precipitation amount for a given duration that generates a critical discharge in a given cross section and are estimated by hydrological modelling for several scenarios (e.g.: modifying the soil moisture conditions. Some preliminary results, in terms of reliability analysis (presence of false alarms and missed alarms, evaluated using indicators like hit rate and false alarm rate for the case study of Mignone River are presented.

  14. High-threshold decoding algorithms for the gauge color code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, William; Brown, Benjamin

    Gauge color codes are topological quantum error correcting codes on three dimensional lattices. They have garnered recent interest due to two important properties: (1) they admit a universal transversal gate set, and (2) their structure allows reliable error correction using syndrome data obtained from a measurement circuit of constant depth. Both of these properties make gauge color codes intriguing candidates for low overhead fault-tolerant quantum computation. Recent work by Brown et al. calculated a threshold of 0.31% for a particular gauge color code lattice using a simple clustering decoder and phenomenological noise. We show that we can achieve improved threshold error rates using the efficient Wootton and Loss Markov-chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) decoding. In the case of the surface code, the MCMC decoder produced a threshold close to that code's upper bound. While no upper bound is known for gauge color codes, the thresholds we present here may give a better estimate.

  15. On amplitude zeros at threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Argyres, E N; Kleiss, R H

    1993-01-01

    The occurrence of zeros of 2 to n amplitudes at threshold in scalar theories is studied. We find a differential equation for the scalar potential, which incorporates all known cases where the 2 to n amplitudes at threshold vanish for all sufficiently large $n$, in all space-time dimensions, $d\\ge 1$. This equation is related to the reflectionless potentials of Quantum Mechanics and to integrable theories in 1+1 dimensions. As an application, we find that the sine-Gordon potential and its hyperbolic version, the sinh-Gordon potential, also have amplitude zeros at threshold, ${\\cal A}(2\\to n)=0$, for $n\\ge 4$ and $d\\ge 2$, independently of the mass and the coupling constant.

  16. Threshold concepts in dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinchin, I M; Cabot, L B; Kobus, M; Woolford, M

    2011-11-01

    The paper presents a conceptual framework to inform dental education. Drawing from a vast body of research into student learning, the simple model presented here has an explanatory value in describing what is currently observed to happen and a predictive value in guiding future teaching practices. We introduce to dental education the application of threshold concepts that have a transformative role in offering a new vision of the curriculum that helps to move away from the medieval transmission model of higher education towards a dual processing model that better reflects the way in which professionals operate within the discipline. Threshold concepts give a role for the student voice in offering a novice perspective which is paradoxically something that is out of reach of the subject expert. Finally, the application of threshold concepts highlights some of the weaknesses in the competency-based training model of clinical teaching. 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Electromyographic assessment of muscle fatigue during isometric vibration training at varying frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischi, M; Rabotti, C; Cardinale, M

    2010-01-01

    Resistance exercise is essential to improve or maintain muscle performance. Vibration training has been suggested as an alternative option for muscle conditioning, aiming especially at improving muscle strength and power. Several studies link the effects of vibration training to enhanced neuromuscular stimulation, measured by electromyography (EMG) and typically ascribed to involuntary reflex mechanisms. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear, limiting the use of vibration training. This paper proposes additional methods to analyze the mechanisms involved in vibration training. A dedicated measurement setup was realized to relate vibration parameters to muscle fatigue in the biceps brachii. Fatigue is estimated by EMG mean frequency and conduction velocity assessments as well as by maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) force measurements. A modified maximum likelihood algorithm is proposed for the conduction velocity estimation based on high-density EMG recording. Five volunteers performed four isometric contractions of 50 s at 80% MVC with no vibration (control) and with superimposed vibration at 20, 30, and 40 Hz. Fatigue was estimated from the decay of force, EMG mean frequency, and EMG conduction velocity. 30-Hz vibrations represented the most fatiguing stimulus. Our preliminary results also show a better correlation between force and conduction velocity decay than between force and mean frequency decay, indicating the former as a better EMG indicator of fatigue. The proposed methods provide important advancements for the analysis of vibration exercise and guidance towards the definition of optimal training protocols.

  18. Baryon Form Factors at Threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldini Ferroli, Rinaldo [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche ' E. Fermi' , Rome (Italy); INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Pacetti, Simone [INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Perugia, Perugia (Italy)

    2012-04-15

    An extensive study of the e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}pp{sup Macron }BABAR cross section data is presented. Two unexpected outcomes have been found: the modulus of the proton form factor is normalized to one at threshold, i.e.: |G{sup p}(4M{sub p}{sup 2})|=1, as a pointlike fermion, and the resummation factor in the Sommerfeld formula is not needed. Other e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} baryon-antibaryon cross sections show a similar behavior near threshold.

  19. On computational Gestalt detection thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grompone von Gioi, Rafael; Jakubowicz, Jérémie

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show some recent developments of computational Gestalt theory, as pioneered by Desolneux, Moisan and Morel. The new results allow to predict much more accurately the detection thresholds. This step is unavoidable if one wants to analyze visual detection thresholds in the light of computational Gestalt theory. The paper first recalls the main elements of computational Gestalt theory. It points out a precision issue in this theory, essentially due to the use of discrete probability distributions. It then proposes to overcome this issue by using continuous probability distributions and illustrates it on the meaningful alignment detector of Desolneux et al.

  20. Chaotic vortex induced vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, J.; Sheridan, J. [Fluids Laboratory for Aeronautical and Industrial Research (FLAIR), Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Leontini, J. S. [Department of Mechanical and Product Design Engineering, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Lo Jacono, D. [Institut de Mécanique des Fluides de Toulouse (IMFT), CNRS, UPS and Université de Toulouse, 31400 Toulouse (France)

    2014-12-15

    This study investigates the nature of the dynamic response of an elastically mounted cylinder immersed in a free stream. A novel method is utilized, where the motion of the body during a free vibration experiment is accurately recorded, and then a second experiment is conducted where the cylinder is externally forced to follow this recorded trajectory. Generally, the flow response during both experiments is identical. However, particular regimes exist where the flow response is significantly different. This is taken as evidence of chaos in these regimes.

  1. Lattice Vibrations in Chlorobenzenes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reynolds, P. A.; Kjems, Jørgen; White, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    Lattice vibrational dispersion curves for the ``intermolecular'' modes in the triclinic, one molecule per unit cell β phase of p‐C6D4Cl2 and p‐C6H4Cl2 have been obtained by inelastic neutron scattering. The deuterated sample was investigated at 295 and at 90°K and a linear extrapolation to 0°K...... was applied in order to correct for anharmonic effects. Calculations based on the atom‐atom model for van der Waals' interaction and on general potential parameters for the aromatic compounds agree reasonably well with the experimental observations. There is no substantial improvement in fit obtained either...

  2. Prediction of vibration level in tunnel blasting; Tonneru kusshin happa ni yotte reiki sareru shindo no reberu yosoku ho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, A. [Kumamoto Industries Univ, Kumamoto (Japan); Yamamoto, M. [Asahi Chemical Industry Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Inaba, C. [Nishimatsu Construction Co. Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan); Kaneko, K. [Hokkaido Univ (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    For avoiding the generation of public hazard due to ground vibration causes by blasting in tunneling, it is important to devise a blasting method for ensuring the level of the ground vibration caused thereby under a limit, and an exact predication of ground vibration before blasting is desirable. In this study, the characteristics of the ground vibration caused by tunnel blasting are analyzed, and a summary of amplitude spectra calculating method is described. A theoretical analysis method for predicting the vibration level is proposed based on spectrum-multiplicative method. Vibration caused by multistage blasting in tunneling is most strong and deemed as important. When observing the process of elastic wave motion caused by multistage blasting being measured, the process can be divided into three element processes in frequency area as vibration source spectrum, transmission attenuation spectrum and frequency response function vibrating test, and, with the multiplication of them, the amplitude spectra at an observation portion can be estimated. 12 refs., 12 figs.

  3. Quantum dynamics of vibrational excitations and vibrational charge ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quantum dynamics of vibrational excitations and vibrational charge transfer processes in H+ + O2 collisions at collision energy 23 eV ... The Fritz Haber Research Centre and The Department of Physical Chemisry, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel 91904; Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of ...

  4. Threshold Velocity for Saltation Activity in the Taklimakan Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinghua; He, Qing; Matimin, Ali; Yang, Fan; Huo, Wen; Liu, Xinchun; Zhao, Tianliang; Shen, Shuanghe

    2017-08-01

    The threshold velocity is an indicator of a soil's susceptibility to saltation activity and is also an important parameter in dust emission models. In this study, the saltation activity, atmospheric conditions, and soil conditions were measured from 1 August 2008 to 31 July 2009 in the Taklimakan Desert, China. the threshold velocity was estimated using the Gaussian time fraction equivalence method. At 2 m height, the 1-min averaged threshold velocity varied between 3.5 and 10.9 m/s, with a mean of 5.9 m/s. Threshold velocities varying between 4.5 and 7.5 m/s accounted for about 91.4% of all measurements. The average threshold velocity displayed clear seasonal variations in the following sequence: winter (5.1 m/s) relations between daily mean threshold velocity and air temperature, specific humidity, and soil volumetric moisture content. High or moderate positive correlations were found between threshold velocity and air temperature, specific humidity, and soil volumetric moisture content (air temperature r = 0.75; specific humidity r = 0.59; and soil volumetric moisture content r = 0.55; sample size = 251). In the study area, the observed horizontal dust flux was 4198.0 kg/m during the whole period of observation, while the horizontal dust flux calculated using the threshold velocity from the regression equation was 4675.6 kg/m. The correlation coefficient between the calculated result and the observations was 0.91. These results indicate that atmospheric and soil conditions should not be neglected in parameterization schemes for threshold velocity.

  5. Hearing with an atympanic ear: good vibration and poor sound-pressure detection in the royal python, Python regius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Christian Bech; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Brandt, Christian; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2012-01-15

    Snakes lack both an outer ear and a tympanic middle ear, which in most tetrapods provide impedance matching between the air and inner ear fluids and hence improve pressure hearing in air. Snakes would therefore be expected to have very poor pressure hearing and generally be insensitive to airborne sound, whereas the connection of the middle ear bone to the jaw bones in snakes should confer acute sensitivity to substrate vibrations. Some studies have nevertheless claimed that snakes are quite sensitive to both vibration and sound pressure. Here we test the two hypotheses that: (1) snakes are sensitive to sound pressure and (2) snakes are sensitive to vibrations, but cannot hear the sound pressure per se. Vibration and sound-pressure sensitivities were quantified by measuring brainstem evoked potentials in 11 royal pythons, Python regius. Vibrograms and audiograms showed greatest sensitivity at low frequencies of 80-160 Hz, with sensitivities of -54 dB re. 1 m s(-2) and 78 dB re. 20 μPa, respectively. To investigate whether pythons detect sound pressure or sound-induced head vibrations, we measured the sound-induced head vibrations in three dimensions when snakes were exposed to sound pressure at threshold levels. In general, head vibrations induced by threshold-level sound pressure were equal to or greater than those induced by threshold-level vibrations, and therefore sound-pressure sensitivity can be explained by sound-induced head vibration. From this we conclude that pythons, and possibly all snakes, lost effective pressure hearing with the complete reduction of a functional outer and middle ear, but have an acute vibration sensitivity that may be used for communication and detection of predators and prey.

  6. Thresholds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Mandal

    2009-01-01

    Studies of transition spaces in arabic architecture from the architectural workshop Imagination, Damascus, Syria, august 2008 and with the participation of students from Syria, Germany and Denmark.......Studies of transition spaces in arabic architecture from the architectural workshop Imagination, Damascus, Syria, august 2008 and with the participation of students from Syria, Germany and Denmark....

  7. Literature survey on anti-vibration gloves

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sampson, E

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available ............................................................................................................... 1 2. HAND ARM VIBRATION SYNDROME (HAVS).......................................................... 2 2.1 Hand-arm vibration................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. 2.2 Human Response to vibration...

  8. Vibrationally cold CO{sup 2+} probed by intense femtosecond laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenna, J; Sayler, A M; Gaire, B; Johnson, Nora G; Zohrabi, M; Anis, F; Carnes, K D; Esry, B D; Ben-Itzhak, I [J. R. Macdonald Laboratory, Physics Department, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States); Lev, U, E-mail: ibi@phys.ksu.ed [Department of Particle Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, 76100 (Israel)

    2009-11-01

    Using a novel approach, we produce a vibrationally cold CO{sup 2+} beam for study in an intense ultrashort laser field. We observe perpendicular dissociation of the simple two-level CO v = 0 ion, and above-threshold dissociation peaks spaced by the photon energy.

  9. [Auditory threshold for white noise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrat, R; Thillier, J L; Durivault, J

    1975-01-01

    The liminal auditory threshold for white noise and for coloured noise was determined from a statistical survey of a group of 21 young people with normal hearing. The normal auditory threshold for white noise with a spectrum covering the whole of the auditory field is between -- 0.57 dB +/- 8.78. The normal auditory threshold for bands of filtered white noise (coloured noise with a central frequency corresponding to the pure frequencies usually employed in tonal audiometry) describes a typical curve which, instead of being homothetic to the usual tonal curves, sinks to low frequencies and then rises. The peak of this curve is replaced by a broad plateau ranging from 750 to 6000 Hz and contained in the concavity of the liminal tonal curves. The ear is therefore less sensitive but, at limited acoustic pressure, white noise first impinges with the same discrimination upon the whole of the conversational zone of the auditory field. Discovery of the audiometric threshold for white noise constitutes a synthetic method of measuring acuteness of hearing which considerably reduces the amount of manipulation required.

  10. Crossing Thresholds in Academic Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Rob

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at the conceptual thresholds in relation to academic reading which might be crossed by undergraduate English Literature students. It is part of a wider study following 16 students through three years of undergraduate study. It uses theoretical ideas from Bakhtin and Foucault to analyse interviews with English lecturers. It…

  11. The Nature of Psychological Thresholds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Morey, Richard D.

    Following G. T. Fechner (1966), thresholds have been conceptualized as the amount of intensity needed to transition between mental states, such as between a states of unconsciousness and consciousness. With the advent of the theory of signal detection, however, discrete-state theory and the

  12. Threshold enhancement of diphoton resonances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoife Bharucha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We revisit a mechanism to enhance the decay width of (pseudo-scalar resonances to photon pairs when the process is mediated by loops of charged fermions produced near threshold. Motivated by the recent LHC data, indicating the presence of an excess in the diphoton spectrum at approximately 750 GeV, we illustrate this threshold enhancement mechanism in the case of a 750 GeV pseudoscalar boson A with a two-photon decay mediated by a charged and uncolored fermion having a mass at the 12MA threshold and a small decay width, <1 MeV. The implications of such a threshold enhancement are discussed in two explicit scenarios: i the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model in which the A state is produced via the top quark mediated gluon fusion process and decays into photons predominantly through loops of charginos with masses close to 12MA and ii a two Higgs doublet model in which A is again produced by gluon fusion but decays into photons through loops of vector-like charged heavy leptons. In both these scenarios, while the mass of the charged fermion has to be adjusted to be extremely close to half of the A resonance mass, the small total widths are naturally obtained if only suppressed three-body decay channels occur. Finally, the implications of some of these scenarios for dark matter are discussed.

  13. Threshold Concepts and Pedagogic Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jan H. F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a brief exposure to the development of the threshold concepts framework (TCF), the intention being to illuminate for interested readers a broader landscape of research activity than that perhaps conveyed by the individual contributions to this special edition. Design/Methodology/Approach: There is…

  14. Quantifying ecological thresholds from response surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather E. Lintz; Bruce McCune; Andrew N. Gray; Katherine A. McCulloh

    2011-01-01

    Ecological thresholds are abrupt changes of ecological state. While an ecological threshold is a widely accepted concept, most empirical methods detect them in time or across geographic space. Although useful, these approaches do not quantify the direct drivers of threshold response. Causal understanding of thresholds detected empirically requires their investigation...

  15. Vibrational Sensing in Marine Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-30

    VIBRATIONAL SENSING IN MARINE INVERTEBRATES Peter A. Jumars School of Oceanography University of Washington Box 357940 Seattle, WA 98195-7940 (206...DATES COVERED 00-00-1997 to 00-00-1997 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Vibrational Sensing in Marine Invertebrates 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  16. Vibrations and Stability: Solved Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    Worked out solutions for exercise problems in J. J. Thomsen 'Vibrations and Stability: Advanced Theory, Analysis, and Tools', Springer, Berlin - Heidelberg, 2003.......Worked out solutions for exercise problems in J. J. Thomsen 'Vibrations and Stability: Advanced Theory, Analysis, and Tools', Springer, Berlin - Heidelberg, 2003....

  17. The origins of vibration theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimarogonas, A. D.

    1990-07-01

    The Ionian School of natural philosophy introduced the scientific method of dealing with natural phenomena and the rigorous proofs for abstract propositions. Vibration theory was initiated by the Pythagoreans in the fifth century BC, in association with the theory of music and the theory of acoustics. They observed the natural frequency of vibrating systems and proved that it is a system property and that it does not depend on the excitation. Pythagoreans determined the fundamental natural frequencies of several simple systems, such as vibrating strings, pipes, vessels and circular plates. Aristoteles and the Peripatetic School founded mechanics and developed a fundamental understanding of statics and dynamics. In Alexandrian times there were substantial engineering developments in the field of vibration. The pendulum as a vibration, and probably time, measuring device was known in antiquity, and was further developed by the end of the first millennium AD.

  18. Implementation guide for turbidity threshold sampling: principles, procedures, and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Lewis; Rand Eads

    2009-01-01

    Turbidity Threshold Sampling uses real-time turbidity and river stage information to automatically collect water quality samples for estimating suspended sediment loads. The system uses a programmable data logger in conjunction with a stage measurement device, a turbidity sensor, and a pumping sampler. Specialized software enables the user to control the sampling...

  19. Automatic Threshold Setting and Its Uncertainty Quantification in Wind Turbine Condition Monitoring System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marhadi, Kun Saptohartyadi; Skrimpas, Georgios Alexandros

    2015-01-01

    not represent the whole operating conditions of a turbine, which results in uncertainty in the parameters of the fitted probability distribution and the thresholds calculated. In this study, Johnson, Normal, and Weibull distributions are investigated; which distribution can best fit vibration data collected...... from a period of time. False alarm rate resulted from using threshold determined from each distribution is used as a measure to determine which distribution is the most appropriate. This study shows that using Johnson distribution can eliminate testing or fitting various distributions to the data...

  20. A Fast Method for Measuring Psychophysical Thresholds Across the Cochlear Implant Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A. Bierer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A rapid threshold measurement procedure, based on Bekesy tracking, is proposed and evaluated for use with cochlear implants (CIs. Fifteen postlingually deafened adult CI users participated. Absolute thresholds for 200-ms trains of biphasic pulses were measured using the new tracking procedure and were compared with thresholds obtained with a traditional forced-choice adaptive procedure under both monopolar and quadrupolar stimulation. Virtual spectral sweeps across the electrode array were implemented in the tracking procedure via current steering, which divides the current between two adjacent electrodes and varies the proportion of current directed to each electrode. Overall, no systematic differences were found between threshold estimates with the new channel sweep procedure and estimates using the adaptive forced-choice procedure. Test–retest reliability for the thresholds from the sweep procedure was somewhat poorer than for thresholds from the forced-choice procedure. However, the new method was about 4 times faster for the same number of repetitions. Overall the reliability and speed of the new tracking procedure provides it with the potential to estimate thresholds in a clinical setting. Rapid methods for estimating thresholds could be of particular clinical importance in combination with focused stimulation techniques that result in larger threshold variations between electrodes.

  1. Determination of an Optimal Threshold Value for Muscle Activity Detection in EMG Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgünen, Kerem Tuncay; Çelik, Umut; Kurdak, Sanlı Sadi

    2010-01-01

    It is commonly agreed that one needs to use a threshold value in the detection of muscle activity timing in electromyographic (EMG) signal analysis. However, the algorithm for threshold determination lacks an agreement between the investigators. In this study we aimed to determine a proper threshold value in an incremental cycling exercise for accurate EMG signal analysis. Nine healthy recreationally active male subjects cycled until exhaustion. EMG recordings were performed on four low extremity muscle groups; gastrocnemius lateralis (GL), gastrocnemius medialis (GM), soleus (SOL) and vastus medialis (VM). We have analyzed our data using three different threshold levels: 25%, 35% and 45% of the mean RMS EMG value. We compared the appropriateness of these threshold values using two criteria: (1) significant correlation between the actual and estimated number of bursts and (2) proximity of the regression line of the actual and estimated number of bursts to the line of identity. It had been possible to find a significant correlation between the actual and estimated number of bursts with the 25, 35 and 45% threshold values for the GL muscle. Correlation analyses for the VM muscle had shown that the number of bursts estimated with the 35% threshold value was found to be significantly correlated with the actual number of bursts. For the GM muscle, it had been possible to predict the burst number by using either the 35% or 45% threshold value and for the SOL muscle the 25% threshold value was found as the best predictor for actual number of burst estimation. Detailed analyses of the actual and estimated number of bursts had shown that success of threshold estimation may differ among muscle groups. Evaluation of our data had clearly shown that it is important to select proper threshold values for correct EMG signal analyses. Using a single threshold value for different exercise intensities and different muscle groups may cause misleading results. Key points α priori

  2. Whole body vibration exercise training for fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidonde, Julia; Busch, Angela J; van der Spuy, Ina; Tupper, Susan; Kim, Soo Y; Boden, Catherine

    2017-09-26

    Exercise training is commonly recommended for adults with fibromyalgia. We defined whole body vibration (WBV) exercise as use of a vertical or rotary oscillating platform as an exercise stimulus while the individual engages in sustained static positioning or dynamic movements. The individual stands on the platform, and oscillations result in vibrations transmitted to the subject through the legs. This review is one of a series of reviews that replaces the first review published in 2002. To evaluate benefits and harms of WBV exercise training in adults with fibromyalgia. We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PEDro, Thesis and Dissertation Abstracts, AMED, WHO ICTRP, and ClinicalTrials.gov up to December 2016, unrestricted by language, to identify potentially relevant trials. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in adults with the diagnosis of fibromyalgia based on published criteria including a WBV intervention versus control or another intervention. Major outcomes were health-related quality of life (HRQL), pain intensity, stiffness, fatigue, physical function, withdrawals, and adverse events. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted data, performed risk of bias assessments, and assessed the quality of evidence for major outcomes using the GRADE approach. We used a 15% threshold for calculation of clinically relevant differences. We included four studies involving 150 middle-aged female participants from one country. Two studies had two treatment arms (71 participants) that compared WBV plus mixed exercise plus relaxation versus mixed exercise plus relaxation and placebo WBV versus control, and WBV plus mixed exercise versus mixed exercise and control; two studies had three treatment arms (79 participants) that compared WBV plus mixed exercise versus control and mixed relaxation placebo WBV. We judged the overall risk of bias as low for selection (random sequence generation), detection (objectively

  3. Structural Vibration Monitoring Using Cumulative Spectral Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Goto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a resonance decay estimation for structural health monitoring in the presence of nonstationary vibrations. In structural health monitoring, the structure's frequency response and resonant decay characteristics are very important for understanding how the structure changes. Cumulative spectral analysis (CSA estimates the frequency decay by using the impulse response. However, measuring the impulse response of buildings is impractical due to the need to shake the building itself. In a previous study, we reported on system damping monitoring using cumulative harmonic analysis (CHA, which is based on CSA. The current study describes scale model experiments on estimating the hidden resonance decay under non-stationary noise conditions by using CSA for structural condition monitoring.

  4. Electron--impact resonant vibration excitation cross sections and rate coefficients for carbon monoxide

    CERN Document Server

    Laporta, V; Tennyson, J; Celiberto, R; 10.1088/0963-0252/21/4/045005

    2012-01-01

    Resonant vibrational and rotation-vibration excitation cross sections for electron-CO scattering are calculated in the 0-10 eV energy range for all 81 vibrational states of CO, assuming that the excitation occur via the 2{\\Pi} shape resonance. Static exchange plus polarization calculations performed using the R-matrix method are used to estimate resonance positions and widths as functions of internuclear separation. The effects of nuclear motion are considered using a local complex potential model. Good agreement is obtained with available experimental data on excitation from the vibrational ground state. Excitation rates and cross sections are provided as a functions of the initial CO vibrational state for all ground state vibrational levels.

  5. The hydrology of overdeepenings: a new supercooling threshold formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werder, Mauro

    2016-04-01

    Overdeepenings are a hallmark glacial landform of broad geomorphologlogical and glaciological interest. Their formation mechanism has not yet been fully uncovered but subglacial drainage is likely a key factor. One prominent hypothesis (Alley & al., 2003) states that the depth of an overdeepening stabilizes at the supercooling threshold. This threshold is reached when the adverse bed slope terminating an overdeepening is sufficiently large to shut down the efficient, channelized drainage system. Classic theory (e.g. Röthlisberger & Lang, 1987) estimates this threshold at a ratio of bed to surface slope of -1.6. Here I show how the classic theory can be extended to give an improved, more accurate threshold formula. The new formula agrees well with results from one and two dimensional subglacial drainage models. Applying it to observations of 147 overdeepenings from alpine glaciers (Linsbauer & al., 2012) and ice sheets shows that the depth of overdeepenings rarely exceeds the new supercooling threshold. Thus this work supports the stabilizing hypothesis. Conversely, the less accurate classic theory would classify most of the overdeepenings as deeper than the supercooling threshold and thus the stabilizing hypothesis would be refuted.

  6. Nonparametric Statistical Thresholding for Sparse Magnetoencephalography Source Reconstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Parsons Owen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Uncovering brain activity from MEG data requires solving an ill-posed inverse problem, greatly confounded by noise, interference, and correlated sources. Sparse reconstruction algorithms, such as Champagne, show great promise in that they provide focal brain activations robust to these confounds. In this paper, we address the technical considerations of statistically thresholding brain images obtained from sparse reconstruction algorithms. The source power distribution of sparse algorithms makes this class of algorithms ill-suited to "conventional" techniques. We propose two nonparametric resampling methods hypothesized to be compatible with sparse algorithms. The first adapts the maximal statistic procedure to sparse reconstruction results and the second departs from maximal statistics, putting forth a less stringent procedure that protects against spurious peaks. Three MEG data sets are utilized to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed methods. Two sparse algorithms, Champagne and generalized minimum current estimation (G-MCE, are compared to two non-sparse algorithms, a variant of minimum-norm estimation, sLORETA, and an adaptive beamformer. The results, in general, demonstrate that the already sparse images obtained from Champagne and G-MCE are further thresholded by both proposed statistical thresholding procedures. While non-sparse algorithms are thresholded by the maximal statistic procedure, they are not made sparse. The work presented here is one of the first attempts to address the problem of statistically thresholding sparse reconstructions, and aims to improve upon this already advantageous and powerful class of algorithm.

  7. Non-parametric statistical thresholding for sparse magnetoencephalography source reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Julia P; Sekihara, Kensuke; Nagarajan, Srikantan S

    2012-01-01

    Uncovering brain activity from magnetoencephalography (MEG) data requires solving an ill-posed inverse problem, greatly confounded by noise, interference, and correlated sources. Sparse reconstruction algorithms, such as Champagne, show great promise in that they provide focal brain activations robust to these confounds. In this paper, we address the technical considerations of statistically thresholding brain images obtained from sparse reconstruction algorithms. The source power distribution of sparse algorithms makes this class of algorithms ill-suited to "conventional" techniques. We propose two non-parametric resampling methods hypothesized to be compatible with sparse algorithms. The first adapts the maximal statistic procedure to sparse reconstruction results and the second departs from the maximal statistic, putting forth a less stringent procedure that protects against spurious peaks. Simulated MEG data and three real data sets are utilized to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed methods. Two sparse algorithms, Champagne and generalized minimum-current estimation (G-MCE), are compared to two non-sparse algorithms, a variant of minimum-norm estimation, sLORETA, and an adaptive beamformer. The results, in general, demonstrate that the already sparse images obtained from Champagne and G-MCE are further thresholded by both proposed statistical thresholding procedures. While non-sparse algorithms are thresholded by the maximal statistic procedure, they are not made sparse. The work presented here is one of the first attempts to address the problem of statistically thresholding sparse reconstructions, and aims to improve upon this already advantageous and powerful class of algorithm.

  8. Damage to surface structures due to blast vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.K. Singh; M.P. Roya [Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research, Dhanbad (India). Blasting Research Group

    2010-09-15

    This paper describes effect of blast produced ground vibration on damage potential to residential structures to determine safe levels of ground vibration for the residential structures and other buildings in mining areas. Impacts of 341 blasts detonated at two mines were monitored at the test structures and 1871 blast vibrations signatures were recorded on or near the test structures. Cosmetic cracks in a native brick-mud-cement house were detected at peak particle velocities (PPV) between 51.6 and 56.3 mm/s. The reinforced concrete and cement mortar (RCC) structure experienced cosmetic cracks at PPVs of 68.6-71.3 mm/s at the first floor, whereas at second floor it was detected at PPV levels of 71.2-72.2 mm/s. Minor damage in brick-mud-cement house was recorded at PPV levels of 81.0-89.7 mm/s. The RCC structure at first and second floors experienced minor damage at PPV levels of 104 and 98.3-118 mm/s, respectively. The brick-mud-cement house experienced major damage at PPV level of 99.6-113.0 mm/s, while major damage was recorded in RCC structure on first floor at PPV of 122 mm/s, the second floor at PPV levels of 128.9-161 mm/s. Recommended threshold limits of vibrations for the different type of structures is based on these measurements and observations.

  9. Setting conservation management thresholds using a novel participatory modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, P F E; de Bie, K; Rumpff, L

    2015-10-01

    We devised a participatory modeling approach for setting management thresholds that show when management intervention is required to address undesirable ecosystem changes. This approach was designed to be used when management thresholds: must be set for environmental indicators in the face of multiple competing objectives; need to incorporate scientific understanding and value judgments; and will be set by participants with limited modeling experience. We applied our approach to a case study where management thresholds were set for a mat-forming brown alga, Hormosira banksii, in a protected area management context. Participants, including management staff and scientists, were involved in a workshop to test the approach, and set management thresholds to address the threat of trampling by visitors to an intertidal rocky reef. The approach involved trading off the environmental objective, to maintain the condition of intertidal reef communities, with social and economic objectives to ensure management intervention was cost-effective. Ecological scenarios, developed using scenario planning, were a key feature that provided the foundation for where to set management thresholds. The scenarios developed represented declines in percent cover of H. banksii that may occur under increased threatening processes. Participants defined 4 discrete management alternatives to address the threat of trampling and estimated the effect of these alternatives on the objectives under each ecological scenario. A weighted additive model was used to aggregate participants' consequence estimates. Model outputs (decision scores) clearly expressed uncertainty, which can be considered by decision makers and used to inform where to set management thresholds. This approach encourages a proactive form of conservation, where management thresholds and associated actions are defined a priori for ecological indicators, rather than reacting to unexpected ecosystem changes in the future. © 2015 The

  10. Optimal Tmax Threshold for Predicting Penumbral Tissue in Acute Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivot, Jean-Marc; Mlynash, Michael; Thijs, Vincent N.; Kemp, Stephanie; Lansberg, Maarten G.; Wechsler, Lawrence; Bammer, Roland; Marks, Michael P.; Albers, Gregory W.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose We sought to assess whether the volume of the ischemic penumbra can be estimated more accurately by altering the threshold selected for defining perfusion-weighting imaging (PWI) lesions. Methods DEFUSE is a multicenter study in which consecutive acute stroke patients were treated with intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator 3 to 6 hours after stroke onset. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained before, 3 to 6 hours after, and 30 days after treatment. Baseline and posttreatment PWI volumes were defined according to increasing Tmax delay thresholds (>2, >4, >6, and >8 seconds). Penumbra salvage was defined as the difference between the baseline PWI lesion and the final infarct volume (30-day fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence). We hypothesized that the optimal PWI threshold would provide the strongest correlations between penumbra salvage volumes and various clinical and imaging-based outcomes. Results Thirty-three patients met the inclusion criteria. The correlation between infarct growth and penumbra salvage volume was significantly better for PWI lesions defined by Tmax >6 seconds versus Tmax >2 seconds, as was the difference in median penumbra salvage volume in patients with a favorable versus an unfavorable clinical response. Among patients who did not experience early reperfusion, the Tmax >4 seconds threshold provided a more accurate prediction of final infarct volume than the >2 seconds threshold. Conclusions Defining PWI lesions based on a stricter Tmax threshold than the standard >2 seconds delay appears to provide more a reliable estimate of the volume of the ischemic penumbra in stroke patients imaged between 3 and 6 hours after symptom onset. A threshold between 4 and 6 seconds appears optimal for early identification of critically hypoperfused tissue. PMID:19109547

  11. Estimates of CSR Instability Thresholds for Various Storage Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, Frank

    2010-01-01

    We review the key predictions and conditions by several authors for the onset of longitudinal instabilities due to coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR), and evaluate them numerically for various storage rings, namely the KEKB High Energy Ring (HER) & Low Energy Ring (LER), SuperKEKB HER & LER, old and new designs of the SuperKEKB Damping Ring (DR), SuperB HER & LER, CLIC DR (2009 and 2010 design parameters), SLC DR, and ATF DR. We show that the theoretical uncertainty in the instability onset is at least at the level of 20-30% in bunch intensity. More importantly, we present some doubts about the general applicability for many of these storage rings of some commonly used formulae. To cast further light on these questions, an experiment at lower beam energy on the ATF Damping Ring is proposed.

  12. Automatic monitoring of the alignment and wear of vibration welding equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spicer, John Patrick; Cai, Wayne W.; Chakraborty, Debejyo; Mink, Keith

    2017-05-23

    A vibration welding system includes vibration welding equipment having a welding horn and anvil, a host machine, a check station, and a welding robot. At least one displacement sensor is positioned with respect to one of the welding equipment and the check station. The robot moves the horn and anvil via an arm to the check station, when a threshold condition is met, i.e., a predetermined amount of time has elapsed or a predetermined number of welds have been completed. The robot moves the horn and anvil to the check station, activates the at least one displacement sensor, at the check station, and determines a status condition of the welding equipment by processing the received signals. The status condition may be one of the alignment of the vibration welding equipment and the wear or degradation of the vibration welding equipment.

  13. The Study of Vibration Processes in Oil Flooded Screw Compressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Filippov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration processes that accompany most of machines and mechanisms are of interest to the researcher, as a source of information about the technical condition and the nature of the business processes flow. Vibration-based diagnostics of oil flooded screw compressors allows us to estimate the deviation of their operation from the main mode in accordance with changing the settings of vibration processes.The oil flooded screw compressor transition from the main mode of operation to the abnormal one is accompanied by complex gas-dynamic phenomena i.e. the initial gaps and their decays. This leads to changes in the nature of vibration processes, prompting suggestions that there is a relationship to a change of vibration parameters and mode of compressor operation.Studies were conducted by combined method using an analytical calculation of the decay parameters of the initial discontinuity and an experimental one based on the measurement of acceleration on the body of the real oil flooded screw compressor. A virtually adequate reaction of the decay parameters of the initial gap and the peak values of vibration acceleration to the change of operation mode of oil flooded screw compressor has been received. The peak value of the vibration acceleration was selected by the method of Gating being time-coinciding with the beginning discharge phase of the oil flooded screw compressor, and therefore, with the decay time of the initial discontinuity.This indicates a large degree of hypothesis likelihood on an existing initial break in oil flooded screw compressor when operating in abnormal conditions. This work contains the study results of vibration processes and their relationship to the operating mode of the oil flooded screw compressor, which distinguish it from the other works studied vibration processes in reciprocating compressors. The vibration parameters control of operating oil flooded screw compressor allows us to create an automatic capacity control

  14. Vibration response of misaligned rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Tejas H.; Darpe, Ashish K.

    2009-08-01

    Misalignment is one of the common faults observed in rotors. Effect of misalignment on vibration response of coupled rotors is investigated in the present study. The coupled rotor system is modelled using Timoshenko beam elements with all six dof. An experimental approach is proposed for the first time for determination of magnitude and harmonic nature of the misalignment excitation. Misalignment effect at coupling location of rotor FE model is simulated using nodal force vector. The force vector is found using misalignment coupling stiffness matrix, derived from experimental data and applied misalignment between the two rotors. Steady-state vibration response is studied for sub-critical speeds. Effect of the types of misalignment (parallel and angular) on the vibration behaviour of the coupled rotor is examined. Along with lateral vibrations, axial and torsional vibrations are also investigated and nature of the vibration response is also examined. It has been found that the misalignment couples vibrations in bending, longitudinal and torsional modes. Some diagnostic features in the fast Fourier transform (FFT) of torsional and longitudinal response related to parallel and angular misalignment have been revealed. Full spectra and orbit plots are effectively used to reveal the unique nature of misalignment fault leading to reliable misalignment diagnostic information, not clearly brought out by earlier studies.

  15. Vibrotactile Presentation of Musical Notes to the Glabrous Skin for Adults with Normal Hearing or a Hearing Impairment: Thresholds, Dynamic Range and High-Frequency Perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Hopkins

    Full Text Available Presentation of music as vibration to the skin has the potential to facilitate interaction between musicians with hearing impairments and other musicians during group performance. Vibrotactile thresholds have been determined to assess the potential for vibrotactile presentation of music to the glabrous skin of the fingertip, forefoot and heel. No significant differences were found between the thresholds for sinusoids representing notes between C1 and C6 when presented to the fingertip of participants with normal hearing and with a severe or profound hearing loss. For participants with normal hearing, thresholds for notes between C1 and C6 showed the characteristic U-shape curve for the fingertip, but not for the forefoot and heel. Compared to the fingertip, the forefoot had lower thresholds between C1 and C3, and the heel had lower thresholds between C1 and G2; this is attributed to spatial summation from the Pacinian receptors over the larger contactor area used for the forefoot and heel. Participants with normal hearing assessed the perception of high-frequency vibration using 1s sinusoids presented to the fingertip and were found to be more aware of transient vibration at the beginning and/or end of notes between G4 and C6 when stimuli were presented 10dB above threshold, rather than at threshold. An average of 94% of these participants reported feeling continuous vibration between G4 and G5 with stimuli presented 10dB above threshold. Based on the experimental findings and consideration of health effects relating to vibration exposure, a suitable range of notes for vibrotactile presentation of music is identified as being from C1 to G5. This is more limited than for human hearing but the fundamental frequencies of the human voice, and the notes played by many instruments, lie within it. However, the dynamic range might require compression to avoid the negative effects of amplitude on pitch perception.

  16. Vibrotactile Presentation of Musical Notes to the Glabrous Skin for Adults with Normal Hearing or a Hearing Impairment: Thresholds, Dynamic Range and High-Frequency Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Carl; Maté-Cid, Saúl; Fulford, Robert; Seiffert, Gary; Ginsborg, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Presentation of music as vibration to the skin has the potential to facilitate interaction between musicians with hearing impairments and other musicians during group performance. Vibrotactile thresholds have been determined to assess the potential for vibrotactile presentation of music to the glabrous skin of the fingertip, forefoot and heel. No significant differences were found between the thresholds for sinusoids representing notes between C1 and C6 when presented to the fingertip of participants with normal hearing and with a severe or profound hearing loss. For participants with normal hearing, thresholds for notes between C1 and C6 showed the characteristic U-shape curve for the fingertip, but not for the forefoot and heel. Compared to the fingertip, the forefoot had lower thresholds between C1 and C3, and the heel had lower thresholds between C1 and G2; this is attributed to spatial summation from the Pacinian receptors over the larger contactor area used for the forefoot and heel. Participants with normal hearing assessed the perception of high-frequency vibration using 1s sinusoids presented to the fingertip and were found to be more aware of transient vibration at the beginning and/or end of notes between G4 and C6 when stimuli were presented 10dB above threshold, rather than at threshold. An average of 94% of these participants reported feeling continuous vibration between G4 and G5 with stimuli presented 10dB above threshold. Based on the experimental findings and consideration of health effects relating to vibration exposure, a suitable range of notes for vibrotactile presentation of music is identified as being from C1 to G5. This is more limited than for human hearing but the fundamental frequencies of the human voice, and the notes played by many instruments, lie within it. However, the dynamic range might require compression to avoid the negative effects of amplitude on pitch perception.

  17. Defining Seropositivity Thresholds for Use in Trachoma Elimination Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie J Migchelsen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Efforts are underway to eliminate trachoma as a public health problem by 2020. Programmatic guidelines are based on clinical signs that correlate poorly with Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct infection in post-treatment and low-endemicity settings. Age-specific seroprevalence of anti Ct Pgp3 antibodies has been proposed as an alternative indicator of the need for intervention. To standardise the use of these tools, it is necessary to develop an analytical approach that performs reproducibly both within and between studies.Dried blood spots were collected in 2014 from children aged 1-9 years in Laos (n = 952 and Uganda (n = 2700 and from people aged 1-90 years in The Gambia (n = 1868. Anti-Pgp3 antibodies were detected by ELISA. A number of visual and statistical analytical approaches for defining serological status were compared.Seroprevalence was estimated at 11.3% (Laos, 13.4% (Uganda and 29.3% (The Gambia by visual inspection of the inflection point. The expectation-maximisation algorithm estimated seroprevalence at 10.4% (Laos, 24.3% (Uganda and 29.3% (The Gambia. Finite mixture model estimates were 15.6% (Laos, 17.1% (Uganda and 26.2% (The Gambia. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis using a threshold calibrated against external reference specimens estimated the seroprevalence at 6.7% (Laos, 6.8% (Uganda and 20.9% (The Gambia when the threshold was set to optimise Youden's J index. The ROC curve analysis was found to estimate seroprevalence at lower levels than estimates based on thresholds established using internal reference data. Thresholds defined using internal reference threshold methods did not vary substantially between population samples.Internally calibrated approaches to threshold specification are reproducible and consistent and thus have advantages over methods that require external calibrators. We propose that future serological analyses in trachoma use a finite mixture model or expectation-maximisation algorithm as a

  18. Tissue vibration in prolonged running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesenbichler, Bernd; Stirling, Lisa M; Federolf, Peter; Nigg, Benno M

    2011-01-04

    The impact force in heel-toe running initiates vibrations of soft-tissue compartments of the leg that are heavily dampened by muscle activity. This study investigated if the damping and frequency of these soft-tissue vibrations are affected by fatigue, which was categorized by the time into an exhaustive exercise. The hypotheses were tested that (H1) the vibration intensity of the triceps surae increases with increasing fatigue and (H2) the vibration frequency of the triceps surae decreases with increasing fatigue. Tissue vibrations of the triceps surae were measured with tri-axial accelerometers in 10 subjects during a run towards exhaustion. The frequency content was quantified with power spectra and wavelet analysis. Maxima of local vibration intensities were compared between the non-fatigued and fatigued states of all subjects. In axial (i.e. parallel to the tibia) and medio-lateral direction, most local maxima increased with fatigue (supporting the first hypothesis). In anterior-posterior direction no systematic changes were found. Vibration frequency was minimally affected by fatigue and frequency changes did not occur systematically, which requires the rejection of the second hypothesis. Relative to heel-strike, the maximum vibration intensity occurred significantly later in the fatigued condition in all three directions. With fatigue, the soft tissue of the triceps surae oscillated for an extended duration at increased vibration magnitudes, possibly due to the effects of fatigue on type II muscle fibers. Thus, the protective mechanism of muscle tuning seems to be reduced in a fatigued muscle and the risk of potential harm to the tissue may increase. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Threshold concentration in the nonlinear absorbance law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbin, Alexander Yu; Pushkarev, Victor E; Tomilova, Larisa G; Zefirov, Nikolay S

    2017-05-24

    A new nonlinear relationship of the absorption coefficient with the concentration was proposed, allowing the calculation of the threshold concentration, which shows that there is a deviation from the Beer-Lambert law. The nonlinear model was successfully tested on a stable dimeric phthalocyanine ligand of J-type in solvents with different polarity. It was shown that deviation from the linearity is connected with a specific association of the macrocyclic molecules, which, in the case of non-polar solvents, leads to the formation of H-aggregates composed of J-type dimeric molecules. The aggregation number was estimated to be less than 1.5, which has allowed us to conduct a series of analytical experiments in a wide range of concentrations (1 × 10(-6)-5 × 10(-4) mol L(-1)).

  20. Color difference thresholds in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paravina, Rade D; Ghinea, Razvan; Herrera, Luis J; Bona, Alvaro D; Igiel, Christopher; Linninger, Mercedes; Sakai, Maiko; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Tashkandi, Esam; Perez, Maria del Mar

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this prospective multicenter study was to determine 50:50% perceptibility threshold (PT) and 50:50% acceptability threshold (AT) of dental ceramic under simulated clinical settings. The spectral radiance of 63 monochromatic ceramic specimens was determined using a non-contact spectroradiometer. A total of 60 specimen pairs, divided into 3 sets of 20 specimen pairs (medium to light shades, medium to dark shades, and dark shades), were selected for psychophysical experiment. The coordinating center and seven research sites obtained the Institutional Review Board (IRB) approvals prior the beginning of the experiment. Each research site had 25 observers, divided into five groups of five observers: dentists-D, dental students-S, dental auxiliaries-A, dental technicians-T, and lay persons-L. There were 35 observers per group (five observers per group at each site ×7 sites), for a total of 175 observers. Visual color comparisons were performed using a viewing booth. Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) fuzzy approximation was used for fitting the data points. The 50:50% PT and 50:50% AT were determined in CIELAB and CIEDE2000. The t-test was used to evaluate the statistical significance in thresholds differences. The CIELAB 50:50% PT was ΔEab  = 1.2, whereas 50:50% AT was ΔEab  = 2.7. Corresponding CIEDE2000 (ΔE00 ) values were 0.8 and 1.8, respectively. 50:50% PT by the observer group revealed differences among groups D, A, T, and L as compared with 50:50% PT for all observers. The 50:50% AT for all observers was statistically different than 50:50% AT in groups T and L. A 50:50% perceptibility and ATs were significantly different. The same is true for differences between two color difference formulas ΔE00 /ΔEab . Observer groups and sites showed high level of statistical difference in all thresholds. Visual color difference thresholds can serve as a quality control tool to guide the selection of esthetic dental materials, evaluate clinical performance, and

  1. Stroke rehabilitation reaches a threshold.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol E Han

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Motor training with the upper limb affected by stroke partially reverses the loss of cortical representation after lesion and has been proposed to increase spontaneous arm use. Moreover, repeated attempts to use the affected hand in daily activities create a form of practice that can potentially lead to further improvement in motor performance. We thus hypothesized that if motor retraining after stroke increases spontaneous arm use sufficiently, then the patient will enter a virtuous circle in which spontaneous arm use and motor performance reinforce each other. In contrast, if the dose of therapy is not sufficient to bring spontaneous use above threshold, then performance will not increase and the patient will further develop compensatory strategies with the less affected hand. To refine this hypothesis, we developed a computational model of bilateral hand use in arm reaching to study the interactions between adaptive decision making and motor relearning after motor cortex lesion. The model contains a left and a right motor cortex, each controlling the opposite arm, and a single action choice module. The action choice module learns, via reinforcement learning, the value of using each arm for reaching in specific directions. Each motor cortex uses a neural population code to specify the initial direction along which the contralateral hand moves towards a target. The motor cortex learns to minimize directional errors and to maximize neuronal activity for each movement. The derived learning rule accounts for the reversal of the loss of cortical representation after rehabilitation and the increase of this loss after stroke with insufficient rehabilitation. Further, our model exhibits nonlinear and bistable behavior: if natural recovery, motor training, or both, brings performance above a certain threshold, then training can be stopped, as the repeated spontaneous arm use provides a form of motor learning that further bootstraps performance and

  2. Molecular vibrations the theory of infrared and Raman vibrational spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, E Bright; Cross, Paul C

    1980-01-01

    Pedagogical classic and essential reference focuses on mathematics of detailed vibrational analyses of polyatomic molecules, advancing from application of wave mechanics to potential functions and methods of solving secular determinant.

  3. Avoid heat transfer equipment vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapathy, V.

    1987-06-01

    Tube bundles in heat exchangers, boilers, superheaters and heaters are often subject to vibration and noise problems. Vibration can lead to tube thinning and wear, resulting in tube failures. Excessive noise can be a problem to plant operating personnel. Large gas pressure drop across the equipment is also a side effect, which results in large operating costs. With the design checks presented in this paper, one can predict during design if problems associated with noise and vibration are likely to occur in petroleum refineries.

  4. Voting on Thresholds for Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauchdobler, Julian; Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    2010-01-01

    Introducing a threshold in the sense of a minimal project size transforms a public-good game with an inefficient equilibrium into a coordination game with a set of Pareto-superior equilibria. Thresholds may therefore improve efficiency in the voluntary provision of public goods. In our one......-shot experiment, we find that coordination often fails and exogenously imposed thresholds are ineffective at best and often counterproductive. This holds over a range of threshold levels and refund rates. We test whether thresholds perform better if they are endogenously chosen, i.e., whether a threshold...

  5. Voting on Thresholds for Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauchdobler, Julian; Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    Introducing a threshold in the sense of a minimal project size transforms a public goods game with an inefficient equilibrium into a coordination game with a set of Pareto-superior equilibria. Thresholds may therefore improve efficiency in the voluntary provision of public goods. In our one......-shot experiment, we find that coordination often fails and exogenously imposed thresholds are ineffective at best and often counter-productive. This holds under a range of threshold levels and refund rates. We test if thresholds perform better if they are endogenously chosen, i.e. if a threshold is approved...

  6. Methodology and apparatus for determining psychoacoustical threshold curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    at a second and opposite side of the a priori estimated psychoacoustical threshold curve. A series of auditory stimulus signals in accordance with the respective parameter pairs are presented to the listener through a sound reproduction device and the listener's detection of a predetermined attribute....../feature of the auditory stimulus signals is recorded such that a stimuli path through the predetermined two- dimensional response space is traversed. The psychoacoustical threshold curve is computed based on at least a subset of the recorded parameter pairs....

  7. Tactile Perception of Roughness and Hardness to Discriminate Materials by Friction-Induced Vibration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shuyang Ding; Yunlu Pan; Mingsi Tong; Xuezeng Zhao

    2017-01-01

    ... skin. The tactile perception of surface roughness and material hardness can be estimated by skin vibrations generated during a fingertip stroking of a surface instead of being maintained in a static position...

  8. The assessment of sensory detection thresholds on the perineum and breast compared with control body sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeau, Dany; Bélanger, Marc; Beaulieu-Prévost, Dominic; Courtois, Frédérique

    2014-07-01

    Few studies explored multiple sensory detection thresholds on the perineum and breast, but these normative data may provide standards for clinical conditions such as aging, genital and breast surgeries, pathological conditions affecting the genitals, and sexual function. The aim of this study was to provide normative data on sensory detection thresholds of three sensory modalities on the perineum and breast. Thirty healthy women aged between 18 and 35 years were assessed on the perineum (clitoris, labia minora, vaginal, and anal margin), breast (lateral, areola, nipple), and control body locations (neck, forearm, abdomen) for three sensory modalities (light touch, pressure, vibration). Average detection thresholds for each body location and sensory modality and statistical comparisons between the primary genital, secondary sexual, and neutral zones were the main outcome measures. Average detection thresholds for light touch suggest that the neck, forearm, and vaginal margin are most sensitive, and areola least sensitive. No statistical difference is found between the primary and secondary sexual zones, but the secondary sexual zone is significantly more sensitive than the neutral zone. Average detection thresholds for pressure suggest that the clitoris and nipple are most sensitive, and the lateral breast and abdomen least sensitive. No statistical difference is found between the primary and secondary sexual zone, but they are both significantly more sensitive than the neutral zone. Average detection thresholds for vibration suggest that the clitoris and nipple are most sensitive. The secondary sexual zone is significantly more sensitive than the primary and neutral zone, but the latter two show no difference. The current normative data from sensory detection threshold are discussed in terms of providing standard values for research and clinical conditions. Additional analysis from breast volume, body mass index, hormonal contraception, menstrual cycle, and sexual

  9. 14 CFR 33.63 - Vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vibration. 33.63 Section 33.63 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.63 Vibration. Each engine... because of vibration and without imparting excessive vibration forces to the aircraft structure. ...

  10. 14 CFR 33.83 - Vibration test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vibration test. 33.83 Section 33.83... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.83 Vibration test. (a) Each engine must undergo vibration surveys to establish that the vibration characteristics of those components that...

  11. 14 CFR 33.33 - Vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vibration. 33.33 Section 33.33 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.33 Vibration. The... vibration and without imparting excessive vibration forces to the aircraft structure. ...

  12. 14 CFR 33.43 - Vibration test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vibration test. 33.43 Section 33.43... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.43 Vibration test. (a) Each engine must undergo a vibration survey to establish the torsional and bending vibration characteristics...

  13. 49 CFR 178.819 - Vibration test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vibration test. 178.819 Section 178.819... Testing of IBCs § 178.819 Vibration test. (a) General. The vibration test must be conducted for the... vibration test. (b) Test method. (1) A sample IBC, selected at random, must be filled and closed as for...

  14. Rectangular Parallelepiped Vibration in Plane Strain State

    OpenAIRE

    Hanckowiak, Jerzy

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present a vibration spectrum of a homogenous parallelepiped (HP) under the action of volume and surface forces resulting from the exponent displacements entering the Fourier transforms. Vibration under the action of axial surface tractions and the free vibration are described separately. A relationship between the high frequency vibration and boundary conditions (BC) is also considered.

  15. Consideration of grip and push forces for the assessment of vibration exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, S

    1995-01-01

    There is much influence of the coupling forces between hand and grip of the vibrating tool on the measuring results as well as on the vibration effects on the hand-arm system. In a research project the effects of grip and push forces on acute responses of the hand-arm system under vibration conditions have been studied. Using these results of the biodynamic response, vibration perception threshold and subjective vibration sensation a bonus/malus system for a correction of the measured frequency-weighted r.m.s. acceleration was drafted, to assess the hand-arm vibration at the workplace: Since there is no difference between the acute effects of grip force and push force, so the forces have to be added and defined as coupling force Fcf. On the basis of this coupling force Fcf a correcting factor cF may be calculated. The factor amounts to 0.6 at Fcf = 20 N, 1.0 at Fcf = 120 N and 1.1 at Fcf = 200 N. To correct the measured weighted r.m.s. acceleration ahwz (Fcf) depending on coupling forces the r.m.s. acceleration has to be multiplied with the correcting factor cF. The drafted procedure enables to assess vibration exposure depending on coupling forces in a standardized way.

  16. Phase behaviour of transfer functions in vibrating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jianyuan; Ohlrich, Mogens

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigates the applicabilities of pole-zero models and wave propagation theory in estimating the phase characteristics of vibrating systems. The measured phase spectra are compared with the estimated reverberant phase limit and wave propagation phase. The relations between transfer...... on frequency in this band, but from the transition frequency and onwards the phase increases only with the square root of frequency. This behaviour is characteristic for free propagating waves....

  17. Some heuristic procedures for analyzing random vibration of nonlinear oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, S. H.

    1971-01-01

    The stationary response of a lightly damped nonlinear oscillator subjected to wideband random excitation can be examined as an example of thermal equilibrium. It may be assumed that the response consists of a series of free-vibration cycles with small random fluctuations in phase and amplitude. Certain statistical properties of the response can be estimated by averaging corresponding properties of the free vibration with respect to cycle amplitude distributions. Such heuristic procedures for determining the expected frequency and the autocorrelation function of the stationary response are outlined. Some additional results concerning first-passage problems for nonlinear oscillators are included.

  18. Extracting dynamics from threshold-crossing interspike intervals: possibilities and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, A N; Sosnovtseva, Olga; Mosekilde, Erik

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we estimate dynamical characteristics of chaotic attractors from sequences of threshold-crossing interspike intervals, and study how the choice of the threshold level (which sets the equation of a secant plane) influences the results of the numerical computations. Under quite genera...

  19. Sharp Threshold Detection Based on Sup-norm Error rates in High-dimensional Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callot, Laurent; Caner, Mehmet; Kock, Anders Bredahl

    variable selection via thresholding. Our simulations show that thresholding the scaled Lasso yields substantial improvements in terms of variable selection. Finally, we use our estimator to shed further empirical light on the long running debate on the relationship between the level of debt (public...

  20. Acute effects of vibration from a chipping hammer and a grinder on the hand-arm system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihlberg, S; Attebrant, M; Gemne, G; Kjellberg, A

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare various effects on the hand-arm system of vibration exposure from a chipping hammer and a grinder with the same frequency weighted acceleration. Grip and push forces were measured and monitored during the exposure. The various effects were: muscle activity (measured with surface electrodes), discomfort ratings for different parts of the hand-arm system (made during and after exposure), and vibration perception threshold (for 10 minutes before and 10 minutes after the exposure). No increase in muscle activity due to exposure to vibration was found in the hand muscle studied. In the forearm, conversely, there was an increase in both muscle studied. For the upper arm the muscle activity only increased when exposed to impact vibration. Subjective ratings in the hand and shift in vibration perception threshold were effected more by the grinder than the hammer exposure. These results show that the reaction of the hand-arm system to vibration varies with frequency quantitatively as well as qualitatively. They do not support the notion that one single frequency weighted curve would be valid for the different health effects of hand-arm vibration (vascular, musculoskeletal, neurological, and psychophysiological).

  1. Vibrational Damping of Composite Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Biggerstaff, Janet M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop new methods of vibrational damping in polymeric composite materials along with expanding the knowledge of currently used vibrational damping methods. A new barrier layer technique that dramatically increased damping in viscoelastic damping materials that interacted with the composite resin was created. A method for testing the shear strength of damping materials cocured in composites was developed. Directional damping materials, where the loss facto...

  2. Vibration Theory, Vol. 1B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    The present collection of MATLAB exercises has been published as a supplement to the textbook, Svingningsteori, Bind 1 and the collection of exercises in Vibration theory, Vol. 1A, Solved Problems. Throughout the exercise references are made to these books. The purpose of the MATLAB exercises...... is to give a better understanding of the physical problems in linear vibration theory and to surpress the mathematical analysis used to solve the problems. For this purpose the MATLAB environment is excellent....

  3. Harmonic vibrations of multispan beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbye, Claes

    1996-01-01

    Free and forced harmonic vibrations of multispan beams are determined by a method which implies 1 equation regardless of the configuration. The necessary formulas are given in the paper. For beams with simple supports and the same length of all (n) spans, there is a rather big difference between...... the n´th and the (n+1)´th eigenfrequency. The reason for this phenomenon is explained.Keywords: Vibrations, Eigenfrequencies, Beams....

  4. Smart accelerometer. [vibration damage detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention discloses methods and apparatus for detecting vibrations from machines which indicate an impending malfunction for the purpose of preventing additional damage and allowing for an orderly shutdown or a change in mode of operation. The method and apparatus is especially suited for reliable operation in providing thruster control data concerning unstable vibration in an electrical environment which is typically noisy and in which unrecognized ground loops may exist.

  5. Improved Predictions for Geotechnical Vibrations

    OpenAIRE

    Macijauskas, Darius

    2015-01-01

    In urban areas where the infrastructure is dense and construction of new structures is near existing and sensitive buildings, frequently vibrations, caused by human activities, occur. Generated waves in the soil may adversely affect surrounding buildings. These vibrations have to be predicted a priori by using currently available knowledge of the soil dynamics. Current research, conducted by Deltares research institute, showed that the reliability of methods for prediction of m...

  6. Stress analysis of vibrating pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachwieja, Janusz

    2017-03-01

    The pipelines are subject to various constraints variable in time. Those vibrations, if not monitored for amplitude and frequency, may result in both the fatigue damage in the pipeline profile at high stress concentration and the damage to the pipeline supports. If the constraint forces are known, the system response may be determined with high accuracy using analytical or numerical methods. In most cases, it may be difficult to determine the constraint parameters, since the industrial pipeline vibrations occur due to the dynamic effects of the medium in the pipeline. In that case, a vibration analysis is a suitable alternative method to determine the stress strain state in the pipeline profile. Monitoring the pipeline vibration levels involves a comparison between the measured vibration parameters and the permissible values as depicted in the graphs for a specific pipeline type. Unfortunately, in most cases, the studies relate to the petrochemical industry and thus large diameter, long and straight pipelines. For a pipeline section supported on both ends, the response in any profile at the entire section length can be determined by measuring the vibration parameters at two different profiles between the pipeline supports. For a straight pipeline section, the bending moments, variable in time, at the ends of the analysed section are a source of the pipe excitation. If a straight pipe section supported on both ends is excited by the bending moments in the support profile, the starting point for the stress analysis are the strains, determined from the Euler-Bernoulli equation. In practice, it is easier to determine the displacement using the experimental methods, since the factors causing vibrations are unknown. The industrial system pipelines, unlike the transfer pipelines, are straight sections at some points only, which makes it more difficult to formulate the equation of motion. In those cases, numerical methods can be used to determine stresses using the

  7. Weights of Exact Threshold Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babai, László; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Podolskii, Vladimir V.

    2010-01-01

    We consider Boolean exact threshold functions defined by linear equations, and in general degree d polynomials. We give upper and lower bounds on the maximum magnitude (absolute value) of the coefficients required to represent such functions. These bounds are very close and in the linear case...... and the Boolean cube {0,1} n . In the process we construct new families of ill-conditioned matrices. We further stratify the problem (in the linear case) in terms of the dimension k of the affine subspace spanned by the solutions, and give upper and lower bounds in this case as well. Our bounds here in terms of k...

  8. Comparison of memory thresholds for planar qudit geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Jacob; Jochym-O’Connor, Tomas; Gheorghiu, Vlad

    2017-11-01

    We introduce and analyze a new type of decoding algorithm called general color clustering, based on renormalization group methods, to be used in qudit color codes. The performance of this decoder is analyzed under a generalized bit-flip error model, and is used to obtain the first memory threshold estimates for qudit 6-6-6 color codes. The proposed decoder is compared with similar decoding schemes for qudit surface codes as well as the current leading qubit decoders for both sets of codes. We find that, as with surface codes, clustering performs sub-optimally for qubit color codes, giving a threshold of 5.6 % compared to the 8.0 % obtained through surface projection decoding methods. However, the threshold rate increases by up to 112% for large qudit dimensions, plateauing around 11.9 % . All the analysis is performed using QTop, a new open-source software for simulating and visualizing topological quantum error correcting codes.

  9. Vibrational modes of nanolines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyliger, Paul R.; Flannery, Colm M.; Johnson, Ward L.

    2008-04-01

    Brillouin-light-scattering spectra previously have been shown to provide information on acoustic modes of polymeric lines fabricated by nanoimprint lithography. Finite-element methods for modeling such modes are presented here. These methods provide a theoretical framework for determining elastic constants and dimensions of nanolines from measured spectra in the low gigahertz range. To make the calculations feasible for future incorporation in inversion algorithms, two approximations of the boundary conditions are employed in the calculations: the rigidity of the nanoline/substrate interface and sinusoidal variation of displacements along the nanoline length. The accuracy of these approximations is evaluated as a function of wavenumber and frequency. The great advantage of finite-element methods over other methods previously employed for nanolines is the ability to model any cross-sectional geometry. Dispersion curves and displacement patterns are calculated for modes of polymethyl methacrylate nanolines with cross-sectional dimensions of 65 nm × 140 nm and rectangular or semicircular tops. The vibrational displacements and dispersion curves are qualitatively similar for the two geometries and include a series of flexural, Rayleigh-like, and Sezawa-like modes. This paper is a contribution of the National Institute of Standards and Technology and is not subject to copyright in the United States.

  10. Uncertainty Quantification for Monitoring of Civil Structures from Vibration Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döhler, Michael; Mevel, Laurent

    2014-05-01

    Health Monitoring of civil structures can be performed by detecting changes in the modal parameters of a structure, or more directly in the measured vibration signals. For a continuous monitoring the excitation of a structure is usually ambient, thus unknown and assumed to be noise. Hence, all estimates from the vibration measurements are realizations of random variables with inherent uncertainty due to (unknown) process and measurement noise and finite data length. In this talk, a strategy for quantifying the uncertainties of modal parameter estimates from a subspace-based system identification approach is presented and the importance of uncertainty quantification in monitoring approaches is shown. Furthermore, a damage detection method is presented, which is based on the direct comparison of the measured vibration signals without estimating modal parameters, while taking the statistical uncertainty in the signals correctly into account. The usefulness of both strategies is illustrated on data from a progressive damage action on a prestressed concrete bridge. References E. Carden and P. Fanning. Vibration based condition monitoring: a review. Structural Health Monitoring, 3(4):355-377, 2004. M. Döhler and L. Mevel. Efficient multi-order uncertainty computation for stochastic subspace identification. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 38(2):346-366, 2013. M. Döhler, L. Mevel, and F. Hille. Subspace-based damage detection under changes in the ambient excitation statistics. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 45(1):207-224, 2014.

  11. Current perception threshold and the HAVS Stockholm sensorineural scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Ron; Krajnak, Kristine; Manno, Michael; Lander, Lina

    2009-10-01

    It is important to determine which tests of sensorineural dysfunction identify the neurological damage from hand-arm vibration exposure. To examine the association between the hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) Stockholm sensorineural scale stages and tests of peripheral neurological function including measurement of current perception threshold (CPT) and nerve conduction. All the subjects were men who were assessed for HAVS with a medical and occupational history and physical examination to determine the Stockholm stage, CPT testing at frequencies of 5, 250 and 2000 Hz for the median and ulnar nerves and measurement of nerve conduction carried out in a blinded fashion. A total of 155 of the 157 recruited subjects agreed to take part in the study, a 99% participation rate. CPT was statistically significantly increased (P Stockholm sensorineural Stages 1 and > or =2 in comparison to Stage 0 for every frequency and nerve combination. However, CPT could not discriminate well between Stages 1 and > or =2. There was no association between median or ulnar neuropathy measured by nerve conduction and the Stockholm stages. Polychotomous multinomial logistic regression indicated that the CPT measurements at 2000 Hz, corresponding to damage to large myelinated nerve fibres, were most predictive of both Stockholm Stages 1 and > or =2 in comparison to Stage 0. Neuropathy measured by nerve conduction was unrelated to the Stockholm scale stages. CPT was increased above Stage 0 but did not distinguish well between the higher stages of the Stockholm scale.

  12. Threshold Concepts in Finance: Student Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Susan; Kyng, Tim; Tickle, Leonie; Wood, Leigh N.

    2015-01-01

    Finance threshold concepts are the essential conceptual knowledge that underpin well-developed financial capabilities and are central to the mastery of finance. In this paper we investigate threshold concepts in finance from the point of view of students, by establishing the extent to which students are aware of threshold concepts identified by…

  13. Odor threshold determination for 2-nitropropane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, G N; Garrison, R P; McFee, D R

    1984-02-01

    The odor threshold of 2-nitropropane (2-NP) has been characterized as not capable of providing warning that air concentrations possibly exceed acceptable guidelines. However, recent testing indicates that the odor threshold is significantly lower than previously thought. In particular, the odor threshold has been indicated by this study to be below the current TLV for 2-NP.

  14. Signatures of Solvation Thermodynamics in Spectra of Intermolecular Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the thermodynamic and vibrational properties of water in the three-dimensional environment of solvated ions and small molecules using molecular simulations. The spectrum of intermolecular vibrations in liquid solvents provides detailed information on the shape of the local potential energy surface, which in turn determines local thermodynamic properties such as the entropy. Here, we extract this information using a spatially resolved extension of the two-phase thermodynamics method to estimate hydration water entropies based on the local vibrational density of states (3D-2PT). Combined with an analysis of solute–water and water–water interaction energies, this allows us to resolve local contributions to the solvation enthalpy, entropy, and free energy. We use this approach to study effects of ions on their surrounding water hydrogen bond network, its spectrum of intermolecular vibrations, and resulting thermodynamic properties. In the three-dimensional environment of polar and nonpolar functional groups of molecular solutes, we identify distinct hydration water species and classify them by their characteristic vibrational density of states and molecular entropies. In each case, we are able to assign variations in local hydration water entropies to specific changes in the spectrum of intermolecular vibrations. This provides an important link for the thermodynamic interpretation of vibrational spectra that are accessible to far-infrared absorption and Raman spectroscopy experiments. Our analysis provides unique microscopic details regarding the hydration of hydrophobic and hydrophilic functional groups, which enable us to identify interactions and molecular degrees of freedom that determine relevant contributions to the solvation entropy and consequently the free energy. PMID:28783431

  15. Signatures of Solvation Thermodynamics in Spectra of Intermolecular Vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Rasmus A X; Pattni, Viren; Singh, Anurag; Kast, Stefan M; Heyden, Matthias

    2017-09-12

    This study explores the thermodynamic and vibrational properties of water in the three-dimensional environment of solvated ions and small molecules using molecular simulations. The spectrum of intermolecular vibrations in liquid solvents provides detailed information on the shape of the local potential energy surface, which in turn determines local thermodynamic properties such as the entropy. Here, we extract this information using a spatially resolved extension of the two-phase thermodynamics method to estimate hydration water entropies based on the local vibrational density of states (3D-2PT). Combined with an analysis of solute-water and water-water interaction energies, this allows us to resolve local contributions to the solvation enthalpy, entropy, and free energy. We use this approach to study effects of ions on their surrounding water hydrogen bond network, its spectrum of intermolecular vibrations, and resulting thermodynamic properties. In the three-dimensional environment of polar and nonpolar functional groups of molecular solutes, we identify distinct hydration water species and classify them by their characteristic vibrational density of states and molecular entropies. In each case, we are able to assign variations in local hydration water entropies to specific changes in the spectrum of intermolecular vibrations. This provides an important link for the thermodynamic interpretation of vibrational spectra that are accessible to far-infrared absorption and Raman spectroscopy experiments. Our analysis provides unique microscopic details regarding the hydration of hydrophobic and hydrophilic functional groups, which enable us to identify interactions and molecular degrees of freedom that determine relevant contributions to the solvation entropy and consequently the free energy.

  16. Lowering the CUORE energy threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copello, S.; Alduino, C.; Alfonso, K.; Artusa, D. R.; Avignone, F. T., III.; Azzolini, O.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J. W.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; Branca, A.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Camacho, A.; Caminata, A.; Canonica, L.; Cao, X. G.; Capelli, S.; Cappelli, L.; Carbone, L.; Cardani, L.; Carniti, P.; Casali, N.; Cassina, L.; Chiesa, D.; Chott, N.; Clemenza, M.; Cosmelli, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R. J.; Cushman, J. S.; D'Addabbo, A.; Dafinei, I.; Davis, C. J.; Dell'Oro, S.; Deninno, M. M.; Di Domizio, S.; Di Vacri, M. L.; Drobizhev, A.; Fang, D. Q.; Faverzani, M.; Fernandes, G.; Ferri, E.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorini, E.; Franceschi, M. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Giachero, A.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Gladstone, L.; Gorla, P.; Gotti, C.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Haller, E. E.; Han, K.; Hansen, E.; Heeger, K. M.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Hickerson, K. P.; Huang, H. Z.; Kadel, R.; Keppel, G.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Leder, A.; Ligi, C.; Lim, K. E.; Liu, X.; Ma, Y. G.; Maino, M.; Marini, L.; Martinez, M.; Maruyama, R. H.; Mei, Y.; Moggi, N.; Morganti, S.; Mosteiro, P. J.; Napolitano, T.; Nones, C.; Norman, E. B.; Nucciotti, A.; O'Donnell, T.; Orio, F.; Ouellet, J. L.; Pagliarone, C. E.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, V.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pessina, G.; Pettinacci, V.; Piperno, G.; Pira, c. C.; Pirro, S.; Pozzi, S.; Previtali, E.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rusconi, C.; Sangiorgio, S.; Santone, D.; Scielzo, N. D.; Singh, V.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Taffarello, L.; Tenconi, M.; Terranova, F.; Tomei, C.; Trentalange, S.; Vignati, M.; Wagaarachchi, S. L.; Wang, B. S.; Wang, H. W.; Wilson, J.; Winslow, L. A.; Wise, T.; Woodcraft, A.; Zanotti, L.; Zhang, G. Q.; Zhu, B. X.; Zimmermann, S.; Zucchelli, S.

    2017-09-01

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is a ton-scale double beta decay experiment based on TeO2 cryogenic bolometers and is currently in the last construction stage at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS). Its primary goal is to observe neutrino-less double beta decay of 130Te, however thanks to the ultra-low background and large projected exposure it could also be suitable for other rare event searches, as the detection of solar axions, neutrinos from type II supernovae or direct detection of dark matter. The sensitivity for these searches will depend on the performance achieved at the low energy threshold. For this reason a trigger algorithm based on continuous data filtering has been developed which will allow lowering the threshold down to the few keV region. The new trigger has been tested in CUORE-0, a single-tower CUORE prototype consisting of 52 TeO2 bolometers and recently concluded, and here we present the results in terms of trigger efficiency, data selection and low-energy calibration.

  17. Threshold enhancement of diphoton resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Bharucha, Aoife; Goudelis, Andreas

    2016-10-10

    The data collected by the LHC collaborations at an energy of 13 TeV indicates the presence of an excess in the diphoton spectrum that would correspond to a resonance of a 750 GeV mass. The apparently large production cross section is nevertheless very difficult to explain in minimal models. We consider the possibility that the resonance is a pseudoscalar boson $A$ with a two--photon decay mediated by a charged and uncolored fermion having a mass at the $\\frac12 M_A$ threshold and a very small decay width, $\\ll 1$ MeV; one can then generate a large enhancement of the $A\\gamma\\gamma$ amplitude which explains the excess without invoking a large multiplicity of particles propagating in the loop, large electric charges and/or very strong Yukawa couplings. The implications of such a threshold enhancement are discussed in two explicit scenarios: i) the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model in which the $A$ state is produced via the top quark mediated gluon fusion process and decays into photons predominantly through...

  18. Sole vibration improves locomotion through the recovery of joint movements in a mouse cast model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Doi

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of a vibratory stimulus on the plantar surface of the hind limb for motor, sensory, and locomotive function using a mouse cast model. The right knee joint of C57BL/6 male mice (7 weeks, 20 g, n = 31 was flexed with aluminum splint and tape for 6 weeks. These mice were randomly divided into 2 groups (control group, n = 11 and vibration group, n = 12. The mice in the vibration group received vibration on the sole of the ankle for 15 minutes per day, 5 days per week. After the knee joint cast was removed, we measured the range of motion (ROM of both knee and ankle joints and the sensory threshold of the sole. Further, both walking and swimming movements were analyzed with a digital video. The sole vibration did not affect the passive ROM of the knee joint and sensory threshold after cast removal. However, it increased the ankle dorsiflexion range and improved free walking, swimming, and active movement of the knee joint. In conclusion, we show that the vibration recovered both walking and swimming movements, which resulted from improvements in both the passive ankle dorsiflexion and active knee movement.

  19. Active control of noise radiation from vibrating structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkholt, Jakob

    The thesis is concerned with the active control of randomly vibrating structures by means of feedback control, with particular emphasis on reducing the sound radiation from such structures. A time domain model of the structural and radiation dynamics of an actively controlled plate has been...... optimal and robust discrete-time feedback controllers for active vibration control of multimodal structures have been compared. They have been showed to yield controllers with identical frequency response characteristics, even though they employ completely different methods of numerical solutions...... developed, based on the theory of radiation filters for estimating the sound radiation from multimodal vibrations. This model has then been used in simulations of optimal feedback control, with special emphasis of the stability margins of the optimal control scheme. Two different methods of designing...

  20. Buckling and vibration of circular cylindrical shells containing hot liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, N.; Pradeep, V.

    2005-11-01

    Cylindrical shell filled with hot liquid is analyzed for buckling and vibration behavior using semi-analytical finite element method. A parametric study is conducted on a 316L stainless-steel cylinder filled with hot liquid. The temperature distribution in shell domain is obtained by using axisymmetric eight-node ring finite elements, capable of taking axial variation of temperature into account. Three-node ring elements are used for buckling and vibration analysis, formulated using semi-analytical finite element method. Thermal stress resultants and moment resultants in the shell are estimated and static buckling analysis is carried out to find the buckling temperature of the container for different levels of filling of liquid and for two different boundary conditions. Free vibration analysis carried out by considering initial stress effect and added mass effect due to hot liquid. Two different geometries are considered to study the effect of geometry on buckling temperature.

  1. Analysis of muscle fatigue induced by isometric vibration exercise at varying frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischi, M; Rabotti, C; Cardinale, M

    2012-01-01

    An increase in neuromuscular activity, measured by electromyography (EMG), is usually observed during vibration exercise. The underlying mechanisms are however unclear, limiting the possibilities to introduce and exploit vibration training in rehabilitation programs. In this study, a new training device is used to perform vibration exercise at varying frequency and force, therefore enabling the analysis of the relationship between vibration frequency and muscle fatigue. Fatigue is estimated by maximum voluntary contraction measurement, as well as by EMG mean-frequency and conduction-velocity analysis. Seven volunteers performed five isometric contractions of the biceps brachii with a load consisting of a baseline of 80% of their maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), with no vibration and with a superimposed 20, 30, 40, and 50 Hz vibrational force of 40 N. Myoelectric and mechanical fatigue were estimated by EMG analysis and by assessment of the MVC decay, respectively. A dedicated motion artifact canceler, making use of accelerometry, is proposed to enable accurate EMG analysis. Use of this canceler leads to better interpolation of myoelectric fatigue trends and to better correlation between mechanical and myoelectric fatigue. In general, our results suggest vibration at 30 Hz to be the most fatiguing exercise. These results contribute to the analysis of vibration exercise and motivate further research aiming at improved training protocols.

  2. Some problems of control of dynamical conditions of technological vibrating machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, N. K.; Lapshin, V. L.; Eliseev, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    The possibility of control of dynamical condition of the shakers that are designed for vibration treatment of parts interacting with granular media is discussed. The aim of this article is to develop the methodological basis of technology of creation of mathematical models of shake tables and the development of principles of formation of vibrational fields, estimation of their parameters and control of the structure vibration fields. Approaches to build mathematical models that take into account unilateral constraints, the relationships between elements, with the vibrating surface are developed. Methods intended to construct mathematical model of linear mechanical oscillation systems are used. Small oscillations about the position of static equilibrium are performed. The original method of correction of vibration fields by introduction of the oscillating system additional ties to the structure are proposed. Additional ties are implemented in the form of a mass-inertial device for changing the inertial parameters of the working body of the vibration table by moving the mass-inertial elements. The concept of monitoring the dynamic state of the vibration table based on the original measuring devices is proposed. Estimation for possible changes in dynamic properties is produced. The article is of interest for specialists in the field of creation of vibration technology machines and equipment.

  3. Fast, Continuous Audiogram Estimation using Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xinyu D.; Wallace, Brittany M.; Gardner, Jacob R.; Ledbetter, Noah M.; Weinberger, Kilian Q.; Barbour, Dennis L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Pure-tone audiometry has been a staple of hearing assessments for decades. Many different procedures have been proposed for measuring thresholds with pure tones by systematically manipulating intensity one frequency at a time until a discrete threshold function is determined. The authors have developed a novel nonparametric approach for estimating a continuous threshold audiogram using Bayesian estimation and machine learning classification. The objective of this study is to assess the accuracy and reliability of this new method relative to a commonly used threshold measurement technique. Design The authors performed air conduction pure-tone audiometry on 21 participants between the ages of 18 and 90 years with varying degrees of hearing ability. Two repetitions of automated machine learning audiogram estimation and 1 repetition of conventional modified Hughson-Westlake ascending-descending audiogram estimation were acquired by an audiologist. The estimated hearing thresholds of these two techniques were compared at standard audiogram frequencies (i.e., 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 kHz). Results The two threshold estimate methods delivered very similar estimates at standard audiogram frequencies. Specifically, the mean absolute difference between estimates was 4.16 ± 3.76 dB HL. The mean absolute difference between repeated measurements of the new machine learning procedure was 4.51 ± 4.45 dB HL. These values compare favorably to those of other threshold audiogram estimation procedures. Furthermore, the machine learning method generated threshold estimates from significantly fewer samples than the modified Hughson-Westlake procedure while returning a continuous threshold estimate as a function of frequency. Conclusions The new machine learning audiogram estimation technique produces continuous threshold audiogram estimates accurately, reliably, and efficiently, making it a strong candidate for widespread application in clinical and research audiometry. PMID

  4. Determining cardiac vagal threshold from short term heart rate complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdan Rami Abou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating individual aerobic exercise capacity is fundamental in sports and exercise medicine but associated with organizational and instrumental effort. Here, we extract an index related to common performance markers, the aerobic and anaerobic thresholds enabling the estimation of exercise capacity from a conventional sports watch supporting beatwise heart rate tracking. Therefore, cardiac vagal threshold (CVT was determined in 19 male subjects performing an incremental maximum exercise test. CVT varied around the anaerobic threshold AnT with mean deviation of 7.9 ± 17.7 W. A high correspondence of the two thresholds was indicated by Bland-Altman plots with limits of agreement −27.5 W and 43.4 W. Additionally, CVT was strongly correlated AnT (rp = 0.86, p < 0.001 and reproduced this marker well (rc = 0.81. We conclude, that cardiac vagal threshold derived from compression entropy time course can be useful to assess physical fitness in an uncomplicated way.

  5. Automatic threshold selection for multi-class open set recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherreik, Matthew; Rigling, Brian

    2017-05-01

    Multi-class open set recognition is the problem of supervised classification with additional unknown classes encountered after a model has been trained. An open set classifer often has two core components. The first component is a base classifier which estimates the most likely class of a given example. The second component consists of open set logic which estimates if the example is truly a member of the candidate class. Such a system is operated in a feed-forward fashion. That is, a candidate label is first estimated by the base classifier, and the true membership of the example to the candidate class is estimated afterward. Previous works have developed an iterative threshold selection algorithm for rejecting examples from classes which were not present at training time. In those studies, a Platt-calibrated SVM was used as the base classifier, and the thresholds were applied to class posterior probabilities for rejection. In this work, we investigate the effectiveness of other base classifiers when paired with the threshold selection algorithm and compare their performance with the original SVM solution.

  6. Adaptive control of an active seat for occupant vibration reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zengkang; Hillis, Andrew J.; Darling, Jocelyn

    2015-08-01

    The harmful effects on human performance and health caused by unwanted vibration from vehicle seats are of increasing concern. This paper presents an active seat system to reduce the vibration level transmitted to the seat pan and the occupants' body under low frequency periodic excitation. Firstly, the detail of the mechanical structure is given and the active seat dynamics without external load are characterized by vibration transmissibility and frequency responses under different excitation forces. Owing the nonlinear and time-varying behaviour of the proposed system, a Filtered-x least-mean-square (FXLMS) adaptive control algorithm with on-line Fast-block LMS (FBLMS) identification process is employed to manage the system operation for high vibration cancellation performance. The effectiveness of the active seat system is assessed through real-time experimental tests using different excitation profiles. The system identification results show that an accurate estimation of the secondary path is achieved by using the FBLMS on-line technique. Substantial reduction is found for cancelling periodic vibration containing single and multiple frequencies. Additionally, the robustness and stability of the control system are validated through transient switching frequency tests.

  7. Damping and energy dissipation in soft tissue vibrations during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khassetarash, Arash; Hassannejad, Reza; Enders, Hendrik; Ettefagh, Mir Mohammad

    2015-01-21

    It has been well accepted that the vibrations of soft tissue cannot be simulated by a single sinusoidal function. In fact, these vibrations are a combination of several vibration modes. In this study, these modes are extracted applying a recently developed method namely, partly ensemble empirical mode decomposition (PEEMD). Then, a methodology for estimating the damping properties and energy dissipation caused by damping for each mode is used. Applying this methodology on simulated signals demonstrates high accuracy. This methodology is applied to the acceleration signals of the gastrocnemius muscle during sprinting and the differences between the damping properties of different vibration modes were identified. The results were 1) the damping property of high-frequency mode was higher than that for low-frequency modes. 2) All identified modes were in under damped condition, therefore, the vibrations had an oscillatory nature. 3) The damping ratios of lower modes are about 100% increased compared to higher modes. 4) The energy dissipation occurred in lower modes were much more than that for higher mode; According to the power spectrum of the ground reaction force (GRF), which is the input force into the body, the recent finding supports the muscle tuning paradigm. It is suggested that the damping properties and energy dissipation can be used to distinguish between different running conditions (surface, fatigue, etc.). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. EVALUATION OF VIBRATION LOAD ON COMMON RAIL FUEL SYSTEM COMPONENTS FOR DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kuharonak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to develop a program, a methodology and execute vibration load tests of Common Rail fuel system components for a diesel engine. The paper contains an analysis of parameters that characterize vibration activity of research object and determine its applicability as a part of the specific mechanical system. A tests program has been developed that includes measurements of general peak values of vibration acceleration in the fuel system components, transformation of the obtained data while taking into account the fact that peak vibration acceleration values depend on crank-shaft rotation frequency and spectrum of vibration frequency, comparison of these dependences with the threshold limit values obtained in the process of component tests with the help of vibration shaker. The investigations have been carried out in one of the most stressed elements of the Common Rail fuel system that is a RDS 4.2-pressure sensor in a fuel accumulator manufactured by Robert Bosch GmbH and mounted on the MMZ D245.7E4-engines.According to the test methodology measurements have been performed on an engine test bench at all fullload engine curves. Vibration measurements have resulted in time history of the peak vibration acceleration values in three directions from every accelerometer and crank-shaft rotation frequency.It has been proposed to increase a diameter of mounting spacers of the fuel accumulator and install a damping clamp on high pressure tubes from a high pressure fuel pump to the fuel accumulator that permits to reduce a maximum peak vibration acceleration value on the pressure sensor in the fuel accumulator by 400 m/s2 and ensure its application in the given engine.

  9. Threshold effects in the monetary policy reaction function of the Deutsche Bundesbank

    OpenAIRE

    Mandler, Martin

    2011-01-01

    We estimate monetary policy reaction functions with threshold effects for the Deutsche Bundesbank using a real-time data set. Estimates based on the deviation of inflation from the Bundesbank's inflation target as threshold variable suggest a switch to a stronger output gap response in the reaction function if past inflation was high. The reaction function in the regime with higher inflation implies an overall less contractionary monetary policy than that for the low inflation regime. A modif...

  10. Characterization of the audiologic thresholds in workers of funeral urns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira, José Roberto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The industrial technological advance has brought benefits and a series of implications that may commit the worker's health and life quality. The exposure to physical, chemical agents and organizational stressors contribute for the increase of work accidents risks. The noise, taken as the most frequent physical agent in the work environment, may cause auditory alterations called Noise-Induced Hearing Loss that affect the communication and life quality of the workers. Objective: To research the auditory health of employees in a funeral urns factory. Method: 90 workers took part in this study, aged between 16 and 52 years, exposed to sound pressure levels equal or higher than 85 dBNPS, vibration and/or chemical agents in the work environment. We carried out a specific interview and Threshold Tonal Audiometry. Results: This study identified altered audiometry results in 13.33% the right ear and 16.67% in the left ear and the age also influenced these auditory thresholds. Conclusion: The accomplishment of a workers' health surveillance program with all people involved is critical and will contribute for the human resources formation, in the management to proceed with actions as well as those by the proper workers being careful of their health.

  11. Epidemic thresholds for bipartite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, D. G.; Risau-Gusman, S.

    2013-11-01

    It is well known that sexually transmitted diseases (STD) spread across a network of human sexual contacts. This network is most often bipartite, as most STD are transmitted between men and women. Even though network models in epidemiology have quite a long history now, there are few general results about bipartite networks. One of them is the simple dependence, predicted using the mean field approximation, between the epidemic threshold and the average and variance of the degree distribution of the network. Here we show that going beyond this approximation can lead to qualitatively different results that are supported by numerical simulations. One of the new features, that can be relevant for applications, is the existence of a critical value for the infectivity of each population, below which no epidemics can arise, regardless of the value of the infectivity of the other population.

  12. Evaluation of Maryland abutment scour equation through selected threshold velocity methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, S.T.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Maryland State Highway Administration, used field measurements of scour to evaluate the sensitivity of the Maryland abutment scour equation to the critical (or threshold) velocity variable. Four selected methods for estimating threshold velocity were applied to the Maryland abutment scour equation, and the predicted scour to the field measurements were compared. Results indicated that performance of the Maryland abutment scour equation was sensitive to the threshold velocity with some threshold velocity methods producing better estimates of predicted scour than did others. In addition, results indicated that regional stream characteristics can affect the performance of the Maryland abutment scour equation with moderate-gradient streams performing differently from low-gradient streams. On the basis of the findings of the investigation, guidance for selecting threshold velocity methods for application to the Maryland abutment scour equation are provided, and limitations are noted.

  13. Definition of temperature thresholds: the example of the French heat wave warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, Mathilde; Wagner, Vérène; Le Tertre, Alain; Laaidi, Karine; Honoré, Cyrille; Bénichou, Françoise; Beaudeau, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Heat-related deaths should be somewhat preventable. In France, some prevention measures are activated when minimum and maximum temperatures averaged over three days reach city-specific thresholds. The current thresholds were computed based on a descriptive analysis of past heat waves and on local expert judgement. We tested whether a different method would confirm these thresholds. The study was set in the six cities of Paris, Lyon, Marseille, Nantes, Strasbourg and Limoges between 1973 and 2003. For each city, we estimated the excess in mortality associated with different temperature thresholds, using a generalised additive model, controlling for long-time trends, seasons and days of the week. These models were used to compute the mortality predicted by different percentiles of temperatures. The thresholds were chosen as the percentiles associated with a significant excess mortality. In all cities, there was a good correlation between current thresholds and the thresholds derived from the models, with 0°C to 3°C differences for averaged maximum temperatures. Both set of thresholds were able to anticipate the main periods of excess mortality during the summers of 1973 to 2003. A simple method relying on descriptive analysis and expert judgement is sufficient to define protective temperature thresholds and to prevent heat wave mortality. As temperatures are increasing along with the climate change and adaptation is ongoing, more research is required to understand if and when thresholds should be modified.

  14. Monopolar Detection Thresholds Predict Spatial Selectivity of Neural Excitation in Cochlear Implants: Implications for Speech Recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhou

    Full Text Available The objectives of the study were to (1 investigate the potential of using monopolar psychophysical detection thresholds for estimating spatial selectivity of neural excitation with cochlear implants and to (2 examine the effect of site removal on speech recognition based on the threshold measure. Detection thresholds were measured in Cochlear Nucleus® device users using monopolar stimulation for pulse trains that were of (a low rate and long duration, (b high rate and short duration, and (c high rate and long duration. Spatial selectivity of neural excitation was estimated by a forward-masking paradigm, where the probe threshold elevation in the presence of a forward masker was measured as a function of masker-probe separation. The strength of the correlation between the monopolar thresholds and the slopes of the masking patterns systematically reduced as neural response of the threshold stimulus involved interpulse interactions (refractoriness and sub-threshold adaptation, and spike-rate adaptation. Detection threshold for the low-rate stimulus most strongly correlated with the spread of forward masking patterns and the correlation reduced for long and high rate pulse trains. The low-rate thresholds were then measured for all electrodes across the array for each subject. Subsequently, speech recognition was tested with experimental maps that deactivated five stimulation sites with the highest thresholds and five randomly chosen ones. Performance with deactivating the high-threshold sites was better than performance with the subjects' clinical map used every day with all electrodes active, in both quiet and background noise. Performance with random deactivation was on average poorer than that with the clinical map but the difference was not significant. These results suggested that the monopolar low-rate thresholds are related to the spatial neural excitation patterns in cochlear implant users and can be used to select sites for more optimal

  15. Characterization of a water pump for drum-type washing machine by vibration power approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, YongHwa; Kim, Kwang-joon

    2015-03-01

    Water pumps used in drum-type washing machines to save water are likely to make the washing process noisier than the one without those because the water pumps attached usually onto cabinet structure work as additional vibration and noise sources. In order to either counteract such vibration and noise problems by stiffness design of the cabinet structure or classify the water pumps from the view point of an acceptance test, characterization of the water pumps as excitation sources would be essential. In this paper, several methods to characterize a water pump as an excitation source are investigated. Measurements by traditional methods of blocked force and/or free velocity for a water pump of 35 W are presented. Two methods of vibration power suggested rather recently are reviewed. Then, another method of the vibration power is proposed. Estimations of the vibration power for the water pump operating on a beam structure are obtained and discussed comparatively.

  16. Dynamic Assessment of Vibration of Tooth Modification Gearbox Using Grey Bootstrap Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-liang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The correlation analysis between gear modification and vibration characteristics of transmission system was difficult to quantify; a novel small sample vibration of gearbox prediction method based on grey system theory and bootstrap theory was presented. The method characterized vibration base feature of tooth modification gearbox by developing dynamic uncertainty, estimated true value, and systematic error measure, and these parameters could indirectly dynamically evaluate the effect of tooth modification. The method can evaluate the vibration signal of gearbox with installation of no tooth modification gear and topological modification gear, respectively, considering that 100% reliability is the constraints condition and minimum average uncertainty is the target value. Computer simulation and experiment results showed that vibration amplitude of gearbox was decreased partly due to topological tooth modification, and each value of average dynamic uncertainty, mean true value, and systematic error measure was smaller than the no tooth modification value. The study provided an important guide for tooth modification, dynamic performance optimization.

  17. Analysis of flow-induced vibrations in turbomachinery by mapping of complex fluid pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Wirth

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce a mapping procedure which facilitates the simulation of flow-induced vibrations in turbomachinery. The transient steady state pressure fluctuations in the flow field (which excite vibrations are computed in the frequency domain by what are generally referred to as “harmonic CFD” methods where the pressure oscillations are expressed by complex amplitudes. They are mapped using the Fraunhofer software FSIMapper to a structural vibration analysis. A main focus lies in the provision of mapping methods for cyclic symmetric models. The process provides a fast numerical assessment of flow-induced vibrations where the resulting vibration amplitudes can be used for realistic fatigue estimations of flow-excited turbine components. The procedure is applied to a ceramic impeller of a micro gas turbine.

  18. Ultrasonic metal welding with a vibration source using longitudinal and torsional vibration transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asami, Takuya; Tamada, Yosuke; Higuchi, Yusuke; Miura, Hikaru

    2017-07-01

    Conventional ultrasonic metal welding for joining dissimilar metals uses a linear vibration locus, although this method suffers from problems such as low overall weld strength. Our previous studies have shown that ultrasonic welding with a planar vibration locus improves the weld strength. However, the vibration source in our previous studies had problems in longitudinal-torsional vibration controllability and small welding tip. Therefore, the study of the optimal shape of the vibration locus was difficult. Furthermore, improvement of weld strength cannot be expected. We have developed a new ultrasonic vibration source that can control the longitudinal-torsional vibration and can connect to a large welding tip. In this study, we clarified the longitudinal-torsional vibration controllability of the developed ultrasonic vibration source. Moreover, we clarified that using the planar locus of the developed vibration source produced a higher weld strength than our previous studies, and clarified the optimal shape of the vibration locus.

  19. The entry price threshold in EU agriculture: deterrent or barrier?

    OpenAIRE

    Santeramo, Fabio Gaetano; Cioffi, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The paper investigates the effects of the entry price scheme for fresh fruit and vegetables. The analysis is conducted on the European prices of tomatoes, lemons and apples for some of the main competing countries on the European domestic markets: Morocco, Argentina, Turkey and China. The econometric analysis is based on testing and estimating a switching vector autoregressive model with endogenous threshold entry price level. The model shows the isolation effects and the accumulation of Sta...

  20. Mechanical Vibrations Modeling and Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitz, Tony L

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical Vibrations:Modeling and Measurement describes essential concepts in vibration analysis of mechanical systems. It incorporates the required mathematics, experimental techniques, fundamentals of modal analysis, and beam theory into a unified framework that is written to be accessible to undergraduate students,researchers, and practicing engineers. To unify the various concepts, a single experimental platform is used throughout the text to provide experimental data and evaluation. Engineering drawings for the platform are included in an appendix. Additionally, MATLAB programming solutions are integrated into the content throughout the text. This book also: Discusses model development using frequency response function measurements Presents a clear connection between continuous beam models and finite degree of freedom models Includes MATLAB code to support numerical examples that are integrated into the text narrative Uses mathematics to support vibrations theory and emphasizes the practical significanc...

  1. Multiaxial vibration fatigue-A theoretical and experimental comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mršnik, Matjaž; Slavič, Janko; Boltežar, Miha

    2016-08-01

    Random vibration excitation is a common cause of failure, especially if natural dynamics is excited. The high-cycle vibration-fatigue analysis typically requires the structural dynamics analysis, the response analysis and the fatigue analysis. The material parameters (S-N curve) are obtained at uniaxial stress state. However, in real structures the stress state is rarely uniaxial and the direct application of the S-N curve is difficult. The stress tensor is reduced to a more manageable representation using a multiaxial criterion. In this study, maximum normal stress, maximum shear stress, maximum normal-and-shear stress, C-S criterion, Projection-by- Projection and the Preumont and Piéfort criterion for multiaxial stress state are compared theoretically and experimentally. The crack location and the time-to-failure were compared. The time-to-failure was found relatively accurate with all multiaxial criteria; however, the crack-location estimation was found not to be accurate enough for either of the compared criteria. The study proves the applicability of the vibration-fatigue analysis procedure on real vibrating structures with rich structural dynamics. Random vibration excitation is a common cause of failure, especially if natural dynamics is excited. The high-cycle vibration-fatigue analysis typically requires the structural dynamics analysis, the response analysis and the fatigue analysis. The material parameters (S-N curve) are obtained at uniaxial stress state. However, in real structures the stress state is rarely uniaxial and the direct application of the S-N curve is difficult. The stress tensor is reduced to a more manageable representation using a multiaxial criterion. In this study, maximum normal stress, maximum shear stress, maximum normaland-shear stress, C-S criterion, Projection-by-Projection and the Preumont and Piéfort criterion for multiaxial stress state are compared theoretically and experimentally. The crack location and the time

  2. Gas Bubble Dynamics under Mechanical Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohagheghian, Shahrouz; Elbing, Brian

    2017-11-01

    The scientific community has a limited understanding of the bubble dynamics under mechanical oscillations due to over simplification of Navier-Stockes equation by neglecting the shear stress tensor and not accounting for body forces when calculating the acoustic radiation force. The current work experimental investigates bubble dynamics under mechanical vibration and resulting acoustic field by measuring the bubble size and velocity using high-speed imaging. The experimental setup consists of a custom-designed shaker table, cast acrylic bubble column, compressed air injection manifold and an optical imaging system. The mechanical vibrations resulted in accelerations between 0.25 to 10 times gravitational acceleration corresponding to frequency and amplitude range of 8 - 22Hz and 1 - 10mm respectively. Throughout testing the void fraction was limited to bubble size is larger than resonance size and smaller than acoustic wavelength. The amplitude of acoustic pressure wave was estimated using the definition of Bjerknes force in combination with Rayleigh-Plesset equation. Physical behavior of the system was capture and classified. Bubble size, velocity as well as size and spatial distribution will be presented.

  3. Estimativas de correlações genéticas entre escores visuais e características de carcaça medidas por ultrassonografia em bovinos Nelore utilizando modelos bayesianos linear-limiar Genetic correlation estimates between visual scores and carcass traits measured by ultrasound in Nelore cattle using linear-threshold bayesian models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Ubirajara de Faria

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste estudo foi estimar as correlações genéticas entre escores visuais e características de carcaça medidas por ultrassonografia em bovinos da raça Nelore utilizando a estatística bayesiana por meio da Amostragem de Gibbs, sob modelo animal linear-limiar. Foram estudadas as características categóricas morfológicas de musculosidade, estrutura física, conformação e sacro, avaliadas aos 15 e 22 meses de idade. Para as características de carcaça, foram avaliadas as características área de olho-de-lombo, espessura de gordura subcutânea, espessura de gordura subcutânea na garupa e altura na garupa. Os escores visuais devem ser empregados como critérios de seleção para aumentar o progresso genético para a característica área de olhode-lombo e, consequentemente, melhorar o rendimento de carcaça. As estimativas de correlação genética obtidas para musculosidade com espessura de gordura subcutânea e espessura de gordura subcutânea na garupa indicaram que a seleção para musculosidade pode levar a animais com melhor acabamento de carcaça. A seleção para a estrutura física e conformação aos 15 e 22 meses de idade pode promover resposta correlacionada para o aumento da altura na garupa.The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic correlations between visual scores and the carcass traits measured by ultrasound, in Nellore breed cattle, using the bayesian statistics by Gibbs Sampling, in the linear-threshold model. The morphological categorical traits of musculature, physical structure, conformation and sacrum were studied, evaluated at 15 and 22 months. The carcass traits of the longissimus muscle area, backfat thickness, rump fat thickness and hip height were evaluated. Visual scores should be used as selection criterion to increase genetic progress for the longissumus muscle area. The estimates of genetic correlations obtained between musculature and backfat thickness and rump fat thickness

  4. DOWNHOLE VIBRATION MONITORING & CONTROL SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin E. Cobern

    2004-08-31

    The deep hard rock drilling environment induces severe vibrations into the drillstring, which can cause reduced rates of penetration (ROP) and premature failure of the equipment. The only current means of controlling vibration under varying conditions is to change either the rotary speed or the weight-on-bit (WOB). These changes often reduce drilling efficiency. Conventional shock subs are useful in some situations, but often exacerbate the problems. The objective of this project is development of a unique system to monitor and control drilling vibrations in a ''smart'' drilling system. This system has two primary elements: (1) The first is an active vibration damper (AVD) to minimize harmful axial, lateral and torsional vibrations. The hardness of this damper will be continuously adjusted using a robust, fast-acting and reliable unique technology. (2) The second is a real-time system to monitor drillstring vibration, and related parameters. This monitor adjusts the damper according to local conditions. In some configurations, it may also send diagnostic information to the surface via real-time telemetry. The AVD is implemented in a configuration using magnetorheological (MR) fluid. By applying a current to the magnetic coils in the damper, the viscosity of the fluid can be changed rapidly, thereby altering the damping coefficient in response to the measured motion of the tool. Phase I of this program entailed modeling and design of the necessary subsystems and design, manufacture and test of a full laboratory prototype. Phase I of the project was completed by the revised end date of May 31, 2004. The objectives of this phase were met, and all prerequisites for Phase II have been completed.

  5. DOWNHOLE VIBRATION MONITORING & CONTROL SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin E. Cobern

    2004-10-13

    The deep hard rock drilling environment induces severe vibrations into the drillstring, which can cause reduced rates of penetration (ROP) and premature failure of the equipment. The only current means of controlling vibration under varying conditions is to change either the rotary speed or the weight-on-bit (WOB). These changes often reduce drilling efficiency. Conventional shock subs are useful in some situations, but often exacerbate the problems. The objective of this project is development of a unique system to monitor and control drilling vibrations in a ''smart'' drilling system. This system has two primary elements: (1) The first is an active vibration damper (AVD) to minimize harmful axial, lateral and torsional vibrations. The hardness of this damper will be continuously adjusted using a robust, fast-acting and reliable unique technology. (2) The second is a real-time system to monitor drillstring vibration, and related parameters. This monitor adjusts the damper according to local conditions. In some configurations, it may also send diagnostic information to the surface via real-time telemetry. The AVD is implemented in a configuration using magnetorheological (MR) fluid. By applying a current to the magnetic coils in the damper, the viscosity of the fluid can be changed rapidly, thereby altering the damping coefficient in response to the measured motion of the tool. Phase I of this program entailed modeling and design of the necessary subsystems and design, manufacture and test of a full laboratory prototype. Phase I of the project was completed by the revised end date of May 31, 2004. The objectives of this phase were met, and all prerequisites for Phase II have been completed. The month of June, 2004 was primarily occupied with the writing of the Phase I Final Report, the sole deliverable of Phase I, which will be submitted in the next quarter. Redesign of the laboratory prototype and design of the downhole (Phase II) prototype was

  6. Ablation threshold and plasma analyses in the PLD process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, Ileana; Stoian, Razvan; Luculescu, C.; Dabu, Razvan V.; Stratan, Aurel

    1998-05-01

    UV laser induced ablation of YBCO superconducting targets was studied in the initial and late evolution stages in order to control and optimize the thin film deposition process. The optimum irradiation energy was estimated using an acoustic method allowing ablation threshold and congruent ablation threshold estimation. The ablation threshold dependence on incident laser spot area and target density was studied also and recommends that the proper fluence has to be considered as a function of specific irradiation conditions. Plasma expansion analyses was performed in order to estimate the parameters that control the composition and energy of the ablated particles. Temporal and spatial resolved spectra were recorded and evidenced a high density of ionized species in the initial expansion stages, atomic emission being significant at late stages or in colder regions of the plume, where the oxide emission becomes also notable. Also a supplementary IR laser radiation focused in front of the plume for IR oxygen dissociation evidenced the oxidation enhancement at the interaction of the dissociation front with the plume species.

  7. Exploiting synthetic aperture radar imagery for retrieving vibration signatures of concealed machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Francisco; Campbell, Justin B.; Jaramillo, Monica; Dunkel, Ralf; Atwood, Thomas; Doerry, Armin; Gerstle, Walter H.; Santhanam, Balu; Hayat, Majeed M.

    2016-05-01

    It has been demonstrated that the instantaneous acceleration associated with vibrating objects that are directly imaged by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can be estimated through the application of the discrete fractional Fourier transform (DFrFT) using the information contained in the complex SAR image. In general, vibration signatures may include, for example, the number of chirped sinusoids as well as their respective base frequencies and chirp rates. By further processing the DFrFT-processed data for clutter-noise rejection by means of pseudo- subspace methods, has been shown that the SAR-vibrometry method can be reliable as long as the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) of the slow-time SAR signal at the range-line of interest exceeds 15dB. Meanwhile, the Nyquist theorem dictates that the maximum measurable vibration frequency is limited by half of the pulse-repetition frequency. This paper focuses on the detection and estimation of vibrations generated by machinery concealed within buildings and other structures. This is a challenging task in general because the vibration signatures of the source are typically altered by their housing structure; moreover, the SNR at the surface of the housing structure tends to be reduced. Here, experimental results for three different vibrating targets, including one concealed target, are reported using complex SAR images acquired by the General Atomics Lynx radar at resolutions of 1-ft and 4-in. The concealed vibrating target is actuated by a gear motor with an off-balance weight attached to it, which is enclosed by a wooden housing. The vibrations of the motor are transmitted to a chimney that extends above the housing structure. Using the SAR vibrometry approach, it is shown that it is possible to distinguish among the three vibrating objects based upon their vibration signatures.

  8. The Effect of a Mechanical Arm System on Portable Grinder Vibration Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Thomas W; Welcome, Daniel E; Warren, Christopher; Xu, Xueyan S; Dong, Ren G

    2016-04-01

    Mechanical arm systems are commonly used to support powered hand tools to alleviate ergonomic stressors related to the development of workplace musculoskeletal disorders. However, the use of these systems can increase exposure times to other potentially harmful agents such as hand-transmitted vibration. To examine how these tool support systems affect tool vibration, the primary objectives of this study were to characterize the vibration emissions of typical portable pneumatic grinders used for surface grinding with and without a mechanical arm support system at a workplace and to estimate the potential risk of the increased vibration exposure time afforded by the use of these mechanical arm systems. This study also developed a laboratory-based simulated grinding task based on the ISO 28927-1 (2009) standard for assessing grinder vibrations; the simulated grinding vibrations were compared with those measured during actual workplace grinder operations. The results of this study demonstrate that use of the mechanical arm may provide a health benefit by reducing the forces required to lift and maneuver the tools and by decreasing hand-transmitted vibration exposure. However, the arm does not substantially change the basic characteristics of grinder vibration spectra. The mechanical arm reduced the average frequency-weighted acceleration by about 24% in the workplace and by about 7% in the laboratory. Because use of the mechanical arm system can increase daily time-on-task by 50% or more, the use of such systems may actually increase daily time-weighted hand-transmitted vibration exposures in some cases. The laboratory acceleration measurements were substantially lower than the workplace measurements, and the laboratory tool rankings based on acceleration were considerably different than those from the workplace. Thus, it is doubtful that ISO 28927-1 is useful for estimating workplace grinder vibration exposures or for predicting workplace grinder acceleration rank

  9. Measurement of implant stability and auditory pure-tone thresholds of Baha patients comparing osteosysthesis and osseointegrated systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahne, Torsten; Götze, Gerrit; Pein, M Katharina

    2015-03-01

    With bone-anchored hearing systems the implant-bone junction is critical for the transmission of mechanical vibrations to the skull. The implant stability might differ between available and widely applied implants and can be estimated by resonance frequency analysis. The implant stability and the audiological performance of ten adult long-time users where a bone-anchored hearing system was connected by an Baha osseointegrated implant (Cochlear Ltd, Mölnlycke, Sweden) were compared with the implant stability of fourteen adult patients provided with a Ti-epiplating osteosysthesis system (Medicon, Tuttlingen, Germany). The acute implant stability was compared between these two implants with one cadaveric skull. The results show higher resonance frequencies and thus higher implant stability for the osseointegrating system of both, measuring acute and after long-time use of the implants. The audiological outcomes show frequency dependent differences between both systems as determined by comparing pure-tone bone-conduction audiometry. However, measuring thresholds by a direct stimulation of the implant reveals better hearing with low frequencies for the osseointegrated system and for high frequencies with the osteosysthesis system. At all, the implant selection has an impact on the implant stability and on the pure-tone hearing. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  10. Patellar tendon vibration reduces the increased facilitation from quadriceps to soleus in post-stroke hemiparetic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupas, Eric; Dyer, Joseph-Omer; Melo, Sibele de Andrade; Forget, Robert

    2017-09-01

    Stimulation of the femoral nerve in healthy people can facilitate soleus H-reflex and electromyography (EMG) activity. In stroke patients, such facilitation of transmission in spinal pathways linking the quadriceps and soleus muscles is enhanced and related to co-activation of knee and ankle extensors while sitting and walking. Soleus H-reflex facilitation can be depressed by vibration of the quadriceps in healthy people, but the effects of such vibration have never been studied on the abnormal soleus facilitation observed in people after stroke. To determine whether vibration of the quadriceps can modify the enhanced heteronymous facilitation of the soleus muscle observed in people with spastic stroke after femoral nerve stimulation and compare post-vibration effects on soleus facilitation in control and stroke individuals. Modulation of voluntary soleus EMG activity induced by femoral nerve stimulation (2×motor threshold) was assessed before, during and after vibration of the patellar tendon in 10 healthy controls and 17 stroke participants. Voluntary soleus EMG activity was facilitated by femoral nerve stimulation in 4/10 (40%) controls and 11/17 (65%) stroke participants. The level of facilitation was greater in the stroke than control group. Vibration significantly reduced early heteronymous facilitation in both groups (50% of pre-vibration values). However, the delay in recovery of soleus facilitation after vibration was shorter for the stroke than control group. The control condition with the vibrator turned off had no effect on the modulation. Patellar tendon vibration can reduce the facilitation between knee and ankle extensors, which suggests effective presynaptic inhibition but decreased post-activation depression in the lower limb of people after chronic hemiparetic stroke. Further studies are warranted to determine whether such vibration could be used to reduce the abnormal extension synergy of knee and ankle extensors in people after hemiparetic

  11. Stroboscopic shearography for vibration analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinchen, Wolfgang; Kupfer, Gerhard; Maeckel, Peter; Voessing, Frank

    1999-09-01

    Digital Shearography, a laser interferometric technique in conjunction with the digital image processing, has the potential for vibration analysis due to its simple optical system and insensitivity against small rigid body motions. This paper will focus on its recent developments for vibration analysis and for nondestructive testing (NDT) by dynamic (harmonical) excitation. With the introduction of real time observation using automatically refreshing reference frame, both small and large rigid body motions are greatly suppressed. The development of a smaller and more mobile measuring device in conjunction with a user guided comfortable program Shearwin enables the digital shearography to be applied easily as an industrial online testing tool.

  12. Vibrational Collapse of Hexapod Packings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuchen; Ding, Jingqiu; Barés, Jonathan; Zheng, Hu; Dierichs, Karola; Menges, Achim; Behringer, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Columns made of convex noncohesive grains like sand collapse after being released from a confining container. However, structures built from non-convex grains can be stable without external support. In the current experiments, we investigate the effect of vibration on destroying such columns. The change of column height during vertical vibration, can be well characterized by stretched exponential relaxation when the column is short, which is in agreement with previous work, while a faster collapse happens when the column is tall. We investigate the collapse after the fast process including its dependence on column geometry, and on interparticle and basal friction.

  13. Innovative Techniques Simplify Vibration Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    In the early years of development, Marshall Space Flight Center engineers encountered challenges related to components in the space shuttle main engine. To assess the problems, they evaluated the effects of vibration and oscillation. To enhance the method of vibration signal analysis, Marshall awarded Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts to AI Signal Research, Inc. (ASRI), in Huntsville, Alabama. ASRI developed a software package called PC-SIGNAL that NASA now employs on a daily basis, and in 2009, the PKP-Module won Marshall s Software of the Year award. The technology is also used in many industries: aircraft and helicopter, rocket engine manufacturing, transportation, and nuclear power."

  14. Defining accelerometer thresholds for activity intensities in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treuth, Margarita S; Schmitz, Kathryn; Catellier, Diane J; McMurray, Robert G; Murray, David M; Almeida, M Joao; Going, Scott; Norman, James E; Pate, Russell

    2004-07-01

    To derive a regression equation that estimates metabolic equivalent (MET) from accelerometer counts, and to define thresholds of accelerometer counts that can be used to delineate sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous activity in adolescent girls. Seventy-four healthy 8th grade girls, age 13 - 14 yr, were recruited from urban areas of Baltimore, MD, Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN, and Columbia, SC, to participate in the study. Accelerometer and oxygen consumption (.-)VO(2)) data for 10 activities that varied in intensity from sedentary (e.g., TV watching) to vigorous (e.g., running) were collected. While performing these activities, the girls wore two accelerometers, a heart rate monitor and a Cosmed K4b2 portable metabolic unit for measurement of (.-)VO(2). A random-coefficients model was used to estimate the relationship between accelerometer counts and (.-)VO(2). Activity thresholds were defined by minimizing the false positive and false negative classifications. The activities provided a wide range in (.-)VO(2) (3 - 36 mL x kg x min) with a correspondingly wide range in accelerometer counts (1- 3928 counts x 30 s). The regression line for MET score versus counts was MET = 2.01 +/- 0.00171 (counts x 30 s) (mixed model R = 0.84, SEE = 1.36). A threshold of 1500 counts x 30 s defined the lower end of the moderate intensity (approximately 4.6 METs) range of physical activity. That cutpoint distinguished between slow and brisk walking, and gave the lowest number of false positive and false negative classifications. The threshold ranges for sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity were found to be 0 - 50, 51- 1499, 1500 - 2600, and >2600 counts x 30 s, respectively. The developed equation and these activity thresholds can be used for prediction of MET score from accelerometer counts and participation in various intensities of physical activity in adolescent girls.

  15. Power thresholds for fast oscillatory instabilities in nuclear reactors: a simple mathematical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Antola, Roberto [Catholic University of Uruguay, Montevideo (Uruguay). School of Engineering and Technologies). Email: rsuarez@ucu.edu.uy) Ministry of Energy, Industry and Mines, Montevideo (Uruguay). National Board of Energy and Nuclear Technology)

    2007-07-01

    The cores of nuclear reactors, including its structural parts and cooling fluids, are complex mechanical systems able to vibrate in a set of normal modes and frequencies, if suitable perturbed. The cyclic variations in the strain state of the core materials may modify the reactivity, and thus thermal power, producing variations in strain due to thermal-elastic effects. If the variation of the temperature field is fast enough and if the Doppler Effect and other stabilizing prompt effects in the fuel are weak enough, a fast oscillatory instability could be produced, coupled with mechanical vibrations of small enough amplitude that they will not be excluded by the procedures of conventional mechanical design. After a careful discussion of the time scales of neutron kinetics, thermal-elastic and vibration phenomena, a simple lumped parameter mathematical model is constructed in order to study, in a first approximation, the stability of the reactor. An integro-differential equation for power kinetics is derived. Under certain conditions, fast oscillatory instabilities are found when power is greater than a threshold value, and the delay in the global power feedback loop is big enough. Approximate analytical formulae are given for the power threshold, critical delay and power oscillation frequency. It is shown that if prompt stabilizing fuel effects are strong enough, dangerous fast power oscillations due to mechanical thermal-nuclear coupling phenomena can not appear at any power level. (author)

  16. Vibration Analysis of the Space Shuttle External Tank Cable Tray Flight Data With and Without PAL Ramp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Bruce E.; Panda, Jayanta; Sutliff, Daniel L.

    2008-01-01

    External Tank Cable Tray vibration data for three successive Space Shuttle flights were analyzed to assess response to buffet and the effect of removal of the Protuberance Air Loads (PAL) ramp. Waveform integration, spectral analysis, cross-correlation analysis and wavelet analysis were employed to estimate vibration modes and temporal development of vibration motion from a sparse array of accelerometers and an on-board system that acquired 16 channels of data for approximately the first 2 min of each flight. The flight data indicated that PAL ramp removal had minimal effect on the fluctuating loads on the cable tray. The measured vibration frequencies and modes agreed well with predicted structural response.

  17. Difference thresholds for interaural intensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafter, E.R.; Dye, R.H.; Neutzel, J.M.; Aronow, H.

    1977-03-01

    In an earlier paper, we examined the distribution of binaural resolvings power by measuring threshold increments of interaural delay as a function of overall delay (E. R. Hafter and J. Demaio, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 57, 181--187 (1975)). In the current study, similar measures were made for interaural increments of intensity. As before, the stimuli were bandpass clicks of either low (0. 1--2 kHz) or higsh (3--4 kHz) frequency. For overall interaural differences as great as 24 dB, it seems that performance was based on the interaural differences, and not on the monaural increments/decrements that are concommitant with a binaural change in level. As was the case with time, sensitivity to interaural intensity was reasonably constant across the range tested; thus unlike the case for vision, spatial resolution in the auditory system is not concentrated in the center. A simple binaural trading ratio which converts intensity to time can be shown to fit the data for low-frequency clicks quite well. However, the fit to high frequencies is so poor as to suggest that separate mechanisms were used for detecting time and intensity. Finally, a number like the binaural masking-level difference (MLD) was computed for the two kinds of clicks. Surprisingly, the MLD's for low and high frequencies were a similar 7.2 and 8.0 dB.

  18. Lactate threshold concepts: how valid are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faude, Oliver; Kindermann, Wilfried; Meyer, Tim

    2009-01-01

    During the last nearly 50 years, the blood lactate curve and lactate thresholds (LTs) have become important in the diagnosis of endurance performance. An intense and ongoing debate emerged, which was mainly based on terminology and/or the physiological background of LT concepts. The present review aims at evaluating LTs with regard to their validity in assessing endurance capacity. Additionally, LT concepts shall be integrated within the 'aerobic-anaerobic transition' - a framework which has often been used for performance diagnosis and intensity prescriptions in endurance sports. Usually, graded incremental exercise tests, eliciting an exponential rise in blood lactate concentrations (bLa), are used to arrive at lactate curves. A shift of such lactate curves indicates changes in endurance capacity. This very global approach, however, is hindered by several factors that may influence overall lactate levels. In addition, the exclusive use of the entire curve leads to some uncertainty as to the magnitude of endurance gains, which cannot be precisely estimated. This deficiency might be eliminated by the use of LTs. The aerobic-anaerobic transition may serve as a basis for individually assessing endurance performance as well as for prescribing intensities in endurance training. Additionally, several LT approaches may be integrated in this framework. This model consists of two typical breakpoints that are passed during incremental exercise: the intensity at which bLa begin to rise above baseline levels and the highest intensity at which lactate production and elimination are in equilibrium (maximal lactate steady state [MLSS]). Within this review, LTs are considered valid performance indicators when there are strong linear correlations with (simulated) endurance performance. In addition, a close relationship between LT and MLSS indicates validity regarding the prescription of training intensities. A total of 25 different LT concepts were located. All concepts were

  19. Energetics, structures, vibrational frequencies, vibrational absorption, vibrational circular dichroism and Raman intensities of Leu-enkephalin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalkanen, Karl J.

    2003-01-01

    Here we present several low energy conformers of Leu-enkephalin (LeuE) calculated with the density functional theory using the Becke 3LYP hybrid functional and the 6-31G* basis set. The structures, conformational energies, vibrational frequencies, vibrational absorption (VA) intensities......, vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) intensities and Raman scattering intensities are reported for the conformers of LeuE which are expected to be populated at room temperature. The species of LeuE-present in non-polar solvents is the neutral non-ionic species with the NH2 and CO2H groups, in contrast...... to the zwitterionic neutral species with the NH3+ and CO2- groups which predominates in aqueous solution and in the crystal. All of our attempts to find the zwitterionic species in the isolated state failed, with the result that a hydrogen atom from the positively charged N-terminus ammonium group transferred either...

  20. Error Thresholds on Dynamic Fittness-Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Martin; Snoad, Nigel

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we investigate error-thresholds on dynamics fitness-landscapes. We show that there exists both lower and an upper threshold, representing limits to the copying fidelity of simple replicators. The lower bound can be expressed as a correction term to the error-threshold present on a static landscape. The upper error-threshold is a new limit that only exists on dynamic fitness-landscapes. We also show that for long genomes on highly dynamic fitness-landscapes there exists a lower b...

  1. Fuzzy-adaptive-thresholding-based exon prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Ankit; Mittal, Ankush; Jain, Rahul; Takkar, Raghav

    2010-01-01

    Thresholding is always critical and decisive in many bioinformatics problems. In this paper, we propose and apply a fuzzy-logic-based adaptive thresholding approach to a well-known solution for the exon prediction problem, which uses a threshold on the frequency component at f = 1/3 in the nucleotide sequence. The proposed approach allows the thresholds to vary along the data set based on the local statistical properties. Experiments and results on the nucleotide data of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Bakers yeast) illustrate the advantage of our approach. A user-friendly GUI in MATLAB is freely available for academic use at www.cs.iastate.edu/˜ankitag/FATBEP.html.

  2. Resonant vibration control of rotating beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Martin Nymann; Krenk, Steen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    2011-01-01

    Rotatingstructures,like e.g.wind turbine blades, may be prone to vibrations associated with particular modes of vibration. It is demonstrated, how this type of vibrations can be reduced by using a collocated sensor–actuator system, governed by a resonant controller. The theory is here demonstrated...... modal connectivity, only very limited modal spill-over is generated. The controller acts by resonance and therefore has only a moderate energy consumption, and successfully reduces modal vibrations at the resonance frequency....

  3. Converting Vertical Vibration of Anisotropic Ratchet Conveyors into Horizontal Droplet Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan; Holmes, Hal R; Böhringer, Karl F

    2017-10-10

    An anisotropic ratchet conveyor is an asymmetric, periodic, micropatterned surface that propels droplets when vibrated with a sinusoidal signal at certain frequencies and amplitudes. For each input frequency, there is a threshold amplitude beyond which the droplet starts to move. In this paper, we study the parameters that initiate droplet motion and the relationship between the input frequency and threshold amplitude among droplets with different volume, density, viscosity, and surface tension. Through this investigation we demonstrate how nondimensionalization reveals consistent behavior for droplets of different volumes. Finally, we propose a compact model that captures the essential features of the system to describe how a pure vertical vibration results in horizontal droplet motion. This model provides an intuitive understanding of the underlying physics and explains how the surface asymmetry is the key for lateral droplet motion.

  4. Regional rainfall thresholds for landslide occurrence using a centenary database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Teresa; Luís Zêzere, José; Pereira, Susana; Cruz Oliveira, Sérgio; Quaresma, Ivânia

    2017-04-01

    Rainfall is one of the most important triggering factors for landslides occurrence worldwide. The relation between rainfall and landslide occurrence is complex and some approaches have been focus on the rainfall thresholds identification, i.e., rainfall critical values that when exceeded can initiate landslide activity. In line with these approaches, this work proposes and validates rainfall thresholds for the Lisbon region (Portugal), using a centenary landslide database associated with a centenary daily rainfall database. The main objectives of the work are the following: i) to compute antecedent rainfall thresholds using linear and potential regression; ii) to define lower limit and upper limit rainfall thresholds; iii) to estimate the probability of critical rainfall conditions associated with landslide events; and iv) to assess the thresholds performance using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) metrics. In this study we consider the DISASTER database, which lists landslides that caused fatalities, injuries, missing people, evacuated and homeless people occurred in Portugal from 1865 to 2010. The DISASTER database was carried out exploring several Portuguese daily and weekly newspapers. Using the same newspaper sources, the DISASTER database was recently updated to include also the landslides that did not caused any human damage, which were also considered for this study. The daily rainfall data were collected at the Lisboa-Geofísico meteorological station. This station was selected considering the quality and completeness of the rainfall data, with records that started in 1864. The methodology adopted included the computation, for each landslide event, of the cumulative antecedent rainfall for different durations (1 to 90 consecutive days). In a second step, for each combination of rainfall quantity-duration, the return period was estimated using the Gumbel probability distribution. The pair (quantity-duration) with the highest return period was

  5. An investigation on wind turbine resonant vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaldi, Carlo; Kim, Taeseong; Larsen, Torben J.

    2016-01-01

    Wind turbine resonant vibrations are investigated based on aeroelastic simulations both in frequency and time domain. The investigation focuses on three different aspects: the need of a precise modeling when a wind turbine is operating close to resonant conditions; the importance of estimating wind...... turbine loads also at low turbulence intensity wind conditions to identify the presence of resonances; and the wind turbine response because of external excitations. In the first analysis, three different wind turbine models are analysed with respect to the frequency and damping of the aeroelastic modes....... Fatigue loads on the same models are then investigated with two different turbulence intensities to analyse the wind turbine response. In the second analysis, a wind turbine model is excited with an external force. This analysis helps in identifying the modes that might be excited, and therefore...

  6. Low-energy isovector quadrupole vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faessler, A.; Nojarov, R.

    1986-01-23

    The low-lying isovector quadrupole vibrations are described by an extension of the vibrational model allowing independent proton and neutron vibrations coupled by the symmetry energy. The recently detected low-lying isovector states in nearly spherical nuclei with N=84 are described well concerning their energies and E2/M1 mixing ratios. (orig.).

  7. Ground Vibration Measurements at LHC Point 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertsche, Kirk; /SLAC; Gaddi, Andrea; /CERN

    2012-09-17

    Ground vibration was measured at Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Point 4 during the winter shutdown in February 2012. This report contains the results, including power and coherence spectra. We plan to collect and analyze vibration data from representative collider halls to inform specifications for future linear colliders, such as ILC and CLIC. We are especially interested in vibration correlations between final focus lens locations.

  8. Rotor Vibration Reduction via Active Hybrid Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar

    2002-01-01

    The use of fluid power to reduce and control rotor vibration in rotating machines is investigated. An active hybrid bearing is studied, whose main objective is to reduce wear and vibration between rotating and stationary machinery parts. By injecting pressurised oil into the oil film, through...... with experiment, and simulations show the feasibility of controlling shaft vibration through this active device....

  9. 33 CFR 159.103 - Vibration test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vibration test. 159.103 Section...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.103 Vibration test. The device... subjected to a sinusoidal vibration for a period of 12 hours, 4 hours in each of the x, y, and z planes, at...

  10. 14 CFR 27.907 - Engine vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine vibration. 27.907 Section 27.907... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant General § 27.907 Engine vibration. (a) Each engine must be installed to prevent the harmful vibration of any part of the engine or rotorcraft. (b) The addition of the...

  11. 14 CFR 29.251 - Vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vibration. 29.251 Section 29.251... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Miscellaneous Flight Requirements § 29.251 Vibration. Each part of the rotorcraft must be free from excessive vibration under each appropriate speed and power...

  12. 14 CFR 29.907 - Engine vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine vibration. 29.907 Section 29.907... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant General § 29.907 Engine vibration. (a) Each engine must be installed to prevent the harmful vibration of any part of the engine or rotorcraft. (b) The...

  13. 14 CFR 27.251 - Vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vibration. 27.251 Section 27.251... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Miscellaneous Flight Requirements § 27.251 Vibration. Each part of the rotorcraft must be free from excessive vibration under each appropriate speed and power...

  14. 49 CFR 178.608 - Vibration standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vibration standard. 178.608 Section 178.608... Testing of Non-bulk Packagings and Packages § 178.608 Vibration standard. (a) Each packaging must be capable of withstanding, without rupture or leakage, the vibration test procedure outlined in this section...

  15. 49 CFR 178.985 - Vibration test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vibration test. 178.985 Section 178.985... Testing of Large Packagings § 178.985 Vibration test. (a) General. All rigid Large Packaging and flexible Large Packaging design types must be capable of withstanding the vibration test. (b) Test method. (1) A...

  16. Vibration measurements on timber frame floors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuilen, J.W.G. van de; Oosterhout, G.P.C. van; Donkervoort, R.

    1998-01-01

    In the design of lightweight floors vibrational aspects become more and more important. With the foreseen introduction of Eurocode 5 the vibration of timber floors becomes a part of the design for serviceability. Design rules for the vibrational behaviour are given in Eurocode 5. The first rule is

  17. Vibrations in a moving flexible robot arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P. K. C.; Wei, Jin-Duo

    1987-01-01

    The vibration in a flexible robot arm modeled by a moving slender prismatic beam is considered. It is found that the extending and contracting motions have destabilizing and stabilizing effects on the vibratory motions, respectively. The vibration analysis is based on a Galerkin approximation with time-dependent basis functions. Typical numerical results are presented to illustrate the qualitative features of vibrations.

  18. Vibration Theory, Vol. 1A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    The present collection of solved problems has been published as a supplement to the textbook Svingningsteori. Bind 1. Lineær svingningsteori,Aalborg tekniske Universitetsforlag, 1991, whicj is used in the introductory course on linear vibration theory that is being given on th e8th semester...

  19. Vibration Damping Circuit Card Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Ronald Allen (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A vibration damping circuit card assembly includes a populated circuit card having a mass M. A closed metal container is coupled to a surface of the populated circuit card at approximately a geometric center of the populated circuit card. Tungsten balls fill approximately 90% of the metal container with a collective mass of the tungsten balls being approximately (0.07) M.

  20. Wideband Piezomagnetoelastic Vibration Energy Harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Anders; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a small-scale wideband piezomagnetoelastic vibration energy harvester (VEH) aimed for operation at frequencies of a few hundred Hz. The VEH consists of a tape-casted PZT cantilever with thin sheets of iron foil attached on each side of the free tip. The wideband operation...

  1. Ultrafast vibrations of gold nanorings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelf, T; Tanaka, Y; Matsuda, O

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the vibrational modes of gold nanorings on a silica substrate with an ultrafast optical technique. By comparison with numerical simulations, we identify several resonances in the gigahertz range associated with axially symmetric deformations of the nanoring and substrate. We...

  2. Effect of shelf aging on vibration transmissibility of anti-vibration gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Nobuyuki

    2017-10-05

    Anti-vibration gloves have been used in real workplaces to reduce vibration transmitted through hand-held power tools to the hand. Generally materials used for vibration attenuation in gloves are resilient materials composed of certain synthetic and/or composite polymers. The mechanical characteristics of the resilient materials used in anti-vibration gloves are prone to be influenced by environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, and photo-irradiation, which cause material degradation and aging. This study focused on the influence of shelf aging on the vibration attenuation performance of air-packaged anti-vibration gloves following 2 years of shelf aging. Effects of shelf aging on the vibration attenuation performance of anti-vibration gloves were examined according to the Japan industrial standard JIS T8114 test protocol. The findings indicate that shelf aging induces the reduction of vibration attenuation performance in air-packaged anti-vibration gloves.

  3. Comparison of threshold selection methods for microarray gene co-expression matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saxton Arnold M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Network and clustering analyses of microarray co-expression correlation data often require application of a threshold to discard small correlations, thus reducing computational demands and decreasing the number of uninformative correlations. This study investigated threshold selection in the context of combinatorial network analysis of transcriptome data. Findings Six conceptually diverse methods - based on number of maximal cliques, correlation of control spots with expressed genes, top 1% of correlations, spectral graph clustering, Bonferroni correction of p-values, and statistical power - were used to estimate a correlation threshold for three time-series microarray datasets. The validity of thresholds was tested by comparison to thresholds derived from Gene Ontology information. Stability and reliability of the best methods were evaluated with block bootstrapping. Two threshold methods, number of maximal cliques and spectral graph, used information in the correlation matrix structure and performed well in terms of stability. Comparison to Gene Ontology found thresholds from number of maximal cliques extracted from a co-expression matrix were the most biologically valid. Approaches to improve both methods were suggested. Conclusion Threshold selection approaches based on network structure of gene relationships gave thresholds with greater relevance to curated biological relationships than approaches based on statistical pair-wise relationships.

  4. Comparison between Accelerometer and Laser Vibrometer to Measure Traffic Excited Vibrations on Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rossi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of accelerometer based measurement techniques for evaluating bridge forced vibrations or to perform bridge modal analysis is well established. It is well known to all researchers who have experience in vibration measurements that values of acceleration amplitude can be very low at low frequencies and that a limitation to the use of accelerometer can be due to the threshold parameter of this kind of transducer. Under this conditions the measurement of displacement seems more appropriate. On the other hand laser vibrometer systems detect relative displacements as opposed to the absolute measures of accelerometers. Vibrations have been measured simultaneously by a typical accelerometer for civil structures and by a laser vibrometer equipped with a fringe counter board in terms of velocity and displacements. The accelerations calculated from the laser vibrometer signals and the one directly measured by the accelerometer has been compared.

  5. Critical fluctuations and the rates of interstate switching near the excitation threshold of a quantum parametric oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Z R; Nakamura, Y; Dykman, M I

    2015-08-01

    We study the dynamics of a nonlinear oscillator near the critical point where period-two vibrations are first excited with the increasing amplitude of parametric driving. Above the threshold, quantum fluctuations induce transitions between the period-two states over the quasienergy barrier. We find the effective quantum activation energies for such transitions and their scaling with the difference of the driving amplitude from its critical value. We also find the scaling of the fluctuation correlation time with the quantum noise parameters in the critical region near the threshold. The results are extended to oscillators with nonlinear friction.

  6. Rapid detection of threshold VEPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Alison M; Bradnam, Michael S; Hamilton, Ruth

    2003-06-01

    To determine whether a one-dimensional (1D) Laplacian analysis detects steady-state visual evoked potentials (ssVEPs) faster than the standard O(z)-F(z) montage and to establish the optimum position of Laplacian reference electrodes. Twenty-two normal adults were shown reversing checks ranging from 1.5' to 60'. Three electrode montages were investigated: O(z)-F(z), LO-F(z) and a 1D Laplacian analysis of 3 occipital electrodes (2O(z)-(RO+LO)). RO and LO were placed symmetrically and horizontally about O(z). Five different locations for RO and LO were investigated. Recordings were analysed in the frequency domain and the presence (and detection time, DT) or absence of a ssVEP defined statistically. Effects of individual, reference electrode site and check size on DT and phase differences between recording montages were investigated. Laplacian analysis detected ssVEPs to small (3') checks faster than O(z)-F(z), by 12.3 and 4.1s on average with Laplacian reference electrodes at 15 and 20% of half-head circumference, respectively. The optimum position of reference electrodes was governed by the instantaneous spatial spread of the response and the noise coherence between midline and lateral electrodes. A 1D Laplacian analysis can reduce the time to statistical detection of ssVEPs compared to the traditional O(z)-F(z) recording for stimuli near the normal acuity threshold of adults. This in turn could be used to minimise the length of a VEP acuity assessment.

  7. Wavelets, vibrations and scalings

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Yves

    1997-01-01

    Physicists and mathematicians are intensely studying fractal sets of fractal curves. Mandelbrot advocated modeling of real-life signals by fractal or multifractal functions. One example is fractional Brownian motion, where large-scale behavior is related to a corresponding infrared divergence. Self-similarities and scaling laws play a key role in this new area. There is a widely accepted belief that wavelet analysis should provide the best available tool to unveil such scaling laws. And orthonormal wavelet bases are the only existing bases which are structurally invariant through dyadic dilations. This book discusses the relevance of wavelet analysis to problems in which self-similarities are important. Among the conclusions drawn are the following: 1) A weak form of self-similarity can be given a simple characterization through size estimates on wavelet coefficients, and 2) Wavelet bases can be tuned in order to provide a sharper characterization of this self-similarity. A pioneer of the wavelet "saga", Meye...

  8. Response characteristics of vibration-sensitive neurons in the midbrain of the grassfrog, Rana temporaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Jørgensen, M B

    1989-01-01

    of best frequencies (BF's) was bimodal with peaks at 10 and 100 Hz and the thresholds ranged from 0.02 to 1.28 cm/s2 at the BF. Twenty-three neurons showed phasic-tonic and 11 neurons phasic responses. The dynamic range of seismic intensity for most neurons was 20-30 dB. In contrast to the sharp phase...... response characteristics expressed by inhibition of their spontaneous activity by vibration or by bi- and trimodal sensory sensitivities. In conclusion, the vibration sensitive cells in the midbrain of the grassfrog can encode the frequency, intensity, onset and cessation of vibration stimuli. Seismic...... stimuli probably play a role in communication and detection of predators and the vibration-sensitive midbrain neurons may be involved in the central processing of such behaviorally significant stimuli....

  9. Granular Media-Based Tunable Passive Vibration Suppressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Robert P.; Davis, Gregory L.; Shapiro, Andrew A.; Borgonia, John Paul C.; Kahn, Daniel L.; Boechler, Nicholas; Boechler,, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    and vibration suppression device is composed of statically compressed chains of spherical particles. The device superimposes a combination of dissipative damping and dispersive effects. The dissipative damping resulting from the elastic wave attenuation properties of the bulk material selected for the granular media is independent of particle geometry and periodicity, and can be accordingly designed based on the dissipative (or viscoelastic) properties of the material. For instance, a viscoelastic polymer might be selected where broadband damping is desired. In contrast, the dispersive effects result from the periodic arrangement and geometry of particles composing a linear granular chain. A uniform (monatomic) chain of statically compressed spherical particles will have a low-pass filter effect, with a cutoff frequency tunable as a function of particle mass, elastic modulus, Poisson fs ratio, radius, and static compression. Elastic waves with frequency content above this cutoff frequency will exhibit an exponential decay in amplitude as a function of propagation distance. System design targeting a specific application is conducted using a combination of theoretical, computational, and experimental techniques to appropriately select the particle radii, material (and thus elastic modulus and Poisson fs ratio), and static compression to satisfy estimated requirements derived for shock and/or vibration protection needs under particular operational conditions. The selection of a chain of polymer spheres with an elastic modulus .3 provided the appropriate dispersive filtering effect for that exercise; however, different operational scenarios may require the use of other polymers, metals, ceramics, or a combination thereof, configured as an array of spherical particles. The device is a linear array of spherical particles compressed in a container with a mechanism for attachment to the shock and/or vibration source, and a mechanism for attachment to the article requiring

  10. Intelligence and Creativity: Over the Threshold Together?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welter, Marisete Maria; Jaarsveld, Saskia; van Leeuwen, Cees; Lachmann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Threshold theory predicts a positive correlation between IQ and creativity scores up to an IQ level of 120 and no correlation above this threshold. Primary school children were tested at beginning (N = 98) and ending (N = 70) of the school year. Participants performed the standard progressive matrices (SPM) and the Test of Creative…

  11. Stimulus and transducer effects on threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamme, Gregory A; Geda, Kyle; McGregor, Kara D; Wyllys, Krista; Deiters, Kristy K; Murphy, William J; Stephenson, Mark R

    2015-02-01

    This study examined differences in thresholds obtained under Sennheiser HDA200 circumaural earphones using pure tone, equivalent rectangular noise bands, and 1/3 octave noise bands relative to thresholds obtained using Telephonics TDH-39P supra-aural earphones. Thresholds were obtained via each transducer and stimulus condition six times within a 10-day period. Forty-nine adults were selected from a prior study to represent low, moderate, and high threshold reliability. The results suggested that (1) only small adjustments were needed to reach equivalent TDH-39P thresholds, (2) pure-tone thresholds obtained with HDA200 circumaural earphones had reliability equal to or better than those obtained using TDH-39P earphones, (3) the reliability of noise-band thresholds improved with broader stimulus bandwidth and was either equal to or better than pure-tone thresholds, and (4) frequency-specificity declined with stimulus bandwidths greater than one equivalent rectangular band, which could complicate early detection of hearing changes that occur within a narrow frequency range. These data suggest that circumaural earphones such as the HDA200 headphones provide better reliability for audiometric testing as compared to the TDH-39P earphones. These data support the use of noise bands, preferably ERB noises, as stimuli for audiometric monitoring.

  12. Applying Threshold Concepts to Finance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Susan; Wood, Leigh N.; Tickle, Leonie; Kyng, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate and identify threshold concepts that are the essential conceptual content of finance programmes. Design/Methodology/Approach: Conducted in three stages with finance academics and students, the study uses threshold concepts as both a theoretical framework and a research methodology. Findings: The…

  13. Detectability thresholds of general modular graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Tatsuro; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the detectability thresholds of various modular structures in the stochastic block model. Our analysis reveals how the detectability threshold is related to the details of the modular pattern, including the hierarchy of the clusters. We show that certain planted structures are impossible to infer regardless of their fuzziness.

  14. Threshold Concepts, Systems and Learning for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, Orana Jade

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for understanding the role that systems theory might play in education for sustainability (EfS). It offers a sketch and critique of Land and Meyer's notion of a "threshold concept", to argue that seeing systems as a threshold concept for sustainability is useful for understanding the processes of…

  15. Transient vibration of wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanzhe; Li, Minghai; Jiang, Feng

    2017-09-01

    This article aims to the transient vibration of wind turbine blades. We firstly introduce transient vibration and previous studies in this area. The report then shows the fundamental equations and derivation of Euler Equation. A 3-D beam are created to compare the analytical and numerical result. In addition we operate the existing result and Patran result of a truncation wedge beam, especially the frequencies of free vibration and transient vibration. Transient vibration cannot be vanished but in some case it can be reduced.

  16. The influence of high-frequency vibrations on derailment stability coefficient of cars at wheel flange climbing on the rail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bezrukavyy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Taking into account the traffic safety priority on the railway transport the search of factors promoting increase of derailment stability coefficient is an actual task. Purpose of the paper is the influence researches of the high-frequency vibrations on the train traffic safety parameter. In this case the special form of the wheel rim, at which its rigidity changes according to the harmonious law, was considered as a source of vibrations. Methodology. For the analysis of the vibration influence on the change of friction coefficient values the methods of so called vibrational mechanics were used. For determination of vibration amplitudes through moving the wheel flange points the finite-elements method was also used in the paper. Findings. During calculations it was established that the derailment stability coefficient to a great extent depends on the friction coefficient between wheel and rail. The paper shows that the friction coefficient in turn is influenced by the high-frequency vibrations. The form of the wheel rim was considered as a vibration source and the parameters characterizing vibration were calculated. It was given the quantitative estimation of the friction coefficient change under the vibration influence. It was also scientifically based the high-frequency vibration influence on the derailment stability coefficient. Originality. The paper proved the possibility of high-frequency vibration influence on the derailment stability coefficient. The studies theoretically substantiated the traffic safety increase in the presence of vibrations in the contact area of the wheel flange with the rail caused by special form of the wheel disc. Practical value. It is shown that the use of undulating wheel disc form do not constitute a threat to the traffic safety, and the availability of high-frequency vibration can reduce the derailment probability.

  17. Concepts of threshold in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch-Volders, M; Aardema, M; Elhajouji, A

    2000-01-03

    Although the existence of a threshold in the dose effect relationship is well documented for many, if not most, types of toxicological effects the existence of a threshold for the mutagenic effects of ionising radiation and of certain chemicals has been questioned since the middle of the century and only recently the question of thresholds for radiation and chemical carcinogenesis has been addressed. The essential facts for the interpretation of threshold dose-response curves are common to all type of effects and are: (i) the number and the identity of the target; (ii) the type and sensitivity of the endpoint used to quantify the effect. We therefore will first try to model the type of interactions which may be expected between a mutagen and its target and define from this whether a threshold dose-effect can be expected; in a second step the concept will be extended to heritable mutations and carcinogenesis.

  18. MR Detection of Mechanical Vibrations Using a Radiofrequency Field Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Nathalie; Lewa, Czeslaw Jozef; de Certaines, Jacques Donald; Canioni, Paul; Franconi, Jean-Michel; Thiaudière, Eric

    2002-01-01

    A new method for NMR characterization of mechanical waves, based upon radiofrequency field gradient for motion encoding, is proposed. A binomial B1 gradient excitation scheme was used to visualize the mobile spins undergoing a periodic transverse mechanical excitation. A simple model was designed to simulate the NMR signal as a function of the wave frequency excitation and the periodicity of the NMR pulse sequence. The preliminary results were obtained on a gel phantom at low vibration frequencies (0-200 Hz) by using a ladder-shaped coil generating a nearly constant RF field gradient along a specific known direction. For very small displacements and/or B1 gradients, the NMR signal measured on a gel phantom was proportional to the vibration amplitude and the pulse sequence was shown to be selective with respect to the vibration frequency. A good estimation of the direction of vibrations was obtained by varying the angle between the motion direction and the B1 gradient. The method and its use in parallel to more conventional MR elastography techniques are discussed. The presented approach might be of interest for noninvasive investigation of elastic properties of soft tissues and other materials.

  19. The Lowest Vibrational States of Urea from the Rotational Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiel, Zbigniew; Thomas, Jessica; Medvedev, Ivan

    2014-06-01

    The urea molecule, (NH_2)_2CO, has a complex potential energy surface resulting from a combination of the NH_2 torsion and NH_2 inversion motions. This leads to a distribution of lowest vibrational states that is expected to be significantly different from the more familiar picture from simple inversion or normal mode models. The broadband 207-500 GHz spectrum of urea recorded in Dayton has signal to noise sufficient for assignment of rotational transitions in excited vibrational states up to at least 500 cm-1. In addition to the previously reported analysis of the ground and the lowest excited state we have been able to assign transitions in at least five other excited vibrational states. Strongly perturbed transitions in a close doublet of such states have been fitted to within experimental accuracy with a coupled fit and a splitting in the region of 1 cm-1. These assignments combined with vibrational energy estimates from relative intensity measurements allow for empirical discrimination between different models for the energy level manifestation of the large amplitude motions in urea.^b P.D.Godfrey, R.D.Brown, A.N.Hunter J. Mol. Struct., 413-414, 405-414 (1997). N.Inostroza, M.L.Senent, Chem. Phys. Lett., 524, 25 (2012).

  20. 20 The Tools - 07 Threshold Concepts - Threshold Concepts: Comparing perspectives (Comparing teacher and student perspectives)

    OpenAIRE

    TfLN-Transforming Perspectives project

    2007-01-01

    Part of a toolkit used in the Transforming Perspectives project, looking at using 'threshold concepts' as a framework for identifying areas of conceptual difficulty in disciplinary curricula. This document gives an outline for an activity where student-identified threshold concepts are compared with staff perceptions of threshold concepts.

  1. A Threshold Continuum for Aeolian Sand Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, C.; Ewing, R. C.; Sherman, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The threshold of motion for aeolian sand transport marks the initial entrainment of sand particles by the force of the wind. This is typically defined and modeled as a singular wind speed for a given grain size and is based on field and laboratory experimental data. However, the definition of threshold varies significantly between these empirical models, largely because the definition is based on visual-observations of initial grain movement. For example, in his seminal experiments, Bagnold defined threshold of motion when he observed that 100% of the bed was in motion. Others have used 50% and lesser values. Differences in threshold models, in turn, result is large errors in predicting the fluxes associated with sand and dust transport. Here we use a wind tunnel and novel sediment trap to capture the fractions of sand in creep, reptation and saltation at Earth and Mars pressures and show that the threshold of motion for aeolian sand transport is best defined as a continuum in which grains progress through stages defined by the proportion of grains in creep and saltation. We propose the use of scale dependent thresholds modeled by distinct probability distribution functions that differentiate the threshold based on micro to macro scale applications. For example, a geologic timescale application corresponds to a threshold when 100% of the bed in motion whereas a sub-second application corresponds to a threshold when a single particle is set in motion. We provide quantitative measurements (number and mode of particle movement) corresponding to visual observations, percent of bed in motion and degrees of transport intermittency for Earth and Mars. Understanding transport as a continuum provides a basis for revaluating sand transport thresholds on Earth, Mars and Titan.

  2. [The combined action of intermittent vibration and physical loads (exemplified by the grinder-buffers of turbine vanes)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butovskaia, Z M; Ornitsan, E Iu; Kirikova, G A; Smirnov, V V

    1995-01-01

    The article presents hygienic evaluation of interrupted vibration in grinding of turbine vanes by stationary machines with consideration of static and dynamic load. Criteria estimating the operation are set, clinical features of the occupational diseases are determined.

  3. Multiple Rabi Splittings under Ultrastrong Vibrational Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jino; Chervy, Thibault; Shalabney, Atef; Devaux, Eloïse; Hiura, Hidefumi; Genet, Cyriaque; Ebbesen, Thomas W

    2016-10-07

    From the high vibrational dipolar strength offered by molecular liquids, we demonstrate that a molecular vibration can be ultrastrongly coupled to multiple IR cavity modes, with Rabi splittings reaching 24% of the vibration frequencies. As a proof of the ultrastrong coupling regime, our experimental data unambiguously reveal the contributions to the polaritonic dynamics coming from the antiresonant terms in the interaction energy and from the dipolar self-energy of the molecular vibrations themselves. In particular, we measure the opening of a genuine vibrational polaritonic band gap of ca. 60 meV. We also demonstrate that the multimode splitting effect defines a whole vibrational ladder of heavy polaritonic states perfectly resolved. These findings reveal the broad possibilities in the vibrational ultrastrong coupling regime which impact both the optical and the molecular properties of such coupled systems, in particular, in the context of mode-selective chemistry.

  4. Vibrations on board and health effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis

    2014-01-01

    for such relation among seafarers except for fishermen, who, however, are also exposed to additional recognised physical risk factors at work. The assessment and reduction of vibrations by naval architects relates to technical implications of this impact for the ships’ construction, but has limited value......There is only limited knowledge of the exposure to vibrations of ships’ crews and their risk of vibration-induced health effects. Exposure to hand-arm vibrations from the use of vibrating tools at sea does not differ from that in the land-based trades. However, in contrast to most other work places...... of the health consequences of whole body vibrations in land-transportation, such exposure at sea may affect ships’ passengers and crews. While the relation of back disorders to high levels of whole body vibration has been demonstrated among e.g. tractor drivers, there are no reported epidemiological evidence...

  5. Frequency characteristics of human muscle and cortical responses evoked by noisy Achilles tendon vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mildren, Robyn L; Peters, Ryan M; Hill, Aimee J; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien; Carpenter, Mark G; Inglis, J Timothy

    2017-05-01

    Noisy stimuli, along with linear systems analysis, have proven to be effective for mapping functional neural connections. We explored the use of noisy (10-115 Hz) Achilles tendon vibration to examine somatosensory reflexes in the triceps surae muscles in standing healthy young adults ( n = 8). We also examined the association between noisy vibration and electrical activity recorded over the sensorimotor cortex using electroencephalography. We applied 2 min of vibration and recorded ongoing muscle activity of the soleus and gastrocnemii using surface electromyography (EMG). Vibration amplitude was varied to characterize reflex scaling and to examine how different stimulus levels affected postural sway. Muscle activity from the soleus and gastrocnemii was significantly correlated with the tendon vibration across a broad frequency range (~10-80 Hz), with a peak located at ~40 Hz. Vibration-EMG coherence positively scaled with stimulus amplitude in all three muscles, with soleus displaying the strongest coupling and steepest scaling. EMG responses lagged the vibration by ~38 ms, a delay that paralleled observed response latencies to tendon taps. Vibration-evoked cortical oscillations were observed at frequencies ~40-70 Hz (peak ~54 Hz) in most subjects, a finding in line with previous reports of sensory-evoked γ-band oscillations. Further examination of the method revealed 1 ) accurate reflex estimates could be obtained with vibration; 2 ) responses did not habituate over 2 min of exposure; and importantly, 3 ) noisy vibration had a minimal influence on standing balance. Our findings suggest noisy tendon vibration is an effective novel approach to characterize somatosensory reflexes during standing. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We applied noisy (10-115 Hz) vibration to the Achilles tendon to examine the frequency characteristics of lower limb somatosensory reflexes during standing. Ongoing muscle activity was coherent with the noisy vibration (peak coherence ~40 Hz), and

  6. Effect of combining traction and vibration on back muscles, heart rate and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lizhen; Zhao, Meiya; Ma, Jian; Tian, Shan; Xiang, Pin; Yao, Wei; Fan, Yubo

    2014-11-01

    Eighty-five percent of the population has experienced low back pain (LBP), which may result in decreasing muscle strength and endurance, functional capacity of the spine, and so on. Traction and vibration are commonly used to relieve the low back pain. The effect of the combing traction and vibration on back muscles, heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) was investigated in this study. Thirty healthy subjects participated in 12 trials lying supine on the spine-combing bed with different tilt angle (0°, 10°, 20° and 30°) and vibration modes (along with the sagittal and coronal axis with 0 Hz, 2 Hz and 12 Hz separately). EMG was recorded during each trial. Power spectral frequency analysis was applied to evaluate muscle fatigue by the shift of median power frequency (MPF). Pulse pressure (PP) was calculated from BP. HR and PP were used to estimate the effect of the combination of traction and vibration on the cardio-vascular system. It was shown that vibration could increase HR and decrease PP. The combination of traction and vibration (2 Hz vibration along Z-axis and 12 Hz vibration along Y-axis) had no significant effect on the cardio-vascular system. The MPF of lumbar erector spinae (LES) and upper trapezius (UT) decreased significantly when the angle reached 20° under the condition of 2 Hz vibration along Z-axis compared with it of 0°. Furthermore, the MPF also decreased significantly compared with it of static mode at 20° for LES and at 30° for UT. However at 12 Hz vibration along Y-axis, the MPF had significant increase when the angle reached 20° in LES and 30° in UT compared to 0°. For LES, the MPF also had significant difference when the angle was increased from 10° to 20°. Therefore, combining 2 Hz vibration along Z-axis and traction (tilt angles that less than 20°) may to reduce muscle fatigue both for LES and UT compared with either vibration or traction alone. The combination of 12 Hz vibration along Y-axis and traction (tilt angles

  7. Adaptive Vibration Control System for MR Damper Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Tudón-Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several methods have been proposed to estimate the force of a semiactive damper, particularly of a magnetorheological damper because of its importance in automotive and civil engineering. Usually, all models have been proposed assuming experimental data in nominal operating conditions and some of them are estimated for control purposes. Because dampers are prone to fail, fault estimation is useful to design adaptive vibration controllers to accommodate the malfunction in the suspension system. This paper deals with the diagnosis and estimation of faults in an automotive magnetorheological damper. A robust LPV observer is proposed to estimate the lack of force caused by a damper leakage in a vehicle corner. Once the faulty damper is isolated in the vehicle and the fault is estimated, an Adaptive Vibration Control System is proposed to reduce the fault effect using compensation forces from the remaining healthy dampers. To fulfill the semiactive damper constraints in the fault adaptation, an LPV controller is designed for vehicle comfort and road holding. Simulation results show that the fault observer has good performance with robustness to noise and road disturbances and the proposed AVCS improves the comfort up to 24% with respect to a controlled suspension without fault tolerance features.

  8. Threshold of auroral intensification reduced by electron precipitation effect

    CERN Document Server

    Hiraki, Yasutaka

    2016-01-01

    It has been known that discrete aurora suddenly intensifies and deforms from an arc-like to a variety of wavy/vortex structures, especially during a substorm period. The instability of Alfv$\\acute{\\rm e}$n waves reflected from the ionosphere has been analyzed in order to comprehend the ignition process of auroral intensification. It was presented that the prime key is an enhancement of plasma convection, and the convection electric field has a threshold. This study examined effects of auroral electron precipitation, causing the ionization of neutral atmosphere, on the linear instability of Alfv$\\acute{\\rm e}$n waves. It was found that the threshold of convection electric fields is significantly reduced by increasing the ionization rate, the realistic range of which could be estimated from observed electron energy spectra.

  9. Hierarchies of intramolecular vibration-rotation dynamical processes in acetylene up to 13,000 cm-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, David S.; Martens, Jonathan; Amyay, Badr; Herman, Michel

    2012-11-01

    The vibration-rotation dynamics of ? acetylene are computed from a spectroscopic Hamiltonian with 468 parameters fit to 19,582 vibration-rotation transitions up to 13,000 cm-1 of vibrational energy. In this energy range, both the bending and the CH stretching vibrations can reach large amplitudes, but the maximum energy remains below the threshold for isomerization to vinylidene. In contrast to the behavior at energies below 5000 cm-1 [Mol. Phys. 108, 1115 (2010)], excitation of single bright states leads, in almost all cases, to computed intramolecular vibrational redistribution (IVR) that is irreversible on the timescales investigated. Hierarchies of IVR processes on timescales ranging from 20 fs to 20 ps result when different bright states are excited. Different parts of the vibrational quantum number space are explored as a result of the four different classes of coupling terms: vibrational l-type resonance, anharmonic resonances, the rotational l-type resonance, and Coriolis couplings. The initial IVR rates are very different depending on whether the bright states are bending states or stretching states, normal modes or local modes, edge states or interior states. However, the rates of the rotationally mediated couplings do not depend substantially on these distinctions.

  10. Urinary Luteinizing Hormone Tests: Which Concentration Threshold Best Predicts Ovulation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Antonio Leiva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo study the best possible luteinizing hormone (LH threshold to predict ovulation within the 24, 48, and 72 h.DesignObservational study.SettingMulticenter collaborative study.PatientsA total of 107 women.InterventionsWomen collected daily first morning urine for hormonal assessment and underwent serial ovarian ultrasound. This is a secondary analysis of 283 cycles.Main outcome measuresThe sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratios were estimated for varying ranges of LH thresholds. Receiver operating characteristic curves and cost–benefit ratios were used to estimate the best thresholds to predict ovulation.ResultsThe best scenario to predict ovulation at random was within 24 h after the first single positive test. The false-positive rate was found to increase as (1 the cycle progressed or (2 two or three consecutive tests were used, or (3 ovulation was predicted within 48 or 72 h. Testing earlier in the cycle increases the predictive value of the test. The ideal thresholds to predict ovulation ranged between 25 and 30 mIU/ml with a PPV (50–60%, NPV (98%, LR+ (20–30, and LR− (0.5. At least, one day with LH ≥25 mIU/ml followed by three negatives (LH <25 occurred before ovulation in 31% of all cycles. When used throughout the cycle and evaluated together, peak-fertility type mucus with a positive LH test ≥25 mIU/ml provides a higher specificity than either mucus or LH testing alone (97–99 vs. 77–95 vs. 91%, respectively.ConclusionWe identified that beginning LH testing earlier in the cycle (day 7 with a threshold of 25–30 mIU/ml may present the best predictive value for ovulation within 24 h. However, prediction by LH testing alone may be affected negatively by several confounding factors so LH testing alone should not be used to define the end of the fertile window. Complementary markers should be further investigated to predict

  11. Thresholding functional connectomes by means of mixture modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielczyk, Natalia Z; Walocha, Fabian; Ebel, Patrick W; Haak, Koen V; Llera, Alberto; Buitelaar, Jan K; Glennon, Jeffrey C; Beckmann, Christian F

    2018-01-05

    Functional connectivity has been shown to be a very promising tool for studying the large-scale functional architecture of the human brain. In network research in fMRI, functional connectivity is considered as a set of pair-wise interactions between the nodes of the network. These interactions are typically operationalized through the full or partial correlation between all pairs of regional time series. Estimating the structure of the latent underlying functional connectome from the set of pair-wise partial correlations remains an open research problem though. Typically, this thresholding problem is approached by proportional thresholding, or by means of parametric or non-parametric permutation testing across a cohort of subjects at each possible connection. As an alternative, we propose a data-driven thresholding approach for network matrices on the basis of mixture modeling. This approach allows for creating subject-specific sparse connectomes by modeling the full set of partial correlations as a mixture of low correlation values associated with weak or unreliable edges in the connectome and a sparse set of reliable connections. Consequently, we propose to use alternative thresholding strategy based on the model fit using pseudo-False Discovery Rates derived on the basis of the empirical null estimated as part of the mixture distribution. We evaluate the method on synthetic benchmark fMRI datasets where the underlying network structure is known, and demonstrate that it gives improved performance with respect to the alternative methods for thresholding connectomes, given the canonical thresholding levels. We also demonstrate that mixture modeling gives highly reproducible results when applied to the functional connectomes of the visual system derived from the n-back Working Memory task in the Human Connectome Project. The sparse connectomes obtained from mixture modeling are further discussed in the light of the previous knowledge of the functional architecture

  12. Vibration characteristics of casing string under the exciting force of an electric vibrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyong Yin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Vibration cementing is a new technique that can significantly improve the bond strength of cementing interface. To popularize this technique, it is necessary to solve the key problem of how to make cementing string generate downhole radial vibration in the WOC stage. For this purpose, an electric vibrator was developed. With this vibrator, electric energy is converted into mechanical energy by means of a high-temperature motor vibration unit. The motor vibration unit rotates the eccentric block through an output shaft to generate an exciting source, which produces an axial-rotating exciting force at the bottom of the casing string. Then, the vibration characteristics of vertical well casing string under the exciting force were analyzed by using the principal coordinate analysis method, and the response model of casing string to an electric vibrator was developed. Finally, the effects of casing string length, exciting force and vibration frequency on the vibration amplitude at the lowermost of the casing string were analyzed based on a certain casing program. It is indicated that the casing string length and the square of vibration frequency are inversely proportional to the vibration amplitude at the lowermost of the casing string, and the exciting force is proportional to the vibration amplitude at the lowermost of the casing string. These research results provide a theoretical support for the application of vibration cementing technology to the cementing sites with different requirements on well depth and amplitude.

  13. Vibrational damping of composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggerstaff, Janet M.

    The purpose of this research was to develop new methods of vibrational damping in polymeric composite materials along with expanding the knowledge of currently used vibrational damping methods. A new barrier layer technique that dramatically increased damping in viscoelastic damping materials that interacted with the composite resin was created. A method for testing the shear strength of damping materials cocured in composites was developed. Directional damping materials, where the loss factor and modulus could be tailored by changing the angle, were produced and investigated. The addition of particles between composite prepreg layers to increase damping was studied. Electroviscoelastic materials that drastically changed properties such as loss factor and modulus with an applied voltage were manufactured and tested.

  14. Vibration of imperfect rotating disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Půst L.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the theoretical and numerical calculations of the flexural vibrations of a bladed disk. The main focus of this study is to elaborate the basic background for diagnostic and identification methods for ascertaining the main properties of the real structure or an experimental model of turbine disks. The reduction of undesirable vibrations of blades is proposed by using damping heads, which on the experimental model of turbine disk are applied only on a limited number of blades. This partial setting of damping heads introduces imperfection in mass, stiffness and damping distribution on the periphery and leads to more complicated dynamic properties than those of a perfect disk. Calculation of FEM model and analytic—numerical solution of disk behaviour in the limited (two modes frequency range shows the splitting of resonance with an increasing speed of disk rotation. The spectrum of resonance is twice denser than that of a perfect disk.

  15. Dynamical response of vibrating ferromagnets

    CERN Document Server

    Gaganidze, E; Ziese, M

    2000-01-01

    The resonance frequency of vibrating ferromagnetic reeds in a homogeneous magnetic field can be substantially modified by intrinsic and extrinsic field-related contributions. Searching for the physical reasons of the field-induced resonance frequency change and to study the influence of the spin glass state on it, we have measured the low-temperature magnetoelastic behavior and the dynamical response of vibrating amorphous and polycrystalline ferromagnetic ribbons. We show that the magnetoelastic properties depend strongly on the direction of the applied magnetic field. The influence of the re-entrant spin glass transition on these properties is discussed. We present clear experimental evidence that for applied fields perpendicular to the main area of the samples the behavior of ferromagnetic reeds is rather independent of the material composition and magnetic state, exhibiting a large decrease of the resonance frequency. This effect can be very well explained with a model based on the dynamical response of t...

  16. Vibrational coupling in plasmonic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chongyue; Dongare, Pratiksha D; Su, Man-Nung; Wang, Wenxiao; Chakraborty, Debadi; Wen, Fangfang; Chang, Wei-Shun; Sader, John E; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J; Link, Stephan

    2017-10-31

    Plasmon hybridization theory, inspired by molecular orbital theory, has been extremely successful in describing the near-field coupling in clusters of plasmonic nanoparticles, also known as plasmonic molecules. However, the vibrational modes of plasmonic molecules have been virtually unexplored. By designing precisely configured plasmonic molecules of varying complexity and probing them at the individual plasmonic molecule level, intramolecular coupling of acoustic modes, mediated by the underlying substrate, is observed. The strength of this coupling can be manipulated through the configuration of the plasmonic molecules. Surprisingly, classical continuum elastic theory fails to account for the experimental trends, which are well described by a simple coupled oscillator picture that assumes the vibrational coupling is mediated by coherent phonons with low energies. These findings provide a route to the systematic optical control of the gigahertz response of metallic nanostructures, opening the door to new optomechanical device strategies. Published under the PNAS license.

  17. A night with good vibrations

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Next week-end, the Geneva Science History Museum invites you to a Science Night under the banner of waves and vibrations. Scientists, artists and storytellers from more than forty institutes and local or regional associations will show that waves and vibrations form an integral part of our environment. You will be able to get in contact with the nature of waves through interactive exhibitions on sound and light and through hands-on demonstrations arranged in the Park of the Perle du Lac. On the CERN stand, you will be able to measure the speed of light with a bar of chocolate, and understand the scattering of waves with plastic ducks. Amazing, no? In addition to the stands, the Night will offer many other activities: reconstructions of experiments, a play, a concert of crystal glasses, an illuminated fountain, a house of spirits. More information Science Night, 6 and 7 July, Park of the Perle du Lac, Geneva

  18. Hyper-arousal decreases human visual thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Adam J; Philbeck, John W; Wirtz, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Arousal has long been known to influence behavior and serves as an underlying component of cognition and consciousness. However, the consequences of hyper-arousal for visual perception remain unclear. The present study evaluates the impact of hyper-arousal on two aspects of visual sensitivity: visual stereoacuity and contrast thresholds. Sixty-eight participants participated in two experiments. Thirty-four participants were randomly divided into two groups in each experiment: Arousal Stimulation or Sham Control. The Arousal Stimulation group underwent a 50-second cold pressor stimulation (immersing the foot in 0-2° C water), a technique known to increase arousal. In contrast, the Sham Control group immersed their foot in room temperature water. Stereoacuity thresholds (Experiment 1) and contrast thresholds (Experiment 2) were measured before and after stimulation. The Arousal Stimulation groups demonstrated significantly lower stereoacuity and contrast thresholds following cold pressor stimulation, whereas the Sham Control groups showed no difference in thresholds. These results provide the first evidence that hyper-arousal from sensory stimulation can lower visual thresholds. Hyper-arousal's ability to decrease visual thresholds has important implications for survival, sports, and everyday life.

  19. Atherogenic risk factors and hearing thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Stokholm, Zara Ann; Brødsgaard Grynderup, Matias; Hansen, Åse Marie; Lund, Søren Peter; Medom Vestergaard, Jesper; Kristiansen, Jesper; Bonde, Jens Peter; Kolstad, Henrik Albert

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of atherogenic risk factors on hearing thresholds. In a cross-sectional study we analyzed data from a Danish survey in 2009-2010 on physical and psychological working conditions. The study included 576 white- and blue-collar workers from children's day care units, financial services and 10 manufacturing trades. Associations between atherogenic risk factors (blood lipids, glycosylated hemoglobin, smoking habits, body mass index (BMI), and ambulatory blood pressure) and hearing thresholds were analyzed using multiple linear regression models. Adjusted results suggested associations between smoking, high BMI and triglyceride level and low high-density lipoprotein level and increased low-frequency hearing thresholds (average of pure-tone hearing thresholds at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 kHz). Furthermore, an increasing load of atherogenic risk factors seemed associated with increased low-frequency hearing thresholds, but only at a borderline level of statistical significance. Associations were generally strongest with hearing levels of the worst hearing ear. We found no statistically significant associations between atherogenic risk factors and high-frequency hearing thresholds (average of pure-tone hearing thresholds at 4, 6 and 8 kHz). © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Hyper-arousal decreases human visual thresholds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Woods

    Full Text Available Arousal has long been known to influence behavior and serves as an underlying component of cognition and consciousness. However, the consequences of hyper-arousal for visual perception remain unclear. The present study evaluates the impact of hyper-arousal on two aspects of visual sensitivity: visual stereoacuity and contrast thresholds. Sixty-eight participants participated in two experiments. Thirty-four participants were randomly divided into two groups in each experiment: Arousal Stimulation or Sham Control. The Arousal Stimulation group underwent a 50-second cold pressor stimulation (immersing the foot in 0-2° C water, a technique known to increase arousal. In contrast, the Sham Control group immersed their foot in room temperature water. Stereoacuity thresholds (Experiment 1 and contrast thresholds (Experiment 2 were measured before and after stimulation. The Arousal Stimulation groups demonstrated significantly lower stereoacuity and contrast thresholds following cold pressor stimulation, whereas the Sham Control groups showed no difference in thresholds. These results provide the first evidence that hyper-arousal from sensory stimulation can lower visual thresholds. Hyper-arousal's ability to decrease visual thresholds has important implications for survival, sports, and everyday life.

  1. Vibration Control in Periodic Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    2017-01-01

    Within the framework of periodic structures, the calibration of RL shunted piezoelectric inclusions is investigated with respect to maximum damping of a particular wave form. A finite element setting is assumed, with local shunted inclusions inside the unit cell. The effect of the shunts is repre....... The presentation contains dispersion diagrams and vibration amplitude curves for the optimally calibrated RL shunt system in a 1-D periodic structure with local piezoelectric inclusions....

  2. Threshold calibration and threshold finding procedure in various LHCb muon MWPC

    CERN Document Server

    Kashchuk, A

    2007-01-01

    Threshold calibration and threshold finding procedure in the LHCb muon MWPCs are discussed in this note. Two thresholds in units of charge [fC] are needed in principle: one for the anodes, e.g. 12fC, and one for the cathodes, e.g. 6fC. In reality 120,000 individual thresholds due to variations in offset in CARIOCA chip, different detector capacitances of pads with different size resulting variations in sensitivity from chamber to chamber have to be calculated in register units [r.u.] and move to the threshold registers located in DIALOG chip. The general formula for thresholds in [r.u.] for a given charge unit [fC] is presented. A list of detector capacitance and the averaged sensitivity needed for threshold calculations are given for the inner-most LHCb muon MWPCs in Appendix.

  3. Package security recorder of vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-na; Hu, Jin-liang; Song, Shi-de

    2013-08-01

    This paper introduces a new kind of electronic product — Package Security Recorder of Vibration. It utilizes STC89C54RD+ LQFP-44 MCU as its main controller. At the same time, it also utilizes Freescale MMA845A 3-Axis 8-bit/12-bit Digital Accelerometer and Maxim DS1302 Trickle Charge Timekeeping Chip. It utilizes the MCU to read the value of the accelerometer and the value of the timekeeping chip, and records the data into the inner E2PROM of MCU. The whole device achieves measuring, reading and recording the time of the vibration and the intensity of the vibration. When we need the data, we can read them out. The data can be used in analyzing the condition of the cargo when it transported. The device can be applied to monitor the security of package. It solves the problem of responsibility affirming, when the valuable cargo are damaged while it transported. It offers powerful safeguard for the package. It's very value for application.

  4. Investigation of energy thresholds of atomic and cluster sputtering of some elements under ion bombardment

    CERN Document Server

    Atabaev, B G; Lifanova, L F

    2002-01-01

    Threshold energies of sputtering of negative cluster ions from the Si(111) surface were measured at bombardment by Cs sup + , Rb sup + , and Na sup + ions with energy of 0.1-3.0 keV. These results are compared with the calculations of the similar thresholds by Bohdansky etc. formulas (3) for clusters Si sub n sup - and Cu sub n sup - with n=(1-5) and also for B, C, Al, Si, Fe, Cu atoms. Threshold energies of sputtering for the above elements were also estimated using the data from (5). Satisfactory agreement between the experimental and theoretical results was obtained. (author)

  5. Above-threshold structure in {sup 244}Cm neutron-induced fission cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslov, V.M. [Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Inst., Minsk-Sosny (Belarus)

    1997-03-01

    The quasi-resonance structure appearing above the fission threshold in neutron-induced fission cross section of {sup 244}Cm(n,f) is interpreted. It is shown to be due to excitation of few-quasiparticle states in fissioning {sup 245}Cm and residual {sup 244}Cm nuclides. The estimate of quasiparticle excitation thresholds in fissioning nuclide {sup 245}Cm is consistent with pairing gap and fission barrier parameters. (author)

  6. Incorporating a disturbance observer with direct velocity feedback for control of human-induced vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyawako, Donald; Reynolds, Paul; Hudson, Emma

    2016-04-01

    Feedback control strategies are desirable for disturbance rejection of human-induced vibrations in civil engineering structures as human walking forces cannot easily be measured. In relation to human-induced vibration control studies, most past researches have focused on floors and footbridges and the widely used linear controller implemented in the trials has been the direct velocity feedback (DVF) scheme. With appropriate compensation to enhance its robustness, it has been shown to be effective at damping out the problematic modes of vibration of the structures in which the active vibration control systems have been implemented. The work presented here introduces a disturbance observer (DOB) that is used with an outer-loop DVF controller. Results of analytical studies presented in this work based on the dynamic properties of a walkway bridge structure demonstrate the potential of this approach for enhancing the vibration mitigation performance offered by a purely DVF controller. For example, estimates of controlled frequency response functions indicate improved attenuation of vibration around the dominant frequency of the walkway bridge structure as well as at higher resonant frequencies. Controlled responses from three synthesized walking excitation forces on a walkway bridge structure model show that the inclusion of the disturbance observer with an outer loop DVF has potential to improve on the vibration mitigation performance by about 3.5% at resonance and 6-10% off-resonance. These are realised with hard constraints being imposed on the low frequency actuator displacements.

  7. Nonlinear vibration behaviors of high-Tc superconducting bulks in an applied permanent magnetic array field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jipeng; Li, Haitao; Zheng, Jun; Zheng, Botian; Huang, Huan; Deng, Zigang

    2017-06-01

    The nonlinear vibration of high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks in an applied permanent magnetic array (Halbach array) field, as a precondition for commercial application to HTS maglev train and HTS bearing, is systematically investigated. This article reports the actual vibration rules of HTS bulks from three aspects. First, we propose a new numerical model to simplify the calculation of levitation force. This model could provide precise simulations, especially the estimation of eigenfrequency. Second, an approximate analytic solution of the vibration of the HTS bulks is obtained by using the method of harmonic balance. Finally, to verify the results mentioned above, we measure the vertical vibration acceleration signals of an HTS maglev model, consisting of eight YBaCuO bulks, oscillating freely above a Halbach array with large displacement excitation. Higher order harmonic components, which indicate the nonlinear vibration phenomenon, are detected in the responses. All the three results are compared and agreed well with each other. This study combines the experimental and theoretical analyses and provides a deep understanding of the physical phenomenon of the nonlinear vibration and is meaningful for the vibration control of the relevant applications.

  8. Objective definition of rainfall intensity-duration thresholds for the initiation of post-fire debris flows in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Dennis; Kean, Jason W.; Cannon, Susan H.; Schmidt, Kevin M.; Laber, Jayme L.

    2012-01-01

    Rainfall intensity–duration (ID) thresholds are commonly used to predict the temporal occurrence of debris flows and shallow landslides. Typically, thresholds are subjectively defined as the upper limit of peak rainstorm intensities that do not produce debris flows and landslides, or as the lower limit of peak rainstorm intensities that initiate debris flows and landslides. In addition, peak rainstorm intensities are often used to define thresholds, as data regarding the precise timing of debris flows and associated rainfall intensities are usually not available, and rainfall characteristics are often estimated from distant gauging locations. Here, we attempt to improve the performance of existing threshold-based predictions of post-fire debris-flow occurrence by utilizing data on the precise timing of debris flows relative to rainfall intensity, and develop an objective method to define the threshold intensities. We objectively defined the thresholds by maximizing the number of correct predictions of debris flow occurrence while minimizing the rate of both Type I (false positive) and Type II (false negative) errors. We identified that (1) there were statistically significant differences between peak storm and triggering intensities, (2) the objectively defined threshold model presents a better balance between predictive success, false alarms and failed alarms than previous subjectively defined thresholds, (3) thresholds based on measurements of rainfall intensity over shorter duration (≤60 min) are better predictors of post-fire debris-flow initiation than longer duration thresholds, and (4) the objectively defined thresholds were exceeded prior to the recorded time of debris flow at frequencies similar to or better than subjective thresholds. Our findings highlight the need to better constrain the timing and processes of initiation of landslides and debris flows for future threshold studies. In addition, the methods used to define rainfall thresholds in this

  9. Hand-arm vibration syndrome and dose-response relation for vibration induced white finger among quarry drillers and stonecarvers. Italian Study Group on Physical Hazards in the Stone Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovenzi, M

    1994-09-01

    To investigate the occurrence of disorders associated with the hand arm vibration syndrome in a large population of stone workers in Italy. The dose-response relation for vibration induced white finger (VWF) was also studied. The study population consisted of 570 quarry drillers and stonecarvers exposed to vibration and 258 control stone workers who performed only manual activity. Each subject was interviewed with health and workplace assessment questionnaires. Sensorineural and VWF disorders were staged according to the Stockholm workshop scales. Vibration was measured on a representative sample of percussive and rotary tools. The 8 h energy equivalent frequency weighted acceleration (A (8)) and lifetime vibration doses were calculated for each of the exposed stone workers. Sensorineural and musculoskeletal symptoms occurred more frequently in the workers exposed to vibration than in the controls, but trend statistics did not show a linear exposure-response relation for these disorders. The prevalence of VWF was found to be 30.2% in the entire group exposed to vibration. Raynaud's phenomenon was discovered in 4.3% of the controls. VWF was strongly associated with exposure to vibration and a monotonic dose-response relation was found. According to the exposure data of this study, the expected percentage of stone workers affected with VWF tends to increase roughly in proportion to the square root of A(8) (for a particular exposure period) or in proportion to the square root of the duration of exposure (for a constant magnitude of vibration). Even although limited to a specific work situation, the dose-response relation for VWF estimated in this study suggests a time dependency such that halving the years of exposure allows a doubling of the energy equivalent vibration. According to these findings, the vibration exposure levels currently under discussion within the European Community seem to represent reasonable exposure limits for the protection of workers against

  10. Applying threshold models to donations to a green electricity fund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Nobuyuki; Takeuchi, Kenji [Graduate School of Economics, Kobe University (Japan); Tsuge, Takahiro [Faculty of Economics, Konan University (Japan); Kishimoto, Atsuo [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    This study applies a threshold model proposed by to analyze the diffusion process of donating behavior for renewable energy. We first use a stated preference survey to estimate the determinants of a decision to support the donation scheme under various predicted participation rates. Using the estimated coefficients, we simulate how herd behavior spreads and the participation rate reaches the equilibrium. The participation rate at the equilibrium is estimated as 37.88% when the suggested donation is 500 yen, while it is 17.76% when the suggested amount is 1000 yen. The influence of environmentalism and altruism is also examined, and we find that these motivations increase the participation rate by 31.51% on average. (author)

  11. The liability threshold model for censored twin data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Klaus K.; Scheike, Thomas; Hjelmborg, Jacob B.

    2016-01-01

    Family studies provide an important tool for understanding etiology of diseases, with the key aim of discovering evidence of family aggregation and to determine if such aggregation can be attributed to genetic components. Heritability and concordance estimates are routinely calculated in twin...... the disease thus still being at risk. Ignoring this right-censoring can lead to severely biased estimates. The classical liability threshold model can be extended with inverse probability of censoring weighting of complete observations. This leads to a flexible way of modelling twin concordance and obtaining...... consistent estimates of heritability. The method is demonstrated in simulations and applied to data from the population based Danish twin cohort to describe the dependence in prostate cancer occurrence in twins....

  12. Evolution of N2(A3 \\Sigma _{u}^{+} ) in streamer discharges: influence of oxygen admixtures on formation of low vibrational levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimek, M.; Ambrico, P. F.; Prukner, V.

    2017-12-01

    The formation of N2(A3 Σ u+ ) metastable species, produced by cathode-directed streamer discharge, was investigated using the technique of laser-induced fluorescence. A triggered single streamer filament was periodically produced in pure nitrogen (and in nitrogen with admixtures of oxygen) at total pressure of 50 Torr and metastable species were monitored during the streamer channel decay in the centre of the discharge gap. We revealed the dynamics of individual vibrational (v  =  0–8) levels of N2(A3 Σ u+ ) for various oxygen admixtures (0–20%). In pure nitrogen, the observed evolution of the N2(A3 Σ u+ ) during the decaying streamer channel is evidence of initial vibrational relaxation of high vibrational levels towards the v  =  2 and 3 levels, followed by a delayed increase of terminal (v  =  0, 1) levels. A calibration procedure based on the rate of energy-pooling processes was used to place all detected vibronic levels in pure nitrogen on the absolute scale. Population maxima exceeding 1  ×  1014 cm‑3 were fixed for the v  =  2 and 3 vibrational levels, while the lowest v  =  0 level reaches only 3  ×  1013 cm‑3. Populations of v  =  2–5 vibrational levels were also estimated for N2  +  O2 mixtures after scaling of laser-induced fluorescence signals obtained at various oxygen admixtures. The total N2(A3 Σ u+ ) population in an air-like mixture is formed mainly by v  =  3–4 vibronic levels with the population maximum of ~3  ×  1013 cm‑3 fixed at the shortest analyzed delay. This observation, together with the fact that we were unable to detect v  =  0 and 1 levels (fluorescence signals below detection threshold), gives a strong evidence of the inhibition of Δv  =  2 vibrational relaxation towards terminal v  =  0 and 1 levels, causing much lower populations of the lowest v  =  0–1 levels. By analyzing data obtained in

  13. Importance of Added Mass and Damping in Flow-Induced Vibration Analysis of Tubes Bundle: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Karim Shami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow-induced vibration is of prime concern to the designers of heat exchangers subjected to high flows of gases or liquids. Excessive vibration may cause tube failure due to fatigue or fretting-wear. Tube failure results in, expensive plant upholding and suffers loss of production. Therefore, tube failure due to unwarranted vibration must be avoided in process heat exchangers and nuclear steam generators, preferably at design stage. Such vibration problems may be avoided through a comprehensive flowinduced vibration analysis before fabrication of heat exchangers. However, it requires an understanding of vibration mechanism and parameters related to flow-induced vibration. For an accurate vibration analysis, it is of prime importance to have good estimates of structural and flow related dynamic parameters. Thus dynamic parameters such as added mass and damping are of significant concern in a flow regime. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of our state of knowledge and role of dynamic parameters in flow-induced vibration on tube bundles due to current trend of larger heat exchangers. The present paper provides published data, analysis, evaluation, formulation, and experimental studies related to hydrodynamic mass and damping by a large number of researchers. Guidelines for experimental research and heat exchangers design related to added mass and damping mechanisms subjected to both single and two-phase flow are outlined in this paper.

  14. Determination of Cost-Effectiveness Threshold for Health Care Interventions in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yen Wei; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Chua, Gin Nie; Ahmad Hassali, Mohammed Azmi

    2017-09-01

    One major challenge in prioritizing health care using cost-effectiveness (CE) information is when alternatives are more expensive but more effective than existing technology. In such a situation, an external criterion in the form of a CE threshold that reflects the willingness to pay (WTP) per quality-adjusted life-year is necessary. To determine a CE threshold for health care interventions in Malaysia. A cross-sectional, contingent valuation study was conducted using a stratified multistage cluster random sampling technique in four states in Malaysia. One thousand thirteen respondents were interviewed in person for their socioeconomic background, quality of life, and WTP for a hypothetical scenario. The CE thresholds established using the nonparametric Turnbull method ranged from MYR12,810 to MYR22,840 (~US $4,000-US $7,000), whereas those estimated with the parametric interval regression model were between MYR19,929 and MYR28,470 (~US $6,200-US $8,900). Key factors that affected the CE thresholds were education level, estimated monthly household income, and the description of health state scenarios. These findings suggest that there is no single WTP value for a quality-adjusted life-year. The CE threshold estimated for Malaysia was found to be lower than the threshold value recommended by the World Health Organization. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Lactate threshold by muscle electrical impedance in professional rowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jotta, B.; Coutinho, A. B. B.; Pino, A. V.; Souza, M. N.

    2017-04-01

    Lactate threshold (LT) is one of the physiological parameters usually used in rowing sport training prescription because it indicates the transitions from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. Assessment of LT is classically based on a series of values of blood lactate concentrations obtained during progressive exercise tests and thus has an invasive aspect. The feasibility of noninvasive LT estimative through bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) data collected in thigh muscles during rowing ergometer exercise tests was investigated. Nineteen professional rowers, age 19 (mean) ± 4.8 (standard deviation) yr, height 187.3 ± 6.6 cm, body mass 83 ± 7.7 kg, and training experience of 7 ± 4 yr, were evaluated in a rowing ergometer progressive test with paired measures of blood lactate concentration and BIS in thigh muscles. Bioelectrical impedance data were obtained by using a bipolar method of spectroscopy based on the current response to a voltage step. An electrical model was used to interpret BIS data and to derive parameters that were investigated to estimate LT noninvasively. From the serial blood lactate measurements, LT was also determined through Dmax method (LTDmax). The zero crossing of the second derivative of kinetic of the capacitance electrode (Ce), one of the BIS parameters, was used to estimate LT. The agreement between the LT estimates through BIS (LTBIS) and through Dmax method (LTDmax) was evaluated using Bland-Altman plots, leading to a mean difference between the estimates of just 0.07 W and a Pearson correlation coefficient r = 0.85. This result supports the utilization of the proposed method based on BIS parameters for estimating noninvasively the lactate threshold in rowing.

  16. Van der Waals potential and vibrational energy levels of the ground state radon dimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xiaowei; Qian, Shifeng; Hu, Fengfei

    2017-08-01

    In the present paper, the ground state van der Waals potential of the Radon dimer is described by the Tang-Toennies potential model, which requires five essential parameters. Among them, the two dispersion coefficients C6 and C8 are estimated from the well determined dispersion coefficients C6 and C8 of Xe2. C10 is estimated by using the approximation equation that C6C10/C82 has an average value of 1.221 for all the rare gas dimers. With these estimated dispersion coefficients and the well determined well depth De and Re the Born-Mayer parameters A and b are derived. Then the vibrational energy levels of the ground state radon dimer are calculated. 40 vibrational energy levels are observed in the ground state of Rn2 dimer. The last vibrational energy level is bound by only 0.0012 cm-1.

  17. Performance of nonlinear mechanical, resonant-shunted piezoelectric, and electronic vibration absorbers for multi-degree-of-freedom structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnes, Gregory Stephen

    Linear vibration absorbers are a valuable tool used to suppress vibrations due to harmonic excitation in structural systems. Limited evaluation of the performance of nonlinear vibration absorbers for nonlinear structures exists in the current literature. The state of the art is extended in this work to vibration absorbers in their three major physical implementations: the mechanical vibration absorber, the inductive-resistive shunted piezoelectric vibration absorber, and the electronic vibration absorber (also denoted a positive position feedback controller). A single, consistent, physically similar model capable of examining the response of all three devices is developed. The performance of vibration absorbers attached to single-degree-of-freedom structures is next examined for performance, robustness, and stability. Perturbation techniques and numerical analysis combine to yield insight into the tuning of nonlinear vibration absorbers for both linear and nonlinear structures. The results both clarify and validate the existing literature on mechanical vibration absorbers. Several new results, including an analytical expression for the suppression region's location and bandwidth and requirements for its robust performance, are derived. Nonlinear multiple-degree-of-freedom structures are next evaluated. The theory of Non-linear Normal Modes is extended to include consideration of modal damping, excitation, and small linear coupling, allowing estimation of vibration absorber performance. The dynamics of the N+1-degree-of-freedom system reduce to those of a two-degree-of-freedom system on a four-dimensional nonlinear modal manifold, thereby simplifying the analysis. Quantitative agreement is shown to require a higher order model which is recommended for future investigation. Finally, experimental investigation on both single and multi-degree-of-freedom systems is performed since few experiments on this topic are reported in the literature. The experimental results

  18. Atherogenic risk factors and hearing thresholds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Stokholm, Zara Ann

    2014-01-01

    children's day care units, financial services and 10 manufacturing trades. Associations between atherogenic risk factors (blood lipids, glycosylated hemoglobin, smoking habits, body mass index (BMI), and ambulatory blood pressure) and hearing thresholds were analyzed using multiple linear regression models...

  19. Generating functions and the satisfiability threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Puyhaubert

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The 3-SAT problem consists in determining if a boolean formula with 3 literals per clause is satisfiable. When the ratio between the number of clauses and the number of variables increases, a threshold phenomenon is observed: the probability of satisfiability appears to decrease sharply from 1 to 0 in the neighbourghood of a threshold value, conjectured to be close to 4.25. Although the threshold has been proved to exist for the 2-SAT formulæ and for closely related problems like 3-XORSAT, there is still no proof for the 3-sat problem. Recent works have provided so far upper and lower bounds for the threshold's potential location. We present here a unified approach to upper bounds that is based on urn models, generating functions, and saddle-point bounds. In this way, we re-derive some of the most significant upper bounds known in a simple and uniform manner.

  20. 40 CFR 98.181 - Reporting threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Lead Production § 98.181 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your facility contains a lead production process and the facility meets the...