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Sample records for vibration pattern imager

  1. Rotational speed invariant fault diagnosis in bearings using vibration signal imaging and local binary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sheraz Ali; Kim, Jong-Myon

    2016-04-01

    Structural vibrations of bearing housings are used for diagnosing fault conditions in bearings, primarily by searching for characteristic fault frequencies in the envelope power spectrum of the vibration signal. The fault frequencies depend on the non-stationary angular speed of the rotating shaft. This paper explores an imaging-based approach to achieve rotational speed independence. Cycle length segments of the rectified vibration signal are stacked to construct grayscale images which exhibit unique textures for each fault. These textures show insignificant variation with the rotational speed, which is confirmed by the classification results using their local binary pattern histograms.

  2. Vibration Pattern Imager (VPI): A control and data acquisition system for scanning laser vibrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Brown, Donald E.; Shaffer, Thomas A.

    1993-01-01

    The Vibration Pattern Imager (VPI) system was designed to control and acquire data from scanning laser vibrometer sensors. The PC computer based system uses a digital signal processing (DSP) board and an analog I/O board to control the sensor and to process the data. The VPI system was originally developed for use with the Ometron VPI Sensor, but can be readily adapted to any commercially available sensor which provides an analog output signal and requires analog inputs for control of mirror positioning. The sensor itself is not part of the VPI system. A graphical interface program, which runs on a PC under the MS-DOS operating system, functions in an interactive mode and communicates with the DSP and I/O boards in a user-friendly fashion through the aid of pop-up menus. Two types of data may be acquired with the VPI system: single point or 'full field.' In the single point mode, time series data is sampled by the A/D converter on the I/O board (at a user-defined sampling rate for a selectable number of samples) and is stored by the PC. The position of the measuring point (adjusted by mirrors in the sensor) is controlled via a mouse input. The mouse input is translated to output voltages by the D/A converter on the I/O board to control the mirror servos. In the 'full field' mode, the measurement point is moved over a user-selectable rectangular area. The time series data is sampled by the A/D converter on the I/O board (at a user-defined sampling rate for a selectable number of samples) and converted to a root-mean-square (rms) value by the DSP board. The rms 'full field' velocity distribution is then uploaded for display and storage on the PC.

  3. VPI - VIBRATION PATTERN IMAGER: A CONTROL AND DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM FOR SCANNING LASER VIBROMETERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, S. A.

    1994-01-01

    The Vibration Pattern Imager (VPI) system was designed to control and acquire data from laser vibrometer sensors. The PC computer based system uses a digital signal processing (DSP) board and an analog I/O board to control the sensor and to process the data. The VPI system was originally developed for use with the Ometron VPI Sensor (Ometron Limited, Kelvin House, Worsley Bridge Road, London, SE26 5BX, England), but can be readily adapted to any commercially available sensor which provides an analog output signal and requires analog inputs for control of mirror positioning. VPI's graphical user interface allows the operation of the program to be controlled interactively through keyboard and mouse-selected menu options. The main menu controls all functions for setup, data acquisition, display, file operations, and exiting the program. Two types of data may be acquired with the VPI system: single point or "full field". In the single point mode, time series data is sampled by the A/D converter on the I/O board at a user-defined rate for the selected number of samples. The position of the measuring point, adjusted by mirrors in the sensor, is controlled via a mouse input. In the "full field" mode, the measurement point is moved over a user-selected rectangular area with up to 256 positions in both x and y directions. The time series data is sampled by the A/D converter on the I/O board and converted to a root-mean-square (rms) value by the DSP board. The rms "full field" velocity distribution is then uploaded for display and storage. VPI is written in C language and Texas Instruments' TMS320C30 assembly language for IBM PC series and compatible computers running MS-DOS. The program requires 640K of RAM for execution, and a hard disk with 10Mb or more of disk space is recommended. The program also requires a mouse, a VGA graphics display, a Four Channel analog I/O board (Spectrum Signal Processing, Inc.; Westborough, MA), a break-out box and a Spirit-30 board (Sonitech

  4. Super-multiplex vibrational imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lu; Chen, Zhixing; Shi, Lixue; Long, Rong; Anzalone, Andrew V.; Zhang, Luyuan; Hu, Fanghao; Yuste, Rafael; Cornish, Virginia W.; Min, Wei

    2017-04-01

    The ability to visualize directly a large number of distinct molecular species inside cells is increasingly essential for understanding complex systems and processes. Even though existing methods have successfully been used to explore structure-function relationships in nervous systems, to profile RNA in situ, to reveal the heterogeneity of tumour microenvironments and to study dynamic macromolecular assembly, it remains challenging to image many species with high selectivity and sensitivity under biological conditions. For instance, fluorescence microscopy faces a ‘colour barrier’, owing to the intrinsically broad (about 1,500 inverse centimetres) and featureless nature of fluorescence spectra that limits the number of resolvable colours to two to five (or seven to nine if using complicated instrumentation and analysis). Spontaneous Raman microscopy probes vibrational transitions with much narrower resonances (peak width of about 10 inverse centimetres) and so does not suffer from this problem, but weak signals make many bio-imaging applications impossible. Although surface-enhanced Raman scattering offers high sensitivity and multiplicity, it cannot be readily used to image specific molecular targets quantitatively inside live cells. Here we use stimulated Raman scattering under electronic pre-resonance conditions to image target molecules inside living cells with very high vibrational selectivity and sensitivity (down to 250 nanomolar with a time constant of 1 millisecond). We create a palette of triple-bond-conjugated near-infrared dyes that each displays a single peak in the cell-silent Raman spectral window; when combined with available fluorescent probes, this palette provides 24 resolvable colours, with the potential for further expansion. Proof-of-principle experiments on neuronal co-cultures and brain tissues reveal cell-type-dependent heterogeneities in DNA and protein metabolism under physiological and pathological conditions, underscoring the

  5. Analysis of different vibration patterns to guide blind people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan V. Durá-Gil

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The literature indicates the best vibration positions and frequencies on the human body where tactile information is transmitted. However, there is a lack of knowledge about how to combine tactile stimuli for navigation. The aim of this study is to compare different vibration patterns outputted to blind people and to determine the most intuitive vibration patterns to indicate direction for navigation purposes through a tactile belt. The vibration patterns that stimulate the front side of the waist are preferred for indicating direction. Vibration patterns applied on the back side of the waist could be suitable for sending messages such as stop.

  6. Vibration isolation techniques suitable for portable electronic speckle pattern interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeis, Dirk M.; Gryzagoridis, Jasson; Rowland, David R.

    2002-06-01

    Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) and Digital Shearography are optical interference techniques, suitable for non-destructive inspection procedures. Due to the stringent vibration isolation conditions required for ESPI, the technique is mainly suited for laboratory based inspection procedures, which cannot be said for Digital Shearography. On the other hand, the interference patterns obtained using ESPI exhibit better fringe definition and contrast than those obtained using Digital Shearography. The image quality of Digital Shearography can be improved by introducing phase stepping and unwrapping techniques, but these methods add a level of complexity to the inspection system and reduce the image refresh rate of the overall process. As part of a project to produce a low cost portable ESPI system suitable for industrial applications, this paper investigates various methods of minimizing the impact of environmental vibration on the ESPI technique. This can be achieved by effectively 'freezing' the object movement during the image acquisition process. The methods employed include using a high-powered infra-red laser, which is continuously pulsed using an electronic signal generator as well as a mechanical chopper. The effect of using a variable shutter speed camera in conjunction with custom written software acquisition routines is also studied. The techniques employed are described and are applied to selected samples. The initial results are presented and analyzed. Conclusions are drawn and their impact on the feasibility of a portable ESPI system discussed.

  7. Function generator for synthesizing complex vibration mode patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, E. C.; Hagood, G. J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A simple highly flexible device for synthesizing complex vibration mode patterns is described. These mode patterns can be used to identify vibration mode data. This device sums selected sine and cosine functions and then plots the sum against a linear function.

  8. Kymographic imaging of laryngeal vibrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svec, Jan G.; Schutte, Harm K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review Kymographic imaging is a modern method for displaying and evaluating vibratory behaviour of the vocal folds which is crucial for voice production. This review summarizes the state of the art of this method, and focuses on the progress in this area within the last 5 years. Recent

  9. Multivariate Chemical Image Fusion of Vibrational Spectroscopic Imaging Modalities

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    Aoife A. Gowen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical image fusion refers to the combination of chemical images from different modalities for improved characterisation of a sample. Challenges associated with existing approaches include: difficulties with imaging the same sample area or having identical pixels across microscopic modalities, lack of prior knowledge of sample composition and lack of knowledge regarding correlation between modalities for a given sample. In addition, the multivariate structure of chemical images is often overlooked when fusion is carried out. We address these challenges by proposing a framework for multivariate chemical image fusion of vibrational spectroscopic imaging modalities, demonstrating the approach for image registration, fusion and resolution enhancement of chemical images obtained with IR and Raman microscopy.

  10. Optical image hiding based on chaotic vibration of deformable moiré grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guangqing; Saunoriene, Loreta; Aleksiene, Sandra; Ragulskis, Minvydas

    2018-03-01

    Image hiding technique based on chaotic vibration of deformable moiré grating is presented in this paper. The embedded secret digital image is leaked in a form of a pattern of time-averaged moiré fringes when the deformable cover grating vibrates according to a chaotic law of motion with a predefined set of parameters. Computational experiments are used to demonstrate the features and the applicability of the proposed scheme.

  11. Imaging acoustic vibrations in an ear model using spectrally encoded interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechin, Sveta; Yelin, Dvir

    2018-01-01

    Imaging vibrational patterns of the tympanic membrane would allow an accurate measurement of its mechanical properties and provide early diagnosis of various hearing disorders. Various optical technologies have been suggested to address this challenge and demonstrated in vitro using point scanning and full-field interferometry. Spectrally encoded imaging has been previously demonstrated capable of imaging tissue acoustic vibrations with high spatial resolution, including two-dimensional phase and amplitude mapping. In this work, we demonstrate a compact optical apparatus for imaging acoustic vibrations that could be incorporated into a commercially available digital otoscope. By transmitting harmonic sound waves through the otoscope insufflation port and analyzing the spectral interferograms using custom-built software, we demonstrate high-resolution vibration imaging of a circular rubber membrane within an ear model.

  12. Vibrational resonances of nonrigid vehicles: Polygonization and ripple patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, H.

    2009-01-01

    The well-known phenomenon of ripples on roads has its modern counterpart in ripple patterns on railroads and polygonization of wheels on state-of-the-art lightrail streetcars. Here we study an idealized mechanical suspension model for the vibrational frequency response of a buggy with a nonrigid

  13. THz-SAR Vibrating Target Imaging via the Bayesian Method

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    Bin Deng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Target vibration bears important information for target recognition, and terahertz, due to significant micro-Doppler effects, has strong advantages for remotely sensing vibrations. In this paper, the imaging characteristics of vibrating targets with THz-SAR are at first analyzed. An improved algorithm based on an excellent Bayesian approach, that is, the expansion-compression variance-component (ExCoV method, has been proposed for reconstructing scattering coefficients of vibrating targets, which provides more robust and efficient initialization and overcomes the deficiencies of sidelobes as well as artifacts arising from the traditional correlation method. A real vibration measurement experiment of idle cars was performed to validate the range model. Simulated SAR data of vibrating targets and a tank model in a real background in 220 GHz show good performance at low SNR. Rapidly evolving high-power terahertz devices will offer viable THz-SAR application at a distance of several kilometers.

  14. Vibration factors impact analysis on aerial film camera imaging quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jun; Han, Wei; Xu, Zhonglin; Tan, Haifeng; Yang, Mingquan

    2017-08-01

    Aerial film camera can acquire ground target image information advantageous, but meanwhile the change of aircraft attitude, the film features and the work of camera inside system could result in a vibration which could depress the image quality greatly. This paper presented a design basis of vibration mitigation stabilized platform based on the vibration characteristic of the aerial film camera and indicated the application analysis that stabilized platform could support aerial camera to realize the shoot demand of multi-angle and large scale. According to the technique characteristics of stabilized platform, the development direction are high precision, more agility, miniaturization and low power.

  15. Electronic speckle pattern shearing interferometry using photopolymer diffractive optical elements for vibration measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaylova, Emilia M.; Naydenova, Izabela; Martin, Suzanne; Toal, Vincent

    2004-06-01

    Electronic speckle pattern shearing interferometry (ESPSI) is superior to Electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) when strain distribution, arising from object deformation or vibration, need to be measured. This is because shearography provides data directly related to the spatial derivatives of the displacement. Further development of ESPSI systems could be beneficial for wider application to the measurement of mechanical characteristics of vibrating objects. Two electronic speckle pattern shearing interferometers (ESPSI) suitable for vibration measurements are presented. In both ESPSI systems photopolymer holographic gratings are used to shear the images and to control the size of the shear. The holographic gratings are recorded using an acrylamide-based photopolymer material. Since the polymerization process occurs during recording, the holograms are produced without any development or processing. The ESPSI systems with photopolymer holographic gratings are simple and compact. Introducing photopolymer holographic gratings in ESPSI gives the advantage of using high aperture optical elements at relatively low cost. It is demonstrated that both ESPSI system can be used for vibration measurements. The results obtained are promising for future applications of the systems for modal analysis.

  16. The Effects of Vibration on the Gait Pattern and Vibration Perception Threshold of Children With Idiopathic Toe Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanchiang, Hsinchen Daniel; Geil, Mark; Wu, Jianhua; Chen, Yu-Ping; Wang, Yong Tai

    2015-07-01

    The effectiveness of idiopathic toe walking treatments is not conclusive. The study investigated the use of vibration as a therapeutic/treatment method for children with idiopathic toe walking. Fifteen children with idiopathic toe walking and 15 typically developing children, aged 4 to 10 years, completed the study. The study included a barefoot gait examination and a vibration perception threshold test before and after standing on a whole body vibration machine for 60 seconds. Temporal-spatial parameters were recorded along with HR32, a calculation designed to distinguish on aspects of the toe-walking pattern. No significant gait pattern differences were found between children with idiopathic toe walking and typically developing children after one bout of vibration intervention. HR32 was found to be a means to identify the toe-walking pattern (P vibration of children with idiopathic toe walking was not found in the current study (P = .921). © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Male pattern baldness (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...

  18. Confirmation of Thermal Images and Vibration Signals for Intelligent Machine Fault Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Widodo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the maintenance technique for industrial machinery using the artificial neural network so-called self-organizing map (SOM. The aim of this work is to develop intelligent maintenance system for machinery based on an alternative way, namely, thermal images instead of vibration signals. SOM is selected due to its simplicity and is categorized as an unsupervised algorithm. Following the SOM training, machine fault diagnostics is performed by using the pattern recognition technique of machine conditions. The data used in this work are thermal images and vibration signals, which were acquired from machine fault simulator (MFS. It is a reliable tool and is able to simulate several conditions of faulty machine such as unbalance, misalignment, looseness, and rolling element bearing faults (outer race, inner race, ball, and cage defects. Data acquisition were conducted simultaneously by infrared thermography camera and vibration sensors installed in the MFS. The experimental data are presented as thermal image and vibration signal in the time domain. Feature extraction was carried out to obtain salient features sensitive to machine conditions from thermal images and vibration signals. These features are then used to train the SOM for intelligent machine diagnostics process. The results show that SOM can perform intelligent fault diagnostics with plausible accuracies.

  19. Non-contact measurement of facial surface vibration patterns during singing by scanning laser Doppler vibrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Tatsuya; Ohtani, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method of measuring the vibration patterns on facial surfaces by using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV). The surfaces of the face, neck, and body vibrate during phonation and, according to Titze (2001), these vibrations occur when aerodynamic energy is efficiently converted into acoustic energy at the glottis. A vocalist's vibration velocity patterns may therefore indicate his or her phonatory status or singing skills. LDVs enable laser-based non-contact measurement of the vibration velocity and displacement of a certain point on a vibrating object, and scanning LDVs permit multipoint measurements. The benefits of scanning LDVs originate from the facts that they do not affect the vibrations of measured objects and that they can rapidly measure the vibration patterns across planes. A case study is presented herein to demonstrate the method of measuring vibration velocity patterns with a scanning LDV. The objective of the experiment was to measure the vibration velocity differences between the modal and falsetto registers while three professional soprano singers sang sustained vowels at four pitch frequencies. The results suggest that there is a possibility that pitch frequency are correlated with vibration velocity. However, further investigations are necessary to clarify the relationships between vibration velocity patterns and phonation status and singing skills.

  20. The projected pattern correlation technique for vibration measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrath, R.; Klinge, F.; Schroeder, A.; Kompenhans, Juergen; Fuellekrug, U.

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this paper is the description of the Projected Pattern Correlation method for measuring surface velocities and to present results of a feasibility study. Similar to the Moire technique the local surface velocities of a large area are determined simultaneously, which replace a time consuming point wise scanning as it is necessary in e.g. Laser Doppler Vibrometry. Furthermore, the dynamics of non-periodic processes can be resolved temporally and spatially. In difference to the Moire or grid projection techniques the evaluation step is fast (real-time measurements are possible) more robust and provides a high spatial resolution. The measurement precision is assessed using a simple test arrangement. Vibration measurements are performed on a satellite model structure and a honeycomb sandwich plate.

  1. Novel Applications of Laser Doppler Vibration Measurements to Medical Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabai, Habib; Oliver, David E.; Rohrbaugh, John W.; Papadopoulos, Christopher

    2013-06-01

    Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) has been widely used in engineering applications involving non-contact vibration and sound measurements. This technique has also been used in some biomedical applications including hearing research. The detectable frequencies are in the range of near-DC to 1 GHz or higher. This paper reviews applications of LDV in biomedical engineering and proposes new medical imaging applications based on measuring surface vibrations of tissues and organs. Tests were conducted on human skin using single point and scanning laser vibrometers. These tests suggest that skin vibrations due to the forcing excitation from the heart can be used in imaging of blood flow. The results of these tests illustrate the potential of such vibration measurements in a variety of diagnostic medical imaging applications including blood flow/restrictions, real-time monitoring of blood pressure variations, wound healing, muscle movements, etc. The fact that the measurements can be conducted remotely (non-contact) is an important benefit that adds to the promise of this approach.

  2. Frequency Identification of Vibration Signals Using Video Camera Image Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Wu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study showed that an image data acquisition system connecting a high-speed camera or webcam to a notebook or personal computer (PC can precisely capture most dominant modes of vibration signal, but may involve the non-physical modes induced by the insufficient frame rates. Using a simple model, frequencies of these modes are properly predicted and excluded. Two experimental designs, which involve using an LED light source and a vibration exciter, are proposed to demonstrate the performance. First, the original gray-level resolution of a video camera from, for instance, 0 to 256 levels, was enhanced by summing gray-level data of all pixels in a small region around the point of interest. The image signal was further enhanced by attaching a white paper sheet marked with a black line on the surface of the vibration system in operation to increase the gray-level resolution. Experimental results showed that the Prosilica CV640C CMOS high-speed camera has the critical frequency of inducing the false mode at 60 Hz, whereas that of the webcam is 7.8 Hz. Several factors were proven to have the effect of partially suppressing the non-physical modes, but they cannot eliminate them completely. Two examples, the prominent vibration modes of which are less than the associated critical frequencies, are examined to demonstrate the performances of the proposed systems. In general, the experimental data show that the non-contact type image data acquisition systems are potential tools for collecting the low-frequency vibration signal of a system.

  3. Non-contact measurement of facial surface vibration patterns during singing by scanning laser Doppler vibrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya eKitamura

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of measuring the vibration patterns onfacial surfaces by using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer(LDV. The surfaces of the face, neck, and body vibrate duringphonation and, according to Titze (2001, these vibrations occur whenaerodynamic energy is efficiently converted into acoustic energy atthe glottis. A vocalist's vibration velocity patterns may thereforeindicate his or her phonatory status or singing skills. LDVs enablelaser-based non-contact measurement of the vibration velocity anddisplacement of a certain point on a vibrating object, and scanningLDVs permit multipoint measurements. The benefits of scanning LDVsoriginate from the facts that they do not affect the vibrations ofmeasured objects and that they can rapidly measure the vibrationpatterns across planes. A case study is presented herein todemonstrate the method of measuring vibration velocity patterns with ascanning LDV. The objective of the experiment was to measure thevibration velocity differences between the modal and falsettoregisters while three professional soprano singers sang sustainedvowels at four pitch frequencies. The results suggest that there is apossibility that pitch frequency are correlated with vibrationvelocity. However, further investigations are necessary to clarify therelationships between vibration velocity patterns and phonation statusand singing skills.

  4. Vibrational spectroscopy and imaging: applications for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querido, William; Falcon, Jessica M; Kandel, Shital; Pleshko, Nancy

    2017-10-23

    Tissue engineering (TE) approaches strive to regenerate or replace an organ or tissue. The successful development and subsequent integration of a TE construct is contingent on a series of in vitro and in vivo events that result in an optimal construct for implantation. Current widely used methods for evaluation of constructs are incapable of providing an accurate compositional assessment without destruction of the construct. In this review, we discuss the contributions of vibrational spectroscopic assessment for evaluation of tissue engineered construct composition, both during development and post-implantation. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in the mid and near-infrared range, as well as Raman spectroscopy, are intrinsically label free, can be non-destructive, and provide specific information on the chemical composition of tissues. Overall, we examine the contribution that vibrational spectroscopy via fiber optics and imaging have to tissue engineering approaches.

  5. Influence of local geological pattern on values of vibrations induced by road traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaláb, Zdeněk; Lednická, Markéta; Kořínek, Robert; Hrubešová, Eva

    2012-04-01

    Buildings in the proximity of roads can be affected by vibrations induced by traffic. Local geological pattern is necessary to be taken into account because it has significant influence on values of vibrations and their characteristics. This paper summarizes results of experimental measurements. Four different types of buildings in different types of local geology were used for this purpose. The obtained results document that the generation of significant vibrations is mostly due to heavy vehicles. Some maximum velocity values exceed acceptable limits according to the Czech Technical Standard 73 0040 for evaluation of technical seismicity effect on buildings. Cosmetic damage, meaning the cracking of plaster, might occur due to traffic vibrations.

  6. Patterns of granular convection and separation in narrow vibration bed

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    Liu Chuanping

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular convection/separation of single and binary component particles are studied in a narrow vibration bed, respectively. With filling the single light particles (molecular sieve beads, the bed exhibits five different states successively by increasing the vibration frequency f from 15Hz to 70 Hz (vibration strength Γ>3, as the global convection, symmetrical heap, unsymmetrical heap, local convection and pseudo solid. Comparatively, the granular bed of the single heavy particles (steel beads is only in pseudo solid state at the above vibration condition. By filling binary component particles (molecular sieve and same size steel beads instead of the single component, the bed shows similar convection state with that of the single molecular sieve beads, and the heavy steel beads are aggregated in the centre of convention roll as a core. Varying the initial distribution of binary component particles, the final convection and separation are not influenced, although the aggregation process of steel beads changes.

  7. Electronic Speckle Pattern Shearing Interferometry using Photopolymer Diffractive Optical Elements for Vibration Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaylova, Emilia; Naydenova, Izabela; Martin, Suzanne; Toal, Vincent

    2004-01-01

    Electronic speckle pattern shearing interferometry (ESPSI) is superior to Electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) when strain distribution, arising from object deformation or vibration, need to be measured. This is because shearography provides data directly related to the spatial derivatives of the displacement. Further development of ESPSI systems could be beneficial for wider application to the measurement of mechanical characteristics of vibrating objects. Two electronic speckle ...

  8. Imaging Nonequilibrium Atomic Vibrations with X-ray Diffuse Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trigo, M.; Chen, J.; Vishwanath, V.H.; /SLAC; Sheu, Y.M.; /Michigan U.; Graber, T.; Henning, R.; /U. Chicago; Reis, D; /SLAC /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

    2011-03-03

    We use picosecond x-ray diffuse scattering to image the nonequilibrium vibrations of the lattice following ultrafast laser excitation. We present images of nonequilibrium phonons in InP and InSb throughout the Brillouin-zone which remain out of equilibrium up to nanoseconds. The results are analyzed using a Born model that helps identify the phonon branches contributing to the observed features in the time-resolved diffuse scattering. In InP this analysis shows a delayed increase in the transverse acoustic (TA) phonon population along high-symmetry directions accompanied by a decrease in the longitudinal acoustic (LA) phonons. In InSb the increase in TA phonon population is less directional.

  9. Photo-electromotive-force from vibrating speckled pattern of light on photorefractive CdTe:V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, T. O.; Launay, J. C.; Frejlich, J.

    2008-04-01

    We report the use of the photo-electromotive force (photo-emf) effect produced by a vibrating speckle pattern of light, generated by laser radiation at 1064nm, in the volume of a photorefractive vanadium doped CdTe crystal. This effect is used to measure the sample's photocondutivity and the vibration amplitude of the pattern of light. When the vibrations are much faster than the photorefractive material reponse time the photocurrent is independent of the response time. The theoretical model predicts a maximum value for the first temporal harmonic term of the photocurrent at a fixed value for the vibration amplitude-to-speckle size ratio. This prediction was experimentally confirmed and this maximum can be used to calibrate the setup in order to facilitate practical applications.

  10. Vibration Analysis using 3D Image Correlation Technique

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    Splitthof K.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital speckle correlation techniques have already been successfully proven to be an accurate displacement analysis tool for a wide range of applications. With the use of two cameras, three dimensional measurements of contours and displacements can be carried out. With a simple setup it opens a wide range of applications. Rapid new developments in the field of digital imaging and computer technology opens further applications for these measurement methods to high speed deformation and strain analysis, e.g. in the fields of material testing, fracture mechanics, advanced materials and component testing. The high resolution of the deformation measurements in space and time opens a wide range of applications for vibration analysis of objects. Since the system determines the absolute position and displacements of the object in space, it is capable of measuring high amplitudes and even objects with rigid body movements. The absolute resolution depends on the field of view and is scalable. Calibration of the optical setup is a crucial point which will be discussed in detail. Examples of the analysis of harmonic vibration and transient events from material research and industrial applications are presented. The results show typical features of the system.

  11. Compact holographic optical element-based electronic speckle pattern interferometer for rotation and vibration measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavigadda, Viswanath; Moothanchery, Mohesh; Pramanik, Manojit; Mihaylova, Emilia; Toal, Vincent

    2017-03-01

    An out-of-plane sensitive electronic speckle pattern interferometer (ESPI) using holographic optical elements (HOEs) for studying rotations and vibrations is presented. Phase stepping is implemented by modulating the wavelength of the laser diode in a path length imbalanced interferometer. The time average ESPI method is used for vibration measurements. Some factors influencing the measurements accuracy are reported. Some advantages and limitations of the system are discussed.

  12. Remote Electromagnetic Vibration of Steerable Needles for Imaging in Power Doppler Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabreros, Sarah S.; Jimenez, Nina M.; Greer, Joseph D.; Adebar, Troy K.; Okamura, Allison M.

    2015-01-01

    Robotic needle steering systems for minimally invasive medical procedures require complementary medical imaging systems to track the needles in real time. Ultrasound is a promising imaging modality because it offers relatively low-cost, real-time imaging of the needle. Previous methods applied vibration to the base of the needle using a voice coil actuator, in order to make the needle visible in power Doppler ultrasound. We propose a new method for needle tip vibration, using electromagnetic actuation of small permanent magnets placed inside the needle to improve needle tip visibility in power Doppler imaging. Robotic needle insertion experiments using artificial tissue and ex vivo porcine liver showed that the electromagnetic tip vibration method can generate a stronger Doppler response compared to the previous base vibration method, resulting in better imaging at greater needle depth in tissue. It also eliminates previous issues with vibration damping along the shaft of the needle. PMID:26413379

  13. Imaging and Analysis of Human Vocal Fold Vibration Using Two-Dimensional (2D) Scanning Videokymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee-June; Cha, Wonjae; Kim, Geun-Hyo; Jeon, Gye-Rok; Lee, Byung Joo; Shin, Bum-Joo; Choi, Yang-Gyu; Wang, Soo-Geun

    2016-05-01

    Laryngeal videokymography and high-speed digital kymography are the currently available techniques for studying aperiodic vibration of the vocal folds. However, videokymography has a fundamental limitation that only linear portions of the vocal fold mucosa can be visualized, whereas high-speed digital kymography has the disadvantages of lack of immediate feedback during examination and considerable waiting time before kymographic visualization. We developed a new system, two-dimensional (2D) scanning videokymography, that provides a possible alternative for evaluation of the vibratory pattern of the vocal folds. Herein, we report the application of 2D scanning videokymography for visualization of vocal fold vibration in humans and an analysis of its parameters. Two young healthy volunteers (one man and one woman) took part in this study. The vibratory patterns of their vocal folds were evaluated using 2D scanning videokymography and laryngeal stroboscopy. Two-dimensional scanning videokymography provided a high-definition image of the vibratory movements of the vocal folds. In analysis of the images acquired by the device, various parameters including fundamental frequency; ratio of the vibratory phases; phase, amplitude, and glottal area symmetry; and cycle-to-cycle variability were extracted. Our results indicate that 2D scanning videokymography is a useful and promising tool for visualization of the vibratory movement of the vocal folds. This new technique might improve our understanding of the mechanism of vocal fold vibration and contribute to voice research as well as clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Structured illumination microscopy for vibrational molecular imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kozue; Palonpon, Almar F.; Smith, Nicholas I.; Chiu, Liang-da; Kasai, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Kawata, Satoshi; Fujita, Katsumasa

    2016-09-01

    Raman microscopy is a powerful tool for analytical imaging. The wavelength shift of Raman scattering corresponds to molecular vibrational energy. Therefore, we can access rich chemical information, such as distribution, concentration, and chemical environment of sample molecules. Despite these strengths of Raman microscopy, the spatial resolution has been a limiting factor for many practical applications. In this study, we developed a large-area, high-resolution Raman microscope by utilizing structured illumination microscopy (SIM) to overcome the spatial resolution limit. A structured line-illumination (SLI) Raman microscope was constructed. The structured illumination is introduced along the line direction by the interference of two line-shaped beams. In SIM, the spatial frequency mixing between structured illumination and Raman scattering from the sample allows access to the high spatial frequency information beyond the conventional cut-off. As a result, the FWHM of 40-nm fluorescence particle images showed a clear resolution enhancement in the line direction: 366 nm in LI and 199 nm in SLI microscope. Using the developed microscope, we successfully demonstrated high-resolution Raman imaging of various kinds of specimens, such as few-layer graphene, graphite, mouse brain tissue, and polymer nanoparticles. The high resolution Raman images showed the capability to extract original spectral features from the mixed Raman spectra of a multi-component sample because of the enhanced spatial resolution, which is advantageous in observing complex spectral features. The Raman microscopy technique reported here enables us to see the detailed chemical structures of chemical, biological, and medical samples with a spatial resolution smaller than 200 nm.

  15. Flow patterns generated by vibrations in weightlessness in binary mixture with Soret effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevtsova, Valentina; Melnikov, Denis; Gaponenko, Yuri; Lyubimova, Tatyana; Mialdun, Aliaksandr; Sechenyh, Vitaliy

    2012-07-01

    Vibrational convection refers to the specific flows that appear when a fluid with density gradient is subjected to external vibration. The density gradient may result from the inhomogeneity of temperature or composition. The study of vibrational impact on fluids has fundamental and applied importance. In weightlessness, vibrational convection is an additional way of transporting heat and matter similar to thermo- and solutocapillary convection. The response of the fluid to external forcing depends on the frequency of vibration. The case of small amplitude and high frequency vibration (when the period is much smaller than the characteristic viscous and heat (mass) diffusion times) is of special interest. In this case, the mean flow can be observed in the system, which describes the non-linear response of the fluid to a periodic excitation. The mean flow is most pronounced in the absence of other external forces (in particular, absence of static gravity). The experiment IVIDIL (Influence of Vibration on Diffusion in Liquids) has been conducted on the ISS during more than 3 months in 2009-2010. In the experimental liquids the density changes due to both the temperature and composition. 55 experimental runs of IVIDIL provided rich variety of valuable information about behavior of the liquid in weightlessness which is released with time, [1-3]. The current results provide experimental and numerical evidence of richness of flow patterns and their classification. References: 1. Shevtsova V., Mialdun A., Melnikov D., Ryzhkov I., Gaponenko Y., Saghir Z., Lyubimova T., Legros J.C., IVIDIL experiment onboard ISS: thermodiffusion in presence of controlled vibrations, Comptes Rendus Mecanique, 2011, 339, 310-317 2. Shevtsova V., Lyubimova T., Saghir Z. , Melnikov D., Gaponenko Y. , Sechenyh V. , Legros J.C. , Mialdun A., IVIDIL: on-board g-jitters and diffusion controlled phenomena; Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2011, 327, 012031 3. Mazzoni S., Shevtsova V., Mialdun A

  16. Stroboscopic Image Modulation to Reduce the Visual Blur of an Object Being Viewed by an Observer Experiencing Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary K. (Inventor); Adelstein, Bernard D. (Inventor); Anderson, Mark R. (Inventor); Beutter, Brent R. (Inventor); Ahumada, Albert J., Jr. (Inventor); McCann, Robert S. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing the visual blur of an object being viewed by an observer experiencing vibration. In various embodiments of the present invention, the visual blur is reduced through stroboscopic image modulation (SIM). A SIM device is operated in an alternating "on/off" temporal pattern according to a SIM drive signal (SDS) derived from the vibration being experienced by the observer. A SIM device (controlled by a SIM control system) operates according to the SDS serves to reduce visual blur by "freezing" (or reducing an image's motion to a slow drift) the visual image of the viewed object. In various embodiments, the SIM device is selected from the group consisting of illuminator(s), shutter(s), display control system(s), and combinations of the foregoing (including the use of multiple illuminators, shutters, and display control systems).

  17. Speckle pattern processing by digital image correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gubarev Fedor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Testing the method of speckle pattern processing based on the digital image correlation is carried out in the current work. Three the most widely used formulas of the correlation coefficient are tested. To determine the accuracy of the speckle pattern processing, test speckle patterns with known displacement are used. The optimal size of a speckle pattern template used for determination of correlation and corresponding the speckle pattern displacement is also considered in the work.

  18. Mapping spatial patterns with morphological image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Vogt; Kurt H. Riitters; Christine Estreguil; Jacek Kozak; Timothy G. Wade; James D. Wickham

    2006-01-01

    We use morphological image processing for classifying spatial patterns at the pixel level on binary land-cover maps. Land-cover pattern is classified as 'perforated,' 'edge,' 'patch,' and 'core' with higher spatial precision and thematic accuracy compared to a previous approach based on image convolution, while retaining the...

  19. Vibration-rotation energy pattern in acetylene: 13CH12CH up to 6750 cm-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayt, A; Robert, S; Di Lonardo, G; Fusina, L; Tamassia, F; Herman, M

    2007-03-21

    All known vibration-rotation absorption lines of 13CH12CH accessing levels up to 6750 cm-1 were gathered from the literature. They were fitted simultaneously to J-dependent Hamiltonian matrices exploiting the well known vibrational polyad or cluster block diagonalization, in terms of the pseudo-quantum-numbers Ns=v1+v2+v3 and Nr=5v1+3v2+5v3+v4+v5, and accounting also for l parity and ef symmetry properties. The anharmonic interaction coupling terms known to occur from a pure vibrational fit in this acetylene isotopologue [Robert et al., J. Chem. Phys. 123, 174302 (2005)] were included in the model. A total of 12 703 transitions accessing 158 different (v1v2v3v4v5,l4l5) vibrational states was fitted with a dimensionless standard deviation of 0.99, leading to the determination of 216 vibration-rotation parameters. The experimental data included very weak vibration-rotation transitions accessing 18 previously unreported states, some of them forming Q branches with very irregular patterns.

  20. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the human spinal cord during vibration stimulation of different dermatomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Jane M; Stroman, Patrick W; Kollias, Spyros S

    2008-03-01

    We investigated noninvasively areas of the healthy human spinal cord that become active in response to vibration stimulation of different dermatomes using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine the patterns of consistent activity in the spinal cord during vibration stimulation of the skin, and (2) investigate the rostrocaudal distribution of active pixels when stimulation was applied to different dermatomes. FMRI of the cervical and lumbar spinal cord of seven healthy human subjects was carried out during vibration stimulation of six different dermatomes. In separate experiments, vibratory stimulation (about 50 Hz) was applied to the right biceps, wrist, palm, patella, Achilles tendon and left palm. The segmental distribution of activity observed by fMRI corresponded well with known spinal cord neuroanatomy. The peak number of active pixels was observed at the expected level of the spinal cord with some activity in the adjacent segments. The rostrocaudal distribution of activity was observed to correspond to the dermatome being stimulated. Cross-sectional localization of activity was primarily in dorsal areas but also spread into ventral and intermediate areas of the gray matter and a distinct laterality ipsilateral to the stimulated limb was not observed. We demonstrated that fMRI can detect a dermatome-dependent pattern of spinal cord activity during vibratory stimulation and can be used as a passive stimulus for the noninvasive assessment of the functional integrity of the human spinal cord. Demonstration of cross-sectional selectivity of the activation awaits further methodological and experimental refinements.

  1. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the human spinal cord during vibration stimulation of different dermatomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, Jane M. [University Hospital of Zurich, Institute of Neuroradiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Manitoba, Department of Physiology, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Stroman, Patrick W. [Queen' s University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Kollias, Spyros S. [University Hospital of Zurich, Institute of Neuroradiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2008-03-15

    We investigated noninvasively areas of the healthy human spinal cord that become active in response to vibration stimulation of different dermatomes using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine the patterns of consistent activity in the spinal cord during vibration stimulation of the skin, and (2) investigate the rostrocaudal distribution of active pixels when stimulation was applied to different dermatomes. FMRI of the cervical and lumbar spinal cord of seven healthy human subjects was carried out during vibration stimulation of six different dermatomes. In separate experiments, vibratory stimulation (about 50 Hz) was applied to the right biceps, wrist, palm, patella, Achilles tendon and left palm. The segmental distribution of activity observed by fMRI corresponded well with known spinal cord neuroanatomy. The peak number of active pixels was observed at the expected level of the spinal cord with some activity in the adjacent segments. The rostrocaudal distribution of activity was observed to correspond to the dermatome being stimulated. Cross-sectional localization of activity was primarily in dorsal areas but also spread into ventral and intermediate areas of the gray matter and a distinct laterality ipsilateral to the stimulated limb was not observed. We demonstrated that fMRI can detect a dermatome-dependent pattern of spinal cord activity during vibratory stimulation and can be used as a passive stimulus for the noninvasive assessment of the functional integrity of the human spinal cord. Demonstration of cross-sectional selectivity of the activation awaits further methodological and experimental refinements. (orig.)

  2. Neural-Net Processing of Characteristic Patterns From Electronic Holograms of Vibrating Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Arthur J.

    1999-01-01

    Finite-element-model-trained artificial neural networks can be used to process efficiently the characteristic patterns or mode shapes from electronic holograms of vibrating blades. The models used for routine design may not yet be sufficiently accurate for this application. This document discusses the creation of characteristic patterns; compares model generated and experimental characteristic patterns; and discusses the neural networks that transform the characteristic patterns into strain or damage information. The current potential to adapt electronic holography to spin rigs, wind tunnels and engines provides an incentive to have accurate finite element models lor training neural networks.

  3. On the occurrence of polygon-shaped patterns in vibrated cylindrical granular beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, G; Third, J R; Köhl, M H; Müller, C R

    2012-09-01

    We report experimental observations of polygon-shaped patterns formed in a vertically vibrated bed of circular cross-section. A phase map is determined, showing that the polygon pattern is established for Γ = A(2πf)(2)/g is > or approximately equal to 10. The sensitivity of the polygon structure to bed parameters was tested by studying beds of different particle sizes and fill levels. It was hypothesized that the polygon pattern observed in cylindrical beds is the corresponding pattern to the formation of arches in square-shaped beds. The close relationship between these two patterns was demonstrated by two observations: i) the radii of the arches of a corresponding square bed and the inner radius of the cylindrical bed were found to be very similar and ii) the boundary lengths of the two patterns were in good agreement.

  4. Measurement of dynamic patterns of an elastic membrane at bi-modal vibration using high speed electronic speckle pattern interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preciado, Jorge Sanchez; Lopez, Carlos Perez; Santoyo, Fernando Mendoza [Grupo de Metrología Optica, Centro de Investigaciones en Óptica, A. C. Loma del Bosque 115, Col. Lomas del Campestre, León, Guanajuato, 37150 (Mexico)

    2014-05-27

    Implementing a hybrid arrangement of Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) and high speed Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) we were able to measure the dynamic patterns of a flat rectangular elastic membrane clamped at its edges stimulated with the sum of two resonance frequencies. ESPI is a versatile technique to analyze in real-time the deformation of a membrane since its low computational cost and easy implementation of the optical setup. Elastic membranes present nonlinear behaviors when stimulated with low amplitude signals. The elastic membrane under test, with several non rational related vibrating modals below the 200 Hz, was stimulated with two consecutives resonant frequencies. The ESPI patterns, acquired at high speed rates, shown a similar behavior for the dual frequency stimulation as in the case of patterns formed with the entrainment frequency. We think this may be related to the effects observed in the application of dual frequency stimulation in ultrasound.

  5. Bond-selective photoacoustic imaging by converting molecular vibration into acoustic waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Hui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The quantized vibration of chemical bonds provides a way of detecting specific molecules in a complex tissue environment. Unlike pure optical methods, for which imaging depth is limited to a few hundred micrometers by significant optical scattering, photoacoustic detection of vibrational absorption breaks through the optical diffusion limit by taking advantage of diffused photons and weak acoustic scattering. Key features of this method include both high scalability of imaging depth from a few millimeters to a few centimeters and chemical bond selectivity as a novel contrast mechanism for photoacoustic imaging. Its biomedical applications spans detection of white matter loss and regeneration, assessment of breast tumor margins, and diagnosis of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. This review provides an overview of the recent advances made in vibration-based photoacoustic imaging and various biomedical applications enabled by this new technology.

  6. Unsupervised Pattern Classifier for Abnormality-Scaling of Vibration Features for Helicopter Gearbox Fault Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammu, Vinay B.; Danai, Kourosh; Lewicki, David G.

    1996-01-01

    A new unsupervised pattern classifier is introduced for on-line detection of abnormality in features of vibration that are used for fault diagnosis of helicopter gearboxes. This classifier compares vibration features with their respective normal values and assigns them a value in (0, 1) to reflect their degree of abnormality. Therefore, the salient feature of this classifier is that it does not require feature values associated with faulty cases to identify abnormality. In order to cope with noise and changes in the operating conditions, an adaptation algorithm is incorporated that continually updates the normal values of the features. The proposed classifier is tested using experimental vibration features obtained from an OH-58A main rotor gearbox. The overall performance of this classifier is then evaluated by integrating the abnormality-scaled features for detection of faults. The fault detection results indicate that the performance of this classifier is comparable to the leading unsupervised neural networks: Kohonen's Feature Mapping and Adaptive Resonance Theory (AR72). This is significant considering that the independence of this classifier from fault-related features makes it uniquely suited to abnormality-scaling of vibration features for fault diagnosis.

  7. Experimental study on nonlinear vibrating of aluminum foam using electronic speckle pattern interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fujun; Ma, Yinhang; Tao, Nan; He, Xiaoyuan

    2017-06-01

    Due to its multi properties, including excellent stiffness-to-weight and strength-to-weight ratios, closed-cell aluminum and its alloy foams become candidate materials for use in many high-technology industries, such as the automotive and aerospace industries. For the efficient use of closed-cell foams in structural applications, it is necessary and important to detailly understand their mechanical characteristics. In this paper, the nonlinear vibration responses of the cantilever beams of closed-cell aluminum foams were investigated by use of electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI). The nonlinear resonant mode shapes of testing specimens under harmonic excitation were measured. It is first time to obtain from the experimental results that there exist super-harmonic responses when the cantilever beams of closed-cell aluminum foam were forced to vibrate, which was caused by its specific cellular structures.

  8. Design patterns in medical imaging information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoo, Kent S., Jr.; Wong, Stephen T. C.; Laxer, Kenneth D.; Knowlton, Robert C.; Ching, Wan

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new and important conceptual framework of software design for the medical imaging community using design patterns. Use cases are created to summarize operational scenarios of clinicians using the system to complete certain tasks such as image segmentation. During design the Unified Modeling Language is used to translate the use cases into modeling diagrams that describe how the system functions. Next, design patterns are applied to build models that describe how software components interoperate to deliver that functionality. The software components are implemented using the Java language, CORBA architecture, and other web technologies. The biomedical image information system is used in epilepsy neurosurgical planning and diagnosis. This article proposes the use of proven software design models for solving medical imaging informatics design problems. Design patterns provide an excellent vehicle to leverage design solutions that have worked in the past to solve the problems we face in building user-friendly, reliable, and efficient information systems. This work introduces this new technology for building increasing complex medical image information systems. The rigorous application of software design techniques is essential in building information systems that are easy to use, rich in functionality, maintainable, reliable, and updatable.

  9. Camera vibration measurement using blinking light-emitting diode array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Kazuki; Matsuda, Yuichi

    2017-01-23

    We present a new method for measuring camera vibrations such as camera shake and shutter shock. This method successfully detects the vibration trajectory and transient waveforms from the camera image itself. We employ a time-varying pattern as the camera test chart over the conventional static pattern. This pattern is implemented using a specially developed blinking light-emitting-diode array. We describe the theoretical framework and pattern analysis of the camera image for measuring camera vibrations. Our verification experiments show that our method has a detection accuracy and sensitivity of 0.1 pixels, and is robust against image distortion. Measurement results of camera vibrations in commercial cameras are also demonstrated.

  10. Mode pattern of internal flow in a water droplet on a vibrating hydrophobic surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hun; Lim, Hee-Chang

    2015-06-04

    The objective of this study is to understand the mode pattern of the internal flow in a water droplet placed on a hydrophobic surface that periodically and vertically vibrates. As a result, a water droplet on a vibrating hydrophobic surface has a typical shape that depends on each resonance mode, and, additionally, we observed a diversified lobe size and internal flows in the water droplet. The size of each lobe at the resonance frequency was relatively greater than that at the neighboring frequencies, and the internal flow of the nth order mode was also observed in the flow visualization. In general, large symmetrical flow streams were generated along the vertical axis in each mode, with a large circulating movement from the bottom to the top, and then to the triple contact line along the droplet surface. In contrast, modes 2 and 4 generated a Y-shaped flow pattern, in which the flow moved to the node point in the lower part of the droplet, but modes 6 and 8 had similar patterns, with only a little difference. In addition, as a result of the PIV measurement, while the flow velocity of mode 4 was faster than that of model 2, those of modes 6 and 8 were almost similar.

  11. Body image and eating patterns among adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Data on the association between body self-perception and eating patterns among adolescents are scarce. This study assessed the association between body image and eating patterns among normal-weight, overweight and obese adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional survey (n = 1231; 12–17 years old) was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain. Anthropometry, body image, socio-economic determinants, and food consumption were studied. Results Fifty-one percent of boys and sixty percent of girls that wished to be thinner had less than or equal to 3 eating occasions per day. Overfat girls that wish to be thinner skipped breakfast more frequently than normal-fat girls. Overfat boys and girls that wished a thinner body reported lower consumption of several food groups than normal-fat adolescents and overfat boys satisfied with their own body image (i.e. breakfast cereals, pasta and rice dishes, other oils and fats, high fat foods, soft drinks and chocolates in boys; and dairy products and chocolates in girls).A restriction of Western diet foods and energy intake was associated with a wish to be thinner among overfat adolescents. Conclusions Many overfat boys were satisfied with their body image while practically all overfat girls reported wishing a thinner body. Meal patterns and food consumption were associated with body dissatisfaction and overfat status among adolescents. PMID:24289180

  12. Imaging the surface stress and vibration modes of a microcantilever by laser beam deflection microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo, Javier; Pini, Valerio; Kosaka, Prisicila; Martinez, Nicolas F; Ahumada, Oscar; Calleja, Montserrat

    2012-08-10

    There is a need for noninvasive techniques for simultaneous imaging of the stress and vibration mode shapes of nanomechanical systems in the fields of scanning probe microscopy, nanomechanical biological and chemical sensors and the semiconductor industry. Here we show a novel technique that combines a scanning laser, the beam deflection method and digital multifrequency excitation and analysis for simultaneous imaging of the static out-of-plane displacement and the shape of five vibration modes of nanomechanical systems. The out-of-plane resolution is at least 100 pm Hz⁻¹/² and the lateral resolution, which is determined by the laser spot size, is 1-1.5 μm. The capability of the technique is demonstrated by imaging the residual surface stress of a microcantilever together with the shape of the first 22 vibration modes. The vibration behavior is compared with rigorous finite element simulations. The technique is suitable for major improvements in the imaging of liquids, such as higher bandwidth and enhanced spatial resolution.

  13. Characterization of Vocal Fold Vibration in Sulcus Vocalis Using High-Speed Digital Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Akihito; Yokonishi, Hisayuki; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Sakakibara, Ken-Ichi; Nito, Takaharu; Tayama, Niro; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize vocal fold vibrations in sulcus vocalis by high-speed digital imaging (HSDI) and to clarify the correlations between HSDI-derived parameters and traditional vocal parameters. Method: HSDI was performed in 20 vocally healthy subjects (8 men and 12 women) and…

  14. Estimate of the effect of micro-vibration on the performance of the Algerian satellite (Alsat-1B) imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serief, Chahira

    2017-11-01

    Alsat-1B, launched into a 670 km sun-synchronous orbit on board the PSLV launch vehicle from the Sriharikota launch site in India on 26 September 2016, is a medium resolution Earth Observation satellite with a mass of 100 kg. Alsat-1B will be used for agricultural and resource monitoring, disaster management, land use mapping and urban planning. It is based on the SSTL-100 platform, and flies a 24 m multispectral imager and a 12 m panchromatic imager delivering images with a swath width of 140 km. One of the main factors affecting the performance of satellite-borne optical imaging systems is micro-vibration. Micro-vibration is a low level mechanical disturbance inevitably generated from moving parts on a satellite and exceptionally difficult to be controlled by the attitude and orbital control system (AOCS) of a spacecraft. Micro-vibration usually causes problems for optical imaging systems onboard Earth Observation satellites. The major effect of micro-vibration is the excitation of the support structures for the optical elements during imaging operations which can result in severe degradation of image quality by smearing and distortion. Quantitative characterization of image degradation caused by micro-vibration is thus quite useful and important as part of system level analysis which can help preventing micro-vibration influence by proper design and restoring the degraded image. The aim of this work is to provide quantitative estimates of the effect of micro-vibration on the performance of Alsat-1B imager, which may be experienced operationally, in terms of the modulation transfer function (MTF) and based on ground micro-vibration tests results.

  15. Phase-coexisting patterns, horizontal segregation, and controlled convection in vertically vibrated binary granular mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Istafaul Haque; Rivas, Nicolas; Alam, Meheboob

    2018-01-01

    We report patterns consisting of coexistence of synchronous and asynchronous states [for example, a granular gas co-existing with (i) bouncing bed, (ii) undulatory subharmonic waves, and (iii) Leidenfrost-like states] in experiments on vertically vibrated binary granular mixtures in a Hele-Shaw cell. Most experiments have been carried out with equimolar binary mixtures of glass and steel balls of same diameter by varying the total layer height (F ) for a range of shaking acceleration (Γ ). All patterns as well as the related phase diagram in the (Γ ,F ) plane have been reproduced via molecular dynamics simulations of the same system. The segregation of heavier and lighter particles along the horizontal direction is shown to be the progenitor of such phase-coexisting patterns as confirmed in both experiment and simulation. At strong shaking we uncover a partial convection state in which a pair of convection rolls is found to coexist with a Leidenfrost-like state. The crucial role of the relative number density of two species on controlling the buoyancy-driven granular convection is demonstrated. The onset of horizontal segregation can be explained in terms of an anisotropic diffusion tensor.

  16. Experimental Analysis of Steady-State Maneuvering Effects on Transmission Vibration Patterns Recorded in an AH-1 Cobra Helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Edward M.; Dzwonczyk, Mark; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Flight experiment was designed primarily to determine the extent to which steady-state maneuvers influence characteristic vibration patterns measured at the input pinion and output annulus gear locations of the main transmission. If results were to indicate that maneuvers systematically influence vibration patterns, more extensive studies would be planned to explore the response surface. It was also designed to collect baseline data for comparison with experimental data to be recorded at a later date from test stands at Glenn Research Center. Finally, because this was the first vibration flight study on the Cobra aircraft, considerable energy was invested in developing an in-flight recording apparatus, as well as exploring acceleration mounting methods, and generally learning about the overall vibratory characteristics of the aircraft itself.

  17. Image pattern recognition supporting interactive analysis and graphical visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggins, James M.

    1992-01-01

    Image Pattern Recognition attempts to infer properties of the world from image data. Such capabilities are crucial for making measurements from satellite or telescope images related to Earth and space science problems. Such measurements can be the required product itself, or the measurements can be used as input to a computer graphics system for visualization purposes. At present, the field of image pattern recognition lacks a unified scientific structure for developing and evaluating image pattern recognition applications. The overall goal of this project is to begin developing such a structure. This report summarizes results of a 3-year research effort in image pattern recognition addressing the following three principal aims: (1) to create a software foundation for the research and identify image pattern recognition problems in Earth and space science; (2) to develop image measurement operations based on Artificial Visual Systems; and (3) to develop multiscale image descriptions for use in interactive image analysis.

  18. Low back pain in drivers exposed to whole body vibration: analysis of a dose-response pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemessen, I. J. H.; Hulshof, C. T. J.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of a dose-response pattern between exposure to whole body vibration (WBV) and low back pain (LBP) in a group of drivers. This study assessed individual factors, work-related risk factors, various LBP outcome measures and LBP disability in a group of drivers (n = 571) approached at baseline

  19. Single-camera high-speed stereo-digital image correlation for full-field vibration measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liping; Pan, Bing

    2017-09-01

    A low-cost, easy-to-implement single-camera high-speed stereo-digital image correlation (SCHS stereo-DIC) method using a four-mirror adapter is proposed for full-field 3D vibration measurement. With the aid of the four-mirror adapter, surface images of calibration target and test objects can be separately imaged onto two halves of the camera sensor through two different optical paths. These images can be further processed to retrieve the vibration responses on the specimen surface. To validate the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed approach, dynamic parameters including natural frequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes of a rectangular cantilever plate were extracted from the directly measured vibration responses using the established system. The results reveal that the SCHS stereo-DIC is a simple, practical and effective technique for vibration measurements and dynamic parameters identification.

  20. Sub-nano tesla magnetic imaging based on room-temperature magnetic flux sensors with vibrating sample magnetometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Yoshiaki; Oyama, Daisuke

    2017-05-01

    We developed a two-dimensional imaging method for weak magnetic charge distribution using a commercially available magnetic impedance sensor whose magnetic field resolution is 10 pT/Hz1/2 at 10 Hz. When we applied the vibrating sample magnetometry, giving a minute mechanical vibration to the sample and detecting magnetic signals modulated by the vibration frequency, the effects of 1/f noise and the environmental low-frequency band noise were suppressed, and a weak magnetic charge distribution was obtained without magnetic shielding. Furthermore, improvement in the spatial resolution was also expected when the signals were demodulated at the second harmonic frequency of the vibration. In this paper, a preliminary magnetic charge imaging using the vibrating sample magnetometry and its results are demonstrated.

  1. Vibration-synchronized magnetic resonance imaging for the detection of myocardial elasticity changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgeti, Thomas; Tzschätzsch, Heiko; Hirsch, Sebastian; Krefting, Dagmar; Klatt, Dieter; Niendorf, Thoralf; Braun, Jürgen; Sack, Ingolf

    2012-04-01

    Vibration synchronized magnetic resonance imaging of harmonically oscillating tissue interfaces is proposed for cardiac magnetic resonance elastography. The new approach exploits cardiac triggered cine imaging synchronized with extrinsic harmonic stimulation (f = 22.83 Hz) to display oscillatory tissue deformations in magnitude images. Oscillations are analyzed by intensity threshold-based image processing to track wave amplitude variations over the cardiac cycle. In agreement to literature data, results in 10 volunteers showed that endocardial wave amplitudes during systole (0.13 ± 0.07 mm) were significantly lower than during diastole (0.34 ± 0.14 mm, P magnetic resonance imaging improves the temporal resolution of magnetic resonance elastography as it overcomes the use of extra motion encoding gradients, is less sensitive to susceptibility artifacts, and does not suffer from dynamic range constraints frequently encountered in phase-based magnetic resonance elastography. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Searching for Pulsars Using Image Pattern Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W. W.; Berndsen, A.; Madsen, E. C.; Tan, M.; Stairs, I. H.; Brazier, A.; Lazarus, P.; Lynch, R.; Scholz, P.; Stovall, K.; Ransom, S. M.; Banaszak, S.; Biwer, C. M.; Cohen, S.; Dartez, L. P.; Flanigan, J.; Lunsford, G.; Martinez, J. G.; Mata, A.; Rohr, M.; Walker, A.; Allen, B.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Bogdanov, S.; Camilo, F.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M.; Crawford, F.; Deneva, J. S.; Desvignes, G.; Ferdman, R. D.; Freire, P. C. C.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Jenet, F. A.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kaspi, V. M.; Knispel, B.; Lee, K. J.; van Leeuwen, J.; Lyne, A. G.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Siemens, X.; Spitler, L. G.; Venkataraman, A.

    2014-02-01

    In the modern era of big data, many fields of astronomy are generating huge volumes of data, the analysis of which can sometimes be the limiting factor in research. Fortunately, computer scientists have developed powerful data-mining techniques that can be applied to various fields. In this paper, we present a novel artificial intelligence (AI) program that identifies pulsars from recent surveys by using image pattern recognition with deep neural nets—the PICS (Pulsar Image-based Classification System) AI. The AI mimics human experts and distinguishes pulsars from noise and interference by looking for patterns from candidate plots. Different from other pulsar selection programs that search for expected patterns, the PICS AI is taught the salient features of different pulsars from a set of human-labeled candidates through machine learning. The training candidates are collected from the Pulsar Arecibo L-band Feed Array (PALFA) survey. The information from each pulsar candidate is synthesized in four diagnostic plots, which consist of image data with up to thousands of pixels. The AI takes these data from each candidate as its input and uses thousands of such candidates to train its ~9000 neurons. The deep neural networks in this AI system grant it superior ability to recognize various types of pulsars as well as their harmonic signals. The trained AI's performance has been validated with a large set of candidates from a different pulsar survey, the Green Bank North Celestial Cap survey. In this completely independent test, the PICS ranked 264 out of 277 pulsar-related candidates, including all 56 previously known pulsars and 208 of their harmonics, in the top 961 (1%) of 90,008 test candidates, missing only 13 harmonics. The first non-pulsar candidate appears at rank 187, following 45 pulsars and 141 harmonics. In other words, 100% of the pulsars were ranked in the top 1% of all candidates, while 80% were ranked higher than any noise or interference. The

  3. Searching for pulsars using image pattern recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, W. W.; Berndsen, A.; Madsen, E. C.; Tan, M.; Stairs, I. H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 6224 Agricultural Road, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Brazier, A. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Lazarus, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Lynch, R.; Scholz, P. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Stovall, K.; Cohen, S.; Dartez, L. P.; Lunsford, G.; Martinez, J. G.; Mata, A. [Center for Advanced Radio Astronomy, University of Texas at Brownsville, Brownsville, TX 78520 (United States); Ransom, S. M. [NRAO, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Banaszak, S.; Biwer, C. M.; Flanigan, J.; Rohr, M., E-mail: zhuww@phas.ubc.ca, E-mail: berndsen@phas.ubc.ca [Center for Gravitation, Cosmology and Astrophysics. University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); and others

    2014-02-01

    In the modern era of big data, many fields of astronomy are generating huge volumes of data, the analysis of which can sometimes be the limiting factor in research. Fortunately, computer scientists have developed powerful data-mining techniques that can be applied to various fields. In this paper, we present a novel artificial intelligence (AI) program that identifies pulsars from recent surveys by using image pattern recognition with deep neural nets—the PICS (Pulsar Image-based Classification System) AI. The AI mimics human experts and distinguishes pulsars from noise and interference by looking for patterns from candidate plots. Different from other pulsar selection programs that search for expected patterns, the PICS AI is taught the salient features of different pulsars from a set of human-labeled candidates through machine learning. The training candidates are collected from the Pulsar Arecibo L-band Feed Array (PALFA) survey. The information from each pulsar candidate is synthesized in four diagnostic plots, which consist of image data with up to thousands of pixels. The AI takes these data from each candidate as its input and uses thousands of such candidates to train its ∼9000 neurons. The deep neural networks in this AI system grant it superior ability to recognize various types of pulsars as well as their harmonic signals. The trained AI's performance has been validated with a large set of candidates from a different pulsar survey, the Green Bank North Celestial Cap survey. In this completely independent test, the PICS ranked 264 out of 277 pulsar-related candidates, including all 56 previously known pulsars and 208 of their harmonics, in the top 961 (1%) of 90,008 test candidates, missing only 13 harmonics. The first non-pulsar candidate appears at rank 187, following 45 pulsars and 141 harmonics. In other words, 100% of the pulsars were ranked in the top 1% of all candidates, while 80% were ranked higher than any noise or interference. The

  4. Full-field Measurement of Deformation and Vibration using Digital Image Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Chih Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main intention of this study was to investigate the full-field measurement of de-formation and vibration using a program we developed for digital image correlation. Digital image correlation is a measuring method that can calculate the displacement of each point on an object by using recorded images. By capturing continuous images of the object in deformation or in motion, the displacements of feature points on the object can be tracked and used in calculations to determine the full-field deformation, strain and vibration of the object. We used the fast and simple algorithm in our program as the core, and conducted non-contact full-field displacement measurement by tracking feature points from images taken after motion. The measuring accuracy can be up to 0.1 pixel. Our experimental results show the technique to be very accurate and useful. We also applied this technique under conditions where an ordinary sensor could not be used.

  5. Study of combined filter based on wavelet transform to denoise stripe images of electronic speckle shearography pattern interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongling; Jing, Chao; Zhang, Yimo

    2011-11-01

    Stripe images of electronic speckle shearography pattern interferometry, in which stripe distribution are correlated with vertical micro distortion or micro vibration of objects, are severely disturbed by noises, and so denoising stripe images of electronic speckle shearography pattern interferometry is necessary to extract useful stripe distribution information. Denoising methods and flow for stripe images of electronic speckle shearography pattern interferometry are analyzed in this paper to get the stripe distribution correlated with vertical micro distortion or micro vibration of objects. The noises in the stripe images of electronic speckle shearography pattern interferometry are comprised of speckle noise and other random noises induced by environmental disturb and instrumental performance, so it's difficult to use familiar filters, such as mean-value filter, medium-value filter and adaptive filter, etc, to remove all noises in the stripe images. The combined filter composed of mean-value filter and wavelet filter is designed to denoise stripe images. The aim of mean-value filter is to remove random noises induced by environmental disturb and instrumental performance, and then the wavelet filter, in which the Meyer wavelet is adopted, is designed to remove speckle noise in the stripe images. The final stripe distribution images after denoising and binarization are listed to prove the denoising validity of combined filter based on wavelet transform.

  6. Imaging study of vibrational predissociation of the HCl-acetylene dimer: pair-correlated distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guosheng; Parr, Jessica; Fedorov, Igor; Reisler, Hanna

    2006-07-07

    The state-to-state predissociation dynamics of the HCl-acetylene dimer were studied following excitation in the asymmetric C-H (asym-CH) stretch and the HCl stretch. Velocity map imaging (VMI) and resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) were used to determine pair-correlated product energy distributions. Different vibrational predissociation mechanisms were observed for the two excited vibrational levels. Following excitation in the of the asym-CH stretch fundamental, HCl fragments in upsilon = 0 and j = 4-7 were observed and no HCl in upsilon = 1 was detected. The fragments' center-of-mass (c.m.) translational energy distributions were derived from images of HCl (j = 4-7), and were converted to rotational state distributions of the acetylene co-fragment by assuming that acetylene is generated with one quantum of C-C stretch (nu(2)) excitation. The acetylene pair-correlated rotational state distributions agree with the predictions of the statistical phase space theory, restricted to acetylene fragments in 1nu(2). It is concluded that the predissociation mechanism is dominated by the initial coupling of the asym-CH vibration to a combination of C-C stretch and bending modes in the acetylene moiety. Vibrational energy redistribution (IVR) between acetylene bending and the intermolecular dimer modes leads to predissociation that preserves the C-C stretch excitation in the acetylene product while distributing the rest of the available energy statistically. The predissociation mechanism following excitation in the Q band of the dimer's HCl stretch fundamental was quite different. HCl (upsilon = 0) rotational states up to j = 8 were observed. The rovibrational state distributions in the acetylene co-fragment derived from HCl (j = 6-8) images were non-statistical with one or two quanta in acetylene bending vibrational excitation. From the observation that all the HCl(j) translational energy distributions were similar, it is proposed that there exists a

  7. Imaging performance comparison between CMOS and sCMOS detectors in a vibration test on large areas using digital holographic interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Morenoa, J. M.; Torre I., Manuel H. De la; Aguayo, Daniel D.; Fernando Mendoza, S.

    2014-05-01

    A comparison of the interferometric imaging performance of two different cameras during a vibration study is presented. One of the cameras has a high speed CMOS sensor and the second one uses a high resolution (scientific) sCMOS sensor. This comparison is based on the interferometric response as a merit parameter of these sensors which is not a conventional procedure. Even when the current standard for image quality is on the signal to noise ratio calculations, an interferometric test to evaluate the fringe pattern visibility is equivalent to the contrast to noise ratio value. An out of plane digital holographic interferometer is used to test each camera once at the time with the same experimental conditions. The object under study is a metallically framed table with a Formica cover with an observable area of 1.1 m2. The sample is deformed by means of a controlled vibration induced by a tip ended linear step motor. Results from each camera are presented as the retrieved optical phase during the vibration. Finally, some conclusions based on the post processed images are presented suggesting a smoother optical phase obtained with the sCMOS camera.

  8. Magnetic field shift due to mechanical vibration in functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, Bernd U; Tomasi, Dardo; Caparelli, Elisabeth C

    2005-11-01

    Mechanical vibrations of the gradient coil system during readout in echo-planar imaging (EPI) can increase the temperature of the gradient system and alter the magnetic field distribution during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). This effect is enhanced by resonant modes of vibrations and results in apparent motion along the phase encoding direction in fMRI studies. The magnetic field drift was quantified during EPI by monitoring the resonance frequency interleaved with the EPI acquisition, and a novel method is proposed to correct the apparent motion. The knowledge on the frequency drift over time was used to correct the phase of the k-space EPI dataset. Since the resonance frequency changes very slowly over time, two measurements of the resonance frequency, immediately before and after the EPI acquisition, are sufficient to remove the field drift effects from fMRI time series. The frequency drift correction method was tested "in vivo" and compared to the standard image realignment method. The proposed method efficiently corrects spurious motion due to magnetic field drifts during fMRI. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. VELOCITY FIELD COMPUTATION IN VIBRATED GRANULAR MEDIA USING AN OPTICAL FLOW BASED MULTISCALE IMAGE ANALYSIS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Debayle

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available An image analysis method has been developed in order to compute the velocity field of a granular medium (sand grains, mean diameter 600 μm submitted to different kinds of mechanical stresses. The differential method based on optical flow conservation consists in describing a dense motion field with vectors associated to each pixel. A multiscale, coarse-to-fine, analytical approach through tailor sized windows yields the best compromise between accuracy and robustness of the results, while enabling an acceptable computation time. The corresponding algorithmis presented and its validation discussed through different tests. The results of the validation tests of the proposed approach show that the method is satisfactory when attributing specific values to parameters in association with the size of the image analysis window. An application in the case of vibrated sand has been studied. An instrumented laboratory device provides sinusoidal vibrations and enables external optical observations of sand motion in 3D transparent boxes. At 50 Hz, by increasing the relative acceleration G, the onset and development of two convective rolls can be observed. An ultra fast camera records the grain avalanches, and several pairs of images are analysed by the proposed method. The vertical velocity profiles are deduced and allow to precisely quantify the dimensions of the fluidized region as a function of G.

  10. Molecular images and vibrational spectroscopy of sorbic acid with the scanning tunneling microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Douglas P. E.; Kirk, Michael D.; Quate, Calvin F.

    1987-06-01

    Images of sorbic acid molecules absorbed onto graphite have been taken with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) operating in liquid helium. Molecular clusters were clearly observed, as was the atomic structure of the graphite substrate. The molecules were seen to diffuse across the substrate at a rate of about 1 Å/min. When dI/dV vs V was measured with the STM probe directly over a sorbic acid molecule, a well-defined spectrum of peaks was obtained whose energies corresponded to the vibrational resonances of the molecule. Large changes in the spectra occurred if the tip was moved a lateral distance of 5 Å.

  11. Flexible Fiber-Optic High-Speed Imaging of Vocal Fold Vibration: A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Peak; Baxter, Peter

    2017-03-01

    High-speed video (HSV) imaging of vocal fold vibration has been possible only through the rigid endoscope. This study reports that a fiberscope-based high-speed imaging system may allow HSV imaging of naturalistic voicing. Twenty-two subjects were recorded using a commercially available black and white high-speed camera (Photron Motion Tools, 256 × 120 pixel, 2000 frames per second, 8 second acquisition time). The camera gain is set to +6 db. The camera is coupled to a standard fiber-optic laryngoscope (Olympus ENF P-4) with a 300-W Xenon light. Image acquisition was done by asking the subject to perform repeated phonation at modal phonation. Video images were processed using commercial video editing and video noise reduction software (After effects, Magix, and Neat Video 4.1). After video processing, the video images were analyzed using digital kymography (DKG). The HSV black and white video acquired by the camera is gray and lacks contrast. By adjustment of image contrast, brightness, and gamma and using noise reduction software, the flexible laryngoscopy image can be converted to video image files suitable for DKG and waveform analysis. The increased noise still makes edge tracking for objective analysis difficult, but subjective analysis of DKG plot is possible. This is the first report of HSV acquisition in an unsedated patient using a fiberscope. Image enhancement and noise reduction can enhance the HSV to allow extraction of the digital kymogram. Further image enhancement may allow for objective analysis of the vibratory waveform. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. An image-processing methodology for extracting bloodstain pattern features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Ravishka M; Humburg, Philomena J; Hoogenboom, Jerry; Baiker, Martin; Taylor, Michael C; de Bruin, Karla G

    2017-08-01

    There is a growing trend in forensic science to develop methods to make forensic pattern comparison tasks more objective. This has generally involved the application of suitable image-processing methods to provide numerical data for identification or comparison. This paper outlines a unique image-processing methodology that can be utilised by analysts to generate reliable pattern data that will assist them in forming objective conclusions about a pattern. A range of features were defined and extracted from a laboratory-generated impact spatter pattern. These features were based in part on bloodstain properties commonly used in the analysis of spatter bloodstain patterns. The values of these features were consistent with properties reported qualitatively for such patterns. The image-processing method developed shows considerable promise as a way to establish measurable discriminating pattern criteria that are lacking in current bloodstain pattern taxonomies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Vibration Response Imaging: evaluation of rater agreement in healthy subjects and subjects with pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makris Demosthenes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We evaluated pulmonologists variability in the interpretation of Vibration response imaging (VRI obtained from healthy subjects and patients hospitalized for community acquired pneumonia. Methods The present is a prospective study conducted in a tertiary university hospital. Twenty healthy subjects and twenty three pneumonia cases were included in this study. Six pulmonologists blindly analyzed images of normal subjects and pneumonia cases and evaluated different aspects of VRI images related to the quality of data aquisition, synchronization of the progression of breath sound distribution and agreement between the maximal energy frame (MEF of VRI (which is the maximal geographical area of lung vibrations produced at maximal inspiration and chest radiography. For qualitative assessment of VRI images, the raters' evaluations were analyzed by degree of consistency and agreement. Results The average value for overall identical evaluations of twelve features of the VRI image evaluation, ranged from 87% to 95% per rater (94% to 97% in control cases and from 79% to 93% per rater in pneumonia cases. Inter-rater median (IQR agreement was 91% (82-96. The level of agreement according to VRI feature evaluated was in most cases over 80%; intra-class correlation (ICC obtained by using a model of subject/rater for the averaged features was overall 0.86 (0.92 in normal and 0.73 in pneumonia cases. Conclusions Our findings suggest good agreement in the interpretation of VRI data between different raters. In this respect, VRI might be helpful as a radiation free diagnostic tool for the management of pneumonia.

  14. Visual Pattern Analysis in Histopathology Images Using Bag of Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Roa, Angel; Caicedo, Juan C.; González, Fabio A.

    This paper presents a framework to analyse visual patterns in a collection of medical images in a two stage procedure. First, a set of representative visual patterns from the image collection is obtained by constructing a visual-word dictionary under a bag-of-features approach. Second, an analysis of the relationships between visual patterns and semantic concepts in the image collection is performed. The most important visual patterns for each semantic concept are identified using correlation analysis. A matrix visualization of the structure and organization of the image collection is generated using a cluster analysis. The experimental evaluation was conducted on a histopathology image collection and results showed clear relationships between visual patterns and semantic concepts, that in addition, are of easy interpretation and understanding.

  15. Measurement of Vibrated Bulk Density of Coke Particle Blends Using Image Texture Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azari, Kamran; Bogoya-Forero, Wilinthon; Duchesne, Carl; Tessier, Jayson

    2017-09-01

    A rapid and nondestructive machine vision sensor was developed for predicting the vibrated bulk density (VBD) of petroleum coke particles based on image texture analysis. It could be used for making corrective adjustments to a paste plant operation to reduce green anode variability (e.g., changes in binder demand). Wavelet texture analysis (WTA) and gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) algorithms were used jointly for extracting the surface textural features of coke aggregates from images. These were correlated with the VBD using partial least-squares (PLS) regression. Coke samples of several sizes and from different sources were used to test the sensor. Variations in the coke surface texture introduced by coke size and source allowed for making good predictions of the VBD of individual coke samples and mixtures of them (blends involving two sources and different sizes). Promising results were also obtained for coke blends collected from an industrial-baked carbon anode manufacturer.

  16. Pattern recognition software and techniques for biological image analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lior Shamir

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of automated image acquisition systems is enabling new types of microscopy experiments that generate large image datasets. However, there is a perceived lack of robust image analysis systems required to process these diverse datasets. Most automated image analysis systems are tailored for specific types of microscopy, contrast methods, probes, and even cell types. This imposes significant constraints on experimental design, limiting their application to the narrow set of imaging methods for which they were designed. One of the approaches to address these limitations is pattern recognition, which was originally developed for remote sensing, and is increasingly being applied to the biology domain. This approach relies on training a computer to recognize patterns in images rather than developing algorithms or tuning parameters for specific image processing tasks. The generality of this approach promises to enable data mining in extensive image repositories, and provide objective and quantitative imaging assays for routine use. Here, we provide a brief overview of the technologies behind pattern recognition and its use in computer vision for biological and biomedical imaging. We list available software tools that can be used by biologists and suggest practical experimental considerations to make the best use of pattern recognition techniques for imaging assays.

  17. Assessment of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs): a new application of ultrasound imaging and vibration sonoelastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikdar, Siddhartha; Shah, Jay P; Gilliams, Elizabeth; Gebreab, Tadesse; Gerber, Lynn H

    2008-01-01

    Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are palpable hyperirritable nodules in skeletal muscle that are associated with chronic musculoskeletal pain. The goal of this study was to image MTrPs in the upper trapezius muscle using 2D gray scale ultrasound (US) and vibration sonoelastography (VSE) for differentiating the soft tissue characteristics of MTrPs compared to surrounding muscle. MTrPs appeared as hypoechoeic elliptically-shaped focal regions within the trapezius muscle on 2D US. Audio-frequency vibrations (100-250 Hz) were induced in the trapezius muscle of four volunteers with clinically identifiable MTrPs, and the induced vibration amplitudes were imaged using the color Doppler variance mode, and were further quantified using spectral Doppler analysis. Spectral Doppler analysis showed that vibration amplitudes were 27% lower on average within the MTrP compared to surrounding tissue (p0.05). Color variance imaging consistently detected a focal region of reduced vibration amplitude, which correlated with the hypoechoeic region identified as an MTrP (r =0.76 for area). Real-time 2D US identifies MTrPs, and VSE is feasible for differentiating MTrPs from surrounding tissue. Preliminary findings show that MTrPs are hypoechoeic on 2D US and the relative stiffness of MTrPs can be quantified using VSE. Ultrasound offers a convenient, accessible and low-risk approach for identifying MTrPs and for evaluating clinical observations of palpable, painful nodules.

  18. Mechanical Fault Diagnosis Using Color Image Recognition of Vibration Spectrogram Based on Quaternion Invariable Moment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Hua

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic extraction of time-frequency spectral image of mechanical faults can be achieved and faults can be identified consequently when rotating machinery spectral image processing technology is applied to fault diagnosis, which is an advantage. Acquired mechanical vibration signals can be converted into color time-frequency spectrum images by the processing of pseudo Wigner-Ville distribution. Then a feature extraction method based on quaternion invariant moment was proposed, combining image processing technology and multiweight neural network technology. The paper adopted quaternion invariant moment feature extraction method and gray level-gradient cooccurrence matrix feature extraction method and combined them with geometric learning algorithm and probabilistic neural network algorithm, respectively, and compared the recognition rates of rolling bearing faults. The experimental results show that the recognition rates of quaternion invariant moment are higher than gray level-gradient cooccurrence matrix in the same recognition method. The recognition rates of geometric learning algorithm are higher than probabilistic neural network algorithm in the same feature extraction method. So the method based on quaternion invariant moment geometric learning and multiweight neural network is superior. What is more, this algorithm has preferable generalization performance under the condition of fewer samples, and it has practical value and acceptation on the field of fault diagnosis for rotating machinery as well.

  19. Imaging patterns of intratumoral calcification in the abdominopelvic cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Mi Hye; Kim, Young Jun; Park, Hee Sun; Jung, Sung Il; Jeon, Hae Jeong [Dept. of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul(Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Intratumoral calcification is one of the most noticeable of radiologic findings. It facilitates detection and provides information important for correctly diagnosing tumors. In the abdominopelvic cavity, a wide variety of tumors have calcifications with various imaging features, though the majority of such calcifications are dystrophic in nature. In this article, we classify the imaging patterns of intratumoral calcification according to number, location, and morphology. Then, we describe commonly-encountered abdominopelvic tumors containing typical calcification patterns, focusing on their differentiable characteristics using the imaging patterns of intratumoral calcification.

  20. Biometric Authentication Using Infrared Imaging of Hand Vein Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Debnath; Shrotri, A.; Rethrekar, S. C.; Patil, M. H.; Alisherov, Farkhod A.; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    Hand vein patterns are unique and universal. Vein pattern is used as biometric feature in recent years. But, it is not very much popular biometric system as compared to other systems like fingerprint, iris etc, because of the higher cost. For conventional algorithm, it is necessary to use high quality images, which demand high-priced collection devices. There are two approaches for vein authentication, these are hand dorsa and hand ventral. Currently we are working on hand dorsa vein patterns. Here we are putting forward the new approach for low cost hand dorsa vein pattern acquisition using low cost device and proposing a algorithm to extract features from these low quality images.

  1. Modeling and imaging of the vocal fold vibration for voice health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granados, Alba

    displacements captured with laryngeal high-speed videoendoscopy. A dense optical ow algorithm is adapted to the complex nature of the image sequence, and numerical errors are treated to improve the accuracy of the results. Principal components decomposition is applied to extract the underlying modes......, analysis and inference. This thesis deals with biomechanical models of the vocal fold, specially of the collision, and laryngeal videoendoscopic analysis procedures suitable for the inference of the underlying vocal fold characteristics. The rst part of this research is devoted to frictionless contact...... modeling during asymmetric vocal fold vibration. The prediction problem is numerically addressed with a self-sustained three-dimensional nite element model of the vocal fold with position-based contact constraints. A novel contact detection mechanism is shown to successfully detect collision in asymmetric...

  2. Applications of evolutionary computation in image processing and pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Cuevas, Erik; Perez-Cisneros, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the use of efficient Evolutionary Computation (EC) algorithms for solving diverse real-world image processing and pattern recognition problems. It provides an overview of the different aspects of evolutionary methods in order to enable the reader in reaching a global understanding of the field and, in conducting studies on specific evolutionary techniques that are related to applications in image processing and pattern recognition. It explains the basic ideas of the proposed applications in a way that can also be understood by readers outside of the field. Image processing and pattern recognition practitioners who are not evolutionary computation researchers will appreciate the discussed techniques beyond simple theoretical tools since they have been adapted to solve significant problems that commonly arise on such areas. On the other hand, members of the evolutionary computation community can learn the way in which image processing and pattern recognition problems can be translated into an...

  3. Analysis of time-varying psoriasis lesion image patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2004-01-01

    The multivariate alteration detection transform is applied to pairs of within and between time varying registered psoriasis image patterns. Color band contribution to the variates explaining maximal change is analyzed....

  4. Differential diagnosis of lung carcinoma with three-dimensional quantitative molecular vibrational imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liang; Hammoudi, Ahmad A.; Li, Fuhai; Thrall, Michael J.; Cagle, Philip T.; Chen, Yuanxin; Yang, Jian; Xia, Xiaofeng; Fan, Yubo; Massoud, Yehia; Wang, Zhiyong; Wong, Stephen T. C.

    2012-06-01

    The advent of molecularly targeted therapies requires effective identification of the various cell types of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC). Currently, cell type diagnosis is performed using small biopsies or cytology specimens that are often insufficient for molecular testing after morphologic analysis. Thus, the ability to rapidly recognize different cancer cell types, with minimal tissue consumption, would accelerate diagnosis and preserve tissue samples for subsequent molecular testing in targeted therapy. We report a label-free molecular vibrational imaging framework enabling three-dimensional (3-D) image acquisition and quantitative analysis of cellular structures for identification of NSCLC cell types. This diagnostic imaging system employs superpixel-based 3-D nuclear segmentation for extracting such disease-related features as nuclear shape, volume, and cell-cell distance. These features are used to characterize cancer cell types using machine learning. Using fresh unstained tissue samples derived from cell lines grown in a mouse model, the platform showed greater than 97% accuracy for diagnosis of NSCLC cell types within a few minutes. As an adjunct to subsequent histology tests, our novel system would allow fast delineation of cancer cell types with minimum tissue consumption, potentially facilitating on-the-spot diagnosis, while preserving specimens for additional tests. Furthermore, 3-D measurements of cellular structure permit evaluation closer to the native state of cells, creating an alternative to traditional 2-D histology specimen evaluation, potentially increasing accuracy in diagnosing cell type of lung carcinomas.

  5. Speckle reduction in THz imaging systems with multiple phase patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Irina; Stiens, Johan; Koers, Gaetan; Poesen, Gert; Vounckx, Roger

    2006-04-01

    THz technology makes possible imaging of phenomena, inaccessible to both visible and infrared radiation, but the imaging is still in its early stages of development. This paper draws attention to the aspects of speckle reduction to improve the image quality. Because all existing THz sources are coherent - speckle is an ultimate limiting factor of the free-space imaging techniques. Speckle arises when coherent light scattered from a rough surface is detected by an intensity detector with a finite aperture, hiding the image information. This problem is of special importance for THz imaging, because surface roughness is closer to the object dimension as in optical imaging. The reduction of speckle is highly desirable and we propose here a Hadamard matrix solution. Hadamard diffuser for mm-wave frequency range have been designed, built and tested. We report 50% speckle reduction measurements using a free-space vector network analyzer over the full W-band (75-110 GHz). The advantage of the mm-wave Hadamard technology over optical: the diffuser doesn't have to be moved (vibrated) any more to accomplish the technology of speckle reduction. Temporal optical effect is substituted here by spatial quasi-optical: Hadamard coding in each scan pixel. Second method delivers realistic system parameters for the speckle reduction with polychromatic light for aviation security.

  6. Image-based tracking system for vibration measurement of a rotating object using a laser scanning vibrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongkyu; Khalil, Hossam; Jo, Youngjoon; Park, Kyihwan

    2016-06-01

    An image-based tracking system using laser scanning vibrometer is developed for vibration measurement of a rotating object. The proposed system unlike a conventional one can be used where the position or velocity sensor such as an encoder cannot be attached to an object. An image processing algorithm is introduced to detect a landmark and laser beam based on their colors. Then, through using feedback control system, the laser beam can track a rotating object.

  7. Image-based tracking system for vibration measurement of a rotating object using a laser scanning vibrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongkyu, E-mail: akein@gist.ac.kr; Khalil, Hossam; Jo, Youngjoon; Park, Kyihwan, E-mail: khpark@gist.ac.kr [School of Mechatronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Buk-gu, Gwangju, South Korea, 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-28

    An image-based tracking system using laser scanning vibrometer is developed for vibration measurement of a rotating object. The proposed system unlike a conventional one can be used where the position or velocity sensor such as an encoder cannot be attached to an object. An image processing algorithm is introduced to detect a landmark and laser beam based on their colors. Then, through using feedback control system, the laser beam can track a rotating object.

  8. Measurement of higher harmonics in periodic vibrations using phase-modulated TV holography with digital image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løkberg, O J; Pedersen, H M; Valø, H; Wang, G

    1994-08-01

    We separately measure the higher harmonics vibration patterns of a periodic vibrating object by using time-average TV holography and phase modulation. During measurements the frequency of the phase modulation is adjusted to each harmonic component while the excitation of the object is set low enough to record all components on the linear part of the fringe function. Using acoustical phase stepping and calibration of the fringe function, we compute the amplitude and phase distributions of the frequency component. We measure components up to the 65th harmonic by using square-wave excitation.

  9. Mechanical-plowing-based high-speed patterning on hard material via advanced-control and ultrasonic probe vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhihua; Zou, Qingze, E-mail: qzzou@rci.rutgers.edu [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Tan, Jun; Jiang, Wei [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    In this paper, we present a high-speed direct pattern fabrication on hard materials (e.g., a tungsten-coated quartz substrate) via mechanical plowing. Compared to other probe-based nanolithography techniques based on chemical- and/or physical-reactions (e.g., the Dip-pen technique), mechanical plowing is meritorious for its low cost, ease of process control, and capability of working with a wide variety of materials beyond conductive and/or soft materials. However, direct patterning on hard material faces two daunting challenges. First, the patterning throughput is ultimately hindered by the “writing” (plowing) speed, which, in turn, is limited by the adverse effects that can be excited/induced during high-speed, and/or large-range plowing, including the vibrational dynamics of the actuation system (the piezoelectric actuator, the cantilever, and the mechanical fixture connecting the cantilever to the actuator), the dynamic cross-axis coupling between different axes of motion, and the hysteresis and the drift effects related to the piezoelectric actuators. Secondly, it is very challenging to directly pattern on ultra-hard materials via plowing. Even with a diamond probe, the line depth of the pattern via continuous plowing on ultra-hard materials such as tungsten, is still rather small (<0.5 nm), particularly when the “writing” speed becomes high. To overcome these two challenges, we propose to utilize a novel iterative learning control technique to achieve precision tracking of the desired pattern during high-speed, large-range plowing, and introduce ultrasonic vibration of the probe in the normal (vertical) direction during the plowing process to enable direct patterning on ultra hard materials. The proposed approach was implemented to directly fabricate patterns on a mask with tungsten coating and quartz substrate. The experimental results demonstrated that a large-size pattern of four grooves (20 μm in length with 300 nm spacing between lines) can be

  10. Pushing the limits of imaging using patterned illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangarajan, Prasanna

    The image captured by an imaging system is subject to constraints imposed by the wave nature of light and the geometry of image formation. The former limits the resolving power of the imager while the latter results in a loss of size and range information. The body of work presented in this dissertation strives to overcome the aforementioned limits. The suite of techniques and apparatus ideas disclosed in the work afford imagers the unique ability to capture spatial detail lost to optical blur, while also recovering range information. A recurring theme in the work is the notion of imaging under patterned illumination. The Moire fringes arising from the heterodyning of the object detail and the patterned illumination, are used to improve the resolving power of the imager. The deformations in the phase of the detected illumination pattern, aid in the recovery of range information. The work furnishes a comprehensive mathematical model for imaging under patterned illumination that accommodates blur due to the imaging/illumination optics, and the perspective foreshortening observed at macroscopic scales. The model discloses the existence of a family of active stereo arrangements that jointly support super resolution (improvement of resolving power) and scene recovery (recovery of range information). The work also presents a new description of the theoretical basis for super resolution. The description confirms that an improvement in resolving power results from the computational engineering of the imager impulse response. The above notion is explored further, in developing a strategy for engineering the impulse response of an imager, using patterned illumination. It is also established that optical aberrations are not an impediment to super resolution. Furthermore, the work advances the state-of-the-art in scene recovery by establishing that a broader class of sinusoidal patterns may be used to recover range information, while circumventing the extensive calibration

  11. Multiscale vector fields for image pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Kah-Chan; Coggins, James M.

    1990-01-01

    A uniform processing framework for low-level vision computing in which a bank of spatial filters maps the image intensity structure at each pixel into an abstract feature space is proposed. Some properties of the filters and the feature space are described. Local orientation is measured by a vector sum in the feature space as follows: each filter's preferred orientation along with the strength of the filter's output determine the orientation and the length of a vector in the feature space; the vectors for all filters are summed to yield a resultant vector for a particular pixel and scale. The orientation of the resultant vector indicates the local orientation, and the magnitude of the vector indicates the strength of the local orientation preference. Limitations of the vector sum method are discussed. Investigations show that the processing framework provides a useful, redundant representation of image structure across orientation and scale.

  12. Imaging vibration of the cochlear partition of an excised guinea pig cochlea using phase-sensitive Fourier domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Niloy; Zeng, Yaguang; Fridberger, Anders; Chen, Fangyi; Zha, Dingjun; Nuttall, Alfred L.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2011-03-01

    Studying the sound stimulated vibrations of various membranes that form the complex structure of the organ of Corti in the cochlea of the inner ear is essential for understanding how the travelling sound wave of the basilar membrane couples its energy to the organ structures. In this paper we report the feasibility of using phase-sensitive Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) to image the vibration of various micro-structures of the cochlea at the same time. An excised cochlea of a guinea pig was stimulated using sounds at various frequencies and vibration image was obtained. When measuring the apex area, vibration signal from different turns, which have different best response frequencies are obtained in the same image. The method has the potential to measure the response from a much wider region of the cochlea than any other currently used method. The noise floor for vibration image for the system at 200 Hz was ~0.3nm.

  13. Patterned Fluorescence Images with Indigo Precursors in Polymer Film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Bora; Oh, Eun Hae; Lee, Chan Woo; Kim, Jongman [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    We have developed a new strategy for the generation of patterned fluorescence images in polymer film. A fluorescent acetyl protected indole 6 was transformed to a nonfluorescent indigo dye 7 by UV irradiation. In addition, a t-Boc protected fluorescent indigo molecule 8 was also converted to a nonfluorescent indigo derivative 7 under a chemical amplification condition. Photomasked UV irradiation of the precursor molecules allowed efficient generation of patterned fluorescence images in polymer film. The strategy described in current investigation is believed to be an important addition to the fluorescent patterning technology.

  14. Tactile Perception and Friction-Induced Vibrations: Discrimination of Similarly Patterned Wood-Like Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacleu Ndengue, Jessica; Cesini, Ilaria; Faucheu, Jenny; Chatelet, Eric; Zahouani, Hassan; Delafosse, David; Massi, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    The tactile perception of a surface texture is mediated by factors such as material, topography, and vibrations induced by the sliding contact. In this paper, sensory characterizations are developed together with topographical and tribo-tactile characterizations to relate perceived features with objective measurements of tribological and dynamic signals. Two sets of surface samples are used in this study: the first set is made of a commercial floor covering tiles that aim at counter-typing natural wood flooring, with both a visual and a tactile texture mimicking wood. A second set is custom-made by replicating the first set using a plain purple polyurethane resin. The comparison between tribo-tactile signals and sensory analysis allowed the identification of objective indices for textures with slight topographical differences. Even though the topography of the replicated samples is the same as their corresponding commercial products, the fact that the material is different, induces differences in the contact and vibrational parameters. This in turn modifies the discrimination performances during the sensory experiment. Tactile characteristics collected during sensory procedures are found to be in agreement with objective indices such as friction coefficients and induced vibrations.

  15. Topology of digital images visual pattern discovery in proximity spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, James F

    2014-01-01

    This book carries forward recent work on visual patterns and structures in digital images and introduces a near set-based a topology of digital images. Visual patterns arise naturally in digital images viewed as sets of non-abstract points endowed with some form of proximity (nearness) relation. Proximity relations make it possible to construct uniform topolo- gies on the sets of points that constitute a digital image. In keeping with an interest in gaining an understanding of digital images themselves as a rich source of patterns, this book introduces the basics of digital images from a computer vision perspective. In parallel with a computer vision perspective on digital images, this book also introduces the basics of prox- imity spaces. Not only the traditional view of spatial proximity relations but also the more recent descriptive proximity relations are considered. The beauty of the descriptive proximity approach is that it is possible to discover visual set patterns among sets that are non-overlapping ...

  16. Whole-body vibration: is there a causal relationship to specific imaging findings of the spine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Jesse E; Choemprayong, Songphan; O'Neill, Kevin R; Devin, Clinton J; Spengler, Dan M

    2012-10-01

    Systematic review. To perform a systematic review of the available literature for those studies that evaluated the role of whole-body vibration (WBV) on the spine, using imaging modalities as well as an estimation of WBV exposure. Numerous comparative studies have reported a possible association between the occurrence of spinal symptoms and exposure to WBV. These exposures have commonly been examined in the work environment largely through self-reported questionnaires only. From a scientific perspective, the majority of studies emphasize symptoms and lack objective medical evidence, such as spinal imaging, to help establish a specific spinal disorder. Because both neck and low back pain comprise symptoms that can arise from a host of factors including age, a casual link between spinal disorders and WBV cannot be affirmed. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for studies related to WBV and spinal symptoms, diagnosis, and/or disorders. Our searches were limited to studies published prior to August 2011. The resulting 700 citations (after excluding 354 duplicates) were then screened by 3 independent reviewers on the basis of the following predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria: inclusion-clinical studies with imaging evaluation (radiographs, computed tomographic scans, and/or magnetic resonance images) and documented WBV exposure (occupation, amount of WBV, and/or duration); exclusion-reliance solely on self-reporting of symptoms (neck pain, low back pain, and/or sciatica), those articles based on a clinical diagnosis without use of imaging, and in vitro/animal/biomechanical studies. Only 7 studies met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. Included were 5 retrospective cohort and 2 cross-sectional studies. Although mixed results and conclusions were found, the majority of studies did not identify an association between WBV exposure and an abnormal spinal imaging finding indicating damage of the spine. We should also stress that each included study has

  17. Comparison of Patterns Shapes and Patterns Texture for Identification of Malaria Parasites in Microscopic Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Kusanti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Identification of malaria parasites in red blood cells has been done, with the aim of as tools to identify experts microscopic parasites more quickly. This study aimed to compare the level of accuracy in the results to identify and classify parasites based on the pattern shape and texture patterns. The comparison is based on the characteristics of the pattern used, the steps being taken in this study is the image quality improvement process, the process of segmentation with Otsu method, feature extraction process on the image data to be tested. The process of pattern recognition and pattern shapes texture. The last step is to test the identification and classification of plasmodium falciparum parasite into 12 classes using methods Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ. The results of this study indicate that the pattern forms can provide a higher level of accuracy compared to LVQ texture pattern. LVQ with input shape pattern successfully identified 91% of image data correctly and input texture successfully identified 48% of image data properly.

  18. Quantitative Effects of Repeated Muscle Vibrations on Gait Pattern in a 5-Year-Old Child with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Camerota

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate quantitatively and objectively the effects of repeated muscle vibration (rMV of triceps surae on the gait pattern in a 5-year-old patient with Cerebral Palsy with equinus foot deformity due to calf spasticity. Methods. The patient was assessed before and one month after the rMV treatment using Gait Analysis. Results. rMV had positive effects on the patient's gait pattern, as for spatio-temporal parameters (the stance duration and the step length increased their values after the treatment and kinematics. The pelvic tilt reduced its anteversion and the hip reduced the high flexion evidenced at baseline; the knee and the ankle gained a more physiological pattern bilaterally. The Gillette Gait Index showed a significant reduction of its value bilaterally, representing a global improvement of the child's gait pattern. Conclusions. The rMV technique seems to be an effective option for the gait pattern improvement in CP, which can be used also in very young patient. Significant improvements were displayed in terms of kinematics at all lower limb joints, not only at the joint directly involved by the treatment (i.e., ankle and knee joints but also at proximal joints (i.e., pelvis and hip joint.

  19. Using frequency response functions to manage image degradation from equipment vibration in the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, William R.; McBride, Daniel R.

    2016-08-01

    The Daniel K Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) will be the largest solar telescope in the world, providing a significant increase in the resolution of solar data available to the scientific community. Vibration mitigation is critical in long focal-length telescopes such as the Inouye Solar Telescope, especially when adaptive optics are employed to correct for atmospheric seeing. For this reason, a vibration error budget has been implemented. Initially, the FRFs for the various mounting points of ancillary equipment were estimated using the finite element analysis (FEA) of the telescope structures. FEA analysis is well documented and understood; the focus of this paper is on the methods involved in estimating a set of experimental (measured) transfer functions of the as-built telescope structure for the purpose of vibration management. Techniques to measure low-frequency single-input-single-output (SISO) frequency response functions (FRF) between vibration source locations and image motion on the focal plane are described. The measurement equipment includes an instrumented inertial-mass shaker capable of operation down to 4 Hz along with seismic accelerometers. The measurement of vibration at frequencies below 10 Hz with good signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) requires several noise reduction techniques including high-performance windows, noise-averaging, tracking filters, and spectral estimation. These signal-processing techniques are described in detail.

  20. Local absolute binary patterns as image preprocessing for grip-pattern recognition in smart gun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shang, X.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Bowyer, K.W.; Flynn, P.J.; Govindaraju, V.; Ratha, N.

    2007-01-01

    In a biometric verification system of a smart gun, the rightful user is recognized based on his handpressure pattern. The main factor which affects the verification performance of this system is the variation between the probe image and the gallery image of a subject, in particular when the probe

  1. Terahertz Imaging for Biomedical Applications Pattern Recognition and Tomographic Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Xiaoxia; Abbott, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Terahertz Imaging for Biomedical Applications: Pattern Recognition and Tomographic Reconstruction presents the necessary algorithms needed to assist screening, diagnosis, and treatment, and these algorithms will play a critical role in the accurate detection of abnormalities present in biomedical imaging. Terahertz biomedical imaging has become an area of interest due to its ability to simultaneously acquire both image and spectral information. Terahertz imaging systems are being commercialized with an increasing number of trials performed in a biomedical setting. Terahertz tomographic imaging and detection technology contributes to the ability to identify opaque objects with clear boundaries,and would be useful to both in vivo and ex vivo environments. This book also: Introduces terahertz radiation techniques and provides a number of topical examples of signal and image processing, as well as machine learning Presents the most recent developments in an emerging field, terahertz radiation Utilizes new methods...

  2. Optical Processing of Speckle Images with Bacteriorhodopsin for Pattern Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, John D.; Tucker, Deanne (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Logarithmic processing of images with multiplicative noise characteristics can be utilized to transform the image into one with an additive noise distribution. This simplifies subsequent image processing steps for applications such as image restoration or correlation for pattern recognition. One particularly common form of multiplicative noise is speckle, for which the logarithmic operation not only produces additive noise, but also makes it of constant variance (signal-independent). We examine the optical transmission properties of some bacteriorhodopsin films here and find them well suited to implement such a pointwise logarithmic transformation optically in a parallel fashion. We present experimental results of the optical conversion of speckle images into transformed images with additive, signal-independent noise statistics using the real-time photochromic properties of bacteriorhodopsin. We provide an example of improved correlation performance in terms of correlation peak signal-to-noise for such a transformed speckle image.

  3. Whole-body vibration induces distinct reflex patterns in human soleus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacan, Ilhan; Cidem, Muharrem; Cidem, Mehmet; Türker, Kemal S

    2017-06-01

    The neuronal mechanisms underlying whole body vibration (WBV)-induced muscular reflex (WBV-IMR) are not well understood. To define a possible pathway for WBV-IMR, this study investigated the effects of WBV amplitude on WBV-IMR latency by surface electromyography analysis of the soleus muscle in human adult volunteers. The tendon (T) reflex was also induced to evaluate the level of presynaptic Ia inhibition during WBV. WBV-IMR latency was shorter when induced by low- as compared to medium- or high-amplitude WBV (33.9±5.3msvs. 43.8±3.6 and 44.1±4.2ms, respectively). There was no difference in latencies between T-reflex elicited before WBV (33.8±2.4ms) and WBV-IMR induced by low-amplitude WBV. Presynaptic Ia inhibition was absent during low-amplitude WBV but was present during medium- and high-amplitude WBV. Consequently, WBV induces short- or long-latency reflexes depending on the vibration amplitude. During low-amplitude WBV, muscle spindle activation may induce the short- but not the long-latency WBV-IMR. Furthermore, unlike the higher amplitude WBV, low-amplitude WBV does not induce presynaptic inhibition at the Ia synaptic terminals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Image analysis of dye stained patterns in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogner, Christina; Trancón y Widemann, Baltasar; Lange, Holger

    2013-04-01

    Quality of surface water and groundwater is directly affected by flow processes in the unsaturated zone. In general, it is difficult to measure or model water flow. Indeed, parametrization of hydrological models is problematic and often no unique solution exists. To visualise flow patterns in soils directly dye tracer studies can be done. These experiments provide images of stained soil profiles and their evaluation demands knowledge in hydrology as well as in image analysis and statistics. First, these photographs are converted to binary images classifying the pixels in dye stained and non-stained ones. Then, some feature extraction is necessary to discern relevant hydrological information. In our study we propose to use several index functions to extract different (ideally complementary) features. We associate each image row with a feature vector (i.e. a certain number of image function values) and use these features to cluster the image rows to identify similar image areas. Because images of stained profiles might have different reasonable clusterings, we calculate multiple consensus clusterings. An expert can explore these different solutions and base his/her interpretation of predominant flow mechanisms on quantitative (objective) criteria. The complete workflow from reading-in binary images to final clusterings has been implemented in the free R system, a language and environment for statistical computing. The calculation of image indices is part of our own package Indigo, manipulation of binary images, clustering and visualization of results are done using either build-in facilities in R, additional R packages or the LATEX system.

  5. CFD study of the flow pattern in an ultrasonic horn reactor: Introducing a realistic vibrating boundary condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Masoud; Movahedirad, Salman; Shahhosseini, Shahrokh

    2017-03-01

    Recently, great attention has been paid to predict the acoustic streaming field distribution inside the sonoreactors, induced by high-power ultrasonic wave generator. The focus of this paper is to model an ultrasonic vibrating horn and study the induced flow pattern with a newly developed moving boundary condition. The numerical simulation utilizes the modified cavitation model along with the "mixture" model for turbulent flow (RNG, k-ε), and a moving boundary condition with an oscillating parabolic-logarithmic profile, applied to the horn tip. This moving-boundary provides the situation in which the center of the horn tip vibrates stronger than that of the peripheral regions. The velocity field obtained by computational fluid dynamic was in a reasonably good agreement with the PIV results. The moving boundary model is more accurate since it better approximates the movement of the horn tip in the ultrasonic assisted process. From an optimizing point of view, the model with the new moving boundary is more suitable than the conventional models for design purposes because the displacement magnitude of the horn tip is the only fitting parameter. After developing and validating the numerical model, the model was utilized to predict various quantities such as cavitation zone, pressure field and stream function that are not experimentally feasible to measure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Patterns of surveillance imaging after nephrectomy in the Medicare population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstein, Michael A; Atoria, Coral L; Pinheiro, Laura C; Huang, William C; Russo, Paul; Elkin, Elena B

    2016-02-01

    To characterize patterns of imaging surveillance after nephrectomy in a population-based cohort of older patients with kidney cancer. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database, we identified patients aged ≥ 66 years who underwent partial or radical nephrectomy for localized kidney cancer diagnosed between 2000 and 2009. Primary outcomes were chest imaging (X-ray or computed tomography [CT]) and abdominal imaging (CT, MRI or ultrasonography) in Medicare claims from 4 to 36 months after surgery. We estimated the frequency of imaging in three time periods (postoperative months 4-12, 13-24, 25-36), stratified by tumour stage. Repeated-measures logistic regression was used to identify the patient and disease characteristics associated with imaging. Rates of chest imaging were 65-80%, with chest X-ray surpassing CT in each time period. Rates of abdominal imaging were 58-76%, and cross-sectional imaging was more common than ultrasonography in each time period. Use of cross-sectional chest and abdominal imaging increased over time, while the use of chest X-ray decreased (P < 0.01). Ultrasonography use remained stable for patients with T1 and T2 disease, but the rate of use decreased in patients with T3 disease (P < 0.05). Rates of chest and abdominal imaging increased with tumour stage (P < 0.001). Patterns of imaging suggest possible overuse in patients at low risk of recurrence and underuse in those at greater risk. New surveillance imaging guidelines may reduce unwarranted variability and promote risk-based, cost-effective management after nephrectomy. © 2014 The Authors BJU International © 2014 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Optical Correlator in Industrial Image Pattern Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dávid Solus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is design a system for recognizing industrial image pattern using optical correlator. The proposed system is used to obtain information about the accuracy of the model and the industrial form of images, in this case – pavements. Cambridge optical correlator is used in designed system as comparator. Several experiments have been done by software called “Fourier Optics Experimenter”. Results and conclusion are discussed.

  8. Imaging the state-specific vibrational predissociation of the C2H2-NH3 hydrogen-bonded dimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Jessica A; Li, Guosheng; Fedorov, Igor; McCaffery, Anthony J; Reisler, Hanna

    2007-08-09

    The state-to-state vibrational predissociation (VP) dynamics of the hydrogen-bonded ammonia-acetylene dimer were studied following excitation in the asymmetric CH stretch. Velocity map imaging (VMI) and resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) were used to determine pair-correlated product energy distributions. Following vibrational excitation of the asymmetric CH stretch fundamental, ammonia fragments were detected by 2 + 1 REMPI via the B1E'' acetylene co-fragment. The latter is always generated with one or two quanta of bending excitation. All the distributions could be fit well when using a dimer dissociation energy of D0 = 900 +/- 10 cm(-1). Only channels with maximum translational energy acetylene co-fragment pair-correlated with specific rovibrational states of ammonia appear statistical as well. The vibrational-state distributions, however, show distinct state specificity among channels with low translational energy release. The predominant channel is NH3(1nu2) + C2H2(2nu4 or 1nu4 + 1nu5), where nu4 and nu5 are the trans- and cis-bend vibrations of acetylene, respectively. A second observed channel, with much lower population, is NH3(2nu2) + C2H2(1nu4). No products are generated in which the ammonia is in the vibrational ground state or the asymmetric bend (1nu4) state, nor is acetylene ever generated in the ground vibrational state or with CC stretch excitation. The angular momentum (AM) model of McCaffery and Marsh is used to estimate impact parameters in the internal collisions that give rise to the observed rotational distributions. These calculations show that dissociation takes place from bent geometries, which can also explain the propensity to excite fragment bending levels. The low recoil velocities associated with the observed channels facilitate energy exchange in the exit channel, which results in statistical-like fragment rotational distributions.

  9. Two-channel microfluidic CARS: experimental quantification of pure vibrational contrast in CARS images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergner, G.; Henkel, T.; Akimov, D.; Dietzek, B.; Schlücker, S.; Bartelt, H.; Popp, J.

    2011-07-01

    The combination of linear and nonlinear Raman microspectroscopy has been established to be a powerful tool for biomedical diagnostics. In this contribution we discuss our recent approaches towards CARS (coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering) based quantification of analytes, which is generally complicated by the CARS-signal strength dependence on the square of the molecular concentration and on the interplay between a molecular-specific vibrational signal and a nonresonant contribution in the signal generation. Due to these complications the quantification of analytes presents a major challenge in CARS microscopy. Here we discuss two recently developed approaches, i.e. on the one hand a simplified setup for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy, which allows for recording CARS images with 30 cm-1 excitation bandwidth for probing Raman bands between 500 and 900 cm-1 with minimal requirements for alignment. This experimental arrangement is based on electronic switching between CARS images recorded at different Raman resonances by combining a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) as broad-band light source and an acoustooptical programmable dispersive filter (AOPDF) as tunable wavelength filter. On the other hand, we discuss how the introduction of carbon-deuterium (C-D) bonds into drug compounds constitutes a non-invasive labeling approach that allows for higher intrinsic CARS contrast to be obtained. The quantitative detection of C-deuterated drugs by Raman microspectroscopy and CARS microscopy is examined. Concentration-dependent studies on drugs with aliphatic and aromatic C-D moieties were performed in a two-channel microfluidic chip, using the corresponding non-deuterated (C-H) isotopomers as an internal reference.

  10. Spatiotemporal patterns in reaction-diffusion system and in a vibrated granular bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinney, H.L.; Lee, K.J.; McCormick, W.D. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Experiments on a quasi-two-dimensional reaction-diffusion system reveal transitions from a uniform state to stationary hexagonal, striped, and rhombic spatial patterns. For other reactor conditions lamellae and self-replicating spot patterns are observed. These patterns form in continuously fed thin gel reactors that can be maintained indefinitely in well-defined nonequilibrium states. Reaction-diffusion models with two chemical species yield patterns similar to those observed in the experiments. Pattern formation is also being examined in vertically oscillated thin granular layers (typically 3-30 particle diameters deep). For small acceleration amplitudes, a granular layer is flat, but above a well-defined critical acceleration amplitude, spatial patterns spontaneously form. Disordered time-dependent granular patterns are observed as well as regular patterns of squares, stripes, and hexagons. A one-dimensional model consisting of a completely inelastic ball colliding with a sinusoidally oscillating platform provides a semi-quantitative description of most of the observed bifurcations between the different spatiotemporal regimes.

  11. Compact Local Directional Texture Pattern for Local Image Description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an effective local image feature region descriptor, called CLDTP descriptor (Compact Local Directional Texture Pattern, and its application in image matching and object recognition. The CLDTP descriptor encodes the directional and contrast information in a local region, so it contains the gradient orientation information and the gradient magnitude information. As the dimension of the CLDTP histogram is much lower than the dimension of the LDTP histogram, the CLDTP descriptor has higher computational efficiency and it is suitable for image matching. Extensive experiments have validated the effectiveness of the designed CLDTP descriptor.

  12. Global image feature extraction using slope pattern spectra

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Toudjeu, IT

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available of coffee beans. Granulometries were also used to estimate the dominant width of the white patterns in the X-ray images of welds [7]. Due to the computational load associated with the calculation of granulometries, Vincent [6], building on the work...

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging pattern recognition in hypomyelinating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenweg, M.E.; Vanderver, A.; Blaser, S.; Blizzi, A.; de Koning, T.J.; Mancini, G.M.S.; van Wieringen, W.N.; Barkhof, F.; Wolf, N.I.; van der Knaap, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Hypomyelination is observed in the context of a growing number of genetic disorders that share clinical characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the possible role of magnetic resonance imaging pattern recognition in distinguishing different hypomyelinating disorders, which would

  14. A method to transfer speckle patterns for digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenning; Quan, Chenggen; Zhu, Feipeng; He, Xiaoyuan

    2015-09-01

    A simple and repeatable speckle creation method based on water transfer printing (WTP) is proposed to reduce artificial measurement error for digital image correlation (DIC). This technique requires water, brush, and a piece of transfer paper that is made of prefabricated decal paper, a protected sheet, and printed speckle patterns. The speckle patterns are generated and optimized via computer simulations, and then printed on the decal paper. During the experiments, operators can moisten the basement with water and the brush, so that digital patterns can be simply transferred to the carriers’ surfaces. Tensile experiments with an extended three-dimensional (3D) DIC system are performed to test and verify the validity of WTP patterns. It is shown that by comparing with a strain gage, the strain error is less than 50με in a uniform tensile test. From five carbon steel tensile experiments, Lüders bands in both WTP patterns and spray paint patterns are demonstrated to propagate symmetrically. In the necking part where the strain is up to 66%, WTP patterns are proved to adhere to the specimens well. Hence, WTP patterns are capable of maintaining coherence and adherence to the specimen surface. The transfer paper, working as the role of strain gage in the electrometric method, will contribute to speckle creation.

  15. Imaging the inelastic scattering of vibrationally excited NO (v = 1) with Ar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamasah, Alexander; Li, Hongwei; Onvlee, Jolijn; van der Avoird, Ad; Parker, David H.; Suits, Arthur G.

    2018-01-01

    The inelastic scattering of vibrationally excited NO (v = 1) with Ar at a collision energy of 3.0 kcal mol-1 was investigated in crossed beams. Vibrationally excited NO was generated by flash heating and rotationally cooled by the supersonic expansion. The differential cross sections were compared to those of the vibrational ground state NO (v = 0) with Ar, which were also compared to theoretical calculations for scattering from the ground vibrational level. The differential cross sections show a similar strong j dependence of the rotational rainbow maxima from the inelastic scattering for both NO (v = 0) and (v = 1) but no significant differences between NO (v = 0) and (v = 1) were seen.

  16. Holographic images reconstructed from GMR-based fringe pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikuchi Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a magneto-optical spatial light modulator (MOSLM using giant magneto-resistance (GMR structures for realizing a holographic three-dimensional (3D display. For practical applications, reconstructed image of hologram consisting of GMR structures should be investigated in order to study the feasibility of the MOSLM. In this study, we fabricated a hologram with GMR based fringe-pattern and demonstrated a reconstructed image. A fringe-pattern convolving a crossshaped image was calculated by a conventional binary computer generated hologram (CGH technique. The CGH-pattern has 2,048 × 2,048 with 5 μm pixel pitch. The GMR stack consists of a Tb-Fe-Co/CoFe pinned layer, a Ag spacer, a Gd-Fe free layer for light modulation, and a Ru capping layer, was deposited by dc-magnetron sputtering. The GMR hologram was formed using photo-lithography and Krion milling processes, followed by the deposition of a Tb-Fe-Co reference layer with large coercivity and the same Kerr-rotation angle compared to the free layer, and a lift-off process. The reconstructed image of the ON-state was clearly observed and successfully distinguished from the OFF-state by switching the magnetization direction of the free-layer with an external magnetic field. These results indicate the possibility of realizing a holographic 3D display by the MOSLM using the GMR structures.

  17. Holographic images reconstructed from GMR-based fringe pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Daisuke; Aoshima, Kenichi; Machida, Kenji; Emoto, Akira; Kinjo, Hidekazu; Kuga, Kiyoshi; Ono, Hiroshi; Ishibashi, Takayuki; Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Shimidzu, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a magneto-optical spatial light modulator (MOSLM) using giant magneto-resistance (GMR) structures for realizing a holographic three-dimensional (3D) display. For practical applications, reconstructed image of hologram consisting of GMR structures should be investigated in order to study the feasibility of the MOSLM. In this study, we fabricated a hologram with GMR based fringe-pattern and demonstrated a reconstructed image. A fringe-pattern convolving a crossshaped image was calculated by a conventional binary computer generated hologram (CGH) technique. The CGH-pattern has 2,048 × 2,048 with 5 μm pixel pitch. The GMR stack consists of a Tb-Fe-Co/CoFe pinned layer, a Ag spacer, a Gd-Fe free layer for light modulation, and a Ru capping layer, was deposited by dc-magnetron sputtering. The GMR hologram was formed using photo-lithography and Krion milling processes, followed by the deposition of a Tb-Fe-Co reference layer with large coercivity and the same Kerr-rotation angle compared to the free layer, and a lift-off process. The reconstructed image of the ON-state was clearly observed and successfully distinguished from the OFF-state by switching the magnetization direction of the free-layer with an external magnetic field. These results indicate the possibility of realizing a holographic 3D display by the MOSLM using the GMR structures.

  18. MR and CT imaging patterns in post-varicella encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, C.F. [Div. of Neuroimaging, Children`s Memorial Center, Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States); Larsen, M.B. [Div. of Neurology, Children`s Memorial Center, Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States); Byrd, S.E. [Div. of Neuroimaging, Children`s Memorial Center, Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States); Radkowski, M.A. [Div. of Neuroimaging, Children`s Memorial Center, Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States); Palka, P.S. [Div. of Neuroimaging, Children`s Memorial Center, Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States); Allen, E.D. [Div. of Neuroimaging, Children`s Memorial Center, Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The aim of the investigation was to determine the patterns of cerebral involvement on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in post-varicella encephalitis. Four children between the ages of 2 and 11 years presented over a 5-year period with a diagnosis of post-varicella encephalitis. Their imaging studies and clinical data were reviewed retrospectively. The medical histories of all four children were noncontributory except for recent bouts of chickenpox 1 week to 3 months prior to hospitalization. Three children presented with parkinsonian manifestations. Bilateral, symmetric hypodense, nonenhancing basal ganglia lesions were found on CT. These areas showed nonenhancing low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images on MR. One child presented with diffuse, multiple gray and white matter lesions of similar imaging characteristics; some lesions, however, did enhance. This child had no gait disturbances. Post-varicella encephalitis can produce two patterns of dramatic CT and MR findings. With an appropriate history and clinical findings, varicella as a cause of bilateral basal ganglia or diffuse cerebral lesions can be differentiated from other possible etiologies which include trauma, anoxia, metabolic disorders and demyelinating diseases. (orig.)

  19. Retrieval of Remote Sensing Images with Pattern Spectra Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Bosilj

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly increasing volume of visual Earth Observation data calls for effective content based image retrieval solutions, specifically tailored for their high spatial resolution and heterogeneous content. In this paper, we address this issue with a novel local implementation of the well-known morphological descriptors called pattern spectra. They are computationally efficient histogram-like structures describing the global distribution of arbitrarily defined attributes of connected image components. Besides employing pattern spectra for the first time in this context, our main contribution lies in their dense calculation, at a local scale, thus enabling their combination with sophisticated visual vocabulary strategies. The Merced Landuse/Landcover dataset has been used for comparing the proposed strategy against alternative global and local content description methods, where the introduced approach is shown to yield promising performances.

  20. Pattern recognition and image processing for environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Khalid J.; Eastwood, DeLyle

    1999-12-01

    Pattern recognition (PR) and signal/image processing methods are among the most powerful tools currently available for noninvasively examining spectroscopic and other chemical data for environmental monitoring. Using spectral data, these systems have found a variety of applications employing analytical techniques for chemometrics such as gas chromatography, fluorescence spectroscopy, etc. An advantage of PR approaches is that they make no a prior assumption regarding the structure of the patterns. However, a majority of these systems rely on human judgment for parameter selection and classification. A PR problem is considered as a composite of four subproblems: pattern acquisition, feature extraction, feature selection, and pattern classification. One of the basic issues in PR approaches is to determine and measure the features useful for successful classification. Selection of features that contain the most discriminatory information is important because the cost of pattern classification is directly related to the number of features used in the decision rules. The state of the spectral techniques as applied to environmental monitoring is reviewed. A spectral pattern classification system combining the above components and automatic decision-theoretic approaches for classification is developed. It is shown how such a system can be used for analysis of large data sets, warehousing, and interpretation. In a preliminary test, the classifier was used to classify synchronous UV-vis fluorescence spectra of relatively similar petroleum oils with reasonable success.

  1. A new videokymography system for evaluation of the vibration pattern of entire vocal folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Soo-Geun; Park, Hee-June; Lee, Byung-Joo; Lee, Sung-Mo; Ko, Bumjun; Lee, Sang Min; Park, Young Min

    2016-06-01

    To overcome the limitations of previous videokymography methods, we developed a new videokymography system for the evaluation of the whole mucosal wave of the entire vocal cord mucous membrane. To confirm the usefulness of the new videokymography system, we performed videokymography to evaluate the mucosal wave of the vocal folds during modal and falsetto phonation in normal adult males. Additionally, we serially performed both laryngeal videostroboscopy and the new videokymography method in patients diagnosed with acute ulcerative laryngitis. Using the new videokymography system, the mucosal wave pattern of entire vocal folds was captured during the examination. The opening and closing durations could be differentiated, and the symmetry of amplitude and phase could be assessed. The shape of the medial and lateral peaks could be assessed. In patients with acute laryngitis, the new videokymography system showed an enhanced ability to evaluate the flexibility of the vocal folds. The new videokymography system enables recording of the whole mucosal wave pattern of entire vocal folds. Although further studies are required to confirm its clinical efficacy for the evaluation of vocal folds, the system can be applied to evaluate the static and dynamic status of vocal folds in patients with vocal cord diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Proceedings of the Second Annual Symposium on Mathematical Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseman, L. F., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Several papers addressing image analysis and pattern recognition techniques for satellite imagery are presented. Texture classification, image rectification and registration, spatial parameter estimation, and surface fitting are discussed.

  3. Classification of texture patterns in CT lung imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzhnaya, Tatyana; Megalooikonomou, Vasileios; Ling, Haibin; Kohn, Mark; Steiner, Robert

    2011-03-01

    Since several lung diseases can be potentially diagnosed based on the patterns of lung tissue observed in medical images, automated texture classification can be useful in assisting the diagnosis. In this paper, we propose a methodology for discriminating between various types of normal and diseased lung tissue in computed tomography (CT) images that utilizes Vector Quantization (VQ), an image compression technique, to extract discriminative texture features. Rather than focusing on images of the entire lung, we direct our attention to the extraction of local descriptors from individual regions of interest (ROIs) as determined by domain experts. After determining the ROIs, we generate "locally optimal" codebooks representing texture features of each region using the Generalized Lloyd Algorithm. We then utilize the codeword usage frequency of each codebook as a discriminative feature vector for the region it represents. We compare k-nearest neighbor, support vector machine and neural network classification approaches using the normalized histogram intersection as a similarity measure. The classification accuracy reached up to 98% for certain experimental settings, indicating that our approach may potentially assist clinicians in the interpretation of lung images and facilitate the investigation of relationships among structure, texture and function or pathology related to several lung diseases.

  4. Robust image region descriptor using local derivative ordinal binary pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Jun; Chen, Chuanbo; Pei, Xiaobing; Liang, Hu; Tang, He; Sarem, Mudar

    2015-05-01

    Binary image descriptors have received a lot of attention in recent years, since they provide numerous advantages, such as low memory footprint and efficient matching strategy. However, they utilize intermediate representations and are generally less discriminative than floating-point descriptors. We propose an image region descriptor, namely local derivative ordinal binary pattern, for object recognition and image categorization. In order to preserve more local contrast and edge information, we quantize the intensity differences between the central pixels and their neighbors of the detected local affine covariant regions in an adaptive way. These differences are then sorted and mapped into binary codes and histogrammed with a weight of the sum of the absolute value of the differences. Furthermore, the gray level of the central pixel is quantized to further improve the discriminative ability. Finally, we combine them to form a joint histogram to represent the features of the image. We observe that our descriptor preserves more local brightness and edge information than traditional binary descriptors. Also, our descriptor is robust to rotation, illumination variations, and other geometric transformations. We conduct extensive experiments on the standard ETHZ and Kentucky datasets for object recognition and PASCAL for image classification. The experimental results show that our descriptor outperforms existing state-of-the-art methods.

  5. Graphene electrically reconfigurable patterns for THz imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensale-Rodriguez, Berardi; Rafique, Subrina; Yan, Rusen; Zhu, Mingda; Protasenko, Vladimir; Jena, Debdeep; Liu, Lei; Xing, Huili Grace

    2013-03-01

    THz waves are attractive for several imaging applications, since they can propagate through non metallic media such as paper, cloth, plastics, and ceramics, and do not scatter over nano-scale defects or ionize the material under imaging -as might shorter wavelengths do- while offering an image resolution similar to that of the human eye. In this work we propose and experimentally demonstrate electrically reconfigurable patterns for single-pixel terahertz imaging based on arrays of graphene THz electro-absorption modulators. In an optical setup, in conjunction with mirrors, the modulator array can transform the output radiation from a CW THz source into a pixelated and collimated beam of illumination. Single-atom-thick graphene is employed as the active element of these modulators, achieving a modulation of the THz wave reflectance >50% with a potential modulation depth approaching 100% (i.e. each region of the pixelated collimated beam can be potentially completely turned-off). Although the proof-of-concept device here discussed only consists of 4x4 elements, we foresee that this technology can enable low-cost video rate THz imaging systems.

  6. Contrast enhancement pattern in MR imaging of acute cerebral infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Deok; Cho, Mee Young; Lee, Chae Guk; Song, Dong Hoon [Inje University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-08-15

    To present the enhancement pattern of acute cerebral or cerebellar cortical infarctions aged 1-3 days on MR. Contrast-enhanced MR images of 26 patients with acute cerebral or cerebellar ischemic events were retrospectively reviewed. MR was performed within 3 days after ictus. Contrast enhancement in the area of infarction was observed in 61.5% (16/26) on MR. Of these 50% (13/26) showed non-parenchymal enhancement (NPE) representing either vascular or leptomeningeal enhancement, 7.7% (2/26) showed parenchymal enhancement (PE), and 2.8% (1/26) showed both NPE and PE. The earliest enhancement was seen in images obtained 12 hours after the onset of symptoms and appeared as NPE. One patient showed NPE without apparent high signal intensity at the corresponding area on T2-weighted images. In 38.5% (10/26), there was no enhancement. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging may be needed in acute ischemic infarction, because NPE may be seen as the earliest MR finding of acute cortical infraction aged 1-3 days.

  7. Satellite Image Edge Detection for Population Distribution Pattern Identification using Levelset with Morphological Filtering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsiti; Munandar, T. A.; Suhendar, A.; Abdullah, A. G.; Rohendi, D.

    2017-03-01

    Population distribution pattern is directly related with economic gap of a region. Analysis of population distribution pattern is usually performed by studying statistical data on population. This study aimed to analyze population distribution pattern using image analysis concept, i.e. using satellite images. Levelset and morphological image filtering methods were used to analyze images to see distribution pattern. The research result showed that Levelset and morphological image filtering could remove a lot of noises in analysis result images and form object edge contours very clearly. The detected object contours were used as references to recognize population distribution pattern based on satellite image analysis. The pattern made based on the research result didn’t show optimal result because Levelset performed image segmentation based on the contours of the analyzed objects. Other segmentation methods should be combined with it to produce clearer population distribution pattern.

  8. Vibrational mapping of sinonasal lesions by Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgini, Elisabetta; Sabbatini, Simona; Conti, Carla; Rubini, Corrado; Rocchetti, Romina; Re, Massimo; Vaccari, Lisa; Mitri, Elisa; Librando, Vito

    2015-12-01

    Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI) is a powerful tool for analyzing biochemical changes in tumoral tissues. The head and neck region is characterized by a great variety of lesions, with different degrees of malignancy, which are often difficult to diagnose. Schneiderian papillomas are sinonasal benign neoplasms arising from the Schneiderian mucosa; they can evolve into malignant tumoral lesions (squamous cell carcinoma). In addition, they can sometimes be confused with the more common inflammatory polyps. Therefore, an early and definitive diagnosis of this pathology is mandatory. Progressing in our research on the study of oral cavity lesions, 15 sections consisting of inflammatory sinonasal polyps, benign Schneiderian papillomas, and sinonasal undifferentiated carcinomas were analyzed using FTIRI. To allow a rigorous description of these pathologies and to gain objective diagnosis, the epithelial layer and the adjacent connective tissue of each section were separately investigated by following a multivariate analysis approach. According to the nature of the lesion, interesting modifications were detected in the average spectra of the different tissue components, above all in the lipid and protein patterns. Specific band-area ratios acting as spectral markers of the different pathologies were also highlighted.

  9. Experimental Analysis of Mast Lifting and Bending Forces on Vibration Patterns Before and After Pinion Reinstallation in an OH-58 Transmission Test Rig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Edward M.; Lewicki, David G.; Tumer, Irem Y.; Decker, Harry; Barszez, Eric; Zakrajsek, James J.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    As part of a collaborative research program between NASA Ames Research Center (ARC), NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), and the US Army Laboratory, a series of experiments is being performed in GRC's 500 HP OH-58 Transmission Test Rig facility and ARC's AH-I Cobra and OH-58c helicopters. The findings reported in this paper were drawn from Phase-I of a two-phase test-rig experiment, and are focused on the vibration response of an undamaged pinion gear operating in the transmission test rig. To simulate actual flight conditions, the transmission system was run at three torque levels, as well as two mast lifting and two mast bending levels. The test rig was also subjected to disassembly and reassembly of the main pinion housing to simulate the effect of maintenance operations. An analysis of variance based on the total power of the spectral distribution indicates the relative effect of each experimental factor, including Wong interactions with torque. Reinstallation of the main pinion assembly is shown to introduce changes in the vibration signature, suggesting the possibility of a strong effect of maintenance on HUMS design and use. Based on these results, further research will be conducted to compare these vibration responses with actual OH58c helicopter transmission vibration patterns.

  10. High-speed Imaging of Vocal Fold Vibration Onset Delay: Normal Versus Abnormal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Peak

    2017-05-01

    Vocal fold vibration onset delay (VFVOD) is heard frequently in spasmodic dysphonia and in muscle tension dysphonia. VFVOD changes due to other vocal pathologies have not been investigated. VFVOD during sustained vowel production was estimated with high-speed video in 10 normal and 40 pathologic subjects (scars, vocal fold paralysis, vocal fold nodules, and polyps). Analysis of high-speed video was done using digital kymography. VFVOD can be divided into two portions. Pre-phonation delay (PPD) is the duration when the vocal folds are nearly approximated to the time of first observed oscillation. Steady state delay (SSD) is the time when vocal folds are observed to come into oscillation until steady state of oscillation is observed. Normal subjects have almost zero PPD with vocal fold oscillation observed before full vocal fold adduction. Pathologic cases showed prolonged PPD because of (1) false cord adduction, (2) prolonged true vocal fold adduction, and (3) delay to onset of vocal fold vibration. Normal subjects have SSD of three to five cycles before steady state. Pathologic states result in increased SSD. Causes for increased SSD include (1) slow ramping up to steady state, (2) partial vibration of vocal folds, and (3) diplophonia with alternating beats before achieving steady state. There are significant differences between normal and pathology groups in both PPD and SSD. VFVOD is elevated in pathologic states. This can be due to increase in PPD or SSD. VFVOD is an under-recognized phenomenon that may contribute to complaints of vocal fatigue and dysphonia. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Theoretical investigation of moiré patterns in quantum images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, M. P.; Huguenin, J. A. O.; Souto Ribeiro, P. H.; Khoury, A. Z.

    2006-05-01

    Moiré patterns are produced when two periodic structures with different spatial frequencies are superposed. The transmission of the resulting structure gives rise to spatial beatings which are called moiré fringes. In classical optics, the interest in moiré fringes comes from the fact that the spatial beating given by the frequency difference gives information about details (high spatial frequency) of a given spatial structure. We show that moiré fringes can also arise in the spatial distribution of the coincidence count rate of twin photons from the parametric down-conversion, when spatial structures with different frequencies are placed in the path of each one of the twin beams. In other words, we demonstrate how moiré fringes can arise from quantum images.

  12. Pattern Recognition Of Blood Vessel Networks In Ocular Fundus Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akita, K.; Kuga, H.

    1982-11-01

    We propose a computer method of recognizing blood vessel networks in color ocular fundus images which are used in the mass diagnosis of adult diseases such as hypertension and diabetes. A line detection algorithm is applied to extract the blood vessels, and the skeleton patterns of them are made to analyze and describe their structures. The recognition of line segments of arteries and/or veins in the vessel networks consists of three stages. First, a few segments which satisfy a certain constraint are picked up and discriminated as arteries or veins. This is the initial labeling. Then the remaining unknown ones are labeled by utilizing the physical level knowledge. We propose two schemes for this stage : a deterministic labeling and a probabilistic relaxation labeling. Finally the label of each line segment is checked so as to minimize the total number of labeling contradictions. Some experimental results are also presented.

  13. Composite Struts Would Damp Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgin, Benjamin P.

    1991-01-01

    New design of composite-material (fiber/matrix laminate) struts increases damping of longitudinal vibrations without decreasing longitudinal stiffness or increasing weight significantly. Plies with opposing chevron patterns of fibers convert longitudinal vibrational stresses into shear stresses in intermediate viscoelastic layer, which dissipate vibrational energy. Composite strut stronger than aluminum strut of same weight and stiffness.

  14. Vibrational spectroscopy and microscopic imaging: novel approaches for comparing barrier physical properties in native and human skin equivalents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guo; Zhang, Guojin; Flach, Carol R.; Mendelsohn, Richard

    2013-06-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy and imaging have been used to compare barrier properties in human skin, porcine skin, and two human skin equivalents, Epiderm 200X with an enhanced barrier and Epiderm 200 with a normal barrier. Three structural characterizations were performed. First, chain packing and conformational order were compared in isolated human stratum corneum (SC), isolated porcine SC, and in the Epiderm 200X surface layers. The infrared (IR) spectrum of isolated human SC revealed a large proportion of orthorhombically packed lipid chains at physiological temperatures along with a thermotropic phase transition to a state with hexagonally packed chains. In contrast, the lipid phase at physiological temperatures in both porcine SC and in Epiderm 200X, although dominated by conformationally ordered chains, lacked significant levels of orthorhombic subcell packing. Second, confocal Raman imaging of cholesterol bands showed extensive formation of cholesterol-enriched pockets within the human skin equivalents (HSEs). Finally, IR imaging tracked lipid barrier dimensions as well as the spatial disposition of ordered lipids in human SC and Epiderm 200X. These approaches provide a useful set of experiments for exploring structural differences between excised human skin and HSEs, which in turn may provide a rationale for the functional differences observed among these preparations.

  15. Vibration-rotation energy pattern in acetylene: (13)CH(12)CH up to 10 120 cm(-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, S; Amyay, B; Fayt, A; Di Lonardo, G; Fusina, L; Tamassia, F; Herman, M

    2009-11-26

    All 18,219 vibration-rotation absorption lines of (13)CH(12)CH published in the literature, accessing substates up to 9400 cm(-1) and including some newly assigned, were simultaneously fitted to J-dependent Hamiltonian matrices exploiting the well-known vibrational polyad or cluster block-diagonalization, in terms of the pseudo quantum numbers N(s) = v(1) + v(2) + v(3) and N(r) = 5v(1) + 3v(2) + 5v(3) + v(4) + v(5), also accounting for k = l(4) + l(5) parity and e/f symmetry properties. Some 1761 of these lines were excluded from the fit, corresponding either to blended lines, for about 30% of them, or probably to lines perturbed by Coriolis for the remaining ones. The dimensionless standard deviation of the fit is 1.10, and 317 vibration-rotation parameters are determined. These results significantly extend those of a previous report considering levels below only 6750 cm(-1) [Fayt, A.; et al. J. Chem. Phys. 2007, 126, 114303]. Unexpected problems are reported when inserting in the global fit the information available on higher-energy polyads, extending from 9300 to 10 120 cm(-1). They are tentatively interpreted as resulting from a combination of the relative evolution of the two effective bending frequencies and long-range interpolyad low-order anharmonic resonances. The complete database, made of 18,865 vibration-rotation lines accessing levels up to 10 120 cm(-1), is made available as Supporting Information.

  16. High-speed Vibrational Imaging and Spectral Analysis of Lipid Bodies by Compound Raman Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Slipchenko, Mikhail N.; Le, Thuc T.; Chen, Hongtao; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2009-01-01

    Cells store excess energy in the form of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. At present, it is unclear how different types of fatty acids contribute to the formation of lipid-droplets. We describe a compound Raman microscope capable of both high-speed chemical imaging and quantitative spectral analysis on the same platform. We use a picosecond laser source to perform coherent Raman scattering imaging of a biological sample and confocal Raman spectral analysis at points of interest. The potential of t...

  17. The Complete Local Spatial Central Derivative Binary Pattern for Ultrasound Kidney Images Retrieval

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chelladurai Callins Christiyana; Vayanaperumal Rajamani

    2015-01-01

    ...) for ultrasound kidney images retrieval. In a local 3X3 square region of an image, the new pattern considers the relationships among the surrounding neighbors about their neighbors at different spatial distances whereas the standard Local...

  18. Study on performance improvement of oil paint image filter algorithm using parallel pattern library

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Siddhartha

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives a detailed study on the performanc e of oil paint image filter algorithm with various parameters applied on an image of RGB model . Oil Paint image processing, being very performance hungry, current research tries to find improvement using parallel pattern library. With increasing kernel-size, the processing time of oil paint image filter algorithm increases exponentially.

  19. Case-control study of low-back pain referred for magnetic resonance imaging, with special focus on whole-body vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Keith T; Harris, Clare E; Harris, E Claire; Griffin, Michael J; Bennett, James; Reading, Isabel; Sampson, Madelaine; Coggon, David

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated risk factors for low-back pain among patients referred for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with special focus on whole-body vibration. A case-control approach was used. The study population comprised working-aged persons from a catchment area for radiology services. The cases were those in a consecutive series referred for a lumbar MRI because of low-back pain. The controls were age- and gender-matched persons X-rayed for other reasons. Altogether, 252 cases and 820 controls were studied, including 185 professional drivers. The participants were questioned about physical factors loading the spine, psychosocial factors, driving, personal characteristics, mental health, and certain beliefs about low-back pain. Exposure to whole-body vibration was assessed by six measures, including weekly duration of professional driving, hours driven in one period, and current root mean square A(8). Associations with whole-body vibration were examined with adjustment for age, gender, and other potential confounders. Strong associations were found with poor mental health and belief in work as a causal factor for low-back pain, and with occupational sitting for > or =3 hours while not driving. Associations were also found for taller stature, consulting propensity, body mass index, smoking history, fear-avoidance beliefs, frequent twisting, low decision latitude, and low support at work. However, the associations with the six metrics of whole-body vibration were weak and not statistically significant, and no exposure-response relationships were found. Little evidence of a risk from professional driving or whole-body vibration was found. Drivers were substantially less heavily exposed to whole-body vibration than in some earlier surveys. Nonetheless, it seems that, at the population level, whole-body vibration is not an important cause of low-back pain among those referred for MRI.

  20. Analysis of spatio-temporal brain imaging patterns by Hidden Markov Models and serial MRI images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Resnick, Susan M; Davatzikos, Christos

    2014-09-01

    Brain changes due to development and maturation, normal aging, or degenerative disease are continuous, gradual, and variable across individuals. To quantify the individual progression of brain changes, we propose a spatio-temporal methodology based on Hidden Markov Models (HMM), and apply it on four-dimensional structural brain magnetic resonance imaging series of older individuals. First, regional brain features are extracted in order to reduce image dimensionality. This process is guided by the objective of the study or the specific imaging patterns whose progression is of interest, for example, the evaluation of Alzheimer-like patterns of brain change in normal individuals. These regional features are used in conjunction with HMMs, which aim to measure the dynamic association between brain structure changes and progressive stages of disease over time. A bagging framework is used to obtain models with good generalization capability, since in practice the number of serial scans is limited. An application of the proposed methodology was to detect individuals with the risk of developing MCI, and therefore it was tested on modeling the progression of brain atrophy patterns in older adults. With HMM models, the state-transition paths corresponding to longitudinal brain changes were constructed from two completely independent datasets, the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. The statistical analysis of HMM-state paths among the normal, progressive MCI, and MCI groups indicates that, HMM-state index 1 is likely to be a predictor of the conversion from cognitively normal to MCI, potentially many years before clinical symptoms become measurable. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The diffraction signatures of individual vibrational modes in polyatomic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Seol; Weber, Peter M.; Stratt, Richard M.

    2000-01-01

    Though one normally thinks of single-molecule diffraction studies as tools for eliciting molecular geometry, molecular diffraction patterns are really the Fourier transforms of complete molecular wave functions. There is thus at least the possibility of imaging the vibrational wave functions of polyatomic molecules by means of a pump-probe diffraction experiment: the pump laser could prepare a specific vibrational state and an electron or x-ray could then be diffracted off the molecule some short time later. The present paper develops the general theory of diffraction signatures for individual vibrational wave functions in polyatomic molecules and investigates the feasibility of seeing such signatures experimentally using the example of a linear triatomic molecule modeled after CS2. Although aligned molecules in specific vibrational quantum states turn out to exhibit very characteristic diffraction signatures, the signatures of the vibrational wave functions are partially washed out for the complete isotropy expected from gas phase molecules. Nonetheless, it is possible to design a diffraction experiment using a pump-dump sequence with a polarized laser beam which will select a nonisotropic sample of vibrationally excited molecules. We show that the resulting level of anisotropy should enhance the diffraction signature, helping to distinguish different vibrational components. These model calculations therefore suggest the possibility of observing the dynamics of vibrational wave packets using experimentally realizable diffraction techniques.

  2. The Development of Vibration System for Applying Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) to the Supraspinatus Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Daiki; Numano, Tomokazu; Mizuhara, Kazuyuki; Takamoto, Kouichi; Onishi, Takaaki; Nishijo, Hisao

    2016-01-01

    Palpation is a standard clinical tool to diagnose abnormal stiffness changes in soft tissues. However, it is difficult to palpate the supraspinatus muscle because it locates under the trapezius muscle. The magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) uses harmonic mechanical excitation to quantitatively measure the stiffness (shear modulus) of both the superficial and deep tissues. The purpose of this study was to build a vibration system for applying the MRE to the supraspinatus muscle. In this study, a power amplifier and a pneumatic pressure generator were used to supply vibrations to a vibration pad. Six healthy volunteers underwent MRE. We investigated the effects of position (the head of the humerus and the trapezius muscle) of the vibration pad on the patterns of wave propagation (wave image). When the vibration pad was placed in the trapezius muscle, the wave images represented clear wave propagation. On the other hand, when the vibration pad was placed in the head of the humerus, the wave images represented unclear wave propagation. This result might be caused by wave interferences resulting from the vibrations from bones and an intramuscular tendon of the supraspinatus muscle. The mean shear modulus also was 8.12 ± 1.83 (mean ± SD) kPa, when the vibration pad was placed in the trapezius muscle. Our results demonstrated that the vibration pad should be placed in the trapezius muscle in the MRE of the supraspinatus muscle.

  3. DNA Methylation Changes in Valproic Acid-Treated HeLa Cells as Assessed by Image Analysis, Immunofluorescence and Vibrational Microspectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana M B Veronezi

    Full Text Available Valproic acid (VPA, a well-known histone deacetylase inhibitor, has been reported to affect the DNA methylation status in addition to inducing histone hyperacetylation in several cell types. In HeLa cells, VPA promotes histone acetylation and chromatin remodeling. However, DNA demethylation was not checked in this cell model for standing effects longer than those provided by histone acetylation, which is a rapid and transient phenomenon. Demonstration of VPA-induced DNA demethylation in HeLa cells would contribute to understanding the effect of VPA on an aggressive tumor cell line. In the present work, DNA demethylation in VPA-treated HeLa cells was assessed by image analysis of chromatin texture, the abundance of 5-methylcytosine (5mC immunofluorescence signals and Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR microspectroscopy centered on spectral regions related to the vibration of-CH3 groups. Image analysis indicated that increased chromatin unpacking promoted by a 4-h-treatment with 1.0 mM VPA persisted for 24 h in the absence of the drug, suggesting the occurrence of DNA demethylation that was confirmed by decreased 5mC immunofluorescence signals. FT-IR spectra of DNA samples from 1 mM or 20 mM VPA-treated cells subjected to a peak fitting analysis of the spectral window for-CH3 stretching vibrations showed decreased vibrations and energy of these groups as a function of the decreased abundance of 5mC induced by increased VPA concentrations. Only the 20 mM-VPA treatment caused an increase in the ratio of -CH3 bending vibrations evaluated at 1375 cm-1 in relation to in-plane vibrations of overall cytosines evaluated at 1492 cm-1. CH3 stretching vibrations showed to be more sensitive than-CH3 bending vibrations, as detected with FT-IR microspectroscopy, for studies aiming to associate vibrational spectroscopy and changes in DNA 5mC abundance.

  4. Concurrent computation of connected pattern spectra for very large image information mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, Michael; Moschini, Ugo; Ouzounis, G.K.; Pesaresi, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a shared-memory parallel algorithm for computing connected pattern spectra from the Max-Tree structure. The pattern spectrum is an aggregated feature space derived directly from the tree-based image representation and is a powerful tool for interactive image information mining.

  5. Increasing accuracy and precision of digital image correlation through pattern optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomarito, G. F.; Hochhalter, J. D.; Ruggles, T. J.; Cannon, A. H.

    2017-04-01

    The accuracy and precision of digital image correlation (DIC) is based on three primary components: image acquisition, image analysis, and the subject of the image. Focus on the third component, the image subject, has been relatively limited and primarily concerned with comparing pseudo-random surface patterns. In the current work, a strategy is proposed for the creation of optimal DIC patterns. In this strategy, a pattern quality metric is developed as a combination of quality metrics from the literature rather than optimization based on any single one of them. In this way, optimization produces a pattern which balances the benefits of multiple quality metrics. Specifically, sum of square of subset intensity gradients (SSSIG) was found to be the metric most strongly correlated to DIC accuracy and thus is the main component of the newly proposed pattern quality metric. A term related to the secondary auto-correlation peak height is also part of the proposed quality metric which effectively acts as a constraint upon SSSIG ensuring that a regular (e.g., checkerboard-type) pattern is not achieved. The combined pattern quality metric is used to generate a pattern that was on average 11.6% more accurate than a randomly generated pattern in a suite of numerical experiments. Furthermore, physical experiments were performed which confirm that there is indeed improvement of a similar magnitude in DIC measurements for the optimized pattern compared to a random pattern.

  6. Multi-Scale Fractal Analysis of Image Texture and Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Charles W.; Lam, Nina Siu-Ngan; Quattrochi, Dale A.

    1999-01-01

    Analyses of the fractal dimension of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) images of homogeneous land covers near Huntsville, Alabama revealed that the fractal dimension of an image of an agricultural land cover indicates greater complexity as pixel size increases, a forested land cover gradually grows smoother, and an urban image remains roughly self-similar over the range of pixel sizes analyzed (10 to 80 meters). A similar analysis of Landsat Thematic Mapper images of the East Humboldt Range in Nevada taken four months apart show a more complex relation between pixel size and fractal dimension. The major visible difference between the spring and late summer NDVI images is the absence of high elevation snow cover in the summer image. This change significantly alters the relation between fractal dimension and pixel size. The slope of the fractal dimension-resolution relation provides indications of how image classification or feature identification will be affected by changes in sensor spatial resolution.

  7. Pattern matching and adaptive image segmentation applied to plant reproduction by tissue culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez Rueda, Martin G.; Hahn, Federico

    1999-03-01

    This paper shows the results obtained in a system vision applied to plant reproduction by tissue culture using adaptive image segmentation and pattern matching algorithms, this analysis improves the number of tissue obtained and minimize errors, the image features of tissue are considered join to statistical analysis to determine the best match and results. Tests make on potato plants are used to present comparative results with original images processed with adaptive segmentation algorithm and non adaptive algorithms and pattern matching.

  8. Development and validation of parenting measures for body image and eating patterns in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Damiano, Stephanie R; Hart, Laura M; Paxton, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence-based parenting interventions are important in assisting parents to help their children develop healthy body image and eating patterns. To adequately assess the impact of parenting interventions, valid parent measures are required. The aim of this study was to develop and assess the validity and reliability of two new parent measures, the Parenting Intentions for Body image and Eating patterns in Childhood (Parenting Intentions BEC) and the Knowledge Test for Body image an...

  9. Basic research planning in mathematical pattern recognition and image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, J.; Guseman, L. F., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Fundamental problems encountered while attempting to develop automated techniques for applications of remote sensing are discussed under the following categories: (1) geometric and radiometric preprocessing; (2) spatial, spectral, temporal, syntactic, and ancillary digital image representation; (3) image partitioning, proportion estimation, and error models in object scene interference; (4) parallel processing and image data structures; and (5) continuing studies in polarization; computer architectures and parallel processing; and the applicability of "expert systems" to interactive analysis.

  10. Vibration mode shapes visualization in industrial environment by real-time time-averaged phase-stepped electronic speckle pattern interferometry at 10.6 μm and shearography at 532 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Languy, Fabian; Vandenrijt, Jean-François; Thizy, Cédric; Rochet, Jonathan; Loffet, Christophe; Simon, Daniel; Georges, Marc P.

    2016-12-01

    We present our investigations on two interferometric methods suitable for industrial conditions dedicated to the visualization of vibration modes of aeronautic blades. First, we consider long-wave infrared (LWIR) electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI). The use of long wavelength allows measuring larger amplitudes of vibrations compared with what can be achieved with visible light. Also longer wavelengths allow lower sensitivity to external perturbations. Second, shearography at 532 nm is used as an alternative to LWIR ESPI. Both methods are used in time-averaged mode with the use of phase-stepping. This allows transforming Bessel fringes, typical to time averaging, into phase values that provide higher contrast and improve the visualization of vibration mode shapes. Laboratory experimental results with both techniques allowed comparison of techniques, leading to selection of shearography. Finally a vibration test on electrodynamic shaker is performed in an industrial environment and mode shapes are obtained with good quality by shearography.

  11. Simultaneous AFM nano-patterning and imaging for photomask repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyvani, A.; Tamer, M.S.; Es, M.H. van; Sadeghian Marnani, H.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a new AFM based nano-patterning technique that can be used for fast defect repairing of high resolution photomasks and possibly other high-speed nano-patterning applications. The proposed method works based on hammering the sample with tapping mode AFM followed by wet

  12. Facial Image Analysis Based on Local Binary Patterns: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, D.; Shan, C.; Ardebilian, M.; Chen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Facial image analysis, including face detection, face recognition,facial expression analysis, facial demographic classification, and so on, is an important and interesting research topic in the computervision and image processing area, which has many important applications such as human-computer

  13. Including Arbitrary Antenna Patterns in Microwave Imaging of Buried Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter; Kim, Oleksiy S.; Lenler-Eriksen, Hans-Rudolph

    2004-01-01

    A linear inversion scheme for microwave imaging of buried objects is presented in which arbitrary antennas are accounted for through their plane-wave transmitting and receiving spectra......A linear inversion scheme for microwave imaging of buried objects is presented in which arbitrary antennas are accounted for through their plane-wave transmitting and receiving spectra...

  14. Body image dissatisfaction and dietary patterns according to nutritional status in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Silva, Rita de Cássia; Fiaccone, Rosemeire Leovigildo; Conceição-Machado, Maria Ester Pereira da; Ruiz, Ana Santos; Barreto, Maurício Lima; Santana, Mônica Leila Portela

    2017-08-09

    There is a lack of data on the association between body self-perception and eating patterns in Brazil. Thus, this study aimed to explore the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and eating patterns by the anthropometric status in adolescents. A cross-sectional study of 1496 adolescents was conducted. The participants completed the Body Shape Questionnaire. Demographic, anthropometric, and socioeconomic data were collected, as well as information regarding the pubertal development and dietary intake. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate the associations of interest. Body image dissatisfaction was identified in 19.5% of the adolescents. Three dietary patterns were identified: (1) the Western pattern was composed of sweets and sugars, soft drinks, typical dishes, pastries, fast food, beef, milk, and dairy products; (2) the Traditional pattern was composed of oils, chicken, fish, eggs, processed meat products, cereals (rice, cassava flour, pasta, etc.), baked beans, and bread; and (3) the Restrictive pattern was composed of granola, roots, vegetables, and fruit. Among overweight/obese adolescents, the data indicated a negative association of slight body image dissatisfaction (OR: 0.240 [0.100; 0.576]) and moderate body image dissatisfaction (OR: 0.235 [0.086; 0.645]) with the Western dietary pattern. Additionally, in this group, there was a positive association between high body image dissatisfaction and the Restrictive pattern (OR: 2.794 [1.178; 6.630]). Amongst overweight/obese adolescents, those with slight and moderate body image dissatisfaction were less likely to follow a Western-like dietary pattern when compared with those satisfied with their body image. Additionally, in this group, adolescents with high body image dissatisfaction was more likely to follow a restrictive pattern. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  15. Change detection in registered psoriasis lesion image patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2003-01-01

    The M.A.D. Transform is applied to pairs of registered psoriasis lesion patterns within and between weekly sessions. Color band contribution to the first M.A.D. component is analyzed.......The M.A.D. Transform is applied to pairs of registered psoriasis lesion patterns within and between weekly sessions. Color band contribution to the first M.A.D. component is analyzed....

  16. Identification of Shearer Cutting Patterns Using Vibration Signals Based on a Least Squares Support Vector Machine with an Improved Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Si

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Shearers play an important role in fully mechanized coal mining face and accurately identifying their cutting pattern is very helpful for improving the automation level of shearers and ensuring the safety of coal mining. The least squares support vector machine (LSSVM has been proven to offer strong potential in prediction and classification issues, particularly by employing an appropriate meta-heuristic algorithm to determine the values of its two parameters. However, these meta-heuristic algorithms have the drawbacks of being hard to understand and reaching the global optimal solution slowly. In this paper, an improved fly optimization algorithm (IFOA to optimize the parameters of LSSVM was presented and the LSSVM coupled with IFOA (IFOA-LSSVM was used to identify the shearer cutting pattern. The vibration acceleration signals of five cutting patterns were collected and the special state features were extracted based on the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD and the kernel function. Some examples on the IFOA-LSSVM model were further presented and the results were compared with LSSVM, PSO-LSSVM, GA-LSSVM and FOA-LSSVM models in detail. The comparison results indicate that the proposed approach was feasible, efficient and outperformed the others. Finally, an industrial application example at the coal mining face was demonstrated to specify the effect of the proposed system.

  17. Content based image retrieval using local binary pattern operator and data mining techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatamanu, Oana Astrid; Frandeş, Mirela; Lungeanu, Diana; Mihalaş, Gheorghe-Ioan

    2015-01-01

    Content based image retrieval (CBIR) concerns the retrieval of similar images from image databases, using feature vectors extracted from images. These feature vectors globally define the visual content present in an image, defined by e.g., texture, colour, shape, and spatial relations between vectors. Herein, we propose the definition of feature vectors using the Local Binary Pattern (LBP) operator. A study was performed in order to determine the optimum LBP variant for the general definition of image feature vectors. The chosen LBP variant is then subsequently used to build an ultrasound image database, and a database with images obtained from Wireless Capsule Endoscopy. The image indexing process is optimized using data clustering techniques for images belonging to the same class. Finally, the proposed indexing method is compared to the classical indexing technique, which is nowadays widely used.

  18. Application of local binary pattern and human visual Fibonacci texture features for classification different medical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghavi, Foram; Agaian, Sos

    2017-05-01

    The goal of this paper is to (a) test the nuclei based Computer Aided Cancer Detection system using Human Visual based system on the histopathology images and (b) Compare the results of the proposed system with the Local Binary Pattern and modified Fibonacci -p pattern systems. The system performance is evaluated using different parameters such as accuracy, specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value on 251 prostate histopathology images. The accuracy of 96.69% was observed for cancer detection using the proposed human visual based system compared to 87.42% and 94.70% observed for Local Binary patterns and the modified Fibonacci p patterns.

  19. Optical time-domain analog pattern correlator for high-speed real-time image recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hyup; Goda, Keisuke; Fard, Ali; Jalali, Bahram

    2011-01-15

    The speed of image processing is limited by image acquisition circuitry. While optical pattern recognition techniques can reduce the computational burden on digital image processing, their image correlation rates are typically low due to the use of spatial optical elements. Here we report a method that overcomes this limitation and enables fast real-time analog image recognition at a record correlation rate of 36.7 MHz--1000 times higher rates than conventional methods. This technique seamlessly performs image acquisition, correlation, and signal integration all optically in the time domain before analog-to-digital conversion by virtue of optical space-to-time mapping.

  20. Interactive Machine Learning for Discovering Patterns in Spectral Data and Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyen, D. A.; Lanza, N. L.

    2017-06-01

    We balance the strengths of machine learning to perform pattern recognition, while empowering scientists to explore large sets of data. We demonstrate two such approaches for (1) ChemCam spectral data, and (2) interactive image analysis.

  1. Proceedings of the NASA Symposium on Mathematical Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseman, L. F., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The application of mathematical and statistical analyses techniques to imagery obtained by remote sensors is described by Principal Investigators. Scene-to-map registration, geometric rectification, and image matching are among the pattern recognition aspects discussed.

  2. Influence of inspiratory flow pattern and nebulizer position on aerosol delivery with a vibrating-mesh nebulizer during invasive mechanical ventilation: an in vitro analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugernier, Jonathan; Wittebole, Xavier; Roeseler, Jean; Michotte, Jean-Bernard; Sottiaux, Thierry; Dugernier, Thierry; Laterre, Pierre-François; Reychler, Gregory

    2015-06-01

    Aerosol delivery during invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) depends on nebulizer type, placement of the nebulizer and ventilator settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of two inspiratory flow patterns on amikacin delivery with a vibrating-mesh nebulizer placed at different positions on an adult lung model of IMV equipped with a proximal flow sensor (PFS). IMV was simulated using a ventilator connected to a lung model through an 8-mm inner-diameter endotracheal tube. The impact of a decelerating and a constant flow pattern on aerosol delivery was evaluated in volume-controlled mode (tidal volume 500 mL, 20 breaths/min, inspiratory time of 1 sec, bias flow of 10 L/min). An amikacin solution (250 mg/3 mL) was nebulized with Aeroneb Solo(®) placed at five positions on the ventilator circuit equipped with a PFS: connected to the endotracheal tube (A), to the Y-piece (B), placed at 15 cm (C) and 45 cm upstream of the Y-piece (D), and placed at 15 cm of the inspiratory outlet of the ventilator (E). The four last positions were also tested without PFS. Deposited doses of amikacin were measured using the gravimetric residual method. Amikacin delivery was significantly reduced with a decelerating inspiratory flow pattern compared to a constant flow (p<0.05). With a constant inspiratory flow pattern, connecting the nebulizer to the endotracheal tube enabled similar deposited doses than these obtained when connecting the nebulizer close to the ventilator. The PFS reduced deposited doses only when the nebulizer was connected to the Y-piece with both flow patterns or placed at 15 cm of the Y-piece with a constant inspiratory flow (p<0.01). Using similar tidal volume and inspiratory time, a constant flow pattern (30 L/min) delivers a higher amount of amikacin through an endotracheal tube compared to a decelerating inspiratory flow pattern (peak inspiratory flow around 60 L/min). The optimal nebulizer position depends on the

  3. An Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry System for the Study of Mistuned Bladed Disks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pierre, Christophe

    2000-01-01

    .... An Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry system provides real-time, full-field imaging of the vibration of a test specimen, while a Single Point Laser Vibrometer, mounted on a two-stage linear...

  4. X-ray Phase-Contrast Imaging and Metrology through Unified Modulated Pattern Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdora, Marie-Christine; Thibault, Pierre; Zhou, Tunhe; Koch, Frieder J; Romell, Jenny; Sala, Simone; Last, Arndt; Rau, Christoph; Zanette, Irene

    2017-05-19

    We present a method for x-ray phase-contrast imaging and metrology applications based on the sample-induced modulation and subsequent computational demodulation of a random or periodic reference interference pattern. The proposed unified modulated pattern analysis (UMPA) technique is a versatile approach and allows tuning of signal sensitivity, spatial resolution, and scan time. We characterize the method and demonstrate its potential for high-sensitivity, quantitative phase imaging, and metrology to overcome the limitations of existing methods.

  5. Chronometric comparison of actual and imaged complex movement patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmels, Claire; Holmes, Paul; Lopez, Emilie; Naman, Véronique

    2006-09-01

    The authors' aim in this study was to consider the functional equivalence of internal imagery, external imagery, and action execution. Sixteen elite gymnasts imaged and performed a complex gymnastic vault. Ten performers imaged from an internal perspective, and 6 used an external perspective. Although the results revealed that the time to image the entire motor task did not significantly differ from the time required to physically perform it, irrespective of the imagery perspective used, the temporal organization of the action was different within the imagery conditions than it was in the physical condition. The results do not provide support for the principle of temporal functional equivalence. The authors discuss the results in light of recent findings from the cognitive neuroscience and psychology literatures.

  6. Artificial neural network for bubbles pattern recognition on the images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletaev, I. E.; Pervunin, K. S.; Tokarev, M. P.

    2016-10-01

    Two-phase bubble flows have been used in many technological and energy processes as processing oil, chemical and nuclear reactors. This explains large interest to experimental and numerical studies of such flows last several decades. Exploiting of optical diagnostics for analysis of the bubble flows allows researchers obtaining of instantaneous velocity fields and gaseous phase distribution with the high spatial resolution non-intrusively. Behavior of light rays exhibits an intricate manner when they cross interphase boundaries of gaseous bubbles hence the identification of the bubbles images is a complicated problem. This work presents a method of bubbles images identification based on a modern technology of deep learning called convolutional neural networks (CNN). Neural networks are able to determine overlapping, blurred, and non-spherical bubble images. They can increase accuracy of the bubble image recognition, reduce the number of outliers, lower data processing time, and significantly decrease the number of settings for the identification in comparison with standard recognition methods developed before. In addition, usage of GPUs speeds up the learning process of CNN owning to the modern adaptive subgradient optimization techniques.

  7. Patterns of semantic relations to improve image content search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollink, L.; Schreiber, A.T.; Wielinga, B.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study to explore how semantic relations can be used to expand a query for objects in an image. The study is part of a project with the overall objective to provide semantic annotation and search facilities for a virtual collection of art resources. In this study we used

  8. Imaging of Edge Inactive Layer in Micro Patterned Graphene Monolayer (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-28

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0374 IMAGING OF EDGE INACTIVE LAYER IN MICRO- PATTERNED GRAPHENE MONOLAYER (POSTPRINT) K. Brockdorf, Z.Jia, N...MICRO- PATTERNED GRAPHENE MONOLAYER (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-11-D-5801-0013 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62102F...electrically inactive layer (EIL) near the edge of micro-patterned graphene lines was investigated using both scanning microwave microscopy (SMM

  9. Genetic Algorithm-Based Relevance Feedback for Image Retrieval Using Local Similarity Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stejic, Zoran; Takama, Yasufumi; Hirota, Kaoru

    2003-01-01

    Proposes local similarity pattern (LSP) as a new method for computing digital image similarity. Topics include optimizing similarity computation based on genetic algorithm; relevance feedback; and an evaluation of LSP on five databases that showed an increase in retrieval precision over other methods for computing image similarity. (Author/LRW)

  10. Gender and Age Patterns in Emotional Expression, Body Image, and Self-Esteem: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polce-Lynch, Mary; Myers, Barbara J.; Kilmartin, Christopher T.; Forssmann-Falck, Renate; Kliewer, Wendy

    1998-01-01

    Used written narratives to examine gender and age patterns in body image, emotional expression, and self-esteem for 209 students in grades 5, 8, and 12. Results indicate that boys restrict emotional expression in adolescence, whereas girls increase emotional expression in the same period. Girls also are more influenced by body image. (SLD)

  11. Imaging outside the box: Resolution enhancement in X-ray coherent diffraction imaging by extrapolation of diffraction patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latychevskaia, Tatiana, E-mail: tatiana@physik.uzh.ch; Fink, Hans-Werner [Physics Institute, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Chushkin, Yuriy; Zontone, Federico [The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, 38000 Grenoble (France)

    2015-11-02

    Coherent diffraction imaging is a high-resolution imaging technique whose potential can be greatly enhanced by applying the extrapolation method presented here. We demonstrate the enhancement in resolution of a non-periodical object reconstructed from an experimental X-ray diffraction record which contains about 10% missing information, including the pixels in the center of the diffraction pattern. A diffraction pattern is extrapolated beyond the detector area and as a result, the object is reconstructed at an enhanced resolution and better agreement with experimental amplitudes is achieved. The optimal parameters for the iterative routine and the limits of the extrapolation procedure are discussed.

  12. Extension and Application of High-Speed Digital Imaging Analysis Via Spatiotemporal Correlation and Eigenmode Analysis of Vocal Fold Vibration Before and After Polyp Excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Sheng; Olszewski, Emily; Devine, Erin E; Hoffman, Matthew R; Zhang, Yu; Shao, Jun; Jiang, Jack J

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the spatiotemporal correlation of vocal fold vibration using eigenmode analysis before and after polyp removal and explore the potential clinical relevance of spatiotemporal analysis of correlation length and entropy as quantitative voice parameters. We hypothesized that increased order in the vibrating signal after surgical intervention would decrease the eigenmode-based entropy and increase correlation length. Prospective case series. Forty subjects (23 males, 17 females) with unilateral (n = 24) or bilateral (n = 16) polyps underwent polyp removal. High-speed videoendoscopy was performed preoperatively and 2 weeks postoperatively. Spatiotemporal analysis was performed to determine entropy, quantification of signal disorder, correlation length, size, and spatially ordered structure of vocal fold vibration in comparison to full spatial consistency. The signal analyzed consists of the vibratory pattern in space and time derived from the high-speed video glottal area contour. Entropy decreased (Z = -3.871, P < .001) and correlation length increased (t = -8.913, P < .001) following polyp excision. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for correlation length and entropy were 0.84 and 0.93. Correlation length and entropy are sensitive to mass lesions. These parameters could potentially be used to augment subjective visualization after polyp excision when evaluating procedural efficacy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. The Automatic Assessment and Reduction of Noise Using Edge Pattern Analysis in Nonlinear Image Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-ur; Woodells, Glenn A.; Hines, Glenn D.

    2004-01-01

    Noise is the primary visibility limit in the process of non-linear image enhancement, and is no longer a statistically stable additive noise in the post-enhancement image. Therefore novel approaches are needed to both assess and reduce spatially variable noise at this stage in overall image processing. Here we will examine the use of edge pattern analysis both for automatic assessment of spatially variable noise and as a foundation for new noise reduction methods.

  14. Automatic Assessment and Reduction of Noise using Edge Pattern Analysis in Non-Linear Image Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-Ur; Woodell, Glenn A.; Hines, Glenn D.

    2004-01-01

    Noise is the primary visibility limit in the process of non-linear image enhancement, and is no longer a statistically stable additive noise in the post-enhancement image. Therefore novel approaches are needed to both assess and reduce spatially variable noise at this stage in overall image processing. Here we will examine the use of edge pattern analysis both for automatic assessment of spatially variable noise and as a foundation for new noise reduction methods.

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings of Different Polymicrogyria Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Gokce

    2012-09-01

    Conclusion: As one of the most common types of developmental cortical malformations, polymicrogyria can be seen in patients who are presented with clinical findings, such as epilepsy, mental motor retardation and spasticity and polymicrogyria may present in very different types. MRI is an effective imaging technique in patients presenting with cortical developmental malformations such as polymicrogyria [J Contemp Med 2012; 2(3.000: 151-157

  16. Imaging spectroscopy of the missing REMPI bands of methyl radicals: Final touches on all vibrational frequencies of the 3p Rydberg states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huilin; Liu, Kopin

    2018-01-07

    (2 + 1) resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) detection of methyl radicals, in particular that via the intermediate 3p Rydberg states, has shown to be a powerful method and thus enjoyed a wide range of applications. Methyl has six vibrational modes. Among them-including partially and fully deuterated isotopologs-four out of twenty vibrational frequencies in the intermediate 3p states have so far eluded direct spectroscopic determination. Here, by exploiting the imaging spectroscopy approach to a few judiciously selected chemical reactions, the four long-sought REMPI bands-CHD2(611), CH2D(311), CH2D(511), and CH2D(611)-are discovered, which complete the REMPI identification for probing any vibrational mode of excitation of methyl radical and its isotopologs. These results, in conjunction with those previously reported yet scattered in the literature, are summarized here for ready reference, which should provide all necessary information for further spectral assignments and future studies of chemical dynamics using this versatile REMPI scheme.

  17. The Complete Local Spatial Central Derivative Binary Pattern for Ultrasound Kidney Images Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelladurai CALLINS CHRISTIYANA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR is an active research domain in medical applications. The feature extraction process is the vital procedure in CBIR. This work proposes a new feature extraction procedure named as Complete Local Spatial Central Derivative Binary Pattern (CLSCDBP for ultrasound kidney images retrieval. In a local 3X3 square region of an image, the new pattern considers the relationships among the surrounding neighbors about their neighbors at different spatial distances whereas the standard Local Binary Pattern reflects the relationships between the center pixel and the surrounding neighbors. Though the surrounding neighbor pixels relationship has been considered in the Local Mesh Peak Valley Edge Patterns (LMePVEP, the proposed feature is different by deriving the local pattern based on the encoding of central derivative of the surrounding neighbors of the center pixel. The neighbors of each surrounding pixel in different spatial distances are considered during central derivative computation. The proposed local pattern becomes complete by accompanying the global mean statistics into it. The performance of this new feature is examined in ultrasound kidney images retrieval system. The experimental results confirm that CLSCDBP achieves considerable step up in the retrieval of ultrasound kidney images than LMePVEP in terms of Retrieval Efficiency.

  18. Color filter array pattern identification using variance of color difference image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun Jun; Jeon, Jong Ju; Eom, Il Kyu

    2017-07-01

    A color filter array is placed on the image sensor of a digital camera to acquire color images. Each pixel uses only one color, since the image sensor can measure only one color per pixel. Therefore, empty pixels are filled using an interpolation process called demosaicing. The original and the interpolated pixels have different statistical characteristics. If the image is modified by manipulation or forgery, the color filter array pattern is altered. This pattern change can be a clue for image forgery detection. However, most forgery detection algorithms have the disadvantage of assuming the color filter array pattern. We present an identification method of the color filter array pattern. Initially, the local mean is eliminated to remove the background effect. Subsequently, the color difference block is constructed to emphasize the difference between the original pixel and the interpolated pixel. The variance measure of the color difference image is proposed as a means of estimating the color filter array configuration. The experimental results show that the proposed method is effective in identifying the color filter array pattern. Compared with conventional methods, our method provides superior performance.

  19. Vibration Sensitive Keystroke Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopatka, M.; Peetz, M.-H.; van Erp, M.; Stehouwer, H.; van Zaanen, M.

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel method for performing non-invasive biometric analysis on habitual keystroke patterns using a vibration-based feature space. With the increasing availability of 3-D accelerometer chips in laptop computers, conventional methods using time vectors may be augmented using a distinct

  20. A novel method for repeatedly generating speckle patterns used in digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Sweedy, Ahmed; Gitzhofer, François; Baroud, Gamal

    2018-01-01

    Speckle patterns play a key role in Digital Image Correlation (DIC) measurement, and generating an optimal speckle pattern has been the goal for decades now. The usual method of generating a speckle pattern is by manually spraying the paint on the specimen. However, this makes it difficult to reproduce the optimal pattern for maintaining identical testing conditions and achieving consistent DIC results. This study proposed and evaluated a novel method using an atomization system to repeatedly generate speckle patterns. To verify the repeatability of the speckle patterns generated by this system, simulation and experimental studies were systematically performed. The results from both studies showed that the speckle patterns and, accordingly, the DIC measurements become highly accurate and repeatable using the proposed atomization system.

  1. Staining pattern classification of antinuclear autoantibodies based on block segmentation in indirect immunofluorescence images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqian Li

    Full Text Available Indirect immunofluorescence based on HEp-2 cell substrate is the most commonly used staining method for antinuclear autoantibodies associated with different types of autoimmune pathologies. The aim of this paper is to design an automatic system to identify the staining patterns based on block segmentation compared to the cell segmentation most used in previous research. Various feature descriptors and classifiers are tested and compared in the classification of the staining pattern of blocks and it is found that the technique of the combination of the local binary pattern and the k-nearest neighbor algorithm achieve the best performance. Relying on the results of block pattern classification, experiments on the whole images show that classifier fusion rules are able to identify the staining patterns of the whole well (specimen image with a total accuracy of about 94.62%.

  2. Local binary pattern texture-based classification of solid masses in ultrasound breast images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Monica M. S.; Sehgal, Chandra M.; Udupa, Jayaram K.

    2012-03-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality among women. Ultrasound examination can be used to assess breast masses, complementarily to mammography. Ultrasound images reveal tissue information in its echoic patterns. Therefore, pattern recognition techniques can facilitate classification of lesions and thereby reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies. Our hypothesis was that image texture features on the boundary of a lesion and its vicinity can be used to classify masses. We have used intensity-independent and rotation-invariant texture features, known as Local Binary Patterns (LBP). The classifier selected was K-nearest neighbors. Our breast ultrasound image database consisted of 100 patient images (50 benign and 50 malignant cases). The determination of whether the mass was benign or malignant was done through biopsy and pathology assessment. The training set consisted of sixty images, randomly chosen from the database of 100 patients. The testing set consisted of forty images to be classified. The results with a multi-fold cross validation of 100 iterations produced a robust evaluation. The highest performance was observed for feature LBP with 24 symmetrically distributed neighbors over a circle of radius 3 (LBP24,3) with an accuracy rate of 81.0%. We also investigated an approach with a score of malignancy assigned to the images in the test set. This approach provided an ROC curve with Az of 0.803. The analysis of texture features over the boundary of solid masses showed promise for malignancy classification in ultrasound breast images.

  3. Visual pattern mining in histology image collections using bag of features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Roa, Angel; Caicedo, Juan C; González, Fabio A

    2011-06-01

    The paper addresses the problem of finding visual patterns in histology image collections. In particular, it proposes a method for correlating basic visual patterns with high-level concepts combining an appropriate image collection representation with state-of-the-art machine learning techniques. The proposed method starts by representing the visual content of the collection using a bag-of-features strategy. Then, two main visual mining tasks are performed: finding associations between visual-patterns and high-level concepts, and performing automatic image annotation. Associations are found using minimum-redundancy-maximum-relevance feature selection and co-clustering analysis. Annotation is done by applying a support-vector-machine classifier. Additionally, the proposed method includes an interpretation mechanism that associates concept annotations with corresponding image regions. The method was evaluated in two data sets: one comprising histology images from the different four fundamental tissues, and the other composed of histopathology images used for cancer diagnosis. Different visual-word representations and codebook sizes were tested. The performance in both concept association and image annotation tasks was qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated. The results show that the method is able to find highly discriminative visual features and to associate them to high-level concepts. In the annotation task the method showed a competitive performance: an increase of 21% in f-measure with respect to the baseline in the histopathology data set, and an increase of 47% in the histology data set. The experimental evidence suggests that the bag-of-features representation is a good alternative to represent visual content in histology images. The proposed method exploits this representation to perform visual pattern mining from a wider perspective where the focus is the image collection as a whole, rather than individual images. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All

  4. Pattern-based compression of multi-band image data for landscape analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Wayne L; Patil, Ganapati P

    2006-01-01

    This book describes an integrated approach to using remotely sensed data in conjunction with geographic information systems for landscape analysis. Remotely sensed data are compressed into an analytical image-map that is compatible with the most popular geographic information systems as well as freeware viewers. The approach is most effective for landscapes that exhibit a pronounced mosaic pattern of land cover. The image maps are much more compact than the original remotely sensed data, which enhances utility on the internet. As value-added products, distribution of image-maps is not affected by copyrights on original multi-band image data.

  5. Quantitative analysis of breast echotexture patterns in automated breast ultrasound images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ruey-Feng [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan and Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hou, Yu-Ling [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Lo, Chung-Ming [Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chiun-Sheng [Department of Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jeon-Hor [Department of Radiology, E-Da Hospital and I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 82445, Taiwan and Tu and Yuen Center for Functional Onco-Imaging and Department of Radiological Science, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Kim, Won Hwa; Chang, Jung Min; Bae, Min Sun; Moon, Woo Kyung, E-mail: moonwk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: Breast tissue composition is considered to be associated with breast cancer risk. This study aimed to develop a computer-aided classification (CAC) system to automatically classify echotexture patterns as heterogeneous or homogeneous using automated breast ultrasound (ABUS) images. Methods: A CAC system was proposed that can recognize breast echotexture patterns in ABUS images. For each case, the echotexture pattern was assessed by two expert radiologists and classified as heterogeneous or homogeneous. After neutrosophic image transformation and fuzzy c-mean clusterings, the lower and upper boundaries of the fibroglandular tissues were defined. Then, the number of hypoechoic regions and histogram features were extracted from the fibroglandular tissues, and the support vector machine model with the leave-one-out cross-validation method was utilized as the classifier. The authors’ database included a total of 208 ABUS images of the breasts of 104 females. Results: The accuracies of the proposed system for the classification of heterogeneous and homogeneous echotexture patterns were 93.48% (43/46) and 92.59% (150/162), respectively, with an overall Az (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve) of 0.9786. The agreement between the radiologists and the proposed system was almost perfect, with a kappa value of 0.814. Conclusions: The use of ABUS and the proposed method can provide quantitative information on the echotexture patterns of the breast and can be used to evaluate whether breast echotexture patterns are associated with breast cancer risk in the future.

  6. Classification of patterns for diffuse lung diseases in thoracic CT images by AdaBoost algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Masayuki; Kido, Shoji; Shouno, Hayaru

    2009-02-01

    CT images are considered as effective for differential diagnosis of diffuse lung diseases. However, the diagnosis of diffuse lung diseases is a difficult problem for the radiologists, because they show a variety of patterns on CT images. So, our purpose is to construct a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for classification of patterns for diffuse lung diseases in thoracic CT images, which gives both quantitative and objective information as a second opinion, to decrease the burdens of radiologists. In this article, we propose a CAD system based on the conventional pattern recognition framework, which consists of two sub-systems; one is feature extraction part and the other is classification part. In the feature extraction part, we adopted a Gabor filter, which can extract patterns such like local edges and segments from input textures, as a feature extraction of CT images. In the recognition part, we used a boosting method. Boosting is a kind of voting method by several classifiers to improve decision precision. We applied AdaBoost algorithm for boosting method. At first, we evaluated each boosting component classifier, and we confirmed they had not enough performances in classification of patterns for diffuse lung diseases. Next, we evaluated the performance of boosting method. As a result, by use of our system, we could improve the classification rate of patterns for diffuse lung diseases.

  7. Low-Rank Latent Pattern Approximation With Applications to Robust Image Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuo Chen; Jian Yang; Lei Luo; Yang Wei; Kaihua Zhang; Ying Tai

    2017-11-01

    This paper develops a novel method to address the structural noise in samples for image classification. Recently, regression-related classification methods have shown promising results when facing the pixelwise noise. However, they become weak in coping with the structural noise due to ignoring of relationships between pixels of noise image. Meanwhile, most of them need to implement the iterative process for computing representation coefficients, which leads to the high time consumption. To overcome these problems, we exploit a latent pattern model called low-rank latent pattern approximation (LLPA) to reconstruct the test image having structural noise. The rank function is applied to characterize the structure of the reconstruction residual between test image and the corresponding latent pattern. Simultaneously, the error between the latent pattern and the reference image is constrained by Frobenius norm to prevent overfitting. LLPA involves a closed-form solution by the virtue of a singular value thresholding operator. The provided theoretic analysis demonstrates that LLPA indeed removes the structural noise during classification task. Additionally, LLPA is further extended to the form of matrix regression by connecting multiple training samples, and alternating direction of multipliers method with Gaussian back substitution algorithm is used to solve the extended LLPA. Experimental results on several popular data sets validate that the proposed methods are more robust to image classification with occlusion and illumination changes, as compared to some existing state-of-the-art reconstruction-based methods and one deep neural network-based method.

  8. Characterization of space-time rainfall patterns over Switzerland based on high-resolution radar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Lionel; Mariethoz, Gregoire; Vrac, Mathieu

    2017-04-01

    Rainfall is generated by diverse and complex processes that produce rain fields with a large variability of patterns. High-resolution measurements of rainfall, provided for instance by networks of terrestrial weather radars, allow observing the spatial variability of rainfall patterns and its temporal evolution. The characterization of these space-time rainfall patterns is important for both the understanding of rain generation processes and the study of environmental impacts of rainfall on hydrology, erosion or plants growth, among others. Here we propose to study rainfall patterns using image processing methods on high-resolution radar images (1km x 1km x 1min) over Switzerland. The time series of radar images is first segmented in rain events. Then, the spatial structure of each rain event is characterized by computing statistics over several geometrical indices extracted from radar images, by adapting to the context of mid-latitude rainfalls the indices proposed by Aghakouchak, Nasrollahi et al. (2011) and Zick and Matyas (2016) for tropical rainfall characterization. Finally, the dynamics of rainfall patterns is characterized by estimating rain advection through image correlation, and by quantifying the temporal morphing of spatial patterns in a Lagrangian reference frame, where radar images are re-projected to cancel out rain advection. Two years of data (2015 - 2016) are used to investigate the variability of rainfall patterns over Switzerland. Typical values of the indicators measuring rainfall patterns and their dynamics are extracted for different areas, namely the Jura Mountain, the Swiss Plateau and the Alps. These measures of rainfall variability could be subsequently used to parameterize local weather generators or to investigate the relationships between rainfall patterns and atmospheric synoptic conditions. References: Aghakouchak, A., N. Nasrollahi, J. Li, B. Imam and S. Sorooshian (2011). "Geometrical Characterization of Precipitation Patterns

  9. Monitoring vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiryaki, B. [Hacettepe University (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2003-12-01

    The paper examines the prediction and optimisation of machine vibrations in longwall shearers. Underground studies were carried out at the Middle Anatolian Lignite Mine, between 1993 and 1997. Several shearer drums with different pick lacing arrangements were designed and tested on double-ended ranging longwall shearers employed at the mine. A computer program called the Vibration Analysis Program (VAP) was developed for analysing machine vibrations in longwall shearers. Shearer drums that were tested underground, as well as some provided by leading manufacturers, were analyzed using these programs. The results of the experiments and computer analyses are given in the article. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Pediatric high speed digital imaging of vocal fold vibration: A normative pilot study of glottal closure and phase closure characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rita R.; Dixon, Angela; Richmond, AnnaMary; Donohue, Kevin D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study is to characterize normal vibratory patterns of both glottal closure and phase closure in the pediatric population with the use of high speed digital imaging. Methods For this prospective study a total of 56 pre-pubertal children, 5–11 years (boys = 28, girls = 28) and 56 adults, 21–45 years (males = 28, females = 28) without known voice problems were examined with the use of a new technology of high speed digital imaging. Recordings were captured at 4000 frames per second for duration of 4.094 seconds at participants’ typical phonation. With semi-automated software, montage analysis of glottal cycles was performed. Three trained experienced raters, rated features of glottal configuration and phase closure from glottal cycle montages. Results Posterior glottal gap was the predominant glottal closure configuration in children (girls = 85%, boys = 68%) with normal voice. Other glottal configurations observed were: anterior gap (girls = 3.6%, boys = 0%), complete closure (girls = 7%, boys = 10%), hour glass (girls = 0%, boys = 11%). Adults with normal voice also demonstrated predominantly higher percentage of posterior glottal gap configuration (females = 75% male = 54%) compared to the configurations of anterior gap (females = 0% male = 7%), complete closure (females = 2% male = 39%), hour glass (females = 3.6% male = 3.6%). A predominantly open phase (51–70% of the glottal cycle) was observed in 86% girls and 71% boys. Compared to children, adult females showed a predominantly balance phased closure 46%, followed by open phase (39%) and predominantly closed phase (14%). Adult males showed a predominantly closed phase (43%), followed by predominantly open phase (39%), followed by a balanced phase (18%). Conclusions This is a first study investigating characteristics of normal vibratory motion in children with high speed digital imaging. Glottal configuration and phase closure for children with normal voices are distinctly

  11. Method for reducing Newton's rings pattern in the scanned image reproduced with film scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ming-feng; Ni, Guo-qiang; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Feng; Tao, Ran; Yuan, Jun

    2013-12-01

    Newton's rings pattern always blurs the scanned image when scanning a film using a film scanner. Such phenomenon is a kind of equal thickness interference, which is caused by the air layer between the film and the glass of the scanner. A lot of methods were proposed to prevent the interference, such as film holder, anti-Newton's rings glass and emulsion direct imaging technology, etc. Those methods are expensive and lack of flexibility. In this paper, Newton's rings pattern is proved to be a 2-D chirp signal. Then, the fractional Fourier transform, which can be understood as the chirp-based decomposition, is introduced to process Newton's rings pattern. A digital filtering method in the fractional Fourier domain is proposed to reduce the Newton's rings pattern. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by simulation. Compared with the traditional optical method, the proposed method is more flexible and low cost.

  12. Intrahepatic mass-forming cholangiocarcinoma: enhancement patterns on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yusuhn; Lee, Jeong Min; Kim, Seung Ho; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the enhancement patterns of intrahepatic mass-forming cholangiocarcinomas (IMCCs) with emphasis on the hepatobiliary phase (HBP) of gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. This retrospective study was institutional review board approved, and the requirement for informed consent was waived. Fifty patients (41 men, nine women; mean age, 62.3 years; range, 44-76 years) with IMCC underwent unenhanced and gadoxetic acid-enhanced T1- and T2-weighted MR imaging including dynamic phase and hepatobiliary phase imaging between May 2008 and December 2010. Signal intensity and enhancement patterns of lesions were compared with those of the liver parenchyma in each phase. Conspicuity and margin sharpness of lesions on dynamic phase and HBP images were rated on a 4- or 5-point scale and compared by using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Percentage of relative enhancement was compared among pathologic subgroups by using the unpaired Student t test. On dynamic phase images, 29 of 48 (60%) lesions showed a thin peripheral rim with centripetal or gradual progression. On HBP images, 48 of 50 (96%) IMCCs were hypointense, and two of 50 (4%) were hyperintense. Subjective ratings of conspicuity and margin sharpness were significantly higher on HBP (median scores, 5 and 4, respectively) (P images (P enhancement on HBP images was significantly higher in moderately differentiated (66.4% ± 42.1) than in poorly differentiated (36.84% ± 21.5) tumors (P = .039) and in patients without (59.7% ± 28.8) than in those with (24.9% ± 14.7) (P = .036) lymph node metastasis. The most prevalent enhancement pattern on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR images of IMCCs was a thin peripheral rim with internal heterogeneous enhancement during the dynamic phase. HBP images showed increased lesion conspicuity and better delineation of daughter nodules and intrahepatic metastasis, which may aid in the diagnosis of IMCC. © RSNA, 2012

  13. From Image Processing to Classification: 1. Modelling Disturbances of Isoelectric Focusing Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten; Søndergaard, I.; Skovgaard, I. M.

    1995-01-01

    In order to optimize the conditions for evaluation of isoelectric focusing (IEF) patterns by digital image processing, the sources of error in determination of the pi values were analyzed together with the influence of a varying background. The effects of band distortions, in the spectra...... of the individual lanes, were examined. In order to minimize the effect of these distortions, optimal conditions for handling IEF patterns by digital image processing were elucidated. The systematic part of the global deformation on the gels was investigated and an algorithm was developed by which it was possible...

  14. Using aberration test patterns to optimize the performance of EUV aerial imaging microscopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochi, Iacopo; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Miyakawa, Ryan; Naulleau, Patrick; Han, Hak-Seung; Huh, Sungmin

    2009-06-16

    The SEMATECH Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT) is a prototype EUV-wavelength zoneplate microscope that provides high quality aerial image measurements of EUV reticles. To simplify and improve the alignment procedure we have created and tested arrays of aberration-sensitive patterns on EUV reticles and we have compared their images collected with the AIT to the expected shapes obtained by simulating the theoretical wavefront of the system. We obtained a consistent measure of coma and astigmatism in the center of the field of view using two different patterns, revealing a misalignment condition in the optics.

  15. Rough-fuzzy pattern recognition applications in bioinformatics and medical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Maji, Pradipta

    2012-01-01

    Learn how to apply rough-fuzzy computing techniques to solve problems in bioinformatics and medical image processing Emphasizing applications in bioinformatics and medical image processing, this text offers a clear framework that enables readers to take advantage of the latest rough-fuzzy computing techniques to build working pattern recognition models. The authors explain step by step how to integrate rough sets with fuzzy sets in order to best manage the uncertainties in mining large data sets. Chapters are logically organized according to the major phases of pattern recognition systems dev

  16. Infarct Pattern and Collateral Status in Adult Moyamoya Disease: A Multimodal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Yeop; Son, Jeong Pyo; Yeon, Je Young; Kim, Gyeong-Moon; Kim, Jong-Soo; Hong, Seung-Chyul; Bang, Oh Young

    2017-01-01

    Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a unique cerebrovascular disease characterized by the progressive stenosis of large intracranial arteries and a hazy network of basal collaterals, called moyamoya vessels. Although hemodynamic studies have been applied in MMD patients, the mechanisms of stroke in MMD are still unclear. The present study evaluated the infarct pattern and collateral status using multimodal magnetic resonance imaging in MMD patients. Adult MMD patients with acute ischemic stroke were prospectively recruited, and infarct pattern on diffusion-weighted imaging was evaluated. A collateral flow map, derived from magnetic resonance perfusion-weighted imaging data, was generated through automatic postprocessing, and collateral status was assigned into 3 grades. Transcranial Doppler monitoring was performed to detect microembolic signals in selected patients. A total of 67 hemispheres (31 patients with bilateral and 5 patients with unilateral MMD) were analyzed. Most patients (83.7%) showed embolic pattern and rarely deep (9.3%) or hemodynamic infarct pattern (7.0%) on diffusion-weighted imaging. Most cases (86%) showed good collateral status, and few patients with acute infarcts of embolic pattern showed poor collateral status (n=7). One third (31.6%) of patients who underwent transcranial Doppler monitoring showed microembolic signals. In the studied population of adult MMD patients, embolic phenomenon played an important role in ischemic stroke. Therapeutic strategies against thromboembolism, as well as collateral enhancing strategies targeting improvement of hemodynamic status or increased washout of emboli, are warranted. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Model-based classification methods of global patterns in dermoscopic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, Aurora; Serrano, Carmen; Acha, Begoña

    2014-05-01

    In this paper different model-based methods of classification of global patterns in dermoscopic images are proposed. Global patterns identification is included in the pattern analysis framework, the melanoma diagnosis method most used among dermatologists. The modeling is performed in two senses: first a dermoscopic image is modeled by a finite symmetric conditional Markov model applied to L∗a∗b∗ color space and the estimated parameters of this model are treated as features. In turn, the distribution of these features are supposed that follow different models along a lesion: a Gaussian model, a Gaussian mixture model, and a bag-of-features histogram model. For each case, the classification is carried out by an image retrieval approach with different distance metrics. The main objective is to classify a whole pigmented lesion into three possible patterns: globular, homogeneous, and reticular. An extensive evaluation of the performance of each method has been carried out on an image database extracted from a public Atlas of Dermoscopy. The best classification success rate is achieved by the Gaussian mixture model-based method with a 78.44% success rate in average. In a further evaluation the multicomponent pattern is analyzed obtaining a 72.91% success rate.

  18. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging Patterns in Metabolic and Toxic Brain Disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sener, R.N. [Ege Univ. Hospital, Bornova, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology

    2004-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate metabolic and toxic brain disorders that manifest with restricted, elevated, or both restricted and elevated diffusion patterns on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Material and Methods: Echo-planar diffusion MRI examinations were obtained in 34 pediatric patients with metabolic and toxic brain disorders proved by appropriate laboratory studies. The MRI unit operated at 1.5T with a gradient strength of 30 mT/meter, and a rise time of 600 s. b=1000 s/mm{sup 2} images and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps with ADC values were studied. Results: Three patterns were observed: 1. A restricted diffusion pattern (high signal on b=1000 s/mm{sup 2} images and low ADC values); 2. an elevated diffusion pattern (normal signal on b=1000 s/mm2 images and high ADC values); and 3. a mixed pattern (coexistent restricted and increased diffusion patterns in the same patient). Disorders manifesting with a restricted diffusion pattern included metachromatic leukodystrophy (n=2), phenylketonuria (n=3), maple syrup urine disease (intermediate form) (n=1), infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (n=1), Leigh (n=2), Wilson (n=3), and Canavan disease (n=1). Disorders with an elevated diffusion pattern included phenylketonuria (n=1), adrenoleukodystrophy (n=1), merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy (n=2), mucopolysaccharidosis (n=2), Lowe syndrome (n=1), Leigh (n=2), Alexander (n=1), Pelizaeus-Merzbacher (n=1), and Wilson (n=3) disease. Disorders with a mixed pattern included L-2 hydroxyglutaric aciduria (n=2), non-ketotic hyperglycinemia (n=1), infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (n=2), maple syrup urine disease (n=1), and Leigh (n=1) disease. Conclusion: The findings suggested that the three different diffusion patterns reflect the histopathological changes associated with the disorders and different stages of a particular disorder. It is likely that the restricted diffusion pattern corresponds to abnormalities related to myelin, and the elevated

  19. Unique identification code for medical fundus images using blood vessel pattern for tele-ophthalmology applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anushikha; Dutta, Malay Kishore; Sharma, Dilip Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Identification of fundus images during transmission and storage in database for tele-ophthalmology applications is an important issue in modern era. The proposed work presents a novel accurate method for generation of unique identification code for identification of fundus images for tele-ophthalmology applications and storage in databases. Unlike existing methods of steganography and watermarking, this method does not tamper the medical image as nothing is embedded in this approach and there is no loss of medical information. Strategic combination of unique blood vessel pattern and patient ID is considered for generation of unique identification code for the digital fundus images. Segmented blood vessel pattern near the optic disc is strategically combined with patient ID for generation of a unique identification code for the image. The proposed method of medical image identification is tested on the publically available DRIVE and MESSIDOR database of fundus image and results are encouraging. Experimental results indicate the uniqueness of identification code and lossless recovery of patient identity from unique identification code for integrity verification of fundus images. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimation of color modification in digital images by CFA pattern change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chang-Hee; Lee, Hae-Yeoun; Lee, Heung-Kyu

    2013-03-10

    Extensive studies have been carried out for detecting image forgery such as copy-move, re-sampling, blurring, and contrast enhancement. Although color modification is a common forgery technique, there is no reported forensic method for detecting this type of manipulation. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for estimating color modification in images acquired from digital cameras when the images are modified. Most commercial digital cameras are equipped with a color filter array (CFA) for acquiring the color information of each pixel. As a result, the images acquired from such digital cameras include a trace from the CFA pattern. This pattern is composed of the basic red green blue (RGB) colors, and it is changed when color modification is carried out on the image. We designed an advanced intermediate value counting method for measuring the change in the CFA pattern and estimating the extent of color modification. The proposed method is verified experimentally by using 10,366 test images. The results confirmed the ability of the proposed method to estimate color modification with high accuracy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Photoacoustic image patterns of breast carcinoma and comparisons with Magnetic Resonance Imaging and vascular stained histopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijblom, M.; Piras, D.; Brinkhuis, M.; van Hespen, J. C. G.; van den Engh, F. M.; van der Schaaf, M.; Klaase, J. M.; van Leeuwen, T. G.; Steenbergen, W.; Manohar, S.

    2015-07-01

    Photoacoustic (optoacoustic) imaging can visualize vasculature deep in tissue using the high contrast of hemoglobin to light, with the high-resolution possible with ultrasound detection. Since angiogenesis, one of the hallmarks of cancer, leads to increased vascularity, photoacoustics holds promise in imaging breast cancer as shown in proof-of-principle studies. Here for the first time, we investigate if there are specific photoacoustic appearances of breast malignancies which can be related to the tumor vascularity, using an upgraded research imaging system, the Twente Photoacoustic Mammoscope. In addition to comparisons with x-ray and ultrasound images, in subsets of cases the photoacoustic images were compared with MR images, and with vascular staining in histopathology. We were able to identify lesions in suspect breasts at the expected locations in 28 of 29 cases. We discovered generally three types of photoacoustic appearances reminiscent of contrast enhancement types reported in MR imaging of breast malignancies, and first insights were gained into the relationship with tumor vascularity.

  2. Photoacoustic image patterns of breast carcinoma and comparisons with Magnetic Resonance Imaging and vascular stained histopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijblom, M.; Piras, D.; Brinkhuis, M.; van Hespen, J. C. G.; van den Engh, F. M.; van der Schaaf, M.; Klaase, J. M.; van Leeuwen, T. G.; Steenbergen, W.; Manohar, S.

    2015-01-01

    Photoacoustic (optoacoustic) imaging can visualize vasculature deep in tissue using the high contrast of hemoglobin to light, with the high-resolution possible with ultrasound detection. Since angiogenesis, one of the hallmarks of cancer, leads to increased vascularity, photoacoustics holds promise in imaging breast cancer as shown in proof-of-principle studies. Here for the first time, we investigate if there are specific photoacoustic appearances of breast malignancies which can be related to the tumor vascularity, using an upgraded research imaging system, the Twente Photoacoustic Mammoscope. In addition to comparisons with x-ray and ultrasound images, in subsets of cases the photoacoustic images were compared with MR images, and with vascular staining in histopathology. We were able to identify lesions in suspect breasts at the expected locations in 28 of 29 cases. We discovered generally three types of photoacoustic appearances reminiscent of contrast enhancement types reported in MR imaging of breast malignancies, and first insights were gained into the relationship with tumor vascularity. PMID:26159440

  3. Pattern identification of biomedical images with time series: Contrasting THz pulse imaging with DCE-MRIs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiao-Xia; Hadjiloucas, Sillas; Zhang, Yanchun; Su, Min-Ying; Miao, Yuan; Abbott, Derek

    2016-02-01

    We provide a survey of recent advances in biomedical image analysis and classification from emergent imaging modalities such as terahertz (THz) pulse imaging (TPI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images (DCE-MRIs) and identification of their underlining commonalities. Both time and frequency domain signal pre-processing techniques are considered: noise removal, spectral analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) and wavelet transforms. Feature extraction and classification methods based on feature vectors using the above processing techniques are reviewed. A tensorial signal processing de-noising framework suitable for spatiotemporal association between features in MRI is also discussed. Examples where the proposed methodologies have been successful in classifying TPIs and DCE-MRIs are discussed. Identifying commonalities in the structure of such heterogeneous datasets potentially leads to a unified multi-channel signal processing framework for biomedical image analysis. The proposed complex valued classification methodology enables fusion of entire datasets from a sequence of spatial images taken at different time stamps; this is of interest from the viewpoint of inferring disease proliferation. The approach is also of interest for other emergent multi-channel biomedical imaging modalities and of relevance across the biomedical signal processing community. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Vibrational Diver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Victor; Ivanova, Alevtina; Schipitsyn, Vitalii; Stambouli, Moncef

    2014-10-01

    The paper is concerned with dynamics of light solid in cavity with liquid subjected to rotational vibration in the external force field. New vibrational phenomenon - diving of a light cylinder to the cavity bottom is found. The experimental investigation of a horizontal annulus with a partition has shown that under vibration a light body situated in the upper part of the layer is displaced in a threshold manner some distance away from the boundary. In this case the body executes symmetric tangential oscillations. An increase of the vibration intensity leads to a tangential displacement of the body near the external boundary. This displacement is caused by the tangential component of the vibrational lift force, which appears as soon as the oscillations lose symmetry. In this case the trajectory of the body oscillatory motion has the form of a loop. The tangential lift force makes stable the position of the body on the inclined section of the layer and even in its lower part. A theoretical interpretation has been proposed, which explains stabilization of a quasi-equilibrium state of a light body near the cavity bottom in the framework of vibrational hydromechanics.

  5. Imaging patterns predict patient survival and molecular subtype in glioblastoma via machine learning techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macyszyn, Luke; Akbari, Hamed; Pisapia, Jared M; Da, Xiao; Attiah, Mark; Pigrish, Vadim; Bi, Yingtao; Pal, Sharmistha; Davuluri, Ramana V; Roccograndi, Laura; Dahmane, Nadia; Martinez-Lage, Maria; Biros, George; Wolf, Ronald L; Bilello, Michel; O'Rourke, Donald M; Davatzikos, Christos

    2016-03-01

    MRI characteristics of brain gliomas have been used to predict clinical outcome and molecular tumor characteristics. However, previously reported imaging biomarkers have not been sufficiently accurate or reproducible to enter routine clinical practice and often rely on relatively simple MRI measures. The current study leverages advanced image analysis and machine learning algorithms to identify complex and reproducible imaging patterns predictive of overall survival and molecular subtype in glioblastoma (GB). One hundred five patients with GB were first used to extract approximately 60 diverse features from preoperative multiparametric MRIs. These imaging features were used by a machine learning algorithm to derive imaging predictors of patient survival and molecular subtype. Cross-validation ensured generalizability of these predictors to new patients. Subsequently, the predictors were evaluated in a prospective cohort of 29 new patients. Survival curves yielded a hazard ratio of 10.64 for predicted long versus short survivors. The overall, 3-way (long/medium/short survival) accuracy in the prospective cohort approached 80%. Classification of patients into the 4 molecular subtypes of GB achieved 76% accuracy. By employing machine learning techniques, we were able to demonstrate that imaging patterns are highly predictive of patient survival. Additionally, we found that GB subtypes have distinctive imaging phenotypes. These results reveal that when imaging markers related to infiltration, cell density, microvascularity, and blood-brain barrier compromise are integrated via advanced pattern analysis methods, they form very accurate predictive biomarkers. These predictive markers used solely preoperative images, hence they can significantly augment diagnosis and treatment of GB patients. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Image Correlation Pattern Optimization for Micro-Scale In-Situ Strain Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomarito, G. F.; Hochhalter, J. D.; Cannon, A. H.

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy and precision of digital image correlation (DIC) is a function of three primary ingredients: image acquisition, image analysis, and the subject of the image. Development of the first two (i.e. image acquisition techniques and image correlation algorithms) has led to widespread use of DIC; however, fewer developments have been focused on the third ingredient. Typically, subjects of DIC images are mechanical specimens with either a natural surface pattern or a pattern applied to the surface. Research in the area of DIC patterns has primarily been aimed at identifying which surface patterns are best suited for DIC, by comparing patterns to each other. Because the easiest and most widespread methods of applying patterns have a high degree of randomness associated with them (e.g., airbrush, spray paint, particle decoration, etc.), less effort has been spent on exact construction of ideal patterns. With the development of patterning techniques such as microstamping and lithography, patterns can be applied to a specimen pixel by pixel from a patterned image. In these cases, especially because the patterns are reused many times, an optimal pattern is sought such that error introduced into DIC from the pattern is minimized. DIC consists of tracking the motion of an array of nodes from a reference image to a deformed image. Every pixel in the images has an associated intensity (grayscale) value, with discretization depending on the bit depth of the image. Because individual pixel matching by intensity value yields a non-unique scale-dependent problem, subsets around each node are used for identification. A correlation criteria is used to find the best match of a particular subset of a reference image within a deformed image. The reader is referred to references for enumerations of typical correlation criteria. As illustrated by Schreier and Sutton and Lu and Cary systematic errors can be introduced by representing the underlying deformation with under

  7. Analyzing dynamic cellular morphology in time-lapsed images enabled by cellular deformation pattern recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heng; Liu, Zhiwen; Pang, Fengqian; Fan, Zhiyi; Shi, Yonggang

    2015-01-01

    Computational analysis of cellular morphology aims to provide quantitative information of the global organizational and physiological state of cells, and has long been a major topic of biomedical research. Instead of analyzing morphology of static cells, we concentrate on live-cell deformation in a period of time. According to our observation of dynamic cell behavior, we have assumed that the pattern of cellular deformation is relevant to the cellular state. Moreover, based on our assumption an innovative approach for characterizing the deformation pattern is described and applied into cell classification. After normalizing and aligning cell image sequences, we extract the continuity of deformation at each angle through time-lapse. Then the deformation pattern is given by the histogram of the continuity of deformation. Experimental results demonstrate that the cellular deformation pattern provided by our approach can be applied to discriminate cellular activation. In addition, the deformation pattern recognition makes remarkable progress in the classification of cells.

  8. Effect of light polariztion on pattern illumination super-resolution imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimin Qiu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Far-field fluorescence microscopy has made great progress in the spatial resolution, limited by light diffraction, since the super-resolution imaging technology appeared. And stimulated emission depletion (STED microscopy and structured illumination microscopy (SIM can be grouped into one class of the super-resolution imaging technology, which use pattern illumination strategy to circumvent the diffraction limit. We simulated the images of the beads of SIM imaging, the intensity distribution of STED excitation light and depletion light in order to observe effects of the polarized light on imaging quality. Compared to fixed linear polarization, circularly polarized light is more suitable for SIM on reconstructed image. And right-handed circular polarization (CP light is more appropriate for both the excitation and depletion light in STED system. Therefore the right-handed CP light would be the best candidate when the SIM and STED are combined into one microscope. Good understanding of the polarization will provide a reference for the patterned illumination experiment to achieve better resolution and better image quality.

  9. Spatiotemporal Mining of Time-Series Remote Sensing Images Based on Sequential Pattern Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H. C.; He, G. J.; Zhang, X. M.; Jiang, W.; Ling, S. G.

    2015-07-01

    With the continuous development of satellite techniques, it is now possible to acquire a regular series of images concerning a given geographical zone with both high accuracy and low cost. Research on how best to effectively process huge volumes of observational data obtained on different dates for a specific geographical zone, and to exploit the valuable information regarding land cover contained in these images has received increasing interest from the remote sensing community. In contrast to traditional land cover change measures using pair-wise comparisons that emphasize the compositional or configurational changes between dates, this research focuses on the analysis of the temporal sequence of land cover dynamics, which refers to the succession of land cover types for a given area over more than two observational periods. Using a time series of classified Landsat images, ranging from 2006 to 2011, a sequential pattern mining method was extended to this spatiotemporal context to extract sets of connected pixels sharing similar temporal evolutions. The resultant sequential patterns could be selected (or not) based on the range of support values. These selected patterns were used to explore the spatial compositions and temporal evolutions of land cover change within the study region. Experimental results showed that continuous patterns that represent consistent land cover over time appeared as quite homogeneous zones, which agreed with our domain knowledge. Discontinuous patterns that represent land cover change trajectories were dominated by the transition from vegetation to bare land, especially during 2009-2010. This approach quantified land cover changes in terms of the percentage area affected and mapped the spatial distribution of these changes. Sequential pattern mining has been used for string mining or itemset mining in transactions analysis. The expected novel significance of this study is the generalization of the application of the sequential pattern

  10. Developing Algorithms to Improve Defect Extraction and Suppressing Undesired Heat Patterns in Sonic IR Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, Omar; Yu, Qiuye; Han, Xiaoyan

    2016-12-01

    Sonic IR imaging is an emerging NDE technology. This technology uses short pulses of ultrasonic excitation together with infrared imaging to detect defects in materials and structures. Sonic energy is coupled to the specimen under inspection by means of direct contact between the transducer tip and the specimen at some convenient point. This region which is normally in the field of view of the camera appears as intensity peak in the image which might be misinterpreted as defects or obscure the detection and/or extraction of the defect signals in the proximity of the contact region. Moreover, certain defects may have very small heat signature or being buried in noise. In this paper, we present algorithms to improve defect extraction and suppression of undesired heat patterns in sonic IR images. Two approaches are presented, each fits to a specific category of sonic IR images.

  11. Fast and robust multimodal image registration using a local derivative pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dongsheng; Shi, Yonghong; Chen, Xinrong; Wang, Manning; Song, Zhijian

    2017-02-01

    Deformable multimodal image registration, which can benefit radiotherapy and image guided surgery by providing complementary information, remains a challenging task in the medical image analysis field due to the difficulty of defining a proper similarity measure. This article presents a novel, robust and fast binary descriptor, the discriminative local derivative pattern (dLDP), which is able to encode images of different modalities into similar image representations. dLDP calculates a binary string for each voxel according to the pattern of intensity derivatives in its neighborhood. The descriptor similarity is evaluated using the Hamming distance, which can be efficiently computed, instead of conventional L1 or L2 norms. For the first time, we validated the effectiveness and feasibility of the local derivative pattern for multimodal deformable image registration with several multi-modal registration applications. dLDP was compared with three state-of-the-art methods in artificial image and clinical settings. In the experiments of deformable registration between different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modalities from BrainWeb, between computed tomography and MRI images from patient data, and between MRI and ultrasound images from BITE database, we show our method outperforms localized mutual information and entropy images in terms of both accuracy and time efficiency. We have further validated dLDP for the deformable registration of preoperative MRI and three-dimensional intraoperative ultrasound images. Our results indicate that dLDP reduces the average mean target registration error from 4.12 mm to 2.30 mm. This accuracy is statistically equivalent to the accuracy of the state-of-the-art methods in the study; however, in terms of computational complexity, our method significantly outperforms other methods and is even comparable to the sum of the absolute difference. The results reveal that dLDP can achieve superior performance regarding both accuracy and

  12. Fixed Pattern Noise pixel-wise linear correction for crime scene imaging CMOS sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Messinger, David W.; Dube, Roger R.; Ientilucci, Emmett J.

    2017-05-01

    Filtered multispectral imaging technique might be a potential method for crime scene documentation and evidence detection due to its abundant spectral information as well as non-contact and non-destructive nature. Low-cost and portable multispectral crime scene imaging device would be highly useful and efficient. The second generation crime scene imaging system uses CMOS imaging sensor to capture spatial scene and bandpass Interference Filters (IFs) to capture spectral information. Unfortunately CMOS sensors suffer from severe spatial non-uniformity compared to CCD sensors and the major cause is Fixed Pattern Noise (FPN). IFs suffer from "blue shift" effect and introduce spatial-spectral correlated errors. Therefore, Fixed Pattern Noise (FPN) correction is critical to enhance crime scene image quality and is also helpful for spatial-spectral noise de-correlation. In this paper, a pixel-wise linear radiance to Digital Count (DC) conversion model is constructed for crime scene imaging CMOS sensor. Pixel-wise conversion gain Gi,j and Dark Signal Non-Uniformity (DSNU) Zi,j are calculated. Also, conversion gain is divided into four components: FPN row component, FPN column component, defects component and effective photo response signal component. Conversion gain is then corrected to average FPN column and row components and defects component so that the sensor conversion gain is uniform. Based on corrected conversion gain and estimated image incident radiance from the reverse of pixel-wise linear radiance to DC model, corrected image spatial uniformity can be enhanced to 7 times as raw image, and the bigger the image DC value within its dynamic range, the better the enhancement.

  13. Teaching image processing and pattern recognition with the Intel OpenCV library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowski, Adam; Królak, Aleksandra

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we present an approach to teaching image processing and pattern recognition with the use of the OpenCV library. Image processing, pattern recognition and computer vision are important branches of science and apply to tasks ranging from critical, involving medical diagnostics, to everyday tasks including art and entertainment purposes. It is therefore crucial to provide students of image processing and pattern recognition with the most up-to-date solutions available. In the Institute of Electronics at the Technical University of Lodz we facilitate the teaching process in this subject with the OpenCV library, which is an open-source set of classes, functions and procedures that can be used in programming efficient and innovative algorithms for various purposes. The topics of student projects completed with the help of the OpenCV library range from automatic correction of image quality parameters or creation of panoramic images from video to pedestrian tracking in surveillance camera video sequences or head-movement-based mouse cursor control for the motorically impaired.

  14. Texture Based Quality Analysis of Simulated Synthetic Ultrasound Images Using Local Binary Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prerna Singh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Speckle noise reduction is an important area of research in the field of ultrasound image processing. Several algorithms for speckle noise characterization and analysis have been recently proposed in the area. Synthetic ultrasound images can play a key role in noise evaluation methods as they can be used to generate a variety of speckle noise models under different interpolation and sampling schemes, and can also provide valuable ground truth data for estimating the accuracy of the chosen methods. However, not much work has been done in the area of modeling synthetic ultrasound images, and in simulating speckle noise generation to get images that are as close as possible to real ultrasound images. An important aspect of simulated synthetic ultrasound images is the requirement for extensive quality assessment for ensuring that they have the texture characteristics and gray-tone features of real images. This paper presents texture feature analysis of synthetic ultrasound images using local binary patterns (LBP and demonstrates the usefulness of a set of LBP features for image quality assessment. Experimental results presented in the paper clearly show how these features could provide an accurate quality metric that correlates very well with subjective evaluations performed by clinical experts.

  15. Measurement of velocity and velocity derivatives based on pattern tracking in 3D LIF images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deusch, S.; Merava, H.; Rys, P. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technol., Zurich (Switzerland). Dept. of Chem. Eng.; Dracos, T. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Untergasse 14, 8126 Zumikon (Switzerland)

    2000-10-01

    Pattern tracking in consecutive 3D LIF images based on least squares matching (LSM) of grey levels has been developed recently for velocity and velocity gradient measurements. The shortcomings of this method are clearly shown. The present article presents an improvement on this method by introducing a local multi-patch (LMP) technique through the LSM approach. The method is validated using the flow field of a turbulent channel flow obtained by direct numerical simulation (DNS) and a synthetic image with grey-level patterns. The results show that LMP matching allows the determination of the velocity and the velocity gradient fields with high accuracy including the second derivatives. Measurements of a round non-buoyant jet are presented which demonstrate the good performance of the method when applied under laboratory conditions. This method can also be applied on two-dimensional images provided that the flow is strictly two-dimensional. (orig.)

  16. Measurement of velocity and velocity derivatives based on pattern tracking in 3D LIF images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deusch, S.; Merava, H.; Dracos, T.; Rys, P.

    Pattern tracking in consecutive 3D LIF images based on least squares matching (LSM) of grey levels has been developed recently for velocity and velocity gradient measurements. The shortcomings of this method are clearly shown. The present article presents an improvement on this method by introducing a local multi-patch (LMP) technique through the LSM approach. The method is validated using the flow field of a turbulent channel flow obtained by direct numerical simulation (DNS) and a synthetic image with grey-level patterns. The results show that LMP matching allows the determination of the velocity and the velocity gradient fields with high accuracy including the second derivatives. Measurements of a round non-buoyant jet are presented which demonstrate the good performance of the method when applied under laboratory conditions. This method can also be applied on two-dimensional images provided that the flow is strictly two-dimensional.

  17. Biofouling patterns in spacer filled channels: High resolution imaging for characterization of heterogeneous biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Staal, Marc

    2017-08-15

    Biofilms develop in heterogeneous patterns at a µm scale up to a cm scale, and patterns become more pronounced when biofilms develop under complex hydrodynamic flow regimes. Spatially heterogeneous biofilms are especially known in spiral wound reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane filtration systems used for desalination and wastewater reuse to produce high quality (drinking) water. These spiral wound membrane modules contain mesh-like spacer structures used to create an intermembrane space and improve water mixing. Spacers create inhomogeneous water flow patterns resulting in zones favouring biofilm growth, possibly leading to biofouling thus hampering water production. Oxygen sensing planar optodes were used to visualize variations in oxygen decrease rates (ODR). ODR is an indication of biofilm activity. In this study, ODR images of multiple repetitive spacer areas in a membrane fouling simulator were averaged to produce high resolution, low noise ODR images. Averaging 40 individual spacer areas improved the ODR distribution image significantly and allowed comparison of biofilm patterning over a spacer structure at different positions in an RO filter. This method clearly showed that most active biofilm accumulated on and in direct vicinity of the spacer. The averaging method was also used to calculate the deviation of ODR patterning from individual spacer areas to the average ODR pattern, proposing a new approach to determine biofilm spatial heterogeneity. This study showed that the averaging method can be applied and that the improved, averaged ODR images can be used as an analytical, in-situ, non-destructive method to assess and quantify the effect of membrane installation operational parameters or different spacer geometries on biofilm development in spiral wound membrane systems characterized by complex hydrodynamic conditions.

  18. Complex patterns in fossilized stromatolites revealed by hyperspectral imaging (400-2496 nm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, R J; Van Kranendonk, M J; Kelloway, S J; Wainwright, I E

    2016-09-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (400-2496 nm) was used to quantitatively map surface textures and compositional variations in stromatolites to determine whether complexity of textures could be used as evidence to support biogenicity in the absence of preserved biomarkers. Four samples of 2.72-2.4 Ga stromatolites from a variety of settings, encompassing marine and lacustrine environments, were selected for hyperspectral imaging. Images of the sawn surfaces of samples were processed to identify reflectance and mineral absorption features and quantify their intensity (as an index of mineral abundance) using automated feature extraction. Amounts of ferrous iron were quantified using a ratio of reflectance at 1650 and 1299 nm. Visible near infrared imagery (400-970 nm) did not reveal additional textural patterns to those obtained from visual inspection. Shortwave infrared imagery (1000-2496 nm), however, revealed complex laminar and convoluted patterns, including a distinctive texture of sharp peaks and broad, low troughs in one sample, similar to living tufted microbial mats. Spectral analysis revealed another sample to be composed of dolomite. Two other samples were dominated by calcite or chlorite ± illite. Large variations in amounts of ferrous iron were found, but ferric iron was exclusively located in the oxidation crust. Hyperspectral imaging revealed large differences between parts of a sample of biogenic and non-biogenic origin. The former was characterized by calcite with varying amounts of ferrous iron, distributed in lenticular, convoluted patterns; the latter by Mg-Fe chlorite with large amounts of aluminium silicate, distributed as fine laminar layers. All minerals identified by hyperspectral imaging were confirmed by thin section petrography and XRD analyses. Spatial statistics generated from quantitative minerals maps showed different patterns between these different parts of the sample. Thus, hyperspectral imaging was shown to be a powerful tool for

  19. Photoacoustic image patterns of breast carcinoma and comparisons with Magnetic Resonance Imaging and vascular stained histopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijblom, M.; Piras, D.; Brinkhuis, M.; van Hespen, Johannes C.G.; van den Engh, F.M.; van der Schaaf, M.; Klaase, J.M.; van Leeuwen, Ton; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Manohar, Srirang

    2015-01-01

    Photoacoustic (optoacoustic) imaging can visualize vasculature deep in tissue using the high contrast of hemoglobin to light, with the high-resolution possible with ultrasound detection. Since angiogenesis, one of the hallmarks of cancer, leads to increased vascularity, photoacoustics holds promise

  20. Scanless functional imaging of hippocampal networks using patterned two-photon illumination through GRIN lenses

    KAUST Repository

    Moretti, Claudio

    2016-09-12

    Patterned illumination through the phase modulation of light is increasingly recognized as a powerful tool to investigate biological tissues in combination with two-photon excitation and light-sensitive molecules. However, to date two-photon patterned illumination has only been coupled to traditional microscope objectives, thus limiting the applicability of these methods to superficial biological structures. Here, we show that phase modulation can be used to efficiently project complex two-photon light patterns, including arrays of points and large shapes, in the focal plane of graded index (GRIN) lenses. Moreover, using this approach in combination with the genetically encoded calcium indicator GCaMP6, we validate our system performing scanless functional imaging in rodent hippocampal networks in vivo ~1.2 mm below the brain surface. Our results open the way to the application of patterned illumination approaches to deep regions of highly scattering biological tissues, such as the mammalian brain.

  1. Moran's I quantifies spatio-temporal pattern formation in neural imaging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmal, Christoph; Myung, Jihwan; Herzel, Hanspeter; Bordyugov, Grigory

    2017-10-01

    Neural activities of the brain occur through the formation of spatio-temporal patterns. In recent years, macroscopic neural imaging techniques have produced a large body of data on these patterned activities, yet a numerical measure of spatio-temporal coherence has often been reduced to the global order parameter, which does not uncover the degree of spatial correlation. Here, we propose to use the spatial autocorrelation measure Moran's I, which can be applied to capture dynamic signatures of spatial organization. We demonstrate the application of this technique to collective cellular circadian clock activities measured in the small network of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus. We found that Moran's I is a practical quantitative measure of the degree of spatial coherence in neural imaging data. Initially developed with a geographical context in mind, Moran's I accounts for the spatial organization of any interacting units. Moran's I can be modified in accordance with the characteristic length scale of a neural activity pattern. It allows a quantification of statistical significance levels for the observed patterns. We describe the technique applied to synthetic datasets and various experimental imaging time-series from cultured SCN explants. It is demonstrated that major characteristics of the collective state can be described by Moran's I and the traditional Kuramoto order parameter R in a complementary fashion. Python 2.7 code of illustrative examples can be found in the Supplementary Material. christoph.schmal@charite.de or grigory.bordyugov@hu-berlin.de. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  2. A New Laws Filtered Local Binary Pattern Texture Descriptor for Ultrasound Kidney Images Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelladurai CALLINS CHRISTIYANA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR is an inevitable technique in medical applications. One of the important tasks in CBIR is the feature extraction process. A new feature extraction procedure called Laws Filtered Local Binary Pattern (LFLBP for extracting texture features from ultrasound kidney images is proposed in this manuscript. This new texture feature combines the gain of Laws Masks and Local Binary Pattern (LBP. The Laws Masks enhance the discrimination power of LBP by capturing high energy texture points in an image and efficiently characterize the textures. The new descriptor is intended to utilize the local information in an effective manner neither the increase of encoding levels nor the usage of adjacent neighbourhood information. The performance of this new descriptor is compared with the LBP and the Local Ternary Pattern (LTP. The experimental results show that the ultrasound kidney images retrieval system with this new descriptor has good average precision value (77% as compared to LBP (74% and LTP (74.3%.

  3. Quaternionic Local Ranking Binary Pattern: A Local Descriptor of Color Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Rushi; Zhou, Yicong; Tang, Yuan Yan

    2016-02-01

    This paper proposes a local descriptor called quaternionic local ranking binary pattern (QLRBP) for color images. Different from traditional descriptors that are extracted from each color channel separately or from vector representations, QLRBP works on the quaternionic representation (QR) of the color image that encodes a color pixel using a quaternion. QLRBP is able to handle all color channels directly in the quaternionic domain and include their relations simultaneously. Applying a Clifford translation to QR of the color image, QLRBP uses a reference quaternion to rank QRs of two color pixels, and performs a local binary coding on the phase of the transformed result to generate local descriptors of the color image. Experiments demonstrate that the QLRBP outperforms several state-of-the-art methods.

  4. Protein subcellular location pattern classification in cellular images using latent discriminative models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jieyue; Xiong, Liang; Schneider, Jeff; Murphy, Robert F

    2012-06-15

    Knowledge of the subcellular location of a protein is crucial for understanding its functions. The subcellular pattern of a protein is typically represented as the set of cellular components in which it is located, and an important task is to determine this set from microscope images. In this article, we address this classification problem using confocal immunofluorescence images from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) project. The HPA contains images of cells stained for many proteins; each is also stained for three reference components, but there are many other components that are invisible. Given one such cell, the task is to classify the pattern type of the stained protein. We first randomly select local image regions within the cells, and then extract various carefully designed features from these regions. This region-based approach enables us to explicitly study the relationship between proteins and different cell components, as well as the interactions between these components. To achieve these two goals, we propose two discriminative models that extend logistic regression with structured latent variables. The first model allows the same protein pattern class to be expressed differently according to the underlying components in different regions. The second model further captures the spatial dependencies between the components within the same cell so that we can better infer these components. To learn these models, we propose a fast approximate algorithm for inference, and then use gradient-based methods to maximize the data likelihood. In the experiments, we show that the proposed models help improve the classification accuracies on synthetic data and real cellular images. The best overall accuracy we report in this article for classifying 942 proteins into 13 classes of patterns is about 84.6%, which to our knowledge is the best so far. In addition, the dependencies learned are consistent with prior knowledge of cell organization. http://murphylab.web.cmu.edu/software/.

  5. Dependence of fading patterns of photo-stimulated luminescence from imaging plates on radiation, energy, and image reader

    CERN Document Server

    Ohuchi, H

    2002-01-01

    We have been investigating the fading characteristics of imaging plates (IPs) as integral type detectors. The dependence on alpha, beta, and gamma ray radiation and their energies of the fading effect was measured using three types of IPs (BAS-UR, BAS-TR, and BAS-MS). The functions to correct the fading were determined by using the method reported in a previous paper. In all types of IPs, we confirmed that the fading effect is independent of the energy of the incident particles of beta and gamma rays and also independent of radiation except for the first component, which fades out in a very short time after irradiation with alpha rays. These results are very useful in the utilization of IPs as integral detectors in practical radiation fields. Empirically, the fading pattern is known to change when the IP is scanned by different types of image readers. The differences in the fading patterns obtained with two types of image readers, the BAS-1000 and the BAS-5000 (Fuji Film Co.), is discussed. Development of an ...

  6. Image Classification Using Biomimetic Pattern Recognition with Convolutional Neural Networks Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangji Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a typical deep-learning model, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs can be exploited to automatically extract features from images using the hierarchical structure inspired by mammalian visual system. For image classification tasks, traditional CNN models employ the softmax function for classification. However, owing to the limited capacity of the softmax function, there are some shortcomings of traditional CNN models in image classification. To deal with this problem, a new method combining Biomimetic Pattern Recognition (BPR with CNNs is proposed for image classification. BPR performs class recognition by a union of geometrical cover sets in a high-dimensional feature space and therefore can overcome some disadvantages of traditional pattern recognition. The proposed method is evaluated on three famous image classification benchmarks, that is, MNIST, AR, and CIFAR-10. The classification accuracies of the proposed method for the three datasets are 99.01%, 98.40%, and 87.11%, respectively, which are much higher in comparison with the other four methods in most cases.

  7. Performance Evaluation of Machine Learning Algorithms for Urban Pattern Recognition from Multi-spectral Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Wieland

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a classification and performance evaluation framework for the recognition of urban patterns in medium (Landsat ETM, TM and MSS and very high resolution (WorldView-2, Quickbird, Ikonos multi-spectral satellite images is presented. The study aims at exploring the potential of machine learning algorithms in the context of an object-based image analysis and to thoroughly test the algorithm’s performance under varying conditions to optimize their usage for urban pattern recognition tasks. Four classification algorithms, Normal Bayes, K Nearest Neighbors, Random Trees and Support Vector Machines, which represent different concepts in machine learning (probabilistic, nearest neighbor, tree-based, function-based, have been selected and implemented on a free and open-source basis. Particular focus is given to assess the generalization ability of machine learning algorithms and the transferability of trained learning machines between different image types and image scenes. Moreover, the influence of the number and choice of training data, the influence of the size and composition of the feature vector and the effect of image segmentation on the classification accuracy is evaluated.

  8. Image Classification Using Biomimetic Pattern Recognition with Convolutional Neural Networks Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Guanying

    2017-01-01

    As a typical deep-learning model, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) can be exploited to automatically extract features from images using the hierarchical structure inspired by mammalian visual system. For image classification tasks, traditional CNN models employ the softmax function for classification. However, owing to the limited capacity of the softmax function, there are some shortcomings of traditional CNN models in image classification. To deal with this problem, a new method combining Biomimetic Pattern Recognition (BPR) with CNNs is proposed for image classification. BPR performs class recognition by a union of geometrical cover sets in a high-dimensional feature space and therefore can overcome some disadvantages of traditional pattern recognition. The proposed method is evaluated on three famous image classification benchmarks, that is, MNIST, AR, and CIFAR-10. The classification accuracies of the proposed method for the three datasets are 99.01%, 98.40%, and 87.11%, respectively, which are much higher in comparison with the other four methods in most cases. PMID:28316614

  9. Vibrating minds

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Ed Witten is one of the leading scientists in the field of string theory, the theory that describes elementary particles as vibrating strings. This week he leaves CERN after having spent a few months here on sabbatical. His wish is that the LHC will unveil supersymmetry.

  10. Evaluation of CSF flow patterns of posterior fossa cystic malformations using CSF flow MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildiz, Harun; Yazici, Zeynep; Hakyemez, Bahattin; Erdogan, Cuneyt; Parlak, Mufit [University of Uludag, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Bursa (Turkey)

    2006-09-15

    Differential radiologic diagnosis of cystic malformations of the posterior fossa is often difficult with conventional imaging techniques because of overlapping features of these entities. Posterior fossa cystic malformations occupy the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces. They may create secondary dynamic effects on the movements of CSF. The aim of this study was to investigate CSF flow alterations in posterior fossa cystic malformations with CSF flow MR imaging. The study included 40 patients with cystic malformations of the posterior fossa. The patients underwent cardiac-gated phase-contrast cine MR imaging. CSF flow was qualitatively evaluated using an in-plane phase-contrast sequence in the midsagittal plane. The MR images were displayed in a closed-loop cine format. Twelve of the patients had communicating arachnoid cyst, seven had non-communicating arachnoid cyst, ten had mega cisterna magna, six had Dandy-Walker malformation, two had Dandy-Walker variant, and three had Blake's pouch cyst. CSF flow MR imaging indicated the regions of no, slow or higher flow, direction of flow, and abnormal cystic fluid motion. Each malformation displayed a distinct CSF flow pattern. Phase-contrast cine MR imaging for CSF flow evaluation may be a useful adjunct to routine MR imaging in the evaluation of the cystic malformations of the posterior fossa because it can improve the specificity in differentiating such malformations. (orig.)

  11. Tree Structure Sparsity Pattern Guided Convex Optimization for Compressive Sensing of Large-Scale Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei-Jie; Lin, Gang-Xuan; Lu, Chun-Shien

    2016-12-01

    Cost-efficient compressive sensing of large-scale images with quickly reconstructed high-quality results is very challenging. In this paper, we present an algorithm to solve convex optimization via the tree structure sparsity pattern, which can be run in the operator to reduce computation cost and maintain good quality, especially for large-scale images. We also provide convergence analysis and convergence rate analysis for the proposed method. The feasibility of our method is verified through simulations and comparison with state-of-theart algorithms.

  12. Thorax: normal and benign pathologic patterns in FDG-PET/CT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachsmann, Jason W; Gerbaudo, Victor H

    2014-04-01

    This article describes the normal patterns of thoracic (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) biodistribution, and expands on the role of FDG-PET/computed tomography (CT) for the evaluation of patients suffering from a spectrum of benign pathologic conditions that affect the chest. The discussion addresses the applications of FDG-PET/CT imaging in a wide variety of chest-related disorders. Familiarity with the normal thoracic biodistribution of FDG, coupled with knowledge of the potential nonmalignant causes of increased FDG uptake in the chest, is essential to minimize the incidence of incorrect interpretation of FDG-PET images in daily clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Determining the optimal age for recording the retinal vascular pattern image of lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Olivares, M A; Caja, G; Carné, S; Salama, A A K; Adell, N; Puig, P

    2012-03-01

    Newborn Ripollesa lambs (n = 143) were used to assess the optimal age at which the vascular pattern of the retina can be used as a reference for identification and traceability. Retinal images from both eyes were recorded from birth to yearling (d 1, 8, 30, 82, 180, and 388 of age) in duplicate (2,534 images) using a digital camera specially designed for livestock (Optibrand, Fort Collins, CO). Intra- and inter-age image comparisons (9,316 pairs of images) were carried out, and matching score (MS) was used as the exclusion criterion of lamb identity (MS ovino mayor," 6 mo of age and ~35 kg of BW, n = 59); and yearling replacement lambs (YR; >12 mo of age and ~50 kg of BW, n = 25). Values of MS were treated with a model based on the 1-inflated bivariate beta distribution, and treated data were compared by using a likelihood ratio test. Intra-age image comparisons showed that average MS and percentage of images with MS ≥70 increased (P 0.05); no differences were detected for 30-d images (97.4 and 98.0%, respectively, for RR and YR lambs; P > 0.05). Total percentage of matching was achieved when images were obtained from older lambs (180 and 388 d). In conclusion, retinal imaging was a useful tool for verifying the identity and auditing the traceability of live lambs from suckling to yearling. Matching scores were satisfactory when the reference retinal images were obtained from 1-mo-old or older lambs.

  14. Early new diffusion-weighted imaging lesions appear more often in stroke patients with a multiple territory lesion pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braemswig, Tim Bastian; Usnich, Tatiana; Albach, Fredrik N; Brunecker, Peter; Grittner, Ulrike; Scheitz, Jan F; Fiebach, Jochen B; Nolte, Christian H

    2013-08-01

    New diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) lesions are common in patients with acute ischemic stroke. They are associated with an initial nonsingle lesion pattern. Previous studies have not analyzed this association in detail. We differentiated nonsingle lesions in 1 vascular supply territory only (scattered lesion pattern) from nonsingle lesions in ≥2 vascular supply territory (multiple territory lesion -pattern). Patients with an acute ischemic stroke underwent 3 MRI (3T) examinations: on admission, on the following day, and 4 to 7 days after symptom onset. First, DWI lesions were delineated manually by raters blinded to clinical details. Second, DWI images were coregistered and analyzed visually for new hyperintensities. The initial lesion pattern was categorized as single, scattered, or multiple territory. Of 340 patients enrolled, 43% had a single lesion pattern, 40% had a scattered lesion pattern, and 17% had a multiple territory lesion pattern. In multivariable analysis, the categorical variable lesion pattern was independently associated with new DWI lesions (odds ratio multiple territory lesion pattern, 3.64 [95% confidence interval, 1.75-7.58]; odds ratio scattered lesion pattern, 1.96 [95% confidence interval, 1.09-3.56]). Patients with multiple territory lesion pattern had significantly more often diabetes mellitus, and their new lesions were more often located remotely from the initial area of hypoperfusion compared with patients with scattered lesion pattern. Lesion pattern on initial image is an independent risk factor for new DWI lesions. The risk for new DWI lesions is highest in patients with multiple territory lesion pattern.

  15. Static and dynamic body image in bulimia nervosa: mental representation of body dimensions and biological motion patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vocks, Silja; Legenbauer, Tanja; Rüddel, Heinz; Troje, Nikolaus F

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to find out whether in bulimia nervosa the perceptual component of a disturbed body image is restricted to the overestimation of one's own body dimensions (static body image) or can be extended to a misperception of one's own motion patterns (dynamic body image). Participants with bulimia nervosa (n = 30) and normal controls (n = 55) estimated their body dimensions by means of a photo distortion technique and their walking patterns using a biological motion distortion device. Not only did participants with bulimia nervosa overestimate their own body dimensions, but also they perceived their own motion patterns corresponding to a higher BMI than did controls. Static body image was correlated with shape/weight concerns and drive for thinness, whereas dynamic body image was associated with social insecurity and body image avoidance. In bulimia nervosa, body image disturbances can be extended to a dynamic component. (c) 2006 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Soil transference patterns on bras: Image processing and laboratory dragging experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kathleen R; Fitzpatrick, Robert W; Bottrill, Ralph S; Berry, Ron; Kobus, Hilton

    2016-01-01

    In a recent Australian homicide, trace soil on the victim's clothing suggested she was initially attacked in her front yard and not the park where her body was buried. However the important issue that emerged during the trial was how soil was transferred to her clothing. This became the catalyst for designing a range of soil transference experiments (STEs) to study, recognise and classify soil patterns transferred onto fabric when a body is dragged across a soil surface. Soil deposits of interest in this murder were on the victim's bra and this paper reports the results of anthropogenic soil transfer to bra-cups and straps caused by dragging. Transfer patterns were recorded by digital photography and photomicroscopy. Eight soil transfer patterns on fabric, specific to dragging as the transfer method, appeared consistently throughout the STEs. The distinctive soil patterns were largely dependent on a wide range of soil features that were measured and identified for each soil tested using X-ray Diffraction and Non-Dispersive Infra-Red analysis. Digital photographs of soil transfer patterns on fabric were analysed using image processing software to provide a soil object-oriented classification of all soil objects with a diameter of 2 pixels and above transferred. Although soil transfer patterns were easily identifiable by naked-eye alone, image processing software provided objective numerical data to support this traditional (but subjective) interpretation. Image software soil colour analysis assigned a range of Munsell colours to identify and compare trace soil on fabric to other trace soil evidence from the same location; without requiring a spectrophotometer. Trace soil from the same location was identified by linking soils with similar dominant and sub-dominant Munsell colour peaks. Image processing numerical data on the quantity of soil transferred to fabric, enabled a relationship to be discovered between soil type, clay mineralogy (smectite), particle size and

  17. Characteristic Dynamic Enhancement Pattern of Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Malignant Thyroid Tumor: A Preliminary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Nam; Hwang, Hee Young; Shim, Young Sup; Byun, Sung Su; Choi, Hye Young; Kim, Hyung Sik [Dept. of Radiology, Gil Hospital, Gachon University College of Medicine and Science, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    The purpose of this study is to determine the characteristic dynamic enhancement pattern of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for malignant thyroid tumor. Eight patients who were pathology proven to have a malignant thyroid tumor, preoperatively. There are 5 papillary carcinomas, 1 medullary carcinoma, 1 follicular carcinoma, and 1 fine needle aspiration biopsy proven atypical cell. Based on preoperative MR imaging, we compared the dynamic MR enhancement pattern relating to the pathologic type. On contrast agent-enhanced dynamic T1-weighted image (T1WI), 5 papillary carcinoma and one medullary carcinoma showed delayed enhancement compared to normal parenchyma. In addition, one follicular carcinoma shows stronger enhancement than normal parenchyma, with one papillary carcinoma showing a persistent decrease in enhancement compared to normal parenchyma. Although this study is limited by a small patients population, the data suggests that delayed enhancement on enhanced dynamic T1WI is a possible characteristic MR finding of a malignant thyroid tumor. I think that the comparison of MR imaging between benign and malignant nodules is required for a correct characterization.

  18. Evaluation of trabecular bone patterns on dental radiographic images: influence of cortical bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amouriq, Yves; Evenou, Pierre; Arlicot, Aurore; Normand, Nicolas; Layrolle, Pierre; Weiss, Pierre; Guédon, Jean-Pierre

    2010-03-01

    For some authors trabecular bone is highly visible in intraoral radiographs. For other authors, the observed intrabony trabecular pattern is a representation of only the endosteal surface of cortical bone, not of intermedullary striae. The purpose of this preliminary study was to investigate the true anatomical structures that are visible in routine dental radiographs and classically denoted trabecular bone. This is a major point for bone texture analysis on radiographs. Computed radiography (CR) images of dog mandible section in molar region were compared with simulations calculated from high-resolution micro-CT volumes. Calculated simulations were obtained using the Mojette Transform. By digitally editing the CT volume, the simulations were separated into trabecular and cortical components into a region of interest. Different images were compared and correlated, some bone micro-architecture parameters calculated. A high correlation was found between computed radiographs and calculated simulations from micro-CT. The Mojette transform was successful to obtain high quality images. Cortical bone did not contribute to change in a major way simulated images. These first results imply that intrabony trabecular pattern observed on radiographs can not only be a representation of the cortical bone endosteal surface and that trabecular bone is highly visible in intraoral radiographs.

  19. Passive Forensics for Region Duplication Image Forgery Based on Harris Feature Points and Local Binary Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the demand for identifying the authenticity of an image is much increased since advanced image editing software packages are widely used. Region duplication forgery is one of the most common and immediate tampering attacks which are frequently used. Several methods to expose this forgery have been developed to detect and locate the tampered region, while most methods do fail when the duplicated region undergoes rotation or flipping before being pasted. In this paper, an efficient method based on Harris feature points and local binary patterns is proposed. First, the image is filtered with a pixelwise adaptive Wiener method, and then dense Harris feature points are employed in order to obtain a sufficient number of feature points with approximately uniform distribution. Feature vectors for a circle patch around each feature point are extracted using local binary pattern operators, and the similar Harris points are matched based on their representation feature vectors using the BBF algorithm. Finally, RANSAC algorithm is employed to eliminate the possible erroneous matches. Experiment results demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively detect region duplication forgery, even when an image was distorted by rotation, flipping, blurring, AWGN, JPEG compression, and their mixed operations, especially resistant to the forgery with the flat area of little visual structures.

  20. Distributed Storage Algorithm for Geospatial Image Data Based on Data Access Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoming Pan

    Full Text Available Declustering techniques are widely used in distributed environments to reduce query response time through parallel I/O by splitting large files into several small blocks and then distributing those blocks among multiple storage nodes. Unfortunately, however, many small geospatial image data files cannot be further split for distributed storage. In this paper, we propose a complete theoretical system for the distributed storage of small geospatial image data files based on mining the access patterns of geospatial image data using their historical access log information. First, an algorithm is developed to construct an access correlation matrix based on the analysis of the log information, which reveals the patterns of access to the geospatial image data. Then, a practical heuristic algorithm is developed to determine a reasonable solution based on the access correlation matrix. Finally, a number of comparative experiments are presented, demonstrating that our algorithm displays a higher total parallel access probability than those of other algorithms by approximately 10-15% and that the performance can be further improved by more than 20% by simultaneously applying a copy storage strategy. These experiments show that the algorithm can be applied in distributed environments to help realize parallel I/O and thereby improve system performance.

  1. Vibration-rotation pattern in acetylene. II. Introduction of Coriolis coupling in the global model and analysis of emission spectra of hot acetylene around 3 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyay, Badr; Robert, Séverine; Herman, Michel; Fayt, André; Raghavendra, Balakrishna; Moudens, Audrey; Thiévin, Jonathan; Rowe, Bertrand; Georges, Robert

    2009-09-01

    A high temperature source has been developed and coupled to a high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer to record emission spectra of acetylene around 3 μm up to 1455 K under Doppler limited resolution (0.015 cm-1). The ν3-ground state (GS) and ν2+ν4+ν5 (Σu+ and Δu)-GS bands and 76 related hot bands, counting e and f parities separately, are assigned using semiautomatic methods based on a global model to reproduce all related vibration-rotation states. Significantly higher J-values than previously reported are observed for 40 known substates while 37 new e or f vibrational substates, up to about 6000 cm-1, are identified and characterized by vibration-rotation parameters. The 3 811 new or improved data resulting from the analysis are merged into the database presented by Robert et al. [Mol. Phys. 106, 2581 (2008)], now including 15 562 lines accessing vibrational states up to 8600 cm-1. A global model, updated as compared to the one in the previous paper, allows all lines in the database to be simultaneously fitted, successfully. The updates are discussed taking into account, in particular, the systematic inclusion of Coriolis interaction.

  2. Vibration-rotation pattern in acetylene. II. Introduction of Coriolis coupling in the global model and analysis of emission spectra of hot acetylene around 3 microm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyay, Badr; Robert, Séverine; Herman, Michel; Fayt, André; Raghavendra, Balakrishna; Moudens, Audrey; Thiévin, Jonathan; Rowe, Bertrand; Georges, Robert

    2009-09-21

    A high temperature source has been developed and coupled to a high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer to record emission spectra of acetylene around 3 mum up to 1455 K under Doppler limited resolution (0.015 cm(-1)). The nu(3)-ground state (GS) and nu(2)+nu(4)+nu(5) (Sigma(u) (+) and Delta(u))-GS bands and 76 related hot bands, counting e and f parities separately, are assigned using semiautomatic methods based on a global model to reproduce all related vibration-rotation states. Significantly higher J-values than previously reported are observed for 40 known substates while 37 new e or f vibrational substates, up to about 6000 cm(-1), are identified and characterized by vibration-rotation parameters. The 3 811 new or improved data resulting from the analysis are merged into the database presented by Robert et al. [Mol. Phys. 106, 2581 (2008)], now including 15 562 lines accessing vibrational states up to 8600 cm(-1). A global model, updated as compared to the one in the previous paper, allows all lines in the database to be simultaneously fitted, successfully. The updates are discussed taking into account, in particular, the systematic inclusion of Coriolis interaction.

  3. Dark-field illuminated fiber bundle endoscopy with iterative l1-min image reconstruction for honeycomb pattern removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Zhang, Lijun; Kirby, Mitchell; Raj, Divyaansh; Qi, Shaohai; Zhao, Feng

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we developed a dark-field illuminated reflectance fiber-optic microscope (DRFM) along with an algorithm for l1-norm minimization of fiber bundle image to provide intrinsic endoscopic imaging with cellular resolution. To suppress specular reflection from fiber bundle facets, we adopted a dark-field configuration. To remove the honeycomb pattern of fiber bundle while preserve image resolution and contrast, we chose to minimize the image l1 norm using iterative shrinkage thresholding (IST) algorithm.

  4. Analysis of image versus position, scale and direction reveals pattern texture anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland eLehoucq

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pattern heterogeneities and anisotropies often carry significant physical information. We provide a toolbox which: (i cumulates analysis in terms of position, direction and scale; (ii is as general as possible; (iii is simple and fast to understand, implement, execute and exploit.It consists in dividing the image into analysis boxes at a chosen scale; in each box an ellipse (the inertia tensor is fitted to the signal and thus determines the direction in which the signal is more present. This tensor can be averaged in position and/or be used to study the dependence with scale. This choice is formally linked with Leray transforms and anisotropic wavelet analysis. Such protocol is intutively interpreted and consistent with what the eye detects: relevant scales, local variations in space, priviledged directions. It is fast and parallelizable.Its several variants are adaptable to the user's data and needs. It is useful to statistically characterize anisotropies of 2D or 3D patterns in which individual objects are not easily distinguished, with only minimal pre-processing of the raw image, and more generally applies to data in higher dimensions.It is less sensitive to edge effects, and thus better adapted for a multiscale analysis down to small scale boxes, than pair correlation function or Fourier transform.Easy to understand and implement,it complements more sophisticated methods such as Hough transform or diffusion tensor imaging.We use it on various fracture patterns (sea ice cover, thin sections of granite, granular materials, to pinpoint the maximal anisotropy scales. The results are robust to noise and to user choices. This toolbox could turn also useful for granular materials, hard condensed matter, geophysics, thin films, statistical mechanics, characterisation of networks, fluctuating amorphous systems, inhomogeneous and disordered systems, or medical imaging, among others.

  5. Gd-enhanced MR imaging of the herniated lumbar disc: patterns of enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwag, Hyon Joo; Choi, Hye Young; Kim, Hyae Young; Kim, Yoo Kyung; Kim, Ah Young; Chung, Eun Chul [College of Medicine, Ewah Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-15

    The purpose of this study is to describe the patterns of enhancement of the herniated lumbar disc with Gd-DTPA enhanced MR imaging. Out of 65 patients, 103 lumbar discs diagnosed to be herniated by MR image were retrospectively analyzed. The MR imaging was performed with 1.5 T MR unit, using T1-and T2-weighted sagittal and axial spin echo techniques. Contrast-enhanced T1 weighted sagittal and axial images were performed after intravenous injection of Gadopentetate-dimeglumine(Magnevist, Shering) (0.1 mmol/kg). Contrast enhancement was seen in 66 cases(64%). Thirteen cases of bulging disc were not enhanced. Twenty-eight cases of protruded disc showed intraannular enchantment in 23 cases, peripheral linear and irregular enhancement in each of one case, and nonenhancement in three cases. Fifty-seven cases of extruded disc showed irregular enhancement in 14 cases, peripheral linear enhancement in 12 cases, peripheral ring enhancement in five cases and intraannular enhancement in five cases. All five cases of sequestered disc showed peripheral ring enhancement. Protruded discs show intraannular enhancement frequently and sequestered discs usually show peripheral ring enhancement. Enhanced MR imaging may be helpful to evaluate the type of herniated lumbar disc and relationship among disc material, nerve root and thecal sac.

  6. Investigation into diagnostic agreement using automated computer-assisted histopathology pattern recognition image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Joshua D.; Michalowski, Aleksandra M.; Dwyer, Jennifer E.; Corps, Kara N.; Wei, Bih-Rong; Juopperi, Tarja; Hoover, Shelley B.; Simpson, R. Mark

    2012-01-01

    The extent to which histopathology pattern recognition image analysis (PRIA) agrees with microscopic assessment has not been established. Thus, a commercial PRIA platform was evaluated in two applications using whole-slide images. Substantial agreement, lacking significant constant or proportional errors, between PRIA and manual morphometric image segmentation was obtained for pulmonary metastatic cancer areas (Passing/Bablok regression). Bland-Altman analysis indicated heteroscedastic measurements and tendency toward increasing variance with increasing tumor burden, but no significant trend in mean bias. The average between-methods percent tumor content difference was -0.64. Analysis of between-methods measurement differences relative to the percent tumor magnitude revealed that method disagreement had an impact primarily in the smallest measurements (tumor burden 0.988, indicating high reproducibility for both methods, yet PRIA reproducibility was superior (C.V.: PRIA = 7.4, manual = 17.1). Evaluation of PRIA on morphologically complex teratomas led to diagnostic agreement with pathologist assessments of pluripotency on subsets of teratomas. Accommodation of the diversity of teratoma histologic features frequently resulted in detrimental trade-offs, increasing PRIA error elsewhere in images. PRIA error was nonrandom and influenced by variations in histomorphology. File-size limitations encountered while training algorithms and consequences of spectral image processing dominance contributed to diagnostic inaccuracies experienced for some teratomas. PRIA appeared better suited for tissues with limited phenotypic diversity. Technical improvements may enhance diagnostic agreement, and consistent pathologist input will benefit further development and application of PRIA. PMID:22616030

  7. Investigation into diagnostic agreement using automated computer-assisted histopathology pattern recognition image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D Webster

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which histopathology pattern recognition image analysis (PRIA agrees with microscopic assessment has not been established. Thus, a commercial PRIA platform was evaluated in two applications using whole-slide images. Substantial agreement, lacking significant constant or proportional errors, between PRIA and manual morphometric image segmentation was obtained for pulmonary metastatic cancer areas (Passing/Bablok regression. Bland-Altman analysis indicated heteroscedastic measurements and tendency toward increasing variance with increasing tumor burden, but no significant trend in mean bias. The average between-methods percent tumor content difference was -0.64. Analysis of between-methods measurement differences relative to the percent tumor magnitude revealed that method disagreement had an impact primarily in the smallest measurements (tumor burden 0.988, indicating high reproducibility for both methods, yet PRIA reproducibility was superior (C.V.: PRIA = 7.4, manual = 17.1. Evaluation of PRIA on morphologically complex teratomas led to diagnostic agreement with pathologist assessments of pluripotency on subsets of teratomas. Accommodation of the diversity of teratoma histologic features frequently resulted in detrimental trade-offs, increasing PRIA error elsewhere in images. PRIA error was nonrandom and influenced by variations in histomorphology. File-size limitations encountered while training algorithms and consequences of spectral image processing dominance contributed to diagnostic inaccuracies experienced for some teratomas. PRIA appeared better suited for tissues with limited phenotypic diversity. Technical improvements may enhance diagnostic agreement, and consistent pathologist input will benefit further development and application of PRIA.

  8. Classifying Dementia Using Local Binary Patterns from Different Regions in Magnetic Resonance Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketil Oppedal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is an evolving challenge in society, and no disease-modifying treatment exists. Diagnosis can be demanding and MR imaging may aid as a noninvasive method to increase prediction accuracy. We explored the use of 2D local binary pattern (LBP extracted from FLAIR and T1 MR images of the brain combined with a Random Forest classifier in an attempt to discern patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD, Lewy body dementia (LBD, and normal controls (NC. Analysis was conducted in areas with white matter lesions (WML and all of white matter (WM. Results from 10-fold nested cross validation are reported as mean accuracy, precision, and recall with standard deviation in brackets. The best result we achieved was in the two-class problem NC versus AD + LBD with total accuracy of 0.98 (0.04. In the three-class problem AD versus LBD versus NC and the two-class problem AD versus LBD, we achieved 0.87 (0.08 and 0.74 (0.16, respectively. The performance using 3DT1 images was notably better than when using FLAIR images. The results from the WM region gave similar results as in the WML region. Our study demonstrates that LBP texture analysis in brain MR images can be successfully used for computer based dementia diagnosis.

  9. Influence of sample pool on interference pattern in defocused interferometric particle imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongxia; Zhou, Ye; Liu, Jing; Jia, Dagong; Liu, Tiegen

    2017-04-01

    Particles widely exist in various fields. In practical experiments, sometimes it is necessary to dissolve particles in water in a sample pool. This article proposes two typical layouts of the sample pool in defocused interferometric particle imaging (IPI). Layout I is the sample pool surface perpendicular to the incident light and layout II is the sample pool surface perpendicular to the scattered light. For layout I, the scattered light of the particles does not keep symmetric at the meridional and sagittal planes after being refracted by the sample pool surface, and elliptical interference patterns are formed at the defocused IPI image plane. But for layout II, the scattered light keeps symmetric after being refracted, and circular interference patterns are formed. Aimed at the two sample pool layouts, the ray-tracing software ZEMAX was used to simulate the spot shape of particles at different defocus distances. Furthermore, its effect on the ellipticity of the interference pattern with the tilt angle of the sample pool is analyzed. The relative error of the axis ratio for layout I does not exceed 9.2% at different defocus distances. The experimental results have good agreement with the theoretical analyses, and it indicates that layout II is more reasonable for the IPI system.

  10. Modified Composite Struts Would Damp Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gun-Shing; Dolgin, Benjamin P.

    1993-01-01

    Composite-material (fiber/matrix laminate) struts damping longitudinal vibrations fabricated more easily in proposed new design. Prior design described in "Composite Struts Would Damp Vibrations" (NPO-17914). New design similar except pattern of fibers includes rounded bends (instead of sharp bends) in fibers.

  11. Three-dimensional surface measurement based on the projected defocused pattern technique using imaging fiber optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra Escamilla, Geliztle A.; Kobayashi, Fumio; Otani, Yukitoshi

    2017-05-01

    We present a three-dimensional surface measurement system using imaging fiber endoscope and the measurement is based on the focus technique in uniaxial configuration. The surface height variation of the sample is retrieved by taking into account the contrast modulation change obtained from a projected fringe pattern on the sample. The technique takes into account the defocus change of the fringe pattern due to the height variation of the sample and by a Gaussian fitting process the height reconstruction can be retrieved. A baseline signal procedure was implemented to remove back reflection light coming from the two fiber-surfaces (inlet and outlet) and also a Fourier transform filter was used to remove the pixelated appearance of the images. The depth range of the system is 1.1 mm and a lateral range of 2 mm by 2 mm. The novelties of the implementation are that the system uses the same imaging fiber as illumination and measurement and offers the advantage of the transportability to the measurement to a confined space having potential application on medical or industrial endoscopes systems. We demonstrate the technique by showing the surface profile of a measured object.

  12. Fast demodulation of pattern images by spiral phase transform in structured-illumination reflectance imaging for detection of bruises in apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    A structured-illumination reflectance imaging (SIRI) system was recently developed in our laboratory for enhanced quality evaluation of horticultural products. It was implemented using a digital camera to acquire reflectance images from food products subjected to sinusoidal patterns (or other simila...

  13. Urban vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Ann; Knudsen, L.; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2012-01-01

      lab   studies   in   that   we   found   a   decreased   detection   rate   in   busy   environments.   Here   we   test   with   a   much   larger   sample   and   age   range,   and   contribute   with   the   first   vibration  sensitivity  testing  outside  the  lab  in  an  urban   public...

  14. Prevalence and patterns of renal involvement in imaging of malignant lymphoproliferative diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, Andreas Gunter; Behrmann, Curd; Spielmann, Rolf Peter; Surov, Alexey (Dept. of Radiology, Martin-Luther-Univ. Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Germany)), Email: andreas.bach@medizin.uni-halle.de; Holzhausen, Hans Jurgen (Dept. of Pathology, Martin-Luther-Univ. Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Germany)); Katzer, Michaela (Dept. of Urology, Martin-Luther-Univ. Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Germany)); Arnold, Dirk (Univ. Cancer Center Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany))

    2012-04-15

    Background: Renal involvement in patients with lymphoproliferative disease is an uncommon radiological finding. Purpose: To determine its prevalence and radiological appearances in a patient population. Material and Methods: All forms of lymphoproliferative disease (ICD: C81-C96) were considered. From January 2005 to January 2010, 668 consecutive patients with lymphoproliferative disease were identified with the help of the radiological database and patient records. Inclusion criteria were complete staging including appropriate CT scan and/or MRI. All stored images (initial staging and follow-up examinations) were reviewed. Results: Review of all stored images revealed renal infiltration in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (11 of 364 = 3.0%; median age = 65 years, m:f = 6:5) but also multiple myeloma (2 of 162 = 1.2%; median age = 72 years; m:f = 1:1) and leukemia (5 of 101 4.9%; median age = 12 years; m:f = 2:3). There were no cases of renal infiltration in 41 patients with Hodgkin's disease. In total there were six patients with solitary lesions, five patients with diffuse renal enlargement, four patients with perirenal lesions, and two patients with direct invasion of the kidney. Conclusion: In leukemia the most common imaging pattern is diffuse enlargement. In the other subtypes of lymphoproliferative disease no specific correlation between typical CT patterns and subtype of lymphoproliferative disease can be found. The prevalence of renal involvement is in line with earlier studies. Contrary to earlier reports, multiple lesions were not found to be a common pattern

  15. Accurate identification of whispering gallery mode patterns of gyrotron with stabilized electro-optic imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ingeun; Sawant, Ashwini; Choe, Mun Seok; Lee, Dong-Joon; Choi, EunMi

    2018-01-01

    The precise field pattern measurement and analysis of a typical whispering gallery mode excited in a gyrotron are important to understand the interaction physics of the gyrotron. We precisely analyzed the characteristic of a whispering gallery mode, rotating TE6,2 mode, by a photonic-assisted W-band (75-110 GHz) electro-optic imaging measurement system. The whispering gallery mode in the W-band region diverges fast in free space as it propagates from the radiation port. Therefore, scanning the field patterns of a device-under-test should be performed as close as possible to identify the device's characteristics. We successfully accomplished visualizing highly accurate field patterns of a rotating and mixed whispering gallery mode based on the measured electric field magnitude and phase by using dual optical fiber-scale electro-optic (EO) probes. We observed the distorted fields when the typical open-ended waveguide and a general EO probe were used in the extremely near-field zone, whereas a very precise field was measured in a minimally invasive way by the proposed EO probe. The measured mode patterns were quantitatively analyzed by using a cross correlation function and a mode purity equation. This work promises a way to provide accurate electric field information in the generation of the whispering gallery mode in the millimeter and submillimeter regime.

  16. Differentiation of bacterial colonies and temporal growth patterns using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrübeoglu, Mehrube; Buck, Gregory W.; Livingston, Daniel W.

    2014-09-01

    Detection and identification of bacteria are important for health and safety. Hyperspectral imaging offers the potential to capture unique spectral patterns and spatial information from bacteria which can then be used to detect and differentiate bacterial species. Here, hyperspectral imaging has been used to characterize different bacterial colonies and investigate their growth over time. Six bacterial species (Pseudomonas fluorescens, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes) were grown on tryptic soy agar plates. Hyperspectral data were acquired immediately after, 24 hours after, and 96 hours after incubation. Spectral signatures from bacterial colonies demonstrated repeatable measurements for five out of six species. Spatial variations as well as changes in spectral signatures were observed across temporal measurements within and among species at multiple wavelengths due to strengthening or weakening reflectance signals from growing bacterial colonies based on their pigmentation. Between-class differences and within-class similarities were the most prominent in hyperspectral data collected 96 hours after incubation.

  17. Transient medial patellar dislocation: injury patterns at US and MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Corroller, Thomas; Champsaur, Pierre [Hopital Sainte-Marguerite, Radiology Department, Marseille (France); Faculte de Medecine de Marseille, Anatomy Department, Marseille (France); Dediu, Melania [Hopital Sainte-Marguerite, Radiology Department, Marseille (France)

    2009-05-15

    Medial dislocation of the patella is an unusual entity. It is usually an iatrogenic complication of surgical lateral retinacular release. We describe the clinical, ultrasound (US), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of a transient medial patellar dislocation in a 19-year-old patient with trochlear groove dysplasia presenting no surgical history. US showed acute injury to the lateral patellar retinaculum with complete avulsion at its patellar insertion. MR imaging confirmed the complete tear of the lateral patellar retinaculum and disclosed contusion of the anteromedial portion of the medial femoral condyle and lateral patella. This case is noteworthy because the injury patterns of patellar soft tissue restraints differ markedly from the classical features of lateral patellar dislocation. (orig.)

  18. High resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the patellar retinaculum: normal anatomy, common injury patterns, and pathologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thawait, Shrey K. [Yale University - Bridgeport Hospital, Bridgeport, CT (United States); Soldatos, Theodoros; Thawait, Gaurav K.; Cosgarea, Andrew J.; Carrino, John A. [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States); Chhabra, Avneesh [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States); Johns Hopkins Hospital, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2012-02-15

    The medial patellar retinaculum (MPR) and the lateral patellar retinaculum (LPR) are vital structures for the stability of the patella. Failure to identify or treat injury to the patellar retinaculum is associated with recurrent patellar instability and contributes to significant morbidity. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) readily depicts the detailed anatomy of various components (layers) of the retinacula. In this review article, we discuss normal anatomy, important landmarks, common injury patterns, and other pathologies encountered in patellar retinacula. High field strength MRI is an excellent noninvasive tool for evaluation of patellar retinaculum anatomy and pathology. This article will help the reader become familiar with normal imaging findings and the most commonly occurring injuries/pathologies in MPR and LPR. (orig.)

  19. Iterative l(1)-min algorithm for fixed pattern noise removal in fiber-bundle-based endoscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Zhang, Lijun; Kirby, Mitchell; Becker, Richard; Qi, Shaohai; Zhao, Feng

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we developed a signal processing method for fixed pattern noise removal in fiber-bundle-based endoscopic imaging. We physically acquired the fixed pattern of the fiber bundle and used it as a prior image in an l1 norm minimization (l1-min) algorithm. We chose an iterative shrinkage thresholding algorithm for l1 norm minimization. In addition to fixed pattern noise removal, this method also improved image contrast while preserving spatial resolution. The effectiveness of this method was demonstrated on images obtained from a dark-field illuminated reflectance fiber-optic microscope (DRFM). The iterative l1-min algorithm presented in this paper, in combination with the DRFM system that we previously developed, enables high-resolution, high-sensitivity, intrinsic-contrast, and in situ cellular imaging which has great potential in clinical diagnosis and biomedical research.

  20. Development and validation of parenting measures for body image and eating patterns in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Stephanie R; Hart, Laura M; Paxton, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based parenting interventions are important in assisting parents to help their children develop healthy body image and eating patterns. To adequately assess the impact of parenting interventions, valid parent measures are required. The aim of this study was to develop and assess the validity and reliability of two new parent measures, the Parenting Intentions for Body image and Eating patterns in Childhood (Parenting Intentions BEC) and the Knowledge Test for Body image and Eating patterns in Childhood (Knowledge Test BEC). Participants were 27 professionals working in research or clinical treatment of body dissatisfaction or eating disorders, and 75 parents of children aged 2-6 years, who completed the measures via an online questionnaire. Seven scenarios were developed for the Parenting Intentions BEC to describe common experiences about the body and food that parents might need to respond to in front of their child. Parents ranked four behavioural intentions, derived from the current literature on parenting risk factors for body dissatisfaction and unhealthy eating patterns in children. Two subscales were created, one representing positive behavioural intentions, the other negative behavioural intentions. After piloting a larger pool of items, 13 statements were used to construct the Knowledge Test BEC. These were designed to be factual statements about the influence of parent language, media, family meals, healthy eating, and self-esteem on child eating and body image. The validity of both measures was tested by comparing parent and professional scores, and reliability was assessed by comparing parent scores over two testing occasions. Compared with parents, professionals reported significantly higher scores on the Positive Intentions subscale and significantly lower on the Negative Intentions subscale of the Parenting Intentions BEC; confirming the discriminant validity of six out of the seven scenarios. Test-retest reliability was also confirmed as

  1. Using genetic algorithm feature selection in neural classification systems for image pattern recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita R. Gamarra A.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pattern recognition performance depends on variations during extraction, selection and classification stages. This paper presents an approach to feature selection by using genetic algorithms with regard to digital image recognition and quality control. Error rate and kappa coefficient were used for evaluating the genetic algorithm approach Neural networks were used for classification, involving the features selected by the genetic algorithms. The neural network approach was compared to a K-nearest neighbor classifier. The proposed approach performed better than the other methods.

  2. Ultrasound imaging of flow patterns in liver metastases from colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael; Solvig, Jan

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ability of colour Doppler, power Doppler and echo-enhanced Doppler imaging to detect the blood flow in liver metastases from colorectal cancer was investigated. An evaluation was then made to determine whether the flow pattern could be used as an indication of disease elsewhere....... METHODS: Forty-two patients with hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer were examined, 8 of whom had local recurrence of their colorectal cancer. Seventy-seven liver metastases were evaluated with colour Doppler and power Doppler, and the presence or absence of a Doppler signal in the halo or centre...... detection rate to 98% (P liver...

  3. Multi-scale marine biodiversity patterns inferred efficiently from habitat image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellin, Camille; Parrott, Lael; Andréfouët, Serge; Bradshaw, Corey J A; MacNeil, M Aaron; Caley, M Julian

    2012-04-01

    Cost-effective proxies of biodiversity and species abundance, applicable across a range of spatial scales, are needed for setting conservation priorities and planning action. We outline a rapid, efficient, and low-cost measure of spectral signal from digital habitat images that, being an effective proxy for habitat complexity, correlates with species diversity and requires little image processing or interpretation. We validated this method for coral reefs of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia, across a range of spatial scales (1 m to 10 km), using digital photographs of benthic communities at the transect scale and high-resolution Landsat satellite images at the reef scale. We calculated an index of image-derived spatial heterogeneity, the mean information gain (MIG), for each scale and related it to univariate (species richness and total abundance summed across species) and multivariate (species abundance matrix) measures of fish community structure, using two techniques that account for the hierarchical structure of the data: hierarchical (mixed-effect) linear models and distance-based partial redundancy analysis. Over the length and breadth of the GBR, MIG alone explained up to 29% of deviance in fish species richness, 33% in total fish abundance, and 25% in fish community structure at multiple scales, thus demonstrating the possibility of easily and rapidly exploiting spatial information contained in digital images to complement existing methods for inferring diversity and abundance patterns among fish communities. Thus, the spectral signal of unprocessed remotely sensed images provides an efficient and low-cost way to optimize the design of surveys used in conservation planning. In data-sparse situations, this simple approach also offers a viable method for rapid assessment of potential local biodiversity, particularly where there is little local capacity in terms of skills or resources for mounting in-depth biodiversity surveys.

  4. Automatic classification of prostate stromal tissue in histological images using Haralick descriptors and Local Binary Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, D. L. L.; Nascimento, M. Z.; Neves, L. A.; Batista, V. R.; Godoy, M. F.; Jacomini, R. S.; Duarte, Y. A. S.; Arruda, P. F. F.; Neto, D. S.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we presente a classification system that uses a combination of texture features from stromal regions: Haralick features and Local Binary Patterns (LBP) in wavelet domain. The system has five steps for classification of the tissues. First, the stromal regions were detected and extracted using segmentation techniques based on thresholding and RGB colour space. Second, the Wavelet decomposition was applied in the extracted regions to obtain the Wavelet coefficients. Third, the Haralick and LBP features were extracted from the coefficients. Fourth, relevant features were selected using the ANOVA statistical method. The classication (fifth step) was performed with Radial Basis Function (RBF) networks. The system was tested in 105 prostate images, which were divided into three groups of 35 images: normal, hyperplastic and cancerous. The system performance was evaluated using the area under the ROC curve and resulted in 0.98 for normal versus cancer, 0.95 for hyperplasia versus cancer and 0.96 for normal versus hyperplasia. Our results suggest that texture features can be used as discriminators for stromal tissues prostate images. Furthermore, the system was effective to classify prostate images, specially the hyperplastic class which is the most difficult type in diagnosis and prognosis.

  5. Algorithms for Image Analysis and Combination of Pattern Classifiers with Application to Medical Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Harris

    2009-10-01

    Medical Informatics and the application of modern signal processing in the assistance of the diagnostic process in medical imaging is one of the more recent and active research areas today. This thesis addresses a variety of issues related to the general problem of medical image analysis, specifically in mammography, and presents a series of algorithms and design approaches for all the intermediate levels of a modern system for computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). The diagnostic problem is analyzed with a systematic approach, first defining the imaging characteristics and features that are relevant to probable pathology in mammo-grams. Next, these features are quantified and fused into new, integrated radio-logical systems that exhibit embedded digital signal processing, in order to improve the final result and minimize the radiological dose for the patient. In a higher level, special algorithms are designed for detecting and encoding these clinically interest-ing imaging features, in order to be used as input to advanced pattern classifiers and machine learning models. Finally, these approaches are extended in multi-classifier models under the scope of Game Theory and optimum collective deci-sion, in order to produce efficient solutions for combining classifiers with minimum computational costs for advanced diagnostic systems. The material covered in this thesis is related to a total of 18 published papers, 6 in scientific journals and 12 in international conferences.

  6. Image correlation based method for the analysis of collagen fibers patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Ramon G. T.; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Kurachi, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    The collagen fibers are one of the most important structural proteins in skin, being responsible for its strength and flexibility. It is known that their properties, like fibers density, ordination and mean diameter can be affected by several skin conditions, what makes these properties a good parameter to be used on the diagnosis and evaluation of skin aging, cancer, healing, among other conditions. There is, however, a need for methods capable of analyzing quantitatively the organization patterns of these fibers. To address this need, we developed a method based on the autocorrelation function of the images that allows the construction of vector field plots of the fibers directions and does not require any kind of curve fitting or optimization. The analyzed images were obtained through Second Harmonic Generation Imaging Microscopy. This paper presents a concise review on the autocorrelation function and some of its applications to image processing, details the developed method and the results obtained through the analysis of hystopathological slides of landrace porcine skin. The method has high accuracy on the determination of the fibers direction and presents high performance. We look forward to perform further studies keeping track of different skin conditions over time.

  7. Geophysical imaging of watershed subsurface patterns and prediction of soil texture and water holding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdu, H.; Robinson, D. A.; Seyfried, M.; Jones, S. B.

    2008-04-01

    The spatial distribution of subsurface soil textural properties across the landscape is an important control on the hydrological and ecological function of a watershed. Traditional methods of mapping soils involving subjective assignment of soil boundaries are inadequate for studies requiring a quantitative assessment of the landscape and its subsurface connectivity and storage capacity. Geophysical methods such as electromagnetic induction (EMI) provide the possibility of obtaining high-resolution images across a landscape to identify subtle changes in subsurface soil patterns. In this work we show how EMI can be used to image the subsurface of a ˜38 ha watershed. We present an imaging approach using kriging to interpolate and sequential Gaussian simulation to estimate the uncertainty in the maps. We also explore the idea of difference ECa mapping to try to exploit changes in soil moisture to identify more hydrologically active locations. In addition, we use a digital elevation model to identify flow paths and compare these with the ECa measurement as a function of distance. Finally, we perform a more traditional calibration of ECa with clay percentage across the watershed and determine soil water holding capacity (SWHC). The values of SWHC range from 0.07 to 0.22 m3 m-3 across the watershed, which contrast with the uniform value of 0.13 derived from the traditional soil survey maps. Additional work is needed to appropriately interpret and incorporate EMI data into hydrological studies; however, we argue that there is considerable merit in identifying subsurface soil patterns from these geophysical images.

  8. Modeling broad-scale patterns of avian species richness across the Midwestern United States with measures of satellite image texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick D. Culbert; Volker C. Radeloff; Veronique St-Louis; Curtis H. Flather; Chadwick D. Rittenhouse; Thomas P. Albright; Anna M. Pidgeon

    2012-01-01

    Avian biodiversity is threatened, and in order to prioritize limited conservation resources and conduct effective conservation planning a better understanding of avian species richness patterns is needed. The use of image texture measures, as a proxy for the spatial structure of land cover and vegetation, has proven useful in explaining patterns of avian abundance and...

  9. Experimental study on solids circulation patterns and bubble behavior using particle imagevelocimetry combined with digital image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laverman, J.A.; Roghair, Ivo; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The hydrodynamics, viz. the solids circulation patterns and bubble behavior, of a freely bubbling gas-solid fluidized bed has been investigated experimentally using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) combined with Digital Image Analysis (DIA). Coupling of these non-invasive measuring techniques allows

  10. Fundamental remote sensing science research program. Part 1: Status report of the mathematical pattern recognition and image analysis project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydorn, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    The Mathematical Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis (MPRIA) Project is concerned with basic research problems related to the study of the Earth from remotely sensed measurement of its surface characteristics. The program goal is to better understand how to analyze the digital image that represents the spatial, spectral, and temporal arrangement of these measurements for purposing of making selected inference about the Earth.

  11. The Analysis of Tree Species Distribution Information Extraction and Landscape Pattern Based on Remote Sensing Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zeng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The forest ecosystem is the largest land vegetation type, which plays the role of unreplacement with its unique value. And in the landscape scale, the research on forest landscape pattern has become the current hot spot, wherein the study of forest canopy structure is very important. They determines the process and the strength of forests energy flow, which influences the adjustments of ecosystem for climate and species diversity to some extent. The extraction of influencing factors of canopy structure and the analysis of the vegetation distribution pattern are especially important. To solve the problems, remote sensing technology, which is superior to other technical means because of its fine timeliness and large-scale monitoring, is applied to the study. Taking Lingkong Mountain as the study area, the paper uses the remote sensing image to analyze the forest distribution pattern and obtains the spatial characteristics of canopy structure distribution, and DEM data are as the basic data to extract the influencing factors of canopy structure. In this paper, pattern of trees distribution is further analyzed by using terrain parameters, spatial analysis tools and surface processes quantitative simulation. The Hydrological Analysis tool is used to build distributed hydrological model, and corresponding algorithm is applied to determine surface water flow path, rivers network and basin boundary. Results show that forest vegetation distribution of dominant tree species present plaque on the landscape scale and their distribution have spatial heterogeneity which is related to terrain factors closely. After the overlay analysis of aspect, slope and forest distribution pattern respectively, the most suitable area for stand growth and the better living condition are obtained.

  12. Pattern classification of ShearWave™ Elastography images for differential diagnosis between benign and malignant solid breast masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozaki, Mitsuhiro; Fukuma, Eisuke

    2011-12-01

    ShearWave™ Elastography (SWE) provides a quantitative measurement of tissue stiffness and may improve characterization of breast masses. However, the significance of Young's modulus measurements and appropriate SWE evaluation criteria has not been established yet. To assess the usefulness of the pattern classification and Young's modulus measurements in the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant solid breast masses. Ninety-six patients (age range 18-84 years, mean 54 years) with 100 solid breast masses who underwent tissue sampling after a US examination were analyzed. We tried to create a visual pattern classification based on the SWE images. After classifying the visual patterns, the Young's modulus of the lesions was measured in every case. It was possible to classify the images into four patterns by the visual evaluation: no findings (coded blue homogeneously; Pattern 1), vertical stripe pattern artifacts (Pattern 2), a localized colored area at the margin of the lesion (Pattern 3), and heterogeneously colored areas in the interior of the lesion (Pattern 4). There were 17 Pattern 1 lesions, 14 Pattern 2 lesions, 20 Pattern 3 lesions, and 49 Pattern 4 lesions. When Patterns 1 and 2 were assumed to be benign, and Patterns 3 and 4 were assumed to be malignant, the sensitivity and specificity were 91.3% (63/69) and 80.6% (25/31), respectively. The mean Young's modulus measurements of the benign and the malignant lesions were 42 kPa and 146 kPa, respectively (P modulus of the benign lesions (50 kPa) was lower than the smallest Young's modulus of malignant lesions (61 kPa). The visual pattern classification and adding Young's modulus measurements may improve characterization of solid breast masses.

  13. Two-dimensional intraventricular flow pattern visualization using the image-based computational fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doost, Siamak N; Zhong, Liang; Su, Boyang; Morsi, Yosry S

    2017-04-01

    The image-based computational fluid dynamics (IB-CFD) technique, as the combination of medical images and the CFD method, is utilized in this research to analyze the left ventricle (LV) hemodynamics. The research primarily aims to propose a semi-automated technique utilizing some freely available and commercial software packages in order to simulate the LV hemodynamics using the IB-CFD technique. In this research, moreover, two different physiological time-resolved 2D models of a patient-specific LV with two different types of aortic and mitral valves, including the orifice-type valves and integrated with rigid leaflets, are adopted to visualize the process of developing intraventricular vortex formation and propagation. The blood flow pattern over the whole cardiac cycle of two models is also compared to investigate the effect of utilizing different valve types in the process of the intraventricular vortex formation. Numerical findings indicate that the model with integrated valves can predict more complex intraventricular flow that can match better the physiological flow pattern in comparison to the orifice-type model.

  14. Pattern of brain blood perfusion in tinnitus patients using technetium-99m SPECT imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Mahmoudian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Tinnitus is associated with an increased activity in central auditory system as demonstrated by neuroimaging studies. Brain perfusion scanning using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT was done to understand the pattern of brain blood perfusion of tinnitus subjects and find the areas which are mostly abnormal in these patients. Materials and Methods: A number of 122 patients with tinnitus were enrolled to this cross-sectional study. They underwent SPECT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of brain, and the images were fused to find the regions with abnormal perfusion. Results: SPECT scan results were abnormal in 101 patients (83%. Most patients had bilateral abnormal perfusion (N = 65, 53.3%, and most subjects had abnormality in middle-temporal gyrus (N = 83, 68% and temporoparietal cortex (N = 46, 37.7%. Patients with multifocal involvement had the least mean age than other 2 groups (patients with no abnormality and unifocal abnormality (P value = 0.045. Conclusions: Brain blood perfusion pattern differs in patient with tinnitus than others. These patients have brain perfusion abnormality, mostly in auditory gyrus (middle temporal and associative cortex (temporoparietal cortex. Multifocal abnormalities might be due to more cognitive and emotional brain centers involvement due to tinnitus or more stress and anxiety of tinnitus in the young patients.

  15. Identification of the Lymphatic Drainage Pattern of Esophageal Cancer with Near-Infrared Fluorescent Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlottmann, Francisco; Barbetta, Arianna; Mungo, Benedetto; Lidor, Anne O; Molena, Daniela

    2017-03-01

    Nodal status is one of the most important long-term prognostic factors for esophageal cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of near-infrared (NIR) light fluorescent imaging to identify the lymphatic drainage pattern of esophageal cancer. Patients with distal esophageal cancer or esophagogastric junction cancer scheduled for esophagectomy were enrolled in this study. Before surgery, an endoscopy was performed with submucosal injection of 2 cc of indocyanine green (ICG) around the tumor. Real-time NIR images from the surgical field were obtained for each patient to visualize the lymphatic ICG drainage. A total of nine patients were included in this study. Ivor Lewis esophagectomy was performed in all cases. ICG drainage was visualized to first drain along the left gastric nodes in eight patients (88.9%) and toward the diaphragmatic nodes in one patient (11.1%). The median number of resected nodes was 32. Three patients (33.3%) presented nodal involvement. All of them had positive nodes in the first nodal station identified with ICG. Evaluation of the lymphatic drainage pattern with real-time NIR light fluorescent technique is feasible. Distal and esophagogastric junction tumors showed to drain first in the left gastric nodes in most of the cases.

  16. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pattern recognition in Pol III-related leukodystrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Piana, Roberta; Tonduti, Davide; Gordish Dressman, Heather; Schmidt, Johanna L; Murnick, Jonathan; Brais, Bernard; Bernard, Genevieve; Vanderver, Adeline

    2014-02-01

    Pol III-related leukodystrophies are caused by mutations in POLR3A and POLR3B genes and all share peculiar imaging and clinical features. The objectives of this study are (1) to define the neuroradiologic pattern in a cohort of POLR3A and POLR3B subjects and (2) to compare the neuroradiologic pattern of Pol III-related leukodystrophies with other hypomyelinating disorders. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations of 13 patients with POLR3A and POLR3B mutations and of 14 patients with other hypomyelinating disorders were analyzed. All the subjects with Pol III-related leukodystrophies presented hypomyelination associated with T2 hypointensity of the thalami and/or the pallida. Twelve subjects (92%) presented T2 hypointensity of the optic radiations. Cerebellar atrophy was observed in most patients (92%). The combination of the analyzed criteria identified patients with Pol III-related leukodystrophies with a sensitivity of 84.6% and a specificity of 92.9%.

  17. Diffraction-Enhanced Imaging for studying pattern recognition in cranial ontogeny of bats and marsupials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, H.S. [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao Nuclear (LIN), COPPE, UFRJ (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao Nuclear (LIN), COPPE, UFRJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br; Pessoa, L.M. [Laboratorio de Mastozoologia, Departamento Zoologia, Instituto de Biologia, UFRJ (Brazil); Hoennicke, M.G. [Laboratorio de Optica de Raios X e Instrumentacao (LORXI) , Departamento de Fisica, UFPR (Brazil); Tirao, G. [Laboratorio de Optica de Raios X e Instrumentacao (LORXI) , Departamento de Fisica, UFPR (Brazil); Faculdad de Mat. Astronomia y Fisica (FAMAF), UNC. Cordoba (Argentina); Cusatis, C. [Laboratorio de Optica de Raios X e Instrumentacao (LORXI) , Departamento de Fisica, UFPR (Brazil); Mazzaro, I. [Laboratorio de Optica de Raios X e Instrumentacao (LORXI) , Departamento de Fisica, UFPR (Brazil); Giles, C. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS)/Laboratorio de Cristalografia Aplicada e Raios X, Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, UNICAMP (Brazil)

    2005-08-11

    The key to understanding evolution lies in the elucidation of mechanisms responsible for the observed underlying patterns and in the observation of sequences that emerge from those evolutionary landmarks. The comparative development can be used to access the derivation of form and the homology versus the convergence of evolution features. Phylogenetic and biological homologies are necessary to discern the evolutionary origins of these features. This work examined the patterns of cranial formation in pre-born bat specimens as well as post-born opossum by means of microradiography and Diffraction-Enhanced Radiography (DER) techniques. A direct conversion CCD camera was used to provide micrometer spatial resolution in order to acquire highly detailed density images. This technique allows the observation of structures, in early stages of development, which were impossible to be observed with traditional techniques, such as clearing and staining. Some cranial features have been described for adults in the literature, but the detailed description of the appearance sequence of those features in these species is still unknown and obscure. Microradiography and diffraction-enhanced imaging can improve quality of morphological detail analysis and permit the identification of anatomical landmarks that are useful in comparative studies and are still unknown in both species. In this study, we access evolution features in cranial morphology of bats and marsupials using both X-ray techniques.

  18. A pattern recognition system for locating small volvanoes in Magellan SAR images of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burl, M. C.; Fayyad, U. M.; Smyth, P.; Aubele, J. C.; Crumpler, L. S.

    1993-01-01

    The Magellan data set constitutes an example of the large volumes of data that today's instruments can collect, providing more detail of Venus than was previously available from Pioneer Venus, Venera 15/16, or ground-based radar observations put together. However, data analysis technology has not kept pace with data collection and storage technology. Due to the sheer size of the data, complete and comprehensive scientific analysis of such large volumes of image data is no longer feasible without the use of computational aids. Our progress towards developing a pattern recognition system for aiding in the detection and cataloging of small-scale natural features in large collections of images is reported. Combining classical image processing, machine learning, and a graphical user interface, the detection of the 'small-shield' volcanoes (less than 15km in diameter) that constitute the most abundant visible geologic feature in the more that 30,000 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the surface of Venus are initially targeted. Our eventual goal is to provide a general, trainable tool for locating small-scale features where scientists specify what to look for simply by providing examples and attributes of interest to measure. This contrasts with the traditional approach of developing problem specific programs for detecting Specific patterns. The approach and initial results in the specific context of locating small volcanoes is reported. It is estimated, based on extrapolating from previous studies and knowledge of the underlying geologic processes, that there should be on the order of 10(exp 5) to 10(exp 6) of these volcanoes visible in the Magellan data. Identifying and studying these volcanoes is fundamental to a proper understanding of the geologic evolution of Venus. However, locating and parameterizing them in a manual manner is forbiddingly time-consuming. Hence, the development of techniques to partially automate this task were undertaken. The primary

  19. Dietary Assessment on a Mobile Phone Using Image Processing and Pattern Recognition Techniques: Algorithm Design and System Prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmine Probst

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dietary assessment, while traditionally based on pen-and-paper, is rapidly moving towards automatic approaches. This study describes an Australian automatic food record method and its prototype for dietary assessment via the use of a mobile phone and techniques of image processing and pattern recognition. Common visual features including scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT, local binary patterns (LBP, and colour are used for describing food images. The popular bag-of-words (BoW model is employed for recognizing the images taken by a mobile phone for dietary assessment. Technical details are provided together with discussions on the issues and future work.

  20. Super-resolution fluorescence imaging of nanoimprinted polymer patterns by selective fluorophore adsorption combined with redox switching

    KAUST Repository

    Yabiku, Y.

    2013-10-22

    We applied a super-resolution fluorescence imaging based on selective adsorption and redox switching of the fluorescent dye molecules for studying polymer nanostructures. We demonstrate that nano-scale structures of polymer thin films can be visualized with the image resolution better than 80 nm. The method was applied to image 100 nm-wide polymer nanopatterns fabricated by thermal nanoimprinting. The results point to the applicability of the method for evaluating residual polymer thin films and dewetting defect of the polymer resist patterns which are important for the quality control of the fine nanoimprinted patterns. 2013 Author(s).

  1. Cardiac Hematological Malignancies: Typical Growth Patterns, Imaging Features, and Clinical Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Peter; Wienbeck, Susanne; Weber, Marc-André; Oyama-Manabe, Noriko; Beimler, Maximilian; Schob, Stefan; Kahn, Thomas; Meyer, Hans Jonas; Randaxhe, Jan Frieso; Surov, Alexey

    2018-02-01

    Cardiac hematological malignancies (CHMs) are rare entities and comprise lymphoma, leukemic infiltration, and extramedullary manifestation of multiple myeloma. The aim of this work is to summarize typical growth patterns, imaging features, and outcome parameters of CHM. Overall, 12 cases from 4 centers were reviewed retrospectively together with 604 cases from the literature. Cardiac hematological malignancies were mainly represented by B-cell lymphoma (70.0%). Other entities were rarer. Almost half of the patients showed involvement of multiple cardiac structures. Most commonly right atrium, right ventricle, pericardium, left atrium, and left ventricle were affected in decreased order of frequency. Cardiac hematological malignancies manifested with 3 growth patterns: intracaval masses, heart wall infiltration, and pericardial effusion. Several subtypes of CHM tended to present with different patterns. Clinical presentation is unspecific-frequent signs were dyspnea (54.6%), arrhythmias (30.5%), and thoracic pain (18.5%). Outcome of CHM is poor with mean survival of 283.6 days for leukemias, 260.1 days for T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), 217.9 days for B-cell NHL, and 155.5 days for multiple myeloma.

  2. Perineural spread of pelvic malignancies to the lumbosacral plexus and beyond: clinical and imaging patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capek, Stepan; Howe, Benjamin M; Amrami, Kimberly K; Spinner, Robert J

    2015-09-01

    OBJECT Perineural spread along pelvic autonomie nerves has emerged as a logical, anatomical explanation for selected cases of neoplastic lumbosacral plexopathy (LSP) in patients with prostate, bladder, rectal, and cervical cancer. The authors wondered whether common radiological and clinical patterns shared by various types of pelvic cancer exist. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed their institutional series of 17 cases concluded as perineural tumor spread. All available history, physical examination, electrodiagnostic studies, biopsy data and imaging studies, evidence of other metastatic disease, and follow-up were recorded in detail. The series was divided into 2 groups: cases with neoplastic lumbosacral plexopathy confirmed by biopsy (Group A) and cases included based on imaging characteristics despite the lack of biopsy or negative biopsy results (Group B). RESULTS Group A comprised 10 patients (mean age 69 years); 9 patients were symptomatic and 1 was asymptomatic. The L5-S1 spinal nerves and sciatic nerve were most frequently involved. Three patients had intradural extension. Seven patients were alive at last follow-up. Group B consisted of 7 patients (mean age 64 years); 4 patients were symptomatic, 2 were asymptomatic, and 1 had only imaging available. The L5-S1 spinal nerves and the sciatic nerve were most frequently involved. No patients had intradural extension. Four patients were alive at last follow-up. CONCLUSIONS The authors provide a unifying theory to explain lumbosacral plexopathy in select cases of various pelvic neoplasms. The tumor cells can use splanchnic nerves as conduits and spread from the end organ to the lumbosacral plexus. Tumor can continue to spread along osseous and muscle nerve branches, resulting in muscle and bone "metastases." Radiological studies show a reproducible, although nonspecific pattern, and the same applies to clinical presentation.

  3. Gaussian pre-filtering for uncertainty minimization in digital image correlation using numerically-designed speckle patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoleni, Paolo; Matta, Fabio; Zappa, Emanuele; Sutton, Michael A.; Cigada, Alfredo

    2015-03-01

    This paper discusses the effect of pre-processing image blurring on the uncertainty of two-dimensional digital image correlation (DIC) measurements for the specific case of numerically-designed speckle patterns having particles with well-defined and consistent shape, size and spacing. Such patterns are more suitable for large measurement surfaces on large-scale specimens than traditional spray-painted random patterns without well-defined particles. The methodology consists of numerical simulations where Gaussian digital filters with varying standard deviation are applied to a reference speckle pattern. To simplify the pattern application process for large areas and increase contrast to reduce measurement uncertainty, the speckle shape, mean size and on-center spacing were selected to be representative of numerically-designed patterns that can be applied on large surfaces through different techniques (e.g., spray-painting through stencils). Such 'designer patterns' are characterized by well-defined regions of non-zero frequency content and non-zero peaks, and are fundamentally different from typical spray-painted patterns whose frequency content exhibits near-zero peaks. The effect of blurring filters is examined for constant, linear, quadratic and cubic displacement fields. Maximum strains between ±250 and ±20,000 με are simulated, thus covering a relevant range for structural materials subjected to service and ultimate stresses. The robustness of the simulation procedure is verified experimentally using a physical speckle pattern subjected to constant displacements. The stability of the relation between standard deviation of the Gaussian filter and measurement uncertainty is assessed for linear displacement fields at varying image noise levels, subset size, and frequency content of the speckle pattern. It is shown that bias error as well as measurement uncertainty are minimized through Gaussian pre-filtering. This finding does not apply to typical spray

  4. Theory of vibration protection

    CERN Document Server

    Karnovsky, Igor A

    2016-01-01

    This text is an advancement of the theory of vibration protection of mechanical systems with lumped and distributed parameters. The book offers various concepts and methods of solving vibration protection problems, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different methods, and the fields of their effective applications. Fundamental approaches of vibration protection, which are considered in this book, are the passive, parametric and optimal active vibration protection. The passive vibration protection is based on vibration isolation, vibration damping and dynamic absorbers. Parametric vibration protection theory is based on the Shchipanov-Luzin invariance principle. Optimal active vibration protection theory is based on the Pontryagin principle and the Krein moment method. The book also contains special topics such as suppression of vibrations at the source of their occurrence and the harmful influence of vibrations on humans. Numerous examples, which illustrate the theoretical ideas of each chapter, ar...

  5. Pattern Discovery in Brain Imaging Genetics via SCCA Modeling with a Generic Non-convex Penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lei; Liu, Kefei; Yao, Xiaohui; Yan, Jingwen; Risacher, Shannon L; Han, Junwei; Guo, Lei; Saykin, Andrew J; Shen, Li

    2017-10-25

    Brain imaging genetics intends to uncover associations between genetic markers and neuroimaging quantitative traits. Sparse canonical correlation analysis (SCCA) can discover bi-multivariate associations and select relevant features, and is becoming popular in imaging genetic studies. The L1-norm function is not only convex, but also singular at the origin, which is a necessary condition for sparsity. Thus most SCCA methods impose [Formula: see text]-norm onto the individual feature or the structure level of features to pursuit corresponding sparsity. However, the [Formula: see text]-norm penalty over-penalizes large coefficients and may incurs estimation bias. A number of non-convex penalties are proposed to reduce the estimation bias in regression tasks. But using them in SCCA remains largely unexplored. In this paper, we design a unified non-convex SCCA model, based on seven non-convex functions, for unbiased estimation and stable feature selection simultaneously. We also propose an efficient optimization algorithm. The proposed method obtains both higher correlation coefficients and better canonical loading patterns. Specifically, these SCCA methods with non-convex penalties discover a strong association between the APOE e4 rs429358 SNP and the hippocampus region of the brain. They both are Alzheimer's disease related biomarkers, indicating the potential and power of the non-convex methods in brain imaging genetics.

  6. Automated interpretation of subcellular patterns in fluorescence microscope images for location proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang; Velliste, Meel; Murphy, Robert F

    2006-07-01

    Proteomics, the large scale identification and characterization of many or all proteins expressed in a given cell type, has become a major area of biological research. In addition to information on protein sequence, structure and expression levels, knowledge of a protein's subcellular location is essential to a complete understanding of its functions. Currently, subcellular location patterns are routinely determined by visual inspection of fluorescence microscope images. We review here research aimed at creating systems for automated, systematic determination of location. These employ numerical feature extraction from images, feature reduction to identify the most useful features, and various supervised learning (classification) and unsupervised learning (clustering) methods. These methods have been shown to perform significantly better than human interpretation of the same images. When coupled with technologies for tagging large numbers of proteins and high-throughput microscope systems, the computational methods reviewed here enable the new subfield of location proteomics. This subfield will make critical contributions in two related areas. First, it will provide structured, high-resolution information on location to enable Systems Biology efforts to simulate cell behavior from the gene level on up. Second, it will provide tools for Cytomics projects aimed at characterizing the behaviors of all cell types before, during, and after the onset of various diseases. Copyright 2006 International Society for Analytical Cytology.

  7. Focal hemodynamic patterns of status epilepticus detected by susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aellen, Jerome; Kottke, Raimund; Springer, Elisabeth; Weisstanner, Christian; El-Koussy, Marwan; Schroth, Gerhard; Wiest, Roland; Gralla, Jan; Verma, Rajeev K. [University of Bern, University Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University Hospital Bern and Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); Abela, Eugenio; Schindler, Kaspar [University of Bern, Department of Neurology, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); Buerki, Sarah E. [Inselspital, Department of Neuropaediatrics, University Children' s Hospital, Bern (Switzerland)

    2014-11-15

    To investigate pathological findings in the susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) of patients experiencing convulsive (CSE) or non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) with focal hyperperfusion in the acute setting. Twelve patients (six with NCSE confirmed by electroencephalogram (EEG) and six patients with CSE with seizure event clinically diagnosed) underwent MRI in this acute setting (mean time between onset of symptoms and MRI was 3 h 8 min), including SWI, dynamic susceptibility contrast MR imaging (DSC) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). MRI sequences were retrospectively evaluated and compared with EEG findings (10/12 patients), and clinical symptoms. Twelve out of 12 (100 %) patients showed a focal parenchymal area with pseudo-narrowed cortical veins on SWI, associated with focal hyperperfused areas (increased cerebral blood flow (CBF) and mean transit time (MTT) shortening), and cortical DWI restriction in 6/12 patients (50 %). Additionally, these areas were associated with ictal or postical EEG patterns in 8/10 patients (80 %). Most frequent acute clinical findings were aphasia and/or hemiparesis in eight patients, and all of them showed pseudo-narrowed veins in those parenchymal areas responsible for these symptoms. In this study series with CSE and NCSE patients, SWI showed focally pseudo-narrowed cortical veins in hyperperfused and ictal parenchymal areas. Therefore, SWI might have the potential to identify an ictal region in CSE/NCSE. (orig.)

  8. Brain tumor segmentation and characterization by pattern analysis of multispectral NMR images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanian-Zadeh, H; Peck, D J; Windham, J P; Mikkelsen, T

    1998-01-01

    A major problem in tumor treatment planning and evaluation is determination of the tumor extent. This paper presents a pattern analysis methodology for segmentation and characterization of brain tumors from multispectral NMR images. The proposed approach has been used in 15 clinical studies of cerebral tumor patients who have been scheduled for surgical biopsy and resection. The tissue biopsy results, obtained at specific spatial coordinates determined in the analysis, have been utilized to validate the methodology. It was found that in all cases the lesion had extended into normal tissue, at least to the location where the sample was taken. In most cases, the proposed method suggested that the lesion had extended several millimetres beyond the point from where the biopsy sample was taken. In some cases, the extent of the lesion into normal tissue was well beyond the boundary seen on T1- or T2-weighted images. It is concluded that the proposed approach indicates brain tumor infiltration more precisely than what is visualized in the original NMR images and therefore its utilization facilitates proper treatment planning for the cerebral tumor patients.

  9. Simplified Classification of Capillary Pattern in Barrett Esophagus Using Magnifying Endoscopy With Narrow Band Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Goichi; Ishimura, Norihisa; Tada, Yasumasa; Tamagawa, Yuji; Yuki, Takafumi; Matsushita, Takashi; Ishihara, Shunji; Amano, Yuji; Maruyama, Riruke; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The classification of Barrett esophagus (BE) using magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging (ME-NBI) is not widely used in clinical settings because of its complexity. To establish a new simplified available classification using ME-NBI. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a single-referral center. One hundred eight consecutive patients with BE using ME-NBI and crystal violet (CV) chromoendoscopy, and histological findings were enrolled. BE areas observed by ME-NBI were classified as type I or II on the basis of capillary pattern (CP), and as closed or open type on the basis of a mucosal pit pattern using CV chromoendoscopy; then, biopsy samples were obtained. We evaluated the relation between CP and pit pattern, expression of the factors with malignant potential, percentage of microvascular density, and interobserver agreement. One hundred thirty lesions from 91 patients were analyzed. Type II CP had more open type pit pattern areas and significantly greater microvascular density than type I. The presence of dysplasia, specialized intestinal metaplasia, expressions of COX-2, CDX2, and CD34, and PCNA index were significantly higher in type II, whereas the multivariate analysis showed that type II was the best predictor for the presence of dysplasia (OR 11.14), CD34 expression (OR 3.60), and PCNA (OR 3.29). Interobserver agreement for this classification was substantial (κ = 0.66). A simplified CP classification based on observation with ME-NBI is presented. Our results indicate that the classification may be useful for surveillance of BE with high malignant potential. PMID:25621687

  10. Stroboscopic shearography for vibration analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinchen, Wolfgang; Kupfer, Gerhard; Maeckel, Peter; Voessing, Frank

    1999-09-01

    Digital Shearography, a laser interferometric technique in conjunction with the digital image processing, has the potential for vibration analysis due to its simple optical system and insensitivity against small rigid body motions. This paper will focus on its recent developments for vibration analysis and for nondestructive testing (NDT) by dynamic (harmonical) excitation. With the introduction of real time observation using automatically refreshing reference frame, both small and large rigid body motions are greatly suppressed. The development of a smaller and more mobile measuring device in conjunction with a user guided comfortable program Shearwin enables the digital shearography to be applied easily as an industrial online testing tool.

  11. Morphologic patterns and imaging features of intracranial hemangiopericytomas: a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang HP

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Haopeng Pang,1 Zhenwei Yao,1 Yan Ren,1 Guobing Liu,2 Jiawen Zhang,1 Xiaoyuan Feng1 1Department of Radiology, Affiliated Huashan Hospital of Fudan University, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Objectives: Hemangiopericytomas (HPCs are rare intracranial tumors. Their differential diagnosis using computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is difficult because of similarities in morphologic features with other intracranial tumors and meningiomas. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data and CT and MRI findings of 32 patients diagnosed with HPCs via histopathology. We evaluated the location, shape, morphologic patterns, density, and signal intensity of the tumors and classified them into four types. Results: The number of tumors analyzed was 32; 29 were supratentorial and three were infratentorial. Eighteen tumors were lobular, while 14 were oval in shape. Further, 28 tumors had cystic areas, and 16 had signal-void vessels. Among the 20 tumors that had been scanned by MRI; eleven showed isointensity, eight slight hyperintensity, and one slight hypointensity on T1-weighted image. Moreover, 12 showed isointensity, and eight showed slight hyperintensity on T2-weighted image and T2-weighted-fluid-attenuated-inversion recovery. Diffusion-weighted images showed isointensity (9/13 or slight hyperintensity (4/13. Of the 15 tumors scanned by contrast-enhanced MRI, one showed poor enhancement; six, moderate enhancement; and eight, intense enhancement. Only one tumor exhibited the “dural tail” sign. Moreover, calcification was observed in just one tumor on CT imaging (1/22. All tumors (5/5 showed intense enhancement on CT angiography, whereas some exhibited dual blood supply (2/5. Conclusion: We conclude that tumors present outside the brain parenchyma, with isointense to slightly intense regions on MRI scans, oval

  12. Pattern recognition of concrete surface cracks and defects using integrated image processing algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbin, Jessie R.; Hortinela, Carlos C.; Garcia, Ramon G.; Baylon, Sunnycille; Ignacio, Alexander Joshua; Rivera, Marco Antonio; Sebastian, Jaimie

    2017-06-01

    Pattern recognition of concrete surface crack defects is very important in determining stability of structure like building, roads or bridges. Surface crack is one of the subjects in inspection, diagnosis, and maintenance as well as life prediction for the safety of the structures. Traditionally determining defects and cracks on concrete surfaces are done manually by inspection. Moreover, any internal defects on the concrete would require destructive testing for detection. The researchers created an automated surface crack detection for concrete using image processing techniques including Hough transform, LoG weighted, Dilation, Grayscale, Canny Edge Detection and Haar Wavelet Transform. An automatic surface crack detection robot is designed to capture the concrete surface by sectoring method. Surface crack classification was done with the use of Haar trained cascade object detector that uses both positive samples and negative samples which proved that it is possible to effectively identify the surface crack defects.

  13. Image processing and pattern recognition algorithms for evaluation of crossed immunoelectrophoretic patterns (crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis analysis manager; CREAM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, I; Poulsen, L K; Hagerup, M

    1987-01-01

    A computerized method for automatic evaluation and comparison of crossed immunoelectrophoretic and crossed radioimmunoelectrophoretic patterns that requires limited hardware resources has been developed. For the initial reading of the plates an ordinary video camera is used. Feature extractors...

  14. Pattern and factors leading to the diffusion of magnetic resonance imaging in Korean hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Myung-Il; Park, Eun-Cheol; Lee, Sun-Hee; Nam, Chung Mo; Kang, Hye-Young; Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Cho, Woo-Hyun

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the diffusion patterns of new medical technologies in Korean hospitals. We also sought to identify critical factors leading to the decision to acquire capital-intensive medical technology. The rationale and timing of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisitions were retrospectively evaluated according to a "whether, when, and why" paradigm. We analyzed data pertaining to 232 hospitals with active medical residency programs. Of these, 185 hospitals owned or leased an MRI unit, and 47 had not acquired units as of June 2004. Data were collected from the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Korean National Statistical Office, and Korean Hospital Association databases, and variables were identified and classified as predisposing, enabling, or reinforcing factors. The MRI diffusion rate curve was linear for two types of hospital but was S-shaped for tertiary hospitals, which were early adopters of MRI. Significant predictors for MRI adoption included the per capita number of regional physicians (+), total number of existing regional MRI units (-), percentage of the regional population over 65 years of age (+), private ownership of the hospital, presence of a radiology residency program, number of beds (+), and regional per capita taxable income (+). Diffusion of MRI technology is occurring rapidly across Korean hospitals. The factors affecting MRI adoption in Korea are similar to the factors documented in other countries, namely regional population over age 65, regional income per capita, large hospitals, and teaching hospitals. This study provides baseline information for predicting diffusion patterns of other new and/or expensive medical technologies.

  15. Occult fracture patterns of the knee associated with anterior cruciate ligament tears: assessment with MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, P A; Walker, C W; Kilcoyne, R F; Brown, D E; Tusek, D; Dussault, R G

    1992-06-01

    One hundred consecutive magnetic resonance (MR) images of the knee in patients with acute complete anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears were reviewed to evaluate the prevalence and patterns of associated occult fractures. Eighty-nine occult fractures were identified in 56 knees. All occult fractures were in the posterior aspect of the lateral tibial plateau. Of these, occult fractures were isolated in 24 cases (43%) and were in combination with fractures in the middle aspect of the lateral femoral condyle in 26 (46%), with fractures in the posterior aspect of the medial tibial plateau in four (7%), and with fractures involving all three areas in one (2%). Disruption of the ACL under valgus stress leads to anterior translation of the tibia and relative external rotation of the femur. This allows impaction of the posterior portion of the lateral tibial plateau against the middle of the lateral femoral condyle and accounts for the unique pattern of occult fractures associated with ACL tears. An occult fracture of the posterior lateral tibial plateau with or without an associated fracture in the lateral femoral condyle ("kissing contusion") is a relatively frequent finding in acute ACL tears and, when present, is highly suggestive of such an associated tear.

  16. The healing pattern of osteoid osteomas on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging after thermocoagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderschueren, Geert M. [University Hospital of Ghent, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Ghent (Belgium); Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Albinusdreef 2, P.O. Box 9600, Leiden, RC (Netherlands); Taminiau, Antoni H.M. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedics, Albinusdreef 2, P.O. Box 9600, Leiden, RC (Netherlands); Obermann, Wim R.; Berg-Huysmans, Annette A. van den; Bloem, Johan L.; Erkel, Arian R. van [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Albinusdreef 2, P.O. Box 9600, Leiden, RC (Netherlands)

    2007-09-15

    To compare the healing pattern of osteoid osteomas on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after successful and unsuccessful thermocoagulation. Eighty-six patients were examined by CT and 18 patients by dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MRI before and after thermocoagulation for osteoid osteoma. Thermocoagulation was successful in 73% (63/86) and unsuccessful in 27% (23/86) of patients followed by CT. Thermocoagulation was successful in 72% (13/18) of patients followed by MRI. After treatment, the healing of the nidus on CT was evaluated using different healing patterns (complete ossification, minimal nidus rest, decreased size, unchanged size or thermonecrosis). On MRI the presence of reactive changes (joint effusion, ''oedema-like'' changes of bone marrow and soft tissue oedema) and the delay time (between arterial and nidus enhancement) were assessed and compared before and after thermocoagulation. Complete ossification or a minimal nidus rest was observed on CT in 58% (16/28) of treatment successes (with > 12 months follow-up), but not in treatment failures. ''Oedema-like'' changes of bone marrow and/or soft tissue oedema were seen on MR in all patients before thermocoagulation and in all treatment failures. However, residual ''oedema-like'' changes of bone marrow were also found in 69% (9/13) of treatment successes. An increased delay time was observed in 62% (8/13) of treatment successes and in 1/5 of treatment failures. Complete, or almost complete, ossification of the treated nidus on CT correlated with successful treatment. Absence of this ossification pattern, however, did not correlate with treatment failure. CT could not be used to identify the activity of the nidus following treatment. The value of MR parameters to assess residual activity of the nidus was limited in this study. (orig.)

  17. Diognostic accuracy of MR imaging and pattern of injury in the posterior cruciate ligament injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Hyup; Kim, Jang Ho; Kim, Sung Woo; Kim, Byung Young; Lee, Jong Gil [Fatima Hospital, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Hae Gyung [St. Fransisco Hospital, CA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of MR imaging in posterior cruciate ligament(PCL) injuries, to describe the variety of these injuries and to assess the type and frequency of associated knee injuries. We retrospetively analysed 75 cases with knee injuries. In all cases, the presence of a PCL tear was determined by arthroscopy or surgery and the type of tear and patterns of associated knee injuries were described. Twenty-eight PCL tears were identified with arthroscopy or surgery. Figures for the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MR diagnosis for the PCL injury were 86%, 94% and 91% respectively. Twenty-one cases(75%) had complete PCL tears and seven (25%) had partial tears. The commonest tear site was midsubstance(18 cases, 64.3%). Twenty-seven cases(96%) had associated knee injuries ; the remaining patient (4%) had isolated PCL injuries, There were 19 cases(68%) of ligamentous injuries, ten(36%) of meniscal tear, ten (36%) of bony injuries, and 20 (71%) of joint effusions. Of the ligamentous injuries, those involving the medial collateral ligament were most often seen(10 cases, 36%). MR imaging is an accurate method for the detection and evaluation of PCL injury and associated knee abnormalities.

  18. High-Resolution Spin-on-Patterning of Perovskite Thin Films for a Multiplexed Image Sensor Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woongchan; Lee, Jongha; Yun, Huiwon; Kim, Joonsoo; Park, Jinhong; Choi, Changsoon; Kim, Dong Chan; Seo, Hyunseon; Lee, Hakyong; Yu, Ji Woong; Lee, Won Bo; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2017-10-01

    Inorganic-organic hybrid perovskite thin films have attracted significant attention as an alternative to silicon in photon-absorbing devices mainly because of their superb optoelectronic properties. However, high-definition patterning of perovskite thin films, which is important for fabrication of the image sensor array, is hardly accomplished owing to their extreme instability in general photolithographic solvents. Here, a novel patterning process for perovskite thin films is described: the high-resolution spin-on-patterning (SoP) process. This fast and facile process is compatible with a variety of spin-coated perovskite materials and perovskite deposition techniques. The SoP process is successfully applied to develop a high-performance, ultrathin, and deformable perovskite-on-silicon multiplexed image sensor array, paving the road toward next-generation image sensor arrays. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Image decomposition model Shearlet-Hilbert-L2with better performance for denoising in ESPI fringe patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenjun; Tang, Chen; Su, Yonggang; Li, Biyuan; Lei, Zhenkun

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we propose an image decomposition model Shearlet-Hilbert-L 2 with better performance for denoising in electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) fringe patterns. In our model, the low-density fringes, high-density fringes, and noise are, respectively, described by shearlet smoothness spaces, adaptive Hilbert space, and L 2 space and processed individually. Because the shearlet transform has superior directional sensitivity, our proposed Shearlet-Hilbert-L 2 model achieves commendable filtering results for various types of ESPI fringe patterns, including uniform density fringe patterns, moderately variable density fringe patterns, and greatly variable density fringe patterns. We evaluate the performance of our proposed Shearlet-Hilbert-L 2 model via application to two computer-simulated and nine experimentally obtained ESPI fringe patterns with various densities and poor quality. Furthermore, we compare our proposed model with windowed Fourier filtering and coherence-enhancing diffusion, both of which are the state-of-the-art methods for ESPI fringe patterns denoising in transform domain and spatial domain, respectively. We also compare our proposed model with the previous image decomposition model BL-Hilbert-L 2 .

  20. Parkinson's disease-related perfusion and glucose metabolic brain patterns identified with PCASL-MRI and FDG-PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teune, Laura K; Renken, Remco J; de Jong, Bauke M; Willemsen, Antoon T; van Osch, Matthias J; Roerdink, Jos B T M; Dierckx, Rudi A; Leenders, Klaus L

    2014-01-01

    Under normal conditions, the spatial distribution of resting cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic rate of glucose are closely related. A relatively new magnetic resonance (MR) technique, pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (PCASL), can be used to measure regional brain perfusion. We identified a Parkinson's disease (PD)-related perfusion and metabolic covariance pattern in the same patients using PCASL and FDG-PET imaging and assessed (dis)similarities in the disease-related pattern between perfusion and metabolism in PD patients. Nineteen PD patients and seventeen healthy controls underwent [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging. Of 14 PD patients and all healthy controls PCASL-MRI could be obtained. Data were analyzed using scaled subprofile model/principal component analysis (SSM/PCA). Unique Parkinson's disease-related perfusion and metabolic covariance patterns were identified using PCASL and FDG-PET in the same patients. The PD-related metabolic covariance brain pattern is in high accordance with previously reports. Also our disease-related perfusion pattern is comparable to the earlier described perfusion pattern. The most marked difference between our perfusion and metabolic patterns is the larger perfusion decrease in cortical regions including the insula. We identified PD-related perfusion and metabolic brain patterns using PCASL and FDG-PET in the same patients which were comparable with results of existing research. In this respect, PCASL appears to be a promising addition in the early diagnosis of individual parkinsonian patients.

  1. Strain measurement in helium implanted polycristal using image analysis in laue Micro X-ray diffraction patterns

    OpenAIRE

    IBRAHIM, Marcelle; CASTELLIER, Etienne; Palancher, Hervé; RICHARD, Axel; Goudeau, P.; Bornert, Michel; Care, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the long term behaviour of used nuclear fuel, UO2 polycrystalline samples were implanted by Helium ions. The thin implanted layer, close to the sample surface, is elastically stressed. X-ray micro-diffraction (X- XRD) can be used to measure the induced strain on about 700 different grains of the polycrystal. Image analysis on the Laue diffraction patterns is required for an accurate strain estimation. Three methods to interpret the Laue pattern are developped in this study. ...

  2. Modelling patterns of pollinator species richness and diversity using satellite image texture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Hofmann

    Full Text Available Assessing species richness and diversity on the basis of standardised field sampling effort represents a cost- and time-consuming method. Satellite remote sensing (RS can help overcome these limitations because it facilitates the collection of larger amounts of spatial data using cost-effective techniques. RS information is hence increasingly analysed to model biodiversity across space and time. Here, we focus on image texture measures as a proxy for spatial habitat heterogeneity, which has been recognized as an important determinant of species distributions and diversity. Using bee monitoring data of four years (2010-2013 from six 4 × 4 km field sites across Central Germany and a multimodel inference approach we test the ability of texture features derived from Landsat-TM imagery to model local pollinator biodiversity. Textures were shown to reflect patterns of bee diversity and species richness to some extent, with the first-order entropy texture and terrain roughness being the most relevant indicators. However, the texture measurements accounted for only 3-5% of up to 60% of the variability that was explained by our final models, although the results are largely consistent across different species groups (bumble bees, solitary bees. While our findings provide indications in support of the applicability of satellite imagery textures for modeling patterns of bee biodiversity, they are inconsistent with the high predictive power of texture metrics reported in previous studies for avian biodiversity. We assume that our texture data captured mainly heterogeneity resulting from landscape configuration, which might be functionally less important for wild bees than compositional diversity of plant communities. Our study also highlights the substantial variability among taxa in the applicability of texture metrics for modelling biodiversity.

  3. Modelling patterns of pollinator species richness and diversity using satellite image texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Sylvia; Everaars, Jeroen; Schweiger, Oliver; Frenzel, Mark; Bannehr, Lutz; Cord, Anna F

    2017-01-01

    Assessing species richness and diversity on the basis of standardised field sampling effort represents a cost- and time-consuming method. Satellite remote sensing (RS) can help overcome these limitations because it facilitates the collection of larger amounts of spatial data using cost-effective techniques. RS information is hence increasingly analysed to model biodiversity across space and time. Here, we focus on image texture measures as a proxy for spatial habitat heterogeneity, which has been recognized as an important determinant of species distributions and diversity. Using bee monitoring data of four years (2010-2013) from six 4 × 4 km field sites across Central Germany and a multimodel inference approach we test the ability of texture features derived from Landsat-TM imagery to model local pollinator biodiversity. Textures were shown to reflect patterns of bee diversity and species richness to some extent, with the first-order entropy texture and terrain roughness being the most relevant indicators. However, the texture measurements accounted for only 3-5% of up to 60% of the variability that was explained by our final models, although the results are largely consistent across different species groups (bumble bees, solitary bees). While our findings provide indications in support of the applicability of satellite imagery textures for modeling patterns of bee biodiversity, they are inconsistent with the high predictive power of texture metrics reported in previous studies for avian biodiversity. We assume that our texture data captured mainly heterogeneity resulting from landscape configuration, which might be functionally less important for wild bees than compositional diversity of plant communities. Our study also highlights the substantial variability among taxa in the applicability of texture metrics for modelling biodiversity.

  4. Modelling patterns of pollinator species richness and diversity using satellite image texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaars, Jeroen; Schweiger, Oliver; Frenzel, Mark; Bannehr, Lutz; Cord, Anna F.

    2017-01-01

    Assessing species richness and diversity on the basis of standardised field sampling effort represents a cost- and time-consuming method. Satellite remote sensing (RS) can help overcome these limitations because it facilitates the collection of larger amounts of spatial data using cost-effective techniques. RS information is hence increasingly analysed to model biodiversity across space and time. Here, we focus on image texture measures as a proxy for spatial habitat heterogeneity, which has been recognized as an important determinant of species distributions and diversity. Using bee monitoring data of four years (2010–2013) from six 4 × 4 km field sites across Central Germany and a multimodel inference approach we test the ability of texture features derived from Landsat-TM imagery to model local pollinator biodiversity. Textures were shown to reflect patterns of bee diversity and species richness to some extent, with the first-order entropy texture and terrain roughness being the most relevant indicators. However, the texture measurements accounted for only 3–5% of up to 60% of the variability that was explained by our final models, although the results are largely consistent across different species groups (bumble bees, solitary bees). While our findings provide indications in support of the applicability of satellite imagery textures for modeling patterns of bee biodiversity, they are inconsistent with the high predictive power of texture metrics reported in previous studies for avian biodiversity. We assume that our texture data captured mainly heterogeneity resulting from landscape configuration, which might be functionally less important for wild bees than compositional diversity of plant communities. Our study also highlights the substantial variability among taxa in the applicability of texture metrics for modelling biodiversity. PMID:28973006

  5. Image analysis of neural stem cell division patterns in the zebrafish brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupperger, Valerio; Buggenthin, Felix; Chapouton, Prisca; Marr, Carsten

    2017-11-10

    Proliferating stem cells in the adult body are the source of constant regeneration. In the brain, neural stem cells (NSCs) divide to maintain the stem cell population and generate neural progenitor cells that eventually replenish mature neurons and glial cells. How much spatial coordination of NSC division and differentiation is present in a functional brain is an open question. To quantify the patterns of stem cell divisions, one has to (i) identify the pool of NSCs that have the ability to divide, (ii) determine NSCs that divide within a given time window, and (iii) analyze the degree of spatial coordination. Here, we present a bioimage informatics pipeline that automatically identifies GFP expressing NSCs in three-dimensional image stacks of zebrafish brain from whole-mount preparations. We exploit the fact that NSCs in the zebrafish hemispheres are located on a two-dimensional surface and identify between 1,500 and 2,500 NSCs in six brain hemispheres. We then determine the position of dividing NSCs in the hemisphere by EdU incorporation into cells undergoing S-phase and calculate all pairwise NSC distances with three alternative metrics. Finally, we fit a probabilistic model to the observed spatial patterns that accounts for the non-homogeneous distribution of NSCs. We find a weak positive coordination between dividing NSCs irrespective of the metric and conclude that neither strong inhibitory nor strong attractive signals drive NSC divisions in the adult zebrafish brain. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  6. Phenotypic patterns of right ventricular dysfunction: analysis by cardiac magnetic imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Zorio-Grima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to classify the morphological changes and remodeling of the right ventricle (RV that occur in different clinical situations and that have an impact on RV function. Most literature has traditionally focused on the left ventricle (LV and as a result, few studies analyze RV behavior and remodeling. The study evaluated all cardiac MRI performed at our center from 2008 to 2010. We retrospectively identified 159 patients who had some sign of right ventricular dysfunction (RVD based on MRI findings. We classified patients according to a combination of criteria for RVD and the presence of left ventricle dysfunction (LVD. We considered RVD as any of the following abnormalities: i depressed RV function; ii RV dilatation; iii RV hypertrophy. LVD was considered when there was atrial dilatation, LV hypertrophy, LV dilatation and/or depressed LV function. We obtained 6 pathophysiological patterns: RV pressure overload (1.9%, RV volume overload (15.7%, RV volume overload + LVD (32.7%, depressed RV function + LVD (42.1%, mixed RV overload + LVD (6.9% and other (0.6%. The most frequent etiology was congenital heart disease (33.3%, followed by idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (18.2%, left valvular disease (17.6%, ischemic heart disease (15%, pulmonary disease (9.8%, and other (6.1%. This study helps to classify the different patterns that RV can adopt in different clinical situations and can, therefore, help us to understand the RV pathophysiology.

  7. Study on subset size selection in digital image correlation for speckle patterns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bing Pan; Huimin Xie; Zhaoyang Wang; Kemao Qian; Zhiyong Wang

    2008-01-01

    Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is a flexible and effective technique to measure the displacements on specimen surfaces by matching the reference subsets in the undeformed image with the target subsets in the deformed image...

  8. Optimizing image-based patterned defect inspection through FDTD simulations at multiple ultraviolet wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Bryan M.; Zhou, Hui; Henn, Mark-Alexander; Sohn, Martin Y.; Silver, Richard M.

    2017-06-01

    The sizes of non-negligible defects in the patterning of a semiconductor device continue to decrease as the dimensions for these devices are reduced. These "killer defects" disrupt the performance of the device and must be adequately controlled during manufacturing, and new solutions are required to improve optics-based defect inspection. To this end, our group has reported [Barnes et al., Proc. SPIE 1014516 (2017)] our initial five-wavelength simulation study, evaluating the extensibility of defect inspection by reducing the inspection wavelength from a deep-ultraviolet wavelength to wavelengths in the vacuum ultraviolet and the extreme ultraviolet. In that study, a 47 nm wavelength yielded enhancements in the signal to noise (SNR) by a factor of five compared to longer wavelengths and in the differential intensities by as much as three orders-of-magnitude compared to 13 nm. This paper briefly reviews these recent findings and investigates the possible sources for these disparities between results at 13 nm and 47 nm wavelengths. Our in-house finite-difference time-domain code (FDTD) is tested in both two and three dimensions to determine how computational conditions contributed to the results. A modified geometry and materials stack is presented that offers a second viewpoint of defect detectability as functions of wavelength, polarization, and defect type. Reapplication of the initial SNR-based defect metric again yields no detection of a defect at λ = 13 nm, but additional image preprocessing now enables the computation of the SNR for λ = 13 nm simulated images and has led to a revised defect metric that allows comparisons at all five wavelengths.

  9. The spatiotemporal pattern of Src activation at lipid rafts revealed by diffusion-corrected FRET imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoying Lu

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetically encoded biosensors based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET have been widely applied to visualize the molecular activity in live cells with high spatiotemporal resolution. However, the rapid diffusion of biosensor proteins hinders a precise reconstruction of the actual molecular activation map. Based on fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP experiments, we have developed a finite element (FE method to analyze, simulate, and subtract the diffusion effect of mobile biosensors. This method has been applied to analyze the mobility of Src FRET biosensors engineered to reside at different subcompartments in live cells. The results indicate that the Src biosensor located in the cytoplasm moves 4-8 folds faster (0.93+/-0.06 microm(2/sec than those anchored on different compartments in plasma membrane (at lipid raft: 0.11+/-0.01 microm(2/sec and outside: 0.18+/-0.02 microm(2/sec. The mobility of biosensor at lipid rafts is slower than that outside of lipid rafts and is dominated by two-dimensional diffusion. When this diffusion effect was subtracted from the FRET ratio images, high Src activity at lipid rafts was observed at clustered regions proximal to the cell periphery, which remained relatively stationary upon epidermal growth factor (EGF stimulation. This result suggests that EGF induced a Src activation at lipid rafts with well-coordinated spatiotemporal patterns. Our FE-based method also provides an integrated platform of image analysis for studying molecular mobility and reconstructing the spatiotemporal activation maps of signaling molecules in live cells.

  10. Comparison of the diagnostic ability of blue laser imaging magnification versus pit pattern analysis for colorectal polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Arihiro; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Yamamura, Takeshi; Watanabe, Osamu; Nakamura, Masanao; Funasaka, Kohei; Ohno, Eizaburo; Kawashima, Hiroki; Miyahara, Ryoji; Goto, Hidemi

    2017-04-01

    Background and study aims There have been few evaluations of the diagnostic ability of new narrow band light observation blue laser imaging (BLI). The present prospective study compared the diagnostic ability of BLI magnification and pit pattern analysis for colorectal polyps. Patients and methods We collected lesions prospectively, and the analysis of images was made by two endoscopists, retrospectively. A total of 799 colorectal polyps were examined by BLI magnification and pit pattern analysis at Nagoya University Hospital. The Hiroshima narrow-band imaging classification was used for BLI. Differentiation of neoplastic from non-neoplastic lesions and diagnosis of deeply invasive submucosal cancer (dSM) were compared between BLI magnification and pit pattern analysis. Type C2 in the Hiroshima classification was evaluated separately, because application of this category as an index of the depth of cancer invasion was considered difficult. Results We analyzed 748 colorectal polyps, excluding 51 polyps that were inflammatory polyps, sessile serrated adenoma/polyps, serrated adenomas, advanced colorectal cancers, or other lesions. The accuracy of differential diagnosis between neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions was 98.4 % using BLI magnification and 98.7 % with pit pattern analysis. In addition, the diagnostic accuracy of BLI magnification and pit pattern analysis for dSM for cancer was 89.5 % and 92.1 %, respectively. When type C2 lesions were excluded, the diagnostic accuracy of BLI for dSM was 95.9 %. The 18 type C2 lesions comprised 1 adenoma, 9 intramucosal or slightly invasive submucosal cancers, and 8 dSM. Pit pattern analysis allowed accurate diagnosis of the depth of invasion in 13 lesions (72.2 %). Conclusions Most colorectal polyps could be diagnosed accurately by BLI magnification without pit pattern analysis, but we should add pit pattern analysis for type C2 lesions in the Hiroshima classification.

  11. No-reference stereoscopic image quality measurement based on generalized local ternary patterns of binocular energy response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wujie; Yu, Lu

    2015-09-01

    Perceptual no-reference (NR) quality measurement of stereoscopic images has become a challenging issue in three-dimensional (3D) imaging fields. In this article, we propose an efficient binocular quality-aware features extraction scheme, namely generalized local ternary patterns (GLTP) of binocular energy response, for general-purpose NR stereoscopic image quality measurement (SIQM). More specifically, we first construct the binocular energy response of a distorted stereoscopic image with different stimuli of amplitude and phase shifts. Then, the binocular quality-aware features are generated from the GLTP of the binocular energy response. Finally, these features are mapped to the subjective quality score of the distorted stereoscopic image by using support vector regression. Experiments on two publicly available 3D databases confirm the effectiveness of the proposed metric compared with the state-of-the-art full reference and NR metrics.

  12. Using composite sinusoidal patterns in structured-illumination reflectance imaging (SIRI) for enhanced detection of defects in food

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study presented a first exploration of using composite sinusoidal patterns that integrated two and three spatial frequencies of interest, in structured-illumination reflectance imaging (SIRI) for enhanced detection of defects in food (e.g., bruises in apples). Three methods based on Fourier tra...

  13. Patterns of Body Image Concerns and Disordered Weight- and Shape-Related Behaviors in Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Corliss, Heather L.; Scherer, Emily A.; Field, Alison E.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates body image concerns and disordered weight- and shape-related behaviors across adolescence and young adulthood in males and how patterns vary by sexual orientation. Participants were 5,388 males from the U.S. national Growing Up Today Study. In 2001, 2003, and 2005 (spanning ages 15-20 years), participants reported sexual…

  14. Observer agreement in the assessment of narrow-band imaging system surface patterns in Barrett's esophagus : a multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, M.; Bansal, A.; Curvers, W. L.; Kara, M. A.; Wani, S. B.; Herrero, L. Alvarez; Lynch, C. R.; van Kouwen, M. C. A.; Peters, F. T.; Keighley, J. D.; Rastogi, A.; Pondugula, K.; Kim, R.; Singh, V.; Gaddam, S.; Bergman, J. J.; Sharma, P.

    Background and study aims: The clinical utility of narrow-band imaging (NBI) for Barrett's esophagus is limited by the multiplicity of classification schemes. We evaluated the interobserver agreement and accuracy of a new consensus-driven simplified binary classification of NBI surface patterns.

  15. NDER: A novel web application using annotated whole slide images for rapid improvements in human pattern recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas P Reder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Whole-slide images (WSIs present a rich source of information for education, training, and quality assurance. However, they are often used in a fashion similar to glass slides rather than in novel ways that leverage the advantages of WSI. We have created a pipeline to transform annotated WSI into pattern recognition training, and quality assurance web application called novel diagnostic electronic resource (NDER. Aims: Create an efficient workflow for extracting annotated WSI for use by NDER, an attractive web application that provides high-throughput training. Materials and Methods: WSI were annotated by a resident and classified into five categories. Two methods of extracting images and creating image databases were compared. Extraction Method 1: Manual extraction of still images and validation of each image by four breast pathologists. Extraction Method 2: Validation of annotated regions on the WSI by a single experienced breast pathologist and automated extraction of still images tagged by diagnosis. The extracted still images were used by NDER. NDER briefly displays an image, requires users to classify the image after time has expired, then gives users immediate feedback. Results: The NDER workflow is efficient: annotation of a WSI requires 5 min and validation by an expert pathologist requires An additional one to 2 min. The pipeline is highly automated, with only annotation and validation requiring human input. NDER effectively displays hundreds of high-quality, high-resolution images and provides immediate feedback to users during a 30 min session. Conclusions: NDER efficiently uses annotated WSI to rapidly increase pattern recognition and evaluate for diagnostic proficiency.

  16. A graphical model approach to automated classification of protein subcellular location patterns in multi-cell images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Robert F

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of the subcellular location of a protein is critical to understanding how that protein works in a cell. This location is frequently determined by the interpretation of fluorescence microscope images. In recent years, automated systems have been developed for consistent and objective interpretation of such images so that the protein pattern in a single cell can be assigned to a known location category. While these systems perform with nearly perfect accuracy for single cell images of all major subcellular structures, their ability to distinguish subpatterns of an organelle (such as two Golgi proteins is not perfect. Our goal in the work described here was to improve the ability of an automated system to decide which of two similar patterns is present in a field of cells by considering more than one cell at a time. Since cells displaying the same location pattern are often clustered together, considering multiple cells may be expected to improve discrimination between similar patterns. Results We describe how to take advantage of information on experimental conditions to construct a graphical representation for multiple cells in a field. Assuming that a field is composed of a small number of classes, the classification accuracy can be improved by allowing the computed probability of each pattern for each cell to be influenced by the probabilities of its neighboring cells in the model. We describe a novel way to allow this influence to occur, in which we adjust the prior probabilities of each class to reflect the patterns that are present. When this graphical model approach is used on synthetic multi-cell images in which the true class of each cell is known, we observe that the ability to distinguish similar classes is improved without suffering any degradation in ability to distinguish dissimilar classes. The computational complexity of the method is sufficiently low that improved assignments of classes can be

  17. 18F-Fluorothymidine-Pet Imaging of Glioblastoma Multiforme: Effects of Radiation Therapy on Radiotracer Uptake and Molecular Biomarker Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Chandrasekaran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. PET imaging is a useful clinical tool for studying tumor progression and treatment effects. Conventional 18F-FDG-PET imaging is of limited usefulness for imaging Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM due to high levels of glucose uptake by normal brain and the resultant signal-to-noise intensity. 18F-Fluorothymidine (FLT in contrast has shown promise for imaging GBM, as thymidine is taken up preferentially by proliferating cells. These studies were undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of 18F-FLT-PET in a GBM mouse model, especially after radiation therapy (RT, and its correlation with useful biomarkers, including proliferation and DNA damage. Methods. Nude/athymic mice with human GBM orthografts were assessed by microPET imaging with 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT. Patterns of tumor PET imaging were then compared to immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence for markers of proliferation (Ki-67, DNA damage and repair (γH2AX, hypoxia (HIF-1α, and angiogenesis (VEGF. Results. We confirmed that 18F-FLT-PET uptake is limited in healthy mice but enhanced in the intracranial tumors. Our data further demonstrate that 18F-FLT-PET imaging usefully reflects the inhibition of tumor by RT and correlates with changes in biomarker expression. Conclusions. 18F-FLT-PET imaging is a promising tumor imaging modality for GBM, including assessing RT effects and biologically relevant biomarkers.

  18. Behavior of Cell on Vibrating Micro Ridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Hino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of micro ridges on cells cultured at a vibrating scaffold has been studied in vitro. Several parallel lines of micro ridges have been made on a disk of transparent polydimethylsiloxane for a scaffold. To apply the vibration on the cultured cells, a piezoelectric element was attached on the outside surface of the bottom of the scaffold. The piezoelectric element was vibrated by the sinusoidal alternating voltage (Vp-p < 16 V at 1.0 MHz generated by a function generator. Four kinds of cells were used in the test: L929 (fibroblast connective tissue of C3H mouse, Hepa1-6 (mouse hepatoma, C2C12 (mouse myoblast, 3T3-L1 (mouse fat precursor cells. The cells were seeded on the micro pattern at the density of 2000 cells/cm2 in the medium containing 10% FBS (fetal bovine serum and 1% penicillin/ streptomycin. After the adhesion of cells in several hours, the cells are exposed to the ultrasonic vibration for several hours. The cells were observed with a phase contrast microscope. The experimental results show that the cells adhere, deform and migrate on the scaffold with micro patterns regardless of the ultrasonic vibration. The effects of the vibration and the micro pattern depend on the kind of cells.

  19. Resistivity imaging reveals complex pattern of saltwater intrusion along Monterey coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Meredith; Pidlisecky, Adam; Knight, Rosemary

    2017-08-01

    Electrical Resistivity Tomography data were acquired along 40 km of the Monterey Bay coast in central California. These data resulted in electrical resistivity images to depths of approximately 280 m.b.s.l., which were used to understand the distribution of freshwater and saltwater in the subsurface, and factors controlling this distribution. The resulting resistivity sections were interpreted in conjunction with existing data sets, including well logs, seismic reflection data, geologic reports, hydrologic reports, and land use maps from the region. Interpretation of these data shows a complex pattern of saltwater intrusion resulting from geology, pumping, and recharge. The resistivity profiles were used to identify geological flow conduits and barriers such as palaeo-channels and faults, localized saltwater intrusion from individual pumping wells, infiltration zones of surface fresh and brackish water, and regions showing improvements in water quality due to management actions. The use of ERT data for characterizing the subsurface in this region has led to an understanding of the spatial distribution of freshwater and saltwater at a level of detail unattainable with the previously deployed traditional well based salinity mapping and monitoring techniques alone. Significant spatial variability in the extent and geometry of intrusion observed in the acquired data highlights the importance of adopting continuous subsurface characterization methods such as this one.

  20. Soft X-Ray Magnetic Imaging of Focused Ion Beam Lithographically Patterned Fe Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Paul J.; Shen, Tichan H.; Grundy, PhilJ.; Im, Mi Young; Fischer, Peter; Morton, Simon A.; Kilcoyne, Arthur D.L.

    2008-11-09

    We illustrate the potential of modifying the magnetic behavior and structural properties of ferromagnetic thin films using focused ion beam 'direct-write' lithography. Patterns inspired by the split-ring resonators often used as components in meta-materials were defined upon 15 nm Fe films using a 30 keV Ga{sup +} focused ion beam at a dose of 2 x 10{sup 16} ions cm{sup -2}. Structural, chemical and magnetic changes to the Fe were studied using transmission soft X-ray microscopy at the ALS, Berkeley CA. X-ray absorption spectra showed a 23% reduction in the thickness of the film in the Ga irradiated areas, but no change to the chemical environment of Fe was evident. X-ray images of the magnetic reversal process show domain wall pinning around the implanted areas, resulting in an overall increase in the coercivity of the film. Transmission electron microscopy showed significant grain growth in the implanted regions.

  1. Brain palpation from physiological vibrations using MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Zorgani, Ali; Souchon, Rémi; Dinh, Au-Hoang; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Ménager, Jean-Michel; Lounis, Samir; Rouvière, Olivier; Catheline, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly supposed that noise obscures but does not contain useful information. However, in wave physics and especially, seismology, scientists developed some tools known as “noise correlation” to extract useful information and construct images from the random vibrations of a medium. Living tissues are full of unexploited vibrations as well. In this manuscript, we show that noise correlation techniques in the brain using MRI can conduct to a tomography related to the stiffness that physi...

  2. High-speed optical measurement for the drumhead vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qican; Su, Xianyu

    2005-04-01

    In this paper, a high-speed optical measurement for the vibrating drumhead is presented and verified by experiment. A projected sinusoidal fringe pattern on the measured drumhead is dynamically deformed with the vibration of the membrane and grabbed by a high-speed camera. The shape deformation of the drumhead at each sampling instant can be recovered from this sequence of obtained fringe patterns. The vibration of the membrane of a Chinese drum has been measured with a high speed sampling rate (1,000 fps) and a standard deviation (0.075 mm). The restored vibration of the drumhead is also presented in an animation.

  3. Tunable Passive Vibration Suppressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boechler, Nicholas (Inventor); Dillon, Robert Peter (Inventor); Daraio, Chiara (Inventor); Davis, Gregory L. (Inventor); Shapiro, Andrew A. (Inventor); Borgonia, John Paul C. (Inventor); Kahn, Daniel Louis (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An apparatus and method for vibration suppression using a granular particle chain. The granular particle chain is statically compressed and the end particles of the chain are attached to a payload and vibration source. The properties of the granular particles along with the amount of static compression are chosen to provide desired filtering of vibrations.

  4. Vibrations and Eigenvalues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We make music by causing strings, membranes, or air columns to vibrate. Engineers design safe structures by control- ling vibrations. I will describe to you a very simple vibrating system and the mathematics needed to analyse it. The ideas were born in the work of Joseph-Louis Lagrange (1736–1813), and I begin by quot-.

  5. Membrane Vibration Analysis Above the Nyquist Limit with Fluorescence Videogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrington, Adrian A.; Jones, Thomas W.; Danehy, Paul M.; Pappa, Richard S.

    2004-01-01

    A new method for generating photogrammetric targets by projecting an array of laser beams onto a membrane doped with fluorescent laser dye has recently been developed. In this paper we review this new fluorescence based technique, then proceed to show how it can be used for dynamic measurements, and how a short pulsed (10 ns) laser allows the measurement of vibration modes at frequencies several times the sampling frequency. In addition, we present experimental results showing the determination of fundamental and harmonic vibration modes of a drum style dye-doped polymer membrane tautly mounted on a 12-inch circular hoop and excited with 30 Hz and 62 Hz sinusoidal acoustic waves. The projected laser dot pattern was generated by passing the beam from a pulsed Nd:YAG laser though a diffractive optical element, and the resulting fluorescence was imaged with three digital video cameras, all of which were synchronized with a pulse and delay generator. Although the video cameras are capable of 240 Hz frame rates, the laser s output was limited to 30 Hz and below. Consequently, aliasing techniques were used to allow the measurement of vibration modes up to 186 Hz with a Nyquist limit of less than 15 Hz.

  6. Photopolymer diffractive optical elements in electronic speckle pattern shearing interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaylova, Emilia; Naydenova, Izabela; Duignan, Barry; Martin, Suzanne; Toal, Vincent

    2006-09-01

    In this paper we present an electronic speckle pattern shearing interferometer using a photopolymer diffractive optical element in the form of a holographic grating, in combination with a ground glass to shear the images. The sheared images on the ground glass are further imaged onto a CCD camera. The distance between the grating and the ground glass can be used to control the shear and to vary the sensitivity of the system. The direction of sensitivity is easily controlled by rotation of the diffraction grating around its normal. Introducing photopolymer holographic gratings in ESPSI gives the advantage of using high aperture optical elements at relatively low cost. The fact that the diffractive optical element is a photopolymer layer on glass substrate with thickness of 2 mm makes for a compact optical system. The system was successfully used for detection of the resonant frequencies of a vibrating object. Most of the published work on vibration analysis is analytical. Very few experimental results are available in the literature. The well known laser Doppler vibrometers (LDV) and accelerometers used for modal analysis are pointwise measurement techniques, although multipoint LDV is available at significant cost. Electronic speckle pattern techniques suitable for experimental detection of the resonant frequencies of vibrating objects are very promising for vibration analysis because they are whole field and non-contact. A finite element model is developed for prediction of the vibration modes of the object under test. Detection of vibrational modes of aluminium diaphragm is demonstrated and compared with the theoretical model. The results obtained are very promising for future application of ESPSI systems with HOEs, for modal analysis. A significant advantage of shearography over electronic speckle pattern interferometry is that ESPSI is relatively insensitive to external disturbances. Another advantage of the proposed system is that it could be easily converted

  7. Polymeric spatial resolution test patterns for mass spectrometry imaging using nano-thermal analysis with atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Tamin; Kertesz, Vilmos; Lin, Ming-Wei; Srijanto, Bernadeta R; Hensley, Dale K; Xiao, Kai; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2017-07-30

    As the spatial resolution of mass spectrometry imaging technologies has begun to reach into the nanometer regime, finding readily available or easily made resolution reference materials has become particularly challenging for molecular imaging purposes. This paper describes the fabrication, characterization and use of vertical line array polymeric spatial resolution test patterns for nano-thermal analysis/atomic force microscopy/mass spectrometry chemical imaging. Test patterns of varied line width (0.7 or 1.0 μm) and spacing (0.7 or 1.0 μm) were created in an ~1-μm-thick poly(methyl methacrylate) thin film using electron beam lithography. The patterns were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy topography and nano-thermal analysis/mass spectrometry imaging. The efficacy of these polymeric test patterns for the advancement of chemical imaging techniques was illustrated by their use to judge the spatial resolution improvement achieved by heating the ionization interface of the current instrument platform. The spatial resolution of the mass spectral chemical images was estimated to be 1.4 μm, based on the ability to statistically distinguish 0.7-μm-wide lines separated by 0.7-μm-wide spacings in those images when the interface cross was heated to 200°C. This work illustrates that e-beam lithography is a viable method to create spatial resolution test patterns in a thin film of high molecular weight polymer to allow unbiased judgment of intra-laboratory advancement and/or inter-laboratory comparison of instrument advances in nano-thermal analysis/atomic force microscopy/mass spectrometry chemical imaging. Published in 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published in 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Real-time dual visualization of two different modalities for the evaluation of vocal fold vibration - Laryngeal videoendoscopy and 2D scanning videokymography: Preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geun-Hyo; Wang, Soo-Geun; Lee, Byung-Joo; Park, Hee-June; Kim, Yong-Cheol; Kim, Hyung-Soon; Sohn, Keon-Tae; Kwon, Soon-Bok

    2017-04-01

    Currently, various tools have been introduced for the assessment of vocal fold vibration: laryngeal videolaryngoscopy (LV), videokymography (VKG), high speed videoendoscopy (HSV), digital videokymography (DKG), and 2D scanning videokymography (2D VKG). Among these, the authors have recently designed a dual modality examination system using LV and 2D VKG for more detailed information regarding the vibrations of the vocal folds. The clinical availability of this hybrid system offers medical imaging departments a range of potential advantages in the evaluation of vocal fold vibration. The obvious benefit of simultaneous acquisition is the improved integration of information that allows not only optimal anatomic localization, but also physical movement patterns. Other advantages include the lessened inconvenience to patients due to no longer requiring repeated examinations and shortening the examination time, and increased profitability. The purpose of study was to identify the efficacy of real-time dual examination of two different modalities for the evaluation of vocal fold vibration in human subjects and vocal fold vibration simulator. One vocally healthy subject and three patients with vocal fold nodules, a vocal cyst, and vocal fold paralysis took part in this study. The vibratory patterns of the vocal folds were visualized using simultaneous real-time examination of two different modalities. Additionally, qualitative and quantitative analyses of the dual LV and 2D VKG images were performed. Real-time dual examination using a two modality system provided high definition images of the vibratory movements of the vocal folds. By assessing the obtained images, we confirmed that the dual modality examination method was useful in the evaluation of pathologic vibratory patterns, even in non-periodic phonation. The present system might improve the understanding of the processes of vocal fold vibration and make a contribution to pathologic voice research, as well as

  9. Magnetic imaging of ion-irradiation patterned Co/Pt multilayers using complementary electron and photon probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusinski, G.J.; Krishnan, K.M.; Denbeaux, G.; Thomas, G.; Terris, B.D.; Weller, D.

    2001-04-01

    The three-dimensional magnetic structure and reversal mechanism of patterned Co/Pt multilayers, were imaged using complementary Lorentz transmission electron microscopy (LTEM) (in-plane component) and magnetic transmission x-ray microscopy (M-TXM) (perpendicular magnetization). The Co/Pt films with perpendicular anisotropy were patterned by ion irradiation through a stencil mask to produce in-plane magnetization in the irradiated regions. The boundaries of the patterns, defined by the transition from out-of-plane to in-plane magnetization, were found to be determined by the stencil mask, whilst the scale of the magnetic reversal by the physical microstructure. The nucleation fields were substantially reduced to 50 Oe for the in-plane regions and 1 kOe for the perpendicular regions, comparing to 4.5 kOe for the as-grown film. The perpendicular reversals were found to always originate at the pattern boundaries.

  10. Adaptable pattern recognition system for discriminating Melanocytic Nevi from Malignant Melanomas using plain photography images from different image databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostopoulos, Spiros A; Asvestas, Pantelis A; Kalatzis, Ioannis K; Sakellaropoulos, George C; Sakkis, Theofilos H; Cavouras, Dionisis A; Glotsos, Dimitris T

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to propose features that evaluate pictorial differences between melanocytic nevus (mole) and melanoma lesions by computer-based analysis of plain photography images and to design a cross-platform, tunable, decision support system to discriminate with high accuracy moles from melanomas in different publicly available image databases. Digital plain photography images of verified mole and melanoma lesions were downloaded from (i) Edinburgh University Hospital, UK, (Dermofit, 330moles/70 melanomas, under signed agreement), from 5 different centers (Multicenter, 63moles/25 melanomas, publicly available), and from the Groningen University, Netherlands (Groningen, 100moles/70 melanomas, publicly available). Images were processed for outlining the lesion-border and isolating the lesion from the surrounding background. Fourteen features were generated from each lesion evaluating texture (4), structure (5), shape (4) and color (1). Features were subjected to statistical analysis for determining differences in pictorial properties between moles and melanomas. The Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) classifier, the exhaustive search features selection, the leave-one-out (LOO), and the external cross-validation (ECV) methods were used to design the PR-system for discriminating between moles and melanomas. Statistical analysis revealed that melanomas as compared to moles were of lower intensity, of less homogenous surface, had more dark pixels with intensities spanning larger spectra of gray-values, contained more objects of different sizes and gray-levels, had more asymmetrical shapes and irregular outlines, had abrupt intensity transitions from lesion to background tissue, and had more distinct colors. The PR-system designed by the Dermofit images scored on the Dermofit images, using the ECV, 94.1%, 82.9%, 96.5% for overall accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, on the Multicenter Images 92.0%, 88%, 93.7% and on the Groningen Images 76.2%, 73.9%, 77

  11. Vibration analysis of cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaru, Takayuki; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Shintomi, Takakazu; Yamamoto, Akira; Koyama, Tomohiro; Li, Rui

    2004-05-01

    The vibrations of Gifford-McMahon (GM) and pulse-tube (PT) cryocoolers were measured and analyzed. The vibrations of the cold-stage and cold-head were measured separately to investigate their vibration mechanisms. The measurements were performed while maintaining the thermal conditions of the cryocoolers at a steady state. We found that the vibration of the cold-head for the 4 K PT cryocooler was two orders of magnitude smaller than that of the 4 K GM cryocooler. On the other hand, the vibration of the cold-stages for both cryocoolers was of the same order of magnitude. From a spectral analysis of the vibrations and a simulation, we concluded that the vibration of the cold-stage is caused by an elastic deformation of the pulse tubes (or cylinders) due to the pressure oscillation of the working gas.

  12. Vibration analysis of cryocoolers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaru, Takayuki; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Shintomi, Takakazu; Yamamoto, Akira [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Koyama, Tomohiro; Rui Li [Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-05-01

    The vibrations of Gifford-McMahon (GM) and pulse-tube (PT) cryocoolers were measured and analyzed. The vibrations of the cold-stage and cold-head were measured separately to investigate their vibration mechanisms. The measurements were performed while maintaining the thermal conditions of the cryocoolers at a steady state. We found that the vibration of the cold-head for the 4 K PT cryocooler was two orders of magnitude smaller than that of the 4 K GM cryocooler. On the other hand, the vibration of the cold-stages for both cryocoolers was of the same order of magnitude. From a spectral analysis of the vibrations and a simulation, we concluded that the vibration of the cold-stage is caused by an elastic deformation of the pulse tubes (or cylinders) due to the pressure oscillation of the working gas. (Author)

  13. Vibration of hydraulic machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yulin; Liu, Shuhong; Dou, Hua-Shu; Qian, Zhongdong

    2013-01-01

    Vibration of Hydraulic Machinery deals with the vibration problem which has significant influence on the safety and reliable operation of hydraulic machinery. It provides new achievements and the latest developments in these areas, even in the basic areas of this subject. The present book covers the fundamentals of mechanical vibration and rotordynamics as well as their main numerical models and analysis methods for the vibration prediction. The mechanical and hydraulic excitations to the vibration are analyzed, and the pressure fluctuations induced by the unsteady turbulent flow is predicted in order to obtain the unsteady loads. This book also discusses the loads, constraint conditions and the elastic and damping characters of the mechanical system, the structure dynamic analysis, the rotor dynamic analysis and the system instability of hydraulic machines, including the illustration of monitoring system for the instability and the vibration in hydraulic units. All the problems are necessary for vibration pr...

  14. Pixel-Level and Robust Vibration Source Sensing in High-Frame-Rate Video Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjun Jiang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effect of appearance variations on the detectability of vibration feature extraction with pixel-level digital filters for high-frame-rate videos. In particular, we consider robust vibrating object tracking, which is clearly different from conventional appearance-based object tracking with spatial pattern recognition in a high-quality image region of a certain size. For 512 × 512 videos of a rotating fan located at different positions and orientations and captured at 2000 frames per second with different lens settings, we verify how many pixels are extracted as vibrating regions with pixel-level digital filters. The effectiveness of dynamics-based vibration features is demonstrated by examining the robustness against changes in aperture size and the focal condition of the camera lens, the apparent size and orientation of the object being tracked, and its rotational frequency, as well as complexities and movements of background scenes. Tracking experiments for a flying multicopter with rotating propellers are also described to verify the robustness of localization under complex imaging conditions in outside scenarios.

  15. Hyperspectral Imaging of Functional Patterns for Disease Assessment and Treatment Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demos, S; Hattery, D; Hassan, M; Aleman, K; Little, R; Yarchoan, R; Gandjbakhche, A

    2003-12-05

    We have designed and built a six-band multi-spectral NIR imaging system used in clinical testing on cancer patients. From our layered tissue model, we create blood volume and blood oxygenation images for patient treatment monitoring.

  16. Cellphone camera imaging of a periodically patterned chip as a potential method for point-of-care diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ritu; Reifenberger, Ronald G; Kulkarni, Giridhar U

    2014-03-26

    In this study, we demonstrate that a disposable chip periodically patterned with suitable ligands, an ordinary cellphone camera, and a simple pattern recognition software, can potentially be used for quantitative diagnostics. A key factor in this demonstration is the design of a calibration grid around the chip that, through a contrast transfer process, enables reliable analysis of the images collected under variable ambient lighting conditions. After exposure to a dispersion of amine terminated silica beads used as analyte mimicking pathogens, an epoxy-terminated glass substrate microcontact printed with octadecyltrichlorosilane (250 μm periodicity) developed a characteristic pattern of beads which could be easily imaged with a cellphone camera of 3.2 MP pixels. A simple pattern recognition algorithm using fast Fourier transform produced a quantitative estimate of the analyte concentration present in the test solution. In this method importantly, neither the chip fabrication process nor the fill-factor of the periodic pattern need be perfect to arrive at a conclusive diagnosis. The method suggests a viable platform that may potentially find use in fault-tolerant and robust point-of-care diagnostic applications.

  17. Study of the vibration of bulkhead-stiffened cylindrical shells by laser-based methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ninghui

    studied. The relationship between natural frequency loci veering, mode shape localization of steady state vibration and pass- stop-band behavior of wave propagation are established in stiffened cylindrical shell structures. It is hoped that this finding can be used to emphasis the importance of mode localization when the numerical models are applied to the study of dynamic behavior of real engineering structures. Finally, a novel laser-based vibration measurement system is developed. Rather than using a photographic camera as in conventional speckle photography, this system utilizes a CCD camera and an interfaced computer to perform the digital speckle image processing. Several algorithms are developed or found to extract the mode shapes related to the vibration of objects from captured digital speckle images. The algorithms can be generally categorized into the following aspects as spatial domain filtering (e.g., image edge detection operation), spectrum domain filtering (e.g., Fourier transform operation), spatial domain correlation and image blurring model. The computer generated or processed images can provide a Chladni-like pattern showing the mode shapes of vibrating objects. This new laser-based vibration measurement technique not only inherits the common merits shared by conventional optical schemes such as whole-field, non-contact and non-destruction, but also possesses its unique features of noise-resistance, simplicity, flexibility and, most of all, practicability. The feasibility of this new technique had been proven by successful field tests at the shipyard of General Dynamic Electric Boat Division.

  18. Imaging of emission patterns in a T-shaped quantum wire laser

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Yasushi; Watanabe, Shinichi; Yoshita, Masahiro; Itoh, Hirotake; Hayamizu, Yuhei; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Pfeiffer, Loren N.; West, Ken W.

    2003-01-01

    Spatially and spectrally resolved microscopic images of spontaneous and stimulated emissions are imaged at the mirror facets of a GaAs T-shaped quantum wire laser with high uniformity. Laser emission from the one-dimensional ground state reveals a circular image located at the core of a T-shaped optical waveguide but significantly smaller in area than the low power spontaneous emission from the same waveguide. These images unambiguously allow assignment of all spontaneous and laser emissions ...

  19. Proceedings of the Third Annual Symposium on Mathematical Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseman, L. F., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Topics addressed include: multivariate spline method; normal mixture analysis applied to remote sensing; image data analysis; classifications in spatially correlated environments; probability density functions; graphical nonparametric methods; subpixel registration analysis; hypothesis integration in image understanding systems; rectification of satellite scanner imagery; spatial variation in remotely sensed images; smooth multidimensional interpolation; and optimal frequency domain textural edge detection filters.

  20. Fundamental remote science research program. Part 2: Status report of the mathematical pattern recognition and image analysis project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydorn, R. P.

    1984-01-01

    The Mathematical Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis (MPRIA) Project is concerned with basic research problems related to the study of he Earth from remotely sensed measurements of its surface characteristics. The program goal is to better understand how to analyze the digital image that represents the spatial, spectral, and temporal arrangement of these measurements for purposing of making selected inferences about the Earth. This report summarizes the progress that has been made toward this program goal by each of the principal investigators in the MPRIA Program.

  1. Correlative imaging and pattern approach in ultrasonography of bone lesions: a pictorial essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarazin, L; Bonaldi, V M; Papadatos, D; Chhem, R K

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to sensitize musculoskeletal and general sonographers to a wide variety of bony abnormalities that may be noted adjacent to soft tissues of interest. The authors gathered sonographic images displaying abnormalities involving the periosseous, periosteal and cortical tissues from numerous patients who underwent imaging in their department. When available, correlative imaging or the pathological diagnosis (or both) is provided. The authors conclude that musculoskeletal ultrasonography, when used to its full potential, can reveal corroborative and occasionally unsuspected evidence of underlying bony abnormalities, so that correlative imaging (e.g., plain radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging or bone scanning) can be performed as appropriate.

  2. Imaging outside the box: Resolution enhancement in X-ray coherent diffraction imaging by extrapolation of diffraction patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Zontone, Federico; Fink, Hans-Werner

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate enhancement in resolution of a noncrystalline object reconstructed from an experimental X-ray diffraction pattern by extrapolating the measured diffraction intensities beyond the detector area. The experimental record contains about 10% missing information, including the pixels in the center of the diffraction pattern. The extrapolation is done by applying an iterative routine. The optimal parameters for implementing the iterative routine, including initial padding distribution and an object support, are studied. Extrapolation results in resolution enhancement and better matching between the recovered and experimental amplitudes in the Fourier domain. The limits of the extrapolation procedure are discussed.

  3. Rheumatic effects of vibration at work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Keith T; Bovenzi, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Occupational exposures to vibration come in many guises and are very common at a population level. It follows that an important minority of working-aged patients seen by medical services will have been exposed to this hazard of employment. Vibration can cause human health effects which may manifest in the patients that rheumatologists see. In this chapter we identify the health effects of relevance to them, and review their epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, and vocational and clinical management. On either side of this, we describe the nature and assessment of the hazard, the scale and common patterns of exposure to vibration in the community, and the legal basis for controlling health risks, and comment on the role of health surveillance in detecting early adverse effects and what can be done to prevent the rheumatic effects of vibration at work. PMID:26612239

  4. Electronic speckle pattern interferometrie through shearography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Bernd

    1994-09-01

    Measurement systems based on image processing are used more and more in quality control. With aid of the interference ability of laserlight it is possible to gain the lost third dimension of 'normal' images in form of a phase relation. At the Lehrstuhl fur Feingeratebau der TU Munchen an electronic-speckle-pattern-interferometry (ESPI)-camera was constructed and continuously developed. The new arrangement enables to evaluate vibrations and deformations by ESPI and by Shearing Interferometry. Enjoyable are also the small dimensions of the camera.

  5. Osteoblast adhesion, migration, and proliferation variations on chemically patterned nanocrystalline diamond films evaluated by live-cell imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brož, Antonín; Ukraintsev, Egor; Kromka, Alexander; Rezek, Bohuslav; Kalbáčová, M.H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 5 (2017), s. 1469-1478 ISSN 1549-3296 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-04790S; GA MZd(CZ) NV15-32497A Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : live- cell imaging * osteoblasts * adhesion * proliferation * migration * patterned surface Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 3.076, year: 2016

  6. A tool for classifying individuals with chronic back pain: using multivariate pattern analysis with functional magnetic resonance imaging data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Callan

    Full Text Available Chronic pain is one of the most prevalent health problems in the world today, yet neurological markers, critical to diagnosis of chronic pain, are still largely unknown. The ability to objectively identify individuals with chronic pain using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data is important for the advancement of diagnosis, treatment, and theoretical knowledge of brain processes associated with chronic pain. The purpose of our research is to investigate specific neurological markers that could be used to diagnose individuals experiencing chronic pain by using multivariate pattern analysis with fMRI data. We hypothesize that individuals with chronic pain have different patterns of brain activity in response to induced pain. This pattern can be used to classify the presence or absence of chronic pain. The fMRI experiment consisted of alternating 14 seconds of painful electric stimulation (applied to the lower back with 14 seconds of rest. We analyzed contrast fMRI images in stimulation versus rest in pain-related brain regions to distinguish between the groups of participants: 1 chronic pain and 2 normal controls. We employed supervised machine learning techniques, specifically sparse logistic regression, to train a classifier based on these contrast images using a leave-one-out cross-validation procedure. We correctly classified 92.3% of the chronic pain group (N = 13 and 92.3% of the normal control group (N = 13 by recognizing multivariate patterns of activity in the somatosensory and inferior parietal cortex. This technique demonstrates that differences in the pattern of brain activity to induced pain can be used as a neurological marker to distinguish between individuals with and without chronic pain. Medical, legal and business professionals have recognized the importance of this research topic and of developing objective measures of chronic pain. This method of data analysis was very successful in correctly classifying

  7. Patterns of Hepatosplenic Brucella Abscesses on Cross-Sectional Imaging: A Review of Clinical and Imaging Features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heller, Tom; Bélard, Sabine; Wallrauch, Claudia; Carretto, Edoardo; Lissandrin, Raffaella; Filice, Carlo; Brunetti, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    While diffuse involvement of liver and spleen is frequently seen in brucellosis, suppurative abscesses caused by Brucella are less common but well described. With the increased availability of cross-sectional imaging techniques, reports have become more frequent. Four patients with hepatosplenic

  8. A new texture descriptor based on local micro-pattern for detection of architectural distortion in mammographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Helder C. R.; Moraes, Diego R.; Reche, Gustavo A.; Borges, Lucas R.; Catani, Juliana H.; de Barros, Nestor; Melo, Carlos F. E.; Gonzaga, Adilson; Vieira, Marcelo A. C.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a new local micro-pattern texture descriptor for the detection of Architectural Distortion (AD) in digital mammography images. AD is a subtle contraction of breast parenchyma that may represent an early sign of breast cancer. Due to its subtlety and variability, AD is more difficult to detect compared to microcalcifications and masses, and is commonly found in retrospective evaluations of false-negative mammograms. Several computer-based systems have been proposed for automatic detection of AD, but their performance are still unsatisfactory. The proposed descriptor, Local Mapped Pattern (LMP), is a generalization of the Local Binary Pattern (LBP), which is considered one of the most powerful feature descriptor for texture classification in digital images. Compared to LBP, the LMP descriptor captures more effectively the minor differences between the local image pixels. Moreover, LMP is a parametric model which can be optimized for the desired application. In our work, the LMP performance was compared to the LBP and four Haralick's texture descriptors for the classification of 400 regions of interest (ROIs) extracted from clinical mammograms. ROIs were selected and divided into four classes: AD, normal tissue, microcalcifications and masses. Feature vectors were used as input to a multilayer perceptron neural network, with a single hidden layer. Results showed that LMP is a good descriptor to distinguish AD from other anomalies in digital mammography. LMP performance was slightly better than the LBP and comparable to Haralick's descriptors (mean classification accuracy = 83%).

  9. Color Doppler imaging and pattern visual evoked potential in normal tension glaucoma and hypertension glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yisheng; Min, Yingjun; Jiang, Ying; Cheng, Yu; Qin, Jiao; Shen, Xi

    2009-12-01

    To compare the differences in color Doppler imaging (CDI) and pattern visual evoked potential (P-VEP) examinations between normal tension glaucoma (NTG) and hypertension primary open angle glaucoma (HTG) patients, and investigate the relation between flow velocities measured by CDI and P-VEP examination in NTG and HTG patients. Sixty NTG patients, 66 HTG patients and 44 control subjects underwent CDI evaluation of the ophthalmic artery (OA), short posterior ciliary artery (SPCA) and central retinal arteries (CRA). The peak systolic velocities (PSV) and end-diastolic velocities (EDV) and resistive index (RI) of all retrobulbar vessels were measured. The latency and amplitude of P100 in P-VEP were recorded from the three groups. The differences of CDI and P-VEP parameters among NTG group, HTG group and control group were compared by one-way analysis of variance. The correlations between CDI parameters and visual field indices, P-VEP and visual field indices, P-VEP and CDI parameters in NTG and HTG patients were evaluated by Pearson's correlation analysis. NTG and HTG patients had the lower EDV and higher RI in the OA, CRA and SPCA comparing with that of control subjects. NTG and HTG patients also had lower PSV in OA and CRA comparing with that of control subjects. There was no significant difference in the blood flow velocities and RI of all retrobulbar vessels between NTG and HTG patients. The latency of P100 in VEP delayed and the amplitude of P100 decreased in the NTG and HTG patients comparing with that of the control group. There was no significant difference in the latency and amplitude of P100 between the NTG and HTG patients. The RI of OA and SPCA were negatively correlated with the mean deviation (MD) values in the NTG and HTG patients. The RI of OA was positively correlated with the PSD value in the NTG and HTG patients. The MD values in the NTG and HTG patients were negatively correlated with the latency time of P100. The RI of OA was positively correlated

  10. Automated tissue segmentation and blind recovery of (1)H MRS imaging spectral patterns of normal and diseased human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shuyan; Mao, Xiangling; Sajda, Paul; Shungu, Dikoma C

    2008-01-01

    Constrained non-negative matrix factorization (cNMF) with iterative data selection is described and demonstrated as a data analysis method for fast and automatic recovery of biochemically meaningful and diagnostically specific spectral patterns of the human brain from (1)H MRS imaging ((1)H MRSI) data. To achieve this goal, cNMF decomposes in vivo multidimensional (1)H MRSI data into two non-negative matrices representing (a) the underlying tissue-specific spectral patterns and (b) the spatial distribution of the corresponding metabolite concentrations. Central to the proposed approach is automatic iterative data selection which uses prior knowledge about the spatial distribution of the spectra to remove voxels that are due to artifacts and undesired metabolites/tissues such as the strong lipid and water components. The automatic recovery of diagnostic spectral patterns is demonstrated for long-TE (1)H MRSI data on normal human brain, multiple sclerosis, and serial brain tumor. The results show the ability of cNMF with iterative data selection to automatically and simultaneously recover tissue-specific spectral patterns and achieve segmentation of normal and diseased human brain tissue, concomitant with simplification of information content. These features of cNMF, which permit rapid recovery, reduction and interpretation of the complex diagnostic information content of large multi-dimensional spectroscopic imaging data sets, have the potential to enhance the clinical utility of in vivo(1)H MRSI.

  11. Copy-move forgery detection through stationary wavelets and local binary pattern variance for forensic analysis in digital images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Toqeer; Irtaza, Aun; Mehmood, Zahid; Tariq Mahmood, Muhammad

    2017-10-01

    The most common image tampering often for malicious purposes is to copy a region of the same image and paste to hide some other region. As both regions usually have same texture properties, therefore, this artifact is invisible for the viewers, and credibility of the image becomes questionable in proof centered applications. Hence, means are required to validate the integrity of the image and identify the tampered regions. Therefore, this study presents an efficient way of copy-move forgery detection (CMFD) through local binary pattern variance (LBPV) over the low approximation components of the stationary wavelets. CMFD technique presented in this paper is applied over the circular regions to address the possible post processing operations in a better way. The proposed technique is evaluated on CoMoFoD and Kodak lossless true color image (KLTCI) datasets in the presence of translation, flipping, blurring, rotation, scaling, color reduction, brightness change and multiple forged regions in an image. The evaluation reveals the prominence of the proposed technique compared to state of the arts. Consequently, the proposed technique can reliably be applied to detect the modified regions and the benefits can be obtained in journalism, law enforcement, judiciary, and other proof critical domains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of spatially resolved diffuse reflectance imaging for subsurface pattern visualization towards applicability for fiber optic lensless imaging setup: phantom experiments and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelkanova, I.; Pandya, A.; Saiko, G.; Nacy, L.; Babar, H.; Shah, D.; Lilge, L.; Douplik, A.

    2015-07-01

    A portable, spatially resolved diffuse reflectance (SRDR) lensless imaging technique based on the charge coupled device (CCD), or complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor directly coupled with fiber optic bundle can be proposed for visualization of subsurface structures such as intrapapillary capillary loops (IPCLs). In this article, we discuss an experimental method for emulating a lensless imaging setup via raster scanning a single fiberoptic cable (where image is relayed onto the sensor surface through a fiber-optic cable equivalent to coupling a fiber optic conduit directly onto the sensor surface without any lenses) over a microfluidic phantom containing periodic hemoglobin absorption contrast. For mimicking scattering properties of turbid media, a diffusive layer formed of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) was placed atop of the microfluidic phantom. Thickness of the layers ranged from 0.2-0.7mm, and the μs` value of the layers were in the range of 0.85 mm-1 - 4.25mm-1. The results demonstrate that a fiber-optic bundle/plate coupled lensless imaging setup has a high potential to recover intensity modulations from the subsurface patterns. Decreasing of the interrogation volumes leads to enhanced spatial resolution of diffuse reflectance imaging, and hence, can potentially overcome the scattering caused blurring.

  13. An Ensemble Method for Classifying Regional Disease Patterns of Diffuse Interstitial Lung Disease Using HRCT Images from Different Vendors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Sanghoon; Kim, Namkug; Seo, Joon Beom; Lee, Young Kyung; Lynch, David A

    2017-12-01

    We propose the use of ensemble classifiers to overcome inter-scanner variations in the differentiation of regional disease patterns in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images of diffuse interstitial lung disease patients obtained from different scanners. A total of 600 rectangular 20 × 20-pixel regions of interest (ROIs) on HRCT images obtained from two different scanners (GE and Siemens) and the whole lung area of 92 HRCT images were classified as one of six regional pulmonary disease patterns by two expert radiologists. Textual and shape features were extracted from each ROI and the whole lung parenchyma. For automatic classification, individual and ensemble classifiers were trained and tested with the ROI dataset. We designed the following three experimental sets: an intra-scanner study in which the training and test sets were from the same scanner, an integrated scanner study in which the data from the two scanners were merged, and an inter-scanner study in which the training and test sets were acquired from different scanners. In the ROI-based classification, the ensemble classifiers showed better (p ensemble classifiers also showed partial improvements in the intra- and inter-scanner tests. In the whole lung classification experiment, the quantification accuracies of the ensemble classifiers with integrated training (49.57%) were higher (p ensemble classifiers also showed better performance in both the intra- and inter-scanner experiments. We concluded that the ensemble classifiers provide better performance when using integrated scanner images.

  14. Bi-dimensional empirical mode decomposition based fringe-like pattern suppression in polarization interference imaging spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wenyi; Cao, Qizhi; Wu, Dan; Jiang, Jiangang; Yang, Guoan; Xie, Yingge; Wang, Guodong; Zhang, Sheqi

    2018-01-01

    Many observers using interference imaging spectrometer were plagued by the fringe-like pattern(FP) that occurs for optical wavelengths in red and near-infrared region. It brings us more difficulties in the data processing such as the spectrum calibration, information retrieval, and so on. An adaptive method based on the bi-dimensional empirical mode decomposition was developed to suppress the nonlinear FP in polarization interference imaging spectrometer. The FP and corrected interferogram were separated effectively. Meanwhile, the stripes introduced by CCD mosaic was suppressed. The nonlinear interferogram background removal and the spectrum distortion correction were implemented as well. It provides us an alternative method to adaptively suppress the nonlinear FP without prior experimental data and knowledge. This approach potentially is a powerful tool in the fields of Fourier transform spectroscopy, holographic imaging, optical measurement based on moire fringe, etc.

  15. Pattern Recognition in NeuroImaging: What can machine learning classifiers bring to the analysis of functional brain imaging?

    OpenAIRE

    Schrouff, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    The study of the brain development and functioning raises many question that are tracked using neuroimaging techniques such as positron emission tomography or (functional) magnetic resonance imaging. During the last decades, various techniques have been developed to analyse neuroimaging data. These techniques brought valuable insight on neuroscientific questions, but encounter limitations which make them unsuitable to tackle more complex problems. More recently, machine learning based models,...

  16. Temperature dependence of the photodissociation of CO2 from high vibrational levels: 205-230 nm imaging studies of CO(X1Σ+) and O(3P, 1D) products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutradhar, S.; Samanta, B. R.; Samanta, A. K.; Reisler, H.

    2017-07-01

    The 205-230 nm photodissociation of vibrationally excited CO2 at temperatures up to 1800 K was studied using Resonance Enhanced Multiphoton Ionization (REMPI) and time-sliced Velocity Map Imaging (VMI). CO2 molecules seeded in He were heated in an SiC tube attached to a pulsed valve and supersonically expanded to create a molecular beam of rotationally cooled but vibrationally hot CO2. Photodissociation was observed from vibrationally excited CO2 with internal energies up to about 20 000 cm-1, and CO(X1Σ+), O(3P), and O(1D) products were detected by REMPI. The large enhancement in the absorption cross section with increasing CO2 vibrational excitation made this investigation feasible. The internal energies of heated CO2 molecules that absorbed 230 nm radiation were estimated from the kinetic energy release (KER) distributions of CO(X1Σ+) products in v″ = 0. At 230 nm, CO2 needs to have at least 4000 cm-1 of rovibrational energy to absorb the UV radiation and produce CO(X1Σ+) + O(3P). CO2 internal energies in excess of 16 000 cm-1 were confirmed by observing O(1D) products. It is likely that initial absorption from levels with high bending excitation accesses both the A1B2 and B1A2 states, explaining the nearly isotropic angular distributions of the products. CO(X1Σ+) product internal energies were estimated from REMPI spectroscopy, and the KER distributions of the CO(X1Σ+), O(3P), and O(1D) products were obtained by VMI. The CO product internal energy distributions change with increasing CO2 temperature, suggesting that more than one dynamical pathway is involved when the internal energy of CO2 (and the corresponding available energy) increases. The KER distributions of O(1D) and O(3P) show broad internal energy distributions in the CO(X1Σ+) cofragment, extending up to the maximum allowed by energy but peaking at low KER values. Although not all the observations can be explained at this time, with the aid of available theoretical studies of CO2 VUV

  17. Images of the Negro in American Literature. Patterns of Literary Criticism, No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Seymour L. , Ed.; Hardy, John Edward, Ed.

    The 15 studies in this collection investigate the various images of the Negro in American literature--images which range from streotype to archetype. In the first six studies, critics discuss the literary tradition of the Negro in colonial literature (Milton Cantor), in the Southern novel prior to 1850 (Tremaine McDowell), in literature of the…

  18. Supervised dimensionality reduction and contextual pattern recognition in medical image processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loog, Marco

    2004-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed a significant increase in the number of supervised methods employed in diverse image processing tasks. Especially in medical image analysis the use of, for example, supervised shape and appearance modelling has increased considerably and has proven to be

  19. Active hard mount vibration isolation for precision equipment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjepkema, D.

    2012-01-01

    Floor vibrations and acoustic excitation may limit the performance of precision equipment, that is used for example to produce computer chips or to make images of very tiny structures. Therefore, it is common to mount a vibration isolator in the suspension of such equipment to isolate it from these

  20. Robust classification of subcellular location patterns in high resolution 3D fluorescence microscope images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang; Murphy, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge of a protein's subcellular location is essential to a complete understanding of its functions. Automated interpretation methods for protein location patterns are needed for proteomics projects, and we have previously described systems for classifying the major subcellular patterns in cultured mammalian cells. We describe here the calculation of improved 3D Haralick texture features, which yielded a near-perfect classification accuracy when combined with 3D morphological and edge features. In particular, a set of 7 features achieved 98% overall accuracy for classifying 10 major subcellular location patterns in HeLa cells.

  1. Defining properties of speech spectrogram images to allow effective pre-processing prior to pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Darkazali, Mohammed; Young, Rupert; Chatwin, Chris; Birch, Philip

    2013-03-01

    The speech signal of a word is a combination of frequencies which can produce specific transition frequency shapes. These can be regarded as a written text in some unknown `script'. Before attempting methods to read the speech spectrogram image using image processing techniques we need first to define the properties of the speech spectrogram image as well as the reduction of the clutter of the spectrogram image and the selection of the methods to be employed for image matching. Thus methods to convert the speech signal to a spectrogram image are initially employed, followed by reduction of the noise in the signal by capturing the energy associated with formants of the speech signal. This is followed by the normalisation of the size of the image and its resolution of in both the frequency and time axes. Finally, template matching methods are employed to recognise portions of text and isolated words. The paper describes the pre-processing methods employed and outlines the use of normalised grey-level correlation for the recognition of words.

  2. Swarming and complex pattern formation in Paenibacillus vortex studied by imaging and tracking cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingham, C.J.; Jacob, Ben E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Swarming motility allows microorganisms to move rapidly over surfaces. The Grampositive bacterium Paenibacillus vortex exhibits advanced cooperative motility on agar plates resulting in intricate colonial patterns with geometries that are highly sensitive to the environment. The cellular

  3. Vibrational modes of nanolines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyliger, Paul R.; Flannery, Colm M.; Johnson, Ward L.

    2008-04-01

    Brillouin-light-scattering spectra previously have been shown to provide information on acoustic modes of polymeric lines fabricated by nanoimprint lithography. Finite-element methods for modeling such modes are presented here. These methods provide a theoretical framework for determining elastic constants and dimensions of nanolines from measured spectra in the low gigahertz range. To make the calculations feasible for future incorporation in inversion algorithms, two approximations of the boundary conditions are employed in the calculations: the rigidity of the nanoline/substrate interface and sinusoidal variation of displacements along the nanoline length. The accuracy of these approximations is evaluated as a function of wavenumber and frequency. The great advantage of finite-element methods over other methods previously employed for nanolines is the ability to model any cross-sectional geometry. Dispersion curves and displacement patterns are calculated for modes of polymethyl methacrylate nanolines with cross-sectional dimensions of 65 nm × 140 nm and rectangular or semicircular tops. The vibrational displacements and dispersion curves are qualitatively similar for the two geometries and include a series of flexural, Rayleigh-like, and Sezawa-like modes. This paper is a contribution of the National Institute of Standards and Technology and is not subject to copyright in the United States.

  4. Introduction to vibrations and waves

    CERN Document Server

    Pain, H John

    2015-01-01

    Based on the successful multi-edition book "The Physics ofVibrations and Waves" by John Pain, the authors carry overthe simplicity and logic of the approach taken in the originalfirst edition with its focus on the patterns underlying andconnecting so many aspects of physical behavior, whilst bringingthe subject up-to-date so it is relevant to teaching in the21st century.The transmission of energy by wave propagation is a key conceptthat has applications in almost every branch of physics withtransmitting mediums essentially acting as a continuum of coupledoscillators. The characterization of t

  5. Phase diagram of vertically vibrated dense suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Kann, S.; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus; van der Meer, Roger M.

    2014-01-01

    When a hole is created in a layer of a dense, vertically vibrated suspension, phenomena are known to occur that defy the natural tendency of gravity to close the hole. Here, an overview is presented of the different patterns that we observed in a variety of dense particulate suspensions.

  6. A new prostate segmentation approach using multispectral magnetic resonance imaging and a statistical pattern classifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maan, Bianca; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Fütterer, Jurgen J.

    2012-01-01

    Prostate segmentation is essential for calculating prostate volume, creating patient-specific prostate anatomical models and image fusion. Automatic segmentation methods are preferable because manual segmentation is timeconsuming and highly subjective. Most of the currently available segmentation

  7. Micro patterned surfaces allow long-term digital holographic microscopy live cell imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mues, Sarah; Lilge, Inga; Schönherr, Holger; Kemper, Björn; Schnekenburger, Jürgen

    2017-07-01

    During long-term imaging, cells move out of the field of view. We have generated functionalized substrates containing rectangular areas, which were capable in keeping cells over the whole observation period.

  8. Micro patterned surfaces: an effective tool for long term digital holographic microscopy cell imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mues, Sarah; Lilge, Inga; Schönherr, Holger; Kemper, Björn; Schnekenburger, Jürgen

    2017-02-01

    The major problem of Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) long term live cell imaging is that over time most of the tracked cells move out of the image area and other ones move in. Therefore, most of the cells are lost for the evaluation of individual cellular processes. Here, we present an effective solution for this crucial problem of long-term microscopic live cell analysis. We have generated functionalized slides containing areas of 250 μm per 200 μm. These micropatterned biointerfaces consist of passivating polyaclrylamide brushes (PAAm). Inner areas are backfilled with octadecanthiol (ODT), which allows cell attachment. The fouling properties of these surfaces are highly controllable and therefore the defined areas designed for the size our microscopic image areas were effective in keeping all cells inside the rectangles over the selected imaging period.

  9. Distributed Storage Algorithm for Geospatial Image Data Based on Data Access Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Shaoming Pan; Yongkai Li; Zhengquan Xu; Yanwen Chong

    2015-01-01

    Declustering techniques are widely used in distributed environments to reduce query response time through parallel I/O by splitting large files into several small blocks and then distributing those blocks among multiple storage nodes. Unfortunately, however, many small geospatial image data files cannot be further split for distributed storage. In this paper, we propose a complete theoretical system for the distributed storage of small geospatial image data files based on mining the access pa...

  10. Droplet impact on vibrating superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisensee, Patricia B.; Ma, Jingcheng; Shin, Young Hwan; Tian, Junjiao; Chang, Yujin; King, William P.; Miljkovic, Nenad

    2017-10-01

    Many unanswered questions remain pertaining to droplet dynamics during impact on vibrating surfaces. Using optical high-speed imaging, we investigate the impact dynamics of macroscopic water droplets (≈2.5 mm ) on rigid and elastic superhydrophobic surfaces vibrating at 60-320 Hz and amplitudes of 0.2-2.7 mm. Specifically, we study the influence of the frequency, amplitude, rigidity, and substrate phase at the moment of impact on the contact time of impacting droplets. We show that a critical impact phase exists at which the contact time transitions from a minimum to a maximum greater than the theoretical contact time on a rigid, nonvibrating superhydrophobic surface. For impact at phases higher than the critical phase, contact times decrease until reaching a minimum of half the theoretical contact time just before the critical phase. The frequency of oscillation determines the phase-dependent variability of droplet contact times at different impact phases: higher frequencies (> 120 Hz) show less contact time variability and have overall shorter contact times compared to lower frequencies (60-120 Hz). The amplitude of vibration has little direct effect on the contact time. Through semiempirical modeling and comparison to experiments, we show that phase-averaged contact times can increase or decrease relative to a nonvibrating substrate for low (100 Hz ) vibration frequencies, respectively. This study not only provides new insights into droplet impact physics on vibrating surfaces, but also develops guidelines for the rational design of surfaces to achieve controllable droplet wetting in applications utilizing vibration.

  11. Model Indepedent Vibration Control

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Jing

    2010-01-01

    A NMIFC system is proposed for broadband vibration control. It has two important features. Feature F1 is that the NMIFC is stable without introducing any invasive effects, such as probing signals or controller perturbations, into the vibration system; feature F2 is

  12. Vibration Theory, Vol. 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    The present textbook has been written based on previous lecture notes for a course on stochastic vibration theory that is being given on the 9th semester at Aalborg University for M. Sc. students in structural engineering. The present 4th edition of this textbook on linear stochastic vibration...

  13. Vibration Theory, Vol. 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    The present textbook has been written based on previous lecture notes for a course on stochastic vibration theory that is being given on the 9th semester at Aalborg University for M. Sc. students in structural engineering. The present 2nd edition of this textbook on linear stochastic vibration...

  14. Hydroelastic Vibrations of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Folsø, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    A formula for the necessary hull girder bending stiffness required to avoid serious springing vibrations is derived. The expression takes into account the zero crossing period of the waves, the ship speed and main dimensions. For whipping vibrations the probability of exceedance for the combined...

  15. Gearbox vibration diagnostic analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Gearbox Vibration Diagnostic Analyzer installed in the NASA Lewis Research Center's 500 HP Helicopter Transmission Test Stand to monitor gearbox testing. The vibration of the gearbox is analyzed using diagnostic algorithms to calculate a parameter indicating damaged components.

  16. Mechanical vibration and shock analysis, sinusoidal vibration

    CERN Document Server

    Lalanne, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Everything engineers need to know about mechanical vibration and shock...in one authoritative reference work! This fully updated and revised 3rd edition addresses the entire field of mechanical vibration and shock as one of the most important types of load and stress applied to structures, machines and components in the real world. Examples include everything from the regular and predictable loads applied to turbines, motors or helicopters by the spinning of their constituent parts to the ability of buildings to withstand damage from wind loads or explosions, and the need for cars to m

  17. Clinical and imaging correlates of EEG patterns in hospitalized patients with encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Raoul; Stevens, Robert D; Kaplan, Peter W

    2013-04-01

    To identify the relationship between pathologic electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns, clinical and neuroradiological abnormalities, and outcome in hospitalized patients with acute encephalopathy. This 5-year cohort study was performed at an academic tertiary care center. EEGs in 154 patients with altered mental status were classified according to five predefined patterns: Isolated continuous slowing of background activity (theta, theta/delta, and delta activity) and patterns with slowing background activity with episodic transients [i.e., triphasic waves (TWs) or frontal intermittent delta activity (FIRDA)]. Clinical characteristics, blood tests and neuroimaging were compared among groups. Associations between EEG patterns and structural and non-structural abnormalities were calculated. Glasgow Outcome Score >3 at discharge was defined as favorable and 1-3 as unfavorable outcome. In multivariable analyses, theta was associated with brain atrophy (OR 2.6, p = 0.020), theta/delta with intracerebral hemorrhages (OR 6.8, p = 0.005), FIRDA with past cerebrovascular accidents (OR 2.7, p = 0.004), TWs with liver or multi-organ failure (OR 6, p = 0.004; OR 4, p = 0.039), and delta activity with alcohol/drug abuse with or without intoxication, and HIV infection (OR 3.8, p = 0.003; OR 9, p = 0.004). TWs were associated with death (OR 4.5, p = 0.005); theta/delta with unfavorable outcomes (OR 2.5, p = 0.033), while patients with FIRDA had favorable outcomes (OR 4.8, p = 0.004). In encephalopathic patients, well-defined EEG patterns are associated with specific pathological conditions and outcomes, suggesting that mechanistic hypotheses underlie these abnormal EEG patterns. To clarify the respective contributions of non-structural and structural abnormalities to encephalopathy reflected in specific EEG patterns, prospective studies using continuous EEG monitoring during the acute onset of encephalopathy are needed.

  18. Vibrational dephasing in matter-wave interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembold, A.; Schütz, G.; Röpke, R.; Chang, W. T.; Hwang, I. S.; Günther, A.; Stibor, A.

    2017-03-01

    Matter-wave interferometry is a highly sensitive tool to measure small perturbations in a quantum system. This property allows the creation of precision sensors for dephasing mechanisms such as mechanical vibrations. They are a challenge for phase measurements under perturbing conditions that cannot be perfectly decoupled from the interferometer, e.g. for mobile interferometric devices or vibrations with a broad frequency range. Here, we demonstrate a method based on second-order correlation theory in combination with Fourier analysis, to use an electron interferometer as a sensor that precisely characterizes the mechanical vibration spectrum of the interferometer. Using the high spatial and temporal single-particle resolution of a delay line detector, the data allows to reveal the original contrast and spatial periodicity of the interference pattern from ‘washed-out’ matter-wave interferograms that have been vibrationally disturbed in the frequency region between 100 and 1000 Hz. Other than with electromagnetic dephasing, due to excitations of higher harmonics and additional frequencies induced from the environment, the parts in the setup oscillate with frequencies that can be different to the applied ones. The developed numerical search algorithm is capable to determine those unknown oscillations and corresponding amplitudes. The technique can identify vibrational dephasing and decrease damping and shielding requirements in electron, ion, neutron, atom and molecule interferometers that generate a spatial fringe pattern on the detector plane.

  19. Vibrations of rotating machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Osami; Kanki, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masao; Keogh, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    This book opens with an explanation of the vibrations of a single degree-of-freedom (dof) system for all beginners. Subsequently, vibration analysis of multi-dof systems is explained by modal analysis. Mode synthesis modeling is then introduced for system reduction, which aids understanding in a simplified manner of how complicated rotors behave. Rotor balancing techniques are offered for rigid and flexible rotors through several examples. Consideration of gyroscopic influences on the rotordynamics is then provided and vibration evaluation of a rotor-bearing system is emphasized in terms of forward and backward whirl rotor motions through eigenvalue (natural frequency and damping ratio) analysis. In addition to these rotordynamics concerning rotating shaft vibration measured in a stationary reference frame, blade vibrations are analyzed with Coriolis forces expressed in a rotating reference frame. Other phenomena that may be assessed in stationary and rotating reference frames include stability characteristic...

  20. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized pilot study of cerebral blood flow patterns employing SPECT imaging in dental postsurgical pain patients with and without pain relief

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Newberg, Andrew B; Hersh, Elliot V; Levin, Lawrence M; Giannakopoulos, Helen; Secreto, Stacey A; Wintering, Nancy A; Farrar, John T

    2011-01-01

    .... The purpose of this pilot study was to employ SPECT to measure CBF distribution associated with postoperative dental pain and to compare these CBF patterns to subsequent images in the same patients...

  1. Large-area imaging reveals biologically driven non-random spatial patterns of corals at a remote reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Clinton B.; Eynaud, Yoan; Williams, Gareth J.; Pedersen, Nicole E.; Zgliczynski, Brian J.; Gleason, Arthur C. R.; Smith, Jennifer E.; Sandin, Stuart A.

    2017-12-01

    For sessile organisms such as reef-building corals, differences in the degree of dispersion of individuals across a landscape may result from important differences in life-history strategies or may reflect patterns of habitat availability. Descriptions of spatial patterns can thus be useful not only for the identification of key biological and physical mechanisms structuring an ecosystem, but also by providing the data necessary to generate and test ecological theory. Here, we used an in situ imaging technique to create large-area photomosaics of 16 plots at Palmyra Atoll, central Pacific, each covering 100 m2 of benthic habitat. We mapped the location of 44,008 coral colonies and identified each to the lowest taxonomic level possible. Using metrics of spatial dispersion, we tested for departures from spatial randomness. We also used targeted model fitting to explore candidate processes leading to differences in spatial patterns among taxa. Most taxa were clustered and the degree of clustering varied by taxon. A small number of taxa did not significantly depart from randomness and none revealed evidence of spatial uniformity. Importantly, taxa that readily fragment or tolerate stress through partial mortality were more clustered. With little exception, clustering patterns were consistent with models of fragmentation and dispersal limitation. In some taxa, dispersion was linearly related to abundance, suggesting density dependence of spatial patterning. The spatial patterns of stony corals are non-random and reflect fundamental life-history characteristics of the taxa, suggesting that the reef landscape may, in many cases, have important elements of spatial predictability.

  2. Digital image processing techniques for the analysis of fuel sprays global pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Rami; Bryanston-Cross, Peter; Timmerman, Brenda

    2017-12-01

    We studied the fuel atomization process of two fuel injectors to be fitted in a new small rotary engine design. The aim was to improve the efficiency of the engine by optimizing the fuel injection system. Fuel sprays were visualised by an optical diagnostic system. Images of fuel sprays were produced under various testing conditions, by changing the line pressure, nozzle size, injection frequency, etc. The atomisers were a high-frequency microfluidic dispensing system and a standard low flow-rate fuel injector. A series of image processing procedures were developed in order to acquire information from the laser-scattering images. This paper presents the macroscopic characterisation of Jet fuel (JP8) sprays. We observed the droplet density distribution, tip velocity, and spray-cone angle against line-pressure and nozzle-size. The analysis was performed for low line-pressure (up to 10 bar) and short injection period (1-2 ms). Local velocity components were measured by applying particle image velocimetry (PIV) on double-exposure images. The discharge velocity was lower in the micro dispensing nozzle sprays and the tip penetration slowed down at higher rates compared to the gasoline injector. The PIV test confirmed that the gasoline injector produced sprays with higher velocity elements at the centre and the tip regions.

  3. Improving prediction of Alzheimer’s disease using patterns of cortical thinning and homogenizing images according to disease stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Coupé, Pierrick; García-Lorenzo, Daniel

    Predicting Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in individuals with some symptoms of cognitive decline may have great influence on treatment choice and guide subject selection in trials on disease modifying drugs. Structural MRI has the potential of revealing early signs of neurodegeneration in the human brain...... and may thus aid in predicting and diagnosing AD. Surface-based cortical thickness measurements from T1-weighted MRI have demonstrated high sensitivity to cortical gray matter changes. In this study, we investigated the possibility of using patterns of cortical thickness measurements for predicting AD...... of conversion from MCI to AD can be improved by learning the atrophy patterns that are specific to the different stages of disease progression. This has the potential to guide the further development of imaging biomarkers in AD....

  4. Nucleic acid distribution pattern in avian erythrocytes and mammalian lymphocytes: comparative studies by fluorescence microscopy and digital imaging analytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isitor, G N; Asgarali, Z; Pouching, K

    2008-12-01

    Nucleated erythrocytes of healthy domestic chicken and ducks, and lymphocytes of healthy Sprague Dawley rats were evaluated for nucleic acid distribution pattern, employing light and fluorescence microscopy procedures, as well as digital imaging analytical methods. The results demonstrate a unique organization of nuclear DNA of mature chicken and duck erythrocytes, as well as immature duck erythrocytes, as delineated spherical nuclear bodies that mostly corresponded with euchromatin zones of the cells in routine Wright-stain blood smears. The nuclear DNA of the rat lymphocytes, on the other hand, was observed as a more diffuse green fluorescing nuclear areas, with punctate variably-sized diffuse areas of RNA red fluorescence. RNA red color fluorescence was also evident in the narrow cytoplasm of the lymphocytes, especially in large lymphocytes, in comparison with the cytoplasm of the mature avian erythrocytes that completely lacked any nucleic acid fluorescence. Nuclear RNA fluorescence was lacking in the mature chicken erythrocytes, compared with those of the mature and immature duck erythrocytes as well as lymphocytes of both avian and rats blood. The significance of these findings lies in the establishment of normal benchmarks for the nuclear and cytoplasmic nucleic acid pattern in eukaryotic cells. These normal benchmarks become valuable in rapid diagnostic situations associated with pathologies, such as the presence of viral nuclear and cytoplasmic inclusion bodies that can alter the nucleic acid pattern of the host cells, and in conditions of cellular abnormal protein aggregations. Variability of cellular nucleic acid pattern can also aid in prognostic assessments of neoplastic conditions.

  5. Structural coloration of metallic surfaces with micro/nano-structures induced by elliptical vibration texturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Pan, Yayue; Guo, Ping

    2017-04-01

    Creating orderly periodic micro/nano-structures on metallic surfaces, or structural coloration, for control of surface apparent color and optical reflectivity has been an exciting research topic over the years. The direct applications of structural coloration include color marking, display devices, and invisibility cloak. This paper presents an efficient method to colorize metallic surfaces with periodic micro/nano-gratings using elliptical vibration texturing. When the tool vibration is coupled with a constant cutting velocity, controlled periodic ripples can be generated due to the overlapping tool trajectory. These periodic ripples with a wavelength near visible spectrum can act as micro-gratings to introduce iridescent colors. The proposed technique also provides a flexible method for color marking of metallic surfaces with arbitrary patterns and images by precise control of the spacing distance and orientation of induced micro/nano-ripples. Theoretical analysis and experimental results are given to demonstrate structural coloration of metals by a direct mechanical machining technique.

  6. Use of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging to correlate the developmental changes in grape berry tissue structure with water diffusion patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Ryan J; Stait-Gardner, Timothy; Clarke, Simon J; Rogiers, Suzy Y; Bobek, Gabriele; Price, William S

    2014-01-01

    Over the course of grape berry development, the tissues of the berry undergo numerous morphological transformations in response to processes such as water and solute accumulation and cell division, growth and senescence. These transformations are expected to produce changes to the diffusion of water through these tissues detectable using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To assess this non-invasive technique diffusion was examined over the course of grape berry development, and in plant tissues with contrasting oil content. In this study, the fruit of Vitis vinfera L. cv. Semillon at seven different stages of berry development, from four weeks post-anthesis to over-ripe, were imaged using diffusion tensor and transverse relaxation MRI acquisition protocols. Variations in diffusive motion between these stages of development were then linked to known events in the morphological development of the grape berry. Within the inner mesocarp of the berry, preferential directions of diffusion became increasingly apparent as immature berries increased in size and then declined as berries progressed through the ripening and senescence phases. Transverse relaxation images showed radial striation patterns throughout the sub-tissue, initiating at the septum and vascular systems located at the centre of the berry, and terminating at the boundary between the inner and outer mesocarp. This study confirms that these radial patterns are due to bands of cells of alternating width that extend across the inner mesocarp. Preferential directions of diffusion were also noted in young grape seed nucelli prior to their dehydration. These observations point towards a strong association between patterns of diffusion within grape berries and the underlying tissue structures across berry development. A diffusion tensor image of a post-harvest olive demonstrated that the technique is applicable to tissues with high oil content. This study demonstrates that diffusion MRI is a powerful and

  7. Alternative measures to observe and record vocal fold vibrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, HK; McCafferty, G; Coman, W; Carroll, R

    1996-01-01

    Vocal fold vibration patterns form the basis for the production of vocal sound. Over the years much effort has been spend to optimize the ways to visualize and give a description of these patterns. Before video possibilities became available the description of the patterns was Very time-consuming.

  8. The influence of flywheel micro vibration on space camera and vibration suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Tan, Luyang; Kong, Lin; Wang, Dong; Yang, Hongbo

    2018-02-01

    Studied the impact of flywheel micro vibration on a high resolution optical satellite that space-borne integrated. By testing the flywheel micro vibration with six-component test bench, the flywheel disturbance data is acquired. The finite element model of the satellite was established and the unit force/torque were applied at the flywheel mounting position to obtain the micro vibration data of the camera. Integrated analysis of the data of the two parts showed that the influence of flywheel micro vibration on the camera is mainly concentrated around 60-80 Hz and 170-230 Hz, the largest angular displacement of the secondary mirror along the optical axis direction is 0.04″ and the maximum angular displacement vertical to optical axis is 0.032″. After the design and installation of vibration isolator, the maximum angular displacement of the secondary mirror is 0.011″, the decay rate of root mean square value of the angular displacement is more than 50% and the maximum is 96.78%. The whole satellite was suspended to simulate the boundary condition on orbit; the imaging experiment results show that the image motion caused by the flywheel micro vibrationis less than 0.1 pixel after installing the vibration isolator.

  9. Quantification and geometric analysis of coiling patterns in gastropod shells based on 3D and 2D image data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noshita, Koji

    2014-12-21

    The morphology of gastropod shells has been a focus of analyses in ecology and evolution. It has recently emerged as an important issue in developmental biology, thanks to recent advancements in molecular biological techniques. The growing tube model is a theoretical morphological model for describing various coiling patterns of molluscan shells, and it is a useful theoretical tool to relate local tissue growth with global shell morphology. However, the growing tube model has rarely been adopted in empirical research owing to the difficulty in estimating the parameters of the model from morphological data. In this article, I solve this problem by developing methods of parameter estimation when (1) 3D Computed Tomography (CT) data are available and (2) only 2D image data (such as photographs) are available. When 3D CT data are available, the parameters can be estimated by fitting an analytical solution of the growing tube model to the data. When only 2D image data are available, we first fit Raup׳s model to the 2D image data and then convert the parameters of Raup׳s model to those of the growing tube model. To illustrate the use of these methods, I apply them to data generated by a computer simulation of the model. Both methods work well, except when shells grow without coiling. I also demonstrate the effectiveness of the methods by applying the model to actual 3D CT data and 2D image data of land snails. I conclude that the method proposed in this article can reconstruct the coiling pattern from observed data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Imaging the redshifted 21 cm pattern around the first sources during the cosmic dawn using the SKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghara, Raghunath; Choudhury, T. Roy; Datta, Kanan K.; Choudhuri, Samir

    2017-01-01

    Understanding properties of the first sources in the Universe using the redshifted H I 21 cm signal is one of the major aims of present and upcoming low-frequency experiments. We investigate the possibility of imaging the redshifted 21 cm pattern around the first sources during the cosmic dawn using the SKA1-low. We model the H I 21 cm image maps, appropriate for the SKA1-low, around the first sources consisting of stars and X-ray sources within galaxies. In addition to the system noise, we also account for the astrophysical foregrounds by adding them to the signal maps. We find that after subtracting the foregrounds using a polynomial fit and suppressing the noise by smoothing the maps over 10-30 arcmin angular scale, the isolated sources at z ˜ 15 are detectable with the ˜4σ-9σ confidence level in 2000 h of observation with the SKA1-low. Although the 21 cm profiles around the sources get altered because of the Gaussian smoothing, the images can still be used to extract some of the source properties. We account for overlaps in the patterns of the individual sources by generating realistic H I 21 cm maps of the cosmic dawn that are based on N-body simulations and a one-dimensional radiative transfer code. We find that these sources should be detectable in the SKA1-low images at z = 15 with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of ˜14(4) in 2000 (200) h of observations. One possible observational strategy thus could be to observe multiple fields for shorter observation times, identify fields with SNR ≳ 3 and observe these fields for much longer duration. Such observations are expected to be useful in constraining the parameters related to the first sources.

  11. Two-phase flow patterns recognition and parameters estimation through natural circulation test loop image analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, R.N.; Libardi, R.M.P.; Masotti, P.H.F.; Sabundjian, G.; Andrade, D.A.; Umbehaun, P.E.; Torres, W.M.; Conti, T.N.; Macedo, L.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Nuclear Engineering Center], e-mail: rnavarro@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Visualization of natural circulation test loop cycles is used to study two-phase flow patterns associated with phase transients and static instabilities of flow. Experimental studies on natural circulation flow were originally related to accidents and transient simulations relative to nuclear reactor systems with light water refrigeration. In this regime, fluid circulation is mainly caused by a driving force ('thermal head') which arises from density differences due to temperature gradient. Natural circulation phenomenon has been important to provide residual heat removal in cases of 'loss of pump power' or plant shutdown in nuclear power plant accidents. The new generation of compact nuclear reactors includes natural circulation of their refrigerant fluid as a security mechanism in their projects. Two-phase flow patterns have been studied for many decades, and the related instabilities have been object of special attention recently. Experimental facility is an all glass-made cylindrical tubes loop which contains about twelve demineralized water liters, a heat source by an electrical resistor immersion heater controlled by a Variac, and a helicoidal heat exchanger working as cold source. Data is obtained through thermo-pairs distributed over the loop and CCD cameras. Artificial intelligence based algorithms are used to improve (bubble) border detection and patterns recognition, in order to estimate and characterize, phase transitions patterns and correlate them with the periodic static instability (chugging) cycle observed in this circuit. Most of initial results show good agreement with previous numerical studies in this same facility. (author)

  12. Near-field imaging of interference pattern of counterpropagating evanescent waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Bozhevolnaya, Elena A.

    1999-01-01

    It is generally accepted that measurement of of the contrast of the intensity interference pattern formed by two counterpropagating evanescent waves can be used to characterize the resolving power of a collection near-field microscope. We argue that, if the light collected by a fiber probe...

  13. Skeletal muscle imaging in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, pattern and asymmetry of individual muscle involvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, N.H.M.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Asseldonk, R.J. van; Padberg, G.W.A.M.; Geurts, A.C.H.; Engelen, B.G.M. van

    2014-01-01

    To better understand postural and movement disabilities, the pattern of total body muscle fat infiltration was analyzed in a large group of patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. Additionally, we studied whether residual D4Z4 repeat array length adjusted for age and gender could

  14. Localized Surface Plasmons in Vibrating Graphene Nanodisks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Weihua; Li, Bo-Hong; Stassen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    in graphene disks have the additional benefit to be highly tunable via electrical stimulation. Mechanical vibrations create structural deformations in ways where the excitation of localized surface plasmons can be strongly modulated. We show that the spectral shift in such a scenario is determined...... by a complex interplay between the symmetry and shape of the modal vibrations and the plasmonic mode pattern. Tuning confined modes of light in graphene via acoustic excitations, paves new avenues in shaping the sensitivity of plasmonic detectors, and in the enhancement of the interaction with optical emitters...

  15. Delayed-onset adrenoleukodystrophy after cerebral contusion : progressive pattern of demyelination on serial MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Kwon Ha; Suh, Dae chul; Lee, Sang Ahm; Lee, Ho Kyu; Choi, Choong Gon; Yoo, Shi Joon [Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-08-01

    We described serial MR findings in a 20-year-old male with adrenoleuko-dystrophy who presented progressive neurologic deterioration after cerebral contusion. On MR imaging, progressive demyelination was predominant in the white matter of the right temporal lobe as well as tn the parietalobe at the site of prior trauma and exteded into the contralateral hemisphere through the anterior commissure.

  16. State-dependent cellular activity patterns of the cat paraventricular hypothalamus measured by reflectance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard; Rector, D M; Poe, G R

    1996-01-01

    Activity within the cat paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) during sleep and waking states was measured by quantifying intrinsic tissue reflectivity. A fiber optic probe consisting of a 1.0 mm coherent image conduit, surrounded by plastic fibers which conducted 660 nm source light, was attached...

  17. GEMAS: Spatial pattern analysis of Ni by using digital image processing techniques on European agricultural soil data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Gyozo; Petrik, Attila; De Vivo, Benedetto; Albanese, Stefano; Demetriades, Alecos; Sadeghi, Martiya

    2017-04-01

    Several studies have investigated the spatial distribution of chemical elements in topsoil (0-20 cm) within the framework of the EuroGeoSurveys Geochemistry Expert Group's 'Geochemical Mapping of Agricultural and Grazing Land Soil' project . Most of these studies used geostatistical analyses and interpolated concentration maps, Exploratory and Compositional Data and Analysis to identify anomalous patterns. The objective of our investigation is to demonstrate the use of digital image processing techniques for reproducible spatial pattern recognition and quantitative spatial feature characterisation. A single element (Ni) concentration in agricultural topsoil is used to perform the detailed spatial analysis, and to relate these features to possible underlying processes. In this study, simple univariate statistical methods were implemented first, and Tukey's inner-fence criterion was used to delineate statistical outliers. The linear and triangular irregular network (TIN) interpolation was used on the outlier-free Ni data points, which was resampled to a 10*10 km grid. Successive moving average smoothing was applied to generalise the TIN model and to suppress small- and at the same time enhance significant large-scale features of Nickel concentration spatial distribution patterns in European topsoil. The TIN map smoothed with a moving average filter revealed the spatial trends and patterns without losing much detail, and it was used as the input into digital image processing, such as local maxima and minima determination, digital cross sections, gradient magnitude and gradient direction calculation, second derivative profile curvature calculation, edge detection, local variability assessment, lineament density and directional variogram analyses. The detailed image processing analysis revealed several NE-SW, E-W and NW-SE oriented elongated features, which coincide with different spatial parameter classes and alignment with local maxima and minima. The NE-SW oriented

  18. Structural Stability and Vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiggers, Sine Leergaard; Pedersen, Pauli

    This book offers an integrated introduction to the topic of stability and vibration. Strikingly, it describes stability as a function of boundary conditions and eigenfrequency as a function of both boundary conditions and column force. Based on a post graduate course held by the author at the Uni......This book offers an integrated introduction to the topic of stability and vibration. Strikingly, it describes stability as a function of boundary conditions and eigenfrequency as a function of both boundary conditions and column force. Based on a post graduate course held by the author...... and their derivation, thus stimulating them to write interactive and dynamic programs to analyze instability and vibrational modes....

  19. Patterns of accentuated grey-white differentiation on diffusion-weighted imaging or the apparent diffusion coefficient maps in comatose survivors after global brain injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, E., E-mail: xmida@hanmail.ne [Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, C.-H.; Chang, K.-H. [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, H.-W. [Departement of Radiology, Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, D.H. [Department of Radiology, Seoul Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Aim: To determine what disease entities show accentuated grey-white differentiation of the cerebral hemisphere on diffusion-weighted images (DWI) or apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps, and whether there is a correlation between the different patterns and the cause of the brain injury. Methods and materials: The DWI and ADC maps of 19 patients with global brain injury were reviewed and evaluated to investigate whether there was a correlation between the different patterns seen on the DWI and ADC maps and the cause of global brain injury. The ADC values were measured for quantitative analysis. Results: There were three different patterns of ADC decrease: a predominant ADC decrease in only the cerebral cortex (n = 8; pattern I); an ADC decrease in both the cerebral cortex and white matter (WM) and a predominant decrease in the WM (n = 9; pattern II); and a predominant ADC decrease in only the WM (n = 3; pattern III). Conclusion: Pattern I is cerebral cortical injury, suggesting cortical laminar necrosis in hypoxic brain injury. Pattern II is cerebral cortical and WM injury, frequently seen in brain death, while pattern 3 is mainly WM injury, especially found in hypoglycaemic brain injury. It is likely that pattern I is decorticate injury and pattern II is decerebrate injury in hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy.Patterns I and II are found in severe hypoxic brain injury, and pattern II is frequently shown in brain death, whereas pattern III was found in severe hypoglycaemic injury.

  20. A Pictorial Visualization of Normal Mode Vibrations of the Fullerene (C[subscript 60]) Molecule in Terms of Vibrations of a Hollow Sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Janette L.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the normal mode vibrations of a molecule is important in the analysis of vibrational spectra. However, the complicated 3D motion of large molecules can be difficult to interpret. We show how images of normal modes of the fullerene molecule C[subscript 60] can be made easier to understand by superimposing them on images of the normal…

  1. Reflection surface x-ray diffraction patterns: k-space images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Hawoong [Fredrick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 438D, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Wu, Z. [Fredrick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 104 South Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801-2902 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1304 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801-2980 (United States); Chiang, T.-C. [Fredrick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 104 South Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801-2902 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801-3080 (United States); Zschack, P. [Fredrick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 438D, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Jemian, P. [Fredrick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 438D, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Chen, Haydn [Fredrick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 104 South Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801-2902 (United States); Aburano, R. D. [Cypress Semiconductor, 3901 North First Street, San Jose, California 95134 (United States)

    2000-08-01

    For the past two decades, x-ray diffraction has been utilized for surface structural determination. Unlike reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) which is a complicated dynamical scattering process, x-ray surface analysis is simple and straightforward due to the kinematic nature of x rays. Using high brilliance x rays from an undulator beamline and a highly sensitive charge coupled device detector, we successfully observed RHEED-like x-ray diffraction patterns. The patterns were recorded during the preparation of Si(111)-(7x7), transformation to Ge/Si(111)-(5x5) and Ge growth. Also, simultaneous measurements of x-ray reflectivity and crystal truncation rods are shown feasible with this technique. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  2. Electron-Vibration Coupling in Molecular Materials: Assignment of Vibronic Modes from Photoelectron Momentum Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graus, M; Grimm, M; Metzger, C; Dauth, M; Tusche, C; Kirschner, J; Kümmel, S; Schöll, A; Reinert, F

    2016-04-08

    Electron-phonon coupling is one of the most fundamental effects in condensed matter physics. We here demonstrate that photoelectron momentum mapping can reveal and visualize the coupling between specific vibrational modes and electronic excitations. When imaging molecular orbitals with high energy resolution, the intensity patterns of photoelectrons of the vibronic sidebands of molecular states show characteristic changes due to the distortion of the molecular frame in the vibronically excited state. By comparison to simulations, an assignment of specific vibronic modes is possible, thus providing unique information on the coupling between electronic and vibronic excitation.

  3. Digital direct electron imaging of energy-filtered electron backscatter diffraction patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vespucci, S.; Winkelmann, A.; Naresh-Kumar, G.; Mingard, K. P.; Maneuski, D.; Edwards, P. R.; Day, A. P.; O'Shea, V.; Trager-Cowan, C.

    2015-11-01

    Electron backscatter diffraction is a scanning electron microscopy technique used to obtain crystallographic information on materials. It allows the nondestructive mapping of crystal structure, texture, and strain with a lateral and depth resolution on the order of tens of nanometers. Electron backscatter diffraction patterns (EBSPs) are presently acquired using a detector comprising a scintillator coupled to a digital camera, and the crystallographic information obtainable is limited by the conversion of electrons to photons and then back to electrons again. In this article we will report the direct acquisition of energy-filtered EBSPs using a digital complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor hybrid pixel detector, Timepix. We show results from a range of samples with different mass and density, namely diamond, silicon, and GaN. Direct electron detection allows the acquisition of EBSPs at lower (≤5 keV) electron beam energies. This results in a reduction in the depth and lateral extension of the volume of the specimen contributing to the pattern and will lead to a significant improvement in lateral and depth resolution. Direct electron detection together with energy filtering (electrons having energy below a specific value are excluded) also leads to an improvement in spatial resolution but in addition provides an unprecedented increase in the detail in the acquired EBSPs. An increase in contrast and higher-order diffraction features are observed. In addition, excess-deficiency effects appear to be suppressed on energy filtering. This allows the fundamental physics of pattern formation to be interrogated and will enable a step change in the use of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) for crystal phase identification and the mapping of strain. The enhancement in the contrast in high-pass energy-filtered EBSD patterns is found to be stronger for lighter, less dense materials. The improved contrast for such materials will enable the application of the EBSD

  4. Quantifying Histological Features of Cancer Biospecimens for Biobanking Quality Assurance Using Automated Morphometric Pattern Recognition Image Analysis Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Joshua D.; Simpson, Eleanor R.; Michalowski, Aleksandra M.; Hoover, Shelley B.; Simpson, R. Mark

    2011-01-01

    Biorepository-supported translational research depends on high-quality, well-annotated specimens. Histopathology assessment contributes insight into how representative lesions are for research objectives. Feasibility of documenting histological proportions of tumor and stroma was studied in an effort to enhance information regarding biorepository tissue heterogeneity. Using commercially available software, unique spatial-spectral algorithms were developed for applying automated pattern recognition morphometric image analysis to quantify histologic tumor and nontumor tissue areas in biospecimen tissue sections. Measurements were acquired successfully for 75/75 (100%) lymphomas, 76/77 (98.7%) osteosarcomas, and 60/70 (85.7%) melanomas. The percentage of tissue area occupied by tumor varied among patients and tumor types and was distributed around medians of 94% [interquartile range (IQR)=14%] for lymphomas, 84% for melanomas (IQR=24%), and 39% for osteosarcomas (IQR=44%). Within-patient comparisons from a subset, including multiple individual patient specimens, revealed ≤12% median coefficient of variation (CV) for lymphomas and melanomas. Phenotypic heterogeneity of osteosarcomas resulted in 33% median CV. Uniformly applied, tumor-specific pattern recognition software permits automated tissue-feature quantification. Furthermore, dispersion analyses of area measurements across collections, as well as of multiple specimens from individual patients, support using limited tissue slices to gauge features for some tumor types. Quantitative image analysis automation is anticipated to minimize variability associated with routine biorepository pathologic evaluations and enhance biomarker discovery by helping to guide the selection of study-appropriate specimens. PMID:21966258

  5. Distribution patterns of Gd-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging after intravenous tissue plasminogen activator therapy for acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuzawa, Shigeru; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Shimada, Kazuhiro; Katagiri, Nakoto; Ozawa, Shun (Funabashi Municipal Medical Center, Chiba (Japan))

    1994-03-01

    In patients who received thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), we observed 3 distinct patterns in gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. To clarify the significance of these distribution patterns of Gd-DTPA, 20 consecutive patients underwent Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging 7-10 days after AMI. All of the patients received intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IVTPA) within 6 h of onset. Echocardiograms were obtained prior to and serially over 10 days, and interpreted for regional wall motion. Coronary angiograms were obtained the day before discharge. None of the 6 patients with a closed infarct-related artery, and 9 of the 14 patients with an open artery, demonstrated subendocardial enhancement (p<0.05). All of these latter 9 patients demonstrated a significant improvement in wall motion between days 1 and 10 after AMI. In contrast, only 1 of the 7 patients with transmural enhancement and none of the 4 patients with non-homogeneous enhancement demonstrated improvement of wall motion on day 10 (p<0.05). We concluded that subendocardial enhancement was a fair prognostic sign for restoration of regional cardiac function in patients who received IVTPA during AMI. (author).

  6. Vibration Analysis and the Accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Have you ever put your hand on an electric motor or motor-driven electric appliance and felt it vibrate? Ever wonder why it vibrates? What is there about the operation of the motor, or the object to which it is attached, that causes the vibrations? Is there anything "regular" about the vibrations, or are they the result of random causes? In this…

  7. Image Processing Code for Sharpening Photoelastic Fringe Patterns and Its Usage in Determination of Stress Intensity Factors in a Sample Contact Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Khaleghian, Seyedmeysam; Emami, Anahita; Soltani, Nasser

    2015-01-01

    This study presented a type of image processing code which is used for sharpening photoelastic fringe patterns of transparent materials in photoelastic experiences to determine the stress distribution. C-Sharp software was utilized for coding the algorithm of this image processing method. For evaluation of this code, the results of a photoelastic experience of a sample contact problem between a half-plane with an oblique edge crack and a tilted wedge using this image processing method was com...

  8. Classification of videocapsule endoscopy image patterns: comparative analysis between patients with celiac disease and normal individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciaccio Edward J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative disease markers were developed to assess videocapsule images acquired from celiac disease patients with villous atrophy, and from control patients. Method Capsule endoscopy videoclip images (576 × 576 pixels were acquired at 2/second frame rate (11 celiacs, 10 controls at regions: 1. bulb, 2. duodenum, 3. jejunum, 4. ileum and 5. distal ileum. Each of 200 images per videoclip (= 100s were subdivided into 10 × 10 pixel subimages for which mean grayscale brightness level and its standard deviation (texture were calculated. Pooled subimage values were grouped into low, intermediate, and high texture bands, and mean brightness, texture, and number of subimages in each band (nine features in all were used for quantifying regions 1-5, and to determine the three best features for threshold and incremental learning classification. Classifiers were developed using 6 celiac and 5 control patients' data as exemplars, and tested on 5 celiacs and 5 controls. Results Pooled from all regions, the threshold classifier had 80% sensitivity and 96% specificity and the incremental classifier had 88% sensitivity and 80% specificity for predicting celiac versus control videoclips in the test set. Trends of increasing texture from regions 1 to 5 occurred in the low and high texture bands in celiacs, and the number of subimages in the low texture band diminished (r2 > 0.5. No trends occurred in controls. Conclusions Celiac videocapsule images have textural properties that vary linearly along the small intestine. Quantitative markers can assist in screening for celiac disease and localize extent and degree of pathology throughout the small intestine.

  9. Simple shearing interferometer suitable for vibration measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaylova, Emilia M.; Whelan, Maurice P.; Toal, Vincent

    2004-06-01

    Recently there has been an increasing interest in the application of shearography for modal analysis of vibrating objects. New interferometric systems, which are simple and flexible are of interest for engineering and industrial applications. An electronic speckle pattern shearing interferometer (ESPSI) with a very simple shearing device is used for study of vibrations. The shearing device consists of two partially reflective glass plates. The reflection coefficients of the coatings are 0.3 and 0.7 respectively. The distance between the two glass plates controls the size of the shear. The versatility of this simple shearing interferometer is shown. It is demonstrated that the ESPSI system can be used for vibration measurements and phase-shifting implemented for fringe analysis. The results obtained are promising for future applications of the system for modal analysis.

  10. Polarization-dependent Imaging Contrast (PIC) mapping reveals nanocrystal orientation patterns in carbonate biominerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, Pupa U.P.A., E-mail: pupa@physics.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Departments of Physics and Chemistry, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanocrystal orientation shown by Polarization-dependent Imaging Contrast (PIC) maps. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PIC-mapping of carbonate biominerals reveals their ultrastructure at the nanoscale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The formation mechanisms of biominerals is discovered by PIC-mapping using PEEM. -- Abstract: Carbonate biominerals are one of the most interesting systems a physicist can study. They play a major role in the CO{sub 2} cycle, they master templation, self-assembly, nanofabrication, phase transitions, space filling, crystal nucleation and growth mechanisms. A new imaging modality was introduced in the last 5 years that enables direct observation of the orientation of carbonate single crystals, at the nano- and micro-scale. This is Polarization-dependent Imaging Contrast (PIC) mapping, which is based on X-ray linear dichroism, and uses PhotoElectron Emission spectroMicroscopy (PEEM). Here we present PIC-mapping results from biominerals, including the nacre and prismatic layers of mollusk shells, and sea urchin teeth. We describe various PIC-mapping approaches, and show that these lead to fundamental discoveries on the formation mechanisms of biominerals.

  11. Orange Recognition on Tree Using Image Processing Method Based on Lighting Density Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. R Ahmadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Within the last few years, a new tendency has been created towards robotic harvesting of oranges and some of citrus fruits. The first step in robotic harvesting is accurate recognition and positioning of fruits. Detection through image processing by color cameras and computer is currently the most common method. Obviously, a harvesting robot faces with natural conditions and, therefore, detection must be done in various light conditions and environments. In this study, it was attempted to provide a suitable algorithm for recognizing the orange fruits on tree. In order to evaluate the proposed algorithm, 500 images were taken in different conditions of canopy, lighting and the distance to the tree. The algorithm included sub-routines for optimization, segmentation, size filtering, separation of fruits based on lighting density method and coordinates determination. In this study, MLP neural network (with 3 hidden layers was used for segmentation that was found to be successful with an accuracy of 88.2% in correct detection. As there exist a high percentage of the clustered oranges in images, any algorithm aiming to detect oranges on the trees successfully should offer a solution to separate these oranges first. A new method based on the light and shade density method was applied and evaluated in this research. Finally, the accuracies for differentiation and recognition were obtained to be 89.5% and 88.2%, respectively.

  12. Vibrations and Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    About this textbook An ideal text for students that ties together classical and modern topics of advanced vibration analysis in an interesting and lucid manner. It provides students with a background in elementary vibrations with the tools necessary for understanding and analyzing more complex...... dynamical phenomena that can be encountered in engineering and scientific practice. It progresses steadily from linear vibration theory over various levels of nonlinearity to bifurcation analysis, global dynamics and chaotic vibrations. It trains the student to analyze simple models, recognize nonlinear...... phenomena and work with advanced tools such as perturbation analysis and bifurcation analysis. Explaining theory in terms of relevant examples from real systems, this book is user-friendly and meets the increasing interest in non-linear dynamics in mechanical/structural engineering and applied mathematics...

  13. Lumbar Vertebral Endplate Defects on Magnetic Resonance Images: Classification, Distribution Patterns, and Associations with Modic Changes and Disc Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhiyun; Liu, Yuanhao; Yang, Ge; Battié, Michele C; Wang, Yue

    2017-10-10

    A cross-sectional MR imaging study. To classify and characterize endplate defects using routine lumbar MR images, and to determine associations of endplate defects with Modic Changes (MCs) and disc degeneration. Previously, a cadaveric study revealed that endplate lesions were common and associated with back pain history. New in vivo approaches appropriate for clinical studies are needed to further this potentially important line of research on the clinical significance of endplate lesions, including their relation with MCs, disc degeneration and back pain. Using a MRI archive, 1564 endplates of 133 subjects (59 men and 74 women, mean age 58.9 ± 11.9 years) with the presence of MCs were retrospectively collected from April of 2014 to June of 2015. Based on morphological characteristics, a protocol was proposed to identify three distinct types of endplate defects, including focal, corner and erosive defects. The location, size and distribution patterns of various endplate lesions were characterized. MCs and disc degeneration were measured to examine their associations with endplate defects. Endplate defects were observed in 27.8% of endplates studied. Greater age was associated with the presence of endplate defects. Focal defects were the most common (13.5%), followed by erosive defects (11.1%) and corner defects (3.2%). Defect types also differed in size and distribution patterns. Endplate defects and MCs had similar distribution patterns in the lumbar spine. The presence and size of endplate defects were associated with the presence of MCs (OR = 4.29, P system may facilitate clinical studies on endplate defects. 4.

  14. Typical cerebral metabolic patterns in various types of dementia: an SPM analysis of 18F-FDG PET images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-xue CUI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To delineate the cerebral metabolic patterns presented in 18F-FDG PET images in various types of dementia with SPM analysis.  Methods Patients who underwent 18F-FDG PET scanning with a retrospectively confirmed diagnosis according to strictly defined clinical research criteria were studied. Clinical follow-up enabled appropriate patient inclusion. A total of 62 patients were included, of which 20 patients were diagnosed as Alzheimer's disease (AD, 20 frontotemporal dementia (FTD, 10 dementia with Lewy body (DLB, 7 progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP, 3 primary progressive aphasia (PPA, 1 corticobasal ganglionic degeneration (CBD, 1 multiple system atrophy (MSA. 18F-FDG PET images of each group were analyzed and compared to 20 healthy controls using SPM5. Results Disease-specific patterns of relatively decreased metabolic activity were found in AD (bilateral parietotemporal regions and frontal regions sparing sensorimotor cortex, FTD (asymmetric frontotemporal regions, DLB (occipital lobe, visual cortex and bilateral superior temporal gyrus, PSP (bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterolateral temporal regions, caudate nucleus and mesencephalon, PPA (Broca's area in left frontal lobe, left temporal cortex excepting posterior superior temporal gyrus, CBD (asymmetricly involved cortical regions, prodominately on right side, around bilateral central sulcus and right basal ganglia, MSA (bilateral cerebellum dorsolateral cortex and left putamen, and right medial temporal cortex.  Conclusions Specific dementia related cerebral metabolic patterns in 18F-FDG PET might assist in early differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.04.008

  15. Association between magnetic resonance imaging patterns and baseline disease features in multiple myeloma: analyzing surrogates of tumour mass and biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Elias K.; Merz, Maximilian; Shah, Sofia; Hillengass, Michaela; Wagner, Barbara; Hose, Dirk; Raab, M.S. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Internal Medicine V, Heidelberg (Germany); Hielscher, Thomas [German Cancer Research Center, Division of Biostatistics, Heidelberg (Germany); Kloth, Jost K.; Weber, Marc-Andre [University Hospital of Heidelberg, Clinic of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Jauch, Anna [University Hospital of Heidelberg, Institute of Human Genetics, Heidelberg (Germany); Delorme, Stefan [German Cancer Research Center, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Goldschmidt, Hartmut [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Internal Medicine V, Heidelberg (Germany); National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT) Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Hillengass, Jens [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Internal Medicine V, Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    To assess associations between bone marrow infiltration patterns and localization in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and baseline clinical/prognostic parameters in multiple myeloma (MM). We compared baseline MM parameters, MRI patterns and localization of focal lesions to the mineralized bone in 206 newly diagnosed MM patients. A high tumour mass (represented by International Staging System stage III) was significantly associated with severe diffuse infiltration (p = 0.015) and a higher number of focal lesions (p = 0.006). Elevated creatinine (p = 0.003), anaemia (p < 0.001) and high LDH (p = 0.001) correlated with severe diffuse infiltration. A salt and pepper diffuse pattern had a favourable prognosis. A higher degree of destruction of mineralized bone (assessed by X-ray or computed tomography) was associated with an increasing number of focal lesions on MRI (p < 0.001). Adverse cytogenetics (del17p/gain1q21/t(4;14)) were associated with diffuse infiltration (p = 0.008). The presence of intraosseous focal lesions exceeding the mineralized bone had a borderline significant impact on prognosis. Diffuse bone marrow infiltration on MRI correlates with adverse cytogenetics, lowered haemoglobin values and high tumour burden in newly diagnosed MM whereas an increasing number of focal lesions correlates with a higher degree of bone destruction. Focal lesions exceeding the cortical bone did not adversely affect the prognosis. (orig.)

  16. A Monitoring System for Laying Hens That Uses a Detection Sensor Based on Infrared Technology and Image Pattern Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaninelli, Mauro; Redaelli, Veronica; Luzi, Fabio; Bontempo, Valentino; Dell’Orto, Vittorio; Savoini, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    In Italy, organic egg production farms use free-range housing systems with a big outdoor area and a flock of no more than 500 hens. With additional devices and/or farming procedures, the whole flock could be forced to stay in the outdoor area for a limited time of the day. As a consequence, ozone treatments of housing areas could be performed in order to reduce the levels of atmospheric ammonia and bacterial load without risks, due by its toxicity, both for hens and workers. However, an automatic monitoring system, and a sensor able to detect the presence of animals, would be necessary. For this purpose, a first sensor was developed but some limits, related to the time necessary to detect a hen, were observed. In this study, significant improvements, for this sensor, are proposed. They were reached by an image pattern recognition technique that was applied to thermografic images acquired from the housing system. An experimental group of seven laying hens was selected for the tests, carried out for three weeks. The first week was used to set-up the sensor. Different templates, to use for the pattern recognition, were studied and different floor temperature shifts were investigated. At the end of these evaluations, a template of elliptical shape, and sizes of 135 × 63 pixels, was chosen. Furthermore, a temperature shift of one degree was selected to calculate, for each image, a color background threshold to apply in the following field tests. Obtained results showed an improvement of the sensor detection accuracy that reached values of sensitivity and specificity of 95.1% and 98.7%. In addition, the range of time necessary to detect a hen, or classify a case, was reduced at two seconds. This result could allow the sensor to control a bigger area of the housing system. Thus, the resulting monitoring system could allow to perform the sanitary treatments without risks both for animals and humans. PMID:28538654

  17. A Monitoring System for Laying Hens That Uses a Detection Sensor Based on Infrared Technology and Image Pattern Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaninelli, Mauro; Redaelli, Veronica; Luzi, Fabio; Bontempo, Valentino; Dell'Orto, Vittorio; Savoini, Giovanni

    2017-05-24

    In Italy, organic egg production farms use free-range housing systems with a big outdoor area and a flock of no more than 500 hens. With additional devices and/or farming procedures, the whole flock could be forced to stay in the outdoor area for a limited time of the day. As a consequence, ozone treatments of housing areas could be performed in order to reduce the levels of atmospheric ammonia and bacterial load without risks, due by its toxicity, both for hens and workers. However, an automatic monitoring system, and a sensor able to detect the presence of animals, would be necessary. For this purpose, a first sensor was developed but some limits, related to the time necessary to detect a hen, were observed. In this study, significant improvements, for this sensor, are proposed. They were reached by an image pattern recognition technique that was applied to thermografic images acquired from the housing system. An experimental group of seven laying hens was selected for the tests, carried out for three weeks. The first week was used to set-up the sensor. Different templates, to use for the pattern recognition, were studied and different floor temperature shifts were investigated. At the end of these evaluations, a template of elliptical shape, and sizes of 135 × 63 pixels, was chosen. Furthermore, a temperature shift of one degree was selected to calculate, for each image, a color background threshold to apply in the following field tests. Obtained results showed an improvement of the sensor detection accuracy that reached values of sensitivity and specificity of 95.1% and 98.7%. In addition, the range of time necessary to detect a hen, or classify a case, was reduced at two seconds. This result could allow the sensor to control a bigger area of the housing system. Thus, the resulting monitoring system could allow to perform the sanitary treatments without risks both for animals and humans.

  18. Pattern or feature abstraction in remote sensing images based on a slide window with fuzzy edge performing self-organization of local similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hui; Wang, Zeng-Jin; Liu, Da-Yong

    2003-06-01

    In this paper a new pattern or feature abstraction algorithm was developed simulating our human eyes scan on situation leapingly and focus its attention only to limited space, in order to make a physiognomic analysis of the remote sensing images of the earth's surface, in the end to acquire a description like that in where the foothill, the forest, the desert or the alluvial pie slice was, and so on. At first a size-changeable and edge-fuzzy window was designed to get many samples of the earth's surface through sliding around the image, all these samples served for the learning of a Support Vector Machine model, which was designed to make pattern's classifications. This process was repeated in different area, with different sampling size, to different pattern and lasting different times. Once some distinct local patterns were found and mastered, a self-organizing of comparability assembling will happen based on the similarity of some types of local patterns to form a holistic description or understanding of the remote sensing image. Our aim was to compartmentalize the image by physiognomic features. At the end of this paper the results of classification experiment and application of this method to some actual visible light images were presented. This method was suitable to extend to other pattern recognition problems with texture property.

  19. Analysis of the confluence of three patterns using the Centering and Pointing System (CAPS) images for the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Richard R.; Awwal, Abdul; Bliss, Erlan; Roberts, Randy; Rushford, Michael; Wilhelmsen, Karl; Zobrist, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    The Advance Radiographic Capability (ARC) at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a laser system that employs up to four petawatt (PW) lasers to produce a sequence of short pulses that generate X-rays which backlight highdensity internal confinement fusion (ICF) targets. Employing up to eight backlighters, ARC can produce an X-ray "motion picture" to diagnose the compression and ignition of a cryogenic deuterium-tritium target with tens-ofpicosecond temporal resolution during the critical phases of an ICF shot. Multi-frame, hard-X-ray radiography of imploding NIF capsules is a capability which is critical to the success of NIF's missions. The function of the Centering and Pointing System (CAPS) in ARC is to provide superimposed near-field and far-field images on a common optical path. The Images are then analyzed to extract beam centering and pointing data for the control system. The images contain the confluence of pointing, centering, and reference patterns. The patterns may have uneven illumination, particularly when the laser is misaligned. In addition, the simultaneous appearance of three reference patterns may be co-incidental, possibly masking one or more of the patterns. Image analysis algorithms have been developed to determine the centering and pointing position of ARC from these images. In the paper we describe the image analysis algorithms used to detect and identify the centers of these patterns. Results are provided, illustrating how well the process meets system requirements.

  20. Diffusion tensor imaging analysis of sequential spreading of disease in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis confirms patterns of TDP-43 pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassubek, Jan; Müller, Hans-Peter; Del Tredici, Kelly; Brettschneider, Johannes; Pinkhardt, Elmar H; Lulé, Dorothée; Böhm, Sarah; Braak, Heiko; Ludolph, Albert C

    2014-06-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging can identify amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-associated patterns of brain alterations at the group level. Recently, a neuropathological staging system for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis has shown that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis may disseminate in a sequential regional pattern during four disease stages. The objective of the present study was to apply a new methodological diffusion tensor imaging-based approach to automatically analyse in vivo the fibre tracts that are prone to be involved at each neuropathological stage of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Two data samples, consisting of 130 diffusion tensor imaging data sets acquired at 1.5 T from 78 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 52 control subjects; and 55 diffusion-tensor imaging data sets at 3.0 T from 33 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 22 control subjects, were analysed by a tract of interest-based fibre tracking approach to analyse five tracts that become involved during the course of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: the corticospinal tract (stage 1); the corticorubral and the corticopontine tracts (stage 2); the corticostriatal pathway (stage 3); the proximal portion of the perforant path (stage 4); and two reference pathways. The statistical analyses of tracts of interest showed differences between patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and control subjects for all tracts. The significance level of the comparisons at the group level was lower, the higher the disease stage with corresponding involved fibre tracts. Both the clinical phenotype as assessed by the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis functional rating scale-revised and disease duration correlated significantly with the resulting staging scheme. In summary, the tract of interest-based technique allowed for individual analysis of predefined tract structures, thus making it possible to image in vivo the disease stages in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This approach can be used not only for

  1. VLTI-UT vibrations effort and performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poupar, Sébastien; Haguenauer, Pierre; Alonso, Jaime; Schuhler, Nicolas; Henriquez, Juan-Pablo; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Bourget, Pierre; Brillant, Stephane; Castillo, Roberto; Gitton, Philippe; Gonte, Frederic; Di Lieto, Nicola; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Merand, Antoine; Woillez, Julien

    2014-07-01

    The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) using the Unit Telescope (UT) was strongly affected by vibrations since the first observations. Investigation by ESO on that subject had started in 2007, with a considerable effort since mid 2008. An important number of investigations on various sub-systems (On telescope: Guiding, Passive supports, Train Coude, insulation of electronics cabinets; On Instruments: dedicated campaign on each instruments with a special attention on the ones equipped with Close Cycle Cooler) were realized. Vibrations were not only recorded and analyzed using the usual accelerometers but also using on use sub-systems as InfRared Image Sensor (IRIS) and Multiple Applications Curvature Adaptive Optics (MACAO) and using a specific tool developed for vibrations measurements Mirror vibrAtion Metrology systeM for the Unit Telescope (MAMMUT). Those tools and systems have been used in order to improve the knowledge on telescope by finding sources. The sources whenever it was possible were damped. As known for years, instruments are still the principal sources of vibrations, for the majority of the UT. A special test in which 2 UTs instruments were completely shut down was realized to determine the minimum Optical Path Length (OPL) achievable. Vibrations is now a part of the instruments interface document and during the installation of any new instrument (KMOS) or system (AOF) a test campaign is realized. As a result some modifications (damping of CCC) can be asked in case of non-compliance. To ensure good operational conditions, levels of vibrations are regularly recorded to control any environmental change.

  2. Folk Dance Pattern Recognition Over Depth Images Acquired via Kinect Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protopapadakis, E.; Grammatikopoulou, A.; Doulamis, A.; Grammalidis, N.

    2017-02-01

    The possibility of accurate recognition of folk dance patterns is investigated in this paper. System inputs are raw skeleton data, provided by a low cost sensor. In particular, data were obtained by monitoring three professional dancers, using a Kinect II sensor. A set of six traditional Greek dances (without their variations) consists the investigated data. A two-step process was adopted. At first, the most descriptive skeleton data were selected using a combination of density based and sparse modelling algorithms. Then, the representative data served as training set for a variety of classifiers.

  3. FOLK DANCE PATTERN RECOGNITION OVER DEPTH IMAGES ACQUIRED VIA KINECT SENSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Protopapadakis

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of accurate recognition of folk dance patterns is investigated in this paper. System inputs are raw skeleton data, provided by a low cost sensor. In particular, data were obtained by monitoring three professional dancers, using a Kinect II sensor. A set of six traditional Greek dances (without their variations consists the investigated data. A two-step process was adopted. At first, the most descriptive skeleton data were selected using a combination of density based and sparse modelling algorithms. Then, the representative data served as training set for a variety of classifiers.

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cardiac Strain Pattern Following Transplantation of Human Tissue Engineered Heart Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xulei; Riegler, Johannes; Tiburcy, Malte; Zhao, Xin; Chour, Tony; Ndoye, Babacar; Nguyen, Michael; Adams, Jackson; Ameen, Mohamed; Denney, Thomas S.; Yang, Phillip C.; Nguyen, Patricia; Zimmermann, Wolfram H.; Wu, Joseph C.

    2017-01-01

    Background The use of tissue engineering approaches in combination with exogenously produced cardiomyocytes offers the potential to restore contractile function after myocardial injury. However, current techniques assessing changes in global cardiac performance following such treatments are plagued by relatively low detection ability. As the treatment is locally performed, this detection could be improved by myocardial strain imaging that measures regional contractility. Methods and Results Tissue engineered heart muscles (EHMs) were generated by casting human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes with collagen in preformed molds. EHMs were transplanted (n=12) to cover infarct and border zones of recipient rat hearts one month after ischemia reperfusion injury. A control group (n=10) received only sham placement of sutures without EHMs. To assess the efficacy of EHMs, MRI and ultrasound-based strain imaging were performed prior to and four weeks after transplantation. In addition to strain imaging, global cardiac performance was estimated from cardiac MRI. Although no significant differences were found with global changes in left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) (Control −9.6±1.3% vs. EHM −6.2±1.9%, P=0.17), regional myocardial strain from tagged MRI was able to detect preserved systolic function in EHM-treated animals compared to control (Control 4.4±1.0% vs. EHM 1.0±0.6%, P=0.04). However, ultrasound-based strain failed to detect any significant change (Control 2.1±3.0% vs. EHM 6.3±2.9%, P=0.46). Conclusions This study highlights the feasibility of using cardiac strain from tagged MRI to assess functional changes in rat models due to localized regenerative therapies, which may not be detected by conventional measures of global systolic performance. PMID:27903535

  5. Imaging the dorsal hippocampus: light reflectance relationships to electroencephalographic patterns during sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rector, D M; Poe, G R; Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard

    1995-01-01

    We assessed the correspondence of 660 nm light reflectance changes from the dorsal hippocampus with slow wave electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during quiet sleep (QS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in four cats. An optic probe, attached to a charge-coupled-device (CCD) video camera...... as EEG changes. Dividing the image into 10 subregions revealed that reflectance changes at the rhythmical slow wave activity band (RSA, 4-6 Hz) persisted in localized regions during QS and REM sleep, but regional changes showed considerable wave-by-wave independence between areas and from slow wave...

  6. Inspection of arterial-induced skin vibration by Moire fringe with two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Hsiung; Chiu, Shih-Yung; Hsu, Yu-Hsiang; Lee, Shu-Sheng; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2017-06-01

    A non-contact arterial-induced skin vibration inspection system is implemented. This optical metrology system is constructed with shadow Moiré configuration and the fringe analysis algorithm. Developed with the Region of Interested (ROI) capturing technique and the Two-dimensional Wavelet Transform (2D-CWT) method, this algorithm is able to retrieve the height-correlated phase information from the shadow Moiré fringe patterns. Using a commercial video camera or a CMOS image sensor, this system could monitor the skin-vibration induced by the cyclic deformation of inner layered artery. The cross-sectional variation and the rhythm of heart cycle could be continuously measured for health monitoring purposes. The average vibration amplitude of the artery at the wrist ranges between 20 μm and 50 μm, which is quite subtle comparing with the skin surface structure. Having the non-stationary motion of human body, the traditional phase shifting (PS) technique can be very unstable due to the requirement of several frames of images, especially for case that artery is continuously pumping. To bypass this fundamental issue, the shadow Moiré technique is introduced to enhance the surface deformation characteristic. And the phase information is retrieved by the means of spectrum filtering instead of PS technique, which the phase is calculated from intensity maps of multiple images. The instantaneous surface can therefore be reconstructed individually from each frame, enabling the subtle arterial-induced skin vibration measurement. The comparative results of phase reconstruction between different fringe analysis algorithms will be demonstrated numerically and experimentally. And the electrocardiography (ECG) results will used as the reference for the validity of health monitoring potential of the non-contact arterial-induced skin vibration inspection system.

  7. Total error shift patterns for daily CT on rails image-guided radiotherapy to the prostate bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mota Helvecio C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the daily total error shift patterns on post-prostatectomy patients undergoing image guided radiotherapy (IGRT with a diagnostic quality computer tomography (CT on rails system. Methods A total of 17 consecutive post-prostatectomy patients receiving adjuvant or salvage IMRT using CT-on-rails IGRT were analyzed. The prostate bed's daily total error shifts were evaluated for a total of 661 CT scans. Results In the right-left, cranial-caudal, and posterior-anterior directions, 11.5%, 9.2%, and 6.5% of the 661 scans required no position adjustments; 75.3%, 66.1%, and 56.8% required a shift of 1 - 5 mm; 11.5%, 20.9%, and 31.2% required a shift of 6 - 10 mm; and 1.7%, 3.8%, and 5.5% required a shift of more than 10 mm, respectively. There was evidence of correlation between the x and y, x and z, and y and z axes in 3, 3, and 3 of 17 patients, respectively. Univariate (ANOVA analysis showed that the total error pattern was random in the x, y, and z axis for 10, 5, and 2 of 17 patients, respectively, and systematic for the rest. Multivariate (MANOVA analysis showed that the (x,y, (x,z, (y,z, and (x, y, z total error pattern was random in 5, 1, 1, and 1 of 17 patients, respectively, and systematic for the rest. Conclusions The overall daily total error shift pattern for these 17 patients simulated with an empty bladder, and treated with CT on rails IGRT was predominantly systematic. Despite this, the temporal vector trends showed complex behaviors and unpredictable changes in magnitude and direction. These findings highlight the importance of using daily IGRT in post-prostatectomy patients.

  8. Exploring the effects of landscape structure on aerosol optical depth (AOD) patterns using GIS and HJ-1B images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Luping; Fang, Linchuan; Tan, Wenfeng; Wang, Yunqiang; Huang, Yu

    2016-02-01

    A GIS approach and HJ-1B images were employed to determine the effect of landscape structure on aerosol optical depth (AOD) patterns. Landscape metrics, fractal analysis and contribution analysis were proposed to quantitatively illustrate the impact of land use on AOD patterns. The high correlation between the mean AOD and landscape metrics indicates that both the landscape composition and spatial structure affect the AOD pattern. Additionally, the fractal analysis demonstrated that the densities of built-up areas and bare land decreased from the high AOD centers to the outer boundary, but those of water and forest increased. These results reveal that the built-up area is the main positive contributor to air pollution, followed by bare land. Although bare land had a high AOD, it made a limited contribution to regional air pollution due to its small spatial extent. The contribution analysis further elucidated that built-up areas and bare land can increase air pollution more strongly in spring than in autumn, whereas forest and water have a completely opposite effect. Based on fractal and contribution analyses, the different effects of cropland are ascribed to the greater vegetation coverage from farming activity in spring than in autumn. The opposite effect of cropland on air pollution reveals that green coverage and human activity also influence AOD patterns. Given that serious concerns have been raised regarding the effects of built-up areas, bare land and agricultural air pollutant emissions, this study will add fundamental knowledge of the understanding of the key factors influencing urban air quality.

  9. Patterns of body image concerns in adolescence and early adulthood: A latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Svenja; Warschburger, Petra

    2018-02-08

    The present study aimed at identifying latent profiles of body image concerns in adolescents and young adults. Subsequently, associations between these profiles and potentially harmful behaviors are examined. Self-report data of 758 male and female adolescents, aged 14 to 22 years, were analyzed. Participants provided demographic and anthropometric data and completed surveys on weight/shape and muscularity concern as well as on disturbed eating behaviors and dysfunctional exercise. Latent profile analyses of weight/shape concern and muscularity concern were performed separately for each gender. The analyses indicated three-class solutions in men and women. In both genders, the inconspicuous class, characterized by small amounts of weight/shape and muscularity concerns, was the largest one (86% in men, 68% in women). Whereas 10% of the men and 23% of the women were assigned to the borderline class, 4% of the men and 8% of the women formed the conspicuous class (marked weight/shape and muscularity concerns). Between genders, the degrees of muscularity concern differed in the borderline and inconspicuous classes, while the degrees of weight/shape concern differed in the inconspicuous class only. The comparable degrees of weight/shape and muscularity concerns in men and women in the affected classes underline the relevance of both aspects in both genders. Classes could be distinguished by harmful behaviors, like restrained eating or emotional exercise, proving the clinical significance of body image concerns. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Imaging features of portal biliopathy: frequency of involvement patterns with emphasis on MRCP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkavukcu, Esra; Erden, Ayşe; Erden, Ilhan

    2009-07-01

    To investigate the imaging features of portal biliopathy with emphasis on MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). The ancillary vascular findings of portal biliopathy were also evaluated by accompanying MR portography, dynamic contrast-enhanced (CE) CT, and dynamic CE MRI studies. Sixteen patients with portal cavernoma were included in the study. Patients had undergone MRCP (n=16) studies accompanied by MR portography (n=13), dynamic CE CT (n=3) or dynamic CE MRI (n=2) of the liver. Two patients had undergone both dynamic CE CT and dynamic CE MRI. Two radiologists evaluated all the examinations together, retrospectively. MRCP images were analyzed for the presence of biliary stenosis, upstream (prestenotic) dilatation, wavy appearance of the bile ducts, angulation of the common bile duct (CBD), and choledocholithiasis. MR portography, dynamic CE CT and dynamic CE MRI studies were evaluated for the existence of portal cavernomas, and the presence of gall bladder/choledochal varices. All patients had signs of portal biliopathy on MRCP. Frequencies of the biliary findings on MRCP were as follows: biliary stenosis, 93.7%; upstream dilatation, 68.7%; wavy appearance of the biliary tree, 87.5%; angulation of the CBD, 75%. None of the patients had choledocholithiasis. Frequencies of the ancillary vascular findings detected on CE studies were as follows: gall bladder varices, 100%, choledochal varices, 93.7%. MRCP features of portal biliopathy in order to their frequencies were as follows: biliary stenosis, wavy appearance of the bile ducts, angulation of the CBD, and upstream dilatation of the bile ducts.

  11. Imaging Patterns and Outcome of Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome During Childhood Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Raja B; Sadighi, Zsila S; Zabrowski, Jennifer; Gajjar, Amar; Jeha, Sima

    2016-03-01

    Diagnosis of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) requires presence of headache, seizures, impaired vision, or altered mentation accompanied by specific imaging findings. We aimed to study long-term clinical and radiologic outcome of PRES in children with cancer to augment limited available data. Retrospective review of children with cancer who were diagnosed with PRES. We identified PRES in 21 males and 16 females among 5,217 children treated during the study period. Median time from cancer diagnosis to PRES was 6.6 months in 25 leukemia (1.6%), five brain tumor (0.3%), and seven other solid tumor (0.4%) patients; P = seizures (97%), headaches (40%), altered mentation (68%), and vision impairment (27%). Hypertension was seen in 97%, and steroids use was seen in 78%. Headaches, visual disturbance, and mental status resolved within a median of hypertension and steroid use. Seizure is the most common acute manifestation. Most MRI changes resolve, but persistent imaging abnormality and epilepsy may develop in a significant minority. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging in study of the skin: Normal patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sans, Nicolas, E-mail: sans.n@chu-toulouse.fr [Service de Radiologie et Imagerie Medicale, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Purpan, Place du Dr Baylac, TSA 40031, 31059 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Faruch, Marie; Chiavassa-Gandois, Helene; Ribes, Catherine Lalande Champetier de [Service de Radiologie et Imagerie Medicale, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Purpan, Place du Dr Baylac, TSA 40031, 31059 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Paul, Carle [Service de Dermatologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Larrey, Toulouse (France); Railhac, Jean-Jacques [Service de Radiologie et Imagerie Medicale, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Purpan, Place du Dr Baylac, TSA 40031, 31059 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To validate quantitative and qualitative criteria of normal healthy skin using high-resolution MR imaging. Materials and methods: FIESTA and spin echo sequences of the skin of the heel, back and calf were obtained in 31 healthy volunteers. A dedicated 3-in. coil for study of the skin was used to optimize reception sensitivity. Quantitative analysis was performed to measure skin thickness in these three sites and qualititative analysis aimed to differentiate the various skin layers. Results: With both sequences, the stratum corneum appeared as a hyperintense layer. The epidermis was visualized appeared as a fine, homogeneous, hyperintense line. The dermoepidermal junction was clearer particularly in the calf. The dermis was also identified in each sequence and in each anatomic site. The signal was hypointense in both sequences, homogeneous with spin echo and more heterogeneous with FIESTA. Moreover the interface between the papillary and the reticular dermis could be distinguished. The hypodermis was visualized in both sequences and in all sites and hypodermal inclusions in the dermis were seen particularly in the back and calf. Lastly, the pilosebaceous follicles and the deep vascular network of the reticular dermis were more clearly seen with FIESTA sequence. Measures of overall skin thickness and for each layer according to site, sex and MRI sequence were performed. Statistical analysis was then performed to seek significant differences between the results according to these parameters. Conclusion: MR imaging provides global analysis with high resolution of the various skin layers down to the hypodermis and the muscular fascia.

  13. Imaging brain iron and diffusion patterns: a follow-up study of Parkinson's disease in the initial stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Maija Elina; Ruottinen, Hanna; Saunamäki, Tiia; Elovaara, Irina; Dastidar, Prasun

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine changes of brain iron content and diffusion patterns longitudinally in early-stage Parkinson's disease (PD) patients using T2- and T2*-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) over 2-year follow-up. We imaged 32 PD patients with tremor and 19 healthy controls. A follow-up study (median 25 months, range 22-31 months) was accomplished for 25 patients (men:women = 11:14; age range 44-87 years, median 73 years). All patients and healthy volunteers underwent clinical, neuropsychological, and MRI examinations on the same day. Three different MRI sequences were used and their results were compared: T2-weighted imaging, susceptibility-weighted imaging, and T2* mapping. Additionally, we evaluated diffusion tensor data between groups using tract-based spatial statistics. Over the 2-year follow-up, the iron-related relaxation increased in the globus pallidus anterior and the caudate nucleus and slightly in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). In the globus pallidus anterior and medial SNc, the change was associated with mild cognitive impairment. In the caudate nucleus, the increase was pronounced in patients with disease onset at 67 years or older. In the SNc, medial transverse relaxation was increased, and in the thalamus, it was decreased, in patients with PD compared with healthy volunteers at 2-year follow-up. Tract-based spatial statistical data did not differ between groups based on gender or Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, but a slight tendency to decreasing fractional anisotropy (P MRI sequences. Rather than correlating with disease duration, the rate of changes was associated with individual characters, such as cognitive decline and age. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Images for the website main pages and all configurations. The upload and access points for the other images are: Website Template RSW images BSCW Images HIRENASD...

  15. Integrating a Hive Triangle Pattern with Subpixel Analysis for Noncontact Measurement of Structural Dynamic Response by Using a Novel Image Processing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Chi Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a digital image processing approach with a unique hive triangle pattern by integrating subpixel analysis for noncontact measurement of structural dynamic response data. Feasibility of proposed approach is demonstrated based on numerical simulation of a photography experiment. According to those results, the measured time-history displacement of simulated image correlates well with the numerical solution. A small three-story frame is then mounted on a small shaker table, and a linear variation differential transformation (LVDT is set on the second floor. Experimental results indicate that the relative error between data from LVDT and analyzed data from digital image correlation is below 0.007%, 0.0205 in terms of frequency and displacement, respectively. Additionally, the appropriate image block affects the estimation accuracy of the measurement system. Importantly, the proposed approach for evaluating pattern center and size is highly promising for use in assigning the adaptive block for a digital image correlation method.

  16. Skeletal muscle imaging in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, pattern and asymmetry of individual muscle involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijken, N H M; van der Kooi, E L; Hendriks, J C M; van Asseldonk, R J G P; Padberg, G W; Geurts, A C H; van Engelen, B G M

    2014-12-01

    To better understand postural and movement disabilities, the pattern of total body muscle fat infiltration was analyzed in a large group of patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. Additionally, we studied whether residual D4Z4 repeat array length adjusted for age and gender could predict the degree of muscle involvement. Total body computed tomography scans of 70 patients were used to assess the degree of fat infiltration of 42 muscles from neck to ankle level on a semi-quantitative scale. Groups of muscles that highly correlated regarding fat infiltration were identified using factor analysis. Linear regression analysis was performed using muscle fat infiltration as the dependent variable and D4Z4 repeat length and age as independent variables. A pattern of muscle fat infiltration in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy could be constructed. Trunk muscles were most frequently affected. Of these, back extensors were more frequently affected than previously reported. Asymmetry in muscle involvement was seen in 45% of the muscles that were infiltrated with fat. The right-sided upper extremity showed significantly higher scores for fat infiltration compared to the left side, which could not be explained by handedness. It was possible to explain 29% of the fat infiltration based on D4Z4 repeat length, corrected for age and gender. Based on our results we conclude that frequent involvement of fat infiltration in back extensors, in addition to the abdominal muscles, emphasizes the extent of trunk involvement, which may have a profound impact on postural control even in otherwise mildly affected patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Signature analysis of roller bearing vibrations - Lubrication effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y.-T.; Sheen, Y.-T.; Lin, M.-H.

    This study investigates the vibration signature of roller bearings, induced by the surface irregularities of components, under various lubricating conditions. The bearing vibration is modeled as the output of the bearing assembly which is subjected to the excitations of surface irregularities through the oil-film. The oil-film acts as a spring between the roller and race. The stiffness of oil-film under different lubricating conditions is studied from the empirical equation of minimum oil-film thickness. It is shown that the vibration spectra of a normal roller bearing may have a pattern of equal frequency spacing distribution (EFSD) whose frequency information is similar to that of a damaged bearing. Under large loading and low running speed, the vibration energy is low if the lubricant viscosity is high. On the other hand, at high running speed, the vibration energy is high with high lubricant viscosity.

  18. Frequency pattern of turbulent flow and sediment entrainment over ripples using image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, A.; Ball, J.; Nabavi, H.

    2012-01-01

    River channel change and bed scourings are source of major environmental problem for fish and aquatic habitat. The bed form such as ripples and dunes is the result of an interaction between turbulent flow structure and sediment particles at the bed. The structure of turbulent flow over ripples is important to understand initiation of sediment entrainment and its transport. The focus of this study is the measurement and analysis of the dominant bursting events and the flow structure over ripples in the bed of a channel. Two types of ripples with sinusoidal and triangular forms were tested in this study. The velocities of flow over the ripples were measured in three dimensions using an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter with a sampling rate of 50 Hz. These velocities were measured at different points within the flow depth from the bed and at different longitudinal positions along the flume. A CCD camera was used to capture 1500 sequential images from the bed and to monitor sediment movement at different positions along the bed. Application of image processing technique enabled us to compute the number of entrained and deposited particles over the ripples. From a quadrant decomposition of instantaneous velocity fluctuations close to the bed, it was found that bursting events downstream of the second ripple, in Quadrants 1 and 3, were dominant whereas upstream of the ripple, Quadrants 2 and 4 were dominant. More importantly consideration of these results indicates that the normalized occurrence probabilities of sweep events along the channel are in phase with the bed forms whereas those of ejection events are out of phase with the bed form. Therefore entrainment would be expected to occur upstream and deposition occurs downstream of the ripple. These expectations were confirmed by measurement of entrained and deposited sediment particles from the bed. These above information can be used in practical application for rivers where restoration is required.

  19. Automatic disease screening method using image processing for dried blood microfluidic drop stain pattern recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikarwar, Basant S; Roy, Mukesh; Ranjan, Priya; Goyal, Ayush

    2016-07-01

    This paper examines programmed automatic recognition of infection from samples of dried stains of micro-scale drops of patient blood. This technique has the upside of being low-cost and less-intrusive and not requiring puncturing the patient with a needle for drawing blood, which is especially critical for infants and the matured. It also does not require expensive pathological blood test laboratory equipment. The method is shown in this work to be successful for ailment identification in patients suffering from tuberculosis and anaemia. Illness affects the physical properties of blood, which thus influence the samples of dried micro-scale blood drop stains. For instance, if a patient has a severe drop in platelet count, which is often the case of dengue or malaria patients, the blood's physical property of viscosity drops substantially, i.e. the blood is thinner. Thus, the blood micro-scale drop stain samples can be utilised for diagnosing maladies. This paper presents programmed automatic examination of the dried micro-scale drop blood stain designs utilising an algorithm based on pattern recognition. The samples of micro-scale blood drop stains of ordinary non-infected people are clearly recognisable as well as the samples of micro-scale blood drop stains of sick people, due to key distinguishing features. As a contextual analysis, the micro-scale blood drop stains of patients infected with tuberculosis have been contrasted with the micro-scale blood drop stains of typical normal healthy people. The paper dives into the fundamental flow mechanics behind how the samples of the dried micro-scale blood drop stain is shaped. What has been found is a thick ring like feature in the dried micro-scale blood drop stains of non-ailing people and thin shape like lines in the dried micro-scale blood drop stains of patients with anaemia or tuberculosis disease. The ring like feature at the periphery is caused by an outward stream conveying suspended particles to the edge

  20. Laser-modulated phase-stepping digital shearography for the quantitative analysis of structural vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, Benjamin Adam

    This dissertation is on an optical technique called shearography. In this full-field, interferometric procedure, laser light illuminates an object's entire surface and a single image is recorded in which the object appears doubled, or sheared. Subjected to load, the object's surface deforms slightly and a second sheared image is captured. Comparison of the two images yields a fringe pattern depicting the deformation. Fringes represent loci of constant differential displacement, the relative displacement between two points separated by the optical shearing distance. Loading responsible for deforming the object's surface can be either static or dynamic, the latter usually involving: vibratory excitation. Several techniques can be used to examine the resulting vibration, including time-averaged and stroboscopic methods. Stroboscopic illumination allows two states of the object during vibration to be 'frozen' and compared. In conjunction with phase stepping, a digital technique allowing the calculation of exact surface deformation rather than a complex fringe pattern, shearography becomes a highly sensitive, quantitative vibration measurement tool. Shearography has evolved similarly to holography, born as a film-based technique, maturing into a digital one, and incorporating options such its stroboscopic illumination and phase stepping. Unfortunately, this evolution seems to have been confined almost entirely to the optics literature. The goal of this dissertation is to introduce digital shearography to the acoustics community in order to provide a useful tool for vibration measurement. Toward this end, it presents the history, optics background, and governing equations necessary for understanding shearography in its basic, commercially available form. The unique combination of laser modulation and phase stepping is then introduced. The electro-optical system, computer control code, and phase processing algorithms are all developed and described in detail. Fundamental

  1. Mammographic CADx system using an image library with an intelligent agent: A pattern matching approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shih-Chung B.; Freedman, Matthew T.; Kinnard, Lisa; Makariou, Erini

    2006-03-01

    It is conceivable that a comprehensive clinical case library with intelligent agents can sort and render clinically similar cases and present clinically significant features to assist the radiologist in interpreting mammograms. In this study, we used a deformable vector diagram as the primary framework for matching the mammographic masses. The vector diagram provides gradient and shape features of the mass. The deformable algorithm allows flexible matching. The vector diagram was also incorporated with our newly developed delineation method using steepest changes of a probability based cost-function. Thus it allows us to automatically extract the main body and significant part of border region for pattern matching using a weighted mutual information technique. We have collected 86 mammograms. Of these cases, 46 contain a benign mass and the other 40 contain a malignant mass. Using the weighted mutual information technique on the vector diagram of the mass region, we found that the benign masses can be sorted into 6 groups except one case; the malignant masses can be sorted into 8 groups except two cases. For all 86 cases, the masses can be sorted into 13 groups except three cases. In addition, one group of benign masses and one group of malignant mass cases merged into one which contains 10 cases. Hence, the success sorting rate was 85.7% (12/14) in terms of group and was 84.9% (73/86) in terms of case, respectively.

  2. Different localization patterns of anthocyanin species in the pericarp of black rice revealed by imaging mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihiro Yoshimura

    Full Text Available Black rice (Oryza sativa L. Japonica contains high levels of anthocyanins in the pericarp and is considered an effective health-promoting food. Several studies have identified the molecular species of anthocyanins in black rice, but information about the localization of each anthocyanin species is limited because methodologies for investigating the localization such as determining specific antibodies to anthocyanin, have not yet been developed Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS is a suitable tool for investigating the localization of metabolites. In this study, we identified 7 species of anthocyanin monoglycosides and 2 species of anthocyanin diglycosides in crude extracts from black rice by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS analysis. We also analyzed black rice sections by MALDI-IMS and found 2 additional species of anthocyanin pentosides and revealed different localization patterns of anthocyanin species composed of different sugar moieties. Anthocyanin species composed of a pentose moiety (cyanidin-3-O-pentoside and petunidin-3-O-pentoside were localized in the entire pericarp, whereas anthocyanin species composed of a hexose moiety (cyanidin-3-O-hexoside and peonidin-3-O-hexoside were focally localized in the dorsal pericarp. These results indicate that anthocyanin species composed of different sugar moieties exhibit different localization patterns in the pericarp of black rice. This is the first detailed investigation into the localization of molecular species of anthocyanins by MALDI-IMS.

  3. Neuroanatomical patterns of cerebral white matter involvement in different motor neuron diseases as studied by diffusion tensor imaging analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Hans-Peter; Unrath, Alexander; Huppertz, Hans-Jürgen; Ludolph, Albert C; Kassubek, Jan

    2012-05-01

    This study was designed to investigate differences of white matter (WM) involvement patterns in various motor neuron disorders (MND) by use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI).DTI was acquired in ALS (n = 20), primary lateral sclerosis (n = 20), pure hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP) (n = 20), and complicated HSP (n = 12). The data analysis was performed by voxelwise comparison of fractional anisotropy (FA) maps at group level together with fibre tracking in regions of interest (ROI) accompanied by tractwise fractional anisotropy statistics. DTI analysis revealed widespread patterns of alterations with a predominant deterioration of the motor system. These alterations encompassed, as the key structures, not only the corticospinal tracts (CST) but also distinct areas of the corpus callosum (CC), in particular its motor segment III. In conclusion, whole brain-based and tract-based DTI analysis was able to define a distinct WM pathoanatomy of different MND. These results may serve as an additional guidance in the identification of MRI-based parameters by showing a consistent CST and CC involvement, with differences in the extent of pathology, across a range of clinically different disorders. For potential future developments in MRI diagnostics in MND, a (perhaps multiparametric) ROI-based approach should include CST and the CC motor segment.

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Axial Skeleton in Patients With Spondyloarthritis: Distribution Pattern of Inflammatory and Structural Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffstetter, Patrick; Al Suwaidi, Mohammed H; Joist, Alexander; Benditz, Achim; Fleck, Martin; Stroszczynski, Christian; Dornia, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Spondyloarthritis is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the musculoskeletal system driven by systemic enthesitis and typically involving the axial skeleton, ie, the spine and the sacroiliac joints. The purpose of this study was to assess the distribution pattern of inflammatory and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in spondyloarthritis. Retrospective study of 193 patients with axial spondyloarthritis who received MRI of the spine and the sacroiliac joints. We quantitatively assessed inflammatory and structural lesions using established MRI-based scoring methods. The significance of the differences between gender, HLA-B27 status, and spine and sacroiliac involvement was determined. In total, 174 patients (90.2%) showed a sacroiliac involvement and 120 patients (62.2%) a combined involvement of the sacroiliac joints and the spine. An isolated sacroiliac involvement was found in 54 patients (28.0%) and an isolated spine involvement in 19 patients (9.8%). The sacroiliac joint was significantly more involved in men than in women (P systemic disorder predominantly involving the sacroiliac joints. However, the entire axial skeleton may be affected. In particular, HLA-B27-negative women show atypical manifestations without sacroiliac involvement. Magnetic resonance imaging in spondyloarthritis should cover the entire axial skeleton, ie, sacroiliac joints and the spine to meet the pathophysiology of this disorder and capture the true extent of inflammatory and structural lesions.

  5. Dye Tracer Technique and Color Image Analysis For Describing Saturation State and 3d Axi-symmetrical Flow Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abriak, N. E.; Gandola, F.; Haverkamp, R.

    Dye tracer techniques have been widely used for visualising water flow pattern in soils and particularly, for determining the volumetric water content in a one dimensional and two dimensional laboratory experiments. The present study deals a 3 dimensional laboratory experiment (axi-symmetrical condition) using color visualisation technique and the image analysis technique for determining the spatial distribution of the water content. The infiltration of a dye (fluorescein) mixed with water is achieved under ax- isymmetrical condition in a Plexiglas tank (50t'50t'60cm) filled with a low saturated sand. Both infiltration and drainage processes are visualised under blue light condi- tion and recorded on videotape. The image analysis technique used for determining the saturation state is based on the use of a limited colors palette which allows to quan- tify the evolution of the saturation state in the sand. Simultaneously, nine tensiometers connected to a data acquisition system, are used to determine the negative water pres- sure in the sand. The measurement of the succion values confirms the existence of a second water wetting front (after the dye flow) due to the initial mobile water content in the sand.

  6. A New Contactless Fault Diagnosis Approach for Pantograph-Catenary System Using Pattern Recognition and Image Processing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AYDIN, I.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Comfort and safety of railway transport has become more important as train speeds continue to increase. In electrified railways, the electrical current of the train is produced by the sliding contact between the pantograph and catenary. The quality of the current depends on the reliability of contact between the pantograph and catenary. So, pantograph inspection is very important task in electrified railways and it is periodically made for preventing dangerous situations. This inspection is operated manually by taking the pantograph to the service for visual anomalies. However, this monitoring is impractical because of time consuming and slowness, as locomotive remains disabled. An innovative method based on image processing and pattern recognition is proposed in this paper for online monitoring of the catenary-pantograph interaction. The images are acquired from a digital line-scan camera. Data are simultaneously processed according to edge detection and Hough transform, and then the obtained features are provided to a D-Markov based state machine, and the pantograph related faults, such as overheating of the pantograph strip, bursts of arcing, and irregular positioning of the contact line are diagnosed. The proposed method is verified by real faulty and healthy pantograph videos.

  7. The popliteal fibular ligament in acute knee trauma: patterns of injury on MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKean, D.; Thomee, E.; Grant, D.; Teh, J.L.; Mansour, R. [Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Headington, Oxford (United Kingdom); Yoong, P. [Royal Berkshire NHS Foundation Trust, Royal Berkshire Hospital, Reading (United Kingdom); Yanny, S. [Buckinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust, Stoke Mandeville Hospital, Aylesbury (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    To describe the patterns of injury associated with injury to the popliteofibular ligament injury. A retrospective review was performed of 180 MRI scans undertaken for acute knee trauma. Scans were excluded if the time of injury was over 4 weeks from the time of the scan, or if there was a history of septic arthritis, inflammatory arthropathy, previous knee surgery, or significant artefact. An agreed criterion for assessing the structures of the posterolateral ligamentous complex was defined and in each scan, the popliteofibular ligament (PFL) was scored as normal or injured. The menisci, ligaments, and tendons of each knee were also assessed. The mean age was 25.7 years (range, 9-65 years) and 72.2 % (n = 130) patients were male. The PFL was injured in 36 cases (20 %). There is a significant association between PFL injury and ACL rupture (p = 0.0001), ITB injury (p = 0.0001), PCL injury (p = 0.0373), in addition to associations with injury to other posterolateral corner structures including the lateral collateral ligament (p = 0.0001), biceps femoris tendon (p = 0.0014), and popliteus tendon (p = 0.0014). Of our series of PFL injuries, nine cases (25 %) were associated with further injuries of posterolateral corner structures and in 27 cases (75 %) the PFL was the only posterolateral corner structure torn. PFL injury is not uncommon in acute knee trauma and is associated with significant internal derangement of the knee, especially anterior cruciate ligament rupture, ITB sprain, and injury to other structures within the posterolateral corner. (orig.)

  8. Yeast mating and image-based quantification of spatial pattern formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Diener

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Communication between cells is a ubiquitous feature of cell populations and is frequently realized by secretion and detection of signaling molecules. Direct visualization of the resulting complex gradients between secreting and receiving cells is often impossible due to the small size of diffusing molecules and because such visualization requires experimental perturbations such as attachment of fluorescent markers, which can change diffusion properties. We designed a method to estimate such extracellular concentration profiles in vivo by using spatiotemporal mathematical models derived from microscopic analysis. This method is applied to populations of thousands of haploid yeast cells during mating in order to quantify the extracellular distributions of the pheromone α-factor and the activity of the aspartyl protease Bar1. We demonstrate that Bar1 limits the range of the extracellular pheromone signal and is critical in establishing α-factor concentration gradients, which is crucial for effective mating. Moreover, haploid populations of wild type yeast cells, but not BAR1 deletion strains, create a pheromone pattern in which cells differentially grow and mate, with low pheromone regions where cells continue to bud and regions with higher pheromone levels and gradients where cells conjugate to form diploids. However, this effect seems to be exclusive to high-density cultures. Our results show a new role of Bar1 protease regulating the pheromone distribution within larger populations and not only locally inside an ascus or among few cells. As a consequence, wild type populations have not only higher mating efficiency, but also higher growth rates than mixed MATa bar1Δ/MATα cultures. We provide an explanation of how a rapidly diffusing molecule can be exploited by cells to provide spatial information that divides the population into different transcriptional programs and phenotypes.

  9. The popliteal fibular ligament in acute knee trauma: patterns of injury on MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean, D; Yoong, P; Yanny, S; Thomee, E; Grant, D; Teh, J L; Mansour, R

    2015-10-01

    To describe the patterns of injury associated with injury to the popliteofibular ligament injury. A retrospective review was performed of 180 MRI scans undertaken for acute knee trauma. Scans were excluded if the time of injury was over 4 weeks from the time of the scan, or if there was a history of septic arthritis, inflammatory arthropathy, previous knee surgery, or significant artefact. An agreed criterion for assessing the structures of the posterolateral ligamentous complex was defined and in each scan, the popliteofibular ligament (PFL) was scored as normal or injured. The menisci, ligaments, and tendons of each knee were also assessed. The mean age was 25.7 years (range, 9-65 years) and 72.2% (n = 130) patients were male. The PFL was injured in 36 cases (20%). There is a significant association between PFL injury and ACL rupture (p = 0.0001), ITB injury (p = 0.0001), PCL injury (p = 0.0373), in addition to associations with injury to other posterolateral corner structures including the lateral collateral ligament (p = 0.0001), biceps femoris tendon (p = 0.0014), and popliteus tendon (p = 0.0014). Of our series of PFL injuries, nine cases (25%) were associated with further injuries of posterolateral corner structures and in 27 cases (75%) the PFL was the only posterolateral corner structure torn. PFL injury is not uncommon in acute knee trauma and is associated with significant internal derangement of the knee, especially anterior cruciate ligament rupture, ITB sprain, and injury to other structures within the posterolateral corner.

  10. Review of vibration effect during piling installation to adjacent structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Nurul Aishah Abd; Musir, Adhilla Ainun; Dahalan, Nurol Huda; Ghani, Abdul Naser Abdul; Khalil, Muhamad Kasimi Abd

    2017-12-01

    Basically, many major structures across the world such as towers, high rise building, houses and bridges utilize pile as a support material. The use of pile is important to strengthen the structures. However, this has led to another problem to the nearest surrounding structures resulted from pile driving. As part of a construction work, unavoidable pile driving activity generates a vibration towards the surrounding structures if uncontrolled may cause damage to the adjacent structure. As the current construction works are frequently located in urban areas where the distance between the nearest building structures is not far, vibration may cause damage to nearby structures. Knowing which part of the building that is mostly affected by various vibration patterns from the impact of pile driving is crucial. Thus, it is very important to predict the impact of vibration during piling installation work. This paper reviews the vibrations generated by piling activity toward surrounding structures in terms sources of vibration, impact of piling installation, pile-soil interaction, and factors affecting the vibration impact of building as well as to study the parameters involved in vibration generation during piling works.

  11. Can echocardiographic particle image velocimetry correctly detect motion patterns as they occur in blood inside heart chambers? A validation study using moving phantoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prinz Christian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims To validate Echo Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV Methods High fidelity string and rotating phantoms moving with different speed patterns were imaged with different high-end ultrasound systems at varying insonation angles and frame rates. Images were analyzed for velocity and direction and for complex motion patterns of blood flow with dedicated software. Post-processing was done with MATLAB-based tools (Dflow, JUV, University Leuven. Results Velocity estimation was accurate up to a velocity of 42 cm/s (r = 0.99, p  Conclusion Echo-PIV appears feasible. Velocity estimates are accurate, but the maximal detectable velocity depends strongly on acquisition parameters. Direction estimation works sufficiently, even at higher velocities. Echo-PIV appears to be a promising technical approach to investigate flow patterns by echocardiography.

  12. Arcuate sign of posterolateral knee injuries: anatomic, radiographic, and MR imaging data related to patterns of injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Josephine; Trudell, Debra; Resnick, Donald L. [Department of Radiology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Papakonstantinou, Olympia [Department of Radiology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Department of Radiology/MRI Unit, University Hospital of Heraklion (Greece); Brookenthal, Keith R. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2003-11-01

    The ''arcuate sign'' is considered a pathognomonic sign for injuries of the posterolateral (PL) corner of the knee. The purpose of our study was to identify different patterns of injury to the fibular head that may associate with injuries to specific ligaments and tendons of the PL corner of the knee. The anatomic relations between the insertions of fibular collateral ligament (FCL), biceps femoris tendon (BFT), popliteofibular ligament (PFL), and arcuate ligament in normal cadaveric knees were also investigated. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in two cadaveric knees which subsequently were dissected. Radiopaque markers were placed upon the fibular insertions of the FCL, BFT, PFL, and arcuate ligament in the dissected knees, and knee radiographs were then obtained. Twelve patients with radiographic or MR imaging evidence of isolated injury to the PL corner of the knee were retrospectively reviewed, with regard to avulsion fractures and marrow edema in the fibular head and the integrity of the ligaments of the PL corner of the knee. The PFL and arcuate ligament were seen to attach directly to the posterior and medial aspect of the styloid process of the fibular head. The FCL and BFT attached as a conjoined structure on the lateral aspect of the fibular head lateral, anterior and inferior to the attachment site of the PFL and arcuate ligament. Injury to the arcuate ligament or PFL was diagnosed in 8 patients who presented with a small avulsion fracture of the styloid process of the fibula (n=2), bone marrow edema in the medial aspect of the fibular head (n=3), or both (n=3). In 4 patients with injury to the conjoined tendon or FCL, a larger avulsion fragment and more diffuse proximal fibular edema were seen. Radiographic and MR imaging findings in injuries of the posterolateral corner of the knee may suggest injury to specific structures inserting in the fibular head. (orig.)

  13. Patterns of ovarian morphology in polycystic ovary syndrome: a study utilising magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Thomas M.; Smith, Rachel; Marland, Anne; Wass, John A.H. [Churchill Hospital, Department of Endocrinology, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Oxford (United Kingdom); Alvey, Christopher [John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford MRI Centre, Oxford (United Kingdom); Greenslade, Tessa [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Medicine, Oxford (United Kingdom); Gooding, Mark [University of Oxford, Department of Engineering, Oxford (United Kingdom); Barber, Debbie; Child, Tim [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Oxford (United Kingdom); McCarthy, Mark I. [Churchill Hospital, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Oxford (United Kingdom); Franks, Stephen [Imperial College (Hammersmith Campus), Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology, London (United Kingdom); Golding, Stephen J. [John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford MRI Centre, Oxford (United Kingdom); University of Oxford, Department of Engineering, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    To evaluate and compare MRI-based ovarian morphology in groups of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and controls. All PCOS cases (n = 44) had oligo-amenorrhoea and hyperandrogenism irrespective of ovarian morphology, and fulfilled NIH/Rotterdam diagnostic criteria for PCOS. All control women (n = 40) had normal menses and normoandrogenaemia. All subjects were of white British/Irish origin and pre-menopausal. Group comparisons were based on independent-sample t tests. Polycystic ovarian morphology was defined by at least 12 follicles 2-9 mm in diameter and/or an ovarian volume greater than 10 cm{sup 3}. Ovarian morphology differed significantly in PCOS cases and controls (follicle number geometric mean [SD range] 18.6 [9.9, 35.0] vs 6.6 [3.1, 14.2], unadjusted P = 1.3 x 10{sup -16}; calculated ovarian volume 8.8 cm{sup 3} [5.0, 15.5] vs 5.1 cm{sup 3} [2.5, 10.3], unadjusted P = 3.0 x 10{sup -7}; peripheral follicle location in 55% vs 18% of ovaries, P = 7.9 x 10{sup -6}; visible central ovarian stroma in 61% vs 24% of ovaries, P = 2.3 x 10{sup -5}). Follicle number and calculated ovarian volume were not concordant with clinical/biochemical assignment of PCOS/control status in 36 (23%) and 52 (34%) of ovaries, respectively. Ovarian morphology overlaps in PCOS cases and controls, emphasising the importance of considering clinical/biochemical presentation together with imaging ovarian morphology in the diagnosis of PCOS. (orig.)

  14. Differences in functional MR imaging activation patterns associated with confrontation naming and responsive naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewki Farias, Sarah; Harrington, Gregory; Broomand, Catherine; Seyal, Maysud

    2005-01-01

    Direct cortical stimulation studies suggest that responsive naming is more widely distributed within the temporal lobe than confrontation naming and involves anterior temporal regions typically resected in a standard temporal lobectomy. The aim of the current study was to further demonstrate the anatomic dissociation between confrontation and responsive naming by using functional MR imaging (fMRI). Twenty participants underwent fMRI while performing either a confrontation or responsive naming task. Regions of interest were identified within the anterior and posterior temporal lobe. Responsive naming produced more activation than confrontation naming within the dominant temporal lobe, with activation extending into the temporal pole. Activation in the dominant temporal lobe associated with responsive naming was observed in the superior, middle, and inferior temporal gyri but was limited to the middle temporal gyrus for confrontation naming. Although both naming tasks produced activation within the posterior temporal region of interest in all participants, responsive and confrontation naming produced activation within the anterior temporal region of interest in 90% versus 60% of the sample, respectively. Areas of the dominant hemisphere activated by both tasks included parts of the middle occipital and middle temporal gyri, inferior frontal lobe, and hippocampus, among others. Findings are consistent with cortical stimulation studies and suggest that responsive naming produces more widespread activation within the temporal lobe compared with confrontation naming. The activation more often included anterior temporal regions during responsive naming as compared with confrontation naming. In clinical cases where the functional assessment of the temporal lobe-particularly the anterior regions-is important, the current results suggest responsive naming should be a useful fMRI paradigm and may ultimately help predict the risk of postsurgical language changes.

  15. Genetic architecture and temporal patterns of biomass accumulation in spring barley revealed by image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Kerstin; Zhao, Yusheng; Chu, Jianting; Keilwagen, Jens; Reif, Jochen C; Kilian, Benjamin; Graner, Andreas

    2017-08-10

    Genetic mapping of phenotypic traits generally focuses on a single time point, but biomass accumulates continuously during plant development. Resolution of the temporal dynamics that affect biomass recently became feasible using non-destructive imaging. With the aim to identify key genetic factors for vegetative biomass formation from the seedling stage to flowering, we explored growth over time in a diverse collection of two-rowed spring barley accessions. High heritabilities facilitated the temporal analysis of trait relationships and identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL). Biomass QTL tended to persist only a short period during early growth. More persistent QTL were detected around the booting stage. We identified seven major biomass QTL, which together explain 55% of the genetic variance at the seedling stage, and 43% at the booting stage. Three biomass QTL co-located with genes or QTL involved in phenology. The most important locus for biomass was independent from phenology and is located on chromosome 7HL at 141 cM. This locus explained ~20% of the genetic variance, was significant over a long period of time and co-located with HvDIM, a gene involved in brassinosteroid synthesis. Biomass is a dynamic trait and is therefore orchestrated by different QTL during early and late growth stages. Marker-assisted selection for high biomass at booting stage is most effective by also including favorable alleles from seedling biomass QTL. Selection for dynamic QTL may enhance genetic gain for complex traits such as biomass or, in the future, even grain yield.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging tumor regression shrinkage patterns after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced breast cancer: Correlation with tumor biological subtypes and pathological response after therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesio, Laura; Gigli, Silvia; Di Pastena, Francesca; Giraldi, Guglielmo; Manganaro, Lucia; Anastasi, Emanuela; Catalano, Carlo

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze magnetic resonance imaging shrinkage pattern of tumor regression after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and to evaluate its relationship with biological subtypes and pathological response. We reviewed the magnetic resonance imaging studies of 51 patients with single mass-enhancing lesions (performed at time 0 and at the II and last cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy). Tumors were classified as Luminal A, Luminal B, HER2+, and Triple Negative based on biological and immunohistochemical analysis after core needle biopsy. We classified shrinkage pattern, based on tumor regression morphology on magnetic resonance imaging at the II cycle, as concentric, nodular, and mixed. We assigned a numeric score (0: none; 1: low; 2: medium; 3: high) to the enhancement intensity decrease. Pathological response on the surgical specimen was classified as complete (grade 5), partial (grades 4-3), and non-response (grades 1-2) according to Miller and Payne system. Fisher test was used to relate shrinkage pattern with biological subtypes and final pathological response. Seventeen patients achieved complete response, 25 partial response, and 9 non-response. A total of 13 lesions showed nodular pattern, 20 concentric, and 18 mixed. We found an association between concentric pattern and HER2+ (p < 0.001) and mixed pattern and Luminal A lesions (p < 0.001). We observed a statistical significant correlation between concentric pattern and complete response (p < 0.001) and between mixed pattern and non-response (p = 0.005). Enhancement intensity decrease 3 was associated with complete response (p < 0.001). Shrinkage pattern and enhancement intensity decrease may serve as early response indicators after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Shrinkage pattern correlates with tumor biological subtypes.

  17. Study of core support barrel vibration monitoring using ex-core neutron noise analysis and fuzzy logic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robby Christian

    2015-03-01

    A distinct pattern of phase differences was observed for each of the vibration models. The developed fuzzy logic module demonstrated successful recognition of the vibration frequencies, modes, orders, directions, and phase differences within 0.4 ms for the beam and shell mode vibrations.

  18. New Damped-Jerk trajectory for vibration reduction

    OpenAIRE

    BEAREE, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This paper derives a jerk-shaped profile to address the vibration reduction of underdamped flexible dynamics of motion system. The jerk-limited profile is a widespread smooth command pattern used by modern motion systems. The ability of the jerk-limited profile to cancel the residual vibration of an undamped flexible mode is clearly explained using an equivalent continuous filter representation and the input shaping formalism. This motivates the design of a new jerk-shaped profile, named Damp...

  19. A self-adaptive anti-vibration pipeline-filtering algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Houde; Wang, Bin; Zhao, Ming; Xu, Wenhai

    2015-03-01

    The mobile pipeline-filtering algorithm is a real-time algorithm that performs well in detecting small dim targets, but it is particularly sensitive to interframe vibration of sequence images. When searching for small dim targets at sea based on an infrared imaging system, irregular and random vibration of the airborne imaging platform causes huge interference problems for the mobile pipeline-filtering. This paper puts forward a pipeline-filtering algorithm that has a good performance on self-adaptive anti-vibration. In the block matching method using the normalized cross-correlations coefficient (NCC), the interframe vibration of sequence images is acquired in real time and used to correct coordinates of the single-frame detection results, and then the corrected detection results are used to complete the mobile pipelinefiltering. Experimental results show that the algorithm can overcome the problem of interframe vibration of sequence images, thus realizing accurate detection of small dim maritime targets.

  20. Vibrational spectroscopy of resveratrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billes, Ferenc; Mohammed-Ziegler, Ildikó; Mikosch, Hans; Tyihák, Ernő

    2007-11-01

    In this article the authors deal with the experimental and theoretical interpretation of the vibrational spectra of trans-resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy- trans-stilbene) of diverse beneficial biological activity. Infrared and Raman spectra of the compound were recorded; density functional calculations were carried out resulting in the optimized geometry and several properties of the molecule. Based on the calculated force constants, a normal coordinate analysis yielded the character of the vibrational modes and the assignment of the measured spectral bands.

  1. Bumblebee vibration activated foraging

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Dan Kuan-Nien

    2009-01-01

    The ability use vibrational signals to activate nestmate foraging is found in the highly social bees, stingless bees and honey bees, and has been hypothesized to exist in the closely related, primitively eusocial bumble bees. We provide the first strong and direct evidence that this is correct. Inside the nest, bumble bee foragers produce brief bursts of vibration (foraging activation pulses) at 594.5 Hz for 63±26 ms (velocityRMS=0.46±0.02mm/s, forceRMS=0.8±0.2 mN. Production of these vibrati...

  2. Man-Induced Vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Hansen, Lars Pilegaard

    1994-01-01

    concerned with spectator-induced vertical vibrations on grandstands. The idea is to use impulse response analysis and base the load description on the load impulse. If the method is feasable, it could be used in connection with the formulation of requirements in building codes. During the last two decades...... work has been done on the measurement of the exact load functions and related reponse analysis. A recent work using a spectral description has been performed by Per-Erik Erikson and includes a good literature survey. Bachmann and Ammann give a good overview of vibrations caused by human activity. Other...

  3. Vibrations and waves

    CERN Document Server

    Kaliski, S

    2013-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive overview of wave phenomena in different media with interacting mechanical, electromagnetic and other fields. Equations describing wave propagation in linear and non-linear elastic media are followed by equations of rheological models, models with internal rotational degrees of freedom and non-local interactions. Equations for coupled fields: thermal, elastic, electromagnetic, piezoelectric, and magneto-spin with adequate boundary conditions are also included. Together with its companion volume Vibrations and Waves. Part A: Vibrations this work provides a wealth

  4. Swarming and complex pattern formation in Paenibacillus vortex studied by imaging and tracking cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Eshel

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Swarming motility allows microorganisms to move rapidly over surfaces. The Gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus vortex exhibits advanced cooperative motility on agar plates resulting in intricate colonial patterns with geometries that are highly sensitive to the environment. The cellular mechanisms that underpin the complex multicellular organization of such a simple organism are not well understood. Results Swarming by P. vortex was studied by real-time light microscopy, by in situ scanning electron microscopy and by tracking the spread of antibiotic-resistant cells within antibiotic-sensitive colonies. When swarming, P. vortex was found to be peritrichously flagellated. Swarming by the curved cells of P. vortex occurred on an extremely wide range of media and agar concentrations (0.3 to 2.2% w/v. At high agar concentrations (> 1% w/v rotating colonies formed that could be detached from the main mass of cells by withdrawal of cells into the latter. On lower percentage agars, cells moved in an extended network composed of interconnected "snakes" with short-term collision avoidance and sensitivity to extracts from swarming cells. P. vortex formed single Petri dish-wide "supercolonies" with a colony-wide exchange of motile cells. Swarming cells were coupled by rapidly forming, reversible and non-rigid connections to form a loose raft, apparently connected via flagella. Inhibitors of swarming (p-Nitrophenylglycerol and Congo Red were identified. Mitomycin C was used to trigger filamentation without inhibiting growth or swarming; this facilitated dissection of the detail of swarming. Mitomycin C treatment resulted in malcoordinated swarming and abortive side branch formation and a strong tendency by a subpopulation of the cells to form minimal rotating aggregates of only a few cells. Conclusion P. vortex creates complex macroscopic colonies within which there is considerable reflux and movement and interaction of cells. Cell

  5. Hand-arm vibration syndrome: A rarely seen diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Rebecca A; Janko, Matthew R; Hacker, Robert I

    2017-06-01

    Hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) is a collection of sensory, vascular, and musculoskeletal symptoms caused by repetitive trauma from vibration. This case report demonstrates how to diagnose HAVS on the basis of history, physical examination, and vascular imaging and its treatment options. A 41-year-old man who regularly used vibrating tools presented with nonhealing wounds on his right thumb and third digit. Arteriography revealed occlusions of multiple arteries in his hand with formation of collaterals. We diagnosed HAVS, and his wounds healed after several weeks with appropriate treatment. HAVS is a debilitating condition with often irreversible vascular damage, requiring early diagnosis and treatment.

  6. Hand-arm vibration syndrome: A rarely seen diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Campbell, BA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS is a collection of sensory, vascular, and musculoskeletal symptoms caused by repetitive trauma from vibration. This case report demonstrates how to diagnose HAVS on the basis of history, physical examination, and vascular imaging and its treatment options. A 41-year-old man who regularly used vibrating tools presented with nonhealing wounds on his right thumb and third digit. Arteriography revealed occlusions of multiple arteries in his hand with formation of collaterals. We diagnosed HAVS, and his wounds healed after several weeks with appropriate treatment. HAVS is a debilitating condition with often irreversible vascular damage, requiring early diagnosis and treatment.

  7. Heterogeneous Dynamics of Coupled Vibrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cringus, Dan; Jansen, Thomas I. C.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Schoenlein, RW; Corkum, P; DeSilvestri, S; Nelson, KA; Riedle, E

    2009-01-01

    Frequency-dependent dynamics of coupled stretch vibrations of a water molecule are revealed by 2D IR correlation spectroscopy. These are caused by non-Gaussian fluctuations of the environment around the individual OH stretch vibrations.

  8. Videokymography : High-speed line scanning of vocal fold vibration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svec, JG; Schutte, HK

    A digital technique for high-speed visualization of vibration, called videokymography, was developed and applied to the vocal folds. The system uses a modified video camera able to work in two modes: high-speed (nearly 8,000 images/s) and standard (50 images/s in CCIR norm). In the high-speed mode,

  9. Ship Vibration Design Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    Frachtschiffen," Werft Reederie Hafen, 1925. 4-21 Noonan, E. F. "Vibration Considerations for 120,000 CM LNG Ships," NKF: Preliminary Report No. 7107, 25...Ship Response to Ice - A Second Season by C. Daley, J. W. St. John, R. Brown, J. Meyer , and I. Glen 1990 SSC-340 Ice Forces and Ship Response to Ice

  10. Compact Vibration Damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanco, Thomas G. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A vibration damper includes a rigid base with a mass coupled thereto for linear movement thereon. Springs coupled to the mass compress in response to the linear movement along either of two opposing directions. A converter coupled to the mass converts the linear movement to a corresponding rotational movement. A rotary damper coupled to the converter damps the rotational movement.

  11. Vibrations and Eigenvalues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The vibrating string problem is the source of much mathematicsand physics. This article describes Lagrange's formulationof a discretised version of the problem and its solution.This is also the first instance of an eigenvalue problem. Author Affiliations. Rajendra Bhatia1. Ashoka University, Rai, Haryana 131 029, India.

  12. Blade Vibration Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The Phase I project successfully demonstrated that an advanced noncontacting stress measurement system (NSMS) could improve classification of blade vibration response in terms of mistuning and closely spaced modes. The Phase II work confirmed the microwave sensor design process, modified the sensor so it is compatible as an upgrade to existing NSMS, and improved and finalized the NSMS software. The result will be stand-alone radar/tip timing radar signal conditioning for current conventional NSMS users (as an upgrade) and new users. The hybrid system will use frequency data and relative mode vibration levels from the radar sensor to provide substantially superior capabilities over current blade-vibration measurement technology. This frequency data, coupled with a reduced number of tip timing probes, will result in a system capable of detecting complex blade vibrations that would confound traditional NSMS systems. The hardware and software package was validated on a compressor rig at Mechanical Solutions, Inc. (MSI). Finally, the hybrid radar/tip timing NSMS software package and associated sensor hardware will be installed for use in the NASA Glenn spin pit test facility.

  13. Single molecule fluorescence image patterns linked to dipole orientation and axial position: application to myosin cross-bridges in muscle fibers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P Burghardt

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Photoactivatable fluorescent probes developed specifically for single molecule detection extend advantages of single molecule imaging to high probe density regions of cells and tissues. They perform in the native biomolecule environment and have been used to detect both probe position and orientation.Fluorescence emission from a single photoactivated probe captured in an oil immersion, high numerical aperture objective, produces a spatial pattern on the detector that is a linear combination of 6 independent and distinct spatial basis patterns with weighting coefficients specifying emission dipole orientation. Basis patterns are tabulated for single photoactivated probes labeling myosin cross-bridges in a permeabilized muscle fiber undergoing total internal reflection illumination. Emitter proximity to the glass/aqueous interface at the coverslip implies the dipole near-field and dipole power normalization are significant affecters of the basis patterns. Other characteristics of the basis patterns are contributed by field polarization rotation with transmission through the microscope optics and refraction by the filter set. Pattern recognition utilized the generalized linear model, maximum likelihood fitting, for Poisson distributed uncertainties. This fitting method is more appropriate for treating low signal level photon counting data than χ(2 minimization.Results indicate that emission dipole orientation is measurable from the intensity image except for the ambiguity under dipole inversion. The advantage over an alternative method comparing two measured polarized emission intensities using an analyzing polarizer is that information in the intensity spatial distribution provides more constraints on fitted parameters and a single image provides all the information needed. Axial distance dependence in the emission pattern is also exploited to measure relative probe position near focus. Single molecule images from axial scanning fitted

  14. Proposed method of reducing ground vibration from delay blasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coursen, D.L. [Dynatec Explosives Consultants, Inc., Espanola, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In the proposed method, the charges are elongated and arranged in one or more arrays. The orientation of each charge in an array, its velocity of propagation of explosion, and the velocity of propagation of vibration in the formation are such that, at an outlying location where vibration is to be reduced, the onset of vibration from the explosion of the first negligibly small increment of each charge arrives a finite time before that from the explosion of the last negligibly small increment of that charge. The charges of each array are fired in accurately-timed sequence, with the times between initiations chosen so that, at the outlying location, the onset of vibration from the explosion of the last small increment of each charge, except the last charge, arrives a negligibly small increment of time before the onset of vibration from the explosion of the first negligibly small increment of the succeeding charge. With such timing, vibration may be reduced at the widest range of locations by tilting the boreholes so that the terminal end of each charge is directly above or below the terminal end of the succeeding charge. With the proposed method, vibration can be expected to decrease with increasing charge length, decreasing velocity of propagation of explosion, increasing number of charges per array, decreasing reverberation time, increasing precision of initiation timing, and increasing homogeneity of the rock. Computer modeling of the resulting vibration from single arrays having a total duration of explosion longer than the reverberation time shows a starting transient and an ending transient with little or no vibration between them. For patterns containing more than one array, the modeling indicates that the recommended timing between arrays can largely eliminate the vibration from the starting and ending transients as well when they are dominated by a single frequency.

  15. Cerebral White Matter Maturation Patterns in Preterm Infants: An MRI T2 Relaxation Anisotropy and Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Michael J; Smith-Collins, Adam; Newell, Sarah; Denbow, Mark; Kauppinen, Risto A

    2018-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with worse neurodevelopmental outcome, but brain maturation in preterm infants is poorly characterized with standard methods. We evaluated white matter (WM) of infant brains at term-equivalent age, as a function of gestational age at birth, using multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Infants born very preterm (preterm (33-36 weeks gestation) were scanned at 3 T at term-equivalent age using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and T2 relaxometry. MRI data were analyzed using tract-based spatial statistics, and anisotropy of T2 relaxation was also determined. Principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis were applied to seek the variables best distinguishing very preterm and late preterm groups. Across widespread regions of WM, T2 is longer in very preterm infants than in late preterm ones. These effects are more prevalent in regions of WM that myelinate earlier and faster. Similar effects are obtained from DTI, showing that fractional anisotropy (FA) is lower and radial diffusivity higher in the very preterm group, with a bias toward earlier myelinating regions. Discriminant analysis shows high sensitivity and specificity of combined T2 relaxometry and DTI for the detection of a distinct WM development pathway in very preterm infants. T2 relaxation is anisotropic, depending on the angle between WM fiber and magnetic field, and this effect is modulated by FA. Combined T2 relaxometry and DTI characterizes specific patterns of retarded WM maturation, at term equivalent age, in infants born very preterm relative to late preterm. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  16. Brain magnetic resonance imaging pattern and outcome in children with haemolytic-uraemic syndrome and neurological impairment treated with eculizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitiaux, Cyril; Krug, Pauline; Grevent, David; Kossorotoff, Manoelle; Poncet, Sarah; Eisermann, Monika; Oualha, Mehdi; Boddaert, Nathalie; Salomon, Remi; Desguerre, Isabelle

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and the neurological and neuropsychological outcomes in paediatric, diarrhoea-associated haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (D+HUS) with central nervous system impairment treated with eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody. The 14-month single-centre prospective study included seven children (three males, four females; age range 16 mo-7 y 8 mo; median age 3 y 7 mo) with typical D+HUS and acute neurological impairment. In the acute phase of the disease, neurological assessment and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including measurement of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), were performed, and neuropsychological evaluation and brain MRI were also carried out 6 months after disease onset. In the acute phase, basal ganglia and white matter abnormalities with ADC restriction were a common and reversible MRI finding. In all the surviving patients (5/7), follow-up MRI after 6 months was normal, indicating reversible lesions. Clinical and neuropsychological evaluations after 6 months were also normal. This specific brain MRI pattern consisting of an ADC decrease in basal ganglia and white matter without major T2/fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) injury may be a key finding in the acute phase of the disease in favour of a vasculitis hypothesis. These reversible lesions were associated with a good neurological outcome. These results call for further evaluation of the potential role of eculizumab in the choice of treatment for severe D+HUS, particularly in the case of early neurological signs. © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  17. Unsupervised clustering of subcellular protein expression patterns in high-throughput microscopy images reveals protein complexes and functional relationships between proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handfield, Louis-François; Chong, Yolanda T; Simmons, Jibril; Andrews, Brenda J; Moses, Alan M

    2013-01-01

    Protein subcellular localization has been systematically characterized in budding yeast using fluorescently tagged proteins. Based on the fluorescence microscopy images, subcellular localization of many proteins can be classified automatically using supervised machine learning approaches that have been trained to recognize predefined image classes based on statistical features. Here, we present an unsupervised analysis of protein expression patterns in a set of high-resolution, high-throughput microscope images. Our analysis is based on 7 biologically interpretable features which are evaluated on automatically identified cells, and whose cell-stage dependency is captured by a continuous model for cell growth. We show that it is possible to identify most previously identified localization patterns in a cluster analysis based on these features and that similarities between the inferred expression patterns contain more information about protein function than can be explained by a previous manual categorization of subcellular localization. Furthermore, the inferred cell-stage associated to each fluorescence measurement allows us to visualize large groups of proteins entering the bud at specific stages of bud growth. These correspond to proteins localized to organelles, revealing that the organelles must be entering the bud in a stereotypical order. We also identify and organize a smaller group of proteins that show subtle differences in the way they move around the bud during growth. Our results suggest that biologically interpretable features based on explicit models of cell morphology will yield unprecedented power for pattern discovery in high-resolution, high-throughput microscopy images.

  18. Unsupervised clustering of subcellular protein expression patterns in high-throughput microscopy images reveals protein complexes and functional relationships between proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-François Handfield

    Full Text Available Protein subcellular localization has been systematically characterized in budding yeast using fluorescently tagged proteins. Based on the fluorescence microscopy images, subcellular localization of many proteins can be classified automatically using supervised machine learning approaches that have been trained to recognize predefined image classes based on statistical features. Here, we present an unsupervised analysis of protein expression patterns in a set of high-resolution, high-throughput microscope images. Our analysis is based on 7 biologically interpretable features which are evaluated on automatically identified cells, and whose cell-stage dependency is captured by a continuous model for cell growth. We show that it is possible to identify most previously identified localization patterns in a cluster analysis based on these features and that similarities between the inferred expression patterns contain more information about protein function than can be explained by a previous manual categorization of subcellular localization. Furthermore, the inferred cell-stage associated to each fluorescence measurement allows us to visualize large groups of proteins entering the bud at specific stages of bud growth. These correspond to proteins localized to organelles, revealing that the organelles must be entering the bud in a stereotypical order. We also identify and organize a smaller group of proteins that show subtle differences in the way they move around the bud during growth. Our results suggest that biologically interpretable features based on explicit models of cell morphology will yield unprecedented power for pattern discovery in high-resolution, high-throughput microscopy images.

  19. Unsupervised Clustering of Subcellular Protein Expression Patterns in High-Throughput Microscopy Images Reveals Protein Complexes and Functional Relationships between Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handfield, Louis-François; Chong, Yolanda T.; Simmons, Jibril; Andrews, Brenda J.; Moses, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    Protein subcellular localization has been systematically characterized in budding yeast using fluorescently tagged proteins. Based on the fluorescence microscopy images, subcellular localization of many proteins can be classified automatically using supervised machine learning approaches that have been trained to recognize predefined image classes based on statistical features. Here, we present an unsupervised analysis of protein expression patterns in a set of high-resolution, high-throughput microscope images. Our analysis is based on 7 biologically interpretable features which are evaluated on automatically identified cells, and whose cell-stage dependency is captured by a continuous model for cell growth. We show that it is possible to identify most previously identified localization patterns in a cluster analysis based on these features and that similarities between the inferred expression patterns contain more information about protein function than can be explained by a previous manual categorization of subcellular localization. Furthermore, the inferred cell-stage associated to each fluorescence measurement allows us to visualize large groups of proteins entering the bud at specific stages of bud growth. These correspond to proteins localized to organelles, revealing that the organelles must be entering the bud in a stereotypical order. We also identify and organize a smaller group of proteins that show subtle differences in the way they move around the bud during growth. Our results suggest that biologically interpretable features based on explicit models of cell morphology will yield unprecedented power for pattern discovery in high-resolution, high-throughput microscopy images. PMID:23785265

  20. Quasi-optical coherence vibration tomography technique for damage detection in beam-like structures based on auxiliary mass induced frequency shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shuncong; Zhong, Jianfeng; Zhang, Qiukun; Maia, Nuno

    2017-09-01

    A novel quasi-optical coherence vibration tomography (Quasi-OCVT) measurement system suitable for structural damage detection is proposed by taking the concept of two-dimensional optical coherence vibration tomography (2D-OCVT) technique. An artificial quasi-interferogram fringe pattern (QIFP) similar to the interferogram of 2D-OCVT system, as a sensor, was pasted on the surface of a vibrating structure. Image sequences of QIFP were captured by a high-speed camera that worked as a detector. The period density of the imaged QIFP changed due to the structural vibration, from which the vibration information of the structure could be obtained. Noise influence on the measurement accuracy, torsional sensitivity and optical distortion effect of the Quasi-OCVT system were investigated. The efficiency and reliability of the proposed method were demonstrated by applying the system to damage detection of a cracked beam-like structure with a roving auxiliary mass. The roving of the mass along the cracked beam brings about the change of natural frequencies that could be obtained by the Quasi-OCVT technique. Therefore, frequency-shift curves can be achieved and these curves provide additional spatial information for structural damage detection. Same cases were also analyzed by the finite element method (FEM) and conventional accelerometer-based measurement method. Comparisons were carried out among these results. Results obtained by the proposed Quasi-OCVT method had a good agreement with the ones obtained by FEM, from which the damage could be directly detected. However, the results obtained by conventional accelerometer showed misleading ambiguous peaks at damage position owing to the mass effect on the structure, where the damage location cannot be identified confidently without further confirmation. The good performance of the cost-effective Quasi-OCVT method makes it attractive for vibration measurement and damage detection of beam-like structures.

  1. Animal Communications Through Seismic Vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Peggy (University of Tulsa)

    2001-05-02

    Substrate vibration has been important to animals as a channel of communication for millions of years, but our literature on vibration in this context of biologically relevant information is only decades old. The jaw mechanism of the earliest land vertebrates allowed them to perceive substrate vibrations as their heads lay on the ground long before airborne sounds could be heard. Although the exact mechanism of vibration production and the precise nature of the wave produced are not always understood, recent development of affordable instrumentation to detect and measure vibrations has allowed researchers to answer increasingly sophisticated questions about how animals send and receive vibration signals. We now know that vibration provides information used in predator defense, prey detection, recruitment to food, mate choice, intrasexual competition, and maternal/brood social interactions in a variety of insect orders, spiders, crabs, scorpions, chameleons, frogs, golden moles, mole rats, kangaroos rats, wallabies, elephants and bison.

  2. Osteoblast adhesion, migration, and proliferation variations on chemically patterned nanocrystalline diamond films evaluated by live-cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broz, Antonin; Ukraintsev, Egor; Kromka, Alexander; Rezek, Bohuslav; Hubalek Kalbacova, Marie

    2017-05-01

    Cell fate modulation by adapting the surface of a biocompatible material is nowadays a challenge in implantology, tissue engineering as well as in construction of biosensors. Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin films are considered promising in these fields due to their extraordinary physical and chemical properties and diverse ways in which they can be modified structurally and chemically. The initial cell distribution, the rate of cell adhesion, distance of cell migration and also the cell proliferation are influenced by the NCD surface termination. Here, we use real-time live-cell imaging to investigate the above-mentioned processes on oxidized NCD (NCD-O) and hydrogenated NCD (NCD-H) to elucidate cell preference to the NCD-O especially on surfaces with microscopic surface termination patterns. Cells adhere more slowly and migrate farther on NCD-H than on NCD-O. Cells seeded with a fetal bovine serum (FBS) supplement in the medium move across the surface prior to adhesion. In the absence of FBS, the cells adhere immediately, but still exhibit different migration and proliferation on NCD-O/H regions. We discuss the impact of these effects on the formation of cell arrays on micropatterned NCD. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1469-1478, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Vibration Attenuation of Plate Using Multiple Vibration Absorbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaman Izzuddin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Vibrations are undesired phenomenon and it can cause harm, distress and unsettling influence to the systems or structures, for example, aircraft, automobile, machinery and building. One of the approach to limit this vibration by introducing passive vibration absorber attached to the structure. In this paper, the adequacy of utilizing passive vibration absorbers are investigated. The vibration absorber system is designed to minimize the vibration of a thin plate fixed along edges. The plate’s vibration characteristics, such as, natural frequency and mode shape are determined using three techniques: theoretical equations, finite element (FE analysis and experiment. The results demonstrate that the first four natural frequencies of fixed-fixed ends plate are 48, 121, 193 and 242 Hz, and these results are corroborated well with theoretical, FE simulation and experiment. The experiment work is further carried out with attached single and multiple vibration absorbers onto plate by tuning the absorber’s frequency to match with the excitation frequency. The outcomes depict that multiple vibration absorbers are more viable in lessening the global structural vibration.

  4. Effect of Ultrasonic Vibration on Proliferation and Differentiation of Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Hino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of mechanical stimulation of vibration on proliferation and differentiation of cells has been studied in vitro. To apply the vibration on the cells, a piezoelectric element was attached on the outside surface of the bottom of the culture plate of six wells. The piezoelectric element was vibrated by sinusoidally alternating voltage at 1.0 MHz generated by a function generator. Five kinds of cells were used in the experiment: C2C12 (mouse myoblast cell, L929 (fibroblast connective tissue of mouse, Hepa1-6 (mouse hepatoma cell, HUVEC (human umbilical vein endothelial cell, and Neuro-2a (mouse neural crest-derived cell line. After the incubation for 24 hours, cells were exposed to the ultrasonic vibration intermittently for three days: for thirty minutes per day. At the end of the experiment, the number of cells was counted by colorimetric method with a microplate photometer. In the case of Neuro-2a, the total length of the neurite was calculated at the microscopic image. The experimental study shows following results. Cells are exfoliated by the strong vibration. Proliferation and differentiation of cells are accelerated with mild vibration. The optimum intensity of vibration depends on the kind of cells.

  5. Good vibrations. [Hydraulic turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, P.

    1994-07-01

    The latest developments in the Voith Turbine Control and Automation System (VTLS), which couples digital control technology to hydropower plant equipment, are described. Prominent among these is the vibration diagnostics module for hydraulic turbines. It provides machine-specific diagnostic logic for a vibration monitoring and analysis system. Of the two other VTLS modules described, the operation module optimizes the control of a power plant with three or more turbines by considering the individual properties of each in turn, recommending which should be run, and how, in order to partition the load for a required power output. The cavitation module is a diagnostic system which enables the limits of operation of the turbines to be extended to bands just outside those determined by cavitation calculations. (3 figures). (UK)

  6. A penny for your thoughts! patterns of fMRI activity reveal the content and the spatial topography of visual mental images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Maddalena; Piccardi, Laura; Palermo, Liana; Nemmi, Federico; Sulpizio, Valentina; Galati, Gaspare; Guariglia, Cecilia

    2015-03-01

    Visual mental imagery is a complex process that may be influenced by the content of mental images. Neuropsychological evidence from patients with hemineglect suggests that in the imagery domain environments and objects may be represented separately and may be selectively affected by brain lesions. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess the possibility of neural segregation among mental images depicting parts of an object, of an environment (imagined from a first-person perspective), and of a geographical map, using both a mass univariate and a multivariate approach. Data show that different brain areas are involved in different types of mental images. Imagining an environment relies mainly on regions known to be involved in navigational skills, such as the retrosplenial complex and parahippocampal gyrus, whereas imagining a geographical map mainly requires activation of the left angular gyrus, known to be involved in the representation of categorical relations. Imagining a familiar object mainly requires activation of parietal areas involved in visual space analysis in both the imagery and the perceptual domain. We also found that the pattern of activity in most of these areas specifically codes for the spatial arrangement of the parts of the mental image. Our results clearly demonstrate a functional neural segregation for different contents of mental images and suggest that visuospatial information is coded by different patterns of activity in brain areas involved in visual mental imagery. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Pickin’ up good vibrations

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    In preparation for the civil engineering work on the HL-LHC, vibration measurements were carried out at the LHC’s Point 1 last month. These measurements will help evaluate how civil engineering work could impact the beam, and will provide crucial details about the site’s geological make-up before construction begins.   A seismic truck at Point 1 generated wave-like vibrations measured by EN/MME. From carrying out R&D to produce state-of-the-art magnets to developing innovative, robust materials capable of withstanding beam impact, the HL-LHC is a multi-faceted project involving many groups and teams across CERN’s departments. It was in this framework that the project management mandated CERN's Mechanical and Materials Engineering (EN/MME) group to measure the propagation of vibrations around Point 1. Their question: can civil engineering work for the HL-LHC – the bulk of which is scheduled for LS2 – begin while the LHC is running? Alth...

  8. Vibrational stability of graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangfan Hu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical stability of graphene as temperature rises is analyzed based on three different self-consistent phonon (SCP models. Compared with three-dimensional (3-D materials, the critical temperature Ti at which instability occurs for graphene is much closer to its melting temperature Tm obtained from Monte Carlo simulation (Ti ≃ 2Tm, K. V. Zakharchenko, A. Fasolino, J. H. Los, and M. I. Katsnelson, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23, 202202. This suggests that thermal vibration plays a significant role in melting of graphene while melting for 3-D materials is often dominated by topologic defects. This peculiar property of graphene derives from its high structural anisotropy, which is characterized by the vibrational anisotropic coefficient (VAC, defined upon its Lindermann ratios in different directions. For any carbon based material with a graphene-like structure, the VAC value must be smaller than 5.4 to maintain its stability. It is also found that the high VAC value of graphene is responsible for its negative thermal expansion coefficient at low temperature range. We believe that the VAC can be regarded as a new criterion concerning the vibrational stability of any low-dimensional (low-D materials.

  9. Characterizing and mitigating vibrations for SCExAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozi, Julien; Guyon, Olivier; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Singh, Garima; Goebel, Sean; Norris, Barnaby; Okita, Hirofumi

    2016-07-01

    The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) instrument, under development for the Subaru Telescope, has currently the fastest on-sky wavefront control loop, with a pyramid wavefront sensor running at 3.5 kHz. But even at that speed, we are still limited by low-frequency vibrations. The current main limitation was found to be vibrations attributed mainly to the rotation of the telescope. Using the fast wavefront sensors, cameras and accelerometers, we managed to identify the origin of most of the vibrations degrading our performance. Low-frequency vibrations are coming from the telescope drive in azimuth and elevation, as well as the elevation encoders when the target is at transit. Other vibrations were found at higher frequency coming from the image rotator inside Subaru's adaptive optics facility AO188. Different approaches are being implemented to take care of these issues. The PID control of the image rotator has been tuned to reduce their high-frequency contribution. We are working with the telescope team to tune the motor drives and reduce the impact of the elevation encoder. A Linear Quadratic Gaussian controller (LQG, or Kalman filter) is also being implemented inside SCExAO to control these vibrations. These solutions will not only improve significantly SCExAOs performance, but will also help all the other instruments on the Subaru Telescope, especially the ones behind AO188. Ultimately, this study will also help the development of the TMT, as these two telescopes share very similar drives.

  10. Flushing Enhancement with Vibration and Pulsed Current in Electrochemical Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhujian Feng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to understand flushing of by-products in electrochemical machining (ECM by modeling and experimentally verifying mechanism of particle transport in inter-electrode gap under low frequency vibration. A series of hole were drilled on steel plates to evaluate the effect of vibration on material removal rate and hole quality. Infinite focus optical technique was used to capture and analyze the three-dimensional images of ECM'ed features. Experimental results showed that maximum machining depth and minimum taper angle can be achieved when vibrating the workpiece at 40 Hz and 10 µm amplitude. Simulation results showed that the highest average flushing speed of 0.4 m/s was obtained at this vibration frequency and amplitude. Machining depth and material removal rate has a positive correlation with the average flushing speed. Sharper ECM’ed profile is obtained since the taper angle is favorably reduced at high average flushing speed.

  11. A Cross-sectional Study of the Pattern of Body Image Perception among Female Students of BBM College in Vijayapur, North Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashmi, B M; Patil, Shailaja S; Angadi, Mahabaleshwar Mahantappa; Pattankar, Tanuja P

    2016-07-01

    Body image is an essential aspect of young girls' self-definition and individual identity which is influenced by various biological, psychological and social factors. Excessive concern about body image, body image misconception are leading to dissatisfaction, disturbed eating patterns, affecting the nutritional status and also leading to depression and anxiety disorders. This concept of body image has been less explored in Indian context, especially among young girls. The objectives of the study were to assess the body image perception among young college going girls, using a visual analog scale and to compare body image perception and satisfaction with their BMI levels and weight changing methods adopted. An exploratory cross-sectional study was conducted among 63 female students studying BBM course at a private commerce institution in Vijayapur city. Data was collected using a self administered questionnaire containing details of basic socio-demographic information and a validated visual analogue scale. Height was measured by Seca Stadiometer, weight was measured using Digital weighing machine and Body Mass Index levels were calculated. Percentages were calculated for descriptive variables. Chi-square test was applied for analysing categorical variables. Spearman Rank correlation test was applied for analysing ordinal data. A 39.7% of participants were underweight and 15.9% were overweight/obese. Majority of underweight and overweight girls (72% and 89%, respectively) perceived themselves as normal weight. Body image satisfaction of participants was found to be significantly associated with their body image perception, mothers' educational status and also with relatives' and peer group's opinions about their body weight. Unhealthy weight changing patterns like skipping meals (13%), increasing quantity and frequency of meals (17%) were reported among study participants. This exploratory study highlights the gap between young girls' body image perception and their

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging for assessment of parametrial tumour spread and regression patterns in adaptive cervix cancer radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Maximilian P.; Fidarova, Elena [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical Univ. of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)], e-mail: maximilian.schmid@akhwien.at; Poetter, Richard [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical Univ. of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Lab. for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical Univ. of Vienna (Austria)] [and others

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-morphologic differences in parametrial infiltration on tumour response during primary radio chemotherapy in cervical cancer. Material and methods: Eighty-five consecutive cervical cancer patients with FIGO stages IIB (n = 59) and IIIB (n = 26), treated by external beam radiotherapy ({+-}chemotherapy) and image-guided adaptive brachytherapy, underwent T2-weighted MRI at the time of diagnosis and at the time of brachytherapy. MRI patterns of parametrial tumour infiltration at the time of diagnosis were assessed with regard to predominant morphology and maximum extent of parametrial tumour infiltration and were stratified into five tumour groups (TG): 1) expansive with spiculae; 2) expansive with spiculae and infiltrating parts; 3) infiltrative into the inner third of the parametrial space (PM); 4) infiltrative into the middle third of the PM; and 5) infiltrative into the outer third of the PM. MRI at the time of brachytherapy was used for identifying presence (residual vs. no residual disease) and signal intensity (high vs. intermediate) of residual disease within the PM. Left and right PM of each patient were evaluated separately at both time points. The impact of the TG on tumour remission status within the PM was analysed using {chi}2-test and logistic regression analysis. Results: In total, 170 PM were analysed. The TG 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 were present in 12%, 11%, 35%, 25% and 12% of the cases, respectively. Five percent of the PM were tumour-free. Residual tumour in the PM was identified in 19%, 68%, 88%, 90% and 85% of the PM for the TG 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. The TG 3 - 5 had significantly higher rates of residual tumour in the PM in comparison to TG 1 + 2 (88% vs. 43%, p < 0.01). Conclusion: MRI-morphologic features of PM infiltration appear to allow for prediction of tumour response during external beam radiotherapy and chemotherapy. A predominantly infiltrative tumour spread at the

  13. QR-on-a-chip: a computer-recognizable micro-pattern engraved microfluidic device for high-throughput image acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Kyungwon; Lee, Hyunjae; Bang, Hyunwoo; Jeon, Noo Li

    2016-02-21

    This study proposes a novel way to achieve high-throughput image acquisition based on a computer-recognizable micro-pattern implemented on a microfluidic device. We integrated the QR code, a two-dimensional barcode system, onto the microfluidic device to simplify imaging of multiple ROIs (regions of interest). A standard QR code pattern was modified to arrays of cylindrical structures of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Utilizing the recognition of the micro-pattern, the proposed system enables: (1) device identification, which allows referencing additional information of the device, such as device imaging sequences or the ROIs and (2) composing a coordinate system for an arbitrarily located microfluidic device with respect to the stage. Based on these functionalities, the proposed method performs one-step high-throughput imaging for data acquisition in microfluidic devices without further manual exploration and locating of the desired ROIs. In our experience, the proposed method significantly reduced the time for the preparation of an acquisition. We expect that the method will innovatively improve the prototype device data acquisition and analysis.

  14. Algorithm for Reconstruction of 3D Images of Nanorice Particles from Diffraction Patterns of Two Particles in Independent Random Orientations with an X-ray Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Soon Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The method of angular correlations recovers quantities from diffraction patterns of randomly oriented particles, as expected to be measured with an X-ray free electron laser (XFEL, proportional to quadratic functions of the spherical harmonic expansion coefficients of the diffraction volume of a single particle. We have previously shown that it is possible to reconstruct a randomly oriented icosahedral or helical virus from the average over all measured diffraction patterns of such correlations. We point out in this paper that a structure of even simpler particles of 50 Å or so in diameter and consisting of heavier atomic elements (to enhance scattering that has been used as a test case for reconstructions from XFEL diffraction patterns can also be solved by this technique. Even though there has been earlier work on similar objects (prolate spheroids, one advantage of the present technique is its potential to also work with diffraction patterns not only due to single particles as has been suggested on the basis on nonoverlapping delta functions of angular scattering. Accordingly, we calculated from the diffraction patterns the angular momentum expansions of the pair correlations and triple correlations for general particle images and reconstructed those images in the standard way. Although the images looked pretty much the same, it is not totally clear to us that the angular correlations are exactly the same as different numbers of particles due to the possibility of constructive or destructive interference between the scattered waves from different particles. It is of course known that, for a large number of particles contributing to a diffraction parttern, the correlations converge to that of a single particle. It could be that the lack of perfect agreement between the images reconstructed with one and two particles is due to uncancelling constructive and destructive conditions that a