Simulation of vibration modes of the fuel rod damaged due to the grid-to-rod fretting wear
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Kyu Tae; Kim, Kyeong Koo; Jang, Young Ki; Lee, Kyou Seok
1997-01-01
The flow-induced fuel fretting wear observed in some PWRs mainly proceeds in the grid-to-rod contact positions. The grid-to-rod fretting wear in the PWR fuel assembly depends on grid-to-rod gap size, its axial profile and flow-induced vibration. This paper describes the GRIDFORCE program which generates the axially dependent grid-to-rod gap size as a function of burnup. The axially dependent grid-to-rod gap profiles are employed to predict the fuel rod vibration mode shapes by the ANSYS code. With the help of the Paidousis empirical formula, this paper also calculates the fuel rod vibration amplitudes under various supporting conditions, which indicates that the increase of the number of unsupported mid-grids will increase the fuel rod vibration amplitude. On the other hand, the comparison of the predicted vibration mode shapes and the observed mid-grid fretting wear pattern indicates that the 1st and 6th vibration mode shapes under the supporting inactive condition at the mid-grids can simulate the observed mid-grid fretting wear profile. This paper also proposes design guidelines against the grid-to-rod fretting wear. (author). 3 refs., 8 figs
Local-mode vibrations of water
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lawton, R.T.; Child, M.S. (Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Theoretical Chemistry)
1981-05-11
Quantum-mechanical eigenvalues for the stretching vibrations of H/sub 2/O on the Sorbie-Murrell potential surface are shown to contain a series of local-mode doublets, with splittings which vary as the energy increases from 100 cm/sup -1/ at v=1 to 0.001 cm/sup -1/ at v=8. Preliminary calculations indicate that this pattern is largely unaffected by inclusion of the bending vibrational mode.
Local-mode vibrations of water
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lawton, R.T.; Child, M.S. (Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Theoretical Chemistry)
1981-05-11
Quantum-mechanical eigenvalues for the stretching vibrations of H/sub 2/O on the Sorbie-Murrell potential surface are shown to contain a series of local-mode doublets, with splittings which vary as the energy increases from 100 cm/sup -1/ at theta=1 to 0.001 cm/sup -1/ at theta=8. Preliminary calculations indicate that this pattern is largely unaffected by inclusion of the bending vibrational mode.
Local-mode vibrations of water
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lawton, R.T.; Child, M.S.
1981-01-01
Quantum-mechanical eigenvalues for the stretching vibrations of H 2 O on the Sorbie-Murrell potential surface are shown to contain a series of local-mode doublets, with splittings which vary as the energy increases from 100 cm - 1 at v=1 to 0.001 cm - 1 at v=8. Preliminary calculations indicate that this pattern is largely unaffected by inclusion of the bending vibrational mode. (author)
Vibrational lifetimes of protein amide modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peterson, K.A.; Rella, C.A.
1995-01-01
Measurement of the lifetimes of vibrational modes in proteins has been achieved with a single frequency infrared pump-probe technique using the Stanford Picosecond Free-electron Laser, These are the first direct measurements of vibrational dynamics in the polyamide structure of proteins. In this study, modes associated with the protein backbone are investigated. Results for the amide I band, which consists mainly of the stretching motion of the carbonyl unit of the amide linkage, show that relaxation from the first vibrational excited level (v=1) to the vibrational ground state (v=0) occurs within 1.5 picoseconds with apparent first order kinetics. Comparison of lifetimes for myoglobin and azurin, which have differing secondary structures, show a small but significant difference. The lifetime for the amide I band of myoglobin is 300 femtoseconds shorter than for azurin. Further measurements are in progress on other backbone vibrational modes and on the temperature dependence of the lifetimes. Comparison of vibrational dynamics for proteins with differing secondary structure and for different vibrational modes within a protein will lead to a greater understanding of energy transfer and dissipation in biological systems. In addition, these results have relevance to tissue ablation studies which have been conducted with pulsed infrared lasers. Vibrational lifetimes are necessary for calculating the rate at which the energy from absorbed infrared photons is converted to equilibrium thermal energy within the irradiated volume. The very fast vibrational lifetimes measured here indicate that mechanisms which involve direct vibrational up-pumping of the amide modes with consecutive laser pulses, leading to bond breakage or weakening, are not valid
Optimal parameters uncoupling vibration modes of oscillators
Le, K. C.; Pieper, A.
2017-07-01
This paper proposes a novel optimization concept for an oscillator with two degrees of freedom. By using specially defined motion ratios, we control the action of springs to each degree of freedom of the oscillator. We aim at showing that, if the potential action of the springs in one period of vibration, used as the payoff function for the conservative oscillator, is maximized among all admissible parameters and motions satisfying Lagrange's equations, then the optimal motion ratios uncouple vibration modes. A similar result holds true for the dissipative oscillator having dampers. The application to optimal design of vehicle suspension is discussed.
Heavy atom vibrational modes and low-energy vibrational autodetachment in nitromethane anions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thompson, Michael C.; Weber, J. Mathias; Baraban, Joshua H.; Matthews, Devin A.; Stanton, John F.
2015-01-01
We report infrared spectra of nitromethane anion, CH 3 NO 2 − , in the region 700–2150 cm −1 , obtained by Ar predissociation spectroscopy and electron detachment spectroscopy. The data are interpreted in the framework of second-order vibrational perturbation theory based on coupled-cluster electronic structure calculations. The modes in the spectroscopic region studied here are mainly based on vibrations involving the heavier atoms; this work complements earlier studies on nitromethane anion that focused on the CH stretching region of the spectrum. Electron detachment begins at photon energies far below the adiabatic electron affinity due to thermal population of excited vibrational states
Vibrational modes of porous silicon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sabra, M.; Naddaf, M.
2012-01-01
On the basis of theoretical and experimental investigations, the origin of room temperature photoluminescence (PL) from porous silicon is found to related to chemical complexes constituted the surface, in particular, SiHx, SiOx and SiOH groups. Ab initio atomic and molecular electronic structure calculations on select siloxane compounds were used for imitation of infrared (IR) spectra of porous silicon. These are compared to the IR spectra of porous silicon recorded by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). In contrast to linear siloxane, the suggested circular siloxane terminated with linear siloxane structure is found to well-imitate the experimental spectra. These results are augmented with EDX (energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy) measurements, which showed that the increase of SiOx content in porous silicon due to rapid oxidation process results in considerable decrease in PL peak intensity and a blue shift in the peak position. (author)
Normal modes of vibration in nickel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Birgeneau, R J [Yale Univ., New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cordes, J [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Dolling, G; Woods, A D B
1964-07-01
The frequency-wave-vector dispersion relation, {nu}(q), for the normal vibrations of a nickel single crystal at 296{sup o}K has been measured for the [{zeta}00], [{zeta}00], [{zeta}{zeta}{zeta}], and [0{zeta}1] symmetric directions using inelastic neutron scattering. The results can be described in terms of the Born-von Karman theory of lattice dynamics with interactions out to fourth-nearest neighbors. The shapes of the dispersion curves are very similar to those of copper, the normal mode frequencies in nickel being about 1.24 times the corresponding frequencies in copper. The fourth-neighbor model was used to calculate the frequency distribution function g({nu}) and related thermodynamic properties. (author)
Local vibrational modes of the water dimer - Comparison of theory and experiment
Kalescky, R.; Zou, W.; Kraka, E.; Cremer, D.
2012-12-01
Local and normal vibrational modes of the water dimer are calculated at the CCSD(T)/CBS level of theory. The local H-bond stretching frequency is 528 cm-1 compared to a normal mode stretching frequency of just 143 cm-1. The adiabatic connection scheme between local and normal vibrational modes reveals that the lowering is due to mass coupling, a change in the anharmonicity, and coupling with the local HOH bending modes. The local mode stretching force constant is related to the strength of the H-bond whereas the normal mode stretching force constant and frequency lead to an erroneous underestimation of the H-bond strength.
Spatial Distortion of Vibration Modes via Magnetic Correlation of Impurities
Krasniqi, F. S.; Zhong, Y.; Epp, S. W.; Foucar, L.; Trigo, M.; Chen, J.; Reis, D. A.; Wang, H. L.; Zhao, J. H.; Lemke, H. T.; Zhu, D.; Chollet, M.; Fritz, D. M.; Hartmann, R.; Englert, L.; Strüder, L.; Schlichting, I.; Ullrich, J.
2018-03-01
Long wavelength vibrational modes in the ferromagnetic semiconductor Ga0.91 Mn0.09 As are investigated using time resolved x-ray diffraction. At room temperature, we measure oscillations in the x-ray diffraction intensity corresponding to coherent vibrational modes with well-defined wavelengths. When the correlation of magnetic impurities sets in, we observe the transition of the lattice into a disordered state that does not support coherent modes at large wavelengths. Our measurements point toward a magnetically induced broadening of long wavelength vibrational modes in momentum space and their quasilocalization in the real space. More specifically, long wavelength vibrational modes cannot be assigned to a single wavelength but rather should be represented as a superposition of plane waves with different wavelengths. Our findings have strong implications for the phonon-related processes, especially carrier-phonon and phonon-phonon scattering, which govern the electrical conductivity and thermal management of semiconductor-based devices.
Vibration mode and vibration shape under excitation of a three phase model transformer core
Okabe, Seiji; Ishigaki, Yusuke; Omura, Takeshi
2018-04-01
Structural vibration characteristics and vibration shapes under three-phase excitation of a archetype transformer core were investigated to consider their influences on transformer noise. Acoustic noise and vibration behavior were measured in a three-limb model transformer core. Experimental modal analysis by impact test was performed. The vibration shapes were measured by a laser scanning vibrometer at different exciting frequencies. Vibration amplitude of the core in out-of-plane direction were relatively larger than those in other two in-plane directions. It was consistent with the result that the frequency response function of the core in out-of-plane direction was larger by about 20 dB or more than those in in-plane directions. There were many vibration modes having bending deformation of limbs in out-of-plane direction. The vibration shapes of the core when excited at 50 Hz and 60 Hz were almost the same because the fundamental frequencies of the vibration were not close to the resonance frequencies. When excitation frequency was 69 Hz which was half of one of the resonance frequencies, the vibration shape changed to the one similar to the resonance vibration mode. Existence of many vibration modes in out-of-plane direction of the core was presumed to be a reason why frequency characteristics of magnetostriction and transformer noise do not coincide.
selective excitation of vibrational modes of polyatomic molecule
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Mode-selective dynamics of triatomic molecule in the electronic ground state under continuous wave laser pulse is investigated for the discrete vibrational bound states. A non-perturbative approach has been used to analyse the vibrational couplings and dynamics of the molecule. Keywords. Polyatomic molecule ...
Multi-mode vibration control of piping system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minowa, Takeshi; Seto, Kazuto; Iiyama, Fumiya; Sodeyama, Hiroshi
1999-01-01
In this paper, dual dynamic absorbers are applied to the piping system in order to control the multiple vibration modes. ANSYS, which is one of the software based on FEM(finite element method), is used for the design of dual dynamic absorbers as well as for the determination of their optimum installing positions. The dual dynamic absorbers designed optimally for controlling the first three vibration modes perform just like a houde damper in higher frequency and have an effect on controlling higher modes. To use this advantage, three dual dynamic absorbers are installed in positions where they influence higher modes, and not only the first three modes of the piping system but also the extensive modes are controlled. Practical experimental study has also been carried out and it is shown that a dual dynamic absorber is suitable for controlling the vibration of the piping system. (author)
Raman intensity and vibrational modes of armchair CNTs
Hur, Jaewoong; Stuart, Steven J.
2017-07-01
Raman intensity changes and frequency patterns have been studied using the various armchair (n, n) to understand the variations of bond polarizability, in regard to changing diameters, lengths, and the number of atoms in the (n, n). The Raman intensity trends of the (n, n) are validated by those of Cn isomers. For frequency trends, similar frequency patterns and frequency inward shifts for the (n, n) are characterized. Also, VDOS trends of the (n, n) expressing Raman modes are interpreted. The decomposition of vibrational modes in the (n, n) into radial, longitudinal, and tangential mode is beneficially used to recognize the distinct characteristics of vibrational modes.
Heat exchanger nozzle stresses due to pipe vibration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wolgemuth, G.A.
1983-01-01
A large diameter pipe in a heavy water production plant was excited into a low frequency vibration due to void collapse of the pipe contents at a sharp vertical drop in the pipe run. Fears that this vibration would fatigue the inlet nozzle to the heat exchanger prompted the introduction of a flow of cold water into the pipe to prevent the two-phase flow from developing but at the cost of reduced heat exchanger efficiency. An investigation was carried out to determine the stress levels in the nozzle with the quenching flow off and suggest means of reducing them if excessive. A finite element dynamic simulation of the pipe run was performed to determine the likely mode shapes. This information was used to optimize the placement of velocity probes on the pipe. Field measurements of vibration were taken for several operating conditions. This data was analyzed and the results used to refine the support stiffness used in the finite element simulation. The finite element model was then used to predict the nozzle forces and moments. In turn this data was used to determine the local stresses in the nozzle. The ASME Section III code was used to determine the allowable fully reversing stresses for the unit in question. It was found that the endurance limit of 83 MPa was exceeded in the analysis only when using the most conservative estimates for each uncertainty. It was recommended that if the safety factor was not deemed high enough, the nozzle should be built up with a reinforcing pad no thicker than 12 mm
Vibration modes of a single plate with general boundary conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Phamová L.
2016-06-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with free flexural vibration modes and natural frequencies of a thin plate with general boundary conditions — a simply supported plate connected to its surroundings with torsional springs. Vibration modes were derived on the basis of the Rajalingham, Bhat and Xistris approach. This approach was originally used for a clamped thin plate, so its adaptation was needed. The plate vibration function was usually expressed as a single partial differential equation. This partial differential equation was transformed into two ordinary differential equations that can be solved in the simpler way. Theoretical background of the computations is briefly described. Vibration modes of the supported plate with torsional springs are presented graphically and numerically for three different values of stiffness of torsional springs.
Failure modes and natural control time for distributed vibrating systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reid, R.M.
1994-01-01
The eigenstructure of the Gram matrix of frequency exponentials is used to study linear vibrating systems of hyperbolic type with distributed control. Using control norm as a practical measure of controllability and the vibrating string as a prototype, it is demonstrated that hyperbolic systems have a natural control time, even when only finitely many modes are excited. For shorter control times there are identifiable control failure modes which can be steered to zero only with very high cost in control norm. Both natural control time and the associated failure modes are constructed for linear fluids, strings, and beams, making note of the essential algorithms and Mathematica code, and displaying results graphically
Evaluation of Bus Vibration Comfort Based on Passenger Crowdsourcing Mode
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hong Zhao
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Vibration comfort is an important factor affecting the quality of service (QoS of bus. In order to make people involved in supervising bus’s vibration comfort and improve passengers’ riding experience, a novel mode of passenger crowdsourcing is introduced. In this paper, comfort degree of bus vibration is calculated from bus’s vibration signals collected by passengers’ smartphones and sent through WiFi to the Boa web server which shows the vibration comfort on the LCD deployed in bus and maybe trigger alarm lamp when the vibration is beyond the threshold. Three challenges here have been overcome: firstly, space coordinate transformation algorithm is used to solve the constant drift of signals collected; secondly, a low-pass filter is designed to isolate gravity from signals real-timely via limited computing resources; thirdly, an embedded evaluation system is developed according to the calculation procedure specified by criterion ISO 2631-1997. Meanwhile, the model proposed is tested in a practical running environment, the vibration data in whole travel are recorded and analyzed offline. The results show that comfort degree of vibration obtained from the experimental system is identical with the truth, and this mode is proved to be effective.
Abnormal vibration of turbine due to oil whip
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koo, Jae Raeyang; Hwang, Jae Hyeon
2001-01-01
Almost all rotating machinery has bearings. Bearing is one of the most important part of rotating machinery. Vibration of rotating machinery depend on its bearing conditions. Bearing conditions are following; oil gap, bearing type, bearing temperature, bearing oil condition. Especially, bearing oil condition influences on rotating machinery vibration directly. In this paper we have discussed the abnormal vibration of turbine due to oil condition. Oil whip problem was occurred in the certain power plant and we had solved this problem through the control of operating values and alignment
Surface vibrational modes in disk-shaped resonators.
Dmitriev, A V; Gritsenko, D S; Mitrofanov, V P
2014-03-01
The natural frequencies and distributions of displacement components for the surface vibrational modes in thin isotropic elastic disks are calculated. In particular, the research is focused on even solutions for low-lying resonant vibrations with large angular wave numbers. Several families of modes are found which are interpreted as modified surface modes of an infinitely long cylinder and Lamb modes of a plate. The results of calculation are compared with the results of the experimental measurements of vibrational modes generated by means of resonant excitation in duraluminum disk with radius of ≈90 mm and thickness of 16 mm in the frequency range of 130-200 kHz. An excellent agreement between the calculated and measured frequencies is found. Measurements of the structure of the resonant peaks show splitting of some modes. About a half of the measured modes has splitting Δfsplit/fmode at the level of the order of 10(-5). The Q-factors of all modes measured in vacuum lie in the interval (2…3)×10(5). This value is typical for duraluminum mechanical resonators in the ultrasonic frequency range. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Customized shaping of vibration modes by acoustic metamaterial synthesis
Xu, Jiawen; Li, Shilong; Tang, J.
2018-04-01
Acoustic metamaterials have attractive potential in elastic wave guiding and attenuation over specific frequency ranges. The vast majority of related investigations are on transient waves. In this research we focus on stationary wave manipulation, i.e., shaping of vibration modes. Periodically arranged piezoelectric transducers shunted with inductive circuits are integrated to a beam structure to form a finite-length metamaterial beam. We demonstrate for the first time that, under a given operating frequency of interest, we can facilitate a metamaterial design such that this frequency becomes a natural frequency of the integrated system. Moreover, the vibration mode corresponding to this natural frequency can be customized and shaped to realize tailored/localized response distribution. This is fundamentally different from previous practices of utilizing geometry modification and/or feedback control to achieve mode tailoring. The metamaterial design is built upon the combinatorial effects of the bandgap feature and the effective resonant cavity feature, both attributed to the dynamic characteristics of the metamaterial beam. Analytical investigations based on unit-cell dynamics and modal analysis of the metamaterial beam are presented to reveal the underlying mechanism. Case illustrations are validated by finite element analyses. Owing to the online tunability of circuitry integrated, the proposed mode shaping technique can be online adjusted to fit specific requirements. The customized shaping of vibration modes by acoustic metamaterial synthesis has potential applications in vibration suppression, sensing enhancement and energy harvesting.
CO 2 laser photoacoustic spectra and vibrational modes of heroin ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Heroin, morphine and narcotine are very large molecules having 50, 40 and 53 atoms respectively. Moderately high resolution photoacoustic (PA) spectra have been recorded in 9.6 m and 10.6 m regions of CO2 laser. It is very difﬁcult to assign the modes of vibrations for PA bands by comparison with conventional low ...
Coherent dynamics of the localized vibrational modes of hydrogen in CaF2
Wells, J. P. R.; Rella, C. W.; Bradley, I. V.; Galbraith, I.; Pidgeon, C. R.
2000-01-01
We report the observation of giant quantum coherence effects in the localized modes of ionized hydrogen in synthetic fluorite. Infrared free induction decay experiments on the substitutional H+ center thew dramatic modulations at negative delay times due to interference between multiple vibrational
Qualification of engine-mounted components due to operational vibration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, B.J.; Bayat, A.
1994-01-01
The Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG) in a Nuclear Power Plant is considered to be an essential component of the plant for its safe operation. Failures of auxiliary components directly mounted on the EDG creates costly repairs, and compromises the engine's availability and reliability. Although IEEE-323 and Section III of the ASME code require addressing of safety-related components due to mechanically induced vibration, very few guidelines exist in the nuclear industry to show how this may be accounted for. Most engine vendors rely on the empirical experience data as the basis of their evaluation for vibration. Upgrade of engine controls, addition of monitoring components and other engine modifications require design and installation of new mechanical and electrical components to be mounted directly on the engine. This necessitates the evaluation of such components for engine-induced vibration which is considered to be one of the most severe design parameters. This paper presents a methodology to evaluate three categories of components; structural, mechanical, and electrical under engine vibration. The discussion for the characteristics and manipulation of engine vibration profile to be used for each component evaluation is also given. In addition, the suitability of analytical verses testing approaches is discussed for each category. An example application of the methodology is presented for a typical EDG which is currently undergoing major controls upgrade and monitoring modification
Tearing mode instability due to anomalous resistivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furuya, Atsushi; Itoh, Sanae I.; Yagi, Masatoshi
2000-01-01
Tearing mode instability in the presence of microscopic truculence is investigates. The effects of microscopic turbulence on tearing mode are taken as drags which are calculated by one-point renormalization method and mean-field approximation. These effects are reduced to effective diffusivities in reduced MHD equations. Using these equations, the stability analyses of the tearing mode are performed. It is shown that a finite amplitude of fluctuation enhances the growth rate of tearing mode. For very high values of turbulent diffusivities, marginally stable state exists. The effects of each turbulent diffusivity on mode stability are examined near marginal stability boundary. Parameter dependence of the resistive ballooning mode turbulence on tearing mode is analyzed as an example. (author)
Optically active vibrational modes of PPV derivatives on textile substrate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, M.A.T. da; Dias, I.F.L.; Santos, E.P. dos; Martins, A.A.; Duarte, J.L.; Laureto, E.; Reis, G.A. dos; Guimarães, P.S.S.; Cury, L.A.
2013-01-01
In this work, MEH-PPV and BDMO-PPV films were deposited by spin-coating on “dirty” textile substrates of canvas, nylon, canvas with resin, jeans and on glass and the temperature dependence of the optical properties of them was studied by photoluminescence and Raman (300 K) techniques. The temperature dependence of the energy, of the half line width at half height of the purely electronic peak, of the integrated PL intensity and of the Huang-Rhys factor, S=I (01) /I (00) , were obtained directly from the PL spectrum. For an analysis of the vibrational modes involved, Raman measurements were performed on substrates with and without polymers deposited and the results compared with those found in the literature. The films of MEH-PPV and BDMO-PPV showed optical properties similar to those films deposited on other substrates such as glass, metals, etc. It was observed an inversion of the first vibrational band in relation to the purely electronic peak with increasing temperature in the films deposited on nylon and canvas. The vibrational modes obtained by Raman were used to compose the simulation of the PL line shape of BDMO-PPV films on canvas and nylon, using a model proposed by Lin [29]. - Highlights: ► MEH-PPV and BDMO-PPV films were deposited by spin-coating on dirty textile. ► Their properties were studied by photoluminescence and Raman techniques. ► We observed inversion of first vibrational band in relation to purely electronic peak. ► Optically active vibrational modes of PPV derivatives were studied.
Vocal fold contact patterns based on normal modes of vibration.
Smith, Simeon L; Titze, Ingo R
2018-05-17
The fluid-structure interaction and energy transfer from respiratory airflow to self-sustained vocal fold oscillation continues to be a topic of interest in vocal fold research. Vocal fold vibration is driven by pressures on the vocal fold surface, which are determined by the shape of the glottis and the contact between vocal folds. Characterization of three-dimensional glottal shapes and contact patterns can lead to increased understanding of normal and abnormal physiology of the voice, as well as to development of improved vocal fold models, but a large inventory of shapes has not been directly studied previously. This study aimed to take an initial step toward characterizing vocal fold contact patterns systematically. Vocal fold motion and contact was modeled based on normal mode vibration, as it has been shown that vocal fold vibration can be almost entirely described by only the few lowest order vibrational modes. Symmetric and asymmetric combinations of the four lowest normal modes of vibration were superimposed on left and right vocal fold medial surfaces, for each of three prephonatory glottal configurations, according to a surface wave approach. Contact patterns were generated from the interaction of modal shapes at 16 normalized phases during the vibratory cycle. Eight major contact patterns were identified and characterized by the shape of the flow channel, with the following descriptors assigned: convergent, divergent, convergent-divergent, uniform, split, merged, island, and multichannel. Each of the contact patterns and its variation are described, and future work and applications are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vibrational modes of deuterium in KD2PO4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mizoguchi, Kohji; Agui, Akane; Tominaga, Yasunori; Nakai, Yusuke; Ikeda, Susumu.
1993-01-01
In order to study the deuteration effect in hydrogen-bonded compounds such as KH 2 PO 4 , hydrogen and deuterium modes in KH 2 PO 4 and K(D x H 1-x ) 2 PO 4 (x = 95 %) were investigated by means of inelastic neutron-scattering measurements over a wide energy range. By comparing Raman spectra of KH 2 PO 4 and KD 2 PO 4 with neutron-scattering spectra, the vibrational modes of deuterium and those of PO 4 tetrahedrons in the energy range of 30 < ε < 150 meV have been investigated. At least two deuterium modes have been found at 87 meV and 106 meV. (author)
Nonlinear Vibration and Mode Shapes of FG Cylindrical Shells
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saeed Mahmoudkhani
Full Text Available Abstract The nonlinear vibration and normal mode shapes of FG cylindrical shells are investigated using an efficient analytical method. The equations of motion of the shell are based on the Donnell’s non-linear shallow-shell, and the material is assumed to be gradually changed across the thickness according to the simple power law. The solution is provided by first discretizing the equations of motion using the multi-mode Galerkin’s method. The nonlinear normal mode of the system is then extracted using the invariant manifold approach and employed to decouple the discretized equations. The homotopy analysis method is finally used to determine the nonlinear frequency. Numerical results are presented for the backbone curves of FG cylindrical shells, nonlinear mode shapes and also the nonlinear invariant modal surfaces. The volume fraction index and the geometric properties of the shell are found to be effective on the type of nonlinear behavior and also the nonlinear mode shapes of the shell. The circumferential half-wave numbers of the nonlinear mode shapes are found to change with time especially in a thinner cylinder.
Local vibrational modes of the formic acid dimer - the strength of the double hydrogen bond
Kalescky, R.; Kraka, E.; Cremer, D.
2013-07-01
The 24 normal and 24 local vibrational modes of the formic acid dimer formed by two trans formic acid monomers to a ring (TT1) are analysed utilising preferentially experimental frequencies, but also CCSD(T)/CBS and ωB97X-D harmonic vibrational frequencies. The local hydrogen bond (HB) stretching frequencies are at 676 cm-1 and by this 482 and 412 cm-1 higher compared to the measured symmetric and asymmetric HB stretching frequencies at 264 and 194 cm-1. The adiabatic connection scheme between local and normal vibrational modes reveals that the lowering is due to the topology of dimer TT1, mass coupling, and avoided crossings involving the HṡṡṡOC bending modes. The HB local mode stretching force constant is related to the strength of the HB whereas the normal mode stretching force constant and frequency lead to an erroneous underestimation of the HB strength. The HB in TT1 is stabilised by electron delocalisation in the O=C-O units fostered by forming a ring via double HBs. This implies that the CO apart from the OH local stretching frequencies reflect the strength of the HB via their red or blue shifts relative to their corresponding values in trans formic acid.
Predicting plasticity with soft vibrational modes: from dislocations to glasses.
Rottler, Jörg; Schoenholz, Samuel S; Liu, Andrea J
2014-04-01
We show that quasilocalized low-frequency modes in the vibrational spectrum can be used to construct soft spots, or regions vulnerable to rearrangement, which serve as a universal tool for the identification of flow defects in solids. We show that soft spots not only encode spatial information, via their location, but also directional information, via directors for particles within each soft spot. Single crystals with isolated dislocations exhibit low-frequency phonon modes that localize at the core, and their polarization pattern predicts the motion of atoms during elementary dislocation glide in two and three dimensions in exquisite detail. Even in polycrystals and disordered solids, we find that the directors associated with particles in soft spots are highly correlated with the direction of particle displacements in rearrangements.
Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fischer, B M; Walther, M; Jepsen, P Uhd
2002-01-01
The far-infrared dielectric function of a wide range of organic molecules is dominated by vibrations involving a substantial fraction of the atoms forming the molecule and motion associated with intermolecular hydrogen bond vibrations. Due to their collective nature such modes are highly sensitive to the intra- and intermolecular structure and thus provide a unique fingerprint of the conformational state of the molecule and effects of its environment. We demonstrate the use of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) for recording the far-infrared (0.5-4.0 THz) dielectric function of the four nucleobases and corresponding nucleosides forming the building blocks of deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA). We observe numerous distinct spectral features with large differences between the molecules in both frequency-dependent absorption coefficient and index of refraction. Assisted by results from density-functional calculations we interpret the origin of the observed resonances as vibrations of hydrogen bonds between the molecules
Atomistic theory for the damping of vibrational modes in monoatomic gold chains
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engelund, Mads; Brandbyge, Mads; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2009-01-01
We develop a computational method for evaluating the damping of vibrational modes in monatomic metallic chains suspended between bulk crystals under external strain. The damping is due to the coupling between the chain and contact modes and the phonons in the bulk substrates. The geometry of the ...... in the harmonic damping is possible even for relatively small changes in the strain. Such detailed insight is necessary for a quantitative analysis of damping in metallic atomic chains and in explaining the rich phenomenology seen in the experiments....
Theoretical study on flow-induced vibration of a cylindrical weir due to fluid discharge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujita, Katsuhisa; Ito, Tomohiro; Hirota, Kazuo; Kodama, Tetsuhiko
1994-01-01
In a FBR, the inside of the reactor vessel is cooled by liquid sodium. Liquid sodium is supplied to the upper plenum from its bottom and discharges over the top of the cylindrical weir down to the lower plenum. The weir is so thin in order to decrease the thermal stress on it that the fluid--structure interaction becomes predominant. A fluidelastic vibration of the weir due to fluid discharge was discovered in a French FBR. In this study, a theoretical model was developed on the ''fluid--elastic mode'' instability of a cylindrical weir due to fluid discharge from the upper plenum to the lower plenum. In the analysis, the fluctuation of both the discharge flow rate over a weir due to the vibration of the cylindrical shell and the pressure in the lower plenum due to fluid discharge were formulated. Instability criteria was derived from the added damping ratio due to fluid discharge using modal analysis. The natural modes and modal mass of the weir were obtained by the analysis using the FEM code taking the fluid - structure interaction into consideration. The theoretical instability range in terms of the fall height and the flow rate is compared with the experimental results. The theoretical values showed a good agreement with the experimental ones
Vibrations of composite circular shell structures due to transient loads
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schrader, K.-H.; Krutzik, N.; Winkel, G.
1975-01-01
Referring to a container consisting of different shell structures - such as spherical, cylindrical and conical shells - the dynamic behavior of coupled spatial shell structures due to transient loads will be investigated. The spatial structure including the filling of water will be idealized as a three-dimensional model consisting of ring elements. The influence of the water filling on the vibrations will be considered by virtual masses added to the shell structures. In circular direction as well as in meridional direction a consistent mass model has been used. By variation of the virtual masses it will be clarified, how these additional masses influence the vibrational behavior of the composed system. Another aspect which will be investigated is the influence of different stiffnesses of substructures or parts of substructures on the natural frequencies, and on their affiliated eigensystems. Furthermore, the maximum and minimum stresses in the structures caused by transient loads acting on the inner surface of the shells will be explored. Here it seems to be possible to locate an area of maximum strain. Rotational loads as well as nonrotational loads will be considered
The application of infrared synchrotron radiation to the study of interfacial vibrational modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirschmugl, C.J.; Williams, G.P.
1992-01-01
Synchrotron radiation provides an extremely bright broad-band source in the infrared which is ideally suited to the study of surface and interface vibrational modes in the range 50--3,000 cm -1 . Thus it covers the important range of molecule-substrate interactions, as well as overlapping with the more easily accessible near-ir region where molecular internal modes are found. Compared to standard broadband infrared sources such as globars, not only is it 1,000 times brighter, but its emittance matches the phase-space of the electrochemical cell leading to full utilization of this brightness advantage. In addition, the source is more stable even than water-cooled globars in vacuum for both short-term and long-term fluctuations. The authors summarize the properties of synchrotron radiation in the infrared, in particular pointing out the distinct differences between this and the x-ray region. They use experimental data in discussing important issues of signal to noise and address the unique problems and advantages of the synchrotron source. Thus they emphasize the important considerations necessary for developing new facilities. This analysis then leads to a discussion of phase-space matching to electrochemical cells, and to other surfaces in vacuum. Finally they show several examples of the application of infrared synchrotron radiation to surface vibrational spectroscopy. The examples are for metal crystal surfaces in ultra-high vacuum and include CO/Cu(100) and (111) and CO/K/Cu(100). The experiments show how the stability of the synchrotron source allows subtle changes in the background to be observed in addition to the discrete vibrational modes. These changes are due to electronic states induced by the adsorbate. In some cases the authors have seen interferences between these and the discrete vibrational modes, leading to a breakdown of the dipole selection rules, and the observation of additional modes
A Novel Vibration Mode Testing Method for Cylindrical Resonators Based on Microphones
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yongmeng Zhang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Non-contact testing is an important method for the study of the vibrating characteristic of cylindrical resonators. For the vibratory cylinder gyroscope excited by piezo-electric electrodes, mode testing of the cylindrical resonator is difficult. In this paper, a novel vibration testing method for cylindrical resonators is proposed. This method uses a MEMS microphone, which has the characteristics of small size and accurate directivity, to measure the vibration of the cylindrical resonator. A testing system was established, then the system was used to measure the vibration mode of the resonator. The experimental results show that the orientation resolution of the node of the vibration mode is better than 0.1°. This method also has the advantages of low cost and easy operation. It can be used in vibration testing and provide accurate results, which is important for the study of the vibration mode and thermal stability of vibratory cylindrical gyroscopes.
Vibration modes of 3n-gaskets and other fractals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bajorin, N; Chen, T; Dagan, A; Emmons, C; Hussein, M; Khalil, M; Mody, P; Steinhurst, B; Teplyaev, A [Department of Mathematics, University of Connecticut, Storrs CT 06269 (United States)
2008-01-11
We rigorously study eigenvalues and eigenfunctions (vibration modes) on the class of self-similar symmetric finitely ramified fractals, which include the Sierpinski gasket and other 3n-gaskets. We consider the classical Laplacian on fractals which generalizes the usual one-dimensional second derivative, is the generator of the self-similar diffusion process, and has possible applications as the quantum Hamiltonian. We develop a theoretical matrix analysis, including analysis of singularities, which allows us to compute eigenvalues, eigenfunctions and their multiplicities exactly. We support our theoretical analysis by symbolic and numerical computations. Our analysis, in particular, allows the computation of the spectral zeta function on fractals and the limiting distribution of eigenvalues (i.e., integrated density of states). We consider such examples as the level-3 Sierpinski gasket, a fractal 3-tree, and the diamond fractal.
Identification of surface species by vibrational normal mode analysis. A DFT study
Zhao, Zhi-Jian; Genest, Alexander; Rösch, Notker
2017-10-01
Infrared spectroscopy is an important experimental tool for identifying molecular species adsorbed on a metal surface that can be used in situ. Often vibrational modes in such IR spectra of surface species are assigned and identified by comparison with vibrational spectra of related (molecular) compounds of known structure, e. g., an organometallic cluster analogue. To check the validity of this strategy, we carried out a computational study where we compared the normal modes of three C2Hx species (x = 3, 4) in two types of systems, as adsorbates on the Pt(111) surface and as ligands in an organometallic cluster compound. The results of our DFT calculations reproduce the experimental observed frequencies with deviations of at most 50 cm-1. However, the frequencies of the C2Hx species in both types of systems have to be interpreted with due caution if the coordination mode is unknown. The comparative identification strategy works satisfactorily when the coordination mode of the molecular species (ethylidyne) is similar on the surface and in the metal cluster. However, large shifts are encountered when the molecular species (vinyl) exhibits different coordination modes on both types of substrates.
Confinement of vibrational modes within crystalline lattices using thin amorphous layers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bagolini, Luigi; Mattoni, Alessandro; Lusk, Mark T
2017-01-01
It is possible to confine vibrational modes to a crystal by encapsulating it within thin disordered layers with the same average properties as the crystal. This is not due to an impedance mismatch between materials but, rather, to higher order moments in the distribution of density and stiffness in the disordered phase—i.e. it is a result of material substructure. The concept is elucidated in an idealized one-dimensional setting and then demonstrated for a realistic nanocrystalline geometry. This offers the prospect of specifically engineering higher order property distributions as an alternate means of managing phonons. (paper)
Clashing of risers due to vortex induced vibrations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Teissier, D. [Ecole Superieure d' Ingenieurs de Marseille (ESIM), 13 - Marseille (France)]|[Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Scolan, Y.M. [Ecole Superieure d' Ingenieurs de Marseille (ESIM), 13 - Marseille (France); Fontaine, E. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)
2004-07-01
Phenomena such as Vortex Induced Vibrations can potentially damage offshore risers, especially in ar ay configurations. Due to wake interferences, amplification of VIV is observed leading to large displacements which are no more self limited to one di meter as in the case of VIV. In this context, clash ng becomes also an issue. In order to study this problems, Institut Francais du Petrole is developing a Computational Fluid Dynamics code, DeepFlow, devoted to the simulation of two-dimensional flows around risers. The extension to three-dimensional configurations follows from a strip theory for the fluid flow, coupled to a structural model for flexible pipes (DeepLines). The numerical method (Etienne s 1999) developed in DeepFlow allows to solve the two-dimensional Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations through a mixed representation (Eulerian and Lagrangian) of the flow properties: vorticity and turbulence. The Eulerian method is necessary in the close vicinity of the bodies in order to capture the boundary layer effects with accuracy, whereas the Lagrangian representation, based on a grid-less method is suitable for the flow in the wake. In the present pa-per, this approach is applied to study the flow around two freely moving cylinders. For this test case, there are some numerical results (Sagatum et al, 2002), however instabilities have been experimentally identified (Paidoussis et al, 1998; Zdravkovich, 1985, 2003). The approach has also been improved to solve accurately the interstitial flow when the bodies are very close to each other. Results from a Chimera approach are presented. (authors)
Nonlinear Vibration of Ladle Crane due to a Moving Trolley
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yunsheng Xin
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The structural vibration of the main beam of a crane causes fatigue damage and discomfort to the driver. The swing of the payload has an effect on positioning precision, especially for a ladle crane, and this directly affects production safety. To study the influence of system parameters on the vibration of a crane’s main beam and the angle of the payload, a system consisting of the main beam, trolley, payload, and cabin was constructed. A rigid-flexible coupling dynamic model of a moving trolley with a hanging payload that moves on the flexible main beam with a concentrated cabin mass is established, and the direct integration method is used to solve the nonlinear differential equations of system vibration, which are obtained through Lagrange’s equation. Then, the time domain responses of the flexible main beam, payload angle, and cabin vibration are obtained. The influences of the trolley running speed, quality of the payload, and quality and position of the cabin on the vibration of the main beam and payload angle are analyzed. The results indicate that the amplitude of the main beam is directly proportional to the quality of the trolley, payload, and cab; the position of the cabin is closer to the mid-span; the amplitude of the main beam is larger; the structural damping has some influence on the vibration of the main beam; and the swing angle of the payload is related to the maximum running speed of the trolley, acceleration time, and length of the wire rope. In order to reduce the vibration of the main beam and cabin, the connection stiffness of the cabin should be ensured during installation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paulo, A S; GarcIa-Sanchez, D; Perez-Murano, F; Bachtold, A; Black, J; Bokor, J; Esplandiu, M J; Aguasca, A
2008-01-01
We describe a method based on the use of higher order bending modes of the cantilever of a dynamic force microscope to characterize vibrations of micro and nanomechanical resonators at arbitrarily large resonance frequencies. Our method consists on using a particular cantilever eigenmode for standard feedback control in amplitude modulation operation while another mode is used for detecting and imaging the resonator vibration. In addition, the resonating sample device is driven at or near its resonance frequency with a signal modulated in amplitude at a frequency that matches the resonance of the cantilever eigenmode used for vibration detection. In consequence, this cantilever mode is excited with an amplitude proportional to the resonator vibration, which is detected with an external lock-in amplifier. We show two different application examples of this method. In the first one, acoustic wave vibrations of a film bulk acoustic resonator around 1.6 GHz are imaged. In the second example, bending modes of carbon nanotube resonators up to 3.1 GHz are characterized. In both cases, the method provides subnanometer-scale sensitivity and the capability of providing otherwise inaccessible information about mechanical resonance frequencies, vibration amplitude values and mode shapes
Guo, Wei; Tse, Peter W.
2013-01-01
Today, remote machine condition monitoring is popular due to the continuous advancement in wireless communication. Bearing is the most frequently and easily failed component in many rotating machines. To accurately identify the type of bearing fault, large amounts of vibration data need to be collected. However, the volume of transmitted data cannot be too high because the bandwidth of wireless communication is limited. To solve this problem, the data are usually compressed before transmitting to a remote maintenance center. This paper proposes a novel signal compression method that can substantially reduce the amount of data that need to be transmitted without sacrificing the accuracy of fault identification. The proposed signal compression method is based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), which is an effective method for adaptively decomposing the vibration signal into different bands of signal components, termed intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). An optimization method was designed to automatically select appropriate EEMD parameters for the analyzed signal, and in particular to select the appropriate level of the added white noise in the EEMD method. An index termed the relative root-mean-square error was used to evaluate the decomposition performances under different noise levels to find the optimal level. After applying the optimal EEMD method to a vibration signal, the IMF relating to the bearing fault can be extracted from the original vibration signal. Compressing this signal component obtains a much smaller proportion of data samples to be retained for transmission and further reconstruction. The proposed compression method were also compared with the popular wavelet compression method. Experimental results demonstrate that the optimization of EEMD parameters can automatically find appropriate EEMD parameters for the analyzed signals, and the IMF-based compression method provides a higher compression ratio, while retaining the bearing defect
Vibration Analysis of Beam and Block Precast Slab System due to Human Vibrations
Chik, T. N. T.; Kamil, M. R. H.; Yusoff, N. A.
2018-04-01
Beam and block precast slabs system are very efficient which generally give maximum structural performance where their voids based on the design of the unit soffit block allow a significant reduction of the whole slab self-weight. Initially for some combinations of components or the joint connection of the structural slab, this structural system may be susceptible to excessive vibrations that could effects the performance and also serviceability. Dynamic forces are excited from people walking and jumping which produced vibrations to the slab system in the buildings. Few studies concluded that human induced vibration on precast slabs system may be harmful to structural performance and mitigate the human comfort level. This study will investigate the vibration analysis of beam and block precast slab by using finite element method at the school building. Human activities which are excited from jumping and walking will induce the vibrations signal to the building. Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) was used to measure the dynamic responses of slab towards the vibration sources. Five different points were assigned specifically where each of location will determine the behaviour of the entire slabs. The finite element analyses were developed in ABAQUS software and the data was further processed in MATLAB ModalV to assess the vibration criteria. The results indicated that the beam and block precast systems adequate enough to the vibration serviceability and human comfort criteria. The overall vibration level obtained was fell under VC-E curve which it is generally under the maximum permissible level of vibrations. The vibration level on the slab is acceptable within the limit that have been used by Gordon.
Precise Ab-initio prediction of terahertz vibrational modes in crystalline systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Clark, Stewart J.
2007-01-01
We use a combination of experimental THz time-domain spectroscopy and ab-initio density functional perturbative theory to accurately predict the terahertz vibrational spectrum of molecules in the crystalline phase. Our calculations show that distinct vibrational modes found in solid-state materials...
Computation of expectation values from vibrational coupled-cluster at the two-mode coupling level
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zoccante, Alberto; Seidler, Peter; Christiansen, Ove
2011-01-01
In this work we show how the vibrational coupled-cluster method at the two-mode coupling level can be used to calculate zero-point vibrational averages of properties. A technique is presented, where any expectation value can be calculated using a single set of Lagrangian multipliers computed...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There are several ongoing challenges in non-contacting blade vibration and stress measurement systems that can address closely spaced modes and blade-to-blade...
Chen, Wenyuan
2018-03-01
The modal parameters such as natural frequency and vibration mode of the frame structure of the layer stiffness sensitivity is inconsistent. This article focuses on the theoretical derivation of the frequency and mode of the frame structure layer stiffness of the first-order sensitivity. The numerical examples show that the frame structure of layer stiffness higher than with the first order sensitivity vibration frequency.
Modeling and analysis of circular flexural-vibration-mode piezoelectric transformer.
Huang, Yihua; Huang, Wei
2010-12-01
We propose a circular flexural-vibration-mode piezoelectric transformer and perform a theoretical analysis of the transformer. An equivalent circuit is derived from the equations of piezoelectricity and the Hamilton's principle. With this equivalent circuit, the voltage gain ratio, input impedance, and the efficiency of the circular flexural-vibration-mode piezoelectric transformer can be determined. The basic behavior of the transformer is shown by numerical results.
Non-linear vibrational modes in biomolecules: A periodic orbits description
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kampanarakis, Alexandros; Farantos, Stavros C.; Daskalakis, Vangelis; Varotsis, Constantinos
2012-01-01
Graphical abstract: Vibrational frequency shifts in Fe IV = O species of the active site of cytochrome c oxidase are attributed to changes in the surrounding Coulomb field. Periodic orbits analysis assists to find the most anharmonic modes in model biomolecules. Highlights: ► Periodic orbits are extended to multidimensional potentials of biomolecules. ► Highly anharmonic vibrational modes and center-saddle bifurcations are detected. ► Vibrational frequencies shifts in Oxoferryl species of CcO are observed. - Abstract: The vibrational harmonic normal modes of a molecule, which are valid at energies close to an equilibrium point (a minimum, maximum or saddle of the potential energy surface), are extended by periodic orbits to high energies where anharmonicity and coupling of the degrees of freedom are significant. In this way the assignment of the spectra, and thus the extraction of dynamics in highly excited molecules, can be obtained. New vibrational modes emanating from bifurcations of periodic orbits and long living localized trajectories signal the birth and localization of new quantum states. In this article we review and further study non-linear vibrational modes for model biomolecules such as alanine dipeptide and the active site in the oxoferryl oxidation state of the enzyme cytochrome c oxidase. We locate periodic orbits which exhibit high anhamonicity and lead to center-saddle bifurcations. These modes are associated to an isomerization process in alanine dipeptide and to frequency shifts in the oxoferryl observed by modifying the Coulomb field around the Imidazole–Fe IV = O species.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cristoforo Demartino
2018-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical study on the deterministic and probabilistic serviceability assessment of footbridge vibrations due to a single walker crossing. The dynamic response of the footbridge is analyzed by means of modal analysis, considering only the first lateral and vertical modes. Single span footbridges with uniform mass distribution are considered, with different values of the span length, natural frequencies, mass, and structural damping and with different support conditions. The load induced by a single walker crossing the footbridge is modeled as a moving sinusoidal force either in the lateral or in the vertical direction. The variability of the characteristics of the load induced by walkers is modeled using probability distributions taken from the literature defining a Standard Population of walkers. Deterministic and probabilistic approaches were adopted to assess the peak response. Based on the results of the simulations, deterministic and probabilistic vibration serviceability assessment methods are proposed, not requiring numerical analyses. Finally, an example of the application of the proposed method to a truss steel footbridge is presented. The results highlight the advantages of the probabilistic procedure in terms of reliability quantification.
Mode shape and natural frequency identification for seismic analysis from background vibration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhan, S.; Wozniak, Z.
1986-02-01
The feasibility of calculating natural frequencies and mode shapes of major equipment in a CANDU reactor from the measurements of their response to background excitation has been studied. A review of vibration data measured at various locations in CANDU plants shows that structures responded to a combination of random and harmonic background excitation. Amplitude of measured vibration is sufficient to allow meaningful data analysis. Frequency content in the 0 to 50-Hz range, which is of interest for earthquake response, is present in some of the vibration measurements studied. Spectral techniques have been developed for determining the response function of structures from measured vibration response to background excitation. The natural frequencies and mode shapes are then evaluated graphically from the frequency function plots. The methodology has been tested on a simple cantilever beam with known natural frequencies and mode shapes. The comparison between the theoretical and the computed natural frequencies and mode shapes is good for the lower modes. However, better curve-fitting techniques will be required in future, especially for higher modes. Readily available equipment necessary for the measurement of background vibration in a CANDU plant (which is commercially available) has been identified. An experimental program has been proposed to verify the methodology developed in this study. Recommendations are also made to study methods to improve the accuracy of the mode shape and natural frequency prediction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iwata, Koji; Wada, Yusaku; Morishita, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Akira; Ichimiya, Masakazu [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center
1997-01-01
This is a report of summarized results of investigation and analysis on fracture of thermometer which is direct reason of sodium leakage incident at the second main cooling system of fast breeder reactor `Monju`. Various surveys such as on various damage factors, on flowing power vibrational features containing flowing power vibrational test of thermometer, on evaluation of high cycle fatigue due to flowing power vibration and details on propagation of and fracture due to fatigue crack, on why only said thermometer damaged, and so forth were executed. As results of these examinations, a decision was arrived that high cycle fatigue due to vibration formed by fluid force (fluid force vibration) was a direct cause of the thermometer damage. (G.K.)
Vibrational Mode-Specific Autodetachment and Coupling of CH2CN-
Lyle, Justin; Mabbs, Richard
2017-06-01
The Cyanomethyl Anion, CH_{2}CN-, and neutral radical have been studied extensively, with several findings of autodetachment about the totally symmetric transition, as well as high resolution experiments revealing symmetrically forbidden and weak vibrational features. We report photoelectron spectra using the Velocity-Mapped Imaging Technique in 1-2 \\wn increments over a range of 13460 to 15384 \\wn that has not been previously examined. These spectra include excitation of the ground state cyanomethyl anion into the direct detachment thresholds of previously reported vibrational modes for the neutral radical. Significant variations from Franck-Condon behavior were observed in the branching ratios for resolved vibrational features for excitation in the vicinity of the thresholds involving the νb{3} and νb{5} modes. These are consistent with autodetachment from rovibrational levels of a dipole bound state acting as a resonance in the detachment continuum. The autodetachment channels involve single changes in vibrational quantum number, consistent with the vibrational propensity rule but in some cases reveal relaxation to a different vibrational mode indicating coupling between the modes and/or a breakdown of the normal mode approximation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shin, H.K.
1983-01-01
An explicit time dependent approach for simultaneous VT and VV energy transfer in diatom--diatom collisions is explored using the exponential form of ladder operators in the solution of the Schroedinger equation of motion. The collision of two hydrogen molecules is chosen to illustrate the extent of interference between VT and VV modes among various vibrational states. While vibrational energy transfer processes of nominally VT type can be treated with pure VT mode at low collision energies, the intermode coupling is found to be very important at collision energies of several hω. The occurrence of the coupling appears to be nearly universal in vibrational transitions at such energies. Exceptions to the coupling have been discussed
Single-molecule electronics: Cooling individual vibrational modes by the tunneling current.
Lykkebo, Jacob; Romano, Giuseppe; Gagliardi, Alessio; Pecchia, Alessandro; Solomon, Gemma C
2016-03-21
Electronic devices composed of single molecules constitute the ultimate limit in the continued downscaling of electronic components. A key challenge for single-molecule electronics is to control the temperature of these junctions. Controlling heating and cooling effects in individual vibrational modes can, in principle, be utilized to increase stability of single-molecule junctions under bias, to pump energy into particular vibrational modes to perform current-induced reactions, or to increase the resolution in inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy by controlling the life-times of phonons in a molecule by suppressing absorption and external dissipation processes. Under bias the current and the molecule exchange energy, which typically results in heating of the molecule. However, the opposite process is also possible, where energy is extracted from the molecule by the tunneling current. Designing a molecular "heat sink" where a particular vibrational mode funnels heat out of the molecule and into the leads would be very desirable. It is even possible to imagine how the vibrational energy of the other vibrational modes could be funneled into the "cooling mode," given the right molecular design. Previous efforts to understand heating and cooling mechanisms in single molecule junctions have primarily been concerned with small models, where it is unclear which molecular systems they correspond to. In this paper, our focus is on suppressing heating and obtaining current-induced cooling in certain vibrational modes. Strategies for cooling vibrational modes in single-molecule junctions are presented, together with atomistic calculations based on those strategies. Cooling and reduced heating are observed for two different cooling schemes in calculations of atomistic single-molecule junctions.
Anomalous vibrational modes in acetanilide: A F.D.S. incoherent inelastic neutron scattering study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barthes, M.; Moret, J.; Eckert, J.; Johnson, S.W.; Swanson, B.I.; Unkefer, C.J.
1991-01-01
The origin of the anomalous infra-red and Raman modes in acetanilide (C 6 H 5 NHCOCH 3 , or ACN), remains a subject of considerable controversy. One family of theoretical models involves Davydov-like solitons nonlinear vibrational coupling, or ''polaronic'' localized modes. An alternative interpretation of the extra-bands in terms of a Fermi resonance was proposed and recently the existence of slightly non-degenerate hydrogen atom configurations in the H-bond was suggested as an explanation for the anomalies. In this paper we report some new results on the anomalous vibrational modes in ACN that were obtained by inelastic incoherent neutron scattering (INS)
Generation of three-mode nonclassical vibrational states of ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen Ba An; Truong Minh Duc
2002-01-01
We propose using eight lasers with appropriate orientations and conditions to generate stable trio coherent states of an ion in a three-dimensional isotropic trap. Seven lasers whose orientations are important should be detuned to the third lower sideband of the ion vibrational motion. The eighth laser whose direction is not important should be in resonance with the ionic transition
Dunn, Janette L.
2010-01-01
Understanding the normal mode vibrations of a molecule is important in the analysis of vibrational spectra. However, the complicated 3D motion of large molecules can be difficult to interpret. We show how images of normal modes of the fullerene molecule C[subscript 60] can be made easier to understand by superimposing them on images of the normal…
Navadeh, N.; Goroshko, I. O.; Zhuk, Y. A.; Fallah, A. S.
2017-11-01
An approach to construction of a beam-type simplified model of a horizontal axis wind turbine composite blade based on the finite element method is proposed. The model allows effective and accurate description of low vibration bending modes taking into account the effects of coupling between flapwise and lead-lag modes of vibration transpiring due to the non-uniform distribution of twist angle in the blade geometry along its length. The identification of model parameters is carried out on the basis of modal data obtained by more detailed finite element simulations and subsequent adoption of the 'DIRECT' optimisation algorithm. Stable identification results were obtained using absolute deviations in frequencies and in modal displacements in the objective function and additional a priori information (boundedness and monotony) on the solution properties.
Mork, Steven Wayne
High resolution infrared spectroscopy was used to examine intramolecular vibrational interactions in 2 -fluoroethanol (2FE) and 1,2-difluoroethane (DFE). A high resolution infrared spectrophotometer capable of better than 10 MHz spectral resolution was designed and constructed. The excitation source consists of three lasers: an argon-ion pumped dye laser which pumps a color -center laser. The infrared beam from the color-center laser is used to excite sample molecules which are rotationally and vibrationally cooled in a supersonic molecular beam. Rovibrational excitation of the sample molecules is detected by monitoring the kinetic energy of the molecular beam with a bolometer. The high resolution infrared spectrum of 2FE was collected and analyzed over the 2977-2990 cm^ {-1}^ectral region. This region contains the asymmetric CH stretch on the fluorinated carbon. The spectrum revealed extensive perturbations in the rotational fine structure. Analysis of these perturbations has provided a quantitative measure of selective vibrational mode coupling between the C-H stretch and its many neighboring dark vibrational modes. Interestingly, excitation of the C-H stretch is known to induce a photoisomerization reaction between 2FE's Gg^' and Tt conformers. Implications of the role of mode coupling in the reaction mechanism are also addressed. Similarly, the high resolution infrared spectrum of DFE was collected and analyzed over the 2978-2996 cm ^{-1}^ectral region. This region contains the symmetric combination of asymmetric C-H stretches in DFE. Perturbations in the rotational fine structure indicate vibrational mode coupling to a single dark vibrational state. The dark state is split by approximately 19 cm^{-1} due to tunneling between two identical gauche conformers. The coupling mechanism is largely anharmonic with a minor component of B/C-plane Coriolis coupling. Effects of centrifugal distortion along the molecular A-axis are also observed. The coupled vibrational
Hu, Junhui; Jong, Januar; Zhao, Chunsheng
2010-01-01
To increase the vibration energy-harvesting capability of the piezoelectric generator based on a cantilever beam, we have proposed a piezoelectric generator that not only uses the strain change of piezoelectric components bonded on a cantilever beam, but also employs the weights at the tip of the cantilever beam to hit piezoelectric components located on the 2 sides of weights. A prototype of the piezoelectric generator has been fabricated and its characteristics have been measured and analyzed. The experimental results show that the piezoelectric components operating in the hit mode can substantially enhance the energy harvesting of the piezoelectric generator on a cantilever beam. Two methods are used and compared in the management of rectified output voltages from different groups of piezoelectric components. In one of them, the DC voltages from rectifiers are connected in series, and then the total DC voltage is applied to a capacitor. In another connection, the DC voltage from each group is applied to different capacitors. It is found that 22.3% of the harvested energy is wasted due to the series connection. The total output electric energy of our piezoelectric generator at nonresonance could be up to 43 nJ for one vibration excitation applied by spring, with initial vibration amplitude (0-p) of 18 mm and frequency of 18.5 Hz, when the rectified voltages from different groups of piezoelectric components are connected to their individual capacitors. In addition, the motion and impact of the weights at the tip of the cantilever beam are theoretically analyzed, which well explains the experimental phenomena and suggests the measures to improve the generator.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jae Eun Kim
2013-07-01
Full Text Available We propose a vibration energy harvester consisting of an auxiliary frequency-tuned mass unit and a piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting unit for enhancing output power. The proposed integrated system is so configured that its out-of-phase mode can appear at the lowest eigenfrequency unlike in the conventional system using a tuned unit. Such an arrangement makes the resulting system distinctive: enhanced output power at or near the target operating frequency and very little eigenfrequency separation, not observed in conventional eigenfrequency-tuned vibration energy harvesters. The power enhancement of the proposed system is theoretically examined with and without tip mass normalization or footprint area normalization.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dhote, Sharvari, E-mail: sharvari.dhote@mail.utoronto.ca; Zu, Jean; Zhu, Yang [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S-3G8 (Canada)
2015-04-20
In this paper, a nonlinear wideband multi-mode piezoelectric vibration-based energy harvester (PVEH) is proposed based on a compliant orthoplanar spring (COPS), which has an advantage of providing multiple vibration modes at relatively low frequencies. The PVEH is made of a tri-leg COPS flexible structure, where three fixed-guided beams are capable of generating strong nonlinear oscillations under certain base excitation. A prototype harvester was fabricated and investigated through both finite-element analysis and experiments. The frequency response shows multiple resonance which corresponds to a hardening type of nonlinear resonance. By adding masses at different locations on the COPS structure, the first three vibration modes are brought close to each other, where the three hardening nonlinear resonances provide a wide bandwidth for the PVEH. The proposed PVEH has enhanced performance of the energy harvester in terms of a wide frequency bandwidth and a high-voltage output under base excitations.
Vibrational modes of thin oblate clouds of charge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jenkins, Thomas G.; Spencer, Ross L.
2002-01-01
A numerical method is presented for finding the eigenfunctions (normal modes) and mode frequencies of azimuthally symmetric non-neutral plasmas confined in a Penning trap whose axial thickness is much smaller than their radial size. The plasma may be approximated as a charged disk in this limit; the normal modes and frequencies can be found if the surface charge density profile σ(r) of the disk and the trap bounce frequency profile ω z (r) are known. The dependence of the eigenfunctions and equilibrium plasma shapes on nonideal components of the confining Penning trap fields is discussed. The results of the calculation are compared with the experimental data of Weimer et al. [Phys. Rev. A 49, 3842 (1994)] and it is shown that the plasma in this experiment was probably hollow and had mode displacement functions that were concentrated near the center of the plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharpes, Nathan; Kumar, Prashant [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Abdelkefi, Abdessattar; Abdelmoula, Hichem [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 (United States); Adler, Jan [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Institute of Dynamics and Vibration Research (IDS), Leibniz Universität, Hannover 30167 (Germany); Priya, Shashank [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Bio-Inspired Materials and Devices Laboratory (BMDL), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)
2016-07-18
Mode shapes in the design of mechanical energy harvesters, as a means of performance increase, have been largely overlooked. Currently, the vast majority of energy harvester designs employ some variation of a single-degree-of-freedom cantilever, and the mode shapes of such beams are well known. This is especially true for the first bending mode, which is almost exclusively the chosen vibration mode for energy harvesting. Two-dimensional beam shapes (those which curve, meander, spiral, etc., in a plane) have recently gained research interest, as they offer freedom to modify the vibration characteristics of the harvester beam for achieving higher power density. In this study, the second bending mode shape of the “Elephant” two-dimensional beam shape is examined, and its interaction with the first bending mode is evaluated. A combinatory mode shape created by using mass loading structural modification to lower the second bending modal frequency was found to interact with the first bending mode. This is possible since the first two bending modes do not share common areas of displacement. The combined mode shape is shown to produce the most power of any of the considered mode shapes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gu Anna; Liang Xianting
2011-01-01
In this paper, we investigate a two electronic level system with vibrational modes coupled to a Brownian oscillator bath. The difference frequency generation (DFG) signals and sum frequency generation (SFG) signals are calculated. It is shown that, for the same model, the SFG signals are more sensitive than the DFG signals to the changes of the vibrational modes of the electronic two-level system. Because the SFG conversion efficiency can be improved by using the time-delay method, the findings in this paper predict that the SFG spectrum may probe the changes of the microstructure more effectively. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Bushes of vibrational modes for Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chains
Chechin, G. M.; Novikova, N. V.; Abramenko, A. A.
2002-06-01
Some exact solutions and multimode invariant submanifolds were found for the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU)- β model by Poggi and Ruffo [Physica D 103 (1997) 251]. In the present paper we demonstrate how results of such a type can be obtained for an arbitraryN-particle chain with periodic boundary conditions with the aid of our group-theoretical approach [Physica D 117 (1998) 43] based on the concept of bushes of normal modes in mechanical systems with discrete symmetry. The integro-differential equation describing the FPU- α dynamics in the modal space is derived. The loss of stability of the bushes of modes for the FPU- α model, in particular, for the limiting case N→∞ for the dynamical regime with displacement pattern having period twice the lattice spacing ( π-mode) is studied. Our results for the FPU- α chain are compared with those by Poggi and Ruffo for the FPU- β chain.
Multiple soft-mode vibrations of lead zirconate
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hlinka, Jiří; Ostapchuk, Tetyana; Buixaderas, Elena; Kadlec, Christelle; Kužel, Petr; Gregora, Ivan; Kroupa, Jan; Savinov, Maxim; Klíč, Antonín; Drahokoupil, Jan; Etxebarria, I.; Dec, J.
2014-01-01
Roč. 112, č. 19 (2014), "197601-1"-"197601-5" ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-15110S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : antiferroelectric * soft mode * polarized spectra Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.512, year: 2014
Mode-selective vibrational modulation of charge transport in organic electronic devices
Bakulin, Artem A.; Lovrincic, Robert; Yu, Xi; Selig, Oleg; Bakker, Huib J.; Rezus, Yves L. A.; Nayak, Pabitra K.; Fonari, Alexandr; Coropceanu, Veaceslav; Bredas, Jean-Luc; Cahen, David
2015-01-01
The soft character of organic materials leads to strong coupling between molecular, nuclear and electronic dynamics. This coupling opens the way to influence charge transport in organic electronic devices by exciting molecular vibrational motions. However, despite encouraging theoretical predictions, experimental realization of such approach has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate experimentally that photoconductivity in a model organic optoelectronic device can be modulated by the selective excitation of molecular vibrations. Using an ultrafast infrared laser source to create a coherent superposition of vibrational motions in a pentacene/C60 photoresistor, we observe that excitation of certain modes in the 1,500–1,700 cm−1 region leads to photocurrent enhancement. Excited vibrations affect predominantly trapped carriers. The effect depends on the nature of the vibration and its mode-specific character can be well described by the vibrational modulation of intermolecular electronic couplings. This presents a new tool for studying electron–phonon coupling and charge dynamics in (bio)molecular materials.
Mode-selective vibrational modulation of charge transport in organic electronic devices
Bakulin, Artem A.
2015-08-06
The soft character of organic materials leads to strong coupling between molecular, nuclear and electronic dynamics. This coupling opens the way to influence charge transport in organic electronic devices by exciting molecular vibrational motions. However, despite encouraging theoretical predictions, experimental realization of such approach has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate experimentally that photoconductivity in a model organic optoelectronic device can be modulated by the selective excitation of molecular vibrations. Using an ultrafast infrared laser source to create a coherent superposition of vibrational motions in a pentacene/C60 photoresistor, we observe that excitation of certain modes in the 1,500–1,700 cm−1 region leads to photocurrent enhancement. Excited vibrations affect predominantly trapped carriers. The effect depends on the nature of the vibration and its mode-specific character can be well described by the vibrational modulation of intermolecular electronic couplings. This presents a new tool for studying electron–phonon coupling and charge dynamics in (bio)molecular materials.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rubio, Wilfredo Montealegre; Paulino, Glaucio H; Silva, Emilio Carlos Nelli
2011-01-01
Tailoring specified vibration modes is a requirement for designing piezoelectric devices aimed at dynamic-type applications. A technique for designing the shape of specified vibration modes is the topology optimization method (TOM) which finds an optimum material distribution inside a design domain to obtain a structure that vibrates according to specified eigenfrequencies and eigenmodes. Nevertheless, when the TOM is applied to dynamic problems, the well-known grayscale or intermediate material problem arises which can invalidate the post-processing of the optimal result. Thus, a more natural way for solving dynamic problems using TOM is to allow intermediate material values. This idea leads to the functionally graded material (FGM) concept. In fact, FGMs are materials whose properties and microstructure continuously change along a specific direction. Therefore, in this paper, an approach is presented for tailoring user-defined vibration modes, by applying the TOM and FGM concepts to design functionally graded piezoelectric transducers (FGPT) and non-piezoelectric structures (functionally graded structures—FGS) in order to achieve maximum and/or minimum vibration amplitudes at certain points of the structure, by simultaneously finding the topology and material gradation function. The optimization problem is solved by using sequential linear programming. Two-dimensional results are presented to illustrate the method
Natural Frequencies and Vibrating Modes for a Magnetic Planetary Gear Drive
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lizhong Xu
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a dynamic model for a magnetic planetary gear drive is proposed. Based on the model, the dynamic equations for the magnetic planetary gear drive are given. From the magnetic meshing forces and torques between the elements for the drive system, the tangent and radial magnetic meshing stiffness is obtained. Using these equations, the natural frequencies and the modes of the magnetic planetary gear drive are investigated. The sensitivity of the natural frequencies to the system parameters is discussed. Results show that the pole pair number and the air gap have obvious effects on the natural frequencies. For the planetary gear number larger than two, the vibrations of the drive system include the torsion mode of the center elements, the translation mode of the center elements, and the planet modes. For the planetary gear number equal to two, the planet mode does not occur, the crown mode and the sun gear mode occur.
Phonon Transport at Crystalline Si/Ge Interfaces: The Role of Interfacial Modes of Vibration
Gordiz, Kiarash; Henry, Asegun
2016-01-01
We studied the modal contributions to heat conduction at crystalline Si and crystalline Ge interfaces and found that more than 15% of the interface conductance arises from less than 0.1% of the modes in the structure. Using the recently developed interface conductance modal analysis (ICMA) method along with a new complimentary methodology, we mapped the correlations between modes, which revealed that a small group of interfacial modes, which exist between 12–13 THz, exhibit extremely strong correlation with other modes in the system. It is found that these interfacial modes (e.g., modes with large eigen vectors for interfacial atoms) are enabled by the degree of anharmonicity near the interface, which is higher than in the bulk, and therefore allows this small group of modes to couple to all others. The analysis sheds light on the nature of localized vibrations at interfaces and can be enlightening for other investigations of localization. PMID:26979787
Calculations of lattice vibrational mode lifetimes using Jazz: a Python wrapper for LAMMPS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao, Y; Wang, H; Daw, M S
2015-01-01
Jazz is a new python wrapper for LAMMPS [1], implemented to calculate the lifetimes of vibrational normal modes based on forces as calculated for any interatomic potential available in that package. The anharmonic character of the normal modes is analyzed via the Monte Carlo-based moments approximation as is described in Gao and Daw [2]. It is distributed as open-source software and can be downloaded from the website http://jazz.sourceforge.net/. (paper)
Calculations of lattice vibrational mode lifetimes using Jazz: a Python wrapper for LAMMPS
Gao, Y.; Wang, H.; Daw, M. S.
2015-06-01
Jazz is a new python wrapper for LAMMPS [1], implemented to calculate the lifetimes of vibrational normal modes based on forces as calculated for any interatomic potential available in that package. The anharmonic character of the normal modes is analyzed via the Monte Carlo-based moments approximation as is described in Gao and Daw [2]. It is distributed as open-source software and can be downloaded from the website http://jazz.sourceforge.net/.
Intermediate energy electron impact excitation of composite vibrational modes in phenol
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Neves, R. F. C. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, G.P.O. Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Instituto Federal do Sul de Minas Gerais, Campus Poços de Caldas, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-900, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Jones, D. B. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, G.P.O. Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Lopes, M. C. A.; Nixon, K. L. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-900, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Oliveira, E. M. de; Lima, M. A. P. [Instituto de Física ‘Gleb Wataghin,’ Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Costa, R. F. da [Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, 09210-580 Santo André, São Paulo (Brazil); Varella, M. T. do N. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05315-970 São Paulo (Brazil); Bettega, M. H. F. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, C.P. 19044, 81531-990 Curitiba, Paraná (Brazil); Silva, G. B. da [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso (Brazil); Brunger, M. J., E-mail: Michael.Brunger@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, G.P.O. Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)
2015-05-21
We report differential cross section results from an experimental investigation into the electron impact excitation of a number of the low-lying composite (unresolved) vibrational modes in phenol (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}OH). The measurements were carried out at incident electron energies in the range 15–40 eV and for scattered-electron angles in the range 10–90°. The energy resolution of those measurements was typically ∼80 meV. Calculations, using the GAMESS code, were also undertaken with a B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level model chemistry, in order to enable us to assign vibrational modes to the features observed in our energy loss spectra. To the best of our knowledge, the present cross sections are the first to be reported for vibrational excitation of the C{sub 6}H{sub 5}OH molecule by electron impact.
Hahn, Seungsoo
2016-10-28
The Hamiltonian matrix for the first excited vibrational states of a protein can be effectively represented by local vibrational modes constituting amide III, II, I, and A modes to simulate various vibrational spectra. Methods for obtaining the Hamiltonian matrix from ab initio quantum calculation results are discussed, where the methods consist of three steps: selection of local vibrational mode coordinates, calculation of a reduced Hessian matrix, and extraction of the Hamiltonian matrix from the Hessian matrix. We introduce several methods for each step. The methods were assessed based on the density functional theory calculation results of 24 oligopeptides with four different peptide lengths and six different secondary structures. The completeness of a Hamiltonian matrix represented in the reduced local mode space is improved by adopting a specific atom group for each amide mode and reducing the effect of ignored local modes. The calculation results are also compared to previous models using C=O stretching vibration and transition dipole couplings. We found that local electric transition dipole moments of the amide modes are mainly bound on the local peptide planes. Their direction and magnitude are well conserved except amide A modes, which show large variation. Contrary to amide I modes, the vibrational coupling constants of amide III, II, and A modes obtained by analysis of a dipeptide are not transferable to oligopeptides with the same secondary conformation because coupling constants are affected by the surrounding atomic environment.
Single mode optical fiber vibration sensor: design and development
Alanis-Carranza, L. E.; Alvarez-Chavez, J. A.; Perez-Sanchez, G. G.; Sierra-Calderon, A.; Rodriguez-Novelo, J. C.
2016-09-01
This work deals with the design and development of an SMF28-based vibration detector including the fiber segment, the data acquisition via an NI-USB-6212 card, the data processing code in Visual Basic and the signal spectrum obtained via Fourier analysis. The set-up consists of a regulated voltage source at 2.6V, 300mA, which serves as the power source for a 980nm semiconductor laser operating at 150mW which is fiber coupled into a 20m-piece of SMF-28 fiber. Perpendicular to such fiber the perturbations ranged from 1 to 100 kHz, coming from a DC motor at 12 Volts. At the detection stage, a simple analog filter and a commercial photo diode were employed for data acquisition, before a transimpedance amplification stage reconstructed the signal into the National Instruments data acquisition card. At the output, the signals Fourier transformation allows the signal to be displayed in a personal computer. The presentation will include a full electrical and optical characterization of the device and preliminary sensing results, which could be suitable for structural health monitoring applications.
Measurement of vibration mode shape by using Hilbert transform
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kang, Min Sig
2001-01-01
This paper concerns on modal analysis of mechanical structures by using a continuous scanning laser Doppler vibrometer. In modal analysis the Hilbert transform based approach is superior to the Fourier transform based approach because of its fine accuracy and its flexible experimental settings. In this paper the Hilbert transform based approach is extended to measure area mode shape data of a structure by simply modifying the scanning pattern ranging the entire surface of the structure. The effectiveness of this proposed method is illustrated along with results of numerical simulation for a rectangular plate
Mode pattern of internal flow in a water droplet on a vibrating hydrophobic surface.
Kim, Hun; Lim, Hee-Chang
2015-06-04
The objective of this study is to understand the mode pattern of the internal flow in a water droplet placed on a hydrophobic surface that periodically and vertically vibrates. As a result, a water droplet on a vibrating hydrophobic surface has a typical shape that depends on each resonance mode, and, additionally, we observed a diversified lobe size and internal flows in the water droplet. The size of each lobe at the resonance frequency was relatively greater than that at the neighboring frequencies, and the internal flow of the nth order mode was also observed in the flow visualization. In general, large symmetrical flow streams were generated along the vertical axis in each mode, with a large circulating movement from the bottom to the top, and then to the triple contact line along the droplet surface. In contrast, modes 2 and 4 generated a Y-shaped flow pattern, in which the flow moved to the node point in the lower part of the droplet, but modes 6 and 8 had similar patterns, with only a little difference. In addition, as a result of the PIV measurement, while the flow velocity of mode 4 was faster than that of model 2, those of modes 6 and 8 were almost similar.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Costa, Pedro Alvares; Cardoso Silva, Antonio; Calçada, Rui; Lopes, Patricia; Fernandez, Jesus
2016-01-01
n this communication, a numerical approach for the prediction of vibrations induced in buildings due to railway traffic in tunnels is presented. The numerical model is based on the concept of dynamic sub structuring, being composed by three autonomous models to simulate the following main parts of the problem: i) generation of vibrations (train-track interaction); ii) propagation of vibrations (track - tunnel-ground system); iii) reception of vibrations (building coupled to the ground). The methodology proposed allows dealing with the three-dimensional characteristics of the problem with a reasonable computational effort [ 1 , 2 ] . After the brief description of the model, its experimental validation is performed. For that, a case study about vibrations inside of a building close to a shallow railway tunnel in Madrid are simulated and the experimental data [ 3 ] is compared with the predicted results [ 4 ]. Finally, the communication finishes with some insights about the potentialities and challenges of this numerical modelling approach on the prediction of the behavior of ancient structures subjected to vibrations induced by human sources (railway and road traffic, pile driving, etc)
Vibrational mode and sound radiation of electrostatic speakers using circular and annular diaphragms
Huang, Yu-Hsi; Chiang, Hsin-Yuan
2016-06-01
This study modeled two diaphragms comprising a pair of indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent plates sandwiching a vibrating diaphragm to create circular (30 mm radius) and annular (30 mm outer and 3 mm inner radius) push-pull electrostatic speakers. We then measured the displacement amplitudes and mode shapes produced by the devices. Vibration characteristics were used to predict sound pressure levels (SPLs) using the lumped parameter method (LPM) and distributed parameter method (DPM). The two measurement results obtained using a laser system were compared to the SPLs obtained using traditional acoustic measurement (AM) from 20 Hz to 20 kHz in order to verify our predictions. When using LPM and DPM, the SPL prediction results in the first three symmetric modes were in good agreement with the AM results. Under the assumption of linear operations, the DPM and amplitude-fluctuation electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) techniques proved effective in determining the visualization of mode shape (0,1)-(0,3). The use of ITO plates is a practical technique for the prediction of SPL, as well as measurement of mode shapes. The four evaluation methods, i.e. LPM, DPM, ESPI and AM, present a high degree of consistency with regard to vibrational mode and sound radiation characteristics.
Effect of instantaneous and continuous quenches on the density of vibrational modes in model glasses
Lerner, Edan; Bouchbinder, Eran
2017-08-01
Computational studies of supercooled liquids often focus on various analyses of their "underlying inherent states"—the glassy configurations at zero temperature obtained by an infinitely fast (instantaneous) quench from equilibrium supercooled states. Similar protocols are also regularly employed in investigations of the unjamming transition at which the rigidity of decompressed soft-sphere packings is lost. Here we investigate the statistics and localization properties of low-frequency vibrational modes of glassy configurations obtained by such instantaneous quenches. We show that the density of vibrational modes grows as ωβ with β depending on the parent temperature T0 from which the glassy configurations were instantaneously quenched. For quenches from high temperature liquid states we find β ≈3 , whereas β appears to approach the previously observed value β =4 as T0 approaches the glass transition temperature. We discuss the consistency of our findings with the theoretical framework of the soft potential model, and contrast them with similar measurements performed on configurations obtained by continuous quenches at finite cooling rates. Our results suggest that any physical quench at rates sufficiently slower than the inverse vibrational time scale—including all physically realistic quenching rates of molecular or atomistic glasses—would result in a glass whose density of vibrational modes is universally characterized by β =4 .
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Hui; Ou Jinping
2008-01-01
A number of researchers have been focused on structural vibration control in the past three decades over the world and fruit achievements have been made. This paper introduces the recent advances in structural vibration control including passive, active and semiactive control in mainland China. Additionally, the co-author extends the structural vibration control to failure mode control. The research on the failure mode control is also involved in this paper. For passive control, this paper introduces full scale tests of buckling-restrained braces conducted to investigate the performance of the dampers and the second-editor of the Code of Seismic Design for Buildings. For active control, this paper introduces the HMD system for wind-induced vibration control of the Guangzhou TV tower. For semiactive control, the smart damping devices, algorithms for semi-active control, design methods and applications of semi-active control for structures are introduced in this paper. The failure mode control for bridges is also introduced
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chase, Hilary M.; Chen, Shunli; Fu, Li; Upshur, Mary Alice; Rudshteyn, Benjamin; Thomson, Regan J.; Wang, Hong-Fei; Batista, Victor S.; Geiger, Franz M.
2017-09-01
Inferring molecular orientations from vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) spectra is challenging in polarization combinations that result in low signal intensities, or when the local point group symmetry approximation fails. While combining experiments with density functional theory (DFT) could overcome this problem, the scope of the combined method has yet to be established. Here, we assess its feasibility of determining the distributions of molecular orientations for one monobasic ester, two epoxides and three alcohols at the vapor/fused silica interface. We find that molecular orientations of nonlocal vibrational modes cannot be determined using polarization-resolved SFG measurements alone.
Estimation of the mechanical properties of the eye through the study of its vibrational modes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M Á Aloy
Full Text Available Measuring the eye's mechanical properties in vivo and with minimally invasive techniques can be the key for individualized solutions to a number of eye pathologies. The development of such techniques largely relies on a computational modelling of the eyeball and, it optimally requires the synergic interplay between experimentation and numerical simulation. In Astrophysics and Geophysics the remote measurement of structural properties of the systems of their realm is performed on the basis of (helio-seismic techniques. As a biomechanical system, the eyeball possesses normal vibrational modes encompassing rich information about its structure and mechanical properties. However, the integral analysis of the eyeball vibrational modes has not been performed yet. Here we develop a new finite difference method to compute both the spheroidal and, specially, the toroidal eigenfrequencies of the human eye. Using this numerical model, we show that the vibrational eigenfrequencies of the human eye fall in the interval 100 Hz-10 MHz. We find that compressible vibrational modes may release a trace on high frequency changes of the intraocular pressure, while incompressible normal modes could be registered analyzing the scattering pattern that the motions of the vitreous humour leave on the retina. Existing contact lenses with embebed devices operating at high sampling frequency could be used to register the microfluctuations of the eyeball shape we obtain. We advance that an inverse problem to obtain the mechanical properties of a given eye (e.g., Young's modulus, Poisson ratio measuring its normal frequencies is doable. These measurements can be done using non-invasive techniques, opening very interesting perspectives to estimate the mechanical properties of eyes in vivo. Future research might relate various ocular pathologies with anomalies in measured vibrational frequencies of the eye.
"Good Vibrations": A workshop on oscillations and normal modes
Barbieri, Sara; Carpineti, Marina; Giliberti, Marco; Rigon, Enrico; Stellato, Marco; Tamborini, Marina
2016-05-01
We describe some theatrical strategies adopted in a two hour workshop in order to show some meaningful experiments and the underlying useful ideas to describe a secondary school path on oscillations, that develops from harmonic motion to normal modes of oscillations, and makes extensive use of video analysis, data logging, slow motions and applet simulations. Theatre is an extremely useful tool to stimulate motivation starting from positive emotions. That is the reason why the theatrical approach to the presentation of physical themes has been explored by the group "Lo spettacolo della Fisica" (http://spettacolo.fisica.unimi.it) of the Physics Department of University of Milano for the last ten years (Carpineti et al., JCOM, 10 (2011) 1; Nuovo Cimento B, 121 (2006) 901) and has been inserted also in the European FP7 Project TEMI (Teaching Enquiry with Mysteries Incorporated, see http://teachingmysteries.eu/en) which involves 13 different partners coming from 11 European countries, among which the Italian (Milan) group. According to the TEMI guidelines, this workshop has a written script based on emotionally engaging activities of presenting mysteries to be solved while participants have been involved in nice experiments following the developed path.
Nonlinear vibration analysis of the high-efficiency compressive-mode piezoelectric energy harvester
Yang, Zhengbao; Zu, Jean
2015-04-01
Power source is critical to achieve independent and autonomous operations of electronic mobile devices. The vibration-based energy harvesting is extensively studied recently, and recognized as a promising technology to realize inexhaustible power supply for small-scale electronics. Among various approaches, the piezoelectric energy harvesting has gained the most attention due to its high conversion efficiency and simple configurations. However, most of piezoelectric energy harvesters (PEHs) to date are based on bending-beam structures and can only generate limited power with a narrow working bandwidth. The insufficient electric output has greatly impeded their practical applications. In this paper, we present an innovative lead zirconate titanate (PZT) energy harvester, named high-efficiency compressive-mode piezoelectric energy harvester (HC-PEH), to enhance the performance of energy harvesters. A theoretical model was developed analytically, and solved numerically to study the nonlinear characteristics of the HC-PEH. The results estimated by the developed model agree well with the experimental data from the fabricated prototype. The HC-PEH shows strong nonlinear responses, favorable working bandwidth and superior power output. Under a weak excitation of 0.3 g (g = 9.8 m/s2), a maximum power output 30 mW is generated at 22 Hz, which is about ten times better than current energy harvesters. The HC-PEH demonstrates the capability of generating enough power for most of wireless sensors.
Investigation of reactivity change and neutron noise due to random absorber vibrations. 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barthel, R.
1984-01-01
Perturbations of the neutron flux due to stochastically excited vibrations of absorbers have been investigated using a one-dimensional core model with N pointlike absorbers. Taking into account the flux depressions near the absorbers, pronounced peaks in the spectral power densities of the flux fluctuations have been found at multiples of the resonance frequencies in addition to the direct imaging of the resonances of absorber vibrations. Investigation of the space dependence of the corresponding transfer functions has shown that a localization is possible by means of the double frequency effect and that the dispersion of absorber vibrations can be determined by using the triple frequency effect. The conclusions of the paper are qualitatively compared with results of noise measurements at a pressurized water reactor. (author)
Mork, Steven W.; Miller, C. Cameron; Philips, Laura A.
1992-09-01
The high resolution infrared spectrum of 1,2-difluoroethane (DFE) in a molecular beam has been obtained over the 2978-2996 cm-1 spectral region. This region corresponds to the symmetric combination of asymmetric C-H stretches in DFE. Observed rotational fine structure indicates that this C-H stretch is undergoing vibrational mode coupling to a single dark mode. The dark mode is split by approximately 19 cm-1 due to tunneling between the two identical gauche conformers. The mechanism of the coupling is largely anharmonic with a minor component of B/C plane Coriolis coupling. Effects of centrifugal distortion along the molecular A-axis are also observed. Analysis of the fine structure identifies the dark state as being composed of C-C torsion, CCF bend, and CH2 rock. Coupling between the C-H stretches and the C-C torsion is of particular interest because DFE has been observed to undergo vibrationally induced isomerization from the gauche to trans conformer upon excitation of the C-H stretch.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Card
2016-02-01
Full Text Available We show resolution of fine spectral features within several Raman active vibrational modes in potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP crystal. Measurements are performed using a femtosecond time-domain coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy technique that is capable of delivering equivalent spectral resolution of 0.1 cm−1. The Raman spectra retrieved from our measurements show several spectral components corresponding to vibrations of different symmetry with distinctly different damping rates. In particular, linewidths for unassigned optical phonon mode triplet centered at around 820 cm−1 are found to be 7.5 ± 0.2 cm−1, 9.1 ± 0.3 cm−1, and 11.2 ± 0.3 cm−1. Results of our experiments will ultimately help to design an all-solid-state source for sub-optical-wavelength waveform generation that is based on stimulated Raman scattering.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mugarza, Aitor; Shimizu, Tomoko K.; Ogletree, D. Frank; Salmeron, Miquel
2009-05-07
Tunneling electrons in a scanning tunneling microscope were used to excite specific vibrational quantum states of adsorbed water and hydroxyl molecules on a Ru(0 0 0 1) surface. The excited molecules relaxed by transfer of energy to lower energy modes, resulting in diffusion, dissociation, desorption, and surface-tip transfer processes. Diffusion of H{sub 2}O molecules could be induced by excitation of the O-H stretch vibration mode at 445 meV. Isolated molecules required excitation of one single quantum while molecules bonded to a C atom required at least two quanta. Dissociation of single H{sub 2}O molecules into H and OH required electron energies of 1 eV or higher while dissociation of OH required at least 2 eV electrons. In contrast, water molecules forming part of a cluster could be dissociated with electron energies of 0.5 eV.
A pragmatic approach to including complex natural modes of vibration in aeroelastic analysis
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Van Zyl, Lourens H
2015-09-01
Full Text Available complex natural modes of vibration in aeroelastic analysis Louw van Zyl International Aerospace Symposium of South Africa 14 to 16 September, 2015 Stellenbosch, South Africa Slide 2 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Problem statement..., the square of the angular frequencies in radians per second) [ ]{ } [ ]{ } [ ]{ } { }fxKxCxM =++ &&& [ ]{ } [ ]{ } 0=+ xKxMs2 Slide 4 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Structural Dynamics (continued) • The corresponding eigenvectors are real...
Anomalous vibrational modes in acetanilide: a F.D.S. incoherent inelastic neutron scattering study
Barthes, Mariette; Eckert, Juergen; Johnson, Susanna W.; Moret, Jacques; Swanson, Basil I.; Unkefer, Clifford J.
The origin of the anomalous infra-red and Raman modes in acetanilide (C6H5NHCOCH3, or ACN)(1) , remains a subject of considerable controversy. One family of theoretical models involves Davydov-like solitons (2) nonlinear vibrational coupling (3), or "polaronic" localized modes (4)(5). An alternative interpretation of the extra-bands in terms of a Fermi resonance was proposed (6) and recently the existence of slightly non-degenerate hydrogen atom configurations (7) in the H-bond was suggested as an explanation for the anomalies.
Vibration-response due to thickness loss on steel plate excited by resonance frequency
Kudus, S. A.; Suzuki, Y.; Matsumura, M.; Sugiura, K.
2018-04-01
The degradation of steel structure due to corrosion is a common problem found especially in the marine structure due to exposure to the harsh marine environment. In order to ensure safety and reliability of marine structure, the damage assessment is an indispensable prerequisite for plan of remedial action on damaged structure. The main goal of this paper is to discuss simple vibration measurement on plated structure to give image on overview condition of the monitored structure. The changes of vibration response when damage was introduced in the plate structure were investigated. The damage on plate was simulated in finite element method as loss of thickness section. The size of damage and depth of loss of thickness were varied for different damage cases. The plate was excited with lower order of resonance frequency in accordance estimate the average remaining thickness based on displacement response obtain in the dynamic analysis. Significant reduction of natural frequency and increasing amplitude of vibration can be observed in the presence of severe damage. The vibration analysis summarized in this study can serve as benchmark and reference for researcher and design engineer.
Vibration Control of Flexible Mode for a Beam-Type Substrate Transport Robot
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cheol Hoon Park
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Beam-type substrate transport robots are widely used to handle substrates, especially in the solar cell manufacturing process. To reduce the takt time and increase productivity, accurate position control becomes increasingly important as the size of the substrate increases. However, the vibration caused by the flexible forks in beam-type robots interferes with accurate positioning, which results in long takt times in the manufacturing process. To minimize the vibration and transport substrates on the fork as fast as possible, the trajectories should be prevented from exciting the flexible modes of the forks. For this purpose, a fifth-order polynomial trajectory generator and input shaping were incorporated into the controller of the beam-type robot in this study. The flexible modes of the forks were identified by measuring the frequency response function (FRF, and the input shaping was designed so as not to excite the flexible modes. The controller was implemented by using MATLAB/xPC Target. In this paper, the design procedure of input shaping and its effectiveness for vibration attenuation in both “no load” and “load” cases is presented.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Libo Zhao
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Methods to calculate fluid density and viscosity using a micro-cantilever and based on the resonance principle were put forward. Their measuring mechanisms were analyzed and the theoretical equations to calculate the density and viscosity were deduced. The fluid-solid coupling simulations were completed for the micro-cantilevers with different shapes. The sensing chips with micro-cantilevers were designed based on the simulation results and fabricated using the micro electromechanical systems (MEMS technology. Finally, the MEMS resonant sensor was packaged with the sensing chip to measure the densities and viscosities of eight different fluids under the flexural and torsional vibrating modes separately. The relative errors of the measured densities from 600 kg/m3 to 900 kg/m3 and viscosities from 200 μPa·s to 1000 μPa·s were calculated and analyzed with different microcantilevers under various vibrating modes. The experimental results showed that the effects of the shape and vibrating mode of micro-cantilever on the measurement accuracies of fluid density and viscosity were analyzed in detail.
An experimental investigation of composite floor vibration due to human activities. A case study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yasser G. Mohamed Fahmy
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Composite steel floor decks are used in a large variety of constructions with long spans, such as administration and commercial buildings, hotels and bridges. Due to decreased floor mass and longer span lengths, floor vibrations have become an area of concern. Floor decks with low frequencies may be in resonance with the vibrations due to human activities and the resulting acceleration may exceed human comfort levels. The design of slender floor structures, with steel or composite cross sections, is often limited by the serviceability criteria such as deflection limits and vibration behavior, rather than the strength criteria. Control of deflections under AISC specifications requirement is not enough to satisfy the serviceability requirements of the floor systems for vibration. In addition, vibration analysis procedures introduced by AISC design Guide No. 11 are based on regularly-shaped structures and simple boundary conditions. In this paper, a case study for full scale testing of a composite floor system proposed for a tower at Kuwait state that was tested prior to construction. The heel-drop and walking tests are performed on floor systems with and without raised floor respectively. Since heel-drop and walking test results would vary in light of person performance, both tests are carried out three or four times to reduce uncertainty. The fundamental frequencies and damping ratio of the floor system are measured. Comparison of the experimental results with results based on the AISC hand calculations shows that there is no significant difference; therefore the results based on AISC are generally acceptable.
Chen, K.; Manning, M.L.; Yunker, P.J.; Ellenbroek, W.G.; Zhang, Zexin; Liu, Andrea J.; Yodh, A.G.
2011-01-01
We investigate correlations between low-frequency vibrational modes and rearrangements in two-dimensional colloidal glasses composed of thermosensitive microgel particles, which readily permit variation of the sample packing fraction. At each packing fraction, the particle displacement covariance
Anomalous electron streaming due to electrostatic modes in tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schultz, S.D.; Bers, A.; Ram, A.K.
1993-01-01
The motion of circulating electrons in a tokamak interacting with electrostatic waves (such as lower-hybrid waves) is given by a guiding center Hamiltonian and studied by numerical integration. The unperturbed motion of electron guiding centers is first shown to be integrable, and, in a manner similar to that used in previous works, a set of action-angle coordinates for the orbits are derived which take into account finite aspect ratio and noncircular plasma cross section. Electrostatic modes in the low-frequency, long-wavelength limit are treated as a perturbation to the guiding center Hamiltonian. The waves are generated with low integral values of the toroidal and poloidal mode numbers n and m and satisfy the approximate lower-hybrid dispersion relation k perpendicular /k parallel ∼ ω pe /ω ∼ 10 1.5 . If the number of modes is greater than three, the electron motion parallel to the magnetic field is observed to be stochastic in the phase-space region where v parallel is near the wave parallel phase velocity. On surfaces with rational values of the safety factor q, superposition of modes with degenerate values of the parallel mode number n + (m/q) is shown to result in electron streaming perpendicular to the magnetic field. The speed and direction of this radial motion are observed to have sinusoidal dependence on the poloidal angle. For models including finite magnetic-field shear, the authors find a limit to the extent of the radial streaming of the electrons. Results for the speed of the electron radial motion for typical tokamak parameters are presented
Nonlinear normal vibration modes in the dynamics of nonlinear elastic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikhlin, Yu V; Perepelkin, N V; Klimenko, A A; Harutyunyan, E
2012-01-01
Nonlinear normal modes (NNMs) are a generalization of the linear normal vibrations. By the Kauderer-Rosenberg concept in the regime of the NNM all position coordinates are single-values functions of some selected position coordinate. By the Shaw-Pierre concept, the NNM is such a regime when all generalized coordinates and velocities are univalent functions of a couple of dominant (active) phase variables. The NNMs approach is used in some applied problems. In particular, the Kauderer-Rosenberg NNMs are analyzed in the dynamics of some pendulum systems. The NNMs of forced vibrations are investigated in a rotor system with an isotropic-elastic shaft. A combination of the Shaw-Pierre NNMs and the Rauscher method is used to construct the forced NNMs and the frequency responses in the rotor dynamics.
Yang, Jingyu; Lin, Jiahui; Liu, Yuejun; Yang, Kang; Zhou, Lanwei; Chen, Guoping
2017-08-01
It is well known that intelligent control theory has been used in many research fields, novel modeling method (DROMM) is used for flexible rectangular active vibration control, and then the validity of new model is confirmed by comparing finite element model with new model. In this paper, taking advantage of the dynamics of flexible rectangular plate, a two-loop sliding mode (TSM) MIMO approach is introduced for designing multiple-input multiple-output continuous vibration control system, which can overcome uncertainties, disturbances or unstable dynamics. An illustrative example is given in order to show the feasibility of the method. Numerical simulations and experiment confirm the effectiveness of the proposed TSM MIMO controller.
Stabilization effect of Weibel modes due to inverse bremsstrahlung ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-11-04
Nov 4, 2016 ... In this work, the Weibel instability due to inverse bremsstrahlung absorption in laser fusion plasma ... pling of self-generated magnetic field with the laser wave field. This is ... To describe fully ionized plasma where the interac-.
Transport due to ion temperature gradient mode vortex turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavlenko, V.P.; Weiland, J.
1991-01-01
The ion energy transport due to an ensemble of nonlinear vortices is calculated in the test particle approximation for a strongly turbulent plasma. A diffusion coefficient proportional to the root of the stationary turbulence level is obtained. (au)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tsen Shaw-Wei D
2006-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, a technique which departs radically from conventional approaches has been proposed. This novel technique utilizes biological objects such as viruses as nano-templates for the fabrication of nanostructure elements. For example, rod-shaped viruses such as the M13 phage and tobacco mosaic virus have been successfully used as biological templates for the synthesis of semiconductor and metallic nanowires. Results and discussion Low wave number (≤ 20 cm-1 acoustic vibrations of the M13 phage have been studied using Raman spectroscopy. The experimental results are compared with theoretical calculations based on an elastic continuum model and appropriate Raman selection rules derived from a bond polarizability model. The observed Raman mode has been shown to belong to one of the Raman-active axial torsion modes of the M13 phage protein coat. Conclusion It is expected that the detection and characterization of this low frequency vibrational mode can be used for applications in nanotechnology such as for monitoring the process of virus functionalization and self-assembly. For example, the differences in Raman spectra can be used to monitor the coating of virus with some other materials and nano-assembly process, such as attaching a carbon nanotube or quantum dots.
Geometric phase due to orbit-orbit interaction: rotating LP11 modes in a two-mode fiber
Pradeep Chakravarthy, T.; Naik, Dinesh N.; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.
2017-10-01
Accumulation of geometric phase due to non-coplanar propagation of higher-order modes in an optical fiber is experimentally demonstrated. Vertically-polarized LP11 fiber mode, excited in a horizontally-held, torsion-free, step-index, two-mode optical fiber, rotates due to asymmetry in the propagating k-vectors, arising due to off-centered beam location at the fiber input. Perceiving the process as due to rotation of the fiber about the off-axis launch position, the orbital Berry phase accumulation upon scanning the launch position in a closed-loop around the fiber axis manifests as rotational Doppler effect, a consequence of orbit-orbit interaction. The anticipated phase accumulation as a function of the input launch position, observed through interferometry is connected to the mode rotation angle, quantified using the autocorrelation method.
Stretching dependence of the vibration modes of a single-molecule Pt-H-2-Pt bridge
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Djukic, D.; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Untiedt, C.
2005-01-01
isotope substitution is obtained. The stretching dependence for each of the modes allows uniquely classifying them as longitudinal or transversal modes. The interpretation of the experiment in terms of a Pt-H-2-Pt bridge is verified by density-functional theory calculations for the stability, vibrational...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nichols, W.L.; Weare, J.H.
1986-01-01
One-phonon cross sections calculated from sagittally polarized vibrational normal modes account for most salient inelastic-scattering intensities seen in He-LiF(001) and measurements published by Brusdeylins, Doak, and Toennies. We have found that most inelastic intensities which cannot be attributed to potential resonances can be explained as kinematically enhanced scattering from both surface and pseudosurface bulk modes
Failure Modes in Concrete Repair Systems due to Ongoing Corrosion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mladena Luković
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Corrosion of steel reinforcement is the main cause of deterioration in reinforced concrete structures. It can result in cracking and spalling of the concrete cover. After the damaged cover is repaired, reinforcement corrosion might continue and even accelerate. While the development of the corrosion cell is difficult to control, the damage can be possibly delayed and controlled by use of a suitable repair material. The lattice fracture model is used in this paper to investigate the performance of strain hardening cementitious composite (SHCC in concrete repair systems exposed to ongoing corrosion. Numerical results were verified by experimental tests when SHCC, nonreinforced material (repair mortar, and commercial repair mortar are used as repair materials. In experiments, reinforcement bars (surrounded by a repair material were exposed to accelerated corrosion tests. The influence of the substrate surface preparation, the type of repair material, the interface, and the substrate strength on the resulting damage and failure mode of repair systems are discussed. In general, SHCC repair enables distributed cracking with small crack widths, up to several times smaller compared to repair mortar. Furthermore, more warning signs prior to the final failure are present in the SHCC repair system.
Sub-THz spectroscopic characterization of vibrational modes in artificially designed DNA monocrystal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sizov, Igor; Rahman, Masudur; Gelmont, Boris; Norton, Michael L.; Globus, Tatiana
2013-01-01
Highlights: • Sub-THz spectroscopy is used to characterize artificially designed DNA monocrystal. • Results are obtained using a novel near field, RT, frequency domain spectrometer. • Narrow resonances of 0.1 cm −1 width in absorption spectra of crystal are observed. • Signature measured between 310 and 490 GHz is reproducible and well resolved. • Absorption pattern is explained in part by simulation results from dsDNA fragment. - Abstract: Sub-terahertz (sub-THz) vibrational spectroscopy is a new spectroscopic branch for characterizing biological macromolecules. In this work, highly resolved sub-THz resonance spectroscopy is used for characterizing engineered molecular structures, an artificially designed DNA monocrystal, built from a short DNA sequence. Using a recently developed frequency domain spectroscopic instrument operating at room temperature with high spectral and spatial resolution, we demonstrated very intense and specific spectral lines from a DNA crystal in general agreement with a computational molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of a short double stranded DNA fragment. The spectroscopic signature measured in the frequency range between 310 and 490 GHz is rich in well resolved and reproducible spectral features thus demonstrating the capability of THz resonance spectroscopy to be used for characterizing custom macromolecules and structures designed and implemented via nanotechnology for a wide variety of application domains. Analysis of MD simulation indicates that intense and narrow vibrational modes with atomic movements perpendicular (transverse) and parallel (longitudinal) to the long DNA axis coexist in dsDNA, with much higher contribution from longitudinal vibrations
Frequency Response of the Sample Vibration Mode in Scanning Probe Acoustic Microscope
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ya-Jun, Zhao; Qian, Cheng; Meng-Lu, Qian
2010-01-01
Based on the interaction mechanism between tip and sample in the contact mode of a scanning probe acoustic microscope (SPAM), an active mass of the sample is introduced in the mass-spring model. The tip motion and frequency response of the sample vibration mode in the SPAM are calculated by the Lagrange equation with dissipation function. For the silicon tip and glass assemblage in the SPAM the frequency response is simulated and it is in agreement with the experimental result. The living myoblast cells on the glass slide are imaged at resonance frequencies of the SPAM system, which are 20kHz, 30kHz and 120kHz. It is shown that good contrast of SPAM images could be obtained when the system is operated at the resonance frequencies of the system in high and low-frequency regions
Application of empirical mode decomposition method for characterization of random vibration signals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Setyamartana Parman
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Characterization of finite measured signals is a great of importance in dynamical modeling and system identification. This paper addresses an approach for characterization of measured random vibration signals where the approach rests on a method called empirical mode decomposition (EMD. The applicability of proposed approach is tested in one numerical and experimental data from a structural system, namely spar platform. The results are three main signal components, comprising: noise embedded in the measured signal as the first component, first intrinsic mode function (IMF called as the wave frequency response (WFR as the second component and second IMF called as the low frequency response (LFR as the third component while the residue is the trend. Band-pass filter (BPF method is taken as benchmark for the results obtained from EMD method.
Portnov, Alexander; Epshtein, Michael; Bar, Ilana
2017-06-01
Nonadiabatic processes, dominated by dynamic passage of reactive fluxes through conical intersections (CIs) are considered to be appealing means for manipulating reaction paths. One approach that is considered to be effective in controlling the course of dissociation processes is the selective excitation of vibrational modes containing a considerable component of motion. Here, we have chosen to study the predissociation of the model test molecule, methylamine and its deuterated isotopologues, excited to well-characterized quantum states on the first excited electronic state, S_{1}, by following the N-H(D) bond fission dynamics through sensitive H(D) photofragment probing. The branching ratios between slow and fast H(D) photofragments, the internal energies of their counter radical photofragments and the anisotropy parameters for fast H photofragments, confirm correlated anomalies for predissociation initiated from specific rovibronic states, reflecting the existence of a dynamic resonance in each molecule. This resonance strongly depends on the energy of the initially excited rovibronic states, the evolving vibrational mode on the repulsive S_{1} part during N-H(D) bond elongation, and the manipulated passage through the CI that leads to radicals excited with C-N-H(D) bending and preferential perpendicular bond breaking, relative to the photolyzing laser polarization, in molecules containing the NH_{2} group. The indicated resonance plays an important role in the bifurcation dynamics at the CI and can be foreseen to exist in other photoinitiated processes and to control their outcome.
A mathematical model for estimating the vibration due to basting in Sarcheshmeh Copper Mine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hossaini, M. F.; Javaherian, A.; Pourghasemi Sagand, M.
2002-01-01
Ground vibration due to blasting is the research subject of many investigations. A lot of works have been done in order to estimate the quality and quantity of this blasting outcome. Mathematical models proposed by various investigators are a noticeable result of these investigations. In this paper, the origin of these mathematical models are studied and the short comes are pointed out. With aid of real data a new empirical model has been proposed. This model is some modification of the previous ones with some different parameters. This investigation is based on analyzing the data obtained by operating 14 blasts in Sarcheshmeh Copper Mine whose data have been collected by seismographs installed in the area. In the proposed model, instead of the amount of charge exploded in each delay the amount of charge the vibration due to which is designed to facilitate application of a radial confining pressure to a grouted bolt while pulling it axially. During the test, both axial displacement of the bolt as well as the radial dilation of the grout was monitored. Few deformed bolts were designed and manufactured to study the effect of the shape of the ribs. While pull out, the cement that is captured between lugs will shear which in turn emphasizes the importance of shear strength of the grout annulus. In this report, details of the laboratory test results are presented and conclusions are given based on the obtained results
Hosseinian, A.; Meghdadi Isfahani, A. H.
2018-04-01
In this study, the heat transfer enhancement due to the surface vibration for a double pipe heat exchanger, made of PVDF, is investigated. In order to create forced vibrations (3-9 m/s2, 100 Hz) on the outer surface of the heat exchanger electro-dynamic vibrators are used. Experiments were performed at inner Reynolds numbers ranging from 2533 to 9960. The effects of volume flow rate and temperature on heat transfer performance are evaluated. Results demonstrated that heat transfer coefficient increases by increasing vibration level and mass flow rate. The most increase in heat transfer coefficient is 97% which is obtained for the highest vibration level (9 m/s2) in the experiment range.
Gaynor, James D.; Wetterer, Anna M.; Cochran, Rea M.; Valente, Edward J.; Mayer, Steven G.
2015-01-01
Raman spectroscopy is a powerful experimental technique, yet it is often missing from the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory curriculum. Tetrachloromethane (CCl[subscript 4]) is the ideal molecule for an introductory vibrational spectroscopy experiment and the symmetric stretch vibration contains fine structure due to isotopic variations…
Multi-modal vibration amplitudes of taut inclined cables due to direct and/or parametric excitation
Macdonald, J. H. G.
2016-02-01
Cables are often prone to potentially damaging large amplitude vibrations. The dynamic excitation may be from external loading or motion of the cable ends, the latter including direct excitation, normally from components of end motion transverse to the cable, and parametric excitation induced by axial components of end motion causing dynamic tension variations. Geometric nonlinearity can be important, causing stiffening behaviour and nonlinear modal coupling. Previous analyses of the vibrations, often neglecting sag, have generally dealt with direct and parametric excitation separately or have reverted to numerical solutions of the responses. Here a nonlinear cable model is adopted, applicable to taut cables such as on cable-stayed bridges, that allows for cable inclination, small sag (such that the vibration modes are similar to those of a taut string), multiple modes in both planes and end motion and/or external forcing close to any natural frequency. Based on the method of scaling and averaging it is found that, for sinusoidal inputs and positive damping, non-zero steady state responses can only occur in the modes in each plane with natural frequencies close to the excitation frequency and those with natural frequencies close to half this frequency. Analytical solutions, in the form of non-dimensional polynomial equations, are derived for the steady state vibration amplitudes in up to three modes simultaneously: the directly excited mode, the corresponding nonlinearly coupled mode in the orthogonal plane and a parametrically excited mode with half the natural frequency. The stability of the solutions is also identified. The outputs of the equations are consistent with previous results, where available. Example results from the analytical solutions are presented for a typical inclined bridge cable subject to vertical excitation of the lower end, and they are validated by numerical integration of the equations of motion and against some previous experimental
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Patel, Vishesha; Malinovsky, Vladimir S.; Malinovskaya, Svetlana
2010-01-01
Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy has been a major tool of investigation of biological structures as it contains the vibrational signature of molecules. A quantum control method based on chirped pulse adiabatic passage was recently proposed for selective excitation of a predetermined vibrational mode in CARS microscopy [Malinovskaya and Malinovsky, Opt. Lett. 32, 707 (2007)]. The method utilizes the chirp sign variation at the peak pulse amplitude and gives a robust adiabatic excitation of the desired vibrational mode. Using this method, we investigate the impact of coupling between vibrational modes in molecules on controllability of excitation of the CARS signal. We analyze two models of two coupled two-level systems (TLSs) having slightly different transitional frequencies. The first model, featuring degenerate ground states of the TLSs, gives robust adiabatic excitation and maximum coherence in the resonant TLS for positive value of the chirp. In the second model, implying nondegenerate ground states in the TLSs, a population distribution is observed in both TLSs, resulting in a lack of selectivity of excitation and low coherence. It is shown that the relative phase and coupling between the TLSs play an important role in optimizing coherence in the desired vibrational mode and suppressing unwanted transitions in CARS microscopy.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ji, Hongli; Qiu, Jinhao; Xia, Pinqi; Inman, Daniel
2012-01-01
Modal coupling is an important issue in the analysis and control of structural systems with multi-degrees of freedom (MDOF). In this paper, modal coupling induced by energy conversion in the structural control of an MDOF system using a synchronized switch damping method is investigated theoretically and validated numerically. In the analysis, it is supposed that the voltage on the piezoelectric actuator is switched at the displacement extrema of a given mode. Two types of coupling in energy conversion are considered. The first is whether the switching action based on one mode induces energy conversion of the other modes. The second is whether the vibration of one mode affects the energy conversion of the other modes. The results indicate that the modal coupling in energy conversion is very complicated. In most cases the switching action based on one mode does induce energy conversion of another mode, but the efficiency depends on the frequency ratio of the two modes. The vibration of one mode affects the energy conversion of another mode only when the frequency ratio of the two modes takes some special values. Discussions are also given on the potential application of the theoretical results in the design of an energy harvesting device. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liang, Xu; Hu, Shuling; Shen, Shengping
2015-01-01
The symmetry breaking of inversion in solid crystals will induce electric polarization in all solid crystals, which is well known as flexoelectricity. At the nanometer scale, due to the large ratio of surface to volume, piezoelectric structures always exhibit distinct mechanical and electrical behaviors compared with their bulk counterparts. In the current work, the effects of surface and flexoelectricity on the buckling and vibration of piezoelectric nanowires is investigated based on a continuum framework and the Euler–Bernoulli beam hypothesis. Analytical solutions of the electric field in the piezoelectric nanobeam subjected to electrical and mechanical loads are obtained with the surface, flexoelectric and nonlocal electric effects. Numeric simulations demonstrate that the Young’s modulus and bending rigidity of PZT and BaTiO 3 (BT) nanowires are enhanced by flexoelectricity. In addition, the critical buckling voltage is calculated with consideration of the effects of surface and flexoelectricity, and it is found that the effects of surface piezoelectricity, flexoelectricity and residual surface stress play significant roles in determining the critical buckling voltage. Results obtained for the first resonance frequency also indicate that the effects of surface and flexoelectricity are more significant at a narrow range of beam thickness. The first resonance frequency of PZT and BT nanowires is also influenced by the residual surface stress and external applied voltage. The current work is expected to provide a fundamental study on the buckling and vibration behaviors of piezoelectric nanobeams, and it might also be helpful in devising piezoelectric nanowire-based nanoelectronics. (paper)
Miller, C. Cameron; Stone, Stephen C.; Philips, Laura A.
1995-01-01
The high-resolution infrared spectrum of 1-chloro-2-fluoroethane in a molecular beam was collected over the 2975-2994 cm-1 spectral region. The spectral region of 2975-2981 cm-1 contains a symmetric C-H stretching vibrational band of the gauche conformer containing the 35Cl isotope. The spectral region of 2985-2994 cm-1 contains three vibrational bands of the trans conformer. Two of the three bands are assigned as an antisymmetric C-H stretch of each of the two different chlorine isotopes. The third band is assigned as a symmetric C-H stretch of the 35Cl isotope. The gauche conformer of 1-chloro-2-fluoroethane showed doublet patterns similar to those previously observed in 1,2-difluoroethane. The model for 1,2-difluoroethane is further refined in the present work. These refinements suggest that the coupling dark state in 1,2-difluoroethane is composed of 1 quantum C-H bend, 1 quantum C-C stretch, and 12 quanta of torsion. For 1-chloro-2-fluoroethane the dark state could not be identified due to a small data set. The trans conformer of 1-chloro-2-fluoroethane showed no evidence of mode coupling in the three vibrational bands. Including 2-fluoroethanol in this series of molecules, the extent of vibrational mode coupling did not correlate with the density of states available for coupling. Therefore, density of states alone is insufficient to explain the observed trend. A correlation was observed between the degree of intramolecular interaction and vibrational mode coupling.
Determination of fuel assembly vibrational modes through analysis of incore detector noise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, R.S.
1986-01-01
In order to better characterize fuel assembly vibration at Duke Power Company's Oconee Nuclear Station, incore noise data were acquired an analyzed from prompt responding detectors incorporated in the Oconee 2, Cycle 7 core. Duke Power Company began actively pursuing an inhouse Neutron Noise Analysis program for routine surveillance of reactor internals vibration in 1979. Noise data has since been acquired and analyzed for twelve cycles of operation for the three Oconee units. Duke Power's Oconee Unit 2 is a Babcock and Wilcoxs pressurized water reactor with a rate thermal power of 2568MW. For Oconee 2, Cycle 7 operation, two test assemblies, each employing a string of seven axially-spaced, prompt responding hafnium detectors, were included in the final core design. Incore detector noise data were obtained during Cycle 7 at approximately 281 and 430 effective full power days (EFPD). In addition to the incore test detector signals, noise signals from the upper and lower chambers of the four excore power range detectors were recorded to aid in the analysis. The comparison of RMS signal levels for each incore detector and the phase relationships between detector locations within two test assemblies identified the first four fuel assembly bending modes associated with fixed end conditions
Chen, Yu-Chun; Tang, Ping-Han; Wu, Ten-Ming
2013-11-28
By exploiting the instantaneous normal mode (INM) analysis for models of flexible molecules, we investigate intermolecular and intramolecular vibrations of water from the atomic point of view. With two flexible SPC/E models, our investigations include three aspects about their INM spectra, which are separated into the unstable, intermolecular, bending, and stretching bands. First, the O- and H-atom contributions in the four INM bands are calculated and their stable INM spectra are compared with the power spectra of the atomic velocity autocorrelation functions. The unstable and intermolecular bands of the flexible models are also compared with those of the SPC/E model of rigid molecules. Second, we formulate the inverse participation ratio (IPR) of the INMs, respectively, for the O- and H-atom and molecule. With the IPRs, the numbers of the three species participated in the INMs are estimated so that the localization characters of the INMs in each band are studied. Further, by the ratio of the IPR of the H atom to that of the O atom, we explore the number of involved OH bond per molecule participated in the INMs. Third, by classifying simulated molecules into subensembles according to the geometry of their local environments or their H-bond configurations, we examine the local-structure effects on the bending and stretching INM bands. All of our results are verified to be insensible to the definition of H-bond. Our conclusions about the intermolecular and intramolecular vibrations in water are given.
Yang, HongJiang; Wang, Enliang; Dong, WenXiu; Gong, Maomao; Shen, Zhenjie; Tang, Yaguo; Shan, Xu; Chen, Xiangjun
2018-05-01
The a b i n i t i o molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using an atom-centered density matrix propagation method have been carried out to investigate the fragmentation of the ground-state triply charged carbon dioxide, CO23 +→C+ + Oa+ + Ob+ . Ten thousands of trajectories have been simulated. By analyzing the momentum correlation of the final fragments, it is demonstrated that the sequential fragmentation dominates in the three-body dissociation, consistent with our experimental observations which were performed by electron collision at impact energy of 1500 eV. Furthermore, the MD simulations allow us to have detailed insight into the ultrafast evolution of the molecular bond breakage at a very early stage, within several tens of femtoseconds, and the result shows that the initial nuclear vibrational mode plays a decisive role in switching the dissociation pathways.
Anharmonic vibrational modes of chemisorbed H on the Rh(001) surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamann, D.R.; Feibelman, P.J.
1988-01-01
The potential for H atoms in the vicinity of the fourfold hollow chemisorption site on the Rh(001) surface at monolayer coverage is calculated using local-density-functional theory, and the linear-augmented-plane-wave method. The potential is found to contain important anharmonic components, one that couples parallel and perpendicular motion, and another producing azimuthal anisotropy. Variational solutions are found for the ground and low-lying excited states of H and D in this potential. The fundamental asymmetric- and symmetric-stretch H vibrational excitations are found to have energies of 67 and 92 meV. The latter agrees with recent experimental results, and higher-lying experimental modes are interpreted as mixed excitations. Comparisons are made with spring-constant models, calculated potentials for H on Ni and Pd(001), and theories of Bloch states for H on Ni
Mode shape and natural frequency identification for seismic analysis from background vibration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhan, S.; Wozniak, Z.
1986-10-01
Background vibration in a CANDU plant can be used to determine the dynamic characteristics of major items of equipment, such as calandria, the fuelling machines and the primary heat transport pumps. These dynamic characteristics can then be used to verify the seismic response of the equipment which, at present, is based on theoretical models only. The feasibility and basic theory of this new approach (which uses accelerations measured at several points on a structure and does not require knowledge of the source of excitation) was established in Phase I of the study. This report is based on Phase II in which the methods of analysis developed in Phase I were improved and verified experimentally. A Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm was incorporated and an interactive curve fitting technique was developed to obtain the dynamic characteristics in the form of natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping ratios. The method is now available for use at a CANDU plant
Lebedieva, Tetiana; Gubanov, Victor; Dovbeshko, Galyna; Pidhirnyi, Denys
2015-12-01
Different notations of graphene irreducible representations and optical modes could be found in the literature. The goals of this paper are to identify the correspondence between available notations, to calculate the optical modes of graphene in different points of the Brillouin zone, and to compare them with experimental data obtained by Raman and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy. The mechanism of the resonance enhancement of vibration modes of the molecules adsorbed on graphene in CARS experiments is proposed. The possibility of appearance of the discrete breathing modes is discussed.
Dynamic Analysis of an Office Building due to Vibration from Road Construction Activities
Chik, T. N. T.; Kamil, M. R. H.; Yusoff, N. A.; Ibrahim, M. H. W.
2018-04-01
Construction activities are widely known as one of the predominant sources of man-made vibrations that able to create nuisance towards any adjacent building, and this includes the road construction operations. Few studies conclude the construction-induced vibration may be harmful directly and indirectly towards the neighbouring building. This lead to the awareness of study the building vibration response of concrete masonry load bearing system and its vibrational performance towards the road construction activities. This study will simulate multi-storey office building of Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan (SMK) Bandar Enstek at Negeri Sembilan by using finite element vibration analyses. The excitation of transient loads from ground borne vibrations which triggered by the road construction activities are modelled into the building. The vibration response was recorded during in-situ ambient vibration test by using Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV), which specifically performed on four different locations. The finite element simulation process was developed in the commercial FEA software ABAQUS. Then, the experimental data was processed and evaluated in MATLAB ModalV to assess the vibration criteria of the floor in building. As a result, the vibration level of floor in building is fall under VC-E curve which was under the maximum permissible level for office building (VC-ISO). The vibration level on floor is acceptable within the limit that have been referred.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ruo Lin Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study of an adaptive robust sliding mode control scheme based on the Lyapunov’s direct method for active vibration control of a flexible beam using PZT (lead zirconate titanate sensor and actuator. PZT, a type of piezoceramic material, has the advantages of high reliability, high bandwidth, and solid state actuation and is adopted here in forms of surface-bond patches for vibration control. Two adaptive robust sliding mode controllers for vibration suppression are designed: one uses a discontinuous bang-bang robust compensator and the other uses a smooth compensator with a hyperbolic tangent function. Both controllers guarantee asymptotic stability, as proved by the Lyapunov’s direct method. Experimental results verified the effectiveness and the robustness of both adaptive sliding mode controllers. However, from the experimental results, the bang-bang robust compensator causes small-magnitude chattering because of the discontinuous switching actions. With the smooth compensator, vibration is quickly suppressed and no chattering is induced. Furthermore, the robustness of the controllers is successfully demonstrated with ensured effectiveness in vibration control when masses are added to the flexible beam.
Fakkaew, Wichaphon; Cole, Matthew O. T.
2018-06-01
This paper investigates the vibration arising in a thin-walled cylindrical rotor subject to small non-circularity and coupled to discrete space-fixed radial bearing supports. A Fourier series description of rotor non-circularity is incorporated within a mathematical model for vibration of a rotating annulus. This model predicts the multi-harmonic excitation of the rotor wall due to bearing interactions. For each non-circularity harmonic there is a set of distinct critical speeds at which resonance can potentially arise due to flexural mode excitation within the rotor wall. It is shown that whether each potential resonance occurs depends on the multiplicity and symmetry of the bearing supports. Also, a sufficient number of evenly spaced identical supports will eliminate low order resonances. The considered problem is pertinent to the design and operation of thin-walled rotors with active magnetic bearing (AMB) supports, for which small clearances exist between the rotor and bearing and so vibration excitation must be limited to avoid contacts. With this motivation, the mathematical model is further developed for the case of a distributed array of electromagnetic actuators controlled by feedback of measured rotor wall displacements. A case study involving an experimental system with short cylindrical rotor and a single radial AMB support is presented. The results show that flexural mode resonance is largely avoided for the considered design topology. Moreover, numerical predictions based on measured non-circularity show good agreement with measurements of rotor wall vibration, thereby confirming the validity and utility of the theoretical model.
Enhanced vibration diagnostics using vibration signature analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmed, S.; Shehzad, K.; Zahoor, Y.; Mahmood, A.; Bibi, A.
2001-01-01
Symptoms will appear in equipment, as well as in human beings. when 'suffering from sickness. Symptoms of abnormality in equipment are vibration, noise, deformation, temperature, pressure, electric current, crack, wearing, leakage etc. these are called modes of failure. If the mode of failure is vibration then the vibration signature analysis can be effectively used in order to diagnose the machinery problems. Much valuable information is contained within these vibration 'Spectra' or 'Signatures' but is only of use if the analyst can unlock its 'Secrets'. This paper documents a vibration problem in the motor of a centrifugal pump (Type ETA). It focuses mainly on the roll of modern vibration monitoring system in problem analysis. The problem experienced was the motor unstability and noise due to high vibration. Using enhanced vibration signature data, the problem was analyzed. which suggested that the rotor eccentricity was the cause of excessive noise and vibration in the motor. In conclusion, advanced electronic monitoring and diagnostic systems provide powerful information for machine's condition assessment and problem analysis. Appropriate interpretation and use of this information is important for accurate and effective vibration analysis. (author)
Vibrational modes and strain in GaN/AlN quantum dot stacks: dependence on spacer thickness
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fresneda, J.; Cros, A.; Llorens, J.M.; Garcia-Cristobal, A.; Cantarero, A. [Institut de Ciencia del Materials, Universitat de Valencia, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Amstatt, B.; Bellet-Amalric, E.; Daudin, B. [CEA-CNRS Group, Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs, DRFMC/SP2M/PSC, CEA-Grenoble, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)
2007-06-15
We have investigated the influence of spacer thickness on the vibrational and strain characteristics of GaN/AlN quantum dot multilayers (QD). The Raman shift corresponding to the E{sub 2h} vibrational mode related to the QDs has been analyzed for AlN thicknesses ranging from 4.4 nm to 13 nm, while the amount of GaN deposited in each layer remained constant from sample to sample. It is shown that there is a rapid blue shift of the GaN vibrational mode with spacer thickness when its value is smaller than 7 nm while it remains almost constant for thicker spacers. A rapid increase of the Raman line-width in the thicker samples is also observed. The experimental behavior is discussed in comparison with the results of a theoretical model for the strain in the QDs. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Research Amplitudo Vibration On Holder Due To The Process Of Lathe Nozzle Rocket RX 450
Ediwan; Budi Djatmiko, Agus; Dody Arisandi, EfFendy; Purnomo, Heri; Ibadi, Mahfud
2018-04-01
The main function of the rocket nozzle is to convert the enthalpy efficiency from combustion gas to kinetic energy and also to make high velocity out of the gas. The rocket nozzle usually consists of a converging and diverging part. With a smaller area on the neck and enlarged at the exit area. The velocity flow through the nozzle enlarges into the speed of sound through the neck and then becomes super sonic in the divergent part. Nozzle making or machining using conventional lathes, first performed is drilling on a massive metal that is bonded to the veneer, then after a sufficient gap is done deep-boring. At the time of the process of lathe in the nozzle RX 450 there is an obstacle that is vibrating tool holder chisel or holder so it is worried about not precision of the process of lathe. This should not happen because it can cause failure in the latter for it needs to be studied and studied further so that the lathe process goes accordingly. The holder material of ST 60 with a modulus of elasticity 200 GPa and a nozzle material of AISI 4340 alloy steel with σyield = 470 MPa, Shear Modulus G = 80 GPa. The purpose of this research is to observe the amplitude of vibration on the holder due to RX- 450 nozzle lathe processing for the purpose of amplitude that occurs in accordance with the desired so that the nozzle structure is no damage process. The result of the research was obtained holder with length (L) 80cm, profile width (B) 5 cm, height of profile (H) 10 cm, turning machine ω = 8.98 rad / sec and natural holder frequency ωn = 89.8 rad / second, Amplitude of vibration of δ = 1.21 mm, while the amplitude of the design X = 1.22 mm From the results of this study it can be said that the holder of a chisel or holder can be used as a tool at the time of RX nozzle retrieval process and is quite safe because it works under the condition ω/ω n Rocket Payload "AKPV Engineering University of Wyoming 2009 )
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Havelka, Daniel; Cifra, Michal; Kučera, Ondřej
2014-01-01
Roč. 104, č. 24 (2014), s. 243702 ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP102/11/0649 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Biophysical mechanism * Collective vibration mode * Electro-mechanical Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 3.302, year: 2014
VCD Robustness of the Amide-I and Amide-II Vibrational Modes of Small Peptide Models.
Góbi, Sándor; Magyarfalvi, Gábor; Tarczay, György
2015-09-01
The rotational strengths and the robustness values of amide-I and amide-II vibrational modes of For(AA)n NHMe (where AA is Val, Asn, Asp, or Cys, n = 1-5 for Val and Asn; n = 1 for Asp and Cys) model peptides with α-helix and β-sheet backbone conformations were computed by density functional methods. The robustness results verify empirical rules drawn from experiments and from computed rotational strengths linking amide-I and amide-II patterns in the vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of peptides with their backbone structures. For peptides with at least three residues (n ≥ 3) these characteristic patterns from coupled amide vibrational modes have robust signatures. For shorter peptide models many vibrational modes are nonrobust, and the robust modes can be dependent on the residues or on their side chain conformations in addition to backbone conformations. These robust VCD bands, however, provide information for the detailed structural analysis of these smaller systems. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Vibrational Surface Electron-Energy-Loss Spectroscopy Probes Confined Surface-Phonon Modes
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Hugo Lourenço-Martins
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Recently, two reports [Krivanek et al. Nature (London 514, 209 (2014NATUAS0028-083610.1038/nature13870, Lagos et al. Nature (London 543, 529 (2017NATUAS0028-083610.1038/nature21699] have demonstrated the amazing possibility to probe vibrational excitations from nanoparticles with a spatial resolution much smaller than the corresponding free-space phonon wavelength using electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS. While Lagos et al. evidenced a strong spatial and spectral modulation of the EELS signal over a nanoparticle, Krivanek et al. did not. Here, we show that discrepancies among different EELS experiments as well as their relation to optical near- and far-field optical experiments [Dai et al. Science 343, 1125 (2014SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1246833] can be understood by introducing the concept of confined bright and dark surface phonon modes, whose density of states is probed by EELS. Such a concise formalism is the vibrational counterpart of the broadly used formalism for localized surface plasmons [Ouyang and Isaacson Philos. Mag. B 60, 481 (1989PMABDJ1364-281210.1080/13642818908205921, García de Abajo and Aizpurua Phys. Rev. B 56, 15873 (1997PRBMDO0163-182910.1103/PhysRevB.56.15873, García de Abajo and Kociak Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 106804 (2008PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.100.106804, Boudarham and Kociak Phys. Rev. B 85, 245447 (2012PRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.85.245447]; it makes it straightforward to predict or interpret phenomena already known for localized surface plasmons such as environment-related energy shifts or the possibility of 3D mapping of the related surface charge densities [Collins et al. ACS Photonics 2, 1628 (2015APCHD52330-402210.1021/acsphotonics.5b00421].
Chen, Ke; Manning, M L; Yunker, Peter J; Ellenbroek, Wouter G; Zhang, Zexin; Liu, Andrea J; Yodh, A G
2011-09-02
We investigate correlations between low-frequency vibrational modes and rearrangements in two-dimensional colloidal glasses composed of thermosensitive microgel particles, which readily permit variation of the sample packing fraction. At each packing fraction, the particle displacement covariance matrix is measured and used to extract the vibrational spectrum of the "shadow" colloidal glass (i.e., the particle network with the same geometry and interactions as the sample colloid but absent damping). Rearrangements are induced by successive, small reductions in the packing fraction. The experimental results suggest that low-frequency quasilocalized phonon modes in colloidal glasses, i.e., modes that present low energy barriers for system rearrangements, are spatially correlated with rearrangements in this thermal system.
Kalanoor, Basanth S; Ronen, Maria; Oren, Ziv; Gerber, Doron; Tischler, Yaakov R
2017-03-31
The low-frequency vibrational (LFV) modes of biomolecules reflect specific intramolecular and intermolecular thermally induced fluctuations that are driven by external perturbations, such as ligand binding, protein interaction, electron transfer, and enzymatic activity. Large efforts have been invested over the years to develop methods to access the LFV modes due to their importance in the studies of the mechanisms and biological functions of biomolecules. Here, we present a method to measure the LFV modes of biomolecules based on Raman spectroscopy that combines volume holographic filters with a single-stage spectrometer, to obtain high signal-to-noise-ratio spectra in short acquisition times. We show that this method enables LFV mode characterization of biomolecules even in a hydrated environment. The measured spectra exhibit distinct features originating from intra- and/or intermolecular collective motion and lattice modes. The observed modes are highly sensitive to the overall structure, size, long-range order, and configuration of the molecules, as well as to their environment. Thus, the LFV Raman spectrum acts as a fingerprint of the molecular structure and conformational state of a biomolecule. The comprehensive method we present here is widely applicable, thus enabling high-throughput study of LFV modes of biomolecules.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yasser Al Hamidi
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Piezoelectric tube actuators are extensively used in scanning probe microscopes to provide dynamic scanning motions in open-loop operations. Furthermore, they are employed as micropositioners due to their high bandwidth, high resolution and ease of excitation. However, these piezoelectric micropositioners exhibit badly damped vibrations that occur when the input excites the dynamic response, which tends to degrade positioning accuracy and performance. This paper deals with vibrations’ feedforward control of a multi-degrees of freedom (DOF piezoelectric micropositioner in order to damp the vibrations in the direct axes and to reduce the cross-couplings. The novelty in this paper relative to the existing vibrations feedforward controls is the simplicity in design approach, the minimal number of shaper impulses for each input required to damp all modes of vibration at each output, and the account for the strong cross-couplings which only occur in multi-DOF cases. A generalization to a multiple degrees of freedom actuator is first proposed. Then simulation runs on a 3-DOF piezoelectric tube micropositioner have been effectuated to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method. Finally, experimental tests were carried out to validate and to confirm the predicted simulation.
Linear stochastic evaluation of tyre vibration due to tyre/road excitation
Rustighi, E.; Elliott, S. J.; Finnveden, S.; Gulyás, K.; Mócsai, T.; Danti, M.
2008-03-01
Tyre/road interaction is recognised as the main source of interior and exterior noise for velocities over the 40 km/h. In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) elemental approach has been adopted to predict the stochastic tyre vibration and hence the interior and exterior noise due to this kind of excitation. The road excitation has been modelled from the spectral density of a common road profile, supposing the road to be an isotropic surface. A linear Winkler bedding connects the 3D model of the tyre with the ground. The exterior noise has been evaluated by an elemental calculation of the radiation matrix of the tyre deformed by the static load on a concrete road. The noise inside the vehicle has also been calculated, using the transfer functions from the force transmitted to the hub and the noise inside the vehicle, which have been computed by a FEM model of a common car body. The simple formulation allows much quicker calculation than traditional nonlinear approaches, and appears to give results consistent with available measurements, although the effects of tyre rotation and of the nonlinearities in the contact model are yet to be quantified, and the method requires further experimental validation before practical application.
USE OF WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION AS A MODE OF WARMING UP BEFORE COUNTER MOVEMENT JUMP
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Enrique G. Artero
2007-12-01
Full Text Available Whole-body vibration (WBV has been suggested to be particularly effective on the stretch-shortening cycle-based movements, such as the counter movement jump (CMJ test (Issurin, 2005. Nevertheless, the literature on short-term vibration exposure and lower limb explosive performance (measured by CMJ test is contradictory. Either transient improvements (Bosco et al., 2000; Cochrane and Stannard, 2005; Torvinen et al., 2002a or no effects (Torvinen et al., 2002b; Rittweger et al., 2003; Cormie et al., 2006 have been reported after a single WBV exposure ranging from 30 s to 10 min. The present study aimed at better characterizing the use of a single short bout of WBV as a mode of warming up before a CMJ test.A total of 114 university students (37 men, 77 women, aged 19.6 ± 2.0 years signed an informed consent form and volunteered to participate in the study. The study protocol was approved by the Review Committee for Research Involving Human Subjects of our center. Participants were asked to come to the laboratory in three occasions three days apart. First visit: familiarization session aiming to learn the CMJ technique and to experience the vibration stimulus. Second visit: the participants performed three consecutive CMJ with one min rest interval. No significant differences were observed among the jumps, and the highest score was retained. Third visit: the participants were exposed to a single short bout of WBV and immediately after they performed three CMJ with one min rest interval.An infrared contact timing platform (ERGO JUMP Plus - BOSCO SYSTEM, Byomedic, S.C.P., Barcelona, Spain was used to measure "flight" time (t during the vertical jump (accuracy 0.001 s. Maximum height achieved by the body centre of gravity (h was then estimated, i.e. h = g · t2 / 8, where g = 9.81 m/s2. In all occasions, the participants were instructed to abstain from strenuous exercise for the preceding 24 hours.Whole-body vibration was carried out on an oscillating
Vibrations of Railroad Due to The Passage of The Underground Train
Konowrocki, Robert; Bajer, Czesław
2010-03-01
In the paper we present results of vibration measurements in the train and on the base of the railroad in tunnels of Warsaw Underground. Measurements were performed at straight and curved sections of the track. The paper is focused on the influence of the lateral slip in rail/wheel contact zone on the generation of vibrations and a noise. Vibrations were analyzed in terms of accelerations, velocities or displacements as a function of time and frequency. Results ware compared with the experiment of rolling of the wheel with lateral sleep. In both cases we observed double periodic oscillations.
New vibrational mode of the acoustic type in Nd(Pr)2 Cu O4 single crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fil', D.V.; Kolobov, I.G.; Fil', V.D.; Barilo, S.N.; Zhigunov, D.I.
1995-01-01
Sound velocities along main symmetry directions as well as their angle dependences in (100),(110)-type planes are measured in Nd(Pr) 2 Cu O 4 . Anomalies in the angle dependences are found, which are interpreted as a result of the interaction of elastic vibrations with an additional plane mode of the acoustic type. According to the proposed interpretation, the bare spectrum of the additional mode is two-dimensional, and the origin of the mode is connected with the electron degrees of freedom in the Cu O 2 -planes. A phenomenological model for description of acoustic mode spectra in the investigated systems is proposed. On the basis of the anion model of HTSC, a possible microscopic scenario of the appearance of the additional mode is analyzed. In the framework of the phenomenological model, the Debye temperatures are computed, which are in agreement with the specific heat data. The values of the components of the elastic moduli tensor are given
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yau, Waifan.
1988-04-01
Substitutional carbon on an arsenic lattice site is the shallowest and one of the most dominant acceptors in semi-insulating Liquid Encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) GaAs. However, the role of this acceptor in determining the well known ''W'' shape spatial variation of neutral EL2 concentration along the diameter of a LEC wafer is not known. In this thesis, we attempt to clarify the issue of the carbon acceptor's effect on this ''W'' shaped variation by measuring spatial profiles of this acceptor along the radius of three different as-grown LEC GaAs wafers. With localized vibrational mode absorption spectroscopy, we find that the profile of the carbon acceptor is relatively constant along the radius of each wafer. Average values of concentration are 8 x 10E15 cm -3 , 1.1 x 10E15 cm -3 , and 2.2 x 10E15 cm -3 , respectively. In addition, these carbon acceptor LVM measurements indicate that a residual donor with concentration comparable to carbon exists in these wafers and it is a good candidate for the observed neutral EL2 concentration variation. 22 refs., 39 figs
Theory of the normal modes of vibrations in the lanthanide type crystals
Acevedo, Roberto; Soto-Bubert, Andres
2008-11-01
For the lanthanide type crystals, a vast and rich, though incomplete amount of experimental data has been accumulated, from linear and non linear optics, during the last decades. The main goal of the current research work is to report a new methodology and strategy to put forward a more representative approach to account for the normal modes of vibrations for a complex N-body system. For illustrative purposes, the chloride lanthanide type crystals Cs2NaLnCl6 have been chosen and we develop new convergence tests as well as a criterion to deal with the details of the F-matrix (potential energy matrix). A novel and useful concept of natural potential energy distributions (NPED) is introduced and examined throughout the course of this work. The diagonal and non diagonal contributions to these NPED-values, are evaluated for a series of these crystals explicitly. Our model is based upon a total of seventy two internal coordinates and ninety eight internal Hooke type force constants. An optimization mathematical procedure is applied with reference to the series of chloride lanthanide crystals and it is shown that the strategy and model adopted is sound from both a chemical and a physical viewpoints. We can argue that the current model is able to accommodate a number of interactions and to provide us with a very useful physical insight. The limitations and advantages of the current model and the most likely sources for improvements are discussed in detail.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maekawa, Hiroaki; Sul, Soohwan; Ge, Nien-Hui
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► Vibrational dynamics of conjugated C=O and N=N modes of ethyl diazoacetate was studied. ► Their frequency–frequency correlation functions are different. ► The dual-frequency 2D IR spectrum indicates anticorrelated frequency fluctuations. ► Correlation effects on dual-frequency 2D IR spectra are discussed. ► The existence of cis and trans conformers is revealed in 2D IR spectra. - Abstract: We have applied infrared three-pulse photon echo and single- and dual-frequency 2D IR spectroscopy to the ester C=O and diazo N=N stretching modes in ethyl diazoacetate (EDA), and investigated their vibrational frequency fluctuations and correlation. The two modes exhibit different vibrational dynamics and 2D lineshape, which are well simulated by frequency–frequency correlation functions (FFCFs) with two decaying components. Although the FT IR spectrum shows a single C=O band, absolute magnitude 2D IR nonrephasing spectrum displays spectral signatures supporting the presence of cis and trans conformations. The cross-peak inclined toward the anti-diagonal in the dual-frequency 2D IR spectrum, indicating that the frequency fluctuations of the two modes are anticorrelated. This behavior is attributed to anticorrelated change in the bond orders when solvent and structural fluctuations causes EDA to adopt a different mixture of the two dominant resonance structures. The effects of cross FFCF on the cross-peak line shape are discussed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maekawa, Hiroaki; Sul, Soohwan [Department of Chemistry, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-2025 (United States); Ge, Nien-Hui, E-mail: nhge@uci.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-2025 (United States)
2013-08-30
Highlights: ► Vibrational dynamics of conjugated C=O and N=N modes of ethyl diazoacetate was studied. ► Their frequency–frequency correlation functions are different. ► The dual-frequency 2D IR spectrum indicates anticorrelated frequency fluctuations. ► Correlation effects on dual-frequency 2D IR spectra are discussed. ► The existence of cis and trans conformers is revealed in 2D IR spectra. - Abstract: We have applied infrared three-pulse photon echo and single- and dual-frequency 2D IR spectroscopy to the ester C=O and diazo N=N stretching modes in ethyl diazoacetate (EDA), and investigated their vibrational frequency fluctuations and correlation. The two modes exhibit different vibrational dynamics and 2D lineshape, which are well simulated by frequency–frequency correlation functions (FFCFs) with two decaying components. Although the FT IR spectrum shows a single C=O band, absolute magnitude 2D IR nonrephasing spectrum displays spectral signatures supporting the presence of cis and trans conformations. The cross-peak inclined toward the anti-diagonal in the dual-frequency 2D IR spectrum, indicating that the frequency fluctuations of the two modes are anticorrelated. This behavior is attributed to anticorrelated change in the bond orders when solvent and structural fluctuations causes EDA to adopt a different mixture of the two dominant resonance structures. The effects of cross FFCF on the cross-peak line shape are discussed.
Nakamura, K.; Naito, Y.; Onishi, K.; Kawakatsu, H.
2012-12-01
In industrial applications of a micromechanical silicon resonator as a physical sensor, a high-quality factor Q and a low-temperature coefficient of Q (TCQ) are required for high sensitivity in a wide temperature range. Although the newly developed thin film encapsulation technique enables a beam to operate with low viscous damping in a vacuum cavity, the Q of a flexural vibration mode is limited by thermo-elastic damping (TED). We proposed a torsional beam resonator which features both a high Q and a low TCQ because theoretically the torsional vibration mode does not suffer from TED. From experiments, Q of 267 000 and TCQ of 1.4 for the 20 MHz torsional vibration mode were observed which were superior to those of the flexural mode. The pressure of the residual gas in the cavity of only 20 pl volume, which is one of the energy loss factors limiting the Q, was successfully estimated to be 1-14 Pa. Finally, the possibilities of improving the Q and the difference of the measured TCQ from a theoretical value were discussed.
Torsional vibration analysis in turbo-generator shaft due to mal-synchronization fault
Bangunde, Abhishek; Kumar, Tarun; Kumar, Rajeev; Jain, S. C.
2018-03-01
A rotor of turbo-generator shafting is many times subjected to torsional vibrations during its lifespan. The reasons behind these vibrations are three-Phase fault, two-phase fault, line to ground fault, faulty-mal synchronization etc. Sometimes these vibrations can cause complete failure of turbo-generator shafting system. To calculate moment variation during these faults on the shafting system vibration analysis is done using Finite Elements Methods to calculate mass and stiffness matrix. The electrical disturbance caused during Mal-synchronization is put on generator section, and corresponding second order equations are solved by using “Duhamel Integral”. From the moment variation plots at four sections critically loaded sections are identified.
Harvesting vibrational energy due to intermodal systems via nano coated piezo electric devices.
2015-12-01
Vibrational energy resulting from intermodal transport systems can be recovered through the use of energy harvesting system consisting of PZT piezo electric material as the primary energy harvesting component. The ability of traditional PZT piezo ele...
Energy Dissipation from Vibrating Floor Slabs due to Human-Structure Interaction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
James M.W. Brownjohn
2001-01-01
Full Text Available Lightweight pre-cast flooring systems using post-tensioning to increase strength but not stiffness are increasingly popular, and vibration serviceability problems tend to govern design of such floors where human occupants are increasingly concerned with vibrations. At the same time as inducing response, stationary human observers can also participate in the response as mitigating influence and it is clear that a human behaves as a highly effective damper, even when seated.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Padhi, S.N. [DGMS, Bhubaneswar (India)
1994-12-31
Blast vibrations may be felt in intensities as small as 1/100 of that required to cause any damage to structures. Therefore, the public response and thus complaints regarding damages are often imaginary. The paper deals with three case studies, involving alleged damage from blasting in surface and underground coal mines where public litigations and agitations resulted due to such apprehensions. The paper is written in simple technical language as the situations warranted that the blast vibration studies should be understood by the general public. 7 tabs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Darius Zizys
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The piezoelectric transduction mechanism is a common vibration-to-electric energy harvesting approach. Piezoelectric energy harvesters are typically mounted on a vibrating host structure, whereby alternating voltage output is generated by a dynamic strain field. A design target in this case is to match the natural frequency of the harvester to the ambient excitation frequency for the device to operate in resonance mode, thus significantly increasing vibration amplitudes and, as a result, energy output. Other fundamental vibration modes have strain nodes, where the dynamic strain field changes sign in the direction of the cantilever length. The paper reports on a dimensionless numerical transient analysis of a cantilever of a constant cross-section and an optimally-shaped cantilever with the objective to accurately predict the position of a strain node. Total effective strain produced by both cantilevers segmented at the strain node is calculated via transient analysis and compared to the strain output produced by the cantilevers segmented at strain nodes obtained from modal analysis, demonstrating a 7% increase in energy output. Theoretical results were experimentally verified by using open-circuit voltage values measured for the cantilevers segmented at optimal and suboptimal segmentation lines.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qiang Zhang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available An analytical model on electromechanical coupling coefficient and the length optimization of a bending piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer are proposed. The piezoelectric transducer consists of 8 PZT elements sandwiched between four thin electrodes, and the PZT elements are clamped by a screwed connection between fore beam and back beam. Firstly, bending vibration model of the piezoelectric transducer is built based on the Timoshenko beam theory. Secondly, the analytical model of effective electromechanical coupling coefficient is built based on the bending vibration model. Energy method and electromechanical equivalent circuit method are involved in the modelling process. To validate the analytical model, sandwich type piezoelectric transducer example in second order bending vibration mode is analysed. Effective electromechanical coupling coefficient of the transducer is optimized with simplex reflection technique, and the optimized ratio of length of the transducers is obtained. Finally, experimental prototypes of the sandwich type piezoelectric transducers are fabricated. Bending vibration mode and impedance of the experimental prototypes are tested, and electromechanical coupling coefficient is obtained according to the testing results. Results show that the analytical model is in good agreement with the experimental model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fry-Petit, A. M.; Sheckelton, J. P.; McQueen, T. M.; Rebola, A. F.; Fennie, C. J.; Mourigal, M.; Valentine, M.; Drichko, N.
2015-01-01
For over a century, vibrational spectroscopy has enhanced the study of materials. Yet, assignment of particular molecular motions to vibrational excitations has relied on indirect methods. Here, we demonstrate that applying group theoretical methods to the dynamic pair distribution function analysis of neutron scattering data provides direct access to the individual atomic displacements responsible for these excitations. Applied to the molecule-based frustrated magnet with a potential magnetic valence-bond state, LiZn 2 Mo 3 O 8 , this approach allows direct assignment of the constrained rotational mode of Mo 3 O 13 clusters and internal modes of MoO 6 polyhedra. We anticipate that coupling this well known data analysis technique with dynamic pair distribution function analysis will have broad application in connecting structural dynamics to physical properties in a wide range of molecular and solid state systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adrian, H.
1981-01-01
The influence of crystal defects on the phonon spectra was studied for fcc lead using superconducting tunneling spectroscopy. The theory predicts low frequency modes for the vibrational states of interstitials in (100) dumbbell configuration. Low temperature irradiation of superconducting point contacts with fast ions (point contact thickness small compared to the average ion range) showed radiation-induced structures in the low-energy part of the Eliashberg function for lead. These resonant modes are reduced by annealing at 18.5 K; they are attributed to small interstitial clusters. The radiation-induced structures are completely removed by room temperature annealing. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yin Jun; Yu Ling-Yao; Liu Xing; Wan Hui; Lin Zi-Yang; Niu Han-Ben
2011-01-01
In broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy with supercontinuum (SC), the simultaneously detectable spectral coverage is limited by the spectral continuity and the simultaneity of various spectral components of SC in an enough bandwidth. By numerical simulations, the optimal experimental conditions for improving the SC are obtained. The broadband time-resolved CARS spectrography based on the SC with required temporal and spectral distributions is realised. The global molecular vibrational spectrum with well suppressed nonresonant background noise can be obtained in a single measurement. At the same time, the measurements of dephasing times of various molecular vibrational modes can be conveniently achieved from intensities of a sequence of time-resolved CARS signals. It will be more helpful to provide a complete picture of molecular vibrations, and to exhibit a potential to understand not only both the solvent dynamics and the solute-solvent interactions, but also the mechanisms of chemical reactions in the fields of biology, chemistry and material science. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Nonlinear generation of non-acoustic modes by low-frequency sound in a vibrationally relaxing gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perelomova, A.
2010-01-01
Two dynamic equations referring to a weakly nonlinear and weakly dispersive flow of a gas in which molecular vibrational relaxation takes place, are derived. The first one governs an excess temperature associated with the thermal mode, and the second one describes variations in vibrational energy. Both quantities refer to non-wave types of gas motion. These variations are caused by the nonlinear transfer of acoustic energy into thermal mode and internal vibrational degrees of freedom of a relaxing gas. The final dynamic equations are instantaneous; they include a quadratic nonlinear acoustic source, reflecting the nonlinear character of interaction of low-frequency acoustic and non-acoustic motions of the fluid. All types of sound, periodic or aperiodic, may serve as an acoustic source of both phenomena. The low-frequency sound is considered in this study. Some conclusions about temporal behavior of non-acoustic modes caused by periodic and aperiodic sound are made. Under certain conditions, acoustic cooling takes place instead of heating. (author)
Effect of cobratoxin binding on the normal mode vibration within acetylcholine binding protein.
Bertaccini, Edward J; Lindahl, Erik; Sixma, Titia; Trudell, James R
2008-04-01
Recent crystal structures of the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP) have revealed surprisingly small structural alterations upon ligand binding. Here we investigate the extent to which ligand binding may affect receptor dynamics. AChBP is a homologue of the extracellular component of ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs). We have previously used an elastic network normal-mode analysis to propose a gating mechanism for the LGICs and to suggest the effects of various ligands on such motions. However, the difficulties with elastic network methods lie in their inability to account for the modest effects of a small ligand or mutation on ion channel motion. Here, we report the successful application of an elastic network normal mode technique to measure the effects of large ligand binding on receptor dynamics. The present calculations demonstrate a clear alteration in the native symmetric motions of a protein due to the presence of large protein cobratoxin ligands. In particular, normal-mode analysis revealed that cobratoxin binding to this protein significantly dampened the axially symmetric motion of the AChBP that may be associated with channel gating in the full nAChR. The results suggest that alterations in receptor dynamics could be a general feature of ligand binding.
John, Kevin D.; Miskowski, Vincent M.; Vance, Michael A.; Dallinger, Richard F.; Wang, Louis C.; Geib, Steven J.; Hopkins, Michael D.
1998-12-28
The nature of the skeletal vibrational modes of complexes of the type M(2)(C&tbd1;CR)(4)(PMe(3))(4) (M = Mo, W; R = H, Me, Bu(t)(), SiMe(3)) has been deduced. Metrical data from X-ray crystallographic studies of Mo(2)(C&tbd1;CR)(4)(PMe(3))(4) (R = Me, Bu(t)(), SiMe(3)) and W(2)(C&tbd1;CMe)(4)(PMe(3))(4) reveal that the core bond distances and angles are within normal ranges and do not differ in a statistically significant way as a function of the alkynyl substituent, indicating that their associated force constants should be similarly invariant among these compounds. The crystal structures of Mo(2)(C&tbd1;CSiMe(3))(4)(PMe(3))(4) and Mo(2)(C&tbd1;CBu(t)())(4)(PMe(3))(4) are complicated by 3-fold disorder of the Mo(2) unit within apparently ordered ligand arrays. Resonance-Raman spectra ((1)(delta-->delta) excitation, THF solution) of Mo(2)(C&tbd1;CSiMe(3))(4)(PMe(3))(4) and its isotopomers (PMe(3)-d(9), C&tbd1;CSiMe(3)-d(9), (13)C&tbd1;(13)CSiMe(3)) exhibit resonance-enhanced bands due to a(1)-symmetry fundamentals (nu(a) = 362, nu(b) = 397, nu(c) = 254 cm(-)(1) for the natural-abundance complex) and their overtones and combinations. The frequencies and relative intensities of the fundamentals are highly sensitive to isotopic substitution of the C&tbd1;CSiMe(3) ligands, but are insensitive to deuteration of the PMe(3) ligands. Nonresonance-Raman spectra (FT-Raman, 1064 nm excitation, crystalline samples) for the Mo(2)(C&tbd1;CSiMe(3))(4)(PMe(3))(4) compounds and for Mo(2)(C&tbd1;CR)(4)(PMe(3))(4) (R = H, D, Me, Bu(t)(), SiMe(3)) and W(2)(C&tbd1;CMe)(4)(PMe(3))(4) exhibit nu(a), nu(b), and nu(c) and numerous bands due to alkynyl- and phosphine-localized modes, the latter of which are assigned by comparisons to FT-Raman spectra of Mo(2)X(4)L(4) (X = Cl, Br, I; L = PMe(3), PMe(3)-d(9))(4) and Mo(2)Cl(4)(AsMe(3))(4). Valence force-field normal-coordinate calculations on the model compound Mo(2)(C&tbd1;CH)(4)P(4), using core force constants transferred from a calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lou, Jun-qiang; Wei, Yan-ding; Yang, Yi-ling; Xie, Feng-ran
2015-01-01
A hybrid control strategy for slewing and vibration suppression of a smart flexible manipulator is presented in this paper. It consists of a proportional derivative controller to realize motion control, and an effective multi-mode positive position feedback (EMPPF) controller to suppress the multi-mode vibration. Rather than treat each mode equally as the standard multi-mode PPF, the essence of the EMPPF is that control forces of different modes are applied according to the mode parameters of the respective modes, so the vibration modes with less vibration energy receive fewer control forces. Stability conditions for the close loop system are established through stability analysis. Optimal parameters of the EMPPF controller are obtained using the method of root locus analysis. The performance of the proposed strategy is demonstrated by simulation and experiments. Experimental results show that the first two vibration modes of the manipulator are effectively suppressed. The setting time of the setup descends approximately 55%, reaching 3.12 s from 5.67 s. (paper)
Lou, Jun-qiang; Wei, Yan-ding; Yang, Yi-ling; Xie, Feng-ran
2015-03-01
A hybrid control strategy for slewing and vibration suppression of a smart flexible manipulator is presented in this paper. It consists of a proportional derivative controller to realize motion control, and an effective multi-mode positive position feedback (EMPPF) controller to suppress the multi-mode vibration. Rather than treat each mode equally as the standard multi-mode PPF, the essence of the EMPPF is that control forces of different modes are applied according to the mode parameters of the respective modes, so the vibration modes with less vibration energy receive fewer control forces. Stability conditions for the close loop system are established through stability analysis. Optimal parameters of the EMPPF controller are obtained using the method of root locus analysis. The performance of the proposed strategy is demonstrated by simulation and experiments. Experimental results show that the first two vibration modes of the manipulator are effectively suppressed. The setting time of the setup descends approximately 55%, reaching 3.12 s from 5.67 s.
Reactors Dynamic analysis Due to Reactivity of The RSG-Gas at One Line Cooling Mode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hastuti, Endiah Puji
2003-01-01
In the frame of minimizing the operation-cost, operation mode using one line cooling system is being evaluated. Maximum reactor power has been determined and steady state and LOFA transient analysis have also been done. To complete those analyses, the reactivity analysis was done by means of a core dynamic and thermal hydraulic code, PARET-ANL. Accident simulation was done. by a ramp reactivity accident due to control rod withdrawal. Reactivity analysis was carried out at two power range i.e. low and high power level, by imposing one line mode reactor protection limits. The results show that technically, the RSG-Gas can be operated safely using one line mode
Yao, Hua-Dong; Davidson, Lars
2018-03-01
We investigate the interior noise caused by turbulent flows past a generic side-view mirror. A rectangular glass window is placed downstream of the mirror. The window vibration is excited by the surface pressure fluctuations and emits the interior noise in a cuboid cavity. The turbulent flows are simulated using a compressible large eddy simulation method. The window vibration and interior noise are predicted with a finite element method. The wavenumber-frequency spectra of the surface pressure fluctuations are analyzed. The spectra are identified with some new features that cannot be explained by the Chase model for turbulent boundary layers. The spectra contain a minor hydrodynamic domain in addition to the hydrodynamic domain caused by the main convection of the turbulent boundary layer. The minor domain results from the local convection of the recirculating flow. These domains are formed in bent elliptic shapes. The spanwise expansion of the wake is found causing the bending. Based on the wavenumber-frequency relationships in the spectra, the surface pressure fluctuations are decomposed into hydrodynamic and acoustic components. The acoustic component is more efficient in the generation of the interior noise than the hydrodynamic component. However, the hydrodynamic component is still dominant at low frequencies below approximately 250 Hz since it has low transmission losses near the hydrodynamic critical frequency of the window. The structural modes of the window determine the low-frequency interior tonal noise. The combination of the mode shapes of the window and cavity greatly affects the magnitude distribution of the interior noise.
Control of input delayed pneumatic vibration isolation table using adaptive fuzzy sliding mode
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mostafa Khazaee
Full Text Available AbstractPneumatic isolators are promising candidates for increasing the quality of accurate instruments. For this purpose, higher performance of such isolators is a prerequisite. In particular, the time-delay due to the air transmission is an inherent issue with pneumatic systems, which needs to be overcome using modern control methods. In this paper an adaptive fuzzy sliding mode controller is proposed to improve the performance of a pneumatic isolator in the low frequency range, i.e., where the passive techniques have obvious shortcomings. The main idea is to combine the adaptive fuzzy controller with adaptive predictor as a new time delay control technique. The adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control and the adaptive fuzzy predictor help to circumvent the input delay and nonlinearities in such isolators. The main advantage of the proposed method is that the closed-loop system stability is guaranteed under certain conditions. Simulation results reveal the effectiveness of the proposed method, compared with other existing time -delay control methods.
Yoo, Juhyun; Yoon, Kwanghee; Lee, Yongwoo; Suh, Sungjae; Kim, Jongsun; Yoo, Chungsik
2000-05-01
Contour-vibration-mode Pb(Sb1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 [PSN-PZT] piezoelectric transformers with different ring/dot electrode area ratios were fabricated to the size of 27.5× 27.5× 2.5 mm3 by cold isostatic pressing. The electrical properties and characteristic temperature rises caused by the vibration were measured at various load resistances. Efficiencies above 90% with load resistance were obtained from all the transformers. The voltage step-up ratio appeared to be proportional to the dot electrode area. A 14 W fluorescent lamp, T5, was successfully driven by all of the fabricated transformers. The transformer with ring/dot electrode area ratio of 4.85 exhibited the best properties in terms of output power, efficiency and characteristic temperature rise, 14.88 W, 98% and 5°C, respectively.
Lipovsky, Bradley P.; Dunham, Eric M.
2015-02-01
Oscillatory seismic signals arising from resonant vibrations of hydraulic fractures are observed in many geologic systems, including volcanoes, glaciers and ice sheets, and hydrocarbon and geothermal reservoirs. To better quantify the physical dimensions of fluid-filled cracks and properties of the fluids within them, we study wave motion along a thin hydraulic fracture waveguide. We present a linearized analysis, valid at wavelengths greater than the fracture aperture, that accounts for quasi-static elastic deformation of the fracture walls, as well as fluid viscosity, inertia, and compressibility. In the long-wavelength limit, anomalously dispersed guided waves known as crack or Krauklis waves propagate with restoring force from fracture wall elasticity. At shorter wavelengths, the waves become sound waves within the fluid channel. Wave attenuation in our model is due to fluid viscosity, rather than seismic radiation from crack tips or fracture wall roughness. We characterize viscous damping at both low frequencies, where the flow is always fully developed, and at high frequencies, where the flow has a nearly constant velocity profile away from viscous boundary layers near the fracture walls. Most observable seismic signals from resonating fractures likely arise in the boundary layer crack wave limit, where fluid-solid coupling is pronounced and attenuation is minimal. We present a method to estimate the aperture and length of a resonating hydraulic fracture using both the seismically observed quality factor and characteristic frequency. Finally, we develop scaling relations between seismic moment and characteristic frequency that might be useful when interpreting the statistics of hydraulic fracture events.
Tsushima, Takafumi; Asahi, Yoichi; Tanigawa, Hiroshi; Furutsuka, Takashi; Suzuki, Kenichiro
2018-06-01
In this paper, we describe p–n diode actuators that are formed in the lateral direction on resonators. Because previously reported p–n diode actuators, which were driven by a force parallel to the electrostatic force induced in a p–n diode, were fabricated in the perpendicular direction to the surface, the fabrication process to satisfy the requirement of realizing a p–n junction set in the middle of the plate thickness has been difficult. The resonators in this work are driven by p–n diodes formed in the lateral direction, making the process easy. We have fabricated a silicon ring resonator that has in-plane vibration using p–n–p and n–p–n diode actuators formed in the lateral direction. First, we consider a space charge model that can sufficiently accurately describe the force induced in p–n diode actuators and compare it with the capacitance model used in most computer simulations. Then, we show that multiplying the vibration amplitude calculated by computer simulation by the modification coefficient of 4/3 provides the vibration amplitude in the p–n diode actuators. Good agreement of the theory with experimental results of the in-plane vibration measured for silicon ring resonators is obtained. The computer simulation is very useful for evaluating various vibration modes in resonators driven by the p–n diode actuators. The small amplitude of the p–n diode actuator measured in this work is expected to increase greatly with increased doping of the actuator.
Maekawa, Hiroaki; Sul, Soohwan; Ge, Nien-Hui
2013-08-01
We have applied infrared three-pulse photon echo and single- and dual-frequency 2D IR spectroscopy to the ester Cdbnd O and diazo Ndbnd N stretching modes in ethyl diazoacetate (EDA), and investigated their vibrational frequency fluctuations and correlation. The two modes exhibit different vibrational dynamics and 2D lineshape, which are well simulated by frequency-frequency correlation functions (FFCFs) with two decaying components. Although the FT IR spectrum shows a single Cdbnd O band, absolute magnitude 2D IR nonrephasing spectrum displays spectral signatures supporting the presence of cis and trans conformations. The cross-peak inclined toward the anti-diagonal in the dual-frequency 2D IR spectrum, indicating that the frequency fluctuations of the two modes are anticorrelated. This behavior is attributed to anticorrelated change in the bond orders when solvent and structural fluctuations causes EDA to adopt a different mixture of the two dominant resonance structures. The effects of cross FFCF on the cross-peak line shape are discussed.
Gaynor, James D.; Wetterer, Anna M.; Cochran, Rea M.; Valente, Edward J.; Mayer, Steven G.
2015-01-01
In our previous article on CCl[subscript 4] in this "Journal," we presented an investigation of the fine structure of the symmetric stretch of carbon tetrachloride (CCl[subscript 4]) due to isotopic variations of chlorine in C[superscript 35]Cl[subscript x][superscript 37]Cl[subscript 4-x]. In this paper, we present an investigation of…
Unusual motions due to nonlinear effects in a driven vibrating string
Hanson, Roger J.
2005-09-01
Usual nonlinear effects observed in a sinusoidally driven vibrating string include generation of motion perpendicular to the driving plane, sudden jumps of amplitude and associated hysteresis, and generation of higher harmonics. In addition, under some conditions, there can be a rich variety of unusual, very complex motions of a point on the string, the pattern of which, together with associated harmonic (and sometimes subharmonic) content, can change dramatically with a slight change in driving frequency or sometimes with constant driving frequency and force. Intrinsic string asymmetries can also have a profound effect on the behavior. In a brass harpsichord string (wire) such asymmetries can cause a small splitting of each natural frequency of free vibration into two closely spaced frequencies (relative separation ~0.2% to 2%, strongly dependent on tension.) The two frequency components are associated, respectively, with the transverse motion along two orthogonal characteristic wire axes. Emphasis will be on display of optically detected unusual motion patterns of a point on the string, including an example of a pattern period of 10 s when driving at 50 Hz. See R. J. Hanson et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117, 400-412 (2005) for a more complete treatment.
Vitharana, Vitharanage Hashini Paramitha; Chinda, Thanwadee
2017-09-21
Whole-body vibration (WBV) exposure is a health hazard among workers, causing lower back pain (LBP) in the construction industry. This study examines key factors affecting LBP due to WBV exposure using exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. The results confirm five key factors (equipment, job related, organizational, personal, social context) with their 17 associated items. The organizational factor is found the most important, as it influences the other four factors. The results also show that appropriate seat type, specific training programme, job rotation, workers' satisfaction and workers' physical condition are crucial in reducing LBP due to WBV exposure. Moreover, provision of new machines without proper training and good working condition might not help reduce LBP due to WBV exposure. The results help the construction companies to better understand key factors affecting LBP due to WBV exposure, and to plan for a better health improvement programme.
Ultrasensitive Broadband Probing of Molecular Vibrational Modes with Multifrequency Optical Antennas
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Aouani, H.; Šípová, Hana; Rahmani, M.; Navarro-Cia, M.; Hegnerová, Kateřina; Homola, Jiří; Hong, M.; Maier, S. A.
2013-01-01
Roč. 7, č. 1 (2013), s. 669-675 ISSN 1936-0851 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11102 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : plasmonic * nanoantenna * vibrational spectroscopy Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 12.033, year: 2013
Papán, Daniel; Valašková, Veronika; Demeterová, Katarína
2016-10-01
The numerical and experimental approach in structural dynamics problems is more and more current nowadays. This approach is applied and solved in many research and developing institutions of the all the world. Vibrations effect caused by passing trains used in manufacturing facilities can affect the quality of the production activity. This effect is possible to be solved by a numerical or an experimental way. Numerical solution is not so financially and time demanding. The main aim of this article is to focus on just experimental measurement of this problem. In this paper, the case study with measurement due to cramped conditions realized in situ is presented. The case study is located close to railway. The vibration effect caused by passing trains on the high-sensitivity machinery contained in this object were observed. The structure was a high-sensitivity machine that was placed in a construction process. For the measurements, the high-sensitivity standard vibrations equipment was used. The assessments of measurements’ results were performed for the technological conditions and Slovak Standard Criteria. Both of these assessments were divided to amplitude and frequency domain. The amplitude criterion is also divided to peak particle velocity and RMS (Root Mean Square). Frequency domain assessment were realised using the frequency response curves obtained from high-sensitivity machinery manufacturer. The frequency limits are established for each axis of triaxle system. The measurement results can be predicted if the vibration have to be reduced. Measurement implemented in the production hall should obtain materials to determine the seismic loading and response of production machinery caused by technical seismicity.
Numerical solution for gate induced vibration due to under flow cavitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sadrnezhad, S. A.
2001-01-01
Among the many forces to which hydraulic structures are exposed to, the forces induced by cavitation incident are of typical hydrodynamic unknown forces. The aim of this study is to define these forces as coupled fluid-structure interaction under two dynamic effects. The first dynamic effect which incorporates facilities for dealing with cavitation fluid is based on the appearance and bursting of vapor bubbles. The second hydrodynamic effect is dynamic excitation mechanism of the structure. In fluid-structure interaction, both the structure behavior and fluid are considered linear. Fluids can take some tension the extent of which depends on concentration and size of micro bubbles present; nevertheless, if the absolute pressure drops to a value close to the vapor pressure of the fluid, bubbles are formed and cavitation phenomena occurs. In this paper a fixed-wheel gate under the head pressure of a reservoir is considered to be affected by under flow cavitation. Normally, partially opened gates induce energy dissipation resulting in high turbulence, causing negative pressure and cavitation at the back and this exits the gate vibration. Moreover, there are several mechanisms which may cause heavy, self-excited vibration. According to the proposed method, a time function presenting the oscillation and pressure fluctuation in the vicinity of gate lip is estimated. This estimation is based on the parameters obtained from a two dimensional solution of flow under the gate lip. Accordingly, periodic time variable nodal forces are calculated and applied to gate lip element nodes. A transient dynamic solution of the gate, while its lip is sustaining nodal forces is estimated as time function. The results for the most server modal deformation of the structure time history of some critical elements and variation of equivalent force versus time are presented
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Wong-McSweeney
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine what non-exposure factors influence the relationship between vibration and noise exposure from the construction of a Light Rapid Transit (LRT system and the annoyance of nearby residents. Noise and vibration from construction sites are known to annoy residents, with annoyance increasing as a function of the magnitude of the vibration and noise. There is not a strong correlation between exposure and levels of annoyance suggesting that factors not directly related to the exposure may have an influence. A range of attitudinal, situational and demographic factors are investigated with the aim of understanding the wide variation in annoyance for a given vibration exposure. A face-to-face survey of residents (n = 350 near three sites of LRT construction was conducted, and responses were compared to semi-empirical estimates of the internal vibration within the buildings. It was found that annoyance responses due to vibration were strongly influenced by two attitudinal variables, concern about property damage and sensitivity to vibration. Age, ownership of the property and the visibility of the construction site were also important factors. Gender, time at home and expectation of future levels of vibration had much less influence. Due to the measurement methods used, it was not possible to separate out the effects of noise and vibration on annoyance; as such, this paper focusses on annoyance due to vibration exposure. This work concludes that for the most cost-effective reduction of the impact of construction vibration and noise on the annoyance felt by a community, policies should consider attitudinal factors.
Zeng, Jianhua; Chen, Lei; Dai, Qiaofeng; Lan, Sheng; Tie, Shaolong
2016-01-21
We proposed a scheme in which normal Raman scattering is coupled with hyper-Raman scattering for generating a strong anti-Stokes hyper-Raman scattering in nanomaterials by using femtosecond laser pulses. The proposal was experimentally demonstrated by using a single-layer MoS2 on a SiO2/Si substrate, a 17 nm-thick MoS2 on an Au/SiO2 substrate and a 9 nm-thick MoS2 on a SiO2-SnO2/Ag/SiO2 substrate which were confirmed to be highly efficient for second harmonic generation. A strong anti-Stokes hyper-Raman scattering was also observed in other nanomaterials possessing large second-order susceptibilities, such as silicon quantum dots self-assembled into "coffee" rings and tubular Cu-doped ZnO nanorods. In all the cases, many Raman inactive vibration modes were clearly revealed in the anti-Stokes hyper-Raman scattering. Apart from the strong anti-Stokes hyper-Raman scattering, Stokes hyper-Raman scattering with small Raman shifts was detected during the ablation process of thick MoS2 layers. It was also observed by slightly defocusing the excitation light. The detection of anti-Stokes hyper-Raman scattering may serve as a new technique for studying the Raman inactive vibration modes in nanomaterials.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Motobayashi, Kenta, E-mail: kmotobayashi@cat.hokudai.ac.jp [Catalysis Research Center, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan); Department of Advanced Materials Science, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8561 (Japan); Surface and Interface Science Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Kim, Yousoo [Surface and Interface Science Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Arafune, Ryuichi [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Ohara, Michiaki; Ueba, Hiromu; Kawai, Maki, E-mail: maki@k.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Advanced Materials Science, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8561 (Japan)
2014-05-21
We present a novel reaction mechanism for a single adsorbed molecule that proceeds via simultaneous excitation of two different vibrational modes excited by inelastic tunneling electrons from a scanning tunneling microscope. Specifically, we analyze the dissociation of a single dimethyl disulfide (DMDS, (CH{sub 3}S){sub 2}) molecule on Cu(111) by using a versatile theoretical method, which permits us to simulate reaction rates as a function of sample bias voltage. The reaction is induced by the excitation of C-H stretch and S-S stretch modes by a two-electron process at low positive bias voltages. However, at increased voltages, the dissociation becomes a single-electron process that excites a combination mode of these stretches, where excitation of the C-H stretch is the energy source and excitation of the S-S stretch mode enhances the anharmonic coupling rate. A much smaller dissociation yield (few orders of magnitude) at negative bias voltages is understood in terms of the projected density of states of a single DMDS on Cu(111), which reflects resonant excitation through the molecular orbitals.
Fermi resonance effects on the vibration modes of hydrogen-passivated boron in silicon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watkins, G.D.; Fowler, W.B.; Deleo, G.G.; Stavola, M.; Kozuch, D.M.; Pearton, S.J.; Lopata, J.
1990-01-01
10 B - 11 B isotope shifts have been reported recently for the vibrational frequencies of hydrogen (H) and its isotope deuterium (D) in the H-B complex in silicon. The D- 10 B-D 11 B shift was found to be anomalously large. The authors show that this effect finds a natural explanation in a phenomenon called Fermi resonance, arising from a weak anharmonic coupling between the second harmonic of the transverse B vibration and the longitudinal D vibration. The authors present a simple classical explanation of the effect in terms of a parametric oscillator, or a child pumping a swing. They outline a simple quantum mechanical treatment that provides a satisfactory quantitative explanation of the results. The author's calculations also predict infrared absorption at the boron second harmonic frequencies. These are observed for both 10 B and 11 B with intensities and polarization as predicted, providing direct confirmation of the interpretation. The Pankove Si-H-B model, therefore, remains intact
Galavis, Paulina E; Hollensen, Christian; Jallow, Ngoneh; Paliwal, Bhudatt; Jeraj, Robert
2010-10-01
Characterization of textural features (spatial distributions of image intensity levels) has been considered as a tool for automatic tumor segmentation. The purpose of this work is to study the variability of the textural features in PET images due to different acquisition modes and reconstruction parameters. Twenty patients with solid tumors underwent PET/CT scans on a GE Discovery VCT scanner, 45-60 minutes post-injection of 10 mCi of [(18)F]FDG. Scans were acquired in both 2D and 3D modes. For each acquisition the raw PET data was reconstructed using five different reconstruction parameters. Lesions were segmented on a default image using the threshold of 40% of maximum SUV. Fifty different texture features were calculated inside the tumors. The range of variations of the features were calculated with respect to the average value. Fifty textural features were classified based on the range of variation in three categories: small, intermediate and large variability. Features with small variability (range ≤ 5%) were entropy-first order, energy, maximal correlation coefficient (second order feature) and low-gray level run emphasis (high-order feature). The features with intermediate variability (10% ≤ range ≤ 25%) were entropy-GLCM, sum entropy, high gray level run emphsis, gray level non-uniformity, small number emphasis, and entropy-NGL. Forty remaining features presented large variations (range > 30%). Textural features such as entropy-first order, energy, maximal correlation coefficient, and low-gray level run emphasis exhibited small variations due to different acquisition modes and reconstruction parameters. Features with low level of variations are better candidates for reproducible tumor segmentation. Even though features such as contrast-NGTD, coarseness, homogeneity, and busyness have been previously used, our data indicated that these features presented large variations, therefore they could not be considered as a good candidates for tumor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galavis, Paulina E.; Jallow, Ngoneh; Paliwal, Bhudatt; Jeraj, Robert; Hollensen, Christian
2010-01-01
Background. Characterization of textural features (spatial distributions of image intensity levels) has been considered as a tool for automatic tumor segmentation. The purpose of this work is to study the variability of the textural features in PET images due to different acquisition modes and reconstruction parameters. Material and methods. Twenty patients with solid tumors underwent PET/CT scans on a GE Discovery VCT scanner, 45-60 minutes post-injection of 10 mCi of [ 18 F]FDG. Scans were acquired in both 2D and 3D modes. For each acquisition the raw PET data was reconstructed using five different reconstruction parameters. Lesions were segmented on a default image using the threshold of 40% of maximum SUV. Fifty different texture features were calculated inside the tumors. The range of variations of the features were calculated with respect to the average value. Results. Fifty textural features were classified based on the range of variation in three categories: small, intermediate and large variability. Features with small variability (range = 5%) were entropy-first order, energy, maximal correlation coefficient (second order feature) and low-gray level run emphasis (high-order feature). The features with intermediate variability (10% = range = 25%) were entropy-GLCM, sum entropy, high gray level run emphasis, gray level non-uniformity, small number emphasis, and entropy-NGL. Forty remaining features presented large variations (range > 30%). Conclusion. Textural features such as entropy-first order, energy, maximal correlation coefficient, and low-gray level run emphasis exhibited small variations due to different acquisition modes and reconstruction parameters. Features with low level of variations are better candidates for reproducible tumor segmentation. Even though features such as contrast-NGTD, coarseness, homogeneity, and busyness have been previously used, our data indicated that these features presented large variations, therefore they could not be
Monitoring and control of vibrations due to blasting in Sumapaz tunnel, granting Bogotá-Girardot
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luis Humberto Pinto-Morales
2013-12-01
Full Text Available This article discusses the most relevant topics of the subject of vibration of the ground, from its generation and monitoring to the control of their effects. We emphasize on the use and interpretation of the dynamic data field, since the theoretical methods and testing laboratory at times are not sufficient to solve applied geotechnical problems; for example, in the case of the assessment of the impact of the blasting in the Sumapaz tunnel, Boquerón area, department of Cundinamarca, Colombia. The work is the result of studies carried out by company I.GEOSOTMINE LTDA., in coordination with the Research Group INGEOFISICA of Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, on the exploration of the subsoil, aimed at the monitoring and control of blasting caused by explosive and micro-trepidation, in several Colombian regions.
Automatic vibration mode selection and excitation; combining modal filtering with autoresonance
Davis, Solomon; Bucher, Izhak
2018-02-01
Autoresonance is a well-known nonlinear feedback method used for automatically exciting a system at its natural frequency. Though highly effective in exciting single degree of freedom systems, in its simplest form it lacks a mechanism for choosing the mode of excitation when more than one is present. In this case a single mode will be automatically excited, but this mode cannot be chosen or changed. In this paper a new method for automatically exciting a general second-order system at any desired natural frequency using Autoresonance is proposed. The article begins by deriving a concise expression for the frequency of the limit cycle induced by an Autoresonance feedback loop enclosed on the system. The expression is based on modal decomposition, and provides valuable insight into the behavior of a system controlled in this way. With this expression, a method for selecting and exciting a desired mode naturally follows by combining Autoresonance with Modal Filtering. By taking various linear combinations of the sensor signals, by orthogonality one can "filter out" all the unwanted modes effectively. The desired mode's natural frequency is then automatically reflected in the limit cycle. In experiment the technique has proven extremely robust, even if the amplitude of the desired mode is significantly smaller than the others and the modal filters are greatly inaccurate.
Toledo-Marín, J. Quetzalcóatl; Naumis, Gerardo G.
2018-04-01
Here we study the relaxation of a chain consisting of three masses joined by nonlinear springs and periodic conditions when the stiffness is weakened. This system, when expressed in their normal coordinates, yields a softened Henon-Heiles system. By reducing the stiffness of one low-frequency vibrational mode, a faster relaxation is enabled. This is due to a reduction of the energy barrier heights along the softened normal mode as well as for a widening of the opening channels of the energy landscape in configurational space. The relaxation is for the most part exponential, and can be explained by a simple flux equation. Yet, for some initial conditions the relaxation follows as a power law, and in many cases there is a regime change from exponential to power-law decay. We pinpoint the initial conditions for the power-law decay, finding two regions of sticky states. For such states, quasiperiodic orbits are found since almost for all components of the initial momentum orientation, the system is trapped inside two pockets of configurational space. The softened Henon-Heiles model presented here is intended as the simplest model in order to understand the interplay of rigidity, nonlinear interactions and relaxation for nonequilibrium systems such as glass-forming melts or soft matter. Our softened system can be applied to model β relaxation in glasses and suggest that local reorientational jumps can have an exponential and a nonexponential contribution for relaxation, the latter due to asymmetric molecules sticking in cages for certain orientations.
Tube bundle vibrations due to cross flow under the influence of turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Popp, K.; Romberg, O. [Institute of Mechanics, University of Hannover (Germany)
1998-10-01
Tube bundles are often used in heat exchangers and chemical reactors. Besides of large heat transfer capacities and small pressure drops in the apparatus a safe design against vibration damages is demanded. For many years extensive investigations concerning the dynamical behaviour of tube bundles subjected to cross-flow have been carried out in the wind tunnel of the Institute of Mechanics at the University of Hannover. In the last years the investigations were concentrated on the experimental investigations of different flow excitation mechanisms in a fully flexible bundle as well as in a bundle with one single flexibly mounted tube in an otherwise fixed array with variable geometry and changing equilibrium position. The aim of the studies was the determination of the stability boundaries, i.e. the critical reduced fluid velocity depending on the reduced damping coefficient in a wide parameter region. Theoretical investigations of the stability behaviour on the basis of an one dimensional flow model as well as experimental investigations of the influence of turbulence on the stability boundaries have been carried out. Here, for certain tube bundle configurations an increased turbulence has a stabilizing effect and leads to a shift of the stability boundaries to higher velocities. The change of the turbulence was realised by using turbulence grids at the inlet of the bundles or thin Prandtl-tripwires at the tube surfaces. Flow visualization studies at the original experimental set-up under relevant Reynolds numbers give an impression of the flow pattern. At this time an investigation of the exciting fluid forces is carried out using a flexibly mounted pressure test tube. A survey about some recent investigations is given. (orig.)
Anomalous vibrational modes in acetanilide as studied by inelastic neutron scattering
Barthes, Mariette; Eckert, Juegen; Johnson, Susanna W.; Moret, Jacques; Swanson, Basil I.; Unkefer, Clifford J.
1992-10-01
A study of the anomalous modes in acetanilide and five deuterated derivatives by incoherent inelastic neutron scattering is reported. These data show that the dynamics of the amide and methyl groups influence each other. In addition, the anomalous temperature behaviour of the NH out-of-plane bending mode is confirmed. These observations suggest that the self-trapping mechanism in ACN may be more complex than hitherto assumed.
Vibrational dynamics of adsorbed CO2: Separability of the CO2 asymmetric stretching mode
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Bludský, Ota; Nachtigall, Petr; Špirko, Vladimír
2011-01-01
Roč. 76, č. 6 (2011), s. 669-682 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512; GA ČR GAP208/11/0436; GA MŠk(CZ) ME10032 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) KONTAKT-II(LH)-CH022 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : adsorption of CO2 * vibrational dynamics * DFT calculations Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.283, year: 2011
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yurtsever, E.; Brickmann, J.
1990-01-01
A two dimensional strongly nonharmonic vibrational system with nonlinear intermode coupling is studied both classically and quantum mechanically. The system was chosen such that there is a low lying transition (in energy) from a region where almost all trajectories move regularly to a region where chaotic dynamics strongly dominates. The corresponding quantum system is far away from the semiclassical limit. The eigenfunctions are calculated with high precision according to a linear variational scheme using conveniently chosen basis functions. It is the aim of this paper to check whether the prediction from semiclassical theory, namely that the measure of classically chaotic trajectories in phase space approaches the measure of irregular states in corresponding energy ranges, holds when the system is not close to the classical limit. It is also the aim to identify individual eigenfunctions with respect to regularity and to differentiate between local and normal vibrational states. It is found that there are quantitative and also qualitative differences between the quantum results and the semiclassical predictions. (orig./HK)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haslinger, K.H.; Martin, M.L.; Higgins, W.H.; Rossano, F.V.
1989-01-01
Instrumentation tubes in pressurized nuclear reactors have experienced wear due to excessive flow-induced vibrations. Experiments to identify the predominant flow excitation mechanism at a particular plant, and to develop a sleeve design to remedy the wear problem are reported. An instrumented flow visualization model enabled simulation of a wide range of individual or combined reactor core flow, cross flow and thimble flow conditions. The instrumentation scheme adopted for these experiments used proximity displacement transducers and a force transducer to measure respectively tube motion and contact/impact forces at the wear region. Extensive testing of the original, in-plant configuration identified the normal core flow as the primary source of excitation. Shielding the In-Core-Instrumentation thimble tube from the normal core flow curtailed vibration amplitudes; however, thimble flow excitation then became more pronounced. Various outlet nozzle configurations were investigated. An internal cavity combined with radial outlet slots became the optimum solution for the problem. The paper presents typical test data in the form of orbital tube motion, spectrum analysis and time history collages. The effectiveness of shielding the instrumentation tube from the flow is demonstrated. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Galavis, P.E.; Hollensen, Christian; Jallow, N.
2010-01-01
Background. Characterization of textural features (spatial distributions of image intensity levels) has been considered as a tool for automatic tumor segmentation. The purpose of this work is to study the variability of the textural features in PET images due to different acquisition modes...... reconstruction parameters. Lesions were segmented on a default image using the threshold of 40% of maximum SUV. Fifty different texture features were calculated inside the tumors. The range of variations of the features were calculated with respect to the average value. Results. Fifty textural features were...... classified based on the range of variation in three categories: small, intermediate and large variability. Features with small variability (range 30%). Conclusion. Textural features such as entropy-first order, energy, maximal correlation coefficient, and low-gray level run emphasis exhibited small...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Plumelle, Pierre
1979-01-01
We have studied a particular point defect, the isolated substitution in twelve compounds CuCl, CuBr, CuI, ZnTe, CdTe, ZnS, ZnSe, GaAs, GaP, InSb, InP and GaSb. The model of the perfect lattice is a rigid ion model with eleven parameters. Infrared localized vibrational modes of impurities are observed in a series of samples. By comparison of these experimental results with the calculated values it is possible to determine the perturbation for each particular case. A relation obtained between a force constant of the perfect crystal and the force constant of the impurity suggests that no change is introduced by the isoelectronic impurities. (author) [fr
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kutluyarov, Ruslan V.; Bagmanov, Valeriy Kh; Antonov, Vyacheslav V.
2017-01-01
This paper is focused on the analysis of linear and nonlinear mode coupling in space division multiplexed (SDM) optical communications over step-index fiber in few-mode regime. Linear mode coupling is caused by the fiber imperfections, while the nonlinear coupling is caused by the Kerr......-nonlinearities. Therefore, we use the system of generalized coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations (GCNLSE) to describe the signal propagation. We analytically show that the presence of linear mode coupling may cause increasing of the nonlinear signal distortions. For the detailed study we solve GCNLSE numerically...... for the standard step index fiber at the wavelength of 850 nm in the basis of spatial modes with helical phase front (vortex modes) and for a special kind of few-mode fiber with enlarged core, providing propagation of five spatial modes at 1550 nm. Simulation results confirm that the linear mode coupling may lead...
Treyssède, Fabien
2018-01-01
Understanding thermal effects on the vibration of local (cable-dominant) modes in multi-cable structures is a complicated task. The main difficulty lies in the modification by temperature change of cable tensions, which are then undetermined. This paper applies a finite element procedure to investigate the effects of thermal loads on the linear dynamics of prestressed self-weighted multi-cable structures. Provided that boundary conditions are carefully handled, the discretization of cables with nonlinear curved beam elements can properly represent the thermoelastic behavior of cables as well as their linearized dynamics. A three-step procedure that aims to replace applied pretension forces with displacement continuity conditions is used. Despite an increase in the computational cost related to beam rotational degrees of freedom, such an approach has several advantages. Nonlinear beam finite elements are usually available in commercial codes. The overall method follows a thermoelastic geometrically non-linear analysis and hereby includes the main sources of non-linearities in multi-cable structures. The effects of cable bending stiffness, which can be significant, are also naturally accounted for. The accuracy of the numerical approach is assessed thanks to an analytical model for the vibration of a single inclined cable under temperature change. Then, the effects of thermal loads are investigated for two cable bridges, highlighting how natural frequencies can be affected by temperature. Although counterintuitive, a reverse relative change of natural frequency may occur for certain local modes. This phenomenon can be explained by two distinct mechanisms, one related to the physics intrinsic to cables and the other related to the thermal deflection of the superstructure. Numerical results show that cables cannot be isolated from the rest of the structure and the importance of modeling the whole structure for a quantitative analysis of temperature effects on the
Spectral intensities in cubic systems. I. Progressions based upon parity vibrational modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Acevedo, R.; Vasquez, S.O.; Meruane, T.; Poblete, V.; Pozo, J.
1998-01-01
The well-resolved emission and absorption spectra of centrosymmetric coordination compounds of the transition metal ions have been used widely to provide the experimental data against which to test theoretical models of vibronic intensities. With reference to the 2 E g → 4 A 2g luminescence transition, at a perfect octahedral site in Cs 2 SiF 6 , over than one hundred vibronic lines are observed with line widths of a few wavenumber spread over some 3000 cm -1 . This paper reports a through examination of both the electronic and vibrational factors, which influences the observed vibronic intensities of the various assigned and identified lines in the spectra of the MnF 6 2- complex ion in the Cs 2 SiF 6 cubic lattice. The origin and nature of higher order vibronic interactions are analysed on the basis of a symmetrized vibronic crystal field-ligand polarization model. (Author)
Vibrational Mode-Specific Reaction of Methane on a Nickel Surface
Beck, Rainer D.; Maroni, Plinio; Papageorgopoulos, Dimitrios C.; Dang, Tung T.; Schmid, Mathieu P.; Rizzo, Thomas R.
2003-10-01
The dissociation of methane on a nickel catalyst is a key step in steam reforming of natural gas for hydrogen production. Despite substantial effort in both experiment and theory, there is still no atomic-scale description of this important gas-surface reaction. We report quantum state-resolved studies, using pulsed laser and molecular beam techniques, of vibrationally excited methane reacting on the nickel (100) surface. For doubly deuterated methane (CD2H2), we observed that the reaction probability with two quanta of excitation in one C-H bond was greater (by as much as a factor of 5) than with one quantum in each of two C-H bonds. These results clearly exclude the possibility of statistical models correctly describing the mechanism of this process and attest to the importance of full-dimensional calculations of the reaction dynamics.
H infinity controller design to a rigid-flexible satellite with two vibration modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Souza, A G; De Souza, L C G
2015-01-01
The satellite attitude control system (ACS) design becomes more complex when the satellite structure has components like, flexible solar panels, antennas and mechanical manipulators. These flexible structures can interact with the satellite rigid parts during translational and/or rotational manoeuvre damaging the ACS pointing accuracy. Although, a well-designed controller can suppress such disturbances quickly, the controller error pointing may be limited by the minimum time necessary to suppress such disturbances thus affecting the satellite attitude acquisition. This paper deals with the rigid-flexible satellite ACS design using the H infinity method. The rigid-flexible satellite is represented by a beam connected to a central rigid hub at one end and free at the other one. The equations of motions are obtained considering small flexible deformations and the Euler-Bernoulli hypothesis. The results of the simulations have shown that the H-infinity controller was able to control the rigid motion and suppress the vibrations. (paper)
Prediction of pressure tube fretting-wear damage due to fuel vibration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yetisir, M.; Fisher, N.J.
1997-01-01
Fretting marks between fuel bundle bearing pads and pressure tubes have been observed at the inlet end of some Darlington Nuclear Generating Station (NGS) and Bruce NGS fuel channels. The excitation mechanisms that lead to fretting are not fully understood. In this paper, the possibility of bearing pad-to-pressure tube fretting due to turbulence-induced motion of the fuel element is investigated. Numerical simulations indicate that this mechanism by itself is not likely to cause the level of fretting experienced in Darlington and Bruce NGSs. (orig.)
Prediction of pressure tube fretting-wear damage due to fuel vibration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yetisir, M; Fisher, N J [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada)
1996-12-31
Fretting marks between fuel bundle bearing pads and pressure tubes have been observed at the inlet end of some Darlington NGS (nuclear generating station) and Bruce NGS fuel channels. The excitation mechanisms that lead to fretting are not fully understood. In this paper, the possibility of bearing pad-to-pressure tube fretting due to turbulence-induced motion of the fuel element is investigated. Numerical simulations indicate that this mechanism by itself is not likely to cause the level of fretting experienced in Darlington and Bruce NGS`s (nuclear generating stations). (author). 12 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs.
Skydanenko, Maksym; Kononenko, Mykola; Kurdes, Yuliia
2017-01-01
Influence of the vibration source location on the modes of liquid jets disintegration and obtaining monodisperse droplets and granules of the finished product is theoretically grounded and experimentally confirmed. The experiment was conducted on an experimental stand of industrial granulation equipment.
3D reconnection due to oblique modes: a simulation of Harris current sheets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Lapenta
2000-01-01
Full Text Available Simulations in three dimensions of a Harris current sheet with mass ratio, mi/me = 180, and current sheet thickness, pi/L = 0.5, suggest the existence of a linearly unstable oblique mode, which is independent from either the drift-kink or the tearing instability. The new oblique mode causes reconnection independently from the tearing mode. During the initial linear stage, the system is unstable to the tearing mode and the drift kink mode, with growth rates that are accurately described by existing linear theories. How-ever, oblique modes are also linearly unstable, but with smaller growth rates than either the tearing or the drift-kink mode. The non-linear stage is first reached by the drift-kink mode, which alters the initial equilibrium and leads to a change in the growth rates of the tearing and oblique modes. In the non-linear stage, the resulting changes in magnetic topology are incompatible with a pure tearing mode. The oblique mode is shown to introduce a helical structure into the magnetic field lines.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gersonde, K.; Yu, N.T.; Lin, S.H.; Smith, K.M.; Parish, D.W.
1989-01-01
We have investigated the resonance Raman spectra of monomeric insect cyanomethemoglobins (CTT III and CTT IV) reconstituted with (1) protohemes IX selectively deuterated at the 4-vinyl as well as the 2,4-divinyls, (2) monovinyl-truncated hemes such as pemptoheme (2-hydrogen, 4-vinyl) and isopemptoheme (2-vinyl, 4-hydrogen), (3) symmetric hemes such as protoheme III (with 2- and 3-vinyls) and protoheme XIII (with 1- and 4-vinyls), and (4) hemes without 2- and 4-vinyls such as mesoheme IX, deuteroheme IX, 2,4-dimethyldeuteroheme IX, and 2,4-dibromodeuteroheme IX. Evidence is presented that the highly localized vinyl C = C stretching vibrations at the 2- and 4-positions of the heme in these cyanomet CTT hemoglobins are noncoupled and inequivalent; i.e., the 1631- and 1624-cm-1 lines have been assigned to 2-vinyl and 4-vinyl, respectively. The elimination of the 2-vinyl (in pemptoheme) or the 4-vinyl (in isopemptoheme) does not affect the C = C stretching frequency of the remaining vinyl. Furthermore, two low-frequency vinyl bending modes at 412 and 591 cm-1 exhibit greatly different resonance Raman intensities between 2-vinyl and 4-vinyl. The observed intensity at 412 cm-1 is primarily derived from 4-vinyl, whereas the 591-cm-1 line results exclusively from the 2-vinyl. Again, there is no significant coupling between 2-vinyl and 4-vinyl for these two bending modes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berendt, Martin Ole; Grüne-Nielsen, Lars; Soccolich, C.F.
1998-01-01
to reduce this problem. None of these designs seems to give complete solutions. In particular, the otherwise promising depressed cladding design gives a pronounced coupling to one LP01 mode, this has been referred to as a Ghost grating. To find the modes of the fiber we have established a numerical mode......UV-written Bragg gratings find wide spread use as wavelength selective components. In reflection high extinction ratios are routinely obtained. However, coupling to cladding modes gives excess loss on the short wavelength side of the main reflection. Different fiber-designs have been proposed......-solver based on the staircase-approximation method. The Bragg grating causes coupling between the fundamental LP01 mode and higher order LP1p modes that satisfy phase-matching. The coupling strength is determined by the overlap integral of the LP01, the LP1p mode, and the UV-induced index perturbation. For LP0...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kartaschew, Konstantin; Mischo, Meike; Bründermann, Erik; Havenith, Martina; Baldus, Sabrina; Awakowicz, Peter
2016-01-01
Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma show promising antimicrobial effects, however the detailed biochemical mechanism of the bacterial inactivation is still unknown. We investigated, for the first time, plasma-treated Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria with Raman and infrared microspectroscopy. A dielectric barrier discharge was used as a plasma source. We were able to detect several plasma-induced chemical modifications, which suggest a pronounced oxidative effect on the cell envelope, cellular proteins and nucleotides as well as a generation of organic nitrates in the treated bacteria. Vibrational microspectroscopy is used as a comprehensive and a powerful tool for the analysis of plasma interactions with whole organisms such as bacteria. Analysis of reaction kinetics of chemical modifications allow a time-dependent insight into the plasma-mediated impact. Investigating possible synergistic effects between the plasma-produced components, our observations strongly indicate that the detected plasma-mediated chemical alterations can be mainly explained by the particle effect of the generated reactive species. By changing the polarity of the applied voltage pulse, and hence the propagation mechanisms of streamers, no significant effect on the spectral results could be detected. This method allows the analysis of the individual impact of each plasma constituent for particular chemical modifications. Our approach shows great potential to contribute to a better understanding of plasma-cell interactions. (paper)
Vibrational Mode-Specific Reaction of Methane with a Nickel Surface
Beck, Rainer
2004-03-01
The dissociation of methane on a nickel catalyst is a key step in steam reforming of natural gas for hydrogen production. Despite substantial effort in both experiment and theory, there is still no atomic scale description of this important gas-surface reaction. To elucidate its dynamics, we have performed quantum state resolved studies of vibrationally excited methane reacting on the Ni(100) surface using pulsed laser and molecular beam techniques. We observed up to a factor of 5 greater reaction probability for methane-d2 with two quanta of excitation in one C-H bond versus a nearly isoenergetic state with one quanta in each of two C-H bonds. The observed reactivities point to a transition state structure which has one of the C-H bonds significantly elongated. Our results also clearly exclude the possibility of statistical models correctly describing the mechanism of this process and emphasize the importance of full-dimensional calculations of the reaction dynamics.
Spectral intensities in cubic systems. I. Progressions based upon parity vibrational modes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Acevedo, R.; Vasquez, S.O. [Department of Basic Chemistry, Faculty of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, University of Chile. Tupper 2069, Casilla 2777, Santiago, Chile (Chile); Meruane, T. [Department of Chemistry, Universidad Metropolitana de Ciencias de la Educacion. Av. J.P. Alessandri 774, Casilla 147, C. Santiago, Chile (Chile); Poblete, V. [Department of Nuclear Materials, Lo Aguirre, Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear. Amunategui 95, Casilla 188-D, Santiago, Chile (Chile); Pozo, J. [Facultad de Ciencias de la Ingenieria. Universidad Diego Portales. Casilla 298-V, Santiago, Chile (Chile)
1998-12-01
The well-resolved emission and absorption spectra of centrosymmetric coordination compounds of the transition metal ions have been used widely to provide the experimental data against which to test theoretical models of vibronic intensities. With reference to the {sup 2} E{sub g} {yields} {sup 4} A{sub 2g} luminescence transition, at a perfect octahedral site in Cs{sub 2}SiF{sub 6}, over than one hundred vibronic lines are observed with line widths of a few wavenumber spread over some 3000 cm{sup -1}. This paper reports a through examination of both the electronic and vibrational factors, which influences the observed vibronic intensities of the various assigned and identified lines in the spectra of the MnF{sub 6} {sup 2-} complex ion in the Cs{sub 2}SiF{sub 6} cubic lattice. The origin and nature of higher order vibronic interactions are analysed on the basis of a symmetrized vibronic crystal field-ligand polarization model. (Author)
Study of vibrational modes and specific heat of wurtzite phase of BN
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, Daljit, E-mail: daljit.jt@gmail.com; Sinha, M. M. [Department of Physics, SLIET, Longowal (India)
2016-05-06
In these days of nanotechnology the materials like BN is of utmost importance as in hexagonal phase it is among hardest materials. The phonon mode study of the materials is most important factor to find structural and thermodynamcal properties. To study the phonons de launey angular force (DAF) constant model is best suited as it involves many particle interactions. Therefore in this presentation we have studied the lattice dynamical properties and specific heat of BN in wurtzite phase using DAF model. The obtained results are in excellent agreement with existing results.
Study of vibrational modes and specific heat of wurtzite phase of BN
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, Daljit; Sinha, M. M.
2016-01-01
In these days of nanotechnology the materials like BN is of utmost importance as in hexagonal phase it is among hardest materials. The phonon mode study of the materials is most important factor to find structural and thermodynamcal properties. To study the phonons de launey angular force (DAF) constant model is best suited as it involves many particle interactions. Therefore in this presentation we have studied the lattice dynamical properties and specific heat of BN in wurtzite phase using DAF model. The obtained results are in excellent agreement with existing results.
Yang, Yongchao; Dorn, Charles; Mancini, Tyler; Talken, Zachary; Kenyon, Garrett; Farrar, Charles; Mascareñas, David
2017-02-01
user supervision and calibration. First a multi-scale image processing method is applied on the frames of the video of a vibrating structure to extract the local pixel phases that encode local structural vibration, establishing a full-field spatiotemporal motion matrix. Then a high-spatial dimensional, yet low-modal-dimensional, over-complete model is used to represent the extracted full-field motion matrix using modal superposition, which is physically connected and manipulated by a family of unsupervised learning models and techniques, respectively. Thus, the proposed method is able to blindly extract modal frequencies, damping ratios, and full-field (as many points as the pixel number of the video frame) mode shapes from line of sight video measurements of the structure. The method is validated by laboratory experiments on a bench-scale building structure and a cantilever beam. Its ability for output (video measurements)-only identification and visualization of the weakly-excited mode is demonstrated and several issues with its implementation are discussed.
Observations of neutral beam and ICRF tail ion losses due to Alfven modes in TFTR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Darrow, D.S.; Zweben, S.J.; Chang, Z.
1996-04-01
Fast ion losses resulting from MHD modes at the Alfven frequency, such as the TAE, have been observed in TFTR. The modes have been driven both by neutral beam ions, at low B T , and by H-minority ICRF tail ions at higher B T . The measurements indicate that the loss rate varies linearly with the mode amplitude, and that the fast ion losses during the mode activity can be significant, e.g. up to 10% of the input power is lost in the worst case
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhou, Shui-Ting; Huang, Hong-Wu [Hunan University, Changsha (China); Chiu, Yi-Jui; Yu, Guo-Fei [Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen (China); Yang, Chia-Hao [Taipei Chengshih University of Science and Technology, Taipei (China); Jian, Sheng-Rui [I-Shou University, Kaohsiung (China)
2017-02-15
The Assumed mode method (AMM) and Finite element method (FEM) were used. Their results were compared to investigate the coupled shaft-torsion, disk-transverse, and blade-bending vibrations in a flexible-disk rotor system. The blades were grouped with a spring. The flexible-disk rotor system was divided into three modes of coupled vibrations: Shaft-disk-blade, disk-blade, and blade-blade. Two new modes of coupled vibrations were introduced, namely, lacing wires-blade and lacing wires-disk-blade. The patterns of change of the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the system were discussed. The results showed the following: first, mode shapes and natural frequencies varied, and the results of the AMM and FEM differed; second, numerical calculation results showed three influencing factors on natural frequencies, namely, the lacing wire constant, the lacing wire location, and the flexible disk; lastly, the flexible disk could affect the stability of the system as reflected in the effect of the rotational speed.
Ballooning mode instability due to slowed-down ALPHA -particles and associated transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, Sanae; Itoh, Kimitaka; Tuda, Takashi; Tokuda, Shinji.
1982-01-01
The microscopic stability of tokamak plasma, which contains slowed-down alpha-particles and the anomalous fluxes enhanced by the fluctuation, was studied. The local maxwellian distribution with the density inhomogeneity as the equilibrium distribution of electrons, ions and alpha-particles was closen. In the zero-beta limit, two branches of eigenmodes, which are electrostatic, were obtained. The electrostatic ballooning mode became unstable by the grad B drift of particles in the toroidal plasma. It should be noted that there was no critical alpha-particle density and no critical beta-value for the onset of the instability in toroidal plasma even in the presence of the magnetic shear. When the beta-value exceeded the critical beta-value of the MHD ballooning mode, the growth rate approached to that of the MHD mode, and the mode sturcture became very close to that of the MHD mode. The unstable mode in toroidal plasma was the ballooning mode, and was unstable for all plasma parameters. The associated cross-field transport by the ballooning mode is considered. It was found that if the distribution function was assumed to be the birth distribution, the loss rate was very slow and slower than the slowing down time. The effect of alpha-particles on the large scale MHD activity of plasma is discussed. (Kato, T.)
Spiekermann, Georg; Steele-MacInnis, Matthew; Schmidt, Christian; Jahn, Sandro
2012-04-21
Vibrational spectroscopy techniques are commonly used to probe the atomic-scale structure of silica species in aqueous solution and hydrous silica glasses. However, unequivocal assignment of individual spectroscopic features to specific vibrational modes is challenging. In this contribution, we establish a connection between experimentally observed vibrational bands and ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) of silica species in solution and in hydrous silica glass. Using the mode-projection approach, we decompose the vibrations of silica species into subspectra resulting from several fundamental structural subunits: The SiO(4) tetrahedron of symmetry T(d), the bridging oxygen (BO) Si-O-Si of symmetry C(2v), the geminal oxygen O-Si-O of symmetry C(2v), the individual Si-OH stretching, and the specific ethane-like symmetric stretching contribution of the H(6)Si(2)O(7) dimer. This allows us to study relevant vibrations of these subunits in any degree of polymerization, from the Q(0) monomer up to the fully polymerized Q(4) tetrahedra. Demonstrating the potential of this approach for supplementing the interpretation of experimental spectra, we compare the calculated frequencies to those extracted from experimental Raman spectra of hydrous silica glasses and silica species in aqueous solution. We discuss observed features such as the double-peaked contribution of the Q(2) tetrahedral symmetric stretch, the individual Si-OH stretching vibrations, the origin of the experimentally observed band at 970 cm(-1) and the ethane-like vibrational contribution of the H(6)Si(2)O(7) dimer at 870 cm(-1).
Leclerc, Lara; Merhie, Amira El; Navarro, Laurent; Prévôt, Nathalie; Durand, Marc; Pourchez, Jérémie
2015-10-15
We investigated the impact of vibrating acoustic airflow, the high frequency (f≥100 Hz) and the low frequency (f≤45 Hz) sound waves, on the enhancement of intrasinus drug deposition. (81m)Kr-gas ventilation study was performed in a plastinated human cast with and without the addition of vibrating acoustic airflow. Similarly, intrasinus drug deposition in a nasal replica using gentamicin as a marker was studied with and without the superposition of different modes of acoustic airflow. Ventilation experiments demonstrate that no sinus ventilation was observed without acoustic airflow although sinus ventilation occurred whatever the modes of acoustic airflow applied. Intrasinus drug deposition experiments showed that the high frequency acoustic airflow led to 4-fold increase in gentamicin deposition into the left maxillary sinus and to 2-fold deposition increase into the right maxillary sinus. Besides, the low frequency acoustic airflow demonstrated a significant increase of 4-fold and 2-fold in the right and left maxillary sinuses, respectively. We demonstrated the benefit of different modes of vibrating acoustic airflow for maxillary sinus ventilation and intrasinus drug deposition. The degree of gentamicin deposition varies as a function of frequency of the vibrating acoustic airflow and the geometry of the ostia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yang, Yongchao; Dorn, Charles; Mancini, Tyler; Talken, Zachary; Nagarajaiah, Satish; Kenyon, Garrett; Farrar, Charles; Mascareñas, David
2017-03-01
Enhancing the spatial and temporal resolution of vibration measurements and modal analysis could significantly benefit dynamic modelling, analysis, and health monitoring of structures. For example, spatially high-density mode shapes are critical for accurate vibration-based damage localization. In experimental or operational modal analysis, higher (frequency) modes, which may be outside the frequency range of the measurement, contain local structural features that can improve damage localization as well as the construction and updating of the modal-based dynamic model of the structure. In general, the resolution of vibration measurements can be increased by enhanced hardware. Traditional vibration measurement sensors such as accelerometers have high-frequency sampling capacity; however, they are discrete point-wise sensors only providing sparse, low spatial sensing resolution measurements, while dense deployment to achieve high spatial resolution is expensive and results in the mass-loading effect and modification of structure's surface. Non-contact measurement methods such as scanning laser vibrometers provide high spatial and temporal resolution sensing capacity; however, they make measurements sequentially that requires considerable acquisition time. As an alternative non-contact method, digital video cameras are relatively low-cost, agile, and provide high spatial resolution, simultaneous, measurements. Combined with vision based algorithms (e.g., image correlation or template matching, optical flow, etc.), video camera based measurements have been successfully used for experimental and operational vibration measurement and subsequent modal analysis. However, the sampling frequency of most affordable digital cameras is limited to 30-60 Hz, while high-speed cameras for higher frequency vibration measurements are extremely costly. This work develops a computational algorithm capable of performing vibration measurement at a uniform sampling frequency lower than
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emílio Borges
2007-04-01
Full Text Available A simple method to obtain molecular Cartesian coordinates as a function of vibrational normal modes is presented in this work. The method does not require the definition of special matrices, like the F and G of Wilson, neither of group theory. The Eckart's conditions together with the diagonalization of kinetic and potential energy are the only required expressions. This makes the present approach appropriate to be used as a preliminary study for more advanced concepts concerning vibrational analysis. Examples are given for diatomic and triatomic molecules.
'Good Vibrations': A workshop on oscillations and normal modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barbieri, Sara R.; Carpineti, Marina; Giliberti, Marco; Stellato, Marco; Rigon, Enrico; Tamborini, Marina
2015-01-01
We describe some theatrical strategies adopted in a two hour workshop in order to show some meaningful experiments and the underlying useful ideas to describe a secondary school path on oscillations, that develops from harmonic motion to normal modes of oscillations, and makes extensive use of video analysis, data logging, slow motions and applet simulations. Theatre is an extremely useful tool to stimulate motivation starting from positive emotions. That is the reason why the theatrical approach to the presentation of physical themes has been explored by the group 'Lo spettacolo della Fisica' (http://spettacolo.fisica.unimi.it) of the Physics Department of University of Milano for the last ten years (Carpineti et al., JCOM, 10 (2011) 1; Nuovo Cimento B, 121 (2006) 901) and has been inserted also in the European FP7 Project TEMI (Teaching Enquiry with Mysteries Incorporated, see http://teachingmysteries.eu/en) which involves 13 different partners coming from 11 European countries, among which the Italian (Milan) group. According to the TEMI guidelines, this workshop has a written script based on emotionally engaging activities of presenting mysteries to be solved while participants have been involved in nice experiments following the developed path.
A second, low-frequency mode of vibration in the intact mammalian cochlea.
Lukashkin, Andrei N; Russell, Ian J
2003-03-01
The mammalian cochlea is a structure comprising a number of components connected by elastic elements. A mechanical system of this kind is expected to have multiple normal modes of oscillation and associated resonances. The guinea pig cochlear mechanics was probed using distortion components generated in the cochlea close to the place of overlap between two tones presented simultaneously. Otoacoustic emissions at frequencies of the distortion components were recorded in the ear canal. The phase behavior of the emissions reveals the presence of a nonlinear resonance at a frequency about a half octave below that of the high-frequency primary tone. The location of the resonance is level dependent and the resonance shifts to lower frequencies with increasing stimulus intensity. This resonance is thought to be associated with the tectorial membrane. The resonance tends to minimize input to the cochlear receptor cells at frequencies below the high-frequency primary and increases the dynamic load to the stereocilia of the receptor cells at the primary frequency when the tectorial membrane and reticular lamina move in counterphase.
Huang, Yihua; Huang, Wenjin; Wang, Qinglei; Su, Xujian
2013-07-01
The equivalent circuit model of a piezoelectric transformer is useful in designing and optimizing the related driving circuits. Based on previous work, an equivalent circuit model for a circular flexural-vibration-mode piezoelectric transformer with moderate thickness is proposed and validated by finite element analysis. The input impedance, voltage gain, and efficiency of the transformer are determined through computation. The basic behaviors of the transformer are shown by numerical results.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fran Ribes-Llario
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Transmission of train-induced vibrations to buildings located in the vicinity of the track is one of the main negative externalities of railway transport, since both human comfort and the adequate functioning of sensitive equipment may be compromised. In this paper, a 3D FEM model is presented and validated with data from a real track stretch near Barcelona, Spain. Furthermore, a case study is analyzed as an application of the model, in order to evaluate the propagation and transmission of vibrations induced by the passage of a suburban train to a nearby 3-storey building. As a main outcome, vertical vibrations in the foundation slab are found to be maximum in the corners, while horizontal vibrations keep constant along the edges. The propagation within the building structure is also studied, concluding that vibrations invariably increase in their propagation upwards the building. Moreover, the mitigation capacity of a wave barrier acting as a source isolation is assessed by comparing vibration levels registered in several points of the building structure with and without the barrier. In this regard, the wave barrier is found to effectively reduce vibration in both the soil and the structure.
Houjou, Hirohiko
2011-10-01
Using theory of harmonic normal-mode vibration analysis, we developed a procedure for evaluating the anisotropic stiffness of intermolecular forces. Our scheme for coarse-graining of molecular motions is modified so as to account for intramolecular vibrations in addition to relative translational/rotational displacement. We applied this new analytical scheme to four carboxylic acid dimers, for which coupling between intra- and intermolecular vibrations is crucial for determining the apparent stiffness of the intermolecular double hydrogen bond. The apparent stiffness constant was analyzed on the basis of a conjunct spring model, which defines contributions from true intermolecular stiffness and molecular internal stiffness. Consequently, the true intermolecular stiffness was in the range of 43-48 N m-1 for all carboxylic acids studied, regardless of the molecules' acidity. We concluded that the difference in the apparent stiffness can be attributed to differences in the internal stiffness of the respective molecules.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Unger, E.; Beck, M.; Lipski, R.J.; Dreybrodt, W.; Medforth, C.J.; Smith, K.M.; Schweitzer-Stenner, R.
1999-11-11
The authors have developed a novel method for molecular mechanics calculations and normal-mode analysis. It is based on symmetry of local units that constitutes the given molecule. Compared with general valence force field calculations, the number of free parameters is reduced by 40--80% in the procedure. It was found to reproduce very well the vibrational frequencies and mode compositions of aromatic compounds and porphyrins, as shown by comparison with DFT calculations. A slightly altered force field obtained from Ni(II) porphin was then used to calculate the structure and the normal modes of several meso-substituted Ni(II) porphyrins which are known to be subject to significant ruffling and/or saddling distortions. This method satisfactorily reproduces their nonplanar structure and Raman band frequencies in the natural abundance and isotopic derivative spectra. The polarization properties of bands from out-of-plane modes are in accordance with the predicted nonplanar distortions. Moreover, some of the modes below 800 cm{sup {minus}1} which appear intense in the Raman spectra contain considerable contributions from both in-plane and out-of-plane vibrations, so that the conventional mode assignments become questionable. The authors also demonstrate that the intensity and polarization of some low-frequency Raman bands can be used as a (quantitative) marker to elucidate type and magnitude of out-of-plane distortions. These were recently shown to affect heme groups of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and, in particular, of cytochrome c.
Nahavandi, Amir; Korayem, Moharam Habibnejad
2015-10-01
The aim of this paper is to determine the effects of forces exerted on the cantilever probe tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM). These forces vary according to the separation distance between the probe tip and the surface of the sample being examined. Hence, at a distance away from the surface (farther than d(on)), these forces have an attractive nature and are of Van der Waals type, and when the probe tip is situated in the range of a₀≤ d(ts) ≤ d(on), the capillary force is added to the Van der Waals force. At a distance of d(ts) ≤ a₀, the Van der Waals and capillary forces remain constant at intermolecular distances, and the contact repulsive force repels the probe tip from the surface of sample. The capillary force emerges due to the contact of thin water films with a thickness of h(c) which have accumulated on the sample and probe. Under environmental conditions a layer of water or hydrocarbon often forms between the probe tip and sample. The capillary meniscus can grow until the rate of evaporation equals the rate of condensation. For each of the above forces, different models are presented. The smoothness or roughness of the surfaces and the geometry of the cantilever tip have a significant effect on the modeling of forces applied on the probe tip. Van der Waals and the repulsive forces are considered to be the same in all the simulations, and only the capillary force is altered in order to evaluate the role of this force in the AFM-based modeling. Therefore, in view of the remarkable advantages of the piezoelectric microcantilever and also the extensive applications of the tapping mode, we investigate vibrational motion of the piezoelectric microcantilever in the tapping mode. The cantilever mentioned is entirely covered by two piezoelectric layers that carry out both the actuation of the probe tip and the measuringof its position.
Gurova, E. G.
2015-09-01
In this paper the isolation suspension with stiffness compensator based on neodymium magnets is suggested. It was found that the passive vibration isolators not completely sufficient of modern requirement of the vibration isolation. It was determined that the neodymium magnets with the same initial parameters are most effective in comparison with DC current electromagnets. The mathematical model of the vibration isolation suspension has been developed. In this research the traction characteristics for given magnets are presented. Also the design of the vibration isolation suspension with compensator of the stiffness based on neodymium magnets has been developed. This research has been performed under support of the President scholarship for young scientists under the order of Russian Federation Ministry of the education and science No 184 from 10th of March 2015.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahn, Myunghoon; Kim, Woogoon; Yim, Hyeongsoon
2016-01-01
The PI (Proportional plus Integral) controller, which is the essential functional block in control systems, can automatically perform the stable control of an important plant process while reducing the steady state error and improving the transient response. However, if the received input PV (Process Variable) is not normal due to input channel trouble, it will be difficult to control the system automatically. For this reason, many control systems are implemented to change the operation mode from automatic to manual mode in the PI controller when the failed input PV is detected. If the PI controller is in automatic mode for all the time, the control signal varies as the change of the input PV is continuously reflected in the control algorithm. In the other cases, since the controller changes into the manual mode at t=0, the control signal is fixed at the last PI controller output and thus the feedback control is not performed anymore until the operator takes an action such as the operation mode change. As a result of analysis and simulations for the controller’s operation modes in all the cases of input channel trouble, we discovered that it is more appropriate to maintain the automatic mode despite the bad quality in the PV. Therefore, we improved the control system algorithm reflecting the analysis results for the operator’s convenience and the stability of a control system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahn, Myunghoon; Kim, Woogoon; Yim, Hyeongsoon [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co., Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-10-15
The PI (Proportional plus Integral) controller, which is the essential functional block in control systems, can automatically perform the stable control of an important plant process while reducing the steady state error and improving the transient response. However, if the received input PV (Process Variable) is not normal due to input channel trouble, it will be difficult to control the system automatically. For this reason, many control systems are implemented to change the operation mode from automatic to manual mode in the PI controller when the failed input PV is detected. If the PI controller is in automatic mode for all the time, the control signal varies as the change of the input PV is continuously reflected in the control algorithm. In the other cases, since the controller changes into the manual mode at t=0, the control signal is fixed at the last PI controller output and thus the feedback control is not performed anymore until the operator takes an action such as the operation mode change. As a result of analysis and simulations for the controller’s operation modes in all the cases of input channel trouble, we discovered that it is more appropriate to maintain the automatic mode despite the bad quality in the PV. Therefore, we improved the control system algorithm reflecting the analysis results for the operator’s convenience and the stability of a control system.
Longitudinal Losses Due to Breathing Mode Excitation in Radiofrequency Linear Accelerators
Channell, Paul J.
2010-01-01
Transverse breathing mode oscillations in a particle beam can couple energy into longitudinal oscillations in a bunch of finite length and cause significant losses. We develop a model that illustrates this effect and explore the dependence on mismatch size, space-charge tune depression, longitudinal focusing strength, bunch length, and RF bucket length.
Téllez Soto, C. A.; Ramos, J. M.; Rianelli, R. S.; de Souza, M. C. B. V.; Ferreira, V. F.
2007-07-01
The 2-diazo-5,5-dimethyl-cyclohexane-1,3-dione ( 3) was synthesized and the FT-IR/Raman spectra were measured with the purpose of obtain a full assignment of the vibrational modes. Singular aspects concerning the -C dbnd N dbnd N oscillator are discussed in view of two strong bands observed in the region of 2300-2100 cm -1 in both, Infrared and Raman spectra. The density functional theory (DFT) was used to obtain the geometrical structure and for assisting in the vibrational assignment joint to the traditional normal coordinate analysis (NCA). The observed wavenumbers at 2145 (IR), 2144(R) are assigned as the coupled ν(N dbnd N) + ν(C dbnd N) vibrational mode with higher participation of the N dbnd N stretching. A 2188 cm -1 (IR) and at 2186 cm -1 (R) can be assigned as a overtone of one of ν(CC) normal mode or to a combination band of the fundamentals δ(CCH) found at 1169 cm -1 and the δ (CC dbnd N) found at 1017 cm -1 enhanced by Fermi resonance.
Willensdorfer, M.; Strumberger, E.; Suttrop, W.; Dunne, M.; Fischer, R.; Birkenmeier, G.; Brida, D.; Cavedon, M.; Denk, S. S.; Igochine, V.; Giannone, L.; Kirk, A.; Kirschner, J.; Medvedeva, A.; Odstrčil, T.; Ryan, D. A.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team; The EUROfusion MST1 Team
2017-11-01
In low-collisionality (ν\\star) scenarios exhibiting mitigation of edge localized mode (ELMs), stable ideal kink modes at the edge are excited by externally applied magnetic perturbation (MP)-fields. In ASDEX Upgrade these modes can cause three-dimensional (3D) boundary displacements up to the centimeter range. These displacements have been measured using toroidally localized high resolution diagnostics and rigidly rotating n=2 MP-fields with various applied poloidal mode spectra. These measurements are compared to non-linear 3D ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equilibria calculated by VMEC. Comprehensive comparisons have been conducted, which consider for instance plasma movements due to the position control system, attenuation due to internal conductors and changes in the edge pressure profiles. VMEC accurately reproduces the amplitude of the displacement and its dependencies on the applied poloidal mode spectra. Quantitative agreement is found around the low field side (LFS) midplane. The response at the plasma top is qualitatively compared. The measured and predicted displacements at the plasma top maximize when the applied spectra is optimized for ELM-mitigation. The predictions from the vacuum modeling generally fails to describe the displacement at the LFS midplane as well as at the plasma top. When the applied mode spectra is set to maximize the displacement, VMEC and the measurements clearly surpass the predictions from the vacuum modeling by a factor of four. Minor disagreements between VMEC and the measurements are discussed. This study underlines the importance of the stable ideal kink modes at the edge for the 3D boundary displacement in scenarios relevant for ELM-mitigation.
Dropout dynamics in pulsed quantum dot lasers due to mode jumping
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sokolovskii, G. S.; Dudelev, V. V.; Deryagin, A. G.; Novikov, I. I.; Maximov, M. V.; Ustinov, V. M.; Kuchinskii, V. I. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Viktorov, E. A. [National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Optique Nonlinéaire Théorique, Campus Plaine CP 231, 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Applied Physics Research Group (APHY), Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Abusaa, M. [Applied Physics Research Group (APHY), Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Arab American University, Jenin, Palestine (Country Unknown); Danckaert, J. [Applied Physics Research Group (APHY), Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Kolykhalova, E. D. [St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University “LETI,” St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Soboleva, K. K. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Zhukov, A. E. [Academic University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Sibbett, W. [University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews (United Kingdom); Rafailov, E. U. [Aston Institute of Photonic Technologies, Aston University, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Erneux, T. [Optique Nonlinéaire Théorique, Campus Plaine CP 231, 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium)
2015-06-29
We examine the response of a pulse pumped quantum dot laser both experimentally and numerically. As the maximum of the pump pulse comes closer to the excited-state threshold, the output pulse shape becomes unstable and leads to dropouts. We conjecture that these instabilities result from an increase of the linewidth enhancement factor α as the pump parameter comes close to the excitated state threshold. In order to analyze the dynamical mechanism of the dropout, we consider two cases for which the laser exhibits either a jump to a different single mode or a jump to fast intensity oscillations. The origin of these two instabilities is clarified by a combined analytical and numerical bifurcation diagram of the steady state intensity modes.
Dropout dynamics in pulsed quantum dot lasers due to mode jumping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sokolovskii, G. S.; Dudelev, V. V.; Deryagin, A. G.; Novikov, I. I.; Maximov, M. V.; Ustinov, V. M.; Kuchinskii, V. I.; Viktorov, E. A.; Abusaa, M.; Danckaert, J.; Kolykhalova, E. D.; Soboleva, K. K.; Zhukov, A. E.; Sibbett, W.; Rafailov, E. U.; Erneux, T.
2015-01-01
We examine the response of a pulse pumped quantum dot laser both experimentally and numerically. As the maximum of the pump pulse comes closer to the excited-state threshold, the output pulse shape becomes unstable and leads to dropouts. We conjecture that these instabilities result from an increase of the linewidth enhancement factor α as the pump parameter comes close to the excitated state threshold. In order to analyze the dynamical mechanism of the dropout, we consider two cases for which the laser exhibits either a jump to a different single mode or a jump to fast intensity oscillations. The origin of these two instabilities is clarified by a combined analytical and numerical bifurcation diagram of the steady state intensity modes
Rapid Frequency Chirps of TAE mode due to Finite Orbit Energetic Particles
Berk, Herb; Wang, Ge
2013-10-01
The tip model for the TAE mode in the large aspect ratio limit, conceived by Rosenbluth et al. in the frequency domain, together with an interaction term in the frequency domain based on a map model, has been extended into the time domain. We present the formal basis for the model, starting with the Lagrangian for the particle wave interaction. We shall discuss the formal nonlinear time domain problem and the procedure that needs to obtain solutions in the adiabatic limit.
Observations and control of beam instabilities due to higher order modes in Indus-2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arora, Rajiv K.; Prasad, M.; Lad, M.; Hannurkar, P.R.
2013-01-01
In a synchrotron radiation source (SRS), the interaction between electron beam spectra and Higher Order Modes (HOMs) of RF cavities may give rise to coupled bunch instabilities. These instabilities may limit beam current and beam lifetime. Indus-2 SRS has four RF cavities equipped with precision temperature controller of cooling system and Higher Order Mode Frequency Shifter (HOMFS) to avoid harmful HOMs. Offline (i.e. without beam) and Online (i.e. with beam) measurements, observations and analysis of HOMs have been performed. Some of the Longitudinal modes such as L1 (∼ 950 MHz), L3 (∼ 1432 MHz), L4 (∼ 1521 MHz), L5 (∼1628 MHz) were observed to be quite prominent at specific operating conditions. Based on these studies, harmful HOMs were identified and suitable methods were evolved to avoid these HOMs. Experiments were performed to achieve high beam current in Indus-2. The precision chiller temperatures and HOMFS positions were set as per theoretical estimates and were further optimized in fine steps during experiments. With the optimized settings, beam current around 200 mA at Injection energy (550 MeV) and 157 mA at 2.5 GeV has been successfully achieved. At these settings of RF cavity water temperature and HOMFS, harmful HOMs were within safe limits during regular operation of Indus-2 at 2.5 GeV/100 mA in user mode for more than one year. In this paper, important observations, analysis and experiments to avoid harmful HOMs of RF cavities are presented. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weinberg, Nevin N.; Arras, Phil; Burkart, Joshua
2013-01-01
A weakly nonlinear fluid wave propagating within a star can be unstable to three-wave interactions. The resonant parametric instability is a well-known form of three-wave interaction in which a primary wave of frequency ω a excites a pair of secondary waves of frequency ω b + ω c ≅ ω a . Here we consider a nonresonant form of three-wave interaction in which a low-frequency primary wave excites a high-frequency p-mode and a low-frequency g-mode such that ω b + ω c >> ω a . We show that a p-mode can couple so strongly to a g-mode of similar radial wavelength that this type of nonresonant interaction is unstable even if the primary wave amplitude is small. As an application, we analyze the stability of the tide in coalescing neutron star binaries to p-g mode coupling. We find that the equilibrium tide and dynamical tide are both p-g unstable at gravitational wave frequencies f gw ≳ 20 Hz and drive short wavelength p-g mode pairs to significant energies on very short timescales (much less than the orbital decay time due to gravitational radiation). Resonant parametric coupling to the tide is, by contrast, either stable or drives modes at a much smaller rate. We do not solve for the saturation of the p-g instability and therefore we cannot say precisely how it influences the evolution of neutron star binaries. However, we show that if even a single daughter mode saturates near its wave breaking amplitude, the p-g instability of the equilibrium tide will (1) induce significant orbital phase errors (Δφ ≳ 1 radian) that accumulate primarily at low frequencies (f gw ≲ 50 Hz) and (2) heat the neutron star core to a temperature of T ∼ 10 10 K. Since there are at least ∼100 unstable p-g daughter pairs, Δφ and T are potentially much larger than these values. Tides might therefore significantly influence the gravitational wave signal and electromagnetic emission from coalescing neutron star binaries at much larger orbital separations than previously
Fridström, R.; Frassinetti, L.; Brunsell, P. R.
2015-10-01
The physical mechanisms behind the hysteresis in the tearing mode locking and unlocking to a resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) are experimentally studied in EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch. The experiments show that the electromagnetic and the viscous torque increase with increasing perturbation amplitude until the mode locks to the wall. At the wall-locking, the plasma velocity reduction profile is peaked at the radius where the RMP is resonant. Thereafter, the viscous torque drops due to the relaxation of the velocity in the central plasma. This is the main reason for the hysteresis in the RMP locking and unlocking amplitude. The increased amplitude of the locked tearing mode produces further deepening of the hysteresis. Both experimental results are in qualitative agreement with the model in Fitzpatrick et al (2001 Phys. Plasmas 8 4489)
Confinement of acoustical modes due to the electron-phonon interaction within 2D-electron gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kochelap, V.A.; Gulseren, O.
1992-09-01
We study the confinement of acoustical modes within 2DEG due only to the electron-phonon interaction. The confined modes split out from the bulk phonons even at uniform lattice parameters, when the 2DEG is created by means of modulation doping. The effect is more pronounced when the wave vector q of the modes increases and is maximum at q = 2 k F (k F is the Fermi wave vector). In the case of several electron sheets the additional features of the confinement effect appear. In the limit of the strong electron-phonon coupling and high surface concentration of the electrons the considered system can suffer Peierls-type phase transition. In this case periodical deformation of the lattice and charge density wave are confined within the electron sheet. (author). 18 refs, 2 figs
Impairments due to Burst-Mode Transmission in a Raman-based Long Reach PON Link
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjær, Rasmus; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo
2007-01-01
A recently proposed passive-optical-network (PON) link based on distributed Raman amplification is tested with disturbing burst-mode traffic. The resulting impairments are quantified through penalty measurements on a single surviving data channel as a function of the disturbing channel power. When...... the disturbing channels co- or counter propagate with the data channel, penalties of less than 1 dB are found for disturbing input powers up to 7 and 11 dBm, respectively. The penalty is further reduced when a moderate amount of continuous-wave light is used to clamp the gain. The results indicate...
Long-term sickness absence due to back disorders in crane operators exposed to whole-body vibration
Bongers, P. M.; Boshuizen, H. C.; Hulshof, C. T.; KOEMEESTER, A. P.
1988-01-01
In a retrospective (10-year) follow-up study, the incidence of at least one spell of sickness absenteeism of 28 d or longer in crane operators exposed to whole-body vibration and a control group was investigated. In contrast to a previous study on permanent work disability in the same groups, no
Double-mode Two-photon Absorption and Enhanced Photon Antibunching Due to Interference
Bandilla, A.; Ritze, H.-H.
Inspired by results of interfering signal and idler from a nondegenerate parametric amplifier we investigate the photon statistics of the resulting field after interference of two components subjected to double-mode two-photon absorption. This absorption process leads to a strong correlation of the participating modes, which can be used to generate fields with photon antibunching in interference experiments. In addition the photon number can be made small, which produces enhanced antibunching.Translated AbstractZwei-Photonen-Absorption aus zwei Moden und durch Interferenz verstärktes photon antibunchingDie quantenmechanische Betrachtung der Interferenz führt zu neuen Ergebnissen, wenn Felder ohne klassisches Analogon betrachtet werden. Insbesondere ergibt sich durch die Reduktion der Photonenzahl durch Interferenz eine effektive Verstärkung des Photon Antibunching, wie von den Verfassern in vorhergehenden Arbeiten gezeigt wurde. Die vorliegende Untersuchung betrachtet die Interferenz von zwei korrelierten Moden, wobei die Korrelation durch Zwei-Photonen-Absorption aus den beiden Moden zustande kommt. In jeder einzelnen Mode ergibt sich lediglich ein gewisses Bunching, wenn man mit kohärentem Licht in beiden Moden beginnt. Es wird die Interferenz der Feldstärke-Komponenten in bestimmten Polarisationsrichtungen untersucht. Zur Vereinfachung wird in den betrachteten Moden die gleiche Anfangsphotonenzahl vorausgesetzt und der Analysator auf minimale Transmittanz gebracht. Das eigentliche Signal entsteht dann durch Einführung einer endlichen Phasenverschiebung zwischen den beiden Moden. Dieses Signal zeigt Antibunching und kann in seiner Intensität beliebig variiert werden, was wegen des (1/n)-Charakters des Antibunching zu seiner Verstärkung führt. Ferner wird gezeigt, daß die zunächst für zwei linear polarisierte Moden durchgeführte Rechnung auf zwei zirkulare Moden sowie auf zwei gegenläufige Strahlen bei der dopplerfreien Zwei-Quanten-Absorption
Plasma heating due to X-B mode conversion in a cylindrical ECR plasma system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yadav, V.K.; Bora, D. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India)
2004-07-01
Extra Ordinary (X) mode conversion to Bernstein wave near Upper Hybrid Resonance (UHR) layer plays an important role in plasma heating through cyclotron resonance. Wave generation at UHR and parametric decay at high power has been observed during Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) heating experiments in toroidal magnetic fusion devices. A small linear system with ECR and UHR layer within the system has been used to conduct experiments on X-B conversion and parametric decay process as a function of system parameters. Direct probing in situ is conducted and plasma heating is evidenced by soft x-ray emission measurement. Experiments are performed with hydrogen plasma produced with 160-800 W microwave power at 2.45 GHz of operating frequency at 10{sup -3} mbar pressure. The axial magnetic field required for ECR is such that the resonant surface (B = 875 G) is situated at the geometrical axis of the plasma system. Experimental results will be presented in the paper. (authors)
Frequency shifts of resonant modes of the Sun due to near-surface convective scattering
Bhattacharya, J.; Hanasoge, S. M.; Antia, H. M.
Measurements of oscillation frequencies of the Sun and stars can provide important independent constraints on their internal structure and dynamics. Seismic models of these oscillations are used to connect structure and rotation of the star to its resonant frequencies, which are then compared with observations, the goal being that of minimizing the difference between the two. Even in the case of the Sun, for which structure models are highly tuned, observed frequencies show systematic deviations from modeled frequencies, a phenomenon referred to as the ``surface term.'' The dominant source of this systematic effect is thought to be vigorous near-surface convection, which is not well accounted for in both stellar modeling and mode-oscillation physics. Here we bring to bear the method of homogenization, applicable in the asymptotic limit of large wavelengths (in comparison to the correlation scale of convection), to characterize the effect of small-scale surface convection on resonant-mode frequencies in the Sun. We show that the full oscillation equations, in the presence of temporally stationary 3D flows, can be reduced to an effective ``quiet-Sun'' wave equation with altered sound speed, Brünt-Väisäla frequency, and Lamb frequency. We derive the modified equation and relations for the appropriate averaging of 3D flows and thermal quantities to obtain the properties of this effective medium. Using flows obtained from 3D numerical simulations of near-surface convection, we quantify their effect on solar oscillation frequencies and find that they are shifted systematically and substantially. We argue therefore that consistent interpretations of resonant frequencies must include modifications to the wave equation that effectively capture the impact of vigorous hydrodynamic convection.
FREQUENCY SHIFTS OF RESONANT MODES OF THE SUN DUE TO NEAR-SURFACE CONVECTIVE SCATTERING
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhattacharya, J.; Hanasoge, S.; Antia, H. M.
2015-01-01
Measurements of oscillation frequencies of the Sun and stars can provide important independent constraints on their internal structure and dynamics. Seismic models of these oscillations are used to connect structure and rotation of the star to its resonant frequencies, which are then compared with observations, the goal being that of minimizing the difference between the two. Even in the case of the Sun, for which structure models are highly tuned, observed frequencies show systematic deviations from modeled frequencies, a phenomenon referred to as the “surface term.” The dominant source of this systematic effect is thought to be vigorous near-surface convection, which is not well accounted for in both stellar modeling and mode-oscillation physics. Here we bring to bear the method of homogenization, applicable in the asymptotic limit of large wavelengths (in comparison to the correlation scale of convection), to characterize the effect of small-scale surface convection on resonant-mode frequencies in the Sun. We show that the full oscillation equations, in the presence of temporally stationary three-dimensional (3D) flows, can be reduced to an effective “quiet-Sun” wave equation with altered sound speed, Brünt–Väisäla frequency, and Lamb frequency. We derive the modified equation and relations for the appropriate averaging of 3D flows and thermal quantities to obtain the properties of this effective medium. Using flows obtained from 3D numerical simulations of near-surface convection, we quantify their effect on solar oscillation frequencies and find that they are shifted systematically and substantially. We argue therefore that consistent interpretations of resonant frequencies must include modifications to the wave equation that effectively capture the impact of vigorous hydrodynamic convection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Petrov, Alexey M., E-mail: fysio@rambler.ru; Zakyrjanova, Guzalija F., E-mail: guzik121192@mail.ru; Yakovleva, Anastasia A., E-mail: nastya1234qwer@mail.ru; Zefirov, Andrei L., E-mail: zefiroval@rambler.ru
2015-01-02
Highlights: • We examine the involvement of PKC in MCD induced synaptic vesicle exocytosis. • PKC inhibitor does not decrease the effect MCD on MEPP frequency. • PKC inhibitor prevents MCD induced FM1-43 unloading. • PKC activation may switch MCD induced exocytosis from kiss-and-run to a full mode. • Inhibition of phospholipase C does not lead to similar change in exocytosis. - Abstract: Previous studies demonstrated that depletion of membrane cholesterol by 10 mM methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MCD) results in increased spontaneous exocytosis at both peripheral and central synapses. Here, we investigated the role of protein kinase C in the enhancement of spontaneous exocytosis at frog motor nerve terminals after cholesterol depletion using electrophysiological and optical methods. Inhibition of the protein kinase C by myristoylated peptide and chelerythrine chloride prevented MCD-induced increases in FM1-43 unloading, whereas the frequency of spontaneous postsynaptic events remained enhanced. The increase in FM1-43 unloading still could be observed if sulforhodamine 101 (the water soluble FM1-43 quencher that can pass through the fusion pore) was added to the extracellular solution. This suggests a possibility that exocytosis of synaptic vesicles under these conditions could occur through the kiss-and-run mechanism with the formation of a transient fusion pore. Inhibition of phospholipase C did not lead to similar change in MCD-induced exocytosis.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Son, Young Kap
2011-01-01
Reliability of an engineering system depends on two reliability metrics: the mechanical reliability, considering component failures, that a functional system topology is maintained and the performance reliability of adequate system performance in each functional configuration. Component degradation explains not only the component aging processes leading to failure in function, but also system performance change over time. Multiple competing failure modes for systems with degrading components in terms of system functionality and system performance are considered in this paper with the assumption that system functionality is not independent of system performance. To reduce errors in system reliability prediction, this paper tries to extend system performance reliability prediction methods in open literature through combining system mechanical reliability from component reliabilities and system performance reliability. The extended reliability prediction method provides a useful way to compare designs as well as to determine effective maintenance policy for efficient reliability growth. Application of the method to an electro-mechanical system, as an illustrative example, is explained in detail, and the prediction results are discussed. Both mechanical reliability and performance reliability are compared to total system reliability in terms of reliability prediction errors
Anomalous resistivity due to kink modes in a thin current sheet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moritaka, Toseo; Horiuchi, Ritoku; Ohtani, Hiroaki
2007-01-01
The roles of microscopic plasma instabilities on the violation of the frozen-in constraint are investigated by examining the force balance equation based on explicit electromagnetic particle simulation for a thin current sheet. Wave-particle interactions associated with lower hybrid drift instability and drift kink instability (DKI) contribute to the wavy electric force term at the periphery of the current sheet and the wavy magnetic force term at the neutral sheet, respectively. In the linear growing phase of DKI, the wavy magnetic force term balances with the electric force term due to the dc electric field at the neutral sheet. It is concluded that the growth of DKI can create anomalous resistivity and result in the violation of the frozen-in constraint as well as the diffusion of current density
Bloem, Robbert; Dijkstra, Arend G.; Jansen, Thomas La Cour; Knoester, Jasper
2008-01-01
Population transfer between vibrational eigenstates is important for many phenomena in chemistry. In solution, this transfer is induced by fluctuations in molecular conformation as well as in the surrounding solvent. We develop a joint electrostatic density functional theory map that allows us to
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Byung-Keun Song
2017-10-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a new fuzzy sliding mode controller (FSMC to improve control performances in the presence of uncertainties related to model errors and external disturbance (UAD. As a first step, an adaptive control law is designed using Lyapunov stability analysis. The control law can update control parameters of the FSMC with a disturbance estimator (DE in which the closed-loop stability and finite-time convergence of tracking error are guaranteed. A solution for estimating the compensative quantity of the impact of UAD on a control system and a set of solutions are then presented in order to avoid the singular cases of the fuzzy-based function approximation, increase convergence ability, and reduce the calculating cost. Subsequently, the effectiveness of the proposed controller is verified through the investigation of vibration control performances of a semi-active vehicle suspension system featuring a magnetorheological damper (MRD. It is shown that the proposed controller can provide better control ability of vibration control with lower consumed power compared with two existing fuzzy sliding mode controllers.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Enz, Stephanie; Thomsen, Jon Juel
2011-01-01
to improve accuracy, precision, and robustness of CFMs. A simple mathematical model of a fluid-conveying pipe is formulated and the effect of pulsating fluid flow is analyzed using a multiple time scaling perturbation analysis. The results are simple analytical predictions for the transverse pipe...... and uncontrolled during CFM operation by feedback control. The analytical predictions offer an immediate insight into how fluid pulsation affects phase shift, which is a quantity measured by CFMs to estimate the mass flow, and lead to hypotheses for more complex geometries, i.e. industrial CFMs. The validity...... displacement and approximate axial shift in vibration phase. The analytical predictions are tested against pure numerical solution using representative examples, showing good agreement. Fluid pulsations are predicted not to influence CFM accuracy, since proper signal filtering is seen to allow...
Studies of interstellar vibrationally-excited molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ziurys, L.M.; Snell, R.L.; Erickson, N.R.
1986-01-01
Several molecules thus far have been detected in the ISM in vibrationally-excited states, including H 2 , SiO, HC 3 N, and CH 3 CN. In order for vibrational-excitation to occur, these species must be present in unusually hot and dense gas and/or where strong infrared radiation is present. In order to do a more thorough investigation of vibrational excitation in the interstellar medium (ISM), studies were done of several mm-wave transitions originating in excited vibrational modes of HCN, an abundant interstellar molecule. Vibrationally-excited HCN was recently detected toward Orion-KL and IRC+10216, using a 12 meter antenna. The J=3-2 rotational transitions were detected in the molecule's lowest vibrational state, the bending mode, which is split into two separate levels, due to l-type doubling. This bending mode lies 1025K above ground state, with an Einstein A coefficient of 3.6/s. The J=3-2 line mode of HCN, which lies 2050K above ground state, was also observed toward IRC+10216, and subsequently in Orion-KL. Further measurements of vibrationally-excited HCN were done using a 14 meter telescope, which include the observations of the (0,1,0) and (0,2,0) modes towards Orion-KL, via their J=3-2 transitions at 265-267 GHz. The spectrum of the J=3-2 line in Orion taken with the 14 meter telescope, is shown, along with a map, which indicates that emission from vibrationally-excited HCN arises from a region probably smaller than the 14 meter telescope's 20 arcsec beam
Franck-Condon fingerprinting of vibration-tunneling spectra.
Berrios, Eduardo; Sundaradevan, Praveen; Gruebele, Martin
2013-08-15
We introduce Franck-Condon fingerprinting as a method for assigning complex vibration-tunneling spectra. The B̃ state of thiophosgene (SCCl2) serves as our prototype. Despite several attempts, assignment of its excitation spectrum has proved difficult because of near-degenerate vibrational frequencies, Fermi resonance between the C-Cl stretching mode and the Cl-C-Cl bending mode, and large tunneling splittings due to the out-of-plane umbrella mode. Hence, the spectrum has never been fitted to an effective Hamiltonian. Our assignment approach replaces precise frequency information with intensity information, eliminating the need for double resonance spectroscopy or combination differences, neither of which have yielded a full assignment thus far. The dispersed fluorescence spectrum of each unknown vibration-tunneling state images its character onto known vibrational progressions in the ground state. By using this Franck-Condon fingerprint, we were able to determine the predominant character of several vibration-tunneling states and assign them; in other cases, the fingerprinting revealed that the states are strongly mixed and cannot be characterized with a simple normal mode assignment. The assigned transitions from vibration-tunneling wave functions that were not too strongly mixed could be fitted within measurement uncertainty by an effective vibration-tunneling Hamiltonian. A fit of all observed vibration-tunneling states will require a full resonance-tunneling Hamiltonian.
Recovering Intrinsic Fragmental Vibrations Using the Generalized Subsystem Vibrational Analysis.
Tao, Yunwen; Tian, Chuan; Verma, Niraj; Zou, Wenli; Wang, Chao; Cremer, Dieter; Kraka, Elfi
2018-05-08
Normal vibrational modes are generally delocalized over the molecular system, which makes it difficult to assign certain vibrations to specific fragments or functional groups. We introduce a new approach, the Generalized Subsystem Vibrational Analysis (GSVA), to extract the intrinsic fragmental vibrations of any fragment/subsystem from the whole system via the evaluation of the corresponding effective Hessian matrix. The retention of the curvature information with regard to the potential energy surface for the effective Hessian matrix endows our approach with a concrete physical basis and enables the normal vibrational modes of different molecular systems to be legitimately comparable. Furthermore, the intrinsic fragmental vibrations act as a new link between the Konkoli-Cremer local vibrational modes and the normal vibrational modes.
Beecher, L. C.; Williams, F. T.
1970-01-01
Gas-driven vibration exciter produces a sinusoidal excitation function controllable in frequency and in amplitude. It allows direct vibration testing of components under normal loads, removing the possibility of component damage due to high static pressure.
Evaluation of a silicon 5 MHz p–n diode actuator with a laterally vibrating extensional mode
Miyazaki, Fumito; Baba, Kazuki; Tanigawa, Hiroshi; Furutsuka, Takashi; Suzuki, Kenichiro
2018-05-01
In this paper, we describe p–n diode actuators that are laterally driven by the force induced in a depletion layer. The previously reported p–n diode actuators have been vertically driven. Because the resonant frequency depends on the thickness of the vibrating plate, the integration of resonators with different frequencies on a chip has been difficult. The resonators in this work are driven laterally by using length-extensional vibration. We have developed a compact model based on an analytical expression, in which p–n diode actuators are driven by the forces induced by the spread of the depletion layer. The deflection generated by the p–n diode actuators was proportional to the ratio of the depletion layer width to the resonator thickness as well as the position of the p–n junction. Good agreement of experimental results with the theory was confirmed by comparing the measured values for silicon p–n diode rectangular-plate actuators fabricated using a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate. The displacement amplitude of the actuators was proportional to the DC bias, while the resonant frequency was independent of the DC bias. The latter characteristic is very different from that of widely used electrostatic actuators. Although the amplitude of the actuator measured in this work was very small, it is expected that the amplitude will increase greatly by increasing the doping of the p–n diode actuators.
Lattice dynamics and vibration modes frequencies for substitutional impurities in InP, GaP and ZnS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vandevyver, Michel; Plumelle, Pierre.
1977-01-01
The model used is a rigid-ion model with an effective ionic charge including general interactions for nearest and next nearest neighbours and long range Coulomb interactions. It provides a good fit with available neutron data and with infrared absorption results for InP. In this model, no hypothesis is made a priori on the interatomic forces and the eleven parameters given by the model are used. A mathematical model which employs a Green's function technique in the mass defect and the nearest neighbour force constant defect approximation is used to calculate the lattice dynamics of the imperfect crystal. The frequencies of the local modes, the gap modes and the band modes, are given for isolated substitutional impurities. The same calculation is achieved for GaP and ZnS and the results are compared with infrared data [fr
Hwang, Kyo Seon; Lee, Sang-Myung; Eom, Kilho; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Yoon-Sik; Park, Jung Ho; Yoon, Dae Sung; Kim, Tae Song
2007-11-30
We report the nanomechanical microcantilevers operated in vibration modes (oscillation) with use of RNA aptamers as receptor molecules for label-free detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) helicase. The nanomechanical detection principle is that the ligand-receptor binding on the microcantilever surface induces the dynamic response change of microcantilevers. We implemented the label-free detection of HCV helicase in the low concentration as much as 100 pg/ml from measuring the dynamic response change of microcantilevers. Moreover, from the recent studies showing that the ligand-receptor binding generates the surface stress on the microcantilever, we estimate the surface stress, on the oscillating microcantilevers, induced by ligand-receptor binding, i.e. binding between HCV helicase and RNA aptamer. In this article, it is suggested that the oscillating microcantilevers with use of RNA aptamers as receptor molecules may enable one to implement the sensitive label-free detection of very small amount of small-scale proteins.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dimakis, Emmanouil; Ramsteiner, Manfred; Huang, Chang-Ning; Trampert, Achim; Riechert, Henning; Geelhaar, Lutz [Paul-Drude-Institut für Festkörperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Davydok, Anton; Biermanns, Andreas; Pietsch, Ullrich [Festkörperphysik, Universität Siegen, Walter-Flex-Str. 3, 57072 Siegen (Germany)
2013-09-30
Growth and structural aspects of the in situ doping of InAs nanowires with Si have been investigated. The nanowires were grown catalyst-free on Si(111) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. The supply of Si influenced the growth kinetics, affecting the nanowire dimensions, but not the degree of structural polytypism, which was always pronounced. As determined by Raman spectroscopy, Si was incorporated as substitutional impurity exclusively on In sites, which makes it a donor. Previously unknown Si-related Raman peaks at 355 and 360 cm{sup −1} were identified, based on their symmetry properties in polarization-dependent measurements, as the two local vibrational modes of an isolated Si impurity on In site along and perpendicular, respectively, to the c-axis of the wurtzite InAs crystal.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alyar, S.
2008-01-01
N-substituted sulfonamides are well known for their diuretic, antidiabetic, antibacterial and antifungal, anticancer e.g., and are widely used in the therapy of patients. These important bioactive properties are strongly affected by the special features of -CH 2 -SO 2 -NR-linker and intramolecular motion Thus, the studies of energetic and spatial properties on N-substituted sulfonamides are of great importance to improve our understanding of their biological activities and enhance abilities to predict new drugs. Density Functional Theory B3LYP /6-31G(d,p) level has been applied to obtain the vibrational force field for the most stable conformation of N,N'-etilenbis(p-toluensulfonamit)(ptsen)having sulfonamide moiety. The results of these calculation have been compared with spectroscopic data to verify accuracy of calculation and applicability of the DFT approach to ptsen. Additionally, complete normal coordinate analyses with quantum mechanical scaling (SQM) were performed to derive the potential energy distributions (PE)
Grigorenko, A. Ya.; Borisenko, M. Yu.; Boichuk, E. V.; Prigoda, A. P.
2018-01-01
The dynamic characteristics of a thick-walled cylindrical shell are determined numerically using the finite-element method implemented with licensed FEMAR software. The natural frequencies and modes are compared with those obtained earlier experimentally by the method of stroboscopic holographic interferometry. Frequency coefficients demonstrating how the natural frequency depends on the physical and mechanical parameters of the material are determined.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mackeprang, Kasper; Kjærgaard, Henrik Grum
2017-01-01
The local mode perturbation theory (LMPT) model was developed to improve the description of hydrogen bonded XH-stretching transitions, where X is typically O or N. We present a modified version of the LMPT model to extend its application from hydrated bimolecular complexes to hydrogen bonded...
Jeon, Jonggu; Lim, Joon Hyung; Kim, Seongheun; Kim, Heejae; Cho, Minhaeng
2015-05-28
A time series of kinetic energies (KE) from classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation contains fundamental information on system dynamics. It can also be analyzed in the frequency domain through Fourier transformation (FT) of velocity correlation functions, providing energy content of different spectral regions. By limiting the FT time span, we have previously shown that spectral resolution of KE evolution is possible in the nonequilibrium situations [Jeon and Cho, J. Chem. Phys. 2011, 135, 214504]. In this paper, we refine the method by employing the concept of instantaneous power spectra, extending it to reflect an instantaneous time-correlation of velocities with those in the future as well as with those in the past, and present a new method to obtain the instantaneous spectral density of KE (iKESD). This approach enables the simultaneous spectral and temporal resolution of KE with unlimited time precision. We discuss the formal and novel properties of the new iKESD approaches and how to optimize computational methods and determine parameters for practical applications. The method is specifically applied to the nonequilibrium MD simulation of vibrational relaxation of the OD stretch mode in a hydrated HOD molecule by employing a hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) potential. We directly compare the computational results with the OD band population relaxation time profiles extracted from the IR pump-probe measurements for 5% HOD in water. The calculated iKESD yields the OD bond relaxation time scale ∼30% larger than the experimental value, and this decay is largely frequency-independent if the classical anharmonicity is accounted for. From the integrated iKESD over intra- and intermolecular bands, the major energy transfer pathways were found to involve the HOD bending mode in the subps range, then the internal modes of the solvent until 5 ps after excitation, and eventually the solvent intermolecular modes. Also, strong hydrogen
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Janos, A.C.; Fredrickson, E.; McGuire, K.M.; Nagayama, Y.; Owens, D.K.
1992-01-01
The first wall of TFTR is covered in large part (23%) by an inner-wall bumper limiter which is the primary power handling structure in TFTR. The limiter is comprised of more than 2000 tiles, and is instrumented with a large number (>100) of thermocouples in a two-dimensional (2D) array, primarily for protection of the wall. While only about 5% of the tiles are monitored, this thermocouple system is nevertheless capable of mapping details in the nonaxisymmetric, as well as symmetric, heat load patterns encountered under different conditions. In particular, helical heating patterns are observed in discharges which have locked modes. The helical patterns clearly match the expected trajectories based on the m/n mode numbers obtained from Mirnov coils (m/n=2/1 and 4/1), so that the thermocouple system can and was used to identify the existence and mode number of a locked mode. While TFTR discharges rarely suffer from locked modes, locked modes always alter the heating pattern. The locked modes are found to very significantly redistribute the heat load for both ohmic and NBI heated discharges. Locked modes can make what were the coldest areas into the hottest areas, and vice versa. Locked modes also can alter the heat pattern resulting from the frequent disruptions which occur as a result of a locked mode
Controlling coupled bending-twisting vibrations of anisotropic composite wing
Ryabov, Victor; Yartsev, Boris
2018-05-01
The paper discusses the possibility to control coupled bending-twisting vibrations of anisotropic composite wing by means of the monoclinic structures in the reinforcement of the plating. Decomposing the potential straining energy and kinetic energy of natural vibration modes into interacting and non-interacting parts, it became possible to introduce the two coefficients that integrally consider the effect of geometry and reinforcement structure upon the dynamic response parameters of the wing. The first of these coefficients describes the elastic coupling of the natural vibration modes, the second coefficient describes the inertial one. The paper describes the numerical studies showing how the orientation of considerably anisotropic CRP layers in the plating affects natural frequencies, loss factors, coefficients of elastic and inertial coupling for several lower tones of natural bending-twisting vibrations of the wing. Besides, for each vibration mode, partial values of the above mentioned dynamic response parameters were determined by means of the relationships for orthotropic structures where instead of "free" shearing modulus in the reinforcement plant, "pure" shearing modulus is used. Joint analysis of the obtained results has shown that each pair of bending-twisting vibration modes has its orientation angle ranges of the reinforcing layers where the inertial coupling caused by asymmetry of the cross-section profile with respect to the main axes of inertia decreases, down to the complete extinction, due to the generation of the elastic coupling in the plating material. These ranges are characterized by the two main features: 1) the difference in the natural frequencies of the investigated pair of bending-twisting vibration modes is the minimum and 2) natural frequencies of bending-twisting vibrations belong to a stretch restricted by corresponding partial natural frequencies of the investigated pair of vibration modes. This result is of practical importance
A Vibration Control Method for the Flexible Arm Based on Energy Migration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yushu Bian
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A vibration control method based on energy migration is proposed to decrease vibration response of the flexible arm undergoing rigid motion. A type of vibration absorber is suggested and gives rise to the inertial coupling between the modes of the flexible arm and the absorber. By analyzing 1 : 2 internal resonance, it is proved that the internal resonance can be successfully created and the exchange of vibration energy is existent. Due to the inertial coupling, the damping enhancement effect is revealed. Via the inertial coupling, vibration energy of the flexible arm can be dissipated by not only the damping of the vibration absorber but also its own enhanced damping, thereby effectively decreasing vibration. Through numerical simulations and analyses, it is proven that this method is feasible in controlling nonlinear vibration of the flexible arm undergoing rigid motion.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borla, Jan Z.
2002-01-01
All six installed reduction reactors showed the same failure pattern, which can be attributed to inadequate original design, material degradation due to service conditions and improper maintenance activities. Service is typically low frequency fatigue load conditions with changes of pressure, temperature and batch load. All revealed defects severely affected the integrity of the pressure envelope and vessels were classified for major repair work with subsequent in situ monitoring program. The justification for such extensive and costly repair required a positive evaluation of the current condition of equipment. After complete study, a report was prepared which included the fitness for purpose evaluation, remaining life assessment and recommendation for future field inspections. All reactors were found to be suitable for repair. Within the scope of repair a number of critical elements were redesigned and replaced. The repair was successful and all reactors were put back into operation. Unique expertise was obtained regarding setting the parameters of dehydrogenation in reference to the heavy wall items. Taking replicas and surface sampling appeared to be very reliable and simple tools in monitoring the condition of pressure envelope. For the purpose of future inspection shutdowns specific inspection requirements were put in place to ensure continuous monitoring of the vessel integrity
Kim, Sangbum; Kim, Kihong
2017-12-11
We study theoretically the interplay between the surface confined wave modes and the linear and nonlinear gain of the dielectric layer in the Otto configuration. The surface confined wave modes, such as surface plasmons or waveguide modes, are excited in the dielectric-metal bilayer by obliquely incident p waves. In the purely linear case, we find that the interplay between linear gain and surface confined wave modes can generate a large reflectance peak with its value much greater than 1. As the linear gain parameter increases, the peak appears at smaller incident angles, and the associated modes also change from surface plasmons to waveguide modes. When the nonlinear gain is turned on, the reflectance shows very strong multistability near the incident angles associated with surface confined wave modes. As the nonlinear gain parameter is varied, the reflectance curve undergoes complicated topological changes and sometimes displays separated closed curves. When the nonlinear gain parameter takes an optimally small value, a giant amplification of the reflectance by three orders of magnitude occurs near the incident angle associated with a waveguide mode. We also find that there exists a range of the incident angle where the wave is dissipated rather than amplified even in the presence of gain. We suggest that this can provide the basis for a possible new technology for thermal control in the subwavelength scale.
Vibrational and electronic spectroscopic studies of melatonin
Singh, Gurpreet; Abbas, J. M.; Dogra, Sukh Dev; Sachdeva, Ritika; Rai, Bimal; Tripathi, S. K.; Prakash, Satya; Sathe, Vasant; Saini, G. S. S.
2014-01-01
We report the infrared absorption and Raman spectra of melatonin recorded with 488 and 632.8 nm excitations in 3600-2700 and 1700-70 cm-1 regions. Further, we optimized molecular structure of the three conformers of melatonin within density functional theory calculations. Vibrational frequencies of all three conformers have also been calculated. Observed vibrational bands have been assigned to different vibrational motions of the molecules on the basis of potential energy distribution calculations and calculated vibrational frequencies. Observed band positions match well with the calculated values after scaling except Nsbnd H stretching mode frequencies. It is found that the observed and calculated frequencies mismatch of Nsbnd H stretching is due to intermolecular interactions between melatonin molecules.
Transverse intrinsic localized modes in monatomic chain and in graphene
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hizhnyakov, V. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Klopov, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate 5, 19086 Tallinn (Estonia); Shelkan, A., E-mail: shell@ut.ee [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia)
2016-03-06
In this paper an analytical and numerical study of anharmonic vibrations of monatomic chain and graphene in transverse (perpendicular) with respect to the chain/plane direction is presented. Due to the lack of odd anharmonicities and presence of hard quartic anharmonicity for displacements in this direction, there may exist localized anharmonic transverse modes with the frequencies above the spectrum of the corresponding phonons. Although these frequencies are in resonance with longitudinal (chain) or in-plane (graphene) phonons, the modes can decay only due to a weak anharmonic process. Therefore the lifetime of these vibrations may be very long. E.g. in the chain, according to our theoretical and numerical calculations it may exceed 10{sup 10} periods. We call these vibrations as transverse intrinsic localized modes. - Highlights: • In a stretched monatomic chain, long-living nonlinear transverse localized modes may exist. • Transverse vibrations of a chain slowly decay due to creation of longitudinal phonons. • Lifetime of transverse vibrations of a chain may exceed billion periods of vibrations. • In stretched graphene, long-living out-of-plain localized vibrations may exist.
Vibrational characteristics and wear of fuel rods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmugar, K.L.
1977-01-01
Fuel rod wear, due to vibration, is a continuing concern in the design of liquid-cooled reactors. In my report, the methodology and models that are used to predict fuel rod vibrational response and vibratory wear, in a light water reactor environment, are discussed. This methodology is being followed at present in the design of Westinghouse Nuclear Fuel. Fuel rod vibrations are expressed as the normal bending modes, and sources of rod vibration are examined with special emphasis on flow-induced mechanisms in the stable flow region. In a typical Westinghouse PWR fuel assembly design, each fuel rod is supported at multiple locations along the rod axis by a square-shaped 'grid cell'. For a fuel rod /grid support system, the development of small oscillatory motions, due to fluid flow at the rod/grid interface, results in material wear. A theoretical wear mode is developed using the Archard Theory of Adhesive Wear as the basis. Without question certainty, fretting wear becomes a serious problem if it progresses to the stage where the fuel cladding is penetrated and fuel is exposed to the coolant. Westinghouse fuel is designed to minimize fretting wear by limiting the relative motion between the fuel rod and its supports. The wear producing motion between the fuel rod and its supports occurs when the vibration amplitude exceeds the slippage threshold amplitude
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Feng Lin
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Ground vibration induced by the collapse of large-scale cooling towers in nuclear power plants (NPPs has recently been realized as a potential secondary disaster to adjacent nuclear-related facilities with demands for vibration mitigation. The previous concept to design cooling towers and nuclear-related facilities operating in a containment as isolated components in NPPs is inappropriate in a limited site which is the cases for inland NPPs in China. This paper presents a numerical study on the mitigation of ground vibration in a “cooling tower-soil-containment” system via a novel application of two materials acting as cushions underneath cooling towers, that is, foamed concrete and a “tube assembly.” Comprehensive “cooling tower-cushion-soil” models were built with reasonable cushion material models. Computational cases were performed to demonstrate the effect of vibration mitigation using seven earthquake waves. Results found that collapse-induced ground vibrations at a point with a distance of 300 m were reduced in average by 91%, 79%, and 92% in radial, tangential, and vertical directions when foamed concrete was used, and the vibrations at the same point were reduced by 53%, 32%, and 59% when the “tube assembly” was applied, respectively. Therefore, remarkable vibration mitigation was achieved in both cases to enhance the resilience of the “cooling tower-soil-containment” system against the secondary disaster.
Usuki, Fusako; Tohyama, Satsuki
2016-04-01
Fetal-type Minamata disease is caused by the exposure to high concentrations of methylmercury in the fetal period and shows cerebral palsy-like clinical features. Relief of spasticity is a major task of rehabilitation to improve their activities of daily living. Here we report the effect of long-term vibration therapy on bilateral lower-limb spasticity in 3 patients with fetal-type Minamata disease. We used a simple, inexpensive, and noninvasive approach with hand-held vibration massagers, which were applied to the plantar fascia at 90 Hz for 15 minutes. The effect was observed soon after the first treatment and resulted in better performance of the repetitive facilitation. Vibration therapy for 1 year improved Modified Ashworth Scale for the ankle flexors in 2 cases. The labored gait improved and gait speed increased in another case. Continued vibration therapy for another 1 year further improved Modified Ashworth Scale score and range of motion of ankle dorsiflexion in 1 case. This case showed the decreased amplitude of soleus H-reflex after the 15-minute vibration therapy, suggesting that α-motor neuron excitability was suppressed. Vibration therapy using a hand-held vibration massager may offer safe and effective treatment for lower-limb spasticity in patients with chronic neurological disorders.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gascoyne, A.; Jain, R.; Hindman, B. W.
2014-01-01
We consider damping and absorption of solar p modes due to their energy loss to magnetic tube waves that can freely carry energy out of the acoustic cavity. The coupling of p modes and sausage tube waves is studied in a model atmosphere composed of a polytropic interior above which lies an isothermal upper atmosphere. The sausage tube waves, excited by p modes, propagate along a magnetic fibril which is assumed to be a vertically aligned, stratified, thin magnetic flux tube. The deficit of p-mode energy is quantified through the damping rate, Γ, and absorption coefficient, α. The variation of Γ and α as a function of frequency and the tube's plasma properties is studied in detail. Previous similar studies have considered only a subphotospheric layer, modeled as a polytrope that has been truncated at the photosphere. Such studies have found that the resulting energy loss by the p modes is very sensitive to the upper boundary condition, which, due to the lack of an upper atmosphere, have been imposed in a somewhat ad hoc manner. The model presented here avoids such problems by using an isothermal layer to model the overlying atmosphere (chromosphere, and, consequently, allows us to analyze the propagation of p-mode-driven sausage waves above the photosphere. In this paper, we restrict our attention to frequencies below the acoustic cut off frequency. We demonstrate the importance of coupling all waves (acoustic, magnetic) in the subsurface solar atmosphere with the overlying atmosphere in order to accurately model the interaction of solar f and p modes with sausage tube waves. In calculating the absorption and damping of p modes, we find that for low frequencies, below ≈3.5 mHz, the isothermal atmosphere, for the two-region model, behaves like a stress-free boundary condition applied at the interface (z = –z 0 ).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gascoyne, A.; Jain, R. [Applied Mathematics Department, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Hindman, B. W., E-mail: a.d.gascoyne@sheffield.ac.uk, E-mail: r.jain@sheffield.ac.uk [JILA and Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States)
2014-07-10
We consider damping and absorption of solar p modes due to their energy loss to magnetic tube waves that can freely carry energy out of the acoustic cavity. The coupling of p modes and sausage tube waves is studied in a model atmosphere composed of a polytropic interior above which lies an isothermal upper atmosphere. The sausage tube waves, excited by p modes, propagate along a magnetic fibril which is assumed to be a vertically aligned, stratified, thin magnetic flux tube. The deficit of p-mode energy is quantified through the damping rate, Γ, and absorption coefficient, α. The variation of Γ and α as a function of frequency and the tube's plasma properties is studied in detail. Previous similar studies have considered only a subphotospheric layer, modeled as a polytrope that has been truncated at the photosphere. Such studies have found that the resulting energy loss by the p modes is very sensitive to the upper boundary condition, which, due to the lack of an upper atmosphere, have been imposed in a somewhat ad hoc manner. The model presented here avoids such problems by using an isothermal layer to model the overlying atmosphere (chromosphere, and, consequently, allows us to analyze the propagation of p-mode-driven sausage waves above the photosphere. In this paper, we restrict our attention to frequencies below the acoustic cut off frequency. We demonstrate the importance of coupling all waves (acoustic, magnetic) in the subsurface solar atmosphere with the overlying atmosphere in order to accurately model the interaction of solar f and p modes with sausage tube waves. In calculating the absorption and damping of p modes, we find that for low frequencies, below ≈3.5 mHz, the isothermal atmosphere, for the two-region model, behaves like a stress-free boundary condition applied at the interface (z = –z{sub 0}).
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Morten; Hubing, Todd H.; Jensen, Kim
2016-01-01
Common-mode current on attached cables is a typical source for radiated emission. Several models have been made for conversion of the intended differential signal to unwanted common-mode current on cables. In this paper we refine a method for identifying the radiation sources arising from a long...... microstrip. This method is used to show that the radiated emission from a PCB with attached cable(s) caused by a long trace depends on whether the trace is facing up or down with different result for voltage and current sources....
Experiments on vibration control of a piezoelectric laminated paraboloidal shell
Yue, Honghao; Lu, Yifan; Deng, Zongquan; Tzou, Hornsen
2017-01-01
A paraboloidal shell plays a key role in aerospace and optical structural systems applied to large optical reflector, communications antenna, rocket fairing, missile radome, etc. Due to the complexity of analytical procedures, an experimental study of active vibration control of a piezoelectric laminated paraboloidal shell by positive position feedback is carried out. Sixteen PVDF patches are laminated inside and outside of the shell, in which eight of them are used as sensors and eight as actuators to control the vibration of the first two natural modes. Lower natural frequencies and vibration modes of the paraboloidal shell are obtained via the frequency response function analysis by Modal VIEW software. A mathematical model of the control system is formulated by means of parameter identification. The first shell mode is controlled as well as coupled the first and second modes based on the positive position feedback (PPF) algorithm. To minimize the control energy consumption in orbit, an adaptive modal control method is developed in this study by using the PPF in laboratory experiments. The control system collects vibration signals from the piezoelectric sensors to identify location(s) of the largest vibration amplitudes and then select the best two from eight PVDF actuators to apply control forces so that the modal vibration suppression could be accomplished adaptively and effectively.
Pietanza, L D; Colonna, G; Laporta, V; Celiberto, R; D'Ammando, G; Laricchiuta, A; Capitelli, M
2016-05-05
A new set of electron-vibrational (e-V) processes linking the first 10 vibrational levels of the symmetric mode of CO2 is derived by using a decoupled vibrational model and inserted in the Boltzmann equation for the electron energy distribution function (eedf). The new eedf and dissociation rates are in satisfactory agreement with the corresponding ones obtained by using the e-V cross sections reported in the database of Hake and Phelps (H-P). Large differences are, on the contrary, found when the experimental dissociation cross sections of Cosby and Helm are inserted in the Boltzman equation. Comparison of the corresponding rates with those obtained by using the low-energy threshold energy, reported in the H-P database, shows differences up to orders of magnitude, which decrease with the increasing of the reduced electric field. In all cases, we show the importance of superelastic vibrational collisions in affecting eedf and dissociation rates either in the direct electron impact mechanism or in the pure vibrational mechanism.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishizawa, A.; Nakajima, N.
2007-01-01
This is the first numerical simulation demonstrating that a macromagnetohydrodynamic (macro-MHD) mode is excited as a result of multi-scale interaction in a quasi-steady equilibrium formed by a balance between microturbulence and zonal flow based on a reduced two-fluid model. This simulation of a macro-MHD mode, a double tearing mode, is accomplished in a reversed shear equilibrium that includes zonal flow and turbulence due to kinetic ballooning modes. In the quasi-steady equilibrium, a macroscale fluctuation that has the same helicity as the double tearing mode is a part of the turbulence. After a certain period of time, the macro-MHD mode begins to grow. It effectively utilizes free energy of the equilibrium current density gradient and is destabilized by a positive feedback loop between zonal flow suppression and magnetic island growth. Thus, once the macro-MHD appears from the quasi-equilibrium, it continues to grow steadily. This simulation is more comparable with experimental observations of growing macro-MHD activity than earlier MHD simulations starting from linear macroinstabilities in a static equilibrium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
La Haye, R.J.; Strait, E.J.; Rice, B.W.
2000-01-01
Resistive neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) can cause the stable beta value in long pulse, high confinement plasmas to fall significantly below that predicted by ideal theory. The NTM islands which degrade confinement and limit beta are induced and sustained by helically perturbed bootstrap currents. A combination of shaping and q-profile modification is used in the DIII-D tokamak to increase this beta limit. (author)
Artemyev, Anton V.; Neishtadt, Anatoly I.; Vasiliev, Alexei A.
2018-04-01
Accurately modelling and forecasting of the dynamics of the Earth's radiation belts with the available computer resources represents an important challenge that still requires significant advances in the theoretical plasma physics field of wave-particle resonant interaction. Energetic electron acceleration or scattering into the Earth's atmosphere are essentially controlled by their resonances with electromagnetic whistler mode waves. The quasi-linear diffusion equation describes well this resonant interaction for low intensity waves. During the last decade, however, spacecraft observations in the radiation belts have revealed a large number of whistler mode waves with sufficiently high intensity to interact with electrons in the nonlinear regime. A kinetic equation including such nonlinear wave-particle interactions and describing the long-term evolution of the electron distribution is the focus of the present paper. Using the Hamiltonian theory of resonant phenomena, we describe individual electron resonance with an intense coherent whistler mode wave. The derived characteristics of such a resonance are incorporated into a generalized kinetic equation which includes non-local transport in energy space. This transport is produced by resonant electron trapping and nonlinear acceleration. We describe the methods allowing the construction of nonlinear resonant terms in the kinetic equation and discuss possible applications of this equation.
Furness, Trentham; Joseph, Corey; Welsh, Liam; Naughton, Geraldine; Lorenzen, Christian
2013-11-11
The potential of whole-body vibration (WBV) as a mode of dyspnoea free physical activity for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is unknown among community-based settings. Furthermore, the acute effects of WBV on people with COPD have not been profiled in community-based settings. The aim of this community-based proof-of-concept trial was to describe acute effects of WBV by profiling subjective and objective responses to physical activity. Seventeen community-dwelling older adults with COPD were recruited to participate in two sessions; WBV and sham WBV (SWBV). Each session consisted of five one-minute bouts interspersed with five one-minute passive rest periods. The gravitational force was ~2.5 g for WBV and ~0.0 g for SWBV. Reliability of baseline dyspnoea, heart rate, and oxygen saturation was first established and then profiled for both sessions. Acute responses to both WBV and SWBV were compared with repeated measures analysis of variance and repeated contrasts. Small changes in dyspnoea and oxygen saturation lacked subjective and clinical meaningfulness. One session of WBV and SWBV significantly increased heart rate (p ≤ 0.02), although there was no difference among WBV and SWBV (p = 0.67). This community-based proof-of-concept trial showed that a session of WBV can be completed with the absence of dyspnoea for people with COPD. Furthermore, there were no meaningful differences among WBV and SWBV for heart rate and oxygen saturation. There is scope for long-term community-based intervention research using WBV given the known effects of WBV on peripheral muscle function and functional independence.
Vibration Spectrum Analysis for Indicating Damage on Turbine and Steam Generator Amurang Unit 1
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Beny Cahyono
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Maintenance on machines is a mandatory asset management activity to maintain asset reliability in order to reduce losses due to failure. 89% of defects have random failure mode, the proper maintenance method is predictive maintenance. Predictive maintenance object in this research is Steam Generator Amurang Unit 1, which is predictive maintenance is done through condition monitoring in the form of vibration analysis. The conducting vibration analysis on Amurang Unit 1 Steam Generator is because vibration analysis is very effective on rotating objects. Vibration analysis is predicting the damage based on the vibration spectrum, where the vibration spectrum is the result of separating time-based vibrations and simplifying them into vibrations based on their frequency domain. The transformation of time-domain-wave into frequency-domain-wave is using the application of FFT, namely AMS Machinery. The measurement of vibration value is done on turbine bearings and steam generator of Unit 1 Amurang using Turbine Supervisory Instrument and CSI 2600 instrument. The result of this research indicates that vibration spectrum from Unit 1 Amurang Power Plant indicating that there is rotating looseness, even though the vibration value does not require the Unit 1 Amurang Power Plant to stop operating (shut down. This rotating looseness, at some point, can produce some indications that similar with the unbalance. In order to avoid more severe vibrations, it is necessary to do inspection on the bearings in the Amurang Unit 1 Power Plant.
Impact self-excited vibrations of linear motor
Zhuravlev, V. Ph.
2010-08-01
Impact self-exciting vibration modes in a linear motor of a monorail car are studied. Existence and stability conditions of self-exciting vibrations are found. Ways of avoiding the vibrations are discussed.
The effects of an inserted linear carbon chain on the vibration of a carbon nanotube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu, Z L; Guo, X M; Ru, C Q
2007-01-01
An elastic string-elastic shell model is developed to study the coupled vibration of a carbon nanowire made of a linear carbon chain (C-chain) inserted inside a carbon nanotube (CNT). It is shown that the vibration of the inserted C-chain is coupled with vibration of the CNT only for vibration modes with circumferential wavenumber n = 1. In other cases, such as axisymmetric modes (n = 0) or higher-order vibration modes with n≥2, total resultant van der Waals (vdW) force acting on the C-chain due to the innermost tube always vanishes, and therefore vibration of the CNT does not cause vibration of the inserted C-chain, although the existence of the C-chain does have an effect on the vibration of the CNT through the chain-CNT vdW forces acting on the innermost tube. The present model predicts that non-coaxial vibration between the C-chain and the innermost tube does not occur due to negligible bending rigidity of the C-chain. In addition, it is found that the C-chain has most significant effect on the lowest frequency associated with the radial vibration mode for circumferential wavenumber 2 (n = 2). In particular, the effect of the C-chain on the axisymmetric radial breathing frequencies (n = 0) predicted by the present model is found to be in reasonable agreement with known experimental and modeling results available in the literature. The present work offers systematic modeling results on the effects of an inserted C-chain on the vibration of CNTs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Philbert, Berit Thornvig; Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob; Jacobsen, Peter K
2017-01-01
Inappropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) shock therapy is painful, stressful, and typically occurs unexpected in conscious patients and may be related to a less favourable prognosis. In our institution, we have observed four cases of multiple inappropriate ICD shocks during reset...... a ventricular fibrillation (VF) zone starting at 146 b.p.m., with shock therapy only and changes in sensitivity settings making the ICD more sensitive. In all cases, the reason for the multiple inappropriate shocks was that the VF zone was reached due to exercise-induced sinus tachycardia or due to oversensing...... during sinus rhythm. The VVI backup mode has to balance between protection from failure of ICD therapy during life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias and from inappropriate shocks. It seems the non-programmable parameters in VVI backup mode of St Jude Medical ICDs carry an unacceptable high risk...
Aydin, Metin; Dede, Özge; Akins, Daniel L
2011-02-14
We have measured electronic and Raman scattering spectra of 1,1',3,3'-tetraethyl-5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-benzimidazolocarbocyanine iodide (TTBC) in various environments, and we have calculated the ground state geometric and spectroscopic properties of the TTBC cation in the gas and solution phases (e.g., bond distances, bond angles, charge distributions, and Raman vibrational frequencies) using density functional theory. Our structure calculations have shown that the ground state equilibrium structure of a cis-conformer lies ∼200 cm(-1) above that of a trans-conformer and both conformers have C(2) symmetry. Calculated electronic transitions indicate that the difference between the first transitions of the two conformers is about 130 cm(-1). Raman spectral assignments of monomeric- and aggregated-TTBC cations have been aided by density functional calculations at the same level of the theory. Vibrational mode analyses of the calculated Raman spectra reveal that the observed Raman bands above 700 cm(-1) are mainly associated with the in-plane deformation of the benzimidazolo moieties, while bands below 700 cm(-1) are associated with out-of-plane deformations of the benzimidazolo moieties. We have also found that for the nonresonance excited experimental Raman spectrum of aggregated-TTBC cation, the Raman bands in the higher-frequency region are enhanced compared with those in the nonresonance spectrum of the monomeric cation. For the experimental Raman spectrum of the aggregate under resonance excitation, however, we find new Raman features below 600 cm(-1), in addition to a significantly enhanced Raman peak at 671 cm(-1) that are associated with out-of-plane distortions. Also, time-dependent density functional theory calculations suggest that the experimentally observed electronic transition at ∼515 nm (i.e., 2.41 eV) in the absorption spectrum of the monomeric-TTBC cation predominantly results from the π → π∗ transition. Calculations are further interpreted
Prototype observation and influencing factors of environmental vibration induced by flood discharge
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xin Wang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Due to a wide range of field vibration problems caused by flood discharge at the Xiangjiaba Hydropower Station, vibration characteristics and influencing factors were investigated based on prototype observation. The results indicate that field vibrations caused by flood discharge have distinctive characteristics of constancy, low frequency, small amplitude, and randomness with impact, which significantly differ from the common high-frequency vibration characteristics. Field vibrations have a main frequency of about 0.5–3.0 Hz and the characteristics of long propagation distance and large-scale impact. The vibration of a stilling basin slab runs mainly in the vertical direction. The vibration response of the guide wall perpendicular to the flow is significantly stronger than it is in other directions and decreases linearly downstream along the guide wall. The vibration response of the underground turbine floor is mainly caused by the load of unit operation. Urban environmental vibration has particular distribution characteristics and change patterns, and is greatly affected by discharge, scheduling modes, and geological conditions. Along with the increase of the height of residential buildings, vibration responses show a significant amplification effect. The horizontal and vertical vibrations of the 7th floor are, respectively, about 6 times and 1.5 times stronger than the corresponding vibrations of the 1st floor. The vibration of a large-scale chemical plant presents the combined action of flood discharge and working machines. Meanwhile, it is very difficult to reduce the low-frequency environmental vibrations. Optimization of the discharge scheduling mode is one of the effective measures of reducing the flow impact loads at present. Choosing reasonable dam sites is crucial.
Vibration insensitive interferometry
Millerd, James; Brock, Neal; Hayes, John; Kimbrough, Brad; North-Morris, Michael; Wyant, James C.
2017-11-01
The largest limitation of phase-shifting interferometry for optical testing is the sensitivity to the environment, both vibration and air turbulence. An interferometer using temporal phase-shifting is very sensitive to vibration because the various phase shifted frames of interferometric data are taken at different times and vibration causes the phase shifts between the data frames to be different from what is desired. Vibration effects can be reduced by taking all the phase shifted frames simultaneously and turbulence effects can be reduced by averaging many measurements. There are several techniques for simultaneously obtaining several phase-shifted interferograms and this paper will discuss two such techniques: 1) Simultaneous phase-shifting interferometry on a single detector array (PhaseCam) and 2) Micropolarizer phase-shifting array. The application of these techniques for the testing of large optical components, measurement of vibrational modes, the phasing of segmented optical components, and the measurement of deformations of large diffuse structures is described.
Vibrations of rotating machinery
Matsushita, Osami; Kanki, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masao; Keogh, Patrick
2017-01-01
This book opens with an explanation of the vibrations of a single degree-of-freedom (dof) system for all beginners. Subsequently, vibration analysis of multi-dof systems is explained by modal analysis. Mode synthesis modeling is then introduced for system reduction, which aids understanding in a simplified manner of how complicated rotors behave. Rotor balancing techniques are offered for rigid and flexible rotors through several examples. Consideration of gyroscopic influences on the rotordynamics is then provided and vibration evaluation of a rotor-bearing system is emphasized in terms of forward and backward whirl rotor motions through eigenvalue (natural frequency and damping ratio) analysis. In addition to these rotordynamics concerning rotating shaft vibration measured in a stationary reference frame, blade vibrations are analyzed with Coriolis forces expressed in a rotating reference frame. Other phenomena that may be assessed in stationary and rotating reference frames include stability characteristic...
Structural Stability and Vibration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wiggers, Sine Leergaard; Pedersen, Pauli
This book offers an integrated introduction to the topic of stability and vibration. Strikingly, it describes stability as a function of boundary conditions and eigenfrequency as a function of both boundary conditions and column force. Based on a post graduate course held by the author at the Uni...... and their derivation, thus stimulating them to write interactive and dynamic programs to analyze instability and vibrational modes....
System Detects Vibrational Instabilities
Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.
1990-01-01
Sustained vibrations at two critical frequencies trigger diagnostic response or shutdown. Vibration-analyzing electronic system detects instabilities of combustion in rocket engine. Controls pulse-mode firing of engine and identifies vibrations above threshold amplitude at 5.9 and/or 12kHz. Adapted to other detection and/or control schemes involving simultaneous real-time detection of signals above or below preset amplitudes at two or more specified frequencies. Potential applications include rotating machinery and encoders and decoders in security systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jung Jin Park
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Magnetostrictive Fe-Ga and Fe-Al alloys are promising materials for use in bending-mode vibrational energy harvesters. For this study, 50.8 mm × 5.0 mm × 0.5 mm strips of Fe-Ga and Fe-Al were cut from 0.50-mm thick rolled sheet. An atmospheric anneal was used to develop a Goss texture through an abnormal grain growth process. The anneal lead to large (011 grains that covered over 90% of sample surface area. The resulting highly-textured Fe-Ga and Fe-Al strips exhibited saturation magnetostriction values (λsat = λ∥ − λ⊥ of ∼280 ppm and ∼130 ppm, respectively. To maximize 90° rotation of magnetic moments during bending of the strips, we employed compressive stress annealing (SA. Samples were heated to 500°C, and a 100-150 MPa compressive stress was applied while at 500°C for 30 minutes and while being cooled. The effectiveness of the SA on magnetic moment rotation was inferred by comparing post-SA magnetostriction with the maximum possible yield of rotated magnetic moments, which is achieved when λ∥ = λsat and λ⊥ = 0. The uniformity of the SA along the sample length and the impact of the SA on sensing/energy harvesting performance were then assessed by comparing pre- and post-SA bending-stress-induced changes in magnetization at five different locations along the samples. The SA process with a 150 MPa compressive load improved Fe-Ga actuation along the sample length from 170 to 225 ppm (from ∼60% to within ∼80% of λsat. The corresponding sensing/energy harvesting performance improved by as much as a factor of eight in the best sample, however the improvement was not at all uniform along the sample length. The SA process with a 100 MPa compressive load improved Fe-Al actuation along the sample length from 60 to 73 ppm (from ∼46% to ∼56% of λsat, indicating only a marginally effective SA and suggesting the need for modification of the SA protocol. In spite of this, the SA was effective at improving the sensing
Park, Jung Jin; Na, Suok-Min; Raghunath, Ganesh; Flatau, Alison B.
2016-05-01
Magnetostrictive Fe-Ga and Fe-Al alloys are promising materials for use in bending-mode vibrational energy harvesters. For this study, 50.8 mm × 5.0 mm × 0.5 mm strips of Fe-Ga and Fe-Al were cut from 0.50-mm thick rolled sheet. An atmospheric anneal was used to develop a Goss texture through an abnormal grain growth process. The anneal lead to large (011) grains that covered over 90% of sample surface area. The resulting highly-textured Fe-Ga and Fe-Al strips exhibited saturation magnetostriction values (λsat = λ∥ - λ⊥) of ˜280 ppm and ˜130 ppm, respectively. To maximize 90° rotation of magnetic moments during bending of the strips, we employed compressive stress annealing (SA). Samples were heated to 500°C, and a 100-150 MPa compressive stress was applied while at 500°C for 30 minutes and while being cooled. The effectiveness of the SA on magnetic moment rotation was inferred by comparing post-SA magnetostriction with the maximum possible yield of rotated magnetic moments, which is achieved when λ∥ = λsat and λ⊥ = 0. The uniformity of the SA along the sample length and the impact of the SA on sensing/energy harvesting performance were then assessed by comparing pre- and post-SA bending-stress-induced changes in magnetization at five different locations along the samples. The SA process with a 150 MPa compressive load improved Fe-Ga actuation along the sample length from 170 to 225 ppm (from ˜60% to within ˜80% of λsat). The corresponding sensing/energy harvesting performance improved by as much as a factor of eight in the best sample, however the improvement was not at all uniform along the sample length. The SA process with a 100 MPa compressive load improved Fe-Al actuation along the sample length from 60 to 73 ppm (from ˜46% to ˜56% of λsat, indicating only a marginally effective SA and suggesting the need for modification of the SA protocol. In spite of this, the SA was effective at improving the sensing/energy harvesting
Marinangeli, L.; Alijani, F.; HosseinNia, S. Hassan
2018-01-01
In this paper, Active Vibration Control (AVC) of a rectangular carbon fibre composite plate with free edges is presented. The plate is subjected to out-of-plane excitation by a modal vibration exciter and controlled by Macro Fibre Composite (MFC) transducers. Vibration measurements are performed by using a Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) system. A fractional-order Positive Position Feedback (PPF) compensator is proposed, implemented and compared to the standard integer-order PPF. MFC actuator and sensor are positioned on the plate based on maximal modal strain criterion, so as to control the second natural mode of the plate. Both integer and fractional-order PPF allowed for the effective control of the second mode of vibration. However, the newly proposed fractional-order controller is found to be more efficient in achieving the same performance with less actuation voltage. Moreover, it shows promising performance in reducing spillover effect due to uncontrolled modes.
Free vibration analysis of corroded steel plates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eslami-Majd, Alireza; Rahbar-Ranji, Ahmad [AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2014-06-15
Vibration analysis of unstiffened/stiffened plates has long been studied due to its importance in the design and condition assessments of ship and offshore structures. Corrosion is inevitable in steel structures and has been so far considered in strength analysis of structures. We studied the free vibration of pitted corroded plates with simply supported boundary conditions. Finite element analysis, with ABAQUS, was used to determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of corroded plates. Influential parameters including plate aspect ratio, degree of pit, one-sided/both-sided corroded plate, and different corrosion patterns were investigated. By increasing the degree of corrosion, reduction of natural frequency increases. Plate aspect ratio and plate dimensions have no influence on reduction of natural frequency. Different corrosion patterns on the surface of one-sided corroded plates have little influence on reduction of natural frequency. Ratio of pit depth over plate thickness has no influence on the reduction of natural frequency. The reduction of natural frequency in both-sided corroded plates is higher than one-sided corroded plates with the same amount of total corrosion loss. Mode shapes of vibration would change due to corrosion, except square mode shapes.
The Influence of Shaft’s Bending on the Coupling Vibration of a Flexible Blade-Rotor System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chao-feng Li
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The influence of shaft bending on the coupling vibration of rotor-blades system is nonignorable. Therefore, this paper analyzed the influence of shaft bending on the coupling vibration of rotor-blades system. The vibration mode function of shaft under elastic supporting condition was also derived to ensure accuracy of the model as well. The influence of the number of blades, the position of disk, and the support stiffness of shaft on critical speed of system was analyzed. The numerical results show that there were two categories of coupling mode shapes which belong to a set where the blade’s first two modes predominate in the system: shaft-blade (SB mode and interblade (BB mode due to the coupling between blade and shaft. The BB mode was of repeated frequencies of (Nb-2 multiplicity for number blades, and the SB mode was of repeated frequencies of (2 multiplicity for number blades. What is more, with the increase of the number of blades, natural frequency of rotor was decreasing linearly, that of BB mode was constant, and that of SB mode was increasing linearly. Natural frequency of BB mode was not affected while that of rotor and SB mode was affected (changed symmetrically with the center of shaft by the position of disk. In the end, vibration characteristics of coupling mode shapes were analyzed.
Chains of benzenes with lithium-atom adsorption: Vibrations and spontaneous symmetry breaking
Ortiz, Yenni P.; Stegmann, Thomas; Klein, Douglas J.; Seligman, Thomas H.
2017-09-01
We study effects of different configurations of adsorbates on the vibrational modes as well as symmetries of polyacenes and poly-p-phenylenes focusing on lithium atom adsorption. We found that the spectra of the vibrational modes distinguish the different configurations. For more regular adsorption schemes the lowest states are bending and torsion modes of the skeleton, which are essentially followed by the adsorbate. On poly-p-phenylenes we found that lithium adsorption reduces and often eliminates the torsion between rings thus increasing symmetry. There is spontaneous symmetry breaking in poly-p-phenylenes due to double adsorption of lithium atoms on alternating rings.
Seidel, H.; Blüthner, R.; Hinz, B.; Schust, M.
1998-08-01
The guidance on the effects of vibration on health in standards for whole-body vibration (WBV) does not provide quantitative relationships between WBV and health risk. The paper aims at the elucidation of exposure-response relationships. An analysis of published data on the static and dynamic strength of vertebrae and bone, loaded with various frequencies under different conditions, provided the basis for a theoretical approach to evaluate repetitive loads on the lumbar spine (“internal loads”). The approach enabled the calculation of “equivalent”—with respect to cumulative fatigue failure—combinations of amplitudes and numbers of internal cyclic stress. In order to discover the relation between external peak accelerations at the seat and internal peak loads, biodynamic data of experiments (36 subjects, three somatotypes, two different postures—relaxed and bent forward; random WBV,aw, r.m.s. 1·4 ms-2, containing high transients) were used as input to a biomechanical model. Internal pressure changes were calculated using individual areas of vertebral endplates. The assessment of WBV was based on the quantitative relations between peak accelerations at the seat and pressures predicted for the disk L5/S1. For identical exposures clearly higher rates of pressure rise in the bent forward compared to the relaxed posture were predicted. The risk assessment for internal forces considered the combined internal static and dynamic loads, in relation to the predicted individual strength, and Miner's hypothesis. For exposure durations between 1 min and 8 h, energy equivalent vibration magnitudes (formula B.1, ISO 2631-1, 1997) and equivalent vibration magnitudes according to formula B.2 (time dependence over-energetic) were compared with equivalent combinations of upward peak accelerations and exposure durations according to predicted cumulative fatigue failures of lumbar vertebrae. Formula B.1 seems to underestimate the health risk caused by high magnitudes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huynh, K.T., E-mail: tuan.huynh@utt.f [Universite de technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay and STMR UMR CNRS 6279-12, rue Marie Curie, BP2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Barros, A., E-mail: anne.barros@utt.f [Universite de technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay and STMR UMR CNRS 6279-12, rue Marie Curie, BP2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Berenguer, C., E-mail: christophe.berenguer@utt.f [Universite de technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay and STMR UMR CNRS 6279-12, rue Marie Curie, BP2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Castro, I.T., E-mail: inmatorres@unex.e [Departamento de Matematicas, Escuela Politecnica, 10071 Caceres (Spain)
2011-04-15
This paper deals with the condition-based maintenance of single-unit systems which are subject to the competing and dependent failures due deterioration and traumatic shock events. The main aim is to provide a model to assess the value of condition monitoring information for the maintenance decision-making. A condition-based periodic inspection/replacement policy is developed and compared with a benchmark time-based block replacement policy. Numerical results show that it is indeed useful to follow closely the actual evolution of the system to adapt the maintenance decisions to the true system state to improve the performance of maintenance policies. The analysis of the maintenance costs savings can be used to justify or not the choice to implement a policy based on condition monitoring information and to invest in condition monitoring devices.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huynh, K.T.; Barros, A.; Berenguer, C.; Castro, I.T.
2011-01-01
This paper deals with the condition-based maintenance of single-unit systems which are subject to the competing and dependent failures due deterioration and traumatic shock events. The main aim is to provide a model to assess the value of condition monitoring information for the maintenance decision-making. A condition-based periodic inspection/replacement policy is developed and compared with a benchmark time-based block replacement policy. Numerical results show that it is indeed useful to follow closely the actual evolution of the system to adapt the maintenance decisions to the true system state to improve the performance of maintenance policies. The analysis of the maintenance costs savings can be used to justify or not the choice to implement a policy based on condition monitoring information and to invest in condition monitoring devices.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fanack, C.; Boucher, I.; Heuraux, S.; Leclert, G.; Clairet, F.; Zou, X.L.
1996-01-01
Ordinary wave reflectometry in a plasma containing a localized density perturbation is studied with a 1-D model. The phase response is studied as a function of the wavenumber and position of the perturbation. It is shown that it strongly depends upon the perturbation shape and size. For a small perturbation wavenumber, the response is due to the oscillation of the cut-off layer. For larger wavenumbers, two regimes are found: for a broad perturbation, the phase response is an image of the perturbation itself; for a narrow perturbation, it is rather an image of the Fourier transform. For tokamak plasmas it turns out that, for the fluctuation spectra usually observed, the phase response comes primarily from those fluctuations that are localized at the cut-off. Results of a 2-D numerical model show that geometry effects are negligible for the scattering by radial fluctuations. (author)
Interfacial instabilities in vibrated fluids
Porter, Jeff; Laverón-Simavilla, Ana; Tinao Perez-Miravete, Ignacio; Fernandez Fraile, Jose Javier
2016-07-01
Vibrations induce a range of different interfacial phenomena in fluid systems depending on the frequency and orientation of the forcing. With gravity, (large) interfaces are approximately flat and there is a qualitative difference between vertical and horizontal forcing. Sufficient vertical forcing produces subharmonic standing waves (Faraday waves) that extend over the whole interface. Horizontal forcing can excite both localized and extended interfacial phenomena. The vibrating solid boundaries act as wavemakers to excite traveling waves (or sloshing modes at low frequencies) but they also drive evanescent bulk modes whose oscillatory pressure gradient can parametrically excite subharmonic surface waves like cross-waves. Depending on the magnitude of the damping and the aspect ratio of the container, these locally generated surfaces waves may interact in the interior resulting in temporal modulation and other complex dynamics. In the case where the interface separates two fluids of different density in, for example, a rectangular container, the mass transfer due to vertical motion near the endwalls requires a counterflow in the interior region that can lead to a Kelvin-Helmholtz type instability and a ``frozen wave" pattern. In microgravity, the dominance of surface forces favors non-flat equilibrium configurations and the distinction between vertical and horizontal applied forcing can be lost. Hysteresis and multiplicity of solutions are more common, especially in non-wetting systems where disconnected (partial) volumes of fluid can be established. Furthermore, the vibrational field contributes a dynamic pressure term that competes with surface tension to select the (time averaged) shape of the surface. These new (quasi-static) surface configurations, known as vibroequilibria, can differ substantially from the hydrostatic state. There is a tendency for the interface to orient perpendicular to the vibrational axis and, in some cases, a bulge or cavity is induced
Breakup of free liquid jets influenced by external mechanical vibrations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lad, V N; Murthy, Z V P, E-mail: vnl@ched.svnit.ac.in, E-mail: zvpm@ched.svnit.ac.in, E-mail: zvpm2000@yahoo.com [Chemical Engineering Department, Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology—Surat, Surat—395007, Gujarat (India)
2017-02-15
The breakup of liquid jets has been studied with various test liquids using externally imposed mechanical vibrations. Images of the jets were captured by a high speed camera up to the speed of 1000 frames per second, and analyzed to obtain the profile of the jet and breakup length. The dynamics of the jets have also been studied to understand the effects of additives—a surfactant and polymer—incorporating externally imposed mechanical vibrations. Different types of breakup modes have been explored with respect to the Weber number and Ohnesorge number. The introduction of mechanical vibrations have caused jet breakup with separated droplets at a comparatively lower Weber number. The region of jet breakup by neck formation at constant jet velocities also contracted due to mechanical vibrations. (paper)
Structural Stability and Vibration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wiggers, Sine Leergaard; Pedersen, Pauli
at the University of Southern Denmark, it reports on fundamental formulas and makes uses of graphical representation to promote understanding. Thanks to the emphasis put on analytical methods and numerical results, the book is meant to make students and engineers familiar with all fundamental equations...... and their derivation, thus stimulating them to write interactive and dynamic programs to analyze instability and vibrational modes....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alekhin, S.A.; Chernov, V.S.; Denisenko, V.V.; Gorodnyanskiy, I.F.; Prokopov, L.I.; Tikhonov, Yu.P.
1983-01-01
The vibration mixer is proposed which contains a housing, vibration drive with rod installed in the upper part of the mixing mechanism made in the form of a hollow shaft with blades. In order to improve intensity of mixing and dispersion of the mud, the shaft with the blades is arranged on the rod of the vibrator and is equipped with a cam coupling whose drive disc is attached to the vibration rod. The rod is made helical, while the drive disc of the cam coupling is attached to the helical surface of the rod. In addition, the vibration mixer is equipped with perforated discs installed on the ends of the rods.
Modal Vibration Control in Periodic Time-Varying Structures with Focus on Rotor Blade Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Rene Hardam; Santos, Ilmar
2004-01-01
of active modal controllers. The main aim is to reduce vibrations in periodic time-varying structures. Special emphasis is given to vibration control of coupled bladed rotor systems. A state feedback modal control law is developed based on modal analysis in periodic time-varying structures. The first step...... in the procedure is a transformation of the model into a time-invariant modal form by applying the modal matrices, which are also periodic time-variant. Due to coupled rotor and blade motions complex vibration modes occur in the modal transformed state space model. This implies that the modal transformed model...
Resonant vibration control of three-bladed wind turbine rotors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krenk, Steen; Svendsen, Martin Nymann; Høgsberg, Jan Becker
2012-01-01
Rotors with blades, as in wind turbines, are prone to vibrations due to the flexibility of the blades and the support. In the present paper a theory is developed for active control of a combined set of vibration modes in three-bladed rotors. The control system consists of identical collocated...... to influence of other nonresonant modes. The efficiency of the method isdemonstrated byapplication to a rotor with 42 m blades, where the sensor/actuator system is implemented in the form of an axial extensible strut near the root of each blade. The load is provided by a simple but fully threedimensional...... correlated wind velocity field. It is shown by numerical simulations that the active damping system can provide a significant reduction in the response amplitude of the targeted modes, while applying control moments to the blades that are about 1 order of magnitude smaller than the moments from the external...
Dissipation enhanced vibrational sensing in an olfactory molecular switch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chęcińska, Agata; Heaney, Libby; Pollock, Felix A.; Nazir, Ahsan
2015-01-01
Motivated by a proposed olfactory mechanism based on a vibrationally activated molecular switch, we study electron transport within a donor-acceptor pair that is coupled to a vibrational mode and embedded in a surrounding environment. We derive a polaron master equation with which we study the dynamics of both the electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom beyond previously employed semiclassical (Marcus-Jortner) rate analyses. We show (i) that in the absence of explicit dissipation of the vibrational mode, the semiclassical approach is generally unable to capture the dynamics predicted by our master equation due to both its assumption of one-way (exponential) electron transfer from donor to acceptor and its neglect of the spectral details of the environment; (ii) that by additionally allowing strong dissipation to act on the odorant vibrational mode, we can recover exponential electron transfer, though typically at a rate that differs from that given by the Marcus-Jortner expression; (iii) that the ability of the molecular switch to discriminate between the presence and absence of the odorant, and its sensitivity to the odorant vibrational frequency, is enhanced significantly in this strong dissipation regime, when compared to the case without mode dissipation; and (iv) that details of the environment absent from previous Marcus-Jortner analyses can also dramatically alter the sensitivity of the molecular switch, in particular, allowing its frequency resolution to be improved. Our results thus demonstrate the constructive role dissipation can play in facilitating sensitive and selective operation in molecular switch devices, as well as the inadequacy of semiclassical rate equations in analysing such behaviour over a wide range of parameters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dmitrii A. Oshmarin
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In technical applications it takes place the problem of vibration damping in certain regions of the structure, at the location of optical sensors for instance, at any external dynamic excitations with no mass increase and no changes in spectral portrait. In order to solve these problems it is widespread the use of special damping devices: piezoelectric elements connected to external electric circuits and attached to the structure. It became possible due to piezoelectric effect, which provides transformation of part of energy of vibrations into electric one, which is dissipated in external electric circuit. So that by using appropriate electric circuits one may dissipate internal energy and therefore reduce structural vibrations in definite frequency range. As a rule, external circuit of single branch, which shunts single piezoelectric element, allows vibration damping on one certain frequency. Due to the fact, that practical applications usually include requirements of damping of several modes by one and the same technical devices, the problem of multimodal vibration damping in smart-structures is rather acute. The objective of this paper is the study of possibility of vibration damping on several modes by using single external series RL-circuit, connected to electrodes of single piezoelectric element on the basis of solution of problems on natural and forced steady-state vibrations of electroelastic systems with external electric circuits.
Numerical Modal Analysis of Vibrations in a Three-Phase Linear Switched Reluctance Actuator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Salvado
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of vibrations produced by switched reluctance actuators, focusing on the linear configuration of this type of machines, aiming at its characterization regarding the structural vibrations. The complexity of the mechanical system and the number of parts used put serious restrictions on the effectiveness of analytical approaches. We build the 3D model of the actuator and use finite element method (FEM to find its natural frequencies. The focus is on frequencies within the range up to nearly 1.2 kHz which is considered relevant, based on preliminary simulations and experiments. Spectral analysis results of audio signals from experimental modal excitation are also shown and discussed. The obtained data support the characterization of the linear actuator regarding the excited modes, its vibration frequencies, and mode shapes, with high potential of excitation due to the regular operation regimes of the machine. The results reveal abundant modes and harmonics and the symmetry characteristics of the actuator, showing that the vibration modes can be excited for different configurations of the actuator. The identification of the most critical modes is of great significance for the actuator’s control strategies. This analysis also provides significant information to adopt solutions to reduce the vibrations at the design.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorman, D.J.
1983-12-01
PIPEAU-2 is a computer code developed at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories for the flow-induced vibration analysis of heat exchanger and steam generator tube bundles. It can perform this analysis for straight and 'U' tubes. All the theoretical work underlying the code is analytical rather than numerical in nature. Highly accurate evaluation of the free vibration frequencies and mode shapes is therefore obtained. Using the latest experimentally determined parameters available, the free vibration analysis is followed by a forced vibration analysis. Tube response due to fluid turbulence and vortex shedding is determined, as well as critical fluid velocity associated with fluid-elastic instability
Resonant vibration control of wind turbine blades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svendsen, Martin Nymann; Krenk, Steen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker
2010-01-01
. The efficiency of the resonant controller is demonstrated for a representative turbine blade exposed to turbulent wind loading. It is found that the present explicit tuning procedure yields close to optimal tuning, with very limited modal spill-over and effective reduction of the vibration amplitudes.......The paper deals with introduction of damping to specific vibration modes of wind turbine blades, using a resonant controller with acceleration feedback. The wind turbine blade is represented by three-dimensional, two-node finite elements in a local, rotating frame of reference. The element...... formulation accounts for arbitrary mass density distributions, general elastic crosssection properties and geometric stiffness effects due to internal stresses. A compact, linear formulation for aerodynamic forces with associated stiffness and damping terms is established and added to the structural model...
Some developments in core-barrel vibration diagnostics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pazsit, I.; Karlsson, J.; Garis, N.S.
1998-01-01
Diagnostics of core-barrel motion, and notably that of beam mode vibrations, has been usually performed by two distinct concepts. One strategy is to perform a qualitative analysis in the time domain, using descriptors such as vibration trajectory, probability distributions etc. This approach is rather realistic in the sense that it allows for general anisotropic pendular vibrations. The other strategy is to use frequency analysis with the goal of quantifying certain vibration properties. However, this second approach could so far handle only isotropic and unidirectional vibrations. In this paper we propose a unification of these two approaches by introducing a model by which general anisotropic vibrations can be quantified in the frequency domain. However, when separating the noise components prior to the frequency analysis, we suggest the use of symmetry properties of the noise in the time domain, based on reactor physics assumptions, as opposed to the earlier methods that use statistical independence of the components. Due to the unified approach, a combination of time and frequency domain analysis methods can be used for presentation and maximum information extraction
Alleviation of Buffet-Induced Vibration Using Piezoelectric Actuators
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Morgenstern, Shawn D
2006-01-01
.... The objective of this research was to determine the most critical natural modes of vibration for the F-16 ventral fin and design piezoelectric actuators capable of reducing buffet-induced ventral fin vibration...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Herman
1997-01-01
Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board......Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board...
Leyland, M J; Beurskens, M N A; Flanagan, J C; Frassinetti, L; Gibson, K J; Kempenaars, M; Maslov, M; Scannell, R
2016-01-01
The Joint European Torus (JET) high resolution Thomson scattering (HRTS) system measures radial electron temperature and density profiles. One of the key capabilities of this diagnostic is measuring the steep pressure gradient, termed the pedestal, at the edge of JET plasmas. The pedestal is susceptible to limiting instabilities, such as Edge Localised Modes (ELMs), characterised by a periodic collapse of the steep gradient region. A common method to extract the pedestal width, gradient, and height, used on numerous machines, is by performing a modified hyperbolic tangent (mtanh) fit to overlaid profiles selected from the same region of the ELM cycle. This process of overlaying profiles, termed ELM synchronisation, maximises the number of data points defining the pedestal region for a given phase of the ELM cycle. When fitting to HRTS profiles, it is necessary to incorporate the diagnostic radial instrument function, particularly important when considering the pedestal width. A deconvolved fit is determined by a forward convolution method requiring knowledge of only the instrument function and profiles. The systematic error due to the deconvolution technique incorporated into the JET pedestal fitting tool has been documented by Frassinetti et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 013506 (2012)]. This paper seeks to understand and quantify the systematic error introduced to the pedestal width due to ELM synchronisation. Synthetic profiles, generated with error bars and point-to-point variation characteristic of real HRTS profiles, are used to evaluate the deviation from the underlying pedestal width. We find on JET that the ELM synchronisation systematic error is negligible in comparison to the statistical error when assuming ten overlaid profiles (typical for a pre-ELM fit to HRTS profiles). This confirms that fitting a mtanh to ELM synchronised profiles is a robust and practical technique for extracting the pedestal structure.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gadzhiyev, I. M., E-mail: idris.intop@mail.ru; Buyalo, M. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Gubenko, A. E. [Innolume GmbH (Germany); Egorov, A. Yu.; Usikova, A. A.; Il’inskaya, N. D.; Lyutetskiy, A. V.; Zadiranov, Yu. M.; Portnoi, E. L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)
2016-06-15
The passive Q-switching and mode-locking modes are implemented in two-section lasers with three quantum wells. It is demonstrated that raising the reverse bias on the absorbing section changes its spectral and dynamic properties and, accordingly, leads to a change from the Q-switching mode to mode-locking. The pulse-repetition frequency in the mode-locking mode is 75 GHz, with the product of the pulse duration by the spectrum bandwidth being 0.49, which is close to the theoretical limit. It is shown that, in structures with three quantum wells, strong absorption at the lasing wavelength gives rise to a photocurrent across a section of the saturable absorber, which is sufficient for compensation of the applied bias.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gadzhiyev, I. M.; Buyalo, M. S.; Gubenko, A. E.; Egorov, A. Yu.; Usikova, A. A.; Il’inskaya, N. D.; Lyutetskiy, A. V.; Zadiranov, Yu. M.; Portnoi, E. L.
2016-01-01
The passive Q-switching and mode-locking modes are implemented in two-section lasers with three quantum wells. It is demonstrated that raising the reverse bias on the absorbing section changes its spectral and dynamic properties and, accordingly, leads to a change from the Q-switching mode to mode-locking. The pulse-repetition frequency in the mode-locking mode is 75 GHz, with the product of the pulse duration by the spectrum bandwidth being 0.49, which is close to the theoretical limit. It is shown that, in structures with three quantum wells, strong absorption at the lasing wavelength gives rise to a photocurrent across a section of the saturable absorber, which is sufficient for compensation of the applied bias.
PREFACE: Vibrations at surfaces Vibrations at surfaces
Rahman, Talat S.
2011-12-01
This special issue is dedicated to the phenomenon of vibrations at surfaces—a topic that was indispensible a couple of decades ago, since it was one of the few phenomena capable of revealing the nature of binding at solid surfaces. For clean surfaces, the frequencies of modes with characteristic displacement patterns revealed how surface geometry, as well as the nature of binding between atoms in the surface layers, could be different from that in the bulk solid. Dispersion of the surface phonons provided further measures of interatomic interactions. For chemisorbed molecules on surfaces, frequencies and dispersion of the vibrational modes were also critical for determining adsorption sites. In other words, vibrations at surfaces served as a reliable means of extracting information about surface structure, chemisorption and overlayer formation. Experimental techniques, such as electron energy loss spectroscopy and helium-atom-surface scattering, coupled with infra-red spectroscopy, were continually refined and their resolutions enhanced to capture subtleties in the dynamics of atoms and molecules at surfaces. Theoretical methods, whether based on empirical and semi-empirical interatomic potential or on ab initio electronic structure calculations, helped decipher experimental observations and provide deeper insights into the nature of the bond between atoms and molecules in regions of reduced symmetry, as encountered on solid surfaces. Vibrations at surfaces were thus an integral part of the set of phenomena that characterized surface science. Dedicated workshops and conferences were held to explore the variety of interesting and puzzling features revealed in experimental and theoretical investigations of surface vibrational modes and their dispersion. One such conference, Vibrations at Surfaces, first organized by Harald Ibach in Juelich in 1980, continues to this day. The 13th International Conference on Vibrations at Surfaces was held at the University of
Smart accelerometer. [vibration damage detection
Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)
1994-01-01
The invention discloses methods and apparatus for detecting vibrations from machines which indicate an impending malfunction for the purpose of preventing additional damage and allowing for an orderly shutdown or a change in mode of operation. The method and apparatus is especially suited for reliable operation in providing thruster control data concerning unstable vibration in an electrical environment which is typically noisy and in which unrecognized ground loops may exist.
Vibrational Spectral Studies of Gemfibrozil
Benitta, T. Asenath; Balendiran, G. K.; James, C.
2008-11-01
The Fourier Transform Raman and infrared spectra of the crystallized drug molecule 5-(2,5-Dimethylphenoxy)-2,2-dimethylpentanoic acid (Gemfibrozil) have been recorded and analyzed. Quantum chemical computational methods have been employed using Gaussian 03 software package based on Hartree Fock method for theoretically modeling the grown molecule. The optimized geometry and vibrational frequencies have been predicted. Observed vibrational modes have been assigned with the aid of normal coordinate analysis.
OPTIMAL AUTOMOBILE MUFFLER VIBRATION AND NOISE ANALYSIS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sujit Kumar Jha
2013-06-01
Full Text Available The muffler is the main part of the Automobile Exhaust System, consisting of fibrous and porous materials to absorb noise and vibrations. The exhaust gas mass coming from the engine can produce resonance, which may be the source of fatigue failure in the exhaust pipe due to the presence of continuous resonance. The modes on the muffler should be located away from the engine’s operating frequencies in order to minimise the resonance. The objective of this paper is to determine the frequencies that appear at the modes, which have the more adverse effect during the operation of the automobile. An impact test has been conducted by applying the force using a hard head hammer, and data generated have been used for plotting a graph of the transfer functions using MATLAB. Six points have been selected, namely 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 11 on the muffler for the impact test. The collected data from theses six points have been analysed for the addition of damping. Results suggests that increasing the mass increases the damping and lowers the modes of the transfer function. Further research will identify higher strength materials that can withstand the higher gas temperatures as well as the corrosion and erosion by the gas emitted from the engine. muffler, noise, vibration,modal analysis,
Random vibrations theory and practice
Wirsching, Paul H; Ortiz, Keith
1995-01-01
Random Vibrations: Theory and Practice covers the theory and analysis of mechanical and structural systems undergoing random oscillations due to any number of phenomena— from engine noise, turbulent flow, and acoustic noise to wind, ocean waves, earthquakes, and rough pavement. For systems operating in such environments, a random vibration analysis is essential to the safety and reliability of the system. By far the most comprehensive text available on random vibrations, Random Vibrations: Theory and Practice is designed for readers who are new to the subject as well as those who are familiar with the fundamentals and wish to study a particular topic or use the text as an authoritative reference. It is divided into three major sections: fundamental background, random vibration development and applications to design, and random signal analysis. Introductory chapters cover topics in probability, statistics, and random processes that prepare the reader for the development of the theory of random vibrations a...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yushu Bian
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Due to the presence of system flexibility, impact can excite severe large amplitude vibration responses of the flexible robotic manipulator. This impact vibration exhibits characteristics of remarkable nonlinearity and strong energy. The main goal of this study is to put forward an energy-based control method to absorb and attenuate large amplitude impact vibration of the flexible robotic manipulator. The method takes advantage of internal resonance and is implemented through a vibration absorber based on the transfer and dissipation of energy. The addition of the vibration absorber to the flexible arm generates a coupling effect between vibration modes of the system. By means of analysis on 2:1 internal resonance, the exchange of energy is proven to be existent. The impact vibrational energy can be transferred from the arm to the absorber and dissipated through the damping of the absorber. The results of numerical simulations are promising and preliminarily verify that the method is feasible and can be used to combat large amplitude impact vibration of the flexible manipulator undergoing rigid motion.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, An Sung; Vedichtchev, Alexandre F.
2004-01-01
In this paper are presented the blade vibration characteristics at the starting conditions of the low pressure multistage axial compressor of heavy-duty 100 MW gas turbine. Vibration data have been collected through strain gauges during aerodynamic tests of the model compressor. The influences of operating modes at the starting conditions are investigated upon the compressor blade vibrations. The exciting mechanisms and features of blade vibrations are investigated at the surge, rotating stall, and buffeting flutter. The influences of operating modes upon blade dynamic stresses are investigated for the first and second stages. It is shown that a high dynamic stress peak of 120 MPa can occur in the first stage blades due to resonances with stall cell excitations or with inlet strut wake excitations at the stalled conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meier, Patrick; Oschetzki, Dominik; Rauhut, Guntram, E-mail: rauhut@theochem.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut für Theoretische Chemie, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Berger, Robert [Clemens-Schöpf Institut für Organische Chemie and Biochemie, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Petersenstrasse 22, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)
2014-05-14
A transformation of potential energy surfaces (PES) being represented by multi-mode expansions is introduced, which allows for the calculation of anharmonic vibrational spectra of any isotopologue from a single PES. This simplifies the analysis of infrared spectra due to significant CPU-time savings. An investigation of remaining deviations due to truncations and the so-called multi-level approximation is provided. The importance of vibrational-rotational couplings for small molecules is discussed in detail. In addition, an analysis is proposed, which provides information about the quality of the transformation prior to its execution. Benchmark calculations are provided for a set of small molecules.
Contact parameter identification for vibrational response variability prediction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Creixell Mediante, Ester; Brunskog, Jonas; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard
2018-01-01
industry, where the vibrational behavior of the structures within the hearing frequency range is critical for the performance of the devices. A procedure to localize the most probable contact areas and determine the most sensitive contact points with respect to variations in the modes of vibration......Variability in the dynamic response of assembled structures can arise due to variations in the contact conditions between the parts that conform them. Contact conditions are difficult to model accurately due to randomness in physical properties such as contact surface, load distribution...... or geometric details. Those properties can vary for a given structure due to the assembly and disassembly process, and also across nominally equal items that are produced in series. This work focuses on modeling the contact between small light-weight plastic pieces such as those used in the hearing aid...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. K. Sheleh
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The paper considers a process of turning structural steel with asymmetric tool vibrations directed along feeding. Asymmetric vibrations characterized by asymmetry coefficient of vibration cycle, their frequency and amplitude are additionally transferred to the tool in the turning process with the purpose to crush chips. Conditions of stable chip breaking and obtaining optimum dimensions of chip elements have been determined in the paper. In order to reduce a negative impact of the vibration amplitude on a cutting process and quality of the machined surfaces machining must be carried out with its minimum value. In this case certain ratio of the tool vibration frequency to the work-piece rotation speed has been ensured in the paper. A formula has been obtained for calculation of this ratio with due account of the expected length of chip elements and coefficient of vibration cycle asymmetry.Influence of the asymmetric coefficient of the tool vibration cycle on roughness of the machined surfaces and cutting tool wear has been determined in the paper. According to the results pertaining to machining of work-pieces made of 45 and ШХ15 steel the paper presents mathematical relationships of machined surface roughness with cutting modes and asymmetry coefficient of tool vibration cycle. Tool feeding being one of the cutting modes exerts the most significant impact on the roughness value and increase of the tool feeding entails increase in roughness. Reduction in coefficient of vibration cycle asymmetry contributes to surface roughness reduction. However, the cutting tool wear occurs more intensive. Coefficient of the vibration cycle asymmetry must be increased in order to reduce wear rate. Therefore, the choice of the coefficient of the vibration cycle asymmetry is based on the parameters of surface roughness which must be obtained after machining and intensity of tool wear rate.The paper considers a process of turning structural steel with asymmetric
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Morrison, Ann; Knudsen, L.; Andersen, Hans Jørgen
2012-01-01
In this paper we describe a field study conducted with a wearable vibration belt where we test to determine the vibration intensity sensitivity ranges on a large diverse group of participants with evenly distributed ages and...
Axisymmetric vibrations of thick shells of revolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, Katsuyoshi; Kosawada, Tadashi; Takahashi, Shin
1983-01-01
Axisymmetric shells of revolution are used for chemical plants, nuclear power plants, aircrafts, structures and so on, and the elucidation of their free vibration is important for the design. In this study, the axisymmetric vibration of a barrel-shaped shell was analyzed by the modified thick shell theory. The Lagrangian during one period of the vibration of a shell of revolution was determined, and from its stopping condition, the vibration equations and the boundary conditions were derived. The vibration equations were analyzed strictly by using the series solution. Moreover, the basic equations for the strain of a shell and others were based on those of Love. As the examples of numerical calculation, the natural frequency and vibration mode of the symmetrical shells of revolution fixed at both ends and supported at both ends were determined, and their characteristics were clarified. By comparing the results of this study with the results by thin shell theory, the effects of shearing deformation and rotary inertia on the natural frequency and vibration mode were clarified. The theoretical analysis and the numerical calculation are described. The effects of shearing deformation and rotary inertia on the natural frequency became larger in the higher order vibration. The vibration mode did not much change in both theories. (Kako, I.)
High frequency vibration characteristics of electric wheel system under in-wheel motor torque ripple
Mao, Yu; Zuo, Shuguang; Wu, Xudong; Duan, Xianglei
2017-07-01
With the introduction of in-wheel motor, the electric wheel system encounters new vibration problems brought by motor torque ripple excitation. In order to analyze new vibration characteristics of electric wheel system, torque ripple of in-wheel motor based on motor module and vector control system is primarily analyzed, and frequency/order features of the torque ripple are discussed. Then quarter vehicle-electric wheel system (QV-EWS) dynamics model based on the rigid ring tire assumption is established and the main parameters of the model are identified according to tire free modal test. Modal characteristics of the model are further analyzed. The analysis indicates that torque excitation of in-wheel motor is prone to arouse horizontal vibration, in which in-phase rotational, anti-phase rotational and horizontal translational modes of electric wheel system mainly participate. Based on the model, vibration responses of the QV-EWS under torque ripple are simulated. The results show that unlike vertical low frequency (lower than 20 Hz) vibration excited by road roughness, broadband torque ripple will arouse horizontal high frequency (50-100 Hz) vibration of electric wheel system due to participation of the three aforementioned modes. To verify the theoretical analysis, the bench experiment of electric wheel system is conducted and vibration responses are acquired. The experiment demonstrates the high frequency vibration phenomenon of electric wheel system and the measured order features as well as main resonant frequencies agree with simulation results. Through theoretical modeling, analysis and experiments this paper reveals and explains the high frequency vibration characteristics of electric wheel system, providing references for the dynamic analysis, optimal design of QV-EWS.
Molecular rotation-vibration dynamics of low-symmetric hydrate crystal in the terahertz region.
Fu, Xiaojian; Wu, Hongya; Xi, Xiaoqing; Zhou, Ji
2014-01-16
The rotational and vibrational dynamics of molecules in copper sulfate pentahydrate crystal are investigated with terahertz dielectric spectra. It is shown that the relaxation-like dielectric dispersion in the low frequency region is related to the reorientation of water molecules under the driving of terahertz electric field, whereas the resonant dispersion can be ascribed to lattice vibration. It is also found that, due to the hydrogen-bond effect, the vibrational mode at about 1.83 THz along [-111] direction softens with decreasing temperature, that is, the crystal expands in this direction when cooled. On the contrary, the mode hardens in the direction perpendicular to [-111] during the cooling process. This contributes to the further understanding of the molecular structure and bonding features of hydrate crystals.
Ogawa, K.; Isobe, M.; Kawase, H.; Nishitani, T.; Seki, R.; Osakabe, M.; LHD Experiment Group
2018-04-01
A deuterium experiment was initiated to achieve higher-temperature and higher-density plasmas in March 2017 in the Large Helical Device (LHD). The central ion temperature notably increases compared with that in hydrogen experiments. However, an energetic particle mode called the helically-trapped energetic-ion-driven resistive interchange (EIC) mode is often excited by intensive perpendicular neutral beam injections on high ion-temperature discharges. The mode leads to significant decrease of the ion temperature or to limiting the sustainment of the high ion-temperature state. To understand the effect of EIC on the energetic ion confinement, the radial transport of energetic ions is studied by means of the neutron flux monitor and vertical neutron camera newly installed on the LHD. Decreases of the line-integrated neutron profile in core channels show that helically-trapped energetic ions are lost from the plasma.
Lee, D. Y.; Park, Y. K.; Choi, S. B.; Lee, H. G.
2009-07-01
An engine is one of the most dominant noise and vibration sources in vehicle systems. Therefore, in order to resolve noise and vibration problems due to engine, various types of engine mounts have been proposed. This work presents a new type of active engine mount system featuring a magneto-rheological (MR) fluid and a piezostack actuator. As a first step, six degrees-of freedom dynamic model of an in-line four-cylinder engine which has three points mounting system is derived by considering the dynamic behaviors of MR mount and piezostack mount. In the configuration of engine mount system, two MR mounts are installed for vibration control of roll mode motion whose energy is very high in low frequency range, while one piezostack mount is installed for vibration control of bounce and pitch mode motion whose energy is relatively high in high frequency range. As a second step, linear quadratic regulator (LQR) controller is synthesized to actively control the imposed vibration. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed active engine mount, vibration control performances are evaluated under various engine operating speeds (wide frequency range).
Active Blade Vibration Control Being Developed and Tested
Johnson, Dexter
2003-01-01
Gas turbine engines are currently being designed to have increased performance, lower weight and manufacturing costs, and higher reliability. Consequently, turbomachinery components, such as turbine and compressor blades, have designs that are susceptible to new vibration problems and eventual in-service failure due to high-cycle fatigue. To address this problem, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center are developing and testing innovative active blade vibration control concepts. Preliminary results of using an active blade vibration control system, involving a rotor supported by an active magnetic bearing in Glenn's Dynamic Spin Rig, indicate promising results (see the photograph). Active blade vibration control was achieved using feedback of blade strain gauge signals within the magnetic bearing control loop. The vibration amplitude was reduced substantially (see the graphs). Also, vibration amplitude amplification was demonstrated; this could be used to enhance structural mode identification, if desired. These results were for a nonrotating two-bladed disk. Tests for rotating blades are planned. Current and future active blade vibration control research is planned to use a fully magnetically suspended rotor and smart materials. For the fully magnetically suspended rotor work, three magnetic bearings (two radial and one axial) will be used as actuators instead of one magnetic bearing. This will allow additional degrees of freedom to be used for control. For the smart materials work, control effectors located on and off the blade will be considered. Piezoelectric materials will be considered for on-the-blade actuation, and actuator placement on a stator vane, or other nearby structure, will be investigated for off-the-blade actuation. Initial work will focus on determining the feasibility of these methods by performing basic analysis and simple experiments involving feedback control.
Experimental dynamic characterizations and modelling of disk vibrations for HDDs.
Pang, Chee Khiang; Ong, Eng Hong; Guo, Guoxiao; Qian, Hua
2008-01-01
Currently, the rotational speed of spindle motors in HDDs (Hard-Disk Drives) are increasing to improve high data throughput and decrease rotational latency for ultra-high data transfer rates. However, the disk platters are excited to vibrate at their natural frequencies due to higher air-flow excitation as well as eccentricities and imbalances in the disk-spindle assembly. These factors contribute directly to TMR (Track Mis-Registration) which limits achievable high recording density essential for future mobile HDDs. In this paper, the natural mode shapes of an annular disk mounted on a spindle motor used in current HDDs are characterized using FEM (Finite Element Methods) analysis and verified with SLDV (Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer) measurements. The identified vibration frequencies and amplitudes of the disk ODS (Operating Deflection Shapes) at corresponding disk mode shapes are modelled as repeatable disturbance components for servo compensation in HDDs. Our experimental results show that the SLDV measurements are accurate in capturing static disk mode shapes without the need for intricate air-flow aero-elastic models, and the proposed disk ODS vibration model correlates well with experimental measurements from a LDV.
Ultrafast vibrations of gold nanorings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kelf, T; Tanaka, Y; Matsuda, O
2011-01-01
We investigate the vibrational modes of gold nanorings on a silica substrate with an ultrafast optical technique. By comparison with numerical simulations, we identify several resonances in the gigahertz range associated with axially symmetric deformations of the nanoring and substrate. We...
Ultrafast vibrations of gold nanorings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kelf, T; Tanaka, Y; Matsuda, O
2011-01-01
We investigate the vibrational modes of gold nanorings on a silica substrate with an ultrafast optical technique. By comparison with numerical simulations, we identify several resonances in the gigahertz range associated with axially symmetric deformations of the nanoring and substrate. We elucid...
Predicting footbridge vibrations using a probability-based approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Lars; Frier, Christian
2017-01-01
Vibrations in footbridges may be problematic as excessive vibrations may occur as a result of actions of pedestrians. Design-stage predictions of levels of footbridge vibration to the action of a pedestrian are useful and have been employed for many years based on a deterministic approach to mode...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arindam Chakraborty
2006-03-01
Full Text Available In order to settle the issue of equivalence or non-equivalence of the two lone pairsof electrons on oxygen atom in water molecule, a quantum chemical study of the dipolecorrelation of the electronic structure of the molecule as a function of conformationsgenerated following the normal modes of vibrations between the two extremeconformations, C2v (Ã¢ÂˆÂ HOH at 90o and DÃ¢ÂˆÂh (Ã¢ÂˆÂ HOH at 180o, including the equilibrium one,has been performed. The study invokes quantum mechanical partitioning of moleculardipoles into bond moment and lone pair moment and localization of delocalized canonicalmolecular orbitals, CMOÃ¢Â€Â™s into localized molecular orbitals, LMOÃ¢Â€Â™s. An earlier suggestion,on the basis of photoelectron spectroscopy, that one lone pair is in p-type and the other is ins-type orbital of O atom of water molecule at its equilibrium shape, and also the qualitativeÃ¢Â€ÂœSquirrel EarsÃ¢Â€Â structure are brought under serious scrutiny. A large number ofconformations are generated and the charge density matrix, dipole moment of eachconformation is computed in terms of the generated canonical molecular orbitals, CMOÃ¢Â€Â™sand then SinanoÃ„ÂŸluÃ¢Â€Â™s localization method is invoked to localize the CMOÃ¢Â€Â™s of eachconformation and the quantum mechanical hybridizations of all the bonds and lone pairs onO center are evaluated in terms of the localized molecular orbitals. Computed datademonstrate that the electronic structures i.e. two bond pairs and two lone pairs and itshybridization status of all conformations of water molecule are straightforward in terms ofthe LMOÃ¢Â€Â™s. It is further revealed that the pattern of orbital hybridization changescontinuously as a function of evolution of molecular shape. The close analysis of thegenerated LMOÃ¢Â€Â™s reveals that one lone pair is accommodated in a pure p orbital and anotherlone pair is in a hybrid
Fonari, A.; Corbin, N. S.; Vermeulen, D.; Goetz, K. P.; Jurchescu, O. D.; McNeil, L. E.; Bredas, Jean-Luc; Coropceanu, V.
2015-01-01
We establish a reliable quantum-mechanical approach to evaluate the vibrational properties of donor-acceptor molecular crystals. The anthracene-PMDA (PMDA = pyromellitic dianhydride) crystal, where anthracene acts as the electron donor and PMDA as the electron acceptor, is taken as a representative system for which experimental non-resonance Raman spectra are also reported. We first investigate the impact that the amount of nonlocal Hartree-Fock exchange (HFE) included in a hybrid density functional has on the geometry, normal vibrational modes, electronic coupling, and electron-vibrational (phonon) couplings. The comparison between experimental and theoreticalRaman spectra indicates that the results based on the αPBE functional with 25%-35% HFE are in better agreement with the experimental results compared to those obtained with the pure PBE functional. Then, taking αPBE with 25% HFE, we assign the vibrational modes and examine their contributions to the relaxation energy related to the nonlocal electron-vibration interactions. The results show that the largest contribution (about 90%) is due to electron interactions with low-frequency vibrational modes. The relaxation energy in anthracene-PMDA is found to be about five times smaller than the electronic coupling.
Fonari, A.
2015-12-10
We establish a reliable quantum-mechanical approach to evaluate the vibrational properties of donor-acceptor molecular crystals. The anthracene-PMDA (PMDA = pyromellitic dianhydride) crystal, where anthracene acts as the electron donor and PMDA as the electron acceptor, is taken as a representative system for which experimental non-resonance Raman spectra are also reported. We first investigate the impact that the amount of nonlocal Hartree-Fock exchange (HFE) included in a hybrid density functional has on the geometry, normal vibrational modes, electronic coupling, and electron-vibrational (phonon) couplings. The comparison between experimental and theoreticalRaman spectra indicates that the results based on the αPBE functional with 25%-35% HFE are in better agreement with the experimental results compared to those obtained with the pure PBE functional. Then, taking αPBE with 25% HFE, we assign the vibrational modes and examine their contributions to the relaxation energy related to the nonlocal electron-vibration interactions. The results show that the largest contribution (about 90%) is due to electron interactions with low-frequency vibrational modes. The relaxation energy in anthracene-PMDA is found to be about five times smaller than the electronic coupling.
The localized vibrations of H-H-, D-D- and H-D- pairs in KCl, KBr, KI, RbCl and NaCl
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robert, R.
1974-01-01
The localized vibrational modes of H - H - , D - D - and H - D - pairs in KCl, KBr, KI, RbCl and NaCl were studied for different pair configurations. The measured frequencies of the infrared active modes were found to be in good agreement with a model of two coupled harmonic oscillators. The line width for different modes in the salts studied is discussed. The temperature dependence for the transversal modes T 1 and T 2 of the line width for the H - H - pairs in KCl indicates that the broadening of these lines is due to the 'decomposition mechanism', that generates two phonons. The generated phonons due to the decay of the localized in phase mode are: -one acustic phonon of the lattice, -one localized phonon that corresponds to the out of phase vibration of the H - H - pair. The general properties, as the Ivey law and several particulars of the properties in the alkali-halides studied are presented [pt
Investigation into high-frequency-vibration assisted micro-blanking of pure copper foils
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang Chunju
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The difficulties encountered during the manufacture of microparts are often associated with size effects relating to material, process and tooling. Utilizing acoustoplastic softening, achieved through a high-frequency vibration assisted micro-blanking process, was introduced to improve the surface finish in micro-blanking. A frequency of 1.0 kHz was chosen to activate the longitudinal vibration mode of the horn tip, using a piezoelectric actuator. A square hole with dimensions of 0.5 mm × 0.5 mm was made, successfully, from a commercial rolled T2 copper foil with 100 μm in thickness. It was found that the maximum blanking force could be reduced by 5% through utilizing the high-frequency vibration. Proportion of the smooth, burnished area in the cut cross-section increases with an increase of the plasticity to fracture, under the high-frequency vibration, which suggests that the vibration introduced is helpful for inhibiting evolution of the crack due to its acoustoplastic softening effect. During blanking, roughness of the burnished surface could be reduced by increasing the vibration amplitude of the punch, which played a role as surface polishing. The results obtained suggest that the high-frequency vibration can be adopted in micro-blanking in order to improve quality of the microparts.
Defect induced activation of Raman silent modes in rf co-sputtered Mn doped ZnO thin films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yadav, Harish Kumar [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007 (India); Sreenivas, K [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007 (India); Katiyar, R S [Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR 00931-3343 (Puerto Rico); Gupta, Vinay [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007 (India)
2007-10-07
We study the influence of Mn doping on the vibrational properties of rf sputtered ZnO thin films. Raman spectra of the Mn doped ZnO samples reveal two additional vibrational modes, in addition to the host phonon modes, at 252 and 524 cm{sup -1}. The intensity of the additional modes increases continuously with Mn concentration in ZnO and can be used as an indication of Mn incorporation in ZnO. The modes are assigned to the activation of ZnO silent modes due to relaxation of Raman selection rules produced by the breakdown of the translational symmetry of the crystal lattice with the incorporation of Mn at the Zn site. Furthermore, the A{sub 1} (LO) mode is observed with very high intensity in the Raman spectra of undoped ZnO thin film and is attributed to the built-in electric field at the grain boundaries.
Defect induced activation of Raman silent modes in rf co-sputtered Mn doped ZnO thin films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yadav, Harish Kumar; Sreenivas, K; Katiyar, R S; Gupta, Vinay
2007-01-01
We study the influence of Mn doping on the vibrational properties of rf sputtered ZnO thin films. Raman spectra of the Mn doped ZnO samples reveal two additional vibrational modes, in addition to the host phonon modes, at 252 and 524 cm -1 . The intensity of the additional modes increases continuously with Mn concentration in ZnO and can be used as an indication of Mn incorporation in ZnO. The modes are assigned to the activation of ZnO silent modes due to relaxation of Raman selection rules produced by the breakdown of the translational symmetry of the crystal lattice with the incorporation of Mn at the Zn site. Furthermore, the A 1 (LO) mode is observed with very high intensity in the Raman spectra of undoped ZnO thin film and is attributed to the built-in electric field at the grain boundaries
2009-01-01
Ed Witten is one of the leading scientists in the field of string theory, the theory that describes elementary particles as vibrating strings. This week he leaves CERN after having spent a few months here on sabbatical. His wish is that the LHC will unveil supersymmetry.
Umesh P. Agarwal; Rajai Atalla
2010-01-01
Vibrational spectroscopy is an important tool in modern chemistry. In the past two decades, thanks to significant improvements in instrumentation and the development of new interpretive tools, it has become increasingly important for studies of lignin. This chapter presents the three important instrumental methods-Raman spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vieira, M.M.F.
1985-01-01
Vibrational-rotational overtones absorption solid hydrogens (H 2 , D 2 , HD) is studied using pulsed laser piezoeletric transducer (PULPIT) optoacoustic spectroscopy is studied. A general downward shift in energy from isolated molecular energies is observed. Studying normal-hydrogen it was observed that the phonon excitations associated with double-molecular transitions are predominantly transverse-optical phonons, whereas the excitations associated with single-molecular transitions are predominantly longitudinal - optical phonons. Multiplet structures were observed for certain double transitions in parahydrogen and orthodeuterium. The HD spectrum, besides presenting the sharp zero-phonon lines and the associated phonon side bands, like H 2 and D 2 , showed also two different features. This observation was common to all the transitions involving pure rotational excitation in H 2 and D 2 , which showed broad linewidths. This, together with some other facts (fluorescence lifetime *approx*10 5 sec; weak internal vibration and lattice coupling), led to the proposition of a mechanism for the fast nonradiative relaxation in solid hydrogens, implied from some observed experimental evidences. This relaxation, due to strong coupling, would happen in two steps: the internal vibration modes would relax to the rotational modes of the molecules, and then this rotational modes would relax to the lattice vibration modes. (Author) [pt
Lattice Vibrations in Chlorobenzenes:
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reynolds, P. A.; Kjems, Jørgen; White, J. W.
1974-01-01
Lattice vibrational dispersion curves for the ``intermolecular'' modes in the triclinic, one molecule per unit cell β phase of p‐C6D4Cl2 and p‐C6H4Cl2 have been obtained by inelastic neutron scattering. The deuterated sample was investigated at 295 and at 90°K and a linear extrapolation to 0°K...... was applied in order to correct for anharmonic effects. Calculations based on the atom‐atom model for van der Waals' interaction and on general potential parameters for the aromatic compounds agree reasonably well with the experimental observations. There is no substantial improvement in fit obtained either...
Methodology for Analysing Controllability and Observability of Bladed Disc Coupled Vibrations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Rene Hardam; Santos, Ilmar
2004-01-01
to place sensors and actuators so that all vibration levels can be monitored and controlled. Due to the special dynamic characteristics of rotating coupled bladed discs, where disc lateral motion is coupled to blade flexible motion, such analyses become quite complicated. The dynamics is described...... by a time-variant mathematical model, which presents parametric vibration modes and centrifugal stiffening effects resulting in increasing blade natural frequencies. In this framework the objective and contribution of this paper is to present a methodology for analysing the modal controllability...
Vibration analysis of a hydro generator for different operating regimes
Haţiegan, C.; Pădureanu, I.; Jurcu, M.; Nedeloni, M. D.; Hamat, C. O.; Chioncel, C. P.; Trocaru, S.; Vasile, O.; Bădescu, O.; Micliuc, D.; (Filip Nedeloni, L.; Băra, A.; (Barboni Haţiegan, L.
2017-01-01
Based on experimental measurements, this paper presents the vibration analysis of a hydro generator that equips a Kaplan hydraulic turbine of a Hydropower plant in Romania. This analysis means vibrations measurement to different operating regimes of the hydro generator respectively before installing it and into operation, namely putting off load mode (unexcited and excited) respectively putting on load mode. By comparing, through the experimental results obtained before and after the operation of hydro aggregates are observed vibrations improvements.
Trillo, Cristina; Doval, Angel F; Mendoza-Santoyo, Fernando; Pérez-López, Carlos; de la Torre-Ibarra, Manuel; Deán, J Luis
2009-09-28
The combination of a high-speed TV holography system and a 3D Fourier-transform data processing is proposed for the analysis of multimode vibrations in plates. The out-of-plane displacement of the object under generic vibrational excitation is resolved in time by the fast acquisition rate of a high-speed camera, and recorded in a sequence of interferograms with spatial carrier. A full-field temporal history of the multimode vibration is thus obtained. The optical phase of the interferograms is extracted and subtracted from the phase of a reference state to yield a sequence of optical phase-change maps. Each map represents the change undergone by the object between any given state and the reference state. The sequence of maps is a 3D array of data (two spatial dimensions plus time) that is processed with a 3D Fourier-transform algorithm. The individual vibration modes are separated in the 3D frequency space due to their different vibration frequencies and, to a lesser extent, to the different spatial frequencies of the mode shapes. The contribution of each individual mode (or indeed the superposition of several modes) to the dynamic behaviour of the object can then be separated by means of a bandpass filter (or filters). The final output is a sequence of complex-valued maps that contain the full-field temporal history of the selected mode (or modes) in terms of its mechanical amplitude and phase. The proof-of-principle of the technique is demonstrated with a rectangular, fully clamped, thin metal plate vibrating simultaneously in several of its natural resonant frequencies under white-noise excitation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lindenmaier, Rodica; Scharko, Nicole K.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Nguyen, Kiet T.; Williams, Stephen D.; Johnson, Timothy J.
2017-07-25
Xylenes contain a blend of the ortho-, meta-, and para- isomers, and all are abundant contaminants in the ground, surface waters, and air. To better characterize xylene and to better enable its detection, we report high quality quantitative vapor-phase infrared spectra of all three isomers over the 540-6500 cm^{-1} range. All fundamental vibrational modes are assigned based on these vapor-phase infrared spectra, liquid-phase infrared and Raman spectra, along with density functional theory (DFT), ab initio MP2 and high energy-accuracy compound theoretical model (W1BD) calculations. Both MP2 and DFT predict a single conformer with C_{2v} symmetry for ortho-xylene, and two conformers each for meta- and para-xylene, depending on the preferred orientations of the methyl groups. For meta-xylene the two conformers have C_{s} and C_{2} symmetry, and for para-xylene these conformers have C_{2v} or C_{2h} symmetry. Since the relative population of the two conformers is approximately 50% for both isomers and predicted frequencies and intensities are very similar for each conformer, we made an arbitrary choice to discuss the C_{s} conformer for meta-xylene and the C_{2v} conformer for para-xylene. We report integrated band intensities for all isomers. Using the quantitative infrared data, we determine the global warming potential values of each isomer and discuss potential bands for atmospheric monitoring.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaw, P.K., E-mail: kaw@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat (India); Singh, R. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat (India); ITER Organization, Saint Paul-lez-Durance [France; Nordman, H. [Chamlers Institute of Technology, Goteborg (Sweden); Garbet, X.; Bourdelle, C. [CEA, Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Campbell, D.; Loarte, A.; Bora, D. [ITER Organization, Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France)
2012-09-15
Full text: A theory based on a turbulent particle pinch is proposed to explain the rapid formation of sharp density gradients in tokamak edge plasmas, in particular the pedestal region. The inward radial particle flux in the pedestal results from the interaction between small scale electron temperature gradient driven (ETG) turbulence and self-consistently formed 'electron geodesic acoustic modes' (el-GAMs). To address this phenomenon, the el-GAM modulational instability driven by the ETG turbulence background is studied. The ETG level of fluctuations and particle pinch are estimated through the back reaction of eGAMs on ETG turbulence. It is found that the particle pinch is quite sensitive to magnetic shear, safety factor, ratio of electron to ion temperatures and atomic mass number. In the absence of particle source in the pedestal, the density gradient length scale, of the order of the pedestal width, is estimated. It is shown that it is proportional to the major radius, up to some dependence on the poloidal beta. Moreover it does not depend on the normalized gyro-radius. This scaling agrees with DIII-D and JET similarity experiments. This dependence is favorable when extrapolated to the pedestal width in ITER in spite of its low normalized gyro radius. It is also shown that the density scale length becomes sharper by increasing the magnetic shear. A new H-mode pedestal pressure scaling is derived assuming that the pressure gradient is limited by the ballooning instability. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schulze, Jan; Kühn, Oliver, E-mail: oliver.kuehn@uni-rostock.de [Institut für Physik, Universität Rostock, Albert-Einstein-Str. 23-24, 18059 Rostock (Germany); Shibl, Mohamed F., E-mail: mfshibl@qu.edu.qa; Al-Marri, Mohammed J. [Gas Processing Center, College of Engineering, Qatar University, P.O. Box 2713, Doha (Qatar)
2016-05-14
The coupled quantum dynamics of excitonic and vibrational degrees of freedom is investigated for high-dimensional models of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex. This includes a seven- and an eight-site model with 518 and 592 harmonic vibrational modes, respectively. The coupling between local electronic transitions and vibrations is described within the Huang-Rhys model using parameters that are obtained by discretization of an experimental spectral density. Different pathways of excitation energy flow are analyzed in terms of the reduced one-exciton density matrix, focussing on the role of vibrational and vibronic excitations. Distinct features due to both competing time scales of vibrational and exciton motion and vibronically assisted transfer are observed. The question of the effect of initial state preparation is addressed by comparing the case of an instantaneous Franck-Condon excitation at a single site with that of a laser field excitation.
Mechanisms of Coupled Vibrational Relaxation and Dissociation in Carbon Dioxide.
Armenise, Iole; Kustova, Elena
2018-05-21
A complete vibrational state-specific kinetic scheme describing dissociating carbon dioxide mixtures is proposed. CO 2 symmetric, bending and asymmetric vibrations and dissociation-recombination are strongly coupled through inter-mode vibrational energy transfers. Comparative study of state-resolved rate coefficients is carried out; the effect of different transitions may vary considerably with temperature. A non-equilibrium 1-D boundary layer flow typical to hypersonic planetary entry is studied in the state-to-state approach. To assess the sensitivity of fluid-dynamic variables and heat transfer to various vibrational transitions and chemical reactions, corresponding processes are successively included to the kinetic scheme. It is shown that vibrational-translational (VT) transitions in the symmetric and asymmetric modes do not alter the flow and can be neglected whereas the VT 2 exchange in the bending mode is the main channel of vibrational relaxation. Inter-mode vibrational exchanges affect the flow implicitly, through energy redistribution enhancing VT relaxation; the dominating role belongs to near-resonant transitions between symmetric and bending modes as well as between CO molecules and CO 2 asymmetric mode. Strong coupling between VT 2 relaxation and chemical reactions is emphasized. While vibrational distributions and average vibrational energy show strong dependence on the kinetic scheme, the heat flux is more sensitive to chemical reactions.
Intermodal resonance of vibrating suspended cables
Rienstra, S.W.
2010-01-01
The weakly nonlinear free vibrations of a single suspended cable, or a coupled system of suspended cables, may be classified as gravity modes (no tension variations to leading order) and elasto-gravity modes (tension and vertical displacement equally important). It was found earlier [12] that the
Takano, K.; Ito, T.
2011-12-01
In the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, many buildings were vibrated greatly also in the Tokyo metropolitan area where is far left from the hypocenter. We have developed the IT Kyoshin(strong motion) Seismometer for Building which is the observation system of the usual weak earthquake ground motion by installing a lot of acceleration sensors in building, and have been setting it up in some buildings of the University of Tokyo. By this February, we have set up IT Kyoshin Seismometers newly in four buildings of the two remote campus of the University of Tokyo. And we have opend to the public of these observed data. In this building vibration observation system, we can get a lot of building vibration observation data of the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. We have made the building shaking to visible from the observation data of each building and the appearance of the shake of each building is shown plainly. Moreover, we can see how the vibration property in the usual building is changed by the large shaking. This analysis of the observation data of the building vibration at the earthquake is useful for the detection of the damaged part in the building by the earthquake and for the reinforcement measures in the weak buildings.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pastrnak, J.W.
1986-01-01
This eighteen-month study has been successful in providing the designer and analyst with qualitative guidelines on the occurrence of complex modes in the dynamics of linear structures, and also in developing computer codes for determining quantitatively which vibration modes are complex and to what degree. The presence of complex modes in a test structure has been verified. Finite element analysis of a structure with non-proportional dumping has been performed. A partial differential equation has been formed to eliminate possible modeling errors
Geometric Filtering Effect of Vertical Vibrations in Railway Vehicles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mădălina Dumitriu
2012-09-01
Full Text Available The paper herein examines the geometric filtering effect coming from the axle base of a railway vehicle upon the vertical vibrations behavior, due to the random irregularities of the track. For this purpose, the complete model of a two-level suspension and flexible carbody vehicle has been taken into account. Following the modal analysis, the movement equations have been treated in an original manner and brought to a structure that points out at the symmetrical and anti-symmetrical decoupled movements of vehicle and their excitation modes. There has been shown that the geometric filtering has a selective behavior in decreasing the level of vibrations, and its contribution is affected by the axle base magnitude, rolling speed and frequency range.
Vibration Transmission in a Multi-Storey Lightweight Building
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niu, Bin; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Kiel, Nikolaj
2012-01-01
This paper develops a parametric modelling and analysis approach to investigate the vibration transmission in lightweight buildings. The main focus of the research is to investigate the influence of geometry and configuration of the building on the vibration transmission. A building with a single...... including floor panels, external and internal wall panels, which are considered as beam-stiffened double-leaf panels. As a view to reduce the modelling and analysis cost, the panels are homogenized into equivalent composite shells with two isotropic skin layers and one orthotropic core layer. The material...... configurations of the building. Some observations can be drawn from the numerical examples: •Several frequency gaps are observed from the frequency response curve. A quite low response is obtained in these gaps due to the absence of structural Eigen modes. •The flanking transmission may play a significant role...
Çırak, Çağrı; Sert, Yusuf; Ucun, Fatih
2013-09-01
In the present work, the experimental and theoretical vibrational spectra of 4-chlorobenzothioamide were investigated. The FT-IR (400-4000 cm-1) and μ-Raman spectra (100-4000 cm-1) of 4-chlorobenzothioamide in the solid phase were recorded. The geometric parameters (bond lengths and bond angles), vibrational frequencies, Infrared and Raman intensities of the title molecule in the ground state were calculated using ab initio Hartree-Fock and density functional theory (B3LYP) methods with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set for the first time. The optimized geometric parameters and the theoretical vibrational frequencies were found to be in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data and with the results found in the literature. The vibrational frequencies were assigned based on the potential energy distribution using the VEDA 4 program. The dimeric form of 4-chlorobenzothioamide was also simulated to evaluate the effect of intermolecular hydrogen bonding on the vibrational frequencies. It was observed that the Nsbnd H stretching modes shifted to lower frequencies, while the in-plane and out-of-plane bending modes shifted to higher frequencies due to the intermolecular Nsbnd H⋯S hydrogen bond. Also, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energies and diagrams were presented.
Çırak, Çağrı; Sert, Yusuf; Ucun, Fatih
2014-06-01
In the present work, the experimental and theoretical vibrational spectra of 5-hydroxymethyluracil were investigated. The FT-IR (4000-400 cm-1) spectrum of the molecule in the solid phase was recorded. The geometric parameters (bond lengths and bond angles), vibrational frequencies, Infrared intensities of the title molecule in the ground state were calculated using density functional B3LYP and M06-2X methods with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set for the first time. The optimized geometric parameters and theoretical vibrational frequencies were found to be in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data, and with the results found in the literature. The vibrational frequencies were assigned based on the potential energy distribution using the VEDA 4 program. The dimeric form of 5-hydroxymethyluracil molecule was also simulated to evaluate the effect of intermolecular hydrogen bonding on its vibrational frequencies. It was observed that the Nsbnd H stretching modes shifted to lower frequencies, while its in-plane and out-of-plane bending modes shifted to higher frequencies due to the intermolecular Nsbnd H⋯O hydrogen bond. Also, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energies and diagrams were presented.
Axisymmetric vibrations of thin shells of revolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, Katsuyoshi; Kikuchi, Norio; Kosawada, Tadashi; Takahashi, Shin
1983-01-01
The problem of free vibration of axisymmetric shells of revolution is important in connection with the design of pressure vessels, chemical equipment, aircrafts, structures and so on. In this study, the axisymmetrical vibration of a thin shell of revolution having a constant curvature in meridian direction was analyzed by thin shell theory. First, the Lagrangian during one period of the vibration of a shell of revolution was determined by the primary approximate theory of Love, and the vibration equations and boundary conditions were derived from its stopping condition. The vibration equations were strictly analyzed by using the series solution. The basic equations for the strain and strain energy of a shell were based on those of Novozhilov. As the examples of numerical calculation, the natural frequency and vibration mode of the symmetrical shells of revolution fixed at both ends and supported at both ends were determined, and their characteristics were clarified. The theory and the numerical calculation ore described. Especially in the frequency curves, the waving phenomena were observed frequently, which were not seen in non-axisymmetric vibration, accordingly also the vibration mode changed in complex state on the frequency curves of same order. The numerical calculation was carried out in the large computer center in Tohoku University. (Kako, I.)
Component vibration of VVER-reactors - diagnostics and modelling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Altstadt, E.; Scheffler, M.; Weiss, F.-P.
1995-01-01
Flow induced vibrations of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) internals (control element and core barrel motions) at VVER-440 reactors have led to the development of dedicated methods for on-line monitoring. These methods need a certain developed stage of the faults to be detected. To achieve a real sensitive early detection of mechanical faults of RPV internals, a theoretical vibration model was developed based on finite elements. The model comprises the whole primary circuit including the steam generators (SG). By means of that model all eigenfrequencies up to 30 Hz and the corresponding mode shapes were calculated for the normal vibration behaviour. Moreover the shift of eigenfrequencies and of amplitudes due to the degradation or to the failure of internal clamping and spring elements could be investigated, showing that a recognition of such degradations even inside the RPV is possible by pure excore vibration measurements. A true diagnostic, that is the identification of the failed component, might become possible because different faults influence different and well separated eigenfrequencies. (author)
Statistical techniques for the identification of reactor component structural vibrations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kemeny, L.G.
1975-01-01
The identification, on-line and in near real-time, of the vibration frequencies, modes and amplitudes of selected key reactor structural components and the visual monitoring of these phenomena by nuclear power plant operating staff will serve to further the safety and control philosophy of nuclear systems and lead to design optimisation. The School of Nuclear Engineering has developed a data acquisition system for vibration detection and identification. The system is interfaced with the HIFAR research reactor of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission. The reactor serves to simulate noise and vibrational phenomena which might be pertinent in power reactor situations. The data acquisition system consists of a small computer interfaced with a digital correlator and a Fourier transform unit. An incremental tape recorder is utilised as a backing store and as a means of communication with other computers. A small analogue computer and an analogue statistical analyzer can be used in the pre and post computational analysis of signals which are received from neutron and gamma detectors, thermocouples, accelerometers, hydrophones and strain gauges. Investigations carried out to date include a study of the role of local and global pressure fields due to turbulence in coolant flow and pump impeller induced perturbations on (a) control absorbers, (B) fuel element and (c) coolant external circuit and core tank structure component vibrations. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kroeger, J
2008-01-01
Three aspects of electron-phonon coupling at metal surfaces are reviewed. One aspect is the Kohn effect, which describes an anomalous dispersion relation of surface phonons due to quasi-one-dimensional nesting of Fermi surface contours. The combination of electron energy loss spectroscopy and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy allows us to unambiguously characterize Kohn anomaly systems. A second aspect is the nonadiabatic damping of adsorbate vibrations. Characteristic spectroscopic line shapes of vibrational modes allow us to estimate the amount of energy transfer between the vibrational mode and electron-hole pairs. Case studies of a Kohn anomaly and nonadiabatic damping are provided by the hydrogen- and deuterium-covered Mo(110) surface. As a third aspect of interaction between electrons and phonons, local heating of a C 60 molecule adsorbed on Cu(100) and in contact with the tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope is covered
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pigarov, A. Yu.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Rognlien, T. D.
2011-01-01
A new approach is proposed to simulate intermittent, non-diffusive plasma transport (via blobs and filaments of edge localized modes (ELMs)) observed in the tokamak edge region within the framework of two-dimensional transport codes. This approach combines the inherently three-dimensional filamentary structures associated with an ensemble of blobs into a macro-blob in the two-dimensional poloidal cross-section and advects the macro-blob ballistically across the magnetic field, B. Intermittent transport is represented as a sequence of macro-blobs appropriately seeded in the edge plasma according to experimental statistics. In this case, the code is capable of reproducing both the long-scale temporal evolution of the background plasma and the fast spatiotemporal dynamics of blobs. We report the results from a two-dimensional edge plasma code modeling of a single macro-blob dynamics, and its interaction with initially stationary background plasma as well as with material surfaces. The mechanisms of edge plasma particle and energy losses from macro-blobs are analyzed. The effects of macro-blob sizes and advection velocity on edge plasma profiles are studied. The macro-blob impact on power loading and sputtering rates on the chamber wall and on inner and outer divertor plates is discussed. Temporal evolution of particle inventory of the edge plasma perturbed by macro-blobs is analyzed. Application of macro-blobs to ELM modeling is highlighted.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. Bykov
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Transient heat load tests have been conducted in the lower divertor of DIII-D using DiMES manipulator in order to study the behavior of dust on tungsten Plasma Facing Components (PFCs during ELMy H-mode discharges. Samples with pre-adhered, pre-characterized dust have been exposed at the outer strike point (OSP in a series of discharges with varied intra-(inter- ELM heat fluxes. We used C dust because of its high sublimation temperature and non-metal properties. Al dust as a surrogate for Be and W dust were employed as relevant to that in the ITER divertor. The poor initial thermal contact between the substrate and the particles led to overheating, sublimation and shrinking of the carbon dust, and wetting induced coagulation of Al dust. Little modification of the W dust was observed. An enhanced surface adhesion and improvement of the thermal contact of C and Al dust were the result of exposure. A post mortem “adhesive tape” sampling showed that 70% of Al, <5% of W and C particles could not be removed from the surface owing to the improved adhesion. Al and C but not W particles that could be lifted had W inclusions indicating damage to the substrate. This suggests that non destructive methods may be inefficient for removal of dust in ITER.
Natural Frequencies and Mode Shapes of Statically Deformed Inclined Risers
Alfosail, Feras
2016-10-15
We investigate numerically the linear vibrations of inclined risers using the Galerkin approach. The riser is modeled as an Euler-Bernoulli beam accounting for the nonlinear mid-plane stretching and self-weight. After solving for the initial deflection of the riser due to self-weight, we use a Galerkin expansion employing 15 axially loaded beam mode shapes to solve the eigenvalue problem of the riser around the static equilibrium configuration. This yields the riser natural frequencies and corresponding exact mode shapes for various values of inclination angles and tension. The obtained results are validated against a boundary-layer analytical solution and are found to be in good agreement. This constitutes a basis to study the nonlinear forced vibrations of inclined risers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, S.S.
1975-06-01
Several mathematical models have been proposed for calculating fuel rod responses in axial flows based on a single rod consideration. The spacing between fuel rods in liquid metal fast breeder reactors is small; hence fuel rods will interact with one another due to fluid coupling. The objective of this paper is to study the coupled vibration of fuel bundles. To account for the fluid coupling, a computer code, AMASS, is developed to calculate added mass coefficients for a group of circular cylinders based on the potential flow theory. The equations of motion for rod bundles are then derived including hydrodynamic forces, drag forces, fluid pressure, gravity effect, axial tension, and damping. Based on the equations, a method of analysis is presented to study the free and forced vibrations of rod bundles. Finally, the method is applied to a typical LMFBR fuel bundle consisting of seven rods
Earthquake and ambient vibration monitoring of the steel-frame UCLA factor building
Kohler, M.D.; Davis, P.M.; Safak, E.
2005-01-01
Dynamic property measurements of the moment-resisting steel-frame University of California, Los Angeles, Factor building are being made to assess how forces are distributed over the building. Fourier amplitude spectra have been calculated from several intervals of ambient vibrations, a 24-hour period of strong winds, and from the 28 March 2003 Encino, California (ML = 2.9), the 3 September 2002 Yorba Linda, California (ML = 4.7), and the 3 November 2002 Central Alaska (Mw = 7.9) earthquakes. Measurements made from the ambient vibration records show that the first-mode frequency of horizontal vibration is between 0.55 and 0.6 Hz. The second horizontal mode has a frequency between 1.6 and 1.9 Hz. In contrast, the first-mode frequencies measured from earthquake data are about 0.05 to 0.1 Hz lower than those corresponding to ambient vibration recordings indicating softening of the soil-structure system as amplitudes become larger. The frequencies revert to pre-earthquake levels within five minutes of the Yorba Linda earthquake. Shaking due to strong winds that occurred during the Encino earthquake dominates the frequency decrease, which correlates in time with the duration of the strong winds. The first shear wave recorded from the Encino and Yorba Linda earthquakes takes about 0.4 sec to travel up the 17-story building. ?? 2005, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.
Abbas, Kausar; Shenk, Trey E; Poole, Victoria N; Breedlove, Evan L; Leverenz, Larry J; Nauman, Eric A; Talavage, Thomas M; Robinson, Meghan E
2015-03-01
Long-term neurological damage as a result of head trauma while playing sports is a major concern for football athletes today. Repetitive concussions have been linked to many neurological disorders. Recently, it has been reported that repetitive subconcussive events can be a significant source of accrued damage. Since football athletes can experience hundreds of subconcussive hits during a single season, it is of utmost importance to understand their effect on brain health in the short and long term. In this study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) was used to study changes in the default mode network (DMN) after repetitive subconcussive mild traumatic brain injury. Twenty-two high school American football athletes, clinically asymptomatic, were scanned using the rs-fMRI for a single season. Baseline scans were acquired before the start of the season, and follow-up scans were obtained during and after the season to track the potential changes in the DMN as a result of experienced trauma. Ten noncollision-sport athletes were scanned over two sessions as controls. Overall, football athletes had significantly different functional connectivity measures than controls for most of the year. The presence of this deviation of football athletes from their healthy peers even before the start of the season suggests a neurological change that has accumulated over the years of playing the sport. Football athletes also demonstrate short-term changes relative to their own baseline at the start of the season. Football athletes exhibited hyperconnectivity in the DMN compared to controls for most of the sessions, which indicates that, despite the absence of symptoms typically associated with concussion, the repetitive trauma accrued produced long-term brain changes compared to their healthy peers.
An analytical method for free vibration analysis of functionally graded beams with edge cracks
Wei, Dong; Liu, Yinghua; Xiang, Zhihai
2012-03-01
In this paper, an analytical method is proposed for solving the free vibration of cracked functionally graded material (FGM) beams with axial loading, rotary inertia and shear deformation. The governing differential equations of motion for an FGM beam are established and the corresponding solutions are found first. The discontinuity of rotation caused by the cracks is simulated by means of the rotational spring model. Based on the transfer matrix method, then the recurrence formula is developed to get the eigenvalue equations of free vibration of FGM beams. The main advantage of the proposed method is that the eigenvalue equation for vibrating beams with an arbitrary number of cracks can be conveniently determined from a third-order determinant. Due to the decrease in the determinant order as compared with previous methods, the developed method is simpler and more convenient to analytically solve the free vibration problem of cracked FGM beams. Moreover, free vibration analyses of the Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beams with any number of cracks can be conducted using the unified procedure based on the developed method. These advantages of the proposed procedure would be more remarkable as the increase of the number of cracks. A comprehensive analysis is conducted to investigate the influences of the location and total number of cracks, material properties, axial load, inertia and end supports on the natural frequencies and vibration mode shapes of FGM beams. The present work may be useful for the design and control of damaged structures.
Lu, Haohui; Chai, Tan; Cooley, Christopher G.
2018-03-01
This study investigates the vibration of a rotating piezoelectric device that consists of a proof mass that is supported by elastic structures with piezoelectric layers. Vibration of the proof mass causes deformation in the piezoelectric structures and voltages to power the electrical loads. The coupled electromechanical equations of motion are derived using Newtonian mechanics and Kirchhoff's circuit laws. The free vibration behavior is investigated for devices with identical (tuned) and nonidentical (mistuned) piezoelectric support structures and electrical loads. These devices have complex-valued, speed-dependent eigenvalues and eigenvectors as a result of gyroscopic effects caused by their constant rotation. The characteristics of the complex-valued eigensolutions are related to physical behavior of the device's vibration. The free vibration behaviors differ significantly for tuned and mistuned devices. Due to gyroscopic effects, the proof mass in the tuned device vibrates in either forward or backward decaying circular orbits in single-mode free response. This is proven analytically for all tuned devices, regardless of the device's specific parameters or operating speed. For mistuned devices, the proof mass has decaying elliptical forward and backward orbits. The eigenvalues are shown to be sensitive to changes in the electrical load resistances. Closed-form solutions for the eigenvalues are derived for open and close circuits. At high rotation speeds these devices experience critical speeds and instability.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Shengquan; Li, Juan; Mo, Yueping; Zhao, Rong
2014-01-01
A novel active method for multi-mode vibration control of an all-clamped stiffened plate (ACSP) is proposed in this paper, using the extended-state-observer (ESO) approach based on non-collocated acceleration sensors and piezoelectric actuators. Considering the estimated capacity of ESO for system state variables, output superposition and control coupling of other modes, external excitation, and model uncertainties simultaneously, a composite control method, i.e., the ESO based vibration control scheme, is employed to ensure the lumped disturbances and uncertainty rejection of the closed-loop system. The phenomenon of phase hysteresis and time delay, caused by non-collocated sensor/actuator pairs, degrades the performance of the control system, even inducing instability. To solve this problem, a simple proportional differential (PD) controller and acceleration feed-forward with an output predictor design produce the control law for each vibration mode. The modal frequencies, phase hysteresis loops and phase lag values due to non-collocated placement of the acceleration sensor and piezoelectric patch actuator are experimentally obtained, and the phase lag is compensated by using the Smith Predictor technology. In order to improve the vibration control performance, the chaos optimization method based on logistic mapping is employed to auto-tune the parameters of the feedback channel. The experimental control system for the ACSP is tested using the dSPACE real-time simulation platform. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed composite active control algorithm is an effective approach for suppressing multi-modal vibrations. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Courant, E.D.; Ruth, R.D.; Wang, J.M.
1979-01-01
The name Tacoma refers to the Tacoma Narrows Bridge which collapsed on November 8, 1940 due to massive oscillations caused by high winds. One of the destructive modes was a torsion mode which was excited by transverse wind, a dipole force, and continued until the bridge collapsed. The name is used to refer to a coherent mode of oscillation of a spectrum of oscillators in which the amplitude vs frequency graph contains one node, where the node occurs near the driving frequency and a ω is not symmetric about zero. When this result is applied to vertical instabilities in coasting beams, it implies the existence of a coherent skew quadrupole moment, Q/sub xy/, whenever a coherent dipole oscillation exists
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Courant, E.D.; Ruth, R.D.; Wang, J.M.
1979-01-01
The name Tacoma refers to the Tacoma Narrows Bridge which collapsed on November 8, 1940 due to massive oscillations caused by high winds. One of the destructive modes was a torsion mode which was excited by transverse wind, a dipole force, and continued until the bridge collapsed. The name is used to refer to a coherent mode of oscillation of a spectrum of oscillators in which the amplitude vs frequency graph contains one node, where the node occurs near the driving frequency and a(ω) is not symmetric about zero. When this result is applied to vertical instabilities in coasting beams, it implies the existence of a coherent skew quadrupole moment, whenever a coherent dipole oscillation exists
OPTIMAL AUTOMOBILE MUFFLER VIBRATION AND NOISE ANALYSIS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sujit Kumar Jha
2013-06-01
Full Text Available The muffler is the main part of the Automobile Exhaust System, consisting of fibrous and porous materials to absorb noise and vibrations. The exhaust gas mass coming from the engine can produce resonance, which may be the source of fatigue failure in the exhaust pipe due to the presence of continuous resonance. The modes on the muffler should be located away from the engine’s operating frequencies in order to minimise the resonance. The objective of this paper is to determine the frequencies that appear at the modes, which have the more adverse effect during the operation of the automobile. An impact test has been conducted by applying the force using a hard head hammer, and data generated have been used for plotting a graph of the transfer functions using MATLAB. Six points have been selected, namely 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 11 on the muffler for the impact test. The collected data from theses six points have been analysed for the addition of damping. Results suggests that increasing the mass increases the damping and lowers the modes of the transfer function. Further research will identify higher strength materials that can withstand the higher gas temperatures as well as the corrosion and erosion by the gas emitted from the engine.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ground vibration tests or modal surveys are routinely conducted to support flutter analysis for subsonic and supersonic vehicles. However, vibration testing...
Dynamic Characteristics of Steam Generator Tubes with Defect due to Wear
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Sangjin; Rhee, Huinam [Sunchon National Univ., Sunchon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Doo Byung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2013-05-15
These defects may affect the dynamic characteristics of tubes, and therefore, the vibrational behavior of the tube due to flow-induced loads can be varied. Change in the vibrational response of a tube may result in different wear characteristics from the design condition, which must be checked for both safety and economic point of view. This paper deals with the study on the effect of wears or cracks on the dynamic characteristics of steam generator tubes using finite element analysis. In this paper the effect of defects on the surface due to wear on the variation of dynamic characteristics of steam generator tubes was studied using the finite element analysis. The changes of natural frequencies and mode shapes can directly affect the flow-induced vibration response characteristics, therefore, they must be evaluated appropriately. The results in this study can be a good basis to estimate the FIV characteristics of the steam generator tubes having defects such as wear or crack.
An Enhanced Random Vibration and Fatigue Model for Printed Circuit Boards
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bruno de Castro Braz
Full Text Available Abstract Aerospace vehicles are mostly exposed to random vibration loads during its operational lifetime. These harsh conditions excites vibration responses in the vehicles printed circuit boards, what can cause failure on mission functionality due to fatigue damage of electronic components. A novel analytical model to evaluate the useful life of embedded electronic components (capacitors, chips, oscillators etc. mounted on Printed Circuit Boards (PCB is presented. The fatigue damage predictions are calculated by the relative displacement between the PCB and the component, the lead stiffness, as well the natural vibration modes of the PCB and the component itself. Statistical methods are used for fatigue cycle counting. The model is applied to experimental fatigue tests of PCBs available on literature. The analytical results are of the same magnitude order of the experimental findings.
Vibration measurement on composite material with embedded optical fiber based on phase-OTDR
Franciscangelis, C.; Margulis, W.; Floridia, C.; Rosolem, J. B.; Salgado, F. C.; Nyman, T.; Petersson, M.; Hallander, P.; Hällstrom, S.; Söderquist, I.; Fruett, F.
2017-04-01
Distributed sensors based on phase-optical time-domain reflectometry (phase-OTDR) are suitable for aircraft health monitoring due to electromagnetic interference immunity, small dimensions, low weight and flexibility. These features allow the fiber embedment into aircraft structures in a nearly non-intrusive way to measure vibrations along its length. The capability of measuring vibrations on avionics structures is of interest for what concerns the study of material fatigue or the occurrence of undesirable phenomena like flutter. In this work, we employed the phase-OTDR technique to measure vibrations ranging from some dozens of Hz to kHz in two layers of composite material board with embedded polyimide coating 0.24 numerical aperture single-mode optical fiber.
Quantum statistical vibrational entropy and enthalpy of formation of helium-vacancy complex in BCC W
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wen, Haohua [Sino-French Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Technology, Sun Yat-Sen University, 519082, Zhuhai (China); Woo, C.H., E-mail: chung.woo@polyu.edu.hk [ME Department, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR (China)
2016-12-15
High-temperature advance-reactor design and operation require knowledge of in-reactor materials properties far from the thermal ground state. Temperature-dependence due to the effects of lattice vibrations is important to the understanding and formulation of atomic processes involved in irradiation-damage accumulation. In this paper, we concentrate on the formation of He-V complex. The free-energy change in this regard is derived via thermodynamic integration from the phase-space trajectories generated from MD simulations based on the quantum fluctuation-dissipation relation. The change of frequency distribution of vibration modes during the complex formation is properly accounted for, and the corresponding entropy change avoids the classical ln(T) divergence that violates the third law. The vibrational enthalpy and entropy of formation calculated this way have significant effects on the He kinetics during irradiation.
Control Application of Piezoelectric Materials to Aeroelastic Self-Excited Vibrations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Amin Rashidifar
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A method for application of piezoelectric materials to aeroelasticity of turbomachinery blades is presented. The governing differential equations of an overhung beam are established. The induced voltage in attached piezoelectric sensors due to the strain of the beam is calculated. In aeroelastic self-excited vibrations, the aerodynamic generalized force of a specified mode can be described as a linear function of the generalized coordinate and its derivatives. This simplifies the closed loop system designed for vibration control of the corresponding structure. On the other hand, there is an industrial interest in measurement of displacement, velocity, acceleration, or a contribution of them for machinery condition monitoring. Considering this criterion in quadratic optimal control systems, a special style of performance index is configured. Utilizing the current relations in an aeroelastic case with proper attachment of piezoelectric elements can provide higher margin of instability and lead to lower vibration magnitude.
Vertical vibration and shape oscillation of acoustically levitated water drops
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geng, D. L.; Xie, W. J.; Yan, N.; Wei, B.
2014-01-01
We present the vertical harmonic vibration of levitated water drops within ultrasound field. The restoring force to maintain such a vibration mode is provided by the resultant force of acoustic radiation force and drop gravity. Experiments reveal that the vibration frequency increases with the aspect ratio for drops with the same volume, which agrees with the theoretical prediction for those cases of nearly equiaxed drops. During the vertical vibration, the floating drops undergo the second order shape oscillation. The shape oscillation frequency is determined to be twice the vibration frequency.
Vertical vibration and shape oscillation of acoustically levitated water drops
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geng, D. L.; Xie, W. J.; Yan, N.; Wei, B., E-mail: bbwei@nwpu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)
2014-09-08
We present the vertical harmonic vibration of levitated water drops within ultrasound field. The restoring force to maintain such a vibration mode is provided by the resultant force of acoustic radiation force and drop gravity. Experiments reveal that the vibration frequency increases with the aspect ratio for drops with the same volume, which agrees with the theoretical prediction for those cases of nearly equiaxed drops. During the vertical vibration, the floating drops undergo the second order shape oscillation. The shape oscillation frequency is determined to be twice the vibration frequency.
Theory of vibration protection
Karnovsky, Igor A
2016-01-01
This text is an advancement of the theory of vibration protection of mechanical systems with lumped and distributed parameters. The book offers various concepts and methods of solving vibration protection problems, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different methods, and the fields of their effective applications. Fundamental approaches of vibration protection, which are considered in this book, are the passive, parametric and optimal active vibration protection. The passive vibration protection is based on vibration isolation, vibration damping and dynamic absorbers. Parametric vibration protection theory is based on the Shchipanov-Luzin invariance principle. Optimal active vibration protection theory is based on the Pontryagin principle and the Krein moment method. The book also contains special topics such as suppression of vibrations at the source of their occurrence and the harmful influence of vibrations on humans. Numerous examples, which illustrate the theoretical ideas of each chapter, ar...
Vibrational and Thermal Properties of Oxyanionic Crystals
Korabel'nikov, D. V.
2018-03-01
The vibrational and thermal properties of dolomite and alkali chlorates and perchlorates were studied in the gradient approximation of density functional theory using the method of a linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO). Long-wave vibration frequencies, IR and Raman spectra, and mode Gruneisen parameters were calculated. Equation-of-state parameters, thermodynamic potentials, entropy, heat capacity, and thermal expansion coefficient were also determined. The thermal expansion coefficient of dolomite was established to be much lower than for chlorates and perchlorates. The temperature dependence of the heat capacity at T > 200 K was shown to be generally governed by intramolecular vibrations.
Tao, Yunwen; Zou, Wenli; Cremer, Dieter; Kraka, Elfi
2018-03-05
Using catastrophe theory and the concept of a mutation path, an algorithm is developed that leads to the direct correlation of the normal vibrational modes of two structurally related molecules. The mutation path is defined by weighted incremental changes in mass and geometry of the molecules in question, which are successively applied to mutate a molecule into a structurally related molecule and thus continuously converting their normal vibrational spectra from one into the other. Correlation diagrams are generated that accurately relate the normal vibrational modes to each other by utilizing mode-mode overlap criteria and resolving allowed and avoided crossings of vibrational eigenstates. The limitations of normal mode correlation, however, foster the correlation of local vibrational modes, which offer a novel vibrational measure of similarity. It will be shown how this will open new avenues for chemical studies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lutz, H.D.; Willich, P.
1977-01-01
The FIR absorption spectra of pyrite type compounds RuS 2 , RuSsub(2-x)Sesub(x), RuSe 2 , RuTe 2 , OsS 2 , OsSe 2 , and PtP 2 as well as loellingite type phosphides FeP 2 , RuP 2 , and OsP 2 are reported. For RuS 2 , RuSe 2 , RuTe 2 , OsS 2 , and PtP 2 all of the five infrared allowed modes (k = 0) are observed. As a first result of a numerical normal coordinate treatment vibration forms of pyrite structure are communicated. The spectra show that lattice forces of corresponding sulfides, tellurides, and phosphides are about the same strength, but increase strongly by substitution of iron by ruthenium and especially of ruthenium by osmium. The lattice constants of the RuSsub(2-x)Sesub(x) solid solution obey Vegard's rule. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saalfrank, Peter [Institut für Chemie, Universität Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain); Juaristi, J. I. [Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain); Centro de Física de Materiales CFM/MPC (CSIC-UPV/EHU), Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 5, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain); Departamento de Física de Materiales, Facultad de Químicas UPV/EHU, Apartado 1072, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain); Alducin, M.; Muiño, R. Díez [Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain); Centro de Física de Materiales CFM/MPC (CSIC-UPV/EHU), Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 5, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain); Blanco-Rey, M. [Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain); Departamento de Física de Materiales, Facultad de Químicas UPV/EHU, Apartado 1072, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain)
2014-12-21
Using density functional theory and Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics with Electronic Friction (AIMDEF), we study the adsorption and dissipative vibrational dynamics of hydrogen atoms chemisorbed on free-standing lead films of increasing thickness. Lead films are known for their oscillatory behaviour of certain properties with increasing thickness, e.g., energy and electron spillout change in discontinuous manner, due to quantum size effects [G. Materzanini, P. Saalfrank, and P. J. D. Lindan, Phys. Rev. B 63, 235405 (2001)]. Here, we demonstrate that oscillatory features arise also for hydrogen when chemisorbed on lead films. Besides stationary properties of the adsorbate, we concentrate on finite vibrational lifetimes of H-surface vibrations. As shown by AIMDEF, the damping via vibration-electron hole pair coupling dominates clearly over the vibration-phonon channel, in particular for high-frequency modes. Vibrational relaxation times are a characteristic function of layer thickness due to the oscillating behaviour of the embedding surface electronic density. Implications derived from AIMDEF for frictional many-atom dynamics, and physisorbed species will also be given.
Identification of Bearing Failure Using Signal Vibrations
Yani, Irsyadi; Resti, Yulia; Burlian, Firmansyah
2018-04-01
Vibration analysis can be used to identify damage to mechanical systems such as journal bearings. Identification of failure can be done by observing the resulting vibration spectrum by measuring the vibration signal occurring in a mechanical system Bearing is one of the engine elements commonly used in mechanical systems. The main purpose of this research is to monitor the bearing condition and to identify bearing failure on a mechanical system by observing the resulting vibration. Data collection techniques based on recordings of sound caused by the vibration of the mechanical system were used in this study, then created a database system based bearing failure due to vibration signal recording sounds on a mechanical system The next step is to group the bearing damage by type based on the databases obtained. The results show the percentage of success in identifying bearing damage is 98 %.
A free vibration of beams carrying a concentrated mass under distributed axial forces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagai, Ken-ichi; Nagaya, Kosuke; Takeda, Sadahiko; Arai, Noriyuki.
1988-01-01
The free bending vibrations of beams with a concentrated mass subjected to axial forces caused by axial acceleration are analyzed by the Galerkin method, introducing the mode shape functions which are the sum of the products of the finite power series and the trigonometrical function. This analytical method makes it easy to construct the equations of motion in each boundary condition only by exchanging the coefficients of the finite power series. Numerical calculations are carried out under four sets of boundary conditions combined with simply supported and clamped edges. The natural frequencies and the corresponding modes of vibration are determined under both various locations of the concentrated mass and axial forces. it is found that the transverse inertia force and the axial force, due to the concentrated mass, have significant effects on the change of the natural frequencies for beams. Furthermore the distinction of boundary conditions gives predominant influence to the variation of natural frequencies. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burgin, Julien
2007-01-01
In this Ph.D. work we have investigated the electronic and vibrational properties of metallic nano objects as a function of their size, shape and composition, and studied the vibrational modes in glasses, using femtosecond time-resolved spectroscopy. In mono-metallic copper clusters, acceleration of the electron-lattice energy exchanges for sizes smaller than 10 nm has been demonstrated, confirming previous results in gold and silver clusters. The small size regime, i.e., nanoparticles smaller than 2 nm, has been addressed. The results show the limit of the classical confined material approach. In bi-metallic clusters, electron-lattice interaction has been shown to reflect their composition for gold-silver materials, but exhibits a more complex behavior in the case of segregated nickel-silver particles. The impact of shape, structure and environment on the acoustic vibrations of metallic nano-objects has also been studied. Measurements performed in ensemble or pairs of prisms yielded evidence for local fluctuations of their coupling with the substrate. Nano-structuration effects have been demonstrated in nano-columns and segregated components. The vibrational modes associated to local order in glasses have been investigated using a high sensitivity impulsive stimulated Raman scattering technique. The 'defect modes' of normal and densified silica, associated to vibrations of ring structures, have been observed and characterized, yielding information on the evolution of the ring density. Performing similar measurements in germania, we have demonstrated the existence of a vibrational mode due to a similar ring structure and determined its characteristics [fr
Piezoelectric energy harvesting through shear mode operation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malakooti, Mohammad H; Sodano, Henry A
2015-01-01
Piezoelectric materials are excellent candidates for use in energy harvesting applications due to their high electromechanical coupling properties that enable them to convert input mechanical energy into useful electric power. The electromechanical coupling coefficient of the piezoelectric material is one of the most significant parameters affecting energy conversion and is dependent on the piezoelectric mode of operation. In most piezoceramics, the d 15 piezoelectric shear coefficient is the highest coefficient compared to the commonly used axial and transverse modes that utilize the d 33 and the d 31 piezoelectric strain coefficients. However, complicated electroding methods and challenges in evaluating the performance of energy harvesting devices operating in the shear mode have slowed research in this area. The shear deformation of a piezoelectric layer can be induced in a vibrating sandwich beam with a piezoelectric core. Here, a model based on Timoshenko beam theory is developed to predict the electric power output from a cantilever piezoelectric sandwich beam under base excitations. It is shown that the energy harvester operating in the shear mode is able to generate ∼50% more power compared to the transverse mode for a numerical case study. Reduced models of both shear and transverse energy harvesters are obtained to determine the optimal load resistance in the system and perform an efficiency comparison between two models with fixed and adaptive resistances. (paper)
Natural Frequencies Evaluation on Partially Damaged Building using Ambient Vibration Technique
Kamarudin, A. F.; Zainal Abidin, M. H.; Daud, M. E.; Noh, M. S. Md; Madun, A.; Ibrahim, A.; Matarul, J.; Mokhatar, S. N.
2018-04-01
Severe damages observed on the school blocks, roads, retaining walls and drainage within the compound of SMK Kundasang Sabah possibly due to the ground movements triggered by the Ranau earthquake in 1991. Ambient vibration measurements were carried on the remaining demolished 3-storey building which partially damaged in order to measure the predominant building frequencies using tri-axial 1 Hz seismometer sensors. Popular methods of Horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios (HVSR) and Fourier amplitude spectra (FAS) were used to compute the ambient vibration wave fields of each building axes (Transverse or North-South (NS), Longitudinal or East-West (EW) and vertical) into Fourier spectra. Two main modes of translation and torsion were observed from the peaks frequencies obtained at 2.99 to 3.10 Hz (1st mode), 4.85 Hz (2nd mode) and 5.63 to 5.85 Hz (3rd mode). The building experiencing translation modes of bending and shear in the NS and EW directions. It could be seen when the amplitudes tends to increase when the floor are increased. Meanwhile, the torsional bending mode is expected to occur when the deformation amplitudes are found to be increasing horizontally, when moving into partially structural damaged section located on the East wing of building.
Localized Surface Plasmons in Vibrating Graphene Nanodisks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Weihua; Li, Bo-Hong; Stassen, Erik
2016-01-01
in graphene disks have the additional benefit to be highly tunable via electrical stimulation. Mechanical vibrations create structural deformations in ways where the excitation of localized surface plasmons can be strongly modulated. We show that the spectral shift in such a scenario is determined...... by a complex interplay between the symmetry and shape of the modal vibrations and the plasmonic mode pattern. Tuning confined modes of light in graphene via acoustic excitations, paves new avenues in shaping the sensitivity of plasmonic detectors, and in the enhancement of the interaction with optical emitters...
VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF TURBINE BASED ON FLUID-STRUCTURE COUPLING
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Demin; LIU Xiaobing
2008-01-01
The vibration of a Francis turbine is analyzed with the additional quality matrix method based on fluid-structure coupling (FSC). Firstly, the vibration frequency and mode of blade and runner in air and water are calculated. Secondly, the influences to runner frequency domain by large flow, small flow and design flow working conditions are compared. Finally the influences to runner modes by centrifugal forces under three rotating speeds of 400 r/min, 500 r/min and 600 r/min are compared. The centrifugal force and small flow working condition have greatly influence on the vibration of small runner. With the increase of centrifugal force, the vibration frequency of the runner is sharply increased. Some order frequencies are even close to the runner natural frequency in the air. Because the low frequency vibration will severely damage the stability of the turbine, low frequency vibration of units should be avoided as soon as possible.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwak, Mun Gyu; Na, Sung Su; Baek, Gwang Hyeon; Song, Chul Gi; Han, Sang Bo
2001-09-01
This book deals with vibration of machine which gives descriptions of free vibration using SDOF system, forced vibration using SDOF system, vibration of multi-degree of freedom system like introduction and normal form, distribution system such as introduction, free vibration of bar and practice problem, approximate solution like lumped approximations and Raleigh's quotient, engineering by intuition and experience, real problem and experimental method such as technology of signal, fourier transform analysis, frequency analysis and sensor and actuator.
Laser Covariance Vibrometry for Unsymmetrical Mode Detection
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Kobold, Michael C
2006-01-01
Simulated cross - spectral covariance (CSC) from optical return from simulated surface vibration indicates CW phase modulation may be an appropriate phenomenology for adequate classification of vehicles by structural mode...
Numerical analysis using state space method for vibration control of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In passenger cars the vibrations developed at the ground are transmitted to the passengers through seats. Due to vibrations discomfort is experienced by the passengers. Dampers are being successfully utilized to reduce the vibrations in civil engineering structures. Few dampers are used in passenger cars as well.
Vibration analysis of gas turbine blade using FEM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iqbal, M.J.; Chohan, G.Y.; Khusnood, S.; Khan, M.A.
2003-01-01
In a typical turbo-machine, there is a stator row of blades, which guide the gases onto a rotor row of blades, to extract the mechanical power from the machine. A typical rotor blade was sees upstream disturbance from the stator row and as it rotates, receive a corresponding number of increasing and decreasing lift and moment forces alternating periodically, depending on the number of stator blades/nozzles/guide vanes. Thus all the blades in a turbo-machine receiver their major periodic excitation at a frequency equal to nozzle passing frequency. Since these forces are periodic, one has to consider several number of these harmonics in determining whether resonance takes place, when one of these harmonics coincides with any of the natural frequencies of the blades. Turbine blades have a variety of natural modes of vibration, predominantly as blade alone but also in combination with flexing of the disc rim. These mode occur at characteristic frequencies, which are determined by the distribution of mass and stiffness (in bending or torsion), resulting from the variable thickness over the blade area. Since the advent of steam turbines and their application in various sectors of industry, it is a common experience that a blade failure is a major cause of breakdown in these machines. Blade failures due to fatigue are predominantly vibration related. The dynamic loads on the blading can arise from many sources, the predominant being the source of the operation principles on which the machine is designed. This work deals with vibration analysis of a gas turbine blade using a finite element package ANSYS. Determined the natural frequencies and mode shapes for a turbine blade and a rectangular blade. Results have been validated experimentally using a rectangular blade. ANSYS results have also been compared against published results. (author)
Optimization design of high power ultrasonic circular ring radiator in coupled vibration.
Xu, Long; Lin, Shuyu; Hu, Wenxu
2011-10-01
This paper presents a new high power ultrasonic (HPU) radiator, which consists of a transducer, an ultrasonic horn, and a metal circular ring. Both the transducer and horn in longitudinal vibrations are used to drive a metal circular ring in a radial-axial coupled vibration. This coupled vibration cannot only generate ultrasound in both the radial and axial directions, but also focus the ultrasound inside the circular ring. Except for the radial-axial coupled vibration mode, the third longitudinal harmonic vibration mode with relative large vibration amplitude is also detected, which can be used as another operation mode. Overall, the HPU with these two vibration modes should have good potential to be applied in liquid processing, such as sonochemistry, ultrasonic cleaning, and Chinese herbal medicine extraction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robby Christian
2015-03-01
A distinct pattern of phase differences was observed for each of the vibration models. The developed fuzzy logic module demonstrated successful recognition of the vibration frequencies, modes, orders, directions, and phase differences within 0.4 ms for the beam and shell mode vibrations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Kyeong Min; Park, Ke Un [Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2013-10-15
Micro-speaker diaphragms play an important role in generating desired sound responses, and are designed to have thin membrane shapes for flexibility in the axial direction. The micro-speaker diaphragms are formed from thin polymer film through the thermoforming process, in which local thickness reductions occur due to strain localization. This thickness reduction results in a change in vibration characteristics of the diaphragm and different sound responses from that of the original design. In this study, the effect of this thickness change in the diaphragm on its vibration characteristics is numerically investigated by coupling thermoforming simulation, structural analysis and modal analysis. Thus, the thickness change in the diaphragm is calculated from the thermoforming simulation, and reflected in the further structural and modal analyses in order to estimate the relevant stiffness and vibration modes. Comparing these simulation results with those from a diaphragm with the uniform thickness, it is found that a local thickness reduction results in the stiffness reduction and the relevant change in the natural frequencies and the corresponding vibration modes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Kyeong Min; Park, Ke Un
2013-01-01
Micro-speaker diaphragms play an important role in generating desired sound responses, and are designed to have thin membrane shapes for flexibility in the axial direction. The micro-speaker diaphragms are formed from thin polymer film through the thermoforming process, in which local thickness reductions occur due to strain localization. This thickness reduction results in a change in vibration characteristics of the diaphragm and different sound responses from that of the original design. In this study, the effect of this thickness change in the diaphragm on its vibration characteristics is numerically investigated by coupling thermoforming simulation, structural analysis and modal analysis. Thus, the thickness change in the diaphragm is calculated from the thermoforming simulation, and reflected in the further structural and modal analyses in order to estimate the relevant stiffness and vibration modes. Comparing these simulation results with those from a diaphragm with the uniform thickness, it is found that a local thickness reduction results in the stiffness reduction and the relevant change in the natural frequencies and the corresponding vibration modes.
Fluid transport due to nonlinear fluid-structure interaction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard
1997-01-01
This work considers nonlinear fluid-structure interaction for a vibrating pipe containing fluid. Transverse pipe vibrations will force the fluid to move relative to the pipe creating unidirectional fluid flow towards the pipe end. The fluid flow induced affects the damping and the stiffness...... of the pipe. The behavior of the system in response to lateral resonant base excitation is analysed numerically and by the use of a perturbation method (multiple scales). Exciting the pipe in the fundamental mode of vibration seems to be most effective for transferring energy from the shaker to the fluid......, whereas higher modes of vibration can be used to transport fluid with pipe vibrations of smaller amplitude. The effect of the nonlinear geometrical terms is analysed and these terms are shown to affect the response for higher modes of vibration. Experimental investigations show good agreement...
Hand-Arm vibration assessment among tiller operator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Nassiri
2013-08-01
Result: Results of the present study indicated that in all measured situations, exposure to hand arm vibration was higher than the standard limit suggested by Iranian occupational health committee and there was risk of vibration-induced disorders. The maximum exposure to vibration is in plowing ground. Exposure to hand arm vibration in three modes of plowing, transmission and natural, were respectively 16.95, 14.16 and 8.65 meters per second squared. Additionally, in all situations, vibration exposure was highest in the X-axis in comparison with Z- and Y-axes. .Conclusion: This study emphasizes on the need to provide intervention and controlling and managing strategies in order to eliminate or reduce vibration transmitted from tiller to operators hand and arm and also prevent to serious problems including neurovascular disorders, discomfort and white finger syndrome. Meanwhile, more studies are necessary to identify the sources of vibration on different models of tiller.
Investigation of Apple Vibration Characteristics Using Finite Element Modal Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R Mirzaei
2013-02-01
Full Text Available The most important quality indicator of fruits is the flesh firmness which is well correlated to their young’s modulus. In this research variation of vibration characteristics (shape modes, natural frequency of apple due to change of material characteristics (density, young's models, Poisson ratio and apple volume was investigated using Finite Element simulation. An image processing technique was used to obtain an unsymmetrical and non-spherical geometric model of apple. The exact three-dimensional shape of the fruit was created by determining the coordinates of apple surface and forming uneven rotational curvatures. Modal analysis with no boundary constraints has been applied. The first 20 Eigen frequencies and the corresponding mode shape were determined. Six rigid body modes possess zero resonant frequency which is related to the degree of freedom of a rigid body in space indicated the validity of finite element model. The modal analysis results showed that resonant frequency increased by increasing young's modulus of the fruit, while it decreased by increasing apple density. First mode torsion has a mean resonant frequency of 584 Hz. Variations of natural frequency due to change in young's modulus, density, and Poisson ratio were 80%, 11% and 4%, respectively. Coefficient of variation of resonant frequency in response to changing young's modulus was 2-3 times of that of density which shows the greatest effect of young modulus changes on natural frequency of fruits. Consequently with determination of fruits' natural frequency, their young modulus and firmness can be estimated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lauhon, L. J.; Ho, W.
2001-01-01
Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) was performed on single molecules with a variable temperature scanning tunneling microscope. The peak intensity, width, position, and line shape of single molecule vibrational spectra were studied as a function of temperature, modulation bias, bias polarity, and tip position for the (C--H,C--D) stretching vibration of acetylene (C 2 H 2 ,C 2 D 2 ) on Cu(001). The temperature broadening of vibrational peaks was found to be a consequence of Fermi smearing as in macroscopic IETS. The modulation broadening of vibrational peaks assumed the expected form for IETS. Extrapolation of the peak width to zero temperature and modulation suggested an intrinsic width of ∼4 meV due primarily to instrumental broadening. The inelastic tunneling cross section at negative bias was reduced by a factor of 1.7 for the C--H stretch mode. Low energy modes of other molecules did not show such a reduction. There was no evidence of a tip-induced Stark shift in the peak positions. The spatial variation of the inelastic signal was measured to determine the junction stability necessary for the acquisition of single molecule vibrational spectra
The Efficacy of Anti-vibration Gloves
Hewitt, Sue; Dong, Ren; McDowell, Tom; Welcome, Daniel
2016-01-01
Anyone seeking to control the risks from vibration transmitted to the hands and arms may contemplate the use of anti-vibration gloves. To make an informed decision about any type of personal protective equipment, it is necessary to have performance data that allow the degree of protection to be estimated. The information provided with an anti-vibration glove may not be easy to understand without some background knowledge of how gloves are tested and does not provide any clear route for estimating likely protection. Some of the factors that influence the potential efficacy of an anti-vibration glove include how risks from hand–arm vibration exposure are assessed, how the standard test for a glove is carried out, the frequency range and direction of the vibration for which protection is sought, how much hand contact force or pressure is applied and the physical limitations due to glove material and construction. This paper reviews some of the background issues that are useful for potential purchasers of anti-vibration gloves. Ultimately, anti-vibration gloves cannot be relied on to provide sufficient and consistent protection to the wearer and before their use is contemplated all other available means of vibration control ought first to be implemented. PMID:27582615
Coupled thermal, structural and vibrational analysis of a hypersonic engine for flight test
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sook-Ying, Ho [Defence Science and Technology Organisation, SA (Australia); Paull, A. [Queensland Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering (Australia)
2006-07-15
This paper describes a relatively simple and quick method for implementing aerodynamic heating models into a finite element code for non-linear transient thermal-structural and thermal-structural-vibrational analyses of a Mach 10 generic HyShot scram-jet engine. The thermal-structural-vibrational response of the engine was studied for the descent trajectory from 60 to 26 km. Aerodynamic heating fluxes, as a function of spatial position and time for varying trajectory points, were implemented in the transient heat analysis. Additionally, the combined effect of varying dynamic pressure and thermal loads with altitude was considered. This aero-thermal-structural analysis capability was used to assess the temperature distribution, engine geometry distortion and yielding of the structural material due to aerodynamic heating during the descent trajectory, and for optimising the wall thickness, nose radius of leading edge, etc. of the engine intake. A structural vibration analysis was also performed following the aero-thermal-structural analysis to determine the changes in natural frequencies of the structural vibration modes that occur at the various temperatures associated with the descent trajectory. This analysis provides a unique and relatively simple design strategy for predicting and mitigating the thermal-structural-vibrational response of hypersonic engines. (authors)
An Enhanced Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesting System with Macro Fiber Composite
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shuwen Zhang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Self-power supply is a promising project in various applied conditions. Among this research area, piezoelectric material-based energy harvesting (EH method has been researched in recent years due to its advantages. With the limitation of energy form acceptance range of EH circuit system, a sum of energy is not accessible to be obtained. To enlarge the EH quantity from the vibration, an enhanced piezoelectric vibration EH structure with piezoelectric film is developed in this work. Piezoelectric-based energy harvesting mechanism is primarily proposed in this work. The special-designed electric circuit for EH from macro fiber composite (MFC is proposed and then analyzed. When the structure vibrates in its modes of frequencies, the experiments are developed to measure the EH effect. The energy harvested from the vibrating structure is analyzed and the enhanced effect is presented. The results indicate that, with the enhanced EH structure in this work, vibration energy from structure is obtained in a larger range, and the general EH quantity is enlarged.
Method of monitoring fuel-rod vibrations in a nuclear fuel reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawamura, Makoto; Takai, Katsuaki.
1985-01-01
Purpose: To monitor the vibration modes of fuel rods continuously and on real time during operation of a PWR type nuclear reactor. Method: Vibrations of fuel rods during reactor operation are mainly caused by the lateral flow of coolants flowing through the gaps at the joints of reactor core buffle plates into a reactor core and fretting damages may possibly be caused to the fuel rod support portions due to the vibrations. In view of the above, self-powered detectors are disposed at a plurality of axial positions for the respective peripheral fuel assemblies in adjacent with the buffle plates and the detection signals from neutron detectors, that is, the fluctuations in neutrons are subjected to a frequency analysis during the operation period. The neutron detectors are disposed at the periphery of the reactor core, because the fuel assemblies disposed at the peripheral portion directly undergo the lateral flow from the joints of the buffle plates and vibrates most violently. Thus, the vibration situations can be monitored continuously, in a three demensional manner and on real time. (Moriyama, K.)
General principles of control method of passenger car bodies bending vibration parameters
Skachkov, A. N.; Samoshkin, S. L.; Korshunov, S. D.; Kobishchanov, V. V.; Antipin, D. Ya
2018-03-01
Weight reduction of passenger cars is a promising direction of reducing the cost of their production and increasing transportation profitability. One way to reduce the weight of passenger cars is the lightweight metal body design by means of using of high-strength aluminum alloys, low-alloy and stainless steels. However, it has been found that the limit of the lightweight metal body design is not determined by the total mode of deformation, but its flexural rigidity, as the latter influences natural frequencies of body bending vibrations. With the introduction of mandatory certification for compliance with the Customs Union technical regulations, the following index was confirmed: “first natural frequency of body bending vibrations in the vertical plane”. This is due to the fact that vibration, noise and car motion depend on this index. To define the required indexes, the principles of the control method of bending vibration parameters of passenger car bodies are proposed in this paper. This method covers all stages of car design – development of design documentation, manufacturing and testing experimental and pilot models, launching the production. The authors also developed evaluation criteria and the procedure of using the results for introduction of control method of bending vibration parameters of passenger car bodies.
Kausel, Wilfried; Chatziioannou, Vasileios; Moore, Thomas R; Gorman, Britta R; Rokni, Michelle
2015-06-01
Previous work has demonstrated that structural vibrations of brass wind instruments can audibly affect the radiated sound. Furthermore, these broadband effects are not explainable by assuming perfect coincidence of the frequency of elliptical structural modes with air column resonances. In this work a mechanism is proposed that has the potential to explain the broadband influences of structural vibrations on acoustical characteristics such as input impedance, transfer function, and radiated sound. The proposed mechanism involves the coupling of axial bell vibrations to the internal air column. The acoustical effects of such axial bell vibrations have been studied by extending an existing transmission line model to include the effects of a parasitic flow into vibrating walls, as well as distributed sound pressure sources due to periodic volume fluctuations in a duct with oscillating boundaries. The magnitude of these influences in typical trumpet bells, as well as in a complete instrument with an unbraced loop, has been studied theoretically. The model results in predictions of input impedance and acoustical transfer function differences that are approximately 1 dB for straight instruments and significantly higher when coiled tubes are involved or when very thin brass is used.
[Occupational standing vibration rate and vibrational diseases].
Karnaukh, N G; Vyshchipan, V F; Haumenko, B S
2003-12-01
Occupational standing vibration rate is proposed in evaluating a degree of impairment of an organism activity. It will allow more widely to introduce specification of quality and quantity in assessment of the development of vibrational disease. According out-patient and inpatient obtained data we have established criterial values of functional changes in accordance with accumulated occupational standing vibration rate. The nomogram was worked out for defining a risk of the development of vibrational disease in mine workers. This nomogram more objectively can help in diagnostics of the disease.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chanda, S.
2004-01-01
The present study concerns with the effects of material orthotropy,curvature, shear ratio and circumferential modulus under the influence of a temperature distribution throughout the shell structure. Here analysis is restricted to the study of nonlinear vibration of a doubly curved shell structure considering the periodic response of a simple bending mode due to curtailment of pages. Solutions of the problems with suitable illustrations are also presented
Using Euler buckling springs for vibration isolation
Winterflood, J; Blair, D G
2002-01-01
Difficulties in obtaining ideal vertical vibration isolation with mechanical springs are identified as being due to the mass of the elastic element which is in turn due to its energy storage requirement. A new technique to minimize this energy is presented - being an Euler column undergoing elastic buckling. The design of a high performance vertical vibration isolation stage based on this technique is presented together with its measured performance.
Using Euler buckling springs for vibration isolation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winterflood, J; Barber, T; Blair, D G
2002-01-01
Difficulties in obtaining ideal vertical vibration isolation with mechanical springs are identified as being due to the mass of the elastic element which is in turn due to its energy storage requirement. A new technique to minimize this energy is presented - being an Euler column undergoing elastic buckling. The design of a high performance vertical vibration isolation stage based on this technique is presented together with its measured performance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abouhnik, Abdelnasser; Albarbar, Alhussein
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► We used finite element method to model wind turbine induced vibration characteristics. ► We developed a technique for eliminating wind turbine’s vibration modulation problems. ► We use empirical mode decomposition to decompose the vibration into its fundamental elements. ► We show the area under shaft speed is a good indicator for assessing wind blades condition. ► We validate the technique under different wind turbine speeds and blade (cracks) conditions. - Abstract: Vibration based monitoring techniques are well understood and widely adopted for monitoring the condition of rotating machinery. However, in the case of wind turbines the measured vibration is complex due to the high number of vibration sources and modulation phenomenon. Therefore, extracting condition related information of a specific element e.g. blade condition is very difficult. In the work presented in this paper wind turbine vibration sources are outlined and then a three bladed wind turbine vibration was simulated by building its model in the ANSYS finite element program. Dynamic analysis was performed and the fundamental vibration characteristics were extracted under two healthy blades and one blade with one of four cracks introduced. The cracks were of length (10 mm, 20 mm, 30 mm and 40 mm), all had a consistent 3 mm width and 2 mm depth. The tests were carried out for three rotation speeds; 150, 250 and 360 r/min. The effects of the seeded faults were revealed by using a novel approach called empirically decomposed feature intensity level (EDFIL). The developed EDFIL algorithm is based on decomposing the measured vibration into its fundamental components and then determines the shaft rotational speed amplitude. A real model of the simulated wind turbine was constructed and the simulation outcomes were compared with real-time vibration measurements. The cracks were seeded sequentially in one of the blades and their presence and severity were determined by decomposing
Huang, Dao-Ling; Zhu, Guo-Zhu; Wang, Lai-Sheng
2016-06-01
Deprotonated thymine can exist in two different forms, depending on which of its two N sites is deprotonated: N1[T-H]^- or N3[T-H]^-. Here we report a photodetachment study of the N1[T-H]^- isomer cooled in a cryogenic ion trap and the observation of an excited dipole-bound state. Eighteen vibrational levels of the dipole-bound state are observed, and its vibrational ground state is found to be 238 ± 5 wn below the detachment threshold of N1[T-H]^-. The electron affinity of the deprotonated thymine radical (N1[T-H]^.) is measured accruately to be 26 322 ± 5 wn (3.2635 ± 0.0006 eV). By tuning the detachment laser to the sixteen vibrational levels of the dipole-bound state that are above the detachment threshold, highly non-Franck-Condon resonant-enhanced photoelectron spectra are obtained due to state- and mode-selective vibrational autodetachment. Much richer vibrational information is obtained for the deprotonated thymine radical from the photodetachment and resonant-enhanced photoelectron spectroscopy. Eleven fundamental vibrational frequencies in the low-frequency regime are obtained for the N1[T-H]^. radical, including the two lowest-frequency internal rotational modes of the methyl group at 70 ± 8 wn and 92 ± 5 wn. D. L. Huang, H. T. Liu, C. G. Ning, G. Z. Zhu and L. S. Wang, Chem. Sci., 6, 3129-3138 (2015)
Mode damping in a commensurate monolayer solid
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bruch, Ludwig Walter; Hansen, Flemming Yssing
1997-01-01
with an elastic-continuum theory of the response of modes of either parallel or perpendicular polarization for a spherical adsorbate on a hexagonal substrate. The results are applied to the discussion of computer simulations and inelastic atomic-scattering experiments for adsorbates on graphite. The extreme...... of substrate modes with strong anomalous dispersion, and enables a semiquantitative account of observed avoided crossings of the adlayer perpendicular vibration mode and the substrate Rayleigh mode....
Vibrational relaxation dynamics of SD molecules in As2S3: Observation of an anomalous isotope effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Engholm, J.R.; Happek, U.; Rella, C.W.
1995-01-01
It is generally assumed that the vibrational relaxation of molecular impurities in crystals and glasses mainly depends on the order of the decay process, with lower order processes leading to more rapid relaxation (a behavior that is known under the term open-quotes gap-lawclose quotes). Here we present measurements that contradict this assumption. Using high intensity psec pulses of the Stanford FEL we measured the relaxation rate of the SD vibrational stretch mode (at a frequency of 1800 cm) by applying a pump-probe technique. We find relaxation rates on the order of 2x10 9 sec -1 , which are a factor of 2 lower than those found for the isotope molecule SH (at a frequency of about 2500 cm - 1 ) in the same host 1 . We recall that the relaxation of the SD vibrational stretch mode is controlled by a lower order process as compared to the SH molecule, which is due to the smaller number of host vibrational quanta to match the energy of the stretch mode; a fact we have confirmed experimentally by temperature dependent relaxation measurements. Thus our remits are in marked contrast to the so-called open-quotes Gap-Lawclose quotes and emphasize the importance of the molecule - host coupling in the relaxation dynamics
State-to-State Mode Specificity: Energy Sequestration and Flow Gated by Transition State.
Zhao, Bin; Sun, Zhigang; Guo, Hua
2015-12-23
Energy flow and sequestration at the state-to-state level are investigated for a prototypical four-atom reaction, H2 + OH → H + H2O, using a transition-state wave packet (TSWP) method. The product state distribution is found to depend strongly on the reactant vibrational excitation, indicating mode specificity at the state-to-state level. From a local-mode perspective, it is shown that the vibrational excitation of the H2O product derives from two different sources, one attributable to the energy flow along the reaction coordinate into the newly formed OH bond and the other due to the sequestration of the vibrational energy in the OH spectator moiety during the reaction. The analysis provided a unified interpretation of some seemingly contradicting experimental observations. It is further shown that the transfer of vibrational energy from the OH reactant to H2O product is gated by the transition state, accomplished coherently by multiple TSWPs with the corresponding OH vibrational excitation.
Vibrational relaxation of a triatomic molecular impurity: D2O in vitreous As2S3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rella, C.W.; Schwettman, H.A.; Engholm, J.R.
1995-01-01
Measurements of the relaxation of the D 2 O stretch mode in vitreous As 2 S 3 are presented. Because the bending mode of the molecule offers an intra-molecular decay channel for the stretch mode, the decay scheme of the D 2 O molecule is more complex than that of diatomic molecules. The asymmetric stretch mode of D 2 O has a frequency of 2680 cm -1 . To study the relaxation of this mode we applied a pump-probe technique, using intense psec; pulses of the Stanford Free Electron Laser. Due to the small cross-section of the vibrational mode, successful efforts were made to improve the signal to noise ratio by using a laser stabilization system and a tightly focused beam to increase the intensity, by averaging the signal with a kHz repetition rate and by using samples with an optimized D 2 O concentration. A rapid relaxation rate on the order of 5 x 10 9 sec -1 at low temperature is found that increases with temperature. Recalling that the bending mode of the D 2 O molecule has a frequency of 1170 cm -1 , one would expect a decay in a third order process, involving two quanta of the bending mode plus a vibrational host quanta with a frequency of 340 cm -1 , which coincides with a fundamental frequency of the pyramidal building blocks of the glassy As 2 S 3 host. Instead, we find from the temperature dependence of the relaxation rate that the D 2 O stretching mode relaxes in a higher order process. This indicates that the relaxation dynamics of small molecules is more complex than generally assumed
Vibration of imperfect rotating disk
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Půst L.
2011-12-01
Full Text Available This study is concerned with the theoretical and numerical calculations of the flexural vibrations of a bladed disk. The main focus of this study is to elaborate the basic background for diagnostic and identification methods for ascertaining the main properties of the real structure or an experimental model of turbine disks. The reduction of undesirable vibrations of blades is proposed by using damping heads, which on the experimental model of turbine disk are applied only on a limited number of blades. This partial setting of damping heads introduces imperfection in mass, stiffness and damping distribution on the periphery and leads to more complicated dynamic properties than those of a perfect disk. Calculation of FEM model and analytic—numerical solution of disk behaviour in the limited (two modes frequency range shows the splitting of resonance with an increasing speed of disk rotation. The spectrum of resonance is twice denser than that of a perfect disk.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chuang, Kuo-Chih; Ma, Chien-Ching; Liao, Heng-Tseng
2012-01-01
In this work, active vibration suppression of a smart cantilever beam subjected to disturbances from multiple impact loadings is investigated with a point-wise fiber Bragg grating (FBG) displacement sensing system. An FBG demodulator is employed in the proposed fiber sensing system to dynamically demodulate the responses obtained by the FBG displacement sensor with high sensitivity. To investigate the ability of the proposed FBG displacement sensor as a feedback sensor, velocity feedback control and delay control are employed to suppress the vibrations of the first three bending modes of the smart cantilever beam. To improve the control performance for the first bending mode when the cantilever beam is subjected to an impact loading, we improve the conventional velocity feedback controller by tuning the control gain online with the aid of information from a higher vibration mode. Finally, active control of vibrations induced by multiple impact loadings due to a plastic ball is performed with the improved velocity feedback control. The experimental results show that active vibration control of smart structures subjected to disturbances such as impact loadings can be achieved by employing the proposed FBG sensing system to feed back out-of-plane point-wise displacement responses with high sensitivity. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yamaguchi, H. [Saitama University, Saitama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Takano, H.; Ogasawara, M.; Shimosato, T. [Metropolitan Expressway Public Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kato, M.; Okada, J. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan)
1996-07-21
Field vibration test of the Tsurumi Tsubasa Bridge, a long span cable stayed bridge, has been conducted. Focusing on its dynamic characteristics, an identification method from test results and its validity were investigated. The natural frequency identified using mode circle and resonance curve from steady vibration test agreed with that identified by the peak method from free damping test. Accordingly, there was no difference due to identification methods, and both methods provided appropriate accuracy. The natural vibration mode obtained from the steady vibration test agreed with that obtained by the eigenvalue analysis. The dispersion of experimental values, which indicates the adaptation to mode circle method, became a scale indicating reliability of identified values. When the damping obtained by the half power method for the microtremors test is compared with that identified from the steady vibration test and free damping test, it is required to compare them at lower amplitude level region, considering that the amplitude level of microtremors test is very low. For the dynamic characteristics of the Tsurumi Tsubasa Bridge, it was found that it has lower natural frequency and higher modal damping compared with other cable stayed bridges with similar scale of span. 18 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.
Vibration analysis and vibration damage assessment in nuclear and process equipment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pettigrew, M.J.; Taylor, C.E.; Fisher, N.J.; Yetisir, M.; Smith, B.A.W.
1997-01-01
Component failures due to excessive flow-induced vibration are still affecting the performance and reliability of process and nuclear components. The purpose of this paper is to discuss flow-induced vibration analysis and vibration damage prediction. Vibration excitation mechanisms are described with particular emphasis on fluid elastic instability. The dynamic characteristics of process and power equipment are explained. The statistical nature of some parameters, in particular support conditions, is discussed. The prediction of fretting-wear damage is approached from several points-of-view. An energy approach to formulate fretting-wear damage is proposed. (author)
Nonlinear Analysis of Cable Vibration of a Multispan Cable-Stayed Bridge under Transverse Excitation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kun Lin
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The nonlinear vibrations of cable in a multispan cable-stayed bridge subjected to transverse excitation are investigated. The MECS (multielements cable system model, where multielements per cable stay are used, is built up and used to analyze the model properties of the multispan cable-stayed bridges. Then, a simplified two-degrees-of-freedom (2-DOFs model, where the tower or the deck is reduced to a beam, is proposed to analyze the nonlinear dynamic behaviors of the beam and cable. The results of MECS model analysis show that the main tower in the multispan cable-stayed bridge is prone to the transverse vibration, and the local vibration of cables only has a little impact on the frequency values of the global modes. The results of simplified model analysis show that the energy can be transformed between the modes of the beam and cable when the nature frequencies of them are very close. On the other hand, with the transverse excitation changing, the cable can exhibit richer quasi-periodic or chaotic motions due to the nonlinear terms caused by the coupled mode between the beam and cable.
Natural vibration experimental analysis of Novovoronezhskaya NPP main building
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zoubkov, D.; Isaikin, A.; Shablinsky, G.; Lopanchuk, A.; Nefedov, S.
2005-01-01
1. Natural vibration frequencies are main characteristics of buildings and structures which allow to give integral estimation of their in-service state. Even relatively small changes of these frequencies as compared to the initially registered values point to serious defects of building structures. In this paper we analyzed natural vibration frequencies and natural modes of the main building (MB) of Novovoronezhskaya NPP operating nuclear unit with WWER-440 type reactor. The MB consists of a reactor compartment (RC), a machine room (MR) and an electric device (ED) unit positioned in between. 2. Natural vibration frequencies and natural modes of the MB were determined experimentally by analyzing its microvibrations caused by operation of basic equipment (turbines, pumps, etc.). Microvibrations of the main building were measured at 12 points. At each point measurements were carried out along two or three mutually perpendicular vibration directions. Spectral analysis of vibration records has been conducted. Identification of natural vibration frequencies was carried out on the basis of the spectral peaks and plotted vibration modes (taking into account operating frequencies of the basic equipment of the power generating unit). On the basis of the measurement results three transverse modes and corresponding natural vibration frequencies of the MB, one longitudinal mode and corresponding natural vibration frequency of the MB and two natural frequencies of vertical vibrations of RC and MR floor trusses (1st and 2nd symmetric forms) were determined. Dynamic characteristics of the main building of NV NPP resulting from full scale researches are supposed to be used as one of building structure stability criteria. (authors)
Proof mass effects on spiral electrode d33 mode piezoelectric diaphragm-based energy harvester
Shen, Zhiyuan; Liu, Shuwei; Miao, Jianmin; Woh, Lye Sun; Wang, Zhihong
2013-01-01
This paper presents the characterization of an energy harvester using a piezoelectric diaphragm as the vibration energy conversion microstructure. The diaphragm containing the spiral electrode operates in the d33 mode. The energy harvesting performance of the diaphragm was characterized. The optimal resistance load and the working frequency were characterized. The resonance tuning and the energy harvesting enhancement due to a proof mass were verified. © 2013 IEEE.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suarez Antola, R.
2004-12-01
The presence of cracks, voids or fields of pores, and their growth under applied forces or environmental actions, can produce a meaningful lowering in the proper frequencies of normal modes of mechanical vibration in machines and structures. A quite general expression for the square of modes proper frequency as a functional of displacement field, density field and elastic moduli fields is used as a starting point. The effect of defects on frequency are modeled as equivalent changes in density and elastic moduli fields, introducing the concept of region of influence of each defect. This region of influence is derived from the relation between the stress field of flawed components in machines or structures, and the elastic energy released from a suitable reference state, due to the presence of significant defects in the above mentioned mechanical components. An approximate analytical expression is obtained, which relates the relative variation in the square of mode s proper frequency with position, size, shape and orientation of defects in mode displacement field. Some simple mathematical models of machine and structural elements with cracks or fields of pores are considered as examples. The connections between the relative lowering in the square of mode s proper frequency and the stress intensity factor of a defect are discussed : the concept of region of influence of a defect is used as a bridge between (low frequency and low amplitude) vibration dynamics and linear elastic fracture mechanics. Some limitations of the present approach are discussed as well as the possibility of applying the region of influence of defects to the damping of normal modes of vibration
Do Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) nymphs use vibrational communication?
Chuche, Julien; Thiéry, Denis; Mazzoni, Valerio
2011-07-01
Small Auchenorrhyncha use substrate-borne vibrations to communicate. Although this behaviour is well known in adult leafhoppers, so far no studies have been published on nymphs. Here we checked the occurrence of vibrational communication in Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) nymphs as a possible explanation of their aggregative distributions on host plants. We studied possible vibratory emissions of isolated and grouped nymphs, as well as their behavioural responses to vibration stimuli that simulated presence of conspecifics, to disturbance noise, white noise and predator spiders. None of our synthetic stimuli or pre-recorded substrate vibrations from nymphs elicited specific vibration responses and only those due to grooming or mechanical contacts of the insect with the leaf were recorded. Thus, S. titanus nymphs showed to not use species-specific vibrations neither for intra- nor interspecific communication and also did not produce alarm vibrations when facing potential predators. We conclude that their aggregative behaviour is independent from a vibrational communication.
Improvement of burst-mode control of piezoelectric transformer based DC/DC converter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vasic, Dejan; Liu, Yuan-Ping; Costa, François; Schwander, Denis; Wu, Wen-Jong
2013-01-01
Burst-mode operation is adopted sometimes in piezoelectric transformer based converters for two major purposes: (1) to achieve voltage regulation in DC/DC converters and (2) to achieve dimming control in backlight inverters. Burst-mode control enables the converter to operate at a constant switching frequency as well as to maintain good efficiency at light load conditions. However, in practice, the piezoelectric transformer cannot instantly stop vibrating in the burst-mode due to its high quality factor. The delay in the output voltage change resulting from this behavior influences the accuracy of the regulation. This paper proposes a control strategy to make the piezoelectric transformer stop more quickly so as to enhance the accuracy of burst-mode control. The proposed method only modifies the control signal of the burst-mode driving circuit. The proposed control strategy is verified by experiments in a step-down 9 W DC/DC converter. (paper)
Kubo, M; Odai, K; Sugimoto, T; Ito, E
2001-06-01
To understand the mechanism of activation of a receptor by its agonist, the excitation and relaxation processes of the vibrational states of the receptor should be examined. As a first approach to this problem, we calculated the normal vibrational modes of agonists (glutamate and kainate) and an antagonist (6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione: CNQX) of the glutamate receptor, and then investigated the vibrational interactions between kainate and the binding site of glutamate receptor subunit GluR2 by use of a semiempirical molecular orbital method (MOPAC2000-PM3). We found that two local vibrational modes of kainate, which were also observed in glutamate but not in CNQX, interacted through hydrogen bonds with the vibrational modes of GluR2: (i) the bending vibration of the amine group of kainate, interacting with the stretching vibration of the carboxyl group of Glu705 of GluR2, and (ii) the symmetric stretching vibration of the carboxyl group of kainate, interacting with the bending vibration of the guanidinium group of Arg485. We also found collective modes with low frequency at the binding site of GluR2 in the kainate-bound state. The vibrational energy supplied by an agonist may flow from the high-frequency local modes to the low-frequency collective modes in a receptor, resulting in receptor activation.
High Energy Vibration for Gas Piping
Lee, Gary Y. H.; Chan, K. B.; Lee, Aylwin Y. S.; Jia, ShengXiang
2017-07-01
In September 2016, a gas compressor in offshore Sarawak has its rotor changed out. Prior to this change-out, pipe vibration study was carried-out by the project team to evaluate any potential high energy pipe vibration problems at the compressor’s existing relief valve downstream pipes due to process condition changes after rotor change out. This paper covers high frequency acoustic excitation (HFAE) vibration also known as acoustic induced vibration (AIV) study and discusses detailed methodologies as a companion to the Energy Institute Guidelines for the avoidance of vibration induced fatigue failure, which is a common industry practice to assess and mitigate for AIV induced fatigue failure. Such detailed theoretical studies can help to minimize or totally avoid physical pipe modification, leading to reduce offshore plant shutdown days to plant shutdowns only being required to accommodate gas compressor upgrades, reducing cost without compromising process safety.
A Shell Model for Free Vibration Analysis of Carbon Nanoscroll
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amin Taraghi Osguei
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Carbon nanoscroll (CNS is a graphene sheet rolled into a spiral structure with great potential for different applications in nanotechnology. In this paper, an equivalent open shell model is presented to study the vibration behavior of a CNS with arbitrary boundary conditions. The equivalent parameters used for modeling the carbon nanotubes are implemented to simulate the CNS. The interactions between the layers of CNS due to van der Waals forces are included in the model. The uniformly distributed translational and torsional springs along the boundaries are considered to achieve a unified solution for different boundary conditions. To study the vibration characteristics of CNS, total energy including strain energy, kinetic energy, and van der Waals energy are minimized using the Rayleigh-Ritz technique. The first-order shear deformation theory has been utilized to model the shell. Chebyshev polynomials of first kind are used to obtain the eigenvalue matrices. The natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes of CNS in different boundary conditions are evaluated. The effect of electric field in axial direction on the natural frequencies and mode shapes of CNS is investigated. The results indicate that, as the electric field increases, the natural frequencies decrease.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We make music by causing strings, membranes, or air columns to vibrate. Engineers design safe structures by control- ling vibrations. I will describe to you a very simple vibrating system and the mathematics needed to analyse it. The ideas were born in the work of Joseph-Louis Lagrange (1736–1813), and I begin by quot-.
Vibrational relaxation and energy transfer of matrix isolated HCl and DCl
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wiesenfeld, J.M.
1977-12-01
Vibrational kinetic and spectroscopic studies have been performed on matrix-isolated HCl and DCl between 9 and 20 K. Vibrational relaxation rates for v = 2 and v = 1 were measured by a tunable infrared laser-induced, time-resolved fluorescence technique. In an Ar matrix, vibrational decay times are faster than radiative and it is found that HCl relaxes about 35 times more rapidly than CCl, in spite of the fact that HCl must transfer more energy to the lattice than DCl. This result is explained by postulating that the rate-determining step for vibrational relaxation produces a highly rotationally excited guest in a V yield R step; rotational relaxation into lattice phonons follows rapidly. HCl v = 1, but not v = 2, excitation rapidly diffuses through the sample by a resonant dipole-dipole vibrational energy transfer process. Molecular complexes, and in particular the HCl dimer, relax too rapidly for direct observation, less than or approximately 1 ..mu..s, and act as energy sinks in the energy diffusion process. The temperature dependence for all these processes is weak--less than a factor of two between 9 and 20 K. Vibrational relaxation of HCl in N/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/ matrices is unobservable, presumably due to rapid V yield V transfer to the host. A V yield R binary collision model for relaxation in solids is successful in explaining the HCl(DCl)/Ar results as well as results of other experimenters. The model considers relaxation to be the result of ''collisions'' due to molecular motion in quantized lattice normal modes--gas phase potential parameters can fit the matrix kinetic data.
Vibrational relaxation and energy transfer of matrix isolated HCl and DCl
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wiesenfeld, J.M.
1977-12-01
Vibrational kinetic and spectroscopic studies have been performed on matrix-isolated HCl and DCl between 9 and 20 K. Vibrational relaxation rates for v = 2 and v = 1 were measured by a tunable infrared laser-induced, time-resolved fluorescence technique. In an Ar matrix, vibrational decay times are faster than radiative and it is found that HCl relaxes about 35 times more rapidly than CCl, in spite of the fact that HCl must transfer more energy to the lattice than DCl. This result is explained by postulating that the rate-determining step for vibrational relaxation produces a highly rotationally excited guest in a V yield R step; rotational relaxation into lattice phonons follows rapidly. HCl v = 1, but not v = 2, excitation rapidly diffuses through the sample by a resonant dipole-dipole vibrational energy transfer process. Molecular complexes, and in particular the HCl dimer, relax too rapidly for direct observation, less than or approximately 1 μs, and act as energy sinks in the energy diffusion process. The temperature dependence for all these processes is weak--less than a factor of two between 9 and 20 K. Vibrational relaxation of HCl in N 2 and O 2 matrices is unobservable, presumably due to rapid V yield V transfer to the host. A V yield R binary collision model for relaxation in solids is successful in explaining the HCl(DCl)/Ar results as well as results of other experimenters. The model considers relaxation to be the result of ''collisions'' due to molecular motion in quantized lattice normal modes--gas phase potential parameters can fit the matrix kinetic data
Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic spectroscopy
Courtney, Trevor L.; Fox, Zachary W.; Slenkamp, Karla M.; Khalil, Munira
2015-10-01
Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic (2D VE) spectroscopy is a femtosecond Fourier transform (FT) third-order nonlinear technique that creates a link between existing 2D FT spectroscopies in the vibrational and electronic regions of the spectrum. 2D VE spectroscopy enables a direct measurement of infrared (IR) and electronic dipole moment cross terms by utilizing mid-IR pump and optical probe fields that are resonant with vibrational and electronic transitions, respectively, in a sample of interest. We detail this newly developed 2D VE spectroscopy experiment and outline the information contained in a 2D VE spectrum. We then use this technique and its single-pump counterpart (1D VE) to probe the vibrational-electronic couplings between high frequency cyanide stretching vibrations (νCN) and either a ligand-to-metal charge transfer transition ([FeIII(CN)6]3- dissolved in formamide) or a metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) transition ([(CN)5FeIICNRuIII(NH3)5]- dissolved in formamide). The 2D VE spectra of both molecules reveal peaks resulting from coupled high- and low-frequency vibrational modes to the charge transfer transition. The time-evolving amplitudes and positions of the peaks in the 2D VE spectra report on coherent and incoherent vibrational energy transfer dynamics among the coupled vibrational modes and the charge transfer transition. The selectivity of 2D VE spectroscopy to vibronic processes is evidenced from the selective coupling of specific νCN modes to the MMCT transition in the mixed valence complex. The lineshapes in 2D VE spectra report on the correlation of the frequency fluctuations between the coupled vibrational and electronic frequencies in the mixed valence complex which has a time scale of 1 ps. The details and results of this study confirm the versatility of 2D VE spectroscopy and its applicability to probe how vibrations modulate charge and energy transfer in a wide range of complex molecular, material, and biological systems.
Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic spectroscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Courtney, Trevor L.; Fox, Zachary W.; Slenkamp, Karla M.; Khalil, Munira, E-mail: mkhalil@uw.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Box 351700, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)
2015-10-21
Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic (2D VE) spectroscopy is a femtosecond Fourier transform (FT) third-order nonlinear technique that creates a link between existing 2D FT spectroscopies in the vibrational and electronic regions of the spectrum. 2D VE spectroscopy enables a direct measurement of infrared (IR) and electronic dipole moment cross terms by utilizing mid-IR pump and optical probe fields that are resonant with vibrational and electronic transitions, respectively, in a sample of interest. We detail this newly developed 2D VE spectroscopy experiment and outline the information contained in a 2D VE spectrum. We then use this technique and its single-pump counterpart (1D VE) to probe the vibrational-electronic couplings between high frequency cyanide stretching vibrations (ν{sub CN}) and either a ligand-to-metal charge transfer transition ([Fe{sup III}(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3−} dissolved in formamide) or a metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) transition ([(CN){sub 5}Fe{sup II}CNRu{sup III}(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}]{sup −} dissolved in formamide). The 2D VE spectra of both molecules reveal peaks resulting from coupled high- and low-frequency vibrational modes to the charge transfer transition. The time-evolving amplitudes and positions of the peaks in the 2D VE spectra report on coherent and incoherent vibrational energy transfer dynamics among the coupled vibrational modes and the charge transfer transition. The selectivity of 2D VE spectroscopy to vibronic processes is evidenced from the selective coupling of specific ν{sub CN} modes to the MMCT transition in the mixed valence complex. The lineshapes in 2D VE spectra report on the correlation of the frequency fluctuations between the coupled vibrational and electronic frequencies in the mixed valence complex which has a time scale of 1 ps. The details and results of this study confirm the versatility of 2D VE spectroscopy and its applicability to probe how vibrations modulate charge and energy transfer in a
Structural Characteristics of Rotate Vector Reducer Free Vibration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chuan Chen
2017-01-01
Full Text Available For RV reducer widely used in robots, vibration significantly affects its performance. A lumped parameter model is developed to investigate free vibration characteristics without and with gyroscopic effects. The dynamic model considers key factors affecting vibration such as involute and cycloid gear mesh stiffness, crankshaft bending stiffness, and bearing stiffness. For both nongyroscopic and gyroscopic systems, free vibrations are examined and compared with each other. Results reveal the specific structure of vibration modes for both systems, which results from symmetry structure of RV reducer. According to vibration of the central components, vibration modes of two systems can be classified into three types, rotational, translational, and planetary component modes. Different from nongyroscopic system, the eigenvalues with gyroscopic effects are complex-valued and speed-dependent. The eigenvalue for a range of carrier speeds is obtained by numerical simulation. Divergence and flutter instability is observed at speeds adjacent to critical speeds. Furthermore, the work studies effects of key factors, which include crankshaft eccentricity and the number of pins, on eigenvalues. Finally, experiment is performed to verify the effectiveness of the dynamic model. The research of this paper is helpful for the analysis on free vibration and dynamic design of RV reducer.
Band Width of Acoustic Resonance Frequency Relatively Natural Frequency of Fuel Rod Vibration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Proskuryakov, Konstantin Nicolaevich; Moukhine, V.S.; Novikov, K.S.; Galivets, E.Yu. [MPEI - TU, 14, Krasnokazarmennaya str., Moscow, 111250 (Russian Federation)
2009-06-15
In flow induced vibrations the fluid flow is the energy source that causes vibration. Acoustic resonance in piping may lead to severe problems due to over-stressing of components or significant losses of efficiency. Steady oscillatory flow in NPP primary loop can be induced by the pulsating flow introduced by reactor circulating pump or may be set up by self-excitation. Dynamic forces generated by the turbulent flow of coolant in reactor cores cause fuel rods (FR) and fuel assembly (FA) to vibrate. Flow-induced FR and FA vibrations can generally be broken into three groups: large amplitude 'resonance type' vibrations, which can cause immediate rod failure or severe damage to the rod and its support structure, middle amplitude 'within bandwidth of resonance frequency type' vibrations responsible for more gradual wear and fatigue at the contact surface between the fuel cladding and rod support and small amplitude vibrations, 'out of bandwidth of resonance frequency type' responsible for permissible wear and fatigue at the contact surface between the fuel cladding and rod support. Ultimately, these vibration types can result in a cladding breach, and therefore must be accounted for in the thermal hydraulic design of FR and FA and reactor internals. In paper the technique of definition of quality factor (Q) of acoustic contour of the coolant is presented. The value of Q defines a range of frequencies of acoustic fluctuations of the coolant within which the resonance of oscillations of the structure and the coolant is realized. Method of evaluation of so called band width (BW) of acoustic resonance frequency is worked out and presented in the paper. BW characterises the range of the frequency of coolant pressure oscillations within which the frequency of coolant pressure oscillations matches the fuel assembly's natural frequency of vibration (its resonance frequency). Paper show the way of detuning acoustic resonance from natural
THE THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF VIBRATION DAMPERS BY ROLLING FRICTION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. M. Bondarenko
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Purpose. There are some unresolved issues in vibration damping – the lack of engineering calculations for the vibration dampers by rolling friction; the absence of evidence of their application appropriateness. Considering this fact, the authors suggest to prove that the dampers based on rolling friction, are similar in rate of oscillation damping by hydraulic shock absorbers. At the same time, they are easier for the hydraulic design, and easily amenable to manual adjustment, both in automatic and manual mode. Methodology. Fixed techniques of practice in order to determine amplitudes of the oscillations of a shock absorber led to a predetermined result and will apply this theory in the calculation of other vibration dampers. Findings. Analysis of the formulas and graphs leads to the following conclusions and recommendations: 1 the nature of the oscillation damping at vibration dampers by rolling friction is close to their decay in the viscous resistance; 2 when conducting the necessary experiments the shock absorber rolling can be recommended as alternatives to hydraulic ones. The research results of this task will help implement the new trend in reduction of dynamic loads in vehicles. Originality. With the help of theoretical curves to determine the coefficients of rolling friction the dependences for determining the amplitudes of the oscillations in the vertical movement of cargo were obtained. At the same time, the previously proposed analytical dependence for determining the coefficient of rolling friction contains only conventional mechanical constants of the contacting bodies and there geometrical dimensions. Practical value. Due to the existing well-known disadvantages of hydraulic shock absorbers it would be logical to apply shock absorbers that are technologically convenient in manufacturing and easy to adjust the damping rate. The proposed theory can be used in the design of shock absorbers rolling as an alternative to the hydraulic
Large electron transfer rate effects from the Duschinsky mixing of vibrations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sando, Gerald M.; Spears, Kenneth G; Hupp, Joseph T
2001-01-01
vibrations are very important. The Duschinsky effect arises when two electronic states have vibrational normal mode coordinate systems that are rotated and translated relative to each other. We use a conventional quantum rate model for ET, and the examples include 6-8 vibrations, where two vibrational modes...... are mixed with different amounts of coordinate rotation. The multidimensional Franck-Condon factors (FCF) are computed with standard algorithms and recently developed recursion relations. When displaced, totally symmetric modes are involved, rates with Duschinsky mixing can increase several orders...
Bevel Gearbox Fault Diagnosis using Vibration Measurements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hartono Dennis
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The use of vibration measurementanalysis has been proven to be effective for gearbox fault diagnosis. However, the complexity of vibration signals observed from a gearbox makes it difficult to accurately detectfaults in the gearbox. This work is based on a comparative studyof several time-frequency signal processing methods that can be used to extract information from transient vibration signals containing useful diagnostic information. Experiments were performed on a bevel gearbox test rig using vibration measurements obtained from accelerometers. Initially, thediscrete wavelet transform was implementedfor vibration signal analysis to extract the frequency content of signal from the relevant frequency region. Several time-frequency signal processing methods werethen incorporated to extract the fault features of vibration signals and their diagnostic performances were compared. It was shown thatthe Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT could not offer a good time resolution to detect the periodicity of the faulty gear tooth due the difficulty in choosing an appropriate window length to capture the impulse signal. The Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT, on the other hand, was suitable to detection of vibration transients generated by localized fault from a gearbox due to its multi-scale property. However, both methods still require a thorough visual inspection. In contrast, it was shown from the experiments that the diagnostic method using the Cepstrumanalysis could provide a direct indication of the faulty tooth without the need of a thorough visual inspection as required by CWT and STFT.
Vibration of hydraulic machinery
Wu, Yulin; Liu, Shuhong; Dou, Hua-Shu; Qian, Zhongdong
2013-01-01
Vibration of Hydraulic Machinery deals with the vibration problem which has significant influence on the safety and reliable operation of hydraulic machinery. It provides new achievements and the latest developments in these areas, even in the basic areas of this subject. The present book covers the fundamentals of mechanical vibration and rotordynamics as well as their main numerical models and analysis methods for the vibration prediction. The mechanical and hydraulic excitations to the vibration are analyzed, and the pressure fluctuations induced by the unsteady turbulent flow is predicted in order to obtain the unsteady loads. This book also discusses the loads, constraint conditions and the elastic and damping characters of the mechanical system, the structure dynamic analysis, the rotor dynamic analysis and the system instability of hydraulic machines, including the illustration of monitoring system for the instability and the vibration in hydraulic units. All the problems are necessary for vibration pr...
Hewitt, Sue; Dong, Ren G; Welcome, Daniel E; McDowell, Thomas W
2015-03-01
For exposure to hand-transmitted vibration (HTV), personal protective equipment is sold in the form of anti-vibration (AV) gloves, but it remains unclear how much these gloves actually reduce vibration exposure or prevent the development of hand-arm vibration syndrome in the workplace. This commentary describes some of the issues that surround the classification of AV gloves, the assessment of their effectiveness and their applicability in the workplace. The available information shows that AV gloves are unreliable as devices for controlling HTV exposures. Other means of vibration control, such as using alternative production techniques, low-vibration machinery, routine preventative maintenance regimes, and controlling exposure durations are far more likely to deliver effective vibration reductions and should be implemented. Furthermore, AV gloves may introduce some adverse effects such as increasing grip force and reducing manual dexterity. Therefore, one should balance the benefits of AV gloves and their potential adverse effects if their use is considered. © Crown copyright 2014.
Nonlinear resonance ultrasonic vibrations in Czochralski-silicon wafers
Ostapenko, S.; Tarasov, I.
2000-04-01
A resonance effect of generation of subharmonic acoustic vibrations is observed in as-grown, oxidized, and epitaxial silicon wafers. Ultrasonic vibrations were generated into a standard 200 mm Czochralski-silicon (Cz-Si) wafer using a circular ultrasound transducer with major frequency of the radial vibrations at about 26 kHz. By tuning frequency (f) of the transducer within a resonance curve, we observed a generation of intense f/2 subharmonic acoustic mode assigned as a "whistle." The whistle mode has a threshold amplitude behavior and narrow frequency band. The whistle is attributed to a nonlinear acoustic vibration of a silicon plate. It is demonstrated that characteristics of the whistle mode are sensitive to internal stress and can be used for quality control and in-line diagnostics of oxidized and epitaxial Cz-Si wafers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suarez Antola, R.
2008-11-01
The cores of nuclear reactors, including its structural parts and cooling fluids, are complex mechanical systems able to vibrate in a set of normal modes and frequencies, if suitable perturbed. The cyclic variations in the strain state of the core materials may produce changes in density. Changes in density modify the reactivity. Changes in reactivity modify thermal power. Modifications in thermal power produce variations in temperature fields. Variations in temperature produce variations in strain due to thermal-elastic effects. If the variation of the temperature field is fast enough and if the Doppler Effect and other stabilizing prompt effects in the fuel are weak enough, a fast oscillatory instability could be produced, coupled with mechanical vibrations of small amplitude. A recently constructed, simple mathematical model of nuclear reactor kinetics, that improves the one due to A.S. Thompson, is reviewed. It was constructed in order to study, in a first approximation, the stability of the reactor: a nonlinear nuclear-thermal oscillator (that corresponds to reactor point kinetics with thermal-elastic feedback and with frozen delayed neutron effects) is coupled nonlinearly with a linear mechanical-thermal oscillator (that corresponds to the first normal mode of mechanical vibrations excited by thermo-elastic effects). This mathematical model is studied here from the standpoint of mechanical vibrations. It is shown how, under certain conditions, a suitable mechanical perturbation could elicit fast and growing oscillatory instabilities in the reactor power. Applying the asymptotic method due to Krylov, Bogoliubov and Mitropolsky, analytical formulae that may be used in the calculation of the time varying amplitude and phase of the mechanical oscillations are given, as functions of the mechanical, thermal and nuclear parameters of the reactor. The consequences for the mechanical integrity of the reactor are assessed. Some conditions, mainly, but not exclusively
Vibrational spectroscopy in the electron microscope.
Krivanek, Ondrej L; Lovejoy, Tracy C; Dellby, Niklas; Aoki, Toshihiro; Carpenter, R W; Rez, Peter; Soignard, Emmanuel; Zhu, Jiangtao; Batson, Philip E; Lagos, Maureen J; Egerton, Ray F; Crozier, Peter A
2014-10-09
Vibrational spectroscopies using infrared radiation, Raman scattering, neutrons, low-energy electrons and inelastic electron tunnelling are powerful techniques that can analyse bonding arrangements, identify chemical compounds and probe many other important properties of materials. The spatial resolution of these spectroscopies is typically one micrometre or more, although it can reach a few tens of nanometres or even a few ångströms when enhanced by the presence of a sharp metallic tip. If vibrational spectroscopy could be combined with the spatial resolution and flexibility of the transmission electron microscope, it would open up the study of vibrational modes in many different types of nanostructures. Unfortunately, the energy resolution of electron energy loss spectroscopy performed in the electron microscope has until now been too poor to allow such a combination. Recent developments that have improved the attainable energy resolution of electron energy loss spectroscopy in a scanning transmission electron microscope to around ten millielectronvolts now allow vibrational spectroscopy to be carried out in the electron microscope. Here we describe the innovations responsible for the progress, and present examples of applications in inorganic and organic materials, including the detection of hydrogen. We also demonstrate that the vibrational signal has both high- and low-spatial-resolution components, that the first component can be used to map vibrational features at nanometre-level resolution, and that the second component can be used for analysis carried out with the beam positioned just outside the sample--that is, for 'aloof' spectroscopy that largely avoids radiation damage.
The vibration compensation system for ARGOS
Peter, D.; Gaessler, W.; Borelli, J.; Kulas, M.
2011-09-01
For every adaptive optics system telescope vibrations can strongly reduce the performance. This is true for the receiver part of the system i.e. the telescope and wave front sensor part as well as for the transmitter part in the case of a laser guide star system. Especially observations in deep fields observed with a laser guide star system without any tip-tilt star will be greatly spoiled by telescope vibrations. The ARGOS GLAO system actually being built for the LBT aims to implement this kind of mode where wave front correction will rely purely on signals from the laser beacons. To remove the vibrations from the uplink path a vibration compensation system will be installed. This system uses accelerometers to measure the vibrations and corrects their effect with a small fast tip-tilt mirror. The controller of the system is built based on the assumption that the vibrations take place at a few distinct frequencies. Here I present a lab set-up of this system and show first results of the performance.
Vibration monitoring with artificial neural networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alguindigue, I.
1991-01-01
Vibration monitoring of components in nuclear power plants has been used for a number of years. This technique involves the analysis of vibration data coming from vital components of the plant to detect features which reflect the operational state of machinery. The analysis leads to the identification of potential failures and their causes, and makes it possible to perform efficient preventive maintenance. Earlydetection is important because it can decrease the probability of catastrophic failures, reduce forced outgage, maximize utilization of available assets, increase the life of the plant, and reduce maintenance costs. This paper documents our work on the design of a vibration monitoring methodology based on neural network technology. This technology provides an attractive complement to traditional vibration analysis because of the potential of neural network to operate in real-time mode and to handle data which may be distorted or noisy. Our efforts have been concentrated on the analysis and classification of vibration signatures collected from operating machinery. Two neural networks algorithms were used in our project: the Recirculation algorithm for data compression and the Backpropagation algorithm to perform the actual classification of the patterns. Although this project is in the early stages of development it indicates that neural networks may provide a viable methodology for monitoring and diagnostics of vibrating components. Our results to date are very encouraging
Nuclear catalysis mediated by localized anharmonic vibrations
Dubinko, Vladimir
2015-01-01
In many-body nonlinear systems with sufficient anharmonicity, a special kind of lattice vibrations, namely, Localized Anharmonic Vibrations (LAVs) can be excited either thermally or by external triggering, in which the amplitude of atomic oscillations greatly exceeds that of harmonic oscillations (phonons) that determine the system temperature. Coherency and persistence of LAVs may have drastic effect on quantum tunneling due to correlation effects discovered by Schrodinger and Robertson in 1...
Random Vibration Testing of Advanced Wet Tantalum Capacitors
Teverovsky, Alexander
2015-01-01
Advanced wet tantalum capacitors allow for improved performance of power supply systems along with substantial reduction of size and weight of the systems that is especially beneficial for space electronics. Due to launch-related stresses, acceptance testing of all space systems includes random vibration test (RVT). However, many types of advanced wet tantalum capacitors cannot pass consistently RVT at conditions specified in MIL-PRF-39006, which impedes their use in space projects. This requires a closer look at the existing requirements, modes and mechanisms of failures, specifics of test conditions, and acceptance criteria. In this work, different lots of advanced wet tantalum capacitors from four manufacturers have been tested at step stress random vibration conditions while their currents were monitored before, during, and after the testing. It has been shown that the robustness of the parts and their reliability are mostly due to effective self-healing processes and limited current spiking or minor scintillations caused by RVT do not increase the risk of failures during operation. A simple model for scintillations events has been used to simulate current spiking during RVT and optimize test conditions. The significance of scintillations and possible effects of gas generation have been discussed and test acceptance criteria for limited current spiking have been suggested.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ram, P.N.; Dederichs, P.H.
1981-07-01
Some aspects of resonant vibrations of self-interstitials in the 100-dumbbell configuration in fcc-metals are discussed by extending previous calculations of Zeller et al. and Schober et al. Employing a simple defect model with nearest-neighbour interaction the local frequency spectrum of the defect is calculated showing several localized modes and low-frequency resonant modes. The change in the total density of states due to the defects is expressed as the derivative of a generalized phase shift which is used to calculate the change in the lattic specific heat due to single interstitials. Inelastic neutron scattering away from the one-phonon lines is proposed as a method to observe the resonant modes induced by self-interstitials. The model calculation in Cu shows that the well defined resonant modes due to dumbbell vibrations have appreciable intensity and could presumably be detected in neutron scattering measurements. The effect of di-interstitials on the phonon dispersion in Al is also discussed. (orig./GSCH)
Vibrational quasi-continuum in unimolecular multiphoton dissociation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garcia Fernandez, P.; Gonzalez-Diaz, P.F.
1987-04-01
The vibrational quasi-continuum of the boron trifluoride molecule has been qualitatively studied and the formalism extended to treat N-normal-mode molecules. The anharmonic potential curves for the BF/sub 3/ normal modes have been calculated, and the computed anharmonicity constants have been tested against the fundamental frequencies. The potential curve of the wagging mode has been simulated by an internal rotation of one of the fluoride atoms. The vibrational-energy levels and wave functions have been calculated applying second-order perturbation theory. The quasi-continuum energy levels of BF/sub 3/ have been obtained by means of a method based in forming adequate linear combinations of wave functions belonging to the N-1 modes resulting from removing the i.r.-active mode;the associated energies have been minimized using a constrained minimization procedure. It has been found that the energy pattern of the N-1 vibrational modes possesses an energy density high enough for constituting a vibrational heat bath and, finally, it has been verified that the ''fictitious'' pattern of the active mode is included in the pattern of the N-1 modes.
Van Dyke, Michael B.
2014-01-01
During random vibration testing of electronic boxes there is often a desire to know the dynamic response of certain internal printed wiring boards (PWBs) for the purpose of monitoring the response of sensitive hardware or for post-test forensic analysis in support of anomaly investigation. Due to restrictions on internally mounted accelerometers for most flight hardware there is usually no means to empirically observe the internal dynamics of the unit, so one must resort to crude and highly uncertain approximations. One common practice is to apply Miles Equation, which does not account for the coupled response of the board in the chassis, resulting in significant over- or under-prediction. This paper explores the application of simple multiple-degree-of-freedom lumped parameter modeling to predict the coupled random vibration response of the PWBs in their fundamental modes of vibration. A simple tool using this approach could be used during or following a random vibration test to interpret vibration test data from a single external chassis measurement to deduce internal board dynamics by means of a rapid correlation analysis. Such a tool might also be useful in early design stages as a supplemental analysis to a more detailed finite element analysis to quickly prototype and analyze the dynamics of various design iterations. After developing the theoretical basis, a lumped parameter modeling approach is applied to an electronic unit for which both external and internal test vibration response measurements are available for direct comparison. Reasonable correlation of the results demonstrates the potential viability of such an approach. Further development of the preliminary approach presented in this paper will involve correlation with detailed finite element models and additional relevant test data.
Bandshapes in vibrational spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dijkman, F.G.
1978-01-01
A detailed account is given of the development of modern bandshape theories since 1965. An investigation into the relative contributions of statistical irreversible relaxation processes is described, for a series of molecules in which gradually the length of one molecular axis is increased. An investigation into the theoretical and experimental investigation of the broadening brought about by the effect of fluctuating intermolecular potentials on the vibrational frequency is also described. The effect of an intermolecular perturbative potential on anharmonic and Morse oscillators is discussed and the results are presented of a computation on the broadening of the vibrational band of some diatomic molecules in a rigid lattice type solvent. The broadening of the OH-stretching vibration in a number of aliphatic alcohols, the vibrational bandshapes of the acetylenic C-H stretching vibration and of the symmetric methyl stretching vibration are investigated. (Auth./ C.F.)
Smart Sensor for Analyzing Train Vibration in WCR Zone
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alka DUBEY
2009-09-01
Full Text Available In the present paper a smart vibration sensor is developed for railway electric engine WAP-7. Which is a self-sensation device equipped with recording and wireless communication interface. One programmed microcontroller 89C52 is used, which record vibration of trains with real time into memory. There is certain limit of vibrations, which is acceptable by track. Beyond this limit track can be damaged and may result major casualty. Smart sensor indicate the level of current vibration with its ideal value for prevention of excessive vibration it starts buzz ring. The work is highly applicable to the high speed trains. The high level vibration cause serious accidents due to the vibration.
Carini, Giovanni, Jr.; Carini, Giuseppe; D’Angelo, Giovanna; Federico, Mauro; Romano, Valentino
2018-05-01
Low and high frequency Raman scattering of B2O3 glasses, compacted under GPa pressures, has been performed to investigate structural changes due to increasing atomic packing. Compacted glasses, annealed at ambient temperature and pressure, experience a time-dependent decrease of the density to a smaller constant value over a period of few months, displaying a permanent plastic deformation. Increasing densification determines a parallel and progressive decrease of the intensity of the Boson peak and the main band at 808 cm‑1, both these modes arising from localized vibrations involving planar boroxol rings (B3O6), the glassy units formed from three basic BO3 triangles. The 808 cm‑1 mode preserves its frequency, while the BP evidences a well-defined frequency increase. The high-frequency multicomponent band between 1200 and 1600 cm‑1 also changes with increasing densification, disclosing a decreasing intensity of the 1260 cm‑1 mode due to oxygen vibrations of BO3 units bridging boroxol rings. This indicates the gradual vibrational collapse of groups formed from rings connected by more complex links than a single bridging oxygen. The observed behaviours suggest that glass compaction causes severe deformation of boroxol rings, determining a decrease of groups which preserve unaltered their vibrational activity. Growing glass densification stiffens the network and leads to a decrease of the excess heat capacity over the Debye prediction below 20 K, which is not accounted for by the hardening of the elastic continuum. By using the low-frequency Raman scattering to determine the temperature dependence of the heat capacity, it has been evaluated the density of low-frequency vibrational states which discloses a significant reduction of excess modes with increasing density.
Wind Turbine Rotors with Active Vibration Control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svendsen, Martin Nymann
that the basic modes of a wind turbine blade can be effectively addressed by an in-blade ‘active strut’ actuator mechanism. The importance of accounting for background mode flexibility is demonstrated. Also, it is shown that it is generally possible to address multiple beam modes with multiple controllers, given...... in the targeted modes and the observed spill-over to other modes is very limited and generally stabilizing. It is shown that physical controller positioning for reduced background noise is important to the calibration. By simulation of the rotor response to both simple initial conditions and a stochastic wind......This thesis presents a framework for structural modeling, analysis and active vibration damping of rotating wind turbine blades and rotors. A structural rotor model is developed in terms of finite beam elements in a rotating frame of reference. The element comprises a representation of general...
Yang, Fujun; Ma, Yinhang; Tao, Nan; He, Xiaoyuan
2017-06-01
Due to its multi properties, including excellent stiffness-to-weight and strength-to-weight ratios, closed-cell aluminum and its alloy foams become candidate materials for use in many high-technology industries, such as the automotive and aerospace industries. For the efficient use of closed-cell foams in structural applications, it is necessary and important to detailly understand their mechanical characteristics. In this paper, the nonlinear vibration responses of the cantilever beams of closed-cell aluminum foams were investigated by use of electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI). The nonlinear resonant mode shapes of testing specimens under harmonic excitation were measured. It is first time to obtain from the experimental results that there exist super-harmonic responses when the cantilever beams of closed-cell aluminum foam were forced to vibrate, which was caused by its specific cellular structures.
Free Vibrations of a Cantilevered SWCNT with Distributed Mass in the Presence of Nonlocal Effect
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. A. De Rosa
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The Hamilton principle is applied to deduce the free vibration frequencies of a cantilever single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT in the presence of an added mass, which can be distributed along an arbitrary part of the span. The nonlocal elasticity theory by Eringen has been employed, in order to take into account the nanoscale effects. An exact formulation leads to the equations of motion, which can be solved to give the frequencies and the corresponding vibration modes. Moreover, two approximate semianalytical methods are also illustrated, which can provide quick parametric relationships. From a more practical point of view, the problem of detecting the mass of the attached particle has been solved by calculating the relative frequency shift due to the presence of the added mass: from it, the mass value can be easily deduced. The paper ends with some numerical examples, in which the nonlocal effects are thoroughly investigated.
Transfer vibration through spine
Benyovszky, Adam
2012-01-01
Transfer Vibration through Spine Abstract In the bachelor project we deal with the topic of Transfer Vibration through Spine. The problem of TVS is trying to be solved by the critical review method. We analyse some diagnostic methods and methods of treatment based on this principle. Close attention is paid to the method of Transfer Vibration through Spine that is being currently solved by The Research Institute of Thermomechanics in The Czech Academy of Sciences in cooperation with Faculty of...
Development of an innovative device for ultrasonic elliptical vibration cutting.
Zhou, Ming; Hu, Linhua
2015-07-01
An innovative ultrasonic elliptical vibration cutting (UEVC) device with 1st resonant mode of longitudinal vibration and 3rd resonant mode of bending vibration was proposed in this paper, which can deliver higher output power compared to previous UEVC devices. Using finite element method (FEM), resonance frequencies of the longitudinal and bending vibrations were tuned to be as close as possible in order to excite these two vibrations using two-phase driving voltages at a single frequency, while wave nodes of the longitudinal and bending vibrations were also adjusted to be as coincident as possible for mounting the device at a single fixed point. Based on the simulation analysis results a prototype device was fabricated, then its vibration characteristics were evaluated by an impedance analyzer and a laser displacement sensor. With two-phase sinusoidal driving voltages both of 480 V(p-p) at an ultrasonic frequency of 20.1 kHz, the developed prototype device achieved an elliptical vibration with a longitudinal amplitude of 8.9 μm and a bending amplitude of 11.3 μm. The performance of the developed UEVC device is assessed by the cutting tests of hardened steel using single crystal diamond tools. Experimental results indicate that compared to ordinary cutting process, the tool wear is reduced significantly by using the proposed device. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Experimental and DFT studies on the vibrational spectra of 1H-indene-2-boronic acid
Alver, Özgur; Kaya, Mehmet Fatih
2014-11-01
Stable conformers and geometrical molecular structures of 1H-indene-2-boronic acid (I-2B(OH)2) were studied experimentally and theoretically using FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopic methods. FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra were recorded in the region of 4000-400 cm-1, and 3700-400 cm-1, respectively. The optimized geometric structures were searched by Becke-3-Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP) hybrid density functional theory method with 6-31++G(d,p) basis set. Vibrational wavenumbers of I-2B(OH)2 were calculated using B3LYP density functional methods including 6-31++G(d,p) basis set. Experimental and theoretical results show that density functional B3LYP method gives satisfactory results for predicting vibrational wavenumbers except OH stretching modes which is probably due to increasing unharmonicity in the high wave number region and possible intra and inter molecular interaction at OH edges. To support the assigned vibrational wavenumbers, the potential energy distribution (PED) values were also calculated using VEDA 4 (Vibrational Energy Distribution Analysis) program.
Aerodynamic performance of a vibrating piezoelectric fan under varied operational conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stafford, J; Jeffers, N
2014-01-01
This paper experimentally examines the bulk aerodynamic performance of a vibrating fan operating in the first mode of vibration. The influence of operating condition on the local velocity field has also been investigated to understand the flow distribution at the exit region and determine the stalling condition for vibrating fans. Fan motion has been generated and controlled using a piezoelectric ceramic attached to a stainless steel cantilever. The frequency and amplitude at resonance were 109.4 Hz and 12.5 mm, respectively. A test facility has been developed to measure the pressure-flow characteristics of the vibrating fan and simultaneously conduct local velocity field measurements using particle image velocimetry. The results demonstrate the impact of system characteristics on the local velocity field. High momentum regions generated due to the oscillating motion exist with a component direction that is tangent to the blade at maximum displacement. These high velocity zones are significantly affected by increasing impedance while flow reversal is a dominant feature at maximum pressure rise. The findings outlined provide useful information for design of thermal management solutions that may incorporate this air cooling approach.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Myung-Hyun Kim
2002-01-01
Full Text Available The integration of actuators and sensors using smart materials enabled various applications including health monitoring and structural vibration control. In this study, a robust control technique is designed and implemented in order to reduce vibration of an active structure. Special attention is given to eliminating the possibility of interaction between the health monitoring system and the control system. Exploiting the disturbance decoupling characteristic of the sliding mode observer, it is demonstrated that the proposed observer can eliminate the possible high frequency excitation from the health monitoring system. At the same time, a damage identification scheme, which tracks the changes of mechanical impedance due to the presence of damage, has been applied to assess the health condition of structures. The main objective of this paper is to examine the potential of combining the two emerging techniques together. Using the collocated piezoelectric sensors/actuators for vibration suppression as well as for health monitoring, this technique enabled to reduce the number of system components, while enhancing the performance of structures. As an initial study, both simulation and experimental investigations were performed for an active beam structure. The results show that this integrated technique can provide substantial vibration reductions, while detecting damage on the structure at the same time.
Pazderková, Markéta; Profant, Václav; Hodačová, Jana; Sebestík, Jaroslav; Pazderka, Tomáš; Novotná, Pavlína; Urbanová, Marie; Safařík, Martin; Buděšínský, Miloš; Tichý, Miloš; Bednárová, Lucie; Baumruk, Vladimír; Maloň, Petr
2013-08-22
We investigate amide nonplanarity in vibrational optical activity (VOA) spectra of tricyclic spirodilactams 5,8-diazatricyclo[6,3,0,0(1,5)]undecan-4,9-dione (I) and its 6,6',7,7'-tetradeuterio derivative (II). These rigid molecules constrain amide groups to nonplanar geometries with twisted pyramidal arrangements of bonds to amide nitrogen atoms. We have collected a full range vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) and Raman optical activity (ROA) spectra including signals of C-H and C-D stretching vibrations. We report normal-mode analysis and a comparison of calculated to experimental VCD and ROA. The data provide band-to-band assignment and offer a possibility to evaluate roles of constrained nonplanar tertiary amide groups and rigid chiral skeletons. Nonplanarity shows as single-signed VCD and ROA amide I signals, prevailing the couplets expected to arise from the amide-amide interaction. Amide-amide coupling dominates amide II (mainly C'-N stretching, modified in tertiary amides by the absence of a N-H bond) transitions (strong couplet in VCD, no significant ROA) probably due to the close proximity of amide nitrogen atoms. At lower wavenumbers, ROA spectra exhibit another likely manifestation of amide nonplanarity, showing signals of amide V (δ(oop)(N-C) at ~570 cm(-1)) and amide VI (δ(oop)(C'═O) at ~700 cm(-1) and ~650 cm(-1)) vibrations.
Effect of electron-vibration interactions on the thermoelectric efficiency of molecular junctions.
Hsu, Bailey C; Chiang, Chi-Wei; Chen, Yu-Chang
2012-07-11
From first-principles approaches, we investigate the thermoelectric efficiency of a molecular junction where a benzene molecule is connected directly to the platinum electrodes. We calculate the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT in the presence of electron-vibration interactions with and without local heating under two scenarios: linear response and finite bias regimes. In the linear response regime, ZT saturates around the electrode temperature T(e) = 25 K in the elastic case, while in the inelastic case we observe a non-saturated and a much larger ZT beyond T(e) = 25 K attributed to the tail of the Fermi-Dirac distribution. In the finite bias regime, the inelastic effects reveal the signatures of the molecular vibrations in the low-temperature regime. The normal modes exhibiting structures in the inelastic profile are characterized by large components of atomic vibrations along the current density direction on top of each individual atom. In all cases, the inclusion of local heating leads to a higher wire temperature T(w) and thus magnifies further the influence of the electron-vibration interactions due to the increased number of local phonons.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zihao Liu
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Torsional vibration of shafts is a very important problem in engineering, in particular in ship engines and aeroengines. Due to their high levels of integration and complexity, it is hard to get their accurate structural data or accurate modal data. This lack of data is unhelpful to vibration control in the form of structural modifications. Besides, many parts in shaft systems are not allowed to be modified such as rotary inertia of a pump or an engine, which is designed for achieving certain functions. This paper presents a strategy for torsional vibration control of shaft systems in the form of structural modifications based on receptances, which does not need analytical or modal models of the systems under investigation. It only needs the torsional receptances of the system, which can be obtained by testing simple auxiliary structure attached to relevant locations of the shaft system and using the finite element model (FEM of the simple structure. An optimization problem is constructed to determine the required structural modifications, based on the actual requirements of modal frequencies and mode shapes. A numerical experiment is set up and the influence of several system parameters is analysed. Several scenarios of constraints in practice are considered. The numerical simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of this method and its feasibility in solving torsional vibration problems in practice.
Vibrationally elastic and inelastic scattering of electrons by hydrogen sulphide molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishimura, Tamio; Itikawa, Yukikazu
1996-01-01
Vibrationally elastic and inelastic cross sections (differential and integral ones) are calculated for electron scattering from hydrogen sulphide (H 2 S) at the collision energies 3-30 eV. Vibrational excitation of all three fundamental modes is considered. The calculation is based on the rotationally sudden and a vibrationally close-coupling method using an ab initio electrostatic potential. The effects of electron exchange and target polarization are taken into account approximately. The resulting cross sections are compared with the experimental data available. The present differential cross sections (DCS) for the elastic scattering reproduce the experimental data well. For the inelastic scattering, the present DCS is too small at 3 eV, compared with the experimental data. This is probably due to a shape resonance, which the present calculation would not be sufficiently accurate to produce. In the higher energy region (i.e. above about 10 eV), the present vibrational cross section should be more reliable, but no experimental data are available so far. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Torabi, K.; Nafar Dastgerdi, J.
2012-01-01
This paper is concerned with the free transverse vibration of cracked nanobeams modeled after Eringen's nonlocal elasticity theory and Timoshenko beam theory. The cracked beam is modeled as two segments connected by a rotational spring located at the cracked section. This model promotes discontinuities in rotational displacement due to bending which is proportional to bending moment transmitted by the cracked section. The governing equations of cracked nanobeams with two symmetric and asymmetric boundary conditions are derived; then these equations are solved analytically based on concerning basic standard trigonometric and hyperbolic functions. Besides, the frequency parameters and the vibration modes of cracked nanobeams for variant crack positions, crack ratio, and small scale effect parameters are calculated. The vibration solutions obtained provide a better representation of the vibration behavior of short, stubby, micro/nanobeams where the effects of small scale, transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia are significant. - Highlights: ► The free vibration analysis of cracked nanobeams is investigated. ► This study is based on the theory of nonlocal elasticity and Timoshenko beam theory. ► The small scale effect parameter greatly affects the value of natural frequencies. ► Crack reduces the natural frequencies, causes a discontinuity in the cracked section.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Torabi, K., E-mail: kvntrb@KashanU.ac.ir; Nafar Dastgerdi, J., E-mail: J.nafardastgerdi@me.iut.ac.ir
2012-08-31
This paper is concerned with the free transverse vibration of cracked nanobeams modeled after Eringen's nonlocal elasticity theory and Timoshenko beam theory. The cracked beam is modeled as two segments connected by a rotational spring located at the cracked section. This model promotes discontinuities in rotational displacement due to bending which is proportional to bending moment transmitted by the cracked section. The governing equations of cracked nanobeams with two symmetric and asymmetric boundary conditions are derived; then these equations are solved analytically based on concerning basic standard trigonometric and hyperbolic functions. Besides, the frequency parameters and the vibration modes of cracked nanobeams for variant crack positions, crack ratio, and small scale effect parameters are calculated. The vibration solutions obtained provide a better representation of the vibration behavior of short, stubby, micro/nanobeams where the effects of small scale, transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia are significant. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The free vibration analysis of cracked nanobeams is investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study is based on the theory of nonlocal elasticity and Timoshenko beam theory. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The small scale effect parameter greatly affects the value of natural frequencies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crack reduces the natural frequencies, causes a discontinuity in the cracked section.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mizuno, Takeshi; Takasaki, Masaya; Ishino, Yuji
2016-01-01
Switching stiffness control is applied to attenuate vibration in the lateral directions in an active magnetic suspension system with electromagnets operated in differential mode. The magnetic suspension system using the attractive force between magnetized bodies is inherently unstable in the normal direction so that feedback control is necessary to achieve stable suspension. In contrast, it can be stable in the lateral directions due to the edge effects in the magnetic circuits. In several applications, such passive suspension is used in combination with the active one to reduce cost and space. However, damping in the lateral directions is generally small. As a result, induced vibrations in these directions are hardly attenuated. To suppress such vibration without any additional actuator (electromagnet), switching stiffness control is applied to an magnetic suspension system operated in the differential mode. The stiffness in the lateral direction is adjusted by varying the bias currents of an opposed pair of electromagnets located in the normal direction simultaneously according to the motion of the suspended object. When the varied bias currents are adjusted for the additive normal forces cancel each other, such control does not affect the suspension in the normal direction. The effectiveness of the proposed control methods is confirmed experimentally. (paper)
Conformational and vibrational reassessment of solid paracetamol
Amado, Ana M.; Azevedo, Celeste; Ribeiro-Claro, Paulo J. A.
2017-08-01
This work provides an answer to the urge for a more detailed and accurate knowledge of the vibrational spectrum of the widely used analgesic/antipyretic drug commonly known as paracetamol. A comprehensive spectroscopic analysis - including infrared, Raman, and inelastic neutron scattering (INS) - is combined with a computational approach which takes account for the effects of intermolecular interactions in the solid state. This allows a full reassessment of the vibrational assignments for Paracetamol, thus preventing the propagation of incorrect data analysis and misassignments already found in the literature. In particular, the vibrational modes involving the hydrogen-bonded Nsbnd H and Osbnd H groups are correctly reallocated to bands shifted by up to 300 cm- 1 relatively to previous assignments.
PWR control rods wear by vibrations induced by coolant fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reynier, R.
1997-01-01
Flow induced vibrations in pressurised water reactors generate the wear of control rods against their guidance systems. Alternate sliding (at 320 deg. C in water) and impact-sliding tests (at room temperature in air) were carried out on 304 L austenitic stainless steel control rods' claddings. Microstructural analysis were made on the wear scars of the tube specimen using Scanning ELectron Microscopy, microhardness measurements and X-ray diffractometry. The alternate sliding leads to an important mass loss, a strong plastic deformation due to the strain hardening of the surface layers and generates strong compressive residual stresses. These results are specific to a severe wear case. Therefore, the impact-sliding mode induces martensitic phase, a cracked oxide layer and a compressive residual stresses weaker than those created in the alternate sliding case. This type of motion leads to a milder wear of the control rods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang, Yu; Li, Zhixiong; Zhang, Chao; Peng, Z; Hu, Chao
2016-01-01
This work aims to detect rolling bearing cracks using a variational approach. An original method that appropriately incorporates bi-dimensional variational mode decomposition (BVMD) into discriminant diffusion maps (DDM) is proposed to analyze the nonstationary vibration signals recorded from the cracked rolling bearings in coal cutters. The advantage of this variational decomposition based diffusion map (VDDM) method in comparison to the current DDM is that the intrinsic vibration mode of the crack can be filtered into a limited bandwidth in the frequency domain with an estimated central frequency, thus discarding the interference signal components in the vibration signals and significantly improving the crack detection performance. In addition, the VDDM is able to simultaneously process two-channel sensor signals to reduce information leakage. Experimental validation using rolling bearing crack vibration signals demonstrates that the VDDM separated the raw signals into four intrinsic modes, including one roller vibration mode, one roller cage vibration mode, one inner race vibration mode, and one outer race vibration mode. Hence, reliable fault features were extracted from the outer race vibration mode, and satisfactory crack identification performance was achieved. The comparison between the proposed VDDM and existing approaches indicated that the VDDM method was more efficient and reliable for crack detection in coal cutter rolling bearings. As an effective catalyst for rolling bearing crack detection, this newly proposed method is useful for practical applications. (paper)
The monopole and quadrupole vibrations of a hot nucleus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okolowicz, J.; Drozdz, S.; Ploszajczak, M.; Caurier, E.
1989-03-01
An extended time-dependent Hartree-Fock approach has been applied to a description of the isoscalar giant monopole and quadrupole vibration modes in the excited nuclear system at finite temperature. The temperature dependence of the resonance characteristics is established for both modes. In anticipation of some anharmonic effects the principle of regularity and single-valuedness has been used to extract the energies of the collective modes. (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Paulsen, Andreas L.; Borup, Flemming; Berg, Rolf W.
2010-01-01
The structural and vibrational properties of NbV oxosulfato complexes formed in Nb2O5-K2S2O7 and Nb2O5-K2S2O7-K2SO4 molten mixtures with 0 ... for the binary Nb2O5-K2S2O7 molten system indicate that the dissolution of Nb2O5 proceeds with consumption of S2O7 leading to the formation of a NbV oxosulfato complex according to Nb2O5 + nS2O7 --> C2n-; a simple formalism exploiting the relative Raman band intensities is used for determining the stoichiometric...... coefficient, n, pointing to n = 3 and to the following reaction: Nb2O5 + 3S2O7 --> 2NbO(SO4)3, which is consistent with the Raman spectra of the molten mixtures. Nb2O5 could be dissolved much easier when K2SO4 was present in an equimolar (1:1) SO4/Nb ratio; the incremental presence of K2SO4 in Nb2O5-K2S2O7...
Chains of benzenes with lithium-atom adsorption: Vibrations and spontaneous symmetry breaking
Ortiz, Yenni P.; Stegmann, Thomas; Klein, Douglas J.; Seligman, Thomas H.
2016-01-01
We study effects of different configurations of adsorbates on the vibrational modes as well as symmetries of polyacenes and poly-p-phenylenes focusing on lithium atom adsorption. We found that the spectra of the vibrational modes distinguish the different configurations. For more regular adsorption schemes the lowest states are bending and torsion modes of the skeleton, which are essentially followed by the adsorbate. On poly-p-phenylenes we found that lithium adsorption reduces and often eli...
Mechanical vibration and shock analysis, sinusoidal vibration
Lalanne, Christian
2014-01-01
Everything engineers need to know about mechanical vibration and shock...in one authoritative reference work! This fully updated and revised 3rd edition addresses the entire field of mechanical vibration and shock as one of the most important types of load and stress applied to structures, machines and components in the real world. Examples include everything from the regular and predictable loads applied to turbines, motors or helicopters by the spinning of their constituent parts to the ability of buildings to withstand damage from wind loads or explosions, and the need for cars to m
Hydroelastic Vibrations of Ships
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Folsø, Rasmus
2002-01-01
A formula for the necessary hull girder bending stiffness required to avoid serious springing vibrations is derived. The expression takes into account the zero crossing period of the waves, the ship speed and main dimensions. For whipping vibrations the probability of exceedance for the combined...
Surface vibrational spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erskine, J.L.
1984-01-01
A brief review of recent studies which combine measurements of surface vibrational energies with lattice dynamical calculations is presented. These results suggest that surface vibrational spectroscopy offers interesting prospects for use as a molecular-level probe of surface geometry, adsorbate bond distances and molecular orientations
Gearbox vibration diagnostic analyzer
1992-01-01
This report describes the Gearbox Vibration Diagnostic Analyzer installed in the NASA Lewis Research Center's 500 HP Helicopter Transmission Test Stand to monitor gearbox testing. The vibration of the gearbox is analyzed using diagnostic algorithms to calculate a parameter indicating damaged components.
Handbook Of Noise And Vibration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1995-12-01
This book is about noise and vibration. The first chapter has explanations of noise such as basic of sound, influence of noise, assessment of noise, measurement of prevention of noise and technology, case of noise measurement and soundproof. The second chapter describes vibration with outline, theory of vibration, interpretation of vibration, measurement for reduction of vibration, case of design of protection against vibration. It deals with related regulation and method of measurement.
Free-vibration acoustic resonance of a nonlinear elastic bar
Tarumi, Ryuichi; Oshita, Yoshihito
2011-02-01
Free-vibration acoustic resonance of a one-dimensional nonlinear elastic bar was investigated by direct analysis in the calculus of variations. The Lagrangian density of the bar includes a cubic term of the deformation gradient, which is responsible for both geometric and constitutive nonlinearities. By expanding the deformation function into a complex Fourier series, we derived the action integral in an analytic form and evaluated its stationary conditions numerically with the Ritz method for the first three resonant vibration modes. This revealed that the bar shows the following prominent nonlinear features: (i) amplitude dependence of the resonance frequency; (ii) symmetry breaking in the vibration pattern; and (iii) excitation of the high-frequency mode around nodal-like points. Stability of the resonant vibrations was also addressed in terms of a convex condition on the strain energy density.
Tapered Polymer Fiber Sensors for Reinforced Concrete Beam Vibration Detection.
Luo, Dong; Ibrahim, Zainah; Ma, Jianxun; Ismail, Zubaidah; Iseley, David Thomas
2016-12-16
In this study, tapered polymer fiber sensors (TPFSs) have been employed to detect the vibration of a reinforced concrete beam (RC beam). The sensing principle was based on transmission modes theory. The natural frequency of an RC beam was theoretically analyzed. Experiments were carried out with sensors mounted on the surface or embedded in the RC beam. Vibration detection results agreed well with Kistler accelerometers. The experimental results found that both the accelerometer and TPFS detected the natural frequency function of a vibrated RC beam well. The mode shapes of the RC beam were also found by using the TPFSs. The proposed vibration detection method provides a cost-comparable solution for a structural health monitoring (SHM) system in civil engineering.
Development of vibrational analysis for detection of antisymmetric shells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Esmailzadeh Khadem, S.; Mahmoodi, M.; Rezaee, M.
2002-01-01
In this paper, vibrational behavior of bodies of revolution with different types of structural faults is studied. Since vibrational characteristics of structures are natural properties of system, the existence of any structural faults causes measurable changes in these properties. Here, this matter is demonstrated. In other words, vibrational behavior of a body of revolution with no structural faults is analyzed by two methods of I) numerical analysis using super sap software, II) Experimental model analysis, and natural frequencies and mode shapes are obtained. Then, different types of cracks are introduced in the structure, and analysis is repeated and the results are compared. Based on this study, one may perform crack detection by measuring the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the samples and comparing with reference information obtained from the vibration analysis of the original structure with no fault
A Sub-Hertz, Low-Frequency Vibration Isolation Platform
Ortiz, Gerardo, G.; Farr, William H.; Sannibale, Virginio
2011-01-01
struts ends are connected in pairs to the base and to the platform, forming an octahedron. The six struts provide the vibration isolation due to the properties of mechanical oscillators that behave as second-order lowpass filters for frequencies above the resonance. At high frequency, the ideal second-order low-pass filter response is spoiled by the distributed mass and the internal modes of membrane and of the platform with its payload.
Implausibility of the vibrational theory of olfaction.
Block, Eric; Jang, Seogjoo; Matsunami, Hiroaki; Sekharan, Sivakumar; Dethier, Bérénice; Ertem, Mehmed Z; Gundala, Sivaji; Pan, Yi; Li, Shengju; Li, Zhen; Lodge, Stephene N; Ozbil, Mehmet; Jiang, Huihong; Penalba, Sonia F; Batista, Victor S; Zhuang, Hanyi
2015-05-26
The vibrational theory of olfaction assumes that electron transfer occurs across odorants at the active sites of odorant receptors (ORs), serving as a sensitive measure of odorant vibrational frequencies, ultimately leading to olfactory perception. A previous study reported that human subjects differentiated hydrogen/deuterium isotopomers (isomers with isotopic atoms) of the musk compound cyclopentadecanone as evidence supporting the theory. Here, we find no evidence for such differentiation at the molecular level. In fact, we find that the human musk-recognizing receptor, OR5AN1, identified using a heterologous OR expression system and robustly responding to cyclopentadecanone and muscone, fails to distinguish isotopomers of these compounds in vitro. Furthermore, the mouse (methylthio)methanethiol-recognizing receptor, MOR244-3, as well as other selected human and mouse ORs, responded similarly to normal, deuterated, and (13)C isotopomers of their respective ligands, paralleling our results with the musk receptor OR5AN1. These findings suggest that the proposed vibration theory does not apply to the human musk receptor OR5AN1, mouse thiol receptor MOR244-3, or other ORs examined. Also, contrary to the vibration theory predictions, muscone-d30 lacks the 1,380- to 1,550-cm(-1) IR bands claimed to be essential for musk odor. Furthermore, our theoretical analysis shows that the proposed electron transfer mechanism of the vibrational frequencies of odorants could be easily suppressed by quantum effects of nonodorant molecular vibrational modes. These and other concerns about electron transfer at ORs, together with our extensive experimental data, argue against the plausibility of the vibration theory.
Nanoscale piezoelectric vibration energy harvester design
Foruzande, Hamid Reza; Hajnayeb, Ali; Yaghootian, Amin
2017-09-01
Development of new nanoscale devices has increased the demand for new types of small-scale energy resources such as ambient vibrations energy harvesters. Among the vibration energy harvesters, piezoelectric energy harvesters (PEHs) can be easily miniaturized and fabricated in micro and nano scales. This change in the dimensions of a PEH leads to a change in its governing equations of motion, and consequently, the predicted harvested energy comparing to a macroscale PEH. In this research, effects of small scale dimensions on the nonlinear vibration and harvested voltage of a nanoscale PEH is studied. The PEH is modeled as a cantilever piezoelectric bimorph nanobeam with a tip mass, using the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory in conjunction with Hamilton's principle. A harmonic base excitation is applied as a model of the ambient vibrations. The nonlocal elasticity theory is used to consider the size effects in the developed model. The derived equations of motion are discretized using the assumed-modes method and solved using the method of multiple scales. Sensitivity analysis for the effect of different parameters of the system in addition to size effects is conducted. The results show the significance of nonlocal elasticity theory in the prediction of system dynamic nonlinear behavior. It is also observed that neglecting the size effects results in lower estimates of the PEH vibration amplitudes. The results pave the way for designing new nanoscale sensors in addition to PEHs.
Even nanomechanical modes transduced by integrated photonics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Westwood-Bachman, J. N.; Diao, Z.; Sauer, V. T. K.; Hiebert, W. K., E-mail: wayne.hiebert@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton T6G 2E1 (Canada); National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton T6G 2M9 (Canada); Bachman, D. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton T6G 2V4 (Canada)
2016-02-08
We demonstrate the actuation and detection of even flexural vibrational modes of a doubly clamped nanomechanical resonator using an integrated photonics transduction scheme. The doubly clamped beam is formed by releasing a straight section of an optical racetrack resonator from the underlying silicon dioxide layer, and a step is fabricated in the substrate beneath the beam. The step causes uneven force and responsivity distribution along the device length, permitting excitation and detection of even modes of vibration. This is achieved while retaining transduction capability for odd modes. The devices are actuated via optical force applied with a pump laser. The displacement sensitivities of the first through third modes, as obtained from the thermomechanical noise floor, are 228 fm Hz{sup −1/2}, 153 fm Hz{sup −1/2}, and 112 fm Hz{sup −1/2}, respectively. The excitation efficiency for these modes is compared and modeled based on integration of the uneven forces over the mode shapes. While the excitation efficiency for the first three modes is approximately the same when the step occurs at about 38% of the beam length, the ability to tune the modal efficiency of transduction by choosing the step position is discussed. The overall optical force on each mode is approximately 0.4 pN μm{sup −1} mW{sup −1}, for an applied optical power of 0.07 mW. We show a potential application that uses the resonant frequencies of the first two vibrational modes of a buckled beam to measure the stress in the silicon device layer, estimated to be 106 MPa. We anticipate that the observation of the second mode of vibration using our integrated photonics approach will be useful in future mass sensing experiments.
Vibration of helical springs in cross water flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Axisa, F.; Brunet, G.
1987-05-01
The purpose of this paper is to present new experimental data on vortex-shedding induced vibration on helical springs subjected to cross-flows. Intense locked-in vibration were observed on the natural modes of axial displacement. A simplified model is tentatively proposed to interpret the experimental data which is based on an analogy with vortex-shedding as observed on straight tube rows