WorldWideScience

Sample records for vibration ride comfort

  1. Analytical Studies on Ride Quality and Ride Comfort in Chennai Mass Rapid Transit System (MRTS) Railroad Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangadharan, K. V.; Chandramohan, Sujatha

    2017-12-01

    In this paper analytical ride index studies and ISO 2631 based ride comfort analysis of a suburban MRTS railroad vehicle is presented. Track power spectral densities (PSDs) were used as inputs to a finite element (FE) model of the vehicle and track and the acceleration responses were computed using random vibration theory. From these responses, ride quality and ride comfort have been computed at different locations of the vehicle at different speeds in the vertical and lateral directions.

  2. Analysis of Passenger Ride Comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagiz N.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of vehicle vibrations on human beings is investigated. The computations were made with the help of a simulation program using a full vehicle model with driver and the results were evaluated using international ISO 2631 standard. The physical model of the investigated system is formed by a full-vehicle model and a driver. The road roughness is used as an input to the system and the responses are compared with the related standard. Finally, the results are discussed.

  3. Annoyance rate evaluation method on ride comfort of vehicle suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chuanyin; Zhang, Yimin; Zhao, Guangyao; Ma, Yan

    2014-03-01

    The existing researches of the evaluation method of ride comfort of vehicle mainly focus on the level of human feelings to vibration. The level of human feelings to vibration is influenced by many factors, however, the ride comfort according to the common principle of probability and statistics and simple binary logic is unable to reflect these uncertainties. The random fuzzy evaluation model from people subjective response to vibration is adopted in the paper, these uncertainties are analyzed from the angle of psychological physics. Discussing the traditional evaluation of ride comfort during vehicle vibration, a fuzzily random evaluation model on the basis of annoyance rate is proposed for the human body's subjective response to vibration, with relevant fuzzy membership function and probability distribution given. A half-car four degrees of freedom suspension vibration model is described, subject to irregular excitations from the road surface, with the aid of software Matlab/Simulink. A new kind of evaluation method for ride comfort of vehicles is proposed in the paper, i.e., the annoyance rate evaluation method. The genetic algorithm and neural network control theory are used to control the system. Simulation results are obtained, such as the comparison of comfort reaction to vibration environments between before and after control, relationship of annoyance rate to vibration frequency and weighted acceleration, based on ISO 2631/1(1982), ISO 2631-1(1997) and annoyance rate evaluation method, respectively. Simulated assessment results indicate that the proposed active suspension systems prove to be effective in the vibration isolation of the suspension system, and the subjective response of human being can be promoted from very uncomfortable to a little uncomfortable. Furthermore, the novel evaluation method based on annoyance rate can further estimate quantitatively the number of passengers who feel discomfort due to vibration. A new analysis method of vehicle

  4. A Comparison Study on the Assessment of Ride Comfort for LRT Passengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengku Munawir, Tengku Imran; Abqari Abu Samah, Ahmad; Afiq Akmal Rosle, Muhammad; Azlis-Sani, Jalil; Hasnan, Khalid; Sabri, S. M.; Ismail, S. M.; Yunos, Muhammad Nur Annuar Mohd; Yen Bin, Teo

    2017-08-01

    Ride comfort in railway transportation is very mind boggling and it relies on different dynamic performance criteria as well as subjective observation from the train passengers. Vibration discomfort from different elements such as vehicle condition, track area condition and working condition can prompt poor ride comfort. However, there are no universal applicable standards to analyse the ride comfort. There are several factors including local condition, vehicle condition and the track condition. In this current work, level of ride comfort by previous Adtranz-Walker light rapid transit (LRT) passengers at Ampang line were analysed. A comparison was done via two possible methods which are BS EN 12299 (2009) and Sperling’s Ride Index equation. BS EN 12299 standard is used to measure and evaluate the ride comfort of seating (Nvd) and standing (Nva) of train passenger in three different routes. Next, Sperling’s ride comfort equation is used to conduct validation and comparison between the obtained data. The result indicates a higher extent of vibration in the vertical axis which impacts the overall result. The standing position demonstrates a higher exposure of vibration in all the three tested routes. Comparison of the ride comfort assessment of passenger in sitting and standing position for both methods indicates that all the track sections exceeds “pronounced but not unpleasant (medium)” limit range. Nevertheless, the seating position at track section AU did not exceed the limit and stayed at the comfortable zone. The highest discomfort level achieved for both methods for seating position are 3.34 m/s2 for Nva and 2.63 m/s2 respectively, which is at route C uptrack that is from Chan Sow Lin station to Sri Petaling station. Meanwhile, the highest discomfort level achieved for both methods for standing are 3.80 m/s2 for Nvd and 2.88 m/s2 for Wz respectively, at uptrack section which is from Sri Petaling station to Chan Sow Lin station. Thus, the highest

  5. Evaluation of Bus Vibration Comfort Based on Passenger Crowdsourcing Mode

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    Hong Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration comfort is an important factor affecting the quality of service (QoS of bus. In order to make people involved in supervising bus’s vibration comfort and improve passengers’ riding experience, a novel mode of passenger crowdsourcing is introduced. In this paper, comfort degree of bus vibration is calculated from bus’s vibration signals collected by passengers’ smartphones and sent through WiFi to the Boa web server which shows the vibration comfort on the LCD deployed in bus and maybe trigger alarm lamp when the vibration is beyond the threshold. Three challenges here have been overcome: firstly, space coordinate transformation algorithm is used to solve the constant drift of signals collected; secondly, a low-pass filter is designed to isolate gravity from signals real-timely via limited computing resources; thirdly, an embedded evaluation system is developed according to the calculation procedure specified by criterion ISO 2631-1997. Meanwhile, the model proposed is tested in a practical running environment, the vibration data in whole travel are recorded and analyzed offline. The results show that comfort degree of vibration obtained from the experimental system is identical with the truth, and this mode is proved to be effective.

  6. Directional and sectional ride comfort estimation using an integrated human biomechanical-seat foam model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajer, Navid; Abdi, Hamid; Nahavandi, Saeid; Nelson, Kyle

    2017-09-01

    In the methodology of objective measurement of ride comfort, application of a Human Biomechanical Model (HBM) is valuable for Whole Body Vibration (WBV) analysis. In this study, using a computational Multibody System (MBS) approach, development of a 3D passive HBM for a seated human is considered. For this purpose, the existing MBS-based HBMs of seated human are briefly reviewed first. The Equations of Motion (EoM) for the proposed model are then obtained and the simulation results are shown and compared with idealised ranges of experimental results suggested in the literature. The human-seat interaction is established using a nonlinear vibration model of foam with respect to the sectional behaviour of the seat foam. The developed system is then used for ride comfort estimation offered by a ride dynamic model. The effects of human weight, road class, and vehicle speed on the vibration of the human body segments in different directions are studied. It is shown that the there is a high correlation (more than 99.2%) between the vibration indices of the proposed HBM-foam model and the corresponding ISO 2631 WBV indices. In addition, relevant ISO 2631 indices that show a high correlation with the directional vibration of the head are identified.

  7. Pedal force determination respect to ride comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mačužić, Slavica; Lukić, Jovanka; Glišović, Jasna; Miloradović, Danijela

    2017-10-01

    Automotive ergonomics is a set of knowledge which has a task to design a vehicle to make the passengers feel comfortable. Interior packaging represents an important stage in the vehicle design process, in order to enable the driver to every important aspect of movement. During the process of driving, the driver performs various movements of arms and legs, leading to a certain fatigue. Each seating position in the vehicle, contain certain boundary conditions, and for that reason it was necessary to examine how the seating position affects the driver possibilities. In this paper, the pedal forces were determined by application of Ramsis human model. Different human populations were taken into account. Correlation between subjects’ anthropometrics measures and the foot pedal force pedal was observed. Obtained results were significant input data for vehicle packaging.

  8. Effects of seat structural dynamics on current ride comfort criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fard, M; Lo, L; Subic, A; Jazar, R

    2014-01-01

    The ISO 2631-1 ( 1997 ) provides methodologies for assessment of the seated human body comfort in response to vibrations. The standard covers various conditions such as frequency content, direction and location of the transmission of the vibration to the human body. However, the effects of seat structural dynamics mode shapes and corresponding resonances have not been discussed. This study provides important knowledge about the effects of vehicle seat structural vibration modes on discomfort assessment. The occupied seat resonant frequencies and corresponding vibration modes were measured and comfort test was carried out based on the paired comparison test method. The results show that the ISO 2631-1 ( 1997 ) method significantly underestimates the vibration discomfort level around the occupied seat twisting resonant frequencies. This underestimation is mainly due to the ISO suggested location of the accelerometer pad on the seatback. The centre of the seatback is a nodal point at the seat twisting mode. Therefore, it underestimates the total vibration transferred to the occupant body from the seatback. The effects of the vehicle seat structural dynamics have not been discussed in the human body vibration ISO . The results of this research show that the current measurement method suggested by ISO 2631-1 (1997) can significantly underestimate the vibration discomfort level at around the seat structural vibration mode.

  9. Human comfort in relation to sinusoidal vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B.; Rao, B. K. N.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was made to assess the overall subjective comfort levels to sinusoidal excitations over the range 1 to 19 Hz using a two axis electrohydraulic vibration simulator. Exposure durations of 16 minutes, 25 minutes, 1 hour, and 2.5 hours have been considered. Subjects were not exposed over such durations, but were instructed to estimate the overall comfort levels preferred had they been constantly subjected to vibration over such durations.

  10. Study on the ride comfort of vehicles driven by in-wheel motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Jin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles driven by in-wheel motors have received more and more attention. However, due to the introduction of in-wheel motors, the ratio between unsprung and sprung mass is increased. In this article, to study the influence of this change on ride comfort of vehicles driven by in-wheel motors, an 11 degrees of freedom of vehicle ride comfort model will be presented and studied with MATLAB/Simulink. Then, road tests will be conducted to corroborate the simulation results. It can be obtained that the vehicle ride comfort becomes poor with the increasing unsprung mass. Finally, semi-active air-suspension proportional–integral–derivative control system will be proposed to improve the vehicle ride comfort. Through the simulation results, one can come to a conclusion that the proportional–integral–derivative control system for air suspension is feasible and effective to improve the ride comfort of the vehicles driven by in-wheel motors.

  11. Development of an experimental methodology to evaluate the influence of a bamboo frame on the bicycle ride comfort

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    Thite, A. N.; Gerguri, S.; Coleman, F.; Doody, M.; Fisher, N.

    2013-09-01

    In the current environment of increased emphasis on sustainable transport, there is manifold increase in the use of bicycles for urban transport. One concern which might restrict the use is the ride comfort and fatigue. There has been limited research in addressing the difficulty in bicycle ride comfort quantification. The current study aims to develop a methodology to quantify bicycle discomfort so that performance of bicycles constructed from bamboo and aluminium alloy can be compared. Experimentally obtained frequency response functions are used to establish a relation between the road input and the seat and rider response. A bicycle track input profile based on standard road profiles is created so as to estimate the acceleration responses. The whole-body-vibration frequency weighting is applied to quantify the perception of vibration intensity so that eventual discomfort ranking can be obtained. The measured frequency response functions provide an insight into the effect of frame dynamics on the overall resonant behaviour of the bicycles. The beneficial effect of frame compliance and damping on lower modes of vibration is very clear in the case of bamboo frame, in turn affecting seat and rider response. In the bamboo frame, because of multiple resonances, the frequency response of the handlebar is smaller at higher frequencies suggesting effective isolation. Further improvements may have come from the joints made from natural composites. Overall, based on the comparative analysis and the methodology developed, bamboo frame shows significant improvement in ride comfort performance compared with the aluminium frame.

  12. Influences of Carbody Vertical Flexibility on Ride Comfort of Railway Vehicles

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    Dumitriu Mădălina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the influence of the carbody vertical flexibility on the ride comfort of the railway vehicles. The ride comfort is evaluated via the comfort index calculated in three reference points of the carbody. The results of the numerical simulations bring attention to the importance of the carbody symmetrical vertical bending upon the dynamic response of the vehicle, mainly at high velocities. Another conclusion is that the ride comfort can be significantly affected as a function of the symmetrical bending frequency of the carbody. Similarly, there are improvement possibilities for the ride comfort when the best selection of the stiffness in the longitudinal traction system between the carbody and bogie and the vertical suspension damping is made.

  13. Ride comfort of a high-speed train through the structural upgrade of a bogie suspension

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    Lee, C.-M.; Goverdovskiy, V. N.; Sim, C.-S.; Lee, J.-H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to upgrade a bogie suspension (without a damaging) and thus to increase vibration isolation of a carbody in the infra frequency range, which is most important for ride comfort. The approach involves analysis of kinematic structure of the suspension's function-generating mechanism to detect sources of inefficiency within the supply and maintenance support of an existing design, as well as to predict the structural causes of a new design. A theory of the approach is presented. A survey of the typical suspensions is made; their kinematic structures are analyzed. The type and number synthesis of new candidates for the mechanism is illustrated to avoid undesirable structure redundancy in suspension design by the method of "negative" stiffness, which proved most promising. The utility of the approach is demonstrated through the upgrade of scaled simulated models and real suspensions.

  14. Ride comfort characteristics with different tire pressure of passenger vehicle featuring MR damper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H G [Department of Automotive Engineering, Daeduk College, Daejeon 305-715 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, K G [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam College of Science and Technology, Daegu 705-703 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S B [Smart Structures and Systems Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: seungbok@inha.ac.kr

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents ride comfort characteristics of a quarter-vehicle magneto-rheological (MR) suspension system with respect to different tire pressure. As a first step, controllable MR damper is designed and manufactured based on the optimized damping force levels and mechanical dimensions required for a commercial mid-sized passenger vehicle. After experimentally evaluating dynamic characteristics of the manufactured MR damper, the quarter-vehicle suspension system consisting of sprung mass, spring, tire and the MR damper is constructed in order to investigate the ride comfort. After deriving the equations of the motion for the proposed quarter-vehicle MR suspension system, vertical tire stiffness with respect to different tire pressure is experimentally identified. The skyhook controller is then implemented for the realization of quarter-vehicle MR suspension system. Ride comfort characteristics such as vertical acceleration RMS of sprung mass are evaluated under bump road condition and presented in time domain.

  15. Vision Influence on Whole-Body Human Vibration Comfort Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Maria Lúcia Machado; de Brito Pereira, Matheus

    2006-01-01

    The well being of people needs to be a priority in the modern world. In that respect, vibration cannot be one more cause of stress. Besides that, vibration comfort is very important, since high levels may cause health or even tasks' accomplishment problems. Several parameters may influence the levels of vibration a human being supports. Among them, one can mention the influence of gender, age, corporeal mass index (CMI), temperature, humor, anxiety, hearing, posture, vision, etc. The first th...

  16. Vision Influence on Whole-Body Human Vibration Comfort Levels

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    Maria Lúcia Machado Duarte

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The well being of people needs to be a priority in the modern world. In that respect, vibration cannot be one more cause of stress. Besides that, vibration comfort is very important, since high levels may cause health or even tasks' accomplishment problems. Several parameters may influence the levels of vibration a human being supports. Among them, one can mention the influence of gender, age, corporeal mass index (CMI, temperature, humor, anxiety, hearing, posture, vision, etc. The first three parameters mentioned were already investigated in previous studies undertaken by GRAVI (Group of Acoustics and Vibration researchers. In this paper, the influence of vision is evaluated. The main objective with this series of tests performed is to try to quantify in a future the influence of each parameter in a global vibration comfort level. Conclusions are presented for the parameter investigated.

  17. Evaluation of human body comfortableness under vibrate condition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To efficiently evaluate the influences on human body comfortableness under different vibrative condition, the paper comprehensively applied the surface electromyography (SEMG) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technology and obtained the relationship between mean power frequency (MPF) and regional tissue ...

  18. Whole-body vibration exposure of occupational horseback riding in agriculture: A ranching example.

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    Zeng, Xiaoke; Trask, Catherine; Kociolek, Aaron M

    2017-02-01

    Horse riding is common in many occupations; however, there is currently no research evaluating exposure to whole-body vibration and mechanical shock on horseback. Whole-body vibration was measured on a cattle rancher during two 30 min horseback rides using a tri-axial accelerometer mounted on a western saddle. Vibration was summarized into standardized metrics, including the 8 hr equivalent root-mean-squared acceleration (A[8]) and the daily 4th power vibration dose value (VDV). The resulting exposures were compared to the exposure limit and action values provided by European Union Directive 2002/44/EC. The highest vibration for both rides was in the vertical axis, with average A(8) and VDV of 0.56 m/s 2 and 26.24 m/s 1.75 , respectively. The A(8) value indicated moderate risk while the VDV suggested high risk of harmful health effects. Exposure to whole-body vibration and mechanical shock during occupational horseback riding may pose deleterious health risks and increased susceptibility to low back pain. Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:215-220, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Vibration analysis of the sulky accessory for a commercial walk-behind lawn mower to determine operator comfort and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrailkill, Elizabeth A; Lowndes, Bethany R; Hallbeck, M Susan

    2013-01-01

    A sulky is a single-wheeled platform attachment on which the operator of a commercial walk-behind lawn mower rides while standing. The effects of sulky vibration on operator comfort and health have not been investigated. In this study, tri-axial accelerometers measured sulky vibration during mower use by two commercial mowers on varied terrain and 12 volunteer mowers over a controlled course. The accelerometer data were processed according to methods established in ISO 2631. Results indicate the mean frequency-weighted root mean square (RMS) acceleration sums fall into the 'very uncomfortable' range for vibration of standing persons (1.9 ± 0.48 m s⁻²). Additionally, vibration dose values indicated that the mean vibration dosages exceeded the daily exposure limit values established in Directive 2002 /44/EC (z-axis A(8) value of 1.30 ± 34 m s⁻²; VDV(exp) value of 28.1 ± 6.25 m s⁻¹·⁷⁵). This information suggests that modifications including vibration damping should be added to the sulky to reduce rider discomfort and health risks. This study investigated the effects of vibration during use of a commercial lawn mowing sulky. Findings from accelerometer data suggest that the vibration experienced by sulky operators is significant enough to cause discomfort and health risks which may lead to personnel turnover or long-term effects for the operator.

  20. Mathematical modelling of the secondary airspring suspension in railway vehicles and its effect on safety and ride comfort

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    Facchinetti, Alan; Mazzola, Laura; Alfi, Stefano; Bruni, Stefano

    2010-12-01

    The mathematical model of suspension components in a railway vehicle may have an important effect on the results of vehicle dynamics simulations and their accuracy in reproducing the actual vehicle behaviour. This paper aims to define and compare alternative mathematical modelling approaches for the secondary airspring suspension and to assess their effect on the accuracy of rail vehicle dynamics multibody simulation. To derive reliable models of the suspension, a quasi-static and dynamic characterisation of the suspension was performed by means of a full-scale laboratory experiment. Based on this, two different modelling approaches were developed for the airspring suspension: a quasi-static one, in which the frequency-dependent behaviour of the suspension is neglected, but the coupling between shear and roll stiffness is included, and a dynamic one in which additionally the frequency-dependent behaviour of the suspension in vertical direction is represented using a thermodynamic model, and additionally the dependency of lateral/roll stiffness parameters on the load is incorporated. The results of vehicle dynamics simulations in curved track and/or in the presence of crosswinds and the results of ride comfort calculations are presented, to assess the effect of the models developed, in comparison with a simpler model only reproducing the vertical and lateral stiffness of the suspension. It is demonstrated that the quasi-static coupling effect between shear and roll deformation in the airsprings can have a large effect on the simulation of load transfer effects in curved track and in the presence of crosswinds, and hence remarkably affect the assessment of ride safety and track loading, whereas the dynamic model of the airspring suspension appears to be required when wheel unloading under the action of crosswind is evaluated. Finally, it is shown that a dynamic model of the airspring is required to assess ride comfort correctly, especially when the pneumatic layout

  1. Sensor design for outdoor racing bicycle field testing for human vibration comfort evaluation

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    Vanwalleghem, Joachim; De Baere, Ives; Loccufier, Mia; Van Paepegem, Wim

    2013-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the vibrational comfort evaluation of the cyclist when cycling a rough surface. Outdoor comfort tests have so far only been done through instrumenting the bicycle with accelerometers. This work instruments a racing bicycle with custom-made contact force sensors and velocity sensors to acquire human comfort through the absorbed power method. Comfort evaluation is assessed at the hand-arm and seat interface of the cyclist with the bicycle. By means of careful finite-element analysis for designing the force gauges at the handlebar and the seat combined with precise calibration of both force and velocity sensors, all sensors have proven to work properly. Initial field tests are focused on the proper functioning of the designed sensors and their suitability for vibration comfort measurements. Tests on a cobblestone road reveal that the outcome of the absorbed power values is within the same range as those from laboratory tests found in the literature. This sensor design approach for outdoor testing with racing bicycles may give a new interpretation on evaluating the cyclist's comfort since the vibrational load is not only quantified in terms of acceleration but also in terms of force and velocity at the bicycle-cyclist contact points.

  2. Ride comfort optimization of a multi-axle heavy motorized wheel dump truck based on virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging model

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    Bian Gong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of hydro-pneumatic suspension parameters of a multi-axle heavy motorized wheel dump truck is carried out based on virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging model in this article. The root mean square of vertical vibration acceleration, in the center of sprung mass, is assigned as the optimization objective. The constraints are the natural frequency, the working stroke, and the dynamic load of wheels. The suspension structure for the truck is the adjustable hydro-pneumatic suspension with ideal vehicle nonlinear characteristics, integrated with elastic and damping elements. Also, the hydraulic systems of two adjacent hydro-pneumatic suspension are interconnected. Considering the high complexity of the engineering model, a novel kind of meta-model called virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging is proposed in this article. The interpolation principle and the construction of virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging model were elucidated. Being different from traditional Kriging, virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging combines the respective advantages of actual test and Computer Aided Engineering simulation. Based on the virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging model, the optimization results, obtained by experimental verification, showed significant improvement in the ride comfort by 12.48% for front suspension and 11.79% for rear suspension. Compared with traditional Kriging, the optimization effect was improved by 3.05% and 3.38% respectively. Virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging provides an effective way to approach the optimal solution for the optimization of high-complexity engineering problems.

  3. Assements of Level of Comfort on a Vibrating Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    The serviceability limit state of structures is subject to increasing attention. Flooring-systems may encounter vertical vibrations that may be perceived as annoying by stationary persons sitting or standing on the structure. This can happen on office floors, on grand stands etc. where humans...... in motion (for instance people walking or jumping) can bring the structure into vibration. The paper looks into human perception of decaying oscillations of floors by doing experiments with a test floor with stationary humans atop. An impulsive load is directed to the floor, and after the decay, the persons...... on the floor are asked to rate the level of discomfort on a scale from 1 to 10, and to assess the size of floor displacement (the initial amplitude of the decay). Tests are carried out with different numbers of people present on the test floor, and with different initial amplitudes of the decay. The paper...

  4. Comparison of vibrational comfort assessment criteria for design of timber floors among the European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Binsheng; Rasmussen, Birgit; Jorissen, André

    2013-01-01

    As part of the research work carried out by the Working Group 3 of COST Action FP0702, the need for vibrational comfort design for buildings and current regulations for comfort assessment of structural vibrations of timber floors in Europe have been summarised. Also the design practices of timber...... floors with respect to vibrational serviceability criteria, including those for fundamental frequency, unit point load deflection and unit impulse velocity, in up to thirteen European countries have been gathered and their differences been further assessed by analysing flooring systems constructed...... with three types of joists, i.e. solid timber joists, engineered I-joists and metal web joists. The unit point load deflection criterion is the most crucial one for structural design of timber floors with various types of joists and usually dominates the whole design. Finland tends to be the strictest...

  5. Development of Absorbed Blasting Vibration Energy Index for the Evaluation of Human Comfort in Multistorey Buildings

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    Qiang Yao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been civil disputes and complaints regarding the negative effects of blasting vibration on buildings around the blasting site. By considering the effect of blasting vibration on a human body as a process of energy transfer and conversion, the human body absorbed blasting vibration energy (ABVE index has been developed for comfort evaluation. Using dynamic monitoring and theoretical analysis, the elevation amplification effect and selective amplification effect on different frequency components of the ABVE have been investigated. The elevation amplification factor and selective amplification coefficients on different frequency components of the ABVE index for a typical 4-storey brick and concrete building have been determined. Based on the results, the magnitude and frequency components of the ABVE index in different parts especially in different storeys for the typical building have been determined. According to the characteristics of human body’s response to vibrations of different frequencies, the frequency-based weighting method of ABVE index has been simplified. By calculating the combined effect of vibrations from all directions, the total human body ABVE and its frequency components at different floors of the building can be determined accurately. This can be used to evaluate the human body comfort against blasting vibration at different floors.

  6. Whole-Body Vibration in Farming: Background Document for Creating a Simplified Procedure to Determine Agricultural Tractor Vibration Comfort

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    Maurizio Cutini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Operator exposure to high levels of whole-body vibration (WBV presents risks to health and safety and it is reported to worsen or even cause back injuries. Work activities resulting in operator exposure to whole-body vibration have a common onset in off-road work such as farming. Despite the wide variability of agricultural surface profiles, studies have shown that with changing soil profile and tractor speed, the accelerations resulting from ground input present similar spectral trends. While on the one hand such studies confirmed that tractor WBV emission levels are very dependent upon the nature of the operation performed, on the other, irrespective of the wide range of conditions characterizing agricultural operations, they led researchers to set up a possible and realistic simplification and standardization of tractor driver comfort testing activities. The studies presented herewith indicate the usefulness, and the possibility, of developing simplified procedures to determine agricultural tractor vibration comfort. The results obtained could be used effectively to compare tractors of the same category or a given tractor when equipped with different seats, suspension, tyres, etc.

  7. Experimental investigation of biodynamic human body models subjected to whole-body vibration during a vehicle ride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, Yener; Hacioglu, Yuksel; Ortes, Faruk; Karabulut, Derya; Arslan, Yunus Ziya

    2018-02-06

    In this study, responses of biodynamic human body models to whole-body vibration during a vehicle ride were investigated. Accelerations were acquired from three different body parts, such as the head, upper torso and lower torso, of 10 seated passengers during a car ride while two different road conditions were considered. The same multipurpose vehicle was used during all experiments. Additionally, by two widely used biodynamic models in the literature, a set of simulations were run to obtain theoretical accelerations of the models and were compared with those obtained experimentally. To sustain a quantified comparison between experimental and theoretical approaches, the root mean square acceleration and acceleration spectral density were calculated. Time and frequency responses of the models demonstrated that neither of the models showed the best prediction performance of the human body behaviour in all cases, indicating that further models are required for better prediction of the human body responses.

  8. Children's and Adults' Comfort Experience of Extra Seat Belts When Riding in the Rear Seat of a Passenger Car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osvalder, Anna-Lisa; Hansson, Ida; Bohman, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore passengers' comfort experience of extra seat belts during on-road driving in the rear seat of a passenger car and to investigate how the use of extra belts affects children's and adults' attitudes to the product. Two different seat belt systems were tested, criss-cross (CC) and backpack (BP), consisting of the standard 3-point belt together with an additional 2-point belt. In total, 32 participants (15 children aged 6-10, 6 youths aged 11-15, and 11 adults aged 20-79, who differed considerably in size, shape, and proportions) traveled for one hour with each system, including city traffic and highway driving. Four video cameras monitored the test subject during the drive. Subjective data regarding emotions and perceived discomfort were collected in questionnaires every 20 min. A semistructured interview was held afterwards. All participant groups accepted the new products and especially the increased feeling of safety (P car. CC was appreciated for its symmetry, comfort, and the perceived feeling of safety. Some participants found CC unpleasant because the belts tended to slip close to the neck, described as a strangling feeling. BP was simpler to use and did not cause annoyance to the neck in the way CC did. Instead, it felt asymmetric and to some extent less safe than CC. Body size and shape affected seat belt fit to a great extent, which in turn affected the experience of comfort, both initially and over time. Perceived safety benefit and experienced comfort were the most determinant factors for the attitude toward the extra seat belts. The extra seat belts were perceived as being better than the participants had expected before the test, and they became more used to them over time. This exploratory study provided valuable knowledge from a user perspective for further development of new seat belt systems in cars. In addition to an increased feeling of safety, seat belt fit and comfort are supplementary influencing

  9. Aerodynamic calculations of the Sienna towers buildings complex with respect to human vibrations comfort of their users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewski, Piotr; Flaga, Łukasz; Flaga, Andrzej

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents aerodynamic calculations of the Sienna Towers high buildings complex in Warsaw using authors mathematical model of the considered issue. Human vibrations comfort criteria were checked according to ISO/6897. Dynamic coefficients used in the calculations were obtained from wind tunnel tests.

  10. Mimo pillow--an intelligent cushion designed with maternal heart beat vibrations for comforting newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Oetomo, Sidarto Bambang; Tetteroo, Daniel; Versteegh, Frank; Mamagkaki, Thelxi; Pereira, Mariana Serras; Janssen, Lindy; van Meurs, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Premature infants are subject to numerous interventions ranging from a simple diaper change to surgery while residing in neonatal intensive care units. These neonates often suffer from pain, distress, and discomfort during the first weeks of their lives. Although pharmacological pain treatment often is available, it cannot always be applied to relieve a neonate from pain or discomfort. This paper describes a nonpharmacological solution, called Mimo, which provides comfort through mediation of a parent's physiological features to the distressed neonate via an intelligent pillow system embedded with sensing and actuating functions. We present the design, the implementation, and the evaluation of the prototype. Clinical tests at Máxima Medical Center in the Netherlands show that among the nine of ten infants who showed discomfort following diaper change, a shorter recovery time to baseline skin conductance analgesimeter values could be measured when the maternal heartbeat vibration in the Mimo was switched ON and in seven of these ten a shorter crying time was measured.

  11. A Tire Model for Off-Highway Vehicle Simulation and Comfort Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Thomas Heegaard; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.; Ebbesen, Morten Kjeld

    2009-01-01

    Manufacturers of construction machinery are challenged to accommodate legal requirements on the vibration exposure associated with their products. Hence, the ability to evaluate ride comfort by virtual prototyping is needed. One of the derived necessities is a modeling approach that can handle big...

  12. Identifying factors of bicycle comfort: An online survey with enthusiast cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayachi, F S; Dorey, J; Guastavino, C

    2015-01-01

    Racing bicycles have evolved significantly over the past decades as technology and cyclists' comfort have become a critical design issue. Although ample research has been conducted on comfort for other means of transportation, cyclists' perception of dynamic comfort has received scant attention in the scientific literature. The present study investigates how enthusiast cyclists conceptualize comfort using an online survey with 244 respondents. The purpose is to determine which factors contribute to comfort when riding a bicycle, to identify situations in which comfort is relevant and to determine the extent to which vibrations play a role in comfort evaluations. We found that comfort is influenced by factors related to bicycle components (specifically the frame, saddle and handlebar), as well as environmental factors (type or road, weather conditions) and factors related to the cyclist (position, adjustments, body parts). Respondents indicated that comfort is a concern when riding a bicycle in most situations and they believed that comfort is compatible with performance. The PCA analysis shows that for the perception "human factor-body parts" are put in evidence, and the "cyclist's comfort" evaluation is mainly based on certain qualities related to the bicycle components, then the road and external conditions (e.g. weather, temperature). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Ride control of surface effect ships using distributed control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asgeir J. Sørensen

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available A ride control system for active damping of heave and pitch accelerations of Surface Effect Ships (SES is presented. It is demonstrated that distributed effects that are due to a spatially varying pressure in the air cushion result in significant vertical vibrations in low and moderate sea states. In order to achieve a high quality human comfort and crew workability it is necessary to reduce these vibrations using a control system which accounts for distributed effects due to spatial pressure variations in the air cushion. A mathematical model of the process is presented, and collocated sensor and actuator pairs are used. The process stability is ensured using a controller with appropriate passivity properties. Sensor and actuator location is also discussed. The performance of the ride control system is shown by power spectra of the vertical accelerations obtained from full scale experiments with a 35 m SES.

  14. Ride performance of a high speed rail vehicle using controlled semi active suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunil Kumar; Kumar, Anil

    2017-05-01

    The rail-wheel interaction in a rail vehicle running at high speed results in large amplitude vibration of carbody that deteriorates the ride comfort of travellers. The role of suspension system is crucial to provide an acceptable level of ride performance. In this context, an existing rail vehicle is modelled in vertical, pitch and roll motions of carbody and bogies. Additionally, nonlinear stiffness and damping parameters of passive suspension system are defined based on experimental data. In the secondary vertical suspension system, a magneto-rheological (MR) damper is included to improve the ride quality and comfort. The parameters of MR damper depend on the current, amplitude and frequency of excitations. At different running speeds, three semi-active suspension strategies with MR damper are analysed for periodic track irregularity and the resulting performance indices are juxtaposed with the nonlinear passive suspension system. The disturbance rejection and force tracking damper controller algorithms are applied to control the desired force of MR damper. This study reveals that the vertical vibrations of a vehicle can be reduced significantly by using the proposed semi-active suspension strategies. Moreover, it naturally results in improved ride quality and passenger’s comfort in comparison to the existing passive system.

  15. Magnitude-dependence of equivalent comfort contours for fore-and-aft, lateral, and vertical vibration at the foot for seated persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, Miyuki; Griffin, Michael J.

    2010-07-01

    Vibration at the feet can contribute to discomfort in many forms of transport and in some buildings. Knowledge of the frequency-dependence of discomfort caused by foot vibration, and how this varies with vibration magnitude, will assist the prediction of discomfort caused by vibration. With groups of 12 seated subjects, this experimental study determined absolute thresholds for the perception of foot vibration and quantified the discomfort caused by vibration at the foot. The study investigated a wide range of magnitudes (from the threshold of perception to levels associated with severe discomfort) over a wide range of frequencies (from 8 to 315 Hz in one-third octave steps) in each of the three orthogonal translational axes (fore-and-aft, lateral, and vertical). The effects of gender and shoes on absolute thresholds for the perception of vertical vibration at the foot were also investigated. Within each of the three axes, the vibration acceleration corresponding to the absolute thresholds for the perception of vibration, and also all contours showing conditions producing equivalent discomfort, were highly frequency-dependent at frequencies greater than about 40 Hz. The acceleration threshold contours were U-shaped at frequencies greater than 80 Hz in all three axes of excitation, suggesting the involvement of the Pacinian channel in vibration perception. At supra-threshold levels, the frequency-dependence of the equivalent comfort contours in each of the three axes was highly dependent on vibration magnitude. With increasing vibration magnitude, the conditions causing similar discomfort across the frequency range approximated towards constant velocity. Thresholds were not greatly affected by wearing shoes or subject gender. The derived frequency weightings imply that no single linear frequency weighting can provide accurate predictions of discomfort caused by a wide range of magnitudes of foot vibration.

  16. Integration Design and Optimization Control of a Dynamic Vibration Absorber for Electric Wheels with In-Wheel Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingchun Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an integration design scheme and an optimization control strategy for electric wheels to suppress the in-wheel vibration and improve vehicle ride comfort. The in-wheel motor is considered as a dynamic vibration absorber (DVA, which is isolated from the unsprung mass by using a spring and a damper. The proposed DVA system is applicable for both the inner-rotor motor and outer-rotor motor. Parameters of the DVA system are optimized for the typical conditions, by using the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm, to achieve an acceptable vibration performance. Further, the DVA actuator force is controlled by using the alterable-domain-based fuzzy control method, to adaptively suppress the wheel vibration and reduce the wallop acting on the in-wheel motor (IWM as well. In addition, a suspension actuator force is also controlled, by using the linear quadratic regulator (LQR method, to enhance the suspension performance and meanwhile improve vehicle ride comfort. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed DVA system effectively suppresses the wheel vibration and simultaneously reduces the wallop acting on the IWM. Also, the alterable-domain-based fuzzy control method performs better than the conventional ones, and the LQR-based suspension exhibits excellent performance in vehicle ride comfort.

  17. Digital evaluation of sitting posture comfort in human-vehicle system under Industry 4.0 framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Qing; Kang, Jinsheng; Sun, Wenlei; Li, Zhaobo; Huo, Xiao

    2016-09-01

    Most of the previous studies on the vibration ride comfort of the human-vehicle system were focused only on one or two aspects of the investigation. A hybrid approach which integrates all kinds of investigation methods in real environment and virtual environment is described. The real experimental environment includes the WBV(whole body vibration) test, questionnaires for human subjective sensation and motion capture. The virtual experimental environment includes the theoretical calculation on simplified 5-DOF human body vibration model, the vibration simulation and analysis within ADAMS/VibrationTM module, and the digital human biomechanics and occupational health analysis in Jack software. While the real experimental environment provides realistic and accurate test results, it also serves as core and validation for the virtual experimental environment. The virtual experimental environment takes full advantages of current available vibration simulation and digital human modelling software, and makes it possible to evaluate the sitting posture comfort in a human-vehicle system with various human anthropometric parameters. How this digital evaluation system for car seat comfort design is fitted in the Industry 4.0 framework is also proposed.

  18. A synergistic method for vibration suppression of an elevator mechatronic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezevic, Bojan Z.; Blanusa, Branko; Marcetic, Darko P.

    2017-10-01

    Modern elevators are complex mechatronic systems which have to satisfy high performance in precision, safety and ride comfort. Each elevator mechatronic system (EMS) contains a mechanical subsystem which is characterized by its resonant frequency. In order to achieve high performance of the whole system, the control part of the EMS inevitably excites resonant circuits causing the occurrence of vibration. This paper proposes a synergistic solution based on the jerk control and the upgrade of the speed controller with a band-stop filter to restore lost ride comfort and speed control caused by vibration. The band-stop filter eliminates the resonant component from the speed controller spectra and jerk control provides operating of the speed controller in a linear mode as well as increased ride comfort. The original method for band-stop filter tuning based on Goertzel algorithm and Kiefer search algorithm is proposed in this paper. In order to generate the speed reference trajectory which can be defined by different shapes and amplitudes of jerk, a unique generalized model is proposed. The proposed algorithm is integrated in the power drive control algorithm and implemented on the digital signal processor. Through experimental verifications on a scale down prototype of the EMS it has been verified that only synergistic effect of controlling jerk and filtrating the reference torque can completely eliminate vibrations.

  19. Evaluation of global comfort for train passengers

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardi, Giovanni; Ferrara, Riccardo

    2010-01-01

    International audience; The aim of this study is to propose a method for the evaluation of railway passengers' comfort in relationship to temperature, noise, and vibration. Estimated the single comfort for every sensation considered, the global comfort is evaluated with the Hyper-Sphere Method proposed by Corriere & Lo Bosco [1]. The humanvehicle- infrastructure-environment variables which influence comfort are individuated. Thus their value and correspondent global comfort could be evaluated...

  20. Optimal Vibration Control for Tracked Vehicle Suspension Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Jun Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Technique of optimal vibration control with exponential decay rate and simulation for vehicle active suspension systems is developed. Mechanical model and dynamic system for a class of tracked vehicle suspension vibration control is established and the corresponding system of state space form is described. In order to prolong the working life of suspension system and improve ride comfort, based on the active suspension vibration control devices and using optimal control approach, an optimal vibration controller with exponential decay rate is designed. Numerical simulations are carried out, and the control effects of the ordinary optimal controller and the proposed controller are compared. Numerical simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  1. Fancy a ride?

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    This Sunday 7 September, don’t miss your chance to climb into a supercar, one of those exceptional machines that tear up the tracks and that you sometimes hear revving their engines on the motorway. The 2014 supercar experience day, organised by members of CERN, will allow car lovers to go for a ride in style and all for a good cause!   Supercars at the 2013 experience day. Photo: Kevin Mazzilli. If you have always dreamt of sitting in a Ferrari, feeling the vibrations of a Lamborghini, or losing yourself in the hushed calm of a classic car, don’t miss the supercar experience day taking place on Sunday, 7 September! This event has been organised by CERN’s own car enthusiasts, in collaboration with the charity Kumansansa – Children of Zambia, founded by two CERN members. It will take place for the third consecutive year in the car park of the Macumba leisure centre in Saint-Julien-en-Genevois (France). From 9.30 a.m. to 6 p.m., visitors old and young (c...

  2. Thermal comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d’Ambrosio Alfano, Francesca Romana; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Palella, Boris Igor

    2014-01-01

    Thermal comfort is one of the most important aspects of the indoor environmental quality due to its effects on well-being, people's performance and building energy requirements. Its attainment is not an easy task requiring advanced design and operation of building and HVAC systems, taking...... under specific conditions. At operation level, only few variables are taken into account with unpredictable effects on the assessment of comfort indices. In this paper, the main criteria for the design and assessment of thermal comfort are discussed in order to help building and HVAC systems designers...... into account all parameters involved. Even though thermal comfort fundamentals are consolidated topics for more than forty years, often designers seem to ignore or apply them in a wrong way. Design input values from standards are often considered as universal values rather than recommended values to be used...

  3. Thermal comfort

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osburn, L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available wider range of temperature limits, saving energy while still satisfying the majority of building occupants. It is also noted that thermal comfort varies significantly between individuals and it is generally not possible to provide a thermal environment...

  4. The application of SEAT values for predicting how compliant seats with backrests influence vibration discomfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basri, Bazil; Griffin, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    The extent to which a seat can provide useful attenuation of vehicle vibration depends on three factors: the characteristics of the vehicle motion, the vibration transmissibility of the seat, and the sensitivity of the body to vibration. The 'seat effective amplitude transmissibility' (i.e., SEAT value) reflects how these three factors vary with the frequency and the direction of vibration so as to predict the vibration isolation efficiency of a seat. The SEAT value is mostly used to select seat cushions or seat suspensions based on the transmission of vertical vibration to the principal supporting surface of a seat. This study investigated the accuracy of SEAT values in predicting how seats with backrests influence the discomfort caused by multiple-input vibration. Twelve male subjects participated in a four-part experiment to determine equivalent comfort contours, the relative discomfort, the location of discomfort, and seat transmissibility with three foam seats and a rigid reference seat at 14 frequencies of vibration in the range 1-20 Hz at magnitudes of vibration from 0.2 to 1.6 ms(-2) r.m.s. The 'measured seat dynamic discomfort' (MSDD) was calculated for each foam seat from the ratio of the vibration acceleration required to cause similar discomfort with the foam seat and with the rigid reference seat. Using the frequency weightings in current standards, the SEAT values of each seat were calculated from the ratio of overall ride values with the foam seat to the overall ride values with the rigid reference seat, and compared to the corresponding MSDD at each frequency. The SEAT values provided good predictions of how the foam seats increased vibration discomfort at frequencies around the 4-Hz resonance but reduced vibration discomfort at frequencies greater than about 6.3 Hz, with discrepancies explained by a known limitation of the frequency weightings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Healthy Ride Trip Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A dataset that shows trips taken using the Healthy Ride system by quarter. The dataset includes bike number, membership type, trip start and end timestamp, and...

  6. An adaptive vibration control method to suppress the vibration of the maglev train caused by track irregularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Danfeng; Yu, Peichang; Wang, Lianchun; Li, Jie

    2017-11-01

    The levitation gap of the urban maglev train is around 8 mm, which puts a rather high requirement on the smoothness of the track. In practice, it is found that the track irregularity may cause stability problems when the maglev train is traveling. In this paper, the dynamic response of the levitation module, which is the basic levitation structure of the urban maglev train, is investigated in the presence of track irregularities. Analyses show that due to the structural configuration of the levitation module, the vibration of the levitation gap may be amplified and "resonances" may be observed under some specified track wavelengths and train speeds; besides, it is found that the gap vibration of the rear levitation unit in a levitation module is more significant than that of the front levitation unit, which agrees well with practice. To suppress the vibration of the rear levitation gap, an adaptive vibration control method is proposed, which utilizes the information of the front levitation unit as a reference. A pair of mirror FIR (finite impulse response) filters are designed and tuned by an adaptive mechanism, and they produce a compensation signal for the rear levitation controller to cancel the disturbance brought by the track irregularity. Simulations under some typical track conditions, including the sinusoidal track profile, random track irregularity, as well as track steps, indicate that the adaptive vibration control scheme can significantly reduce the amplitude of the rear gap vibration, which provides a method to improve the stability and ride comfort of the maglev train.

  7. Never Riding the Tide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 10. Never Riding the Tide - Seymour Benzer–The Founder of Neurogenetics. K VijayRaghavan Veronica Rodrigues. General Article Volume 13 Issue 10 October 2008 pp 909-915 ...

  8. Applying riding-posture optimization on bicycle frame design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Shih-Wen; Chen, Rong-Qi; Leng, Wan-Lee

    2015-11-01

    Customization design is a trend for developing a bicycle in recent years. Thus, the comfort of riding a bike is an important factor that should be paid much attention to while developing a bicycle. From the viewpoint of ergonomics, the concept of "fitting object to the human body" is designed into the bicycle frame in this study. Firstly, the important feature points of riding posture were automatically detected by the image processing method. In the measurement process, the best riding posture was identified experimentally, thus the positions of feature points and joint angles of human body were obtained. Afterwards, according to the measurement data, three key points: the handlebar, the saddle and the crank center, were identified and applied to the frame design of various bicycle types. Lastly, this study further proposed a frame size table for common bicycle types, which is helpful for the designer to design a bicycle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Vibration control in semi-active suspension of the experimental off-road vehicle using information about suspension deflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasprzyk Jerzy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of vibration control in an automotive semi-active suspension system depends on the quality of information from sensors installed in the vehicle, including information about deflection of the suspension system. The control algorithm for vibration attenuation of the body takes into account its velocity as well as the relative velocity of the suspension. In this paper it is proposed to use the Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT unit to measure the suspension deflection and then to estimate its relative velocity. This approach is compared with a typical solution implemented in such applications, where the relative velocity is calculated by processing signals acquired from accelerometers placed on the body and on the chassis. The experiments performed for an experimental All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV confirm that using LVDT units allows for improving ride comfort by better vibration attenuation of the body.

  10. A Safe Ride to School; A Safe Ride Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    Text and illustrations are used to teach safe school bus riding practices. The guide begins with instructions to parents or guardians to set a good example of safe behavior, and to help children learn safety rules and be on time. Instructions to children concern obeying the bus driver, boarding the bus, riding the bus, crossing the road, and using…

  11. Dial-a-Ride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rene Munk

    2003-01-01

    to the problem. The metod used in this thesis is based on a clustering first insertion second technique developed at CRT in Canada in the mid 1980's. The algorithm is extended to include constraints imposed by a practical Dial-a-Ride problem at a Danish transportation operator. These constraints are mainly...... with a digitized road network. The user interface is developed as generically as possible making it reuseable in all sorts of Vehicle Routing problems. The foundation of the user interface is a database for storing customers, requests, routes etc. The digitized road map is included in the developed software by use...

  12. Free Riding or Trust?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Nilsson, Jerker

    2011-01-01

    It is often observed that members have little interest in monitoring their cooperatives. One explanation is that the members are free-riders, hoping that others will perform the task. Another explanation is that the weak member interest is a consequence of members having trust in the leadership. ...... have a subset of members who trusts the leadership so they do not read the annual reports....... conditions rule. These propositions get support from five studies of members’ readership of their cooperatives’ annual reports. In large and heterogeneous memberships there is free-riding behavior, which explains the members’ low interest in governing their cooperatives. To a limited extent a membership may...

  13. Cooperate or Free Ride?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I discuss the role of the three Scandinavian central banks in the establishment of the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) in 1930, and in the international lender of last resort operation towards Austria in 1931. I argue that small central banks were reluctant supporters...... of international cooperation. On the other hand, the evidence seems to confirm Kindleberger's hypothesis that small countries were free riding during the international financial crisis of 1931, and that therefore there is a need for some coordinating mechanism, or a hegemon, in such crises....

  14. Summary of semi-initiative and initiative control automobile engine vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wei; Qu, Zhou

    2009-07-01

    Engine vibration accounts for around 55% of automobile vibration, separating the engine vibration from transmitting to automobile to the utmost extent is significant for improving NVH performance. Semi-initiative and initiative control of engine vibration is one of the hot spots of technical research in domestic and foreign automobile industry, especially luxury automobiles which adopt this technology to improve amenity and competitiveness. This article refers to a large amount of domestic and foreign related materials, fully introduces the research status of semi-initiative and initiative control suspension of engine vibration suspension and many kinds of structural style, and provides control policy and method of semi-initiative and initiative control suspension system. Compare and analyze the structural style of semi-initiative and initiative control and merits and demerits of current structures of semi-initiative and initiative control of mechanic electrorheological, magnetorheological, electromagnetic actuator, piezoelectric ceramics, electrostriction material, pneumatic actuator etc. Models of power assembly mounting system was classified.Calculation example indicated that reasonable selection of engine mounting system parameters is useful to reduce engine vibration transmission and to increase ride comfort. Finally we brought forward semi-initiative and initiative suspension which might be applied for automobiles, and which has a promising future.

  15. Buck-boost converter for simultaneous semi-active vibration control and energy harvesting for electromagnetic regenerative shock absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Zhang, Chongxiao; Kim, Junyoung; Yu, Liangyao; Zuo, Lei

    2014-04-01

    Regenerative semi-active suspensions can capture the previously dissipated vibration energy and convert it to usable electrical energy for powering on-board electronic devices, while achieve both the better ride comfort and improved road handling performance at the same time when certain control is applied. To achieve this objective, the power electronics interface circuit connecting the energy harvester and the electrical loads, which can perform simultaneous vibration control and energy harvesting function is in need. This paper utilized a buck-boost converter for simultaneous semi-active vibration control and energy harvesting with electromagnetic regenerative shock absorber, which utilizes a rotational generator to converter the vibration energy to electricity. It has been found that when the circuit works in discontinuous current mode (DCM), the ratio between the input voltage and current is only related to the duty cycle of the switch pulse width modulation signal. Using this property, the buck-boost converter can be used to perform semi-active vibration control by controlling the load connected between the terminals of the generator in the electromagnetic shock absorber. While performing the vibration control, the circuit always draw current from the shock absorber and the suspension remain dissipative, and the shock absorber takes no additional energy to perform the vibration control. The working principle and dynamics of the circuit has been analyzed and simulations were performed to validate the concept.

  16. Internet Plus Ride-Hailing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2016-01-01

    ...,the U.S.ride-hailing company Uber and its Chinese counterparts Didi Chuxing,Yidao Yongche and Shenzhou Special Car Service are the four largest ridehailing companies in China.Apple Inc.'s recent...

  17. A 6-DOF vibration isolation system for hydraulic hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, The; Elahinia, Mohammad; Olson, Walter W.; Fontaine, Paul

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents the results of vibration isolation analysis for the pump/motor component of hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs). The HHVs are designed to combine gasoline/diesel engine and hydraulic power in order to improve the fuel efficiency and reduce the pollution. Electric hybrid technology is being applied to passenger cars with small and medium engines to improve the fuel economy. However, for heavy duty vehicles such as large SUVs, trucks, and buses, which require more power, the hydraulic hybridization is a more efficient choice. In function, the hydraulic hybrid subsystem improves the fuel efficiency of the vehicle by recovering some of the energy that is otherwise wasted in friction brakes. Since the operation of the main component of HHVs involves with rotating parts and moving fluid, noise and vibration are an issue that affects both passengers (ride comfort) as well as surrounding people (drive-by noise). This study looks into the possibility of reducing the transmitted noise and vibration from the hydraulic subsystem to the vehicle's chassis by using magnetorheological (MR) fluid mounts. To this end, the hydraulic subsystem is modeled as a six degree of freedom (6-DOF) rigid body. A 6-DOF isolation system, consisting of five mounts connected to the pump/motor at five different locations, is modeled and simulated. The mounts are designed by combining regular elastomer components with MR fluids. In the simulation, the real loading and working conditions of the hydraulic subsystem are considered and the effects of both shock and vibration are analyzed. The transmissibility of the isolation system is monitored in a wide range of frequencies. The geometry of the isolation system is considered in order to sustain the weight of the hydraulic system without affecting the design of the chassis and the effectiveness of the vibration isolating ability. The simulation results shows reduction in the transmitted vibration force for different working cycles of

  18. [Comfort: a concept analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jia-Ling; Lee, Ya-Ling; Hu, Wen-Yu

    2012-02-01

    Comfort is an important concept and core value of nursing. The defining attributes, antecedents and consequences of comfort need further analysis and exploration, even though the concept of comfort has been addressed previously in nursing literature. We employed the strategies of concept analysis as described by Walker&Avant (2005) to analyze the concept of comfort. The defining attributes of comfort include: 1) effective communication; 2) family and meaningful relationships; 3) maintaining functionality; 4) self-characteristics; 5) physical symptom relief, states, and interventions; 6) psychological, spiritual activities and states; and 7) a sense of safety and security. Antecedents consist of discomfort, distress and suffering. Consequences consist of (1) met/satisfied needs; (2) increased sense of control; (3) sense of inner peace; (4) a pleasant experience; (5) feeling cared for; (6) relief of symptoms; (7) reduced suffering; (8) decreased disequilibrium; and (9) absence of discomfort. We also outline the construction of cases, empirical references and comfort measurement tools. Analysis found comfort to have multiple dimensions and confirmed it as a clinical issue that should receive greater emphasis and valuation. Findings are hoped to increase nurse understanding of the concept of comfort and enable nurses to evaluate level of comfort and follow up on variations in such using empirical tools. Concept analysis can guide further comfort related interventions and research to benefit patients.

  19. Comfort food: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Spence, C

    2017-01-01

    Everyone has heard of comfort foods, but what exactly are they, and what influence, if any, do they actually have over our mood? In this review, I summarize the literature on this important topic, highlighting the role that comfort foods play in alleviating loneliness by priming positive thoughts of previous social interactions, at least amongst those who are securely attached. The evidence concerning individual differences in the kinds of food that are likely to constitute comfort food for d...

  20. Cancer Patients Caregivers Comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela de Araújo Lamino

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional study, carried out at the outpatient clinic of an oncology hospital. Data were collected from 88 caregivers of cancer patients using the Caregiver General Comfort Questionnaire (GCQ to assess the caregivers’ comfort. The caregivers’ GCQ score mean was 203.9; better comfort scores was associated with age, care time and current occupation; positive aspects of comfort were related to the fact that caregivers felt loved, to patients’ physical and environmental comfort and to caregivers’ spirituality. 203.9; better comfort scores were associated with age of the caregiver and current occupation; positive aspects of comfort were related to the fact that caregivers felt loved, to patients’ physical and environmental comfort and to caregivers’ spirituality. Caregivers, who didn’t have a paid job or leisure’s activities showed a worse GCQ. The GCQ scale can help to identify factors that interfere in caregivers’ comfort, as well as needs that can be modified through health professionals’ interventions.

  1. Investigation into the vibration of metro bogies induced by rail corrugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Liang; Li, Wei; Foo, Elbert; Wu, Lei; Wen, Zefeng; Jin, Xuesong

    2017-01-01

    The current research of rail corrugation mainly focuses on the mechanisms of its formation and development. Compared with the root causes and development mechanisms, the wheel-rail impacts, the fatigue failure of vehicle-track parts, and the loss of ride comfort due to rail corrugation should also be taken into account. However, the influences of rail corrugation on vehicle and track vibration, and failure of vehicle and track structural parts are barely discussed in the literature. This paper presents an experimental and numerical investigation of the structural vibration of metro bogies caused by rail corrugation. Extensive experiments are conducted to investigate the effects of short-pitch rail corrugation on the vibration accelerations of metro bogies. A dynamic model of a metro vehicle coupled with a concrete track is established to study the influence of rail corrugation on the structural vibration of metro bogies. The field test results indicate that the short-pitch rail corrugation generates strong vibrations on the axle-boxes and the bogie frames, therefore, accelerates the fatigue failure of the bogie components. The numerical results show that short-pitch rail corrugation may largely reduce the fatigue life of the coil spring, and improving the damping value of the primary vertical dampers is likely to reduce the strong vibration induced by short-pitch rail corrugation. This research systematically studies the effect of rail corrugation on the vibration of metro bogies and proposes some remedies for mitigating strong vibrations of metro bogies and reducing the incidence of failure in primary coil springs, which would be helpful in developing new metro bogies and track maintenance procedures.

  2. A Novel E-DVA Module Synthesis Featuring of Synergy between Driving and Vibration Attenuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Gu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To attenuate the negative effects brought by heavy unsprung mass of the decentralized driving electric vehicle, a novel e-DVA module featuring of synergy between driving and vibration attenuation is proposed in this paper. It presents the advantages of compact structure and low cost. Structure design proves the feasibility of the e-DVA module. Kinematic analysis of the slider-crank mechanism is carried out to conclude the transmission ratio ripple under road excitation. After parameter matching and optimization of the e-DVA module based on the H2/H∞ norm criterions, vertical dynamics analyses in both frequency and time domains are conducted theoretically to prove the performance improvements on the ride comfort and handling stability under the constraint of DVA deflection bound.

  3. Influence of Suspended Equipment on the Carbody Vertical Vibration Behaviour of High-Speed Railway Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitriu Mădălina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The equipment mounted on the carbody chassis of the railway vehicles is a critical component of the vehicle in terms of ride comfort. The reason for that is their large mass, able to visibly influence the vibrations mode of the carbody. The paper examines the influence of the equipment upon the mode of vertical vibrations of the carbody in the high-speed vehicles, reached on the basis of the frequency response functions of the acceleration in three carbody reference points - at the centre and above the bogies. These functions are derived from the numerical simulations developed on a rigid-flexible coupled model, with seven degrees of freedom. As a rule, the results herein prove the influence of the equipment mounting mode (rigid or elastic, along with the speed regime, upon the level of vibrations in the carbody reference points, at the resonance frequency of the symmetrical bending mode. Similarly, it is also demonstrated how the equipment mass and the damping degree of the suspension system affect the level of the vibrations in the carbody.

  4. 14 CFR 23.1399 - Riding light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Riding light. 23.1399 Section 23.1399... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding (anchor) light required for a seaplane or amphibian, must be installed so that it...

  5. 14 CFR 29.1399 - Riding light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Riding light. 29.1399 Section 29.1399... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding light required for water operation must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light for at least two...

  6. 14 CFR 25.1399 - Riding light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Riding light. 25.1399 Section 25.1399... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding (anchor) light required for a seaplane or amphibian must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light for...

  7. 14 CFR 27.1399 - Riding light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Riding light. 27.1399 Section 27.1399... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding light required for water operation must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light for at least two...

  8. Hippotherapy and Therapeutic Riding Highlight!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Laura, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    Horses have always been appreciated by humans for their strength, beauty, and gentle demeanor. Children, especially, have gravitated toward them and many experience their first horseback riding lesson at a young age. However, horses can play a very different role in the lives of children and adults with disabilities. Hippotherapy is physical,…

  9. Palliative or Comfort Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and communication among family members and providers of care. Palliative care can improve your quality of life when ... control Need help understanding your situation and coordinating care PALLIATIVE OR COMFORT CARE Often a team of specialists ...

  10. Comfort Foods and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Comfort Foods and Mood Tracy Sbrocco, Ph.D. Assoc. Prof. Dept Medical & Clinical Psychology Uniformed Services University QuickTime™ and a...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Dept Medical & Clinical Psychology Uniformed Services University Bethesda, MD 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER...Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Overview • Stress & eating • Does food improve mood? • Emotional eating • Comfort Foods

  11. A new pneumatic suspension system with independent stiffness and ride height tuning capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhihong; Khajepour, Amir; Cao, Dongpu; Ebrahimi, Babak; Guo, Konghui

    2012-12-01

    This paper introduces a new pneumatic spring for vehicle suspension systems, allowing independent tuning of stiffness and ride height according to different vehicle operating conditions and driver preferences. The proposed pneumatic spring comprises a double-acting pneumatic cylinder, two accumulators and a tuning subsystem. This paper presents a detailed description of the pneumatic spring and its working principle. The mathematical model is established based on principles of thermo and fluid dynamics. An experimental setup has been designed and fabricated for testing and evaluating the proposed pneumatic spring. The analytical and experimental results confirm the capability of the new pneumatic spring system for independent tuning of stiffness and ride height. The mathematical model is verified and the capabilities of the pneumatic spring are further proved. It is concluded that this new pneumatic spring provides a more flexible suspension design alternative for meeting various conflicting suspension requirements for ride comfort and performance.

  12. Demographic and psychological variables affecting test subject evaluations of ride quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, N. C.; Conley, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    Ride-quality experiments similar in objectives, design, and procedure were conducted, one using the U.S. Air Force Total In-Flight Simulator and the other using the Langley Passenger Ride Quality Apparatus to provide the motion environments. Large samples (80 or more per experiment) of test subjects were recruited from the Tidewater Virginia area and asked to rate the comfort (on a 7-point scale) of random aircraft motion typical of that encountered during STOL flights. Test subject characteristics of age, sex, and previous flying history (number of previous airplane flights) were studied in a two by three by three factorial design. Correlations were computed between one dependent measure, the subject's mean comfort rating, and various demographic characteristics, attitudinal variables, and the scores on Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. An effect of sex was found in one of the studies. Males made higher (more uncomfortable) ratings of the ride than females. Age and number of previous flights were not significantly related to comfort ratings. No significant interactions between the variables of age, sex, or previous number of flights were observed.

  13. A proposal for revising TXDOT ride specification to account for ride quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The objectives of this project were to i) develop a rational and financially justifiable pay adjustment system that incorporates new versus old ride quality and ii) evaluate the existing techniques to measure ride quality using Surface Te...

  14. Modal analysis of human body vibration model for Indian subjects under sitting posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ishbir; Nigam, S P; Saran, V H

    2015-01-01

    Need and importance of modelling in human body vibration research studies are well established. The study of biodynamic responses of human beings can be classified into experimental and analytical methods. In the past few decades, plenty of mathematical models have been developed based on the diverse field measurements to describe the biodynamic responses of human beings. In this paper, a complete study on lumped parameter model derived from 50th percentile anthropometric data for a seated 54- kg Indian male subject without backrest support under free un-damped conditions has been carried out considering human body segments to be of ellipsoidal shape. Conventional lumped parameter modelling considers the human body as several rigid masses interconnected by springs and dampers. In this study, concept of mass of interconnecting springs has been incorporated and eigenvalues thus obtained are found to be closer to the values reported in the literature. Results obtained clearly establish decoupling of vertical and fore-and-aft oscillations. The mathematical modelling of human body vibration studies help in validating the experimental investigations for ride comfort of a sitting subject. This study clearly establishes the decoupling of vertical and fore-and-aft vibrations and helps in better understanding of possible human response to single and multi-axial excitations.

  15. ReRide: Performing Lower Back Rehabilitation While Riding Your Motorbike in Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagalkot, Naveen; Sokoler, Tomas; Baadkar, Suraj

    2016-01-01

    What if a person with lower back problem could perform prescribed exercises while riding a motorbike in city traffic? In this paper we present our ReRide design experiment. The ReRide interactive sketch uses a belt with embedded flex sensor to obtain back posture data, and a microprocessor...... be designed to help integrate physical rehabilitation with everyday activities....

  16. ReRide: Performing Lower Back Rehabilitation While Riding Your Motorbike in Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagalkot, Naveen; Sokoler, Tomas; Baadkar, Suraj

    2016-01-01

    What if a person with lower back problem could perform prescribed exercises while riding a motorbike in city traffic? In this paper we present our ReRide design experiment. The ReRide interactive sketch uses a belt with embedded flex sensor to obtain back posture data, and a microprocessor...

  17. Comfort measures: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Reference to the concept of comfort measures is growing in the nursing and medical literature; however, the concept of comfort measures is rarely defined. For the comfort work of nurses to be recognized, nurses must be able to identify and delineate the key attributes of comfort measures. A concept analysis using Rodgers' evolutionary method (2000) was undertaken with the goal of identifying the core attributes of comfort measures and thereby clarifying this concept. Health care literature was accessed from the CINAHL and PubMed databases. No restrictions were placed on publication dates. Four main themes of attributes for comfort measures were identified during the analysis. Comfort measures involve an active, strategic process including elements of "stepping in" and "stepping back," are both simple and complex, move from a physical to a holistic perspective and are a part of supportive care. The antecedents to comfort measures are comfort needs and the most common consequence of comfort measures is enhanced comfort. Although the concept of comfort measures is often associated with end-of-life care, this analysis suggests that comfort measures are appropriate for nursing care in all settings and should be increasingly considered in the clinical management of patients who are living with multiple, chronic comorbidities.

  18. Safety in Riding Programs: A Director's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kpachavi, Teresa

    1996-01-01

    Camp riding programs should be examined regularly for liability and risk management issues. Elements of a basic safety assessment include requiring proper safety apparel, removing obstructions from riding rings, ensuring doors and gates are closed, requiring use of lead ropes, securing equine medications, banning smoking, posting written…

  19. Improvement of Ride Quality of Railway Vehicle by Semiactive Secondary Suspension System on Roller Rig Using Magnetorheological Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jeong Shin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ride quality became a very important factor in the performance of railway vehicles according to the expansion of high-speed railways and speedup of velocity of railway vehicles. In this study, the results of applying the MR (magnetorheological lateral damper on the secondary suspension to reduce the vibration of the car body, directly relating to the ride quality of railway vehicles, were mentioned. In order to verify the control performance of MR dampers, a 1/5 scaled railway vehicle model was constructed, and numerical simulation and experimental tests were conducted. The MR damper for the experimental tests was produced and was attached between the car body and bogie of a full scaled vehicle, and a vibration controlling test was performed to improve ride quality on a roller rig. The skyhook control algorithm was used as the controlling technique, and regarding the test results, the RMS (root mean square value was found by compensating the frequency of the lateral vibration based on the UIC 513 R Standard about the ride quality of railway vehicles. As a result of the test, it could be confirmed that vibration was reduced by approximately 24% when attaching the MR damper between the bogie and the car body compared to when applying a passive damper.

  20. Acoustic comfort in eating establishments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, David; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    The subjective concept of acoustic comfort in eating establishments has been investigated in this study. The goal was to develop a predictive model for the acoustic comfort, by means of simple objective parameters, while also examining which other subjective acoustic parameters could help explain...... the feeling of acoustic comfort. Through several layers of anal ysis, acoustic comfort was found to be rather complex, and could not be explained entirely by common subjective parameters such as annoyance, intelligibility or privacy. A predictive model for the mean acoustic comfort for an eating establishment...

  1. Cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular responses to motocross riding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konttinen, Tomi; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine physiological and neuromuscular responses during motocross riding at individual maximal speed together with the riding-induced changes in maximal isometric force production. Seven A-level (group A) and 5 hobby-class (group H) motocross-riders performed a 30-minute riding test on a motocross track and maximal muscle strength and oxygen uptake (VO2max) tests in a laboratory. During the riding the mean (+/-SD) VO2 reduced in group A from 86 +/- 10% to 69 +/- 6% of the maximum (P physical stress and demands on both skill and physical capacity of the rider. Physical stress occurs as the result of handling of the bike when receiving continuous impacts in the situation requiring both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. Our data suggest that both maximal capacity and strain during the ride should be measured to analyze the true physiological and neuromuscular demands of motocross ride. For the practice, this study strongly suggests to train not only aerobic and anaerobic capacity but also to use strength and power training for successful motocross riding.

  2. Cyclist's nodule: no smooth ride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneham, Adam; Thway, Khin; Messiou, Christina; Smith, Myles

    2016-03-10

    A fit and active amateur cyclist was referred by his general practitioner to a surgical oncology outpatient clinic with a slowly-growing perineal mass. Following clinical examination, the patient underwent imaging and biopsy at a tertiary soft tissue tumour centre, which diagnosed perineal nodular induration: a rare, benign tumour caused by repetitive trauma associated with 'saddle sports' such as cycling or horse riding. It is important to consider soft tissue tumours in patients who present with 'lumps and bumps'; they can occur anywhere in the body including the groin or perineum, where it is sometimes referred to as a 'third' or 'accessory' testicle in men. Although unusual, the case emphasises the importance of rapid specialist referral from primary care, and consideration of a patient's occupation and hobbies when formulating diagnoses. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  3. The myth of comfort food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Heather Scherschel; Ahlstrom, Britt; Redden, Joseph P; Vickers, Zata; Mann, Traci

    2014-12-01

    People seek out their own idiosyncratic comfort foods when in negative moods, and they believe that these foods rapidly improve their mood. The purpose of these studies is to investigate whether comfort foods actually provide psychological benefits, and if so, whether they improve mood better than comparison foods or no food. Participants first completed an online questionnaire to indicate their comfort foods and a variety of comparison foods. During two lab sessions a week apart from each other (and at least a week after the online questionnaire, counterbalanced in order), participants watched films that induced negative affect. In one session, participants were then served their comfort food. In the other, participants were served an equally liked noncomfort food (Study 1), a neutral food (Study 2), or no food (Studies 3 and 4). Short-term mood changes were measured so that we could seek out psychological effects of these foods, rather than biochemical effects on mood from particular food components (e.g., sugars or vitamins). Comfort foods led to significant improvements in mood, but no more than other foods or no food. Although people believe that comfort foods provide them with mood benefits, comfort foods do not provide comfort beyond that of other foods (or no food). These results are likely not due to a floor effect because participants' moods did not return to baseline levels. Individuals may be giving comfort food "credit" for mood effects that would have occurred even in the absence of the comfort food.

  4. Comfort model for automobile seat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Lizandra da; Bortolotti, Silvana Ligia Vincenzi; Campos, Izabel Carolina Martins; Merino, Eugenio Andrés Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Comfort on automobile seats is lived daily by thousands of drivers. Epistemologically, comfort can be understood under the theory of complexity, since it emerges from a chain of interrelationships between man and several elements of the system. This interaction process can engender extreme comfort associated to the feeling of pleasure and wellbeing or, on the other hand, lead to discomfort, normally followed by pain. This article has for purpose the development of a theoretical model that favours the comfort feature on automobile seats through the identification of its facets and indicators. For such, a theoretical study is resorted to, allowing the mapping of elements that constitute the model. The results present a comfort model on automobile seats that contemplates the (physical, psychological, object, context and environment) facets. This model is expected to contribute with the automobile industry for the development of improvements of the ergonomic project of seats to increase the comfort noticed by the users.

  5. Effects of alcohol on motorcycle riding skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Alcohol is known to disrupt the effect of neurotransmitters and impair various psychomotor skills. Indeed, alcohol intoxication is a significant risk factor for fatal traffic crashes, especially when riding a motorcycle. At present, there is sparse r...

  6. Regional Park-n-Ride Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Southwestern Pennsylvania Commission maintains an inventory of the region’s park-n-ride facilities that contains detailed information for each of the more than...

  7. Feeling Comfortable: A Humanbecoming Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrzykowski, Teresa M

    2017-01-01

    Feeling comfortable is a universal living experience. From the worldview of the humanbecoming paradigm, concept inventing is an appropriate method to expand understanding and knowledge of universal experiences. The purpose of this article is to provide a synthetic definition of feeling comfortable using the concept inventing process. Through concept inventing, a synthetic definition of feeling comfortable emerged as penetrating quietude amid potential upheaval arising with opportunities and restrictions with envisioning the familiar anew. Further development of the concept through qualitative research is recommended.

  8. An Experimental Validated Control Strategy of Maglev Vehicle-Bridge Self-Excited Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianchun Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses an experimentally validated control strategy of maglev vehicle-bridge vibration, which degrades the stability of the suspension control, deteriorates the ride comfort, and limits the cost of the magnetic levitation system. First, a comparison between the current-loop and magnetic flux feedback is carried out and a minimum model including flexible bridge and electromagnetic levitation system is proposed. Then, advantages and disadvantages of the traditional feedback architecture with the displacement feedback of electromagnet yE and bridge yB in pairs are explored. The results indicate that removing the feedback of the bridge’s displacement yB from the pairs (yE − yB measured by the eddy-current sensor is beneficial for the passivity of the levitation system and the control of the self-excited vibration. In this situation, the signal acquisition of the electromagnet’s displacement yE is discussed for the engineering application. Finally, to validate the effectiveness of the aforementioned control strategy, numerical validations are carried out and the experimental data are provided and analyzed.

  9. Effect of reclining a seat on the discomfort from vibration and shock on fast boats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Henrietta V C; Griffin, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Passengers and crew on fast boats can experience high magnitudes of whole-body vibration and mechanical shocks that may present risks to health and cause discomfort. This study investigated the influence of reclining a seat on the discomfort caused by fast-boat motion and whether discomfort can be predicted by overall ride values according to current standards. Subjects judged the discomfort of simulations of a recorded fast boat motion in a seat reclined by 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, or 60°. Reclining the seat caused no significant change in overall discomfort, suggesting that if a reclined seat can be shown to reduce risks of injury it may be acceptable in respect of comfort. The findings are inconsistent with the predictions of standards and show that revised frequency weightings are required to account for seat pan or seat back inclination. Contrary to predictions of current standards, reclining a seat may not increase discomfort during fast-boat motion. Revised frequency weightings for evaluating the severity of whole-body vibration are required to account for seat pan or seat back inclination.

  10. Honeywell: Comfort and economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukaszewski, J.

    1995-12-31

    The presentation of the Company starts with having it ranked among the ones operating on the customers` market or those acting on the professional market. But it is not so. Honeywell is beyond such simple criteria. We are a company supplying products, systems and services related with generally conceived automatic control engineering, yet the operational range does comprise so many apparently diversified fields, for instance automatic control in aeronautics, heavy power engineering, building of apartment buildings, detached houses, heat engineering and some others. Nevertheless, our targets are always the same: maximum increase in efficiency and reliability of the process lines controlled by our systems as well as securing the best comfort of work and rest for people who stay in the buildings controlled by our devices. Simultaneously, the utilization of energy sources and the natural environment resources must be as sensible as possible.

  11. Everyday Comfort Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaffari, Svenja

    climate and technology. This thesis' basic point of departure is the triangular problematic between building design with standardized indoor climate, energy costs and inhabitants' behaviors. By convention sustainable buildings are developed to relatively seal inside building features and occupants from...... the outdoor. This can be seen, for instance, in 'tight' low-energy buildings that host indoor climate products, which are often controlled by automated systems, to deliver optimal comfort conditions (i.e. temperature, humidity, air quality, noise, and light) to occupants. Buildings' indoor climate is designed...... according to international building codes and standards, which are being based on engineering scientists' controlled experiments, classfiication and analysis. Since the last two decades, scholars from a diverse range of disciplines, such as sociology, anthropology, philosophy, adaptive engineering...

  12. Hoof Comfort for Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Aquila Equine Enhancement Products, Inc., of Woburn, Massachusetts, developed magnetic hoof protector pads, called "Power Pads," which support and cushion the impact on a horse's hooves and legs to provide comfort and protection against injuries. The pads were tested by Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing Laboratory for strength and durability. Putting the pads on a horse does not interfere with its natural movement or flexibility and can be compared to a person changing into athletic shoes for a sporting event. The pads are cut to the appropriate size, and then mounted onto a horse's hooves using conventional shoeing methods. Once attached, the pads protect the hard and soft parts of the hoof by cushioning blows against the hard ground. The design also protects the vulnerable "heel" of the hoof. They are a cost-effective way to protect a horse's hooves since they can be reused.

  13. PrivateRide: A Privacy-Enhanced Ride-Hailing Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Anh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, we have witnessed a rise in the popularity of ride-hailing services (RHSs, an online marketplace that enables accredited drivers to use their own cars to drive ride-hailing users. Unlike other transportation services, RHSs raise significant privacy concerns, as providers are able to track the precise mobility patterns of millions of riders worldwide. We present the first survey and analysis of the privacy threats in RHSs. Our analysis exposes high-risk privacy threats that do not occur in conventional taxi services. Therefore, we propose PrivateRide, a privacy-enhancing and practical solution that offers anonymity and location privacy for riders, and protects drivers’ information from harvesting attacks. PrivateRide lowers the high-risk privacy threats in RHSs to a level that is at least as low as that of many taxi services. Using real data-sets from Uber and taxi rides, we show that PrivateRide significantly enhances riders’ privacy, while preserving tangible accuracy in ride matching and fare calculation, with only negligible effects on convenience. Moreover, by using our Android implementation for experimental evaluations, we show that PrivateRide’s overhead during ride setup is negligible. In short, we enable privacy-conscious riders to achieve levels of privacy that are not possible in current RHSs and even in some conventional taxi services, thereby offering a potential business differentiator.

  14. Improving the comfort of garments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hunter, L

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available refers to the human body’s ability to maintain life. Psychological comfort refers to the mind’s ability to keep functioning satisfactorily without external help. Physical comfort refers to the effects of the external environment on the body’s...

  15. Thermal comfort: research and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitja Mazej; Jan Hensen; Ir. Joost van Hoof

    2010-01-01

    Thermal comfort -the state of mind, which expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment- is an important aspect of the building design process as modern man spends most of the day indoors. This paper reviews the developments in indoor thermal comfort research and practice since the second half

  16. Combining thermal comfort models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yigit, A.

    1999-07-01

    Two models commonly used in thermal comfort studies were combined to develop a two-dimensional computer model that estimates the resistance to dry and evaporative heat transfer for a clothing system from fabric resistance data, fabric thickness data, and information concerning the amount of body surface area covered by different fabric layers and the amount of air trapped between fabric layers. Five different clothing ensembles with different total thermal insulation and very different distributions of the insulation on the body were simulated with 16 sedentary subjects. This paper first evaluates total thermal insulation predictions from the Fanger steady-state model and then uses these data in the Gagge two-compartment (or two-node) model. The combined model uses the transient heat balance of each segment and the whole body. It estimates total insulation value and then uses this value to calculate transient temperature and wettedness. By application of the combined model, predictions of human responses to a wide range of thermal conditions are compared with the responses of human subjects as described in reports of laboratory experiments. Possible reasons for discrepancies between the observed data and predictions of the model are briefly discussed.

  17. Effects of a novel bicycle saddle on symptoms and comfort in cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keytel, L R; Noakes, T D

    2002-04-01

    While the bicycle frame and other parts of the bicycle have undergone many improvements, the bicycle saddle has remained relatively unchanged since it was first designed more than 100 years ago. Given the number and range of cycling injuries believed to result from the saddle, this is surprising. This study investigated the effects of a novel bicycle saddle on saddle-related comfort and symptoms during cycling. Eleven competitive or recreational cyclists, 6 females and 5 males, performed three 2-hour stationary cycle rides in the laboratory, using their personal bicycles. Ride 1 was performed using the standard bicycle saddle and rides 2 and 3 using the novel bicycle saddle. Subjects reported saddle comfort rating scores (SC) while using the different saddles. Subjects also completed a questionnaire evaluating saddle symptoms (SS) when using either the conventional or the novel bicycle saddle during daily cycling. The most common saddle-related medical complaint with chronic use of the conventional saddle was painful pubic bones, with or without chaffing. Others were severe chaffing, saddle sores, chaffing and back pain, and painful pubic bones associated with a loss of feeling in the pelvic area. The mean SS rating score during the 2-hour laboratory ride was significantly less for the novel saddle (11.6 +/- 1.2 versus 19.1 +/- 3.2 arbitrary units, P cycling compared with the conventionally designed cycling saddle; (ii) significantly improved saddle comfort during 2-hour cycles in the laboratory, such that (iii) when given the option the majority (82%) of the subjects chose to use this saddle 3 months later. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of the novel saddle were apparent during its first use, suggesting that the novel saddle is effective because the design is anatomically correct.

  18. NOISE AND VIBRATION DAMPING FOR YACHT INTERIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Aydın

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vibration damping and sound insulation are essential for all vehicles. Because moving parts and external factors such as wind, tracks, etc. can cause vibration and noise. Wave which is a dynamic force, drive system and HVAC systems are the main vibration and noise generators in a vessel. These all can affect comfort level on board yachts. Different types of isolators and absorbers such as sylomer®, cork panels, etc. are used to reduce these effects. Comfort level on board yachts can be increased using these types of materials. Otherwise, discomfort of passenger and crew may increase. These materials not only reduce structure-borne and air-borne noise and vibrations from waves, air, engines, pumps, generators and HVAC systems but also protect vibration sensitive interior or fittings. Noise and vibration evaluation is an important issue for this reason. And, measurement tools must be used not only to minimize this problem but also fulfill the regulations such as “comfort class”. Besides, providing quiet and low vibration increases the costs too. From this point of view, this study aims to explain clearly how noise and vibration damping can be done in a yacht.

  19. Bicycle riding and erectile dysfunction: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Frank; Goldstein, Irwin; Korda, Joanna Beate

    2010-07-01

    For many years, reports in the literature have implicated bicycle riding as causing increased risk of erectile dysfunction (ED). Perineal compression during cycling has been associated with the development of sexual complications. To review current literature on the rationale for ED from bicycle riding and outcome of bicycle riding on erectile function and to present available research on preventative measures specifically regarding bicycle riding. A systematic comprehensive literature review. There is a significant relationship between cycling-induced perineal compression leading to vascular, endothelial, and neurogenic dysfunction in men and the development of ED. Research on female bicyclists is very limited but indicates the same impairment as in male bicyclists. Preventative measures including use of a properly fitted bicycle, a riding style with a suitable seat position and an appropriate bicycle seat can help prevent impairment of erectile function. There is a need for further research on safe bicycle and bicycle seat design and investigations that address the underlying mechanisms leading to cycling-related sexual dysfunction in both male and female bicyclists.

  20. Horseback Riding Improves the Ability to Cause the Appropriate Action (Go Reaction) and the Appropriate Self-control (No-Go Reaction) in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, Nobuyo; Kitagawa, Kenji; Mikami, Kinuyo; Kitawaki, Kasumi; Akiyama, Junko; Fuchikami, Maho; Uchiyama, Hidehiko; Ohta, Mitsuaki

    2017-01-01

    There are many obvious health benefits to riding, including developing a strong core and legs, but there are also many less obvious benefits, such as increased confidence and introspection. Few studies have addressed the effects of horseback riding on children and the mechanisms underlying how riding affects humans. We examined the effects of horseback riding on the ability to distinguish Go/No-go tasks and solve arithmetic problems in children. The subjects were 34 boys and 72 girls, aged 10-12 years old, which were divided into three groups (horse riding, walking, and resting). They were healthy typical children, who performed the Go/No-go tasks and solved the arithmetic problems. The heart rate and heart rate variability of the children, and the three-dimensional acceleration of the children while walking horses, were examined. Riding on a half-breed horse or a pony improved the ability to perform Go/No-go tasks and solve arithmetic problems, possibly through sympathetic activity. Some horses, like the Kiso, might provide a healing effect to children through parasympathetic activity. Statistically significant differences in the three-dimensional acceleration and the autonomic activities were observed among the three horses. The acceleration in the Kiso horse group during walking in hand was significantly different from those involving the other two horses, indicating that the vibrations produced by these horses might modify the autonomic activities. The most important beneficial factor of horseback riding for children and for human health appears to be associated with the horse's vibrations, which may differ among horses. Riding some horses may improve the ability of children to respond with an appropriate action depending on the situation (Go reaction) or use self-control appropriately (No-go reaction), possibly through the activation of the sympathetic nervous system.

  1. The effect of crosswinds on ride comfort in high speed trains running on curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Aizpun-Navarro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La influencia del viento lateral en el descarrilamiento de los vehículos ferroviarios es un factor crítico desde que se comenzaron a producir vehículos ligeros que circulan a altas velocidades. Además, el confort del pasajero también puede verse afectado por el viento lateral. Sin embargo, este efecto todavía no ha sido investigado en profundidad en la literatura ferroviaria. Este artículo describe el efecto del viento lateral en el confort para trenes de alta velocidad que circulan en curvas para diferentes velocidades de viento, utilizando un escenario de viento tipo sombrero chino. Las simulaciones muestran que la combinación del viento lateral y la rigidez del tope de la suspensión secundaria pueden suponer una fuente importante de inestabilidad, produciendo contacto pestaña-pestaña y disminuyendo significativamente el confort. Además, este efecto se produce cuando el índice de descarrilamiento está muy por debajo del límite según la norma de seguridad ferroviaria.

  2. Shared-Ride Taxi Service in Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the Boston Shared-Ride Taxi Demonstration. The City of Boston's Traffic and Parking Department, the project grantee, designed a shared-ride service for Boston's Allston-Brighton neighborhood; Boston Cab Associati...

  3. [Advantages of ride therapy in different forms of infantile cerebral palsy (therapeutic riding)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionatamishvili, N I; Tsverava, D M; Loriia, M Sh; Avaliani, L A

    2003-01-01

    One hundred children with cerebral palsy, aged 3-14 years, were divided into two equal groups, the first one including 50 children assigned to ride therapy and the second one--to Bobath therapeutic gymnastics. All the patients underwent a functional examination, which was rated using score system worked out by the authors, thus enabling a quantitative evaluation of treatment efficacy. In all the cases, physical rehabilitation resulted in a positive but not the same effect, with ride therapy being significantly (p gymnastics. Ride therapy provides an acquisition of new movement skills, spastics and hyperkinesis reduction and an extreme mobilization of compensatory abilities of developing children brain.

  4. Averting comfortable lifestyle crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilton, Rod

    2013-01-01

    : alternative non-sugar sweeteners; toxic side-effects of aspartame. Stevia and xylitol as healthy sugar replacements; the role of food processing in dietary health; and beneficial effects of resistant starch in natural and processed foods. The rise of maize and soya-based vegetable oils have led to omega-6 fat overload and imbalance in the dietary ratio of omega-3 to omega-6 fats. This has led to toxicity studies with industrial trans fats; investigations on health risks associated with stress and comfort eating; and abdominal obesity. Other factors to consider are: diet, cholesterol and oxidative stress, as well as the new approaches to the chronology of eating and the health benefits of intermittent fasting.

  5. Exergy analysis of thermal comfort

    OpenAIRE

    Prek, Matjaž

    2015-01-01

    Traditional methods of human thermal comfort are based on the first law of thermodynamics. These methods use an energy balance of the human body to determine heat transfer between the body and its environment. By contrast, thesecond law of thermodynamics introduces the concept of exergy. It enables the determination of exergy consumption within the human body dependent on personal and environmental factors. We show that the existing methods of comfort assessment could be further expanded by t...

  6. 7 CFR 502.6 - Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. 502.6..., MARYLAND § 502.6 Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. The use of BARC grounds for any form of hunting, fishing, camping, or horseback riding is prohibited. Further, the use of these grounds for...

  7. Riding Third: Social Work in Ambulance Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Hilary; Rasmussen, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This research explored the possible role of social work alongside emergency ambulance services. An ethnographic study included semistructured interviews and direct observations collected over 300 hours while riding in ambulances in an urban setting. The data suggest that social work could play a role by providing needed psychosocial care during…

  8. Ride responses of macpherson suspension systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Cheng-Chi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to obtain more correct vehicle ride responses by using a nonlinear ride model considering the effect of Macpherson suspension geometry. Traditional ride model applied to analysis and controller design uses a two degree of freedom linear model, which includes sprung mass and unsprung mass and a spring and a damper vertically connect them. In fact, suspension components do not vertically position above the tire. The motions of body and tire are not going straight up and down. Therefore, the analysis results obtained by the simple model are often different from the experimental values of the actual vehicle. Because of the difference between simple model and actual vehicle, the control strategy almost cannot apply to actual vehicle. In order to understand the effect of suspension geometry on the vehicle ride responses and design a more practical control strategy, a nonlinear model including the geometric parameters of the suspension is constructed in this study. To estimate the initial equilibrium position of the suspension assembly under load, the static equilibrium analysis and mechanism motion analysis are synchronous implemented at the same time. The nonlinear model describes not only the relative position and velocity but also the force transmission between body and tire. Furthermore, by linearize this nonlinear model the development of control strategy for subsequent (semi active suspension system could be expected.

  9. Stay Safe Riding Bikes or Skating Outside

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-02-02

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about safety when outside, riding bikes or skating.  Created: 2/2/2011 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 2/2/2011.

  10. Sustainable Passenger Transportation: Dynamic Ride-Sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.A.H. Agatz (Niels); A. Erera (Alan); M.W.P. Savelsbergh (Martin); X. Wang (Xing)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractRide-share systems, which aim to bring together travelers with similar itineraries and time schedules, may provide significant societal and environmental benefits by reducing the number of cars used for personal travel and improving the utilization of available seat capacity. Effective

  11. Ride Motion Simulator Safety Assessment Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    20 5.4.3.1.3 Servo Control Unit and...machine interface development and soldier task-load and cognition research. In the mid-1990’s, TARDEC contracted with MTS Systems (Eden Prairie, MN...in the MTS Technical Report, entitled “Ride Motion Simulator Safety Assessment Report” [2], remains the best account of the maximum acceleration

  12. Riding Bikes: A Pastime for Every Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    People have heard the expression "It's as easy as riding a bike." But the idea of a child with special needs balancing, steering, and pedaling a bike can seem out of reach for some; especially when he may be unable to walk unaided or hold his head up without support. Physical capabilities or stamina need not keep a child from this pleasurable…

  13. Kenojuak Ashevak: "Young Owl Takes a Ride."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Bernard

    1988-01-01

    Describes a lesson plan used to introduce K-3 students to a Canadian Inuit artist, to the personal and cultural context of the artwork, and to a simple printmaking technique. Includes background information on the artist, instructional strategies, and a print of the artist's "Young Owl Takes a Ride." (GEA)

  14. PrivateRide: A Privacy-Preserving and Secure Ride-Hailing Service

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Thi Van Anh; Dacosta Petrocelli, Italo Ivan; Jacot-Guillarmod, Bastien; Huguenin, Kévin; Hajar, Taha; Tramèr, Florian; Gligor, Virgil; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years, we have witnessed a rise in the popularity of ride-hailing services (RHSs), as an online marketplace that enables accredited drivers to use their own cars to drive ride-hailing users. Unlike other transportation services, RHSs raise significant privacy concerns, as providers are able to track the precise mobility patterns of millions of riders worldwide. RHSs also raise concerns about the integrity of the fares of the trips, as the fares are computed based on informatio...

  15. PrivateRide: A Privacy-Enhanced Ride-Hailing Service

    OpenAIRE

    Pham Anh; Dacosta Italo; Jacot-Guillarmod Bastien; Huguenin Kévin; Hajar Taha; Tramèr Florian; Gligor Virgil; Hubaux Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    International audience; In the past few years, we have witnessed a rise in the popularity of ride-hailing services (RHSs), an on-line marketplace that enables accredited drivers to use their own cars to drive ride-hailing users. Unlike other transportation services, RHSs raise significant privacy concerns , as providers are able to track the precise mobility patterns of millions of riders worldwide. We present the first survey and analysis of the privacy threats in RHSs. Our analysis exposes ...

  16. [Riding therapy in the rehabilitation of mobility-impaired children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäenpää, Helena; Kela, Katri; Sätilä, Heli

    2016-01-01

    Riding therapy is a comprehensive and functional form of rehabilitation, in which the rehabilitee, the horse and the riding therapist collaborate in order to achieve individually assigned goals that support rehabilitation. In Finland, riding therapy is therapeutic rehabilitation carried out by riding therapists who have undergone approved training. The therapy is mainly implemented in an individual form, but small group working is also applied, e.g. in the form of pair therapy and therapeutic vaulting. In Europe, this form of rehabilitation has been divided into hippotherapy supporting motor functions and heilpedagogical riding therapy functioning in support of upbringing.

  17. Stroboscopic shearography for vibration analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinchen, Wolfgang; Kupfer, Gerhard; Maeckel, Peter; Voessing, Frank

    1999-09-01

    Digital Shearography, a laser interferometric technique in conjunction with the digital image processing, has the potential for vibration analysis due to its simple optical system and insensitivity against small rigid body motions. This paper will focus on its recent developments for vibration analysis and for nondestructive testing (NDT) by dynamic (harmonical) excitation. With the introduction of real time observation using automatically refreshing reference frame, both small and large rigid body motions are greatly suppressed. The development of a smaller and more mobile measuring device in conjunction with a user guided comfortable program Shearwin enables the digital shearography to be applied easily as an industrial online testing tool.

  18. Check the comfort of occupants in high rise building using CFD

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed I. Farouk

    2016-01-01

    The influence of wind on structures is a complex subject. Bending moments, normal forces, torsion moments, stresses on cladding, comfort of the pedestrians around new building, the impact of new building on existing buildings, internal pressures and vibrations are the main effects of the wind on the structures. Vibration of the structures is one of the major effects of wind especially on bridges and high rise buildings. It could lead to major displacements, accelerations and resulting forces....

  19. Motorcyclists' self-reported riding mileage versus actual riding mileage in the following year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Vicki; McLaughlin, Shane; McCall, Robert; Buche, Tim

    2017-12-01

    Accurate motorcyclist mileage estimates are important because self-evaluation of riding experience is related to riding behavior, the relationship of self-reported to actual or future mileage is necessary in targeting training and considering survey responses, and motorcycle crash statistics require accurate travel data. This study collected real-world data from motorcyclists over the course of two months to two years per rider. This paper explores motorcyclists' self-reported annual riding mileage (obtained via pre-study surveys) and the actual amount of riding during the study (based upon odometer readings and GPS data). Of the 91 riders who had been riding for at least a year before the study, significantly more (73%) rode less the following year than reported for the previous year. The recorded annualized mileage averaged 89% of the reported mileage from the previous year. Analyses based on estimated average annual mileage were similar to those using the previous year estimation, and the pattern held regardless of age group, motorcycle type, or gender. The exception was novice or returning riders, who tended to either significantly underestimate or increase actual mileage as they began (or continued) to ride. Motorcyclists' estimation of riding experience expressed as mileage may not be indicative of current or future mileage. Reliance on self-reported mileage during training to categorize groups, for interpretation of studies, or to develop motorcycle travel data and safety statistics may be unrealistic. Certainly any use of self-reported mileage should incorporate the concept that mileage overestimation seems likely. Because questions about previous year and average annual mileage may elicit similar responses, motorcyclist surveys should be constructed to prompt the most thoughtful responses in terms of mileage estimations. In general, reported mileage should not be relied upon as an accurate predictor of future actual mileage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  20. Tecnology innovation related to comfort on commercial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, M; Ferrero, D

    2012-01-01

    The scope of this article is to show the Iveco activity in terms of comfort improvement in all its product Portfolio, focusing on innovation research and realization of tools to get better the life of the driver on commercial vehicles. Comfort related to the ergonomics, thermal, vibrational comfort and after-treatment system in order to improve the life of driver and passengers. It is to remember that Commercial vehicles have different use from a car. For example an heavy truck cabin is not only a place where to drive 8 hours a day, but it is at the same time, an office, a place where to eat, where to sleep and to have a rest. The effort in the last 10 years of Iveco is to improve the comfort of the life of the drivers, utilizing continuous research in standards and innovative systems in order to increase the security and life improvement, focusing also on worldwide legislation as a partner in European committees for health and safety.

  1. Wind-induced Vibrations in the European Court Towers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jannick B.; Brincker, Rune; Andersen, Ken G.

    2012-01-01

    Issues regarding occupancy comfort in vibration-sensitive structures are the motivation of this study concerning windinduced vibrations in the European Court Towers in Luxembourg. In one of the two identical towers tuned liquid dampers (TLD) have been installed. Recent studies investigate the cha...

  2. Air riding seal for a turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Jacob A; Brown, Wesley D; Sexton, Thomas D; Jones, Russell B

    2016-07-19

    An air riding seal between a rotor and a stator in a turbine of a gas turbine engine, where an annular piston is movable in an axial direction within a housing that extends from the stator, and a bellows is secured to the annular piston to form a flexible air passageway from a compressed air inlet through the annular piston and into a cushion cavity that forms an air riding seal between the annular piston and the rotor sealing surface. In another embodiment, a flexible seal secured to and extending from the annular piston forms a sealing surface between the annular piston chamber and the annular piston to provide a seal and allow for axial movement.

  3. Air riding seal with purge cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sexton, Thomas D; Mills, Jacob A

    2017-08-15

    An air riding seal for a turbine in a gas turbine engine, where an annular piston is axial moveable within an annular piston chamber formed in a stator of the turbine and forms a seal with a surface on the rotor using pressurized air that forms a cushion in a pocket of the annular piston. A purge cavity is formed on the annular piston and is connected to a purge hole that extends through the annular piston to a lower pressure region around the annular piston or through the rotor to an opposite side. The annular piston is sealed also with inner and outer seals that can be a labyrinth seal to form an additional seal than the cushion of air in the pocket to prevent the face of the air riding seal from overheating.

  4. Scaling Law of Urban Ride Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachet, R.; Sagarra, O.; Santi, P.; Resta, G.; Szell, M.; Strogatz, S. H.; Ratti, C.

    2017-03-01

    Sharing rides could drastically improve the efficiency of car and taxi transportation. Unleashing such potential, however, requires understanding how urban parameters affect the fraction of individual trips that can be shared, a quantity that we call shareability. Using data on millions of taxi trips in New York City, San Francisco, Singapore, and Vienna, we compute the shareability curves for each city, and find that a natural rescaling collapses them onto a single, universal curve. We explain this scaling law theoretically with a simple model that predicts the potential for ride sharing in any city, using a few basic urban quantities and no adjustable parameters. Accurate extrapolations of this type will help planners, transportation companies, and society at large to shape a sustainable path for urban growth.

  5. Scaling Law of Urban Ride Sharing

    CERN Document Server

    Tachet, Remi; Santi, Paolo; Resta, Giovanni; Szell, Michael; Strogatz, Steven; Ratti, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Sharing rides could drastically improve the efficiency of car and taxi transportation. Unleashing such potential, however, requires understanding how urban parameters affect the fraction of individual trips that can be shared, a quantity that we call shareability. Using data on millions of taxi trips in New York City, San Francisco, Singapore, and Vienna, we compute the shareability curves for each city, and find that a natural rescaling collapses them onto a single, universal curve. We explain this scaling law theoretically with a simple model that predicts the potential for ride sharing in any city, using a few basic urban quantities and no adjustable parameters. Accurate extrapolations of this type will help planners, transportation companies, and society at large to shape a sustainable path for urban growth.

  6. Floor heating maximizes residents` comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirkkanen, P.; Wikstroem, T.

    1996-11-01

    Storing heat in floors by using economical night-time electricity does not increase the specific consumption of heating. According to studies done by IVO, the optimum housing comfort is achieved if the room is heated mainly by means of floor heating that is evened out by window or ceiling heating, or by a combination of all three forms of heating. (orig.)

  7. Beyond Comfort in Built Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazley, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Every person on the planet lives a significant portion of his or her life in a built indoor environment. Ideally, the built environment serves as protection from the extremes of the outdoor environment and is preferably comfortable. The first ‘built environment’ was a painted cave. The cave served

  8. Nueva movilidad : Park & ride Les Planes

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero Riveiro, Fermín Hernán

    2016-01-01

    El ejercicio nace con un extenso análisis sobre las realidades del Area Metropolitana de Barcelona que pone de manifiesto el déficit de estacionamientos de disuasión o "Parks and Rides" en torno a las estaciones de tren. Posteriormente se explora, a fondo, uno de estos puntos detectados (Les Planes) y se plantean una serie de intervenciones de mejora.

  9. Bull Riding Injuries In Central Queensland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan James Livingston

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Bull riding is an increasingly popular and growing professional sport in Australia. This is the first national study that investigates bull riding-related injuries. Method A six-year retrospective study of patients admitted to Rockhampton Base Hospital with acute injuries sustained whilst bull riding. Patients were identified from the Rockhampton Hospital international coding system and surgical audit excel databases. Supporting information was found from patient chart review. Results Thirty-eight patients were admitted during the study. Injuries increased from 2008. The most common injuries were to limbs (52%, chest (15% and brain (10%. Life-threatening injuries were all caused by a direct kick or trampling by the bull; 5% of patients needed air transfer to Brisbane, and 10% to Rockhampton for their acute care. The only complication was infection of open wounds. The average hospital stay was 2.2 (range= 1-5, SD= 1.1 days and 64% of patients required operative intervention. Conclusion Patients that had been kicked or trampled should be identified as having potentially life-threatening injuries, and transferred for review at an appropriate facility. Due to the high risk of infection all contaminated wounds should be washed out formally and receive antibiotics. Protective equipment should be encouraged among riders.

  10. Study of vibration and its effect on health of the motorcycle rider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivakumara BS

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The motorcycle riders are subjected to extreme vibrations due to the vibrations of its engine, improper structural design of the motorcycle and the bad road conditions. The literature review reveals that the vibrations are most hazardous to the health if it exceeds the limit. The experiments were conducted to measure the magnitude of the vibrations acting on the rider during motorcycle riding under various road conditions. Experimental values of accelerations and frequencies which are beyond permissible limits according to the literature confirm that vibration certainly affects health of the motorcycle rider

  11. Self-balancing air riding seal for a turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Jacob A.

    2017-08-15

    A turbine of a gas turbine engine has an air riding seal that forms a seal between a rotor and a stator of the turbine, the air riding seal including an annular piston movable in an axial direction under the influence of a pressure on one side with a pressure acting on an opposite side that self-balances the air riding seal during the steady state condition of the engine and lifts off the seal during engine transients.

  12. The relationship between comfort and knee angles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudenhuijzen, A.J.K.; Tan, T.K.; Morsch, F.

    2004-01-01

    With rising customer expectations, driver comfort will become more and more important for car manufacturers in distinguishing themselves from others. This creates a design challenge, since it is difficult to predict comfort, especially in early design stages. Today, comfort can only be assessed and

  13. Floating air riding seal for a turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, Todd A

    2016-08-16

    A floating air riding seal for a gas turbine engine with a rotor and a stator, an annular piston chamber with an axial moveable annular piston assembly within the annular piston chamber formed in the stator, an annular cavity formed on the annular piston assembly that faces a seal surface on the rotor, where the axial moveable annular piston includes an inlet scoop on a side opposite to the annular cavity that scoops up the swirling cooling air and directs the cooling air to the annular cavity to form an air cushion with the seal surface of the rotor.

  14. Calming the Waters or Riding the Waves?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydén, Pernille; Kottika, Efthymia; Hossain, Muhammad Ismail

    that strengthens their brand. The consumers are empowered by ‘letting this anger out’, from which firms can gain huge attention. Companies can utilize such situations to inform people on their brands’ core values, and initiate discussions of larger societal relevance, which improves the brand awareness and value......Traditional consumer anger management tends to be compromising rather than empowering the brand. This paper conceptualizes and provides a case example on how consumer empowerment and negative emotions can in fact create opportunities for companies to ride the waves of consumer anger in a way...

  15. Feasibility Testing for Dial-a-Ride Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugland, Dag; Ho, Sin C.

    2010-01-01

    Hunsaker and Savelsbergh have proposed an algorithm for testing feasibility of a route in the solution to the dial-a-ride problem. The constraints that are checked are load capacity constraints, time windows, ride time bounds and wait time bounds. The algorithm has linear running time. By virtue ...

  16. Ride-sharing activities in the Richmond regional planning district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    This report gives the results of a survey made of industries in the Richmond Regional Planning District to determine the current and expected ride-sharing activities there and the type of information deemed most useful in planning ride-sharing progra...

  17. Parametric analysis of rail vehicle parameters influencing ride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is seen from parametric analysis that car body mass, secondary suspension vertical damping, primary suspension vertical damping and wheel base are the most sensitive parameters influencing vertical ride. While lateral ride is significantly influenced by car body mass, roll & yaw mass moment of inertia and secondary ...

  18. Examination of a University-Affiliated Safe Ride Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieck, D. Joseph; Slagle, David M.

    2010-01-01

    A university-affiliated safe ride program was evaluated to determine whether these programs can reduce drunk-driving related costs. Data was collected from 187 safe ride passengers during three nights of operation. Among the passengers, 93% were enrolled at a local University, 31% were younger than 21, and 40% reported a prior alcohol-related…

  19. Feasibility testing for dial-a-ride problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugland, Dag; Ho, Sin C.

    Hunsaker and Savelsbergh have proposed an algorithm for testing feasibility of a route in the solution to the dial-a-ride problem. The constraints that are checked are load capacity constraints, time windows, ride time bounds and wait time bounds. The algorithm has linear running time. By virtue...

  20. Multiobjective Optimization of a Vehicle Vibration Model Using the Improved Compressed-Objective Genetic Algorithm with Convergence Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittipong Boonlong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ride quality and road holding capacity of a vehicle is significantly influenced by its suspension system. In the design process, a number of objective functions related to comfort and road holding capacity are taken into consideration. In this paper, the five-degree-of-freedom system of vehicle vibration model with passive suspension is investigated. This multiobjective optimization problem consists of five objective functions. Based on these five design objectives, this paper formulates four two-objective optimization problems by considering four pairs of design objectives and one five-objective optimization problem. This paper proposes the use of the improved compressed objective genetic algorithm (COGA-II with convergence detection. COGA-II is intentionally designed for dealing with a problem having many optimized objectives. Furthermore, the performance of COGA-II was benchmarked with the multiobjective uniform-diversity genetic algorithm (MUGA utilized in the previous study. From the simulation results, with equal population sizes, COGA-II employing the convergence detection for searching termination uses less numbers of generations for most sets of design objectives than MUGA whose termination condition is defined by the constant maximum number of generations. Moreover, the solutions obtained from COGA-II are obviously superior to those obtained from MUGA regardless of sets of design objective.

  1. Comfort: exploration of the concept in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Ann; Stamler, Lynnette Leeseberg

    2002-09-01

    Comfort is a substantive need throughout life. However, the rise of technological influence coupled with a desire to embrace the medical concept of cure has frequently relegated the importance of nursing comfort interventions to simple tasks that can be provided by non-professional caregivers rather than an integral part of health promotion at all levels. Comfort is a concept that has been explored by a number of authors. Various definitions have included comfort as an outcome of nursing, a function of nursing, a basic human need, and a process. No consensus on a definition of comfort was found in the literature. This investigation attempts to link the ideas of comfort presented in the literature with the theories of Watson (Human Care) and Leininger (Culture Care), and discovers the existence of an integral locus for comfort in both. Theory-based strategies for nursing education are offered. Further research is clearly required, research methodologies based on Watson and Leininger would be appropriate for additional exploration of this concept. Practice implications include reflecting on the meaning of comfort to the patient in the context of his/her cultural values, and using this one as one of the factors in planning and implementing nursing care. Given the current emphasis on health promotion and the importance of comfort to the process of healing, comfort is an indispensable element of holistic, culturally congruent human care.

  2. Thermal comfort assessment of buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Carlucci, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    A number of metrics for assessing human thermal response to climatic conditions have been proposed in scientific literature over the last decades. They aim at describing human thermal perception of the thermal environment to which an individual or a group of people is exposed. More recently, a new type of “discomfort index” has been proposed for describing, in a synthetic way, long-term phenomena. Starting from a systematic review of a number of long-term global discomfort indices, they are then contrasted and compared on a reference case study in order to identify their similarities and differences and strengths and weaknesses. Based on this analysis, a new short-term local discomfort index is proposed for the American Adaptive comfort model. Finally, a new and reliable long-term general discomfort index is presented. It is delivered in three versions and each of them is suitable to be respectively coupled with the Fanger, the European Adaptive and the American Adaptive comfort models.

  3. Monitoring vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiryaki, B. [Hacettepe University (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2003-12-01

    The paper examines the prediction and optimisation of machine vibrations in longwall shearers. Underground studies were carried out at the Middle Anatolian Lignite Mine, between 1993 and 1997. Several shearer drums with different pick lacing arrangements were designed and tested on double-ended ranging longwall shearers employed at the mine. A computer program called the Vibration Analysis Program (VAP) was developed for analysing machine vibrations in longwall shearers. Shearer drums that were tested underground, as well as some provided by leading manufacturers, were analyzed using these programs. The results of the experiments and computer analyses are given in the article. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  4. Vibration Reduction Methods and Techniques for Rotorcraft Utilizing On-Blade Active Control Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rotor blades adapted for vibration control have the added benefit of extended blade and rotor life, as well as improved passenger comfort. Approaches that have been...

  5. Experiential reflective learning and comfort zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Nehyba

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issue of experiential reflective learning. Firstlyit aims to discuss the concept of comfort zone in this area. It goes beyond the usualdefinition of the domestic comfort zone and it reflects in terms of experiential reflectivelearning in the world. The conclusions point to possible parallels with the concept ofcomfort zones and K. Lewin theory. Overall, the article focuses on topics that help toexpand the view on the issue of comfort zone.

  6. Watching Your Back While Riding Your Bike

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Tomas; Bagalkot, Naveen

    2017-01-01

    series of investigations looking into the broader notion of integrating measures for preventive self-care with existing everyday activities (e.g daily motorcycle commute) by means of digital technology. We are guided by the concept of embodied self-monitoring grounded in theories on the embodied...... encourage us to a) further elaborate our interactive sketches for motorbike commuting and b) further investigate more broadly the design of digital technology in support of preventive self-care as an integrated part of mundane activities such as, in the case at hand, the daily motorcycle commute....... for interaction design in the domain of preventive self-care. We report on the outcome of in-situ enactments performed by four motorbike riders as co-explorers engaging with our interactive soft&hardware sketches while actually riding in traffic. Insitu enactments and follow-up interviews with the riders...

  7. Vibrational Diver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Victor; Ivanova, Alevtina; Schipitsyn, Vitalii; Stambouli, Moncef

    2014-10-01

    The paper is concerned with dynamics of light solid in cavity with liquid subjected to rotational vibration in the external force field. New vibrational phenomenon - diving of a light cylinder to the cavity bottom is found. The experimental investigation of a horizontal annulus with a partition has shown that under vibration a light body situated in the upper part of the layer is displaced in a threshold manner some distance away from the boundary. In this case the body executes symmetric tangential oscillations. An increase of the vibration intensity leads to a tangential displacement of the body near the external boundary. This displacement is caused by the tangential component of the vibrational lift force, which appears as soon as the oscillations lose symmetry. In this case the trajectory of the body oscillatory motion has the form of a loop. The tangential lift force makes stable the position of the body on the inclined section of the layer and even in its lower part. A theoretical interpretation has been proposed, which explains stabilization of a quasi-equilibrium state of a light body near the cavity bottom in the framework of vibrational hydromechanics.

  8. Research on optimization of test cycles for comfort to the special vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitroi, Marian; Chiru, Anghel

    2017-10-01

    The comfort of vehicles, regardless of their type is represent a requirement to by fulfilled in the context of current technological developments special vehicles generally move under different soil, time, or season conditions, and the land in which the vehicles move is complex and varied in the physical structure. Due to the high level of involvement in the driveability, safety and comfort of automotive, suspension system is a key factor with major implications for vibration and noise, affecting the human body. The objective of the research is related to determining the test cycles of special vehicles that are approaching real situations, to determine the level of comfort. The evaluate of the degree of comfort will be realized on acceleration values recorded, especially the vertical ones that have the highest influence on the human body. Thus, in this way the tests can be established needed to determine the level of comfort required for each particular type of special vehicle. The utility of the test cycles to optimize comfort is given to the accurate identification of the specific test needs, depending on the each vehicle.

  9. 30 CFR 56.16011 - Riding hoisted loads or on the hoist hook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Riding hoisted loads or on the hoist hook. 56... Materials Storage and Handling § 56.16011 Riding hoisted loads or on the hoist hook. Persons shall not ride on loads being moved by cranes or derricks, nor shall they ride the hoisting hooks unless such method...

  10. 30 CFR 57.16011 - Riding hoisted loads or on the hoist hook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Riding hoisted loads or on the hoist hook. 57... MINES Materials Storage and Handling § 57.16011 Riding hoisted loads or on the hoist hook. Persons shall not ride on loads being moved by cranes or derricks, nor shall they ride the hoisting hooks unless...

  11. Analyzing Forces on Amusement Park Rides with Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieyra, Rebecca E.; Vieyra, Chrystian

    2014-03-01

    Mobile device accelerometers are a simple and easy way for students to collect accurate and detailed data on an amusement park ride. The resulting data can be graphed to assist in the creation of force diagrams to help students explain their physical sensations while on the ride. This type of activity can help students overcome some of the conceptual difficulties often associated with understanding centripetal force and typical "elevator-type problems" that are inherent in so many amusement park rides that move, lift, and drop riders. This article provides some sample data and examples from a visit to Six Flags Great America.

  12. Recognition of Bike-Riding States with HMM Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepvilojanapong, Niwat; Sugo, Keiji; Namiki, Yutaka; Tobe, Yoshito

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we design and implement an sBike (Sensorized Bike) prototype to support cyclists by recognizing various riding states including going straight, turning right or left, meandering, and stopping. An Android phone, which is equipped with a gyro sensor, an accelerometer, and a GPS receiver, is mounted on the handle of bicycle to collect necessary data for analysis. Hidden Markov model (HMM) is adopted to recognize the riding states from raw sensor data. The experimental results show that the accuracy of recognition is as high as 98%. By knowing the riding states of cyclists, road conditions can be inferred and shared amongst users.

  13. Rider training, reasons for riding, and the social context of riding among young on-road motorcyclists in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, A I; Chalmers, D J; Langley, J D

    1996-08-01

    Serious injuries to young motorcyclists represent an important public health problem. Little is known about the opinions and behaviours of the young riders at risk. We document the training experiences of young motorcyclists, and their reasons for riding or discontinuing riding, and identify the role models and sources of disapproval of motorcycling. The research was part of a longitudinal study of health, development, attitudes and behaviours of a birth cohort. At age 18 years, cohort members who had ridden a motorcycle during the past year completed a comprehensive questionnaire. Initial riding instruction was rarely received from a qualified instructor but was usually informal, from a male friend or father, and occurred off the road, usually on a farm. The most commonly given reasons for riding were excitement and economy. Most motorcyclists who had ceased riding attributed this to the lack of access to a motorcycle, and few mentioned safety. Mothers were the main source of disapproval. The young riders were not a homogeneous group. More licensed than unlicensed riders said manoeuvrability in traffic and ease of parking were reasons for riding. Licensed motorcyclists had more friends who rode and were more likely than unlicensed riders to have received paternal instruction. Early informal training off the road may establish attitudes and behaviours inappropriate in a traffic context. The main reasons for motorcycling (excitement, economical and manoeuvrable transport, freedom from supervision) and for discontinuing riding (lack of access) indicate motivations that should be considered before implementation of injury prevention interventions.

  14. Recipients' Criteria for Evaluating the Skillfulness of Comforting Communication and the Outcomes of Comforting Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bippus, Amy M.

    2001-01-01

    Reports on a two-part investigation of undergraduate students' criteria for evaluating how skillful comforting behavior is, and the outcomes of comforting interactions for distressed persons. Discusses the results in terms of theories and research on coping, social support, and comforting messages. (SG)

  15. Relationship between footwear comfort of shoe inserts and anthropometric and sensory factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mündermann, A; Stefanyshyn, D J; Nigg, B M

    2001-11-01

    The purposes of this study were (a) to determine lower extremity anthropometric and sensory factors that are related to differences in comfort perception of shoe inserts with varying shape and material and (b) to investigate whether shoe inserts that improve comfort decrease injury frequency in a military population. 206 military personnel volunteered for this study. The shoe inserts varied in arch and heel cup shape, hardness, and elasticity in the heel and forefoot regions. A no insert condition was included as the control condition. Measured subject characteristics included foot shape, foot and leg alignment, and tactile and vibration sensitivity of the plantar surface of the foot. Footwear comfort was assessed using a visual analog scale. Injury frequency was evaluated with a questionnaire. The statistical analyses included Student's t-tests for repeated measures, ANOVA (within subjects), MANOVA (within insert combinations), and chi-square tests. The average comfort ratings for all shoe inserts were significantly higher than the average comfort rating for the control condition. The incidence of stress fractures and pain at different locations was reduced by 1.5-13.4% for the insert compared with the control group. Foot arch height, foot and leg alignment, and foot sensitivity were significantly related to differences in comfort ratings for the hard/soft, the viscous/elastic, and the high arch/low arch insert combinations. Shoe inserts of different shape and material that are comfortable are able to decrease injury frequency. The results of this study showed that subject specific characteristics influence comfort perception of shoe inserts.

  16. IMPLICATIONS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON HUMAN COMFORT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prince Acheampong

    temperature and humidity levels constitutes a potential hazard to health and human comfort and accelerates many degradation processes and material damage. Subsequently, the amount of energy needed to maintain the condition of air in spaces at comfort levels keep increasing. It is therefore imperative that landlords ...

  17. Affect asymmetry and comfort food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Laurette; LeBel, Jordan L; Lu, Ji

    2005-11-15

    It is proposed that the emotional triggers of comfort food consumption can reliably be predicted by factors tied to affect asymmetry whereby negative affects dominate one's experience, decision making and behaviors in some instances while positive emotions prevail in others. Specifically, we relate three of these factors (age, gender, and culture) to differences in the emotional triggers of comfort food consumption and we further explore the possibility that the type of food eaten during comfort-seeking episodes can also be tied to affect asymmetry. Two hundred and seventy-seven participants completed a web-based survey conducted to assess the emotional antecedents and consequences of comfort food consumption. Consistent with expectations, results indicate that men's comfort food consumption was motivated by positive emotions whereas women's consumption was triggered by negative affects. Consumption of comfort foods alleviated women's negative emotions but also produced guilt. Positive affect was a particularly powerful trigger of comfort food consumption for older participants and for participants with French cultural background. Younger participants and participants with English background reported more intense negative emotions prior to consuming comfort foods. Foods high in sugar and fat content were more efficient in alleviating negative affects whereas low-calorie foods were more efficient in increasing positive emotions.

  18. The relationship between seat pressure and comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudenhuijzen, A.J.K.; Hoof, J.F.A.M. van

    2003-01-01

    Tomorrow driver comfort will become more and more important for car manufacturers in distinguishing themselves from others. Today, comfort can only be assessed and tested very late in the design and construction process (often using prototypes). Potentially, biomechanic software provides a solution

  19. Selected Sports Bras: Overall Comfort and Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, LaJean; Lorentzen, Deana

    This study evaluated currently marketed sports bras on subjective measures of comfort and support both within an entire group of women and within cup sizes, correlated the subjective measures of comfort and support with previously reported biomechanical findings of support on the same bras, and further developed empirically based guidelines for…

  20. Re-comfortization som anti-radikaliseringsstrategi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Danmarks mentorforløb. Oplevelsesturen beskrives som forløb, der bringer deltagerne ud af deres comfort-zone og skaber rammer for at afprøve nye identitetsformer og adfærdspraksisser, der fører til re-comfortization blandt turens deltagere. Artiklen konkluderer, at det foreliggende projekt var socialt...

  1. Port Authority of Allegheny County Park and Rides

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset includes the GIS shapefile for Port Authority of Allegheny County's Park and Ride facilities. This layer is updated annually or on an as-needed basis...

  2. Comfort of passengers in vehicles in urban mass passenger transport for one of Belgrade's suburbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladović Pavle V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban mass passenger transport (UMTP is less attractive when passengers must stand for long period of time, especially when transport vehicles are highly crowded. Crowded vehicles also slow down transport operations, as it takes more time for passengers to get on and off. From the passenger point of view, the number of passengers on a transit unit (vehicle at a specified point of line reflect the comfort level of the on-board vehicle portion of a transit trip. This refers to the possibility to find a seat and in overall crowding levels within the vehicle. From a transport operator point of view, a poor level of service may indicate the need to increase service frequency or vehicle size in order to reduce crowding and provide a more comfortable ride for passengers. The level of service, for one of Belgrade's suburb, in terms of comfort in vehicles, will be analyzed in this paper. For these reasons, three bus lines of public transport which serve the mentioned suburb are discussed and examined (one diametrical, one radial and one peripheral bus line. Passenger flows on these three bus lines are investigated in the peak time periods when vehicles work on the line.

  3. Measures of energy expenditure and comfort in an ESP wheelchair: a controlled trial using hemiplegic users'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandy, Anne; Lesley, Samuel

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this pilot study using hemiplegic subjects was to measure energy expenditure, hand position and ride comfort, in a standard dual handrim Sunrise Breezy wheelchair compared to one modified with a novel ergonomic self-propelled steering (ESP) mechanism kit. A previous study by Mandy et al. (Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol 2007;2:255-260) reported that the attachment of the ESP kit to a standard Sunrise Breezy wheelchair provided a more ergonomically efficient mechanism for wheelchair steering and propulsion for non-disabled individuals. Thirteen hemiplegic stroke users participated in a repeated measures trial by driving two manual wheelchairs--a standard manual dual handrim wheelchair and one fitted with the ESP steering conversion kit. Wheelchairs were randomly assigned, to participants who drove each wheelchair around a designated circuit. Oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide and heart rate were measured as indicators of ergonomic efficiency using a Cosmed analyser. Comfort for each wheelchair was measured using a validated questionnaire. Oxygen consumption (O(2)mls/min) and exhaled carbon dioxide (CO(2)mls/min) were significantly lower in the modified wheelchair (p ESP (p ESP (p ESP conversion kit transforms a standard Sunrise Breezy wheelchair into one that is ergonomically more efficient and comfortable for hemiplegic subjects.

  4. Stability of a Light Sail Riding on a Laser Beam

    OpenAIRE

    Manchester, Zachary; Loeb, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    The stability of a light sail riding on a laser beam is analyzed both analytically and numerically. Conical sails on Gaussian beams, which have been studied in the past, are shown to be unstable without active control or additional mechanical modifications. A new architecture for a passively stable sail and beam configuration is proposed. The novel spherical shell design for the sail is capable of "beam riding" without the need for active feedback control. Full three-dimensional ray-tracing s...

  5. Mechatronics, design, and modeling of a motorcycle riding simulator

    OpenAIRE

    ARIOUI, H; NEHAOUA, L; Hima, S; SEGUY, N; ESPIE, S

    2010-01-01

    International audience; This paper describes a new motorcycle riding simulator whose purpose is twofold: (1) it can be used as a training tool for new riders in different scenarios, such as a normal traffic environments or in dangerous riding situations (avoidance, emergency braking, nearly failing or slipping situations and bad weather conditions); and (2) it can be used to study cyclist behavior in such situations and rider-motorcycle interaction. Our studies have led to the development of ...

  6. Privately owned autonomous vehicles in a ride-sharing application

    OpenAIRE

    MOURAD, Abood; Puchinger, Jakob; Chu, Chengbin

    2017-01-01

    National audience; In this paper, we consider the planning of privately owned autonomous vehicles’ trips in a ride-sharing application. Emerging challenges, such as the finite oil supplies, rising gas prices and traffic congestion, going in hand with the environmental concerns have increased the interest in ride-sharing applications that can bring together travelers with similar time schedules [1]. Those arising challenges justify the need of new transport innovations, like autonomous (most l...

  7. Feasibility Testing for Dial-a-Ride Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, Dag; Ho, Sin C.

    Hunsaker and Savelsbergh have proposed an algorithm for testing feasibility of a route in the solution to the dial-a-ride problem. The constraints that are checked are load capacity constraints, time windows, ride time bounds and wait time bounds. The algorithm has linear running time. By virtue of a simple example, we show in this work that their algorithm is incorrect. We also prove that by increasing the time complexity by only a logarithmic factor, a correct algorithm is obtained.

  8. Vehicle Ride Height Change Due To Radial Expansion Of Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čavoj Ondřej

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In general, tire deformations caused by wheel rotation are not taken into account when developing vehicle aerodynamics. On the road the tires radially expand as speed increases, which affects the actual ride height of a vehicle. In turn this often increases the real aerodynamic drag compared to values obtained using CFD or a wind tunnel as the mass flow across the relatively rough underbody increases with ground clearance. In this study, on-road ride heights were measured while running a vehicle in a straight line with fixed velocity whilst the aerodynamic lift of the vehicle was determined in a wind tunnel. Subsequently, the relationships between ride height and axle load were obtained by loading the vehicle at standstill with ballast. By comparing the ride heights at high and very low velocities with expected vertical displacement caused purely by aerodynamic lift force as computed according to the ride height - axle load equations, the ride height change due to tire radial expansion was determined.

  9. EXAMINING COMFORT PROPERTIES OF LEATHER and ARTIFICIAL LEATHER COVER MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÇETİN Münire Sibel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The analysis and regulation of workplace, working instruments, the comfort of office chair, business environment (sound, lighting, climate, vibration, temperature, and humidity, work and break times, analysis and editing of the organization, are some of the topics of interest of ergonomics. Environmental impact and conditions have important role on the employee’s working comfortably and efficiently. Therefore these conditions need to be aligned to the human body nature. Unsuitable working conditions (noise, etc. cause additional load, which the human body endures, and this additional load reveals the signs of tiredness in the body. Even an office environment, unsuitable physical environment impairs health of workers and reduces the performance. Therefore, office climate, environmental factors such as lighting and noise must be harmonized with the employee’s body nature in all working environments. Seating comfort is one of the important factors affecting the performance of employees in the office environment. There are so many studies about chair dimensions and the disorders on human body which were caused by the inappropriate chair dimensions and sitting positions. However, there are a spot of studies about the surface of the chair and the discomfort caused by the chair cover and its negative performance effects. In this study, some results of seat cover analysis for the design of an ergonomic chair. Recently, ease of cleaning, low cost advantages caused the increasing of the use of artificial leather especially on the surface of the seat used in offices. The physical properties of natural leather and artificial leather were compared as the candidate covers to be used on the design of an ergonomic office chair.

  10. Vibrating minds

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Ed Witten is one of the leading scientists in the field of string theory, the theory that describes elementary particles as vibrating strings. This week he leaves CERN after having spent a few months here on sabbatical. His wish is that the LHC will unveil supersymmetry.

  11. Investigating the engine vibration in MF285 tractor effected by different blends of biodiesel fuel using statistical methods and ANFIS

    OpenAIRE

    A Safrangian; L Naderloo; H Javadikia; M Mostafaei; S. S Mohtasebi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Vibrations include a wide range of engineering sciences and discuss from different aspects. One of the aspects is related to various types of engines vibrations, which are often used as power sources in agriculture. The created vibrations can cause lack of comfort and reduce effective work and have bad influence on the health and safety. One of the important parameters of the diesel engine that has the ability to create vibration and knocking is the type of fuel. In this stud...

  12. Visual comfort evaluated by opponent colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagawa, Ken

    2002-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate psychological impression of visual comfort when we see an image of ordinary colored scene presented in a color display. Effects of opponent colors, i.e. red, green, yellow and blue component, on the subjective judgement on visual comfort to the image were investigated. Three kinds of psychological experiment were designed to see the effects and the results indicated that the red/green opponent color component was more affecting than the yellow-blue one, and red color in particular was the most affecting factor on visual comfort.

  13. The phylogeny of Little Red Riding Hood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshid J Tehrani

    Full Text Available Researchers have long been fascinated by the strong continuities evident in the oral traditions associated with different cultures. According to the 'historic-geographic' school, it is possible to classify similar tales into "international types" and trace them back to their original archetypes. However, critics argue that folktale traditions are fundamentally fluid, and that most international types are artificial constructs. Here, these issues are addressed using phylogenetic methods that were originally developed to reconstruct evolutionary relationships among biological species, and which have been recently applied to a range of cultural phenomena. The study focuses on one of the most debated international types in the literature: ATU 333, 'Little Red Riding Hood'. A number of variants of ATU 333 have been recorded in European oral traditions, and it has been suggested that the group may include tales from other regions, including Africa and East Asia. However, in many of these cases, it is difficult to differentiate ATU 333 from another widespread international folktale, ATU 123, 'The Wolf and the Kids'. To shed more light on these relationships, data on 58 folktales were analysed using cladistic, Bayesian and phylogenetic network-based methods. The results demonstrate that, contrary to the claims made by critics of the historic-geographic approach, it is possible to identify ATU 333 and ATU 123 as distinct international types. They further suggest that most of the African tales can be classified as variants of ATU 123, while the East Asian tales probably evolved by blending together elements of both ATU 333 and ATU 123. These findings demonstrate that phylogenetic methods provide a powerful set of tools for testing hypotheses about cross-cultural relationships among folktales, and point towards exciting new directions for research into the transmission and evolution of oral narratives.

  14. PERANCANGAN PURWARUPA KOMIK INTERAKTIF SAFETY RIDING BERKONSEP DIGITAL STORYTELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godham Eko Saputro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Di Indonesia khususnya kota besar, kecelakaan yang disebabkan kendaraan bermotor menjadi persoalan yang serius. Salah satunya disebabkan kurangnya pemahaman tentang safety riding. Berbagai upaya kampanye safety riding pun telah dilaksanakan oleh polisi lalu lintas melalui talkshow, siaran radio, serta media leaflet bagi masyarakat yang dilakukan berulang-ulang. Hal itu mendorong peneliti dalam upaya menemukan strategi baru, salah satunya memanfaatkan perkembangan teknologi yang sangat pesat guna mengembangkan media pendukung kampanye safety riding yang tidak hanya dapat menyampaikan pesan, tetapi juga disukai dan bersifat menghibur. Data diperoleh melalui wawancara, observasi, serta studi literatur sebagai sumber konten purwarupa komik interaktif. Melalui pendekatan digital storytelling dan model komunikasi SMCR serta mengacu pada Penelitian Pengembangan, konsep purwarupa komik interaktif bisa dijabarkan lebih detail serta dapat diimplementasikan dalam perangkat mobile khususnya tablet PC. Diharapkan purwarupa ini dapat dikembangkan lebih lanjut sehingga benar-benar dapat dipublish secara umum sebagai media pendukung kampanye safety riding. Kata Kunci: komik, interaktif, safety riding, digital storytelling Abstract In Indonesia especially in big cities, the accident which caused by rider is still become serious issue. One factor which cause accident is the lack of knowledge about safety riding. A lot of efforts which have been carried by traffic policeman are talkshow, radio broadcast, and leaflet media for public society. On the other hand, it courage the researchers in effort to find new startegy, one of them is using the advance of technology to develop another media campaign which not only can deliver the messages, but also can entertain user. This research is an effort to find unconventional media for safety riding campaign. Data was obtained through interview, observation, and study of literature as sources of content for

  15. Potential energy savings and thermal comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    The simulation results on the energy saving potential and influence on indoor thermal comfort by replacement of common windows with aerogel windows as well as commercial low-energy windows are described and analysed.......The simulation results on the energy saving potential and influence on indoor thermal comfort by replacement of common windows with aerogel windows as well as commercial low-energy windows are described and analysed....

  16. Reduction of personnel vibration hazards in underground coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, X.; Middlin, A. (Vipac Engineers and Scientists Ltd. (Australia))

    1991-03-01

    Whole-Body Vibration (WBV) due to the 'rough ride' in vehicles is a major source of back and neck injury in underground coal mines. Hand-Arm Vibration (HAV) from hand held equipment can also cause long term health damage. Surveys in three collieries in NSW have been conducted to measure the vibration levels to which miners are being exposed and to assess them according to the two relevant Australian Standards namely AS2670 and AS2763. WBV results indicated that shock loadings must be the source of back and neck injuries that are occurring due to 'rough ride'. Existing off-the-shelf seat suspensions were demonstrated to be inadequate for providing effective shock isolation, due to them being prone to bottoming out under rough conditions, and due their scissor action mechanism becoming rapidly jammed by dirt to the point where they become rigid. Commercially available seats were evaluated and tested on a hydraulic shaker, but none proved able to provide the required vibration isolation. A prototype seat suspension was developed by Vipac. This suspension was shaker tested and trialled in low loaders at two collieries. The seat proved capable of cushioning shock loads without bottoming out, as well as attenuating the dominant vibration at 2.5 Hz and higher. This suspension with encapsulated mechanism could be readily adapted to suit a wide range of underground vehicles. The HAV survey results identified the Wombat roof-bolter as the major item requiring vibration level reductions. Extensive investigations resulted in the design of a prototype vibration isolated handle. During field tests this prototype handle reduced the HAV level such that the Exposure Time (10th percentile) was increased from 7 to 11.5 years. Guidelines are presented for additional developments which would further improve this performance and result in a handle design suitable for retrofitting to existing roof bolters.

  17. Dynamic thermal environment and thermal comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y; Ouyang, Q; Cao, B; Zhou, X; Yu, J

    2016-02-01

    Research has shown that a stable thermal environment with tight temperature control cannot bring occupants more thermal comfort. Instead, such an environment will incur higher energy costs and produce greater CO2 emissions. Furthermore, this may lead to the degeneration of occupants' inherent ability to combat thermal stress, thereby weakening thermal adaptability. Measured data from many field investigations have shown that the human body has a higher acceptance to the thermal environment in free-running buildings than to that in air-conditioned buildings with similar average parameters. In naturally ventilated environments, occupants have reported superior thermal comfort votes and much greater thermal comfort temperature ranges compared to air-conditioned environments. This phenomenon is an integral part of the adaptive thermal comfort model. In addition, climate chamber experiments have proven that people prefer natural wind to mechanical wind in warm conditions; in other words, dynamic airflow can provide a superior cooling effect. However, these findings also indicate that significant questions related to thermal comfort remain unanswered. For example, what is the cause of these phenomena? How we can build a comfortable and healthy indoor environment for human beings? This article summarizes a series of research achievements in recent decades, tries to address some of these unanswered questions, and attempts to summarize certain problems for future research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Elevated guideway cost-ride quality studies for group rapid transit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-10-01

    A methodology is developed for relating cost to ride quality in elevated guideway : system design, based upon directly relating guideway structural properties and : construction tolerances to both cost and ride quality. It is illustrated in detail : ...

  19. Urban vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Ann; Knudsen, L.; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2012-01-01

      lab   studies   in   that   we   found   a   decreased   detection   rate   in   busy   environments.   Here   we   test   with   a   much   larger   sample   and   age   range,   and   contribute   with   the   first   vibration  sensitivity  testing  outside  the  lab  in  an  urban   public...

  20. Identifying factors of comfort in using hand tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijt-Evers, L.F.M.; Groenesteijn, L.; Looze, M.P.de; Vink, P.

    2004-01-01

    To design comfortable hand tools, knowledge about comfort/discomfort in using hand tools is required. We investigated which factors determine comfort/discomfort in using hand tools according to users. Therefore, descriptors of comfort/discomfort in using hand tools were collected from literature and

  1. Identifying predictors of comfort and discomfort in using hand tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijt-Evers, L.F.M.; Twisk, J.; Groenesteijn, L.; Looze, M.P.de; Vink, P.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify predictors of comfort and discomfort in using hand tools. For this purpose, the comfort questionnaire for hand tools (CQH) was developed based on the results of a previous study. In the current study, four screwdrivers were evaluated on comfort (expected comfort

  2. Interracial Social Comfort and Its Relationship to Adjustment to College

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Scott D.; Vrana, Scott R.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of interracial social comfort on college adjustment for 45 Black and 82 White students at a predominantly-White university. Black students reporting more comfort with Whites, regardless of level of comfort with Blacks, experienced better college adjustment. Furthermore, more social comfort with Blacks…

  3. Performance evaluation on vibration control of MR landing gear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D Y; Nam, Y J; Park, M K [Graduate School, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Yamane, R [Kokushikan University, 4-28-1 Setagaya, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 154-8515 (Japan)], E-mail: ldy5577@yahoo.co.kr, E-mail: mkpark1@pusan.ac.kr

    2009-02-01

    This paper is concerned with the applicability of the developed MR damper to the landing gear system for the attenuating undesired shock and vibration in the landing and taxing phases. First of all, the experimental model of the MR damper is derived based on the results of performance evaluations. Next, a simplified skyhook controller, which is one of the most straightforward, but effective approaches for improving ride comport in vehicles with active suspensions, is formulated. Then, the vibration control performances of the landing gear system using the MR damper are theoretically evaluated in the landing phase of the aircraft. A series of simulation analyses show that the proposed MR damper with the skyhook controller is effective for suppressing undesired vibration of the aircraft body. Finally, the effectiveness of the simulation results are additionally verified via HILS (Hardware-in-the-loop-simulation) method.

  4. Smart helicopter rotors optimization and piezoelectric vibration control

    CERN Document Server

    Ganguli, Ranjan; Viswamurthy, Sathyamangalam Ramanarayanan

    2016-01-01

    Exploiting the properties of piezoelectric materials to minimize vibration in rotor-blade actuators, this book demonstrates the potential of smart helicopter rotors to achieve the smoothness of ride associated with jet-engined, fixed-wing aircraft. Vibration control is effected using the concepts of trailing-edge flaps and active-twist. The authors’ optimization-based approach shows the advantage of multiple trailing-edge flaps and algorithms for full-authority control of dual trailing-edge-flap actuators are presented. Hysteresis nonlinearity in piezoelectric stack actuators is highlighted and compensated by use of another algorithm. The idea of response surfaces provides for optimal placement of trailing-edge flaps. The concept of active twist involves the employment of piezoelectrically induced shear actuation in rotating beams. Shear is then demonstrated for a thin-walled aerofoil-section rotor blade under feedback-control vibration minimization. Active twist is shown to be significant in reducing vibra...

  5. Parental involvement in neonatal comfort care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skene, Caryl; Franck, Linda; Curtis, Penny; Gerrish, Kate

    2012-01-01

    To explore how parents interact with their infants and with nurses regarding the provision of comfort care in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Focused ethnography. A regional NICU in the United Kingdom. Eleven families (10 mothers, 8 fathers) with infants residing in the NICU participated in the study. Parents were observed during a caregiving interaction with their infants and then interviewed on up to four occasions. Twenty-five periods of observation and 24 semistructured interviews were conducted between January and November 2008. Five stages of learning to parent in the NICU were identified. Although the length and duration of each stage differed for individual parents, movement along the learning trajectory was facilitated when parents were involved in comforting their infants. Transfer of responsibility from nurse to parents for specific aspects of care was also aided by parental involvement in pain care. Nurses' encouragement of parental involvement in comfort care facilitated parental proximity, parent/infant reciprocity, and parental sense of responsibility. Findings suggest that parental involvement in comfort care can aid the process of learning to parent, which is difficult in the NICU. Parental involvement in infant comfort care may also facilitate the transfer of responsibility from nurse to parent and may facilitate antecedents to parent/infant attachment. © 2012 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  6. Adaptive principles for thermal comfort in dwellings : From comfort temperatures to avoiding discomfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alders, E.E.; Kurvers, S.R.; Van den Ham, E.R.

    2011-01-01

    Many theories on thermal comfort exist and there are many ways to deliver this in an energy efficient way. Both aspects are often studied in a static way and most of these studies only regard one of the aspects, seldom investigating what influence the way of delivering thermal comfort has on the

  7. Forty years of Fanger's model of thermal comfort: comfort for all?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ir. Joost van Hoof

    2008-01-01

    The predicted mean vote (PMV) model of thermal comfort, created by Fanger in the late 1960s, is used worldwide to assess thermal comfort. Fanger based his model on college-aged students for use in invariant environmental conditions in air-conditioned buildings in moderate thermal climate zones.

  8. Guide to Setting Thermal Comfort Criteria and Minimizing Energy Use in Delivering Thermal Comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regnier, Cindy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Historically thermal comfort in buildings has been controlled by simple dry bulb temperature settings. As we move into more sophisticated low energy building systems that make use of alternate systems such as natural ventilation, mixed mode system and radiant thermal conditioning strategies, a more complete understanding of human comfort is needed for both design and control. This guide will support building designers, owners, operators and other stakeholders in defining quantifiable thermal comfort parameters?these can be used to support design, energy analysis and the evaluation of the thermal comfort benefits of design strategies. This guide also contains information that building owners and operators will find helpful for understanding the core concepts of thermal comfort. Whether for one building, or for a portfolio of buildings, this guide will also assist owners and designers in how to identify the mechanisms of thermal comfort and space conditioning strategies most important for their building and climate, and provide guidance towards low energy design options and operations that can successfully address thermal comfort. An example of low energy design options for thermal comfort is presented in some detail for cooling, while the fundamentals to follow a similar approach for heating are presented.

  9. Skin-to-Skin Contact: A Comforting Place With Comfort Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington-Hoe, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    Birth and the newborn environment are stressful, especially for preterm infants who have to contend with medical conditions while adapting to the extrauterine world. Therefore, preterm newborns are excellent candidates for comforting measures. Skin-to-skin contact is the best way to provide comfort in several of the realms of Kolcaba's Comfort Theory. Evidence suggests that skin-to-skin contact between the mother and newborn changes the discomforting newborn environment into one that is profoundly comforting. Skin-to-skin contact promotes infant physiologic stability and warmth, helps in organizing infant sleep, reduces stress and pain, and makes breast milk readily available. Comfort to the newborn can be effectively accomplished by skin-to-skin contact.

  10. Optimisation of active suspension control inputs for improved vehicle ride performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čorić, Mirko; Deur, Joško; Xu, Li; Tseng, H. Eric; Hrovat, Davor

    2016-07-01

    A collocation-type control variable optimisation method is used in the paper to analyse to which extent the fully active suspension (FAS) can improve the vehicle ride comfort while preserving the wheel holding ability. The method is first applied for a cosine-shaped bump road disturbance of different heights, and for both quarter-car and full 10 degree-of-freedom vehicle models. A nonlinear anti-wheel hop constraint is considered, and the influence of bump preview time period is analysed. The analysis is then extended to the case of square- or cosine-shaped pothole with different lengths, and the quarter-car model. In this case, the cost function is extended with FAS energy consumption and wheel damage resilience costs. The FAS action is found to be such to provide a wheel hop over the pothole, in order to avoid or minimise the damage at the pothole trailing edge. In the case of long pothole, when the FAS cannot provide the wheel hop, the wheel is travelling over the pothole bottom and then hops over the pothole trailing edge. The numerical optimisation results are accompanied by a simplified algebraic analysis.

  11. mitigating mitigating free riding in peer-to-peer networks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    9. R. Krishnan, M. Smith, and Z. Tang, “The impact of free-riding. On peer-to-peer networks," in the 37th Annual Hawaii. International Conference on System Sciences, 2004, pp. 1-. 10. 10. P. Golle, K. Leyton-brown, I. Mironov, and M. Lillibridge,. “Incentives for Sharing in Peer-to-Peer Networks,". Electronic Commerce,, 2001.

  12. 76 FR 26923 - 50th Anniversary of the Freedom Rides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, do... discrimination, and to challenge the enforcement of local segregation laws and practices. The Freedom Rides... Freedom Riders also motivated and mobilized the next generation of civil rights leaders. The unflinching...

  13. Rural Midwestern Public College Safe Ride Program Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohfeld, Kathy I.

    2017-01-01

    The central phenomenon researched in this case study was higher education administrators' decisions to institutionalize a safe ride program at a small, rural college. The purpose of this single/within-site case study was to describe the changes that happened at a rural public institution of higher education and the surrounding community in the…

  14. Hardness of Preemptive Finite Capacity Dial-a-Ride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li

    2006-01-01

    In the Finite Capacity Dial-a-Ride problem the input is a metric space, a set of objects, each specifying a source and a destination, and an integer k---the capacity of the vehicle used for making the deliveries. The goal is to compute a shortest tour for the vehicle in which all objects can be d...

  15. Accreditation's Alchemy Hour: Riding the Wave of Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    This article was adapted from Paul L. Gaston's address to the 2014 annual meeting of the "Association of American Colleges and Universities." The panel session talk "Accreditation: Riding the Wave of Innovation--or Going Under?" addressed issues surrounding the many proposals for demolishing and rebuilding higher education…

  16. Effect of Health Education on the Riding Habits of Commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: The increasing number of motorcyclists in Nigeria has led to a rise in poor road safety practices leading to increased rate of accidents. This study was conducted to implement and evaluate the effect of safety education on riding habits of motorcyclists in Uyo, Nigeria. METHODS: The intervention study was ...

  17. Minimum Makespan Multi-vehicle Dial-a-Ride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath; Ravi, R.

    2009-01-01

    Dial-a-Ride problems consist of a set V of n vertices in a metric space (denoting travel time between vertices) and a set of m objects represented as source-destination pairs {(si,ti)}mi=1, where each object requires to be moved from its source to destination vertex. In the multi-vehicle Dial-a-R...

  18. Promoting bike-and-ride : the Dutch experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, C.J.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    The number of policy initiatives to promote the use of bike-and-ride, or the combined use of bicycle and public trans-port for one trip, has grown considerably over the past decade as part of the search for more sustainable transport solu-tions. This paper discusses the experiences with, and impacts

  19. Minimum Makespan Multi-Vehicle Dial-a-Ride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath; Ravi, R.

    2015-01-01

    Dial-a-Ride problems consist of a set V of n vertices in a metric space (denoting travel time between vertices) and a set of m objects represented as source-destination pairs {(s(i), t(i))}(i-1)(m), where each object requires to be moved from its source to destination vertex. In the multi......-vehicle Dial-a-Ride problem, there are q vehicles, each having capacity k and where each vehicle j epsilon [q] has its own depot-vertex r(j) epsilon V. A feasible schedule consists of a capacitated route for each vehicle (where vehicle j originates and ends at its depot r(j)) that together move all objects...... of multi-vehicle Dial-a-Ride, in which an object may be left at intermediate vertices and transported by more than one vehicle, while being moved from source to destination. Our main results are an O(log(3) n)-approximation algorithm for preemptive multi-vehicle Dial-a-Ride, and an improved O(log t...

  20. Undoing Quantitative Easing: Janet Yellen's Tiger Ride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederjohn, M. Scott; Schug, Mark C.; Wood, William C.

    2014-01-01

    "One who rides a tiger is afraid to dismount," says a colorful proverb from an earlier time. This may be an apt saying for the situation facing the new head of the Federal Reserve, Janet L. Yellen, who takes over at a time when successive rounds of Fed policy have taken the central bank into uncharted territory. By historical standards,…

  1. A participatory sensing approach to characterize ride quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgelall, Raj

    2014-03-01

    Rough roads increase vehicle operation and road maintenance costs. Consequently, transportation agencies spend a significant portion of their budgets on ride-quality characterization to forecast maintenance needs. The ubiquity of smartphones and social media, and the emergence of a connected vehicle environment present lucrative opportunities for cost-reduction and continuous, network-wide, ride-quality characterization. However, there is a lack of models to transform inertial and position information from voluminous data flows into indices that transportation agencies currently use. This work expands on theories of the Road Impact Factor introduced in previous research. The index characterizes road roughness by aggregating connected vehicle data and reporting roughness in direct proportion to the International Roughness Index. Their theoretical relationships are developed, and a case study is presented to compare the relative data quality from an inertial profiler and a regular passenger vehicle. Results demonstrate that the approach is a viable alternative to existing models that require substantially more resources and provide less network coverage. One significant benefit of the participatory sensing approach is that transportation agencies can monitor all network facilities continuously to locate distress symptoms, such as frost heaves, that appear and disappear between ride assessment cycles. Another benefit of the approach is continuous monitoring of all high-risk intersections such as rail grade crossings to better understand the relationship between ride-quality and traffic safety.

  2. Optimizing itineraries in public transportation with walks between rides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, Bram; Teunter, Ruud H.

    We study the problem of finding an optimal itinerary to travel from a starting location to a destination location using public transport, where we allow travelers to alternate rides with (short) walks. The main difference with previous research is that we take all possible walks that a traveler can

  3. Science 101: How Do People Design Safe Amusement Park Rides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bill

    2015-01-01

    To address the question of how people design safe amusement park rides, Bill Robertson focuses on the factors designers must consider so that human bodies don't experience too large an acceleration (any change in speed and/or direction) or "g-force" (the acceleration an object undergoes while freely falling, with no air resistance, under…

  4. Theory of vibration protection

    CERN Document Server

    Karnovsky, Igor A

    2016-01-01

    This text is an advancement of the theory of vibration protection of mechanical systems with lumped and distributed parameters. The book offers various concepts and methods of solving vibration protection problems, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different methods, and the fields of their effective applications. Fundamental approaches of vibration protection, which are considered in this book, are the passive, parametric and optimal active vibration protection. The passive vibration protection is based on vibration isolation, vibration damping and dynamic absorbers. Parametric vibration protection theory is based on the Shchipanov-Luzin invariance principle. Optimal active vibration protection theory is based on the Pontryagin principle and the Krein moment method. The book also contains special topics such as suppression of vibrations at the source of their occurrence and the harmful influence of vibrations on humans. Numerous examples, which illustrate the theoretical ideas of each chapter, ar...

  5. Disability, Riding, and Identity: A Qualitative Study on the Influence of Riding on the Identity Construction of People with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist Wanneberg, Pia

    2014-01-01

    Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were used to examine the influence of riding on the identity construction of people with disabilities. The 15 participants, three men and 12 women, were between 15 and 65 years old and have various physical disabilities. The data analysis derives from identity theory, a social-psychological theory that…

  6. Predicting Human Thermal Comfort in Automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugh, J.; Bharathan, D.; Chaney, L.

    2005-06-01

    The objects of this report are to: (1) increase national energy security by reducing fuel use for vehicle climate control systems; (2) show/demonstrate technology that can reduce the fuel used by LD vehicles' ancillary systems; and (3) develop tools to evaluate the effectiveness of energy-efficient systems including--comfort, cost, practicality, ease-of-use, and reliability.

  7. HUMAN COMFORT AND THE MICROCLIMATIC DRIVERS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    planning and constructing buildings for human habitation, a satisfactory thermal environment is an essential ... scale, as such the generation of heat energy tends to follow the trajectory and hence microclimate and human ..... energy conservation values and human thermal comfort of such planting are maintained over time.

  8. ELEMENTS OF COMFORT AND SATISFACTION IN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elements of comfort and satisfaction in the office workspace. Drmsoh ity. Communication is one of the major factors related to the interpersonal relationships influ- enced by the furniture and office layout. Each individual takes a role within the organization and works with others to accomplish the set goals ofthe organization.

  9. Evaluating bicyclists comfort and safety perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, Himani; Tiwari, Geetam; Zuidgeest, M.H.P.; Viegas, J.M.; Macario, R.

    2010-01-01

    Perception of safety and comfort of bicycle infrastructure is an important factor influencing the use of bicycles. Cyclists can be found all over India. In urban areas presently, mostly captive riders choose to bicycle as no other viable options of travel are available to them. This study discusses

  10. The Analysis of Thermal Comfort in Kitchen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilma Rahmillah, Fety; Hotma Uli Tumanggor, Agustina; Dila Sari, Amarria

    2017-06-01

    Human also has a thermoreceptor which is a non-specialized sensory receptor that has relative changes in temperature. Thermal comfort is a very important element for human body. Kitchen as an important part of a home is often forgotten. Cooking in the kitchen is a routine activity which is done from the morning until the evening; begin with preparing breakfast, lunch and dinner. The problem in this study was the occurance of heat when cooking in the kitchen without air conditioning in tropical countries. This research analyzes thermal comfort while doing cooking activities in conventional kitchen with gas stoves in tropical dry season. Two residential kitchens are observed by measuring the temperature and humidity as well as analyze other possible factors. Psychometric chart is used to assess the comfort zone in the kitchen. This research is using Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) Index and Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied (PPD) Index. By using online psychometric chart, the sensation is in warm condition with the range value of PMV between 1.73 up to 2.36 and PPD 63% untill 90%. However, 71% respondents perceived morning kitchen thermal as comfortable.

  11. Definition of an On-Board Comfort Index (Rail for the Railway Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Barone

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of collective transport is strongly influenced by the quality of offered service. One of the overriding factors that affect the modal shift process is the quality of transport systems. To increase the attractiveness of collective transport services and therefore reduce the use of cars, authorities in collaboration with transport companies should take steps to ensure a high level of service quality in the public transport system. The provided quality is the level of quality achieved on daily basis and measured by the customer/user point of view. This research aims to relate service quality perceived by the user to measurements of two environmental indicators, that is, vibration, in reference to which the acceleration transmitted to the body by the vehicle motion and by its vibration will be measured, and noise, in reference to which the Equivalent Sound Pressure Level—Leq (A—will be measured. Finally, a Comfort Index (CI (rail is specified, calibrated, and validated.

  12. Equine Exercise in Younger and Older Adults: Simulated Versus Real Horseback Riding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Joo; Kim, TaeYeong; Oh, Sejun; Yoon, BumChul

    2018-02-01

    Horseback riding is an effective exercise for improving postural control and balance. To reduce costs and improve accessibility, simulated horseback riding has been developed; but no differential effects of simulated and real horseback riding on muscle activation patterns in older adults have been studied. Thus, we compared muscle activation patterns for older and younger adults engaged in real and simulated horseback riding exercises, using surface electromyography recordings of the erector spinae, rectus abdominis, internal oblique abdominis, and rectus femoris muscles. We recorded muscle activity for three riding patterns: walk, slow trot, and fast trot. Muscle activation was uniformly higher for simulated (vs. real) horseback riding and increased from the walking pattern through slow and fast trot. There was no age effect, but among older participants, muscle activation was higher for simulated (vs. real) horseback riding across all gait types. Simulated and real riding produced a similar pattern of muscle activation of the thigh and trunk. These results demonstrate that simulated horseback riding can be an effective alternative to actual riding for increasing trunk and thigh muscle activation and improving postural control and balance, perhaps especially among older adults.

  13. The comfort triangles : A new tool for bioclimatic design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents a new graphic tool to identify and select bioclimatic strategies according to climate conditions and comfort requirements. The Comfort Triangle relates outdoor daily temperature variations with the modification of thermal performance achieved indoors, using two key variables,

  14. Evaluation of seatback vibration based on ISO 2631-1 (1997) standard method: The influence of vehicle seat structural resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittianuwat, R; Fard, M; Kato, K

    2017-01-01

    Although much research has been done in developing the current ISO 2631-1 (1997) standard method for assessment seat vibration comfort, little consideration has been given to the influence of vehicle seat structural dynamics on comfort assessment. Previous research has shown that there are inconsistencies between standard methods and subjective evaluation of comfort at around vehicle seat twisting resonant frequencies. This study reports the frequency-weighted r.m.s. accelerations in [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] axes and the total vibration (point vibration total value) at five locations on seatback surface at around vehicle seat twisting resonant frequencies. The results show that the vibration measured at the centre of seatback surface, suggested by current ISO 2631-1 (1997), at around twisting resonant frequencies was the least for all tested vehicle seats. The greatest point vibration total value on the seatback surface varies among vehicle seats. The variations in vibration measured at different locations on seatback surface at around twisting resonant frequencies were sufficiently great that might affect the comfort assessment of vehicle seat.Practitioner Summary: The influence of vehicle seat structural dynamics has not been considered in current ISO 2631-1 (1997). The results of this study show that the vibration measures on seatback surface at around vehicle seat twisting resonant frequency depends on vehicle seats and dominate at the top or the bottom of seatback but not at the centre.

  15. Safety riding program and motorcycle-related injuries in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woratanarat, Patarawan; Ingsathit, Atiporn; Chatchaipan, Pornthip; Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul

    2013-09-01

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted in Thailand from 2007 to 2009 to evaluate the efficacy of a safety riding program in preventing motorcycle-related injuries. A training group of motorcyclists were certified by the Asia-Pacific Honda Safety Riding Program in either 30-h instruction (teaching skills, riding demonstration) or 15-h license (knowledge, skills, and hazard perception) courses. The control group consisted of untrained motorcyclists matched on an approximately 1:1 ratio with the training group by region and date of licensure. In total, there were 3250 subjects in the training group and 2963 in the control group. Demographic data and factors associated with motorcycle-related injuries were collected. Motorcycle-related injuries were identified using the Road Injuries Victims Protection for injuries claims and inpatient diagnosis-related group datasets from the National Health Security Office. The capture-recapture technique was used to estimate the prevalence of injuries. Multivariate analysis was used to identify factors related to motorcycle-related injuries. The prevalence of motorcycle-related injuries was estimated to be 586 out of 6213 riders (9.4%) with a 95% confidence interval (CI): 460-790. The license course and the instruction course were significantly associated with a 30% and 29% reduction of motorcycle-related injuries, respectively (relative risk 0.70, 95% CI: 0.53-0.92 and 0.71, 95% CI: 0.42-1.18, respectively). Other factors associated with the injuries were male gender and young age. Safety riding training was effective in reducing injuries. These training programs differ from those in other developed countries but display comparable effects. Hazard perception skills might be a key for success. This strategy should be expanded to a national scale. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Improving comfort and health with personalized ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2004-01-01

    The thermal environment and air quality in buildings affects occupants¿ health, comfort and performance. The heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) of buildings today is designed to provide a uniform room environment. However, large individual differences exist between occupants in regard...... microenvironment. Furthermore, HVAC systems should be designed to protect occupants from airborne transmission of infectious agents that may be present in exhaled air. Personalized ventilation is a new development in the field of HVAC and has the potential to fulfil the above requirements. This paper reviews...... existing knowledge on performance of personalized ventilation (PV) and on human response to it. The airflow interaction in the vicinity of the human body is analysed and its impact on thermal comfort and inhaled air quality is discussed together with control strategies and the application of PV in practice...

  17. Harvesting Energy from the Counterbalancing (Weaving Movement in Bicycle Riding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Priya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bicycles are known to be rich source of kinetic energy, some of which is available for harvesting during speedy and balanced maneuvers by the user. A conventional dynamo attached to the rim can generate a large amount of output power at an expense of extra energy input from the user. However, when applying energy conversion technology to human powered equipments, it is important to minimize the increase in extra muscular activity and to maximize the efficiency of human movements. This study proposes a novel energy harvesting methodology that utilizes lateral oscillation of bicycle frame (weaving caused by user weight shifting movements in order to increase the pedaling force in uphill riding or during quick speed-up. Based on the 3D motion analysis, we designed and implemented the prototype of an electro-dynamic energy harvester that can be mounted on the bicycle’s handlebar to collect energy from the side-to-side movement. The harvester was found to generate substantial electric output power of 6.6 mW from normal road riding. It was able to generate power even during uphill riding which has never been shown with other approaches. Moreover, harvesting of energy from weaving motion seems to increase the economy of cycling by helping efficient usage of human power.

  18. Harvesting energy from the counterbalancing (weaving) movement in bicycle riding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yoonseok; Yeo, Jeongjin; Priya, Shashank

    2012-01-01

    Bicycles are known to be rich source of kinetic energy, some of which is available for harvesting during speedy and balanced maneuvers by the user. A conventional dynamo attached to the rim can generate a large amount of output power at an expense of extra energy input from the user. However, when applying energy conversion technology to human powered equipments, it is important to minimize the increase in extra muscular activity and to maximize the efficiency of human movements. This study proposes a novel energy harvesting methodology that utilizes lateral oscillation of bicycle frame (weaving) caused by user weight shifting movements in order to increase the pedaling force in uphill riding or during quick speed-up. Based on the 3D motion analysis, we designed and implemented the prototype of an electro-dynamic energy harvester that can be mounted on the bicycle's handlebar to collect energy from the side-to-side movement. The harvester was found to generate substantial electric output power of 6.6 mW from normal road riding. It was able to generate power even during uphill riding which has never been shown with other approaches. Moreover, harvesting of energy from weaving motion seems to increase the economy of cycling by helping efficient usage of human power.

  19. Leisure riding horses: research topics versus the needs of stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczarek, Iwona; Wilk, Izabela

    2017-07-01

    Horses intended for leisure riding do not undergo any selection and most often retired sports horses or defective horses are chosen, as a low selling price determines their purchase by a leisure riding center. Unfortunately, horses bought at low prices usually have low utility value, are difficult to handle, require a special or individual approach and do not provide satisfaction in riding. However, neither modern horse breeding nor scientific research address the need to breed horses for leisure activities. There is no clear definition of a model leisure horse and criteria or information for its selection are not readily available in scientific publications. A wide spectrum of research methods may be used to evaluate various performance traits in horses intended for leisure activities. The fact that the population of recreational horses and their riders outnumber sporting horses should attract the special attention of scientific research. Their utility traits need to be determined with modern technology and methods in the same way they are for sporting horses. Such a system of evaluation would be very helpful for riders. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Comfort and compressional characteristics of padding bandages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Bipin; Singh, Jitender; Das, Apurba; Alagirusamy, R

    2015-12-01

    Padding bandage is an essential component of the multi-layer compression system used for chronic venous management. Padding plays a critical role in managing pressure over bony prominences and ensuring uniform pressure distribution around the limb circumference. Moreover, it helps in the management of heat, moisture and body fluids or exudates during the course of treatment to provide comfort to the patients. To study the effect of structural and constructional parameters on the compressional (pressure absorption or distribution) and comfort (air, moisture and heat transmission) characteristics of the padding. This research focuses on the examination of polypropylene based nonwoven padding samples. Critical factors, i.e., fiber linear density, needling density and mass per unit area, have been chosen for this study to find their significance on the performance of padding. Simple laboratory based methods have been proposed to examine pressure reduction and comfort characteristics of the padding. Pressure absorption by the padding decreases with increase in mass per unit area and needling density of the padding. A padding composed of thicker fiber absorbs more pressure compared to padding made from thinner fiber. On examining comfort, it was found that the air and moisture vapor transmission increase with decrease in mass per unit area and needling density but have opposite effects with fiber linear density (phealth practitioners, fabric engineers and manufactures to understand the significance of fibrous materials and their role in compression management, and could be further used as design consideration to optimized padding performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Eye cosmetic usage and associated ocular comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Alison; Evans, Katharine; North, Rachel; Purslow, Christine

    2012-11-01

    Eye cosmetics usage is commonplace and whilst some products such as eyeliner are applied with close proximity to the ocular surface, there is little knowledge of the short- and long-term ocular effects of eye cosmetic formulations. This study aimed to investigate the use of eye cosmetics and identify any relationships between ocular comfort and cosmetic usage. Results were collated from an online survey comprising 23 questions that recorded demographics, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score, extent and range of eye cosmetic use and perceived comfort differences with and without eye cosmetics. The 1360 female respondents (median age 25, interquartile range 20-34 years) completed the survey; 83% reported using eye cosmetics regularly (≥ 3 times per week) with mascara being most commonly used. Fifty three per cent used at least three different eye cosmetics products regularly. OSDI scores of cosmetics users were similar to non-users (p = 0.083), but perceived comfort was greater when cosmetics were not used (p cosmetics users (use of products cosmetics were used. Median OSDI scores suggested a trend towards reduced comfort amongst eyeliner users (p = 0.07) although frequency and type of cosmetic products used did not appear to influence OSDI scores. This study shows the use of multiple eye cosmetics is extensive and associated with the perception of ocular discomfort. With such widespread use of these products, more research is required to assess the effect on the ocular surface and tear film, which may be underestimated. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2012 The College of Optometrists.

  2. Influence of textile properties on thermal comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marolleau, A.; Salaun, F.; Dupont, D.; Gidik, H.; Ducept, S.

    2017-10-01

    This study reports on the impact of textile properties on thermal comfort. The fabric weight, thickness, porosity, moisture regain, air permeability and density have been considered and correlated to the thermal and water vapour resistance, permeability index, thermal conductivity and effusivity, and moisture management capacity. Results suggest that moisture transfer is affected by thickness, density and moisture regain whereas thermal transfer by air permeability and density.

  3. Thermodynamical analysis of human thermal comfort

    OpenAIRE

    Prek, Matjaž

    2015-01-01

    Traditional methods of human thermal comfort analysis are based on the first law of thermodynamics. These methods use an energy balance of the human body to determine heat transfer between the body and its environment. By contrast, the second law of thermodynamics introduces the useful concept of exergy. It enables the determination of the exergy consumption within the human body dependent on human and environmental factors. Human body exergy consumption varies with the combination of environ...

  4. The electric comfort; Le confort electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In the framework of the public information on the electric power utilization in the household, Electricite De France presented on april-may at Paris Meeting, the possibilities and the advantages of the electric comfort. The concerned domains are: the electric cheating, the air-conditioning, the hot water, the lighting and the electric household appliances. Information on prices and statistical data on electric heating are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  5. Viewing Race in the Comfort Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Brenda L. Hughes

    2014-01-01

    Carter suggests the concept of a “comfort zone” to explain the inability of dramatic African American programs to be successful on television. He argues that a workable formula has been developed for successful African American series, “portray black people in a way that would be acceptable to the millions of potential purchasers (whites) of advertised products. That is, non-threatening and willing to ‘stay in their pl...

  6. Viewing Race in the Comfort Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda L. Hughes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Carter suggests the concept of a “comfort zone” to explain the inability of dramatic African American programs to be successful on television. He argues that a workable formula has been developed for successful African American series, “portray black people in a way that would be acceptable to the millions of potential purchasers (whites of advertised products. That is, non-threatening and willing to ‘stay in their place.’”. Using a data set constructed from television ratings and shares, this study examines “black-centeredness” within the context of program success and failure. The comfort zone concept argues Black-centered television series are only successful in a comedic genre because White audiences, who have the majority of the ratings power, will only watch Black-centered series with which they are comfortable. The findings suggest that, in general, race, that is Black-centeredness, did not negatively influence program ratings or shares.

  7. Domotics. Comfortable and energy efficient?; Domotica. Comfortabel en energiezuinig?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wolferen, H.; Hendriksen, L.; Traversari, R. [TNO Milieu, Energie en Procesinnovatie TNO-MEP, Apeldoorn (Netherlands)

    2003-02-01

    Insight is given into the added value of domotics (home automation) in the handling and control of comfort installations, focusing on comfort and energy consumption. Costs are indicated. [Dutch] Een overzicht wordt gegeven van de toegevoegde waarde van domotica bij de bediening en regeling van comfortinstallaties. Hierbij wordt de meeste aandacht gegeven aan comfort en energiegebruik. De kosten worden alleen indicatief besproken.

  8. Design of outdoor urban spaces for thermal comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriet J. Plumley

    1977-01-01

    Microclimates in outdoor urban spaces may be modified by controlling the wind and radiant environments in these spaces. Design guidelines were developed to specify how radiant environments may be selected or modified to provide conditions for thermal comfort. Fanger's human-thermal-comfort model was used to determine comfortable levels of radiant-heat exchange for...

  9. Comfort Indicators for the Assessment of Indoor Environmental Building Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Bendtsen, A.; Sørensen, M.

    2006-01-01

    Indoor environmental building performance assessment requires efficient indicators of the indoor comfort. In order to be effective and useful the comfort indicators must be able to include the temporal variation of indoor comfort as well as the degree of discomfort perceived by the occupants...

  10. Comfort Indicators for the Assessment of Indoor Environmental Building Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Bendtsen, A.; Sørensen, M.

    2006-01-01

    Indoor environmental building performance assessment requires efficient indicators of the indoor comfort. In order to be effective and useful the comfort indicators must be able to include the temporal variation of indoor comfort as well as the degree of discomfort perceived by the occupants. Thi...

  11. Forty years of Fanger's model of thermal comfort: comfort for all?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoof, J

    2008-06-01

    The predicted mean vote (PMV) model of thermal comfort, created by Fanger in the late 1960s, is used worldwide to assess thermal comfort. Fanger based his model on college-aged students for use in invariant environmental conditions in air-conditioned buildings in moderate thermal climate zones. Environmental engineering practice calls for a predictive method that is applicable to all types of people in any kind of building in every climate zone. In this publication, existing support and criticism, as well as modifications to the PMV model are discussed in light of the requirements by environmental engineering practice in the 21st century in order to move from a predicted mean vote to comfort for all. Improved prediction of thermal comfort can be achieved through improving the validity of the PMV model, better specification of the model's input parameters, and accounting for outdoor thermal conditions and special groups. The application range of the PMV model can be enlarged, for instance, by using the model to assess the effects of the thermal environment on productivity and behavior, and interactions with other indoor environmental parameters, and the use of information and communication technologies. Even with such modifications to thermal comfort evaluation, thermal comfort for all can only be achieved when occupants have effective control over their own thermal environment. The paper treats the assessment of thermal comfort using the PMV model of Fanger, and deals with the strengths and limitations of this model. Readers are made familiar to some opportunities for use in the 21st-century information society.

  12. Investigation on Motorcyclist Riding Behaviour at Curve Entry Using Instrumented Motorcycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Choon Wah; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Saifizul, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    This paper details the study on the changes in riding behaviour, such as changes in speed as well as the brake force and throttle force applied, when motorcyclists ride over a curve section road using an instrumented motorcycle. In this study, an instrumented motorcycle equipped with various types of sensors, on-board cameras, and data loggers, was developed in order to collect the riding data on the study site. Results from the statistical analysis showed that riding characteristics, such as changes in speed, brake force, and throttle force applied, are influenced by the distance from the curve entry, riding experience, and travel mileage of the riders. A structural equation modeling was used to study the impact of these variables on the change of riding behaviour in curve entry section. Four regression equations are formed to study the relationship between four dependent variables, which are speed, throttle force, front brake force, and rear brake force applied with the independent variables. PMID:24523660

  13. Investigation on Motorcyclist Riding Behaviour at Curve Entry Using Instrumented Motorcycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon Wah Yuen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper details the study on the changes in riding behaviour, such as changes in speed as well as the brake force and throttle force applied, when motorcyclists ride over a curve section road using an instrumented motorcycle. In this study, an instrumented motorcycle equipped with various types of sensors, on-board cameras, and data loggers, was developed in order to collect the riding data on the study site. Results from the statistical analysis showed that riding characteristics, such as changes in speed, brake force, and throttle force applied, are influenced by the distance from the curve entry, riding experience, and travel mileage of the riders. A structural equation modeling was used to study the impact of these variables on the change of riding behaviour in curve entry section. Four regression equations are formed to study the relationship between four dependent variables, which are speed, throttle force, front brake force, and rear brake force applied with the independent variables.

  14. Pensionäride probleemid jõuavad Euroopa Komisjoni / Arvo Einre ; interv. Asse Soomets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Einre, Arvo, 1931-2012

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Pensionäride Ühendus sai Euroopa Komisjoni eakate nõukojalt (The European Older People Platform) kutse 31. märtsil Brüsselis toimuvale AGE töökoosolekule, kus käsitletakse pensionäride olukorda EL-i liikmesriikides. Eesti esindajana sõidab üritusele Eesti Pensionäride Ühenduse aseesimees Arvo Einre

  15. Comfort-box controls individual level of comfort. Domotica home network for indoor climate management; Comfort-box regelt individueel comfort-niveau. Domotica-huisnetwerk voor beheer binnenklimaat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamphuis, I.G; Warmer, C.J.; Bakker, E.J. [ECN Duurzame Energie in de Gebouwde Omgeving DEGO, Petten (Netherlands)

    2005-03-01

    The Comfort-Box (or C-Box) project is an automatic and continuous control system for energy efficient and cost-effective thermal comfort in houses. In this article detailed information is given of the design and performance of the C-Box. [Dutch] De huidige regelsystemen voor het binnenklimaat in woningen zijn voor verbetering vatbaar. Met het Comfort-boxconcept is een regeling ontwikkeld die automatisch en continu het individuele comfortniveau regelt in woningen, waarbij afwegingen worden gemaakt tussen kosten en comfort. De Comfort-box blijkt in staat te zijn het binnencomfort op energie- en kostenefficiente wijze te beheren.

  16. Railway-faster, quieter and more comfortable-paradim of high speed bullet train of 21st century; 21 seiki no kosoku Shinkansen no paradaimu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, K. [JR West Japan Railway Co., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-05-05

    Operation speed of new 500 series bullet train of Japan is realized 300 km/h in equal with World super fast TGV train. Development of new 500 series and new generation bullet trains is explained in this paper. Environmental protection and solution of comfortable riding are considered as key problems in 500 series car. New 500 series` output and strength are increased to 1.5 times of 300 series and its component weight is controlled and is equal to 300 series. With this improvement, rapid traveling is realized for 500 series bullet trains. Traveling resistance reduction for 500 series is achieved approximately 30 % in 300 series at the same speed by solving various aerodynamic problems. Comfortable riding is realized by making use of active suspension which usually reduces shaking half. Regarding new generation`s bullet train, aiming operation speed above 350 km/h, development is progressing with low cost point of view. By carrying out 21st century railway`s survey, it is reported that speed increase considering existing route`s use and low cost new line is occupied main part in high speed. 3 figs.

  17. Energetic optimization as a result of improvement for social comfort: international example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melandri, D.

    2007-07-01

    Comfort of human beings is related to the availability of energetic sources. In these terms, connection between comfort and energy becomes synonymous of connection between comfort and productivity. Thus Energy Management can be considered as a tool to optimize different parameters, with clear results on global efficiency of all processes. A clear energetic analysis, besides standard evaluation, can bring to optimization of following parameters: Lay out, Human resources, Internal logistic processes, Business productivity. Through energetic cost, for example, it is possible to have reference indicators useful for the lay out and number of employees optimization in offices. An International study has been conducted in this sense, with important and surprising results. A design for a building in Australia shows that an excellent energetic efficiency brings to an annual saving of 10 ml dollars, as a result of the improved efficiency of the working area. Similar examples can be found in several parts of the world. For these reasons, in civil and tertiary sector, some important pollution causes must be considered during the design of energy efficiency systems: atmospheric pollution due to chemical agents and radiations, acoustic pollution, vibration pollution, microclimate states, lighting. All these elements are part of the study. (auth)

  18. Influence of foot, leg and shoe characteristics on subjective comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J E; Nigg, B M; Liu, W; Stefanyshyn, D J; Nurse, M A

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between foot and leg characteristics, shoe characteristics, and the short-term subjective comfort of three different pairs of athletic shoes. Static measurements of foot dimension and leg angles were taken from eighteen subjects. Subjects rated the comfort of three different athletic shoes for standing, walking and running. The shoes were quantified by internal dimensions, hardness, flexibility and torsional stiffness. Average comfort ratings decreased from standing to walking to running. One shoe seemed suited for only a small group of subjects. In contrast, another shoe was generally comfortable for a large group. Skeletal alignment, specifically eversion angle, was related to comfort for one shoe. Therefore, fit of the shoe is not sufficient for comfort. Skeletal alignment, shoe torsional stiffness and cushioning seem to be mechanical variables which may be important for comfort.

  19. Tunable Passive Vibration Suppressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boechler, Nicholas (Inventor); Dillon, Robert Peter (Inventor); Daraio, Chiara (Inventor); Davis, Gregory L. (Inventor); Shapiro, Andrew A. (Inventor); Borgonia, John Paul C. (Inventor); Kahn, Daniel Louis (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An apparatus and method for vibration suppression using a granular particle chain. The granular particle chain is statically compressed and the end particles of the chain are attached to a payload and vibration source. The properties of the granular particles along with the amount of static compression are chosen to provide desired filtering of vibrations.

  20. Vibrations and Eigenvalues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We make music by causing strings, membranes, or air columns to vibrate. Engineers design safe structures by control- ling vibrations. I will describe to you a very simple vibrating system and the mathematics needed to analyse it. The ideas were born in the work of Joseph-Louis Lagrange (1736–1813), and I begin by quot-.

  1. Developing Pokemon AI For Finding Comfortable Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Panumate, Chetprayoon; Iida, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores an innovative way to find a comfortable setting of video games. Pokemon is chosen as benchmark and game refinement measure is employed for the assessment. The number of Pokemon that one trainer can carry (i.e., setting with n=6) has never been changed after the first episode of Pokemon was released in 1996. Pokemon battle is simulated and various AIs are developed for the experiments. The results show that the original setting is the best for many players of various levels.

  2. Energy savings and comfort changes in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krighaar, M. [COWI (Denmark); Ivanauskas, A. [Klaipedos Energija SPAB (Lithuania)

    2000-07-01

    This article presents the results from a demonstration project on building installations in the city Klaipeda, Lithuania. The project demonstrates the energy savings and increased comfort level achieved by installation of various energy saving measures and includes a cost benefit analysis. The demonstration area consists of eight typical buildings. The outcome of the project provides a valuable basis for future decisions to be made concerning reconstruction of heating installations and enables the results and experience to be transferred to 2,500 buildings in Klaipeda and buildings in Lithuania in general. (au)

  3. Whole-body Vibration Exposure Intervention among Professional Bus and Truck Drivers: A Laboratory Evaluation of Seat-suspension Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Ryan P; Yost, Michael G; Camp, Janice E; Ching, Randal P

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exposure to seated whole-body vibration (WBV) is one of the leading risk factors for the development of low back disorders. Professional bus and truck drivers are regularly exposed to continuous WBV, since they spend the majority of their working hours driving heavy vehicles. This study measured WBV exposures among professional bus and truck drivers and evaluated the effects of seat-suspension designs using simulated field-collected data on a vibration table. WBV exposures were measured and compared across three different seat designs: an air-ride bus seat, an air-ride truck seat, and an electromagnetically active (EM-active) seat. Air-ride seats use a compressed-air bladder to attenuate vibrations, and they have been in operation throughout the transportation industry for many years. The EM-active seat is a relatively new design that incorporates a microprocessor-controlled actuator to dampen vibration. The vibration table simulated seven WBV exposure scenarios: four segments of vertical vibration and three scenarios that used field-collected driving data on different road surfaces-a city street, a freeway, and a section of rough roadway. The field scenarios used tri-axial WBV data that had been collected at the seat pan and at the driver's sternum, in accordance with ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5. This study found that WBV was significantly greater in the vertical direction (z-axis) than in the lateral directions (x-and y-axes) for each of the three road types and each of the three types of seats. Quantitative comparisons of the results showed that the floor-to-seat-pan transmissibility was significantly lower for the EM-active seat than for either the air-ride bus seat or the air-ride truck seat, across all three road types. This study also demonstrated that seat-suspension designs have a significant effect on the vibrations transmitted to vehicle operators, and the study's results may prove useful in designing future seat suspensions.

  4. Free-riding og showrooming: konsekvenser for detaljistene

    OpenAIRE

    Pettersen, Stine; Hansen, Kristine; Toft, Mia

    2016-01-01

    Denne oppgaven tar for seg begrepet showrooming, de som showroomer og forholdet mellom mobilbruk, service, lojalitet og showrooming. Free-riding ved showrooming er et relativt nytt begrep, men det blir stadig et større problem for detaljister med fysiske butikklokaler. Showrooming-begrepet beskriver situasjonen der forbrukeren besøker en fysisk butikk for å prøve eller undersøke en vare for så å kjøpe den billigere på internett, enten mens personen fremdeles er i butikken eller...

  5. Using forecast information for storm ride-through control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barahona Garzón, Braulio; Trombe, Pierre-Julien; Vincent, Claire Louise

    2013-01-01

    Using probabilistic forecast information in control algorithms can improve the performance of wind farms during periods of extreme winds. This work presents a wind farm supervisor control concept that uses probabilistic forecast information to ride-through a storm with softer ramps of power. Wind...... speed forecasts are generated with a statistical approach (i.e. time series models). The supervisor control is based on a set of logical rules that consider point forecasts and predictive densities to ramp-down the power of the wind farm before the storm hits. The potential of this supervisor control...... information, and particularly weather radar images....

  6. Split ring floating air riding seal for a turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jacob A

    2015-11-03

    A floating air riding seal for a gas turbine engine with a rotor and a stator, an annular piston chamber with an axial moveable annular piston assembly within the annular piston chamber, an annular cavity formed on the annular piston assembly that faces a seal surface on the rotor, and a central passage connecting the annular cavity to the annular piston chamber to supply compressed air to the seal face, where the annular piston assembly is a split piston assembly to maintain a tight seal as coning of the rotor disk occurs.

  7. Compression fractures of the vertebrae during a "bumpy" boat ride.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chukwunyerenwa, C K

    2012-01-31

    INTRODUCTION: Compression fracture of the vertebrae is common, often the result of falls from height and motor vehicle accidents in the younger age groups. It can occur following minor trauma in the elderly and in those with osteoporosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present an interesting case of compression fracture of the vertebral bodies occurring simultaneously in a couple during a boat ride while on holiday. One individual had fracture of the T8, while the other fractured the L1 vertebrae. Both injuries were treated conservatively with Taylor braces. CONCLUSION: We highlight one of the potential hazards of this recreational activity, and the almost identical fracture pattern in this couple.

  8. An Examination of a Music Appreciation Method Incorporating Tactile Sensations from Artificial Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ideguchi, Tsuyoshi; Yoshida, Ryujyu; Ooshima, Keita

    We examined how test subject impressions of music changed when artificial vibrations were incorporated as constituent elements of a musical composition. In this study, test subjects listened to several music samples in which different types of artificial vibration had been incorporated and then subjectively evaluated any resulting changes to their impressions of the music. The following results were obtained: i) Even if rhythm vibration is added to a silent component of a musical composition, it can effectively enhance musical fitness. This could be readily accomplished when actual sounds that had been synchronized with the vibration components were provided beforehand. ii) The music could be listened to more comfortably by adding not only a natural vibration extracted from percussion instruments but also artificial vibration as tactile stimulation according to intentional timing. Furthermore, it was found that the test subjects' impression of the music was affected by a characteristic of the artificial vibration. iii) Adding vibration to high-frequency areas can offer an effective and practical way of enhancing the appeal of a musical composition. iv) The movement sensations of sound and vibration could be experienced when the strength of the sound and vibration are modified in turn. These results suggest that the intentional application of artificial vibration could result in a sensitivity amplification factor on the part of a listener.

  9. Footbed shapes for enhanced footwear comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witana, Channa P; Goonetilleke, Ravindra S; Au, Emily Yim Lee; Xiong, Shuping; Lu, Xingfang

    2009-05-01

    A shoe wearer's comfort is related to the shape of the footbed of a shoe. Even though the footbed shape is important in footwear design, there exists no methodology to evaluate the existing guidelines used in last making. Thirty-two females participated in an experiment where heel seat length, heel seat inclination and heel height were investigated using the profile assessment device. The dependent variables were plantar pressure and perceived feeling of each participant. The results show that perceived feel is best for wedge angles of 4 degrees and 5 degrees at a heel height of 25 mm, 10 degrees and 11 degrees at a heel height of 50 mm and 16 degrees and 18 degrees at a heel height of 75 mm. A regression model was derived and this explained approximately 80% of the variation of perceived feeling with the contact area, peak plantar pressure and percentage of force acting on the forefoot region. Both heel wedge angle and heel seat length play an important role in the perceived feel of high-heeled shoes. This study, in relation to the load-bearing heel part of a shoe, highlights the importance of good footbed design. The findings can be used to design footwear with enhanced comfort.

  10. Influence of comfort and social stimuli on a comfort movement and a display derived from it

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sebbel, P; Duttmann, H; Groothuis, T

    We tested the extent of emancipation of the Whistle-shake display of male shelducks, Tadorna tadorna, from causal factors controlling its presumed evolutionary precursor, the Body-shake, a comfort movement. Both motor patterns show similarities in form and alternate in a yearly rhythm. First, in an

  11. Vibration analysis of cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaru, Takayuki; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Shintomi, Takakazu; Yamamoto, Akira; Koyama, Tomohiro; Li, Rui

    2004-05-01

    The vibrations of Gifford-McMahon (GM) and pulse-tube (PT) cryocoolers were measured and analyzed. The vibrations of the cold-stage and cold-head were measured separately to investigate their vibration mechanisms. The measurements were performed while maintaining the thermal conditions of the cryocoolers at a steady state. We found that the vibration of the cold-head for the 4 K PT cryocooler was two orders of magnitude smaller than that of the 4 K GM cryocooler. On the other hand, the vibration of the cold-stages for both cryocoolers was of the same order of magnitude. From a spectral analysis of the vibrations and a simulation, we concluded that the vibration of the cold-stage is caused by an elastic deformation of the pulse tubes (or cylinders) due to the pressure oscillation of the working gas.

  12. Vibration analysis of cryocoolers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaru, Takayuki; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Shintomi, Takakazu; Yamamoto, Akira [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Koyama, Tomohiro; Rui Li [Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-05-01

    The vibrations of Gifford-McMahon (GM) and pulse-tube (PT) cryocoolers were measured and analyzed. The vibrations of the cold-stage and cold-head were measured separately to investigate their vibration mechanisms. The measurements were performed while maintaining the thermal conditions of the cryocoolers at a steady state. We found that the vibration of the cold-head for the 4 K PT cryocooler was two orders of magnitude smaller than that of the 4 K GM cryocooler. On the other hand, the vibration of the cold-stages for both cryocoolers was of the same order of magnitude. From a spectral analysis of the vibrations and a simulation, we concluded that the vibration of the cold-stage is caused by an elastic deformation of the pulse tubes (or cylinders) due to the pressure oscillation of the working gas. (Author)

  13. Vibration of hydraulic machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yulin; Liu, Shuhong; Dou, Hua-Shu; Qian, Zhongdong

    2013-01-01

    Vibration of Hydraulic Machinery deals with the vibration problem which has significant influence on the safety and reliable operation of hydraulic machinery. It provides new achievements and the latest developments in these areas, even in the basic areas of this subject. The present book covers the fundamentals of mechanical vibration and rotordynamics as well as their main numerical models and analysis methods for the vibration prediction. The mechanical and hydraulic excitations to the vibration are analyzed, and the pressure fluctuations induced by the unsteady turbulent flow is predicted in order to obtain the unsteady loads. This book also discusses the loads, constraint conditions and the elastic and damping characters of the mechanical system, the structure dynamic analysis, the rotor dynamic analysis and the system instability of hydraulic machines, including the illustration of monitoring system for the instability and the vibration in hydraulic units. All the problems are necessary for vibration pr...

  14. Estimation of sound pressure levels of voiced speech from skin vibration of the neck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svec, JG; Titze, IR; Popolo, PS

    How accurately can sound pressure levels (SPLs) of speech be estimated from skin vibration of the neck? Measurements using a small accelerometer were carried out in 27 subjects (10 males and 17 females) who read Rainbow and Marvin Williams passages in soft, comfortable, and loud voice, while skin

  15. Factors associated with dust dispersed in the air of indoor riding arenas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lühe, T; Mielenz, N; Schulz, J; Dreyer-Rendelsmann, C; Kemper, N

    2017-01-01

    Environmental factors contribute to respiratory diseases in horses and man. During exercise, equine ventilation is increased, potentially increasing exposure of the airways to inhaled particulates. Currently, there is very little information on the quality of air in riding arenas. To evaluate air quality and dust particle concentrations in indoor riding arenas before and after use for riding. Longitudinal study. Air quality was assessed in 4 indoor riding arenas in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany on a monthly basis for 1 year. Concentrations of particles in 6 particle fractions from 0.3 to 5.0 μm were measured in air collected at 4 points in the riding arenas approximately at the height of the horses' (1.5 m) and riders' noses (2.5 m), before and after the arenas were used by one horse performing standardised riding session. There were significant differences in the numbers of particles between the arenas within months and between months within the arenas. Particle numbers were significantly influenced by the month and activities in the arenas before and after riding. The effect of the month on differences in the dust concentration may relate to surface watering. A significant increase in numbers of particles was observed after the riding session. Significant interactions were found between measuring heights and month within arena (Parenas and this appears to be influenced by footing material, direct connections between the arena and stables and season, possibly reflecting surface watering practices. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  16. Official Ride Board offers Virginia Tech students easy way to carpool

    OpenAIRE

    West, Hilary

    2010-01-01

    In days past, messages were hand written on ride boards. More recently, numerous carpool pages popped up on Facebook. Now, Virginia Tech's Alternative Transportation division has launched an online ride board that will become a central location for easy carpooling among students.

  17. Computer-aided complexity classification of dial-a-ride problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Paepe, W.E.; Lenstra, J.K.; Sgall, J.; Sitters, R.A.; Stougie, L.

    2004-01-01

    In dial-a-ride problems, items have to be transported from a source to a destination. The characteristics of the servers involved as well as the specific requirements of the rides may vary. Problems are defined on some metric space, and the goal is to find a feasible solution that minimizes a

  18. Investigation of Pedestrian Comfort with Wind Chill during Winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungkeun Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Two types of methods are used to evaluate pedestrian comfort: pedestrian wind comfort and outdoor thermal comfort. To accurately ascertain the outdoor wind environment, wind speed is the only parameter considered. However, pedestrians may still feel discomfort when the perceived temperature is low, even though the wind comfort criterion has been satisfactorily fulfilled. The purpose of this study is, therefore, to investigate pedestrian comfort when the perceived temperature is low, especially in winter conditions. To achieve this, a pedestrian survey was conducted, and 588 respondents completed a questionnaire. The results show that pedestrians feel discomfort when the WCET (Wind Chill Equivalent Temperature is low, with almost 40 percent of respondents answering that they feel discomfort in these conditions. In conclusion, the threshold wind speed of the winter season could be determined to be lower than that of the existing comfort criteria by applying the WCET.

  19. Exploring comfort food preferences across age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansink, Brian; Cheney, Matthew M; Chan, Nina

    2003-09-01

    Building on findings related to physiological and psychological motivations of food preference, this research develops a framework to examine preferences toward comfort foods. Study 1 used a North American survey of 411 people to determine favored comfort foods, and Study 2 quantified the preferences for these foods across gender and across age groups using a stratified sample of 1005 additional people. Consistent with hypotheses, the findings showed different comfort food preferences across gender and across age. Males preferred warm, hearty, meal-related comfort foods (such as steak, casseroles, and soup), while females instead preferred comfort foods that were more snack related (such as chocolate and ice cream). In addition, younger people preferred more snack-related comfort foods compared to those over 55 years of age. Associations with guilty feelings underscored how these different preferences between males and females may extend to areas of application.

  20. Demographic Factors Affect Ocular Comfort Ratings During Contact Lens Wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naduvilath, Thomas; Papas, Eric B; Lazon de la Jara, Percy

    2016-08-01

    To determine if rating of ocular comfort during soft contact lens wear is affected by demographic factors. Retrospective analysis of ocular comfort ratings during soft contact lens wear extracted from 44 nonrandomized similar clinical trials (n = 986). Subjects wore one of seven daily wear silicone hydrogels (SiHy) in combination with one of nine lens care products (LCP), and two daily disposables lenses. The effects on comfort rating of demographic factors were examined after adjusting for lens and LCP effects using general linear model. Males reported lower comfort on insertion than females (7.9 ± 1.6 vs. 8.1 ± 1.6, p = 0.001). Over 45 years old had higher comfort ratings than those between 26 and 45 or gender, lens wear experience, ethnicity, and refractive status can influence the rating of ocular comfort in clinical studies. The confounding effects of such demographic factors can be controlled by implementing randomization and appropriate multivariable statistical analysis.

  1. Vibration Analysis of a Residential Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampaio Regina Augusta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the results of a study regarding vibration problems in a 17 storey residential building during pile driving in its vicinity. The structural design of the building was checked according to the Brazilian standards NBR6118 and NBR6123, and using commercial finite element software. An experimental analysis was also carried out using low frequency piezo-accelerometers attached to the building structure. Structure vibrations were recorded under ambient conditions. Four monitoring tests were performed on different days. The objective of the first monitoring test was an experimental modal analysis. To obtain de modal parameters, data was processed in the commercial software ARTEMIS employing two methods: the Stochastic Subspace Identification and the Frequency Domain Decomposition. Human comfort was investigated considering the International Standard ISO 2631. The Portuguese standard, NP2074, was also used as a reference, since it aims to limit the adverse effects of vibrations in structures caused by pile driving in the vicinity of the structure. The carried out experimental tests have shown that, according to ISO2301, the measure vibration levels are above the acceptance limits. However, velocity peaks are below the limits established by NP2074. It was concluded that, although the structure has adequate capacity to resist internal forces according to normative criteria, it has low horizontal stiffness, which could be verified by observing the vibration frequencies and mode shapes obtained with the finite element models, and its similarity with the experimental results. Thus, the analyses indicate the occurrence of discomfort by the residents.

  2. Electromyographic analysis of riding posture during the bicycling start moment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Padulo

    Full Text Available Abstract Professional cyclists often adopt a competition-start standing posture, which has been shown to improve performance. The biomechanical basis of this is unclear, and might be due to a greater mechanical advantage or increased key muscle activity. Previous observations in steady state cycling showed greater activation of the tibialis anterior, erector spinae, and biceps brachii when adopting a standing vs. seated-riding posture. Little is known regarding the effect of riding posture on activation during a standing start. Eleven cyclists performed standing starts in seated and standing-postures using stationary-cycle and on the track. Electromyography of the gastrocnemius medialis, tibialis anterior, erector spinae, and biceps brachii was recorded during first and subsequent pedal strokes. Results showed that the gastrocnemius medialis did not modify activity. The tibialis anterior, erector spinae, and biceps brachii activity was increased during the standing posture compared to seated, only during the first pedal stroke. These increased activation intensities were accompanied by a corresponding 10% increase in bike speed during the first 5 meters following a standing start in the standing posture compared to the seated one. Adopting a standing posture during a standing start improves performance through greater initial acceleration.

  3. Physiological Indicators in the Welfare Assessment of Riding Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Popescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The welfare assessment of horses includes the evaluation of their ability to cope with the challenges of theirenvironment and of work given to them. The aim of this study was to evaluate the welfare of 12 clinically healthyhorses from a riding school, using physiological indicators. Double determinations were made (in winter and inspring of 2011 by a set of two tests each time, before and after physical effort. The clinical parameters (heart andrespiratory rate were in the normal range at 20 minutes after effort, decreasing towards the resting values. Slightlyhigher values were recorded in the spring comparing with the winter, but the differences were not statisticallysignificant (P>0.05. Even if were in the normal range, the results of the haematology tests and the blood sugarvalues showed clearly the response of the horses’ organisms to exercise. The serum cortisol concentrations presentedan effort dependent elevation and higher values of the basic level were observed in the spring than in winter. Theother stress-response indicator recorded, the neutrophyle-lymphocyte ratio, showed dynamics correlated with that ofthe cortisol level. The physiological indicators tested in this study proved their real value in the riding horses’welfare assessment.

  4. Evaluation of ride quality measurement procedures by subjective experiments using simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauder, L. T., Jr.; Clevenson, S. A.

    1975-01-01

    Since ride quality is, by definition, a matter of passenger response, there is need for a qualification procedure (QP) for establishing the degree to which any particular ride quality measurement procedure (RQMP) does correlate with passenger responses. Once established, such a QP will provide very useful guidance for optimal adjustment of the various parameters which any given RQMP contains. A QP is proposed based on use of a ride motion simulator and on test subject responses to recordings of actual vehicle motions. Test subject responses are used to determine simulator gain settings for the individual recordings such as to make all of the simulated rides equally uncomfortable to the test subjects. Simulator platform accelerations vs. time are recorded with each ride at its equal discomfort gain setting. The equal discomfort platform acceleration recordings are then digitzed.

  5. [Impact of therapeutic riding on gait and posture regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwesig, R; Neumann, S; Richter, D; Kauert, R; Becker, S; Esperer, H D; Leuchte, S

    2009-06-01

    Hippotherapy has become an important therapeutic option in patients suffering from motoric dysfunction. The physiologic basis of this approach is the three-dimensional transmission of the horse's motion onto the patients body. These motion stimuli are believed to exert possitve effects on the patients's postural control systems. To test the hypothesis that hippotherapy has both positive short- and lang-term effects on gait and posture control of persons suffering from motoric disabilities. Twenty-two children and adolescents aged 9.69 +/- 4.01 years (range: 9.69 +/- 4.01 years) with motoric dysfunctions were included in a prospective matched control study. In each participant, gait and posture control were investigated on four different occasions (O1 - O4) using the Interactive balance system (IBS; Tetrax Inc., Ramat Gan, Israel) and the portable gait analysis sytem RehaWatch (Hasomed, Magdeburg, Germany). The dates of gait and posture analysis were defined as follows: O 1: immediately prior to first therapeutic riding session (TRS); O 2: immediately after first TRS; O 3: after the last day of an eight weeks period of daily TRS; O 4: seven weeks later after a TRS free interval. The following parameters were slightly improved (adjusted significance level of p < 0.003) after eight weeks of therapeutic riding: (O1 vs. O 3): (1) walking distance (p = 0.009, eta(2) = 0.339); (2) pace frequency (p = 0.007, eta(2) = 0.358); (3) walking speed (p = 0.006, eta(2) = 0.367), and (4) time of attachment (p = 0.007, eta(2) = 0.360). The only short-term effect observed was a significant decrease of the attachment phase (p = 0.002, eta(2) = 0.387). Interestingly, gait symmetry remained unaffected. Posturography (adjusted significance level of p < 0.01) at O 1 versus O 2 (short-term) showed a significant decrease of the performance of both the visual-nigrostriatal subsystem (p < 0.001) and the somato-sensory subsystem (p = 0.001). At O 1 versus O 3 (long-term), the following

  6. THERMAL COMFORT ZONES FORSTEADY-STATE ENERGY BALANCE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer KAYNAKLI

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the various thermal comfort parameters including temperature, relative humidity, air velocity, metabolic activity and clothing resistance and their effect to each other are examined. The heat transfer equations given for steady state energy balance between body and environment and the empirical equations which give thermal comfort and physiological control mechanisms of body are used. According to the ASHRAE Standard 55-1992, an environment can be assumed comfortable while Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied (PPD is less than % 10. Considering this, thermal comfort zones in various conditions are studied and results are presented and discussed

  7. Progress in thermal comfort research over the last twenty years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dear, R J; Akimoto, T; Arens, E A; Brager, G; Candido, C; Cheong, K W D; Li, B; Nishihara, N; Sekhar, S C; Tanabe, S; Toftum, J; Zhang, H; Zhu, Y

    2013-12-01

    Climate change and the urgency of decarbonizing the built environment are driving technological innovation in the way we deliver thermal comfort to occupants. These changes, in turn, seem to be setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research. This article presents a literature review of major changes, developments, and trends in the field of thermal comfort research over the last 20 years. One of the main paradigm shift was the fundamental conceptual reorientation that has taken place in thermal comfort thinking over the last 20 years; a shift away from the physically based determinism of Fanger's comfort model toward the mainstream and acceptance of the adaptive comfort model. Another noticeable shift has been from the undesirable toward the desirable qualities of air movement. Additionally, sophisticated models covering the physics and physiology of the human body were developed, driven by the continuous challenge to model thermal comfort at the same anatomical resolution and to combine these localized signals into a coherent, global thermal perception. Finally, the demand for ever increasing building energy efficiency is pushing technological innovation in the way we deliver comfortable indoor environments. These trends, in turn, continue setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research for the next decades. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Vehicle Vibration Analysis in Changeable Speeds Solved by Pseudoexcitation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Xin Guo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The vehicle driving comfort has become one of the important factors of vehicle quality and receives increasing attention. In this paper, the mechanical and mathematical models of the half-car, five degrees of freedom (DOF of a vehicle were established, as well as the pseudoexcitation model of road conditions for the front wheel and the rear wheel. By the pseudoexcitation method, the equations of transient response and power spectrum density were established. After numerical simulation to vehicle vibration response of changeable driving, the results show that the pseudoexcitation method is more convenient than the traditional method and effectively solves the smoothness computation problems of vehicles while the pseudoexcitation method is used to analyze vehicle vibration under nonstationary random vibration environments.

  9. Comfort parameters - Ventilation of a subway wagon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petr, Pavlíček; Ladislav, Tříska

    2017-09-01

    Research and development of a ventilation system is being carried out as a part of project TA04030774 of the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic. Name of the project is "Research and Development of Mass-optimized Components for Rail Vehicles". Problems being solved are development and testing of a new concept for ventilation systems for public transport vehicles. The main improvements should be a reduction of the mass of the whole system, easy installation and reduction of the noise of the ventilation system. This article is focused on the comfort parameters in a subway wagon (measurement and evaluation carried out on a function sample in accordance with the regulations). The input to the project is a ventilator hybrid casing for a subway wagon, which was manufactured and tested during the Ministry of Industry and Trade project TIP FR-TI3/449.

  10. Air humidity requirements for human comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Fanger, Povl Ole

    1999-01-01

    Upper humidity limits for the comfort zone determined from two recently presented models for predicting discomfort due to skin humidity and insufficient respiratory cooling are proposed. The proposed limits are compared with the maximum permissible humidity level prescribed in existing standards...... for the thermal indoor environment. The skin humidity model predicts discomfort as a function of the relative humidity of the skin, which is determined by existing models for human heat and moisture transfer based on environmental parameters, clothing characteristics and activity level. The respiratory model...... predicts discomfort as a function of the driving forces for heat loss from the respiratory tract, namely the air temperature and humidity of the surrounding air. An upper humidity limit based on a relative skin humidity of 0.54, corresponding to 20% dissatisfied, results in a maximum permissible humidity...

  11. Strategies for Sustainable Comfort in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    , or at least achieve a reduction of 90%. These option are slightly lower for the excising building, typically a 70% reduction. Electricity use for lighting, ventilation and appliances can typically in WesternEurope be reduced by 80% and still provide the services needed. The strategies for achieving......It is possible within some decades to achieve environmental sustainability in the building sector and at the same time provide a comfortable and healthy life for all Europeans as well as leaving that option open for other people in the world.Buildings are charcterized by having the longest lifetime...... of all capital in our societies, often more than a hundred years. For that reason they should never be designed on the bases of just present cheap energy supply and energy system, but with the long term outlook and risks in mind. New buildings can be designed to require essentially no space heating...

  12. Investigation of Comfort Properties of Knitted Denim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Abdul R.; Su, Siwei; Khalid, Junaid; Cai, Yingjie; Lin, Lina

    2017-12-01

    Knitted denim was designed by using cross terry structure on circular knitting machine. Knitted denim looks like a denim fabric which has visual appearance like woven denim. Two type of cross terry structure 2/1 and 3/1 were used which gives twill effect with 2 and 3 floats respectively. Four types of materials, cotton, polyester, flax and polypropylene were used. With four materials and two structural combinations 8 samples were produced. Comfort properties of knitted denim including moisture management, air permeability, thermal, and bursting strength were tested. For checking the inherent anti-microbial property of materials anti-microbial test was also applied. Samples containing flax and polyester were found with best results and not even a single sample was found anti-microbial.

  13. Effects of radiant temperature on thermal comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atmaca, Ibrahim; Kaynakli, Omer; Yigit, Abdulvahap [Uludag University, Bursa (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-09-15

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the local differences between body segments caused by high radiant temperature, and to analyze the interior surface temperatures for different wall and ceiling constructions with their effect on thermal comfort. For the segment-wise thermal interactions between human body and its surrounding, simulations have been conducted by appropriately modifying Gagge 2-node model to multi-segment case to demonstrate the local differences. Simulation results are found to be in good agreement with experimental and simulation results reported in the literature. To calculate the interior surface temperatures of the wall and ceiling, the sol-air temperature approach is used for convenience. It is shown in the paper that the body segments close the relatively hot surfaces are more affected than others and interior surface temperatures of un-insulated walls and ceilings exposed to a strong solar radiation reach high levels, all of which cause thermal discomfort for the occupants in buildings. (author)

  14. Thermal Comfort and Optimum Humidity Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Jokl

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal microclimate is the main component in indoor comfort. The optimum hydrothermal level can be ensured by suitable changes in the sources of heat and water vapor within the building, changes in the environment (the interior of the building and in the people exposed to the conditions inside the building. A change in the heat source and the source of water vapor involves improving the heat - insulating properties and the air permeability of the peripheral walls and especially of the windows. The change in the environment will bring human bodies into balance with the environment. This can be expressed in terms of an optimum or at least an acceptable globe temperature, an adequate proportion of radiant heat within the total amount of heat from the environment (defined by the difference between air and wall temperature, uniform cooling of the human body by the environment, defined a by the acceptable temperature difference between head and ankles, b by acceptable temperature variations during a shift (location unchanged, or during movement from one location to another without a change of clothing. Finally, a moisture balance between man and the environment is necessary (defined by acceptable relative air humidity. A change for human beings means a change of clothes which, of course, is limited by social acceptance in summer and by inconvenient heaviness in winter. The principles of optimum heating and cooling, humidification and dehumidification are presented in this paper.Hydrothermal comfort in an environment depends on heat and humidity flows (heat and water vapors, occurring in a given space in a building interior and affecting the total state of the human organism.

  15. Identifying clinically meaningful tools for measuring comfort perception of footwear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Kathryn; Blanch, Peter; Vicenzino, Bill

    2010-10-01

    Measures of comfort are important in the prescription and development of footwear. The purpose of our study was to examine three commonly used scales (visual analog scale (VAS), Likert scale, and ranking scale) to determine the most reliable, to calculate a minimal clinically important change in rating scales, and to explore dimensions of comfort important to the patient. Twenty subjects were allocated consecutively to two experiments consisting of five sessions of repeated measures. Using comfort measures from each subject's usual jogging shoe, experiment 1 examined the reliability of VAS and Likert scale over six dimensions of the foot, including overall comfort. The second experiment examined the reliability of ranking scale by assessing the ranked position of the shoe. Comfort measures were obtained in both walking and jogging. The ranking scale was the most stable scale. Mixed linear modeling found that VAS was more stable than the Likert scale. The VAS required two sessions to become reliable for all measures but those obtained from the heel, which required more. Using a data-derived approach, a clinically important change in comfort was 9.59 mm on the 100-mm VAS; using an anchor-based approach, it was 10.2 mm. Subjects identified arch comfort as the most important consideration in footwear comfort. Ranking scale and VAS are reliable measures of footwear comfort. Using the VAS, changes of 9.59 and 10.2 mm indicate a clinically relevant change in comfort. The most important dimensions to the patient are overall comfort and the arch.

  16. No calorie comfort: Viewing and drawing "comfort foods" similarly augment positive mood for those with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privitera, Gregory J; Welling, Deeanna; Tejada, Gabriela; Sweazy, Nicole; Cuifolo, Kayla N; King-Shepard, Quentin W; Doraiswamy, P Murali

    2016-12-01

    Based on behavioral and neurobiological data, we tested the hypothesis that viewing/drawing visual images of comfort foods in the absence of eating will increase positive mood and that this effect is augmented for those with clinical symptoms of depression. A counterbalanced design was used for 60 participants with and without clinical symptoms in two variations: food image and food art. In each variation, participants viewed/drew foods high or low in fat/sugar; pre-post mood was recorded. Results show a consistent pattern: viewing/drawing comfort foods [food image (95% confidence interval): 2.72-4.85; food art (95% confidence interval): 2.65-4.62] and fruits [food image (95% confidence interval): 1.20-2.23; food art (95% confidence interval): 1.51-2.56] enhanced mood. For comfort foods, mood was augmented for those with clinical symptoms of depression [food image (95% confidence interval): 0.95-3.59; food art (95% confidence interval): 0.97-3.46]. Findings corroborate previous data and reveal a novel finding of augmented mood increases for those with clinical symptoms.

  17. Comfort of workers in office buildings: The European HOPE project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluyssen, P.M.; Aries, M.; Dommelen, P. van

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that building, social and personal factors can influence one's perceived health and comfort. The aim of the underlying study was to get a better understanding of the relationships between these factors and perceived comfort. Self-administered questionnaires from 5732

  18. Sitting comfort and discomfort and the relationships with objective measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Looze, M.P.; Kuijt-Evers, L.F.M.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    The concepts of comfort and discomfort in sitting are under debate. There is no widely accepted definition, although it is beyond dispute that comfort and discomfort are feelings or emotions that are subjective in nature. Yet, beside several subjective methodologies, several objective methods (e.g.

  19. Comfort and patient-centred care without excessive sedation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Jean-Louis; Shehabi, Yahya; Walsh, Timothy S

    2016-01-01

    and Delirium guidelines, is conveyed in the mnemonic eCASH-early Comfort using Analgesia, minimal Sedatives and maximal Humane care. eCASH aims to establish optimal patient comfort with minimal sedation as the default presumption for intensive care unit (ICU) patients in the absence of recognised medical...

  20. The adaptive approach to thermal comfort: A critical overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E Halawa; Joost van Hoof

    2012-01-01

    The adaptive approach to thermal comfort has gained unprecedented exposure and rising status recently among the thermal comfort community at the apparent expense of the heat balance approach for the evaluation of naturally ventilated buildings. The main appeal of this adaptive approach lies in its

  1. Improving comfort while hiking in a sailing boat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.J.; Van Abbema, A.; Howe, C.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the changes in perceived comfort while hiking in a sailing boat (in this case the Laser, a single-handed Olympic dinghy) due to a new design of hiking pads. The project used a ‘research by design method’. The aim was to improve sailing comfort which leads to lower fatigue and

  2. Interior effects on comfort in healthcare waiting areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazley, C; Vink, P; Montgomery, J; Hedge, A

    2016-07-21

    This study compared the effects of pre-experience and expectations on participant comfort upon waking, arrival to, and after an appointment, as well as the assessment of properly placed Feng Shui elements in three healthcare waiting rooms. Participants assessed comfort levels using self-report surveys. The researcher conducted 'intention interviews' with each doctor to assess the goals of each waiting area design, and conducted a Feng Shui assessment of each waiting area for properly placed Feng Shui elements. The waiting area designed by the Feng Shui expert rated 'most comfortable', followed by the waiting area design by a doctor, and the lowest comfort rating for the conventional waiting room design. Results show a sufficiently strong effect to warrant further research. Awareness of the external environment, paired with pre-experience and expectation, influences comfort for people over time. Fostering and encouraging a holistic approach to comfort utilizing eastern and western concepts and ergonomic principles creates a sense of "placeness" and balance in the design for comfort in built environments. This is new research information on the influences of the comfort experience over time, to include pre-experience, expectations and the placement of elements in the external environment.

  3. the comfort, measured by means of a sweating manikin (waltertm)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Anton F Botha*, Marguerite E Stoffberg & Lawrance Hunter. ABSTRACT. With the growing importance of clothing comfort in South African and overseas markets for locally produced clothing, the Council for. Scientific Industrial Research (CSIR) acquired an advanced sweating fabric manikin for measuring clothing comfort.

  4. Human Comfort and the microclimatic drivers across different land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study identified spatially differentiated thermal human comfort conditions based on heat stress and microclimate data for specific urban built-up land use classes; and examined the influence of certain microclimatic elements on the observed human comfort levels within the coastal milieu of Port Harcourt metropolis.

  5. The End-State Comfort Effect in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adalbjornsson, Carola F.; Fischman, Mark G.; Rudisill, Mary E.

    2008-01-01

    The end-state comfort effect has been observed in recent studies of grip selection in adults. The present study investigated whether young children also exhibit sensitivity to end-state comfort. The task was to pick up an overturned cup from a table, turn the cup right side up, and pour water into it. Two age groups (N = 20 per group) were…

  6. New guidance for thermal comfort: Design primarily for females

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karjalainen, S., Email: sami.karjalainen@vtt.fi

    2012-06-15

    Until now differences between male and female subjects in terms of thermal comfort requirements have been generally considered to be small and insignificant. However, the results of this extensive literature review show that females express considerably more dissatisfaction than males in the same thermal environments. The target should be to create energy-efficient and thermally comfortable conditions for both genders. (orig.)

  7. Comfort Food: Nourishing Our Collective Stomachs and Our Collective Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Jordan D.; Wright, Julian W. C.

    2017-01-01

    Food is a powerful motivator in human functioning--it serves a biological need, as emotional support, and as a cultural symbol. Until recently, the term "comfort food" has been inadequately and unscientifically defined. In addition, the popular media have oversimplified the concept of comfort food as purely unhealthy food, often consumed…

  8. Implications of climate change on human comfort in buildings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A rise in temperature and humidity levels constitutes a potential hazard to health and human comfort and accelerates many degradation processes and material damage. Subsequently, the amount of energy needed to ... Keywords: climate change, greenhouse-effect, comfort zone. Journal of Science and Technology Vol.

  9. The aircraft interior comfort experience of 10,032 passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Mastrigt, S. van

    2011-01-01

    One airline strategy aimed at selling more tickets is to provide a superior comfort experience. However, only a small amount of public scientific information is available addressing the passenger’s opinion on comfort. In this study, 10,032 internet trip reports were used to gather opinions about

  10. Human pelvis motions when walking and when riding a therapeutic horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Brian A; Rigby, B Rhett

    2015-02-01

    A prevailing rationale for equine assisted therapies is that the motion of a horse can provide sensory stimulus and movement patterns that mimic those of natural human activities such as walking. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively measure and compare human pelvis motions when walking to those when riding a horse. Six able-bodied children (inexperienced riders, 8-12years old) participated in over-ground trials of self-paced walking and leader-paced riding on four different horses. Five kinematic measures were extracted from three-dimensional pelvis motion data: anteroposterior, superoinferior, and mediolateral translations, list angle about the anteroposterior axis, and twist angle about the superoinferior axis. There was generally as much or more variability in motion range observed between riding on the different horses as between riding and walking. Pelvis trajectories exhibited many similar features between walking and riding, including distorted lemniscate patterns in the transverse and frontal planes. In the sagittal plane the pelvis trajectory during walking exhibited a somewhat circular pattern whereas during riding it exhibited a more diagonal pattern. This study shows that riding on a horse can generate movement patterns in the human pelvis that emulate many, but not all, characteristics of those during natural walking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cycles of cooperation and free-riding in social systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y. P.; Gonçalves, S.; Mignot, S.; Nadal, J.-P.; Gordon, M. B.

    2009-10-01

    Basic evidences on non-profit making and other forms of benevolent-based organizations reveal a rough partition of members between some pure consumers of the public good (free-riders) and benevolent individuals (cooperators). We study the relationship between the community size and the level of cooperation in a simple model where the utility of joining the community is proportional to its size. We assume an idiosyncratic willingness to join the community ; cooperation bears a fixed cost while free-riding bears a (moral) idiosyncratic cost proportional to the fraction of cooperators. We show that the system presents two types of equilibria: fixed points (Nash equilibria) with a mixture of cooperators and free-riders and cycles where the size of the community, as well as the proportion of cooperators and free-riders, vary periodically.

  12. Solving the Dial-a-Ride Problem using Genetic Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rene Munk; Larsen, Jesper; Bergvinsdottir, Kristin Berg

    2007-01-01

    In the Dial-a-Ride problem (DARP), customers request transportation from an operator. A request consists of a specified pickup location and destination location along with a desired departure or arrival time and capacity demand. The aim of DARP is to minimize transportation cost while satisfying...... customer service level constraints (Quality of Service). In this paper, we present a genetic algorithm (GA) for solving the DARP. The algorithm is based on the classical cluster-first, route-second approach, where it alternates between assigning customers to vehicles using a GA and solving independent...... routing problems for the vehicles using a routing heuristic. The algorithm is implemented in Java and tested on publicly available data sets. The new solution method has achieved solutions comparable with the current state-of-the-art methods....

  13. Riding the waves of culture understanding cultural diversity in business

    CERN Document Server

    Trompenaars, Fons

    1993-01-01

    The definitive guide to cross-cultural management--updated to help you lead effectively during a time of unprecedented globalization First published nearly 20 years ago, Riding the Waves of Culture became the standard guide to conducting business in an international context. Now, the third edition provides you with important new information and groundbreaking methods for leading effectively in the most globalized business landscape ever. Fons Trompenaars is a world expert on international management and founder and director of Trompenaars Hampden-Turner (THT), a consulting firm in the field of intercultural management. Charles Hampden-Turner is a Senior Research Associate at the Judge Business School at the University of Cambridge and cofounder and Director of Research and Development at the Trompenaars-Hampden-Turner Group.

  14. Coordination of Advertising Free Riding in Hybrid Channel Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Sha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Advertising is a crucial tool for demand creation and market expansion; enterprises in supply chain use it widely to increase sales and improve profits. But the homogeneity of products sold in hybrid channel supply chain magnifies the positive externalities of advertising and leads to serious free-riding problem. To coordinate the supply chain effectively, firstly, this paper classifies hybrid channel supply chain based on the relationship between members and selects horizontally integrated, vertically integrated, and decentralized hybrid channel supply chains as research objects. Then, a demand function considering the common effect of price and advertising is proposed and coordination schemes for different types of supply chains are designed. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is performed to assess the impact of parameters on coordination using orthogonal experiment.

  15. Comfort evaluation as the example of anthropotechnical furniture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaović, Zoran; Bogner, Andrija; Grbac, Ivica

    2008-03-01

    Human health is becoming an increasingly important issue in contemporary hectic lifestyle imposed at work and by struggle to save time and money. Sitting comfort and quality of chairs which we use for the most of our time have, thus, become essential for healthy lifestyle. Sitting discomforts arise from prolonged sitting on the inappropriate chairs, which failing to provide sufficient support to the body cause discomfort and tiring. The studies of the office chair constructions have identified differences in perception of comfort provided by different types of seats. Four seat constructions and the comfort they provide to the sitters were compared by means of subjective indicators. After a two-day sitting on each of the studied chairs the subjects scored their perception of comfort and discomfort, using the questionnaire with 17 statements. Constructional forms and materials which contributed more to the sense of comfort by minimizing fatigue and pains developed by sitting were determined.

  16. Classification and management of the postoperative, high-riding nipple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Scott L; Albino, Frank P; Al-Attar, Ali

    2013-06-01

    Postoperative nipple malposition can be an aesthetically devastating problem for patients and a formidable challenge for surgeons. The authors' aim was to identify the common antecedent events leading to high-riding nipples, provide a classification system for these problems, and discuss management. A retrospective review of medical records was conducted for patients who presented to the senior surgeon (S.L.S.) for management of a postoperative, excessively high nipple-areola complex over an 8-year period from January of 2004 to March of 2012. Demographic information, medical histories, operative details, and office records were reviewed for each patient. The high nipple-areola complex was classified as mild, moderate, or severe depending on the distance from the superior breast border to the top of the nipple-areola complex in relation to the vertical breast height. Twenty-five women met study criteria, with 41 breasts determined to have an excessively high nipple-areola complex. The average patient was aged 44.3 years and had undergone 2.5±1.3 operations before the development of a notably high nipple-areola complex, including nipple-sparing mastectomy (32 percent), augmentation/mastopexy (29 percent), augmentation (27 percent), mastopexy (10 percent), and skin-sparing mastectomy with nipple reconstruction (2 percent). Patients were classified as having mild (27 percent), moderate (56 percent), or severe (17 percent) nipple-areola complex displacement; surgical correction was attempted in 54 percent of cases. A high-riding nipple-areola complex can develop following aesthetic or reconstructive surgery. Although many patients may not need or choose correction, there are surgical options that may be helpful in improving the nipple-areola complex position.

  17. Bicycle Riding, Walking, and Weight Gain in Premenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Anne C.; Mekary, Rania A.; Feskanich, Diane; Willett, Walter C.

    2011-01-01

    Context No research has been conducted on bicycle riding and weight control in comparison to walking. Objective To assess the association between bicycle riding and weight control in premenopausal women. Design, Setting, and Participants This was a 16-year follow-up of 18, 414 women in the Nurses’ Health Study II. Main Outcome Measures Weight change between 1989 and 2005 was the primary outcome and odds of gaining >5% of baseline body weight (BBW) by 2005 the secondary outcome. Results At baseline, only 39% walked briskly while only 1.2% bicycled for ≥30 min/d. For a 30 min/d increase in activity between 1989 and 2005, weight gain was significantly less for brisk walking (−1.81 kg; 95% confidence interval (CI) = −2.05,−1.56), bicycling (−1.59 kg; 95%CI= −2.09, −1.08), and other activities (−1.45 kg; 95%CI= −1.66, −1.24) but not for slow walking (+0.06 kg; 95%CI= −0.22, 0.35). Women who reported no bicycling in 1989 and increased to as little as 5 minutes/day in 2005 gained less weight (−0.74 kg; 95%CI= −1.41, −0.07, P-trend5% of their BBW (Odds Ratio (OR) =0.74, 95%CI=0.56–0.98) compared with those who reported no bicycling; overweight/obese women had lower odds at 2–3 hours/week (OR=0.54, 95%CI=0.34–86). Conclusions Bicycling, similar to brisk walking, is associated with less weight gain and an inverse dose-response relationship exists, especially among overweight/obese women. Future research should focus on brisk walking but also on greater time spent bicycling. PMID:20585071

  18. Model Indepedent Vibration Control

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Jing

    2010-01-01

    A NMIFC system is proposed for broadband vibration control. It has two important features. Feature F1 is that the NMIFC is stable without introducing any invasive effects, such as probing signals or controller perturbations, into the vibration system; feature F2 is

  19. Vibration Theory, Vol. 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    The present textbook has been written based on previous lecture notes for a course on stochastic vibration theory that is being given on the 9th semester at Aalborg University for M. Sc. students in structural engineering. The present 4th edition of this textbook on linear stochastic vibration...

  20. Vibration Theory, Vol. 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    The present textbook has been written based on previous lecture notes for a course on stochastic vibration theory that is being given on the 9th semester at Aalborg University for M. Sc. students in structural engineering. The present 2nd edition of this textbook on linear stochastic vibration...

  1. Hydroelastic Vibrations of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Folsø, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    A formula for the necessary hull girder bending stiffness required to avoid serious springing vibrations is derived. The expression takes into account the zero crossing period of the waves, the ship speed and main dimensions. For whipping vibrations the probability of exceedance for the combined...

  2. Gearbox vibration diagnostic analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Gearbox Vibration Diagnostic Analyzer installed in the NASA Lewis Research Center's 500 HP Helicopter Transmission Test Stand to monitor gearbox testing. The vibration of the gearbox is analyzed using diagnostic algorithms to calculate a parameter indicating damaged components.

  3. Mechanical vibration and shock analysis, sinusoidal vibration

    CERN Document Server

    Lalanne, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Everything engineers need to know about mechanical vibration and shock...in one authoritative reference work! This fully updated and revised 3rd edition addresses the entire field of mechanical vibration and shock as one of the most important types of load and stress applied to structures, machines and components in the real world. Examples include everything from the regular and predictable loads applied to turbines, motors or helicopters by the spinning of their constituent parts to the ability of buildings to withstand damage from wind loads or explosions, and the need for cars to m

  4. The Theory of Dynamic Public Transit Priority with Dynamic Stochastic Park and Ride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengming Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Public transit priority is very important for relieving traffic congestion. The connotation of dynamic public transit priority and dynamic stochastic park and ride is presented. Based on the point that the travel cost of public transit is not higher than the travel cost of car, how to determine the level of dynamic public transit priority is discussed. The traffic organization method of dynamic public transit priority is introduced. For dynamic stochastic park and ride, layout principle, scale, and charging standard are discussed. Traveler acceptability is high through the analysis of questionnaire survey. Dynamic public transit priority with dynamic stochastic park and ride has application feasibility.

  5. THE "COMFORT WOMEN" OF THE PACIFIC WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIA YURI OKAMOTO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the pacific war, about 80 to 200 thousand women were mobilized by the Japanese imperial army to sexually serve its soldiers, in one of world’s largest cases of human trafficking. Most of the victims, euphemistically known as "comfort women", came from Korea, Japan's colony at the time, and was attracted by false promises of employment or simply kidnapped by Japanese troops. Taken to military brothels throughout the pacific, they were subjected to repeated rape and beatings. Some of them, as young as age 12, were daily forced to have sex with Japanese soldiers, 10, 30, 50 times a day. The few women who survived and were able to return home at the end of the war continued to suffer for their past, through psychological trauma and social ostracism. They remained silent about their experience because of fear and shame. These women would have like to live in peace, being wives, mothers, sisters, grandmothers ... but this choice was denied to all. None received any compensation from the Japanese government official, who continues to evade its legal and moral responsibilities regarding war crime. Sixty-eight years later, they are still waiting for justice.

  6. Thermal comfort induced by Trombe walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Dayyeh, A. [Society for Energy Conservation and Sustainable Environment, Amman (Jordan)

    2007-07-01

    In order to reduce heating costs and greenhouse gases, there is an interest in researching passive architectural design in low cost dwellings to eventually create sustainable dwellings with thermal comfort. This paper presented the results of a study that investigated the effect of Trombe walls in low-cost dwellings in Jordan. The study involved using the sun, a natural renewable source of energy in order to warm the thin walled structures. Experiments were performed on full-scale models in search of ways to raise the temperatures of the exterior walls through solar radiation as a green and renewable energy resource. A Trombe wall system was enhanced by a reflective membrane. It was tested on two full size chambers built with the same construction materials used in the Jordanian building industry. The paper discussed the study methodology and results. The expected heat loss was significant when the weather outside was cool amidst cloudy weather. A more effective Trombe wall system could be achieved by introducing automatic shutters which close once the sun is interrupted by clouds. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  7. Laboratory and workplace assessments of rivet bucking bar vibration emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Thomas W; Warren, Christopher; Xu, Xueyan S; Welcome, Daniel E; Dong, Ren G

    2015-04-01

    Sheet metal workers operating rivet bucking bars are at risk of developing hand and wrist musculoskeletal disorders associated with exposures to hand-transmitted vibrations and forceful exertions required to operate these hand tools. New bucking bar technologies have been introduced in efforts to reduce workplace vibration exposures to these workers. However, the efficacy of these new bucking bar designs has not been well documented. While there are standardized laboratory-based methodologies for assessing the vibration emissions of many types of powered hand tools, no such standard exists for rivet bucking bars. Therefore, this study included the development of a laboratory-based method for assessing bucking bar vibrations which utilizes a simulated riveting task. With this method, this study evaluated three traditional steel bucking bars, three similarly shaped tungsten alloy bars, and three bars featuring spring-dampeners. For comparison the bucking bar vibrations were also assessed during three typical riveting tasks at a large aircraft maintenance facility. The bucking bars were rank-ordered in terms of unweighted and frequency-weighted acceleration measured at the hand-tool interface. The results suggest that the developed laboratory method is a reasonable technique for ranking bucking bar vibration emissions; the lab-based riveting simulations produced similar rankings to the workplace rankings. However, the laboratory-based acceleration averages were considerably lower than the workplace measurements. These observations suggest that the laboratory test results are acceptable for comparing and screening bucking bars, but the laboratory measurements should not be directly used for assessing the risk of workplace bucking bar vibration exposures. The newer bucking bar technologies exhibited significantly reduced vibrations compared to the traditional steel bars. The results of this study, together with other information such as rivet quality, productivity, tool

  8. Vibrations of rotating machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Osami; Kanki, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masao; Keogh, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    This book opens with an explanation of the vibrations of a single degree-of-freedom (dof) system for all beginners. Subsequently, vibration analysis of multi-dof systems is explained by modal analysis. Mode synthesis modeling is then introduced for system reduction, which aids understanding in a simplified manner of how complicated rotors behave. Rotor balancing techniques are offered for rigid and flexible rotors through several examples. Consideration of gyroscopic influences on the rotordynamics is then provided and vibration evaluation of a rotor-bearing system is emphasized in terms of forward and backward whirl rotor motions through eigenvalue (natural frequency and damping ratio) analysis. In addition to these rotordynamics concerning rotating shaft vibration measured in a stationary reference frame, blade vibrations are analyzed with Coriolis forces expressed in a rotating reference frame. Other phenomena that may be assessed in stationary and rotating reference frames include stability characteristic...

  9. Ability of independently ambulant children with cerebral palsy to ride a two-wheel bicycle: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toovey, Rachel; Reid, Susan M; Rawicki, Barry; Harvey, Adrienne R; Watt, Kerrianne

    2017-04-01

    Limited information exists on the ability of children with cerebral palsy (CP) to ride a two-wheel bicycle, an activity that may improve health and participation. We aimed to describe bicycle-riding ability and variables associated with ability to ride in children with CP (Gross Motor Functional Classification System [GMFCS] levels I-II) compared with children with typical development. This case-control study surveyed parents of 114 children with CP and 87 children with typical development aged 6 to 15 years (115 males, mean age 9y 11mo, standard deviation [SD] 2y 10mo). Kaplan-Meier methods were used to compare proportions able to ride at any given age between the two groups. Logistic regression was used to assess variables associated with ability to ride for children with CP and typical development separately. The proportion of children with CP able to ride at each level of bicycle-riding ability was substantially lower at each age than peers with typical development (pchildren with typical development were able to ride independently by 10 years of age, 51% of children with CP classified as GMFCS level I and 3% of those classified as GMFCS level II had obtained independent riding in the community by 15 years of age. Variables associated with ability to ride for children classified as GMFCS level I were age and parent-rated importance of their child being able to ride. Some independently ambulant children with CP can learn to ride a bicycle, in particular if they are classified as GMFCS level I. Variables associated with ability to ride deserve consideration in shaping future efforts for the majority of this population who are not yet able to ride. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  10. Share-A-Ride rideshare matching system (SARRMS). Systeme de coordination du covoiturage Share-A-Ride (SCCSAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    SARRMS (Share-A-Ride Rideshare Matching System) is an on-line, interactive system that produces up-to-date personalized matching information for rideshare applicants. SARRMS operates on microcomputers and is capable of handling a large number of requests with a high degree of accuracy and speed. The system is flexible enough to be used by employers, municipalities, and ridesharing agencies to provide rideshare matching service. It has been designed specifically for Canadian applications. The features of SARRMS are outlined, including the five software subsystems (Rideshare, Vanpool, Secondary File Maintenance, Report production in English or French, Purge, and Backup). Matching is done on basis of location, and a printout is obtained for the applicant which gives a list of possible pooling partners who have similar commuting characteristics, a list of vanpool operators and transit operators serving the applicant's zone, and a list of carpool parking lots based on commuting direction. A sample search is included.

  11. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Dynamic Seat Comfort in Aircrafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciloglu, Hakan

    This research focuses on the dynamic seat comfort in aircrafts specifically during takeoff, landing and cruise through turbulence flight conditions. The experiments are performed using a multi axis shaker table in the Automotive Centre of Excellence (ACE) at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology subjected to sample takeoff, landing and cruise vibration recordings obtained onboard of an actual flight. The input vibrations introduced to the aircraft seats during actual flight conditions and during the experiments in the ACE are compared and it is concluded that the given flight conditions were successfully replicated for the interest of this thesis. The experiments are conducted with two different aircraft seats, economy class and business class. Furthermore, to investigate the importance of seat cushion characteristics in addition to economy and business class seat cushions, three laboratory made cushions were included in the investigation as well. Moreover, the effect of passenger weight is also discussed by conducting the experiments with 1 and 2 identical dummies. It is concluded that static seat properties play a significant role in the comfort perception level as well as flight conditions. Among the three flight condition, landing appeared to be the most uncomfortable case comparing to takeoff and cruise. In addition to experimental work, a numerical study to simulate the flight conditions is undertaken with the initial work of CAD modelling. The simulated responses of the seat is partially matching with experimental results due to unknown parameters of the cushion and the connections of the aircraft seat that cannot be created in the CAD model due to unknown manufacturing processes.

  12. Sensitivity of the human back and buttocks: The missing link in comfort seat design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Peter; Lips, Daan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the differences in pressure sensitivity for areas of the human body in contact with the seat pan and backrest of a vehicle seat. These could provide a theoretical base for adapting the softness of the foam or the flexibility components used in seat design. Sensitivity was recorded at 32 points touching the seat pan and backrest by pushing a cylinder with a diameter of 20 mm into the seat until the participant reported that they were no longer comfortable. The force at which discomfort was reported was recorded using an advanced force gauge. The area of the body having contact with the front of the seat pan was more sensitive than the rest of those parts touching the seat pan. The area of the seat touching the shoulders was significantly more sensitive than the area in between the shoulders and lower down the back. Translating these findings directly into seat design should be done with care. Tests are still needed to confirm the assumed relationship between sensitivity and foam softness. Further information is also needed regarding the complete use of a seat, including analysis of vibrations while driving and comfort during ingress and egress. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. The Influence of Tractor-Seat Height above the Ground on Lateral Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Gil, Jaime; Gomez-Gil, Francisco Javier; Martin-de-Leon, Rebeca

    2014-01-01

    Farmers experience whole-body vibrations when they drive tractors. Among the various factors that influence the vibrations to which the driver is exposed are terrain roughness, tractor speed, tire type and pressure, rear axle width, and tractor seat height above the ground. In this paper the influence of tractor seat height above the ground on the lateral vibrations to which the tractor driver is exposed is studied by means of a geometrical and an experimental analysis. Both analyses show that: (i) lateral vibrations experienced by a tractor driver increase linearly with tractor-seat height above the ground; (ii) lateral vibrations to which the tractor driver is exposed can equal or exceed vertical vibrations; (iii) in medium-size tractors, a feasible 30 cm reduction in the height of the tractor seat, which represents only 15% of its current height, will reduce the lateral vibrations by around 20%; and (iv) vertical vibrations are scarcely influenced by tractor-seat height above the ground. The results suggest that manufacturers could increase the comfort of tractors by lowering tractor-seat height above the ground, which will reduce lateral vibrations. PMID:25340448

  14. The Influence of Tractor-Seat Height above the Ground on Lateral Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Gomez-Gil

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Farmers experience whole-body vibrations when they drive tractors. Among the various factors that influence the vibrations to which the driver is exposed are terrain roughness, tractor speed, tire type and pressure, rear axle width, and tractor seat height above the ground. In this paper the influence of tractor seat height above the ground on the lateral vibrations to which the tractor driver is exposed is studied by means of a geometrical and an experimental analysis. Both analyses show that: (i lateral vibrations experienced by a tractor driver increase linearly with tractor-seat height above the ground; (ii lateral vibrations to which the tractor driver is exposed can equal or exceed vertical vibrations; (iii in medium-size tractors, a feasible 30 cm reduction in the height of the tractor seat, which represents only 15% of its current height, will reduce the lateral vibrations by around 20%; and (iv vertical vibrations are scarcely influenced by tractor-seat height above the ground. The results suggest that manufacturers could increase the comfort of tractors by lowering tractor-seat height above the ground, which will reduce lateral vibrations.

  15. Comfort experience in palliative care: a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Adriana; Parola, Vitor; Escobar-Bravo, Miguel; Apóstolo, João

    2016-08-02

    Palliative care aims to provide maximum comfort to the patient. However it is unknown what factors facilitate or hinder the experience of comfort, from the perspective of inpatients of palliative care units. This lack of knowledge hinders the development of comfort interventions adjusted to these patients. The aim of this research is to describe the comfort and discomfort experienced by inpatients at palliative care units. A phenomenological descriptive study was undertaken. Ten inpatients were recruited from a Spanish palliative care unit and seven from a Portuguese palliative care unit. Data were collected using individual interviews and analysed following the method of Giorgi. Four themes reflect the essence of the lived experience: The Palliative Care as a response to the patient's needs with advanced disease, attempt to naturalize advanced disease, confrontation with their own vulnerability, openness to the spiritual dimension. Informants revealed that they experience comfort through humanized care, differentiated environment, symptomatic control, hope and relationships. The discomfort emerges from the losses and powerlessness against their situation. Even if such findings may seem intuitive, documenting them is essential because it invites us to reflect on our convictions about what it means to be comfortable for these patients, and allows incorporating this information in the design of focused interventions to maximize the comfort experience.

  16. Instruments to assess patient comfort during hospitalization: A psychometric review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Sonia; Losilla, Josep-Maria; Vives, Jaume

    2017-11-03

    To analyse the psychometric properties and the utility of instruments used to measure patient comfort, physical, social, psychospiritual and/or environmental, during hospitalization. There are no systematic reviews nor psychometric reviews of instruments used to measure comfort, which is considered an indicator of quality in health care associated with quicker discharges, increased patient satisfaction and better cost-benefit ratios for the institution. Psychometric review. MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge, ProQuest Thesis&Dissertations, Google. We limited our search to studies published between 1990-2015. The psychometric analysis was performed using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN), along with the Quality Criteria for Measurement Properties. The utility of the instruments was assessed according to their cost-efficiency, acceptability and educational impact. Protocol registration in PROSPERO, CRD42016036290. Instruments reviewed showed moderate methodological quality and their utility was poorly reported. Thus, we cannot recommend any questionnaire without reservations, but the Comfort Scale, the General Comfort Questionnaire and their adaptations in adults and older patients, the Psychosocial Comfort Scale and the Incomfort des Patients de Reanimation are the most recommendable instruments to measure comfort. The methodology of the studies should be more rigorous and authors should adequately report the utility of instruments. This review provides a strategy to select the most suitable instrument to assess patient comfort according to their psychometric properties and utility, which is crucial for nurses, clinicians, researchers and institutions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Evaluation of motorcyclist's discomfort during prolonged riding process with and without lumbar support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmegam Karuppiah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study is to examine the effects of a backrest: using a prototype of a lumbar support presented in author's earlier study on the discomfort rating of the body parts of motorcyclist. METHODS: One hundred motorcyclists participated in this study, all in good physical condition and with no immediate complaint of musculoskeletal disorders. Each participant was asked to sit for 2 hours on a motorcycle in two different sessions (with and without the lumbar support in a controlled room environment. At every 15 minutes interval the participants were required to rate their discomfort level on the Borg's CR-10 questionnaire. RESULTS: The rate of discomfort level (in all body parts decreased over time during the testing period with the prototype. In terms of the discomfort 'break point', participants identified low back and upper back as the most affected body parts prior to comfort changes during the testing period with the use of the prototype. CONCLUSIONS: The use of this prototype provides a protective mechanism for the motorcyclist's musculoskeletal system, particularly the spinal column. Therefore, this prototype is capable of providing ideal posture while simultaneously enhancing the comfortability of the motorcyclist during the riding process (by reducing discomfort.OBJETIVO: O objetivo principal deste estudo é analisar os efeitos de um encosto, usando um protótipo de um apoio lombar apresentado em estudo anterior do autor sobre a avaliação de desconforto das partes do corpo do motociclista. MÉTODOS: Cem motociclistas participaram neste estudo, todos em boas condições físicas e sem queixa imediata de lesões músculo-esqueléticas. Cada participante foi convidado a se sentar por 2 horas em uma moto em duas sessões diferentes (com e sem o apoio lombar em uma sala com ambiente controlado. A cada intervalo de 15 minutos, os participantes foram solicitados a classificar o seu nível de desconforto no question

  18. [Comfort and noise level in infants with helmet interface].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, A; Alvarez Fernández, P; Rey Galán, C; Álvarez Mendiola, P; Álvarez Blanco, S; Vivanco Allende, A

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate comfort and noise intensity using the COMFORT scale in infants who receive respiratory support with a helmet interface. An observational descriptive study was conducted on all infants (1 to 12 months of age) admitted to a PICU from November 1st 2013 to March 31st 2014 and who received non-invasive ventilation with a helmet interface. Tolerance to the interface was assessed by use of the COMFORT scale. The intensity of the noise to which the infants were exposed was measured with a TES1350A HIBOK 412 sound-level meter. Three measurements were made every day. Twenty seven patients with bronchiolitis (median age: 54 days; range: 10 to 256) were included. Median COMFORT score in the first day was 21 points (14 - 28). An increase in patient comfort was found with a gradual decrease in the scores, with a maximum reduction of 22% from the first hours (score of 22) to the fifth day (score of 18). The minimum sound intensity registered was 42dB, and the maximum was 78dB. Background noise intensity was associated with noise intensity in the helmet. No differences were observed in COMFORT score and noise intensity between ventilator devices. Helmet interface was well tolerated by infants. COMFORT score results are an indicator that infants were comfortable or very comfortable. The measured noise intensity was in the safe range permitted by World Health Organization. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Ride Control Systems - Reduced Motions on the Cost of Increased Sectional Forces ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folsø, R.; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Torti, F.

    2003-01-01

    domain limits on the angle of attack cannot be set. Since the lift coefficient is treated linearly the calculated lift force is severely overestimated in rough sea. Secondly the effect of including ride control systems in the calculations is demonstrated through comparisons of RMS values and of response......Implementation of passive and active ride control systems into both linear frequency and non-linear time domain strip theories is described. The ride control systems considered can consist of T-foils, fins or a combination of these. These appendages are taken into account by considering the lift...... by adding the lift forces to the exciting forces in the equations of motion. One of the advantages in the time domain is that the angle of attack can be limited easily, as is often the case in real full scale ride control systems. This way cavitation and finally stalling can be avoided. In the frequency...

  20. Developing a model-based decision support system for call-a-ride paratransit service problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Paratransit is the transportation service that supplements larger public transportation : systems by providing individualized rides without fixed routes or timetables. In 1990, : the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was passed which allows passe...

  1. Control of Doubly-Fed Induction Generator to Ride-Through Recurring Grid Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Wenjie; Xu, Dehong; Zhu, Nan

    2016-01-01

    The wind turbine system (WTS) is required to ride-through recurring grid faults by the new grid codes. Under single grid faults, the fault ride-through (FRT) strategy with rotor-side crowbar is normally used for the doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) WTS. However, under recurring faults, larger...... system will be influenced. In this paper, an FRT strategy for the DFIG WTS to ride-through recurring symmetrical grid faults is investigated. An improved control strategy is introduced and it is applied during the voltage recovery of the grid faults. The decay of the stator natural flux can...... transient current and voltage may be produced, and the DFIG may fail to ride-through the second fault even with the rotor-side crowbar. The crowbar can be active again during the voltage recovery, but large electromagnetic torque (EM-torque) fluctuations will be introduced. The reliability of the mechanical...

  2. Testing of Tools for Measurement Vibration in Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin JURÁNEK

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This work is specialized on testing of several sensors for measurement vibration, that be applicable for measurement on vehicles also behind running. These sensors are connected to PC and universal mobile measuring system cRIO (National Instruments with analog I/O module for measurement vibration, that is described in diploma work: [JURÁNEK 2008]. This system has upped mechanical and heat imunity, small proportions and is therefore acceptable also measurement behind ride vehicles. It compose from two head parts. First is measuring part, composite from instruments cRIO. First part is controlled and monitored by PDA there is connected of wireless (second part hereof system. To system cRIO is possible connect sensors by four BNC connector or after small software change is possible add sensor to other analog modul cRIO. Here will be test several different types of accelerometers (USB sensor company Phidgets, MEMS sensor company Freescale, piezoresistiv and Delta Tron accelerometers company Brüel&Kjær. These sensors is attach to stiff board, board is attach to vibrator and excite by proper signal. Testing will realized with reference to using for measurement in cars. Results will be compared with professional signal analyser LabShop pulse from company Brüel&Kjær.

  3. Traumatic spinal cord injuries in horseback riding: a 35-year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cindy Y; Wright, Jerry; Bushnik, Tamara; Shem, Kazuko

    2011-11-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a potentially disabling neurologic injury that can occur in horseback riding. To date, no published study has examined the epidemiology of SCI from horseback riding in the United States, and few international studies exist on this topic. Several studies have described traumatic brain injuries, spine fractures, and extremity injuries; however, SCI patterns and outcomes in horseback riders are poorly understood. This study was undertaken to characterize the demographics, SCI patterns, and neurologic outcomes of persons with SCIs related to horseback riding. Descriptive epidemiologic study. This is a retrospective review of 121 SCI cases from horseback riding in the National SCI Statistical Center database from 1973 to 2008. The treatment setting was 26 U.S. SCI Model Systems of Care. The number of injuries, gender, age, and SCI type for horseback riding were compared with other sports and activities. The level of preserved neurologic function, SCI completeness, American Spinal Injury Association classification, and mechanical ventilation use at discharge were examined in the horseback riding group. The mean age of injury was 37.8 years (standard deviation, 15.2). The majority of patients were white (88%) and female (50.4%). Compared with diving, motorcycle riding, football, and gymnastics, horseback riding involved a significantly higher number of women (P < .005), a higher mean age of injury, and an equal likelihood of resulting in paraplegia and tetraplegia. The most common levels of preserved neurologic function were C4-C6, T12, and L1. Spinal cord injury from horseback riding most commonly resulted in incomplete tetraplegia (41%) followed by complete paraplegia (24%). Only 4 patients required mechanical ventilation on discharge from acute inpatient rehabilitation. Spinal cord injury from horseback riding affects an equal proportion of women and men, has a wide age range, and most commonly results in incomplete tetraplegia followed by

  4. A personalised thermal comfort model using a Bayesian network

    OpenAIRE

    Auffenberg, Frederik; Stein, Sebastian; Rogers, Alex

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we address the challenge of predicting optimal comfort temperatures of individual users of a smart heating system. At present, such systems use simple models of user comfort when deciding on a set point temperature. These models generally fail to adapt to an individual user’s preferences, resulting in poor estimates of a user’s preferred temperature. To address this issue, we propose a personalised thermal comfort model that uses a Bayesian network to learn and adapt to a user’...

  5. EVALUATION OF SEAT VIBRATION SOURCES IN DRIVING CONDITION USING SPECTRAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD KAMAL

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Seat vibration is one of the major causes of discomfort in moving vehicle. Tyre, engine, drivetrain and aerodynamic forces excite the cabin and interior through various pathways. In this paper, the contributions of tyre and engine vibration to seat excitations are studied. Virtual Source Analysis (VSA is implemented to decompose the source signals into incoherent phenomena. Studying these phenomena (virtual sources shows the amount and frequency bands that physical sources affect the seat vibration as the response channel. Experiment is conducted while riding on smooth and bumpy roads. Road roughness is characterized using International Roughness Index (IRI. VSA technique approve that tyre is the main source of seat vibration for the moving vehicle. Seat vibration has significant values below 400 Hz and tyre is found to be the dominant source of excitations for both smooth and bumpy roads. For smooth road, strong engine harmonics below 200 Hz also has some involvements. But in bumpy road, tyre vibration rise up and become the dominant broadband source of excitations. Tyre damper and engine mount Frequency Response Function (FRF analysis show that these parts are designed to be highly efficient below 1400 Hz and 200 Hz, respectively. These ranges are identical with those that were found as the critical operational frequency spans in VSA.

  6. ORide: A Privacy-Preserving yet Accountable Ride-Hailing Service

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Anh; Dacosta, Italo; Endignoux, Guillaume; Troncoso-Pastoriza, Juan,; Huguenin, Kévin; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    International audience; In recent years, ride-hailing services (RHSs) have be- come increasingly popular, serving millions of users per day. Such systems, however, raise significant privacy concerns, because service providers are able to track the precise mobility patterns of all riders and drivers. In this paper, we propose ORide (Oblivious Ride), a privacy- preserving RHS based on somewhat-homomorphic en- cryption with optimizations such as ciphertext packing and transformed processing. Wit...

  7. The Theory of Dynamic Public Transit Priority with Dynamic Stochastic Park and Ride

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Chengming; Chen, Yanyan; Ma, Changxi

    2014-01-01

    Public transit priority is very important for relieving traffic congestion. The connotation of dynamic public transit priority and dynamic stochastic park and ride is presented. Based on the point that the travel cost of public transit is not higher than the travel cost of car, how to determine the level of dynamic public transit priority is discussed. The traffic organization method of dynamic public transit priority is introduced. For dynamic stochastic park and ride, layout principle, scal...

  8. Structural Stability and Vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiggers, Sine Leergaard; Pedersen, Pauli

    This book offers an integrated introduction to the topic of stability and vibration. Strikingly, it describes stability as a function of boundary conditions and eigenfrequency as a function of both boundary conditions and column force. Based on a post graduate course held by the author at the Uni......This book offers an integrated introduction to the topic of stability and vibration. Strikingly, it describes stability as a function of boundary conditions and eigenfrequency as a function of both boundary conditions and column force. Based on a post graduate course held by the author...... and their derivation, thus stimulating them to write interactive and dynamic programs to analyze instability and vibrational modes....

  9. The workload of riding-school horses during jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M; Spierenburg, A J; van den Broek, E T W

    2006-08-01

    As there are no reports on the real workload of horses that jump fences, this study was undertaken in riding-school horses. To compare the workload of horses jumping a course of fences with that of horses cantering over the same course at the same average speed without jumping fences. The workload variables included heart rate (HR), packed cell volume (PCV), acid-base balance (venous pH, pCO2, HCO3-) and blood lactate (LA), glucose, total protein and electrolyte concentrations. Eight healthy riding-school horses performed test A (a course of approximately 700 m with 12 jumps from 0.8-1.0 m high at an average speed of approximately 350 m/min) and test B (same course at the same speed, but without the rails) in a crossover study with at least 4 h between the 2 tests. Before each test the horses were fitted with a heart rate meter (Polar Electro). Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein at rest prior to the test, after warm-up before starting the course, immediately after the course and after recovery. All samples were analysed immediately. The mean +/- s.d maximal HR (beats/min) during the course (184 +/- 17 and 156 +/- 21, respectively) and the mean HR after recovery (75 +/- 6 and 63 +/- 7, respectively) were significantly higher in test A compared to test B (P = 0.001 and P = 0.007 respectively). The mean LA concentrations after the course and after recovery (mmol/l) were significantly higher in test A (3.6 +/- 2.7 and 1.0 +/- 0.9, respectively) compared to test B (0.9 +/- 0.5 and 0.3 +/- 0.1, respectively), (P = 0.016 and P = 0.048 respectively). The mean PCV (I/l) after the course and after recovery was also significantly different between tests A (0.48 +/- 0.04 and 0.39 +/- 0.03, respectively) and B (0.42 +/- 0.04 and 0.36 +/- 0.03, respectively) (PPspeed without fences. This study makes it clear that the extra workload of jumping fences should be taken into account in the training programmes of jumping horses. Further research with more experienced

  10. Descriptive analysis of combine cabin vibrations and their effect on the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostens, I.; Ramon, H.

    2003-09-01

    All on- and off-road vehicles are exposed to vibrations caused by unevenness of road or soil profile, moving elements within the machine or implements. A higher prevalence of low back pain is found in drivers of off-road machinery than in other drivers. In this study, significantly higher levels of low-frequency vibrations are found in the cabin of a combine, driving at high speed (20 km/h) on a concrete surface, compared to driving slower on field road. Comfort values indicate that injury can result from long-term driving on the field as well as on a concrete road. As seats with suspension systems are the main transmission paths of vibration towards the spine of the driver, their vibration attenuating characteristics play an important role in comfort assessment. The resonant frequency of seats with passive suspension system, used in agricultural machinery, lies in the low-frequency range most excited in agricultural machinery. A seat with air suspension is found to attenuate better frequencies above 4 Hz and provide more comfort to the driver than a seat with a mechanical suspension.

  11. Vibration Analysis and the Accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Have you ever put your hand on an electric motor or motor-driven electric appliance and felt it vibrate? Ever wonder why it vibrates? What is there about the operation of the motor, or the object to which it is attached, that causes the vibrations? Is there anything "regular" about the vibrations, or are they the result of random causes? In this…

  12. Materialities shape practices and notions of comfort in everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Line Valdorff

    2017-01-01

    The development of residential energy technologies aims to ensure thermal comfort in an increasingly energy-efficient manner. This development influences everyday practices related to comfort in everyday life in dwellings. Therefore, an empirical analysis of interviews with residents in three types...... of Danish detached houses, related to the building age, is used to understand how changes in technologies influence residents’ practices and notions of comfort. Detached houses are the most widespread type of housing in Denmark, constituting 44% of the housing stock. The analysis focuses on differences...... in heating systems between the housing types and shows how changes in technologies and material structures shape the practices of heating and airing. A shift in technology from radiators to underfloor heating was found to make a clear difference in both how houses are heated and thermal comfort is perceived...

  13. Importance of thermal comfort for library building in Kuching, Sarawak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, S.H.; Baharun, A.; Abdul Mannan, M.D.; Abang Adenan, D.A. [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS), 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak (Malaysia)

    2013-07-01

    Malaysian Government takes an initiative to provide library in housing areas to improve the quality of human capital. However, the government has to evaluate every aspect of their provision to ensure the services provided meet the demands of the users, including the aspect of thermal comfort in the building. For this study, a library constructed using Industrialised Building System (IBS) are selected for thermal comfort evaluation. The data were analyzed using Corrected Effective Temperature (CET) index. From the data analysis, it shows that thermal comfort in the library could not be achieved most of the time unless when the mechanical cooling is used. A series of technical design improvements are then recommended to improve the thermal comfort inside the library by incorporating construction details without increasing the cost.

  14. Thermal Comfort in a Naturally-Ventilated Educational Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mwale Ogoli

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study of thermal comfort in a naturally ventilated education building (88,000 ft2 in a Chicago suburb will be conducted with 120 student subjects in 2007. This paper discusses some recent trends in worldwide thermal comfort studies and presents a proposal of research for this building through a series of questionnaire tables. Two research methods used inthermal comfort studies are field studies and laboratory experiments in climate-chambers. The various elements that constitute a “comfortable” thermal environment include physical factors (ambient air temperature, mean radiant temperature, air movement and humidity, personal factors(activity and clothing, classifications (gender, age, education, etc. and psychological expectations (knowledge, experience, psychological effect of visual warmth by, say, a fireplace. Comparisons are made using data gathered from Nairobi, Kenya.Keywords: Comfort, temperature, humidity and ventilation

  15. Vibrations and Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    About this textbook An ideal text for students that ties together classical and modern topics of advanced vibration analysis in an interesting and lucid manner. It provides students with a background in elementary vibrations with the tools necessary for understanding and analyzing more complex...... dynamical phenomena that can be encountered in engineering and scientific practice. It progresses steadily from linear vibration theory over various levels of nonlinearity to bifurcation analysis, global dynamics and chaotic vibrations. It trains the student to analyze simple models, recognize nonlinear...... phenomena and work with advanced tools such as perturbation analysis and bifurcation analysis. Explaining theory in terms of relevant examples from real systems, this book is user-friendly and meets the increasing interest in non-linear dynamics in mechanical/structural engineering and applied mathematics...

  16. From occupying to inhabiting - a change in conceptualising comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffari, Svenja D.; Matthews, Ben

    2009-11-01

    The concept of 'comfort' has been influential in shaping aspects of our built environment. For the construction industry, comfort is predominantly understood in terms of the balance between an ideal human physiological state and a finite number of measurable environmental parameters that can be controlled (temperature, humidity, air quality, daylighting, noise). It is such a notion of comfort that has informed the establishment of universally applied comfort standards and guidelines for the built environment. When buildings rigidly conform to these standards, they consume vast quantities of energy and are responsible for higher levels of GHG emissions. Recent researchers have challenged such instrumental definitions of comfort on moral and environmental grounds. In this paper, we address this issue from two different standpoints: one empirical, one related to the design of technology. Empirically, we present an analysis of ethnographic field material that has examined how, in what circumstances, and at what times ordinary users employ energy-intensive indoor climate technologies in their daily lives. We argue that when comfort is viewed as an achievement, rather than as a reified and static ideal homeostasis between humans and their environmental conditions, it becomes easier to appreciate the extent to which comfort is, for ordinary people, personally idiosyncratic, culturally relative, socially influenced and highly dependent on temporality, sequence and activity. With respect to design, we introduce a set of provocative designed prototypes that embody alternative conceptions of 'comfort' than those to which the building industry typically subscribes. Our discussion has critical implications for the types of technologies that result from a 'comfort standards' conception. Firstly, we show that comfort is not simply a homeostatic equilibrium-such a view is overly narrow, inflexible and ultimately an inaccurate conception of what comfort is for ordinary people

  17. Influence of sleeping pads on thermal comfort of sleeping bag

    OpenAIRE

    Vinš, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Name of thesis: Influence of sleeping pads on thermal comfort of sleeping bag Abstract: The goals: The objective is to test different types of sleeping pads using the same sleeping bag in the specific stable conditions. Find and state test results for every sleeping pads. Conclusion of the thesis contain desicion, which sleeping pad is the best for thermal comfort in sleeping bag. Methods: Testing was conducted at 5 different sleeping pads using the same sleeping bag for each of the pads. Fou...

  18. Thermal Comfort Studies in Naturally Ventilated Buildings in Jakarta, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Karyono, Tri; Sri, Elita; Sulistiawan, Jevi; Triswanti, Yenny

    2015-01-01

    Many thermal comfort studies have been conducted in offices, classrooms and dwellings, but few in public buildings such as cathedrals, museums and markets. A recent thermal comfort study has been conducted in three naturally ventilated (NV) buildings, a cathedral, a museum and a market, in Jakarta, between March and April 2014. There is a curiosity as to whether people doing slightly different activities with slightly different clothing insulation values, in different building types, might ha...

  19. Improvement of Thermal Comfort in a Naturally Ventilated Office

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik; Jensen, J.; Larsen, J.

    The paper describes the results of laboratory investigations in a mock-up of an office space with the purpose of investigating the impact of different opening strategies on thermal comfort conditions in the occupied zone. The results show that different window opening strategies result in quite...... different airflow and thermal comfort conditions. The conditions are a result of a multivariable impact, and detailed descriptions of the flows involved are complex....

  20. Indoor temperatures for optimum thermal comfort and human performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Dear, R.; Arens, E. A.; Candido, C.

    2014-01-01

    A response by R. J. de Dear et al to a letter to the editor in response to their article "Progress in thermal comfort research over the last 20 years," published in a 2013 issue.......A response by R. J. de Dear et al to a letter to the editor in response to their article "Progress in thermal comfort research over the last 20 years," published in a 2013 issue....

  1. Physical Environment Comfort Impacts on Office Employee’s Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chua Shirley Jin Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Office workplaces today is now no longer only consisting of passive and fixed activity but also towards a more flexible environment activity. The number of office workplaces is hiking from day to day which leads to the increase of the office workers. The productivity will be improved by providing optimum physical environment. The physical environment comfort in a workplace is claimed to be vital as it will encourages healthier, more productive and lower absenteeism rate among employees. The physical environment comfort encompassed optimum room temperature, relative humidity and illuminance level. This research intend to investigate the importance of physical environment comfort by evaluating the comfort based on the existing workplace and determine its effect on employee’s performance. Evaluation between the selected case studies are made in the aspects of employee’s comfort perceive health and absenteeism rate by wielding the elements of physical comfort consisting room temperature, relative humidity and illuminance level. Field study was carried out for 3 institutional building particularly management department. High correlations are found between room temperature, lighting and relative humidity with health related issue such as stuffy, easily tired and difficulty in concentration which affect employees’ productivity and work performances.

  2. Impact of measurable physical phenomena on contact thermal comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fojtlín Miloš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cabin HVAC (Heating Ventilation and Air-conditioning systems have become an essential part of personal vehicles as demands for comfortable transport are still rising. In fact, 85 % of the car trips in Europe are shorter than 18 km and last only up to 30 minutes. Under such conditions, the HVAC unit cannot often ensure desired cabin environment and passengers are prone to experience thermal stress. For this reason, additional comfort systems, such as heated or ventilated seats, are available on the market. However, there is no straightforward method to evaluate thermal comfort at the contact surfaces nowadays. The aim of this work is to summarise information about heated and ventilated seats. These technologies use electrical heating and fan driven air to contact area in order to achieve enhanced comfort. It is also expected, that such measures may contribute to lower energy consumption. Yet, in real conditions it is almost impossible to measure the airflow through the ventilated seat directly. Therefore, there is a need for an approach that would correlate measurable physical phenomena with thermal comfort. For this reason, a method that exploits a measurement of temperatures and humidity at the contact area is proposed. Preliminary results that correlate comfort with measurable physical phenomena are demonstrated.

  3. Lubricant effects on low Dk and silicone hydrogel lens comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Jerome; Papas, Eric

    2008-08-01

    To investigate the influence of three lubricants of varying viscosity, on postinsertion and 6 h comfort with contact lens wear. Comfort and associated symptoms of dryness were assessed in 15 experienced contact lens wearers. Subjects wore a low Dk lens in one eye and a silicone hydrogel in the other and participated in four separate trials involving no lubricant (baseline), saline, and two commercially available lubricants of differing viscosity. The in-eye lubricants were used immediately following lens insertion and every 2 h postinsertion for a 6 h wear period. Postlens insertion comfort was significantly better for both lens types when lubricants or saline were used compared with no lubricant use. After 6 h lens wear, comfort was influenced by lens type and not by in-eye lubricant or saline use. Also after 6 h lens wear, less dryness sensation was reported for silicone hydrogel lenses when using lubricants but not saline. Although lubricant use does help reduce dryness symptoms with silicone hydrogel lens wear, there appears to be minimal longer-term benefit to comfort. Furthermore, increased lubricant viscosity did not lead to improved longer-term comfort.

  4. Adaptive comfort model for tree-shaded outdoors in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Reuy-Lung [Department of Architecture, National United University, 1 Lienda, Miaoli 360 (China); Lin, Tzu-Ping [Department of Leisure Planning, National Formosa University, 64 Wen-hua Road, Huwei, Yunlin 632 (China); Cheng, Ming-Jen; Lo, Jen-Hao [Department of Architecture, Feng Chia University, 100 Wen-hwa Road, Taichung 407 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Tree-shaded outdoors can reduce the heat effect by ameliorating the microclimate and enhancing the human thermal comfort outdoors; for this reason, they are main places for rest, recreation and social activity in Taiwan's cities. Field comfort surveys of 3839 interviewees were conducted in tree-shaded spaces throughout a year. The aims were to obtain a better understanding of human thermal comfort response outdoors and to propose an adaptive comfort model for tree-shaded spaces. A comfort zone, centering on neutral operative temperature which is an empirically derived linear function of mean monthly outdoor temperature, of 6 C for 90% acceptability and 8 C for 80% acceptability was suggested for tree-shaded spaces from surveyed data, adding that a non-linear function of the temperature difference between actual operative temperature and neutral operative temperature was established that aims to predict the percentage of heat or cold discomfort at a particular outdoor thermal condition. An application of the established adaptive comfort model on an actual tree-shaded space was demonstrated to show its practicality in long-term evaluation of a particular thermal environment. (author)

  5. Impact of measurable physical phenomena on contact thermal comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojtlín, Miloš; Pokorný, Jan; Fišer, Jan; Toma, Róbert; Tuhovčák, Ján

    Cabin HVAC (Heating Ventilation and Air-conditioning) systems have become an essential part of personal vehicles as demands for comfortable transport are still rising. In fact, 85 % of the car trips in Europe are shorter than 18 km and last only up to 30 minutes. Under such conditions, the HVAC unit cannot often ensure desired cabin environment and passengers are prone to experience thermal stress. For this reason, additional comfort systems, such as heated or ventilated seats, are available on the market. However, there is no straightforward method to evaluate thermal comfort at the contact surfaces nowadays. The aim of this work is to summarise information about heated and ventilated seats. These technologies use electrical heating and fan driven air to contact area in order to achieve enhanced comfort. It is also expected, that such measures may contribute to lower energy consumption. Yet, in real conditions it is almost impossible to measure the airflow through the ventilated seat directly. Therefore, there is a need for an approach that would correlate measurable physical phenomena with thermal comfort. For this reason, a method that exploits a measurement of temperatures and humidity at the contact area is proposed. Preliminary results that correlate comfort with measurable physical phenomena are demonstrated.

  6. Uma nova abordagem para o problema dial-a-ride A new approach for the dial-a-ride problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Regis Mauri

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve um modelo matemático geral e multiobjetivo para o problema dial-a-ride e uma aplicação do simulated annealing para resolvê-lo. O modelo trata a forma estática do problema e abrange vários casos distintos dos modelos mais comuns, tais como frota homogênea e heterogênea, garagens múltiplas ou únicas, e uma função de minimização multiobjetivo que trata os custos de transporte e a inconveniência dos clientes por meio de penalizações. A aplicação do simulated annealing é simples, porém, para a geração de novas soluções vizinhas, são utilizados três movimentos de troca selecionados de forma aleatória e uniformemente distribuída, e as rotas são roteirizadas e programadas separadamente por outros métodos heurísticos. Os resultados computacionais são obtidos com o uso de instâncias públicas disponíveis e comparados com outros métodos que apresentam o atual estado da arte em que o problema se encontra.This paper describes a general multi-objective mathematical model for the dial-a-ride problem approximately solved by Simulated Annealing. The model deals with a static problem and includes several distinct cases such as heterogeneous or homogeneous fleet of vehicles, multi or single depot and a multi-objective function that treats transportation costs and customer inconveniences by using penalties. The simulated annealing application is straightforward with three types of neighbors' moves that are randomly selected and equally distributed. The routes are clustered and scheduled in a separate way using specific heuristic methods. Computational results are performed over instances of the literature and the results are compared against current state of the art methods.

  7. Development of Magnetorheological Engine Mount Test Rig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Yunos Mohd Razali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ride comfort is an important factor in any road vehicle performance. Nonetheless, passenger ride comfort is sometimes affected by the vibrations resulting from the road irregularities. Vehicle ride comfort is also often compromised by engine vibration. Engine mount is one of the devices which act as vibration isolator from unwanted vibration from engine to the driver and passengers. This paper explains the development of the test rig used for laboratory testing of Magnetorheological (MR engine mount characterization. MR engine mount was developed to investigate the vibration isolation process. An engine mount test machine was designed to measure the displacement, relative velocity and damper force with respect to current supply to characterize the hysteresis behavior of the damper and as force tracking control of the MR engine mount.

  8. Effects of vibration on occupant driving performance under simulated driving conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizan, Amzar; Fard, M; Azari, Michael F; Jazar, Reza

    2017-04-01

    Although much research has been devoted to the characterization of the effects of whole-body vibration on seated occupants' comfort, drowsiness induced by vibration has received less attention to date. There are also little validated measurement methods available to quantify whole body vibration-induced drowsiness. Here, the effects of vibration on drowsiness were investigated. Twenty male volunteers were recruited for this experiment. Drowsiness was measured in a driving simulator, before and after 30-min exposure to vibration. Gaussian random vibration, with 1-15 Hz frequency bandwidth was used for excitation. During the driving session, volunteers were required to obey the speed limit of 100 kph and maintain a steady position on the left-hand lane. A deviation in lane position, steering angle variability, and speed deviation were recorded and analysed. Alternatively, volunteers rated their subjective drowsiness by Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) scores every 5-min. Following 30-min of exposure to vibration, a significant increase of lane deviation, steering angle variability, and KSS scores were observed in all volunteers suggesting the adverse effects of vibration on human alertness level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Adaptive thermal comfort explained by means of the Fanger-model; Adaptief thermisch comfort verklaard met Fanger-model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Linden, W.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.; Hensen, J. [Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2008-07-15

    This article examines the relation between the adaptive thermal comfort (ATC) model and the Fanger model. The most important data collected were the value ranges of individual parameters in relation to ATC assessment. The ATC model uses a relatively simple indicator of thermal comfort. It treats the desired operational indoor temperature as a measure of thermal comfort in direct comparison to the outdoor temperature. This has the advantage of providing a relatively straightforward and transparent way of assessing occupant comfort. The Fanger model makes use of human thermal equilibrium, and is more flexible and more widely applicable. The results of the comparison show that, in a temperate climate like that of the Netherlands, the Fanger model is fully capable of explaining the results of the ATC model. [Dutch] In dit artikel is de relatie tussen het adaptief thermisch comfort (ATC) model en het Fanger-model nader onderzocht. Hierbij is vooral gekeken naar de ranges van waarden van de individuele parameters in relatie tot de ATC-beoordeling. Her ATC-model maakt gebruik van een minder complexe indicator om een uitspraak te doen over het thermisch comfort. Bij deze aanpak wordt de gewenste operatieve binnentemperatuur, als maat voor her thermisch comfort, direct gerelateerd aan de buitentemperatuur. Een voordeel hiervan is dat op een relatief eenvoudige en inzichtelijke manier een waardering van her comfort kan worden gegeven. Het Fanger-model maakt gebruik van de warmtebalans van de mens en is flexibeler en breder toepasbaar. De resultaten van de vergelijking laten zien dat voor een gematigd klimaat als in Nederland het Fanger-model goed in staat is om de resultaten van het ATC-model te verklaren.

  10. Vibrations of composite steel-concrete floors induced by human activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gluhović Nina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The latest demands in construction design towards slender structures with large spans, large open interiors, unconventional shapes and constructional solutions are leading to the extensive problems related to the serviceability limit state. Slender structures with large spans have lower natural frequencies and lower natural damping, considerably influencing the dynamic response of the structure. Annoying vibrations induced by human activities can significantly affect the structure's functionality, comfort of people and quality of life. Design recommendations for composite steel-concrete floor vibrations can be found in different standards. This paper presents a short overview of design procedures for vibrations of composite steel-concrete beams and design recommendations of floor vibrations induced by human activities, through two design criteria.

  11. Passivhaus: indoor comfort and energy dynamic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Antonella; Pagliuca, Antonello; Cardinale, Nicola; Rospi, Gianluca

    2013-04-01

    The research aims to verify the energy performance as well as the indoor comfort of an energy class A+ building, built so that the sum of the heat passive contributions of solar radiation, transmitted through the windows, and the heat generated inside the building, are adeguate to compensate for the envelope loss during the cold season. The building, located in Emilia Romagna (Italy), was built using a wooden structure, an envelope realized using a pinewood sandwich panels (transmittance U = 0.250 W/m2K) and, inside, a wool flax insulation layer and thermal window frame with low-emissivity glass (U = 0524 W/m2K). The building design and construction process has followed the guidelines set by "CasaClima". The building has been modeled in the code of dynamic calculation "Energy Plus" by the Design Builder application and divided it into homogenous thermal zones, characterized by winter indoor temperature set at 20 ° (+ / - 1 °) and summer indoor temperature set at 26 ° (+ / - 1 °). It has modeled: the envelope, as described above, the "free" heat contributions, the air conditioning system, the Mechanical Ventilation system as well as home automation solutions. The air conditioning system is an heat pump, able to guarantee an optimization of energy consumption (in fact, it uses the "free" heat offered by the external environment for conditioning indoor environment). As regards the air recirculation system, it has been used a mechanical ventilation system with internal heat cross-flow exchanger, with an efficiency equal to 50%. The domotic solutions, instead, regard a system for the control of windows external screening using reeds, adjustable as a function of incident solar radiation and a lighting management system adjusted automatically using a dimmer. A so realized building meets the requirement imposed from Italian standard UNI/TS 11300 1, UNI/TS 11300 2 and UNI/TS 11300 3. The analysis was performed according to two different configurations: in "spontaneous

  12. Vibration control of a semi-active railway vehicle suspension with magneto-rheological dampers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Seok Oh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents vibration control performances of a semi-active railway vehicle suspension system using a magneto-rheological damper tested on the roller rig. In order to evaluate control performances, a mathematical railway vehicle model with 15 degrees of freedom is first derived to represent the lateral, yaw and roll motions of the car body, bogie frame, and wheel set, respectively. Based on the formulated model, the design parameters of magneto-rheological damper are determined to undertake a compatible comparison with dynamic performances of conventional (existing passive railway vehicle suspension system. The designed magneto-rheological damper is manufactured and its field-dependent damping force characteristics are experimentally evaluated. Subsequently, in order to enhance the ride quality of a railway vehicle suspension equipped with magneto-rheological damper, a skyhook controller associated with an extended Kalman filter is designed in a state space representation. The railway suspension system incorporated with the car body and two bogies is then experimentally set up on the roller rig in order to evaluate the ride quality. It is demonstrated from experimental realization of the controller that the ride quality of the suspension system with magneto-rheological damper can be significantly enhanced compared with the existing passive suspension system.

  13. The evaluation of the overall thermal comfort inside a vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neacsu, Catalin; Tabacu, Ion; Ivanescu, Mariana; Vieru, Ionel

    2017-10-01

    The thermal comfort is one of the most important aspects of the modern vehicles that can influence the safety, the fuel consumption and the pollutions regulation. The objective of this paper is to compare the global and absolute thermal comfort indexes for two vehicles with different distribution air systems inside the car cockpit, one using only front air vents, and the other using both front and rear air vents. The methodology of calculus consists in using the 3D model of the interior vehicle, generally in a CAD format. Then, using a meshing software to create the finite element model of the interior surfaces inside the cockpit and the volume of internal air. Using the obtained finite element geometry, there will be conducted a Theseus FE calculus using the given boundary conditions. The results of the numerical simulation are presented in terms of graphs and figures and also PMV, PPD and DTS thermal comfort indexes. With the obtained results, we will then create the graphs that allows us to evaluate the global and absolute thermal comfort indexes. The results of the evaluation show us that the use of the method allow us to evaluate with a greater accuracy the thermal comfort for the whole vehicle, not only for each passenger, like the standard methods. This shows us that in terms of general and absolute thermal comfort, the vehicle that use front and rear systems is better than the version that use only a front system. The thermal comfort is an important aspect to be taken into account from the beginning of the design stage of a vehicle, by choosing the right air conditioning system. In addition, by using the numerical simulation, we are able to reduce the time needed for preliminary tests and be able to provide the vehicle to the market earlier, at a lower development cost.

  14. Operators' perception of comfort in two tractor cabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, E; Cavallo, E

    2013-01-01

    Workspace characteristics affect the perceived comfort level of the operator and uncomfortable working conditions have been found to have a negative impact on productivity and safety. The comfort of the operator is increasingly recognized by manufacturers as a product's added value. Comfort can positively distinguish a product and increase its competitiveness. The concept of comfort is controversial, and a clear operational definition is missing. Nevertheless, it is widely accepted that comfort is a subjective phenomenon that can be evaluated by the final users. In this study, comfort aspects of the tractor workspace interior (i.e., the cab) were investigated. Users with various levels of expertise and two medium-power utility tractors of different brands were used in a 2 x 2 mixed-factorial experimental design. Participants were involved in a dynamic assessment of the cabs, and their opinions about the different workspaces were collected through a questionnaire. Additionally, objective measurements were taken on both tractors, and subjective data were compared with objective data. Results indicate significant differences in terms of the ease of locating and operating the controls (i.e., rear-mounted three-point linkage, hydraulic system, and power take-off), the ease of starting the tractor, the ease exiting the cab, the required level of concentration in executing the tasks, the adequacy of lateral visibility from the driving station, and the level of noise at the operator's position. This article provides guidance for improving the comfort of tractor workspace interiors. Agricultural machinery manufactures would benefit from research results, differentiating themselves from competitors.

  15. Avaliação dos níveis de vibração vertical no assento de um trator agrícola de pneus utilizando um sistema de aquisição automática de dados Evaluation of the vertical vibration levels in a tire tractor seat by applying an automatic data aquisition system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando dos Santos Filho

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado na Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratinguetá (FEG-UNESP, SP, no laboratório de vibração e acústica em uma área experimental, com os objetivos de: a determinar os níveis de vibração vertical no assento e na base do assento de um trator agrícola, executando a operação de gradagem para diferentes velocidades de trabalho; b caracterizar a faixa de freqüência que apresenta os maiores picos de vibração vertical no assento do operador do trator; e c analisar o conforto do operador, comparando os níveis de vibração obtidos com as principais normas vigentes. O sistema de aquisição de dados foi constituído por sensores de vibração, por condicionadores e amplificadores e por um conversor analógico-digital, instalados em um microcomputador e embarcados no trator ensaiado. Posteriormente os dados foram tratados pelo programa ORIGIN 50. Com base nos resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que: os níveis de aceleração encontrados na parte superior do assento foram consideravelmente inferiores aos níveis da base para as três velocidades, sendo a terceira marcha a que apresentou os maiores níveis de vibração; a faixa de freqüência que apresentou os maiores picos de vibração vertical foi entre 2 e 4 Hz; os valores de aceleração ponderada global encontraram-se bem acima dos limites definidos pela norma ISO 2631 para um período de 8 horas de trabalho; e houve crescimento dos níveis de vibração com o aumento da velocidade do sistema trator-implemento.A study was carried out at the Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratinguetá - FEG-UNESP, SP, in the acoustic and vibration laboratory as well as in an experimental area, to: a determine the levels of vertical vibration in both the seat and seat base of an agricultural tire tractor under operation (harrowing at different forward speeds; b characterize the frequency range presenting the highest vertical vibration peaks in the tractor operator seat; c analyze ride

  16. Analysis of chemical components of shiitake polysaccharides and its anti-fatigue effect under vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoling; Zhang, Hongbo; Xu, Haibo

    2009-11-01

    The shiitake polysaccharides were obtained from shiitake mushroom. Four fractions were isolated from the polysaccharides using a Sephadex G-100 gel column. Chemical components of the two main fractions were determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC), and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). F1 was composed of rhamnose, glucose, and mannose. F3 was composed of xylose, mannose, arabinose and galactose. The obtained results still showed that administration of shiitake polysaccharides could improve muscle's comfortability of animals under a long period of vibration. The above findings might be applicable to studies of vibration ergonomics.

  17. The efficacy of airflow and seat vibration on reducing visually induced motion sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Sarah; Bos, Jelte E; Keshavarz, Behrang

    2017-09-01

    Visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) is a well-known sensation in virtual environments and simulators, typically characterized by a variety of symptoms such as pallor, sweating, dizziness, fatigue, and/or nausea. Numerous methods to reduce VIMS have been previously introduced; however, a reliable countermeasure is still missing. In the present study, the effect of airflow and seat vibration to alleviate VIMS was investigated. Eighty-two participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups (airflow, vibration, combined airflow and vibration, and control) and then exposed to a 15 min long video of a bicycle ride shot from first-person view. VIMS was measured using the Fast Motion Sickness Scale (FMS) and the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ). Results showed that the exposure of airflow significantly reduced VIMS, whereas the presence of seat vibration, in contrast, did not have an impact on VIMS. Additionally, we found that females reported higher FMS scores than males, however, this sex difference was not found in the SSQ scores. Our findings demonstrate that airflow can be an effective and easy-to-apply technique to reduce VIMS in virtual environments and simulators, while vibration applied to the seat is not a successful method.

  18. Therapeutic Effects of Horseback Riding Interventions: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiou, Alexandra; Tzoufi, Meropi; Ntzani, Evangelia; Varvarousis, Dimitrios; Beris, Alexandros; Ploumis, Avraam

    2017-10-01

    Equine-assisted therapies, such as therapeutic riding and hippotherapy, are believed to have positive physical and emotional effects in individuals with neuromotor, developmental, and physical disabilities. The purpose of this review was to determine whether therapeutic riding and hippotherapy improve balance, motor function, gait, muscle symmetry, pelvic movement, psychosocial parameters, and the patients' overall quality of life. In this study, a literature search was conducted on MEDLINE, CINAHL, MBASE, SportDiscus, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, PEDro, DARE, Google Scholar, and Dissertation Abstracts. Only studies with a control/comparison group or self-controlled studies performing preintervention and postintervention assessment were included. Excluded were (1) studies not providing data on baseline score or end-point outcome, (2) single-subject studies, (3) studies providing only qualitative data, and (4) studies that used a mechanical horse. Sixteen trials were included. The methodologic quality of each study was evaluated using Downs and Black quality assessment tool. Most of the studies showed a trend toward a beneficial effect of therapeutic riding and hippotherapy on balance and gross motor function. The meta-analysis showed improvement in both the Berg Balance Scale and the Gross Motor Function Measure in therapeutic riding and hippotherapy programs. Programs such as therapeutic riding and hippotherapy are a viable intervention option for patients with balance, gait, and psychomotor disorders.

  19. The directors’ roles in containing the Robben Island Diversity Experience (RIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Cilliers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Robben Island represents past denigration and present day liberation. The researchers report on their experiences of containing the learning, consciously and unconsciously, in the Robben Island Diversity Experience.Research purpose: The purpose of the research was to describe the experiences of the directors of RIDE in the last 10 years.Motivation for the study: Of the many and different diversity events that South African organisations present, RIDE is the only systems psycho-dynamically designed and presented event. This research was an effort to explore the nature of the directors’ roles in working with unconscious diversity dynamics in such a provocative venue.Research design, approach and method: The researchers conducted qualitative, descriptive and double hermeneutic research. The various RIDE events served as case studies. The data consisted of researcher field notes collected during the 10 years. Thematic analysis resulted in four themes, for which the researchers formulated working hypotheses. They integrated them into the research hypothesis.Main findings: Four themes emerged. They were the diversity characteristics of the directors as containers, working on the boundary between RIDE and the macro role players, attacks on the programme as container and challenges from participants.Practical/managerial implications: The research highlighted the important roles of directors’ authorisation as a resilience factor in containing RIDE.Contribution/value-add: The research contributed towards the awareness of intergroup relations between role players during diversity dynamic events and of how authorisation cements relationships.

  20. Research on the Effects of Hydropneumatic Parameters on Tracked Vehicle Ride Safety Based on Cosimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shousong Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ride safety of a tracked vehicle is the key focus of this research. The factors that affect the ride safety of a vehicle are analyzed and evaluation parameters with their criteria are proposed. A multibody cosimulation approach is used to investigate the effects of hydropneumatic parameters on the ride safety and aid with design optimization and tuning of the suspension system. Based on the cosimulation environment, the vehicle multibody dynamics (MBD model and the road model are developed using RecurDyn, which is linked to the hydropneumatic suspension model developed in Lab AMESim. Test verification of a single suspension unit is accomplished and the suspension parameters are implemented within the hydropneumatic model. Virtual tests on a G class road at different speeds are conducted. Effects of the accumulator charge pressure, damping diameter, and the track tensioning pressure on the ride safety are analyzed and quantified. This research shows that low accumulator charge pressure, improper damping diameter, and insufficient track tensioning pressure will deteriorate the ride safety. The results provide useful references for the optimal design and control of the parameters of a hydropneumatic suspension.

  1. The Medical Staff Ride: an education tool for military medical leadership development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricknell, Martin C M

    2016-08-01

    This paper provides a description of the Medical Staff Ride as an educational tool for military medical leadership. It is based upon two Medical Staff Rides covering the Somme Campaign 1916 and the Normandy Campaign 1944. It describes the key educational activity 'The Stand' at which history and current issues are brought together through study of a particular location on the historical battlefield. The Medical Staff Ride can be divided into six distinct phases, each of which have common question sets for analysis by attendees. The Medical Staff Ride can be shown to have valuable educational outcomes that are efficient in time and cost, and effective in achieving personal learning. The supporting Readers for the two Medical Staff Rides covered by this paper are available as electronic supplement to this edition of the journal. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. The psychobiology of comfort eating: implications for neuropharmacological interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E Leigh

    2012-09-01

    Comfort eating, that is eating induced by negative affect, has been a core theme of explanations for overeating and obesity. Psychobiological explanations and processes underlying comfort eating are examined, as well as its prevalence in clinical and nonclinical populations, to consider who may be susceptible, whether certain foods are comforting, and what the implications for treatment may be. Comfort eating may occur in a substantial minority, particularly in women and the obese. Human and animal theories and models of emotional or stress-induced eating show some convergence, and may incorporate genetic predispositions such as impulsivity and reward sensitivity, associated with dopamine dysregulation underlying incentive salience. Comfort eaters show vulnerability to depression, emotional dysregulation and a need to escape negative affect and rumination. During negative affect, they preferentially consume sweet, fatty, energy-dense food, which may confer protection against stress, evidenced by suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response, although activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may itself drive appetite for these palatable foods, and the risk of weight gain is increased. Benefits to mood may be transient, but perhaps sufficient to encourage repeated attempts to prolong mood improvement or distract from negative rumination. Cognitive behavioural treatments may be useful, but reliable drug therapy awaits further pharmacogenomic developments.

  3. Coupling of the Models of Human Physiology and Thermal Comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, J.; Jicha, M.

    2013-04-01

    A coupled model of human physiology and thermal comfort was developed in Dymola/Modelica. A coupling combines a modified Tanabe model of human physiology and thermal comfort model developed by Zhang. The Coupled model allows predicting the thermal sensation and comfort of both local and overall from local boundary conditions representing ambient and personal factors. The aim of this study was to compare prediction of the Coupled model with the Fiala model prediction and experimental data. Validation data were taken from the literature, mainly from the validation manual of software Theseus-FE [1]. In the paper validation of the model for very light physical activities (1 met) indoor environment with temperatures from 12 °C up to 48 °C is presented. The Coupled model predicts mean skin temperature for cold, neutral and warm environment well. However prediction of core temperature in cold environment is inaccurate and very affected by ambient temperature. Evaluation of thermal comfort in warm environment is supplemented by skin wettedness prediction. The Coupled model is designed for non-uniform and transient environmental conditions; it is also suitable simulation of thermal comfort in vehicles cabins. The usage of the model is limited for very light physical activities up to 1.2 met only.

  4. Coupling of the Models of Human Physiology and Thermal Comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jicha M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A coupled model of human physiology and thermal comfort was developed in Dymola/Modelica. A coupling combines a modified Tanabe model of human physiology and thermal comfort model developed by Zhang. The Coupled model allows predicting the thermal sensation and comfort of both local and overall from local boundary conditions representing ambient and personal factors. The aim of this study was to compare prediction of the Coupled model with the Fiala model prediction and experimental data. Validation data were taken from the literature, mainly from the validation manual of software Theseus–FE [1]. In the paper validation of the model for very light physical activities (1 met indoor environment with temperatures from 12 °C up to 48 °C is presented. The Coupled model predicts mean skin temperature for cold, neutral and warm environment well. However prediction of core temperature in cold environment is inaccurate and very affected by ambient temperature. Evaluation of thermal comfort in warm environment is supplemented by skin wettedness prediction. The Coupled model is designed for non-uniform and transient environmental conditions; it is also suitable simulation of thermal comfort in vehicles cabins. The usage of the model is limited for very light physical activities up to 1.2 met only.

  5. Thermal comfort findings: Scenario at Malaysian automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ahmad Rasdan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the findings of thermal comfort assessment at Malaysian automotive industry. Nine critical workstations were chosen as subjects for the study in order to determine the thermal comfort among workers at Malaysian automotive industry. The human subjects for the study comprises of the operators from tire receiving, dashboard assembly, drum tester, body assembly, seat assembly, door check assembly, stamping workstation, engine sub assembly and paint shop of the factory. The environmental factors such as Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT, relative humidity, air velocity, illuminance were measured using BABUC A apparatus and Thermal Comfort Measurement equipment. Through questionnaire survey, the demographic data of subjects and their perceptions on thermal comfort at each workstation were assessed based on ISO Standard 7730 and thermal sensation scale using Predicted Mean Vote (PMV. Then, Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied (PPD is used to estimate the thermal satisfaction of occupants. The results indicated that most of the workstations of the automotive industry are considered as uncomfortable. Tire receiving station is considered having better working environment compared to other stations with lowest PMV index of 1.09 to 1.41 and PPD of 46%. Meanwhile, the engine sub assembly station and paint shop of assembly are considered the worst thermal environment with the PMV index values ranging between 2.1 to 2.9 and PPD values of 81% to 99%. Therefore, these two workstations are considered not comfortable because the thermal sensation scale is warm and almost hot.

  6. COMFORT: evaluating a new communication curriculum with nurse leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Joy; Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Nursing faculty face increasing instructional demands to keep pace with mounting knowledge and competency requirements for student nurses. In the context of nursing practice, tasks and time pressures detract from the high skill and aptitude expectation of communication. The communication, orientation and opportunity, mindful presence, family, openings, relating, and team (COMFORT) curriculum, an acronym that represents 7 basic nursing communication principles, has been introduced into the communication module of the End-of-Life Nursing Education Consortium, which currently provides the only standardized undergraduate and graduate nurse training in hospice and palliative care. This study examines the potential efficacy of the COMFORT curriculum for everyday communication challenges experienced by members of the Georgia Organization of Nurse Leaders. Participants were prompted to describe communication barriers and then apply an aspect of the COMFORT curriculum to this barrier. Responses revealed primary communication barriers with co-workers and patient/families. Nurses predominantly identified directly correlating components in the COMFORT framework (C-communication, F-family) as solutions to the topics described as barriers. Based on confirmation of extant literature addressing generalist nurse communication challenges, there is support for the inclusion of COMFORT across the nursing curriculum to efficiently and effectively teach communication strategies to nurses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Urban Outdoor Thermal Comfort of The Hot-Humid Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study on outdoor comfort is becoming popular due to the fact that the thermoregulatory model is seen as inadequate in explaining outdoor thermal comfort conditions. Hot-humid region can be said as experiencing a critical environmental condition because of its constantly high temperature and humidity throughout the year. Thus, this study focus on the assessment of thermal comfort of outdoor urban spaces in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (3° 9’N and 101° 44’E. Survey on human response towards outdoor thermal comfort in hot-humid climate of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia was carried out during day time between 0900h to 1800h along with measurement of environmental parameters such as air temperature (°C, wind velocity (m/s, radiant temperature (°C, relative humidity (% and solar radiation (lux. A total of 123 samples were involved in this study which took place within four sites around Kuala Lumpur. Survey results were then correlated with the environmental parameters to further develop the comfort zone for hot-humid outdoor environment specifically for Kuala Lumpur and, generally, for hot-humid regions.

  8. Evolution of perceived footwear comfort over a prolonged running session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintzy, F; Cavagna, J; Horvais, N

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the subjective perception of overall footwear comfort over a prolonged running session. Ten runners performed two similar sessions consisting of a 13-km trail run (5 laps of 2.6 km) as fast as possible. The overall footwear comfort was evaluated before running and at the end of each lap with a 150-mm visual analogic scale, as well as speed, heart rate and rate of perceived exertion. The results showed that both overall footwear comfort and speed decreased consistently during the run session, and significantly after 44 min of running (i.e. the 3rd lap). It could be hypothesized that the deterioration of overall footwear comfort was explained by mechanical and energetical parameter changes with time and/or fatigue occurring at the whole body, foot and footwear levels. These results justify the use of a prolonged running test for running footwear comfort evaluation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Vibration Energy Harvesting on Vehicle Suspension Using Rotary and Linear Electromagnetic Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Indro Sultoni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss comparation of vehicle vibration energy harvesting between rotary and linear electromagnetic generator. We construct the two model of energy harvester mechanism and then analyze both of energy absorbtion and vehicle comfortability. Furthermore, we analyze both of energy absorbtion and vehicle comfortability. Vehicle is modeled as quarter car. Rotarty generator harvests 2.5 x 10-4 Watt. The other hand, linear generator has viscous characteristic and capable to generates 90 Watts with 12 Volt power supply for 0.03 m amplitude of bumpy road input. Linear generator reduces oscillation with 1.2 sec settling time. It is more comfort than the angular which has 3 sec in settling time. With unnevenees road input, mean power of this generator is 64 Watt.

  10. Vibrational spectroscopy of resveratrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billes, Ferenc; Mohammed-Ziegler, Ildikó; Mikosch, Hans; Tyihák, Ernő

    2007-11-01

    In this article the authors deal with the experimental and theoretical interpretation of the vibrational spectra of trans-resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy- trans-stilbene) of diverse beneficial biological activity. Infrared and Raman spectra of the compound were recorded; density functional calculations were carried out resulting in the optimized geometry and several properties of the molecule. Based on the calculated force constants, a normal coordinate analysis yielded the character of the vibrational modes and the assignment of the measured spectral bands.

  11. Bumblebee vibration activated foraging

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Dan Kuan-Nien

    2009-01-01

    The ability use vibrational signals to activate nestmate foraging is found in the highly social bees, stingless bees and honey bees, and has been hypothesized to exist in the closely related, primitively eusocial bumble bees. We provide the first strong and direct evidence that this is correct. Inside the nest, bumble bee foragers produce brief bursts of vibration (foraging activation pulses) at 594.5 Hz for 63±26 ms (velocityRMS=0.46±0.02mm/s, forceRMS=0.8±0.2 mN. Production of these vibrati...

  12. Man-Induced Vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Hansen, Lars Pilegaard

    1994-01-01

    concerned with spectator-induced vertical vibrations on grandstands. The idea is to use impulse response analysis and base the load description on the load impulse. If the method is feasable, it could be used in connection with the formulation of requirements in building codes. During the last two decades...... work has been done on the measurement of the exact load functions and related reponse analysis. A recent work using a spectral description has been performed by Per-Erik Erikson and includes a good literature survey. Bachmann and Ammann give a good overview of vibrations caused by human activity. Other...

  13. Vibrations and waves

    CERN Document Server

    Kaliski, S

    2013-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive overview of wave phenomena in different media with interacting mechanical, electromagnetic and other fields. Equations describing wave propagation in linear and non-linear elastic media are followed by equations of rheological models, models with internal rotational degrees of freedom and non-local interactions. Equations for coupled fields: thermal, elastic, electromagnetic, piezoelectric, and magneto-spin with adequate boundary conditions are also included. Together with its companion volume Vibrations and Waves. Part A: Vibrations this work provides a wealth

  14. Nurses' comfort with touch and workplace well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrazza, Monica; Minuzzo, Stefania; Berlanda, Sabrina; Trifiletti, Elena

    2015-06-01

    Touch is an essential part of caregiving and has been proved to be useful to reduce pain. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to nurses' perceptions of touch. The aim of this article was to examine the relationship between nurses' feelings of comfort with touch and their well-being at work. A sample of 241 nurses attending a pain management training course completed a questionnaire, including the following measures: Comfort with Touch (CT) scale (task-oriented contact, touch promoting physical comfort, touch providing emotional containment), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI; emotional exhaustion, cynicism), and Job Satisfaction. Results of structural equation models showed that touch providing emotional containment was the main predictor of emotional exhaustion. Emotional exhaustion, in turn, was positively related to cynicism and negatively related to job satisfaction. In addition, the direct path from touch providing emotional containment to cynicism was significant. Practical implications of the findings are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Female high heel shoes: a study of comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broega, A. C.; Righetto, M.; Ribeiro, R.

    2017-10-01

    Protection was the basic principle underlying the creation of footwear, once humankind felt the need to protect feet from direct contact with soil, heat, cold and sharp objects. However, this accessory soon acquired cultural, aesthetic, symbolic significance, and apparently it was not related to comfort. This work aims to analyze comfort in women footwear, especially high heels shoe. We intended to understand the emotional relationship of consumers with this type of accessory, as well as to understand to what extent women are willing to give up comfort in favor of aesthetics. For this purpose, a questionnaire was designed, aimed at the female audience in order to understand the relevance of women’s footwear, their daily relationship with shoes, the specificity of heels and the problems caused by it.

  16. Evaluating comfort with varying temperatures: a graphic design tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.M. [Research Centre Habitat and Energy, Faculty of Architecture, Design and Urbanism, University of Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria (Argentina)

    2002-07-01

    This paper considers the need to define comfort of indoor and outdoor spaces in relation to the daily variations of temperature. A graphical tool is presented, which indicates the daily swings of temperature, shown as a single point on a graph representing the average temperature and the maximum temperature swing. This point can be compared with the comfort zones for different activity levels, such as sedentary activity, sleeping, indoor and outdoor circulation according to the design proposals for different spaces. The graph allows the representation of climatic variables, the definition of comfort zones, the selection of bio climatic design resources and the evaluation of indoor temperatures, measured in actual buildings or obtained from computer simulations. The development of the graph is explained and examples given with special emphasis on the use of thermal mass. (author)

  17. Heterogeneous Dynamics of Coupled Vibrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cringus, Dan; Jansen, Thomas I. C.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Schoenlein, RW; Corkum, P; DeSilvestri, S; Nelson, KA; Riedle, E

    2009-01-01

    Frequency-dependent dynamics of coupled stretch vibrations of a water molecule are revealed by 2D IR correlation spectroscopy. These are caused by non-Gaussian fluctuations of the environment around the individual OH stretch vibrations.

  18. A veterinary review of endurance riding as an international competitive sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Annamaria; Dyson, Sue J; Murray, Jane K

    2012-12-01

    The popularity of competitive endurance riding is growing worldwide and this has led to considerable changes in the discipline (e.g., fitter and faster horses and different types of injuries), which create challenges to all involved in the sport, including veterinarians. During endurance competitions, horses are closely monitored by veterinarians throughout the ride, with the aim of removing from the competition animals whose welfare appears to be endangered. This close monitoring provides veterinarians with an insight into problems during competitions. However, there is a relatively small amount of clinically relevant, evidence-based data published on endurance horses, and this article reviews the evolution of the discipline, the published information on epidemiological data on endurance rides, the problems veterinarians face at competitions, and highlights those areas where research is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pricing Decision under Dual-Channel Structure considering Fairness and Free-Riding Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongmei Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Under dual-channel structure, the free-riding behavior based on different service levels between online channel and offline channel cannot be avoided, which would lead to channel unfairness. This study implies that the dual-channel supply chain is built up by online channel controlled by manufacturer and traditional channel controlled by retailer, respectively. Under this channel structure, we rebuild the linear demand function considering free-riding behavior and modify the pricing model based on channel fairness. Then the influences of fair factor and free-riding behavior on manufacturer and retailer pricing and performance are discussed. Finally, we propose some numerical analysis to provide some valuable recommendations for manufacturer and retailer improving channel management performance.

  20. Hybrid column generation and large neighborhood search for the dial-a-ride problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parragh, Sophie N.; Schmid, Verena

    2013-01-01

    Demographic change towards an ever aging population entails an increasing demand for specialized transportation systems to complement the traditional public means of transportation. Typically, users place transportation requests, specifying a pickup and a drop off location and a fleet of minibuses or taxis is used to serve these requests. The underlying optimization problem can be modeled as a dial-a-ride problem. In the dial-a-ride problem considered in this paper, total routing costs are minimized while respecting time window, maximum user ride time, maximum route duration, and vehicle capacity restrictions. We propose a hybrid column generation and large neighborhood search algorithm and compare different hybridization strategies on a set of benchmark instances from the literature. PMID:23471127

  1. Fault Ride-Through of a Grid-connected Photovoltaic System with Quasi Z Source Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Durra, Ahmed; Fayyad, Yara; Muyeen, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents fault ride-through schemes for a three-phase quasi Z source single-stage photovoltaic (PV) inverter that is connected to the grid after the distribution network. The quasi Z source inverter employs a unique LC network to couple the inverter main circuit to the input of the PV...... panel. By controlling the shoot-through duty cycle, the quasi Z source inverter can theoretically produce any desired output AC voltage, even greater than the line voltage. Three different control strategies to improve the low-voltage ride-through capability are proposed when there is voltage sag from...... the grid side so that the grid fault ride-through requirements can be fulfilled. Scheme A involves control modification in the system; Schemes B and C involve hardware modification in the circuit topology by adding a chopper circuit across the DC link in Scheme B and across the quasi Z source inverter...

  2. Adolescents’ comfort answering questions about sexuality asked by their physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Natacha; Beaulieu, Émilie; Tremblay, Marie-Michelle; Laflamme, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the attitudes of adolescents toward communicating with their doctor about different aspects of their sexuality. METHODS: The present descriptive survey was conducted with the participation of teenagers from four high schools in Sherbrooke, Quebec. In each school, the students of two grade 8 classes (≤14 years of age) and two grade 10 classes (≥15 years of age) anonymously completed a self-administered questionnaire. Permission from the school board and parental consent for every participant was obtained. RESULTS: A total of 387 adolescents completed the self-administered questionnaire. The response rate for the study was 98%. Only 27% of the respondents remembered being questioned by their doctor about sexuality, and 17% of the respondents had already brought up the topic of sexuality themselves with their doctor. More than one-half (57%) of the adolescents reported they would be moderately comfortable to totally comfortable discussing sexuality with their doctor if they felt the need to. Overall, when asked to evaluate their degree of comfort if questioned on specific questions about their sexuality, 73.8% to 99.5% believed they would be moderately to totally comfortable responding. Nevertheless, there was a statistically significant difference between age groups, with the older age group being more comfortable than the younger age group (P<0.001). There was no difference between the level of comfort among boys and girls answering the same questions. Respondents believed that their treating physician should discuss sexuality with them (73.8%) and, in the majority of cases (78%), that he/she should initiate the conversation. CONCLUSION: Regardless of age or sex, teenagers considered themselves to be at ease discussing sexuality with their doctor and found it an important topic best brought up by their practitioner. PMID:24421673

  3. Assessing Thermal Comfort Due to a Ventilated Double Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos, Jorge S.; Corvacho, Helena

    2017-10-01

    Building design and its components are the result of a complex process, which should provide pleasant conditions to its inhabitants. Therefore, indoor acceptable comfort is influenced by the architectural design. ISO and ASHRAE standards define thermal comfort as the condition of mind that expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment. The energy demand for heating, beside the building’s physical properties, also depend on human behaviour, like opening or closing windows. Generally, windows are the weakest façade element concerning to thermal performance. A lower thermal resistance allows higher thermal conduction through it. When a window is very hot or cold, and the occupant is very close to it, it may result in thermal discomfort. The functionality of a ventilated double window introduces new physical considerations to a traditional window. In consequence, it is necessary to study the local effect on human comfort in function of the boundary conditions. Wind, solar availability, air temperature and therefore heating and indoor air quality conditions will affect the relationship between this passive system and the indoor environment. In the present paper, the influence of thermal performance and ventilation on human comfort resulting from the construction and geometry solutions is shown, helping to choose the best solution. The presented approach shows that in order to save energy it is possible to reduce the air changes of a room to the minimum, without compromising air quality, enhancing simultaneously local thermal performance and comfort. The results of the study on the effect of two parallel windows with a ventilated channel in the same fenestration on comfort conditions for several different room dimensions, are also presented. As the room dimensions’ rate changes so does the window to floor rate; therefore, under the same climatic conditions and same construction solution, different results are obtained.

  4. Where is the comfort in comfort foods? Mechanisms linking fat signaling, reward, and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltens, N; Zhao, D; Van Oudenhove, L

    2014-03-01

    Food in general, and fatty foods in particular, have obtained intrinsic reward value throughout evolution. This reward value results from an interaction between exteroceptive signals from different sensory modalities, interoceptive hunger/satiety signals from the gastrointestinal tract to the brain, as well as ongoing affective and cognitive processes. Further evidence linking food to emotions stems from folk psychology ('comfort foods') and epidemiological studies demonstrating high comorbidity rates between disorders of food intake, including obesity, and mood disorders such as depression. This review paper aims to give an overview of current knowledge on the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the link between (fatty) foods, their reward value, and emotional responses to (anticipation of) their intake in humans. Firstly, the influence of exteroceptive sensory signals, including visual, olfactory ('anticipatory food reward'), and gustatory ('consummatory food reward'), on the encoding of reward value in the (ventral) striatum and of subjective pleasantness in the cingulate and orbitofrontal cortex will be discussed. Differences in these pathways and mechanisms between lean and obese subjects will be highlighted. Secondly, recent studies elucidating the mechanisms of purely interoceptive fatty acid-induced signaling from the gastrointestinal tract to the brain, including the role of gut peptides, will be presented. These studies have demonstrated that such subliminal interoceptive stimuli may impact on hedonic circuits in the brain, and thereby influence the subjective and neural responses to negative emotion induction. This suggests that the effect of foods on mood may even occur independently from their exteroceptive sensory properties. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Adaptive Vibration Control System for MR Damper Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Tudón-Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several methods have been proposed to estimate the force of a semiactive damper, particularly of a magnetorheological damper because of its importance in automotive and civil engineering. Usually, all models have been proposed assuming experimental data in nominal operating conditions and some of them are estimated for control purposes. Because dampers are prone to fail, fault estimation is useful to design adaptive vibration controllers to accommodate the malfunction in the suspension system. This paper deals with the diagnosis and estimation of faults in an automotive magnetorheological damper. A robust LPV observer is proposed to estimate the lack of force caused by a damper leakage in a vehicle corner. Once the faulty damper is isolated in the vehicle and the fault is estimated, an Adaptive Vibration Control System is proposed to reduce the fault effect using compensation forces from the remaining healthy dampers. To fulfill the semiactive damper constraints in the fault adaptation, an LPV controller is designed for vehicle comfort and road holding. Simulation results show that the fault observer has good performance with robustness to noise and road disturbances and the proposed AVCS improves the comfort up to 24% with respect to a controlled suspension without fault tolerance features.

  6. Objective and subjective evaluation of the acoustic comfort in classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannin, Paulo Henrique Trombetta; Marcon, Carolina Reich

    2007-09-01

    The acoustic comfort of classrooms in a Brazilian public school has been evaluated through interviews with 62 teachers and 464 pupils, measurements of background noise, reverberation time, and sound insulation. Acoustic measurements have revealed the poor acoustic quality of the classrooms. Results have shown that teachers and pupils consider the noise generated and the voice of the teacher in neighboring classrooms as the main sources of annoyance inside the classroom. Acoustic simulations resulted in the suggestion of placement of perforated plywood on the ceiling, for reduction in reverberation time and increase in the acoustic comfort of the classrooms.

  7. Assessing swine thermal comfort by image analysis of postural behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, H

    1999-01-01

    Postural behavior is an integral response of animals to complex environmental factors. Huddling, nearly contacting one another on the side, and spreading are common postural behaviors of group-housed animals undergoing cold, comfortable, and warm/hot sensations, respectively. These postural patterns have been routinely used by animal caretakers to assess thermal comfort of the animals and to make according adjustment on the environmental settings or management schemes. This manual adjustment approach, however, has the inherent limitations of daily discontinuity and inconsistency between caretakers in interpretation of the animal comfort behavior. The goal of this project was to explore a novel, automated image analysis system that would assess the thermal comfort of swine and make proper environmental adjustments to enhance animal wellbeing and production efficiency. This paper describes the progress and on-going work toward the achievement of our proposed goal. The feasibility of classifying the thermal comfort state of young pigs by neural network (NN) analysis of their postural images was first examined. It included exploration of using certain feature selections of the postural behavioral images as the input to a three-layer NN that was trained to classify the corresponding thermal comfort state as being cold, comfortable, or warm. The image feature selections, a critical step for the classification, examined in this study included Fourier coefficient (FC), moment (M), perimeter and area (P&A), and combination of M and P&A of the processed binary postural images. The result was positive, with the combination of M and P&A as the input feature to the NN yielding the highest correct classification rate. Subsequent work included the development of hardware and computational algorithms that enable automatic image segmentation, motion detection, and the selection of the behavioral images suitable for use in the classification. Work is in progress to quantify the

  8. Analysis of Thermal Comfort in an Intelligent Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Grzegorz; Telejko, Marek; Orman, Łukasz J.

    2017-06-01

    Analysis of thermal comfort in the ENERGIS Building, an intelligent building in the campus of the Kielce University of Technology, Poland is the focus of this paper. For this purpose, air temperature, air relative humidity, air flow rate and carbon dioxide concentration were measured and the mean radiant temperature was determined. Thermal sensations of the students occupying the rooms of the building were evaluated with the use of a questionnaire. The students used a seven-point scale of thermal comfort. The microclimate measurement results were used to determine the Predicted Mean Vote and the Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied indices.

  9. Proceedings of 9th Windsor Conference Making Comfort Relevant

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Preface to the Proceedings of the 9th Windsor 2016 at Cumberland Lodge, Windsor\\ud \\ud For many the costs of providing acceptable indoor temperatures have become prohibitive. Around the world people already have to make stark choices on whether to spend money on heating and cooling or on eating. The science of comfort developed in the 20th century around the needs of the HVAC industry for whom comfort was a product, produced by machines to be sold to customers. Engineers and other building pr...

  10. Investigation and analysis of human body thermal comfort in classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xue

    2017-05-01

    In this survey, we selected the 11th building of North China Electric Power University as the research object. Data were measured and distributed on each floor. We record the temperature of the classroom, humidity, wind speed, average radiation temperature and other environmental parameters. And we used spare time to create a questionnaire survey of the subjective feeling of the survey, to get everyone in the classroom TSV (hot feeling vote value) and TCV (thermal comfort vote). We analyzed the test data and survey data. What's more we discuss and reflect on the thermal comfort of the human body in different indoor temperature atmospheres.

  11. The social context of motorcycle riding and the key determinants influencing rider behavior: a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliff, Deborah; Watson, Barry; White, Katherine M; Lewis, Ioni; Wishart, Darren

    2011-08-01

    Given the increasing popularity of motorcycle riding and heightened risk of injury or death associated with being a rider, this study explored rider behavior as a determinant of rider safety and, in particular, key beliefs and motivations that influence such behavior. To enhance the effectiveness of future education and training interventions, it is important to understand riders' own views about what influences how they ride. Specifically, this study sought to identify key determinants of riders' behaviors in relation to the social context of riding, including social and identity-related influences relating to the group (group norms and group identity) as well as the self (moral/personal norm and self-identity). Qualitative research was undertaken via group discussions with motorcycle riders (n = 41). The findings revealed that those in the group with which one rides represent an important source of social influence. Also, the motorcyclist (group) identity was associated with a range of beliefs, expectations, and behaviors considered to be normative. Exploration of the construct of personal norm revealed that riders were most cognizant of the "wrong things to do" when riding; among those issues raised was the importance of protective clothing (albeit for the protection of others and, in particular, pillion passengers). Finally, self-identity as a motorcyclist appeared to be important to a rider's self-concept and was likely to influence on-road behavior. Overall, the insight provided by the current study may facilitate the development of interventions including rider training as well as public education and mass media messages. The findings suggest that these interventions should incorporate factors associated with the social nature of riding in order to best align it with some of the key beliefs and motivations underpinning riders' on-road behaviors.

  12. Composite Struts Would Damp Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgin, Benjamin P.

    1991-01-01

    New design of composite-material (fiber/matrix laminate) struts increases damping of longitudinal vibrations without decreasing longitudinal stiffness or increasing weight significantly. Plies with opposing chevron patterns of fibers convert longitudinal vibrational stresses into shear stresses in intermediate viscoelastic layer, which dissipate vibrational energy. Composite strut stronger than aluminum strut of same weight and stiffness.

  13. Calling, texting, and searching for information while riding a motorcycle: A study of university students in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Long T; De Gruyter, Chris; Nguyen, Hang T T

    2017-08-18

    The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of calling, texting, and searching for information while riding a motorcycle among university students and the influences of sociodemographic characteristics, social norms, and risk perceptions on these behaviors. Students at 2 university campuses in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, the 2 largest cities in Vietnam, were invited to participate in an anonymous online survey. Data collection was conducted during March and May 2016. There were 741 respondents, of whom nearly 90% of students (665) were motorcycle riders. Overall prevalence of mobile phone use while riding is 80.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 77.9-83.9%) with calling having a higher level of prevalence than texting or searching for information while riding: 74% (95% CI, 70.7-77.3%) vs. 51.7% (95% CI, 47.9-55.5%) and 49.9% (95% CI, 46.1-53.7%), respectively. Random parameter ordered probit modeling results indicate that mobile phone use while riding is associated with gender, motorcycle license duration, perceived crash risk, perceived risk of mobile phone snatching, and perceptions of friends' mobile phone use while riding. Mobile phone use while riding a motorcycle is highly prevalent among university students. Educational programs should focus on the crash and economic risk of all types of mobile phone use while riding, including calling, texting, and searching for information. In addition, they should consider targeting the influence of social norms and peers on mobile phone use while riding.

  14. Are all-terrain vehicle riders willing to pay trail user fees to ride on public lands in the USA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanie A. Snyder; Robert A. Smail

    2009-01-01

    Some public lands in the USA offer opportunities for all-terrain vehicle (ATV) riding, but few charge trail use fees. In a case study in the US state of Wisconsin, the contingent valuation method was used to examine riders' willingness to pay (WTP) to ride on public lands. Information on riders' habits, preferences and responses to a dichotomous choice WTP...

  15. Outcomes of Home-Support Consultation on the Maintenance of Bicycle-Riding Skills for Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Jennifer L.; Pitchford, E. Andrew; Hauck, Janet L.; Ketcheson, Leah R.; Ulrich, Dale A.

    2016-01-01

    Bicycle riding is a functional motor skill that increases physical activity opportunities, social interaction, and independence. However, bicycle riding is difficult for youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to learn. This study examined the effectiveness of home-support consultation (HSC) on increasing the maintenance of independent bicycle…

  16. Ship Vibration Design Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    Frachtschiffen," Werft Reederie Hafen, 1925. 4-21 Noonan, E. F. "Vibration Considerations for 120,000 CM LNG Ships," NKF: Preliminary Report No. 7107, 25...Ship Response to Ice - A Second Season by C. Daley, J. W. St. John, R. Brown, J. Meyer , and I. Glen 1990 SSC-340 Ice Forces and Ship Response to Ice

  17. Compact Vibration Damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanco, Thomas G. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A vibration damper includes a rigid base with a mass coupled thereto for linear movement thereon. Springs coupled to the mass compress in response to the linear movement along either of two opposing directions. A converter coupled to the mass converts the linear movement to a corresponding rotational movement. A rotary damper coupled to the converter damps the rotational movement.

  18. Vibrations and Eigenvalues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The vibrating string problem is the source of much mathematicsand physics. This article describes Lagrange's formulationof a discretised version of the problem and its solution.This is also the first instance of an eigenvalue problem. Author Affiliations. Rajendra Bhatia1. Ashoka University, Rai, Haryana 131 029, India.

  19. Blade Vibration Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The Phase I project successfully demonstrated that an advanced noncontacting stress measurement system (NSMS) could improve classification of blade vibration response in terms of mistuning and closely spaced modes. The Phase II work confirmed the microwave sensor design process, modified the sensor so it is compatible as an upgrade to existing NSMS, and improved and finalized the NSMS software. The result will be stand-alone radar/tip timing radar signal conditioning for current conventional NSMS users (as an upgrade) and new users. The hybrid system will use frequency data and relative mode vibration levels from the radar sensor to provide substantially superior capabilities over current blade-vibration measurement technology. This frequency data, coupled with a reduced number of tip timing probes, will result in a system capable of detecting complex blade vibrations that would confound traditional NSMS systems. The hardware and software package was validated on a compressor rig at Mechanical Solutions, Inc. (MSI). Finally, the hybrid radar/tip timing NSMS software package and associated sensor hardware will be installed for use in the NASA Glenn spin pit test facility.

  20. Vibration Sensitive Keystroke Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopatka, M.; Peetz, M.-H.; van Erp, M.; Stehouwer, H.; van Zaanen, M.

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel method for performing non-invasive biometric analysis on habitual keystroke patterns using a vibration-based feature space. With the increasing availability of 3-D accelerometer chips in laptop computers, conventional methods using time vectors may be augmented using a distinct

  1. Measurement of vibrations at different sections of rail through fiber optic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreda, A.; Molina-Jiménez, T.; Valero, E.; Recuero, S.

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation about how the vibration of railway vehicles affects nearby buildings. The overall objective is to study the vibration generated in urban environments by tram, train and subway, its transmission to the ground and how the buildings and constructions of the environment receive them. Vibrations can generate noise and vibrations in buildings. For this reason it is necessary to characterize the level of vibration affecting rail, road infrastructure and sidewalks and nearby buildings, to assess the influence of the train (speed, type, profile wheel ,..), rail (area of rolling) and route of step, and finally define interim corrective measures. In this study measurements of levels of energy and vibration excitation frequencies will be undertaken through optical techniques: optical fiber networks with distributed Bragg sensors. Measuring these vibrations in different configurations allows us to evaluate the suitability of different sections of rail for different types of uses or environments. This study aims to help improve the safety of the built environment in the vicinity of a railway operation, and thus increase the comfort for passengers and to reduce the environmental impact.

  2. Exposure to vibrations in wine growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Pessina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Apart the winter period, the activity in specialized agricultural cultivations (i.e. wine- and fruit-growing is distributed for a long period of the year. Some tasks, such as pesticide distribution, are repeated several times during the growing season. On the other hand, mechanization is one of the pillars on which is based the modern agriculture management. As a consequence, in wine growing the tractor driver has to be considered a worker potentially subjected to high level of vibrations, due to the poor machinery conditions often encountered, and sometimes to the rough soil surface of the vineyard combined with the high travelling speed adopted in carrying out many operations. About vibrations, the Italian Decree 81/08 basically refers to the European Directive 2002/44/CE, that provides some very strict limits of exposure, both for whole body and hand-arm districts. In Oltrepo pavese, a large hilly area located the south part of the Pavia province (Lombardy - Italy wine growing is the main agricultural activity; for this reason, a detailed survey on the vibration levels recorded at the tractor driver’s seat was carried out, in order to ascertain the real risk to which the operators are exposed. The activity in wine growing has been classified into 6 groups of similar tasks, as follows: 1. canopy management: pruning, trimming, binding, stripping, etc.; 2. soil management: harrowing, hoeing, subsoiling etc.; 3. inter-row management: chopping of pruning , pinching, grass mowing, etc.; 4. crop protection: pesticides and fungicides distribution, sulfidation, foliar fertilization, etc.; 5. grape harvesting: manual or mechanical; 6. transport: from the vineyard to the cellar. For each group of tasks, the vibration levels on 3 the traditional axes (x, y and z were recorded, and then an exposure time was calculated for each of them, in order to ascertain the risk level in comparison to what provided by the dedicated standard. Finally, a detailed

  3. Non conventional psychiatric rehabilitation in schizophrenia using therapeutic riding: the FISE multicentre Pindar project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Cerino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The FISE (Federazione Italiana Sport Equestri Pindar is a multicentre research project aimed at testing the potential effects of therapeutic riding on schizophrenic patients. Twenty-four subjects with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were enrolled for a 1 year-treatment involving therapeutic riding sessions. All subjects were tested at the beginning and at the end of treatment with a series of validated test batteries (BPRS and 8 items-PANSS. The results discussed in this paper point out an improvement in negative symptoms, a constant disease remission in both early onset and chronic disease subjects, as well as a reduced rate of hospitalization.

  4. Horseback Riding Improves the Ability to Cause the Appropriate Action (Go Reaction) and the Appropriate Self-control (No-Go Reaction) in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Ohtani, Nobuyo; Kitagawa, Kenji; Mikami, Kinuyo; Kitawaki, Kasumi; Akiyama, Junko; Fuchikami, Maho; Uchiyama, Hidehiko; Ohta, Mitsuaki

    2017-01-01

    Background There are many obvious health benefits to riding, including developing a strong core and legs, but there are also many less obvious benefits, such as increased confidence and introspection. Few studies have addressed the effects of horseback riding on children and the mechanisms underlying how riding affects humans. We examined the effects of horseback riding on the ability to distinguish Go/No-go tasks and solve arithmetic problems in children. Methods The subjects were...

  5. Dew Point Evaporative Comfort Cooling: Report and Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.; Herrmann, L.; Kozubal, E.; Geiger, J.; Eastment, M.; Slayzak, S.

    2012-11-01

    The project objective was to demonstrate the capabilities of the high-performance multi-staged IEC technology and its ability to enhance energy efficiency and interior comfort in dry climates, while substantially reducing electric-peak demand. The project was designed to test 24 cooling units in five commercial building types at Fort Carson Army Base in Colorado Springs, Colorado.

  6. End-State Comfort in Bimanual Object Manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weigelt, M.; Kunde, W.; Prinz, W.G.

    2006-01-01

    The present experiment investigated the sensitivity for end-state comfort in a bimanual object manipulation task. Participants were required to simultaneously reach for two bars and to place the objects' ends into two targets on the table. The design of the experiment allowed to dissociate the

  7. A Novel Exercise Thermophysiology Comfort Prediction Model with Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Jia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Participation in a regular exercise program can improve health status and contribute to an increase in life expectancy. However, exercise accidents like dehydration, exertional heatstroke, syncope, and even sudden death exist. If these accidents can be analyzed or predicted before they happen, it will be beneficial to alleviate or avoid uncomfortable or unacceptable human disease. Therefore, an exercise thermophysiology comfort prediction model is needed. In this paper, coupling the thermal interactions among human body, clothing, and environment (HCE as well as the human body physiological properties, a human thermophysiology regulatory model is designed to enhance the human thermophysiology simulation in the HCE system. Some important thermal and physiological performances can be simulated. According to the simulation results, a human exercise thermophysiology comfort prediction method based on fuzzy inference system is proposed. The experiment results show that there is the same prediction trend between the experiment result and simulation result about thermophysiology comfort. At last, a mobile application platform for human exercise comfort prediction is designed and implemented.

  8. Structural Properties of Dwelling and Thermal Comfort in Tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The structural properties of dwelling units, in particular “window types” in 1, 250 apartments and their indoor temperature levels were collected. One hypothesis was formulated: (HO) There is no significant variation in effective temperature index and thus thermal comfort between dwellings built with wooden windows and ...

  9. Improvement of thermal comfort by cooling clothing in warm climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kolencíková, Sona

    2014-01-01

    comfort compared to convective cooling alone. The supply of a small amount of water allowed the cooling clothing to provide a continuous cooling effect, whereas the effect of convective cooling alone decreased as sweat dried. However, the controllability of the cooling clothing needs to be improved....

  10. Analysis of thermal comfort in Lagos, Nigeria | Komolafe | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A set of multiple linear regression equations relating comfort votes with the variations of air temperature and relative humidity has been developed. Other regression equations that describe how external climate is altered indoor by the building fabrics have also been derived. Maximum and minimum values of temperature ...

  11. Outdoor thermal comfort and behaviour in urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inavonna, I.; Hardiman, G.; Purnomo, A. B.

    2018-01-01

    Outdoor comfort is important due to the public spaces functions. Open spaces provide thermal comfort and a pleasant experience to improve the city life quality effectively. The influence of thermal comfort in outdoor activities is a complex problem. This paper presents a literature review and discussion of aspects of physical, psychology, and social behaviour toward outdoor thermal comfort. The valuation is determined not only by the “physical state” but also by the “state of mind”. The assessment is static and objective (i.e., physical and physiological characteristics) that it should be measured. Furthermore, an effective model to provide the knowledge of climatic conditions, as well as the dynamic and subjective aspects (i.e., psychological and social characteristics and behaviour), requires a comprehensive interview and observation. The model will be examined to describe the behaviour that is a reflection of perception and behaviour toward the environment. The adaptation process will constantly evolve so that it becomes a continuous cause between human behaviour and the spatial setting of the formation, which is eventually known as places and not just spaces. This evolutionary process is a civic art form.

  12. Affordable comfort 95 - investing in our energy future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This report describes the topics from the conference on Affordable Comfort, held March 26-31, 1995. Topics are concerned with energy efficiency in homes, retrofitting, weatherization, and monitoring of appliances, heating, and air conditioning systems for performance, as well as topics on electric utilities.

  13. Thermal comfort analysis of hostels in National Institute of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thermal comfort study was carried out in the hostels of National Institute of Technology Calicut,Kerala, which is located in a warm humid climatic zone of India. Measurements of ambient temperature, globe temperature, relative humidity, air velocity and illuminance were carried out in eight hostels, and in parallel a ...

  14. Effect of urban albedo surfaces on thermal comfort | Mansouri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They have addressed this issue in order to identify the main causes that generate the warming of urban areas and therefore contribute to the degradation of the exterior and interior thermal comfort of the inhabitants. It turns out that the reflectivity of materials known as the albedo, plays a leading role in this degradation.

  15. The correlation between thermal comfort in buildings and fashion products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesel, Aline; de Mello Souza, Patrícia

    2012-01-01

    This article is about thermal comfort in the wearable product. The research correlates fashion and architecture, in so far as it elects the brise soleil - an architectural element capable of regulating temperature and ventilation inside buildings - as a study referential, in trying to transpose and adapt its mechanisms to the wearable apparel.

  16. Analysis of thermal comfort in Lagos, Nigeria | Komolafe | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports a thermal comfort survey conducted in three locations in Lagos between July 1996 and June 1997 in which 50 fully acclimatized subjects cast over 6,000 individual votes of their subjective assessments of the thermal environments. The survey covered only residential buildings constructed of sandcrete ...

  17. 24 CFR 3280.511 - Comfort cooling certificate and information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... calculation of cooling loads at various locations, window exposures and shadings are provided in chapter 22 of... home necessary to complete the cooling load calculations. The comfort cooling information shall include... efficiently and economically, a cooling load (heat gain) calculation is required. The cooling load is...

  18. Three different anesthesia techniques for a comfortable prostate biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Sahin

    2015-01-01

    Discussion: Enabling pain and discomfort control in patients is very important during TRUS-guided prostate biopsy. In our study, we observed that the periprostatic block enables more comfortable compared with patient groups with intrarectal lidocaine gel and pudendal block and better reduction in pain scores.

  19. Development of Light Powered Sensor Networks for Thermal Comfort Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dasheng

    2008-10-16

    Recent technological advances in wireless communications have enabled easy installation of sensor networks with air conditioning equipment control applications. However, the sensor node power supply, through either power lines or battery power, still presents obstacles to the distribution of the sensing systems. In this study, a novel sensor network, powered by the artificial light, was constructed to achieve wireless power transfer and wireless data communications for thermal comfort measurements. The sensing node integrates an IC-based temperature sensor, a radiation thermometer, a relative humidity sensor, a micro machined flow sensor and a microprocessor for predicting mean vote (PMV) calculation. The 935 MHz band RF module was employed for the wireless data communication with a specific protocol based on a special energy beacon enabled mode capable of achieving zero power consumption during the inactive periods of the nodes. A 5W spotlight, with a dual axis tilt platform, can power the distributed nodes over a distance of up to 5 meters. A special algorithm, the maximum entropy method, was developed to estimate the sensing quantity of climate parameters if the communication module did not receive any response from the distributed nodes within a certain time limit. The light-powered sensor networks were able to gather indoor comfort-sensing index levels in good agreement with the comfort-sensing vote (CSV) preferred by a human being and the experimental results within the environment suggested that the sensing system could be used in air conditioning systems to implement a comfort-optimal control strategy.

  20. A novel medical bandage with enhanced clothing comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oğlakcioğlu, N.; Sari, B.; Bedez Üte, T.; Marmarali, A.

    2016-07-01

    Compression garments are special textile products which apply a pressure on needed body zones for supporting medical, sport or casual activities. Medical bandages are a group of these garments and they have a very common usage for compression effect on legs or arms. These bandages are generally produced by using synthetic raw materials such as polyamide or polyester fibres. Medical bandages are in contact with skin. Even if the synthetic fibres are used, they may cause both comfort and health problems like allergies. Nowadays in textile sector, the expectations of clients include using of natural fibres as far as possible in all garments. Natural fibres have good advantages such as breathability, softness, moisture management ability, non-allergenic and ecologic structure and these characteristics present optimum utilization conditions. In this study, tubular medical bandages were manufactured by using core spun yarns (sheath fibres are selected as tencel, bamboo and cotton, core material is elastane) and their pressure and comfort (air and water vapour permeability) characteristics were investigated. The results indicated that the bandages have good comfort abilities beside adequate pressure values for compression effect. These garments can constitute a new production field for medical bandages with their comfort properties in addition to pressure characteristics.

  1. Towards green design guidelines for thermally comfortable streets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemm, W.; Lenzholzer, S.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Hove, van B.

    2013-01-01

    Creating thermally comfortable streetscapes is a rather new challenge for urban designers in The Netherlands and other countries with moderate climates. This is due to the lack of evidence based design guidelines. By combining research methods from micrometeorology and landscape architecture, we

  2. Possibilities to improve the aircraft interior comfort experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Bazley, C.; Kamp, I.; Blok, M.

    2012-01-01

    Comfort plays an increasingly important role in the interior design of airplanes. Although ample research has been conducted on airplane design technology, only a small amount of public scientific information is available addressing the passenger's opinion. In this study, more than 10,000 internet

  3. A Series of Computational Neuroscience Labs Increases Comfort with MATLAB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, David F

    2015-01-01

    Computational simulations allow for a low-cost, reliable means to demonstrate complex and often times inaccessible concepts to undergraduates. However, students without prior computer programming training may find working with code-based simulations to be intimidating and distracting. A series of computational neuroscience labs involving the Hodgkin-Huxley equations, an Integrate-and-Fire model, and a Hopfield Memory network were used in an undergraduate neuroscience laboratory component of an introductory level course. Using short focused surveys before and after each lab, student comfort levels were shown to increase drastically from a majority of students being uncomfortable or with neutral feelings about working in the MATLAB environment to a vast majority of students being comfortable working in the environment. Though change was reported within each lab, a series of labs was necessary in order to establish a lasting high level of comfort. Comfort working with code is important as a first step in acquiring computational skills that are required to address many questions within neuroscience.

  4. Double face : Adjustable translucent system to improve thermal comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turrin, M.; Tenpierik, M.J.; De Ruiter, P.; Van der Spoel, W.H.; Chang Lara, C.; Heinzelmann, F.; Teuffel, P.; Van Bommel, W.

    2015-01-01

    The DoubleFace project aims at developing a new product that passively improves thermal comfort of indoor and semi-indoor spaces by means of lightweight materials for latent heat storage, while simultaneously allowing daylight to pass through as much as possible. Specifically, the project aims at

  5. Thermal comfort in naturally ventilated buildings in Maceio, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djamila, Harimi

    2017-11-01

    This article presents the results from thermal comfort survey carried out in classrooms over two different seasons in Maceio, Brazil. The secondary data were collected from thermal comfort field study conducted in naturally ventilated classrooms. Objective and subjective parameters were explored to evaluate thermal comfort conditions. The potential effect of air movement on subjects' vote under neutrality was evaluated. Overall, the indoor climate of the surveyed location was classified warm and humid. Conflicting results were depicted when analyzing the effect of air movements on subjects' vote. The mean air temperature for subjects feeling hot was found to be lower than those feeling warm. A reasonable approach to tackle these two unpredictable results was suggested. Correlation matrix between selected thermal comfort variables was developed. Globe temperature recorded the highest correlation with subjects' response on ASHRAE seven-point scale. The correlation was significant at the 0.01 level. On the other hand, the correlation between air movement and subjects' response on ASHRAE seven-point scale was weak but significant. Further field studies on the current topic were recommended.

  6. Progress in thermal comfort research over the last twenty years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dear, R. J. de; Akimoto, T.; Arens, E. A.

    2013-01-01

    developed, driven by the continuous challenge to model thermal comfort at the same anatomical resolution and to combine these localized signals into a coherent, global thermal perception. Finally, the demand for ever increasing building energy efficiency is pushing technological innovation in the way we...

  7. Thermal comfort in residential buildings by the millions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Torben; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Maagaard, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    In Danish building code and many design briefings, criteria regarding thermal comfort are defined for “critical” rooms in residential buildings. Identifying the critical room is both difficult and time-consuming for large, multistory buildings. To reduce costs and time, such requirement often cau...

  8. Design of healthy, comfortable, and energy-efficient buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roulet, C.A.; Bluyssen, P.M.; Müller, B.; Oliveira Fernandes, E. de

    2012-01-01

    The HOPE European research project aimed to look at a possible relationship between the energy performance of a building and the well-being (health and comfort) of their occupants. An interdisciplinary survey resulted in guidelines to increase the number of energy-efficient buildings that are at the

  9. Evaluation of the Indoor Environment in the Comfort Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsgaard, Camilla; Heiselberg, Per; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2012-01-01

    and in a process of doing so, it is important to maintain a good and healthy indoor environment and not on the expense of it. One way of saving energy is to build passive houses. This paper presents the result of a case study of some of the first certified passive houses in Denmark, called the Comfort Houses...

  10. Elements of Comfort and Satisfaction in the Office Workspace ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted in offices in Accra and Kumasi to investigate comfort conditions in the workspace. Office staff indicated their satisfaction with conditions in the immediate work environment. Storage space generates the highest level of dissatisfaction in respondents. Privacy, image of the workplace, and overall ...

  11. does knowledge influence their attitude and comfort in rendering care?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    experience, age and being a consultant or a senior resident influenced attitude, while male gender and knowing someone with AIDS influenced global comfort. Knowledge is weakly ... attitudes are biases and stereotypes and could only be mediated through the socialization process during training [1]. It is plausible that ...

  12. Portable+: A Ubiquitous And Smart Way Towards Comfortable Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Milan [IIIT-Delhi; Singh, Amarjeet [IIIT-Delhi; Chandan, Vikas [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2017-06-30

    An air conditioner (AC) consumes a significant proportion of the total household power consumption. Primarily used in developing countries, decentralised AC has an inbuilt thermostat to cool the room to a temperature, manually set by the users. However, residents are incapable of specifying their goal through these thermostats - maximise their comfort or save AC energy. State-of-the-art portable thermostats emulate AC remotes and assist occupants in remotely changing the thermostat temperature, through their smartphones. We propose extending such thermostats to portable+ by adding a Comfort-Energy Trade-off (CET) knob, realised through an optimisation framework to allow users to balance their comfort and the savings without worrying about the right set temperature. Analysis based on real data, collected from a controlled experiment (across two rooms for two weeks) and an in-situ deployment (across five rooms for three months), indicates that portable+ thermostats can reduce residents’ discomfort by 23% (CET selection for maximal comfort) and save 26% energy when CET is set for maximising savings.

  13. Numerical human model for impact and seating comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, J.F.A.M. van; Lange, R. de; Verver, M.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed numerical model of the human body that can be used to evaluate both safety and comfort aspects of vehicle interiors. The model is based on a combination of rigid body and finite element techniques to provide an optimal combination of computational efficiency and

  14. Evaluating thermophysiological comfort using the principles of sensory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubrić, Ivana Salopek; Skenderi, Zenun

    2013-03-01

    Thermophysiological comfort applies to the way in which clothing lets through or retains heat and moisture and helps the body retain heat balance in rest position or at various levels of activities. In this paper, the principles of sensory analysis are used to define the protocol of new method for the evaluation of thermophysiological comfort wearing different garments. Sensory analysis was chosen because as a scientific discipline that applies experiment principles using human senses is used for the evaluation of consumer goods. Test protocol using assessors described in this paper consists of the following steps: defining the interview content, finding potential assessors and making an interview, creating a survey, conducting a survey, group discussion, test and group discussion scoring, selection of assessors, assessment preparation and subjective assessment. On average the most distinctive increase in the sensation of warmth was recorded for the polyester clothing ensemble, and the lowest one for the cotton clothing ensemble. Concerning the average grades of comfort given by assesors, the most comfortable clothing ensemble is the one made of viscose. It was also found out that the method is especially suitable if a representative group of assessors is formed.

  15. Multicriteria analysis of health, comfort and energy efficiency in buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roulet, C.A.; Flourentzou, F.; Foradini, F.; Bluyssen, P.; Cox, C.; Aizlewood, C.

    2006-01-01

    In order to comply with sustainable development policy, the minimum that buildings should achieve are a healthy, comfortable and energy-efficient environment. Criteria for individually assessing each of the many criteria are known: the occupant's perceived health; the provided thermal, visual and

  16. Aspects of seat modelling for seating comfort analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verver, M.M.; Lange, R. de; Hoof, J.F.A.M. van; Wismans, J.S.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    The development of more comfortable seats is an important issue in the automotive industry. However, the development of new car seats is very time consuming and costly since it is typically based on experimental evaluation using prototypes. Computer models of the human-seat interaction could

  17. Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pump Comfort Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, K. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Cambridge, MA (United States); Sehgal, N. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Cambridge, MA (United States); Akers, C. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Field tests were conducted in two homes in Austin, TX, to evaluate the comfort performance of ductless minisplit heat pumps (DMSHPs), measuring temperature and relative humidity measurements in four rooms in each home before and after retrofitting a central HVAC system with DMSHPs.

  18. Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pump Comfort Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, K.; Sehgal, N.; Akers, C.

    2013-03-01

    Field tests were conducted in two homes in Austin, TX to evaluate the comfort performance of ductless mini-split heat pumps (DMSHPs), measuring temperature and relative humidity measurements in four rooms in each home before and after retrofitting a central HVAC system with DMSHPs.

  19. Effects of Yaw Motion on Driving Behaviour, Comfort and Realism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogema, J.H.; Wentink, M.; Bertollini, G.P.

    2012-01-01

    The use of large displacement yaw cueing is becoming more common as a part of the motion cueing in driving simulators. It is expected that driving behaviour, comfort and realism will be positively affected by adding a yaw table, especially during low-speed turning manoeuvres. We used TNO's advanced

  20. Thermal comfort study of plastics manufacturing industry in converting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiono Sugiono

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal comfort is one of ergonomics factors that can create a significant impact to workers performance. For a better thermal comfort, several environment factors (air temperature, wind speed and relative humidity should be considered in this research. The object of the study is a building for converting process of plastics manufacturing industry located in Malang, Indonesia. The maximum air temperature inside the building can reach as high as 36°C. The result of this study shows that heat stress is dominantly caused by heat source from machine and wall building. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation is used to show the air characteristic through inside the building. By using the CFD simulation, some scenarios of solution are successfully presented. Employees thermal comfort was investigated based on predicted mean vote model (PMV and predicted percentage of dissatisfied model (PPD. Existing condition gives PMV in range from 1.83 to 2.82 and PPD in range from 68.9 to 98%. Meanwhile, modification of ventilation and replacing ceiling material from clear glass into reflective clear glass gave significant impact to reduce PMV into range from 1.63 to 2.18 and PPD into range from 58.2 to 84.2%. In sort, new design converting building process has more comfortable for workers.

  1. Shoe preference based on subjective comfort for walking and running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Pui Wah; Bagdon, Miranda

    2010-01-01

    Subjective comfort of footwear is important for shoe and orthosis design. This study compared shoe preferences between walking and running, using subjective comfort as an outcome tool. Forty-one participants walked and ran 20 times each along a runway in three types of footwear (cushioning, lightweight, and stability) and chose the model that they preferred most for walking and running separately based on subjective comfort. More participants preferred the cushioning model (walking, 34%; running, 41%) or the lightweight model (walking, 44%; running, 41%) over the stability model (walking, 22%; running, 17%). χ² tests revealed no differences between walking and running, runners and nonrunners, and lighter and heavier individuals. Women were more likely (odds ratio = 4.09) to prefer the lightweight model, whereas men preferred the cushioning (odds ratio = 2.05) and stability (odds ratio = 3.19) models. Most participants (71%) chose the same model for both activities. Shoe preference varies among individuals and is influenced by sex. Most people feel comfortable walking and running in the same shoe model.

  2. A Comfort Index for Statistical Inference-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, James K.

    1987-01-01

    An index that measures the degree of comfort a researcher has relative to statistical inference application is proposed. The index is calculated by selecting and weighting components inherent in the conduct of hypothesis tests and confidence intervals, and its values range from zero to one. To organize the components of the index, inference…

  3. Animal Communications Through Seismic Vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Peggy (University of Tulsa)

    2001-05-02

    Substrate vibration has been important to animals as a channel of communication for millions of years, but our literature on vibration in this context of biologically relevant information is only decades old. The jaw mechanism of the earliest land vertebrates allowed them to perceive substrate vibrations as their heads lay on the ground long before airborne sounds could be heard. Although the exact mechanism of vibration production and the precise nature of the wave produced are not always understood, recent development of affordable instrumentation to detect and measure vibrations has allowed researchers to answer increasingly sophisticated questions about how animals send and receive vibration signals. We now know that vibration provides information used in predator defense, prey detection, recruitment to food, mate choice, intrasexual competition, and maternal/brood social interactions in a variety of insect orders, spiders, crabs, scorpions, chameleons, frogs, golden moles, mole rats, kangaroos rats, wallabies, elephants and bison.

  4. BIOMECHANICS OF THERAPEUTIC RIDING DURING THE DISEASES OF I-II DEGREE DYSPLASTIC LUMBAR AND STATIC (SHORT LEG) SCOLIOSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshaberidze, E; Merabishvili, I; Loria, M

    2015-11-01

    The goal of the paper is to substantiate the essence of ridetherapy biomechanics as the pathogenetic therapeutic and prophylactic method at lumbar dysplastic (the I and II degrees) and static (short-legged induced) scoliosis. Uneven lower extremities caused by any reason and asymmetric support induce the change in the arrangement of trochantin to the vertebra and correspondingly the uneven loading of lumbar muscles. The asymmetric strength of lumbar muscles evoked by the change in rotator condition becomes the cause of the formation of scoliosis primary arc which, in its turn, causes a compensatory spinal curvature. In case of dysplastic scoliosis a leading role belongs to the beginning of dystrophic changes in intervertebral discs and its further decentration. At riding position the lower extremities are completely disengaged from the antigravity redistribution, the child is in direct contact with vibrations and jolts coming from the horseback; the antigravity loading is distributed on the muscles of the torso and thus, it creates an opportunity to purposefully affect the correction of the spine. During scoliosis the pathogenic essence of ridetherapy is due to the comprehensiveness of its procedures, expressed in the fact that during one procedure several factors are influenced simultaneously: nucleus pulpous, the torso and iliopsoas muscles, the antigravity system, etc. According to the clinical-functional and radiographic studies carried out in the dynamics on 11-16 years old adolescents it has been established that in those groups where the rehabilitation was conducted in a complex with ridetherapy the authentically higher results were obtained as compared to the groups where the rehabilitation was held using therapeutic exercises and massage.

  5. Thermal comfort assessment in Moscow during the summer 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinina, Elizaveta; Konstantinov, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    Biometeorological indices are used to asses thermal comfort conditions and evaluate the influence of the weather on the human organism and health. Despite of the fact, that some biometeorological indices are already used in weather forecast, the assessment of these indices is especially important during the extreme weather conditions like continuous heat or cold waves. One of the very urgent issues in the applied climatology is the assessment of thermal comfort conditions in the urban areas, because nowadays more than half population of the planet lives there. Especially important is to study thermal comfort conditions in biggest and, thus, densely populated cities, because the effect of heat waves becomes stronger by the urban heat island effect. In July and August 2010 in the biggest city in Russia - Moscow, where more than 11 million people live, the longest and the strongest heat wave as well as the warmest day (29th of July 2010) were recorded since the meteorological observations in Russian capital were started. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the thermal comfort conditions of the warmest day in Moscow. For that purpose several biometeorological indices, particularly PET (physiological equivalent temperature), were analyzed and calculated for the warmest day in Russian capital. The calculations were done for the certain city canyon on the territory of the Moscow State University as well as for the places with natural vegetation. The results were compared with each other and, thus, the complex thermal comfort assessment was done. Also, the results of the calculations for the 29th of July 2010 were compared with the mean meteorological data for this period.

  6. Driving Rhythm Method for Driving Comfort Analysis on Rural Highways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Driving comfort is of great significance for rural highways, since the variation characteristics of driving speed are comparatively complex on rural highways. Earlier studies about driving comfort were usually based on the actual geometric road alignments and automobiles, without considering the driver’s visual perception. However, some scholars have shown that there is a discrepancy between actual and perceived geometric alignments, especially on rural highways. Moreover, few studies focus on rural highways. Therefore, in this paper the driver’s visual lane model was established based on the Catmull-Rom spline, in order to describe the driver’s visual perception of rural highways. The real vehicle experiment was conducted on 100 km rural highways in Tibet. The driving rhythm was presented to signify the information during the driving process. Shape parameters of the driver’s visual lane model were chosen as input variables to predict the driving rhythm by BP neural network. Wavelet transform was used to explore which part of the driving rhythm is related to the driving comfort. Then the probabilities of good, fair and bad driving comfort can be calculated by wavelets of the driving rhythm. This work not only provides a new perspective into driving comfort analysis and quantifies the driver’s visual perception, but also pays attention to the unique characteristics of rural highways.

  7. Vibration Attenuation of Plate Using Multiple Vibration Absorbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaman Izzuddin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Vibrations are undesired phenomenon and it can cause harm, distress and unsettling influence to the systems or structures, for example, aircraft, automobile, machinery and building. One of the approach to limit this vibration by introducing passive vibration absorber attached to the structure. In this paper, the adequacy of utilizing passive vibration absorbers are investigated. The vibration absorber system is designed to minimize the vibration of a thin plate fixed along edges. The plate’s vibration characteristics, such as, natural frequency and mode shape are determined using three techniques: theoretical equations, finite element (FE analysis and experiment. The results demonstrate that the first four natural frequencies of fixed-fixed ends plate are 48, 121, 193 and 242 Hz, and these results are corroborated well with theoretical, FE simulation and experiment. The experiment work is further carried out with attached single and multiple vibration absorbers onto plate by tuning the absorber’s frequency to match with the excitation frequency. The outcomes depict that multiple vibration absorbers are more viable in lessening the global structural vibration.

  8. Understanding comfort and senses in social practices: Insights from a Danish field study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Line Valdorff; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Thermal comfort is central to energy consumption in housing and one of the main drivers behind worldwide GHG emissions. Research on residential energy consumption has therefore addressed comfort in relation to indoor temperatures. This paper argues that by widening the focus of comfort to include......, and the paper describes how aspects of comfort are perceived differently within different practices. The study is based on qualitative interview data from a Danish field study. However, the findings on how comfort in houses can be understood have a broader relevance as well. It is argued that this nuanced...... perspective on comfort can contribute to widening the debate and policy on residential energy consumption....

  9. Adaptive thermal comfort opportunities for dwellings: Providing thermal comfort only when and where needed in dwellings in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noortje Alders

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research presented in this thesis is to design the characteristics of an Adaptive Thermal Comfort System for Dwellings to achieve a significantly better energy performance whilst not compromising the thermal comfort perception of the occupants. An Adaptive Thermal Comfort System is defined as the whole of passive and active comfort components of the dwelling that dynamically adapts its settings to varying user comfort demands and weather conditions (seasonal, diurnal and hourly depending on the aspects adapted, thus providing comfort only where, when and at the level needed by the user, to improve possibilities of harvesting the environmental energy (e.g. solar gain and outdoor air when available and storing it when abundant. In order to be able to create an Adaptive Thermal Comfort System to save energy knowledge is needed as to where, when, what kind and how much energy is needed to provide the thermal comfort. Therefore, this research aimed to gain insight in the dynamic behaviour of the weather and the occupant and the opportunities to design the characteristics of an Adaptive Thermal Comfort System for Dwellings to achieve a significantly better energy performance whilst not compromising the thermal comfort perception of the occupants answering the main research question;  What are the most efficient strategies for delivering thermal comfort in the residential sector with respect to better energy performances and an increasing demand for flexibility in use and comfort conditions? To answer the main research question three steps were taken, which also represent the three parts of the research: 1. The dynamic information of the factors influencing the thermal heat balance of the dwelling was gathered in order to determine their opportunities for adaptivity. A multidisciplinary approach to Thermal Comfort Systems is followed taking into account the dynamic of occupancy profiles, weather, building physics, HVAC and controls. A

  10. Adaptive thermal comfort opportunities for dwellings: Providing thermal comfort only when and where needed in dwellings in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noortje Alders

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research presented in this thesis is to design the characteristics of an Adaptive Thermal Comfort System for Dwellings to achieve a significantly better energy performance whilst not compromising the thermal comfort perception of the occupants. An Adaptive Thermal Comfort System is defined as the whole of passive and active comfort components of the dwelling that dynamically adapts its settings to varying user comfort demands and weather conditions (seasonal, diurnal and hourly depending on the aspects adapted, thus providing comfort only where, when and at the level needed by the user, to improve possibilities of harvesting the environmental energy (e.g. solar gain and outdoor air when available and storing it when abundant.In order to be able to create an Adaptive Thermal Comfort System to save energy knowledge is needed as to where, when, what kind and how much energy is needed to provide the thermal comfort. Therefore, this research aimed to gain insight in the dynamic behaviour of the weather and the occupant and the opportunities to design the characteristics of an Adaptive Thermal Comfort System for Dwellings to achieve a significantly better energy performance whilst not compromising the thermal comfort perception of the occupants answering the main research question; What are the most efficient strategies for delivering thermal comfort in the residential sector with respect to better energy performances and an increasing demand for flexibility in use and comfort conditions?To answer the main research question three steps were taken, which also represent the three parts of the research:1. The dynamic information of the factors influencing the thermal heat balance of the dwelling was gathered in order to determine their opportunities for adaptivity. A multidisciplinary approach to Thermal Comfort Systems is followed taking into account the dynamic of occupancy profiles, weather, building physics, HVAC and controls

  11. DIOSCÓRIDES RESCATADO POR LOS ÁRABES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo H Elía

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La historia oficial afirma que Occidente heredó directamente el legado cultural de Grecia y Roma. Pero si la mayoría de los manuscritos griegos y latinos fueron destruidos a partir del saqueo de la Biblioteca de Alejandría en 391, los archivos de Roma fueron devastados en sendas ocasiones entre 410 y 476 por visigodos y hérulos, y los escasos vestigios clásicos que quedaban en Atenas fueron arrasados por Justiniano I en 529, ¿cuál fue la conexión que logró transmitir esa literatura y pudo ser aprovechada en un período anterior al renacimiento? La salvación de las piezas literarias se realizó durante ochocientos afios de activa y responsable tarea de recopilación por parte de los árabes durante la línea de tiempo que oscila entre 650-1450 en la que fueron rescatados, traducidos y retransmitidos hacia los cuatro puntos cardinales. Los científicos árabes, al igual que Arquímedes o Herón, nunca se separaron del saber empírico, por el contrario, lo profundizaron. El movimiento científico árabe no sólo interpretó el saber de los antiguos sino desarrolló una nueva ciencia donde la razón sustentaba a la fe y viceversa. Esta fue la base esencial que permitió construir el Renacimiento y la Ilustración, que a su vez posibilitaron la Modernidad. En este contexto, fue de capital importancia la traducción al árabe de la obra de Dioscórides ya que no sólo fue de gran utilidad para la farmacología y medicina en el mundo musulmán sino que a través de éste las recetas del médico griego de Nerón reingresaron a la Europa latina donde fueron recibidas como una panacea.Official history affirms that the West directly inherited the cultural legacy of Greece and Rome. But if most of the Greek and latin manuscripts they were destroyed at the sacking of the Library of Alexandria in 391, the archives of Rome were devastated in several occasions between 410 and 476 by Visigoth and heruls, and the little classic vestiges that were in

  12. Good vibrations. [Hydraulic turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, P.

    1994-07-01

    The latest developments in the Voith Turbine Control and Automation System (VTLS), which couples digital control technology to hydropower plant equipment, are described. Prominent among these is the vibration diagnostics module for hydraulic turbines. It provides machine-specific diagnostic logic for a vibration monitoring and analysis system. Of the two other VTLS modules described, the operation module optimizes the control of a power plant with three or more turbines by considering the individual properties of each in turn, recommending which should be run, and how, in order to partition the load for a required power output. The cavitation module is a diagnostic system which enables the limits of operation of the turbines to be extended to bands just outside those determined by cavitation calculations. (3 figures). (UK)

  13. Electromagnetic validation of fault-ride through capabilities of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana Aristi, Iván; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; Sharma, Ranjan

    2010-01-01

    Scope of the present project is the development and validation of electro-magnetic transient model of fixed-speed wind turbines. The research work is focused on the development of a fixed-speed wind turbine model with fault-ride through capabilities during transient over-voltages. The model...

  14. Edasi tänaste pensionäride kukil! / Janno Reiljan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reiljan, Janno, 1951-2018

    2001-01-01

    Riigikogu ja ERL liige Janno Reiljan leiab, et kolmikliidu pensionipoliitika kohaselt hoitakse tulevaste pensionäride jaoks tänaste arvel kokku. Tabel ja diagrammid: SKP võrrelduna keskmise netopalgaga 1999-2008; Rahvaliidu ja kolmikliidu pensionipoliitika võrdlus. Autor: ERL. Parlamendisaadik

  15. The Share-a-Ride problem with stochastic travel times and stochastic delivery locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Baoxiang; Krushinsky, Dmitry; Van Woensel, Tom; Reijers, Hajo A.

    2016-01-01

    We consider two stochastic variants of the Share-a-Ride problem: one with stochastic travel times and one with stochastic delivery locations. Both variants are formulated as a two-stage stochastic programming model with recourse. The objective is to maximize the expected profit of serving a set of

  16. Therapist-Designed Adaptive Riding in Children With Cerebral Palsy : Results of a Feasibility Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angsupaisal, Mattana; Visser, Baudina; Alkema, Anne; Meinsma-van der Tuin, Marja; Maathuis, Carel G. B.; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    Background. It is debatable whether adaptive riding (AR) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) improves postural control and gross motor development. Objective. The study aim was to explore the feasibility of an extensive assessment protocol for a randomized controlled trial of therapist-designed

  17. Therapeutic Riding for a Student with Multiple Disabilities and Visual Impairment: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrman, Jennifer; Ross, David B.

    2001-01-01

    A 9-year-old with multiple disabilities and visual impairments was the focus of a 10-week developmental therapeutic riding program incorporating hippotherapy. The program has led to increased mobility, an increase in visual attention span and fixation time, signs of greater verbal communication, and the acquisition of new functional signs.…

  18. Low Voltage Ride-Through of Variable Speed Wind Turbines with Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Wang, Yue

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation model of a MW-level variable speed wind turbine with a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) and a full-scale converter developed in the simulation tool of PSCAD/EMTDC. The low voltage ride-through (LVRT) capability of the wind turbine is investigated. A new...

  19. Travel at low energetic cost by swimming and wave-riding bottlenose dolphins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T M; Friedl, W A; Fong, M L; Yamada, R M; Sedivy, P; Haun, J E

    1992-02-27

    Over the past 50 years there has been much speculation about the energetic cost of swimming and wave-riding by dolphins. When aligned properly in front of the bow of moving ships in the stern wake of small boats, on wind waves, and even in the wake of larger cetaceans, the animals appear to move effortlessly through the water without the benefit of propulsive strokes by the flukes. Theoretically, body streamlining as well as other anatomical and behavioural adaptations contribute to low transport costs in these animals. The economy of movement permitted by wave-riding has been perceived as an energetic advantage for the swimming dolphin, but has been hard to prove in the absence of physiological data for exercising cetaceans. Here we determine the aerobic and anaerobic costs of swimming and wave-riding in bottlenose dolphins and find that the minimum cost of transport for swimming dolphins is 1.29 +/- 0.05 J kg-1 m-1 at a cruising speed of 2.1 m s-1. Aerobic costs are nearly twice as high for swimming seals and sea lions, and 8-12 times higher for human swimmers. Wave-riding by dolphins provides additional benefits in terms of speed. The results indicate that behavioural, physiological and morphological factors make swimming an economical form of high-speed travel for dolphins.

  20. Acceleration and Rotation in a Pendulum Ride, Measured Using an iPhone 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendrill, Ann-Marie; Rohlen, Johan

    2011-01-01

    Many modern cell phones have built-in sensors that may be used as a resource for physics education. Amusement rides offer examples of many different types of motion, where the acceleration leads to forces experienced throughout the body. A comoving 3D-accelerometer gives an electronic measurement of the varying forces acting on the rider, but a…

  1. Horses: An Introduction to Horses: Racing, Ranching, and Riding for Blind and Physically Handicapped Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cylke, Frank Kurt, Ed.

    This annotated bibliography of materials focuses on horses, racing, ranching, and riding. Two articles are presented in full. They are: "Diary of a Blind Horseman: Confidence Springs from a Horse Named Sun" (Richard Vice and Steve Stone) and "Young Rider: Her Horses Show the Way" (Helen Mason). Each article tells the true story…

  2. Cardiorespiratory and Biomechanical Responses to Simulated Recreational Horseback Riding in Healthy Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Brandon R.; Papadakis, Zacharias; Bane, Annie A.; Park, Jin K.; Grandjean, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of cardiorespiratory and pelvic kinematic responses to simulated horseback riding (SHBR) and to characterize responses to SHBR relative to walking in apparently healthy children. Method: Fifteen healthy children (Mage = 9.5 ± 2.6 years) completed SHBR on a commercially available…

  3. Low voltage ride through strategies for SCIG wind turbines in distributed power generation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Teodorescu, Remus; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    Fulfilling the new grid codes constitutes one of the main challenges for the wind power industry, that is specially concerned about the new fault-ride-through requirements. Enhancing the operation of wind-turbines in front of grid faults is not only an important issue for new wind farms, but also...

  4. How challenging is a riding horse’s life? Field studies on fitness, workload and welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsters, C.C.B.M.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this thesis were to evaluate in practice workload, fitness and welfare of riding horses under work and training conditions. Chapter II presents an overview of the parameters used in earlier studies on training, behaviour and equine welfare, and describes the evaluation of the

  5. Economic analysis of the organisation of a riding centre; application of the linear programming approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka ŽGAJNAR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, the economics of an equestrian centre, which in addition to a variety of riding school activities also includes breeding and livery, are analysed. We consider the conditions for a hypothetical holding operating in central Slovenia. Methods of mathematical programming are applied in order to attempt to optimise the holding’s activities. Their use may in the given situation facilitate the evaluation of development prospects from different perspectives and indicate the opportunities of increasing value-added. On the basis of maximizing the gross margin, we try to address the various questions and challenges that arise in managing and planning for such an equestrian centre. The obtained results indicate that breeding is unfavourable in the given price-cost ratio, both for the renewal of the working horses herd and for sale. This reflects the current adverse situation in the field of horse breeding. Livery is an important activity on such holdings and through opportunity perspective provides an optimal set of activities. Activities of the riding school for children are interesting in terms of income diversification, as well as an additional source of revenue. A riding school with one riding instructor and an indoor arena needs 4.6 horses in order to cover the costs of full-time employment.

  6. Overuse Injuries Associated with Mountain Biking: Is Single-Speed Riding a Predisposing Factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Lebec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Though mountain bikers are at significant risk for overuse injury, there is minimal quality research describing this relationship. Single-speed mountain biking, in which participants pedal a bike with only a single gear, may place riders at even greater risk for overuse problems due to the disproportionate physical effort associated with this type of riding. The focus of this study was to provide additional perspective on overuse injuries sustained by mountain bikers and to determine if single-speed mountain biking places participants at greater risk for overuse conditions. Four hundred and four (404 mountain bikers were surveyed concerning overuse injuries sustained during the previous year. Findings indicate that 63% of respondents reported an overuse injury affecting at least one area with the most commonly reported areas being the lumbar spine, knees, hand/wrist, and cervical spine. Individuals riding single-speed mountain bikes did not have a higher incidence of overuse injuries than riders of multiple-geared bikes. However, respondents who split time between riding single-speed and multiple-geared bikes were significantly more likely to report an overuse syndrome than those only riding single-speed or multiple-geared bikes (p = 0.0104. This group of riders may be at greater risk for overuse injury due to excessive fatigue and poor biomechanics.

  7. Mitigating Free Riding in Peer-To-Peer Networks: Game Theory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of peer-to-peer systems is based on the quality and quantity of resource contributions from participating peers. In most systems, users are assumed to be cooperative, but in reality, sharing in peer-to-peer systems is faced with the problem of free riding. In this paper, we model the interactions between peers ...

  8. Models and algorithms for reliability-oriented Dial-a-Ride with autonomous electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pimenta, Victor; Quilliot, Alain; Toussaint, Hélène; Vigo, D.

    2017-01-01

    We consider a static decision model related to the management of a Dial-a-Ride (DAR) system involving small autonomous electrical vehicles in a closed industrial site. Because of the specific features of the system, in this paper we concentrate on its reliability and propose a model that aims at

  9. An equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV1) abortion storm at a riding school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, van C.; Willink, D.L.; Smeenk, L.A.J.; Brinkhof, J.; Terpstra, C.

    2000-01-01

    An outbreak of EHV1 abortions occurred at a riding school in the Netherlands in 1991. Seven of twelve pregnant mares aborted, and another foal died at 8 days of age. Six abortions occurred within 12 days in March after an initial abortion on 8 February. Four mares delivered live foals. Virological

  10. Ride Your Luck! A Field Experiment on Lottery-Based Incentives for Compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Fabbri (Marco); P.N. Barbieri (Paolo); M. Bigoni (Maria)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe designed a natural-field experiment in the context of local public transportation to test whether rewards in the form of lottery prizes coupled with traditional sanctions efficiently reduce free-riding. We organized a lottery in a medium-size Italian city the participation in which is

  11. The Effectiveness of Simulated Developmental Horse-Riding Program in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Wang, Chih-Chung; Huang, Mao-Hsiung; Su, Chwen-Yng

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a 20-week Simulated Developmental Horse-Riding Program (SDHRP) by using an innovative exercise equipment (Joba[R]) on the motor proficiency and sensory integrative functions in 60 children with autism (age: 6 years, 5 months to 8 years, 9 months). In the first phase of 20 weeks, 30 children received the…

  12. Motorcycle riding under the influence of alcohol: results from the SARTRE-4 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Theofilatos, Athanasios; Yannis, George; Cestac, Julien; Kraïem, Sami

    2014-09-01

    Riding a motorcycle under the influence of alcohol is a dangerous activity, especially considering the high vulnerability of motorcyclists. The present research investigates the factors that affect the declared frequency of drink-riding among motorcyclists in Europe and explores regional differences. Data were collected from the SARTRE-4 (Social Attitudes to Road Traffic Risk in Europe) survey, which was conducted in 19 countries. A total sample of 4483 motorcyclists was interviewed by using a face-to-face questionnaire. The data were analyzed by means of multilevel ordered logit models. The results revealed significant regional differences (between Northern, Eastern and Southern European countries) in drink-riding frequencies in Europe. In general, declared drinking and riding were positively associated with gender (males), increased exposure, underestimation of risk, friends' behaviour, past accidents and alcohol ticket experience. On the other hand, it was negatively associated with underestimation of the amount of alcohol allowed before driving, and support for more severe penalties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. User-Side Subsidies for Shared Ride Taxi Service in Danville, Illinois : Phase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-01

    An UMTA Service and Methods Demonstration has been implemented in Danville, Illinois. The Purpose of the Demonstration is to test the use of a user-side subsidy on a shared ride taxi service for handicapped and elderly persons. This report presents t...

  14. Small City Transit : El Cajon, California : City-Wide Shared-Ride Taxi Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-03-01

    El Cajon, California, is an illustration of a shared ride taxi service. This case study is one of thirteen examples of a transit service in a small community. The background of the community is discussed along with a description of the implementation...

  15. Pickin’ up good vibrations

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    In preparation for the civil engineering work on the HL-LHC, vibration measurements were carried out at the LHC’s Point 1 last month. These measurements will help evaluate how civil engineering work could impact the beam, and will provide crucial details about the site’s geological make-up before construction begins.   A seismic truck at Point 1 generated wave-like vibrations measured by EN/MME. From carrying out R&D to produce state-of-the-art magnets to developing innovative, robust materials capable of withstanding beam impact, the HL-LHC is a multi-faceted project involving many groups and teams across CERN’s departments. It was in this framework that the project management mandated CERN's Mechanical and Materials Engineering (EN/MME) group to measure the propagation of vibrations around Point 1. Their question: can civil engineering work for the HL-LHC – the bulk of which is scheduled for LS2 – begin while the LHC is running? Alth...

  16. Vibrational stability of graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangfan Hu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical stability of graphene as temperature rises is analyzed based on three different self-consistent phonon (SCP models. Compared with three-dimensional (3-D materials, the critical temperature Ti at which instability occurs for graphene is much closer to its melting temperature Tm obtained from Monte Carlo simulation (Ti ≃ 2Tm, K. V. Zakharchenko, A. Fasolino, J. H. Los, and M. I. Katsnelson, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23, 202202. This suggests that thermal vibration plays a significant role in melting of graphene while melting for 3-D materials is often dominated by topologic defects. This peculiar property of graphene derives from its high structural anisotropy, which is characterized by the vibrational anisotropic coefficient (VAC, defined upon its Lindermann ratios in different directions. For any carbon based material with a graphene-like structure, the VAC value must be smaller than 5.4 to maintain its stability. It is also found that the high VAC value of graphene is responsible for its negative thermal expansion coefficient at low temperature range. We believe that the VAC can be regarded as a new criterion concerning the vibrational stability of any low-dimensional (low-D materials.

  17. Unsafe riding practice among electric bikers in Suzhou, China: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Hu, Yihe; Du, Wei; Powis, Brent; Ozanne-Smith, Joan; Liao, Yilan; Li, Ning; Wu, Ming

    2014-01-15

    Electric bike (E-bike)-related deaths have been increasing rapidly in China and such injuries may be partly attributable to unsafe riding practice. To describe potentially unsafe riding behaviours among electric bikers (E-bikers) and to investigate factors influencing these practices in China. In September 2012, a cross-sectional observation study including a speed measurement component was conducted in Wuzhong (an urban district) and Zhangjiagang (a rural district) of Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China. Hand-held radar speed metres were used to read travelling speeds of E-bikes and a pro forma observation checklist was used to collect data on road riding practice. Mixed-effect logistic regressions were used to calculate adjusted ORs and 95% CIs for the association between speeding, road rule violations and helmet use and their influencing factors. Among 800 E-bikes with a speed reading, 70.9% exceeded the designed speed limit of 20 km/h. Among a further 20 647 E-bikers observed, 38.3% did not comply with the road rules when entering intersections; and only 2.2% wore helmets. No regional variation was identified between urban and rural areas. Male E-bikers were associated with more speeding and road rule violations, whereas riding a pedal-equipped E-bike was associated with less road rule violations and less helmet use. Unsafe riding practices such as speeding, road rule violations and lack of helmet use were commonplace among E-bikers, especially among men. The study findings indicate that measures aimed at improving E-bike safety are required in China.

  18. Different DMRT3 Genotypes Are Best Adapted for Harness Racing and Riding in Finnhorses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäderkvist Fegraeus, Kim; Johansson, Lisa; Mäenpää, Minna; Mykkänen, Anna; Andersson, Lisa S; Velie, Brandon D; Andersson, Leif; Árnason, Thorvaldur; Lindgren, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies showed a positive effect of the DMRT3 "gait keeper" mutation on harness racing performance in Standardbreds, French-, and Nordic trotters. The mutation has also been shown to influence riding traits in multiple breeds. This study investigated the effect of the DMRT3 mutation on harness racing performance and riding traits in Finnhorses. Finnhorses used for harness racing (n = 180) and for riding (n = 59) were genotyped for the DMRT3 mutation. For the trotters the genotypes were evaluated for association with racing performance (number of starts, victories, placings, earnings, and race times). At 3-6 years of age the AA genotype was superior compared with the CA and CC genotypes. The AA horses had a significantly higher proportion of victories (P = 1.4×10(-6)) and placings (P = 4.1×10(-7)), better race times (P = 0.01), and earned more money (P = 0.009) compared with C-horses. For the Finnhorses used for riding the owners answered a questionnaire to score how well the horse performed the gaits walk, trot, and canter on a scale from 1 to 6. These scores were tested for association with the DMRT3 genotypes. Although AA horses were more successful as racehorses, the CC and CA horses appear more adapted for classical riding disciplines. The AA horses received significantly lower gait scores compared with C-horses for the majority of gaits. Except for rhythm in extended canter (P = 0.05), there were no significant differences between CA and CC horses. This study shows that there are different optimal genotypes for different disciplines and the DMRT3 mutation clearly influences gaits and performance in Finnhorses. © The American Genetic Association. 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Paediatric ride-on mower related injuries and plastic surgical management.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Laing, T A

    2011-05-01

    Lawnmower related injuries cause significant morbidity in children and young teenagers. The \\'ride-on\\' mowers which are more powerful than the \\'walk behind\\' mowers are becoming increasingly popular. The incidence and severity of injuries from either type of lawnmower appears to be steadily rising as is the burden placed on local plastic surgical and emergency services in managing the care of these patients. The aims of the study were to demonstrate changing trends in lawnmower-related injuries to children presenting to a single unit over a ten-year period and to identify any association between injury severity and machine subtype (\\'ride-on\\' versus \\'walk-behind\\'). Hospital databases, theatre records and medical case notes were reviewed retrospectively of all patients under the age of 16 treated for lawnmower related injuries over a 10 year period from July 1998 to June 2008. Data gathered included patient demographics, injury site and severity, management (type and number of surgical procedures), length of hospital stay and outcome. Injury severity score was also calculated for each case. Controlling for estimated regional population changes, there was a significant increase in the number of ride-on mower related accidents in the time period 2003-2008, compared to the time period 1998-2003. Ride-on injuries had significantly higher injury severity scores, longer hospital stays and were more likely to involve amputations as compared with walk-behind injuries. Children can sustain significant injuries with unsafe lawnmower use. The current study demonstrates the increasing incidence of ride-on mower related injuries in children and identifies a greater morbidity associated with such injuries. Such presentations place intense demands on local plastic surgical services.

  20. All-terrain vehicle safety knowledge, riding behaviors and crash experience of Farm Progress Show attendees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennissen, Charles A; Harland, Karisa K; Wetjen, Kristel; Hoogerwerf, Pamela; O'Donnell, Lauren; Denning, Gerene M

    2017-02-01

    Although all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) are very popular in rural areas for both recreation and work purposes, the epidemiology of agricultural ATV use remains largely unknown. Farm Progress Show attendees in 2012 (Boone, Iowa) and 2013 (Decatur, Illinois) were surveyed about ATVs, including riding behaviors, crash history, and safety knowledge. Descriptive and comparative analyses were performed (N=635 surveys). Over half of those surveyed lived on a farm and more than 90% had ridden on an ATV. Sixty-one percent rode at least once a week and 39% reported riding almost daily. Males and respondents who lived on farms were significantly more likely to be ATV riders. Regarding unsafe behaviors, >80% of ATV users had ridden with a passenger, 66% had ridden on a public road, and nearly one-half never or almost never wore a helmet. Nearly 40% reported having been in a crash. Multivariable logistic regression analysis of adult respondent's data showed males and younger adults were both more likely to report having crashed. In addition, those reporting riding on public roads (but not having ridden with passengers) were nearly five times more likely and respondents who reported both riding on public roads and having ridden with passengers were approximately eight times more likely to have been in a crash as compared to those not reporting these unsafe behaviors. Safety knowledge did not necessarily correspond with safer behaviors; 80% who knew there should be no passengers on an ATV still had ridden with extra riders. ATV use is prevalent in rural populations and most riders report engaging in unsafe riding behaviors. These findings may be used to inform ATV safety education and training programs targeted toward agricultural communities, with the goal of reducing occupational ATV-related deaths and injuries and their substantial economic costs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  1. Geriatric care: ways and means of providing comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Patricia Cruz Pontifice Sousa Valente; Marques, Rita Margarida Dourado; Ribeiro, Marta Pontifice

    2017-01-01

    To know the ways and means of comfort perceived by the older adults hospitalized in a medical service. Ethnographic study with a qualitative approach. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 22 older adults and participant observation of care situations. The ways and means of providing comfort are centered on strategies for promoting care mobilized by nurses and recognized by patients(clarifying/informing, positive interaction/communication, music therapy, touch, smile, unconditional presence, empathy/proximity relationship, integrating the older adult or the family as partner in the care, relief of discomfort through massage/mobilization/therapy) and on particular moments of comfort (the first contact, the moment of personal hygiene, and the visit of the family), which constitute the foundation of care/comfort. Geriatric care is built on the relationship that is established and complete with meaning, and is based on the meeting/interaction between the actors under the influence of the context in which they are inserted. The different ways and means of providing comfort aim to facilitate/increase care, relieve discomfort and/or invest in potential comfort. Conhecer os modos e formas de confortar percecionadas pelos idosos hospitalizados num serviço de medicina. Estudo etnográfico com abordagem qualitativa. Realizamos entrevistas semiestruturadas com 22 doentes idosos e observação participante nas situações de cuidados. Os modos e formas de confortar centram-se em estratégias promotoras de conforto mobilizadas pelo enfermeiro e reconhecidas pelos doentes (informação/esclarecimento, interação/comunicação positiva, toque, sorriso, presença incondicional, integração do idoso/família nos cuidados e o alívio de desconfortos através da massagem/mobilização/terapêutica) e em momentos particulares de conforto (contato inaugural, visita da família., cuidados de higiene e arranjo pessoal), que se constituem como alicerces do cuidar

  2. Analytical calculation of vibrations of electromagnetic origin in electrical machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Alex; Arrasate, Xabier; Hernández, Xabier; Gómez, Iratxo; Almandoz, Gaizka

    2018-01-01

    Electrical motors are widely used and are often required to satisfy comfort specifications. Thus, vibration response estimations are necessary to reach optimum machine designs. This work presents an improved analytical model to calculate vibration response of an electrical machine. The stator and windings are modelled as a double circular cylindrical shell. As the stator is a laminated structure, orthotropic properties are applied to it. The values of those material properties are calculated according to the characteristics of the motor and the known material properties taken from previous works. Therefore, the model proposed takes into account the axial direction, so that length is considered, and also the contribution of windings, which differs from one machine to another. These aspects make the model valuable for a wide range of electrical motor types. In order to validate the analytical calculation, natural frequencies are calculated and compared to those obtained by Finite Element Method (FEM), giving relative errors below 10% for several circumferential and axial mode order combinations. It is also validated the analytical vibration calculation with acceleration measurements in a real machine. The comparison shows good agreement for the proposed model, being the most important frequency components in the same magnitude order. A simplified two dimensional model is also applied and the results obtained are not so satisfactory.

  3. Vibration analysis on compact car shock absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, W. H.; Cheah, J. X.; Lam, C. K.; Lim, E. A.; Chuah, H. G.; Khor, C. Y.

    2017-10-01

    Shock absorber is a part of the suspension system which provides comfort experience while driving. Resonance, a phenomenon where forced frequency is coinciding with the natural frequency has significant effect on the shock absorber itself. Thus, in this study, natural frequencies of the shock absorber in a 2 degree-of-freedom system were investigated using Wolfram Mathematica 11, CATIA, and ANSYS. Both theoretical and simulation study how will the resonance affect the car shock absorber. The parametric study on the performance of shock absorber also had been conducted. It is found that the failure tends to occur on coil sprung of the shock absorber before the body of the shock absorber is fail. From mathematical modelling, it can also be seen that higher vibration level occurred on un-sprung mass compare to spring mass. This is due to the weight of sprung mass which could stabilize as compared with the weight of un-sprung mass. Besides that, two natural frequencies had been obtained which are 1.0 Hz and 9.1 Hz for sprung mass and un-sprung mass respectively where the acceleration is recorded as maximum. In conclusion, ANSYS can be used to validate with theoretical results with complete model in order to match with mathematical modelling.

  4. A randomized comparative study assessing efficacy of pain versus comfort scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Jain

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Assessment of pain using positive word like comfort decreases its incidence with no effect on its severity when measured by comfort score and also affects patient's postsurgical perceptions.

  5. A dimensionless analysis of a 2DOF piezoelectric vibration energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Han; Wang, Xu; John, Sabu

    2015-06-01

    In this study, a dimensionless analysis method is proposed to predict the output voltage and harvested power for a 2DOF vibration energy harvesting system. This method allows us to compare the harvesting power and efficiency of the 2DOF vibration energy harvesting system and to evaluate the harvesting system performance regardless the sizes or scales. The analysis method is a hybrid of time domain simulation and frequency response analysis approaches, which would be a useful tool for parametric study, design and optimisation of a 2DOF piezoelectric vibration energy harvester. In a case study, a quarter car suspension model with a piezoelectric material insert is chosen to be studied. The 2DOF vibration energy harvesting system could potentially be applied in a vehicle to convert waste or harmful ambient vibration energy into electrical energy for charging the battery. Especially for its application in a hybrid vehicle or an electrical vehicle, the 2DOF vibration energy harvesting system could improve charge mileage, comfort and reliability.

  6. VIBRATION ISOLATION SYSTEM PROBABILITY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov Vladimir Alexandrovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the probability analysis for a vibration isolation system of high-precision equipment, which is extremely sensitive to low-frequency oscillations even of submicron amplitude. The external sources of low-frequency vibrations may include the natural city background or internal low-frequency sources inside buildings (pedestrian activity, HVAC. Taking Gauss distribution into account, the author estimates the probability of the relative displacement of the isolated mass being still lower than the vibration criteria. This problem is being solved in the three dimensional space, evolved by the system parameters, including damping and natural frequency. According to this probability distribution, the chance of exceeding the vibration criteria for a vibration isolation system is evaluated. Optimal system parameters - damping and natural frequency - are being developed, thus the possibility of exceeding vibration criteria VC-E and VC-D is assumed to be less than 0.04.

  7. Random vibrations theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Wirsching, Paul H; Ortiz, Keith

    1995-01-01

    Random Vibrations: Theory and Practice covers the theory and analysis of mechanical and structural systems undergoing random oscillations due to any number of phenomena— from engine noise, turbulent flow, and acoustic noise to wind, ocean waves, earthquakes, and rough pavement. For systems operating in such environments, a random vibration analysis is essential to the safety and reliability of the system. By far the most comprehensive text available on random vibrations, Random Vibrations: Theory and Practice is designed for readers who are new to the subject as well as those who are familiar with the fundamentals and wish to study a particular topic or use the text as an authoritative reference. It is divided into three major sections: fundamental background, random vibration development and applications to design, and random signal analysis. Introductory chapters cover topics in probability, statistics, and random processes that prepare the reader for the development of the theory of random vibrations a...

  8. Spinal Cord Injuries in Wave-Riding Sports: The Influence of Environmental and Sport-Specific Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconi, Audrey; Flick, David; Ferguson, Jason; Glorioso, John E

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury is a nonfatal, catastrophic consequence of wave-riding sports. With surfing at the core, a multitude of activities have evolved that attempt to harness the power of ocean waves. The unique qualities of each wave-riding sport, in combination with the environmental factors of the ocean, define the risk for potential injuries. As wave-riding sports have become more advanced, athletes continue to push physical barriers. Taller waves are attempted while incorporating aerial maneuvers, all without protective equipment.

  9. Distributed Low Voltage Ride-Through Operation of Power Converters in Grid-Connected Microgrids under Voltage Sags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Xin; Meng, Lexuan; Dragicevic, Tomislav

    2015-01-01

    it can make the MG a contributor in smooth ride through the faults. In this paper, a reactive power support strategy using droop controlled converters is proposed to aid MG riding through three phase symmetrical voltage sags. In such a case, the MGs should inject reactive power to the grid to boost...... the voltage in all phases at AC common bus. However, since the line admittances from each converter to point of common coupling (PCC) are not identical, the injected reactive power may not be equally shared. In order to achieve low voltage ride through (LVRT) capability along with a good power sharing...

  10. Thermal Comfort-CFD maps for Architectural Interior Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naboni, Emanuele; Lee, Daniel Sang-Hoon; Fabbri, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Within the context of nearly Zero-Energy Buildings, it is debated that the energy-centred notion of design, proposed by regulatory frames, needs to be combined with a further focus toward users’ comfort and delight. Accordingly, the underlying theory of the research is that designers should take...... responsibility for understanding the heat flows through the building parts and its spaces. A design, which is sensible to the micro-thermal conditions coexisting in a space, allows the inhabitants to control the building to their needs and desires: for instance, maximising the benefits of heat gain from the sun...... moving a series of internal partitions so as to avoid the danger of over-heating. It is thus necessary that existing simulation software tools are tested to the purpose of modelling and visualizing the indoor thermal environment complexity. The research discusses how thermal comfort maps, which...

  11. Effect of warm air supplied facially on occupants' comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczmarczyk, J.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Sliva,, D.

    2010-01-01

    (temperature increase by 4 K at the target area) above the room air temperature decreased the draught discomfort, improved subjects' thermal comfort and only slightly decreased the perceived air quality. Elevated velocity and temperature of the localized airflow caused an increase of nose dryness intensity...... and number of eye irritation reports. Results suggest that increasing the temperature of the air locally supplied to the breathing zone by only a few degrees above the room air temperature will improve occupants' thermal comfort and will diminish draught discomfort. This strategy will extend...... was supplied with a constant velocity of 0.4 m/s by means of personalized ventilation towards the face of the subjects. The airflow at 21 °C decreased the subjects' thermal sensation and increased draught discomfort, but improved slightly the perceived air quality. Heating of the supplied air by 6 K...

  12. Improved Generalized Force Model considering the Comfortable Driving Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Jie Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved generalized force model (IGFM that considers the driver’s comfortable driving behavior. Through theoretical analysis, we propose the calculation methods of comfortable driving distance and velocity. Then the stability condition of the model is obtained by the linear stability analysis. The problems of the unrealistic acceleration of the leading car existing in the previous models were solved. Furthermore, the simulation results show that IGFM can predict correct delay time of car motion and kinematic wave speed at jam density, and it can exactly describe the driver’s behavior under an urgent case, where no collision occurs. The dynamic properties of IGFM also indicate that stability has improved compared to the generalized force model.

  13. Detection of comfortable temperature based on thermal events detection indoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczurek, Andrzej; Maciejewska, Monika; Uchroński, Mariusz

    2017-11-01

    This work focussed on thermal comfort as the basis to control indoor conditions. Its objective is a method to determine thermal preferences of office occupants. The method is based on detection of thermal events. They occur when indoor conditions are under control of occupants. Thermal events are associated with the use of local heating/cooling sources which have user-adjustable settings. The detection is based on Fourier analysis of indoor temperature time series. The relevant data is collected by temperature sensor. We achieved thermal events recognition rate of 86 %. Conditions when indoor conditions were beyond control were detected with 95.6 % success rate. Using experimental data it was demonstrated that the method allows to reproduce key elements of temperature statistics associated with conditions when occupants are in control of thermal comfort.

  14. Analysis of ocular surface area for comfortable VDT workstation layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotoyama, M; Jonai, H; Saito, S; Villanueva, M B

    1996-06-01

    This paper proposes a comfortable visual display terminal (VDT) workstation layout based on an analysis of ocular surface area (OSA). A large OSA induces eye irritation and eye fatigue because the eye surface is highly sensitive to various stimuli. The authors considered that OSA must be one of the useful indices of visual ergonomics and applied it to evaluate VDT workstation layout. Each subject was asked to perform a word processing task using four different VDT workstation layouts. It was found that the main factor affecting OSA was not cathode ray tube (CRT) height itself but the distance between the CRT and keyboard. Thus the following workstation layout is recommended to realize comfortable VDT operation: (1) the desk height should be adjusted to the user's height; and (2) the CRT display should be set closer to the keyboard to provide a smaller OSA.

  15. Using outgroup comfort to predict Black students' college experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Elizabeth R; Yip, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether Black students' social comfort with Whites, termed outgroup comfort (OC), predicted outcomes related to academics and mental health. Surveys administered to Black college students near the beginning and end of their first year showed OC measured in the fall predicted outcomes assessed in the spring, including contact with other races, academic concerns among men, and psychological well-being among women. A subsample selected on the basis of high or low OC scores participated in two weeks of experience sampling, revealing students high in OC reported less state anxiety than those low in OC when in academic settings; in nonacademic settings, anxiety did not differ by OC. System-justifying ideology favoring the outgroup was controlled, thus OC is distinct from internalized oppression. Results are discussed in relation to gender differences in racial identity and college student development. 2008 APA

  16. MIT-Skywalker: Evaluating comfort of bicycle/saddle seat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Rogerio S; Hamilton, Taya; Daher, Ali R; Hirai, Hiroaki; Krebs, Hermano I

    2017-07-01

    The MIT-Skywalker is a robotic device developed for the rehabilitation of gait and balance after a neurological injury. This device has been designed based on the concept of a passive walker and provides three distinct training modes: discrete movement, rhythmic movement, and balance training. In this paper, we present our efforts to evaluate the comfort of a bicycle/saddle seat design for the system's novel actuated body weight support device. We employed different bicycle and saddle seats and evaluated comfort using objective and subjective measures. Here we will summarize the results obtained from a study of fifteen healthy subjects and one stroke patient that led to the selection of a saddle seat design for the MIT-Skywalker.

  17. A heating agent using a personalised thermal comfort model to Save energy

    OpenAIRE

    Auffenberg, Frederik; Stein, Sebastian; Rogers, Alex

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel, personalised thermal comfort model anda heating agent using this model to reduce energy consump-tion with minimal comfort loss. At present, heating agentstypically use simple models of user comfort when decidingon a set point temperature for the heating or cooling system.These models however generally fail to adapt to an individ-ual user's preferences, resulting in poor performance. Toaddress this issue, we propose a personalised thermal com-fort model using a Bayesian net...

  18. Energy efficient thermal comfort control for cyber-physical home system

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Zhuo; Shein, Wai Wai; Tan, Yasuo; Lim, Azman Osman

    2013-01-01

    Technology advances allow us to design smart home system for the purpose to achieve high demands on occupants’comfort. In this research, we focus on the thermal comfort control (TCC) system to build an energy efficient thermal comfort control (EETCC) algorithm, which is based on the cyber-physical systems (CPS) approach. By optimizing the actuators; air-conditioner, window and curtain, our proposed algorithm can acquire the desired comfort level with high energy efficiency. Through the raw da...

  19. Relation between Ocular Comfort, Arachidonic Acid Mediators, and Histamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudi, Simin; Zhao, Zhenjun; Willcox, Mark

    2017-06-01

    Contact lenses are associated with discomfort during wear. This may be the result of stimulation of the ocular surface and production of pro-inflammatory mediators which are then released into the tears. This study examined changes in the concentration in tears of arachidonic acid metabolites (AAM) prostaglandins, cysteinyl leukotrienes, and resolvin-D1, as well as histamine in a general contact lens population in the morning and evening. Tears were collected twice a day (morning and evening) for up to 10 days on two different occasions (with and without contact lens wear) from 30 experienced contact lens wearers for analysis of AAM and a separate group (N = 33) for analysis of histamine. Ocular comfort was rated subjectively on an ordinal scale at each time of tear collection. Tears were analyzed using commercial immunoassay-based kits. Statistical analysis was performed using linear mixed model test. Ocular comfort decreased from morning to evening with and without contact lenses (p = 0.001), and the difference in comfort in the evening was greater with contact lens wear (80.9 ± 16.2 vs. 75.5 ± 16.8; p = 0.008). The total concentration of PGs (10.7 ± 10.8 ng/ml), cysteinyl leukotrienes (8.7 ± 0.38 ng/ml), resolvin-D1 (1.6 ± 0.5 ng/ml), or histamine 13.8 ± 10.4 ng/ml) did not change during the day or during contact lens wear (p > 0.05). Prostaglandins, cysteinyl leukotrienes, resolvin-D1, or histamine concentrations did not alter in relation to changes in comfort of the eye during the day or during contact lens wear. These results suggest that release of these mediators is not responsible for contact lens discomfort.

  20. Chronic stress and obesity: a new view of "comfort food".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallman, Mary F; Pecoraro, Norman; Akana, Susan F; La Fleur, Susanne E; Gomez, Francisca; Houshyar, Hani; Bell, M E; Bhatnagar, Seema; Laugero, Kevin D; Manalo, Sotara

    2003-09-30

    The effects of adrenal corticosteroids on subsequent adrenocorticotropin secretion are complex. Acutely (within hours), glucocorticoids (GCs) directly inhibit further activity in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, but the chronic actions (across days) of these steroids on brain are directly excitatory. Chronically high concentrations of GCs act in three ways that are functionally congruent. (i) GCs increase the expression of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) mRNA in the central nucleus of the amygdala, a critical node in the emotional brain. CRF enables recruitment of a chronic stress-response network. (ii) GCs increase the salience of pleasurable or compulsive activities (ingesting sucrose, fat, and drugs, or wheel-running). This motivates ingestion of "comfort food." (iii) GCs act systemically to increase abdominal fat depots. This allows an increased signal of abdominal energy stores to inhibit catecholamines in the brainstem and CRF expression in hypothalamic neurons regulating adrenocorticotropin. Chronic stress, together with high GC concentrations, usually decreases body weight gain in rats; by contrast, in stressed or depressed humans chronic stress induces either increased comfort food intake and body weight gain or decreased intake and body weight loss. Comfort food ingestion that produces abdominal obesity, decreases CRF mRNA in the hypothalamus of rats. Depressed people who overeat have decreased cerebrospinal CRF, catecholamine concentrations, and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal activity. We propose that people eat comfort food in an attempt to reduce the activity in the chronic stress-response network with its attendant anxiety. These mechanisms, determined in rats, may explain some of the epidemic of obesity occurring in our society.