Sample records for vibration isolation mount

  1. Active hard mount vibration isolation for precision equipment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjepkema, D.


    Floor vibrations and acoustic excitation may limit the performance of precision equipment, that is used for example to produce computer chips or to make images of very tiny structures. Therefore, it is common to mount a vibration isolator in the suspension of such equipment to isolate it from these

  2. Active vibration isolation of a rigidly mounted turbo pump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, T.G.H.; Doppenberg, E.J.J.


    Manufacturers of precision equipment are constantly aiming at increased accuracy. Elimination of disturbing vibrations is therefore getting more and more important. The technical limitations of passive isolation methods require alternative strategies for vibration reduction, such as active

  3. Vibration isolation analysis of a stabilized platform mounted on a small off-road vehicle

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strydom, Anria


    Full Text Available Safety and Security, South Africa 2 Vehicle Dynamics Group, Dept. of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of Pretoria *E-mail: Abstract: Stabilised platforms are regularly integrated with vehicles in various... an electronic data acquisition system (eDAQ), and data is sampled at 100Hz. String displacement sensors are used to measure suspension deflection and the steering rack displacement. Accelerometers mounted on the vehicle body are used measure the sprung mass...

  4. Forming the stress state of a vibroisolated building in the process of mounting rubber steel vibration isolator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashevskiy Mikhail Aronovich


    Full Text Available The necessity to specificate the formation process of stress-strain state of buildings in the construction process is a new problem which requires including real production characteristics going beyond calculation models into calculation methods. Today the construction process lacks this specification. When mounting vibroisolators the stress-strein of a structure state is changing. The mounting method of vibroisolators is patented and consists in multistage successive compression loading of each vibroisolator with the constant speed and following fixation of this displacement. The specified engineering method of rubber-steel pads calculation in view of change of their form during deformation, nonlinearity, rheological processes is offered. Resilient pads look like rubber plates rectangular in plane reinforced on the basic surfaces with metal sheets. The influence of a time-variable static load and free vibrations of loaded pads are considered.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov Vladimir Alexandrovich


    Full Text Available The article deals with the probability analysis for a vibration isolation system of high-precision equipment, which is extremely sensitive to low-frequency oscillations even of submicron amplitude. The external sources of low-frequency vibrations may include the natural city background or internal low-frequency sources inside buildings (pedestrian activity, HVAC. Taking Gauss distribution into account, the author estimates the probability of the relative displacement of the isolated mass being still lower than the vibration criteria. This problem is being solved in the three dimensional space, evolved by the system parameters, including damping and natural frequency. According to this probability distribution, the chance of exceeding the vibration criteria for a vibration isolation system is evaluated. Optimal system parameters - damping and natural frequency - are being developed, thus the possibility of exceeding vibration criteria VC-E and VC-D is assumed to be less than 0.04.

  6. Evaluation of the effectiveness of elastomeric mount using vibration power flow and transmissibility methods (United States)

    Arib Rejab, M. N.; Shukor, S. A. Abdul; Sofian, M. R. Mohd; Inayat-Hussain, J. I.; Nazirah, A.; Asyraf, I.


    This paper presents the results of an experimental work to determine the dynamic stiffness and loss factor of elastomeric mounts. It also presents the results of theoretical analysis to determine the transmissibility and vibration power flow of these mounts, which are associated with their contribution to structure-borne noise. Four types of elastomeric mounts were considered, where three of them were made from green natural rubber material (SMR CV60, Ekoprena and Pureprena) and one made from petroleum based synthetic rubber (EPDM). In order to determine the dynamic stiffness and loss factor of these elastomeric mounts, dynamic tests were conducted using MTS 830 Elastomer Test System. Dynamic stiffness and loss factor of these mounts were measured for a range of frequency between 5 Hz and 150 Hz, and with a dynamic amplitude of 0.2 mm (p-p). The transmissibility and vibration power flow were determined based on a simple 2-Degree-of-Freedom model representing a vibration isolation system with a flexible receiver. This model reprsents the three main parts of a vehicle, which are the powertrain and engine mounting, the flexible structure and the floor of the vehicle. The results revealed that synthetic rubber (EPDM) was only effective at high frequency region. Natural rubber (Ekoprena), on the other hand, was found to be effective at both low and high frequency regions due to its low transmissibility at resonant frequency and its ability to damp the resonance. The estimated structure-borne noise emission showed that Ekoprena has a lower contribution to structure-borne noise as compared to the other types of elastomeric mounts.

  7. A 6-DOF vibration isolation system for hydraulic hybrid vehicles (United States)

    Nguyen, The; Elahinia, Mohammad; Olson, Walter W.; Fontaine, Paul


    This paper presents the results of vibration isolation analysis for the pump/motor component of hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs). The HHVs are designed to combine gasoline/diesel engine and hydraulic power in order to improve the fuel efficiency and reduce the pollution. Electric hybrid technology is being applied to passenger cars with small and medium engines to improve the fuel economy. However, for heavy duty vehicles such as large SUVs, trucks, and buses, which require more power, the hydraulic hybridization is a more efficient choice. In function, the hydraulic hybrid subsystem improves the fuel efficiency of the vehicle by recovering some of the energy that is otherwise wasted in friction brakes. Since the operation of the main component of HHVs involves with rotating parts and moving fluid, noise and vibration are an issue that affects both passengers (ride comfort) as well as surrounding people (drive-by noise). This study looks into the possibility of reducing the transmitted noise and vibration from the hydraulic subsystem to the vehicle's chassis by using magnetorheological (MR) fluid mounts. To this end, the hydraulic subsystem is modeled as a six degree of freedom (6-DOF) rigid body. A 6-DOF isolation system, consisting of five mounts connected to the pump/motor at five different locations, is modeled and simulated. The mounts are designed by combining regular elastomer components with MR fluids. In the simulation, the real loading and working conditions of the hydraulic subsystem are considered and the effects of both shock and vibration are analyzed. The transmissibility of the isolation system is monitored in a wide range of frequencies. The geometry of the isolation system is considered in order to sustain the weight of the hydraulic system without affecting the design of the chassis and the effectiveness of the vibration isolating ability. The simulation results shows reduction in the transmitted vibration force for different working cycles of

  8. Mount Protects Thin-Walled Glass or Ceramic Tubes from Large Thermal and Vibration Loads (United States)

    Amato, Michael; Schmidt, Stephen; Marsh. James; Dahya, Kevin


    The design allows for the low-stress mounting of fragile objects, like thin walled glass, by using particular ways of compensating, isolating, or releasing the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) differences between the mounted object and the mount itself. This mount profile is lower than true full kinematic mounting. Also, this approach enables accurate positioning of the component for electrical and optical interfaces. It avoids the higher and unpredictable stress issues that often result from potting the object. The mount has been built and tested to space-flight specifications, and has been used for fiber-optic, optical, and electrical interfaces for a spaceflight mission. This mount design is often metal and is slightly larger than the object to be mounted. The objects are optical or optical/electrical, and optical and/or electrical interfaces are required from the top and bottom. This requires the mount to be open at both ends, and for the object s position to be controlled. Thin inside inserts at the top and bottom contact the housing at defined lips, or edges, and hold the fragile object in the mount. The inserts can be customized to mimic the outer surface of the object, which further reduces stress. The inserts have the opposite CTE of the housing material, partially compensating for the CTE difference that causes thermal stress. A spring washer is inserted at one end to compensate for more CTE difference and to hold the object against the location edge of the mount for any optical position requirements. The spring also ensures that any fiber-optic or optic interface, which often requires some pressure to ensure a good interface, does not overstress the fragile object. The insert thickness, material, and spring washer size can be traded against each other to optimize the mount and stresses for various thermal and vibration load ranges and other mounting requirements. The alternate design uses two separate, unique features to reduce stress and hold the

  9. Numerical Modelling of Rubber Vibration Isolators: identification of material parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, C.A.J.; Noordman, Bram; de Boer, Andries; Ivanov, N.I.; Crocker, M.J.


    Rubber vibration isolators are used for vibration isolation of engines at high frequencies. To make a good prediction regarding the characteristics of a vibration isolator in the design process, numerical models can be used. However, for a reliable prediction of the dynamic behavior of the isolator,

  10. Numerical modelling of rubber vibration isolators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, C.A.J.; de Boer, Andries; Nilsson, A.; Boden, H.


    An important cause for interior noise in vehicles is structure-borne sound from the engine. The vibrations of the source (engine) are transmitted to the receiver structure (the vehicle) causing interior noise in the vehicle. For this reason the engine is supported by rubber isolators for passive

  11. Development of an active isolation mat based on dielectric elastomer stack actuators for mechanical vibration cancellation (United States)

    Karsten, Roman; Flittner, Klaus; Haus, Henry; Schlaak, Helmut F.


    This paper describes the development of an active isolation mat for cancelation of vibrations on sensitive devices with a mass of up to 500 gram. Vertical disturbing vibrations are attenuated actively while horizontal vibrations are damped passively. The dimensions of the investigated mat are 140 × 140 × 20 mm. The mat contains 5 dielectric elastomer stack actuators (DESA). The design and the optimization of active isolation mat are realized by ANSYS FEM software. The best performance shows a DESA with air cushion mounted on its circumference. Within the mounting encased air increases static and reduces dynamic stiffness. Experimental results show that vibrations with amplitudes up to 200 μm can be actively eliminated.

  12. Vibration Isolation for Parallel Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The M. Nguyen


    Full Text Available In recent decades, several types of hybrid vehicles have been developed in order to improve the fuel economy and to reduce the pollution. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV have shown a significant improvement in fuel efficiency for small and medium-sized passenger vehicles and SUVs. HEV has several limitations when applied to heavy vehicles; one is that larger vehicles demand more power, which requires significantly larger battery capacities. As an alternative solution, hydraulic hybrid technology has been found effective for heavy duty vehicle because of its high power density. The mechanical batteries used in hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHV can be charged and discharged remarkably faster than chemical batteries. This feature is essential for heavy vehicle hybridization. One of the main problems that should be solved for the successful commercialization of HHV is the excessive noise and vibration involving with the hydraulic systems. This study focuses on using magnetorheological (MR technology to reduce the noise and vibration transmissibility from the hydraulic system to the vehicle body. In order to study the noise and vibration of HHV, a hydraulic hybrid subsystem in parallel design is analyzed. This research shows that the MR elements play an important role in reducing the transmitted noise and vibration to the vehicle body. Additionally, locations and orientations of the isolation system also affect the efficiency of the noise and vibration mitigation. In simulations, a skyhook control algorithm is used to achieve the highest possible effectiveness of the MR isolation system.

  13. Active isolation of vibrations with adaptive structures (United States)

    Guigou, C.; Fuller, C. R.; Wagstaff, P. R.


    Vibration transmission in structures is controlled by means of a technique which employs distributed arrays of piezoelectric transducers bonded to the supporting structure. Distributed PVDF piezoelectric strips are employed as error sensors, and a two-channel feedforward adaptive LMS algorithm is used for minimizing error signals and thereby controlling the structure. A harmonic force input excites a thick plate, and a receiving plate is configured with three pairs of piezoelectric actuators. Modal analyses are performed to determine the resonant frequencies of the system, and a scanning laser vibrometer is used to study the shape of the response of the receiving plate during excitation with and without the control algorithm. Efficient active isolation of the vibrations is achieved with modal suppression, and good control is noted in the on-resonance cases in which increased numbers of PVDF sensors and piezoelectric actuators are employed.

  14. Shoe-mounted vibration energy harvester of PZT piezoelectric thin films on metal foils (United States)

    Nishi, T.; Ito, T.; Hida, H.; Kanno, I.


    This paper describes shoe-mounted piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters (PVEHs). The PVEHs were fabricated from Pb(ZrTi)O3 (PZT) thin films which were directly deposited onto Pt/Ti-coated stainless steel foil by rf-magnetron sputtering. We experimentally and theoretically evaluated impulse responses of the PVEHs by applying a simple impulse input on the energy harvesters, typical damped free vibration behaviour was clearly observed, and the output signal was in good agreement with the theoretical value. We measured the output power by applying the impulse input with an optimal load resistance of 33.9 kΩ. The maximum output power was approximately 20 μW, which correspond with the calculated value based on theoretical equation. From these results, the theoretical equation we derived might be helpful for design purposes of the shoe-mounted PVEHs.

  15. Vibration Isolation Technology (VIT) ATD Project (United States)

    Lubomski, Joseph F.; Grodsinsky, Carlos M.; Logsdon, Kirk A.; Rohn, Douglas A.; Ramachandran, N.


    A fundamental advantage for performing material processing and fluid physics experiments in an orbital environment is the reduction in gravity driven phenomena. However, experience with manned spacecraft such as the Space Transportation System (STS) has demonstrated a dynamic acceleration environment far from being characterized as a 'microgravity' platform. Vibrations and transient disturbances from crew motions, thruster firings, rotating machinery etc. can have detrimental effects on many proposed microgravity science experiments. These same disturbances are also to be expected on the future space station. The Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) of the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications (OLMSA), NASA Headquarters recognized the need for addressing this fundamental issue. As a result an Advanced Technology Development (ATD) project was initiated in the area of Vibration Isolation Technology (VIT) to develop methodologies for meeting future microgravity science needs. The objective of the Vibration Isolation Technology ATD project was to provide technology for the isolation of microgravity science experiments by developing methods to maintain a predictable, well defined, well characterized, and reproducible low-gravity environment, consistent with the needs of the microgravity science community. Included implicitly in this objective was the goal of advising the science community and hardware developers of the fundamental need to address the importance of maintaining, and how to maintain, a microgravity environment. This document will summarize the accomplishments of the VIT ATD which is now completed. There were three specific thrusts involved in the ATD effort. An analytical effort was performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center to define the sensitivity of selected experiments to residual and dynamic accelerations. This effort was redirected about half way through the ATD focusing specifically on the sensitivity of

  16. Improvement of the vibration isolation system for TAMA300

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, R


    The vibration isolation system for TAMA300 has a vibration isolation ratio large enough to achieve the requirement in the observation band around 300 Hz. At a lower frequency range, it is necessary to reduce the large fluctuation of mirrors for stable operation of the interferometer. With this aim, the mirror suspension systems were modified and an active vibration isolation system using pneumatic actuators was installed. These improvements contributed to the realization of a continuous interferometer lock for more than 24 h.

  17. A new isolator for vibration control (United States)

    Behrooz, Majid; Sutrisno, Joko; Wang, Xiaojie; Fyda, Robert; Fuchs, Alan; Gordaninejad, Faramarz


    This study presents the feasibility of a new variable stiffness and damping isolator (VSDI) in an integrated vibratory system. The integrated system comprised of two VSDIs, a connecting plate and a mass. The proposed VSDI consists of a traditional steel-rubber vibration absorber, as the passive element, and a magneto-rheological elastomer (MRE), with a controllable (or variable) stiffness and damping, as the semi-active element. MREs' stiffness and damping properties can be altered by a magnetic field. Dynamic testing on this integrated system has been performed to investigate the effectiveness of the VSDIs for vibration control. Experimental results show significant shift in natural frequency, when activating the VSDIs. Transmissibility and natural frequency of the integrated system are obtained from properties of single device. The experimental and predicted results show good agreement between the values of the natural frequency of the system at both off and on states. However, system damping predictions are different from experimental results. This might be due to unforeseen effects of pre-stressed MREs and nonlinear material properties.

  18. Active and passive vibration isolation in piezoelectric phononic rods with external voltage excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qicheng Zhang


    Full Text Available Active piezoelectric materials are applied to one-dimensional phononic crystals, for the control of longitudinal vibration propagation both in active and passive modes. Based on the electromechanical coupling between the acoustical vibration and electric field, the electromechanical equivalent method is taken to theoretically predict the transmission spectrum of the longitudinal vibration. It is shown that the phononic rod can suppress the vibration efficiently at the frequencies of interest, by actively optimizing the motions of piezoelectric elements. In an illustrated phononic rod of 11.2cm long, active tunable isolations of more than 20dB at low frequencies (500Hz-14kHz are generated by controlling the excitation voltages of piezoelectric elements. Meanwhile, passive fixed isolation at high frequencies (14k-63kHz are presented by its periodicity characteristics. Finite element simulations and vibration experiments on the rod demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach in terms of its vibration isolation capabilities and tunable characteristics. This phononic rod can be manufactured easily and provides numerous potential applications in designing isolation mounts and platforms.

  19. Sensor fusion for active vibration isolation in precision equipment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjepkema, D.; van Dijk, Johannes; Soemers, Herman


    Sensor fusion is a promising control strategy to improve the performance of active vibration isolation systems that are used in precision equipment. Normally, those vibration isolation systems are only capable of realizing a low transmissibility. Additional objectives are to increase the damping

  20. Case study of system effects on high frequency vibration isolation in aircraft structure (United States)

    Simmons, William E.; Marshall, Steven E.

    In an attempt to improve isolator selection criteria for use in commercial airplanes, a modeling technique was developed. This technique was used to map the vibrational energy transfer from a resiliently mounted electric motor-driven hydraulic pump (or ACMP) to its foundation, a keel beam in the main wheelwell of a large airplane. The system level parameters that strongly influence mount transmissibility were investigated. Using common elastomeric material properties model, predictions were found to compare favorably to measured transmissibility data. The present study discusses the modeling technique and test data comparison, Potential improvements in isolator performance are evaluated. Isolator properties are then identified whch, when combined with transmissibility data, would enhance the isolator selection process.

  1. Reconstruction of Input Excitation Acting on Vibration Isolation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Zhou


    Full Text Available Vibration isolation systems are widely employed in automotive, marine, aerospace, and other engineering fields. Accurate input forces are of great significance for mechanical design, vibration prediction, and structure modification and optimization. One-stage vibration isolation system including engine, vibration isolators, and flexible supporting structure is modeled theoretically in this paper. Input excitation acting on the vibration isolation system is reconstructed using dynamic responses measured on engine and supporting structure under in-suit condition. The reconstructed forces reveal that dynamic responses on rigid body are likely to provide more accurate estimation results. Moreover, in order to improve the accuracy of excitation reconstructed by dynamic responses on flexible supporting structure, auto/cross-power spectral density function is utilized to reduce measurement noise.

  2. Eccentrically mounted rotor pack and its influence on the vibration and noise of an asynchronous generator (United States)

    Donát, Martin; Dušek, Daniel


    Time-varying magnetic forces are the main source of vibrations in rotating electrical machines. A number of papers dealing with computational modelling of the dynamic behaviour of rotating electrical machines have been published. Almost all of these papers do not consider electro-mechanical interaction between the stator and the rotor of the machine. A computational model including electro-mechanical interaction is proposed in this paper. The influence of the air gap eccentricity due to eccentric mounting of the rotor pack on the shaft of the rotor is investigated. Electromagnetic coupled-field analysis was performed to obtain the dependence of the magnetic forces, which act on the stator and the rotor pack, on the time and air gap eccentricity. Attention has been paid to the air gap eccentricity due to the interaction between the stator and the rotor and the influence of the air gap eccentricity on the vibration and sound power of the machine. The obtained results show that the air gap eccentricity affects the amplitude spectrum of the magnetic forces. This change of amplitude spectrum causes a significant increase in the torsional vibration of the stator of the examined machine. The air gap eccentricity is also significantly reflected in the trajectory of the rotor centre line and radial load of bearings in the machine.

  3. Characterization and Comparison of Vibration Transfer Paths in a Helicopter Gearbox and a Fixture Mounted Gearbox (United States)

    Islam, Akm Anwarul; Dempsey, Paula J.; Feldman, Jason; Larsen, Chris


    Health monitoring of rotorcraft components, currently being performed by Health and Usage Monitoring Systems through analyses of vibration signatures of dynamic mechanical components, is very important for their safe and economic operation. HUMS analyze vibration signatures associated with faults and quantify them as condition indicators to predict component behavior. Vibration transfer paths are characterized by frequency response functions derived from the input/output relationship between applied force and dynamic response through a structure as a function of frequency. With an objective to investigate the differences in transfer paths, transfer path measurements were recorded under similar conditions in the left and right nose gearboxes of an AH-64 helicopter and in an isolated left nose gearbox in a test fixture at NASA Glenn Research Center. The test fixture enabled the application of measured torques-common during an actual operation. An impact hammer as well as commercial and lab piezo shakers, were used in conjunction with two types of commercially available accelerometers to collect the vibration response under various test conditions. The frequency response functions measured under comparable conditions of both systems were found to be consistent. Measurements made on the fixture indicated certain real-world installation and maintenance issues, such as sensor alignments, accelerometer locations and installation torques, had minimal effect. However, gear vibration transfer path dynamics appeared to be somewhat dependent on the presence of oil, and the transfer path dynamics were notably different if the force input was on the internal ring gear rather than on the external gearbox case.

  4. Research on Vibration Isolation Systems Used in Laser and Nanotechnologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justinas Kuncė


    Full Text Available The paper discusses the efficiency of a vibration isolation system made of the optical table and two negative-stiffness tables and considers excitation referring to harmonic and nonharmonic methods in the frequency range of 0,2–110 Hz. The article reviews the types and sources of vibrations and types of vibration isolation systems, including those of negative-stiffness. The paper also presents the methodology of experimental tests and proposes research on vibration transmissibility. A composite system consisting of two vibration isolation table having negative stiffness and an air table has been tested. The results and conclusions of experimental analysis are suggested at the end of the article.Article in Lithuanian

  5. Active automotive engine vibration isolation using feedback control (United States)

    Olsson, Claes


    Large frequency band feedback active automotive engine vibration isolation is considered. A MIMO (multi-input multi-output) controller design for an active engine suspension system has been performed making use of a virtual development environment for design, analysis, and co-simulation based closed-loop verification. Utilising relevant control object dynamic modelling, this design strategy provides a powerful opportunity to deal with various plant dynamics, such as structural flexibility and nonlinear characteristics where the main objective is to approach the actual physical characteristics for design and verification in early design phases where no prototypes are yet physically available. H2 loop shaping technique proves to be powerful when achieving the desired frequency dependent loop gain while ensuring closed-loop stability. However, to achieve closed-loop stability two kinds of nonlinearities have to be taken into account. Those are nonlinear material characteristics of the engine mounts and large angular engine displacements. It is demonstrated how the adopted design strategy facilitates the investigation of the latter nonlinearity's impact on closed-loop characteristics. To deal with the nonlinearities, gain scheduling has been used.

  6. Vibration transfers to measure the performance of vibration isolated platforms on site using background noise excitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segerink, Franciscus B.; Korterik, Jeroen P.; Offerhaus, Herman L.


    This article demonstrates a quick and easy way of quantifying the performance of a vibration-isolated platform. We measure the vibration transfer from floor to table using background noise excitation from the floor. As no excitation device is needed, our setup only requires two identical sensors (in

  7. Development of a multi-degree-of-freedom micropositioning, vibration isolation and vibration suppression system (United States)

    Jaensch, M.; Lampérth, M. U.


    This paper describes the design and performance testing of a micropositioning, vibration isolation and suppression system, which can be used to position a piece of equipment with sub-micrometre accuracy and stabilize it against various types of external disturbance. The presented demonstrator was designed as part of a novel extremely open pre-polarization magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. The active control system utilizes six piezoelectric actuators, wide-bandwidth optical fibre displacement sensors and a very fast digital field programmable gate array (FPGA) controller. A PID feedback control algorithm with emphasis on a very high level of integral gain is employed. Due to the high external forces expected, the whole structure is designed to be as stiff as possible, including a novel hard mount approach with parallel passive damping for the suspension of the payload. The performance of the system is studied theoretically and experimentally. The sensitive equipment can be positioned in six degrees of freedom with an accuracy of ± 0.2 µm. External disturbances acting on the support structure or the equipment itself are attenuated in three degrees of freedom by more than -20 dB within a bandwidth of 0-200 Hz. Excellent impulse rejection and input tracking are demonstrated as well.

  8. Active vibration isolation platform on base of magnetorheological elastomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhailov, Valery P., E-mail:; Bazinenkov, Alexey M.


    The article describes the active vibration isolation platform on base of magnetorheological (MR) elastomers. An active damper based on the MR elastomers can be used as an actuator of micro- or nanopositioning for a vibroinsulated object. The MR elastomers give such advantages for active control of vibration as large range of displacements (up to 1 mm), more efficient absorption of the vibration energy, possibility of active control of amplitude-frequency characteristics and positioning with millisecond response speed and nanometer running accuracy. The article presents the results of experimental studies of the most important active damper parameters. Those are starting current, transient time for stepping, transmission coefficient of the vibration displacement amplitude.

  9. Experimental investigation of torsional vibration isolation using Magneto Rheological Elastomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Shenoy K


    Full Text Available Rotating systems suffer from lateral and torsional vibrations which have detrimental effect on the roto-dynamic performance. Many available technologies such as vibration isolators and vibration absorbers deal with the torsional vibrations to a certain extent, however passive isolators and absorbers find less application when the input conditions are dynamic. The present work discusses use of a smart material called as Magneto Rheological Elastomer (MRE, whose properties can be changed based on magnetic field input, as a potential isolator for torsional vibrations under dynamic loading conditions. Carbonyl Iron Particles (CIP of average size 5 μm were mixed with RTV Silicone rubber to form the MRE. The effect of magnetic field on the system parameters was comprehended under impulse loading conditions using a custom built in-house system. Series arrangement of accelerometers were used to differentiate between the torsional and the bending modes of vibration of the system. Impact hammer tests were carried out on the torsional system to study its response, in the presence and absence of magnetic field. The tests revealed a shift in torsional frequency in the presence of magnetic field which elucidates the ability of MRE to work as a potential vibration isolator for torsional systems.

  10. Structure-borne sound and vibration from building-mounted wind turbines (United States)

    Moorhouse, Andy; Elliott, Andy; Eastwick, Graham; Evans, Tomos; Ryan, Andy; von Hunerbein, Sabine; le Bescond, Valentin; Waddington, David


    Noise continues to be a significant factor in the development of wind energy resources. In the case of building-mounted wind turbines (BMWTs), in addition to the usual airborne sound there is the potential for occupants to be affected by structure-borne sound and vibration transmitted through the building structure. Usual methods for prediction and evaluation of noise from large and small WTs are not applicable to noise of this type. This letter describes an investigation aiming to derive a methodology for prediction of structure-borne sound and vibration inside attached dwellings. Jointly funded by three UK government departments, the work was motivated by a desire to stimulate renewable energy generation by the removal of planning restrictions where possible. A method for characterizing BMWTs as sources of structure-borne sound was first developed during a field survey of two small wind turbines under variable wind conditions. The 'source strength' was established as a function of rotor speed although a general relationship to wind speed could not be established. The influence of turbulence was also investigated. The prediction methodology, which also accounts for the sound transmission properties of the mast and supporting building, was verified in a field survey of existing installations. Significant differences in behavior and subjective character were noted between the airborne and structure-borne noise from BMWTs.

  11. Development of Magnetorheological Engine Mount Test Rig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Yunos Mohd Razali


    Full Text Available Ride comfort is an important factor in any road vehicle performance. Nonetheless, passenger ride comfort is sometimes affected by the vibrations resulting from the road irregularities. Vehicle ride comfort is also often compromised by engine vibration. Engine mount is one of the devices which act as vibration isolator from unwanted vibration from engine to the driver and passengers. This paper explains the development of the test rig used for laboratory testing of Magnetorheological (MR engine mount characterization. MR engine mount was developed to investigate the vibration isolation process. An engine mount test machine was designed to measure the displacement, relative velocity and damper force with respect to current supply to characterize the hysteresis behavior of the damper and as force tracking control of the MR engine mount.

  12. Vibration Isolation System for Cryocoolers of Soft X-Ray Spectrometer (SXS) Onboard ASTRO-H (Hitomi) (United States)

    Takei, Yoh; Yasuda, Susumu; Ishimura, Kosei; Iwata, Naoko; Okamoto, Atsushi; Sato, Yoichi; Ogawa, Mina; Sawada, Makoto; Kawano, Taro; Obara, Shingo; hide


    Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) onboard ASTRO-H (named Hitomi after launch) is a micro-calorimeter-type spectrometer, installed in a dewar to be cooled at 50 mK. The energy resolution of the SXS engineering model suffered from micro-vibration from cryocoolers mounted on the dewar. This is mitigated for the flight model by introducing vibration isolation systems between the cryocoolers and the dewar. The detector performance of the flight model was verified before launch of the spacecraft in both ambient condition and thermal-vac condition, showing no detectable degradation in energy resolution. The in-orbit performance was also consistent with that on ground, indicating that the cryocoolers were not damaged by launch environment. The design and performance of the vibration isolation system along with the mechanism of how the micro-vibration could degrade the cryogenic detector is shown.

  13. Combined Euler column vibration isolation and energy harvesting (United States)

    Davis, R. B.; McDowell, M. D.


    A new device that combines vibration isolation and energy harvesting is modeled, simulated, and tested. The vibration isolating portion of the device uses post-buckled beams as its spring elements. Piezoelectric film is applied to the beams to harvest energy from their dynamic flexure. The entire device operates passively on applied base excitation and requires no external power or control system. The structural system is modeled using the elastica, and the structural response is applied as forcing on the electric circuit equation to predict the output voltage and the corresponding harvested power. The vibration isolation and energy harvesting performance is simulated across a large parameter space and the modeling approach is validated with experimental results. Experimental transmissibilities of 2% and harvested power levels of 0.36 μW are simultaneously demonstrated. Both theoretical and experimental data suggest that there is not necessarily a trade-off between vibration isolation and harvested power. That is, within the practical operational range of the device, improved vibration isolation will be accompanied by an increase in the harvested power as the forcing frequency is increased.

  14. Low-Frequency and Broadband Vibration Energy Harvesting Using Base-Mounted Piezoelectric Transducers. (United States)

    Koven, Robert; Mills, Matthew; Gale, Richard; Aksak, Burak


    Piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters often consist of a cantilevered beam composed of a support layer and one or two piezoelectric layers with a tip mass. While this configuration is advantageous for maximizing electromechanical coupling, the mechanical properties of the piezoelectric material can place limitations on harvester size and resonant frequency. Here, we present numerical and experimental results from a new type of piezoelectric energy harvester in which the mechanical properties and the resonant frequency of the cantilever beam resonator are effectively decoupled from the piezoelectric component. Referred to as a base-mounted piezoelectric (BMP) harvester in this paper, this new design features a piezoelectric transducer mounted beneath the base of the cantilevered beam resonator. The flexibility in the material choice for the cantilever beam resonator means that the resonant frequency and the beam dimensions are essentially free parameters. A prototype made with a 1.6 mm mm mm polyurethane beam, a PZT-5H piezoelectric transducer, and an 8.36-g tip mass is shown to produce an average power of 8.75 and at 45 Hz across a 13.0- load under harmonic base excitations of constant peak acceleration at 0.25 and 1.0-g, respectively. We also show an increase in full-width half-maximum bandwidth approximately from 1.5 to 5.6 Hz using an array of four individual BMP harvesters of similar dimensions with peak power generation of at 37.6 Hz across a 1.934- load at 0.25-g peak base excitation. Finite elements-based numerical simulations are shown to be in reasonable agreement with experimental results, indicating that the harvester behaves like a damped mass-spring system as proposed in this paper. Fabricated using casting and laser machining techniques, this harvester shows potential as a low-cost option for powering small, low-power wireless sensor nodes and other low-power devices.

  15. Vortex-induced vibrations of a flexibly-mounted inclined cylinder (United States)

    Jain, Anil; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya


    The majority of studies on vortex-induced vibrations of a flexibly-mounted rigid cylinder are for the cases where the flow direction is perpendicular to the long axis of the structure. However, in many engineering applications, such as cable stays in bridges and mooring lines of floating offshore wind turbines, the flow direction may not be perpendicular to the structure. To understand the vortex shedding behind a fixed inclined cylinder, the Independence Principle (IP) has been used. The IP assumes that an inclined cylinder behaves similarly to a normal-incidence case, if only the component of the free stream velocity normal to the cylinder axis is considered. The IP neglects the effect of the axial component of the flow, which seems reasonable for small angles of inclination, but not for large angles. In the present study, a series of experiments have been conducted on a flexibly-mounted rigid cylinder placed inclined to the oncoming flow with various angles of inclination (0°<θ<75°) in a range of Reynolds numbers from 500 to 4000 to investigate how the angle of inclination affects VIV. A rigid cylinder was mounted on springs, and air bearings were used to reduce the structural damping of the system. The system was placed in the test-section of a recirculating water tunnel and the crossflow displacements were measured at each flow velocity. Even at high angles of inclination, large-amplitude oscillations were observed. As the angle of inclination was increased, the lock-in range (the range of reduced flow velocities for which the cylinder oscillates with a large amplitude) started at a higher reduced velocity. When only the normal component of the oncoming flow was considered, the onset of lock-in was observed to be at the same normalized flow velocity for all angles of inclination except for 75°. However, the width of the lock-in region, its pattern, the maximum amplitude of oscillations and its corresponding normalized reduced velocity were not following

  16. Vibration transfers to measure the performance of vibration isolated platforms on site using background noise excitation (United States)

    Segerink, F. B.; Korterik, J. P.; Offerhaus, H. L.


    This article demonstrates a quick and easy way of quantifying the performance of a vibration-isolated platform. We measure the vibration transfer from floor to table using background noise excitation from the floor. As no excitation device is needed, our setup only requires two identical sensors (in our case, low noise accelerometers), a data acquisition system, and processing software. Background noise excitation from the floor has the additional advantage that any non-linearity in the suspension system relevant to the actual vibration amplitudes will be taken into account. Measurement time is typically a few minutes, depending on the amount of background noise. The (coherent) transfer of the vibrations in the floor to the platform, as well as the (non-coherent) acoustical noise pick-up by the platform are measured. Since we use calibrated sensors, the absolute value of the vibration levels is established and can be expressed in vibration criterion curves. Transfer measurements are shown and discussed for two pneumatic isolated optical tables, a spring suspension system, and a simple foam suspension system.

  17. Sensor 17 Thermal Isolation Mounting Structure (TIMS) Design Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enstrom, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The SENSOR 17 thermographic camera weighs approximately 0.5lbs, has a fundamental mode of 167 Hz, and experiences 0.75W of heat leakage in through the TIMS. The configuration, shown in Figure 1, is comprised of four 300 Series SST washers paired in tandem with P.E.I (Ultem 100) washers. The SENSOR 17 sensor is mounted to a 300 series stainless plate with A-shaped arms. The Plate can be assumed to be at ambient temperatures (≈293K) and the I.R. Mount needs to be cooled to 45K. It is attached to the tip of a cryocooler by a ‘cold strap’ and is assumed to be at the temperature of the cold-strap (≈45K). During flights SENSOR 17 experiences excitations at frequencies centered around 10-30Hz, 60Hz, and 120Hz from the aircraft flight environment. The temporal progression described below depicts the 1st Modal shape at the systems resonant frequency. This simulation indicates Modal articulation will cause a pitch rate of the camera with respect to the body axis of the airplane. This articulation shows up as flutter in the camera.

  18. Microgravity Active Vibration Isolation System on Parabolic Flights (United States)

    Dong, Wenbo; Pletser, Vladimir; Yang, Yang


    The Microgravity Active Vibration Isolation System (MAIS) aims at reducing on-orbit vibrations, providing a better controlled lower gravity environment for microgravity physical science experiments. The MAIS will be launched on Tianzhou-1, the first cargo ship of the China Manned Space Program. The principle of the MAIS is to suspend with electro-magnetic actuators a scientific payload, isolating it from the vibrating stator. The MAIS's vibration isolation capability is frequency-dependent and a decrease of vibration of about 40dB can be attained. The MAIS can accommodate 20kg of scientific payload or sample unit, and provide 30W of power and 1Mbps of data transmission. The MAIS is developed to support microgravity scientific experiments on manned platforms in low earth orbit, in order to meet the scientific requirements for fluid physics, materials science, and fundamental physics investigations, which usually need a very quiet environment, increasing their chances of success and their scientific outcomes. The results of scientific experiments and technology tests obtained with the MAIS will be used to improve future space based research. As the suspension force acting on the payload is very small, the MAIS can only be operative and tested in a weightless environment. The 'Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.' (DLR, German Aerospace Centre) granted a flight opportunity to the MAIS experiment to be tested during its 27th parabolic flight campaign of September 2015 performed on the A310 ZERO-G aircraft managed by the French company Novespace, a subsidiary of the 'Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales' (CNES, French Space Agency). The experiment results confirmed that the 6 degrees of freedom motion control technique was effective, and that the vibration isolation performance fulfilled perfectly the expectations based on theoretical analyses and simulations. This paper will present the design of the MAIS and the experiment results obtained during the

  19. Experimental Study of Vibration Isolation Characteristics of a Geometric Anti-Spring Isolator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixun Yan


    Full Text Available In order to realize low-frequency vibration isolation, a novel geometric anti-spring isolator consisting of several cantilever blade springs are developed in this paper. The optimal design parameters of the geometric anti-spring isolator for different nonlinear geometric parameters are theoretically obtained. The transmissibility characteristic of the geometric anti-spring isolator is investigated through mathematical simulation. A geometric anti-spring isolator with a nonlinear geometric parameter of 0.92 is designed and its vibration isolation performance and nonlinearity characteristic is experimentally studied. The experiment results show that the designed isolator has good low-frequency vibration isolation performance, of which the initial isolation frequency is less than 3.6 Hz when the load weight is 21 kg. The jump phenomena of the response of the isolator under linear frequency sweep excitation are observed, and this result demonstrates that the geometric anti-spring isolator has a complex nonlinearity characteristics with the increment of excitation amplitude. This research work provides a theoretical and experimental basis for the application of the nonlinear geometric anti-spring low-frequency passive vibration isolation technology in engineering practice.

  20. Active vibration isolation of high precision machines

    CERN Document Server

    Collette, C; Artoos, K; Hauviller, C


    This paper provides a review of active control strategies used to isolate high precisionmachines (e.g. telescopes, particle colliders, interferometers, lithography machines or atomic force microscopes) from external disturbances. The objective of this review is to provide tools to develop the best strategy for a given application. Firstly, the main strategies are presented and compared, using single degree of freedom models. Secondly, the case of huge structures constituted of a large number of elements, like particle colliders or segmented telescopes, is considered.

  1. A Sub-Hertz, Low-Frequency Vibration Isolation Platform (United States)

    Ortiz, Gerardo, G.; Farr, William H.; Sannibale, Virginio


    One of the major technical problems deep-space optical communication (DSOC) systems need to solve is the isolation of the optical terminal from vibrations produced by the spacecraft navigational control system and by the moving parts of onboard instruments. Even under these vibration perturbations, the DSOC transceivers (telescopes) need to be pointed l000 fs of times more accurately than an RF communication system (parabolic antennas). Mechanical resonators have been extensively used to provide vibration isolation for groundbased, airborne, and spaceborne payloads. The effectiveness of these isolation systems is determined mainly by the ability of designing a mechanical oscillator with the lowest possible resonant frequency. The Low-Frequency Vibration Isolation Platform (LFVIP), developed during this effort, aims to reduce the resonant frequency of the mechanical oscillators into the sub-Hertz region in order to maximize the passive isolation afforded by the 40 dB/decade roll-off response of the resonator. The LFVIP also provides tip/tilt functionality for acquisition and tracking of a beacon signal. An active control system is used for platform positioning and for dampening of the mechanical oscillator. The basic idea in the design of the isolation platform is to use a passive isolation strut with an approximately equal to 100-mHz resonance frequency. This will extend the isolation range to lower frequencies. The harmonic oscillator is a second-order lowpass filter for mechanical disturbances. The resonance quality depends on the dissipation mechanisms, which are mainly hysteretic because of the low resonant frequency and the absence of any viscous medium. The LFVIP system is configured using the well-established Stewart Platform, which consists of a top platform connected to a base with six extensible struts (see figure). The struts are attached to the base and to the platform via universal joints, which permit the extension and contraction of the struts. The

  2. Vibration control of a ship engine system using high-load magnetorheological mounts associated with a new indirect fuzzy sliding mode controller (United States)

    Phu, Do Xuan; Choi, Seung-Bok


    In this work, a new high-load magnetorheological (MR) fluid mount system is devised and applied to control vibration in a ship engine. In the investigation of vibration-control performance, a new modified indirect fuzzy sliding mode controller is formulated and realized. The design of the proposed MR mount is based on the flow mode of MR fluid, and it includes two separated coils for generating a magnetic field. An optimization process is carried out to achieve maximal damping force under certain design constraints, such as the allowable height of the mount. As an actuating smart fluid, a new plate-like iron-particle-based MR fluid is used, instead of the conventional spherical iron-particle-based MR fluid. After evaluating the field-dependent yield stress of the MR fluid, the field-dependent damping force required to control unwanted vibration in the ship engine is determined. Subsequently, an appropriate-sized MR mount is manufactured and its damping characteristics are evaluated. After confirming the sufficient damping force level of the manufactured MR mount, a medium-sized ship engine mount system consisting of eight MR mounts is established, and its dynamic governing equations are derived. A new modified indirect fuzzy sliding mode controller is then formulated and applied to the engine mount system. The displacement and velocity responses show that the unwanted vibrations of the ship engine system can be effectively controlled in both the axial and radial directions by applying the proposed control methodology.

  3. Research on typical topologies of a tubular horizontal-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yiheng


    Full Text Available Magnetic levitation vibration isolators have attracted more and more attention in the field of high-precision measuring and machining equipment. In this paper, we describe a tubular horizontal-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator. Four typical topologies of the tubular horizontal-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator are proposed. The analytical expression of magnetic force is derived. The relationship between levitation force, force density, force ripple and major structural parameters are analysed by finite element method, which is conductive to the design and optimization of the tubular horizontal-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator. The force characteristics of different topologies of the tubular horizontal-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator are compared and evaluated from the aspect of force density, force ripple and manufacturability. In comparison with conventional passive magnetic levitation vibration isolators, the proposed tubular horizontal-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator shows advantage in higher force density.

  4. Study of the Mechanical Properties and Vibration Isolation Performance of a Molecular Spring Isolator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchun Yu


    Full Text Available Molecular Spring Isolator (MSI is a novel passive vibration isolation technique, providing High-Static-Low-Dynamic (HSLD stiffness based on the use of molecular spring material. The molecular spring material is a solid-liquid mixture consisting of water and hydrophobic nanoporous materials. Under a certain level of external pressure, water molecules can intrude into the hydrophobic pores of nanoporous materials, developing an additional solid-liquid interface. Such interfaces are able to store, release, and transform mechanical energy, providing properties like mechanical spring. Having been only recently developed, the basic mechanic properties of a MSI have not been studied in depth. This paper focuses on the stiffness influence factors, the dynamic frequency response, and the vibration isolation performance of a MSI; these properties help engineers to design MSIs for different engineering applications. First, the working mechanism of a MSI is introduced from a three-dimensional general view of the water infiltration massive hydrophobic nanoporous pores. Next, a wide range of influence factors on the stiffness properties of MSI are studied. In addition, the frequency response functions (FRFs of the MSI vibration isolation system are studied utilizing the matching method based on equivalent piecewise linear (EPL system. Finally, the vibration isolation properties of MSI are evaluated by force transmissibility.

  5. Time-domain filtered-x-Newton narrowband algorithms for active isolation of frequency-fluctuating vibration (United States)

    Li, Yan; He, Lin; Shuai, Chang-geng; Wang, Fei


    A time-domain filtered-x Newton narrowband algorithm (the Fx-Newton algorithm) is proposed to address three major problems in active isolation of machinery vibration: multiple narrowband components, MIMO coupling, and amplitude and frequency fluctuations. In this algorithm, narrowband components are extracted by narrowband-pass filters (NBPF) and independently controlled by multi-controllers, and fast convergence of the control algorithm is achieved by inverse secondary-path filtering of the extracted sinusoidal reference signal and its orthogonal component using L×L numbers of 2nd-order filters in the time domain. Controller adapting and control signal generation are also implemented in the time domain, to ensure good real-time performance. The phase shift caused by narrowband filter is compensated online to improve the robustness of control system to frequency fluctuations. A double-reference Fx-Newton algorithm is also proposed to control double sinusoids in the same frequency band, under the precondition of acquiring two independent reference signals. Experiments are conducted with an MIMO single-deck vibration isolation system on which a 200 kW ship diesel generator is mounted, and the algorithms are tested under the vibration alternately excited by the diesel generator and inertial shakers. The results of control over sinusoidal vibration excited by inertial shakers suggest that the Fx-Newton algorithm with NBPF have much faster convergence rate and better attenuation effect than the Fx-LMS algorithm. For swept, frequency-jumping, double, double frequency-swept and double frequency-jumping sinusoidal vibration, and multiple high-level harmonics in broadband vibration excited by the diesel generator, the proposed algorithms also demonstrate large vibration suppression at fast convergence rate, and good robustness to vibration with frequency fluctuations.

  6. Robust control of novel pendulum-type vibration isolation system (United States)

    Tsai, Meng-Shiun; Sun, Yann-Shuoh; Liu, Chun-Hsieh


    A novel pendulum-type vibration isolation system is proposed consisting of three active cables with embedded piezoelectric actuators and a passive elastomer layer. The dynamic response of the isolation module in the vertical and horizontal directions is modeled using the Lagrangian approach. The validity of the dynamic model is confirmed by comparing the simulation results for the frequency response in the vertical and horizontal directions with the experimental results. An approximate model is proposed to take into account system uncertainties such as payload changes and hysteresis effects. A robust quantitative feedback theory (QFT)-based active controller is then designed to ensure that the active control can achieve a high level of disturbance rejection in the low-frequency range even under variable loading conditions. It is shown that the controller achieves average disturbance rejection of -14 dB in the 2-60 Hz bandwidth range and -35 dB at the resonance frequency. The experimental results confirm that the proposed system achieves a robust vibration isolation performance under the payload in the range of 40-60 kg.

  7. Vibration measurements of the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope mount, Coudé rotator, and enclosure assemblies (United States)

    McBride, William R.; McBride, Daniel R.


    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) will be the largest solar telescope in the world, with a 4-meter off-axis primary mirror and 16 meter rotating Coudé laboratory within the telescope pier. The off-axis design requires a mount similar to an 8-meter on-axis telescope. Both the telescope mount and the Coudé laboratory utilize a roller bearing technology in place of the more commonly used hydrostatic bearings. The telescope enclosure utilizes a crawler mechanism for the altitude axis. As these mechanisms have not previously been used in a telescope, understanding the vibration characteristics and the potential impact on the telescope image is important. This paper presents the methodology used to perform jitter measurements of the enclosure and the mount bearings and servo system in a high-noise environment utilizing seismic accelerometers and high dynamic-range data acquisition equipment, along with digital signal processing (DSP) techniques. Data acquisition and signal processing were implemented in MATLAB. In the factory acceptance testing of the telescope mount, multiple accelerometers were strategically located to capture the six axes-of-motion of the primary and secondary mirror dummies. The optical sensitivity analysis was used to map these mirror mount displacements and rotations into units of image motion on the focal plane. Similarly, tests were done with the Coudé rotator, treating the entire rotating instrument lab as a rigid body. Testing was performed by recording accelerometer data while the telescope control system performed tracking operations typical of various observing scenarios. The analysis of the accelerometer data utilized noise-averaging fast Fourier transform (FFT) routines, spectrograms, and periodograms. To achieve adequate dynamic range at frequencies as low as 3Hz, the use of special filters and advanced windowing functions were necessary. Numerous identical automated tests were compared to identify and select the data sets

  8. Three-Dimensional Vibration Isolator for Suppressing High-Frequency Responses for Sage III Contamination Monitoring Package (CMP) (United States)

    Li, Y.; Cutright, S.; Dyke, R.; Templeton, J.; Gasbarre, J.; Novak, F.


    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III - International Space Station (ISS) instrument will be used to study ozone, providing global, long-term measurements of key components of the Earth's atmosphere for the continued health of Earth and its inhabitants. SAGE III is launched into orbit in an inverted configuration on SpaceX;s Falcon 9 launch vehicle. As one of its four supporting elements, a Contamination Monitoring Package (CMP) mounted to the top panel of the Interface Adapter Module (IAM) box experiences high-frequency response due to structural coupling between the two structures during the SpaceX launch. These vibrations, which were initially observed in the IAM Engineering Development Unit (EDU) test and later verified through finite element analysis (FEA) for the SpaceX launch loads, may damage the internal electronic cards and the Thermoelectric Quartz Crystal Microbalance (TQCM) sensors mounted on the CMP. Three-dimensional (3D) vibration isolators were required to be inserted between the CMP and IAM interface in order to attenuate the high frequency vibrations without resulting in any major changes to the existing system. Wire rope isolators were proposed as the isolation system between the CMP and IAM due to the low impact to design. Most 3D isolation systems are designed for compression and roll, therefore little dynamic data was available for using wire rope isolators in an inverted or tension configuration. From the isolator FEA and test results, it is shown that by using the 3D wire rope isolators, the CMP high-frequency responses have been suppressed by several orders of magnitude over a wide excitation frequency range. Consequently, the TQCM sensor responses are well below their qualification environments. It is indicated that these high-frequency responses due to the typical instrument structural coupling can be significantly suppressed by a vibration passive control using the 3D vibration isolator. Thermal and contamination

  9. Vibrational overtone spectrum of matrix isolated cis, cis-HOONO (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Nimlos, Mark R.; Ellison, G. Barney; Varner, Mychel E.; Stanton, John F.


    Cis, cis-peroxynitrous acid is known to be an intermediate in atmospheric reactions between OH and NO2 as well as HOO and NO. The infrared absorption spectra of matrix-isolated cc-HOONO and cc-DOONO in argon have been observed in the range of 500-8000cm-1. Besides the seven fundamental vibrational modes that have been assigned earlier for this molecule [Zhang et al., J. Chem. Phys. 124, 084305 (2006)], more than 50 of the overtone and combination bands have been observed for cc-HOONO and cc-DOONO. Ab initio CCSD(T)/atomic natural orbital anharmonic force field calculations were used to help guide the assignments. Based on this study of the vibrational overtone transitions of cis, cis-HOONO that go as high as 8000cm-1 and the earlier paper on the vibrational fundamentals, we conclude that the CCSD(T)/ANO anharmonic frequencies seem to correct to ±35cm-1. The success of the theoretically predicted anharmonic frequencies {υ } in assigning overtone spectra of HOONO up to 8000cm-1 suggests that the CCSD(T)/ANO method is producing a reliable potential energy surface for this reactive molecule.

  10. Research on typical topologies of a tubular horizontal-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator


    Zhou Yiheng; Kou Baoquan; Yang Xiaobao; Luo Jun; Zhang He


    Magnetic levitation vibration isolators have attracted more and more attention in the field of high-precision measuring and machining equipment. In this paper, we describe a tubular horizontal-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator. Four typical topologies of the tubular horizontal-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator are proposed. The analytical expression of magnetic force is derived. The relationship between levitation force, force density, force ripple and major ...

  11. A Novel Dual–Parallelogram Passive Rocking Vibration Isolator: A Theoretical Investigation and Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Wang


    Full Text Available Vibration isolators with quasi-zero stiffness (QZS perform well for low- or ultra-low-frequency vibration isolation. This paper proposes a novel dual-parallelogram passive rocking vibration isolator with QZS that could effectively attenuate in-plane disturbances with low-frequency vibration. First, a kinematic model of the proposed vibration isolator was established and four linear spring configuration schemes were developed to implement the QZS. Next, an optimal scheme with good high-static-low-dynamic stiffness (HSLDS performance was obtained through comparison and analysis, and used as a focus for the QZS model. Subsequently, a dynamic model-based Lagrangian equation that considered the spring stiffness and damping and the influence of the payload gravity center on the vibration isolation system was developed, and an average approach was used to analyze the vibration transmissibility. Finally, the prototype and test system were constructed. A comparison of the simulation and experimental results showed that this novel passive rocking vibration isolator could bolster a heavy payload. Experimentally, the vibration amplitude decreased by 53% and 86% under harmonic disturbances of 0.08 Hz and 0.35 Hz, respectively, suggesting the great practical applicability of this presented vibration isolator.

  12. Evaluation Of State Of Rolling Bearings Mounted In Vehicles With Use Of Vibration Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peruń G.


    Full Text Available The article is a continuation of the research carried out in order to determine the possibility of diagnosing bearings of cars’ wheels. The previous paper showed the results of metallographic research and the research carried out using vibroacoustic methods, with the use of vibration signals and frequency analysis. In this paper the results of further research will be presented, which used the acceleration signals again. To determine the state of the bearings this time simple amplitude measures were used.

  13. Vibration isolation techniques suitable for portable electronic speckle pattern interferometry (United States)

    Findeis, Dirk M.; Gryzagoridis, Jasson; Rowland, David R.


    Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) and Digital Shearography are optical interference techniques, suitable for non-destructive inspection procedures. Due to the stringent vibration isolation conditions required for ESPI, the technique is mainly suited for laboratory based inspection procedures, which cannot be said for Digital Shearography. On the other hand, the interference patterns obtained using ESPI exhibit better fringe definition and contrast than those obtained using Digital Shearography. The image quality of Digital Shearography can be improved by introducing phase stepping and unwrapping techniques, but these methods add a level of complexity to the inspection system and reduce the image refresh rate of the overall process. As part of a project to produce a low cost portable ESPI system suitable for industrial applications, this paper investigates various methods of minimizing the impact of environmental vibration on the ESPI technique. This can be achieved by effectively 'freezing' the object movement during the image acquisition process. The methods employed include using a high-powered infra-red laser, which is continuously pulsed using an electronic signal generator as well as a mechanical chopper. The effect of using a variable shutter speed camera in conjunction with custom written software acquisition routines is also studied. The techniques employed are described and are applied to selected samples. The initial results are presented and analyzed. Conclusions are drawn and their impact on the feasibility of a portable ESPI system discussed.

  14. Viscoelasticity of new generation thermoplastic polyurethane vibration isolators (United States)

    Bek, Marko; Betjes, Joris; von Bernstorff, Bernd-Steffen; Emri, Igor


    This paper presents the analysis of pressure dependence of three thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) materials on vibration isolation. The three TPU Elastollan® materials are 1190A, 1175A, and 1195D. The aim of this investigation was to analyze how much the performance of isolation can be enhanced using patented Dissipative bulk and granular systems technology. The technology uses granular polymeric materials to enhance materials properties (without changing its chemical or molecular composition) by exposing them to "self-pressurization," which shifts material energy absorption maxima toward lower frequencies, to match the excitation frequency of dynamic loading to which a mechanical system is exposed. Relaxation experiments on materials were performed at different isobaric and isothermal states to construct mastercurves, the time-temperature-pressure interrelation was modeled using the Fillers-Moonan-Tschoegl model. Dynamic material functions, related to isolation stiffness and energy absorption, were determined with the Schwarzl approximation. An increase in stiffness and energy absorption at selected hydrostatic pressure, compared to its stiffness and energy absorption at ambient conditions, is represented with κk(p, ω), defining the increase in stiffness and κd(p, ω), defining the increase in energy absorption. The study showed that close to the glassy state, moduli of 1190A and 1195D are about 6-9 times higher compared to 1175A, whereas their properties at ambient conditions are, for all practical purposes, the same. TPU 1190A turns out to be most sensitive to pressure: at 300 MPa its properties are shifted for 5.5 decades, while for 1195D and 1175A this shift is only 3.5 and 1.5 decades, respectively. In conclusion, the stiffness and energy absorption of isolation may be increased with pressure for about 100 times for 1190A and 1195D and for about 10 times for 1175A.

  15. Six Degree of Freedom Active Vibration Isolation at 1 HZ and above (United States)

    Newell, David Bryan

    One possible addition to future ground-based gravitational wave observatories is a low frequency detector operating in the frequency range of about 1-100 Hz. Such a detector would extend the mass range of black holes from which bursts due to inspiral events or initial formation could be searched for. The increase in seismic noise in this frequency range, however, requires an isolation system of unconventional design. A group at JILA has proposed a local vibration isolation system which demonstrates the principles that could be used in a low frequency laser interferometric detector. Such a system would be used to isolate the support point of each final pendulum that carries one of the end mirrors from ground motion. It is a three-stage system with each stage consisting of a spring mounted platform that provides both active and passive isolation in all six degrees of freedom. Active isolation is achieved by six quasi-independent single input, single output control loops, based on displacement sensors. The second and third stages are expected to be capable of isolating by about a factor of 100 in all six degrees of freedom for frequencies from 1 to 100 Hz. The internal noise level for the last stage, including thermal noise and all other sources of noise, is expected to be [ 1times 10^{-13} (1 Hz/f)^{2.5}+3times 10^{-15 }] m/sqrt{Hz} or less for both horizontal and vertical displacements. The first stage has been completed and is the main topic of this thesis. The platform consists of an equilateral triangular table, 1.1 meter on a side, with a total weight of 462 kg, including the vacuum system and the expected mass of the other two stages. The current reduced vibrational noise of the first stage is about 10 ^{-10} m/sqrt{Hz} for vertical displacements and rm 3times 10^{-10} m/sqrt{Hz} for horizontal displacement from 1 to about 100 Hz.

  16. Comparison of Two Conceptions of the Vibration Isolation Systems (United States)

    Šklíba, Jan; Sivčák, M.; Čižmár, J.

    The sprung stretcher of a ground ambulance litter as the space conducting mechanism with three degrees of freedom. The first degree is determined to compensate the vertical translations of a carriage, the second and third to compensate both horizontal rotations (so called pitching and rolling). The first degree is realized with scissor or with parallelogram, on the upper base on which the double Cardane suspension is placed (as the second and third degree). The second Cardane frame is connected with an own stretcher. The vibration isolation is realized with controlled pneumatic springs. Their control has two sensing units: sensor of the relative position of the upper and lower base and sensor of the absolute angle deflection of the second Cardane frame from an horizontal plane (double electrolytic level). This level is modeled as a spherical pendulum (on the base of its identified characteristics). There was analyzed this dynamic system with five degrees of freedom. The analyze of two conceptions demonstrates that the scissor mechanism is for the complete space mechanism more useful than the parallelogram.

  17. Low-frequency vibration isolation in six degrees of freedom: the Hummingbird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnveld, N.; Braber, R. van den; Fraanje, P.R.; Dool, T.C. van den


    TNO Science and Industry and MECAL have developed a six degree of freedom vibration isolation system that suppresses both floor vibrations and direct forces on a table top. The achieved reduction of transmissibility and compliance is 40 dB between 1 and 50 Hz in vertical direction, and 30 dB between

  18. Control concepts for an active vibration isolation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerber, F.; Hurlebaus, S.; Beadle, B. M.; Stobener, U.


    In the fields of high-resolution metrology and manufacturing, effective anti-vibration measures are required to obtain precise and repeatable results. This is particularly true when the amplitudes of ambient vibration and the dimensions of the investigated or manufactured structure are comparable,

  19. Modelling of tuning of an ultra low frequency Roberts Linkage vibration isolator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumas, Jean-Charles, E-mail: [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Ju Li; Blair, David G. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)


    We present an analytical model for a Roberts Linkage used as an ultra low frequency vibration isolator. The Roberts Linkage is a structure that simulates a very long radius conical pendulum, at a relatively small height. We show through an analytical solution that it is possible to independently tune the centre of percussion and the resonant frequency for arbitrary geometrical configurations. The result is shown to provide a practical tuning solution, which achieves near ideal vibration isolation.

  20. Modelling of tuning of an ultra low frequency Roberts Linkage vibration isolator (United States)

    Dumas, Jean-Charles; Ju, Li; Blair, David G.


    We present an analytical model for a Roberts Linkage used as an ultra low frequency vibration isolator. The Roberts Linkage is a structure that simulates a very long radius conical pendulum, at a relatively small height. We show through an analytical solution that it is possible to independently tune the centre of percussion and the resonant frequency for arbitrary geometrical configurations. The result is shown to provide a practical tuning solution, which achieves near ideal vibration isolation.

  1. Magnetorheological elastomer vibration isolation of tunable three-dimensional locally resonant acoustic metamaterial (United States)

    Xu, Zhenlong; Tong, Jie; Wu, Fugen


    Magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) are used as cladding in three-dimensional locally resonant acoustic metamaterial (LRAM) cores. The metamaterial units are combined into a vibration isolator. Two types of LRAMs, namely, cubic and spherical kernels, are constructed. The finite element method is used to analyze the elastic band structures, transmittances, and vibration modes of the incident elastic waves. Results show that the central position and width of the LRAM elastic bandgap can be controlled by the application of an external magnetic field; furthermore, they can be adjusted by changing the MRE cladding thickness. These methods contribute to the design of metamaterial MRE vibration isolators.

  2. Unusual Vermamoeba Vermiformis Strain Isolated from Snow in Mount Teide, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

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    Maria Reyes-Batlle


    Full Text Available Background: Free-living amoebae (FLA are protozoa that are widely distributed in the environment mainly in water and soil related habitats. Thermophilic amoebae are among the most common FLA in water bodies, being Vermamoeba vermiformis one of the most common species reported worldwide from these sources. Interestingly, V. vermiformis has often been reported to survive at high temperatures and osmotic pressure worldwide.Materials and Methods: In this study, snow samples were collected from Mount Teide, Tenerife, Canary Islands during the winter season of 2014. The samples were culture on non nutrient agar plates and checked daily for the presence of FLA. After a week, V. vermiformis amoebae were observed in the plates incubated at room temperature and 37ºC.Results: Molecular characterization was carried out by amplifying the 18S rDNA gene and DNA sequencing, confirmed that the isolated strain belonged to Vermamoeba vermiformis species.Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Vermamoeba vermiformis isolation from such an inusual habitat (low temperatures and high altitude and the first report of these species in the Canary islands.

  3. An adaptive left-right eigenvector evolution algorithm for vibration isolation control (United States)

    Wu, T. Y.


    The purpose of this research is to investigate the feasibility of utilizing an adaptive left and right eigenvector evolution (ALREE) algorithm for active vibration isolation. As depicted in the previous paper presented by Wu and Wang (2008 Smart Mater. Struct. 17 015048), the structural vibration behavior depends on both the disturbance rejection capability and mode shape distributions, which correspond to the left and right eigenvector distributions of the system, respectively. In this paper, a novel adaptive evolution algorithm is developed for finding the optimal combination of left-right eigenvectors of the vibration isolator, which is an improvement over the simultaneous left-right eigenvector assignment (SLREA) method proposed by Wu and Wang (2008 Smart Mater. Struct. 17 015048). The isolation performance index used in the proposed algorithm is defined by combining the orthogonality index of left eigenvectors and the modal energy ratio index of right eigenvectors. Through the proposed ALREE algorithm, both the left and right eigenvectors evolve such that the isolation performance index decreases, and therefore one can find the optimal combination of left-right eigenvectors of the closed-loop system for vibration isolation purposes. The optimal combination of left-right eigenvectors is then synthesized to determine the feedback gain matrix of the closed-loop system. The result of the active isolation control shows that the proposed method can be utilized to improve the vibration isolation performance compared with the previous approaches.

  4. The Use of Shock Isolation mounts in Small High-Speed Craft to Protect Equipment from Wave Slam Effects (United States)


    including suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services , Directorate for Information Operations and... failure during high-speed operations in rough seas is discussed. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Shock mounts planing craft equipment data...shock isolation systems. An alternative method for minimizing the risk of equipment failure during high-speed operations in rough seas is discussed

  5. Vibration isolation measures due to the high sensitive linear accelerator at the Paul Scherrer Institute

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    Trombik Peter


    Full Text Available The new 735m long linear accelerator “SwissFEL” at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI in Würenlingen is extremely sensitive against vibrations coming from surrounding equipment (pumps, ventilators, transformers, etc.. The manufacturer’s vibration limit for this linear accelerator is 0.1μm displacement amplitude. Therefore, all vibration sources must strictly be isolated to the highest-possible degree from the rest of the structure. This paper discusses the vibration situation in general for this unique construction (ground vibrations, vibration propagations / structural amplifications, vibration limits, etc. and as a case study the isolation of a pump located in the building. Steel springs were used and it was achieved to reduce the vibration transmitted to the floor by more than 99%, to a level where the coherent component of the motion recorded on the floor next to the linear accelerator is non-measurable / below the ground motions. The measurements were found to be in good accordance with the FEM model used.

  6. The Shock Vibration Bulletin. Part 3. Isolation and Damping, Vibration Test Criteria, and Vibration Analysis and Test (United States)


    fatigae equivalent test time of 45-mimates. 1. BACKGROUND subjected to both vibration and loose cargo testing as well an the type and amount of...Environmental Test the track laying environment. Nethods, 10 March 1975. 8. FUTURE EFFORTS 11. Soci, Darrell F., Fatigae Life Estimation Techniques, Technical

  7. MR- and ER-Based Semiactive Engine Mounts: A Review

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    Mohammad Elahinia


    Full Text Available Hybrid propulsion technologies, including hybrid electric and hydraulic hybrid, equip vehicles with nonconventional power sources (in addition to the internal combustion engine to provide higher fuel efficiency. However, these technologies tend to lead to higher levels of noise, vibration, and harshness in the vehicles, mainly due to the switching between the multiple power sources involved. In addition, the shocks and vibrations associated with the power sources switching may occur over a wide range of frequencies. It has been proven that passive vibration isolators (e.g., elastomeric and hydraulic mounts are unable to mitigate or totally isolate such shocks and vibrations. Active mounts, while effective, are more complex, require significant power to operate, and can lead to system instabilities. Semiactive vibration isolators have been shown to be as effective as active mounts while being less complex and requiring less power to operate. This paper presents a review of novel semiactive shock and vibration isolators developed using magnetorheological and electrorheological fluids. These fluids change their yield stress in response to an externally applied magnetic and electric field, respectively. As a result, these fluids allow one to transform a passive hydraulic vibration isolator into a semiactive device.

  8. Positioning and Microvibration Control by Electromagnets of an Air Spring Vibration Isolation System (United States)

    Watanabe, Katsuhide; Cui, Weimin; Haga, Takahide; Kanemitsu, Yoichi; Yano, Kenichi


    Active positioning and microvibration control has been attempted by electromagnets equipped in a bellows-type, air-spring vibration isolation system. Performance tests have been carried out to study the effects. The main components of the system's isolation table were four electromagnetic actuators and controllers. The vibration isolation table was also equipped with six acceleration sensors for detecting microvibration of the table. The electromagnetic actuators were equipped with bellows-type air springs for passive support of the weight of the item placed on the table, with electromagnets for active positioning, as well as for microvibration control, and relative displacement sensors. The controller constituted a relative feedback system for positioning control and an absolute feedback system for vibration isolation control. In the performance test, a 1,490 kg load (net weight of 1,820 kg) was placed on the vibration isolation table, and both the positioning and microvibration control were carried out electromagnetically. Test results revealed that the vibration transmission was reduced by 95%.

  9. A tubular dielectric elastomer actuator: Fabrication, characterization and active vibration isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarban, R.; Jones, R. W.; Mace, B. R.


    This contribution reviews the fabrication, characterization and active vibration isolation performance of a core-free rolled tubular dielectric elastomer (DE) actuator, which has been designed and developed by Danfoss PolyPower A/S. PolyPower DE material, PolyPower (TM), is produced in thin sheets...... the dominant dynamic characteristics of the core-free tubular actuator. It has been observed that all actuators have similar dynamic characteristics in a frequency range up to 1 kHz. A tubular actuator is then used to provide active vibration isolation (AVI) of a 250 g mass subject to shaker generated 'ground...... vibration'. An adaptive feedforward control approach is used to achieve this. The tubular actuator is shown to provide excellent isolation against harmonic vibratory disturbances with attenuation of the resulting 5 and 10 Hz harmonics being 66 and 23 dB, respectively. AVI against a narrow band vibratory...

  10. Accelerated lifetime test of vibration isolator made of Metal Rubber material (United States)

    Ao, Hongrui; Ma, Yong; Wang, Xianbiao; Chen, Jianye; Jiang, Hongyuan


    The Metal Rubber material (MR) is a kind of material with nonlinear damping characteristics for its application in the field of aerospace, petrochemical industry and so on. The study on the lifetime of MR material is impendent to its application in engineering. Based on the dynamic characteristic of MR, the accelerated lifetime experiments of vibration isolators made of MR working under random vibration load were conducted. The effects of structural parameters of MR components on the lifetime of isolators were studied and modelled with the fitting curves of degradation data. The lifetime prediction methods were proposed based on the models.

  11. Parametric Design and Multiobjective Optimization of Maglev Actuators for Active Vibration Isolation System

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    Qianqian Wu


    Full Text Available The microvibration has a serious impact on science experiments on the space station and on image quality of high resolution satellites. As an important component of the active vibration isolation platform, the maglev actuator has a large stroke and exhibits excellent isolating performance benefiting from its noncontact characteristic. A maglev actuator with good linearity was designed in this paper. Fundamental features of the maglev actuator were obtained by finite element simulation. In order to minimize the coil weight and the heat dissipation of the maglev actuator, parametric design was carried out and multiobjective optimization based on the genetic algorithm was adopted. The optimized actuator has better mechanical properties than the initial one. Active vibration isolation platforms for different-scale payload were designed by changing the arrangement of the maglev actuators. The prototype to isolate vibration for small-scale payload was manufactured and the experiments for verifying the characteristics of the actuators were set up. The linearity of the actuator and the mechanical dynamic response of the vibration isolation platform were obtained. The experimental results highlight the effectiveness of the proposed design.

  12. High accuracy position adjustment and vibration isolation actuator with the controlled ferrofluid (United States)

    Wu, Shuai; Li, Chunfang; Zhao, Xiangyu; Jiao, Zongxia


    An actuator for microposition adjustment and vibration isolation using the controlled ferrofluid is reported in this letter. The proposed actuator levitates on the ferrofluid which is affected by the combined dynamic magnetic field which is formed by coupling a permanent magnetic field with a controlled electromagnetic field. A controlled electromagnetic field is superposed on the permanent magnetic field in order to change the shape of the ferrofluid to ultimately move the actuator. The experimental results indicate that the proposed actuator can adjust the position with high accuracy and has a good dynamic performance. The proposed actuator can bear over 2 N loads, and the positioning accuracy is within 0.1 μ m. The stroke of the actuator is about of ±30 μ m with no load, and the stroke increases to ±75 μ m at 2 N load. Its dynamic band with -3 dB amplitude attenuation and -90° phase is over 40 Hz. In addition, the displacement has a very good linear relationship with the input current. The results also demonstrate that the actuator can isolate vibration in a wide frequency range, as the low frequency vibration can be compensated by the active motion control, while the high frequency vibration can be attenuated by the elasticity and damping effects of the ferrofluid. Consequently, the proposed actuator has a significant potential for applications where the high accuracy micro-position adjustment and vibration isolation are needed.

  13. Dynamic modeling and simulation of a two-stage series-parallel vibration isolation system

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    Rong Guo


    Full Text Available A two-stage series-parallel vibration isolation system is already widely used in various industrial fields. However, when the researchers analyze the vibration characteristics of a mechanical system, the system is usually regarded as a single-stage one composed of two substructures. The dynamic modeling of a two-stage series-parallel vibration isolation system using frequency response function–based substructuring method has not been studied. Therefore, this article presents the source-path-receiver model and the substructure property identification model of such a system. These two models make up the transfer path model of the system. And the model is programmed by MATLAB. To verify the proposed transfer path model, a finite element model simulating a vehicle system, which is a typical two-stage series-parallel vibration isolation system, is developed. The substructure frequency response functions and system level frequency response functions can be obtained by MSC Patran/Nastran and LMS Virtual.lab based on the finite element model. Next, the system level frequency response functions are substituted into the transfer path model to predict the substructural frequency response functions and the system response of the coupled structure can then be further calculated. By comparing the predicted results and exact value, the model proves to be correct. Finally, the random noise is introduced into several relevant system level frequency response functions for error sensitivity analysis. The system level frequency response functions that are most sensitive to the random error are found. Since a two-stage series-parallel system has not been well studied, the proposed transfer path model improves the dynamic theory of the multi-stage vibration isolation system. Moreover, the validation process of the model here actually provides an example for acoustic and vibration transfer path analysis based on the proposed model. And it is worth noting that the

  14. A small-scale study of magneto-rheological track vibration isolation system (United States)

    Li, Rui; Mu, Wenjun; Zhang, Luyang; Wang, Xiaojie


    A magneto-rheological bearing (MRB) is proposed to improve the vibration isolation performance of a floating slab track system. However, it's difficult to carry out the test for the full-scale track vibration isolation system in the laboratory. In this paper, the research is based on scale analysis of the floating slab track system, from the point view of the dimensionless of the dynamic characteristics of physical quantity, to establish a small scale test bench system for the MRBs. A small scale MRB with squeeze mode using magneto-rheological grease is designed and its performance is tested. The major parameters of a small scale test bench are obtained according to the similarity theory. The force transmissibility ratio and the relative acceleration transmissibility ratio are selected as evaluation index of system similarity. Dynamics of these two similarity systems are calculated by MATLAB experiment. Simulation results show that the dynamics of the prototype and scale models have good similarity. Further, a test bench is built according to the small-scale model parameter analysis. The experiment shows that the bench testing results are consistency with that of theoretical model in evaluating the vibration force and acceleration. Therefore, the small-scale study of magneto-rheological track vibration isolation system based on similarity theory reveals the isolation performance of a real slab track prototype system.

  15. Model-free fuzzy control of a magnetorheological elastomer vibration isolation system: analysis and experimental evaluation (United States)

    Fu, Jie; Li, Peidong; Wang, Yuan; Liao, Guanyao; Yu, Miao


    This paper addresses the problem of micro-vibration control of a precision vibration isolation system with a magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) isolator and fuzzy control strategy. Firstly, a polyurethane matrix MRE isolator working in the shear-compression mixed mode is introduced. The dynamic characteristic is experimentally tested, and the range of the frequency shift and the model parameters of the MRE isolator are obtained from experimental results. Secondly, a new semi-active control law is proposed, which uses isolation structure displacement and relative displacement between the isolation structure and base as the inputs. Considering the nonlinearity of the MRE isolator and the excitation uncertainty of an isolation system, the designed semi-active fuzzy logic controller (FLC) is independent of a system model and is robust. Finally, the numerical simulations and experiments are conducted to evaluate the performance of the FLC with single-frequency and multiple-frequency excitation, respectively, and the experimental results show that the acceleration transmissibility is reduced by 54.04% at most, which verifies the effectiveness of the designed semi-active FLC. Moreover, the advantages of the approach are demonstrated in comparison to the passive control and ON-OFF control.

  16. Retrospective report of antimicrobial susceptibility observed in bacterial pathogens isolated from ocular samples at Mount Sinai Hospital, 2010 to 2015. (United States)

    Oydanich, Marko; Dingle, Tanis C; Hamula, Camille L; Ghisa, Claudia; Asbell, Penny


    Antimicrobial resistance has emerged as a major threat to global public health. Thus, the surveillance of changes in antimicrobial resistance in local and global settings is a paramount necessity. While many studies have tracked antimicrobial resistance, only a small percentage surveyed ocular isolates. The purpose of this study was to report the in vitro susceptibility of bacterial pathogens isolated from ocular samples in New York, NY from 2010 to 2015. A retrospective review of ocular isolates was conducted. All organisms were collected by 25 separate inpatient wards and outpatient clinics, and were analyzed by the clinical microbiology laboratory at Mount Sinai Hospital. Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines were followed for susceptibility testing and breakpoint interpretations. A total of 549 bacterial organisms were isolated from 1664 cultures (33%) during the 6-year study period. Of these, 358 isolates (65.2%) underwent susceptibility testing. 182 (50.8%) isolates were Gram-positive. The most common Gram-positive bacterium was Staphylococcus aureus (62.1%). Methicillin-resistance decreased in S. aureus isolates (31.3% in 2010, 14.1% in 2015) but was without significant change ( p  = 0.25). When analyzing all S. aureus isolates recovered during the study period, there were significantly more methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates resistant to fluoroquinolones ( p <0.0001), erythromycin ( p <0.0001), and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMZ; p <0.05). Overall, Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates showed reduced susceptibility to erythromycin, but were otherwise susceptible to the other antimicrobials tested. Haemophilus influenzae (26.1%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (23.9%) were the most common Gram-negative bacteria isolated . Resistance to ampicillin and TMP/SMZ was observed in several of the H. influenzae isolates. P. aeruginosa isolates did not show high resistance overall, however, it was noted that isolates resistant

  17. Verification of the Microgravity Active Vibration Isolation System based on Parabolic Flight (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-kang; Dong, Wen-bo; Liu, Wei; Li, Zong-feng; Lv, Shi-meng; Sang, Xiao-ru; Yang, Yang


    The Microgravity active vibration isolation system (MAIS) is a device to reduce on-orbit vibration and to provide a lower gravity level for certain scientific experiments. MAIS system is made up of a stator and a floater, the stator is fixed on the spacecraft, and the floater is suspended by electromagnetic force so as to reduce the vibration from the stator. The system has 3 position sensors, 3 accelerometers, 8 Lorentz actuators, signal processing circuits and a central controller embedded in the operating software and control algorithms. For the experiments on parabolic flights, a laptop is added to MAIS for monitoring and operation, and a power module is for electric power converting. The principle of MAIS is as follows: the system samples the vibration acceleration of the floater from accelerometers, measures the displacement between stator and floater from position sensitive detectors, and computes Lorentz force current for each actuator so as to eliminate the vibration of the scientific payload, and meanwhile to avoid crashing between the stator and the floater. This is a motion control technic in 6 degrees of freedom (6-DOF) and its function could only be verified in a microgravity environment. Thanks for DLR and Novespace, we get a chance to take the DLR 27th parabolic flight campaign to make experiments to verify the 6-DOF control technic. The experiment results validate that the 6-DOF motion control technique is effective, and vibration isolation performance perfectly matches what we expected based on theoretical analysis and simulation. The MAIS has been planned on Chinese manned spacecraft for many microgravity scientific experiments, and the verification on parabolic flights is very important for its following mission. Additionally, we also test some additional function by microgravity electromagnetic suspension, such as automatic catching and locking and working in fault mode. The parabolic flight produces much useful data for these experiments.

  18. Verification of the Microgravity Active Vibration Isolation System based on Parabolic Flight (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-kang; Dong, Wen-bo; Liu, Wei; Li, Zong-feng; Lv, Shi-meng; Sang, Xiao-ru; Yang, Yang


    The Microgravity active vibration isolation system (MAIS) is a device to reduce on-orbit vibration and to provide a lower gravity level for certain scientific experiments. MAIS system is made up of a stator and a floater, the stator is fixed on the spacecraft, and the floater is suspended by electromagnetic force so as to reduce the vibration from the stator. The system has 3 position sensors, 3 accelerometers, 8 Lorentz actuators, signal processing circuits and a central controller embedded in the operating software and control algorithms. For the experiments on parabolic flights, a laptop is added to MAIS for monitoring and operation, and a power module is for electric power converting. The principle of MAIS is as follows: the system samples the vibration acceleration of the floater from accelerometers, measures the displacement between stator and floater from position sensitive detectors, and computes Lorentz force current for each actuator so as to eliminate the vibration of the scientific payload, and meanwhile to avoid crashing between the stator and the floater. This is a motion control technic in 6 degrees of freedom (6-DOF) and its function could only be verified in a microgravity environment. Thanks for DLR and Novespace, we get a chance to take the DLR 27th parabolic flight campaign to make experiments to verify the 6-DOF control technic. The experiment results validate that the 6-DOF motion control technique is effective, and vibration isolation performance perfectly matches what we expected based on theoretical analysis and simulation. The MAIS has been planned on Chinese manned spacecraft for many microgravity scientific experiments, and the verification on parabolic flights is very important for its following mission. Additionally, we also test some additional function by microgravity electromagnetic suspension, such as automatic catching and locking and working in fault mode. The parabolic flight produces much useful data for these experiments.

  19. Synchronization of Two Self-Synchronous Vibrating Machines on an Isolation Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyu Zhao


    Full Text Available This paper investigates synchronization of two self-synchronous vibrating machines on an isolation rigid frame. Using the modified average method of small parameters, we deduce the non-dimensional coupling differential equations of the disturbance parameters for the angular velocities of the four unbalanced rotors. Then the stability problem of synchronization for the four unbalanced rotors is converted into the stability problems of two generalized systems. One is the generalized system of the angular velocity disturbance parameters for the four unbalanced rotors, and the other is the generalized system of three phase disturbance parameters. The condition of implementing synchronization is that the torque of frequency capture between each pair of the unbalanced rotors on a vibrating machine is greater than the absolute values of the output electromagnetic torque difference between each pair of motors, and that the torque of frequency capture between the two vibrating machines is greater than the absolute value of the output electromagnetic torque difference between the two pairs of motors on the two vibrating machines. The stability condition of synchronization of the two vibrating machines is that the inertia coupling matrix is definite positive, and that all the eigenvalues for the generalized system of three phase disturbance parameters have negative real parts. Computer simulations are carried out to verify the results of the theoretical investigation.

  20. Vibration isolation systems, considered as systems with single degree of freedom

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    Zebilila Mohammed


    Full Text Available The research considers and analyzes vibration isolation systems, whose design schemes are single degree of freedom systems, including nonlinear elements - displacement limiter and viscous damper. Presented are calculation formulas in closed form for linear systems in operational modes (for harmonic and impulse loads, algorithms and examples of calculation of linear and nonlinear systems in operational and transient modes. The calculation method and the above dependences are written using the transfer (TF and impulse response functions (IRF of linear dynamical systems and dependencies that determine the relationship between these functions. The effectiveness of 2 options of vibration isolation systems in transient modes is analyzed. There is significant reduction of load from the equipment to the supporting structures in the starting-stopping modes by the use of displacement limiter.

  1. Vibration Isolation and Trajectory Following Control of a Cable Suspended Stewart Platform

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    Xuechao Duan


    Full Text Available To achieve high-quality vibration isolation and trajectory following control of a cable driven parallel robot based Stewart platform in the five hundred meter aperture spherical radio telescope (FAST design, the integrated dynamic model of the Stewart platform including the electric cylinder is established in this paper, the globally feedback linearization of the dynamic model is implemented based on the control law partitioning approach. To overcome the disadvantages of the external disturbance on the base and unmodeled flexibility of the mechanism, a PID (Proportional-Derivative-Integral controller with base acceleration feedforward is designed in the operational space of the Stewart platform. Experiments of the vibration isolation and trajectory following control of the cable suspended Stewart platform with presence of the base disturbance is carried out. The experimental results show that the presented control scheme has the advantage of stable dynamics, high accuracy and strong robustness.

  2. Design and Implementation of a Digital Controller for a Vibration Isolation and Vernier Pointing System (United States)

    Neff, Daniel J.; Britcher, Colin P.


    This paper discusses the recommissioning of the Annular Suspension and Pointing System (ASPS), originally developed in the mid 1970's for pointing and vibration isolation of space experiments. The hardware was developed for NASA Langley Research Center by Sperry Flight Systems (now Honeywell Satellite Systems), was delivered to NASA in 1983. Recently, the hardware was loaned to Old Dominion University (ODU). The ASPS includes coarse gimbal assemblies and a Vernier Pointing Assembly (VPA) that utilize magnetic suspension to provide noncontacting vibration isolation and vernier pointing of the payload. The VPA is the main focus of this research. At ODU, the system has been modified such that it can now be operated in a l-g environment without a gravity offload. Suspension of the annular iron rotor in five degrees-of-freedom has been achieved with the use of modern switching power amplifiers and a digital controller implemented on a 486-class PC.

  3. Investigations on Elastic and Damping Characteristics of Vibration Isolation Systems While Using Factor Experiment

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    G. N. Reysina


    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the investigations on elastic and damping characteristics of a vibration isolation system. Adequate mathematical models of relative root-mean-square values for acceleration of antivibration mass have been obtained depending on elastic and viscous constituents. The paper  reveals  that the proposed method of multiple correlation is the most rational one for the analysis of power  fluids used in the electro-rheological dampers.

  4. Bifurcations and chaos of a vibration isolation system with magneto-rheological damper

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    Hailong Zhang


    Full Text Available Magneto-rheological (MR damper possesses inherent hysteretic characteristics. We investigate the resulting nonlinear behaviors of a two degree-of-freedom (2-DoF MR vibration isolation system under harmonic external excitation. A MR damper is identified by employing the modified Bouc-wen hysteresis model. By numerical simulation, we characterize the nonlinear dynamic evolution of period-doubling, saddle node bifurcating and inverse period-doubling using bifurcation diagrams of variations in frequency with a fixed amplitude of the harmonic excitation. The strength of chaos is determined by the Lyapunov exponent (LE spectrum. Semi-physical experiment on the 2-DoF MR vibration isolation system is proposed. We trace the time history and phase trajectory under certain values of frequency of the harmonic excitation to verify the nonlinear dynamical evolution of period-doubling bifurcations to chaos. The largest LEs computed with the experimental data are also presented, confirming the chaotic motion in the experiment. We validate the chaotic motion caused by the hysteresis of the MR damper, and show the transitions between distinct regimes of stable motion and chaotic motion of the 2-DoF MR vibration isolation system for variations in frequency of external excitation.

  5. Design of mechanical metamaterials for simultaneous vibration isolation and energy harvesting (United States)

    Li, Ying; Baker, Evan; Reissman, Timothy; Sun, Cheng; Liu, Wing Kam


    Through finite element analysis and a 3D printing assisted experimental study, we demonstrate a design of mechanical metamaterials for simultaneous mechanical wave filtering and energy harvesting. The mechanical metamaterials compromise a square array of free-standing cantilevers featuring piezoelectric properties being attached to a primary structural frame. A complete bandgap has thus been created via the strong coupling of the bulk elastic wave propagating along the structural frame and the distributed local resonance associated with the square array of piezoelectrically active cantilevers. Operating within the stop-band, external vibration energy has been trapped and transferred into the kinetic energy of the cantilevers, which is further converted into electric energy through mechano-electrical conversion of its integrated piezoelectric elements. Therefore, two distinct functions, vibration isolation and energy harvesting, are achieved simultaneously through the designed mechanical metamaterials.

  6. Design and experiments of an active isolator for satellite micro-vibration

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    Li Weipeng


    Full Text Available In this paper, a soft active isolator (SAI derived from a voice coil motor is studied to determine its abilities as a micro-vibration isolation device for sensitive satellite payloads. Firstly, the two most important parts of the SAI, the mechanical unit and the low-noise driver, are designed and manufactured. Then, a rigid-flexible coupling dynamic model of the SAI is built, and a dynamic analysis is conducted. Furthermore, a controller with a sky-hook damper is designed. Finally, results from the performance tests of the mechanical/electronic parts and the isolation experiments are presented. The SAI attenuations are found to be more than −20 dB above 5 Hz, and the control effect is stable.

  7. Design of a Long-Stroke Noncontact Electromagnetic Actuator for Active Vibration Isolation (United States)

    Banerjee, Bibhuti; Allaire, Paul E.


    A long-stroke moving coil Lorentz Actuator was designed for use in a microgravity vibration isolation experiment. The final design had a stroke of 5.08 cm (2 in) and enough force capability to isolate a mass of the order of 22.7-45.4 kg. A simple dynamic magnetic circuit analysis, using an electrical analog, was developed for the initial design of the actuator. A neodymium-iron-boron material with energy density of 278 T-kA/m (35 MGOe) was selected to supply the magnetic field. The effect of changes in the design parameters of core diameter, shell outer diameter, pole face length, and coil wire layers were investigated. An extensive three-dimensional finite element analysis was carried out to accurately determine linearity with regard to axial position of the coil and coil current levels. The actuator was constructed and tested on a universal testing machine. Example plots are shown, indicating good linearity over the stroke of approximately 5.08 cm (2 in) and a range of coil currents from -1.5 A to +1.5 A. The actuator was then used for the microgravity vibration isolation experiments, described elsewhere.

  8. Nonlinear transition dynamics in a time-delayed vibration isolator under combined harmonic and stochastic excitations (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Cao, Qingjie


    Based on the quasi-zero stiffness vibration isolation (QZS-VI) system, nonlinear transition dynamics have been investigated coupled with both time-delayed displacement and velocity feedbacks. Using a delayed nonlinear Langevin approach, we discuss a new mechanism for the transition of a vibration isolator in which the energy originates from harmonic and noise excitations. For this stochastic process, the effective displacement potential, stationary probability density function and the escape ratio are obtained. We investigate a variety of noise-induced behaviors affecting the transitions between system equilibria states. The results indicate that the phenomena of transition, resonant activation and delay-enhanced stability may emerge in the QZS-VI system. Moreover, we also show that the time delay, delay feedback intensities, and harmonic excitation play significant roles in the resonant activation and delay-enhanced stability phenomena. Finally, a quantitative measure for amplitude response has been carried out to evaluate the isolation performance of the controlled QZS-VI system. The results show that with properly designed feedback parameters, time delay and displacement feedback intensity can play the role of a damping force. This research provides instructive ideas on the application of the time-delayed control in practical engineering.

  9. Numerical investigation of the vortex-induced vibration of an elastically mounted circular cylinder at high Reynolds number (Re = 104 and low mass ratio using the RANS code.

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    Niaz Bahadur Khan

    Full Text Available This study numerically investigates the vortex-induced vibration (VIV of an elastically mounted rigid cylinder by using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS equations with computational fluid dynamic (CFD tools. CFD analysis is performed for a fixed-cylinder case with Reynolds number (Re = 104 and for a cylinder that is free to oscillate in the transverse direction and possesses a low mass-damping ratio and Re = 104. Previously, similar studies have been performed with 3-dimensional and comparatively expensive turbulent models. In the current study, the capability and accuracy of the RANS model are validated, and the results of this model are compared with those of detached eddy simulation, direct numerical simulation, and large eddy simulation models. All three response branches and the maximum amplitude are well captured. The 2-dimensional case with the RANS shear-stress transport k-w model, which involves minimal computational cost, is reliable and appropriate for analyzing the characteristics of VIV.

  10. Active Engine Mounting Control Algorithm Using Neural Network

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    Fadly Jashi Darsivan


    Full Text Available This paper proposes the application of neural network as a controller to isolate engine vibration in an active engine mounting system. It has been shown that the NARMA-L2 neurocontroller has the ability to reject disturbances from a plant. The disturbance is assumed to be both impulse and sinusoidal disturbances that are induced by the engine. The performance of the neural network controller is compared with conventional PD and PID controllers tuned using Ziegler-Nichols. From the result simulated the neural network controller has shown better ability to isolate the engine vibration than the conventional controllers.

  11. Vibration isolation analysis of new design OEM damper for malaysia vehicle suspension system featuring MR fluid (United States)

    Unuh, M. H.; Muhamad, P.; Norfazrina, H. M. Y.; Ismail, M. A.; Tanasta, Z.


    The applications of semi-active damper employing magnetorheological (MR) fluids keep increasing in fulfilling the demand to control undesired vibration effect. The aim of this study is to introduce the new design of damper for Malaysian vehicle model as well to evaluate its effectiveness in promoting comfort. The vibration isolation performance of the OEM damper featuring MR fluid was analysed physically under real road profile excitation experimentally. An experiment using quarter car rig suspension and LMS SCADAS Mobile was conducted to demonstrate the influence of current in controlling the characteristics of MR fluid in alter the damping behaviour under 5 cm bump impact. Subsequently, the displacement values were measured with respect to time. The new design OEM damper featuring MR fluid was validated by comparing the data with original equipment manufacturer (OEM) passive damper results under the same approach of testing. Comparison of numerical data of the new design OEM damper shown that it can reduce the excitation amplitude up to 40% compared to those obtained by OEM passive damper. Finally, the new design OEM damper featuring MR fluid has effectively isolated the disturbance from the road profile and control the output force.

  12. Electromagnetic and Mechanical Characteristics Analysis of a Flat-Type Vertical-Gap Passive Magnetic Levitation Vibration Isolator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoquan Kou


    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe a flat-type vertical-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator (FVPMLVI for active vibration isolation system (AVIS. A dual-stator scheme and a special stator magnet array are adopted in the proposed FVPMLVI, which has the effect of decreasing its natural frequency, and this enhances the vibration isolation capability of the FVPMLVI. The structure, operating principle, analytical model, and electromagnetic and mechanical characteristics of the FVPMLVI are investigated. The relationship between the force characteristics (levitation force, horizontal force, force ripple, and force density and major structural parameters (width and thickness of stator and mover magnets is analyzed by finite element method. The experiment result is in good agreement with the theoretical analysis.

  13. Parameter optimization of an inerter-based isolator for passive vibration control of Michelangelo's Rondanini Pietà (United States)

    Siami, A.; Karimi, H. R.; Cigada, A.; Zappa, E.; Sabbioni, E.


    Preserving cultural heritage against earthquake and ambient vibrations can be an attractive topic in the field of vibration control. This paper proposes a passive vibration isolator methodology based on inerters for improving the performance of the isolation system of the famous statue of Michelangelo Buonarroti Pietà Rondanini. More specifically, a five-degree-of-freedom (5DOF) model of the statue and the anti-seismic and anti-vibration base is presented and experimentally validated. The parameters of this model are tuned according to the experimental tests performed on the assembly of the isolator and the structure. Then, the developed model is used to investigate the impact of actuation devices such as tuned mass-damper (TMD) and tuned mass-damper-inerter (TMDI) in vibration reduction of the structure. The effect of implementation of TMDI on the 5DOF model is shown based on physical limitations of the system parameters. Simulation results are provided to illustrate effectiveness of the passive element of TMDI in reduction of the vibration transmitted to the statue in vertical direction. Moreover, the optimal design parameters of the passive system such as frequency and damping coefficient will be calculated using two different performance indexes. The obtained optimal parameters have been evaluated by using two different optimization algorithms: the sequential quadratic programming method and the Firefly algorithm. The results prove significant reduction in the transmitted vibration to the structure in the presence of the proposed tuned TMDI, without imposing a large amount of mass or modification to the structure of the isolator.

  14. The effect of critically moving loads on the vibrations of soft soils and isolated railway tracks (United States)

    Auersch, L.


    The dynamic response of the railway track is strongly influenced by the underlying soil. For a soft soil and very high train speeds or for a very soft soil and regular train speeds, the train speed can be close to the speed of elastic waves in the soil. This paper presents a detailed study of the so-called "moving-load effect", i.e. an amplification of the dynamic response due to the load movement, for the tracks on soft soil. The analysis is carried out by evaluating the related integrals in the wavenumber domain. The influence of the load speed is quantified for a large set of parameters, showing that the effect on the soil vibration is reduced with increase of the frequency, track width and inverse wave velocity. Therefore, the moving-load effect associated with vibratory train loads is negligible whereas the amplification associated with the moving dead weight of the train can be significant. The strong moving-load effect on a perfectly homogeneous soil, however, can be strongly diminished by a layered or randomly varying soil situation. This theoretical result is affirmed by measurements at a test site in Germany where the trains run on a very soft soil at a near-critical speed. The results for soft soils are compared with experimental and theoretical results for a stiff soil. It is found that the influence of the stiffness of the soil is much stronger than the moving-load effect. This holds for the soil vibration as well as for the track vibration which both show a minor dependence on the load speed but a considerable dependence on the soil stiffness in theory and experiment. Railway tracks can include soft isolation elements such as rail pads, sleeper shoes and ballast mats. For these types of isolation elements and normal soil conditions, the influence of the load speed is usually negligible. There is only one isolation measure for which the moving load may be effective: a track which is constructed as a heavy mass-spring system. The resonance of this track

  15. Dynamics of vibration isolation system with rubber-cord-pneumatic spring with damping throttle (United States)

    Burian, Yu A.; Silkov, M. V.


    The study refers to the important area of applied mechanics; it is the theory of vibration isolation of vibroactive facilities. The design and the issues of mathematical modeling of pneumatic spring perspective design made on the basis of rubber-cord shell with additional volume connected with its primary volume by means of throttle passageway are considered in the text. Damping at the overflow of air through the hole limits the amplitude of oscillation at resonance. But in contrast to conventional systems with viscous damping it does not increase transmission ratio at high frequencies. The mathematical model of suspension allowing selecting options to reduce the power transmission ratio on the foundation, especially in the high frequency range is obtained

  16. A multi-reference filtered-x-Newton narrowband algorithm for active isolation of vibration and experimental investigations (United States)

    Wang, Chun-yu; He, Lin; Li, Yan; Shuai, Chang-geng


    In engineering applications, ship machinery vibration may be induced by multiple rotational machines sharing a common vibration isolation platform and operating at the same time, and multiple sinusoidal components may be excited. These components may be located at frequencies with large differences or at very close frequencies. A multi-reference filtered-x Newton narrowband (MRFx-Newton) algorithm is proposed to control these multiple sinusoidal components in an MIMO (multiple input and multiple output) system, especially for those located at very close frequencies. The proposed MRFx-Newton algorithm can decouple and suppress multiple sinusoidal components located in the same narrow frequency band even though such components cannot be separated from each other by a narrowband-pass filter. Like the Fx-Newton algorithm, good real-time performance is also achieved by the faster convergence speed brought by the 2nd-order inverse secondary-path filter in the time domain. Experiments are also conducted to verify the feasibility and test the performance of the proposed algorithm installed in an active-passive vibration isolation system in suppressing the vibration excited by an artificial source and air compressor/s. The results show that the proposed algorithm not only has comparable convergence rate as the Fx-Newton algorithm but also has better real-time performance and robustness than the Fx-Newton algorithm in active control of the vibration induced by multiple sound sources/rotational machines working on a shared platform.

  17. Influence of isolated or simultaneous application of electromyostimulation and vibration on leg blood flow. (United States)

    Menéndez, Héctor; Martín-Hernández, Juan; Ferrero, Cristina; Figueroa, Arturo; Herrero, Azael J; Marín, Pedro J


    The aim of this study was to analyze the acute effects of isolated or simultaneously applied whole-body vibration (WBV) and electromyostimulation (ES) on the popliteal arterial blood velocity and skin temperature (ST) of the calf. Thirteen healthy males were assessed in five different sessions. After a familiarization session, four interventions were applied in random order; WBV, ES, simultaneous WBV and ES (WBV+ES), and 30 s of WBV followed by 30 s of ES (WBV30/ES30). Each intervention consisted of 10 sets × 1 min ON + 1 min OFF. The subject was standing on the vibration platform (squat position, 30° knee flexion, 26 Hz, 5 mm peak-to-peak), and ES was applied on the gastrocnemius of both the legs (8 Hz, 400 µs). The WBV+ES intervention was the only one that maintained the mean blood velocity (MBV) elevated above baseline during the 10 sets, from set-1 (134.6 % p < 0.01) to set-10 (112.6 % p < 0.05). The combined interventions were the only ones that maintained the peak blood velocity (PBV) elevated above baseline during all the sets, from set-1 (113.5 % p < 0.001) to set-10 (88.8 % p < 0.01) and from set-1 (58.4 % p < 0.01) to set-10 (49.1 % p < 0.05) for WBV+ES and WBV30/ES30, respectively. The simultaneous application of WBV and ES produced a general greater increase in MBV and PBV than the application of each method alone or consecutive. This novel methodological proposal could be interesting in different fields such as sports or the rehabilitation process of different pathologies, to achieve an enhanced peripheral blood flow.

  18. Measurement Model and Precision Analysis of Accelerometers for Maglev Vibration Isolation Platforms. (United States)

    Wu, Qianqian; Yue, Honghao; Liu, Rongqiang; Zhang, Xiaoyou; Ding, Liang; Liang, Tian; Deng, Zongquan


    High precision measurement of acceleration levels is required to allow active control for vibration isolation platforms. It is necessary to propose an accelerometer configuration measurement model that yields such a high measuring precision. In this paper, an accelerometer configuration to improve measurement accuracy is proposed. The corresponding calculation formulas of the angular acceleration were derived through theoretical analysis. A method is presented to minimize angular acceleration noise based on analysis of the root mean square noise of the angular acceleration. Moreover, the influence of installation position errors and accelerometer orientation errors on the calculation precision of the angular acceleration is studied. Comparisons of the output differences between the proposed configuration and the previous planar triangle configuration under the same installation errors are conducted by simulation. The simulation results show that installation errors have a relatively small impact on the calculation accuracy of the proposed configuration. To further verify the high calculation precision of the proposed configuration, experiments are carried out for both the proposed configuration and the planar triangle configuration. On the basis of the results of simulations and experiments, it can be concluded that the proposed configuration has higher angular acceleration calculation precision and can be applied to different platforms.

  19. Measurement Model and Precision Analysis of Accelerometers for Maglev Vibration Isolation Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Wu


    Full Text Available High precision measurement of acceleration levels is required to allow active control for vibration isolation platforms. It is necessary to propose an accelerometer configuration measurement model that yields such a high measuring precision. In this paper, an accelerometer configuration to improve measurement accuracy is proposed. The corresponding calculation formulas of the angular acceleration were derived through theoretical analysis. A method is presented to minimize angular acceleration noise based on analysis of the root mean square noise of the angular acceleration. Moreover, the influence of installation position errors and accelerometer orientation errors on the calculation precision of the angular acceleration is studied. Comparisons of the output differences between the proposed configuration and the previous planar triangle configuration under the same installation errors are conducted by simulation. The simulation results show that installation errors have a relatively small impact on the calculation accuracy of the proposed configuration. To further verify the high calculation precision of the proposed configuration, experiments are carried out for both the proposed configuration and the planar triangle configuration. On the basis of the results of simulations and experiments, it can be concluded that the proposed configuration has higher angular acceleration calculation precision and can be applied to different platforms.

  20. Design, analysis, and testing of a CCD array mounting structure (United States)

    Sultana, John A.; O'Neill, Mark B.


    A method has been developed for mounting charge-coupled device (CCD) arrays in an optical telescope so as to minimize thermal defocusing errors. The mounting arrangement was developed for a six-inch aperture, visible band, off-axis reimaging telescope attached to an experimental satellite. The mounting arrangement consists of two pieces: a fiberglass frame which holds the actively cooled CCD package and provides thermal isolation from the telescope body; and a titanium flexure, which acts to minimize structural distortions caused by the difference in thermal expansion properties of the CCD array and the telescope body. This paper describes the design, analysis, and testing of this CCD array mounting arrangement. A detailed finite-element model of the CCD array and the mount was developed and used to predict thermally-induced defocus and gravity sag deformations, as well as natural frequencies. Experimental tests to verify the computer model results were performed using holographic interferometry. Vibration tests were also performed to verify the natural frequencies as well as structural integrity during launch. A comparison of the computer model predictions and the holographic interferometric measurements of thermally-induced defocussing indicates agreement to within 15 to 20%. Both the experimental and computer results indicate that the mounting structure provides focus stability over the operational temperature range of the telescope with sufficient structural integrity to survive the anticipated spacecraft launch loads.

  1. Maximizing semi-active vibration isolation utilizing a magnetorheological damper with an inner bypass configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Xian-Xu, E-mail: [Department of Vehicle Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Wereley, Norman M.; Hu, Wei [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)


    A single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) semi-active vibration control system based on a magnetorheological (MR) damper with an inner bypass is investigated in this paper. The MR damper employing a pair of concentric tubes, between which the key structure, i.e., the inner bypass, is formed and MR fluids are energized, is designed to provide large dynamic range (i.e., ratio of field-on damping force to field-off damping force) and damping force range. The damping force performance of the MR damper is modeled using phenomenological model and verified by the experimental tests. In order to assess its feasibility and capability in vibration control systems, the mathematical model of a SDOF semi-active vibration control system based on the MR damper and skyhook control strategy is established. Using an MTS 244 hydraulic vibration exciter system and a dSPACE DS1103 real-time simulation system, experimental study for the SDOF semi-active vibration control system is also conducted. Simulation results are compared to experimental measurements.

  2. Stationary levitation and vibration transmission characteristic in a superconducting seismic isolation device with a permanent magnet system and a copper plate (United States)

    Sasaki, S.; Shimada, K.; Yagai, T.; Tsuda, M.; Hamajima, T.; Kawai, N.; Yasui, K.


    We have devised a magnetic levitation type superconducting seismic isolation device taking advantage of the specific characteristic of HTS bulk that the HTS bulk returns to its original position by restoring force against a horizontal displacement. The superconducting seismic isolation device is composed of HTS bulks and permanent magnets (PM rails). The PMs are fixed on an iron plate to realize the same polarities in the longitudinal direction and the different polarities in the transverse direction. The superconducting seismic isolation device can theoretically remove any horizontal vibrations completely. Therefore, the vibration transmissibility in the longitudinal direction of the PM rail becomes zero in theory. The zero vibration transmissibility and the stationary levitation, however, cannot be achieved in the real device because a uniform magnetic field distribution in the longitudinal direction of PM rail cannot be realized due to the individual difference of the PMs. Therefore, to achieve stationary levitation in the real device we adopted a PM-PM system that the different polarities are faced each other. The stationary levitation could be achieved by the magnetic interaction between the PMs in the PM-PM system, while the vibration transmitted to the seismic isolation object due to the magnetic interaction. We adopted a copper plate between the PMs to reduce the vibration transmissibility. The PM-PM system with the copper plate is very useful for realizing the stationary levitation and reducing the vibration transmissibility.

  3. Wind turbine blade vibration at standstill conditions — the effect of imposing lag on the aerodynamic response of an elastically mounted airfoil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrzypinski, Witold Robert; Gaunaa, Mac


    The present study investigated physical phenomena related to stall-induced vibrations potentially existing on wind turbine blades at standstill conditions. The study considered two-dimensional airfoil sections while it omitted three-dimensional effects. In the study, a new engineering-type comput......The present study investigated physical phenomena related to stall-induced vibrations potentially existing on wind turbine blades at standstill conditions. The study considered two-dimensional airfoil sections while it omitted three-dimensional effects. In the study, a new engineering...... of gravity indicated that the stability is relatively independent of these parameters. Another parameter study involving spring constants showed that the stability of each mode is dependent only on the spring constant acting in the direction of the leading motion of the mode. An investigation....... It was also shown that only the edgewise mode is unstable in deep stall. Moreover, independent of the amount of temporal lag in the aerodynamic response of the model, the inflow-angle region in the vicinity of 180ı remains unstable in the edgewise mode. Therefore, this inflow-angle region may create stability...

  4. Presentation to International Space University Students on g-LIMIT and STABLE-ATD Projects and Related Microgravity Vibration Isolation Topics (United States)

    Alhorn, Dean


    Vibration isolation is a necessity in the development of science in space and especially those experiments destined for operation on the International Space Station (ISS). The premise of microgravity scientific research is that in space, disturbances are minimized and experiments can be conducted in the absence of gravity. Although microgravity conditions exist in space, disturbances are still present in various forms and can be detrimental to the success of a microgravity experiment. Due to the plethora of disturbances and the various types that will occur on the space station, the microgravity community has elected to incorporate various means of isolating scientific payloads from these unwanted vibrations. Designing these vibration isolators is a crucial task to achieve true microgravity science. Since conventional methods of isolating payloads can achieve only limited isolation, new technologies are being developed to achieve the goal of designing a generic vibration isolation system. One such system being developed for the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is called g-LIMIT which stands for Glovebox Integrated Microgravity Isolation Technology. The g-LIMIT system is a miniaturized active vibration isolator for glovebox experiments. Although the system is initially developed for glovebox experiments, the g-LIMIT technology is designed to be upwardly scaleable to provide isolation for a broad range of users. The g-LIMIT system is scheduled to be flown on the UF-2 mission in August of the year 2000 and will be tested shortly thereafter. Once the system has been fully qualified, the hardware will become available for other researchers and will provide a platform upon which the goal of microgravity science can be achieved.

  5. Theory of vibration protection

    CERN Document Server

    Karnovsky, Igor A


    This text is an advancement of the theory of vibration protection of mechanical systems with lumped and distributed parameters. The book offers various concepts and methods of solving vibration protection problems, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different methods, and the fields of their effective applications. Fundamental approaches of vibration protection, which are considered in this book, are the passive, parametric and optimal active vibration protection. The passive vibration protection is based on vibration isolation, vibration damping and dynamic absorbers. Parametric vibration protection theory is based on the Shchipanov-Luzin invariance principle. Optimal active vibration protection theory is based on the Pontryagin principle and the Krein moment method. The book also contains special topics such as suppression of vibrations at the source of their occurrence and the harmful influence of vibrations on humans. Numerous examples, which illustrate the theoretical ideas of each chapter, ar...

  6. Vibration isolation performance of an ultra-low frequency folded pendulum resonator (United States)

    Liu, Jiangfeng; Ju, Li; Blair, David G.


    We present an analysis of the transfer function of a very low frequency folded pendulum resonator. It is shown that performance depends critically on centre of percussion tuning of the pendulum arms. Experimental measurements of the transfer function are shown to agree well with theory. The isolator achieves 90 dB isolation at 7 Hz.

  7. Análisis de la eficiencia del sistema de aislamiento de vibraciones de grupos electrógenos MAN 18 V48/60 B // Efficiency analysis of vibration isolation system installed on engine generator sets type MAN 18 V48/60 b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelio Palomino‐Marín


    Full Text Available Todo sistema de aislamiento de vibraciones está encaminado en primera instancia a aislarvibraciones como su propio nombre lo indica. En ocasiones es menester que a la máquina no laperturben vibraciones procedentes del entorno, como lo puede ser por ejemplo, el caso de unarectificadora en un taller de mecanizado. Así mismo, en otras ocasiones resulta necesario aislar lamáquina para evitar que las vibraciones producidas por ella misma afecten al entorno. Tal es el casode los grupos electrógenos MAN 18 V48/60 B, cuyos motores de combustión interna responden a undiseño de 18 cilindros en “V” distribuidos en 13 metros de longitud. El sistema de aislamiento deestos motores consta de 14 paquetes de ocho resortes cada uno, incluyendo un amortiguadorviscoso por cada calzo. Se efectuaron mediciones espectrales de vibraciones en cada uno de estoscalzos antivibratorios, sobre y debajo de estos respectivamente y se evaluó la eficiencia de estoscalzos en todo el espectro, determinándose aquellas frecuencias que por determinadas razones noalcanzan los niveles de eficiencia en el aislamiento establecidos a tales efectos. De esta manera, sepresenta una metodología para conducir este análisis.Palabras claves: calzos antivibratorios, aislamiento de vibraciones, grupos electrógenos.___________________________________________________________________AbstractA vibroisolation system has a priority goal which is isolate vibrations. Such vibrations can come fromthe environment and could affect the machine behavior and could affect its technological functionstoo. That’s the case of a machine tool, for instance. However, it is also possible that vibrations comefrom the own machine and in this case the main goal of vibroisolation system is to avoid thatvibrations go to machine foundations. This is the case on which this paper is focused. Twelvevibration isolators with eight springs each one including a viscous damper are mounted asvibroisolation system on

  8. The influence of flywheel micro vibration on space camera and vibration suppression (United States)

    Li, Lin; Tan, Luyang; Kong, Lin; Wang, Dong; Yang, Hongbo


    Studied the impact of flywheel micro vibration on a high resolution optical satellite that space-borne integrated. By testing the flywheel micro vibration with six-component test bench, the flywheel disturbance data is acquired. The finite element model of the satellite was established and the unit force/torque were applied at the flywheel mounting position to obtain the micro vibration data of the camera. Integrated analysis of the data of the two parts showed that the influence of flywheel micro vibration on the camera is mainly concentrated around 60-80 Hz and 170-230 Hz, the largest angular displacement of the secondary mirror along the optical axis direction is 0.04″ and the maximum angular displacement vertical to optical axis is 0.032″. After the design and installation of vibration isolator, the maximum angular displacement of the secondary mirror is 0.011″, the decay rate of root mean square value of the angular displacement is more than 50% and the maximum is 96.78%. The whole satellite was suspended to simulate the boundary condition on orbit; the imaging experiment results show that the image motion caused by the flywheel micro vibrationis less than 0.1 pixel after installing the vibration isolator.

  9. Vibrational relaxation of matrix-isolated CH/sub 3/F and HCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, L.


    Kinetic and spectroscopic studies have been performed on CH/sub 3/F and HCl as a function of host matrix and temperature. Temporally and spectrally resolved infrared fluorescence was used to monitor the populations of both the initially excited state and the lower lying levels which participate in the relaxation process. For CH/sub 3/F, relaxation from any of the levels near 3.5, i.e. the CH stretching fundamentals or bend overtones, occurs via rapid (< 5 ns) V ..-->.. V transfer to 3/ with subsequent relaxation of the 3/ (CF stretch) manifold. Lifetimes of 3/ and 3/ were determined through overtone, = 2, and fundamental fluorescence. These lifetimes show a dramatic dependence on host lattice, an increase of two orders of magnitude in going from Xe and Ar matrices. Lifetimes depend only weakly on temperature. The relaxation of 3/ and 3/ is consistent with a model in which production of a highly rotationally excited guest via collisions with the repulsive wall of the host is the rate limiting step. For HCl, lifetimes of v = 1,2,3 have been determined. In all hosts, the relaxation is non-radiative. For a given vibrational state, v, the relaxation rate increases in the series k(Ar) < k(Kr) < k(Xe). The dependence of the relaxation rate; on v is superlinear in all matrices, the deviation from linearity increasng in the order Ar < Kr < Xe. The relaxation rates become more strongly temperature dependent with increasing vibrational excitation. The results are consistent with a mechanism in which complex formation introduces the anisotropy necessary to induce a near resonant V ..-->.. R transition in the rate limiting step.

  10. Application of Vibrational Power Flow to a Passenger Car for Reduction of Interior Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Lee


    Full Text Available Reduction of structure-borne noise in the compartment of a car is an important task in automotive engineering. Transfer path analysis using the vibroacoustic reciprocity technique or multiple path decomposition method has generally been used for structure-borne noise path analysis. These methods are useful for solving a particular problem, but they do not quantify the effectiveness of vibration isolation of each isolator of a vehicle. To quantify the effectiveness of vibration isolation, vibrational power flow has been used for a simple isolation system or a laboratory-based isolation system. It is often difficult to apply the vibrational power flow technique to a complex isolation system like a car. In this paper, a simple equation is derived for calculation of the vibrational power flow of an isolation system with multiple isolators such as a car. It is successfully applied not only to quantifying the relative contributions of eighteen isolators, but also to reducing the structure-borne noise of a passenger car. According to the results, the main contributor of the eighteen isolators is the rear roll mount of an engine. The reduced structure-borne noise level is about 5dBA.

  11. Control of input delayed pneumatic vibration isolation table using adaptive fuzzy sliding mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Khazaee

    Full Text Available AbstractPneumatic isolators are promising candidates for increasing the quality of accurate instruments. For this purpose, higher performance of such isolators is a prerequisite. In particular, the time-delay due to the air transmission is an inherent issue with pneumatic systems, which needs to be overcome using modern control methods. In this paper an adaptive fuzzy sliding mode controller is proposed to improve the performance of a pneumatic isolator in the low frequency range, i.e., where the passive techniques have obvious shortcomings. The main idea is to combine the adaptive fuzzy controller with adaptive predictor as a new time delay control technique. The adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control and the adaptive fuzzy predictor help to circumvent the input delay and nonlinearities in such isolators. The main advantage of the proposed method is that the closed-loop system stability is guaranteed under certain conditions. Simulation results reveal the effectiveness of the proposed method, compared with other existing time -delay control methods.

  12. Displacement and Force Control of a Quarter Car Using a Mixed Mode MR Mount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Wang


    Full Text Available In hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHV, vibration in dual-mode pump/motor units should be isolated from the chassis. A mixed mode magnetorheological (MR fluid mount was adopted to isolate this vibration and was evaluated in a quarter car model. The MR fluid mount was designed to be able to operate in flow mode and squeeze mode independently and simultaneously. For HHVs, it is desirable to control force and displacement transmissibility. These simulation results presented a basis for designing an effective algorithm to control both the displacement transmissibility and force transmissibility. Moreover, a hierarchical controller for minimizing the two requirements for transmissibility was also constructed. At last, a fuzzy logic controller was devised to closely reproduce the effect of the hierarchical controller. The experiments were set up to facilitate the hardware-in-the-loop evaluation of the mount. Results from the experiments showed that the mixed mode MR fluid mount was able to achieve desired dynamic stiffness profile to minimize the dual-transmissibility criterion.

  13. Unbalanced machinery vibration isolation with a semi-active pneumatic suspension (United States)

    Nieto, A. J.; Morales, A. L.; Chicharro, J. M.; Pintado, P.


    The problem of unbalanced machinery isolation is tackled in this paper. The proposed solution incorporates an air suspension that can be adapted depending on the turning frequency. The system is built with three main parts: an air spring, a reservoir and a connecting pipe. A model of the suspension excited by the unbalanced rotor is also shown in this paper. The properties of the system make it possible to use a configuration of the suspension (one pipe size) over a bandwidth range and another configuration (another pipe size) over the remaining bandwidth range. This idea is implemented with solenoid controlled valves and the results show significant improvements with respect to completely passive configurations.

  14. Vortex-induced vibration for an isolated circular cylinder under the wake interference of an oscillating airfoil: Part II. Single degree of freedom (United States)

    Zhang, G. Q.; Ji, L. C.; Hu, X.


    The vortex-induced vibration behind an isolated cylinder under the wake interference of an oscillating airfoil at different oscillating frequencies and amplitudes have been studied numerically. Our previous research [11] mainly focused on the two degree of freedom vibration problem, several types of the phase portraits of the displacement have been newly found, including the "half -8″ and "cone-net" types as reduced velocity increases. At present, we have continued the research to the single degree of freedom vibration, the corresponding results had been found that under the wake of the free steady flow, as the reduced velocity increases, the phase portraits displacements of the single degree of freedom vibrating cylinder will begin to rotate counterclockwise from the first and third quadrants to the second and fourth quadrants in a Cartesian coordinate system. Under the wake of the oscillating airfoil, the single bending curve and the single closed orbit (double "8-shape" like) of the displacements are newly found in the drag and thrust producing cases respectively. Except this, the two triplets of vortices have also been newly found in the pair and single plus pair wakes at each cycle. The vorticity dynamics behind the vibrating cylinder together with the corresponding force variations have also been obtained computationally and analyzed in details.

  15. The effects of nonlinearity on the output frequency response of a passive engine mount (United States)

    Peng, Z. K.; Lang, Z. Q.


    In this paper, the new concept of output frequency-response function (OFRF) that was derived recently by the authors from the Volterra-series theory of nonlinear systems is briefly introduced. An effective algorithm is proposed to determine the monomials in the OFRF-based representation of the output frequency response of nonlinear systems. The results are then used to analyze the output frequency response of a passive engine mount. Important conclusions regarding the effects of system nonlinearity on the output frequency-response behaviors of the engine mount are reached via theoretical analysis and verified by simulation studies. These conclusions are of significant importance for the analysis and design of vibration isolators such as engine mounts in practice.

  16. Vibrational spectroscopic analysis of a chymotrypsin inhibitor isolated from Schizolobium parahyba (Vell) Toledo seeds (United States)

    Teles, Rozeni C. L.; Freitas, Sonia M.; Kawano, Yoshio; de Souza, Elizabeth M. T.; Arêas, Elizabeth P. G.


    Laser Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies were applied in the investigation of conformational features of a chymotrypsin inhibitor (SPC), inactive on trypsin, isolated from Schizolobium parahyba, a Leguminosae of the Cesalpinoidae family, found in tropical and subtropical regions. As a serine protease inhibitor, its importance is related to the control of proteolytic activity, which in turn is involved in a wide range of critically important biotechnological issues, such as blood coagulation, tumour cell growth, and plant natural defences against predators. SPC is a 20 kDa molecular mass monomeric protein, with two disulfide bonds. Its complete aminoacid primary sequence has not yet been determined. We analysed protein backbone conformation for the lyophylized solid and for an evaporated film, through Raman scattering and FTIR, respectively. The presence of significant amounts of disordered structures and of non-negligible contributions from α-helical and β-sheet structures were reckoned in both cases. The geometries of the disulfide bonds were defined: a gauche-gauche-gauche geometry was verified for one of the two bridges and a transient gauche-gauche-trans/trans-gauche-trans geometry has been indicated for the second one.Two out of the three tyrosine residues were shown to be in external location in the solid protein, as well as the only tryptophan residue.

  17. Detector Mount Design for IGRINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Sok Oh


    Full Text Available The Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrometer (IGRINS is a near-infrared wide-band high-resolution spectrograph jointly developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute and the University of Texas at Austin. IGRINS employs three HAWAII-2RG Focal Plane Array (H2RG FPA detectors. We present the design and fabrication of the detector mount for the H2RG detector. The detector mount consists of a detector housing, an ASIC housing, a Field Flattener Lens (FFL mount, and a support base frame. The detector and the ASIC housing should be kept at 65 K and the support base frame at 130 K. Therefore they are thermally isolated by the support made of GFRP material. The detector mount is designed so that it has features of fine adjusting the position of the detector surface in the optical axis and of fine adjusting yaw and pitch angles in order to utilize as an optical system alignment compensator. We optimized the structural stability and thermal characteristics of the mount design using computer-aided 3D modeling and finite element analysis. Based on the structural and thermal analysis, the designed detector mount meets an optical stability tolerance and system thermal requirements. Actual detector mount fabricated based on the design has been installed into the IGRINS cryostat and successfully passed a vacuum test and a cold test.

  18. An inertia-type hybrid mount combining a rubber mount and a piezostack actuator for naval shipboard equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Jun Moon


    Full Text Available This paper has been focused on developing a new hybrid mount for shipboard equipment used in naval surface ships and submarines. While the hybrid mount studied in our previous research was 100 kg-class series-type mount, the new hybrid mount has been designed as an inertia-type mount capable of supporting a static of 500 kg. The proposed mount consists of a commercial rubber resilient mount, a piezostack actuator and an inertial mass. The piezostack actuator connected with the inertial mass generates actively the control force. The performances of the proposed mount with a newly designed specific controller have been evaluated in accordance with US military specifications and compared with the passive mount. An isolation system consisting of four proposed mounts and auxiliary devices has been also tested. Through a series of experimental tests, it has been confirmed that the proposed mount provides better performance than the US Navy's standard passive mounts.

  19. Vaginitis test - wet mount (United States)

    Wet prep - vaginitis; Vaginosis - wet mount; Trichomoniasis - wet mount; Vaginal candida - wet mount ... a rash, painful intercourse, or odor after intercourse. Trichomoniasis , a sexually transmitted disease. Vaginal yeast infection .

  20. Vibration-free stirling cryocooler for high definition microscopy (United States)

    Riabzev, S. V.; Veprik, A. M.; Vilenchik, H. S.; Pundak, N.; Castiel, E.


    -axes suppression of the residual wideband vibration, thermo-conductive vibration isolation struts and soft vibration mounts. The attainable performance of the resulting vibration free linear Stirling cryocooler (Ricor model K535-ULV) is evaluated through a full-scale experimentation.

  1. The Shock and Vibration Bulletin. Part 2. Model Test and Analysis, Testing Techniques, Machinery Dynamics, Isolation and Damping, Structural Dynamics (United States)


    jBfr 5? JOR JS T SIONAL/lBRATIONjerF^EAR-RANCHED PROPULSION.gVSTEMS j... 117 / H.F. Tavares, Cepstrum Engenharia Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and V...MODELLING IN FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSES OF TORSIONAL VIBRATION OF GEAR-BRANCHED PROPULSION SYSTEMS H. F. Tavares Cepstrum Engenharia Ltda. S8o Paulo

  2. The Shock and Vibration Bulletin. Part 1. Keynote Address, Invited Papers Damping and Isolation, Fluid-Structure Interaction (United States)


    gLAsTic SUPPORTS 114CLUDING DAMPING ’I FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS.........................................83 A. M. Sharan, T. S. Sankar and S. Stalks ...nuances of a at the Naval Weapons Center in China Lake, California. So, physical world of shock and vibration. So I asked myself while I am not a...l Fig. 4: Schematic diagram for the experimental set-up. Fig. 5a: Pictorial view of the Instrumentation for frequency analysis. = rot = :&C lo Fig. Sb

  3. Influence of Chair Vibrations on Indoor Sonic Boom Annoyance (United States)

    Rathsam, Jonathan; Klos, Jacob; Loubeau, Alexandra


    One goal of NASA’s Commercial Supersonic Technology Project is to identify candidate noise metrics suitable for regulating quiet sonic boom aircraft. A suitable metric must consider the short duration and pronounced low frequency content of sonic booms. For indoor listeners, rattle and creaking sounds and floor and chair vibrations may also be important. The current study examined the effect of such vibrations on the annoyance of test subjects seated indoors. The study involved two chairs exposed to nearly identical acoustic levels: one placed directly on the floor, and the other isolated from floor vibrations by pneumatic elastomeric mounts. All subjects experienced both chairs, sitting in one chair for the first half of the experiment and the other chair for the remaining half. Each half of the experiment consisted of 80 impulsive noises played at the exterior of the sonic boom simulator. When all annoyance ratings were analyzed together there appeared to be no difference in mean annoyance with isolation condition. When the apparent effect of transfer bias was removed, a subtle but measurable effect of vibration on annoyance was identified.

  4. Vibrational investigations of CO2-H2O, CO2-(H2O)2, and (CO2)2-H2O complexes isolated in solid neon. (United States)

    Soulard, P; Tremblay, B


    The van der Waals complex of H2O with CO2 has attracted considerable theoretical interest as a typical example of a weak binding complex with a dissociation energy less than 3 kcal/mol. Up to now, experimental vibrational data are sparse. We have studied by FTIR the complexes involving CO2 and water molecules in solid neon. Many new absorption bands close to the well known monomers fundamentals give evidence for at least three (CO2)n-(H2O)m complexes, noted n:m. Concentration effects combined with a detailed vibrational analysis allow for the identification of sixteen, twelve, and five transitions for the 1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 complexes, respectively. Careful examination of the far infrared spectral region allows the assignment of several 1:1 and 1:2 intermolecular modes, confirmed by the observation of combinations of intra + intermolecular transitions, and anharmonic coupling constants have been derived. Our results demonstrate the high sensibility of the solid neon isolation to investigate the hydrogen-bonded complexes in contrast with the gas phase experiments for which two quanta transitions cannot be easily observed.

  5. The Control of Transmitted Power in an Active Isolation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elliott, S.J.; Gardonio, P.; Pinnington, R.J.


    and distributed active mounts, and these models can be connected together to produce an overall theoretical description of a realistic active isolation system. Total transmitted power has been found to be an excellent criterion to quantify the effect of various control strategies in this model in which...... the contributions to the transmitted power in the various degrees of freedom can be clearly understood. It has also been found, however, that an active control system which minimises a practical estimate of transmitted power, calculated from the product of the axial forces and velocities under the mounts, can give...... of such an active vibration control system are also discussed....

  6. Neonatal head and torso vibration exposure during inter-hospital transfer. (United States)

    Blaxter, Laurence; Yeo, Mildrid; McNally, Donal; Crowe, John; Henry, Caroline; Hill, Sarah; Mansfield, Neil; Leslie, Andrew; Sharkey, Don


    Inter-hospital transport of premature infants is increasingly common, given the centralisation of neonatal intensive care. However, it is known to be associated with anomalously increased morbidity, most notably brain injury, and with increased mortality from multifactorial causes. Surprisingly, there have been relatively few previous studies investigating the levels of mechanical shock and vibration hazard present during this vehicular transport pathway. Using a custom inertial datalogger, and analysis software, we quantify vibration and linear head acceleration. Mounting multiple inertial sensing units on the forehead and torso of neonatal patients and a preterm manikin, and on the chassis of transport incubators over the duration of inter-site transfers, we find that the resonant frequency of the mattress and harness system currently used to secure neonates inside incubators is [Formula: see text]. This couples to vehicle chassis vibration, increasing vibration exposure to the neonate. The vibration exposure per journey (A(8) using the ISO 2631 standard) was at least 20% of the action point value of current European Union regulations over all 12 neonatal transports studied, reaching 70% in two cases. Direct injury risk from linear head acceleration (HIC15) was negligible. Although the overall hazard was similar, vibration isolation differed substantially between sponge and air mattresses, with a manikin. Using a Global Positioning System datalogger alongside inertial sensors, vibration increased with vehicle speed only above 60 km/h. These preliminary findings suggest there is scope to engineer better systems for transferring sick infants, thus potentially improving their outcomes.


    Carlson, Robert R.; Wood, Robert H.


    A mineral survey identified the northeastern part of the Mount Moriah Roadless Area in extreme east-central Nevada as an area of probable potential for the occurrence of small, isolated deposits containing lead and zinc. Many active quarries in a unique high-quality decorative building stone occur in the area and have substantiated mineral-resource potential. Further studies in the roadless area might include detailed mapping of exposed Prospect Mountain Quartzite building stone units and notation of their suitability for quarrying. More detailed geochemical studies in the area of probable base-metal resource potential might include additional stream-sediment sampling and sampling along fault zones.

  8. Identification and Partial Structural Characterization of Mass Isolated Valsartan and Its Metabolite with Messenger Tagging Vibrational Spectroscopy (United States)

    Gorlova, Olga; Colvin, Sean M.; Brathwaite, Antonio; Menges, Fabian S.; Craig, Stephanie M.; Miller, Scott J.; Johnson, Mark A.


    Recent advances in the coupling of vibrational spectroscopy with mass spectrometry create new opportunities for the structural characterization of metabolites with great sensitivity. Previous studies have demonstrated this scheme on 300 K ions using very high power free electron lasers in the fingerprint region of the infrared. Here we extend the scope of this approach to a single investigator scale as well as extend the spectral range to include the OH stretching fundamentals. This is accomplished by detecting the IR absorptions in a linear action regime by photodissociation of weakly bound N2 molecules, which are attached to the target ions in a cryogenically cooled, rf ion trap. We consider the specific case of the widely used drug Valsartan and two isomeric forms of its metabolite. Advantages and challenges of the cold ion approach are discussed, including disentangling the role of conformers and the strategic choices involved in the selection of the charging mechanism that optimize spectral differentiation among candidate structural isomers. In this case, the Na+ complexes are observed to yield sharp resonances in the high frequency NH and OH stretching regions, which can be used to easily differentiate between two isomers of the metabolite. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Vibrational spectra and structures of Ti-N2O and OTi-N2: a combined IR matrix isolation and theoretical study. (United States)

    Marzouk, Asma; Alikhani, M Esmaïl; Madebène, Bruno; Tremblay, Benoît; Perchard, Jean-Pierre


    The reaction of atomic titanium with nitrous oxide has been reinvestigated using matrix isolation in solid neon coupled to infrared spectroscopy and by quantum chemical methods. Our technique of sublimation of Ti atoms from a filament heated at about 1500 °C allowed the formation of three species: one Ti-N(2)O pair of van der Waals (vdW) type characterized by small red shift with respect to N(2)O monomer, and two isomers of OTi-N(2) pair where N(2) is in interaction with the OTi moiety either with end-on or side-on structure. Interconversion between these structures has been performed with several wavelengths. In the visible and near-ultraviolet the conversion vdW → OTi-N(2) (end-on) is observed with characteristic times strongly varying according to the wavelength. In the near-infrared the conversion OTi-N(2) (end-on) → OTi-N(2) (side-on) occurs, the vdW species remaining unchanged. These selectivities allow 8, 6, and 4 vibrational transitions to be assigned for vdW, (3)[OTi(η(1)-NN)] (end-on), and (1)[OTi(η(2)-NN)] (side-on), respectively. Electronic and geometrical structures are also investigated with double-hybrid functionals. It has been shown that the side-on geometry corresponds to the ground state of (1)[OTi(η(2)-NN)] in the singlet electronic state. The theoretical vibrational analysis supports well the experimental attributions.

  10. Photovoltaic mounting/demounting unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a photovoltaic arrangement comprising a photovoltaic assembly comprising a support structure defining a mounting surface onto which a photovoltaic module is detachably mounted; and a mounting/demounting unit comprising at least one mounting/demounting apparatus...... which when the mounting/demounting unit is moved along the mounting surface, causes the photovoltaic module to be mounted or demounted to the support structure; wherein the photovoltaic module comprises a carrier foil and wherein a total thickness of the photo voltaic module is below 500 muiotaeta....... The present invention further relates to an associated method for mounting/demounting photovoltaic modules....

  11. A new mount with moving-magnet type electromagnetic actuator for naval shipboard equipment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yun-Ho Shin; Seok-Jun Moon; Jeong-Il Kwon; Woo-Jin Jung; Jae-Jin Jeon


    This study is proposed a new hybrid mount having a moving-magnet type electromagnetic actuator to reduce the vibration transmitted from naval shipboard equipment to the structure of the ship’s hull...

  12. Application of Finite Element Based Simulation and Modal Testing Methods to Improve Vehicle Powertrain Idle Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polat Sendur


    Full Text Available Current practice of analytical and test methods related to the analysis, testing and improvement of vehicle vibrations is overviewed. The methods are illustrated on the determination and improvement of powertrain induced steering wheel vibration of a heavy commercial truck. More specifically, the transmissibility of powertrain idle vibration to cabin is investigated with respect to powertrain rigid body modes and modal alignment of the steering column/wheel system is considered. It is found out that roll mode of the powertrain is not separated from idle excitation for effective vibration isolation as well as steering wheel column mode is close to the 3rd engine excitation frequency order, which results in high vibration levels. Powertrain roll mode is optimized by tuning the powertrain mount stiffness to improve the performance. Steering column mode is also separated from the 3rd engine excitation frequency by the application of a mass absorber. It is concluded that the use of analytical and test methods to address the complex relation between design parameters and powertrain idle response is effective to optimize the system performance and evaluate the trade-offs in the vehicle design such as vibration performance and weight. Reference Number:

  13. Infrared absorption spectra of matrix-isolated cis, cis-HOONO and its ab initio CCSD(T) anharmonic vibrational bands (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Nimlos, Mark R.; Ellison, G. Barney; Varner, Mychel E.; Stanton, John F.


    The infrared absorption spectra of matrix-isolated cis, cis-peroxynitrous acid (HOONO and DOONO) in argon have been observed. Six of the nine fundamental vibrational modes for cis, cis-HOONO have been assigned definitively, and one tentatively. Coupled-cluster, ab initio anharmonic force field calculations were used to help guide some of the assignments. The experimental matrix frequencies (cm-1) for cis, cis-HOONO are (a'modes)ν1=3303±1,ν2=1600.6±0.6,ν3=1392±1,ν4=922.8±0.5,ν5=789.7±0.4,ν6=617±1; and (a″mode)ν8=462±1. The fundamentals for the deuterated isotopomer, cis, cis-DOONO, are (a'modes)ν1=2447.2±0.6,ν2=1595.7±0.7,ν3=1089.1±0.4,ν4=888.1±0.4,ν5=786.6±0.5,ν6=613.9±0.9; and (a″mode)ν8=456.5±0.5.

  14. Chaotic vortex induced vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, J.; Sheridan, J. [Fluids Laboratory for Aeronautical and Industrial Research (FLAIR), Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Leontini, J. S. [Department of Mechanical and Product Design Engineering, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Lo Jacono, D. [Institut de Mécanique des Fluides de Toulouse (IMFT), CNRS, UPS and Université de Toulouse, 31400 Toulouse (France)


    This study investigates the nature of the dynamic response of an elastically mounted cylinder immersed in a free stream. A novel method is utilized, where the motion of the body during a free vibration experiment is accurately recorded, and then a second experiment is conducted where the cylinder is externally forced to follow this recorded trajectory. Generally, the flow response during both experiments is identical. However, particular regimes exist where the flow response is significantly different. This is taken as evidence of chaos in these regimes.

  15. Diagnosis and control of machine induced noise and vibration in steel construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei Yu; Wang, Wei Hui [National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung (China)


    Most high-rise buildings constructed of steel or steel reinforced concrete have to install various vital equipment. Among these equipment machinery noise is especially annoying for accommodation close to them. In attempting to control the machine-induced structure-borne noise and vibration, the methodology by employing mobility functions to identify the dominant frequency band of vibrational power flow transmission and to assess the isolation effectiveness of isolators is established. The proposed method of diagnosis procedure is applied to the structure-borne vibration power flow transmission for a steel construction parking tower. After proper check and replacement of the isolators of the power unit platform of the mechanical parking tower, the improvement results in a substantial structure-borne noise reduction of 16 dB(NC). The unique parts of the paper include the establishment of the relation of mobility functions with respect to four-pole parameters for a coupled machine/mount/foundation system. Also expressions to represent the vibrational input power, the output power and the transmitted power in relation to mobility functions are clarified

  16. New active machine tool drive mounting on the frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Švéda J.


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the new active mounting of the machine tool drives. The commonly used machine tools are at this time mainly equipped with fix-mounting of the feed drives. This structure causes full transmission of the force shocks to the machine bed and thereby restricts the dynamic properties of the motion axis and the whole machine. The spring-mounting of the feed drives is one of the possibilities how to partially suppress the vibrations. The force that reacts to the machine tool bed is transformed thereby the vibrations are lightly reduced. Unfortunately the transformation is not fully controlled. The new active mounting of the machine tool drives allows to fully control the force behaviour that react to the machine body. Thereby the number of excited frequencies on the machine tool bed is significantly reduced. The active variant of the feed drive mounting is characterized by the synergistic cooperation between two series-connected actuators (“motor on motor”. The paper briefly describes design, control techniques and optimization of the feed drives with the new active mounting conception.

  17. Granular Media-Based Tunable Passive Vibration Suppressor (United States)

    Dillon, Robert P.; Davis, Gregory L.; Shapiro, Andrew A.; Borgonia, John Paul C.; Kahn, Daniel L.; Boechler, Nicholas; Boechler,, Chiara


    isolation (Figure 1). This configuration is referred to as a single-axis vibration suppressor. This invention also includes further designs for the integration of the single-axis vibration suppressor into a six-degree-of-freedom hexapod "Stewart"mounting configuration (Figure 2). By integrating each singleaxis vibration suppressor into a hexapod formation, a payload will be protected in all six degrees of freedom from shock and/or vibration. Additionally, to further enable the application of this device to multiple operational scenarios, particularly in the case of high loads, the vibration suppressor devices can be used in parallel in any array configuration.

  18. Monitoring vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiryaki, B. [Hacettepe University (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering


    The paper examines the prediction and optimisation of machine vibrations in longwall shearers. Underground studies were carried out at the Middle Anatolian Lignite Mine, between 1993 and 1997. Several shearer drums with different pick lacing arrangements were designed and tested on double-ended ranging longwall shearers employed at the mine. A computer program called the Vibration Analysis Program (VAP) was developed for analysing machine vibrations in longwall shearers. Shearer drums that were tested underground, as well as some provided by leading manufacturers, were analyzed using these programs. The results of the experiments and computer analyses are given in the article. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  19. Rebuilding Mount St. Helens (United States)

    Schilling, Steve P.; Ramsey, David W.; Messerich, James A.; Thompson, Ren A.


    On May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens, Washington exploded in a spectacular and devastating eruption that shocked the world. The eruption, one of the most powerful in the history of the United States, removed 2.7 cubic kilometers of rock from the volcano's edifice, the bulk of which had been constructed by nearly 4,000 years of lava-dome-building eruptions. In seconds, the mountain's summit elevation was lowered from 2,950 meters to 2,549 meters, leaving a north-facing, horseshoe-shaped crater over 2 kilometers wide. Following the 1980 eruption, Mount St. Helens remained active. A large lava dome began episodically extruding in the center of the volcano's empty crater. This dome-building eruption lasted until 1986 and added about 80 million cubic meters of rock to the volcano. During the two decades following the May 18, 1980 eruption, Crater Glacier formed tongues of ice around the east and west sides of the lava dome in the deeply shaded niche between the lava dome and the south crater wall. Long the most active volcano in the Cascade Range with a complex 300,000-year history, Mount St. Helens erupted again in the fall of 2004 as a new period of dome building began within the 1980 crater. Between October 2004 and February 2006, about 80 million cubic meters of dacite lava erupted immediately south of the 1980-86 lava dome. The erupting lava separated the glacier into two parts, first squeezing the east arm of the glacier against the east crater wall and then causing equally spectacular crevassing and broad uplift of the glacier's west arm. Vertical aerial photographs document dome growth and glacier deformation. These photographs enabled photogrammetric construction of a series of high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) showing changes from October 4, 2004 to February 9, 2006. From the DEMs, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications were used to estimate extruded volumes and growth rates of the new lava dome. The DEMs were also used to quantify dome

  20. Vibrational Diver (United States)

    Kozlov, Victor; Ivanova, Alevtina; Schipitsyn, Vitalii; Stambouli, Moncef


    The paper is concerned with dynamics of light solid in cavity with liquid subjected to rotational vibration in the external force field. New vibrational phenomenon - diving of a light cylinder to the cavity bottom is found. The experimental investigation of a horizontal annulus with a partition has shown that under vibration a light body situated in the upper part of the layer is displaced in a threshold manner some distance away from the boundary. In this case the body executes symmetric tangential oscillations. An increase of the vibration intensity leads to a tangential displacement of the body near the external boundary. This displacement is caused by the tangential component of the vibrational lift force, which appears as soon as the oscillations lose symmetry. In this case the trajectory of the body oscillatory motion has the form of a loop. The tangential lift force makes stable the position of the body on the inclined section of the layer and even in its lower part. A theoretical interpretation has been proposed, which explains stabilization of a quasi-equilibrium state of a light body near the cavity bottom in the framework of vibrational hydromechanics.

  1. Effects of internal mass distribution and its isolation on the acoustic characteristics of a submerged hull (United States)

    Peters, Herwig; Kinns, Roger; Kessissoglou, Nicole


    The primary aim of machinery isolation in marine vessels is to isolate structural vibration of the onboard machinery from the hull and to reduce far-field radiation of underwater noise. A substantial proportion of the total submarine mass is on flexible mounts that isolate supported masses from the hull at frequencies above the mounting system resonant frequency. This reduces the dynamically effective mass of the hull and affects the signature of the marine vessel due to propeller excitation. A fully coupled finite element/boundary element (FE/BE) model has been developed to investigate the effect of mass distribution and isolation in a submerged hull. The finite element model of the structure includes internal structures to represent the machinery and other flexibly mounted components. Changes in the radiated sound power demonstrate the effect of machinery isolation on the acoustic signature of the submerged hull due to the external propeller forces. Results are also presented to show how the arrangement of flexible mounts for a large internal structure can influence the radiation due to machinery forces.

  2. Clamp-mount device (United States)

    Clark, K. H. (Inventor)


    A clamp-mount device is disclosed for mounting equipment to an associated I-beam and the like structural member of the type having oppositely extending flanges wherein the device comprises a base and a pair of oppositely facing clamping members carried diagonally on the base clamping flanges therebetween and having flange receiving openings facing one another. Lock means are carried diagonally by the base opposite the clamping members locking the flanges in the clamping members. A resilient hub is carried centrally of the base engaging and biasing a back side of the flanges maintaining tightly clamped and facilitating use on vertical as well as horizontal members. The base turns about the hub to receive the flanges within the clamping members. Equipment may be secured to the base by any suitable means such as bolts in openings. Slidable gate latches secure the hinged locks in an upright locking position. The resilient hub includes a recess opening formed in the base and a rubber-like pad carried in this opening being depressably and rotatably carried therein.

  3. An Analysis of Eye Movements with Helmet Mounted Displays (United States)


    Kalich, M., Lang, G., King , R., and Noback, R., 2009, “Perceptual and Cognitive Effects Due to Operational Factors”, appears in Helmet-Mounted...Robert Wildsunas, J. Lynn Caldwell, Melvyn Kalich, Gregory Lang, Ronal King , and Robert Noback. “Perceptual and Cognitive Effects Due to Operational...2005. Smith, Suzanne D. (2005) Super Cobra (AH-1Z) Human Vibration Evaluation. AFRL-HE-WP- TR-2005-0114, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright

  4. GNSS Signal Tracking Performance Improvement for Highly Dynamic Receivers by Gyroscopic Mounting Crystal Oscillator. (United States)

    Abedi, Maryam; Jin, Tian; Sun, Kewen


    In this paper, the efficiency of the gyroscopic mounting method is studied for a highly dynamic GNSS receiver's reference oscillator for reducing signal loss. Analyses are performed separately in two phases, atmospheric and upper atmospheric flights. Results show that the proposed mounting reduces signal loss, especially in parts of the trajectory where its probability is the highest. This reduction effect appears especially for crystal oscillators with a low elevation angle g-sensitivity vector. The gyroscopic mounting influences frequency deviation or jitter caused by dynamic loads on replica carrier and affects the frequency locked loop (FLL) as the dominant tracking loop in highly dynamic GNSS receivers. In terms of steady-state load, the proposed mounting mostly reduces the frequency deviation below the one-sigma threshold of FLL (1σ(FLL)). The mounting method can also reduce the frequency jitter caused by sinusoidal vibrations and reduces the probability of signal loss in parts of the trajectory where the other error sources accompany this vibration load. In the case of random vibration, which is the main disturbance source of FLL, gyroscopic mounting is even able to suppress the disturbances greater than the three-sigma threshold of FLL (3σ(FLL)). In this way, signal tracking performance can be improved by the gyroscopic mounting method for highly dynamic GNSS receivers.

  5. GNSS Signal Tracking Performance Improvement for Highly Dynamic Receivers by Gyroscopic Mounting Crystal Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Abedi


    Full Text Available In this paper, the efficiency of the gyroscopic mounting method is studied for a highly dynamic GNSS receiver’s reference oscillator for reducing signal loss. Analyses are performed separately in two phases, atmospheric and upper atmospheric flights. Results show that the proposed mounting reduces signal loss, especially in parts of the trajectory where its probability is the highest. This reduction effect appears especially for crystal oscillators with a low elevation angle g-sensitivity vector. The gyroscopic mounting influences frequency deviation or jitter caused by dynamic loads on replica carrier and affects the frequency locked loop (FLL as the dominant tracking loop in highly dynamic GNSS receivers. In terms of steady-state load, the proposed mounting mostly reduces the frequency deviation below the one-sigma threshold of FLL (1σFLL. The mounting method can also reduce the frequency jitter caused by sinusoidal vibrations and reduces the probability of signal loss in parts of the trajectory where the other error sources accompany this vibration load. In the case of random vibration, which is the main disturbance source of FLL, gyroscopic mounting is even able to suppress the disturbances greater than the three-sigma threshold of FLL (3σFLL. In this way, signal tracking performance can be improved by the gyroscopic mounting method for highly dynamic GNSS receivers.

  6. Helmet-Mounted Displays (HMD) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Helmet-Mounted Display labis responsible for monocular HMD day display evaluations; monocular HMD night vision performance processes; binocular HMD day display...

  7. A new mount with moving-magnet type electromagnetic actuator for naval shipboard equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Ho Shin


    Full Text Available This study is proposed a new hybrid mount having a moving-magnet type electromagnetic actuator to reduce the vibration transmitted from naval shipboard equipment to the structure of the ship 's hull. Optimal design specifications are determined through experimental analysis. The detailed design of the hybrid mount is determined through several design steps with electromagnetic numerical analysis using Maxwell Software(S/W. The hybrid mount that combines a rubber mount and an electromagnetic actuator has a fail-safe function for shock resistance. The mount is fabricated and tested using a universal testing machine to evaluate the design specifications. Finally, numerical simulation of the hybrid mount is performed to confirm control performance and applicability.

  8. Vibrating minds

    CERN Document Server


    Ed Witten is one of the leading scientists in the field of string theory, the theory that describes elementary particles as vibrating strings. This week he leaves CERN after having spent a few months here on sabbatical. His wish is that the LHC will unveil supersymmetry.

  9. Evaluation of the structural, electronic, topological and vibrational properties of N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-hexadecanamide isolated from Maca (Lepidium meyenii) using different spectroscopic techniques (United States)

    Chain, Fernando; Iramain, Maximiliano Alberto; Grau, Alfredo; Catalán, César A. N.; Brandán, Silvia Antonia


    N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-hexadecanamide (DMH) was characterized by using Fourier Transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman (FT-Raman), Ultraviolet- Visible (UV-Visible) and Hydrogen and Carbon Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H and 13C NMR) spectroscopies. The structural, electronic, topological and vibrational properties were evaluated in gas phase and in n-hexane employing ONIOM and self-consistent force field (SCRF) calculations. The atomic charges, molecular electrostatic potentials, stabilization energies and topological properties of DMH were analyzed and compared with those calculated for N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-acetamide (DMA) in order to evaluate the effect of the side chain on the properties of DMH. The reactivity and behavior of this alkamide were predicted by using the gap energies and some descriptors. Force fields and the corresponding force constants were reported for DMA only in gas phase and n-hexane due to the high number of vibration normal modes showed by DMH, while the complete vibrational assignments are presented for DMA and both forms of DMH. The comparisons between the experimental FTIR, FT-Raman, UV-Visible and 1H and 13C NMR spectra with the corresponding theoretical ones showed a reasonable concordance.

  10. Damage monitoring and impact detection using optical fiber vibration sensors (United States)

    Yang, Y. C.; Han, K. S.


    Intensity-based optical fiber vibrations sensors (OFVSs) are used in damage monitoring of fiber-reinforced plastics, in vibration sensing, and location of impacts. OFVSs were constructed by placing two cleaved fiber ends in a capillary tube. This sensor is able to monitor structural vibrations. For vibration sensing, the optical fiber sensor was mounted on the carbon fiber reinforced composite beam, and its response was investigated for free and forced vibration. For locating impact points, four OFVSs were placed at chosen positions and the different arrival times of impact-generated vibration signals were recorded. The impact location can be determined from these time delays. Indentation and tensile tests were performed with the measurement of the optical signal and acoustic emission (AE). The OFVSs accurately detected both free and forced vibration signals. Accurate locations of impact were determined on an acrylate plate. It was found that damage information, comparable in quality to AE data, could be obtained from the OFVS signals.

  11. Tunable Mechanical Filter for Longitudinal Vibrations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Asiri, S


    This paper presents both theoretically and experimentally a new kind of vibration isolator called tunable mechanical filter which consists of four parallel hybrid periodic rods connected between two plates...

  12. SXI prototype mirror mount (United States)


    The purpose of this contract was to provide optomechanical engineering and fabrication support to the Solar X-ray Imager (SXI) program in the areas of mirror, optical bench and camera assemblies of the telescope. The Center for Applied Optics (CAO) worked closely with the Optics and S&E technical staff of MSFC to develop and investigate the most viable and economical options for the design and fabrication of a number of parts for the various telescope assemblies. All the tasks under this delivery order have been successfully completed within budget and schedule. A number of development hardware parts have been designed and fabricated jointly by MSFC and UAH for the engineering model of SXI. The major parts include a nickel electroformed mirror and a mirror mount, plating and coating of the ceramic spacers, and gold plating of the contact rings and fingers for the camera assembly. An aluminum model of the high accuracy sun sensor (HASS) was also designed and fabricated. A number of fiber optic tapers for the camera assembly were also coated with indium tin oxide and phosphor for testing and evaluation by MSFC. A large number of the SXI optical bench parts were also redesigned and simplified for a prototype telescope. These parts include the forward and rear support flanges, front aperture plate, the graphite epoxy optical bench and a test fixture for the prototype telescope. More than fifty (50) drawings were generated for various components of the prototype telescope. Some of these parts were subsequently fabricated at UAH machine shop or at MSFC or by the outside contractors. UAH also provide technical support to MSFC staff for a number of preliminary and critical design reviews. These design reviews included PDR and CDR for the mirror assembly by United Technologies Optical Systems (UTOS), and the program quarterly reviews, and SXI PDR and CDR. UAH staff also regularly attended the monthly status reviews, and made a significant number of suggestions to improve

  13. SXI prototype mirror mount (United States)


    The purpose of this contract was to provide optomechanical engineering and fabrication support to the Solar X-ray Imager (SXI) program in the areas of mirror, optical bench and camera assemblies of the telescope. The Center for Applied Optics (CAO) worked closely with the Optics and S&E technical staff of MSFC to develop and investigate the most viable and economical options for the design and fabrication of a number of parts for the various telescope assemblies. All the tasks under this delivery order have been successfully completed within budget and schedule. A number of development hardware parts have been designed and fabricated jointly by MSFC and UAH for the engineering model of SXI. The major parts include a nickel electroformed mirror and a mirror mount, plating and coating of the ceramic spacers, and gold plating of the contact rings and fingers for the camera assembly. An aluminum model of the high accuracy sun sensor (HASS) was also designed and fabricated. A number of fiber optic tapers for the camera assembly were also coated with indium tin oxide and phosphor for testing and evaluation by MSFC. A large number of the SXI optical bench parts were also redesigned and simplified for a prototype telescope. These parts include the forward and rear support flanges, front aperture plate, the graphite epoxy optical bench and a test fixture for the prototype telescope. More than fifty (50) drawings were generated for various components of the prototype telescope. Some of these parts were subsequently fabricated at UAH machine shop or at MSFC or by the outside contractors. UAH also provide technical support to MSFC staff for a number of preliminary and critical design reviews. These design reviews included PDR and CDR for the mirror assembly by United Technologies Optical Systems (UTOS), and the program quarterly reviews, and SXI PDR and CDR. UAH staff also regularly attended the monthly status reviews, and made a significant number of suggestions to improve

  14. Solar panel parallel mounting configuration (United States)

    Mutschler, Jr., Edward Charles (Inventor)


    A spacecraft includes a plurality of solar panels interconnected with a power coupler and an electrically operated device to provide power to the device when the solar cells are insolated. The solar panels are subject to bending distortion when entering or leaving eclipse. Spacecraft attitude disturbances are reduced by mounting each of the solar panels to an elongated boom made from a material with a low coefficient of thermal expansion, so that the bending of one panel is not communicated to the next. The boom may be insulated to reduce its bending during changes in insolation. A particularly advantageous embodiment mounts each panel to the boom with a single mounting, which may be a hinge. The single mounting prevents transfer of bending moments from the panel to the boom.

  15. Fast Picometer Mirror Mount Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a 6DOF controllable mirror mount with high dynamic range and fast tip/tilt capability for space based applications. It will enable the...

  16. Mounting clips for panel installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavieres, Andres; Al-Haddad, Tristan; Goodman, Joseph


    A photovoltaic panel mounting clip comprising a base, central indexing tabs, flanges, lateral indexing tabs, and vertical indexing tabs. The mounting clip removably attaches one or more panels to a beam or the like structure, both mechanically and electrically. It provides secure locking of the panels in all directions, while providing guidance in all directions for accurate installation of the panels to the beam or the like structure.

  17. The head-mounted microscope. (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Dailey, Seth H; Naze, Sawyer A; Jiang, Jack J


    Microsurgical equipment has greatly advanced since the inception of the microscope into the operating room. These advancements have allowed for superior surgical precision and better post-operative results. This study focuses on the use of the Leica HM500 head-mounted microscope for the operating phonosurgeon. The head-mounted microscope has an optical zoom from 2× to 9× and provides a working distance from 300 mm to 700 mm. The headpiece, with its articulated eyepieces, adjusts easily to head shape and circumference, and offers a focus function, which is either automatic or manually controlled. We performed five microlaryngoscopic operations utilizing the head-mounted microscope with successful results. By creating a more ergonomically favorable operating posture, a surgeon may be able to obtain greater precision and success in phonomicrosurgery. Phonomicrosurgery requires the precise manipulation of long-handled cantilevered instruments through the narrow bore of a laryngoscope. The head-mounted microscope shortens the working distance compared with a stand microscope, thereby increasing arm stability, which may improve surgical precision. Also, the head-mounted design permits flexibility in head position, enabling operator comfort, and delaying musculoskeletal fatigue. A head-mounted microscope decreases the working distance and provides better ergonomics in laryngoscopic microsurgery. These advances provide the potential to promote precision in phonomicrosurgery. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Urban vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Ann; Knudsen, L.; Andersen, Hans Jørgen


      lab   studies   in   that   we   found   a   decreased   detection   rate   in   busy   environments.   Here   we   test   with   a   much   larger   sample   and   age   range,   and   contribute   with   the   first   vibration  sensitivity  testing  outside  the  lab  in  an  urban   public...

  19. Design and test of aircraft engine isolators for reduced interior noise (United States)

    Unruh, J. F.; Scheidt, D. C.


    Improved engine vibration isolation was proposed to be the most weight and cost efficient retrofit structure-borne noise control measure for single engine general aviation aircraft. A study was carried out the objectives: (1) to develop an engine isolator design specification for reduced interior noise transmission, (2) select/design candidate isolators to meet a 15 dB noise reduction design goal, and (3) carry out a proof of concept evaluation test. Analytical model of the engine, vibration isolators and engine mount structure were coupled to an empirical model of the fuselage for noise transmission evaluation. The model was used to develop engine isolator dynamic properties design specification for reduced noise transmission. Candidate isolators ere chosen from available product literature and retrofit to a test aircraft. A laboratory based test procedure was then developed to simulate engine induced noise transmission in the aircraft for a proof of concept evaluation test. Three candidate isolator configurations were evaluated for reduced structure-borne noise transmission relative to the original equipment isolators.

  20. Ergonomic Evaluation of Vibrations of a Rototiller with New Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Gholami


    represents a significant contribution of the combustion engine in vibration of the examined rototiller. Meanwhile, contribution of the engine in the total measured vibration was more than 50% at different rotational speeds and different directions. The minimum engine contribution was measured equal to 56.39% in z-direction at 155 rpm, whereas the maximum engine contribution was observed equal to 79.5%, in x-direction and rotational speed of 215 rpm. These results indicate the importance of selecting a proper combustion engine for reducing the rototiller vibration. It should be noted that the contribution of the engine in total vibration reached its minimum value at the speed related to the maximum generated torque, i.e., 185 rpm of the rotor speed. This result indicates that using the combustion engine in its optimum speed reduces the entire device vibration in the vertical direction. By increasing the rotational speed of the blades in the y-direction, engine contribution in device vibration showed different trends in compare to the other directions. The most value was equal to 74.25% which was obtained at the rotation speed of 185 rpm. By increasing blade rotational speed from 155 rpm to 215 rpm, the engine contribution in device vibration in the z direction and the total acceleration steadily increased. Conclusions With growing mechanization and entering various types of machines to the farm, importance of considerations to human health is also increased, especially in working with rotational machines. Therefore, the current study was undertaken with the specific attention to the rototillers operational vibration at the handle/hand interface. Results of the conducted experiments showed that vibration of the examined rototiller depends more on the operation of the mounted combustion engine, rather than the soil working blades. Therefore, it is suggested to select a higher quality engine with less vibration or isolate the engine from chassis by a damper (such as a compressed

  1. Vibration-based SHM System: Application to Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tcherniak, D.; Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti


    This study presents an vibration-based system designed for structural health monitoring of wind turbine blades. Mechanical energy is introduced by means of an electromechanical actuator mounted inside the blade. The actuator's plunger periodically hits the blade structure; the induced vibrations...... signal-to-noise ratio. Simultaneously, the frequencies are low enough to be able to propagate the entire blade length, so good results can be obtained even using only one actuator. The system is demonstrated on a real 34m blade mounted on a test rig. Using the suggested approach, the system enables...

  2. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods (United States)

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel


    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  3. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods (United States)

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel


    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  4. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel


    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  5. High performance heat sink for surface mount applications (United States)

    McKeown, Stephen A.; Levasseur, Robert D.

    Surface-mounted electronic module configurations are sensitive to thermal cycling because the reduced compliance between the component and module increases the thermally induced strain in the solder joint. Providing a thermal match between the component and the module reduces this strain, reduces low-cycle fatigue damage, and increases solder joint life. One way of achieving this thermal match is through the use of a thermally matched heat sink. In addition to having the required coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), heat sinks for surface-mount avionic configurations require low weight and high thermal conductivity. A heat sink has been developed that has thermal conductivity close to aluminum, a CTE close to ceramic, and a weight density only 8 percent higher than aluminum. The flexural modulus of this heat sink is 40 percent higher than aluminum, which results in improved vibration performance.

  6. Adjustable bipod flexures for mounting mirrors in a space telescope. (United States)

    Kihm, Hagyong; Yang, Ho-Soon; Moon, Il Kweon; Yeon, Jeong-Heum; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Yun-Woo


    A new mirror mounting technique applicable to the primary mirror in a space telescope is presented. This mounting technique replaces conventional bipod flexures with flexures having mechanical shims so that adjustments can be made to counter the effects of gravitational distortion of the mirror surface while being tested in the horizontal position. Astigmatic aberration due to the gravitational changes is effectively reduced by adjusting the shim thickness, and the relation between the astigmatism and the shim thickness is investigated. We tested the mirror interferometrically at the center of curvature using a null lens. Then we repeated the test after rotating the mirror about its optical axis by 180° in the horizontal setup, and searched for the minimum system error. With the proposed flexure mount, the gravitational stress at the adhesive coupling between the mirror and the mount is reduced by half that of a conventional bipod flexure for better mechanical safety under launch loads. Analytical results using finite element methods are compared with experimental results from the optical interferometer. Vibration tests verified the mechanical safety and optical stability, and qualified their use in space applications.

  7. Mounting clips for panel installation (United States)

    Cavieres, Andres; Al-Haddad, Tristan; Goodman, Joseph; Valdes, Francisco


    An exemplary mounting clip for removably attaching panels to a supporting structure comprises a base, spring locking clips, a lateral flange, a lever flange, and a spring bonding pad. The spring locking clips extend upwardly from the base. The lateral flange extends upwardly from a first side of the base. The lateral flange comprises a slot having an opening configured to receive at least a portion of one of the one or more panels. The lever flange extends outwardly from the lateral flange. The spring bonding flange extends downwardly from the lever flange. At least a portion of the first spring bonding flange comprises a serrated edge for gouging at least a portion of the one or more panels when the one or more panels are attached to the mounting clip to electrically and mechanically couple the one or more panels to the mounting clip.

  8. Energetics, structures, vibrational frequencies, vibrational absorption, vibrational circular dichroism and Raman intensities of Leu-enkephalin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalkanen, Karl J.


    Here we present several low energy conformers of Leu-enkephalin (LeuE) calculated with the density functional theory using the Becke 3LYP hybrid functional and the 6-31G* basis set. The structures, conformational energies, vibrational frequencies, vibrational absorption (VA) intensities......, vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) intensities and Raman scattering intensities are reported for the conformers of LeuE which are expected to be populated at room temperature. The species of LeuE-present in non-polar solvents is the neutral non-ionic species with the NH2 and CO2H groups, in contrast...... to the zwitterionic neutral species with the NH3+ and CO2- groups which predominates in aqueous solution and in the crystal. All of our attempts to find the zwitterionic species in the isolated state failed, with the result that a hydrogen atom from the positively charged N-terminus ammonium group transferred either...

  9. Do Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) nymphs use vibrational communication? (United States)

    Chuche, Julien; Thiéry, Denis; Mazzoni, Valerio


    Small Auchenorrhyncha use substrate-borne vibrations to communicate. Although this behaviour is well known in adult leafhoppers, so far no studies have been published on nymphs. Here we checked the occurrence of vibrational communication in Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) nymphs as a possible explanation of their aggregative distributions on host plants. We studied possible vibratory emissions of isolated and grouped nymphs, as well as their behavioural responses to vibration stimuli that simulated presence of conspecifics, to disturbance noise, white noise and predator spiders. None of our synthetic stimuli or pre-recorded substrate vibrations from nymphs elicited specific vibration responses and only those due to grooming or mechanical contacts of the insect with the leaf were recorded. Thus, S. titanus nymphs showed to not use species-specific vibrations neither for intra- nor interspecific communication and also did not produce alarm vibrations when facing potential predators. We conclude that their aggregative behaviour is independent from a vibrational communication.

  10. Microgravity isolation system design: A modern control analysis framework (United States)

    Hampton, R. D.; Knospe, C. R.; Allaire, P. E.; Grodsinsky, C. M.


    Many acceleration-sensitive, microgravity science experiments will require active vibration isolation from the manned orbiters on which they will be mounted. The isolation problem, especially in the case of a tethered payload, is a complex three-dimensional one that is best suited to modern-control design methods. These methods, although more powerful than their classical counterparts, can nonetheless go only so far in meeting the design requirements for practical systems. Once a tentative controller design is available, it must still be evaluated to determine whether or not it is fully acceptable, and to compare it with other possible design candidates. Realistically, such evaluation will be an inherent part of a necessary iterative design process. In this paper, an approach is presented for applying complex mu-analysis methods to a closed-loop vibration isolation system (experiment plus controller). An analysis framework is presented for evaluating nominal stability, nominal performance, robust stability, and robust performance of active microgravity isolation systems, with emphasis on the effective use of mu-analysis methods.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belhadef RACHID


    Full Text Available Spectral analysis is the key tool for the study of vibration signals in rotating machinery. In this work, the vibration analy-sis applied for conditional preventive maintenance of such machines is proposed, as part of resolved problems related to vibration detection on the organs of these machines. The vibration signal of a centrifugal pump was treated to mount the benefits of the approach proposed. The obtained results present the signal estimation of a pump vibration using Fourier transform technique compared by the spectral analysis methods based on Prony approach.

  12. Control of Wall Mounting Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer; Pedersen, Rasmus


    This paper presents a method for designing controllers for trajectory tracking with actuator constraints. In particular, we consider a joystick-controlled wall mounting robot called WallMo. In contrast to previous works, a model-free approach is taken to the control problem, where the path...

  13. Mount Rainier active cascade volcano (United States)


    Mount Rainier is one of about two dozen active or recently active volcanoes in the Cascade Range, an arc of volcanoes in the northwestern United States and Canada. The volcano is located about 35 kilometers southeast of the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area, which has a population of more than 2.5 million. This metropolitan area is the high technology industrial center of the Pacific Northwest and one of the commercial aircraft manufacturing centers of the United States. The rivers draining the volcano empty into Puget Sound, which has two major shipping ports, and into the Columbia River, a major shipping lane and home to approximately a million people in southwestern Washington and northwestern Oregon. Mount Rainier is an active volcano. It last erupted approximately 150 years ago, and numerous large floods and debris flows have been generated on its slopes during this century. More than 100,000 people live on the extensive mudflow deposits that have filled the rivers and valleys draining the volcano during the past 10,000 years. A major volcanic eruption or debris flow could kill thousands of residents and cripple the economy of the Pacific Northwest. Despite the potential for such danger, Mount Rainier has received little study. Most of the geologic work on Mount Rainier was done more than two decades ago. Fundamental topics such as the development, history, and stability of the volcano are poorly understood.

  14. Mounting power cables on SOLEIL

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud


    The power couplers are mounted on the SOLEIL cryomodule in a clean room. The cryomodule will allow superconducting technology to be used at SOLEIL, the French national synchrotron facility. This work is carried out as part of a collaboration between CERN and CEA Saclay, the French National Atomic Energy Commission.

  15. Reducing Transmitted Vibration Using Delayed Hysteretic Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahcen Mokni


    Full Text Available Previous numerical and experimental works show that time delay technique is efficient to reduce transmissibility of vibration in a single pneumatic chamber by controlling the pressure in the chamber. The present work develops an analytical study to demonstrate the effectiveness of such a technique in reducing transmitted vibrations. A quarter-car model is considered and delayed hysteretic suspension is introduced in the system. Analytical predictions based on perturbation analysis show that a delayed hysteretic suspension enhances vibration isolation comparing to the case where the nonlinear damping is delay-independent.

  16. Interaction dynamics of gap flow with vortex-induced vibration in side-by-side cylinder arrangement (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Jaiman, Rajeev K.


    A numerical investigation of the vortex-induced vibration (VIV) in a side-by-side circular cylinder arrangement has been performed in a two-dimensional laminar flow environment. One of the cylinders is elastically mounted and only vibrates in the transverse direction, while its counterpart remains stationary in a uniform flow stream. When the gap ratio is sufficiently small, the flip-flopping phenomenon of the gap flow can be an additional time-dependent interference to the flow field. This phenomenon was reported in the experimental work of Bearman and Wadcock ["The interaction between a pair of circular cylinders normal to a stream," J. Fluid Mech. 61(3), 499-511 (1973)] in a side-by-side circular cylinder arrangement, in which the gap flow deflects toward one of the cylinders and switched its sides intermittently. Albeit one of the two cylinders is free to vibrate, the flip-flop of a gap flow during VIV dynamics can still be observed outside the lock-in region. The exact moments of the flip-flop phenomenon due to spontaneous symmetry breaking are observed in this numerical study. The significant characteristic vortex modes in the near-wake region are extracted via dynamic modal analysis and the interference between the gap flow and VIV is found to be mutual. In a vibrating side-by-side arrangement, the lock-in region with respect to reduced velocity becomes narrower due to the interference from its stationary counterpart. The frequency lock-in occurs and ends earlier than that of an isolated vibrating circular cylinder subjected to an identical flow environment. Similar to a tandem cylinder arrangement, in the post-lock-in region, the maximum vibration amplitudes are escalated compared with those of an isolated circular cylinder configuration. On the other hand, subjected to the influence from VIV, the biased gap flow deflects toward the vibrating cylinder quasi-stably during the frequency lock-in process. This behavior is different from the reported bi

  17. Attenuation of cryocooler induced vibration in spaceborne infrared payloads (United States)

    Veprik, A.; Twitto, A.


    Recent advancement of operational responsive space programs calls for a development of compact, reliable, low power and vibration free cryogenic cooling for sophisticated infrared payloads. The refrigeration in a typical closed cycle split Stirling linear cryocooler is achieved by a cyclic compression and expansion of a gaseous working agent due to a synchronized reciprocation of electro-dynamically and pneumatically actuated compressor and expander pistons. Attenuation of the cryocooler induced vibration usually relies on the concept of actively assisted momentum cancellation. In a typical dual-piston compressor this objective is achieved by actively synchronizing the motion of oppositely moving piston assemblies; a typical single-piston expander may be counterbalanced by a motorized counter-balancer. The above approach produces complexity, weight, size, high incurred costs and affects reliability. The authors analyze the case of passive attenuation the vibration export induced by the split Stirling linear cryocooler comprised of inline mounted single-piston compressor and expander. Placement of all the moving components onto a common axis results in a single axis consolidation of vibration export and enables use of single tuned dynamic absorber and low frequency vibration mount. From theoretical analysis and full-scale testing, the performance of such vibration protection arrangement is similar to known systems of active vibration cancellation.

  18. Vibration Control via Stiffness Switching of Magnetostrictive Transducers (United States)

    Scheidler, Justin J.; Asnani, Vivake M.; Dapino, Marcelo J.


    This paper presents a computational study of structural vibration control that is realized by switching a magnetostrictive transducer between high and low stiffness states. Switching is accomplished by either changing the applied magnetic field with a voltage excitation or changing the shunt impedance on the transducer's coil (i.e., the magnetostrictive material's magnetic boundary condition). Switched-stiffness vibration control is simulated using a lumped mass supported by a damper and the magnetostrictive transducer (mount), which is represented by a nonlinear, electromechanical model. Free vibration of the mass is calculated while varying the mount's stiffness according to a reference switched-stiffness vibration control law. The results reveal that switching the magnetic field produces the desired change in stiffness, but also an undesired actuation force that can significantly degrade the vibration control. Hence, a modified switched-stiffness control law that accounts for the actuation force is proposed and implemented for voltage-controlled stiffness switching. The influence of the magnetomechanical bias condition is also discussed. Voltage-controlled stiffness switching is found to introduce damping equivalent to a viscous damping factor up to about 0.25; this is shown to primarily result from active vibration reduction caused by the actuation force. The merit of magnetostrictive switched-stiffness vibration control is then quantified by comparing the results of voltage- and shunt-controlled stiffness switching to the performance of optimal magnetostrictive shunt damping.

  19. Analysis of a Lorentz force based vibration exciter using permanent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This work presents performance analysis of a Lorentz force based noncontact vibration exciter by mounting a couple of permanent magnets on a piezoelectric stack. A conductor is attached to the structure to be excited and is placed midway between unlike poles of a couple of permanent magnets. The permanent magnets ...

  20. Post-stressed concrete foundation may reduce machinery vibration (United States)

    Fistedis, S. H.


    Post-stressing concrete mat foundation reduces excessive vibrations in machinery. The mat is stressed in compression after the machinery is mounted, thus closing any cracks in it, altering the distribution of the soil subgrade reaction on the mat, and changing the mat-subgrade natural frequency.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Aydın


    Full Text Available Vibration damping and sound insulation are essential for all vehicles. Because moving parts and external factors such as wind, tracks, etc. can cause vibration and noise. Wave which is a dynamic force, drive system and HVAC systems are the main vibration and noise generators in a vessel. These all can affect comfort level on board yachts. Different types of isolators and absorbers such as sylomer®, cork panels, etc. are used to reduce these effects. Comfort level on board yachts can be increased using these types of materials. Otherwise, discomfort of passenger and crew may increase. These materials not only reduce structure-borne and air-borne noise and vibrations from waves, air, engines, pumps, generators and HVAC systems but also protect vibration sensitive interior or fittings. Noise and vibration evaluation is an important issue for this reason. And, measurement tools must be used not only to minimize this problem but also fulfill the regulations such as “comfort class”. Besides, providing quiet and low vibration increases the costs too. From this point of view, this study aims to explain clearly how noise and vibration damping can be done in a yacht.

  2. A concept of active mount for space applications (United States)

    Souleille, A.; Lampert, T.; Lafarga, V.; Hellegouarch, S.; Rondineau, A.; Rodrigues, G.; Collette, C.


    Sensitive payloads mounted on top of launchers are subjected to many sources of disturbances during the flight. The most severe dynamic loads arise from the ignition of the motors, gusts, pressure fluctuations in the booster and from the separation of the boosters. The transmission of these dynamic forces can be reduced by mounting payloads on passive isolators, which comes at the expense of harmful amplifications of the motion at low frequency due to suspension resonances. To bypass this shortcoming, this paper presents a novel concept of active mount for aerospace payloads, which is easy to install, and meets two objectives. The first one is a high damping authority on both suspension resonances and flexible resonances without compromising the isolation and large stability margins of the closed loop system due to the collocation of the actuator and the sensor. The second one is a broadband reduction of the dynamic force transmitted to the payload, which was achieved in terms of 16 dB. The concept is presented in the first part of the paper and studied numerically and experimentally on a single degree of freedom isolator. A commercial isolator has been chosen for the purpose of the demonstration. The second part of the paper is dedicated to experimental validations on multi-degree of freedom scaled test benches. It is shown that the force feedback allows damping of both suspension and flexible modes (first and second modes, respectively), and significantly reducing the force transmitted in some broad frequency ranges.

  3. Tension pneumocephalus: Mount Fuji sign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulastya Sanyal


    Full Text Available A 13-year-old male was operated for a space occupying lesion in the brain. A noncontrast computed tomography scan done in the late postoperative period showed massive subdural air collection causing compression of bilateral frontal lobes with widening of interhemispheric fissure and the frontal lobes acquiring a peak like configuration - causing tension pneumocephalus-"Mount Fuji sign." Tension pneumocephalus occurs when air enters the extradural or intradural spaces in sufficient volume to exert a mass or pressure effect on the brain, leading to brain herniation. Tension pneumocephalus is a surgical emergency, which needs immediate intervention in the form of decompression of the cranial cavity by a burr hole or needle aspiration. The Mount Fuji sign differentiates tension pneumocephalus from pneumocephalus.


    Van Loenen, Richard E.; Conyac, Martin D.


    A mineral survey of the Mount Henry Roadless Area, Lincoln County, Montana, was conducted. A small area located along the southwest boundary was determined to have a probable mineral-resource potential for low-grade deposits of stratabound copper and silver. There is little possibility for locatable mineral, coal, oil, gas, and geothermal resources in the remainder of the area. There are no mines, prospects, or records of mineral production within the roadless area.

  5. Mounting support for a photovoltaic module (United States)

    Brandt, Gregory Michael; Barsun, Stephan K.; Coleman, Nathaniel T.; Zhou, Yin


    A mounting support for a photovoltaic module is described. The mounting support includes a foundation having an integrated wire-way ledge portion. A photovoltaic module support mechanism is coupled with the foundation.

  6. Application of system concept in vibration and noise reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHENG Meiping


    Full Text Available Although certain vibration and noise control technologies are maturing, such as vibration absorption, vibration isolation, sound absorption and sound insulation, and new methods for specific frequency bands or special environments have been proposed unceasingly, there is still no guarantee that practical effective vibration and noise reduction can be obtained. An important constraint for vibration and noise reduction is the lack of a system concept, and the integrity and relevance of such practical systems as ship structure have not obtained enough attention. We have tried to use the system engineering theory in guiding vibration and noise reduction, and have already achieved certain effects. Based on the system concept, the noise control of a petroleum pipeline production workshop has been completed satisfactorily, and the abnormal noise source identification of an airplane has been accomplished successfully. We want to share our experience and suggestions to promote the popularization of the system engineering theory in vibration and noise control.

  7. Broadband Vibration Attenuation Using Hybrid Periodic Rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Asiri


    Full Text Available This paper presents both theoretically and experimentally a new kind of a broadband vibration isolator. It is a table-like system formed by four parallel hybrid periodic rods connected between two plates. The rods consist of an assembly of periodic cells, each cell being composed of a short rod and piezoelectric inserts. By actively controlling the piezoelectric elements, it is shown that the periodic rods can efficiently attenuate the propagation of vibration from the upper plate to the lower one within critical frequency bands and consequently minimize the effects of transmission of undesirable vibration and sound radiation. In such a system, longitudinal waves can propagate from the vibration source in the upper plate to the lower one along the rods only within specific frequency bands called the "Pass Bands" and wave propagation is efficiently attenuated within other frequency bands called the "Stop Bands". The spectral width of these bands can be tuned according to the nature of the external excitation. The theory governing the operation of this class of vibration isolator is presented and their tunable filtering characteristics are demonstrated experimentally as functions of their design parameters. This concept can be employed in many applications to control the wave propagation and the force transmission of longitudinal vibrations both in the spectral and spatial domains in an attempt to stop/attenuate the propagation of undesirable disturbances.

  8. Tunable Passive Vibration Suppressor (United States)

    Boechler, Nicholas (Inventor); Dillon, Robert Peter (Inventor); Daraio, Chiara (Inventor); Davis, Gregory L. (Inventor); Shapiro, Andrew A. (Inventor); Borgonia, John Paul C. (Inventor); Kahn, Daniel Louis (Inventor)


    An apparatus and method for vibration suppression using a granular particle chain. The granular particle chain is statically compressed and the end particles of the chain are attached to a payload and vibration source. The properties of the granular particles along with the amount of static compression are chosen to provide desired filtering of vibrations.

  9. Vibrations and Eigenvalues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We make music by causing strings, membranes, or air columns to vibrate. Engineers design safe structures by control- ling vibrations. I will describe to you a very simple vibrating system and the mathematics needed to analyse it. The ideas were born in the work of Joseph-Louis Lagrange (1736–1813), and I begin by quot-.

  10. Cable Vibration due to Ice Accretions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstrup, Henrik; Georgakis, Christos; Larsen, Allan

    On March 29, 2001, the Great Belt East Bridge exhibited large-amplitude hanger vibrations having elliptical orbits for wind speeds of between 16 – 18m/s. Vibrational amplitudes were in the order of 2m in the across-wind direction and 0.6m in the along-wind. In this poster, a preliminary...... investigation behind the causes of this relatively isolated hanger vibration event on the Great Belt East Bridge is presented. Furthermore a stability criterion for a 3DOF bluff body is proposed. One of the main assumptions of the investigation is that icy conditions may have contributed in some way to large...... to a form of “drag instability”. From the visual observations of the vibrations it is assumed that the aerodynamic moment coefficient is zero...

  11. Real-time detection of doorway states in the intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution of the OH/OD stretch vibration of phenol


    Yamada, Yuji; Mikami, Naohiko; Ebata, Takayuki


    A picosecond time-resolved IR-UV pump-probe spectroscopic study was carried out for the intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution of the OH/OD stretching vibration of isolated phenol and its isotopomers in supersonic beams. The time evolution due to IVR showed a significant isotope effect; the OH stretch vibration showed a single exponential decay and its lifetime is greatly lengthened upon the deuterium substitution of the CH group. The OD stretch vibration exhibited prominent quantum...

  12. Vibration Penalty Estimates for Indoor Annoyance Caused by Sonic Boom (United States)

    Rathsam, Jonathan; Klos, Jacob


    Commercial supersonic flight is currently forbidden over land because sonic booms have historically caused unacceptable annoyance levels in overflown communities. NASA is providing data and expertise to noise regulators as they consider relaxing the ban for future quiet supersonic aircraft. One key objective is a predictive model for indoor annoyance based on factors such as noise and indoor vibration levels. The current study quantified the increment in indoor sonic boom annoyance when sonic booms can be felt directly through structural vibrations in addition to being heard. A shaker mounted below each chair in the sonic boom simulator emulated vibrations transmitting through the structure to that chair. The vibration amplitudes were determined from numeric models of a large range of residential structures excited by the same sonic boom waveforms used in the experiment. The analysis yielded vibration penalties, which are the increments in sound level needed to increase annoyance as much as the vibration does. For sonic booms at acoustic levels from 75 to 84 dB Perceived Level, vibration signals with lower amplitudes (+1 sigma) yielded penalties from 0 to 5 dB, and vibration signals with higher amplitudes (+3 sigma) yielded penalties from 6 to 10 dB.

  13. Time Resolved Energy Transfer and Photodissociation of Vibrationally Excited Molecules

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crim, F. F


    ...) in solution and in the gas phase. This second experiment is one of the few direct comparisons of intramolecular vibrational energy flow in a solvated molecule with that in the same molecule isolated in a gas...

  14. Vibration analysis of cryocoolers (United States)

    Tomaru, Takayuki; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Shintomi, Takakazu; Yamamoto, Akira; Koyama, Tomohiro; Li, Rui


    The vibrations of Gifford-McMahon (GM) and pulse-tube (PT) cryocoolers were measured and analyzed. The vibrations of the cold-stage and cold-head were measured separately to investigate their vibration mechanisms. The measurements were performed while maintaining the thermal conditions of the cryocoolers at a steady state. We found that the vibration of the cold-head for the 4 K PT cryocooler was two orders of magnitude smaller than that of the 4 K GM cryocooler. On the other hand, the vibration of the cold-stages for both cryocoolers was of the same order of magnitude. From a spectral analysis of the vibrations and a simulation, we concluded that the vibration of the cold-stage is caused by an elastic deformation of the pulse tubes (or cylinders) due to the pressure oscillation of the working gas.

  15. Vibration analysis of cryocoolers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaru, Takayuki; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Shintomi, Takakazu; Yamamoto, Akira [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Koyama, Tomohiro; Rui Li [Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The vibrations of Gifford-McMahon (GM) and pulse-tube (PT) cryocoolers were measured and analyzed. The vibrations of the cold-stage and cold-head were measured separately to investigate their vibration mechanisms. The measurements were performed while maintaining the thermal conditions of the cryocoolers at a steady state. We found that the vibration of the cold-head for the 4 K PT cryocooler was two orders of magnitude smaller than that of the 4 K GM cryocooler. On the other hand, the vibration of the cold-stages for both cryocoolers was of the same order of magnitude. From a spectral analysis of the vibrations and a simulation, we concluded that the vibration of the cold-stage is caused by an elastic deformation of the pulse tubes (or cylinders) due to the pressure oscillation of the working gas. (Author)

  16. Vibration of hydraulic machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yulin; Liu, Shuhong; Dou, Hua-Shu; Qian, Zhongdong


    Vibration of Hydraulic Machinery deals with the vibration problem which has significant influence on the safety and reliable operation of hydraulic machinery. It provides new achievements and the latest developments in these areas, even in the basic areas of this subject. The present book covers the fundamentals of mechanical vibration and rotordynamics as well as their main numerical models and analysis methods for the vibration prediction. The mechanical and hydraulic excitations to the vibration are analyzed, and the pressure fluctuations induced by the unsteady turbulent flow is predicted in order to obtain the unsteady loads. This book also discusses the loads, constraint conditions and the elastic and damping characters of the mechanical system, the structure dynamic analysis, the rotor dynamic analysis and the system instability of hydraulic machines, including the illustration of monitoring system for the instability and the vibration in hydraulic units. All the problems are necessary for vibration pr...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Mikulik


    Full Text Available The paper considers a mathematical model of local «driver-seat» system and an algorithm for vibratory loading formation at external actions. Results of the investigations on the system vibration according to minimum vibration acceleration depending on transfer force factor acting on the seat and a vibration isolation factor are presented in the paper.

  18. Tapered Polymer Fiber Sensors for Reinforced Concrete Beam Vibration Detection. (United States)

    Luo, Dong; Ibrahim, Zainah; Ma, Jianxun; Ismail, Zubaidah; Iseley, David Thomas


    In this study, tapered polymer fiber sensors (TPFSs) have been employed to detect the vibration of a reinforced concrete beam (RC beam). The sensing principle was based on transmission modes theory. The natural frequency of an RC beam was theoretically analyzed. Experiments were carried out with sensors mounted on the surface or embedded in the RC beam. Vibration detection results agreed well with Kistler accelerometers. The experimental results found that both the accelerometer and TPFS detected the natural frequency function of a vibrated RC beam well. The mode shapes of the RC beam were also found by using the TPFSs. The proposed vibration detection method provides a cost-comparable solution for a structural health monitoring (SHM) system in civil engineering.

  19. Tapered Polymer Fiber Sensors for Reinforced Concrete Beam Vibration Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Luo


    Full Text Available In this study, tapered polymer fiber sensors (TPFSs have been employed to detect the vibration of a reinforced concrete beam (RC beam. The sensing principle was based on transmission modes theory. The natural frequency of an RC beam was theoretically analyzed. Experiments were carried out with sensors mounted on the surface or embedded in the RC beam. Vibration detection results agreed well with Kistler accelerometers. The experimental results found that both the accelerometer and TPFS detected the natural frequency function of a vibrated RC beam well. The mode shapes of the RC beam were also found by using the TPFSs. The proposed vibration detection method provides a cost-comparable solution for a structural health monitoring (SHM system in civil engineering.

  20. Magnetostrictively actuated control flaps for vibration reduction in helicopter rotors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millott, T.; Friedmann, P.P. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering Dept.


    High vibration levels can impose constraints on helicopter operations and hinder passenger acceptance. Vibration reduction using blade root pitch control introduces a significant power penalty and may adversely affect the airworthiness of the flight control system. Comparable levels of vibration reduction can be achieved using considerably less power through an actively controlled trailing edge flap mounted on the blade. Such a device would have no effect on helicopter airworthiness since it is controlled by a loop separate from the primary flight control system which utilizes the swashplate. Control flap actuation using the magnetostrictive material Terfenol-D is studied in this paper by designing a minimum weight actuator, subject to a set of actuation and stress constraints. The resulting device is capable of producing vibration reduction in excess of 90% at cruise conditions.

  1. Vibration Transmission through Bearings with Application to Gearboxes (United States)

    Fleming, David P.


    Cabin noise has become a major concern to manufacturers and users of helicopters. Gear noise is the largest part of this unwanted sound. The crucial noise path is generally considered to be from the gears through the gear-supporting shafts and bearings into the gearbox case, and from there either through the gearbox mounts or the surrounding air to the helicopter cabin. If the noise, that is, the gear and shaft vibration, can be prevented from traveling through the gearbox bearings, then the noise cannot make its way into the helicopter cabin. Thus the vibration-transmitting properties of bearings are of paramount importance. This paper surveys the literature concerning evaluation of properties for the types of bearings used in helicopter gearboxes. A simple model is proposed to evaluate vibration transmission, using measured or calculated bearing stiffness and damping. Less-commonly used types of gearbox bearings (e.g., fluid film) are evaluated for their potential in reducing vibration transmission.

  2. Animal communication: he's giving me good vibrations. (United States)

    Hill, Peggy S M


    A unique bioassay allows a substrate-borne vibration signal to be isolated and manipulated to test its role in eliciting female mate choice, which may be driving a speciation event, by a live, unrestrained male. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Emitted vibration measurement device and method (United States)

    Gisler, G. L.


    This invention is directed to a method and apparatus for measuring emitted vibrational forces produced by a reaction wheel assembly due to imbalances, misalignment, bearing defects and the like. The apparatus includes a low mass carriage supported on a large mass base. The carriage is in the form of an octagonal frame having an opening which is adapted for receiving the reaction wheel assembly supported thereon by means of a mounting ring. The carriage is supported on the base by means of air bearings which support the carriage in a generally frictionless manner when supplied with compressed air from a source. A plurality of carriage brackets and a plurality of base blocks provided for physical coupling of the base and carriage. The sensing axes of the load cells are arranged generally parallel to the base and connected between the base and carriage such that all of the vibrational forces emitted by the reaction wheel assembly are effectively transmitted through the sensing axes of the load cells. In this manner, a highly reliable and accurate measurment of the vibrational forces of the reaction wheel assembly can be had. The output signals from the load cells are subjected to a dynamical analyzer which analyzes and identifies the rotor and spin bearing components which are causing the vibrational forces.

  4. Real-Time Spatial Monitoring of Vehicle Vibration Data as a Model for TeleGeoMonitoring Systems


    Robidoux, Jeff


    This research presents the development and proof of concept of a TeleGeoMonitoring (TGM) system for spatially monitoring and analyzing, in real-time, data derived from vehicle-mounted sensors. In response to the concern for vibration related injuries experienced by equipment operators in surface mining and construction operations, the prototype TGM system focuses on spatially monitoring vehicle vibration in real-time. The TGM vibration system consists of 3 components: (1) Data Acquisition ...

  5. Advanced centering of mounted optics (United States)

    Wenzel, Christian; Winkelmann, Ralf; Klar, Rainer; Philippen, Peter; Garden, Ron; Pearlman, Sasha; Pearlman, Guy


    Camera objectives or laser focusing units consist of complex lens systems with multiple lenses. The optical performance of such complex lens systems is dependent on the correct positioning of lenses in the system. Deviations in location or angle within the system directly affect the achievable image quality. To optimize the achievable performance of lens systems, these errors can be corrected by machining the mount of the lens with respect to the optical axis. The Innolite GmbH and Opto Alignment Technology have developed a novel machine for such center turning operation. A confocal laser reflection measurement sensor determines the absolute position of the optical axis with reference to the spindle axis. As a strong advantage compared to autocollimator measurements the utilized Opto Alignment sensor is capable of performing centration and tilt measurements without changing objectives on any radius surface from 2 mm to infinity and lens diameters from 0.5 mm to 300 mm, including cylinder, aspheric, and parabolic surfaces. In addition, it performs significantly better on coated lenses. The optical axis is skewed and offset in reference to the spindle axis as determined by the measurement. Using the information about the mount and all reference surfaces, a machine program for an untrue turning process is calculated from this data in a fully automated manner. Since the optical axis is not collinear with the spindle axis, the diamond tool compensates for these linear and tilt deviations with small correction movements. This results in a simple machine setup where the control system works as an electronic alignment chuck. Remaining eccentricity of <1 μm and angular errors of < 10 sec are typical alignment results.

  6. Avoiding the Health Hazard of People from Construction Vehicles: A Strategy for Controlling the Vibration of a Wheel Loader. (United States)

    Chi, Feng; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Yong; Huang, Panling


    The vibration control of a construction vehicle must be carried out in order to meet the aims of sustainable environmental development and to avoid the potential human health hazards. In this paper, based on market feedback, the driver seat vibration of a type of wheel loader in the left and right direction, is found to be significant over a certain speed range. In order to find abnormal vibration components, the order tracking technique (OTT) and transmission path analysis (TPA) were used to analyze the vibration sources of the wheel loader. Through this analysis, it can be seen that the abnormal vibration comes from the interaction between the tire tread and the road, and this is because the vibration was amplified by the cab mount, which was eventually transmitted to the cab seat. Finally, the seat vibration amplitudes were decreased by up to 50.8%, after implementing the vibration reduction strategy.

  7. Review on surface mounting components (wire wound chip resistors) development (United States)

    Shiota, Shigeo; Nakao, Masahiro; Shimizu, Akira


    An overview of the development review on surface mounting components (wire wound chip resistors) is presented. Temperature rise tests were conducted on wire wound chip resistors installing them on substrates made of alumina, glass epoxy resin, or polyimide to determine their temperature rise characteristics, and maximum load factors were determined taking substrate heat resisting temperature and solder melting temperature into consideration. Evaluation tests were conducted on the filters' resistance to environments (thermal shock, anti hydroscopicity, thermal stability, loaded life, shock, random vibration, radiation resistance, out gassing), and the subject filters functioned satisfactory with exception of difficulty of conducting the thermal stability test at 125 C which was lower than the temperature specified in the NASDA's (National Space Development Agency of Japan's) specification due to problems of heat resistance of the molding resin material.

  8. Ocean floor mounting of wave energy converters (United States)

    Siegel, Stefan G


    A system for mounting a set of wave energy converters in the ocean includes a pole attached to a floor of an ocean and a slider mounted on the pole in a manner that permits the slider to move vertically along the pole and rotate about the pole. The wave energy converters can then be mounted on the slider to allow adjustment of the depth and orientation of the wave energy converters.

  9. Mounting and Alignment of IXO Mirror Segments (United States)

    Chan, Kai-Wing; Zhang, William; Evans, Tyler; McClelland, Ryan; Hong, Melinda; Mazzarella, James; Saha, Timo; Jalota, Lalit; Olsen, Lawrence; Byron, Glenn


    A suspension-mounting scheme is developed for the IXO (International X-ray Observatory) mirror segments in which the figure of the mirror segment is preserved in each stage of mounting. The mirror, first fixed on a thermally compatible strongback, is subsequently transported, aligned and transferred onto its mirror housing. In this paper, we shall outline the requirement, approaches, and recent progress of the suspension mount processes.

  10. Surface mount technology terms and concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Zarrow, Phil


    In today's fast-paced world of technology, keeping up with new terms and concepts can be quite a challenge. Surface Mount Technology Terms and Concepts is an invaluable reference containing over 1000 terms and definitions used in the SMT field. Each term is followed by a paragraph or two explaining the meaning and how it fits into the surface mount industry. The easy lookup and concise explanations make it ideal for those starting out in the field as well as professionals already involved in surface mount design and assembly.Glossary of over 1000 surface mount technology terms

  11. Active vibration control using DEAP actuators (United States)

    Sarban, Rahimullah; Jones, Richard W.


    Dielectric electro-active polymer (DEAP) is a new type of smart material, which has the potential to be used to provide effective actuation for a wide range of applications. The properties of DEAP material place it somewhere between those of piezoceramics and shape memory alloys. Of the range of DEAP-based actuators that have been developed those having a cylindrical configuration are among the most promising. This contribution introduces the use of a tubular type DEAP actuator for active vibration control purposes. Initially the DEAP-based tubular actuator to be used in this study, produced by Danfoss PolyPower A/S, is introduced along with the static and dynamic characteristics. Secondly an electromechanical model of the tubular actuator is briefly reviewed and its ability to model the actuator's hysteresis characteristics for a range of periodic input signals at different frequencies demonstrated. The model will be used to provide hysteresis compensation in future vibration isolation studies. Experimental active vibration control using the actuator is then examined, specifically active vibration isolation of a 250 g mass subject to shaker generated 'ground vibration'. An adaptive feedforward control strategy is used to achieve this. The ability of the tubular actuator to reject both tonal and broadband random vibratory disturbances is then demonstrated.

  12. Self-induced vibrations of a DU96-W-180 airfoil in stall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrzypinski, Witold Robert; Gaunaa, Mac; Sørensen, Niels N.


    vibrations. The analysis showed significant differences between the aerodynamic stability limits predicted by 2D and 3D CFD computations. A general agreement was reached between the prescribed motion and elastically mounted airfoil computations. 3D computations indicated that vortex-induced vibrations......This work presents an analysis of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) non-moving, prescribed motion and elastically mounted airfoil computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computations. The elastically mounted airfoil computations were performed by means of a 2D structural model with two...... degrees of freedom. The computations aimed at investigating the mechanisms of both vortex-induced and stall-induced vibrations related to a wind turbine blade at standstill conditions. In this work, a DU96-W-180 airfoil was used in the angle-of-attack region potentially corresponding to stallinduced...

  13. Prediction of the Vibroacoustic Response of the Equipment Mounted on the Infrared Space Telescope "SPICA" (United States)

    Akagi, Hiroki; Ando, Shigemasa; Shi, Qinzhong; Yamawaki, Toshiko


    The infrared space telescope "SPICA" (Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics) is a structurally-complex spacecraft, which requires the less conservative prediction of the random vibration at interface in order to reduce the over-margin issue for designing the strength on critical structure of optical instrument in the early stage of development, and to relieve the risk of overweight designing. This paper proposes Combination of FEA and SEA Methods to predict the vibroacoustic response of the equipment mounted on SPICA, and less conservative specification of the random vibration environments. Furthermore, a method of force-limiting to notch the specification over a certain frequency range during designing and a random vibration test is shown. Force-limiting specification is calculated using a simplified approach by multiplying the article's apparent mass to the equivalent of vibroacoustic response at interface.

  14. Kappa Delta Award. Low back pain and whole body vibration. (United States)

    Pope, M H; Magnusson, M; Wilder, D G


    The investigators describe their multifaceted approach to the study of the relationship between whole body vibration and low back pain. The epidemiologic study was a two center study of drivers and sedentary workers in the United States and Sweden. The vibration exposure was measured in the vehicles. It was found that the career vibration exposure was related to low back, neck, and shoulder pain. However, disability was related to job satisfaction. In vivo experiments, using percutaneous pin mounted accelerometers have shown that the natural frequency is at 4.5 Hz. The frequency response is affected by posture, seating, and seat back inclination. The response appears to be determined largely by the rocking of the pelvis. Electromyographic studies have shown that muscle fatigue occurs under whole body vibration. After whole body vibration exposure the muscle response to a sudden load has greater latency. Vehicle driving may be a reason for low back pain or herniated nucleus pulposus. Prolonged seating exposure, coupled with the whole body vibration, should be reduced for those recovering from these problems. Vibration attenuating seats and correct ergonomic layout of the cabs may reduce the risks of recurrence.

  15. Implementasi Rangkaian Elektronika Menggunakan Teknologi Surface Mount




    Salahsatu perkembangan perangkat elektronika adalah miniaturisasi, yakni pengurangan pada volume perangkat. Dan teknologi yang berperan penting dalam proses miniaturisasi adalah teknologi Surface Mount. Teknologi Surface Mount adalah teknologi komponen yang berusaha nengurangi ukuran komponen dan diletakkan secara langsung pada permukaan PCB. Teknologi ini menggantikan teknologi sebelumnya, yakni teknologi thru hole, dimana dalam pemasangannya dilakukan pelubangan pada PCB. Pemakaian kompo...

  16. Mount Athos: Between autonomy and statehood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avramović Dragutin


    Full Text Available Legal status of the Mount Athos is characterized by many special features that make it internationally unique legal regime. The author analyzes peculiarities of Mount Athos territorial status, legal position of residents and visitors, as well as organization of Mount Athos authorities. The author concludes that the Mount Athos is characterized by a kind of para-sovereignty. Its autonomy involves not only the internal organization, autonomous governance and religious autonomy, but it also includes many elements of secular life of their visitors. Mount Athos has its own, separate legislative, administrative and judicial powers, while the Statute of the Mount Athos has greater legal force than all the other laws of the Greek state, because the state can not unilaterally change its provisions. Having in mind that the wide self-government is vested in church authorities and that the monks have very specific way of living, the author takes a position that the Mount Athos represent 'monastic state', but without statehood. The author also states that the Mount Athos will be faced with many challenges in the context of spreading of an assimilating, universal conception of human rights.

  17. Vibration study of the APS storage ring 0. 8 meter quadrupole magnet/magnet support assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Wambsganss, M.W.; Smith, R.K.


    The objectives of this study are as follows: Determine the vibration characteristics (frequency, damping, and mode shapes) of the magnet on prototypic supports (the actual mounting system used to mount the magnet on the girder). Measure system response to ambient floor motion. Measure the effect of various modifications to determine if the magnet response can be modified to minimize unwanted response characteristics. Modifications investigated include support schemes, increasing system damping, and increasing mechanical rigidity. Measure system response to coolant flow. Determine vibrational characteristics of a large concrete block placed on a concrete floor, including response to ambient floor motions.

  18. Vibration Control via Stiffness Switching of Magnetostrictive Transducers (United States)

    Scheidler, Justin J.; Asnani, Vivake M.; Dapino, Marcelo J.


    In this paper, a computational study is presented of structural vibration control that is realized by switching a magnetostrictive transducer between high and low stiffness states. Switching is accomplished by either changing the applied magnetic field with a voltage excitation or changing the shunt impedance on the transducer's coil (i.e., the magnetostrictive material's magnetic boundary condition). Switched-stiffness vibration control is simulated using a lumped mass supported by a damper and the magnetostrictive transducer (mount), which is represented by a nonlinear, electromechanical model. Free vibration of the mass is calculated while varying the mount's stiffness according to a reference switched-stiffness vibration control law. The results reveal that switching the magnetic field produces the desired change in stiffness, but also an undesired actuation force that can significantly degrade the vibration control. Hence, a modified switched-stiffness control law that accounts for the actuation force is proposed and implemented for voltage-controlled stiffness switching. The influence of the magneto-mechanical bias condition is also discussed. Voltage-controlled stiffness switching is found to introduce damping equivalent to a viscous damping factor up to about 0.13; this is shown to primarily result from active vibration reduction caused by the actuation force. The merit of magnetostrictive switched-stiffness vibration control is then quantified by comparing the results of voltage- and shunt-controlled stiffness switching to the performance of optimal magnetostrictive shunt damping. For the cases considered, optimal resistive shunt damping performed considerably better than both voltage- and shunt-controlled stiffness switching.

  19. Model Indepedent Vibration Control


    Yuan, Jing


    A NMIFC system is proposed for broadband vibration control. It has two important features. Feature F1 is that the NMIFC is stable without introducing any invasive effects, such as probing signals or controller perturbations, into the vibration system; feature F2 is

  20. Vibration Theory, Vol. 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    The present textbook has been written based on previous lecture notes for a course on stochastic vibration theory that is being given on the 9th semester at Aalborg University for M. Sc. students in structural engineering. The present 4th edition of this textbook on linear stochastic vibration...

  1. Vibration Theory, Vol. 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    The present textbook has been written based on previous lecture notes for a course on stochastic vibration theory that is being given on the 9th semester at Aalborg University for M. Sc. students in structural engineering. The present 2nd edition of this textbook on linear stochastic vibration...

  2. Hydroelastic Vibrations of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Folsø, Rasmus


    A formula for the necessary hull girder bending stiffness required to avoid serious springing vibrations is derived. The expression takes into account the zero crossing period of the waves, the ship speed and main dimensions. For whipping vibrations the probability of exceedance for the combined...

  3. Gearbox vibration diagnostic analyzer (United States)


    This report describes the Gearbox Vibration Diagnostic Analyzer installed in the NASA Lewis Research Center's 500 HP Helicopter Transmission Test Stand to monitor gearbox testing. The vibration of the gearbox is analyzed using diagnostic algorithms to calculate a parameter indicating damaged components.

  4. Mechanical vibration and shock analysis, sinusoidal vibration

    CERN Document Server

    Lalanne, Christian


    Everything engineers need to know about mechanical vibration and one authoritative reference work! This fully updated and revised 3rd edition addresses the entire field of mechanical vibration and shock as one of the most important types of load and stress applied to structures, machines and components in the real world. Examples include everything from the regular and predictable loads applied to turbines, motors or helicopters by the spinning of their constituent parts to the ability of buildings to withstand damage from wind loads or explosions, and the need for cars to m

  5. Vibration measurements on the Phalanx electro-optical stabilization system


    Schmidt, James E.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The installation of the new PHALANX Surface Mode (PSUM) upgrade will enable the PHALANX to handle a wider range of threats, such as a small boat approaching the ship. The objective of the research described in this thesis was to measure the vibration of a prototype forward looking infrared (FLIR) camera stabilizer system during live-fire tests to evaluate its performance. Uniaxial, triaxial, and angular accelerometers were mounted at 1...

  6. Sweeping shunted electro-magnetic tuneable vibration absorber: Design and implementation (United States)

    Turco, E.; Gardonio, P.


    This paper presents a study on the design and implementation of a time-varying shunted electro-magnetic Tuneable Vibration Absorber for broad-band vibration control of thin structures. A time-varying RL-shunt is used to harmonically vary the stiffness and damping properties of the Tuneable Vibration Absorber so that its mechanical fundamental natural frequency is continuously swept in a given broad frequency band whereas its mechanical damping is continuously adapted to maximize the vibration absorption from the hosting structure where it is mounted. The paper first recalls the tuning and positioning criteria for the case where a classical Tuneable Vibration Absorber is installed on a thin walled cylindrical structure to reduce the response of a resonating flexural mode. It then discusses the design of the time-varying shunt circuit to produce the desired stiffness and damping variations in the electro-magnetic Tuneable Vibration Absorber. Finally, it presents a numerical study on the flexural vibration and interior sound control effects produced when an array of these shunted electro-magnetic Tuneable Vibration Absorbers are mounted on a thin walled cylinder subject to a rain-on-the-roof stochastic excitation. The study shows that the array of proposed systems effectively controls the cylinder flexural response and interior noise over a broad frequency band without need of tuning and thus system identification of the structure. Therefore, the systems can be successfully used also on structures whose physical properties vary in time because of temperature changes or tensioning effects for example.

  7. Drill cuttings mount formation study (United States)

    Teh, Su Yean; Koh, Hock Lye


    Oil, Gas and Energy sector has been identified as an essential driving force in the Malaysian Economic Transformation Programs (ETP). Recently confirmed discovery of many offshore oil and gas deposits in Malaysian waters has ignited new confidence in this sector. However, this has also spurred intense interest on safeguarding the health and environment of coastal waters in Malaysia from adverse impact resulting from offshore oil and gas production operation. Offshore discharge of spent drilling mud and rock cuttings is the least expensive and simplest option to dispose of large volumes of drilling wastes. But this onsite offshore disposal may have adverse environmental impacts on the water column and the seabed. It may also pose occupational health hazards to the workers living in the offshore platforms. It is therefore important to model the transport and deposition of drilling mud and rock cuttings in the sea to enable proper assessment of their adverse impacts on the environment and the workers. Further, accumulation of drill particles on the seabed may impede proper operation of pipelines on the seabed. In this paper, we present an in-house application model TUNA-PT developed to cater to local oil and gas industry needs to simulate the dispersion and mount formation of drill cuttings by offshore oil and gas exploration and production platforms. Using available data on Malaysian coastal waters, simulation analyses project a pile formation on the seabed with a maximum height of about 1 m and pile radius of around 30 to 50 m. Simulated pile heights are not sensitive to the heights of release of the cuttings as the sensitivity has been mitigated by the depth of water.

  8. Vibrations of rotating machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Osami; Kanki, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masao; Keogh, Patrick


    This book opens with an explanation of the vibrations of a single degree-of-freedom (dof) system for all beginners. Subsequently, vibration analysis of multi-dof systems is explained by modal analysis. Mode synthesis modeling is then introduced for system reduction, which aids understanding in a simplified manner of how complicated rotors behave. Rotor balancing techniques are offered for rigid and flexible rotors through several examples. Consideration of gyroscopic influences on the rotordynamics is then provided and vibration evaluation of a rotor-bearing system is emphasized in terms of forward and backward whirl rotor motions through eigenvalue (natural frequency and damping ratio) analysis. In addition to these rotordynamics concerning rotating shaft vibration measured in a stationary reference frame, blade vibrations are analyzed with Coriolis forces expressed in a rotating reference frame. Other phenomena that may be assessed in stationary and rotating reference frames include stability characteristic...

  9. Vibration Based Sun Gear Damage Detection (United States)

    Hood, Adrian; LaBerge, Kelsen; Lewicki, David; Pines, Darryll


    Seeded fault experiments were conducted on the planetary stage of an OH-58C helicopter transmission. Two vibration based methods are discussed that isolate the dynamics of the sun gear from that of the planet gears, bearings, input spiral bevel stage, and other components in and around the gearbox. Three damaged sun gears: two spalled and one cracked, serve as the focus of this current work. A non-sequential vibration separation algorithm was developed and the resulting signals analyzed. The second method uses only the time synchronously averaged data but takes advantage of the signal/source mapping required for vibration separation. Both algorithms were successful in identifying the spall damage. Sun gear damage was confirmed by the presence of sun mesh groups. The sun tooth crack condition was inconclusive.

  10. Modeling of Wind Turbine Gearbox Mounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten K. Ebbesen


    Full Text Available In this paper three bushing models are evaluated to find a best practice in modeling the mounting of wind turbine gearboxes. Parameter identification on measurements has been used to determine the bushing parameters for dynamic simulation of a gearbox including main shaft. The stiffness of the main components of the gearbox has been calculated. The torsional stiffness of the main shaft, gearbox and the mounting of the gearbox are of same order of magnitude, and eigenfrequency analysis clearly reveals that the stiffness of the gearbox mounting is of importance when modeling full wind turbine drivetrains.

  11. Optimal design of a Φ760 mm lightweight SiC mirror and the flexural mount for a space telescope (United States)

    Li, Zongxuan; Chen, Xue; Wang, Shaoju; Jin, Guang


    A flexural support technique for lightweighted Primary Mirror Assembly (PMA) of a space telescope is presented in this article. The proposed three-point flexural mount based on a cartwheel flexure can maintain the surface figure of the PMA in a horizontal optical testing layout. The on-orbit surface error of the PMA causes significant degradation in image quality. On-ground optical testing cannot determine the zero-gravity figure of the PMA due to surface distortion by gravity. We unveiled the crucial fact that through a delicate mounting structure design, the surface figure can remain constant precisely without inducing distinguishable astigmatism when PMA rotates with respect to the optical axis, and the figure can be considered as the zero-gravity surface figure on the orbit. A design case is described to show the lightweight design of a SiC mirror and the optimal flexural mounting. Topology optimization and integrated opto-mechanical analysis using the finite element method are utilized in the design process. The Primary Mirror and mounting structures were fabricated and assembled. After the PMA mirror surface was polished to λ/50 RMS, optical testing in different clocking configurations was performed, respectively, through rotating the PMA by multiple angles. Test results show that the surface figure remained invariant, indicating that gravity release on the orbit will not cause an additional surface error. Vibration tests including sweep sine and random vibration were also performed to validate the mechanical design. The requirements for the mounting technique in space were qualified.

  12. Optimal design of a Φ760 mm lightweight SiC mirror and the flexural mount for a space telescope. (United States)

    Li, Zongxuan; Chen, Xue; Wang, Shaoju; Jin, Guang


    A flexural support technique for lightweighted Primary Mirror Assembly (PMA) of a space telescope is presented in this article. The proposed three-point flexural mount based on a cartwheel flexure can maintain the surface figure of the PMA in a horizontal optical testing layout. The on-orbit surface error of the PMA causes significant degradation in image quality. On-ground optical testing cannot determine the zero-gravity figure of the PMA due to surface distortion by gravity. We unveiled the crucial fact that through a delicate mounting structure design, the surface figure can remain constant precisely without inducing distinguishable astigmatism when PMA rotates with respect to the optical axis, and the figure can be considered as the zero-gravity surface figure on the orbit. A design case is described to show the lightweight design of a SiC mirror and the optimal flexural mounting. Topology optimization and integrated opto-mechanical analysis using the finite element method are utilized in the design process. The Primary Mirror and mounting structures were fabricated and assembled. After the PMA mirror surface was polished to λ/50 RMS, optical testing in different clocking configurations was performed, respectively, through rotating the PMA by multiple angles. Test results show that the surface figure remained invariant, indicating that gravity release on the orbit will not cause an additional surface error. Vibration tests including sweep sine and random vibration were also performed to validate the mechanical design. The requirements for the mounting technique in space were qualified.

  13. Mechanical design and qualification of IR filter mounts and filter wheel of INSAT-3D sounder for low temperature (United States)

    Vora, A. P.; Rami, J. B.; Hait, A. K.; Dewan, C. P.; Subrahmanyam, D.; Kirankumar, A. S.


    Next generation Indian Meteorological Satellite will carry Sounder instrument having subsystem of filter wheel measuring Ø260mm and carrying 18 filters arranged in three concentric rings. These filters made from Germanium, are used to separate spectral channels in IR band. Filter wheel is required to be cooled to 214K and rotated at 600 rpm. This Paper discusses the challenges faced in mechanical design of the filter wheel, mainly filter mount design to protect brittle germanium filters from failure under stresses due to very low temperature, compactness of the wheel and casings for improved thermal efficiency, survival under vibration loads and material selection to keep it lighter in weight. Properties of Titanium, Kovar, Invar and Aluminium materials are considered for design. The mount has been designed to accommodate both thermal and dynamic loadings without introducing significant aberrations into the optics or incurring permanent alignment shifts. Detailed finite element analysis of mounts was carried out for stress verification. Results of the qualification tests are discussed for given temperature range of 100K and vibration loads of 12g in Sine and 11.8grms in Random at mount level. Results of the filter wheel qualification as mounted in Electro Optics Module (EOM) are also presented.

  14. Novel Gyroscopic Mounting for Crystal Oscillators to Increase Short and Medium Term Stability under Highly Dynamic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Abedi


    Full Text Available In this paper, a gyroscopic mounting method for crystal oscillators to reduce the impact of dynamic loads on their output stability has been proposed. In order to prove the efficiency of this mounting approach, each dynamic load-induced instability has been analyzed in detail. A statistical study has been performed on the elevation angle of the g-sensitivity vector of Stress Compensated-cut (SC-cut crystals. The analysis results show that the proposed gyroscopic mounting method gives good performance for host vehicle attitude changes. A phase noise improvement of 27 dB maximum and 5.7 dB on average can be achieved in the case of steady state loads, while under sinusoidal vibration conditions, the maximum and average phase noise improvement are as high as 24 dB and 7.5 dB respectively. With this gyroscopic mounting method, random vibration-induced phase noise instability is reduced 30 dB maximum and 8.7 dB on average. Good effects are apparent for crystal g-sensitivity vectors with low elevation angle φ and azimuthal angle β. under highly dynamic conditions, indicating the probability that crystal oscillator instability will be significantly reduced by using the proposed mounting approach.

  15. Structural Stability and Vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiggers, Sine Leergaard; Pedersen, Pauli

    This book offers an integrated introduction to the topic of stability and vibration. Strikingly, it describes stability as a function of boundary conditions and eigenfrequency as a function of both boundary conditions and column force. Based on a post graduate course held by the author at the Uni......This book offers an integrated introduction to the topic of stability and vibration. Strikingly, it describes stability as a function of boundary conditions and eigenfrequency as a function of both boundary conditions and column force. Based on a post graduate course held by the author...... and their derivation, thus stimulating them to write interactive and dynamic programs to analyze instability and vibrational modes....

  16. 1980 Mount Saint Helens, USA Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An earthquake occurred at 15 32 UT, only seconds before the explosion that began the eruption of Mount St. Helens volcano. This eruption and blast blew off the top...

  17. Mount Pinatubo, Philippines: June 1991 Eruptions (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Mount Pinatubo is an andesitic island arc volcano, located on the southern Luzon Island, Philippines. Prior to 1991 it had been dormant for more than 635 years. On...

  18. Vibration Analysis and the Accelerometer (United States)

    Hammer, Paul


    Have you ever put your hand on an electric motor or motor-driven electric appliance and felt it vibrate? Ever wonder why it vibrates? What is there about the operation of the motor, or the object to which it is attached, that causes the vibrations? Is there anything "regular" about the vibrations, or are they the result of random causes? In this…

  19. Analysis of adjusting effects of mounting force on frequency conversion of mounted nonlinear optics. (United States)

    Su, Ruifeng; Liu, Haitao; Liang, Yingchun; Lu, Lihua


    Motivated by the need to increase the second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of nonlinear optics with large apertures, a novel mounting configuration with active adjusting function on the SHG efficiency is proposed and mechanically and optically studied. The adjusting effects of the mounting force on the distortion and stress are analyzed by the finite element methods (FEM), as well as the contribution of the distortion and stress to the change in phase mismatch, and the SHG efficiency are theoretically stated. Further on, the SHG efficiency is calculated as a function of the mounting force. The changing trends of the distortion, stress, and the SHG efficiency with the varying mounting force are obtained, and the optimal ones are figured out. Moreover, the mechanism of the occurrence of the optimal values is studied and the adjusting strategy is put forward. Numerical results show the robust adjustment of the mounting force, as well as the effectiveness of the mounting configuration, in increasing the SHG efficiency.

  20. Vibrations and Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    About this textbook An ideal text for students that ties together classical and modern topics of advanced vibration analysis in an interesting and lucid manner. It provides students with a background in elementary vibrations with the tools necessary for understanding and analyzing more complex...... dynamical phenomena that can be encountered in engineering and scientific practice. It progresses steadily from linear vibration theory over various levels of nonlinearity to bifurcation analysis, global dynamics and chaotic vibrations. It trains the student to analyze simple models, recognize nonlinear...... phenomena and work with advanced tools such as perturbation analysis and bifurcation analysis. Explaining theory in terms of relevant examples from real systems, this book is user-friendly and meets the increasing interest in non-linear dynamics in mechanical/structural engineering and applied mathematics...

  1. The highest bond order between heavier main-group elements in an isolated compound? Energetics and vibrational spectroscopy of S2I4(MF6)2 (M = As, Sb). (United States)

    Brownridge, Scott; Cameron, T Stanley; Du, Hongbin; Knapp, Carsten; Köppe, Ralf; Passmore, Jack; Rautiainen, J Mikko; Schnöckel, Hansgeorg


    The vibrational spectra of S2I4(MF6)2(s) (M = As, Sb), a normal coordinate analysis of S2I4(2+), and a redetermination of the X-ray structure of S2I4(AsF6)2 at low temperature show that the S-S bond in S2I4(2+) has an experimentally based bond order of 2.2-2.4, not distinguishably different from bond orders, based on calculations, of the Si-Si bonds in the proposed triply bonded disilyne of the isolated [(Me3Si)2 CH]2 (iPr)SiSiSiSi(iPr)[CH(SiMe3)2]2 and the hypothetical trans-RSiSiR (R = H, Me, Ph). Therefore, both S2I4(2+) and [(Me3Si)2 CH]2 (iPr)SiSiSiSi(iPr)[CH(SiMe3)2]2 have the highest bond orders between heavier main-group elements in an isolated compound, given a lack of the general acceptance of a bond order > 2 for the Ga-Ga bond in Na2[{Ga(C6H3Trip2-2,6)}2] (Trip = C6H2Pr(i)3-2,4,6) and the fact that the reported bond orders for the heavier group 14 alkyne analogues of formula REER [E = Ge, Sn, or Pb; R = bulky organic group] are ca. 2 or less. The redetermination of the X-ray structure gave a higher accuracy for the short S-S [1.842(4) A, Pauling bond order (BO) = 2.4] and I-I [2.6026(9) A, BO = 1.3] bonds and allowed the correct modeling of the AsF6- anions, the determination of the cation-anion contacts, and thus an empirical estimate of the positive charge on the sulfur and iodine atoms. FT-Raman and IR spectra of both salts, obtained for the first time, were assigned with the aid of density functional theory calculations and gave a stretching frequency of 734 cm(-1) for the S-S bond and 227 cm(-1) for the I-I bond, implying bond orders of 2.2 and 1.3, respectively. A normal-coordinate analysis showed that no mixing occurs and yielded force constants for the S-S (5.08 mdyn/A) and I-I bonds (1.95 mdyn/A), with corresponding bond orders of 2.2 for the S-S bond and 1.3 for the I-I bond, showing that S2I4(2+) maximizes pi bond formation. The stability of S2I4(2+) in the gas phase, in SO2 and HSO3F solutions, and in the solid state as its AsF6- salts was

  2. Possible Mechanisms of Low Back Pain due to Whole-Body Vibration (United States)

    Pope, M. H.; Wilder, D. G.; Magnusson, M.


    The investigators describe their multifaceted approach to the study of the relationship between whole-body vibration and low back pain.In vitroexperiments, using percutaneous pin-mounted accelerometers have shown that the natural frequency is at 4·5 Hz. The frequency response was affected by posture, seating, and seat-back inclination. The response appears to be largely determined by the rocking of the pelvis. Electromyographic studies have shown that muscle fatigue occurs under whole body vibration. After whole body vibration exposure the muscle response to a sudden load has greater latency. Vehicle driving may be a reason for low back pain or herniated nucleus pulposus. Prolonged seating exposure, coupled with the whole body vibration should be reduced for those recovering from these problems. Vibration attenuating seats, and correct ergonomic layout of the cabs may reduce the risks of recurrence.

  3. Active Vibration Control of a Railway Vehicle Carbody Using Piezoelectric Elements (United States)

    Molatefi, Habibollah; Ayoubi, Pejman; Mozafari, Hozhabr


    In recent years and according to modern transportation development, rail vehicles are manufactured lighter to achieve higher speed and lower transportation costs. On the other hand, weight reduction of rail vehicles leads to increase the structural vibration. In this study, Active Vibration Control of a rail vehicle using piezoelectric elements is investigated. The optimal control employed as the control approach regard to the first two modes of vibration. A simplified Car body structure is modeled in Matlab using the finite element theory by considering six DOF beam element and then the Eigen functions and mode shapes are derived. The surface roughness of different classes of rail tracks have been obtained using random vibration theory and applied to the secondary suspension as the excitation of the structure; Then piezoelectric mounted where the greatest moments were captured. The effectiveness of Piezoelectric in structural vibrations attenuation of car body is demonstrated through the state space equations and its effect on modal coefficient.

  4. Evaluation of Bus Vibration Comfort Based on Passenger Crowdsourcing Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhao


    Full Text Available Vibration comfort is an important factor affecting the quality of service (QoS of bus. In order to make people involved in supervising bus’s vibration comfort and improve passengers’ riding experience, a novel mode of passenger crowdsourcing is introduced. In this paper, comfort degree of bus vibration is calculated from bus’s vibration signals collected by passengers’ smartphones and sent through WiFi to the Boa web server which shows the vibration comfort on the LCD deployed in bus and maybe trigger alarm lamp when the vibration is beyond the threshold. Three challenges here have been overcome: firstly, space coordinate transformation algorithm is used to solve the constant drift of signals collected; secondly, a low-pass filter is designed to isolate gravity from signals real-timely via limited computing resources; thirdly, an embedded evaluation system is developed according to the calculation procedure specified by criterion ISO 2631-1997. Meanwhile, the model proposed is tested in a practical running environment, the vibration data in whole travel are recorded and analyzed offline. The results show that comfort degree of vibration obtained from the experimental system is identical with the truth, and this mode is proved to be effective.

  5. Mechanical design of mounts for IGRINS focal plane arrays and field flattening lenses (United States)

    Oh, Jae Sok; Park, Chan; Cha, Sang-Mok; Yuk, In-Soo; Kim, Kang-Min; Chun, Moo-Young; Ko, Kyeongyeon; Oh, Heeyeong; Jeong, Ueejeong; Nah, Jakyoung; Lee, Hanshin; Pavel, Michael; Jaffe, Daniel T.


    IGRINS, the Immersion GRating INfrared Spectrometer, is a near-infrared wide-band high-resolution spectrograph jointly developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute and the University of Texas at Austin. IGRINS employs three HAWAII-2RG focal plane array (FPA) detectors. The mechanical mounts for these detectors and for the final (field-flattening) lens in the optical train serve a critical function in the overall instrument design: Optically, they permit the only positional compensation in the otherwise "build to print" design. Thermally, they permit setting and control of the detector operating temperature independently of the cryostat bench. We present the design and fabrication of the mechanical mount as a single module. The detector mount includes the array housing, housing for the SIDECAR ASIC, a field flattener lens holder, and a support base. The detector and ASIC housing will be kept at 65 K and the support base at 130 K. G10 supports thermally isolate the detector and ASIC housing from the support base. The field flattening lens holder attaches directly to the FPA array housing and holds the lens with a six-point kinematic mount. Fine adjustment features permit changes in axial position and in yaw and pitch angles. We optimized the structural stability and thermal characteristics of the mount design using computer-aided 3D modeling and finite element analysis. Based on the computer simulation, the designed detector mount meets the optical and thermal requirements very well.

  6. Critical examination of isolation system design paradigms for a coupled powertrain and frame: Partial torque roll axis decoupling methods given practical constraints (United States)

    Liette, Jared; Dreyer, Jason T.; Singh, Rajendra


    The torque roll axis motion decoupling concept is analytically and computationally studied in a realistic coupled powertrain and frame system using discrete, proportionally damped linear models. Recently, Hu and Singh (2012 [1]) (Journal of Sound and Vibration 331 (2012) 1498-1518) proposed new paradigms to fully decouple such a system. However, critical examination shows that the derivation does not always lead to a physically realizable system, as each powertrain mount is not referenced to a single location. This deficiency is overcome by deriving mount compatibility conditions to ensure realistic mount positions which are incorporated into proposed decoupling conditions. It is mathematically shown that full decoupling is not possible for a practical system, and therefore partial decoupling paradigms are pursued. Powertrain mount design using only the decoupled powertrain achieves better decoupling than minimizing conditions for the coupled system using a total least squares method. Further decoupling is obtained through frame isolation design using a decoupled frame model such that the torque roll mode is dominant over the frequency range considered. Other methods for limiting frame coupling are also briefly discussed.

  7. JAXA Activities on Prediction of Vibroacoustic Prediction for Panel Mounted Equipments (United States)

    Akagi, Hiroki; Ando, Shigemasa; Yanagase, Keiichi; Shi, Qinzhong


    Spacecraft is exposed to the severe random vibration by acoustic during its launch. In the spacecraft design, random vibration of spacecraft equipments mounted on panel structure during launch environments needs to be predicted. In the present methods, SEA is the method for analyzing the high frequency band, FEA is for the low frequency band. This paper introduces major methods of recent years to predict the vibroacoustic response of spacecraft structure, including SEA, Joint Acceptance and most recent approach using Combination of FEA and SEA methods. The Combination method focuses on the vibroacoustic prediction which keeps advantages to use detail model of structure expressed by FEA and statistical energy approach expressed by SEA of reverberant acoustic excitation. These methods are applied to diffuse sound field excitation of honeycomb panel, and compared with the results in test verification.

  8. Flow distortion on boom mounted cup anemometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelöw, Per Jonas Petter; Friis Pedersen, Troels; Gottschall, Julia

    in the measurement of wind turbine power performance, wind resource assessment and for providing purposeful in-field comparisons between different sensors, e.g. lidar anemometers. With the proposed method, direction dependent errors can be extracted and the mast flow distortion effect on the wind measurements......In this report we investigate on wind direction dependent errors in the measurement of the horizontal wind speed by boom mounted cup anemometers. The boom mounting on the studied lattice tower is performed according to IEC standard design rules, yet, larger deviations than predicted by flow models...... are observed. The errors on the measurements are likely caused by an underestimation of the flow distortions around the tower. In this paper an experimental method for deriving a correction formula and an in-field calibration is suggested. The method is based on measurements with two cup anemometers mounted...

  9. The CUREA Program at Mount Wilson (United States)

    Turner, Paula C.; LoPresto, J. C.; Simmons, M.


    For fifteen years, Mount Wilson Observatory has been host to a unique educational program designed to introduce undergraduate students of physics and astronomy to elements of observational solar and stellar astrophysics. Founded by faculty members from four-year colleges who dubbed themselves the Consortium for Undergraduate Research and Education in Astronomy (CUREA), the CUREA program is an intensive two-week course in observational astronomy. It includes lectures by astronomers and physicists, observational exercises in both solar and stellar astrophysics, tours of various research facilities on the mountain and in the Los Angeles area, and an observational mini-project designed and executed by each student during the second week of the program. This paper will present the program’s curriculum and goals, a brief history, and examples of observational projects undertaken by recent participants. CUREA is administered by the Mount Wilson Observatory Association, using facilities provided by the Mount Wilson Institute.

  10. Compact integrated piezoelectric vibration control package (United States)

    Spangler, Ronald L., Jr.; Russo, Farla M.; Palombo, Daniel A.


    Using recent advances in small, surface-mount electronics, coupled with proprietary packaging techniques, ACX has developed the SmartPackTM. The design and realization of this self-contained, active piezoelectric control device are described in this paper. The SmartPack uses a local control architecture, consisting of two parallel, analog, positive position feedback (PPF) filters, along with nearly collocated piezo strain sensors and actuators, to control multiple structural vibration modes. A key issue is the management of waste heat from the power electronics required to drive the piezo actuators. This issue is addressed through thermal/electrical modeling of the packaged amplifier. The effectiveness of the device is demonstrated through multi-mode active damping on a 24 inch square plate.

  11. Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies (United States)

    Miller, David H [Redondo Beach, CA


    Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies are provided. In an embodiment, by way of example only, a sensor mount assembly includes a busbar, a main body, a backing surface, and a first finger. The busbar has a first end and a second end. The main body is overmolded onto the busbar. The backing surface extends radially outwardly relative to the main body. The first finger extends axially from the backing surface, and the first finger has a first end, a second end, and a tooth. The first end of the first finger is disposed on the backing surface, and the tooth is formed on the second end of the first finger.

  12. Vibration study of the APS storage ring 0.8 meter quadrupole magnet/magnet support assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Wambsganss, M.W.; Smith, R.K.


    The objectives of this study are as follows: Determine the vibration characteristics (frequency, damping, and mode shapes) of the magnet on prototypic supports (the actual mounting system used to mount the magnet on the girder). Measure system response to ambient floor motion. Measure the effect of various modifications to determine if the magnet response can be modified to minimize unwanted response characteristics. Modifications investigated include support schemes, increasing system damping, and increasing mechanical rigidity. Measure system response to coolant flow. Determine vibrational characteristics of a large concrete block placed on a concrete floor, including response to ambient floor motions.

  13. Reflow Soldering of Surface Mount Electronic Components in a Laboratory


    Erickson, Christopher J.; Durfee, Dallin S.


    We present a basic tutorial for implementing surface mount technology in lab-built scientific instruments. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using surface mount chips. We also describe methods for the development and prototyping of surface mount circuitry in home-built electronics. The method of soldering surface mount components in a common toaster oven is described. We provide advice from our own experience in developing this technology, and argue that surface mount technology ...

  14. Vibrational spectroscopy of resveratrol (United States)

    Billes, Ferenc; Mohammed-Ziegler, Ildikó; Mikosch, Hans; Tyihák, Ernő


    In this article the authors deal with the experimental and theoretical interpretation of the vibrational spectra of trans-resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy- trans-stilbene) of diverse beneficial biological activity. Infrared and Raman spectra of the compound were recorded; density functional calculations were carried out resulting in the optimized geometry and several properties of the molecule. Based on the calculated force constants, a normal coordinate analysis yielded the character of the vibrational modes and the assignment of the measured spectral bands.

  15. Bumblebee vibration activated foraging


    Su, Dan Kuan-Nien


    The ability use vibrational signals to activate nestmate foraging is found in the highly social bees, stingless bees and honey bees, and has been hypothesized to exist in the closely related, primitively eusocial bumble bees. We provide the first strong and direct evidence that this is correct. Inside the nest, bumble bee foragers produce brief bursts of vibration (foraging activation pulses) at 594.5 Hz for 63±26 ms (velocityRMS=0.46±0.02mm/s, forceRMS=0.8±0.2 mN. Production of these vibrati...

  16. Man-Induced Vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Hansen, Lars Pilegaard


    concerned with spectator-induced vertical vibrations on grandstands. The idea is to use impulse response analysis and base the load description on the load impulse. If the method is feasable, it could be used in connection with the formulation of requirements in building codes. During the last two decades...... work has been done on the measurement of the exact load functions and related reponse analysis. A recent work using a spectral description has been performed by Per-Erik Erikson and includes a good literature survey. Bachmann and Ammann give a good overview of vibrations caused by human activity. Other...

  17. Vibrations and waves

    CERN Document Server

    Kaliski, S


    This book gives a comprehensive overview of wave phenomena in different media with interacting mechanical, electromagnetic and other fields. Equations describing wave propagation in linear and non-linear elastic media are followed by equations of rheological models, models with internal rotational degrees of freedom and non-local interactions. Equations for coupled fields: thermal, elastic, electromagnetic, piezoelectric, and magneto-spin with adequate boundary conditions are also included. Together with its companion volume Vibrations and Waves. Part A: Vibrations this work provides a wealth

  18. Power inverter with optical isolation (United States)

    Duncan, Paul G.; Schroeder, John Alan


    An optically isolated power electronic power conversion circuit that includes an input electrical power source, a heat pipe, a power electronic switch or plurality of interconnected power electronic switches, a mechanism for connecting the switch to the input power source, a mechanism for connecting comprising an interconnecting cable and/or bus bar or plurality of interconnecting cables and/or input bus bars, an optically isolated drive circuit connected to the switch, a heat sink assembly upon which the power electronic switch or switches is mounted, an output load, a mechanism for connecting the switch to the output load, the mechanism for connecting including an interconnecting cable and/or bus bar or plurality of interconnecting cables and/or output bus bars, at least one a fiber optic temperature sensor mounted on the heat sink assembly, at least one fiber optic current sensor mounted on the load interconnection cable and/or output bus bar, at least one fiber optic voltage sensor mounted on the load interconnection cable and/or output bus bar, at least one fiber optic current sensor mounted on the input power interconnection cable and/or input bus bar, and at least one fiber optic voltage sensor mounted on the input power interconnection cable and/or input bus bar.

  19. Heterogeneous Dynamics of Coupled Vibrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cringus, Dan; Jansen, Thomas I. C.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Schoenlein, RW; Corkum, P; DeSilvestri, S; Nelson, KA; Riedle, E


    Frequency-dependent dynamics of coupled stretch vibrations of a water molecule are revealed by 2D IR correlation spectroscopy. These are caused by non-Gaussian fluctuations of the environment around the individual OH stretch vibrations.

  20. Diagnosis of pulmonary pneumocystosis by microscopy on wet mount preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAVA Amadeo Javier


    Full Text Available We have compared the searching of the presence of "honeycomb" structures by direct microscopy on wet mount preparations with the direct immunofluorescence (DIF for the diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP in 115 bronchoalveolar (BAL fluids. The samples belonged to 115 AIDS patients; 87 with presumptive diagnosis of PCP and 28 with presumptive diagnosis other than PCP. The obtained results were coincident in 114 out of 115 studied samples (27 were positive and 87 negative with both techniques. A higher percentage of positive results (32.18% among patients with presumptive diagnosis of PCP with respect to those with presumptive diagnosis other than PCP (3.57% was observed. One BAL fluid was positive only with DIF, showed scarce and isolated P. carinii elements and absence of typical "honeycomb" structures. The searching for "honeycomb" structures by direct microscopy on wet mount preparations could be considered as a cheap and rapid alternative for diagnosis of PCP when other techniques are not available or as screening test for DIF. This method showed a sensitivity close to DIF when it was applied to BAL fluids of AIDS patients with poor clinical condition and it was performed by an experienced microscopist.

  1. Vortex-induced vibrations of three staggered circular cylinders at low Reynolds numbers (United States)

    Behara, Suresh; Ravikanth, B.; Chandra, Venu


    Vortex-induced vibrations of three staggered circular cylinders are investigated via two-dimensional finite element computations. All the cylinders are of equal diameter (D) and are mounted on elastic supports in both streamwise (x -) and transverse (y -) directions. The two downstream cylinders are placed symmetrically on either side of the upstream body at a streamwise gap of 5D, with the vertical distance between them being 3D. Flow simulations are carried out for Reynolds numbers (Re) in the range of Re = 60-160. Reduced mass (m*) of 10 is considered and the damping is set to zero value. The present investigations show that the upstream cylinder exhibits initial and lower synchronization response modes like an isolated cylinder does at low Re. Whereas for both the downstream cylinders, the upper lock-in branch also appears. The initial and the upper modes are characterized by periodic oscillations, while the lower lock-in branch is associated with nonperiodic vibrations. The 2S mode of vortex shedding is observed in the near wake of all the cylinders for all Re, except for the upper branch corresponding to the downstream bodies. In the upper branch, both the downstream cylinders shed the primary vortices of the P+S mode. For the upstream cylinder, the phase between lift and the transverse displacement exhibits a 18 0° jump at certain Re in the lower branch. On the other hand, the downstream bodies undergo transverse oscillations in phase with lift in all lock-in modes, while the phase jumps by 18 0° as the oscillation response reaches the desynchronization regime.

  2. Mount Sinai and Mount Zion: Discontinuity and continuity in the book of Hebrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulisani Ramantswana


    Full Text Available The author of Hebrews draws significant contrasts between Mount Sinai and Mount Zion which both played a major role in the old covenant. For the author of Hebrews the former mountain, Mount Sinai, only had limited significance with respect to the new covenant, whereas the latter mountain, Mount Zion, continued to have significance in the new covenant. Mount Zion was viewed as a shadow of the heavenly reality, which is the true destination for the pilgrimage community. Mount Sinai as the locus of encounter or meeting between God and Israel only played a transitory role, whereas Mount Zion had perpetual significance as the destination, the dwelling place of God and his people.Berg Sinai en Berg Sion: Diskontinuïteit en kontinuïteit in die brief aan die Hebreërs. Die skrywer van Hebreërs wys op betekenisvolle teenstellings tussen Berg Sinai en Berg Sion, wat elkeen ’n beduidende rol in die ou verbond gespeel het. Vir die Hebreërskrywer het Berg Sinai egter beperkte betekenis vir die nuwe verbond, terwyl Sion nog steeds betekenis het. Berg Sion word as skaduwee van die hemelse werklikheid beskou, wat die uiteindelike bestemming van die pelgrimsgemeenskap is. Berg Sinai, as die lokus van ontmoeting tussen God en Israel, speel slegs ‘n oorgangsrol, terwyl Berg Sion steeds beduidende betekenis het as bestemming en woonplek van God en sy volk.

  3. A vibration correction method for free-fall absolute gravimeters (United States)

    Qian, J.; Wang, G.; Wu, K.; Wang, L. J.


    An accurate determination of gravitational acceleration, usually approximated as 9.8 m s‑2, has been playing an important role in the areas of metrology, geophysics, and geodetics. Absolute gravimetry has been experiencing rapid developments in recent years. Most absolute gravimeters today employ a free-fall method to measure gravitational acceleration. Noise from ground vibration has become one of the most serious factors limiting measurement precision. Compared to vibration isolators, the vibration correction method is a simple and feasible way to reduce the influence of ground vibrations. A modified vibration correction method is proposed and demonstrated. A two-dimensional golden section search algorithm is used to search for the best parameters of the hypothetical transfer function. Experiments using a T-1 absolute gravimeter are performed. It is verified that for an identical group of drop data, the modified method proposed in this paper can achieve better correction effects with much less computation than previous methods. Compared to vibration isolators, the correction method applies to more hostile environments and even dynamic platforms, and is expected to be used in a wider range of applications.

  4. MANUS: a wheelchair-mounted rehabilitation robot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, B.J.F.; Evers, H.G.; Woerden, J.A. van


    Rehabilitation robots are assistive devices designed for use by people with severe disability in order to gain independence in tasks of daily living. MANUS is a wheelchair-mounted general-purpose manipulator now in use with over 100 people in their homes in the Netherlands, in France and in other

  5. Photovoltaic module mounting clip with integral grounding (United States)

    Lenox, Carl J.


    An electrically conductive mounting/grounding clip, usable with a photovoltaic (PV) assembly of the type having an electrically conductive frame, comprises an electrically conductive body. The body has a central portion and first and second spaced-apart arms extending from the central portion. Each arm has first and second outer portions with frame surface-disrupting element at the outer portions.

  6. PC board mount corrosion sensitive sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Alex L.; Casias, Adrian L.; Pfeifer, Kent B.; Laguna, George R.


    The present invention relates to surface mount structures including a capacitive element or a resistive element, where the element has a property that is responsive to an environmental condition. In particular examples, the structure can be optionally coupled to a printed circuit board. Other apparatuses, surface mountable structures, and methods of use are described herein.

  7. June 1992 Mount Spurr, USA Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Following 39 years of inactivity, Crater Peak vent on the south flank of Mount Spurr volcano burst into eruption at 7:04 a.m. Alaska daylight time (ADT) on June 27,...

  8. Solidly Mounted Resonator with Optimized Acoustic Reflector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jose, Sumy; Jansman, Andreas; Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart


    The quality factor (Q) of the Solidly Mounted Resonator is limited by acoustic losses caused by waves leaking through the mirror stack. Traditionally employed acoustic mirror reflects only longitudinal waves and not shear waves. Starting with the stop-band theory and the principle of spacer layers

  9. Reliability Analysis of Surface Mount Technology (SMT) (United States)


    380, 1981. 7. J. DeVore; "The Mechanisms of Solderability and Solderability Related Failures," General Electric, WCIII-43, Printed Circuit World Convention...34Thermal Cycles and Surface Mounting Attachment Reliability," Circuit World , Vol. Il, 1985 76. J. Collett; "SMT Solder Joint Reliability," IPC-TP-708

  10. Summary of semi-initiative and initiative control automobile engine vibration (United States)

    Qu, Wei; Qu, Zhou


    Engine vibration accounts for around 55% of automobile vibration, separating the engine vibration from transmitting to automobile to the utmost extent is significant for improving NVH performance. Semi-initiative and initiative control of engine vibration is one of the hot spots of technical research in domestic and foreign automobile industry, especially luxury automobiles which adopt this technology to improve amenity and competitiveness. This article refers to a large amount of domestic and foreign related materials, fully introduces the research status of semi-initiative and initiative control suspension of engine vibration suspension and many kinds of structural style, and provides control policy and method of semi-initiative and initiative control suspension system. Compare and analyze the structural style of semi-initiative and initiative control and merits and demerits of current structures of semi-initiative and initiative control of mechanic electrorheological, magnetorheological, electromagnetic actuator, piezoelectric ceramics, electrostriction material, pneumatic actuator etc. Models of power assembly mounting system was classified.Calculation example indicated that reasonable selection of engine mounting system parameters is useful to reduce engine vibration transmission and to increase ride comfort. Finally we brought forward semi-initiative and initiative suspension which might be applied for automobiles, and which has a promising future.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kuharonak


    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to develop a program, a methodology and execute vibration load tests of Common Rail fuel system components for a diesel engine. The paper contains an analysis of parameters that characterize vibration activity of research object and determine its applicability as a part of the specific mechanical system. A tests program has been developed that includes measurements of general peak values of vibration acceleration in the fuel system components, transformation of the obtained data while taking into account the fact that peak vibration acceleration values depend on crank-shaft rotation frequency and spectrum of vibration frequency, comparison of these dependences with the threshold limit values obtained in the process of component tests with the help of vibration shaker. The investigations have been carried out in one of the most stressed elements of the Common Rail fuel system that is a RDS 4.2-pressure sensor in a fuel accumulator manufactured by Robert Bosch GmbH and mounted on the MMZ D245.7E4-engines.According to the test methodology measurements have been performed on an engine test bench at all fullload engine curves. Vibration measurements have resulted in time history of the peak vibration acceleration values in three directions from every accelerometer and crank-shaft rotation frequency.It has been proposed to increase a diameter of mounting spacers of the fuel accumulator and install a damping clamp on high pressure tubes from a high pressure fuel pump to the fuel accumulator that permits to reduce a maximum peak vibration acceleration value on the pressure sensor in the fuel accumulator by 400 m/s2 and ensure its application in the given engine.

  12. Reducing vibration transfer from power plants by active methods (United States)

    Kiryukhin, A. V.; Milman, O. O.; Ptakhin, A. V.


    The possibility of applying the methods of active damping of vibration and pressure pulsations for reducing their transfer from power plants into the environment, the seating, and the industrial premises are considered. The results of experimental works implemented by the authors on the active broadband damping of vibration and dynamic forces after shock-absorption up to 15 dB in the frequency band up to 150 Hz, of water pressure pulsations in the pipeline up to 20 dB in the frequency band up to 600 Hz, and of spatial low-frequency air noise indoors of a diesel generator at discrete frequency up to 20 dB are presented. It is shown that a reduction of vibration transfer through a vibration-isolating junction (expansion joints) of pipelines with liquid is the most complicated and has hardly been developed so far. This problem is essential for vibration isolation of power equipment from the seating and the environment through pipelines with water and steam in the power and transport engineering, shipbuilding, and in oil and gas pipelines in pumping stations. For improving efficiency, reducing the energy consumption, and decreasing the overall dimensions of equipment, it is advisable to combine the work of an active system with passive damping means, the use of which is not always sufficient. The executive component of the systems of active damping should be placed behind the vibration isolators (expansion joints). It is shown that the existence of working medium and connection of vibration with pressure pulsations in existing designs of pipeline expansion joints lead to growth of vibration stiffness of the expansion joint with the environment by two and more orders as compared with the static stiffness and makes difficulties for using the active methods. For active damping of vibration transfer through expansion joints of pipelines with a liquid, it is necessary to develop expansion joint structures with minimal connection of vibrations and pulsations and minimal

  13. Composite Struts Would Damp Vibrations (United States)

    Dolgin, Benjamin P.


    New design of composite-material (fiber/matrix laminate) struts increases damping of longitudinal vibrations without decreasing longitudinal stiffness or increasing weight significantly. Plies with opposing chevron patterns of fibers convert longitudinal vibrational stresses into shear stresses in intermediate viscoelastic layer, which dissipate vibrational energy. Composite strut stronger than aluminum strut of same weight and stiffness.

  14. Ship Vibration Design Guide (United States)


    Frachtschiffen," Werft Reederie Hafen, 1925. 4-21 Noonan, E. F. "Vibration Considerations for 120,000 CM LNG Ships," NKF: Preliminary Report No. 7107, 25...Ship Response to Ice - A Second Season by C. Daley, J. W. St. John, R. Brown, J. Meyer , and I. Glen 1990 SSC-340 Ice Forces and Ship Response to Ice

  15. Compact Vibration Damper (United States)

    Ivanco, Thomas G. (Inventor)


    A vibration damper includes a rigid base with a mass coupled thereto for linear movement thereon. Springs coupled to the mass compress in response to the linear movement along either of two opposing directions. A converter coupled to the mass converts the linear movement to a corresponding rotational movement. A rotary damper coupled to the converter damps the rotational movement.

  16. Vibrations and Eigenvalues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The vibrating string problem is the source of much mathematicsand physics. This article describes Lagrange's formulationof a discretised version of the problem and its solution.This is also the first instance of an eigenvalue problem. Author Affiliations. Rajendra Bhatia1. Ashoka University, Rai, Haryana 131 029, India.

  17. Blade Vibration Measurement System (United States)

    Platt, Michael J.


    The Phase I project successfully demonstrated that an advanced noncontacting stress measurement system (NSMS) could improve classification of blade vibration response in terms of mistuning and closely spaced modes. The Phase II work confirmed the microwave sensor design process, modified the sensor so it is compatible as an upgrade to existing NSMS, and improved and finalized the NSMS software. The result will be stand-alone radar/tip timing radar signal conditioning for current conventional NSMS users (as an upgrade) and new users. The hybrid system will use frequency data and relative mode vibration levels from the radar sensor to provide substantially superior capabilities over current blade-vibration measurement technology. This frequency data, coupled with a reduced number of tip timing probes, will result in a system capable of detecting complex blade vibrations that would confound traditional NSMS systems. The hardware and software package was validated on a compressor rig at Mechanical Solutions, Inc. (MSI). Finally, the hybrid radar/tip timing NSMS software package and associated sensor hardware will be installed for use in the NASA Glenn spin pit test facility.

  18. Vibration Sensitive Keystroke Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopatka, M.; Peetz, M.-H.; van Erp, M.; Stehouwer, H.; van Zaanen, M.


    We present a novel method for performing non-invasive biometric analysis on habitual keystroke patterns using a vibration-based feature space. With the increasing availability of 3-D accelerometer chips in laptop computers, conventional methods using time vectors may be augmented using a distinct

  19. Methods for resolving fan/motor vibration problems in air-conditioning units. Part 3: Experimental procedures for investigating torsional vibration in air-conditioning units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, C. [Carrier Corp., Indianapolis, IN (United States); Reynolds, D.D. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    Vibration modes associated with a fan impeller, motor, and motor mounting assembly in small air-conditioning units can be excited by motor torque pulsations in single-phase motors. Experimental procedures were developed that can be used to measure the torsional resonance frequencies of the stationary parts (motor stator and motor mounting assembly) and the rotating parts (fan impeller and motor rotor and shaft assembly) of a propeller fan assembly. Impact test procedures, test procedures in which the fan motor is set up to act as a torsional shaker, and procedures that employ the use of a microphone in an anechoic room are presented in this paper.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŞUTEU Marius


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to accurately and quickly identify the faults of the tables and supports on which the embroidery machines are placed through vibrations measuring method. Vibrations measurements on Happy embroidery machine were performed at S.C. CONFIDEX S.R.L Oradea. A FFT spectrum analyzer Impaq was used, made by Benstone Instruments Inc –SUA. The measurements were performed in order to seek the role and importance of the rigidity of embroidery machine supports for a better and more efficient performance of the machine. Before performing these measurements was determined the optimal operating mode of the embroidery machine. The vibration measurements were performed in each measuring point, by installing a vibration sensor on the three directions of the Cartesian coordinates system: axial (X, horizontal (Y, vertical (Z. In the present paper is shown only the measuring direction Z (sensor mounting direction and advance of the material on x direction (the embroidery direction this is the most relevant direction, as on this part the embroidery is executed. After performing these vibration measurements on the HAPPY embroidery machine, previously mounted on a big table, after that mounted on a smaller table and a less rigid base. The same vibrations measurements were performed and it was noticed that it is mandatory to position the machine on a big table and a stable base because it will influence both the reliability and the working regime of the machine.

  1. Active vibration control of civil structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, C.; Baker, W.; Fales, J.; Shevitz, D.


    This is a final report of a one year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Active vibration control (AVC) of structural and mechanical systems is one of the rapidly advancing areas of engineering research. The multifaceted nature of AVC covers many disciplines, such as sensors and instrumentation, numerical modeling, experimental mechanics, and advanced power systems. This work encompassed a review of the literature on active control of structures focusing both on active control hardware and on control algorithms, a design of an isolation systems using magneto-rheological fluid-filled (MRF) dampers and numerical simulations to study the enhanced vibration mitigation effects of this technology.

  2. Reduction of personnel vibration hazards in underground coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, X.; Middlin, A. (Vipac Engineers and Scientists Ltd. (Australia))


    Whole-Body Vibration (WBV) due to the 'rough ride' in vehicles is a major source of back and neck injury in underground coal mines. Hand-Arm Vibration (HAV) from hand held equipment can also cause long term health damage. Surveys in three collieries in NSW have been conducted to measure the vibration levels to which miners are being exposed and to assess them according to the two relevant Australian Standards namely AS2670 and AS2763. WBV results indicated that shock loadings must be the source of back and neck injuries that are occurring due to 'rough ride'. Existing off-the-shelf seat suspensions were demonstrated to be inadequate for providing effective shock isolation, due to them being prone to bottoming out under rough conditions, and due their scissor action mechanism becoming rapidly jammed by dirt to the point where they become rigid. Commercially available seats were evaluated and tested on a hydraulic shaker, but none proved able to provide the required vibration isolation. A prototype seat suspension was developed by Vipac. This suspension was shaker tested and trialled in low loaders at two collieries. The seat proved capable of cushioning shock loads without bottoming out, as well as attenuating the dominant vibration at 2.5 Hz and higher. This suspension with encapsulated mechanism could be readily adapted to suit a wide range of underground vehicles. The HAV survey results identified the Wombat roof-bolter as the major item requiring vibration level reductions. Extensive investigations resulted in the design of a prototype vibration isolated handle. During field tests this prototype handle reduced the HAV level such that the Exposure Time (10th percentile) was increased from 7 to 11.5 years. Guidelines are presented for additional developments which would further improve this performance and result in a handle design suitable for retrofitting to existing roof bolters.

  3. Animal Communications Through Seismic Vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Peggy (University of Tulsa)


    Substrate vibration has been important to animals as a channel of communication for millions of years, but our literature on vibration in this context of biologically relevant information is only decades old. The jaw mechanism of the earliest land vertebrates allowed them to perceive substrate vibrations as their heads lay on the ground long before airborne sounds could be heard. Although the exact mechanism of vibration production and the precise nature of the wave produced are not always understood, recent development of affordable instrumentation to detect and measure vibrations has allowed researchers to answer increasingly sophisticated questions about how animals send and receive vibration signals. We now know that vibration provides information used in predator defense, prey detection, recruitment to food, mate choice, intrasexual competition, and maternal/brood social interactions in a variety of insect orders, spiders, crabs, scorpions, chameleons, frogs, golden moles, mole rats, kangaroos rats, wallabies, elephants and bison.

  4. Vibration Attenuation of Plate Using Multiple Vibration Absorbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaman Izzuddin


    Full Text Available Vibrations are undesired phenomenon and it can cause harm, distress and unsettling influence to the systems or structures, for example, aircraft, automobile, machinery and building. One of the approach to limit this vibration by introducing passive vibration absorber attached to the structure. In this paper, the adequacy of utilizing passive vibration absorbers are investigated. The vibration absorber system is designed to minimize the vibration of a thin plate fixed along edges. The plate’s vibration characteristics, such as, natural frequency and mode shape are determined using three techniques: theoretical equations, finite element (FE analysis and experiment. The results demonstrate that the first four natural frequencies of fixed-fixed ends plate are 48, 121, 193 and 242 Hz, and these results are corroborated well with theoretical, FE simulation and experiment. The experiment work is further carried out with attached single and multiple vibration absorbers onto plate by tuning the absorber’s frequency to match with the excitation frequency. The outcomes depict that multiple vibration absorbers are more viable in lessening the global structural vibration.

  5. A history of helmet mounted displays (United States)

    Foote, Bob; Melzer, James


    In more than 40 years of development, the Helmet-Mounted Display (HMD) has become a key part of the equipment for fixed and rotary wing pilots and ground soldiers, proving to be a force multiplier and reducing user workload. Rockwell Collins has been a key player in the development of modern HMD technology and is currently fielding major HMDs supporting pilots around the world including the Joint Hemet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) and Strike Eye. This paper will outline the history of HMDs over the last 40 years for fixed wing, rotorcraft and soldiers and discuss Rockwell Collins' role. We will discuss the development and testing required for introduction of HMDs into the modern pilot environment. Within the paper we will point out some of the misconceptions, facts and legends of HMDS.

  6. Micro-inverter solar panel mounting (United States)

    Morris, John; Gilchrist, Phillip Charles


    Processes, systems, devices, and articles of manufacture are provided. Each may include adapting micro-inverters initially configured for frame-mounting to mounting on a frameless solar panel. This securement may include using an adaptive clamp or several adaptive clamps secured to a micro-inverter or its components, and using compressive forces applied directly to the solar panel to secure the adaptive clamp and the components to the solar panel. The clamps can also include compressive spacers and safeties for managing the compressive forces exerted on the solar panels. Friction zones may also be used for managing slipping between the clamp and the solar panel during or after installation. Adjustments to the clamps may be carried out through various means and by changing the physical size of the clamps themselves.

  7. Analysis of generator bearing vibration data for diagnosing rotor circuit malfunction in DFIGs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrimpas, Georgios Alexandros; Sweeney, Christian W.; Jensen, Bogi Bech


    Doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs) are the most popular configuration met in the wind energy sector occu- pying approximately 65 % of the total market share. Condition monitoring of wind turbine generators is performed based on vibration data collected from accelerometers mounted on the drive...... the slip ring unit and the rotor circuit is manifested as excessive vibration seen in both ends of the generator. The consistent and accurate diagnosis of a rotor circuit malfunction is of crucial importance in regards to proper troubleshooting of the fault and the overall health of the generator....... In this paper generator bearing vibration signature for a DFIG under operation with one rotor phase coil open is analysed and presented. Further this failure mode is compared to rotor dynamics fault, such as rotational looseness, and the difference in signature is discussed. Vibration data from a multi...

  8. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 18, Number 8 (United States)


    addressed [21]. Existing active vibration con- described [11]. Stoppel [12] has critically trollers have been evaluated [22]; suggestions analyzed calculated...London (Sept 1985). 12. Stoppel , J., "Structural Dynamic Aspects of Rotor Antiresonant Isolation," AHS/USARO Intl. 22. Davis, M.W., "Development and

  9. Attenuation of cryocooler induced vibration using multimodal tuned dynamic absorber (United States)

    Veprik, A.; Babitsky, V.; Tuito, A.


    Modern infrared imagers often rely on low Size, Weight and Power split Stirling linear cryocoolers comprised of side-by-side packed compressor and expander units fixedly mounted upon a common frame and interconnected by the configurable transfer line. Imbalanced reciprocation of moving assemblies generates vibration export in the form of tonal force couple producing angular and translational dynamic responses. Resulting line of sight jitter and dynamic defocusing may affect the image quality. The authors explore the concept of multimodal tuned dynamic absorber, the translational and tilting modal frequencies of which are essentially matched to the driving frequency. Dynamic analysis and full-scale testing show that the dynamic reactions (forces and moments) produced by such a device may effectively attenuate both translational and angular components of cryocooler-induced vibration.

  10. Indexing Mount For Rotation Of Optical Component (United States)

    Reichle, Donald J., Jr.; Barnes, Norman P.


    Indexing mount for polarizer, wave plate, birefringent plate, or other optical component facilitates rotation of component to one or more preset angles. Includes hexagonal nut holding polarizer or other optical component. Ball bearing loaded by screw engages notch on cylindrical extension of nut engaging bracket. Time-consuming and tedious angular adjustment unnecessary: component turned quickly and easily, by hand or by use of wrench, to preset angular positions maintained by simple ball-detent mechanism.

  11. Conceptual design for PSP mounting bracket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ransom, G.; Stein, R. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States)


    Protective structural packages (PSP`s or overpacks) used to ship 2 1/2-ton UF{sub 6} product cylinders are bolted to truck trailers. All bolts penetrate two longitudinal rows of wooden planks. Removal and replacement is required at various intervals for maintenance and routine testing. A conceptual design is presented for mounting brackets which would securely attach PSP`s to trailer frames, reduce removal and replacement time, and minimize risk of personnel injury.

  12. Modal vibration testing of the DVA-1 radio telescope (United States)

    Byrnes, Peter W. G.; Lacy, Gordon


    The Dish Verification Antenna 1 (DVA-1) is a 15m aperture offset Gregorian radio telescope featuring a rim-supported single piece molded composite primary reflector on an altitude-azimuth pedestal mount. Vibration measurements of the DVA-1 telescope were conducted over three days in October 2014 by NSI Herzberg engineers. The purpose of these tests was to measure the first several natural frequencies of the DVA-1 telescope. This paper describes the experimental approach, in particular the step-release method, and summarizes some interesting results, including unexpectedly high damping of the first mode over a narrow range of zenith angles.

  13. Damping element for reducing the vibration of an airfoil (United States)

    Campbell, Christian X; Marra, John J


    An airfoil (10) is provided with a tip (12) having an opening (14) to a center channel (24). A damping element (16) is inserted within the opening of the center channel, to reduce an induced vibration of the airfoil. The mass of the damping element, a spring constant of the damping element within the center channel, and/or a mounting location (58) of the damping element within the center channel may be adjustably varied, to shift a resonance frequency of the airfoil outside a natural operating frequency of the airfoil.

  14. Good vibrations. [Hydraulic turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, P.


    The latest developments in the Voith Turbine Control and Automation System (VTLS), which couples digital control technology to hydropower plant equipment, are described. Prominent among these is the vibration diagnostics module for hydraulic turbines. It provides machine-specific diagnostic logic for a vibration monitoring and analysis system. Of the two other VTLS modules described, the operation module optimizes the control of a power plant with three or more turbines by considering the individual properties of each in turn, recommending which should be run, and how, in order to partition the load for a required power output. The cavitation module is a diagnostic system which enables the limits of operation of the turbines to be extended to bands just outside those determined by cavitation calculations. (3 figures). (UK)

  15. Pickin’ up good vibrations

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony


    In preparation for the civil engineering work on the HL-LHC, vibration measurements were carried out at the LHC’s Point 1 last month. These measurements will help evaluate how civil engineering work could impact the beam, and will provide crucial details about the site’s geological make-up before construction begins.   A seismic truck at Point 1 generated wave-like vibrations measured by EN/MME. From carrying out R&D to produce state-of-the-art magnets to developing innovative, robust materials capable of withstanding beam impact, the HL-LHC is a multi-faceted project involving many groups and teams across CERN’s departments. It was in this framework that the project management mandated CERN's Mechanical and Materials Engineering (EN/MME) group to measure the propagation of vibrations around Point 1. Their question: can civil engineering work for the HL-LHC – the bulk of which is scheduled for LS2 – begin while the LHC is running? Alth...

  16. Vibrational stability of graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangfan Hu


    Full Text Available The mechanical stability of graphene as temperature rises is analyzed based on three different self-consistent phonon (SCP models. Compared with three-dimensional (3-D materials, the critical temperature Ti at which instability occurs for graphene is much closer to its melting temperature Tm obtained from Monte Carlo simulation (Ti ≃ 2Tm, K. V. Zakharchenko, A. Fasolino, J. H. Los, and M. I. Katsnelson, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23, 202202. This suggests that thermal vibration plays a significant role in melting of graphene while melting for 3-D materials is often dominated by topologic defects. This peculiar property of graphene derives from its high structural anisotropy, which is characterized by the vibrational anisotropic coefficient (VAC, defined upon its Lindermann ratios in different directions. For any carbon based material with a graphene-like structure, the VAC value must be smaller than 5.4 to maintain its stability. It is also found that the high VAC value of graphene is responsible for its negative thermal expansion coefficient at low temperature range. We believe that the VAC can be regarded as a new criterion concerning the vibrational stability of any low-dimensional (low-D materials.

  17. Mounting ground sections of teeth: Cyanoacrylate adhesive versus Canada balsam


    Manogna R.L. Vangala; Amrutha Rudraraju; Subramanyam, R. V.


    Introduction: Hard tissues can be studied by either decalcification or by preparing ground sections. Various mounting media have been tried and used for ground sections of teeth. However, there are very few studies on the use of cyanoacrylate adhesive as a mounting medium. Aims: The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of cyanoacrylate adhesive (Fevikwik™) as a mounting medium for ground sections of teeth and to compare these ground sections with those mounted with Canada balsam. Mat...

  18. Diagnosis of Localized Faults in Multistage Gearboxes: A Vibrational Approach by Means of Automatic EMD-Based Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Buzzoni


    Full Text Available The gear fault diagnosis on multistage gearboxes by vibration analysis is a challenging task due to the complexity of the vibration signal. The localization of the gear fault occurring in a wheel located in the intermediate shaft can be particularly complex due to the superposition of the vibration signature of the synchronous wheels. Indeed, the gear fault detection is commonly restricted to the identification of the stage containing the faulty gear rather than the faulty gear itself. In this context, the paper advances a methodology which combines the Empirical Mode Decomposition and the Time Synchronous Average in order to separate the vibration signals of the synchronous gears mounted on the same shaft. The physical meaningful modes are selected by means of a criterion based on Pearson’s coefficients and the fault detection is performed by dedicated condition indicators. The proposed method is validated taking into account simulated vibrations signals and real ones.

  19. 46 CFR 61.05-15 - Boiler mountings and attachments. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boiler mountings and attachments. 61.05-15 Section 61.05... TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-15 Boiler mountings and attachments. (a....05-10. (b) Each stud or bolt for each boiler mounting that paragraph (c) of this section requires to...

  20. [The controversy of routine articulator mounting in orthodontics]. (United States)

    Wang, Li; Han, Xianglong; Bai, Ding


    Articulators have been widely used by clinicians of dentistry. But routine articulator mounting is still controversial in orthodontics. Orthodontists oriented by gnathology approve routine articulator mounting while nongnathologic orthodontists disapprove it. This article reviews the thoughts of orthodontist that they agree or disagree with routine articulator mounting based on the considerations of biting, temporomandibular disorder (TMD), periodontitis, and so on.

  1. Base isolation: Fresh insight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shustov, V.


    The objective of the research is a further development of the engineering concept of seismic isolation. Neglecting the transient stage of seismic loading results in a widespread misjudgement: The force of resistance associated with velocity is mostly conceived as a source of damping vibrations, though it is an active force at the same time, during an earthquake type excitation. For very pliant systems such as base isolated structures with relatively low bearing stiffness and with artificially added heavy damping mechanism, the so called `damping`` force may occur even the main pushing force at an earthquake. Thus, one of the two basic pillars of the common seismic isolation philosophy, namely, the doctrine of usefulness and necessity of a strong damping mechanism, is turning out to be a self-deception, sometimes even jeopardizing the safety of structures and discrediting the very idea of seismic isolation. There is a way out: breaking with damping dependancy.

  2. Random vibrations theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Wirsching, Paul H; Ortiz, Keith


    Random Vibrations: Theory and Practice covers the theory and analysis of mechanical and structural systems undergoing random oscillations due to any number of phenomena— from engine noise, turbulent flow, and acoustic noise to wind, ocean waves, earthquakes, and rough pavement. For systems operating in such environments, a random vibration analysis is essential to the safety and reliability of the system. By far the most comprehensive text available on random vibrations, Random Vibrations: Theory and Practice is designed for readers who are new to the subject as well as those who are familiar with the fundamentals and wish to study a particular topic or use the text as an authoritative reference. It is divided into three major sections: fundamental background, random vibration development and applications to design, and random signal analysis. Introductory chapters cover topics in probability, statistics, and random processes that prepare the reader for the development of the theory of random vibrations a...

  3. Vibration Transfer Path Analysis and Path Ranking for NVH Optimization of a Vehicle Interior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sakhaei


    Full Text Available By new advancements in vehicle manufacturing, evaluation of vehicle quality assurance has got a more critical issue. Today noise and vibration generated inside and outside the vehicles are more important factors for customers than before. So far several researchers have focused on interior noise transfer path analysis and the results have been published in related papers but each method has its own limitations. In present work, the vibration transfer path analysis and vibration path ranking of a car interior have been performed. As interior vibration is a source of structural borne noise problem, thus, the results of this research can be used to present the structural borne noise state in a vehicle. The proposed method in this paper does not need to disassemble the powertrain from the chassis. The procedure shows a good ability of vibration path ranking in a vehicle and is an effective tool to diagnose the vibration problem inside the vehicle. The simulated vibration spectrums in different speeds of the engine have a good compliance with the tested results; however, some incompatibilities exist and have been discussed in detail. The simulated results show the strength of the method in engine mount optimization.

  4. ATST telescope mount: telescope of machine tool (United States)

    Jeffers, Paul; Stolz, Günter; Bonomi, Giovanni; Dreyer, Oliver; Kärcher, Hans


    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the largest solar telescope in the world, and will be able to provide the sharpest views ever taken of the solar surface. The telescope has a 4m aperture primary mirror, however due to the off axis nature of the optical layout, the telescope mount has proportions similar to an 8 meter class telescope. The technology normally used in this class of telescope is well understood in the telescope community and has been successfully implemented in numerous projects. The world of large machine tools has developed in a separate realm with similar levels of performance requirement but different boundary conditions. In addition the competitive nature of private industry has encouraged development and usage of more cost effective solutions both in initial capital cost and thru-life operating cost. Telescope mounts move relatively slowly with requirements for high stability under external environmental influences such as wind buffeting. Large machine tools operate under high speed requirements coupled with high application of force through the machine but with little or no external environmental influences. The benefits of these parallel development paths and the ATST system requirements are being combined in the ATST Telescope Mount Assembly (TMA). The process of balancing the system requirements with new technologies is based on the experience of the ATST project team, Ingersoll Machine Tools who are the main contractor for the TMA and MT Mechatronics who are their design subcontractors. This paper highlights a number of these proven technologies from the commercially driven machine tool world that are being introduced to the TMA design. Also the challenges of integrating and ensuring that the differences in application requirements are accounted for in the design are discussed.

  5. Motion planning for gantry mounted manipulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Lau; Petersen, Henrik Gordon


    We present a roadmap based planner for finding robot motions for gantry mounted manipulators for a line welding application at Odense Steel Shipyard (OSS). The robot motions are planned subject to constraints on when the gantry may be moved. We show that random sampling of gantry configurations...... is a viable technique for positioning the manipulator and present a pruning technique for managing the growth of the roadmap. We discuss results from simulations and from applications at the shipyard, where a similar planner has now been implemented for production....

  6. Creating Gaze Annotations in Head Mounted Displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbeigi, Diako; Qvarfordt, Pernilla


    , the user simply captures an image using the HMD’s camera, looks at an object of interest in the image, and speaks out the information to be associated with the object. The gaze location is recorded and visualized with a marker. The voice is transcribed using speech recognition. Gaze annotations can......To facilitate distributed communication in mobile settings, we developed GazeNote for creating and sharing gaze annotations in head mounted displays (HMDs). With gaze annotations it possible to point out objects of interest within an image and add a verbal description. To create an annota- tion...

  7. Lattice Vibrations in Chlorobenzenes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reynolds, P. A.; Kjems, Jørgen; White, J. W.


    Lattice vibrational dispersion curves for the ``intermolecular'' modes in the triclinic, one molecule per unit cell β phase of p‐C6D4Cl2 and p‐C6H4Cl2 have been obtained by inelastic neutron scattering. The deuterated sample was investigated at 295 and at 90°K and a linear extrapolation to 0°K...... was applied in order to correct for anharmonic effects. Calculations based on the atom‐atom model for van der Waals' interaction and on general potential parameters for the aromatic compounds agree reasonably well with the experimental observations. There is no substantial improvement in fit obtained either...

  8. Quantum dynamics of vibrational excitations and vibrational charge ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quantum dynamics of vibrational excitations and vibrational charge transfer processes in H+ + O2 collisions at collision energy 23 eV ... The Fritz Haber Research Centre and The Department of Physical Chemisry, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel 91904; Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of ...

  9. The Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York. (United States)

    Butler, R N; Adelman, R


    Aging is the third great antecedent to all disease, along with genetic factors and the environment. Yet, the role of aging in the genesis of the conditions of old age constitutes relatively new territory that has not been adequately explored in terms of education, the health care system, and research. A commitment to these areas was made in 1982 when the Mount Sinai Medical Center established the nation's first and only medical school department of geriatrics--the Gerald and May Ellen Ritter Department of Geriatrics and Adult Development. Recognizing that aging of the population constituted a major global public health challenge, leaders of the medical center turned to Robert N. Butler, MD, who was then director of the National Institute on Aging, for guidance in setting up an institute of gerontology and geriatrics. Because only a full-fledged academic department would have a claim on resources, curriculum, and clerkship time, Dr Butler recommended that such a department be developed at Mount Sinai. The Ritter Department of Geriatrics and Adult Development emphasized the wide scope of this new discipline through educational programs, clinical services, health policy studies, and research projects.

  10. Literature survey on anti-vibration gloves

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sampson, E


    Full Text Available ............................................................................................................... 1 2. HAND ARM VIBRATION SYNDROME (HAVS).......................................................... 2 2.1 Hand-arm vibration................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. 2.2 Human Response to vibration...

  11. 76 FR 76689 - Cibola National Forest, Mount Taylor Ranger District, NM, Mount Taylor Combined Exploratory Drilling (United States)


    ... project area. The exploratory drilling in this area would be phased over the course of six years; 51 holes... drilling on the Cibola National Forest, Mount Taylor Ranger District. There are two areas identified for exploration; the Bajillos project area is approximately 2,894 acres and is located in T. 12 N, R. 8 W...

  12. Hand vibration: non-contact measurement of local transmissibility. (United States)

    Scalise, Lorenzo; Rossetti, Francesco; Paone, Nicola


    Grip and push forces required for the use of vibrating tools are considered important influencing inputs for the assessment of hand-vibration transmissibility (TR). At present TR measurements are usually referred to the palm of the hand The aims of the present paper are: to present an original measurement procedure for non-contact assessment of the transmissibility of fingers; to report TR data measured on six points of the hand of nine subjects; to correlate TR with: grip, push, hand volume and BMI. Tests have been carried out using a cylindrical handle mounted on an shaker. A laser Doppler vibrometer is used to measure the vibration velocity. Push force is measured using a force platform, whereas grip force is measured using a capacitive pressure sensor matrix wrapped around the handle. Tests have been conducted on nine healthy subjects. Proximal and distal regions of the second, fourth and fifth fingers have been investigated. Tests were carried out using a push force of: 25, 50 and 75 N. The excitation signal was a broadband random vibration in the band 16-400 Hz with un-weighted rms acceleration level of 6 m/s(2). Results show how in general TR values measured on distal points are higher respect to the proximal points. A resonance peak is present for all the measured points in the band 55-80 Hz. ANOVA analysis showed that TR is not significantly dependent on: BMI, hand volume and push force alone. While TR is significantly dependent on: grip force alone, measurement positions and grip and push force together. The proposed procedure shows the advantage to allow local vibration measurement directly on the fingers without the necessity to apply any contact sensor. Results demonstrate how the transmissibility is significantly different on the point where the acceleration is measured.

  13. Vibrational Sensing in Marine Invertebrates (United States)


    VIBRATIONAL SENSING IN MARINE INVERTEBRATES Peter A. Jumars School of Oceanography University of Washington Box 357940 Seattle, WA 98195-7940 (206...DATES COVERED 00-00-1997 to 00-00-1997 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Vibrational Sensing in Marine Invertebrates 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  14. Vibrations and Stability: Solved Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    Worked out solutions for exercise problems in J. J. Thomsen 'Vibrations and Stability: Advanced Theory, Analysis, and Tools', Springer, Berlin - Heidelberg, 2003.......Worked out solutions for exercise problems in J. J. Thomsen 'Vibrations and Stability: Advanced Theory, Analysis, and Tools', Springer, Berlin - Heidelberg, 2003....

  15. Isolation, identification and application in lignin degradation of an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to isolate an ascomycete producing ligninolytic enzyme and characterize its lignin degradation capability. Among 20 isolates, GHJ-4 was isolated from decayed wood of Salix matsudana Koidz in Mount Tai, China, by different indicator compounds assay. The taxonomy of the fungi was ...

  16. The origins of vibration theory (United States)

    Dimarogonas, A. D.


    The Ionian School of natural philosophy introduced the scientific method of dealing with natural phenomena and the rigorous proofs for abstract propositions. Vibration theory was initiated by the Pythagoreans in the fifth century BC, in association with the theory of music and the theory of acoustics. They observed the natural frequency of vibrating systems and proved that it is a system property and that it does not depend on the excitation. Pythagoreans determined the fundamental natural frequencies of several simple systems, such as vibrating strings, pipes, vessels and circular plates. Aristoteles and the Peripatetic School founded mechanics and developed a fundamental understanding of statics and dynamics. In Alexandrian times there were substantial engineering developments in the field of vibration. The pendulum as a vibration, and probably time, measuring device was known in antiquity, and was further developed by the end of the first millennium AD.

  17. Acoustic buffeting by infrasound in a low vibration facility. (United States)

    MacLeod, B P; Hoffman, J E; Burke, S A; Bonn, D A


    Measurement instruments and fabrication tools with spatial resolution on the atomic scale require facilities that mitigate the impact of vibration sources in the environment. One approach to protection from vibration in a building's foundation is to place the instrument on a massive inertia block, supported on pneumatic isolators. This opens the questions of whether or not a massive floating block is susceptible to acoustic forces, and how to mitigate the effects of any such acoustic buffeting. Here this is investigated with quantitative measurements of vibrations and sound pressure, together with finite element modeling. It is shown that a particular concern, even in a facility with multiple acoustic enclosures, is the excitation of the lowest fundamental acoustic modes of the room by infrasound in the low tens of Hz range, and the efficient coupling of the fundamental room modes to a large inertia block centered in the room.

  18. Eruptive history of Mount Katmai, Alaska (United States)

    Hildreth, Edward; Fierstein, Judith


    Mount Katmai has long been recognized for its caldera collapse during the great pyroclastic eruption of 1912 (which vented 10 km away at Novarupta in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes), but little has previously been reported about the geology of the remote ice-clad stratovolcano itself. Over several seasons, we reconnoitered all parts of the edifice and sampled most of the lava flows exposed on its flanks and caldera rim. The precipitous inner walls of the 1912 caldera remain too unstable for systematic sampling; so we provide instead a photographic and interpretive record of the wall sequences exposed. In contrast to the several andesite-dacite stratovolcanoes nearby, products of Mount Katmai range from basalt to rhyolite. Before collapse in 1912, there were two overlapping cones with separate vent complexes and craters; their products are here divided into eight sequences of lava flows, agglutinates, and phreatomagmatic ejecta. Latest Pleistocene and Holocene eruptive units include rhyodacite and rhyolite lava flows along the south rim; a major 22.8-ka rhyolitic plinian fall and ignimbrite deposit; a dacite-andesite zoned scoria fall; a thick sheet of dacite agglutinate that filled a paleocrater and draped the west side of the edifice; unglaciated leveed dacite lava flows on the southeast slope; and the Horseshoe Island dacite dome that extruded on the caldera floor after collapse. Pre-collapse volume of the glaciated Katmai edifice was ∼30 km3, and eruptive volume is estimated to have been 57±13 km3. The latter figure includes ∼40±6 km3 for the edifice, 5±2 km3 for off-edifice dacite pyroclastic deposits, and 12±5 km3 for the 22.8-ka rhyolitic pyroclastic deposits. To these can be added 13.5 km3 of magma that erupted at Novarupta in 1912, all or much of which is inferred to have been withdrawn from beneath Mount Katmai. The oldest part of the edifice exposed is a basaltic cone, which gave a 40Ar/39Ar plateau age of 89 ± 25 ka.

  19. Fire and forest history at Mount Rushmore. (United States)

    Brown, Peter M; Wienk, Cody L; Symstad, Amy J


    Mount Rushmore National Memorial in the Black Hills of South Dakota is known worldwide for its massive sculpture of four of the United States' most respected presidents. The Memorial landscape also is covered by extensive ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest that has not burned in over a century. We compiled dendroecological and forest structural data from 29 plots across the 517-ha Memorial and used fire behavior modeling to reconstruct the historical fire regime and forest structure and compare them to current conditions. The historical fire regime is best characterized as one of low-severity surface fires with occasional (> 100 years) patches (fire. We estimate that only approximately 3.3% of the landscape burned as crown fire during 22 landscape fire years (recorded at > or = 25% of plots) between 1529 and 1893. The last landscape fire was in 1893. Mean fire intervals before 1893 varied depending on spatial scale, from 34 years based on scar-to-scar intervals on individual trees to 16 years between landscape fire years. Modal fire intervals were 11-15 years and did not vary with scale. Fire rotation (the time to burn an area the size of the study area) was estimated to be 30 years for surface fire and 800+ years for crown fire. The current forest is denser and contains more small trees, fewer large trees, lower canopy base heights, and greater canopy bulk density than a reconstructed historical (1870) forest. Fire behavior modeling using the NEXUS program suggests that surface fires would have dominated fire behavior in the 1870 forest during both moderate and severe weather conditions, while crown fire would dominate in the current forest especially under severe weather. Changes in the fire regime and forest structure at Mount Rushmore parallel those seen in ponderosa pine forests from the southwestern United States. Shifts from historical to current forest structure and the increased likelihood of crown fire justify the need for forest restoration before a

  20. Research and Analysis of Quasi-Zero-Stiffness Isolator with Geometric Nonlinear Damping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingguo Meng


    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel quasi-zero-stiffness (QZS isolator designed by combining a tension spring with a vertical linear spring. In order to improve the performance of low-frequency vibration isolation, geometric nonlinear damping is proposed and applied to a quasi-zero-stiffness (QZS vibration isolator. Through the study of static characteristics first, the relationship between force displacement and stiffness displacement of the vibration isolation mechanism is established; it is concluded that the parameters of the mechanism have the characteristics of quasi-zero stiffness at the equilibrium position. The solutions of the QZS system are obtained based on the harmonic balance method (HBM. Then, the force transmissibility of the QZS vibration isolator is analyzed. And the results indicate that increasing the nonlinear damping can effectively suppress the transmissibility compared with the nonlinear damping system. Finally, this system is innovative for low-frequency vibration isolation of rehabilitation robots and other applications.


    Keith, T.E.C.; Causey, J.D.


    A mineral survey of the Mount Hood Wilderness, Oregon, was conducted. Geochemical data indicate two areas of substantiated mineral-resource potential containing weak epithermal mineralization: an area of the north side of Zigzag Mountain where vein-type lead-zinc-silver deposits occur and an area of the south side of Zigzag Mountain, where the upper part of a quartz diorite pluton has propylitic alteration associated with mineralization of copper, gold, silver, lead, and zinc in discontinuous veins. Geothermal-resource potential for low- to intermediate-temperature (less than 248 degree F) hot-water systems in the wilderness is probable in these areas. Part of the wilderness is classified as a Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA), which is considered to have probable geothermal-resource potential, and two parts of the wilderness have been included in geothermal lease areas.

  2. Robotized Surface Mounting of Permanent Magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Hultman


    Full Text Available Using permanent magnets on a rotor can both simplify the design and increase the efficiency of electric machines compared to using electromagnets. A drawback, however, is the lack of existing automated assembly methods for large machines. This paper presents and motivates a method for robotized surface mounting of permanent magnets on electric machine rotors. The translator of the Uppsala University Wave Energy Converter generator is used as an example of a rotor. The robot cell layout, equipment design and assembly process are presented and validated through computer simulations and experiments with prototype equipment. A comparison with manual assembly indicates substantial cost savings and an improved work environment. By using the flexibility of industrial robots and a scalable equipment design, it is possible for this assembly method to be adjusted for other rotor geometries and sizes. Finally, there is a discussion on the work that remains to be done on improving and integrating the robot cell into a production line.

  3. Foot mounted inertial system for pedestrian navigation (United States)

    Godha, S.; Lachapelle, G.


    This paper discusses algorithmic concepts, design and testing of a system based on a low-cost MEMS-based inertial measurement unit (IMU) and high-sensitivity global positioning system (HSGPS) receivers for seamless personal navigation in a GPS signal degraded environment. The system developed here is mounted on a pedestrian shoe/foot and uses measurements based on the dynamics experienced by the inertial sensors on the user's foot. The IMU measurements are processed through a conventional inertial navigation system (INS) algorithm and are then integrated with HSGPS receiver measurements and dynamics derived constraint measurements using a tightly coupled integration strategy. The ability of INS to bridge the navigation solution is evaluated through field tests conducted indoors and in severely signal degraded forest environments. The specific focus is on evaluating system performance under challenging GPS conditions.

  4. Solder Mounting Technologies for Electronic Packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Soldering provides a cost-effective means for attaching electronic packages to circuit boards using both small scale and large scale manufacturing processes. Soldering processes accommodate through-hole leaded components as well as surface mount packages, including the newer area array packages such as the Ball Grid Arrays (BGA), Chip Scale Packages (CSP), and Flip Chip Technology. The versatility of soldering is attributed to the variety of available solder alloy compositions, substrate material methodologies, and different manufacturing processes. For example, low melting temperature solders are used with temperature sensitive materials and components. On the other hand, higher melting temperature solders provide reliable interconnects for electronics used in high temperature service. Automated soldering techniques can support large-volume manufacturing processes, while providing high reliability electronic products at a reasonable cost.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Generally, mountains determine the characteristics of particular areas, because of the island phenomenon they cause. However, the geological origins of mountains are multiple and they are located in different climatic regions. Nevertheless, in all aspects they reflect the basic elements of the local biologic unit. The shapes, climates, diverse water resources, biocenoses and the generated soils are the different components that determine, through their dynamic interaction, the “Mountain” ecosystem. Tectonic subduction processes lead to the development of islands such as Martinique, whose basic structure consists of a series of mountains (among them Mount Pele. Like the topographic divisions, the local micro-climates, water courses, different soils (themselves the consequences of the presence of the mountain itself and successive volcanic eruptions determine, over time, the organization of the diverse vegetal entities.

  6. Rack assembly for mounting solar modules (United States)

    Plaisted, Joshua Reed; West, Brian


    A rack assembly is provided for mounting solar modules over an underlying body. The rack assembly may include a plurality of rail structures that are arrangeable over the underlying body to form an overall perimeter for the rack assembly. One or more retention structures may be provided with the plurality of rail structures, where each retention structure is configured to support one or more solar modules at a given height above the underlying body. At least some of the plurality of rail structures are adapted to enable individual rail structures o be sealed over the underlying body so as to constrain air flow underneath the solar modules. Additionally, at least one of (i) one or more of the rail structures, or (ii) the one or more retention structures are adjustable so as to adapt the rack assembly to accommodate solar modules of varying forms or dimensions.

  7. Fuzzy Semiactive Vibration Control of Structures Using Magnetorheological Elastomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Bao Nguyen


    Full Text Available In this research, a novel variable stiffness vibration isolator that uses magnetorheological elastomers (MREs accompanied with a fuzzy semiactive vibration control was developed. Firstly, the viscoelastic characteristics of MREs in shear mode were clarified systematically in order to achieve a mathematical basis for the controller development. Secondly, the fuzzy semiactive vibration control with a strategy based on the Lyapunov theory and dynamic characteristic of MREs was proposed for minimizing the movement of the isolator. In the conventional semiactive algorithm, the command applied current of MRE-based isolator is set at either minimum or maximum value which causes high acceleration and jerk peaks periodically, thus leading to the degeneration of the overall system quality. However, the fuzzy semiactive algorithm presented here is able to produce the sufficient applied current and thus viscoelastic force is desirably produced. The effectiveness of the developed isolator was evaluated numerically by MATLAB simulation and experimentally in comparison with the performances of a passive system and a system with on-off type semiactive controller. The results showed that the developed controller was successful in overcoming the disadvantages of conventional on-off semiactive control.

  8. Mount Isa statement on quad bike safety. (United States)

    Franklin, Richard C; Knight, Sabina; Lower, Tony


    Quad bikes are the leading cause of death in Australian agriculture, with half of these deaths resulting from rollovers. Between 2001 and 2012, there were more than 160 such deaths in Australia, representing a significant burden. There is a diversity of public opinions offered about quad bike safety. The Are You Remotely Interested … in Prevention; Building a Culture of Safety conference held in Mount Isa, Queensland, in August 2012 brought together subject matter experts from across Australia to discuss a range of issues relevant to rural Australia (including quad bikes). During this conference, the Mount Isa Statement for Quad Bike Safety was produced. The intent of the Statement was to draw on existing evidence to highlight solutions and provide a direction for future efforts to reduce the burden of death and injury related to quad bike use. The conference provided an opportunity for those with an interest in quad bike safety to come together in one location, discuss the issues and develop a common direction (the Statement). The Statement is presented in three sections: a statement of the facts that were available at the time of development; a set of recommendations; and what needs to happen next. We believe to the best of our knowledge this is the first time where many potential solutions for keeping people safe while operating quad bikes in agriculture have been explored in a public forum. There are some immediate solutions that people can undertake to keep themselves and those in their care safe when using a quad bike: initially selecting safer vehicles to use; fitting quad bikes with crush protection devices; not carrying passengers or overloading the quads; and wearing helmets.

  9. Correction of vibration for classical free-fall gravimeters with correlation-analysis (United States)

    Wang, G.; Hu, H.; Wu, K.; Wang, L. J.


    In a free-fall absolute gravimeter, a laser interferometer is used to track the falling retro-reflector. To buffer the reference retro-reflector from seismic noise, a low-frequency vertical vibration isolator is traditionally used. However, an isolation device is usually complicated and expensive. A strap-down system using a seismometer to record the vibration and correct the measurement resolves the issue, but the actual recorded vibration cannot be directly used because of signal transfer delay and amplitude attenuation. Nevertheless, by quadratically fitting the trajectory of the falling retro-reflector and the motion of the reference retro-reflector, we find that their residuals are significantly correlated. Moreover, the transfer delay and the amplitude attenuation can be calculated using correlation analysis. With this capability, a vibration correction method for absolute gravimeters is proposed and demonstrated. The transfer delay and the gain attenuation are determined from data of only 25 drops, and can be used to correct subsequent measurements. The method is also applied in the T-1 absolute gravimeter. The standard deviation of the measurement results is improved by a factor of 20 after correction in a noisy environment, and improved by a factor of 5 in a quiet environment. Compared with vibration isolators, the strap-down system using this correction method is much more compact, enabling its use in field conditions or even dynamic environments not suitable for vibration isolators.

  10. Concepts for a low-vibration and cryogen-free tabletop dilution refrigerator (United States)

    Uhlig, Kurt


    The purpose of this article is to describe several concepts of how to cool a modern tabletop dilution refrigerator (DR) with a cryogen-free pulse tube cryocooler (PTC). Tabletop DRs have come more and more into the focus of scientists, recently, because they offer easy access to the mixing chamber mounting plate from all directions and because of their very short cooldown times. However, these milli-Kelvin coolers are precooled with LHe which makes their handling inconvenient and often expensive. In the paper it is explained how a cryocooler can be directly coupled to a DR unit making the use of LHe superfluous. Furthermore, concepts are discussed where a tabletop DR is cooled by a remote PTC; PTC and DR are mounted in separate vacuum containers which are connected by a stainless steel bellows tube. This kind of apparatus would offer an extremely low level of vibration at the mixing chamber mounting plate.

  11. Force Limited Random Vibration Test of TESS Camera Mass Model (United States)

    Karlicek, Alexandra; Hwang, James Ho-Jin; Rey, Justin J.


    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) is a spaceborne instrument consisting of four wide field-of-view-CCD cameras dedicated to the discovery of exoplanets around the brightest stars. As part of the environmental testing campaign, force limiting was used to simulate a realistic random vibration launch environment. While the force limit vibration test method is a standard approach used at multiple institutions including Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), European Space Research and Technology Center (ESTEC), and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), it is still difficult to find an actual implementation process in the literature. This paper describes the step-by-step process on how the force limit method was developed and applied on the TESS camera mass model. The process description includes the design of special fixtures to mount the test article for properly installing force transducers, development of the force spectral density using the semi-empirical method, estimation of the fuzzy factor (C2) based on the mass ratio between the supporting structure and the test article, subsequent validating of the C2 factor during the vibration test, and calculation of the C.G. accelerations using the Root Mean Square (RMS) reaction force in the spectral domain and the peak reaction force in the time domain.

  12. Membrane Vibration Analysis Above the Nyquist Limit with Fluorescence Videogrammetry (United States)

    Dorrington, Adrian A.; Jones, Thomas W.; Danehy, Paul M.; Pappa, Richard S.


    A new method for generating photogrammetric targets by projecting an array of laser beams onto a membrane doped with fluorescent laser dye has recently been developed. In this paper we review this new fluorescence based technique, then proceed to show how it can be used for dynamic measurements, and how a short pulsed (10 ns) laser allows the measurement of vibration modes at frequencies several times the sampling frequency. In addition, we present experimental results showing the determination of fundamental and harmonic vibration modes of a drum style dye-doped polymer membrane tautly mounted on a 12-inch circular hoop and excited with 30 Hz and 62 Hz sinusoidal acoustic waves. The projected laser dot pattern was generated by passing the beam from a pulsed Nd:YAG laser though a diffractive optical element, and the resulting fluorescence was imaged with three digital video cameras, all of which were synchronized with a pulse and delay generator. Although the video cameras are capable of 240 Hz frame rates, the laser s output was limited to 30 Hz and below. Consequently, aliasing techniques were used to allow the measurement of vibration modes up to 186 Hz with a Nyquist limit of less than 15 Hz.

  13. Whole body vibration improves cognition in healthy young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Ruben H Regterschot

    Full Text Available This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT, Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT, Stroop Difference Score (SDS and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p = 0.009; effect size r = 0.20 and SDS (p = 0.034; r = 0.16 performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise.

  14. Terfenol-D driven flaps for helicopter vibration reduction (United States)

    Fenn, Ralph C.; Downer, James R.; Bushko, Dariusz A.; Gondhalekar, Vijay; Ham, Norman D.


    The utility of helicopter aviation is limited by the high vibration levels caused by the interaction of each rotor blade with the wake of preceding blades. Existing full-blade actuation using a swashplate has various problems such as insufficient bandwidth, limitations in the number of harmonics controlled, high maintenance, and lack of spanwise lift variation. These problems are avoided by the proposed flap operated, individual blade control system, which uses magnetostrictive actuation technology. Terfenol-D actuation has many advantages over competing technologies such as hydraulic systems, electric motors, and piezoelectric elements. These benefits include all-electric operation, simplicity and reliability, low mass, low voltage, and insensitivity to centripetal acceleration. A blade mounted Terfenol-D actuator was developed for the high-weight-penalty helicopter application. The optimum coil to Terfenol-D volume ratio was derived that gives the highest mechanical power output for a small actuator envelope and mass. A fixed ability to dissipate coil resistive losses is assumed. The magnetostrictive actuation system will weigh less than 1% of gross vehicle weight, and use only 0.7% of cruise power. Other required subsystems of the vibration reduction system are available from commercial sources or are described in the literature. Helicopter vibration reduction greater than 90% is predicted because of superior actuator performance and individual blade control. This magnetostrictive actuator technology will also produce future helicopter systems having lower noise and higher performance. Such advances will significantly improve the utility and competitiveness of helicopters for civilian and military transportation.

  15. Modal Vibration Analysis of Large Castings (United States)

    Werlink, Rudolph J.; Margasahayam, Ravi N.


    The art of experimental modal vibration analysis (MVA) has been extended to apply to large castings. This extension was made to enable the use of experimental MVA as a relatively inexpensive, simple means of assessing the internal structural integrity of tread shoes of crawler transporters used to move spacecraft to the launch pad at Kennedy Space Center. Each tread shoe is made from cast iron and weighs about a ton (has a mass .907 kg). The present extended version of experimental MVA could also be applied to other large castings. It could be especially useful to manufacturers as a means of rapidly discriminating against large castings that contain unacceptably large concentrations of internal defects. The use of experimental MVA to assess structural integrity is not new. What are new here are those aspects of the extension of experimental MVA that pertain to the application of MVA to objects so massive that it may not be practical or cost effective to mount them in special test fixtures that impose special test boundary conditions to test them in place under normal conditions of use.

  16. Vibration response of misaligned rotors (United States)

    Patel, Tejas H.; Darpe, Ashish K.


    Misalignment is one of the common faults observed in rotors. Effect of misalignment on vibration response of coupled rotors is investigated in the present study. The coupled rotor system is modelled using Timoshenko beam elements with all six dof. An experimental approach is proposed for the first time for determination of magnitude and harmonic nature of the misalignment excitation. Misalignment effect at coupling location of rotor FE model is simulated using nodal force vector. The force vector is found using misalignment coupling stiffness matrix, derived from experimental data and applied misalignment between the two rotors. Steady-state vibration response is studied for sub-critical speeds. Effect of the types of misalignment (parallel and angular) on the vibration behaviour of the coupled rotor is examined. Along with lateral vibrations, axial and torsional vibrations are also investigated and nature of the vibration response is also examined. It has been found that the misalignment couples vibrations in bending, longitudinal and torsional modes. Some diagnostic features in the fast Fourier transform (FFT) of torsional and longitudinal response related to parallel and angular misalignment have been revealed. Full spectra and orbit plots are effectively used to reveal the unique nature of misalignment fault leading to reliable misalignment diagnostic information, not clearly brought out by earlier studies.

  17. The application of SEAT values for predicting how compliant seats with backrests influence vibration discomfort. (United States)

    Basri, Bazil; Griffin, Michael J


    The extent to which a seat can provide useful attenuation of vehicle vibration depends on three factors: the characteristics of the vehicle motion, the vibration transmissibility of the seat, and the sensitivity of the body to vibration. The 'seat effective amplitude transmissibility' (i.e., SEAT value) reflects how these three factors vary with the frequency and the direction of vibration so as to predict the vibration isolation efficiency of a seat. The SEAT value is mostly used to select seat cushions or seat suspensions based on the transmission of vertical vibration to the principal supporting surface of a seat. This study investigated the accuracy of SEAT values in predicting how seats with backrests influence the discomfort caused by multiple-input vibration. Twelve male subjects participated in a four-part experiment to determine equivalent comfort contours, the relative discomfort, the location of discomfort, and seat transmissibility with three foam seats and a rigid reference seat at 14 frequencies of vibration in the range 1-20 Hz at magnitudes of vibration from 0.2 to 1.6 ms(-2) r.m.s. The 'measured seat dynamic discomfort' (MSDD) was calculated for each foam seat from the ratio of the vibration acceleration required to cause similar discomfort with the foam seat and with the rigid reference seat. Using the frequency weightings in current standards, the SEAT values of each seat were calculated from the ratio of overall ride values with the foam seat to the overall ride values with the rigid reference seat, and compared to the corresponding MSDD at each frequency. The SEAT values provided good predictions of how the foam seats increased vibration discomfort at frequencies around the 4-Hz resonance but reduced vibration discomfort at frequencies greater than about 6.3 Hz, with discrepancies explained by a known limitation of the frequency weightings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Seat vibration is one of the major causes of discomfort in moving vehicle. Tyre, engine, drivetrain and aerodynamic forces excite the cabin and interior through various pathways. In this paper, the contributions of tyre and engine vibration to seat excitations are studied. Virtual Source Analysis (VSA is implemented to decompose the source signals into incoherent phenomena. Studying these phenomena (virtual sources shows the amount and frequency bands that physical sources affect the seat vibration as the response channel. Experiment is conducted while riding on smooth and bumpy roads. Road roughness is characterized using International Roughness Index (IRI. VSA technique approve that tyre is the main source of seat vibration for the moving vehicle. Seat vibration has significant values below 400 Hz and tyre is found to be the dominant source of excitations for both smooth and bumpy roads. For smooth road, strong engine harmonics below 200 Hz also has some involvements. But in bumpy road, tyre vibration rise up and become the dominant broadband source of excitations. Tyre damper and engine mount Frequency Response Function (FRF analysis show that these parts are designed to be highly efficient below 1400 Hz and 200 Hz, respectively. These ranges are identical with those that were found as the critical operational frequency spans in VSA.

  19. Whole-body vibration exposure of occupational horseback riding in agriculture: A ranching example. (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaoke; Trask, Catherine; Kociolek, Aaron M


    Horse riding is common in many occupations; however, there is currently no research evaluating exposure to whole-body vibration and mechanical shock on horseback. Whole-body vibration was measured on a cattle rancher during two 30 min horseback rides using a tri-axial accelerometer mounted on a western saddle. Vibration was summarized into standardized metrics, including the 8 hr equivalent root-mean-squared acceleration (A[8]) and the daily 4th power vibration dose value (VDV). The resulting exposures were compared to the exposure limit and action values provided by European Union Directive 2002/44/EC. The highest vibration for both rides was in the vertical axis, with average A(8) and VDV of 0.56 m/s 2 and 26.24 m/s 1.75 , respectively. The A(8) value indicated moderate risk while the VDV suggested high risk of harmful health effects. Exposure to whole-body vibration and mechanical shock during occupational horseback riding may pose deleterious health risks and increased susceptibility to low back pain. Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:215-220, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Two methods for modeling vibrations of planetary gearboxes including faults: Comparison and validation (United States)

    Parra, J.; Vicuña, Cristián Molina


    Planetary gearboxes are important components of many industrial applications. Vibration analysis can increase their lifetime and prevent expensive repair and safety concerns. However, an effective analysis is only possible if the vibration features of planetary gearboxes are properly understood. In this paper, models are used to study the frequency content of planetary gearbox vibrations under non-fault and different fault conditions. Two different models are considered: phenomenological model, which is an analytical-mathematical formulation based on observation, and lumped-parameter model, which is based on the solution of the equations of motion of the system. Results of both models are not directly comparable, because the phenomenological model provides the vibration on a fixed radial direction, such as the measurements of the vibration sensor mounted on the outer part of the ring gear. On the other hand, the lumped-parameter model provides the vibrations on the basis of a rotating reference frame fixed to the carrier. To overcome this situation, a function to decompose the lumped-parameter model solutions to a fixed reference frame is presented. Finally, comparisons of results from both model perspectives and experimental measurements are presented.

  1. Tissue vibration in prolonged running. (United States)

    Friesenbichler, Bernd; Stirling, Lisa M; Federolf, Peter; Nigg, Benno M


    The impact force in heel-toe running initiates vibrations of soft-tissue compartments of the leg that are heavily dampened by muscle activity. This study investigated if the damping and frequency of these soft-tissue vibrations are affected by fatigue, which was categorized by the time into an exhaustive exercise. The hypotheses were tested that (H1) the vibration intensity of the triceps surae increases with increasing fatigue and (H2) the vibration frequency of the triceps surae decreases with increasing fatigue. Tissue vibrations of the triceps surae were measured with tri-axial accelerometers in 10 subjects during a run towards exhaustion. The frequency content was quantified with power spectra and wavelet analysis. Maxima of local vibration intensities were compared between the non-fatigued and fatigued states of all subjects. In axial (i.e. parallel to the tibia) and medio-lateral direction, most local maxima increased with fatigue (supporting the first hypothesis). In anterior-posterior direction no systematic changes were found. Vibration frequency was minimally affected by fatigue and frequency changes did not occur systematically, which requires the rejection of the second hypothesis. Relative to heel-strike, the maximum vibration intensity occurred significantly later in the fatigued condition in all three directions. With fatigue, the soft tissue of the triceps surae oscillated for an extended duration at increased vibration magnitudes, possibly due to the effects of fatigue on type II muscle fibers. Thus, the protective mechanism of muscle tuning seems to be reduced in a fatigued muscle and the risk of potential harm to the tissue may increase. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of Suspended Equipment on the Carbody Vertical Vibration Behaviour of High-Speed Railway Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitriu Mădălina


    Full Text Available The equipment mounted on the carbody chassis of the railway vehicles is a critical component of the vehicle in terms of ride comfort. The reason for that is their large mass, able to visibly influence the vibrations mode of the carbody. The paper examines the influence of the equipment upon the mode of vertical vibrations of the carbody in the high-speed vehicles, reached on the basis of the frequency response functions of the acceleration in three carbody reference points - at the centre and above the bogies. These functions are derived from the numerical simulations developed on a rigid-flexible coupled model, with seven degrees of freedom. As a rule, the results herein prove the influence of the equipment mounting mode (rigid or elastic, along with the speed regime, upon the level of vibrations in the carbody reference points, at the resonance frequency of the symmetrical bending mode. Similarly, it is also demonstrated how the equipment mass and the damping degree of the suspension system affect the level of the vibrations in the carbody.

  3. Dynamic Vibration Analysis of Heavy Vehicle Truck Transmission Gearbox Housing Using FEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani Kumar


    Full Text Available The main objective of this original research article is to study the loose fixture mounting affect of heavy vehicle transmission gearbox housing. The studies were completed in three phases. In first phase the aim was to find the actual suitable boundary condition. After finding the boundary condition in second phase the fixture bolts were loosened to monitor the affect of looseness and in third phase the positional looseness based study were completed. The looseness of transmission housing causes heavy vibration and noise. In order to prevent this noise and vibration the transmission housing is tightly mounted on the chassis frame using bolts. In our design transmission housing is constraint on chassis frame using 37 bolts. Truck transmission system determines the level of noise together with the chassis, engine and bodywork. Vehicle transmissions under torsional vibration condition caused rattling and clattering noises. Reciprocity Principle was used to determine the failure frequencies for transmission housing. In reciprocity principle gear and shafts are suppressed and all the forces transmitted through the bearings are applied on the empty housing. FEA based ANSYS 14.5 has been used as analysis tool. The free vibration frequency for zero displacement condition varies from 1669 Hz to 2865 Hz and for loose transmission casing frequency varies from 1311 Hz to 3110 Hz. The analysis have theoretical and practical aspects and useful for transmission housing structure optimization.

  4. Molecular vibrations the theory of infrared and Raman vibrational spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, E Bright; Cross, Paul C


    Pedagogical classic and essential reference focuses on mathematics of detailed vibrational analyses of polyatomic molecules, advancing from application of wave mechanics to potential functions and methods of solving secular determinant.

  5. Avoid heat transfer equipment vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapathy, V.


    Tube bundles in heat exchangers, boilers, superheaters and heaters are often subject to vibration and noise problems. Vibration can lead to tube thinning and wear, resulting in tube failures. Excessive noise can be a problem to plant operating personnel. Large gas pressure drop across the equipment is also a side effect, which results in large operating costs. With the design checks presented in this paper, one can predict during design if problems associated with noise and vibration are likely to occur in petroleum refineries.

  6. Tuned liquid column dampers for mitigation of edgewise vibrations in rotating wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zili; Basu, Biswajit; Nielsen, Søren R.K.


    Edgewise vibrations in wind turbine blades are lightly damped, and large amplitude vibrations induced by the turbulence may significantly shorten the fatigue life of the blade. This paper investigates the performance of tuned liquid column dampers (TLCDs) for mitigating edgewise vibrations...... are the mounting position, the mass ratio, the geometries, and the head loss coefficient of the damper. Based on a reduced 2-DOF nonlinear model developed by the authors, the optimization of these parameters are carried out by minimizing the standard deviation of the edgewise tip displacement...... and the aerodynamic damping presented in different modes. Various turbulence intensities and rotational speeds of the rotor have been considered to evaluate the performance of the TLCD. Further, the optimized damper is incorporated into the 13-DOF model to verify the application of the decoupled optimization...

  7. Tuned rolling-ball dampers for vibration control in wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Junling; Georgakis, Christos T.


    With wind turbines growing in size and cost, it is necessary to reduce their dynamic responses and improve their fatigue lifetime. A passive tuned-mass damper (TMD) is a very efficient solution for vibration control in structures subjected to wind excitations. In this study, a tuned rolling......-ball damper characterized by single or multiple steel balls rolling in a spherical container is proposed to be mounted on the top of wind turbines to reduce the wind-induced vibration. A 1/20 scale shaking table model was developed to evaluate the control effectiveness of the damper. The wind-induced dynamic...... responses of the test model with and without TMD were obtained from the shaking table tests. The test results indicated that the rolling-ball dampers could effectively suppress the wind-induced vibration of wind turbines. The damper with three balls in one container had better control effectiveness than...

  8. Experimental Study on Vibration Reduction Characteristics of Gear Shafts Based on ISFD Installation Position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaihua Lu


    Full Text Available A novel type of integral squeeze film damper (ISFD is proposed to reduce and isolate vibration excitations of the gear system through bearing to the foundation. Four ISFD designs were tested experimentally with an open first-grade spur gear system. Vibration reduction characteristics were experimentally studied at different speeds for cases where ISFD elastic damping supports were simultaneously installed on the driving and driven shafts, installed on the driven shaft, or only installed on the driving shaft. Experimental results show that the ISFD elastic damping support can effectively reduce shock vibration of the gear system. Additionally, resonant modulation in gear shafts caused by meshing impact was significantly reduced. Different vibration amplitudes of gear shafts with ISFD installed only on driven or driving shafts were compared. Results indicated that vibration reduction is better when ISFD is only installed on the driven shaft than on the driving shaft.

  9. Effect of longitudinal vibration of fluid-filled pipe with elastic wall on sound transmission character

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DONG Peng


    Full Text Available When one end of a fluid-filled pipe with an elastic wall is fixed and a harmonic force effect acts on the other end,a steady longitudinal vibration will be produced. Compared to the pipeline resonance mode,the amplitude of the steady longitudinal vibration of an elastic pipe is greater,and the effect on the sound is also greater. The study of the steady longitudinal vibration of pipes can better describe the effects of fluid-filled pipelines on the radiation sound field of the pipe opening. Through the contrast between the analysis calculation of the equivalent beam model and the experimental results,the accuracy of the equivalent beam model for the calculation of the steady longitudinal vibration of pipelines is verified,and a method of isolating the steady longitudinal vibration state is proposed and verified.

  10. 14 CFR 33.63 - Vibration. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vibration. 33.63 Section 33.63 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.63 Vibration. Each engine... because of vibration and without imparting excessive vibration forces to the aircraft structure. ...

  11. 14 CFR 33.83 - Vibration test. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vibration test. 33.83 Section 33.83... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.83 Vibration test. (a) Each engine must undergo vibration surveys to establish that the vibration characteristics of those components that...

  12. 14 CFR 33.33 - Vibration. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vibration. 33.33 Section 33.33 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.33 Vibration. The... vibration and without imparting excessive vibration forces to the aircraft structure. ...

  13. 14 CFR 33.43 - Vibration test. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vibration test. 33.43 Section 33.43... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.43 Vibration test. (a) Each engine must undergo a vibration survey to establish the torsional and bending vibration characteristics...

  14. 49 CFR 178.819 - Vibration test. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vibration test. 178.819 Section 178.819... Testing of IBCs § 178.819 Vibration test. (a) General. The vibration test must be conducted for the... vibration test. (b) Test method. (1) A sample IBC, selected at random, must be filled and closed as for...

  15. Rectangular Parallelepiped Vibration in Plane Strain State


    Hanckowiak, Jerzy


    In this paper we present a vibration spectrum of a homogenous parallelepiped (HP) under the action of volume and surface forces resulting from the exponent displacements entering the Fourier transforms. Vibration under the action of axial surface tractions and the free vibration are described separately. A relationship between the high frequency vibration and boundary conditions (BC) is also considered.

  16. Comparison of vibrations of a combination of solid-rocket launch vehicle and payload during a ground firing and launching (United States)

    Schoenster, J. A.; Pierce, H. B.


    The results of a study into the environmental vibrations of a payload mounted on the Nike rocket launch vehicle were presented. Data were obtained during the flight acceptance test of the payload, the firing of the total vehicle in a special test stand, and the powered and unpowered flights of the vehicle. The vibrational response of the structure was measured. Data were also obtained on the fluctuating pressure on the outside surface of the vehicle and inside the forward and after ends of the rocket chamber. A comparison of the data from the three test conditions indicated that external pressure fluctuations were the major source of vibrations in the payload area, and pressure fluctuations within the rocket motor were the major source of vibrations contiguous to the payload area.

  17. Power turbine dynamics - An evaluation of a shear-mounted elastomeric damper (United States)

    Zorzi, E. S.; Walton, J.; Cunningham, R.


    As an alternative to the more conventional squeeze-film bearing damper designs, a Viton-70 shear-mounted, elastomeric damper was built and tested in a T-55 power turbine high-speed balancing rig. This application demonstrated, for the first time, the feasibility of using elastomers as the primary rotor damping source in production turbine engine hardware. The shear-mounted damper design was selected because of its compatibility with actual gas turbine engine radial space constraints, its accommodation of both the radial and axial thrust loads present in gas turbine engines, and its capability of controlled axial preload. Test results showed that the Viton-70 elastomeric damper operated successfully and provided excellent control of both synchronous and nonsynchronous vibrations through all phases of testing to the maximum rotor speed of 1676 rad/s (16,000 rpm). Excellent correlation between the predicted and experienced critical speeds, mode shapes, and log decrements for the power turbine rotor and elastomer damper assembly was also achieved.

  18. Acoustic vibration modes and electron-lattice coupling in self-assembled silver nanocolumns. (United States)

    Burgin, J; Langot, P; Arbouet, A; Margueritat, J; Gonzalo, J; Afonso, C N; Vallée, F; Mlayah, A; Rossell, M D; Van Tendeloo, G


    Using ultrafast spectroscopy, we investigated electron-lattice coupling and acoustic vibrations in self-assembled silver nanocolumns embedded in an amorphous Al2O3 matrix. The measured electron-lattice energy exchange time is smaller in the nanocolumns than in bulk silver, with a value very close to that of isolated nanospheres with comparable surface to volume ratio. Two vibration modes were detected and ascribed to the breathing and extensional mode of the nanocolumns, in agreement with numerical simulations.

  19. Vibrational Damping of Composite Materials


    Biggerstaff, Janet M.


    The purpose of this research was to develop new methods of vibrational damping in polymeric composite materials along with expanding the knowledge of currently used vibrational damping methods. A new barrier layer technique that dramatically increased damping in viscoelastic damping materials that interacted with the composite resin was created. A method for testing the shear strength of damping materials cocured in composites was developed. Directional damping materials, where the loss facto...

  20. Vibration Theory, Vol. 1B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    The present collection of MATLAB exercises has been published as a supplement to the textbook, Svingningsteori, Bind 1 and the collection of exercises in Vibration theory, Vol. 1A, Solved Problems. Throughout the exercise references are made to these books. The purpose of the MATLAB exercises...... is to give a better understanding of the physical problems in linear vibration theory and to surpress the mathematical analysis used to solve the problems. For this purpose the MATLAB environment is excellent....

  1. Harmonic vibrations of multispan beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbye, Claes


    Free and forced harmonic vibrations of multispan beams are determined by a method which implies 1 equation regardless of the configuration. The necessary formulas are given in the paper. For beams with simple supports and the same length of all (n) spans, there is a rather big difference between...... the n´th and the (n+1)´th eigenfrequency. The reason for this phenomenon is explained.Keywords: Vibrations, Eigenfrequencies, Beams....

  2. Smart accelerometer. [vibration damage detection (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)


    The invention discloses methods and apparatus for detecting vibrations from machines which indicate an impending malfunction for the purpose of preventing additional damage and allowing for an orderly shutdown or a change in mode of operation. The method and apparatus is especially suited for reliable operation in providing thruster control data concerning unstable vibration in an electrical environment which is typically noisy and in which unrecognized ground loops may exist.

  3. Improved Predictions for Geotechnical Vibrations


    Macijauskas, Darius


    In urban areas where the infrastructure is dense and construction of new structures is near existing and sensitive buildings, frequently vibrations, caused by human activities, occur. Generated waves in the soil may adversely affect surrounding buildings. These vibrations have to be predicted a priori by using currently available knowledge of the soil dynamics. Current research, conducted by Deltares research institute, showed that the reliability of methods for prediction of m...

  4. Stress analysis of vibrating pipelines (United States)

    Zachwieja, Janusz


    The pipelines are subject to various constraints variable in time. Those vibrations, if not monitored for amplitude and frequency, may result in both the fatigue damage in the pipeline profile at high stress concentration and the damage to the pipeline supports. If the constraint forces are known, the system response may be determined with high accuracy using analytical or numerical methods. In most cases, it may be difficult to determine the constraint parameters, since the industrial pipeline vibrations occur due to the dynamic effects of the medium in the pipeline. In that case, a vibration analysis is a suitable alternative method to determine the stress strain state in the pipeline profile. Monitoring the pipeline vibration levels involves a comparison between the measured vibration parameters and the permissible values as depicted in the graphs for a specific pipeline type. Unfortunately, in most cases, the studies relate to the petrochemical industry and thus large diameter, long and straight pipelines. For a pipeline section supported on both ends, the response in any profile at the entire section length can be determined by measuring the vibration parameters at two different profiles between the pipeline supports. For a straight pipeline section, the bending moments, variable in time, at the ends of the analysed section are a source of the pipe excitation. If a straight pipe section supported on both ends is excited by the bending moments in the support profile, the starting point for the stress analysis are the strains, determined from the Euler-Bernoulli equation. In practice, it is easier to determine the displacement using the experimental methods, since the factors causing vibrations are unknown. The industrial system pipelines, unlike the transfer pipelines, are straight sections at some points only, which makes it more difficult to formulate the equation of motion. In those cases, numerical methods can be used to determine stresses using the

  5. Scavenging energy from human walking through a shoe-mounted piezoelectric harvester (United States)

    Fan, Kangqi; Liu, Zhaohui; Liu, Haiyan; Wang, Liansong; Zhu, Yingmin; Yu, Bo


    This study presents a shoe-mounted nonlinear piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH) with intent to capture energy from human walking. The PEH consists of a piezoelectric cantilever beam magnetically coupled to a ferromagnetic ball and a crossbeam. A sleeve is included to guide the travel of the ball. Experimental measurements and theoretical simulations demonstrate that the proposed design can collect energy from diverse excitation sources with different directions produced by the foot, including vibrations, swing motions, and the compressive force. The ball and the crossbeam sense the swing motion and the compressive force, respectively, and then actuate the piezoelectric beam to function. The piezoelectric beam senses the vibration along the tibial axis and generates electricity. The proposed PEH achieves the superposition of these excitations and generates multiple peaks in voltage output within one gait cycle. The output power generated by the fabricated prototype ranges from 0.03 mW to 0.35 mW when the walking velocity varies from 2 km/h to 8 km/h.

  6. Helmet-Mounted Display Design Guide (United States)

    Newman, Richard L.; Greeley, Kevin W.


    Helmet Mounted Displays (HMDs) present flight, navigation, and weapon information in the pilot's line of sight. The HMD was developed to allow the pilot to retain aircraft and weapon information while looking off boresight. This document reviews current state of the art in HMDs and presents a design guide for the HMD engineer in identifying several critical HMD issues: symbol stabilization, inadequate definitions, undefined symbol drive laws, helmet considerations, and Field Of View (FOV) vs. resolution tradeoff requirements. In particular, display latency is a key issue for HMDs. In addition to requiring further experimental studies, it impacts the definition and control law issues. Symbol stabilization is also critical. In the case of the Apache helicopter, the lack of compensation for pilot head motion creates excessive workload during hovering and Nap Of the Earth (NOE) flight. This translates into excessive training requirements. There is no agreed upon set of definitions or descriptions for how HMD symbols are driven to compensate for pilot head motion. A set of definitions is proposed to address this. There are several specific areas where simulation and flight experiments are needed: development of hover and NOE symbologies which compensate for pilot head movement; display latency and sampling, and the tradeoff between FOV, sensor resolution and symbology.

  7. Vibrational modes of nanolines (United States)

    Heyliger, Paul R.; Flannery, Colm M.; Johnson, Ward L.


    Brillouin-light-scattering spectra previously have been shown to provide information on acoustic modes of polymeric lines fabricated by nanoimprint lithography. Finite-element methods for modeling such modes are presented here. These methods provide a theoretical framework for determining elastic constants and dimensions of nanolines from measured spectra in the low gigahertz range. To make the calculations feasible for future incorporation in inversion algorithms, two approximations of the boundary conditions are employed in the calculations: the rigidity of the nanoline/substrate interface and sinusoidal variation of displacements along the nanoline length. The accuracy of these approximations is evaluated as a function of wavenumber and frequency. The great advantage of finite-element methods over other methods previously employed for nanolines is the ability to model any cross-sectional geometry. Dispersion curves and displacement patterns are calculated for modes of polymethyl methacrylate nanolines with cross-sectional dimensions of 65 nm × 140 nm and rectangular or semicircular tops. The vibrational displacements and dispersion curves are qualitatively similar for the two geometries and include a series of flexural, Rayleigh-like, and Sezawa-like modes. This paper is a contribution of the National Institute of Standards and Technology and is not subject to copyright in the United States.

  8. Righteousness and identity formation in the Sermon on the Mount ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Righteousness is an important term in the first gospel and has a significant concentration in the Sermon on the Mount. The argument in this article is that the first gospel has a community building function. Matthew intentionally uses the word 'righteousness' in the Sermon on the Mount as an instrument to define the identity of ...

  9. Hole-thru-laminate mounting supports for photovoltaic modules (United States)

    Wexler, Jason; Botkin, Jonathan; Culligan, Matthew; Detrick, Adam


    A mounting support for a photovoltaic module is described. The mounting support includes a pedestal having a surface adaptable to receive a flat side of a photovoltaic module laminate. A hole is disposed in the pedestal, the hole adaptable to receive a bolt or a pin used to couple the pedestal to the flat side of the photovoltaic module laminate.

  10. Solar electricity potentials and optimal angles for mounting solar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need for harnessing solar energy using solar panels mounted at optimal inclination angles in the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria is presented. The optimal angle for mounting solar panels as presented by Photovoltaic Geographic Information System (PVGIS) ranges from 11º to 14º in the Southern zone and 13º to 16º ...

  11. 36 CFR 7.5 - Mount Rainier National Park. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mount Rainier National Park. 7.5 Section 7.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.5 Mount Rainier National Park. (a...

  12. Decreasing sound and vibration during ground transport of infants with very low birth weight. (United States)

    Prehn, J; McEwen, I; Jeffries, L; Jones, M; Daniels, T; Goshorn, E; Marx, C


    To measure the effectiveness of modifications to reduce sound and vibration during interhospital ground transport of a simulated infant with very low birth weight (VLBW) and a gestational age of 30 weeks, a period of high susceptibility to germinal matrix and intraventricular hemorrhage. Researchers measured vibration and sound levels during infant transport, and compared levels after modifications to the transport incubator mattresses, addition of vibration isolators under incubator wheels, addition of mass to the incubator mattress and addition of incubator acoustic cover. Modifications did not decrease sound levels inside the transport incubator during transport. The combination of a gel mattress over an air chambered mattress was effective in decreasing vibration levels for the 1368 g simulated infant. Transport mattress effectiveness in decreasing vibration is influenced by infant weight. Modifications that decrease vibration for infants weighing 2000 g are not effective for infants with VLBW. Sound levels are not affected by incubator covers, suggesting that sound is transmitted into the incubator as a low-frequency vibration through the incubator's contact with the ambulance. Medical transportation can apply industrial methods of vibration and sound control to protect infants with VLBW from excessive physical strain of transport during vulnerable periods of development.

  13. Vibration assessment for thrombus formation in the centrifugal pump. (United States)

    Nakazawa, T; Makinouchi, K; Takami, Y; Glueck, J; Tayama, E; Nosé, Y


    To clarify the correlation of vibration and thrombus formation inside a rotary blood pump, 40 preliminary vibration studies were performed on pivot bearing centrifugal pumps. No such studies were found in the literature. The primary data acquisition equipment included an accelerometer (Isotron PE accelerometer, ENDEVCO, San Juan Capistrano, CA, U.S.A.), digitizing oscilloscope (TDS 420, Tektronix Inc., Pittsfield, MA, U.S.A.), and pivot bearing centrifugal pumps. The pump impeller was coupled magnetically to the driver magnet. The accelerometer was mounted on the top of the pump casing to sense radial and axial accelerations. To simulate the 3 common areas of thrombus formation, a piece of silicone rubber was attached to each of the following 3 locations as described: a circular shape on the center bottom of the impeller (CI), an eccentric shape on the bottom of the impeller (EI), and a circular shape on the center bottom casing (CC). A fast Fourier transform (FFT) method at 5 L/min against 100 mm Hg, with a pump rotating speed of 1,600 rpm was used. The frequency response of the vibration sensors used spans of 40 Hz to 2 kHz. The frequency domain was already integrated into the oscilloscope, allowing for comparison of the vibration results. The area of frequency domain at a radial direction was 206 +/- 12.7 mVHz in CI, 239.5 +/- 12.1 mVHz in EI, 365 +/- 12.9 mVHz in CC, and 163 +/- 7.9 mVHz in the control (control vs. CI p = 0.07, control vs. EI p < 0.001, control vs. CC p < 0.001, EI vs. CC p < 0.001, CI vs. CC p < 0.001). Three types of imitation thrombus formations were roughly distinguishable. These results suggested the possibility of detecting thrombus formation using vibration signals, and these studies revealed the usefulness of vibration monitoring to detect thrombus formation in a centrifugal pump.

  14. Active vibration control testing of the SPICES program: final demonstration article (United States)

    Dunne, James P.; Jacobs, Jack H.


    The Synthesis and Processing of Intelligent Cost Effective Structures (SPICES) Program is a partnership program sponsored by the Advanced Research Projects Agency. The mission of the program is to develop cost effective material processing and synthesis technologies to enable new products employing active vibration suppression and control devices to be brought to market. The two year program came to fruition in 1995 through the fabrication of the final smart components and testing of an active plate combined with two trapezoidal rails, forming an active mount. Testing of the SPICES combined active mount took place at McDonnell Douglas facilities in St. Louis, MO, in October-December 1995. Approximately 15 dB reduction in overall response of a motor mounted on the active structure was achieved. Further details and results of the SPICES combined active mount demonstration testing are outlined. Results of numerous damping and control strategies that were developed and employed in the testing are presented, as well as aspects of the design and fabrication of the SPICES active mount components.

  15. Evaluation of hand-arm vibration reducing effect of anti-vibration glove


    樹野, 淳也; 前田, 節雄; 横田, 和樹; 平, 雄一郎


    Many kinds of the anti-vibration glove have been developed for reducing hand-arm vibration during the operation with vibration tools. International standard ISO 10819 evaluates the physical effect of gloves' vibration transmissibility but not evaluates the physiological effect of human hands. Thus, in this paper, we proposed the evaluation using the temporary threshold shift of vibrotactile perception threshold to evaluate the hand-arm vibration reducing effect of anti-vibration glove. We per...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available GRADSTEIN, R.    et al. 2010. Bryophytes of Mount Patuha, West  Java,  Indonesia.  Reinwardtia  13(2:  107–123. This  paper  presents  the  results  of  a  two–day  survey  of  the  bryophyte  flora of Mt.  Patuha  and  its  surroundings  near Bandung, West Java, carried out in the framework of the 5th regional training course on bryophyte and lichen diversity and conservation organized by SEAMEO BIOTROP, Bogor, in July 2009. A total of 159 bryophyte species were identi-fied,  including 98 mosses, 60  liverworts, and 1 hornwort, representing almost 1/6 of the  total bryophyte flora of Java. Three moss species, Bryohumbertia subcomosa (Dix. J.–P. Frahm, Fissidens gymnogynus Besch. and F. polypodioidesHedw., and one liverwort, Lejeunea pectinella Mizut., are new additions to the Javanese flora. The bryophyte diversity of Mt. Patuha is well representative of the Malesian flora and is rich in uncommon species. However, the relatively poor representation of shade epiphytes and commonness of sun epiphytes and generalists reflect disturbance of the forest by anthropogenic activities. Careful attention should be given  to conservation of  the  remaining natural  forest  in order  to prevent further losses of the rich bryophyte diversity of the area.

  17. Installation of a Roof Mounted Photovoltaic System (United States)

    Lam, M.


    In order to create a safe and comfortable environment for students to learn, a lot of electricity, which is generated from coal fired power plants, is used. Therefore, ISF Academy, a school in Hong Kong with approximately 1,500 students, will be installing a rooftop photovoltaic (PV) system with 302 solar panels. Not only will these panels be used to power a classroom, they will also serve as an educational opportunity for students to learn about the importance of renewable energy technology and its uses. There were four different options for the installation of the solar panels, and the final choice was made based on the loading capacity of the roof, considering the fact that overstressing the roof could prove to be a safety hazard. Moreover, due to consideration of the risk of typhoons in Hong Kong, the solar panel PV system will include concrete plinths as counterweights - but not so much that the roof would be severely overstressed. During and after the installation of the PV system, students involved would be able to do multiple calculations, such as determining the reduction of the school's carbon footprint. This can allow students to learn about the impact renewable energy can have on the environment. Another project students can participate in includes measuring the efficiency of the solar panels and how much power can be produced per year, which in turn can help with calculate the amount of money saved per year and when we will achieve economic parity. In short, the installation of the roof mounted PV system will not only be able to help save money for the school but also provide learning opportunities for students studying at the ISF Academy.

  18. Practical thermometry and thermalization at sub-1 K temperatures using commercial surface-mount components (United States)

    Beev, Nikolai; Kiviranta, Mikko


    Thermometry and heat sinking are important aspects of cryogenic engineering. We have carried out experiments to determine the usefulness of commercial surface-mount resistors, resistor arrays and capacitors as temperature sensors and electrically isolated heat conductors. Our investigations were motivated by the need for easy thermal diagnostics and management of heat dissipation in experimental setups operating at sub-kelvin temperatures in dilution refrigerators. In this work we also present a simple and robust resistance-to-voltage converter circuit with low excitation power.

  19. On vortex shedding and prediction of vortex-induced vibrations of circular cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halse, Karl Henning


    In offshore installations, many crucial components can be classified as slender marine structures: risers, mooring lines, umbilicals and cables, pipelines. This thesis studies the vortex shedding phenomenon and the problem of predicting vortex-induced vibrations of such structures. As the development of hydrocarbons move to deeper waters, the importance of accurately predicting the vortex-induced response has increased and so the need for proper response prediction methods is large. This work presents an extensive review of existing research publications about vortex shedding from circular cylinders and the vortex-induced vibrations of cylinders and the different numerical approaches to modelling the fluid flow. The response predictions from different methods are found to disagree, both in response shapes and in vibration amplitudes. This work presents a prediction method that uses a fully three-dimensional structural finite element model integrated with a laminar two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solution modelling the fluid flow. This solution is used to study the flow both around a fixed cylinder and in a flexibly mounted one-degree-of-freedom system. It is found that the vortex-shedding process (in the low Reynolds number regime) is well described by the computer program, and that the vortex-induced vibration of the flexibly mounted section do reflect the typical dynamic characteristics of lock-in oscillations. However, the exact behaviour of the experimental results found in the literature was not reproduced. The response of the three-dimensional structural model is larger than the expected difference between a mode shape and a flexibly mounted section. This is due to the use of independent hydrodynamic sections along the cylinder. The predicted response is not unrealistic, and the method is considered a powerful tool. 221 refs., 138 figs., 36 tabs.

  20. Experimental Study on Influence of Hardening of Isolator in Multiple Isolation Building


    Fujita, Kohei; Miura, Toshiya; Tsuji, Masaaki; Takewaki, Izuru


    An innovative multiple isolation building system is proposed, and the influence of hardening in seismic isolators on the response of a multiple isolation building is investigated by shaking table vibration tests for a scaled structural model. From the observation in recent earthquake disasters in far-fault ground motions, e.g., the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake, a significant concern is reminded that the long-period and long-duration ground excitation may cause severe damage...

  1. Investigation and analysis the vibration of handles of chainsaw without cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Feyzi


    (VMI-192. The accelerometer mounted on an adapter inserted between the handle and accelerometer. The experiments were conducted in split plot completely randomized design. Ninety tests in two handles, three speeds of engine, three perpendicular axes and five repeats were conducted. The vibration acceleration at various conditions was measured and the root mean square of vibration acceleration was calculated based on acceleration-time spectrum. To investigate the characteristics of vibration in different speeds, the vibration spectrums in time domain were converted to spectrums in frequency domain. The frequency weighted RMS acceleration at 1/3rd octave bands from 6.3Hz to 1250Hz and the vibration total value was calculated from frequency spectrum. To analyze the obtained data, SAS software was used. Furthermore, the Duncan's multiple range tests were used to compare the RMS values. Results and Discussion: Main source of vibration of chainsaw was single cylinder engine. The acceleration spectra of employed chainsaw had peaks in frequencies in accordance with the speed of engine. These peaks in 2800 rpm, 10000 rpm and 13300 rpm speeds of engine occurred in 46.5Hz, 166.5Hz and 221.5Hz, respectively. To achieve a safe design for handle of portable tools, identifying the frequency which leads to the maximum value of vibration acceleration is very useful. To avoid the resonance phenomenon, the natural frequency of handle must be far from dominant frequency of engine. The results of ANOVA showed that the RMS acceleration in different axes and different speeds were significant at 1% level. The maximum value of vibration acceleration, at idling engine speed, occurred in the lateral axis. In addition, the mentioned variable was maximized in normal and axial axes at nominal and racing speeds, respectively. The total value of vibration was increased when the speed of engine moving away from nominal speed. This increase in rear handle is very larger than front handle. The total

  2. Vibrations of a Shallow Cable with a Viscous Damper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen; Nielsen, Søren R. K.


    The optimal tuning and effect in terms of modal damping of a viscous damper mounted near the end of a shallow cable are investigated. The damping properties of free vibrations are extracted from the complex wavenumber. The full solution for the lower modes is evaluated numerically, and an explicit...... and rather accurate analytical approximation is obtained, generalizing recent results for a taut cable. It is found that the effect of the damper on the nearly antisymmetric modes is independent of the sag and the stiffness parameter. In contrast, the nearly symmetric modes develop regions of reduced motion...... near the ends, with increasing cable stiffness, and this reduces the effect of the viscous damper. Explicit results are obtained for the modal damping radio and for optimal tuning of the damper....

  3. Topology-optimization-based design method of flexures for mounting the primary mirror of a large-aperture space telescope. (United States)

    Hu, Rui; Liu, Shutian; Li, Quhao


    For the development of a large-aperture space telescope, one of the key techniques is the method for designing the flexures for mounting the primary mirror, as the flexures are the key components. In this paper, a topology-optimization-based method for designing flexures is presented. The structural performances of the mirror system under multiple load conditions, including static gravity and thermal loads, as well as the dynamic vibration, are considered. The mirror surface shape error caused by gravity and the thermal effect is treated as the objective function, and the first-order natural frequency of the mirror structural system is taken as the constraint. The pattern repetition constraint is added, which can ensure symmetrical material distribution. The topology optimization model for flexure design is established. The substructuring method is also used to condense the degrees of freedom (DOF) of all the nodes of the mirror system, except for the nodes that are linked to the mounting flexures, to reduce the computation effort during the optimization iteration process. A potential optimized configuration is achieved by solving the optimization model and post-processing. A detailed shape optimization is subsequently conducted to optimize its dimension parameters. Our optimization method deduces new mounting structures that significantly enhance the optical performance of the mirror system compared to the traditional methods, which only focus on the parameters of existing structures. Design results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed optimization method.

  4. Adaptive tuned vibration absorber based on magnetorheological elastomer-shape memory alloy composite (United States)

    Kumbhar, Samir B.; Chavan, S. P.; Gawade, S. S.


    Shape memory alloy (SMA) is an attractive smart material which could be used as stiffness tuning element in adaptive tuned vibration absorber (ATVA). The sharp modulus change in SMA material during phase transformation creates difficulties for smooth tuning to track forcing frequency to minimize vibrations of primary system. However, high hysteresis damping at low temperature martensitic phase degrades performance of vibration absorber. This paper deals with the study of dynamic response of system in which SMA and magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) are combined together to act as a smart spring- mass-damper system in a tuned vibration absorber. This composite is used as two way stiffness tuning element in ATVA for smooth and continuous tuning and to minimize the adverse effect at low temperature by increasing equivalent stiffness. The stiffnesses of SMA element and MRE are varied respectively by changing temperature and strength of external magnetic field. The two way stiffness tuning ability and adaptivity have been demonstrated analytically and experimentally. The experimental results show good agreement with analytical results. The proposed composite is able to shift the stiffness consequently the natural frequency of primary system as well as reduce the vibration level of primary system by substantial mount.

  5. Axial Fan Blade Vibration Assessment under Inlet Cross-Flow Conditions Using Laser Scanning Vibrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Heinemann


    Full Text Available In thermal power plants equipped with air-cooled condensers (ACCs, axial cooling fans operate under the influence of ambient flow fields. Under inlet cross-flow conditions, the resultant asymmetric flow field is known to introduce additional harmonic forces to the fan blades. This effect has previously only been studied numerically or by using blade-mounted strain gauges. For this study, laser scanning vibrometry (LSV was used to assess fan blade vibration under inlet cross-flow conditions in an adapted fan test rig inside a wind tunnel test section. Two co-rotating laser beams scanned a low-pressure axial fan, resulting in spectral, phase-resolved surface vibration patterns of the fan blades. Two distinct operating points with flow coefficients of 0.17 and 0.28 were examined, with and without inlet cross-flow influence. While almost identical fan vibration patterns were found for both reference operating points, the overall blade vibration increased by 100% at the low fan flow rate as a result of cross-flow, and by 20% at the high fan flow rate. While numerically predicted natural frequency modes could be confirmed from experimental data as minor peaks in the vibration amplitude spectrum, they were not excited significantly by cross-flow. Instead, primarily higher rotation-rate harmonics were amplified; that is, a synchronous blade-tip flapping was strongly excited at the blade-pass frequency.

  6. Classification problems of Mount Kenya soils (United States)

    Mutuma, Evans; Csorba, Ádám; Wawire, Amos; Dobos, Endre; Michéli, Erika


    Soil sampling on the agricultural lands covering 1200 square kilometers in the Eastern part of Mount Kenya was carried out to assess the status of soil organic carbon (SOC) as a soil fertility indicator, and to create an up-to-date soil classification map. The geology of the area consists of volcanic rocks and recent superficial deposits. The volcanic rocks are related to the Pliocene time; mainly: lahars, phonolites, tuffs, basalt and ashes. A total of 28 open profiles and 49 augered profiles with 269 samples were collected. The samples were analyzed for total carbon, organic carbon, particle size distribution, percent bases, cation exchange capacity and pH among other parameters. The objective of the study was to evaluate the variability of SOC in different Reference Soil Groups (RGS) and to compare the determined classification units with the KENSOTER database. Soil classification was performed based on the World Reference Base (WRB) for Soil Resources 2014. Based on the earlier surveys, geological and environmental setting, Nitisols were expected to be the dominant soils of the sampled area. However, this was not the case. The major differences to earlier survey data (KENSOTER database) are the presence of high activity clays (CEC value range 27.6 cmol/kg - 70 cmol/kg), high silt content (range 32.6 % - 52.4 %) and silt/clay ratio (range of 0.6 - 1.4) keeping these soils out of the Nitisols RSG. There was good accordance in the morphological features with the earlier survey but failed the silt/clay ratio criteria for Nitisols. This observation calls attention to set new classification criteria for Nitisols and other soils of warm, humid regions with variable rate of weathering to avoid difficulties in interpretation. To address the classification problem, this paper further discusses the taxonomic relationships between the studied soils. On the contrary most of the diagnostic elements (like the presence Umbric horizon, Vitric and Andic properties) and the some

  7. Ultrasonic metal welding with a vibration source using longitudinal and torsional vibration transducers (United States)

    Asami, Takuya; Tamada, Yosuke; Higuchi, Yusuke; Miura, Hikaru


    Conventional ultrasonic metal welding for joining dissimilar metals uses a linear vibration locus, although this method suffers from problems such as low overall weld strength. Our previous studies have shown that ultrasonic welding with a planar vibration locus improves the weld strength. However, the vibration source in our previous studies had problems in longitudinal-torsional vibration controllability and small welding tip. Therefore, the study of the optimal shape of the vibration locus was difficult. Furthermore, improvement of weld strength cannot be expected. We have developed a new ultrasonic vibration source that can control the longitudinal-torsional vibration and can connect to a large welding tip. In this study, we clarified the longitudinal-torsional vibration controllability of the developed ultrasonic vibration source. Moreover, we clarified that using the planar locus of the developed vibration source produced a higher weld strength than our previous studies, and clarified the optimal shape of the vibration locus.

  8. Effects of vibrational motion on core-level spectra of prototype organic molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uejio, Janel S.; Schwartz, Craig P.; Saykally, Richard J.; Prendergast, David


    A computational approach is presented for prediction and interpretation of core-level spectra of complex molecules. Applications are presented for several isolated organic molecules, sampling a range of chemical bonding and structural motifs. Comparison with gas phase measurements indicate that spectral lineshapes are accurately reproduced both above and below the ionization potential, without resort to ad hoc broadening. Agreement with experiment is significantly improved upon inclusion of vibrations via molecular dynamics sampling. We isolate and characterize spectral features due to particular electronic transitions enabled by vibrations, noting that even zero-point motion is sufficient in some cases.

  9. Mechanical Vibrations Modeling and Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitz, Tony L


    Mechanical Vibrations:Modeling and Measurement describes essential concepts in vibration analysis of mechanical systems. It incorporates the required mathematics, experimental techniques, fundamentals of modal analysis, and beam theory into a unified framework that is written to be accessible to undergraduate students,researchers, and practicing engineers. To unify the various concepts, a single experimental platform is used throughout the text to provide experimental data and evaluation. Engineering drawings for the platform are included in an appendix. Additionally, MATLAB programming solutions are integrated into the content throughout the text. This book also: Discusses model development using frequency response function measurements Presents a clear connection between continuous beam models and finite degree of freedom models Includes MATLAB code to support numerical examples that are integrated into the text narrative Uses mathematics to support vibrations theory and emphasizes the practical significanc...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamenko Yu. І.


    Full Text Available The standards and methods concerning assignment of rolling bearing fit with shafts and frames via example of bearing 6-208 are analyzed. We set certain differences of recommendations according to GOST 3325-85, "Rolling bearings. Tolerance zones and technical requirements to mounting surfaces of shafts and frames. Attachment" and by reference of rolling bearing manufacturers. The following factors should be taken into consideration when assigning the mounting with the tension the internal ring of the bearing with shaft and mounting with a gap in the outer ring with a housing bore. The methods of achieving accuracy of mounting surfaces of shafts and frames via form tolerance assignment: roundness tolerance, profile of longitudinal cut, cross section, cylindricity and others. It is possible to limit the bearing rings in different ways, for example appointing the cylindrical mounting surfaces and bead end surfaces the appropriate tolerances, namely: coaxiality tolerance or full radial beat of mounting surfaces, and also perpendicularity tolerance, butt beats and full butt beats of mounting end surfaces. We suggest to expand methods of achieving the accuracy of shafts and frames depending on seriation of production and production operations metrology support.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin E. Cobern


    The deep hard rock drilling environment induces severe vibrations into the drillstring, which can cause reduced rates of penetration (ROP) and premature failure of the equipment. The only current means of controlling vibration under varying conditions is to change either the rotary speed or the weight-on-bit (WOB). These changes often reduce drilling efficiency. Conventional shock subs are useful in some situations, but often exacerbate the problems. The objective of this project is development of a unique system to monitor and control drilling vibrations in a ''smart'' drilling system. This system has two primary elements: (1) The first is an active vibration damper (AVD) to minimize harmful axial, lateral and torsional vibrations. The hardness of this damper will be continuously adjusted using a robust, fast-acting and reliable unique technology. (2) The second is a real-time system to monitor drillstring vibration, and related parameters. This monitor adjusts the damper according to local conditions. In some configurations, it may also send diagnostic information to the surface via real-time telemetry. The AVD is implemented in a configuration using magnetorheological (MR) fluid. By applying a current to the magnetic coils in the damper, the viscosity of the fluid can be changed rapidly, thereby altering the damping coefficient in response to the measured motion of the tool. Phase I of this program entailed modeling and design of the necessary subsystems and design, manufacture and test of a full laboratory prototype. Phase I of the project was completed by the revised end date of May 31, 2004. The objectives of this phase were met, and all prerequisites for Phase II have been completed.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin E. Cobern


    The deep hard rock drilling environment induces severe vibrations into the drillstring, which can cause reduced rates of penetration (ROP) and premature failure of the equipment. The only current means of controlling vibration under varying conditions is to change either the rotary speed or the weight-on-bit (WOB). These changes often reduce drilling efficiency. Conventional shock subs are useful in some situations, but often exacerbate the problems. The objective of this project is development of a unique system to monitor and control drilling vibrations in a ''smart'' drilling system. This system has two primary elements: (1) The first is an active vibration damper (AVD) to minimize harmful axial, lateral and torsional vibrations. The hardness of this damper will be continuously adjusted using a robust, fast-acting and reliable unique technology. (2) The second is a real-time system to monitor drillstring vibration, and related parameters. This monitor adjusts the damper according to local conditions. In some configurations, it may also send diagnostic information to the surface via real-time telemetry. The AVD is implemented in a configuration using magnetorheological (MR) fluid. By applying a current to the magnetic coils in the damper, the viscosity of the fluid can be changed rapidly, thereby altering the damping coefficient in response to the measured motion of the tool. Phase I of this program entailed modeling and design of the necessary subsystems and design, manufacture and test of a full laboratory prototype. Phase I of the project was completed by the revised end date of May 31, 2004. The objectives of this phase were met, and all prerequisites for Phase II have been completed. The month of June, 2004 was primarily occupied with the writing of the Phase I Final Report, the sole deliverable of Phase I, which will be submitted in the next quarter. Redesign of the laboratory prototype and design of the downhole (Phase II) prototype was

  13. Tunable Digital Metamaterial for Broadband Vibration Isolation at Low Frequency. (United States)

    Wang, Ziwei; Zhang, Quan; Zhang, Kai; Hu, Gengkai


    A 3D-printed digital metamaterial embedded with electromagnets is fabricated. Switching electromagnets between the attaching (1 bit) and detaching (0 bit) modes activates different waveguides in the metamaterial. The underlying mechanism is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The hierarchical assemblies of unit cells, mimicking digital bits, allow programmable broadening of the bandgap of the metamaterial. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Canfield Joint - Vibration Isolation System for High Precision Pointing Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During our Phase I STTR effort, Balcones Technologies, LLC (BT) and The University of Texas at Austin Center for Electromechanics (CEM) successfully achieved all...

  15. Vibration Isolation Platform for Long Range Optical Communications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Optical communication links provide higher data transfer rates with lower mass, power, and volume than conventional radio-frequency links. For deep space...

  16. Vibration isolation for Coriolis Mass-Flow meters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Ridder, Bert


    A Coriolis Mass-Flow Meter (CMFM) is an active device based on the Coriolis force principle for direct mass-flow measurements, with high accuracy, range-ability and repeatability. The working principle of a CMFM is as follows: a fluid conveying tube is actuated to oscillate at a low amplitude. A

  17. Development of a variable stiffness and damping tunable vibration isolator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cronje, JM


    Full Text Available the amplification at resonance. A practical variable stiffness spring was developed by using a compound leaf spring with circular spring elements. A wax actuator, controlled by a hot-air gun with a closed-loop displacement and velocity feedback control system...

  18. Stroboscopic shearography for vibration analysis (United States)

    Steinchen, Wolfgang; Kupfer, Gerhard; Maeckel, Peter; Voessing, Frank


    Digital Shearography, a laser interferometric technique in conjunction with the digital image processing, has the potential for vibration analysis due to its simple optical system and insensitivity against small rigid body motions. This paper will focus on its recent developments for vibration analysis and for nondestructive testing (NDT) by dynamic (harmonical) excitation. With the introduction of real time observation using automatically refreshing reference frame, both small and large rigid body motions are greatly suppressed. The development of a smaller and more mobile measuring device in conjunction with a user guided comfortable program Shearwin enables the digital shearography to be applied easily as an industrial online testing tool.

  19. Vibrational Collapse of Hexapod Packings (United States)

    Zhao, Yuchen; Ding, Jingqiu; Barés, Jonathan; Zheng, Hu; Dierichs, Karola; Menges, Achim; Behringer, Robert


    Columns made of convex noncohesive grains like sand collapse after being released from a confining container. However, structures built from non-convex grains can be stable without external support. In the current experiments, we investigate the effect of vibration on destroying such columns. The change of column height during vertical vibration, can be well characterized by stretched exponential relaxation when the column is short, which is in agreement with previous work, while a faster collapse happens when the column is tall. We investigate the collapse after the fast process including its dependence on column geometry, and on interparticle and basal friction.

  20. Innovative Techniques Simplify Vibration Analysis (United States)


    In the early years of development, Marshall Space Flight Center engineers encountered challenges related to components in the space shuttle main engine. To assess the problems, they evaluated the effects of vibration and oscillation. To enhance the method of vibration signal analysis, Marshall awarded Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts to AI Signal Research, Inc. (ASRI), in Huntsville, Alabama. ASRI developed a software package called PC-SIGNAL that NASA now employs on a daily basis, and in 2009, the PKP-Module won Marshall s Software of the Year award. The technology is also used in many industries: aircraft and helicopter, rocket engine manufacturing, transportation, and nuclear power."

  1. Vortex-induced vibrations of a cylinder in planar shear flow (United States)

    Gsell, Simon; Bourguet, Remi; Braza, Marianna


    Vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) of bluff bodies are common in nature and in engineering applications where flexible or flexibly mounted structures are exposed to wind and ocean currents. VIV have been thoroughly studied through the canonical problem of an elastically mounted, rigid cylinder immersed in uniform flow. However, in the real physical systems where VIV develop, the oncoming flows are usually non-uniform. The present work investigates the impact of a shear of the oncoming current in the cross-flow direction. As a first preliminary step, focus is placed on the fixed cylinder case; the analysis is based on a series of numerical simulations over a wide range of shear rates, at Reynolds number 100. It is found that the shear leads to the cancellation of wake unsteadiness beyond a critical value of the shear rate. Once the rigid cylinder is elastically mounted, free vibrations arise over the entire range of shear rates under study, including beyond the above mentioned critical value. Different flow-structure interaction regimes are uncovered. Some of them exhibit a major deviation from the uniform-flow case, with a profound reconfiguration of the wake patterns and a dramatic amplification of the structural response amplitudes.

  2. Eruption of Mount St. Helens, May 18, 1980 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The May 18, 1980 eruption of Mount Saint Helens was the most destructive in the history of the United States. Mt. Saint Helens is located in southwest Washington in...

  3. Fathead minnow whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This study demonstrates the potential of whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH), in conjunction with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QPCR)...

  4. Macrofungal diversity of Nemrut Mount National Park and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is based on the macrofungi collected from Nemrut Mount National Park and its environs. As a result of field and laboratory studies, 101 taxa belonging to 30 families and 66 genera in Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes classes were identified.

  5. A Surface-Mounted Rotor State Sensing System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A surface-mounted instrumentation system for measuring rotor blade motions on rotorcraft, for use both in flight and in wind tunnel testing, is proposed for...

  6. Low radioactivity material for use in mounting radiation detectors (United States)

    Fong, Marshall; Metzger, Albert E.; Fox, Richard L.


    Two materials, sapphire and synthetic quartz, have been found for use in Ge detector mounting assemblies. These materials combine desirable mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties with the radioactive cleanliness required to detect minimal amounts of K, Th, and U.

  7. Surface-Mount Rotor Motion Sensing System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A surface-mounted instrumentation system for measuring rotor blade motions on rotorcraft, for use both in flight and in wind tunnel testing, is proposed for...

  8. Taking Charge: Walter Sydney Adams and the Mount Wilson Observatory (United States)

    Brashear, R.


    The growing preeminence of American observational astronomy in the first half of the 20th century is a well-known story and much credit is given to George Ellery Hale and his skill as an observatory-building entrepreneur. But a key figure who has yet to be discussed in great detail is Walter Sydney Adams (1876-1956), Hale's Assistant Director at Mount Wilson Observatory. Due to Hale's illnesses, Adams was Acting Director for much of Hale's tenure, and he became the second Director of Mount Wilson from 1923 to 1946. Behind his New England reserve Adams was instrumental in the growth of Mount Wilson and thus American astronomy in general. Adams was hand-picked by Hale to take charge of stellar spectroscopy work at Yerkes and Mount Wilson and the younger astronomer showed tremendous loyalty to Hale and Hale's vision throughout his career. As Adams assumed the leadership role at Mount Wilson he concentrated on making the observatory a place where researchers worked with great freedom but maintain a high level of cooperation. This paper will concentrate on Adams's early years and look at his growing relationship with Hale and how he came to be the central figure in the early history of Mount Wilson as both a solar and stellar observatory. His education, his years at Dartmouth and Yerkes (including his unfortunate encounter with epsilon Leonis), and his formative years on Mount Wilson are all important in learning how he shaped the direction of Mount Wilson and the development of American astronomy in the first half of the 20th century. This latter history cannot be complete until we bring Adams into better focus.

  9. Using a Head-Mounted Camera to Infer Attention Direction (United States)

    Schmitow, Clara; Stenberg, Gunilla; Billard, Aude; von Hofsten, Claes


    A head-mounted camera was used to measure head direction. The camera was mounted to the forehead of 20 6- and 20 12-month-old infants while they watched an object held at 11 horizontal (-80° to + 80°) and 9 vertical (-48° to + 50°) positions. The results showed that the head always moved less than required to be on target. Below 30° in the…

  10. Resonant vibration control of rotating beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Martin Nymann; Krenk, Steen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker


    Rotatingstructures,like e.g.wind turbine blades, may be prone to vibrations associated with particular modes of vibration. It is demonstrated, how this type of vibrations can be reduced by using a collocated sensor–actuator system, governed by a resonant controller. The theory is here demonstrated...... modal connectivity, only very limited modal spill-over is generated. The controller acts by resonance and therefore has only a moderate energy consumption, and successfully reduces modal vibrations at the resonance frequency....

  11. Optical fiber sensors for measurement strain and vibration (United States)

    Mikel, Bretislav; Helan, Radek; Buchta, Zdenek; Holík, Milan; Jelinek, Michal; Cip, Ondrej


    We present optical fiber sensors to measurement strain and vibration. The sensors are based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBG). We prepared construction of strain sensors with respect to its implementation on the outer surface of concrete structures and with compensation of potential temperature drifts. These sensors are projected with look forward to maximal elongation and strength which can be applied to the sensor. Each sensor contains two optical fibers with FBGs. One FBG is glued into the sensor in points of fixation which are in the line with mounting holes. This FBG is prestressed to half of measurement range, than the stretching and pressing can be measured simultaneously by one FBG. The second FBG is placed inside the sensor without fixation to measure temperature drifts. The sensor can be used to structure health monitoring. The sensors to measurement vibration are based on tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) with fiber taper. The sensor uses the TFBG as a cladding modes reflector and fiber taper as a bend-sensitive recoupling member. The lower cladding modes (ghost), reflected from TFBG, is recoupled back into the fiber core via tapered fiber section. We focused on optimization of TFBG tilt angle to reach maximum reflection of the ghost and taper parameters. In this article we present complete set-up, optical and mechanical parameters of both types of sensors.

  12. Low-energy isovector quadrupole vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faessler, A.; Nojarov, R.


    The low-lying isovector quadrupole vibrations are described by an extension of the vibrational model allowing independent proton and neutron vibrations coupled by the symmetry energy. The recently detected low-lying isovector states in nearly spherical nuclei with N=84 are described well concerning their energies and E2/M1 mixing ratios. (orig.).

  13. Ground Vibration Measurements at LHC Point 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertsche, Kirk; /SLAC; Gaddi, Andrea; /CERN


    Ground vibration was measured at Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Point 4 during the winter shutdown in February 2012. This report contains the results, including power and coherence spectra. We plan to collect and analyze vibration data from representative collider halls to inform specifications for future linear colliders, such as ILC and CLIC. We are especially interested in vibration correlations between final focus lens locations.

  14. Rotor Vibration Reduction via Active Hybrid Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar


    The use of fluid power to reduce and control rotor vibration in rotating machines is investigated. An active hybrid bearing is studied, whose main objective is to reduce wear and vibration between rotating and stationary machinery parts. By injecting pressurised oil into the oil film, through...... with experiment, and simulations show the feasibility of controlling shaft vibration through this active device....

  15. 33 CFR 159.103 - Vibration test. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vibration test. 159.103 Section...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.103 Vibration test. The device... subjected to a sinusoidal vibration for a period of 12 hours, 4 hours in each of the x, y, and z planes, at...

  16. 14 CFR 27.907 - Engine vibration. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine vibration. 27.907 Section 27.907... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant General § 27.907 Engine vibration. (a) Each engine must be installed to prevent the harmful vibration of any part of the engine or rotorcraft. (b) The addition of the...

  17. 14 CFR 29.251 - Vibration. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vibration. 29.251 Section 29.251... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Miscellaneous Flight Requirements § 29.251 Vibration. Each part of the rotorcraft must be free from excessive vibration under each appropriate speed and power...

  18. 14 CFR 29.907 - Engine vibration. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine vibration. 29.907 Section 29.907... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant General § 29.907 Engine vibration. (a) Each engine must be installed to prevent the harmful vibration of any part of the engine or rotorcraft. (b) The...

  19. 14 CFR 27.251 - Vibration. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vibration. 27.251 Section 27.251... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Miscellaneous Flight Requirements § 27.251 Vibration. Each part of the rotorcraft must be free from excessive vibration under each appropriate speed and power...

  20. 49 CFR 178.608 - Vibration standard. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vibration standard. 178.608 Section 178.608... Testing of Non-bulk Packagings and Packages § 178.608 Vibration standard. (a) Each packaging must be capable of withstanding, without rupture or leakage, the vibration test procedure outlined in this section...

  1. 49 CFR 178.985 - Vibration test. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vibration test. 178.985 Section 178.985... Testing of Large Packagings § 178.985 Vibration test. (a) General. All rigid Large Packaging and flexible Large Packaging design types must be capable of withstanding the vibration test. (b) Test method. (1) A...

  2. Vibration measurements on timber frame floors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuilen, J.W.G. van de; Oosterhout, G.P.C. van; Donkervoort, R.


    In the design of lightweight floors vibrational aspects become more and more important. With the foreseen introduction of Eurocode 5 the vibration of timber floors becomes a part of the design for serviceability. Design rules for the vibrational behaviour are given in Eurocode 5. The first rule is

  3. Vibrations in a moving flexible robot arm (United States)

    Wang, P. K. C.; Wei, Jin-Duo


    The vibration in a flexible robot arm modeled by a moving slender prismatic beam is considered. It is found that the extending and contracting motions have destabilizing and stabilizing effects on the vibratory motions, respectively. The vibration analysis is based on a Galerkin approximation with time-dependent basis functions. Typical numerical results are presented to illustrate the qualitative features of vibrations.

  4. Vibration Theory, Vol. 1A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    The present collection of solved problems has been published as a supplement to the textbook Svingningsteori. Bind 1. Lineær svingningsteori,Aalborg tekniske Universitetsforlag, 1991, whicj is used in the introductory course on linear vibration theory that is being given on th e8th semester...

  5. Vibration Damping Circuit Card Assembly (United States)

    Hunt, Ronald Allen (Inventor)


    A vibration damping circuit card assembly includes a populated circuit card having a mass M. A closed metal container is coupled to a surface of the populated circuit card at approximately a geometric center of the populated circuit card. Tungsten balls fill approximately 90% of the metal container with a collective mass of the tungsten balls being approximately (0.07) M.

  6. Wideband Piezomagnetoelastic Vibration Energy Harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Anders; Thomsen, Erik Vilain


    This work presents a small-scale wideband piezomagnetoelastic vibration energy harvester (VEH) aimed for operation at frequencies of a few hundred Hz. The VEH consists of a tape-casted PZT cantilever with thin sheets of iron foil attached on each side of the free tip. The wideband operation...

  7. Ultrafast vibrations of gold nanorings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelf, T; Tanaka, Y; Matsuda, O


    We investigate the vibrational modes of gold nanorings on a silica substrate with an ultrafast optical technique. By comparison with numerical simulations, we identify several resonances in the gigahertz range associated with axially symmetric deformations of the nanoring and substrate. We...

  8. Effect of shelf aging on vibration transmissibility of anti-vibration gloves. (United States)

    Shibata, Nobuyuki


    Anti-vibration gloves have been used in real workplaces to reduce vibration transmitted through hand-held power tools to the hand. Generally materials used for vibration attenuation in gloves are resilient materials composed of certain synthetic and/or composite polymers. The mechanical characteristics of the resilient materials used in anti-vibration gloves are prone to be influenced by environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, and photo-irradiation, which cause material degradation and aging. This study focused on the influence of shelf aging on the vibration attenuation performance of air-packaged anti-vibration gloves following 2 years of shelf aging. Effects of shelf aging on the vibration attenuation performance of anti-vibration gloves were examined according to the Japan industrial standard JIS T8114 test protocol. The findings indicate that shelf aging induces the reduction of vibration attenuation performance in air-packaged anti-vibration gloves.

  9. Effects of whole body vibration training on muscle strength and sprint performance in sprint-trained athletes. (United States)

    Delecluse, C; Roelants, M; Diels, R; Koninckx, E; Verschueren, S


    Despite the expanding use of Whole Body Vibration training among athletes, it is not known whether adding Whole Body Vibration training to the conventional training of sprint-trained athletes will improve speed-strength performance. Twenty experienced sprint-trained athletes (13 male symbol, 7 female symbol, 17-30 years old) were randomly assigned to a Whole Body Vibration group (n=10: 6 male symbol and 4 female symbol) or a Control group (n=10: 7 male symbol, 3 female symbol). During a 5-week experimental period all subjects continued their conventional training program, but the subjects of the Whole Body Vibration group additionally performed three times weekly a Whole Body Vibration training prior to their conventional training program. The Whole Body Vibration program consisted of unloaded static and dynamic leg exercises on a vibration platform (35-40 Hz, 1.7-2.5 mm, Power Plate). Pre and post isometric and dynamic (100 degrees/s) knee-extensor and -flexor strength and knee-extension velocity at fixed resistances were measured by means of a motor-driven dynamometer (Rev 9000, Technogym). Vertical jump performance was measured by means of a contact mat. Force-time characteristics of the start action were assessed using a load cell mounted on each starting block. Sprint running velocity was recorded by means of a laser system. Isometric and dynamic knee-extensor and knee-flexor strength were unaffected (p>0.05) in the Whole Body Vibration group and the Control group. As well, knee-extension velocity remained unchanged (p>0.05). The duration of the start action, the resulting start velocity, start acceleration, and sprint running velocity did not change (>0.05) in either group. In conclusion, this specific Whole Body Vibration protocol of 5 weeks had no surplus value upon the conventional training program to improve speed-strength performance in sprint-trained athletes.

  10. Optimum Tuning of a Gyroscopic Vibration Absorber Using Coupled Gyroscopes for Vibration Control of a Vertical Cantilever Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ünker


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the investigation of optimum values of the stiffness and damping which connect two gyroscopic systems formed by two rotors mounted in gimbal assuming negligible masses for the spring, damper, and gimbal support. These coupled gyroscopes use two gyroscopic flywheels, spinning in opposing directions to have reverse precessions to eliminate the forces due to the torque existing in the torsional spring and the damper between gyroscopes. The system is mounted on a vertical cantilever with the purpose of studying the horizontal and vertical vibrations. The equation of motion of the compound system (gyro-beam system is introduced and solved to find the response measured on the primary system. This is fundamental to design, in some way, the dynamic absorber or neutralizer. On the other hand, the effect of the angular velocities of the gyroscopes are studied, and it is shown that the angular velocity (spin velocity of a gyroscope has a significant effect on the behavior of the dynamic motion. Correctness of the analytical results is verified by numerical simulations. The comparison with the results from the derivation of the corresponding frequency equations shows that the optimized stiffness and damping values are very accurate.

  11. Spectroscopic investigation of the vibrational quasi-continuum arising from internal rotation of a methyl group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hougen, J.T. [NIST, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)


    The goal of this project is to use spectroscopic techniques to investigate in detail phenomena involving the vibrational quasi-continuum in a simple physical system. Acetaldehyde was chosen for the study because: (i) methyl groups have been suggested to be important promotors of intramolecular vibrational relaxation, (ii) the internal rotation of a methyl group is an easily describle large-amplitude motion, which should retain its simple character even at high levels of excitation, and (iii) the aldehyde carbonyl group offers the possibility of both vibrational and electronic probing. The present investigation of the ground electronic state has three parts: (1) understanding the {open_quotes}isolated{close_quotes} internal-rotation motion below, at, and above the top of the torsional barrier, (2) understanding in detail traditional (bond stretching and bending) vibrational fundamental and overtone states, and (3) understanding interactions involving states with multiquantum excitations of at least one of these two kinds of motion.

  12. Design and Test of Semi-Active Vibration-Reducing System for Lathe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Hu


    Full Text Available In this paper, its theory design, analysis and test system of semi-active vibration controlling system used for precision machine have been done. Firstly, lathe bed and spindle entity were modeled by using UG software; Then modes of the machine bed and the key components of spindle were obtained by using ANSYS software; Finally, harmonic response analysis of lathe spindle under complex load was acquired, which provided a basis of MR damper’s structure optimization design for a certain type of precision machine. In order to prove its effectives, a prototype semi-active vibration controlling lathe with MR damper was developed. Tests have been done, and comparison results between passive vibration isolation equipment and semi-active vibration controlling equipment proved its good performances of MR damper.

  13. ER fluid applications to vibration control devices and an adaptive neural-net controller (United States)

    Morishita, Shin; Ura, Tamaki


    Four applications of electrorheological (ER) fluid to vibration control actuators and an adaptive neural-net control system suitable for the controller of ER actuators are described: a shock absorber system for automobiles, a squeeze film damper bearing for rotational machines, a dynamic damper for multidegree-of-freedom structures, and a vibration isolator. An adaptive neural-net control system composed of a forward model network for structural identification and a controller network is introduced for the control system of these ER actuators. As an example study of intelligent vibration control systems, an experiment was performed in which the ER dynamic damper was attached to a beam structure and controlled by the present neural-net controller so that the vibration in several modes of the beam was reduced with a single dynamic damper.

  14. Vibrational spectra and DFT calculations of sonderianin diterpene (United States)

    Oliveira, I. M. M.; Santos, H. S.; Sena, D. M.; Cruz, B. G.; Teixeira, A. M. R.; Freire, P. T. C.; Braz-Filho, R.; Sousa, J. W.; Albuquerque, M. R. J. R.; Bandeira, P. N.; Bernardino, A. C. S. S.; Gusmão, G. O. M.; Bento, R. R. F.


    In the present study, the natural product sonderianin diterpene (C21H26O4), a diterpenoid isolated from Croton blanchetianus, with potential application in the drug industry, was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Vibrational spectra were supported by Density Functional Theory calculations. Infrared and Raman spectra of sonderianin were recorded at ambient temperature in the regions from 400 cm-1 to 3600 cm-1 and from 40 cm-1 to 3500 cm-1, respectively. DFT calculations with the hybrid functional B3LYP and the basis set 6-31 G(d,p) were performed with the purpose of obtaining information on the structural and vibrational properties of this organic compound. A comparison with experimental spectra allowed us to assign all of the normal modes of the crystal. The assignment of the normal modes was carried out by means of potential energy distribution.

  15. Receptor localization of steroid hormones and drugs: discoveries through the use of thaw-mount and dry-mount autoradiography


    Stumpf, W.E.


    The history of receptor autoradiography, its development and applications, testify to the utility of this histochemical technique for localizing radiolabeled hormones and drugs at cellular and subcellular sites of action in intact tissues. Localization of diffusible compounds has been a challenge that was met through the introduction of the "thaw-mount" and "dry-mount" autoradiographic techniques thirty years ago. With this cellular receptor autoradiography, used alone or combined with other ...

  16. The effects of sound level and vibration magnitude on the relative discomfort of noise and vibration. (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Griffin, Michael J


    The relative discomfort caused by noise and vibration, how this depends on the level of noise and the magnitude of vibration, and whether the noise and vibration are presented simultaneously or sequentially has been investigated in a laboratory study with 20 subjects. Noise and vertical vibration were reproduced with all 49 combinations of 7 levels of noise and 7 magnitudes of vibration to allow the discomfort caused by one of the stimuli to be judged relative to the other stimulus using magnitude estimation. In four sessions, subjects judged noise relative to vibration and vibration relative to noise, with both simultaneous and sequential presentations of the stimuli. The equivalence of noise and vibration was not greatly dependent on whether the stimuli were simultaneous or sequential, but highly dependent on whether noise was judged relative to vibration or vibration was judged relative to noise. When judging noise, higher magnitude vibrations appeared to mask the discomfort caused by low levels of noise. When judging vibration, higher level noises appeared to mask the discomfort caused by low magnitudes of vibration. The judgment of vibration discomfort was more influenced by noise than the judgment of noise discomfort was influenced by vibration.

  17. Transient vibration of wind turbine blades (United States)

    Li, Yuanzhe; Li, Minghai; Jiang, Feng


    This article aims to the transient vibration of wind turbine blades. We firstly introduce transient vibration and previous studies in this area. The report then shows the fundamental equations and derivation of Euler Equation. A 3-D beam are created to compare the analytical and numerical result. In addition we operate the existing result and Patran result of a truncation wedge beam, especially the frequencies of free vibration and transient vibration. Transient vibration cannot be vanished but in some case it can be reduced.

  18. Solar orbiter/PHI full disk telescope entrance window mechanical mount (United States)

    Barandiaran, J.; Zuluaga, P.; Fernandez, A. B.; Vera, I.; Garranzo, D.; Nuñez, A.; Bastide, L.; Royo, M. T.; Alvarez, A.


    PHI is a diffraction limited, wavelength tunable, quasi-monochromatic, and polarization sensitive imager. These capabilities are needed to infer the magnetic field and line-of-sight (LOS) velocity of the region targeted by the spacecraft (spacecraft (S/C)). PHI will consist of two telescopes: The High Resolution Telescope (HRT)[1] and the Full Disk Telescope (FDT). The HRT and the FDT will view the Sun through entrance windows located in the S/C heat shield. These windows act as heat rejecting filters with a transmission band of about 30 nm width centered on the science wavelength, such that the total transmittance (integral over the filter curve weighted with solar spectrum, including white leakage plus transmission profile of the pass band) does not exceed 4% of the total energy falling onto the window [2][3]. The HREW filter has been designed by SELEX in the framework of an ESA led technology development activity under original ESTEC contract No. 20018/06/NL/CP[4], and extensions thereof. For FDT HREW SLEX will provide the windows and it coatings. The HREW consists of two parallel-plane substrate plates (window 1 & window 2)[5] made of SUPRASIL 300 with a central thickness of 9 mm and a wedge of 30 arcsec each. These two substrates are each coated on both sides with four different coatings. These coatings and the choice of SUPRASIL help to minimize the optical absorptivity in the substrate and to radiatively decouple the HREW, which is expected to run at high temperatures during perihelion passages, from the PHI instrument cavity. The temperature distribution of the HREW is driven by two main factors: the mechanical mounting of the substrates to the feedthrough, and the radiative environment within the heat-shield/feedthrough assembly. The mechanical mount must ensure the correct integration of both suprasil substrates in its correct position and minimize the loads in windows due to thermal induced deformations and launching vibration environment. All the

  19. Experimental Analysis of Steady-State Maneuvering Effects on Transmission Vibration Patterns Recorded in an AH-1 Cobra Helicopter (United States)

    Huff, Edward M.; Dzwonczyk, Mark; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)


    Flight experiment was designed primarily to determine the extent to which steady-state maneuvers influence characteristic vibration patterns measured at the input pinion and output annulus gear locations of the main transmission. If results were to indicate that maneuvers systematically influence vibration patterns, more extensive studies would be planned to explore the response surface. It was also designed to collect baseline data for comparison with experimental data to be recorded at a later date from test stands at Glenn Research Center. Finally, because this was the first vibration flight study on the Cobra aircraft, considerable energy was invested in developing an in-flight recording apparatus, as well as exploring acceleration mounting methods, and generally learning about the overall vibratory characteristics of the aircraft itself.

  20. A numerical study of flow about fixed and flexibly mounted circular cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meling, Trond Stokka


    Motivated by the needs of the offshore oil industry, this thesis studies flow around a circular cylinder that is either fixed or flexibly mounted. The latter configuration is susceptible to vortex-induced vibrations. To predict the results numerically, a two-dimensional procedure was developed to handle the fluid domain, the structural problem and the non-linear interaction between the two media. The arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian approach was employed in order to handle moving boundaries. The fluid forces and the cylinder kinematics are solved in a staggered fashion. A velocity-correction method is employed to solve the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations where the Galerkin finite element method is used for the spatial discretization of the fluid domain. The second-order equation of motion of the cylinder is solved by a 4th order Rung-Kutta scheme. Various numerical schemes for solving the convection-diffusion equation involved are tested. All the schemes, except the rational Runge-Kutta, were found to smear the vortex street. To predict the flow field at high Reynolds number several turbulence models were tested. The modified 2-layer K-epsilon model with all elements in the boundary layer was found to predict results in remarkably good agreement with experimental results. Self-excited vibration tests of circular cylinders are also performed showing that the presented model is able to capture the lock-in phenomenon with reasonable accuracy, both in the laminar- and in the subcritical Reynolds number regime. 136 refs., 67 figs., 13 tabs.

  1. Multiple Rabi Splittings under Ultrastrong Vibrational Coupling. (United States)

    George, Jino; Chervy, Thibault; Shalabney, Atef; Devaux, Eloïse; Hiura, Hidefumi; Genet, Cyriaque; Ebbesen, Thomas W


    From the high vibrational dipolar strength offered by molecular liquids, we demonstrate that a molecular vibration can be ultrastrongly coupled to multiple IR cavity modes, with Rabi splittings reaching 24% of the vibration frequencies. As a proof of the ultrastrong coupling regime, our experimental data unambiguously reveal the contributions to the polaritonic dynamics coming from the antiresonant terms in the interaction energy and from the dipolar self-energy of the molecular vibrations themselves. In particular, we measure the opening of a genuine vibrational polaritonic band gap of ca. 60 meV. We also demonstrate that the multimode splitting effect defines a whole vibrational ladder of heavy polaritonic states perfectly resolved. These findings reveal the broad possibilities in the vibrational ultrastrong coupling regime which impact both the optical and the molecular properties of such coupled systems, in particular, in the context of mode-selective chemistry.

  2. Vibrations on board and health effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis


    for such relation among seafarers except for fishermen, who, however, are also exposed to additional recognised physical risk factors at work. The assessment and reduction of vibrations by naval architects relates to technical implications of this impact for the ships’ construction, but has limited value......There is only limited knowledge of the exposure to vibrations of ships’ crews and their risk of vibration-induced health effects. Exposure to hand-arm vibrations from the use of vibrating tools at sea does not differ from that in the land-based trades. However, in contrast to most other work places...... of the health consequences of whole body vibrations in land-transportation, such exposure at sea may affect ships’ passengers and crews. While the relation of back disorders to high levels of whole body vibration has been demonstrated among e.g. tractor drivers, there are no reported epidemiological evidence...

  3. Mounting ground sections of teeth: Cyanoacrylate adhesive versus Canada balsam. (United States)

    Vangala, Manogna Rl; Rudraraju, Amrutha; Subramanyam, R V


    Hard tissues can be studied by either decalcification or by preparing ground sections. Various mounting media have been tried and used for ground sections of teeth. However, there are very few studies on the use of cyanoacrylate adhesive as a mounting medium. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of cyanoacrylate adhesive (Fevikwik™) as a mounting medium for ground sections of teeth and to compare these ground sections with those mounted with Canada balsam. Ground sections were prepared from twenty extracted teeth. Each section was divided into two halves and mounted on one slide, one with cyanoacrylate adhesive (Fevikwik™) and the other with Canada balsam. Scoring for various features in the ground sections was done by two independent observers. Statistical analysis using Student's t-test (unpaired) of average scores was performed for each feature observed. No statistically significant difference was found between the two for most of the features. However, cyanoacrylate was found to be better than Canada balsam for observing striae of Retzius (P enamel lamellae (P < 0.036), dentinal tubules (P < 0.0057), interglobular dentin (P < 0.0001), sclerotic dentin - transmitted light (P < 0.00001), sclerotic dentin - polarized light (P < 0.0002) and Sharpey's fibers (P < 0.0004). This initial study shows that cyanoacrylate is better than Canada balsam for observing certain features of ground sections of teeth. However, it remains to be seen whether it will be useful for studying undecalcified sections of carious teeth and for soft tissue sections.

  4. Experimental energy harvesting from fluid flow by using two vibrating masses (United States)

    Nishi, Yoshiki; Fukuda, Kengo; Shinohara, Wataru


    In this study, an experiment was performed to determine how the addition of a second degree of freedom to a vibratory system affects its energy extraction from a surrounding fluid flow. A circular cylinder was submerged underwater and subjected to flow, and another cylinder mounted on springs was inserted between the submerged cylinder and a generator. The experiment results demonstrated that vortex-induced vibration occurred at frequencies that were locked-in to the first and second natural modes for reduced velocity ranges of 5.0-9.0 and greater than 12.0, respectively. The output voltages were particularly high when the vibration frequency was locked-in to that of the second natural mode. It was found that application of energy extraction using a system with two degrees of freedom can widen the range of reduced velocity within which power extraction is effective.

  5. Vibration Attenuation by a Combination of a Piezoelectric Stack and a Permanent Magnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nandi


    Full Text Available The present work proposes a non-contact vibration attenuator made up of a permanent magnet mounted on a piezoelectric stack. Two such actuators are made to work simultaneously in a 'twin-actuator' configuration. It is conceived that a controlled change in the gap between the actuator and the structure is capable of attenuation of vibration of the structure. This appropriate change in gap is achieved by controlled motion of the piezoelectric stacks. It is shown that the actuator works as an active damper when the extension and contraction of the actuators are made proportional to the velocity of the beam. The resolution of extension of a piezoelectric stack is in the order of nanometers. Thus in the proposed actuator the force of actuation can be applied with great precision. This actuator is also attractive for its simple constructional feature.

  6. Vibration characteristics of casing string under the exciting force of an electric vibrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyong Yin


    Full Text Available Vibration cementing is a new technique that can significantly improve the bond strength of cementing interface. To popularize this technique, it is necessary to solve the key problem of how to make cementing string generate downhole radial vibration in the WOC stage. For this purpose, an electric vibrator was developed. With this vibrator, electric energy is converted into mechanical energy by means of a high-temperature motor vibration unit. The motor vibration unit rotates the eccentric block through an output shaft to generate an exciting source, which produces an axial-rotating exciting force at the bottom of the casing string. Then, the vibration characteristics of vertical well casing string under the exciting force were analyzed by using the principal coordinate analysis method, and the response model of casing string to an electric vibrator was developed. Finally, the effects of casing string length, exciting force and vibration frequency on the vibration amplitude at the lowermost of the casing string were analyzed based on a certain casing program. It is indicated that the casing string length and the square of vibration frequency are inversely proportional to the vibration amplitude at the lowermost of the casing string, and the exciting force is proportional to the vibration amplitude at the lowermost of the casing string. These research results provide a theoretical support for the application of vibration cementing technology to the cementing sites with different requirements on well depth and amplitude.

  7. Sound vibration signal processing for detection and identification detonation (knock) to optimize performance Otto engine (United States)

    Sujono, A.; Santoso, B.; Juwana, W. E.


    Problems of detonation (knock) on Otto engine (petrol engine) is completely unresolved problem until now, especially if want to improve the performance. This research did sound vibration signal processing engine with a microphone sensor, for the detection and identification of detonation. A microphone that can be mounted is not attached to the cylinder block, that's high temperature, so that its performance will be more stable, durable and inexpensive. However, the method of analysis is not very easy, because a lot of noise (interference). Therefore the use of new methods of pattern recognition, through filtration, and the regression function normalized envelope. The result is quite good, can achieve a success rate of about 95%.

  8. Vibrational damping of composite materials (United States)

    Biggerstaff, Janet M.

    The purpose of this research was to develop new methods of vibrational damping in polymeric composite materials along with expanding the knowledge of currently used vibrational damping methods. A new barrier layer technique that dramatically increased damping in viscoelastic damping materials that interacted with the composite resin was created. A method for testing the shear strength of damping materials cocured in composites was developed. Directional damping materials, where the loss factor and modulus could be tailored by changing the angle, were produced and investigated. The addition of particles between composite prepreg layers to increase damping was studied. Electroviscoelastic materials that drastically changed properties such as loss factor and modulus with an applied voltage were manufactured and tested.

  9. Vibration of imperfect rotating disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Půst L.


    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the theoretical and numerical calculations of the flexural vibrations of a bladed disk. The main focus of this study is to elaborate the basic background for diagnostic and identification methods for ascertaining the main properties of the real structure or an experimental model of turbine disks. The reduction of undesirable vibrations of blades is proposed by using damping heads, which on the experimental model of turbine disk are applied only on a limited number of blades. This partial setting of damping heads introduces imperfection in mass, stiffness and damping distribution on the periphery and leads to more complicated dynamic properties than those of a perfect disk. Calculation of FEM model and analytic—numerical solution of disk behaviour in the limited (two modes frequency range shows the splitting of resonance with an increasing speed of disk rotation. The spectrum of resonance is twice denser than that of a perfect disk.

  10. Dynamical response of vibrating ferromagnets

    CERN Document Server

    Gaganidze, E; Ziese, M


    The resonance frequency of vibrating ferromagnetic reeds in a homogeneous magnetic field can be substantially modified by intrinsic and extrinsic field-related contributions. Searching for the physical reasons of the field-induced resonance frequency change and to study the influence of the spin glass state on it, we have measured the low-temperature magnetoelastic behavior and the dynamical response of vibrating amorphous and polycrystalline ferromagnetic ribbons. We show that the magnetoelastic properties depend strongly on the direction of the applied magnetic field. The influence of the re-entrant spin glass transition on these properties is discussed. We present clear experimental evidence that for applied fields perpendicular to the main area of the samples the behavior of ferromagnetic reeds is rather independent of the material composition and magnetic state, exhibiting a large decrease of the resonance frequency. This effect can be very well explained with a model based on the dynamical response of t...

  11. Vibrational coupling in plasmonic molecules. (United States)

    Yi, Chongyue; Dongare, Pratiksha D; Su, Man-Nung; Wang, Wenxiao; Chakraborty, Debadi; Wen, Fangfang; Chang, Wei-Shun; Sader, John E; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J; Link, Stephan


    Plasmon hybridization theory, inspired by molecular orbital theory, has been extremely successful in describing the near-field coupling in clusters of plasmonic nanoparticles, also known as plasmonic molecules. However, the vibrational modes of plasmonic molecules have been virtually unexplored. By designing precisely configured plasmonic molecules of varying complexity and probing them at the individual plasmonic molecule level, intramolecular coupling of acoustic modes, mediated by the underlying substrate, is observed. The strength of this coupling can be manipulated through the configuration of the plasmonic molecules. Surprisingly, classical continuum elastic theory fails to account for the experimental trends, which are well described by a simple coupled oscillator picture that assumes the vibrational coupling is mediated by coherent phonons with low energies. These findings provide a route to the systematic optical control of the gigahertz response of metallic nanostructures, opening the door to new optomechanical device strategies. Published under the PNAS license.

  12. A night with good vibrations

    CERN Multimedia


    Next week-end, the Geneva Science History Museum invites you to a Science Night under the banner of waves and vibrations. Scientists, artists and storytellers from more than forty institutes and local or regional associations will show that waves and vibrations form an integral part of our environment. You will be able to get in contact with the nature of waves through interactive exhibitions on sound and light and through hands-on demonstrations arranged in the Park of the Perle du Lac. On the CERN stand, you will be able to measure the speed of light with a bar of chocolate, and understand the scattering of waves with plastic ducks. Amazing, no? In addition to the stands, the Night will offer many other activities: reconstructions of experiments, a play, a concert of crystal glasses, an illuminated fountain, a house of spirits. More information Science Night, 6 and 7 July, Park of the Perle du Lac, Geneva

  13. The effects of isomerism on the vibrational spectra and thermodynamic characteristics of biuret in the gas phase (United States)

    Korolevich, M. V.; Lastochkina, V. A.; Frenkel, M. L.; Kabo, G. Ya.; Zhbankov, R. G.


    A theoretical study of the IR spectra of cis- and trans-isomers of biuret, based on coupled calculations of vibrational frequencies as a valence force field approximation and of absorption band intensities by the CNDO/2 method, is reported. Calculated thermodynamic functions for biuret agreed with experimental thermochemical data. For calculating the vibrations of an isolated biuret molecule, the experimental vapour-phase IR absorption spectra were used.

  14. Vibration Control in Periodic Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Jan Becker


    Within the framework of periodic structures, the calibration of RL shunted piezoelectric inclusions is investigated with respect to maximum damping of a particular wave form. A finite element setting is assumed, with local shunted inclusions inside the unit cell. The effect of the shunts is repre....... The presentation contains dispersion diagrams and vibration amplitude curves for the optimally calibrated RL shunt system in a 1-D periodic structure with local piezoelectric inclusions....

  15. Frequency response calibration of recess-mounted pressure transducers (United States)

    Marcolini, M. A.; Lorber, P. F.; Miller, W. T., Jr.; Covino, A. F., Jr.


    A technique is described for measuring the frequency response of pressure transducers mounted inside a model, where a narrow pipette leads to an orifice at the surface. An acoustic driver is mounted to a small chamber which has an opening at the opposite end with an O-ring seal to place over the orifice. A 3.18 mm (1/8 inch) reference microphone is mounted to one side of the chamber. The acoustic driver receives an input of white noise, and the transducer and reference microphone outputs are compared to obtain the frequency response of the pressure transducer. Selected results are presented in the form of power spectra for both the transducer and the reference, as well as the amplitude variation and phase shift between the two signals as a function of frequency. The effect of pipette length and the use of this technique for identifying both blocked orifices and faulty transducers are described.

  16. Infrared optical element mounting techniques for wide temperature ranges. (United States)

    Saggin, Bortolino; Tarabini, Marco; Scaccabarozzi, Diego


    We describe the optimization of a mounting system for the infrared (IR) optics of a spaceborne interferometer working in the temperature range between -120 degrees C and +150 degrees C. The concept is based on an aluminum alloy frame with designed mechanical compliance, which allows for compensation of the different coefficient of thermal expansion between the optics and the holder; at the same time, the system provides for the high stiffness required to reach natural frequencies above 200 Hz, which are mandatory in most space missions. Thermal adapters with properly chosen thermomechanical characteristics are interposed between the metallic structure and the lens, so as to reduce the interface stresses on the mechanically weak IR material, due to both the thermoelastic and acceleration loads. With the proposed mount, the competitive requirements of stiffness and stress-free mounting can be matched in wide temperature ranges. The case study of the interferometer of a miniaturized Fourier transform IR spectrometer is presented.

  17. Automated inspection of solder joints for surface mount technology (United States)

    Savage, Robert M.; Park, Hyun Soo; Fan, Mark S.


    Researchers at NASA/GSFC evaluated various automated inspection systems (AIS) technologies using test boards with known defects in surface mount solder joints. These boards were complex and included almost every type of surface mount device typical of critical assemblies used for space flight applications: X-ray radiography; X-ray laminography; Ultrasonic Imaging; Optical Imaging; Laser Imaging; and Infrared Inspection. Vendors, representative of the different technologies, inspected the test boards with their particular machine. The results of the evaluation showed limitations of AIS. Furthermore, none of the AIS technologies evaluated proved to meet all of the inspection criteria for use in high-reliability applications. It was found that certain inspection systems could supplement but not replace manual inspection for low-volume, high-reliability, surface mount solder joints.

  18. Geologic map of Mount Mazama, Crater Lake, Oregon (United States)

    Bacon, Charles


    Crater Lake caldera collapsed about 6,850 yr B.P. during the climactic eruption of Mount Mazama, a High Cascade basaltic andesitic to dacitic volcanic center that was constructed during a period of about 400,000 yr. The caldera and the products of the climactic eruption are clear evidence for the presence of a shallow magma body that must have supported a hydrothermal system in the recent past. The geology of Mount Mazama has been mapped at a scale of 1:24,000 based on detailed study of the walls of Crater Lake caldera and mapping of the flanks of the volcano. The map shows lavas and fragmental deposits of Mount Mazama, lavas of nearby monogenetic volcanoes, pre-Mazama silicic volcanic rocks, products of the climactic eruption, and glacial deposits. Related topical studies of the volcanology, geochronology, petrology, and geochemistry of the Crater Lake area depend on field relations established by geologic mapping.

  19. Broadband measurement of translational and angular vibrations using a single continuously scanning laser Doppler vibrometer. (United States)

    Salman, Muhammad; Sabra, Karim G


    A continuous scanning laser Doppler velocimetry (CSLDV) technique is used to measure the low frequency broadband vibrations associated with human skeletal muscle vibrations (typically f laser beam over distances that are short compared to the characteristic wavelengths of the vibrations. The high frequency scan (compared to the vibration frequency) enables the detection of broadband translational and angular velocities at a single point using amplitude demodulation of the CSDLV signal. For instance, linear scans allow measurement of the normal surface velocity and one component of angular velocity vector, while circular scans allow measurement of an additional angular velocity component. This CSLDV technique is first validated here using gel samples mimicking soft tissues and then applied to measure multiple degrees of freedom (DOF) of a subject's hand exhibiting fatigue-induced tremor. Hence this CSLDV technique potentially provides a means for measuring multiple DOF of small human body parts (e.g., fingers, tendons, small muscles) for various applications (e.g., haptic technology, remote surgery) when the use of skin-mounted sensors (e.g. accelerometers) can be problematic due to mass-loading artifacts or tethering issues.

  20. Analytical, FEA, and Experimental Comparisons of Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Using Engine Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay Khalatkar


    Full Text Available Piezoelectric elements can be used as sensors and actuators in flexible structures. In this paper, using the most basic concepts of piezoelectric micropower generators, all useful mathematical equations for getting analytical output are discussed and derived for different piezo positions on cantilever beam and then 3D finite element modeling and simulation of generalized piezoelectric laminated beam problem with proper specifications and properties are done in ANSYS12.0. Experimental analysis is also done on the very practical problem to harvest energy (to get electric energy by applying some deflection (mechanical energy on piezo-bonded aluminum beam, that is, to harvest energy (at microlevel at least by using vibrations of 4-stroke car diesel engine with mounting of piezo cantilever beam. Here piezoelectric beam is used to measure the charge generated from the engine vibrations. The vibration amplitudes are measured with a Laser Vibrometer with considerations of maximum number of power cycles is to be covered for analysis. The vibration response data of displacement of the cantilever at free end measured from Vibrometer are considered for harmonic and analytical analyses as mean displacement amplitude of 3.98 mm at free end. The study further carried out for effect of different piezo positions and various engine speeds also. Then comparison is also done among obtained results from these three analyses to get validation of all derived mathematical equations.

  1. Package security recorder of vibration (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-na; Hu, Jin-liang; Song, Shi-de


    This paper introduces a new kind of electronic product — Package Security Recorder of Vibration. It utilizes STC89C54RD+ LQFP-44 MCU as its main controller. At the same time, it also utilizes Freescale MMA845A 3-Axis 8-bit/12-bit Digital Accelerometer and Maxim DS1302 Trickle Charge Timekeeping Chip. It utilizes the MCU to read the value of the accelerometer and the value of the timekeeping chip, and records the data into the inner E2PROM of MCU. The whole device achieves measuring, reading and recording the time of the vibration and the intensity of the vibration. When we need the data, we can read them out. The data can be used in analyzing the condition of the cargo when it transported. The device can be applied to monitor the security of package. It solves the problem of responsibility affirming, when the valuable cargo are damaged while it transported. It offers powerful safeguard for the package. It's very value for application.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljon Albertus Manotar Simbolon


    natural resources in general are scattered in remote areas that still need development. On this side, the presence of mining companies is important for the progress and development as well as rip off the isolation area. The region around Mount Sudamanik, Cigudeg District, Bogor Regency grows due to the mining of andesite rock. Mount Sudamanik has been and is being mined out by five companies that have mining business license (IUP covering an area of 113 hectares of region mining business permit (WIUP. In 2012, total andesite production of the all company reached 3,984,785 tons, or an average of 332,065.4 tons per month. Production of these andesite generated from blasting that can reach five times the blasting or more every day. Ground vibrations and air blast caused by blasting probably effect to the living environment, mainly to the house construction and comfort communities who resides around the foot of Mount Sudamanik. Three villages are situated at the nearest the andesite mining inculuding Kampung Kadaung, Lebakwangi Lapangan and Lebakwangi Girang. Residential homes on the nearest location to the andesite blasting is about 337- 616 meters. The results showed that the use of 90.5 kg of explosives same delay at distance 148 resulted in maximum ground vibration levels of 7.71 m/s that have full filled the quality standard of the third grade SNI 7571: 2010. And the use of explosives ranging from 77.4 kg to 1310.4 kg blasting did not cause any noise impact on residential areas.

  3. Demonstrating the Effect of Particle Impact Dampers on the Random Vibration Response and Fatigue Life of Printed Wiring Assemblies (United States)

    Knight, Brent; Montgomery, Randall; Geist, David; Hunt, Ron; LaVerde, Bruce; Towner, Robert


    In a recent experimental study, small Particle Impact Dampers (PID) were bonded directly to the surface of printed circuit board (PCB) or printed wiring assemblies (PWA), reducing the random vibration response and increasing the fatigue life. This study provides data verifying practicality of this approach. The measured peak strain and acceleration response of the fundamental out of plane bending mode was significantly attenuated by adding a PID device. Attenuation of this mode is most relevant to the fatigue life of a PWA because the local relative displacements between the board and the supported components, which ultimately cause fatigue failures of the electrical leads of the board-mounted components are dominated by this mode. Applying PID damping at the board-level of assembly provides mitigation with a very small mass impact, especially as compared to isolation at an avionics box or shelf level of assembly. When compared with other mitigation techniques at the PWA level (board thickness, stiffeners, constrained layer damping), a compact PID device has the additional advantage of not needing to be an integral part of the design. A PID can simply be bonded to heritage or commercial off the shelf (COTS) hardware to facilitate its use in environments beyond which it was originally qualified. Finite element analysis and test results show that the beneficial effect is not localized and that the attenuation is not due to the simple addition of mass. No significant, detrimental reduction in frequency was observed. Side-by-side life testing of damped and un-damped boards at two different thicknesses (0.070" and 0.090") has shown that the addition of a PID was much more significant to the fatigue life than increasing the thickness. High speed video, accelerometer, and strain measurements have been collected to correlate with analytical results.

  4. Geology of the Ugashik-Mount Peulik Volcanic Center, Alaska (United States)

    Miller, Thomas P.


    The Ugashik-Mount Peulik volcanic center, 550 km southwest of Anchorage on the Alaska Peninsula, consists of the late Quaternary 5-km-wide Ugashik caldera and the stratovolcano Mount Peulik built on the north flank of Ugashik. The center has been the site of explosive volcanism including a caldera-forming eruption and post-caldera dome-destructive activity. Mount Peulik has been formed entirely in Holocene time and erupted in 1814 and 1845. A large lava dome occupies the summit crater, which is breached to the west. A smaller dome is perched high on the southeast flank of the cone. Pyroclastic-flow deposits form aprons below both domes. One or more sector-collapse events occurred early in the formation of Mount Peulik volcano resulting in a large area of debris-avalanche deposits on the volcano's northwest flank. The Ugashik-Mount Peulik center is a calcalkaline suite of basalt, andesite, dacite, and rhyolite, ranging in SiO2 content from 51 to 72 percent. The Ugashik-Mount Peulik magmas appear to be co-genetic in a broad sense and their compositional variation has probably resulted from a combination of fractional crystallization and magma-mixing. The most likely scenario for a future eruption is that one or more of the summit domes on Mount Peulik are destroyed as new magma rises to the surface. Debris avalanches and pyroclastic flows may then move down the west and, less likely, east flanks of the volcano for distances of 10 km or more. A new lava dome or series of domes would be expected to form either during or within some few years after the explosive disruption of the previous dome. This cycle of dome disruption, pyroclastic flow generation, and new dome formation could be repeated several times in a single eruption. The volcano poses little direct threat to human population as the area is sparsely populated. The most serious hazard is the effect of airborne volcanic ash on aircraft since Mount Peulik sits astride heavily traveled air routes connecting the U

  5. The Most Ancient Maps of Erupting Mount Etna (United States)

    Guidoboni, Emanuela; Ciuccarelli, Cecilia


    Mount Etna, in eastern Sicily, Italy, is an active volcano on whose slopes are the city of Catania and several towns. The volcano, whose eruptions are noted in written sources dating back to the thirteenth century B.C., continues to hold surprises for researchers who examine its eruptive history. During extensive historical research for a new catalog of Etna's eruptions (E. Guidoboni and E. Boschi, manuscript in preparation, 2008), two maps have been found that previously were unknown in the literature. These maps, which are the most ancient ones that represent Mount Etna erupting, provide new elements to evaluate the eruption that started on 19 December 1634 and continued until June 1636.

  6. A lower-melting-point solder alloy for surface mounts (United States)

    McCormack, M. T.; Degani, Y.; Chen, H. S.; Gesick, W. R.


    Significant manufacturing cost reductions can be realized with lower-temperature surface mount processing by increasing yields and using less expensive components and boards. A lower-melting-point solder alloy (nominal composition Sn-41.75Pb-8Bi0.5Ag) has been developed that enables significant reductions in peak reflow temperatures during surface-mount assembly. The solder alloy is compatible with standard Pb-Sn surface finishes, melts within the temperature range of ≈166-172°C,andhas promising mechanical properties.

  7. Mount Sinai Hospital's approach to Ontario's Health System Funding Reform. (United States)

    Chalk, Tyler; Lau, Davina; Morgan, Matthew; Dietrich, Sandra; Beduz, Mary Agnes; Bell, Chaim M


    In April 2012, the Ontario government introduced Health System Funding Reform (HSFR), a transformational shift in how hospitals are funded. Mount Sinai Hospital recognized that moving from global funding to a "patient-based" model would have substantial operational and clinical implications. Adjusting to the new funding environment was set as a top corporate priority, serving as the strategic basis for re-examining and redesigning operations to further improve both quality and efficiency. Two years into HSFR, this article outlines Mount Sinai Hospital's approach and highlights key lessons learned. Copyright © 2014 Longwoods Publishing.

  8. Seasonal pattern of reverse mounting in the groove-billed ani (Crotophaga sulcirostris) (United States)

    Bowen, B.S.; Koford, Rolf R.; Vehrencamp, S.L.


    We observed reverse mounting behavior in a color-banded population of Groove-billed Anis (Crotophaga sulcirostris) in Costa Rica. Sex was determined with measurements and laparotomies. Reverse mounting appeared nearly identical to mounting by males. Of 27 mountings in which at least one bird was banded, 15 were reverse mountings. Only reverse mountings (11 observations) were observed in the pre-breeding period. During the breeding season males mounted females in 12 of 16 mountings; one of the reverse mountings followed nest predation. The timing of reverse mounting in anis suggests that it has an adaptive function in courtship. The proximate mechanism may be differential timing between partners in the development of breeding condition or of sexual motivation.

  9. Experimental Evaluation of Vibration-Based Damage Identification Methods on a Composite Aircraft Structure with Internally-Mounted Piezodiaphragm Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hwang, Joong Sun; Loendersloot, Richard; Tinga, Tiedo; Chang, F.K.; Guemes, A.


    Maintenance strategies in various fields of industry, including aerospace applications, are shifting from time-scheduled to condition based strategies. An important requirement to allow this shift is to acquire knowledge on the failure modes and mechanisms of the system under observation. This

  10. Analysis of mechanical vibrations in large vertical pumps: two cases of natural frequency excitations; Analisis de vibraciones mecanicas en grandes bombas verticales: dos casos de excitacion de frecuencias naturales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ercoli, L.; La Malfa, S. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Bahia Blanca (Argentina). Inst. de Mecanica Aplicada]|[Universidad Tecnologica Nacional (Argentina). Grupo Analisis de Sistemas Mecanicos


    This study presents experimental dynamic analysis of two big vertical pumps induced to vibrate due to the excitation of natural frequencies of the structural systems: pump-mounting. It is demonstrated that a proper diagnostic of the working condition avoids unecessary and time-consuming equipment stops, with the consequent saving in the production costs. (author)

  11. Modeling and Analysis of Truck Mounted Concrete Pump Boom by Virtual Prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Ren


    Full Text Available By far there is lack of research on different working conditions between rigid and flexible dynamics of truck mounted concrete pump booms. First a 3D model has been established by using virtual prototyping technology of a 37 m long boom in Pro/Engineering software. Then the rigid body simulation model has been built. Next modal superimposition method is adopted to change the 4 rigid body booms into flexible ones. Kinematics law and dynamic characteristics of 4 common working conditions had been studied then. Next tip displacement and the first boom hydraulic cylinder force of the 4 working conditions between rigid and flexible models have been researched. Furthermore the first natural frequencies of the structure have been calculated. The results show that the frequency of the horizontal condition has the lowest of all and the roof condition has the largest of all. Besides the cylinder forces of the flexible model are larger than the corresponding rigid ones because of the flexible boom vibration. Finally an experiment has been done on a boom test rig which proved that the established simulation model is reasonable and the frequency results are correct. All of these provide design reference to mechanical manipulator as well as reducing product development cost of such mechanism.

  12. Passive method of eliminating accommodation/convergence disparity in stereoscopic head-mounted displays (United States)

    Eichenlaub, Jesse B.


    The difference in accommodation and convergence distance experienced when viewing stereoscopic displays has long been recognized as a source of visual discomfort. It is especially problematic in head mounted virtual reality and enhanced reality displays, where images must often be displayed across a large depth range or superimposed on real objects. DTI has demonstrated a novel method of creating stereoscopic images in which the focus and fixation distances are closely matched for all parts of the scene from close distances to infinity. The method is passive in the sense that it does not rely on eye tracking, moving parts, variable focus optics, vibrating optics, or feedback loops. The method uses a rapidly changing illumination pattern in combination with a high speed microdisplay to create cones of light that converge at different distances to form the voxels of a high resolution space filling image. A bench model display was built and a series of visual tests were performed in order to demonstrate the concept and investigate both its capabilities and limitations. Results proved conclusively that real optical images were being formed and that observers had to change their focus to read text or see objects at different distances

  13. Space Launch System Vibration Analysis Support (United States)

    Johnson, Katie


    The ultimate goal for my efforts during this internship was to help prepare for the Space Launch System (SLS) integrated modal test (IMT) with Rodney Rocha. In 2018, the Structural Engineering Loads and Dynamics Team will have 10 days to perform the IMT on the SLS Integrated Launch Vehicle. After that 10 day period, we will have about two months to analyze the test data and determine whether the integrated vehicle modes/frequencies are adequate for launching the vehicle. Because of the time constraints, NASA must have newly developed post-test analysis methods proven well and with technical confidence before testing. NASA civil servants along with help from rotational interns are working with novel techniques developed and applied external to Johnson Space Center (JSC) to uncover issues in applying this technique to much larger scales than ever before. We intend to use modal decoupling methods to separate the entangled vibrations coming from the SLS and its support structure during the IMT. This new approach is still under development. The primary goal of my internship was to learn the basics of structural dynamics and physical vibrations. I was able to accomplish this by working on two experimental test set ups, the Simple Beam and TAURUS-T, and by doing some light analytical and post-processing work. Within the Simple Beam project, my role involves changing the data acquisition system, reconfiguration of the test set up, transducer calibration, data collection, data file recovery, and post-processing analysis. Within the TAURUS-T project, my duties included cataloging and removing the 30+ triaxial accelerometers, coordinating the removal of the structure from the current rolling cart to a sturdy billet for further testing, preparing the accelerometers for remounting, accurately calibrating, mounting, and mapping of all accelerometer channels, and some testing. Hammer and shaker tests will be performed to easily visualize mode shapes at low frequencies. Short

  14. Actively controlled vibration welding system and method (United States)

    Cai, Wayne W.; Kang, Bongsu; Tan, Chin-An


    A vibration welding system includes a controller, welding horn, an active material element, and anvil assembly. The assembly may include an anvil body connected to a back plate and support member. The element, e.g., a piezoelectric stack or shape memory alloy, is positioned with respect to the assembly. The horn vibrates in a desirable first direction to form a weld on a work piece. The element controls any vibrations in a second direction by applying calibrated response to the anvil body in the second direction. A method for controlling undesirable vibrations in the system includes positioning the element with respect to the anvil assembly, connecting the anvil body to the support member through the back plate, vibrating the horn in a desirable first direction, and transmitting an input signal to the element to control vibration in an undesirable second direction.

  15. Coupled rotor/airframe vibration analysis (United States)

    Sopher, R.; Studwell, R. E.; Cassarino, S.; Kottapalli, S. B. R.


    A coupled rotor/airframe vibration analysis developed as a design tool for predicting helicopter vibrations and a research tool to quantify the effects of structural properties, aerodynamic interactions, and vibration reduction devices on vehicle vibration levels is described. The analysis consists of a base program utilizing an impedance matching technique to represent the coupled rotor/airframe dynamics of the system supported by inputs from several external programs supplying sophisticated rotor and airframe aerodynamic and structural dynamic representation. The theoretical background, computer program capabilities and limited correlation results are presented in this report. Correlation results using scale model wind tunnel results show that the analysis can adequately predict trends of vibration variations with airspeed and higher harmonic control effects. Predictions of absolute values of vibration levels were found to be very sensitive to modal characteristics and results were not representative of measured values.

  16. Vibration Resistant Quartz Crystal Resonators. (United States)


    occurred and the ribbon eventually pulled edge metallization and quartz from the crystal mounting flat. LI P-I We attempted to anneal the ribbon ourselves...improvement in radiation resistance of the ’SC’ over the ’AT’. ,_/ __ In order to produce a successful SC crystal/ unit, i.e., one that exploits this...7--. .7 -- 1 x~ -7 7: Vida F4Y)A 3 -76 NN - -L3 43-i~ 3 ~ : . -- _____ ____ r ~ - - ____ _ _ _ _ 7-:7 7~ -4~l F-0 d-N I - - . - 7 71 --14A -77- :1

  17. Volcano ecology: flourishing on the flanks of Mount St. Helens (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza; Charlie Crisafulli


    Mount St. Helens’ explosive eruption on May 18, 1980, was a pivotal moment in the field of disturbance ecology. The subsequent sustained, integrated research effort has shaped the development of volcano ecology, an emerging field of focused research. Excessive heat, burial, and impact force are some of the disturbance mechanisms following an eruption. They are also...

  18. Birds of Mount Kisingiri, Nyanza Province, including a preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mount Kisingiri comprises a much overlooked highland massif in southern Nyanza Province with a hitherto completely unknown avifauna. Here we detail our findings from three brief exploratory visits undertaken between 2011 and 2014, with a focus on forested habitats above 1800 m in the Gwassi Hills Forest Reserve ...

  19. Ethnobotanical survey of \\'wild\\' woody plant resources at Mount ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on the naming and use of plants by Taita who live at Mount Kasigau in Kenya's Eastern Arc Mountains. Plant vouchers and ethnobotanical data were compiled from transects and within 55 ecological plots, and during participant observations, home surveys, and semi-structured interviews with residents.

  20. Forest Carbon Stocks in Woody Plants of Mount Zequalla Monastery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carbon sequestration through forestry has the potential to play a significant role in ameliorating global environmental problems such as atmospheric accumulation of GHG's and climate change.The present study was undertaken to estimate forest carbon stock along altitudinal gradient in Mount Zequalla Monastery forest.

  1. Common eland Taurotragus oryx on Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More than 150 years after the first Europeans tackled Mount Kilimanjaro, the mammal fauna of Africa's highest mountain is still shrouded in mystery. This even applies to the common eland Taurotragus oryx, the world's second largest antelope, signs of which have been observed at altitudes between 3000 m and 5200 m, ...

  2. The South African Defence Force and Horse Mounted Infantry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African Defence Force (SADF) made effective use of the horse mounted soldier in the Namibian Independence War or 'Border War', 1966 to 1989, in Namibia (South West African) and Angola, in a conflict usually depicted as a series of high profile mechanised infantry operations. Nevertheless, the legacy of the ...

  3. Birds and biogeography of Mount Mecula in Mozambique's Niassa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mount Mecula's moist forest is small (approximately 136 ha in total) and patchy, and although known botanically to have some montane affinities, was found to support an avifauna more typical of riparian forests of medium to low altitude. The only montane forest species recorded was Lemon Dove Aplopelia larvata.

  4. Assessing climate change impacts on water balance in the Mount ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A statistical downscaling known for producing station-scale climate information from GCM output was preferred to evaluate the impacts of climate change within the Mount Makiling forest watershed, Philippines. The lumped hydrologic BROOK90 model was utilized for the water balance assessment of climate change ...

  5. Mounting improves heat-sink contact with beryllia washer (United States)


    To conduct heat away from electrical components that must be electrically insulated from a metal heat sink, a metal washer and a coil spring are placed between one end of the electrical component and the beryllia washer mounted on the heat sink. The thermal paths are formed by the component lead and base, the metal and beryllia washers, and the compressed spring.

  6. Vegetation types on Mount Akiki, Northern Luzon, Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bout, I.E.


    Mount Akiki (16° 37’ N, 120° 53’ E, c. 2760 m alt.) is one of the highest mountain peaks in the Cordillera mountain range, Luzon Island, Philippines. It is situated in the municipality of Benguet, north-east of Baguio City (a world famous tourist city in the region) and is north-west of Mt Pulog,

  7. Seasonal Population Dynamics of Rodents of Mount Chilalo, Arsi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on seasonal population dynamics of rodents was carried out on Mount Chilalo from August, 2007 to April, 2008. Six habitats, namely grassland, bush land, montane forest, Erica forest, Afroalpine forest and moor land were identified to carry out live and snap trapping during wet and dry seasons in randomly selected ...

  8. Astrophotography on the go using short exposures with light mounts

    CERN Document Server

    Ashley, Joseph


    No longer are heavy, sturdy, expensive mounts and tripods required to photograph deep space. With today's advances in technology, all that is required is an entry-DSLR and an entry level GoTo telescope. Here is all of the information needed to start photographing the night sky without buying expensive tracking mounts. By using multiple short exposures and combining them with mostly ‘freeware’ computer programs, the effect of image rotation can be minimized to a point where it is undetectable in normal astrophotography, even for a deep-sky object such as a galaxy or nebula. All the processes, techniques, and equipment needed to use inexpensive, lightweight altazimuth and equatorial mounts and very short exposures photography to image deep space objects are explained, step-by-step, in full detail, supported by clear, easy to understand graphics and photographs.   Currently available lightweight mounts and tripods are identified and examined from an economic versus capability perspective to help users deter...

  9. Optimized reflector stacks for solidly mounted bulk acoustic wave resonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jose, Sumy; Jansman, André B.M.; Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart; Schmitz, Jurriaan


    The quality factor (Q) of a solidly mounted bulk acoustic wave resonator (SMR) is limited by substrate losses, because the acoustic mirror is traditionally optimized to reflect longitudinal waves only. We propose two different design approaches derived from optics to tailor the acoustic mirror for

  10. Volcanic Ash from the 1999 Eruption of Mount Cameroon Volcano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Volcanic ash from the 1999 eruption of Mount Cameroon volcano has been characterized for its particle size and shape (by scanning electron microscopy, SEM), and mineralogy (by X-ray diffractometry, XRD). Also the total fluorine (F) content of the ash was determined by the selective ion electrode method. The results ...

  11. 49 CFR 571.212 - Standard No. 212; Windshield mounting. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 212; Windshield mounting. 571.212 Section 571.212 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.212...

  12. Dynamic design of automotive systems: Engine mounts and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Dynamic design and vibro-acoustic modelling issues for automotive structures are illustrated via two case studies. The first case examines the role performance of passive and adaptive hydraulic engine mounts. In the second, the importance of welded joints and adhesives in vehicle bodies and chassis structures is ...

  13. Kuidas koostada meeskonda - Mount Everesti ainetel / Marii Karell

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karell, Marii, 1980-


    Eesti meeskonna Mount Everesti tippu juhtinud Tõivo Sarmet selgitab toimunud ekspeditsiooni näitel, miks tema peab meeskonna komplekteerimisel oluliseimaks inimeste iseloomuomadusi. Ekstreemoludes hakkama saamiseks tuleb meeles pidada, et eesmärk on ühine ja kellegi ego ei tohi seda nurjata, rõhutab Sarmet. Kommenteerib Alar Sikk

  14. Nozzle Mounting Method Optimization Based on Robot Kinematic Analysis (United States)

    Chen, Chaoyue; Liao, Hanlin; Montavon, Ghislain; Deng, Sihao


    Nowadays, the application of industrial robots in thermal spray is gaining more and more importance. A desired coating quality depends on factors such as a balanced robot performance, a uniform scanning trajectory and stable parameters (e.g. nozzle speed, scanning step, spray angle, standoff distance). These factors also affect the mass and heat transfer as well as the coating formation. Thus, the kinematic optimization of all these aspects plays a key role in order to obtain an optimal coating quality. In this study, the robot performance was optimized from the aspect of nozzle mounting on the robot. An optimized nozzle mounting for a type F4 nozzle was designed, based on the conventional mounting method from the point of view of robot kinematics validated on a virtual robot. Robot kinematic parameters were obtained from the simulation by offline programming software and analyzed by statistical methods. The energy consumptions of different nozzle mounting methods were also compared. The results showed that it was possible to reasonably assign the amount of robot motion to each axis during the process, so achieving a constant nozzle speed. Thus, it is possible optimize robot performance and to economize robot energy.

  15. Rollin' in Style!: Students Design Bike Mounted Skateboard Racks (United States)

    Massey, Rick


    Recognizing the increasing popularity of skateboarding, the author has found a project that teaches design and manufacturing concepts--and, of equal importance, really gets his students motivated. He challenges them to design and build a skateboard rack that mounts easily on a bicycle. The project benefits students by teaching creativity, the…

  16. The mount Cameroon height determined from ground gravity data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in mountainous areas, where the topography is very rough. Mount Cameroon, which is the highest summit in central and western Africa, is now known to culminate at 4037.7 ± 0.7 m above sea level. This height is nearly 60 m less than the approximate value of 4095 m published by the National Institute of Cartography.

  17. Stereo acuity and visual acuity in head-mounted displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, F.L.; Mosch, M.


    We have determined how the stereo acuity and visual acuity with Helmet Mounted Displays (HMD’s) depend on the HMD’s spatial resolution. We measured stereo acuity and visual acuity on 6 subjects for three types of HMD, with display resolutions ranging from 0.18 to 0.50 pixel/arcmin. The HMD’s provide

  18. GOES-R Dual Isolation (United States)

    Freesland, Doug; Carter, Delano; Chapel, Jim; Clapp, Brian; Howat, John; Krimchansky, Alexander


    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R Series (GOES-R) is the first of the next generation geostationary weather satellites, scheduled for delivery in late 2015. GOES-R represents a quantum increase in Earth and solar weather observation capabilities, with 4 times the resolution, 5 times the observation rate, and 3 times the number of spectral bands for Earth observations. With the improved resolution, comes the instrument suite's increased sensitive to disturbances over a broad spectrum 0-512 Hz. Sources of disturbance include reaction wheels, thruster firings for station keeping and momentum management, gimbal motion, and internal instrument disturbances. To minimize the impact of these disturbances, the baseline design includes an Earth Pointed Platform (EPP), a stiff optical bench to which the two nadir pointed instruments are collocated together with the Guidance Navigation & Control (GN&C) star trackers and Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs). The EPP is passively isolated from the spacecraft bus with Honeywell D-Strut isolators providing attenuation for frequencies above approximately 5 Hz in all six degrees-of-freedom. A change in Reaction Wheel Assembly (RWA) vendors occurred very late in the program. To reduce the risk of RWA disturbances impacting performance, a secondary passive isolation system manufactured by Moog CSA Engineering was incorporated under each of the six 160 Nms RWAs, tuned to provide attenuation at frequencies above approximately 50 Hz. Integrated wheel and isolator testing was performed on a Kistler table at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. High fidelity simulations were conducted to evaluate jitter performance for four topologies: 1) hard mounted no isolation, 2) EPP isolation only, 2) RWA isolation only, and 4) dual isolation. Simulation results demonstrate excellent performance relative to the pointing stability requirements, with dual isolated Line of Sight (LOS) jitter less than 1 micron rad.

  19. High force vibration testing with wide frequency range (United States)

    Romero, Edward F.; Jepsen, Richard A.; Gregory, Danny Lynn


    A shaker assembly for vibration testing includes first and second shakers, where the first shaker includes a piezo-electric material for generating vibration. A support structure permits a test object to be supported for vibration of the test object by both shakers. An input permits an external vibration controller to control vibration of the shakers.

  20. Preliminary volcano-hazard assessment for Mount Spurr Volcano, Alaska (United States)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Nye, Christopher J.


    Mount Spurr volcano is an ice- and snow-covered stratovolcano complex located in the north-central Cook Inlet region about 100 kilometers west of Anchorage, Alaska. Mount Spurr volcano consists of a breached stratovolcano, a lava dome at the summit of Mount Spurr, and Crater Peak vent, a small stratocone on the south flank of Mount Spurr volcano. Historical eruptions of Crater Peak occurred in 1953 and 1992. These eruptions were relatively small but explosive, and they dispersed volcanic ash over areas of interior, south-central, and southeastern Alaska. Individual ash clouds produced by the 1992 eruption drifted east, north, and south. Within a few days of the eruption, the south-moving ash cloud was detected over the North Atlantic. Pyroclastic flows that descended the south flank of Crater Peak during both historical eruptions initiated volcanic-debris flows or lahars that formed temporary debris dams across the Chakachatna River, the principal drainage south of Crater Peak. Prehistoric eruptions of Crater Peak and Mount Spurr generated clouds of volcanic ash, pyroclastic flows, and lahars that extended to the volcano flanks and beyond. A flank collapse on the southeast side of Mount Spurr generated a large debris avalanche that flowed about 20 kilometers beyond the volcano into the Chakachatna River valley. The debris-avalanche deposit probably formed a large, temporary debris dam across the Chakachatna River. The distribution and thickness of volcanic-ash deposits from Mount Spurr volcano in the Cook Inlet region indicate that volcanic-ash clouds from most prehistoric eruptions were as voluminous as those produced by the 1953 and 1992 eruptions. Clouds of volcanic ash emitted from the active vent, Crater Peak, would be a major hazard to all aircraft using Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport and other local airports and, depending on wind direction, could drift a considerable distance beyond the volcano. Ash fall from future eruptions could disrupt many