WorldWideScience

Sample records for vibrating neutron stars

  1. Does supernova 1987A contain a rapidly vibrating neutron star

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Q.; Chen, K.; Hamilton, T.T.; Ruderman, M.; Shaham, J.

    1989-03-23

    If the recently reported 0.5-ms-period pulsed optical signal from the direction of supernova 1987A originated in a young neutron star, its interpretation as a rotational period has difficulties. Here we point out that a remnant radial vibration of a neutron star, excited in the supernova event, may survive for several years with about the observed (gravitationally red-shifted) period. Heavy ions at the low-density stellar surface, periodically shocked by the vibration, may efficiently produce narrow pulses of optical cyclotron radiation in a surface field of /similar to/ 10/sup 12/ gauss. These pulses may be modulated only slightly by a much slower stellar rotation because of the nearly isotropic emission mechanism and smearing from the strong gravitational bending of light rays.

  2. Signatures of field induced spin polarization of neutron star matter in seismic vibrations of paramagnetic neutron star

    CERN Document Server

    Bastrukov, S I; Podgainy, D V; Weber, F

    2003-01-01

    A macroscopic model of the dissipative magneto-elastic dynamics of viscous spin polarized nuclear matter is discussed in the context of seismic activity of a paramagnetic neutron star. The source of the magnetic field of such a star is attributed to Pauli paramagnetism of baryon matter promoted by a seed magnetic field frozen into the star in the process of gravitational collapse of a massive progenitor. Particular attention is given to the effect of shear viscosity of incompressible stellar material on the timing of non-radial torsional magneto-elastic pulsations of the star triggered by starquakes. By accentuating the fact that this kind of vibration is unique to the seismology of a paramagnetic neutron star we show that the high-frequency modes decay faster than the low-frequency modes. The obtained analytic expressions for the period and relaxation time of this mode, in which the magnetic susceptibility and viscosity enter as input parameters, are then quantified by numerical estimates for these parameter...

  3. Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottam, J.

    2007-01-01

    Neutron stars were discovered almost 40 years ago, and yet many of their most fundamental properties remain mysteries. There have been many attempts to measure the mass and radius of a neutron star and thereby constrain the equation of state of the dense nuclear matter at their cores. These have been complicated by unknown parameters such as the source distance and burning fractions. A clean, straightforward way to access the neutron star parameters is with high-resolution spectroscopy. I will present the results of searches for gravitationally red-shifted absorption lines from the neutron star atmosphere using XMM-Newton and Chandra.

  4. On Hoyle-Narlikar-Wheeler mechanism of vibration energy powered magneto-dipole emission of neutron stars

    OpenAIRE

    Bastrukov, S. I.; Yu, J. W.; Molodtsova, I. V.; Xu, R. X.

    2011-01-01

    We revisit the well-known Hoyle-Narlikar-Wheeler proposition that neutron star emerging in the magnetic-flux-conserving process of core-collapse supernova can convert the stored energy of Alfven vibrations into power of magneto-dipole radiation. We show that the necessary requirement for the energy conversion is the decay of internal magnetic field. In this case the loss of vibration energy of the star causes its vibration period, equal to period of pulsating emission, to lengthen at a rate p...

  5. Superfluid neutron stars

    OpenAIRE

    Langlois, David

    2001-01-01

    Neutron stars are believed to contain (neutron and proton) superfluids. I will give a summary of a macroscopic description of the interior of neutron stars, in a formulation which is general relativistic. I will also present recent results on the oscillations of neutron stars, with superfluidity explicitly taken into account, which leads in particular to the existence of a new class of modes.

  6. Isolated Neutron Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov S.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Several aspects related to astrophysics of isolated neutron stars are discussed. We start with an introduction into the “new zoo” of young isolated neutron stars. In addition to classical radio pulsars, now we know several species (soft gamma-ray repeators, anomalous X-ray pulsars, central compact objects in supernova remnants, close-by cooling neutron stars - aka “Magnificent seven”, - RRATs, and some others. All these types are briefly discussed. In the second lecture a description of magneto-rotational evolution of neutron stars is given. Finally, in the third lecture we discuss population synthesis of isolated neutron stars. In some details we discuss population synthesis of young isolated radio pulsars and young close-by cooling neutron stars.

  7. Neutron Stars: Formation and Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Kutschera, Marek

    1998-01-01

    A short introduction is given to astrophysics of neutron stars and to physics of dense matter in neutron stars. Observed properties of astrophysical objects containing neutron stars are discussed. Current scenarios regarding formation and evolution of neutron stars in those objects are presented. Physical principles governing the internal structure of neutron stars are considered with special emphasis on the possible spin ordering in the neutron star matter.

  8. Neutron Stars and Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Werner

    2009-01-01

    Neutron stars are the most compact astronomical objects in the universe which are accessible by direct observation. Studying neutron stars means studying physics in regimes unattainable in any terrestrial laboratory. Understanding their observed complex phenomena requires a wide range of scientific disciplines, including the nuclear and condensed matter physics of very dense matter in neutron star interiors, plasma physics and quantum electrodynamics of magnetospheres, and the relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics of electron-positron pulsar winds interacting with some ambient medium. Not to mention the test bed neutron stars provide for general relativity theories, and their importance as potential sources of gravitational waves. It is this variety of disciplines which, among others, makes neutron star research so fascinating, not only for those who have been working in the field for many years but also for students and young scientists. The aim of this book is to serve as a reference work which not only review...

  9. Hyperons in neutron stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Katayama

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Using the Dirac–Brueckner–Hartree–Fock approach, the properties of neutron-star matter including hyperons are investigated. In the calculation, we consider both time and space components of the vector self-energies of baryons as well as the scalar ones. Furthermore, the effect of negative-energy states of baryons is partly taken into account. We obtain the maximum neutron-star mass of 2.08M⊙, which is consistent with the recently observed, massive neutron stars. We discuss a universal, repulsive three-body force for hyperons in matter.

  10. Superfluidity in neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaham, J.

    1980-01-01

    The possible role played by superfluid neutrons in the dynamics of neutron stars is discussed, with attention given to vortex structure and dynamics, the modes of the free vortex lattice, and the pinning of crustal vortices. Some effects associated with the interior superfluid state of neutron stars are discussed, including (1) the macroscopic post-glitch time scales, resulting from coupling between normal and superfluid components, (2) glitches due to unpinning events or to crust breaking by pinning vortices, (3) possible long-term modulation in rotation period, resulting from vortex coherent modes, and (4) gyroscopic effects of pinned vorticity.

  11. Cooling of Neutron Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorian H.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the theoretical basis for modeling the cooling evolution of compact stars starting from Boltzmann equations in curved space-time. We open a discussion on observational verification of different neutron star models by consistent statistics. Particular interest has the question of existence of quark matter deep inside of compact object, which has to have a specific influence on the cooling history of the star. Besides of consideration of several constraints and features of cooling evolution, which are susceptible of being critical for internal structure of hot compact stars we have introduced a method of extraction of the mass distribution of the neutron stars from temperature and age data. The resulting mass distribution has been compared with the one suggested by supernove simulations. This method can be considered as an additional checking tool for the consistency of theoretical modeling of neutron stars. We conclude that the cooling data allowed existence of neutron stars with quark cores even with one-flavor quark matter.

  12. Probing neutron star physics using accreting neutron stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patruno, A.

    2010-01-01

    We give an obervational overview of the accreting neutron stars systems as probes of neutron star physics. In particular we focus on the results obtained from the periodic timing of accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars in outburst and from the measurement of X-ray spectra of accreting neutron stars

  13. Hyperons and neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidaña, Isaac [Centro de Física Computacional, Department of Physics, University of Coimbra, PT-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2015-02-24

    In this lecture I will briefly review some of the effects of hyperons on the properties of neutron and proto-neutron stars. In particular, I will revise the problem of the strong softening of the EoS, and the consequent reduction of the maximum mass, induced by the presence of hyperons, a puzzle which has become more intringuing and difficult to solve due the recent measurements of the unusually high masses of the millisecond pulsars PSR J1903+0327 (1.667±0.021M{sub ⊙}), PSR J1614–2230 (1.97±0.04M{sub ⊙}), and PSR J0348+0432 (2.01±0.04M{sub ⊙}). Finally, I will also examine the role of hyperons on the cooling properties of newly born neutron stars and on the so-called r-mode instability.

  14. Compactness of Neutron Stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Chia; Piekarewicz, J

    2015-10-16

    Recent progress in the determination of both masses and radii of neutron stars is starting to place stringent constraints on the dense matter equation of state. In particular, new theoretical developments together with improved statistical tools seem to favor stellar radii that are significantly smaller than those predicted by models using purely nucleonic equations of state. Given that the underlying equation of state must also account for the observation of 2M⊙ neutron stars, theoretical approaches to the study of the dense matter equation of state are facing serious challenges. In response to this challenge, we compute the underlying equation of state associated with an assumed mass-radius template similar to the "common radius" assumption used in recent studies. Once such a mass-radius template is adopted, the equation of state follows directly from the implementation of Lindblom's algorithm; assumptions on the nature or composition of the dense stellar core are not required. By analyzing mass-radius profiles with a maximum mass consistent with observation and common radii in the 8-11 km range, a lower limit on the stellar radius of a 1.4M⊙ neutron star of RNS≳10.7  km is required to prevent the equation of state from violating causality.

  15. The physics of neutron stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattimer, J M; Prakash, M

    2004-04-23

    Neutron stars are some of the densest manifestations of massive objects in the universe. They are ideal astrophysical laboratories for testing theories of dense matter physics and provide connections among nuclear physics, particle physics, and astrophysics. Neutron stars may exhibit conditions and phenomena not observed elsewhere, such as hyperon-dominated matter, deconfined quark matter, superfluidity and superconductivity with critical temperatures near 10(10) kelvin, opaqueness to neutrinos, and magnetic fields in excess of 10(13) Gauss. Here, we describe the formation, structure, internal composition, and evolution of neutron stars. Observations that include studies of pulsars in binary systems, thermal emission from isolated neutron stars, glitches from pulsars, and quasi-periodic oscillations from accreting neutron stars provide information about neutron star masses, radii, temperatures, ages, and internal compositions.

  16. Dark neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, P. B.

    2017-06-01

    There is good evidence that electron-positron pair formation is not present in that section of the pulsar open magnetosphere, which is the source of coherent radio emission, but the possibility of two-photon pair creation in an outer gap remains. Calculation of transition rates for this process based on measured whole-surface temperatures, combined with a survey of γ-ray, X-ray and optical luminosities, expressed per primary beam lepton, shows that few Fermi-LAT pulsars have significant outer-gap pair creation. For radio-loud pulsars with positive polar-cap corotational charge density and an ion-proton plasma, there must be an outward flow of electrons from some other part of the magnetosphere to maintain a constant net charge on the star. In the absence of pair creation, it is likely that this current is the source of GeV γ-emission observed by the Fermi-LAT and its origin is in the region of the outer gap. With negative polar-cap corotational charge density, the compensating current in the absence of pair creation can consist only of ions or protons. These neutron stars are likely to be radio-quiet, have no observable γ-emission, and hence can be described as dark neutron stars.

  17. Probing neutron star physics using accreting neutron stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patruno A.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We give an obervational overview of the accreting neutron stars systems as probes of neutron star physics. In particular we focus on the results obtained from the periodic timing of accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars in outburst and from the measurement of X-ray spectra of accreting neutron stars during quiescence. In the first part of this overview we show that the X-ray pulses are contaminated by a large amount of noise of uncertain origin, and that all these neutron stars do not show evidence of spin variations during the outburst. We present also some recent developments on the presence of intermittency in three accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars and investigate the reason why only a small number of accreting neutron stars show X-ray pulsations and why none of these pulsars shows sub-millisecond spin periods. In the second part of the overview we introduce the observational technique that allows the study of neutron star cooling in accreting systems as probes of neutron star internal composition and equation of state. We explain the phenomenon of the deep crustal heating and present some recent developments on several quasi persistent X-ray sources where a cooling neutron star has been observed.

  18. Oscillations in neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeye, Gudrun Kristine

    1999-07-01

    We have studied radial and nonradial oscillations in neutron stars, both in a general relativistic and non-relativistic frame, for several different equilibrium models. Different equations of state were combined, and our results show that it is possible to distinguish between the models based on their oscillation periods. We have particularly focused on the p-, f-, and g-modes. We find oscillation periods of II approx. 0.1 ms for the p-modes, II approx. 0.1 - 0.8 ms for the f-modes and II approx. 10 - 400 ms for the g-modes. For high-order (l (>{sub )} 4) f-modes we were also able to derive a formula that determines II{sub l+1} from II{sub l} and II{sub l-1} to an accuracy of 0.1%. Further, for the radial f-mode we find that the oscillation period goes to infinity as the maximum mass of the star is approached. Both p-, f-, and g-modes are sensitive to changes in the central baryon number density n{sub c}, while the g-modes are also sensitive to variations in the surface temperature. The g-modes are concentrated in the surface layer, while p- and f-modes can be found in all parts of the star. The effects of general relativity were studied, and we find that these are important at high central baryon number densities, especially for the p- and f-modes. General relativistic effects can therefore not be neglected when studying oscillations in neutron stars. We have further developed an improved Cowling approximation in the non-relativistic frame, which eliminates about half of the gap in the oscillation periods that results from use of the ordinary Cowling approximation. We suggest to develop an improved Cowling approximation also in the general relativistic frame. (Author)

  19. Magnetic Fields of Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konar, Sushan

    2017-09-01

    This article briefly reviews our current understanding of the evolution of magnetic fields in neutron stars, which basically defines the evolutionary pathways between different observational classes of neutron stars. The emphasis here is on the evolution in binary systems and the newly emergent classes of millisecond pulsars.

  20. Physics of Neutron Star Crusts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamel Nicolas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The physics of neutron star crusts is vast, involving many different research fields, from nuclear and condensed matter physics to general relativity. This review summarizes the progress, which has been achieved over the last few years, in modeling neutron star crusts, both at the microscopic and macroscopic levels. The confrontation of these theoretical models with observations is also briefly discussed.

  1. Physics of Neutron Star Crusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamel, Nicolas; Haensel, Pawel

    2008-01-01

    The physics of neutron star crusts is vast, involving many different research fields, from nuclear and condensed matter physics to general relativity. This review summarizes the progress, which has been achieved over the last few years, in modeling neutron star crusts, both at the microscopic and macroscopic levels. The confrontation of these theoretical models with observations is also briefly discussed.

  2. Magnetic fields in Neutron Stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viganò, D.; Pons, J.A.; Miralles, J.A.; Rea, N.; Cenarro, A.J.; Figueras, F.; Hernández-Monteagudo, J.; Bueno, T.; Valdivielso, L.

    2015-01-01

    Isolated neutron stars show a diversity in timing and spectral properties, which has historically led to a classification in different sub-classes. The magnetic field plays a key role in many aspects of the neutron star phenomenology: it regulates the braking torque responsible for their timing

  3. KAON CONDENSATION IN NEUTRON STARS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RAMOS,A.; SCHAFFNER-BIELICH,J.; WAMBACH,J.

    2001-04-24

    We discuss the kaon-nucleon interaction and its consequences for the change of the properties of the kaon in the medium. The onset of kaon condensation in neutron stars under various scenarios as well its effects for neutron star properties are reviewed.

  4. Grand unification of neutron stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspi, Victoria M

    2010-04-20

    The last decade has shown us that the observational properties of neutron stars are remarkably diverse. From magnetars to rotating radio transients, from radio pulsars to isolated neutron stars, from central compact objects to millisecond pulsars, observational manifestations of neutron stars are surprisingly varied, with most properties totally unpredicted. The challenge is to establish an overarching physical theory of neutron stars and their birth properties that can explain this great diversity. Here I survey the disparate neutron stars classes, describe their properties, and highlight results made possible by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, in celebration of its 10th anniversary. Finally, I describe the current status of efforts at physical "grand unification" of this wealth of observational phenomena, and comment on possibilities for Chandra's next decade in this field.

  5. QPO Constraints on Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. Coleman

    2005-01-01

    The kilohertz frequencies of QPOs from accreting neutron star systems imply that they are generated in regions of strong gravity, close to the star. This suggests that observations of the QPOs can be used to constrain the properties of neutron stars themselves, and in particular to inform us about the properties of cold matter beyond nuclear densities. Here we discuss some relatively model-insensitive constraints that emerge from the kilohertz QPOs, as well as recent developments that may hint at phenomena related to unstable circular orbits outside neutron stars.

  6. Neutron Star Physics and EOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lattimer James M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron stars are important because measurement of their masses and radii will determine the dense matter equation of state. They will constrain the nuclear matter symmetry energy, which controls the neutron star matter pressure and the interior composition, and will influence the interpretation of nuclear experiments. Astrophysical observations include pulsar timing, X-ray bursts, quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries, pulse profiles from millisecond pulsars, neutrino observations from gravitational collapse supernovae,and gravitational radiation from compact object mergers. These observations will also constrain the neutron star interior, including the properties of superfluidity there, and determine the existence of a possible QCD phase transition.

  7. Neutron star structure from QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Fraga, Eduardo S; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2016-01-01

    In this review article, we argue that our current understanding of the thermodynamic properties of cold QCD matter, originating from first principles calculations at high and low densities, can be used to efficiently constrain the macroscopic properties of neutron stars. In particular, we demonstrate that combining state-of-the-art results from Chiral Effective Theory and perturbative QCD with the current bounds on neutron star masses, the Equation of State of neutron star matter can be obtained to an accuracy better than 30% at all densities.

  8. Magnetic monopoles and neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnardeau, Michel

    1981-01-01

    A magnetic monopole in the interstellar medium can be accelerated near a neutron star by its huge magnetic field. It would acquire an energy of ~1020 eV and collide with the star surface. We consider the possibility of the production of secondary monopoles and antimonopoles by this incident monopole interacting with the star material. These secondary monopoles are also accelerated by the magnetic field, and it is shown that they can produce other secondary monopoles, and so on, giving an avalanche of monopoles. This process, which could be effective for monopoles with a mass up to ~105 GeV/c2, would lead to the extinction of the star magnetic field. Furthermore, the number of secondary monopoles injected in the interstellar medium is high enough for some of them to interact with other neutron stars. The avalanche phenomenon would then propagate from neutron star to neutron star until all of them in the Galaxy are demagnetized, and this within a time scale of ~105 years. Highly magnetized neutron stars are observed, therefore, (i) either the density of magnetic monopoles in the interstellar medium is strikingly low (many orders of magnitude below the present upper limits) or (ii) the magnetic monopoles do not produce secondary monopoles while interacting with matter, above a certain level which is determined.

  9. Helium Detonations on Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingale, M.; Timmes, F. X.; Fryxell, B.; Lamb, D. Q.; Olson, K.; Calder, A. C.; Dursi, L. J.; Ricker, P.; Rosner, R.; Truran, J. W.; MacNeice, P.; Tufo, H.

    2000-05-01

    We present the results of a numerical study of helium detonations on the surfaces of neutron stars. We analyze the evolution of a detonation as it breaks through the envelope of the neutron star and propagates across its surface. A series of surface waves propagate across the pool of hot ash with a speed of 1.3 x 109 \\ cm \\ s-1, matching the speed expected from shallow water wave theory. The entire envelope bounces in the gravitational potential well of the neutron star with a period of 50 μ s. The photosphere reaches a height of 15 km above the surface of the neutron star. The sensitivity of the results to the spatial resolution and assumed initial conditions are analyzed, and the relevance of this model to Type I X-ray bursts is discussed. This work is supported by the Department of Energy under Grant No. B341495 to the Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes at the University of Chicago.

  10. Theory of neutron star magnetospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Curtis Michel, F

    1990-01-01

    An incomparable reference for astrophysicists studying pulsars and other kinds of neutron stars, "Theory of Neutron Star Magnetospheres" sums up two decades of astrophysical research. It provides in one volume the most important findings to date on this topic, essential to astrophysicists faced with a huge and widely scattered literature. F. Curtis Michel, who was among the first theorists to propose a neutron star model for radio pulsars, analyzes competing models of pulsars, radio emission models, winds and jets from pulsars, pulsating X-ray sources, gamma-ray burst sources, and other neutron-star driven phenomena. Although the book places primary emphasis on theoretical essentials, it also provides a considerable introduction to the observational data and its organization. Michel emphasizes the problems and uncertainties that have arisen in the research as well as the considerable progress that has been made to date.

  11. The Neutron Star Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2014-01-01

    Neutron stars are a very diverse population, both in their observational and their physical properties. They prefer to radiate most of their energy at X-ray and gamma-ray wavelengths. But whether their emission is powered by rotation, accretion, heat, magnetic fields or nuclear reactions, they are all different species of the same animal whose magnetic field evolution and interior composition remain a mystery. This article will broadly review the properties of inhabitants of the neutron star zoo, with emphasis on their high-energy emission. XXX Neutron stars are found in a wide variety of sources, displaying an amazing array of behavior. They can be isolated or in binary systems, accreting, heating, cooling, spinning down, spinning up, pulsing, flaring and bursting. The one property that seems to determine their behavior most strongly is their magnetic field strength, structure and evolution. The hot polar caps, bursts and flares of magnetars are likely due to the rapid decay and twisting of their superstrong magnetic fields, whose very existence requires some kind of early dynamo activity. The intermediate-strength magnetic fields of RPPs determines their spin-down behavior and radiation properties. However, the overlap of the magnetar and RPP populations is not understood at present. Why don't high-field RPPs burst or flare? Why don't lower-field magnetars sometimes behave more like RPPs? INS may be old magnetars whose high fields have decayed, but they do not account for the existence of younger RPPs with magnetar-strength fields. Not only the strength of the magnetic field but also its configuration may be important in making a NS a magnetar or a RPP. Magnetic field decay is a critical link between other NS populations as well. "Decay" of the magnetic field is necessary for normal RPPs to evolve into MSPs through accretion and spin up in LMXBs. Some kind of accretion-driven field reduction is the most likely mechanism, but it is controversial since it is not

  12. Delta isobars in neutron stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagliara Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of delta isobars in beta-stable matter is regulated by the behavior of the symmetry energy at densities larger than saturation density. We show that by taking into account recent constraints on the density derivative of the symmetry energy and the theoretical and experimental results on the excitations of delta isobars in nuclei, delta isobars are necessary ingredients for the equations of state used for studying neutron stars. We analyze the effect of the appearance of deltas on the structure of neutron stars: as in the case of hyperons, matter containing delta is too soft for allowing the existence of 2M⊙ neutron stars. Quark stars on the other hand, could reach very massive configurations and they could form from a process of conversion of hadronic stars in which an initial seed of strangeness appears through hyperons.

  13. Nuclear Masses and Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kreim, Susanne; Lunney, David; Schaffner-Bielich, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Precision mass spectrometry of neutron-rich nuclei is of great relevance for astrophysics. Masses of exotic nuclides impose constraints on models for the nuclear interaction and thus affect the description of the equation of state of nuclear matter, which can be extended to describe neutron-star matter. With knowledge of the masses of nuclides near shell closures, one can also derive the neutron-star crustal composition. The Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at CERN-ISOLDE has recently achieved a breakthrough measuring the mass of 82Zn, which allowed constraining neutron-star crust composition to deeper layers (Wolf et al., PRL 110, 2013). We perform a more detailed study on the sequence of nuclei in the outer crust of neutron stars with input from different nuclear models to illustrate the sensitivity to masses and the robustness of neutron-star models. The dominant role of the N=50 and N=82 closed neutron shells for the crustal composition is confirmed.

  14. Binary Neutron Star Mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Joshua A; Rasio, Frederic A

    2012-01-01

    We review the current status of studies of the coalescence of binary neutron star systems. We begin with a discussion of the formation channels of merging binaries and we discuss the most recent theoretical predictions for merger rates. Next, we turn to the quasi-equilibrium formalisms that are used to study binaries prior to the merger phase and to generate initial data for fully dynamical simulations. The quasi-equilibrium approximation has played a key role in developing our understanding of the physics of binary coalescence and, in particular, of the orbital instability processes that can drive binaries to merger at the end of their lifetimes. We then turn to the numerical techniques used in dynamical simulations, including relativistic formalisms, (magneto-)hydrodynamics, gravitational-wave extraction techniques, and nuclear microphysics treatments. This is followed by a summary of the simulations performed across the field to date, including the most recent results from both fully relativistic and microphysically detailed simulations. Finally, we discuss the likely directions for the field as we transition from the first to the second generation of gravitational-wave interferometers and while supercomputers reach the petascale frontier.

  15. Binary Neutron Star Mergers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Faber

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We review the current status of studies of the coalescence of binary neutron star systems. We begin with a discussion of the formation channels of merging binaries and we discuss the most recent theoretical predictions for merger rates. Next, we turn to the quasi-equilibrium formalisms that are used to study binaries prior to the merger phase and to generate initial data for fully dynamical simulations. The quasi-equilibrium approximation has played a key role in developing our understanding of the physics of binary coalescence and, in particular, of the orbital instability processes that can drive binaries to merger at the end of their lifetimes. We then turn to the numerical techniques used in dynamical simulations, including relativistic formalisms, (magneto-hydrodynamics, gravitational-wave extraction techniques, and nuclear microphysics treatments. This is followed by a summary of the simulations performed across the field to date, including the most recent results from both fully relativistic and microphysically detailed simulations. Finally, we discuss the likely directions for the field as we transition from the first to the second generation of gravitational-wave interferometers and while supercomputers reach the petascale frontier.

  16. Dissipation of Magnetic Fields in Neutron Stars

    OpenAIRE

    ASHLEY JAMES BRANSGROVE

    2017-01-01

    Neutron stars are the smallest, densest stars in the universe, and are the strongest known magnets. There are more than 2000 known neutron stars in our galaxy, and the oldest ones are much weaker magnets than their younger counterparts. It is thought that neutron stars can become less magnetized over long periods of time, just like regular magnets can wear out, and lose their magnetism. This thesis uses numerical simulations to model how neutron stars can lose their magnetism, and compares th...

  17. Helium Detonations on Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingale, M.; Timmes, F. X.; Fryxell, B.; Lamb, D. Q.; Olson, K.; Calder, A. C.; Dursi, L. J.; Ricker, P.; Rosner, R.; MacNeice, P.; Tufo, H. M.

    2001-03-01

    We present the results of a numerical study of helium detonations on the surfaces of neutron stars. We describe two-dimensional simulations of the evolution of a detonation as it breaks through the accreted envelope of the neutron star and propagates laterally through the accreted material. The detonation front propagates laterally at nearly the Chapman-Jouguet velocity, v=1.3×109 cm s-1. A series of surface waves propagate across the pool of hot ash behind the detonation front with the same speed, matching the speed expected from shallow water wave theory. The entire envelope oscillates in the gravitational potential well of the neutron star with a period of ~50 μs. The photosphere reaches an estimated height of 10 km above the surface of the neutron star. Our study confirms that such a detonation can insure the spread of burning over the entire neutron star surface on a timescale consistent with burst rise times. We analyze the sensitivity of the results to the spatial resolution and the assumed initial conditions. We conclude by presenting a comparison of this model to type I X-ray bursts.

  18. Old and new neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruderman, M.

    1984-09-01

    The youngest known radiopulsar in the rapidly spinning magnetized neutron star which powers the Crab Nebula, the remnant of the historical supernova explosion of 1054 AD. Similar neutron stars are probably born at least every few hundred years, but are less frequent than Galactic supernova explosions. They are initially sources of extreme relativistic electron and/or positron winds (approx.10/sup 38/s/sup -1/ of 10/sup 12/ eV leptons) which greatly decrease as the neutron stars spin down to become mature pulsars. After several million years these neutron stars are no longer observed as radiopulsars, perhaps because of large magnetic field decay. However, a substantial fraction of the 10/sup 8/ old dead pulsars in the Galaxy are the most probable source for the isotropically distributed ..gamma..-ray burst detected several times per week at the earth. Some old neutron stars are spun-up by accretion from companions to be resurrected as rapidly spinning low magnetic field radiopulsars. 52 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

  19. The Fate of Merging Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-08-01

    A rapidly spinning, highly magnetized neutron star is one possible outcome when two smaller neutron stars merge. [Casey Reed/Penn State University]When two neutron stars collide, the new object that they make can reveal information about the interior physics of neutron stars. New theoretical work explores what we should be seeing, and what it can teach us.Neutron Star or Black Hole?So far, the only systems from which weve detected gravitational waves are merging black holes. But other compact-object binaries exist and are expected to merge on observable timescales in particular, binary neutron stars. When two neutron stars merge, the resulting object falls into one of three categories:a stable neutron star,a black hole, ora supramassive neutron star, a large neutron star thats supported by its rotation but will eventually collapse to a black hole after it loses angular momentum.Histograms of the initial (left) and final (right) distributions of objects in the authors simulations, for five different equations of state. Most cases resulted primarily in the formation of neutron stars (NSs) or supramassive neutron stars (sNSs), not black holes (BHs). [Piro et al. 2017]Whether a binary-neutron-star merger results in another neutron star, a black hole, or a supramassive neutron star depends on the final mass of the remnant and what the correct equation of state is that describes the interiors of neutron stars a longstanding astrophysical puzzle.In a recent study, a team of scientists led by Anthony Piro (Carnegie Observatories) estimated which of these outcomes we should expect for mergers of binary neutron stars. The teams results along with future observations of binary neutron stars may help us to eventually pin down the equation of state for neutron stars.Merger OutcomesPiro and collaborators used relativistic calculations of spinning and non-spinning neutron stars to estimate the mass range that neutron stars would have for several different realistic equations of

  20. Anomalous hydrodynamics kicks neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, Matthias, E-mail: mski@ua.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8P 5C2 (Canada); Uhlemann, Christoph F. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Bleicher, Marcus [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt (Germany); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Goethe Universität Frankfurt (Germany); Schaffner-Bielich, Jürgen [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Goethe Universität Frankfurt (Germany)

    2016-09-10

    Observations show that, at the beginning of their existence, neutron stars are accelerated briskly to velocities of up to a thousand kilometers per second. We argue that this remarkable effect can be explained as a manifestation of quantum anomalies on astrophysical scales. To theoretically describe the early stage in the life of neutron stars we use hydrodynamics as a systematic effective-field-theory framework. Within this framework, anomalies of the Standard Model of particle physics as underlying microscopic theory imply the presence of a particular set of transport terms, whose form is completely fixed by theoretical consistency. The resulting chiral transport effects in proto-neutron stars enhance neutrino emission along the internal magnetic field, and the recoil can explain the order of magnitude of the observed kick velocities.

  1. Lightweight Double Neutron Star Found

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-02-01

    More than forty years after the first discovery of a double neutron star, we still havent found many others but a new survey is working to change that.The Hunt for PairsThe observed shift in the Hulse-Taylor binarys orbital period over time as it loses energy to gravitational-wave emission. [Weisberg Taylor, 2004]In 1974, Russell Hulse and Joseph Taylor discovered the first double neutron star: two compact objects locked in a close orbit about each other. Hulse and Taylors measurements of this binarys decaying orbit over subsequent years led to a Nobel prize and the first clear evidence of gravitational waves carrying energy and angular momentum away from massive binaries.Forty years later, we have since confirmed the existence of gravitational waves directly with the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO). Nonetheless, finding and studying pre-merger neutron-star binaries remains a top priority. Observing such systems before they merge reveals crucial information about late-stage stellar evolution, binary interactions, and the types of gravitational-wave signals we expect to find with current and future observatories.Since the Hulse-Taylor binary, weve found a total of 16 additional double neutron-star systems which represents only a tiny fraction of the more than 2,600 pulsars currently known. Recently, however, a large number of pulsar surveys are turning their eyes toward the sky, with a focus on finding more double neutron stars and at least one of them has had success.The pulse profile for PSR J1411+2551 at 327 MHz. [Martinez et al. 2017]A Low-Mass DoubleConducted with the 1,000-foot Arecibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico, the Arecibo 327 MHz Drift Pulsar Survey has enabled the recent discovery of dozens of pulsars and transients. Among them, as reported by Jose Martinez (Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy) and coauthors in a recent publication, is PSR J1411+2551: a new double neutron star with one of the lowest masses ever measured

  2. Superfluidity and Superconductivity in Neutron Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N. Chamel

    2017-09-12

    2012). However, a recent study shows that general relativity could significantly affect the dynamical evolution of neutron stars (Sourie et al. 2017). 4.2 Thermal relaxation of transiently accreting neutron stars during quiescence.

  3. Chandra Observations of Neutron Stars -- An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Weisskopf, M. C.

    2002-01-01

    We present a brief review of Chandra observations of neutron stars, with a concentration on neutron stars in supernova remnants. The early Chandra results clearly demonstrate how critical the angular resolution has been in order to separate the neutron star emission from the surrounding nebulosity.

  4. Neutron Star/Supernova Remnant Associations

    OpenAIRE

    Kaspi, V. M.

    1999-01-01

    The evidence for associations between neutron stars and supernova remnants is reviewed. After summarizing the situation for young radio pulsars, I consider the evidence from associations that young neutron stars can have properties very different from those of radio pulsars. This, though still controversial, shakes our simple perception of the Crab pulsar as prototypical of the young neutron star population.

  5. The Magnetospheres of (Accreting Neutron Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilms J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available I give an overview of the most important observational tools to study the magnetospheres of accreting neutron stars, with a focus on accreting neutron stars in high mass X-ray binary systems. Topics covered are the different types of accretion onto neutron stars and the structure of the accretion column, and how models for these can be tested with observations.

  6. The nuclear physics of neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piekarewicz, J. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, 32306 Florida (United States)

    2008-12-15

    A remarkable fact about spherically-symmetric neutron stars in hydrostatic equilibrium - the so-called Schwarzschild stars - is that the only physics that they are sensitive to is the equation of state of neutron-rich matter. As such, neutron stars provide a myriad of observables that may be used to constrain poorly known aspects of the nuclear interaction under extreme conditions of density. After discussing many of the fascinating phases encountered in neutron stars, I will address how powerful theoretical, experimental, and observational constraints may be used to place stringent limits on the equation of state of neutron-rich matter. (Author)

  7. Neutrino Processes in Neutron Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolomeitsev E.E.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of these lectures is to introduce basic processes responsible for cooling of neutron stars and to show how to calculate the neutrino production rate in dense strongly interacting nuclear medium. The formalism is presented that treats on equal footing one-nucleon and multiple-nucleon processes and reactions with virtual bosonic modes and condensates. We demonstrate that neutrino emission from dense hadronic component in neutron stars is subject of strong modifications due to collective effects in the nuclear matter. With the most important in-medium processes incorporated in the cooling code an overall agreement with available soft X ray data can be easily achieved. With these findings the so-called “standard” and “non-standard” cooling scenarios are replaced by one general “nuclear medium cooling scenario” which relates slow and rapid neutron star coolings to the star masses (interior densities. The lectures are split in four parts. Part I: After short introduction to the neutron star cooling problem we show how to calculate neutrino reaction rates of the most efficient one-nucleon and two-nucleon processes. No medium effects are taken into account in this instance. The effects of a possible nucleon pairing are discussed. We demonstrate that the data on neutron star cooling cannot be described without inclusion of medium effects. It motivates an assumption that masses of the neutron stars are different and that neutrino reaction rates should be strongly density dependent. Part II: We introduce the Green’s function diagram technique for systems in and out of equilibrium and the optical theorem formalism. The latter allows to perform calculations of production rates with full Green’s functions including all off-mass-shell effects. We demonstrate how this formalism works within the quasiparticle approximation. Part III: The basic concepts of the nuclear Fermi liquid approach are introduced. We show how strong

  8. Evolution of Neutron Stars and Observational Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lattimer J.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The structure and evolution of neutron stars is discussed with a view towards constraining the properties of high density matter through observations. The structure of neutron stars is illuminated through the use of several analytical solutions of Einstein’s equations which, together with the maximally compact equation of state, establish extreme limits for neutron stars and approximations for binding energies, moments of inertia and crustal properties as a function of compactness. The role of the nuclear symmetry energy is highlighted and constraints from laboratory experiments such as nuclear masses and heavy ion collisions are presented. Observed neutron star masses and radius limits from several techniques, such as thermal emissions, X-ray bursts, gammaray flares, pulsar spins and glitches, spin-orbit coupling in binary pulsars, and neutron star cooling, are discussed. The lectures conclude with a discusson of proto-neutron stars and their neutrino signatures.

  9. Neutron stars as cosmic hadron physics laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, D.

    1985-05-01

    Extensive observations of Her-1 with the Exosat satellite have led to a new understanding of both the dynamics of neutron-star superfluids and the free precession of neutron stars. Detailed microscopic calculations on neutron matter and the properties of the pinned crustal superfluid are provided to serve as a basis for comparing theory with observation on neutron stars. Topics discussed include the Hadron matter equation of state, neutron star structure, Hadron superfluids, the vortex creep theory, Vela pulsar glitches, astrophysical constraints on neutron matter energy gaps, the 35 day periodicity of Her-1, and the neutron matter equation of state. It is concluded that since the post-glitch fits and the identification of the 35th periodicity in Her X-1 as stellar wobble require a rigid neutron matter equation of state, the astrophysical evidence for such an equation seems strong, as well as that for an intermediate Delta(rho) curve.

  10. Neutron star structure and the neutron radius of 208Pb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, C J; Piekarewicz, J

    2001-06-18

    We study relationships between the neutron-rich skin of a heavy nucleus and the properties of neutron-star crusts. Relativistic effective field theories with a thicker neutron skin in 208Pb have a larger electron fraction and a lower liquid-to-solid transition density for neutron-rich matter. These properties are determined by the density dependence of the symmetry energy which we vary by adding nonlinear couplings between isoscalar and isovector mesons. An accurate measurement of the neutron radius in 208Pb-via parity violating electron scattering-may have important implications for the structure of the crust of neutron stars.

  11. Burst Oscillations: Watching Neutron Stars Spin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod

    2010-01-01

    It is now almost 15 years since the first detection of rotationally modulated emission from X-ray bursting neutron stars, "burst oscillations," This phenomenon enables us to see neutron stars spin, as the X-ray burst flux asymmetrically lights up the surface. It has enabled a new way to probe the neutron star spin frequency distribution, as well as to elucidate the multidimensional nature of nuclear burning on neutron stars. I will review our current observational understanding of the phenomenon, with an eye toward highlighting some of the interesting remaining puzzles, of which there is no shortage.

  12. The Dark Side of Neutron Stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouvaris, Christoforos

    2013-01-01

    We review severe constraints on asymmetric bosonic dark matter based on observations of old neutron stars. Under certain conditions, dark matter particles in the form of asymmetric bosonic WIMPs can be eectively trapped onto nearby neutron stars, where they can rapidly thermalize and concentrate...... in the core of the star. If some conditions are met, the WIMP population can collapse gravitationally and form a black hole that can eventually destroy the star. Based on the existence of old nearby neutron stars, we can exclude certain classes of dark matter candidates....

  13. The Dark Side of Neutron Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Kouvaris

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We review severe constraints on asymmetric bosonic dark matter based on observations of old neutron stars. Under certain conditions, dark matter particles in the form of asymmetric bosonic WIMPs can be effectively trapped onto nearby neutron stars, where they can rapidly thermalize and concentrate in the core of the star. If some conditions are met, the WIMP population can collapse gravitationally and form a black hole that can eventually destroy the star. Based on the existence of old nearby neutron stars, we can exclude certain classes of dark matter candidates.

  14. The Milky Way - Pulsars and Isolated Neutron Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, W.; Pavlov, G. G.

    2002-01-01

    CONTENTS The Milky Way -- Pulsars and Isolated Neutron Stars / Introduction: Historical Overview / Physics and Astrophysics of Isolated Neutron Stars / Rotation-powered Pulsars: The Magnetic Braking Model / High-energy Emission Models / Magnetospheric Emission Models / Thermal Evolution of Neutron Stars / Photospheric Emission from Cooling Neutron Stars / The Current Picture of High-Energy Emission Properties of Isolated Neutron Stars / Young Neutron Stars in Supernova Remnants / Crab-like Pu...

  15. Neutron Stars: Laboratories for Fundamental Physics Under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DEBADES BANDYOPADHYAY

    2017-09-07

    Konar et al. 2016). ..... leads to a successful supernova explosion and the PNS evolves to a stable neutron star of 2.0Msolar over 3 ... post-Newtonian (PN) effects in relativistic neutron star binaries could be probed in the SKA era.

  16. Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendreau, Keith C.; Arzoumanian, Zaven

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation contains an overview of the mission of the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICE), a proposed International Space Station (ISS) payload dedicated ot the study of neutron stars. There are also reviews of the Science Objectives of the payload,the science measurements, the design and the expected performance for the instruments for NICE,

  17. Neutron star planets: Atmospheric processes and irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patruno, A.; Kama, M.

    2017-12-01

    Of the roughly 3000 neutron stars known, only a handful have sub-stellar companions. The most famous of these are the low-mass planets around the millisecond pulsar B1257+12. New evidence indicates that observational biases could still hide a wide variety of planetary systems around most neutron stars. We consider the environment and physical processes relevant to neutron star planets, in particular the effect of X-ray irradiation and the relativistic pulsar wind on the planetary atmosphere. We discuss the survival time of planet atmospheres and the planetary surface conditions around different classes of neutron stars, and define a neutron star habitable zone based on the presence of liquid water and retention of an atmosphere. Depending on as-yet poorly constrained aspects of the pulsar wind, both Super-Earths around B1257+12 could lie within its habitable zone.

  18. Quark Deconfinement in Rotating Neutron Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D. Mellinger

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we use a three flavor non-local Nambu–Jona-Lasinio (NJL model, an improved effective model of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD at low energies, to investigate the existence of deconfined quarks in the cores of neutron stars. Particular emphasis is put on the possible existence of quark matter in the cores of rotating neutron stars (pulsars. In contrast to non-rotating neutron stars, whose particle compositions do not change with time (are frozen in, the type and structure of the matter in the cores of rotating neutron stars depends on the spin frequencies of these stars, which opens up a possible new window on the nature of matter deep in the cores of neutron stars. Our study shows that, depending on mass and rotational frequency, up to around 8% of the mass of a massive neutron star may be in the mixed quark-hadron phase, if the phase transition is treated as a Gibbs transition. We also find that the gravitational mass at which quark deconfinement occurs in rotating neutron stars varies quadratically with spin frequency, which can be fitted by a simple formula.

  19. Binary neutron star merger simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruegmann, Bernd [Jena Univ. (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Our research focuses on the numerical tools necessary to solve Einstein's equations. In recent years we have been particularly interested in spacetimes consisting of two neutron stars in the final stages of their evolution. Because of the emission of gravitational radiation, the objects are driven together to merge; the emitted gravitational wave signal is visualized. This emitted gravitational radiation carries energy and momentum away from the system and contains information about the system. Late last year the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) began searches for these gravitational wave signals at a sensitivity at which detections are expected. Although such systems can radiate a significant amount of their total mass-energy in gravitational waves, the gravitational wave signals one expects to receive on Earth are not strong, since sources of gravitational waves are often many millions of light years away. Therefore one needs accurate templates for the radiation one expects from such systems in order to be able to extract them out of the detector's noise. Although analytical models exist for compact binary systems when the constituents are well separated, we need numerical simulation to investigate the last orbits before merger to obtain accurate templates and validate analytical approximations. Due to the strong nonlinearity of the equations and the large separation of length scales, these simulations are computationally demanding and need to be run on large supercomputers. When matter is present the computational cost as compared to pure black hole (vacuum) simulations increases even more due to the additional matter fields. But also more interesting astrophysical phenomena can happen. In fact, there is the possibility for a strong electromagnetic signal from the merger (e.g., a short gamma-ray burst or lower-energy electromagnetic signatures from the ejecta) and significant neutrino emission. Additionally, we can expect that

  20. Magnetic fields in superconducting neutron stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, S K

    2013-02-15

    The interior of a neutron star is likely to be predominantly a mixture of superfluid neutrons and superconducting protons. This results in the quantization of the star's magnetic field into an array of thin flux tubes, producing a macroscopic force very different from the Lorentz force of normal matter. We show that in an axisymmetric superconducting equilibrium the behavior of a magnetic field is governed by a single differential equation. Solving this, we present the first self-consistent superconducting neutron star equilibria with poloidal and mixed poloidal-toroidal fields and also give the first quantitative results for the corresponding magnetically induced distortions to the star. The poloidal component is dominant in all our configurations. We suggest that the transition from normal to superconducting matter in a young neutron star may cause a large-scale field rearrangement.

  1. Stability of precessing superfluid neutron stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glampedakis, K; Andersson, N; Jones, D I

    2008-02-29

    We discuss a new superfluid instability occurring in the interior of mature neutron stars with implications for free precession. This instability is similar to the instability which is responsible for the formation of turbulence in superfluid helium. We demonstrate that the instability is unlikely to affect slowly precessing systems with weak superfluid coupling. In contrast, fast precession in systems with strong coupling appears to be generically unstable. This raises serious questions about our understanding of neutron star precession and complicates attempts to constrain neutron star interiors using such observations.

  2. Neutron Star Science with the NuSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, J. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-16

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), launched in June 2012, helped scientists obtain for the first time a sensitive high-­energy X-­ray map of the sky with extraordinary resolution. This pioneering telescope has aided in the understanding of how stars explode and neutron stars are born. LLNL is a founding member of the NuSTAR project, with key personnel on its optics and science team. We used NuSTAR to observe and analyze the observations of different neutron star classes identified in the last decade that are still poorly understood. These studies not only help to comprehend newly discovered astrophysical phenomena and emission processes for members of the neutron star family, but also expand the utility of such observations for addressing broader questions in astrophysics and other physics disciplines. For example, neutron stars provide an excellent laboratory to study exotic and extreme phenomena, such as the equation of state of the densest matter known, the behavior of matter in extreme magnetic fields, and the effects of general relativity. At the same time, knowing their accurate populations has profound implications for understanding the life cycle of massive stars, star collapse, and overall galactic evolution.

  3. Neutron-star matter within the energy-density functional theory and neutron-star structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantina, A. F.; Chamel, N.; Goriely, S. [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, CP226, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Pearson, J. M. [Dépt. de Physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal (Québec), H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2015-02-24

    In this lecture, we will present some nucleonic equations of state of neutron-star matter calculated within the nuclear energy-density functional theory using generalized Skyrme functionals developed by the Brussels-Montreal collaboration. These equations of state provide a consistent description of all regions of a neutron star. The global structure of neutron stars predicted by these equations of state will be discussed in connection with recent astrophysical observations.

  4. Black Hole - Neutron Star Binary Mergers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gravitational radiation waveforms for black hole-neutron star coalescence calculations. The physical input is Newtonian physics, an ideal gas equation of state with...

  5. The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendreau, Keith C.

    2008-01-01

    The Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICE) will be a Mission of Opportunity dedicated to the study of neutron stars, the only places in the universe where all four fundamental forces of nature are simultaneously in play. NICE will explore the exotic states of matter within neutron stars, revealing their interior and surface compositions through rotation resolved X-ray spectroscopy. Absolute time-referenced data will allow NICE to probe the extreme physical environments associated with neutron stars, leveraging observations across the electromagnetic spectrum to answer decades-old questions about one of the most powerful cosmic accelerators known. Finally, NICE will definitively measure stabilities of pulsars as clocks, with implications for navigation, a pulsar-based timescale, and gravitational-wave detection. NICE will fly on the International Space Station, while GLAST is on orbit and post-RXTE, and will allow for the discovery of new high-energy pulsars and provide continuity in X-ray timing astrophysics.

  6. Transport coefficients in superfluid neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolos, Laura [Instituto de Ciencias del Espacio (IEEC/CSIC) Campus Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Facultat de Ciències, Torre C5, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Frankfurt Institute for Advances Studies. Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Manuel, Cristina [Instituto de Ciencias del Espacio (IEEC/CSIC) Campus Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Facultat de Ciències, Torre C5, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Sarkar, Sreemoyee [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhaba Road, Mumbai-400005 (India); Tarrus, Jaume [Physik Department, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-01-22

    We study the shear and bulk viscosity coefficients as well as the thermal conductivity as arising from the collisions among phonons in superfluid neutron stars. We use effective field theory techniques to extract the allowed phonon collisional processes, written as a function of the equation of state and the gap of the system. The shear viscosity due to phonon scattering is compared to calculations of that coming from electron collisions. We also comment on the possible consequences for r-mode damping in superfluid neutron stars. Moreover, we find that phonon collisions give the leading contribution to the bulk viscosities in the core of the neutron stars. We finally obtain a temperature-independent thermal conductivity from phonon collisions and compare it with the electron-muon thermal conductivity in superfluid neutron stars.

  7. Chandra Observations of Isolated Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Martin

    2006-01-01

    We present a review of the first six years of Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of isolated neutron stars. The outstanding spatial and spectral resolution of this great observatory have allowed for observations of unprecedented clarity and accuracy. Many of these observations have provided new insights into neutron star physics. We present a (biased) overview of six years of these observations, highlighting new discoveries made possible by the Observatory's unique capabilities.

  8. Carbon Atmosphere Discovered On Neutron Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Evidence for a thin veil of carbon has been found on the neutron star in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant. This discovery, made with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, resolves a ten-year mystery surrounding this object. "The compact star at the center of this famous supernova remnant has been an enigma since its discovery," said Wynn Ho of the University of Southampton and lead author of a paper that appears in the latest issue of Nature. "Now we finally understand that it can be produced by a hot neutron star with a carbon atmosphere." By analyzing Chandra's X-ray spectrum - akin to a fingerprint of energy - and applying it to theoretical models, Ho and his colleague Craig Heinke, from the University of Alberta, determined that the neutron star in Cassiopeia A, or Cas A for short, has an ultra-thin coating of carbon. This is the first time the composition of an atmosphere of an isolated neutron star has been confirmed. The Chandra "First Light" image of Cas A in 1999 revealed a previously undetected point-like source of X-rays at the center. This object was presumed to be a neutron star, the typical remnant of an exploded star, but researchers were unable to understand its properties. Defying astronomers' expectations, this object did not show any X-ray or radio pulsations or any signs of radio pulsar activity. By applying a model of a neutron star with a carbon atmosphere to this object, Ho and Heinke found that the region emitting X-rays would uniformly cover a typical neutron star. This would explain the lack of X-ray pulsations because -- like a lightbulb that shines consistently in all directions -- this neutron star would be unlikely to display any changes in its intensity as it rotates. Scientists previously have used a neutron star model with a hydrogen atmosphere giving a much smaller emission area, corresponding to a hot spot on a typical neutron star, which should produce X-ray pulsations as it rotates. Interpreting the hydrogen atmosphere model

  9. Accreting neutron stars by QFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Guang

    the negative charge from ionosphere electrons again rotate, thereby come into being the solar basal magnetic field. The solar surface plasma with additional electrons get the dynamic balance between the upwards force of stable positive charge distribution in the solar upside gas and the downwards force of the vacuum net nuν _{0} flux pressure (solar gravity). When the Jupiter enter into the connecting line of the Sun and the center of the Galaxy, the pressure (solar gravity) observed from earth will weaken because of the Jupiter stop (shield) the net nuν _{0} flux which shoot to Sun from the center of Galaxy. The dynamic balance of forces on the solar surface plasma at once is broken and the plasma will upwards eject as the solar wind with redundant negative charge. At the same time, the solar surface remain a cavity as a sunspot whorl with the positive electric potential relative to around plasma. The whorl is caused by the reaction of plasma eject front and upwards with the different velocity at different latitude of solar rotation, it leads to the cavity around in the downwards and backwards helix movement. The solar rotation more slow, when the cavity is filled by around plasma in the reverse turn direction and return to carry-over negative charge, the Jupiter at front had been produced a new cavity carry-over positive charge, so we had observe the sunspot pair with different whorl directions and different magnetic polarity. Jupiter possess half mass of all planets in solar system, its action to stop net nuν _{0} flux is primary, so that Jupiter’s period of 11.8 sidereal years accord basically with the period of sunspot eruptions. In my paper ‘Nonlinear superposition of strong gravitational field of compact stars’(E15-0039-08), according to QFT it is deduced that: let q is a positive shielding coefficient, 1- q show the gravity weaken degree, the earth (104 km) as a obstructing layer q = 4.6*10 (-10) . A spherical shell of neutron star as obstructing

  10. Spin and magnetism in old neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colpi, M. [Milan Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Possenti, A. [Osservatorio Astronomico, Bologna (Italy); Popov, S. [Sternberg Astronomical Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Pizzolato, F. [Ist. di Fisica Cosmica G. Occhialini, Milano (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    The thermal, spin and magnetic evolution of neutron stars in the old low mass binaries is first explored. Recycled to very short periods via accretion torques, the neutron stars lose their magnetism progressively. If accretion proceeds undisturbed for 100 Myrs these stars can rotate close to break up with periods far below the minimum observed of 1.558 ms. We investigate their histories using population synthesis models to show that a tail should exist in the period distribution below 1.558 ms. The search of these ultrafastly spinning neutron stars as pulsars can help discriminating among the various equations of state for nuclear matter, and can shed light into the physics of binary evolution. The evolution of isolated neutron stars in the Galaxy is explored beyond the pulsar phase. Moving through the tenuous interstellar medium, these old solitary neutron stars lose their rotational energy. Whether also their magnetism fades is still a mystery. A population synthesis model has revealed that only a tiny fraction of them is able to accrete from the interstellar medium, shining in the X-rays. There is the hope that these solitary stars will eventually appear as faint sources in the Chandra sky survey. This might give insight on the long term evolution of the magnetic field in isolated objects. (orig.)

  11. On the conversion of neutron stars into quark stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagliara Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The possible existence of two families of compact stars, neutron stars and quark stars, naturally leads to a scenario in which a conversion process between the two stellar objects occurs with a consequent release of energy of the order of 1053 erg. We discuss recent hydrodynamical simulations of the burning process and neutrino diffusion simulations of cooling of a newly formed strange star. We also briefly discuss this scenario in connection with recent measurements of masses and radii of compact stars.

  12. On the origin of hyperfast neutron stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gvaramadze, V.V.; Gualandris, A.; Portegies Zwart, S.

    2007-01-01

    We propose an explanation for the origin of hyperfast neutron stars (e.g. PSR B1508+55, PSR B2224+65, RX J0822-4300) based on the hypothesis that they could be the remnants of a symmetric supernova explosion of a high-velocity massive star (or its helium core) which attained its peculiar velocity

  13. Millisecond phenomena in mass accreting neutron stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klis, M.; Cohen, L.

    2007-01-01

    The past twelve years have seen the discovery, with NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), of several long-predicted phenomena associated with the accretion of matter onto a neutron star in a binary (double) star system. These phenomena are observed in the strong X-ray emission produced by these

  14. Massive neutron stars and their implications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-05-02

    May 2, 2014 ... T K Jha and Keshab C Panda possible role of hyperons in dense matter, their interactions and the corresponding effects on the global properties of the stars. From various theoretical investigations, it is well known that hyperons form a sizable population in the dense core of neutron stars, thereby leading to ...

  15. Neutron Stars and the Discovery of Pulsars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, George

    1985-01-01

    Part one recounted the story of the discovery of pulsars and examined the Crab Nebula, supernovae, and neutron stars. This part (experts from the book "Frozen Star") shows how an understanding of the nature of pulsars allowed astronomers to tie these together. (JN)

  16. Double Neutron Stars: Evidence For Two Different Neutron-Star Formation Mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, E.P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Six of the eight double neutron stars known in the Galactic disk have low orbital eccentricities (< 0.27) indicating that their second-born neutron stars received only very small velocity kicks at birth. This is similar to the case of the B-emission X-ray binaries, where a sizable fraction of the

  17. Forecasting neutron star temperatures: predictability and variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Dany; Reddy, Sanjay

    2013-12-13

    It is now possible to model thermal relaxation of neutron stars after bouts of accretion during which the star is heated out of equilibrium by nuclear reactions in its crust. Major uncertainties in these models can be encapsulated in modest variations of a handful of control parameters that change the fiducial crustal thermal conductivity, specific heat, and heating rates. Observations of thermal relaxation constrain these parameters and allow us to predict longer term variability in terms of the neutron star core temperature. We demonstrate this explicitly by modeling ongoing thermal relaxation in the neutron star XTE J1701-462. Its future cooling, over the next 5 to 30 years, is strongly constrained and depends mostly on its core temperature, uncertainties in crust physics having essentially been pinned down by fitting to the first three years of observations.

  18. From nuclear structure to neutron stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandolfi Stefano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress in quantum Monte Carlo with modern nucleon-nucleon interactions have enabled the successful description of properties of light nuclei and neutronrich matter. As a demonstration, we show that the agreement between theoretical calculations of the charge form factor of 12C and the experimental data is excellent. Applying similar methods to isospin-asymmetric systems allows one to describe neutrons confined in an external potential and homogeneous neutron-rich matter. Of particular interest is the nuclear symmetry energy, the energy cost of creating an isospin asymmetry. Combining these advances with recent observations of neutron star masses and radii gives insight into the equation of state of neutron-rich matter near and above the saturation density. In particular, neutron star radius measurements constrain the derivative of the symmetry energy.

  19. Detecting supersymmetric Q-balls with neutron stars

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Jes

    1998-01-01

    Supersymmetric Q-balls trapped in neutron stars or white dwarfs may cause the stars to explode. Trapping of Q-balls in neutron stars is shown to be less likely, but trapping in neutron star progenitors more likely than hitherto assumed, making neutron stars very sensitive Q-ball "detectors". White dwarfs only trap potentially dangerous Q-balls in a narrow parameter range.

  20. The Neutron Star Mass Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiziltan, Bülent; Kottas, Athanasios; De Yoreo, Maria; Thorsett, Stephen E.

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, the number of pulsars with secure mass measurements has increased to a level that allows us to probe the underlying neutron star (NS) mass distribution in detail. We critically review the radio pulsar mass measurements. For the first time, we are able to analyze a sizable population of NSs with a flexible modeling approach that can effectively accommodate a skewed underlying distribution and asymmetric measurement errors. We find that NSs that have evolved through different evolutionary paths reflect distinctive signatures through dissimilar distribution peak and mass cutoff values. NSs in double NS and NS-white dwarf (WD) systems show consistent respective peaks at 1.33 M ⊙ and 1.55 M ⊙, suggesting significant mass accretion (Δm ≈ 0.22 M ⊙) has occurred during the spin-up phase. The width of the mass distribution implied by double NS systems is indicative of a tight initial mass function while the inferred mass range is significantly wider for NSs that have gone through recycling. We find a mass cutoff at ~2.1 M ⊙ for NSs with WD companions, which establishes a firm lower bound for the maximum NS mass. This rules out the majority of strange quark and soft equation of state models as viable configurations for NS matter. The lack of truncation close to the maximum mass cutoff along with the skewed nature of the inferred mass distribution both enforce the suggestion that the 2.1 M ⊙ limit is set by evolutionary constraints rather than nuclear physics or general relativity, and the existence of rare supermassive NSs is possible.

  1. The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Gendreau, K.; Arzoumanian, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) is an approved NASA Explorer Mission of Opportunity dedicated to the study of the extraordinary gravitational, electromagnetic, and nuclear-physics environments embodied by neutron stars. Scheduled to be launched in 2016 as an International Space Station payload, NICER will explore the exotic states of matter, using rotation-resolved spectroscopy of the thermal and non-thermal emissions of neutron stars in the soft (0.2-12 keV) X-ray band. Grazing-incidence "concentrator" optics coupled with silicon drift detectors, actively pointed for a full hemisphere of sky coverage, will provide photon-counting spectroscopy and timing registered to GPS time and position, with high throughput and relatively low background. The NICER project plans to implement a Guest Observer Program, which includes competitively selected user targets after the first year of flight operations. I will describe NICER and discuss ideas for potential Be/X-ray binary science.

  2. Ultrahigh energy neutrinos from galactic neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfand, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt is made to estimate the production rate of ultrahigh energy (UHE) neutrinos from galactic neutron stars. The statistics of various stellar populations are reviewed as well as an evolutionary scheme linking several neutron star environments. An observational test for predicting stellar evolution is made using two mass ratio intervals of less than 0.3 and greater than or approximately equal to 0.3, which is supported by kinematical evidence. Attention is given to the problem of the target material that is required by UHE protons accelerated from the pulsar's surface to their rotational kinetic energy, and to the detectability of neutron stars in the UHE neutrinos by employing the deep underwater muon and neutrino detector (DUMAND) array.

  3. Kilonova Counterparts of Binary Neutron Star Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Brian

    2018-01-01

    The merger of a binary neutron star is accompanied by the ejection of neutron-rich matter into space at velocities up to several tenths that of light, which synthesizes rare heavy isotopes through the rapid neutron capture process (r-process). The radioactive decay of these nuclei was predicted by Metzger et al. (2010) to power an optical transient roughly 1000 times more luminous than a classical nova (a "kilonova"), which is among the most promising electromagnetic counterparts to accompany gravitational wave signal from the merger. I will describe how the luminosities, color, and spectra of the kilonova emission inform the properties of the merging binary (neutron star masses/radii and inclination angle) and the long sought origin of the heaviest elements in the Universe. Results will be discussed in the context of recent discoveries by Advanced LIGO/Virgo.

  4. Neutron stars as type-I superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Kirk B W; Metlitski, Max A; Zhitnitsky, Ariel R

    2004-04-16

    In a recent paper by Link, it was pointed out that the standard picture of the neutron star core composed of a mixture of a neutron superfluid and a proton type-II superconductor is inconsistent with observations of a long period precession in isolated pulsars. In the following we will show that an appropriate treatment of the interacting two-component superfluid (made of neutron and proton Cooper pairs), when the structure of proton vortices is strongly modified, may dramatically change the standard picture, resulting in a type-I superconductor. In this case the magnetic field is expelled from the superconducting regions of the neutron star, leading to the formation of the intermediate state when alternating domains of superconducting matter and normal matter coexist.

  5. Towards a metallurgy of neutron star crusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobyakov, D; Pethick, C J

    2014-03-21

    In the standard picture of the crust of a neutron star, matter there is simple: a body-centered-cubic lattice of nuclei immersed in an essentially uniform electron gas. We show that, at densities above that for neutron drip (∼ 4 × 1 0(11)  g cm(-3) or roughly one-thousandth of nuclear matter density), the interstitial neutrons give rise to an attractive interaction between nuclei that renders the lattice unstable. We argue that the likely equilibrium structure is similar to that in displacive ferroelectric materials such as BaTiO3. As a consequence, the properties of matter in the inner crust are expected to be much richer than previously appreciated, and we mention possible consequences for observable neutron star properties.

  6. Magnetic field evolution in neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, F.; Reisenegger, A.; Valdivia, J. A.

    2017-07-01

    Neutron stars contain the strongest magnetic fields known in the Universe. Using numerical simulations restricted to axially symmetric geometry, we study the long-term evolution of the magnetic field in the interior of an isolated neutron star under the effect of ambipolar diffusion, i.e. the drift of the magnetic field and the charged particles relative to the neutrons. We model the stellar interior as an electrically neutral fluid composed of neutrons, protons and electrons; these species can be converted into each other by weak interactions (beta decays), suffer binary collisions, and be affected by each other's macroscopic electromagnetic fields. We show that, in the restricted case of pure ambipolar diffusion, neglecting weak interactions, the magnetic fields evolves towards a stable MHD equilibria configuration, in the timescales analytically expected.

  7. Physics in Strong Magnetic Fields Near Neutron Stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed are the behaviors of particles and energies in the magnetic fields of neutron stars. Different types of possible research using neutron stars as a laboratory for the study of strong magnetic fields are proposed. (CW)

  8. ASTROPHYSICS: Neutron Stars Imply Relativity's a Drag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, G

    2000-09-01

    A new finding, based on x-rays from distant neutron stars, could be the first clear evidence of a weird relativistic effect called frame dragging, in which a heavy chunk of spinning matter wrenches the space-time around it like an eggbeater. Using data from NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, three astronomers in Amsterdam found circumstantial evidence for frame dragging in the flickering of three neutron stars in binary systems. They announced their results in the 1 September issue of The Astrophysical Journal.

  9. Holographic Quark Matter and Neutron Stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos, Carlos; Jokela, Niko; Rodríguez Fernández, David; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2016-07-15

    We use a top-down holographic model for strongly interacting quark matter to study the properties of neutron stars. When the corresponding equation of state (EOS) is matched with state-of-the-art results for dense nuclear matter, we consistently observe a first-order phase transition at densities between 2 and 7 times the nuclear saturation density. Solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov equations with the resulting hybrid EOSs, we find maximal stellar masses in excess of two solar masses, albeit somewhat smaller than those obtained with simple extrapolations of the nuclear matter EOSs. Our calculation predicts that no quark matter exists inside neutron stars.

  10. Phenomenological Model of Hyper-Massive Neutron Star Phase Gravitational Wave of Binary Neutron Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Peter T. H.; Li, Tjonnie G. F.

    Recent discoveries of binary black holes by gravitational-wave detection hint at the opportunity of observing binaries containing neutron stars. The presence of a neutron star can help us constrain the equation of state of ultradense matter. The feasibility of constraining the equation of state through gravitational-wave detections have typically been studied using the inspiral and post-merger stages separately. We present a phenomenological gravitational-wave signal model of the hyper-massive neutron star stage. The purpose of the model is to investigate the possible improvement of combining inspiral and post-merger information and the feasibility of classifying the post-merger behaviour.

  11. Axion Emissivity from the Conversion of a Neutron Star into a Strange Star

    OpenAIRE

    Suh, In-Saeng; Lee, Chul H.

    1998-01-01

    The conversion of neutron matter into strange matter in a neutron star occurs through the non-leptonic weak-interaction process. We study the energy loss of the neutron star by the emission of axions in that process. Owing to that process, the neutron star will liberate the energy which can in no way be negligible as an axion burst.

  12. Constraining neutron star matter with Quantum Chromodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kurkela, Aleksi; Schaffner-Bielich, Jurgen; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there have been several successful attempts to constrain the equation of state of neutron star matter using input from low-energy nuclear physics and observational data. We demonstrate that significant further restrictions can be placed by additionally requiring the pressure to approach that of deconfined quark matter at high densities. Remarkably, the new constraints turn out to be highly insensitive to the amount --- or even presence --- of quark matter inside the stars.

  13. Neutron Stars in X-ray Binaries and their Environments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biswajit Paul

    2017-09-07

    Sep 7, 2017 ... Abstract. Neutron stars in X-ray binary systems are fascinating objects that display a wide range of timing and spectral phenomena in the X-rays. Not only parameters of the neutron stars, like magnetic field strength and spin period evolve in their active binary phase, the neutron stars also affect the binary ...

  14. Formation of Double Neutron Stars, Millisecond Pulsars and Double ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Edward P. J. Heuvel

    2017-09-12

    Sep 12, 2017 ... the double neutron stars and of double black holes is given. 2. Double neutron stars and millisecond pulsars. 2.1 Double neutron stars. In the period 1978 to 1980, Srinivasan and van den. Heuvel profoundly discussed the possible ways in which the Hulse–Taylor binary pulsar could have been formed.

  15. JD3 - Neutron Stars: Timing in Extreme Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belloni, Tomaso M.; Méndez, Mariano; Zhang, Chengmin

    2009-01-01

    The space-time around Neutron Stars is indeed an extreme environment. Whether they are in accreting binary systems, isolated or in non-accreting binaries (perhaps with another Neutron Star), Neutron Stars provide a window onto physical processes not accessible by other means. In particular, the

  16. Compatibility of Exotic States with Neutron Star Observation

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun, Chang Ho

    2007-01-01

    We consider the effect of hard core repulsion in the baryon-baryon interaction at short distance to the properties of a neutron star. We obtain that, even with hyperons in the interior of a neutron star, the neutron star mass can be as large as $\\sim 2 M_\\odot$.

  17. Effective mass of free neutrons in neutron star crust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamel, Nicolas [Copernicus Astronomical Center (CAMK), Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland) and LUTH, Paris Observatory, 5 place Jules Janssen, 92195 Meudon (France)]. E-mail: nchamel@camk.edu.pl

    2006-07-24

    The inner layers of a neutron star crust, composed of a Coulomb lattice of neutron rich nuclear clusters immersed in a sea of 'free' superfluid neutrons, are closely analogous to periodic condensed matter systems such as electronic, photonic or phononic crystals. Applying methods from solid state physics to the neutron star context, it has been recently shown that Bragg scattering leads to a strong renormalization of the neutron mass in the bottom layers of the crust. Knowledge of this effective mass throughout the crust is essential in order to understand the dynamical properties of the neutron superfluid and the origin of pulsar glitches. The purpose of the present work is to evaluate this effective mass in the outermost layers of the inner crust, near the drip point {rho}{sub drip}{approx}4x10{sup 11} g-bar cm{sup -3}. The results are compared with the case of electrons in ordinary solids and as an example the corresponding effective electron mass in copper is calculated.

  18. Dynamics of dissipative multifluid neutron star cores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haskell, B.; Andersson, N.; Comer, G.L.

    2012-01-01

    We present a Newtonian multifluid formalism for superfluid neutron star cores, focusing on the additional dissipative terms which arise when one takes into account the individual dynamical degrees of freedom associated with the coupled "fluids." The problem is of direct astrophysical interest as the

  19. Detecting gravitational waves from accreting neutron stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watts, A.L.; Krishnan, B.

    2009-01-01

    The gravitational waves emitted by neutron stars carry unique information about their structure and composition. Direct detection of these gravitational waves, however, is a formidable technical challenge. In a recent study we quantified the hurdles facing searches for gravitational waves from the

  20. Superfluidity and Superconductivity in Neutron Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    10

    the heaviest atomic nuclei (for a general review about neutron stars ..... been identified in the form of soft-gamma ray repeaters. (SGRs) and .... Electrons scattering off the mag- netic field of ... consistent treatment of the elasticity of the crust, su-.

  1. Can Neutron stars constrain Dark Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouvaris, Christoforos; Tinyakov, Peter

    2010-01-01

    temperature that could in principle be detected. Due to their compactness, neutron stars can acrete WIMPs efficiently even if the WIMP-to-nucleon cross section obeys the current limits from direct dark matter searches, and therefore they could constrain a wide range of dark matter candidates....

  2. Neutron Star Interiors and Topology Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. F. Kuhfittig

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quark matter is believed to exist in the center of neutron stars. A combined model consisting of quark matter and ordinary matter is used to show that the extreme conditions existing in the center could result in a topology change, that is, in the formation of wormholes.

  3. Relativistic calculations of coalescing binary neutron stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Relativistic calculations of coalescing binary neutron stars. JOSHUA FABER, PHILIPPE GRANDCLÉMENT and FREDERIC RASIO. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston,. IL 60208-0834, USA. E-mail: rasio@mac.com. Abstract. We have designed and tested a new relativistic Lagrangian ...

  4. Properties of ultracompact neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemiroff, Robert J.; Becker, Peter A.; Wood, Kent S.

    1993-01-01

    Some of the effects extreme gravity would have on the propagation of particles inside and around constant density ultracompact stars are examined. The possible observational characteristics due to the gravitational lensing of surface hot spots are examined. The change that would be seen in the Eddington luminosity near such an object is computed. It is shown that such stars would exhibit a 'neutrino' sphere inside the surface and a 'neutrino cloud' partially exterior to the surface.

  5. General relativistic neutron stars with twisted magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pili, A. G.; Bucciantini, N.; Del Zanna, L.

    2015-03-01

    Soft gamma-ray repeaters and anomalous X-ray pulsars are extreme manifestations of the most magnetized neutron stars: magnetars. The phenomenology of their emission and spectral properties strongly support the idea that the magnetospheres of these astrophysical objects are tightly twisted in the vicinity of the star. Previous studies on equilibrium configurations have so far focused on either the internal or the external magnetic field configuration, without considering a real coupling between the two fields. Here, we investigate numerical equilibrium models of magnetized neutron stars endowed with a confined twisted magnetosphere, solving the general relativistic Grad-Shafranov equation both in the interior and in the exterior of the compact object. A comprehensive study of the parameters space is provided, to investigate the effects of different current distributions on the overall magnetic field structure.

  6. Generalized Boltzmann equation for neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaniadakis, G. [Politecnico di Torino (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino (Italy)]|[INFM, Torino (Italy); Lavagno, A. [Politecnico di Torino (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino (Italy)]|[INFM, Torino (Italy); Quarati, P. [Politecnico di Torino (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Cagliari (Italy)]|[INFM, Torino (Italy)

    1997-08-04

    Baryon pairing and neutron superfluidity are believed to play an important role in the evolution of neutron stars. The pairing interaction provides a partial antisymmetrization of the nucleons in the stars with the evidence that fractional statistics must hold. By using a kinetic approach recently proposed [G. Kaniadakis, A. Lavagno and P. Quarati, Nucl. Phys. B 466 (1996) 527], we derive a non-linear Boltzmann equation which takes into account collective effects introduced by an exclusion-inclusion principle. This equation describes the dynamics of particles ruled by a fractional statistics. In addition, we extend this Boltzmann equation to the relativistic case and discuss the relevance of the quark matter in the star core. (orig.).

  7. Generalized Boltzmann Equation for Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniadakis, G.; Lavagno, A.; Quarati, P.

    1997-02-01

    Baryon pairing and neutron superfluidity are believed to play an important role in the evolution of neutron stars. The pairing interaction provides a partial antisymmetrization of the nucleons in the stars with the evidence that fractional statistics must hold. By using a kinetic approach recently proposed [G. Kaniadakis, A. Lavagno and P. Quarati, Nucl. Phys. B 466 (1996) 527], we derive a non-linear boltzmann equation which takes into account collective effects introduced by an exclusion-inclusion principle. This equation describes the dynamics of particles ruled by a fractional statistics. In addition, we extend this Boltzmann equation to the relativistic case and discuss the relevance of the quark matter in the star core.

  8. Neutron stars and quark stars: Two coexisting families of compact stars?

    OpenAIRE

    Schaffner-Bielich, J.

    2006-01-01

    The mass-radius relation of compact stars is discussed with relation to the presence of quark matter in the core. The existence of a new family of compact stars with quark matter besides white dwarfs and ordinary neutron stars is outlined.

  9. Confirming a substellar companion candidate around a neutron star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posselt, Bettina; Luhman, Kevin

    2014-08-01

    In a search for substellar companions around young neutron stars, we found an indication for a very faint near-infrared source at the position of the isolated neutron star RXJ0806.4-4123. The suspected near-IR source cannot be the neutron star itself because the latter is much too faint to be detected. Recent Herschel 160 microm observations of the field point to an additional dusty belt around the neutron star. The outer location of the dusty belt could be explained by the presence of a substellar companion around the neutron star. We propose deeper near-infrared observations with FLAMINGOS-2 to confirm that the near-infrared source is real. The observation could provide the first direct detection of a substellar companion around a neutron star. However, even a non-detection would be interesting to constrain evolution models of the dusty belt around the neutron star.

  10. Why neutron stars have three hairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Leo; Yagi, Kent; Pappas, George; Yunes, Nicolas; Apostolatos, Theocharis

    2015-04-01

    Neutron stars have recently been found to enjoy a certain `baldness' in their multipolar structure which is independent of the equation of state (EoS) of dense nuclear matter. This is reminiscent of the black hole no-hair relations, and in stark contrast to regular stars. Why is this? Is it because realistic EoSs are sufficiently similar, or because GR effects are especially important, or because the nuclear matter is `cold'? We explore the physics behind these and more hypotheses, and give a convincing explanation for the true origin of the three-hair relations.

  11. Role of magnetic interactions in neutron stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhya Souvik Priyam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present a calculation of the non-Fermi liquid correction to the specific heat of magnetized degenerate quark matter present at the core of the neutron star. The role of non-Fermi liquid corrections to the neutrino emissivity has been calculated beyond leading order. We extend our result to the evaluation of the pulsar kick velocity and cooling of the star due to such anomalous corrections and present a comparison with the simple Fermi liquid case.

  12. Pulsing ULXs as highly magnetized neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtukov, A.; Suleimanov, V.; Tsygankov, S.; Poutanen, J.

    2017-10-01

    A recent discovery of three pulsing ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) demonstrates that a significant part of ULXs could be magnetized neutron stars with extremely high mass accretion rates. Theoreticians are thus faced with a significant challenge to invent a way for transforming a highly super-Eddington accretion rate into pulsing photon luminosity. We suggested a model of the two tall accretion columns above a strongly magnetized (B ˜ 10^{14} G) neutron star surface in the vicinity of the magnetic poles as a source of this radiation, and showed that their luminosity can be as high as 10^{40} erg s^{-1}. We present the basic ideas of the model as well as possible directions for improving the model to increase its maximum possible luminosity. The results of application of the model to the ULX M82 X-2 and to other pulsed ULXs are presented.

  13. FAST FOSSIL ROTATION OF NEUTRON STAR CORES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melatos, A., E-mail: amelatos@unimelb.edu.au [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010 (Australia)

    2012-12-10

    It is argued that the superfluid core of a neutron star super-rotates relative to the crust, because stratification prevents the core from responding to the electromagnetic braking torque, until the relevant dissipative (viscous or Eddington-Sweet) timescale, which can exceed {approx}10{sup 3} yr and is much longer than the Ekman timescale, has elapsed. Hence, in some young pulsars, the rotation of the core today is a fossil record of its rotation at birth, provided that magnetic crust-core coupling is inhibited, e.g., by buoyancy, field-line topology, or the presence of uncondensed neutral components in the superfluid. Persistent core super-rotation alters our picture of neutron stars in several ways, allowing for magnetic field generation by ongoing dynamo action and enhanced gravitational wave emission from hydrodynamic instabilities.

  14. Fast Fossil Rotation of Neutron Star Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melatos, A.

    2012-12-01

    It is argued that the superfluid core of a neutron star super-rotates relative to the crust, because stratification prevents the core from responding to the electromagnetic braking torque, until the relevant dissipative (viscous or Eddington-Sweet) timescale, which can exceed ~103 yr and is much longer than the Ekman timescale, has elapsed. Hence, in some young pulsars, the rotation of the core today is a fossil record of its rotation at birth, provided that magnetic crust-core coupling is inhibited, e.g., by buoyancy, field-line topology, or the presence of uncondensed neutral components in the superfluid. Persistent core super-rotation alters our picture of neutron stars in several ways, allowing for magnetic field generation by ongoing dynamo action and enhanced gravitational wave emission from hydrodynamic instabilities.

  15. Neutron Star Mass-Radius Constraints Using Evolutionary Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, A.L.; Fiege, J.D.; Leahy, D.A.; Morsink, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    The equation of state of cold supra-nuclear-density matter, such as in neutron stars, is an open question in astrophysics. A promising method for constraining the neutron star equation of state is modeling pulse profiles of thermonuclear X-ray burst oscillations from hot spots on accreting neutron

  16. Disorder resistivity of solid neutron-star matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, P B

    2004-11-26

    Lower limits are found for the disorder electrical resistivity of solid neutron-star matter in the neutron-drip region which is amorphous and heterogeneous in nuclear charge. This temperature-independent resistivity, large compared with that produced by phonon scattering, has direct consequences for theories of neutron-star magnetic field generation and evolution.

  17. Physics of systems containing neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaham, J.

    1989-11-01

    The following is a summary of work done during the period of Mar. to Oct. 1989. Three major topics were extensively looked into during this time: the reported 2,000 Hz optical signal from the direction of SNR1987A, the possibility that neutron stellar surface magnetic fields do not decay except when the star is accreting, and the 6 Hz QPOs of LMXBs.

  18. Pulse timing and neutron star structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandkumar, R.

    1985-01-01

    In the first part of this thesis, the author explores the extent to which the pulsar glitches, postglitch behavior and timing noise may be understood in terms of the dynamical processes associated with the pinned crustal superfluid in neutron stars. He finds that the vortex creep theory proposed by Alpar, Anderson, Pines, and Shaham to explain the Vela pulsar glitches also explains satisfactorily the postglitch behavior following both the glitches in the Crab pulsar, and the glitch in the much older and slower pulsar PSR 0525 + 21. Under the assumption that both Crab and Vela pulsars have neutron stars with similar structure and pinning parameters, he deduces the internal temperature of the Crab pulsar. The temperatures inferred for these two pulsars provides a constraint on the cooling calculations of neutron stars. In the second part of the thesis, he calculates the electrical and thermal conductivities and the shear viscosity. He takes into account the effect of ionic correlations by using the results of liquid structure factors of the one component plasma obtained from numerical simulations, as well as the effects of screening of the electron-ion interaction. At densities so high that screening is unimportant, results for the thermal and electrical conductivities agree to within 10% with the earlier ones by Takovlev and Urpin.

  19. Dissipation in relativistic superfluid neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusakov, M. E.; Kantor, E. M.; Chugunov, A. I.; Gualtieri, L.

    2013-01-01

    We analyse damping of oscillations of general relativistic superfluid neutron stars. To this aim we extend the method of decoupling of superfluid and normal oscillation modes first suggested in Gusakov & Kantor. All calculations are made self-consistently within the finite temperature superfluid hydrodynamics. The general analytic formulas are derived for damping times due to the shear and bulk viscosities. These formulas describe both normal and superfluid neutron stars and are valid for oscillation modes of arbitrary multipolarity. We show that (i) use of the ordinary one-fluid hydrodynamics is a good approximation, for most of the stellar temperatures, if one is interested in calculation of the damping times of normal f modes, (ii) for radial and p modes such an approximation is poor and (iii) the temperature dependence of damping times undergoes a set of rapid changes associated with resonance coupling of neighbouring oscillation modes. The latter effect can substantially accelerate viscous damping of normal modes in certain stages of neutron-star thermal evolution.

  20. Neutron Star Mergers and the R process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joniak, Ronald; Ugalde, Claudio

    2017-09-01

    About half of the elements of the periodic table that are present today in the Solar System were synthesized before the formation of the Sun via a rapid neutron capture process (r process). However, the astrophysical site of the r process is a longstanding problem that has captivated both experimental and theoretical astrophysicists. Up to date, two possible scenarios for the site of the r process have been suggested: the first involves the high entropy wind of core collapse supernovae, and the second corresponds to the merger of two compact stellar objects such as neutron stars. We will study the robustness of the nucleosynthesis abundance pattern between the second and third r process peaks as produced by neutron star mergers with r process-like neutron exposures. First, we will vary parameters to obtain an understanding of the astrophysical mechanisms that create the r process. Next, we will create a program to obtain the best possible parameters based on a chi-squared test. Once we have the best fits, we will test the effect of fission in the overall isotope abundance pattern distribution. Later on, we will vary the ratio of masses of the two fission fragments and study its effect on elemental abundances. This research was supported by the UIC College of Liberal Arts and Sciences Undergraduate Research Initiative (LASURI).

  1. Neutron stars interiors: Theory and reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, J.R. [University of Oxford, Department of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom); University of Tennessee, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-03-15

    There are many fascinating processes in the universe which we observe in more detail thanks to increasingly sophisticated technology. One of the most interesting phenomena is the life cycle of stars, their birth, evolution and death. If the stars are massive enough, they end their lives in a core-collapse supernova explosion, one of the most violent events in the universe. As a result, the densest objects in the universe, neutron stars and/or black holes, are created. The physical basis of these events should be understood in line with observation. Unfortunately, available data do not provide adequate constraints for many theoretical models of dense matter. One of the most open areas of research is the composition of matter in the cores of neutron stars. Unambiguous fingerprints for the appearance and evolution of particular components, such as strange baryons and mesons, with increasing density, have not been identified. In particular, the hadron-quark phase transition remains a subject of intensive research. In this contribution we briefly survey the most promising observational and theoretical directions leading to progress in understanding high density matter in neutron stars. A possible way forward in modeling high-density matter is outlined, exemplified by the quark-meson-coupling model (QMC). This model makes connection between hadronic structure and the underlying quark make-up. It offers a natural explanation for the saturation of nuclear force and treats high-density matter, containing the full baryon octet, in terms of four uniquely defined parameters adjusted to properties of symmetric nuclear matter at saturation. (orig.)

  2. Approximate universal relations for neutron stars and quark stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolás

    2017-04-01

    Neutron stars and quark stars are ideal laboratories to study fundamental physics at supra nuclear densities and strong gravitational fields. Astrophysical observables, however, depend strongly on the star's internal structure, which is currently unknown due to uncertainties in the equation of state. Universal relations, however, exist among certain stellar observables that do not depend sensitively on the star's internal structure. One such set of relations is between the star's moment of inertia (I), its tidal Love number (Love) and its quadrupole moment (Q), the so-called I-Love-Q relations. Similar relations hold among the star's multipole moments, which resemble the well-known black hole no-hair theorems. Universal relations break degeneracies among astrophysical observables, leading to a variety of applications: (i) X-ray measurements of the nuclear matter equation of state, (ii) gravitational wave measurements of the intrinsic spin of inspiraling compact objects, and (iii) gravitational and astrophysical tests of General Relativity that are independent of the equation of state. We here review how the universal relations come about and all the applications that have been devised to date.

  3. NSMAXG: A new magnetic neutron star spectral model in XSPEC

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Wynn C. G.

    2013-01-01

    The excellent sensitivity of X-ray telescopes, such as Chandra and XMM-Newton, is ideal for the study of cooling neutron stars, which can emit at these energies. In order to exploit the wealth of information contained in the high quality data, a thorough knowledge of the radiative properties of neutron star atmospheres is necessary. A key factor affecting photon emission is magnetic fields, and neutron stars are known to have strong surface magnetic fields. Here I briefly describe our latest ...

  4. Role of strangeness to the neutron star mass and cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Hwan; Lim, Yeunhwan; Hyun, Chang Ho; Kwak, Kyujin

    2018-01-01

    Neutron star provides unique environments for the investigation of the physics of extreme dense matter beyond normal nuclear saturation density. In such high density environments, hadrons with strange quarks are expected to play very important role in stabilizing the system. Kaons and hyperons are the lowest mass states with strangeness among meson and bayron families, respectively. In this work, we investigate the role of kaons and hyperons to the neutron star mass, and discuss their role in the neutron star cooling.

  5. Merger of binary neutron stars: Gravitational waves and electromagnetic counterparts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Masaru

    2016-12-15

    Late inspiral and merger phases of binary neutron stars are the valuable new experimental fields for exploring nuclear physics because (i) gravitational waves from them will bring information for the neutron-star equation of state and (ii) the matter ejected after the onset of the merger could be the main site for the r-process nucleosynthesis. We will summarize these aspects of the binary neutron stars, describing the current understanding for the merger process of binary neutron stars that has been revealed by numerical-relativity simulations.

  6. Burst Oscillations: A New Spin on Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod

    2007-01-01

    Observations with NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) have shown that the X-ray flux during thermonuclear X-ray bursts fr-om accreting neutron stars is often strongly pulsed at frequencies as high as 620 Hz. We now know that these oscillations are produced by spin modulation of the thermonuclear flux from the neutron star surface. In addition to revealing the spin frequency, they provide new ways to probe the properties and physics of accreting neutron stars. I will briefly review our current observational and theoretical understanding of these oscillations and discuss what they are telling us about neutron stars.

  7. Frequency spectrum of toroidal Alfv\\'en mode in a neutron star with Ferraro's form of nonhomogeneous poloidal magnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    Bastrukov, S. I.; Chang, H. -K.; Molodtsova, I. V.; Wu, E. H.; Chen, G. -T.; Lan, S. -H.

    2009-01-01

    Using the energy variational method of magneto-solid-mechanical theory of a perfectly conducting elastic medium threaded by magnetic field, the frequency spectrum of Lorentz-force-driven global torsional nodeless vibrations of a neutron star with Ferraro's form of axisymmetric poloidal nonhomogeneous internal and dipole-like external magnetic field is obtained and compared with that for this toroidal Alfv\\'en mode in a neutron star with homogeneous internal and dipolar external magnetic field...

  8. Neutron star in the presence of strong magnetic field

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Compact stars such as neutron stars (NS) can have either hadronic or exotic states like strange quark or colour superconducting matter. Stars can also have a quark core surrounded by hadronic matter, known as hybrid stars (HS). The HS is likely to have a mixed phase in between the hadron and the quark phases ...

  9. Neutron Stars: Laboratories for Fundamental Physics Under Extreme Astrophysical Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Debades

    2017-09-01

    We discuss different exotic phases and components of matter from the crust to the core of neutron stars based on theoretical models for equations of state relevant to core collapse supernova simulations and neutron star merger. Parameters of the models are constrained from laboratory experiments. It is observed that equations of state involving strangeness degrees of freedom such as hyperons and Bose-Einstein condensates are compatible with 2{M}_{solar} neutron stars. The role of hyperons is explored on the evolution and stability of the protoneutron star in the context of SN1987A. Moment of inertia, mass and radius which are direct probes of neutron star interior are computed and their observational consequences are discussed. We continue our study on the dense matter under strong magnetic fields and its application to magnetoelastic oscillations of neutron stars.

  10. Sound velocity bound and neutron stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedaque, Paulo; Steiner, Andrew W

    2015-01-23

    It has been conjectured that the velocity of sound in any medium is smaller than the velocity of light in vacuum divided by sqrt[3]. Simple arguments support this bound in nonrelativistic and/or weakly coupled theories. The bound has been demonstrated in several classes of strongly coupled theories with gravity duals and is saturated only in conformal theories. We point out that the existence of neutron stars with masses around two solar masses combined with the knowledge of the equation of state of hadronic matter at "low" densities is in strong tension with this bound.

  11. Quark matter droplets in neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiselberg, H.; Pethick, C. J.; Staubo, E. F.

    1993-01-01

    We show that, for physically reasonable bulk and surface properties, the lowest energy state of dense matter consists of quark matter coexisting with nuclear matter in the presence of an essentially uniform background of electrons. We estimate the size and nature of spatial structure in this phase, and show that at the lowest densities the quark matter forms droplets embedded in nuclear matter, whereas at higher densities it can exhibit a variety of different topologies. A finite fraction of the interior of neutron stars could consist of matter in this new phase, which would provide new mechanisms for glitches and cooling.

  12. A SECOND NEUTRON STAR IN M4?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaluzny, J.; Rozanska, A.; Rozyczka, M.; Krzeminski, W. [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland); Thompson, Ian B. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2012-05-01

    We show that the optical counterpart of the X-ray source CX 1 in M4 is a {approx}20th magnitude star, located in the color-magnitude diagram on (or very close to) the main sequence of the cluster, and exhibiting sinusoidal variations of the flux. We find the X-ray flux to be also periodically variable, with X-ray and optical minima coinciding. Stability of the optical light curve, lack of UV-excess, and unrealistic mean density resulting from period-density relation for semidetached systems speak against the original identification of CX 1 as a cataclysmic variable. We argue that the X-ray active component of this system is a neutron star (probably a millisecond pulsar).

  13. TeV mu neutrinos from young neutron stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Bennett; Burgio, Fiorella

    2005-05-13

    Neutron stars are efficient accelerators for bringing charges up to relativistic energies. We show that if positive ions are accelerated to approximately 1 PeV near the surface of a young neutron star (t(age) less than or nearly 10(5) yr), protons interacting with the star's radiation field produce beamed mu neutrinos with energies of approximately 50 TeV that could produce the brightest neutrino sources at these energies yet proposed. These neutrinos would be coincident with the radio beam, so that, if the star is detected as a radio pulsar, the neutrino beam will sweep the Earth; the star would be a "neutrino pulsar." Looking for nu(mu) emission from young neutron stars will provide a valuable probe of the energetics of the neutron star magnetosphere.

  14. Impact of phase transition from neutrons to hyperons in neutron star properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrizal, Sulaksono, A.

    2017-07-01

    We revisit the impact of phase transition from neutrons to hyperons in the properties of neutron star using BSP parameter set of relativistic mean field (RMF) model. Similar to the work reported in Reference [1], the significance of the phase transition is observed from the impact gσ∗Λ/gσN variation on the corresponding neutron stars equation of state and mass versus radius relation. The impact of anisotropic pressure on equation of state and mass versus radius relation of neutron stars is also investigated. It is found that equation of state of neutron stars is very sensitive to gσ∗Λ/gσN coupling constant variation. However, different to the result of Reference [1], we do not obtain hyperon stars with very small radii R˜ 8 km. We do not also find significant effect of anisotropic pressure to change the behavior of neutron star properties due to phase transition.

  15. Magneto–Thermal Evolution of Neutron Stars with Emphasis to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The magnetic and thermal evolution of neutron stars is a very complex process with many non-linear interactions. For a decent understanding of neutron star physics, these evolutions cannot be considered isolated. A brief overview is presented, which describes the main magneto–thermal interactions that determine the fate ...

  16. Flux-Vortex Pinning and Neutron Star Evolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G. Srinivasan et al. (1990) proposed a simple and elegant explanation for the reduction of the neutron star magnetic dipole moment during binary evolution leading to low mass X-ray binaries and eventually to millisecond pulsars: Quantized vortex lines in the neutron star core superfluid will pin against the quantized flux ...

  17. Neutron Star Structure in the Presence of Scalar Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2004-01-01

    Motivated by the possible presence of scalar fields on astrophysical scales, suggested by the apparent acceleration of the universe implied by the supernovae surveys, we present models of neutron star structure including the contribution of a (massless) scalar field to the stress energy momentum tensor, in addition to that made by the normal matter. To that end we solve the coupled Einstein -- scalar field -- hydrostatic balance equations to compute the effect of the presence of the scalar field on the neutron star structure. We find that the presence of the scalar field does change the structure of the neutron star, especially in cases of strong coupling between the scalar field and the matter density. We present the neutron star radius as a function of the matter--scalar field coupling constant for different values of the neutron star central density. The presence of the scalar field affects both the maximum neutron star mass and Its radius, the latter increasing with the value of the above coupling constant. We also compute particle and photon geodesics in the geometry of these neutron stars as well as to the geometry of black holes with different values of the scalar field. Our results may be testable with timing observations of accreting neutron stars.

  18. Does mass accretion lead to field decay in neutron stars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibazaki, N.; Murakami, T.; Shaham, J.; Nomoto, K.

    1989-01-01

    Adopting the hypothesis of accretion-induced magnetic field decay in neutron stars, the consequent evolution of a neutron star's spin and magnetic field are calculated. The results are consistent with observations of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Thermomagnetic effects could provide a possible physical mechanism for such accretion-induced field decay.

  19. Neutron Star Physics in the SKA Era An Indian Perspective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    65

    2016-07-04

    Jul 4, 2016 ... centre around studies of - a) the generation of neutron stars and the SNe connection, b) the neutron star population and ... Click here to download Manuscript ska_nstr.pdf. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5 ..... data set will enable us to test existing and future population synthesis studies as well as explore evolutionary pathways.

  20. Neutron Stars in X-ray Binaries and their Environments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    63

    stellar wind, and any intervenning interstellar material. Reprocessed X-rays are very useful to investigate the environments of neutron stars in various ways. .... and smearing of the optical emission with respect to the X-rays from the central source carries information about the light travel time from the neutron star to the.

  1. Magnetic Fields in neutron stars : A theoretical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reisenegger, A.; Prieto, J.; Benguria, R.; Lai, D.; Araya, P.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: We present our view of the main physical ingredients determining the evolution of neutron star magnetic fields. This includes the basic properties of neutron star matter, possible scenarios for the origin of the magnetic field, constraints and mechanisms for its evolution, and a discussion

  2. High-density QCD phase transitions inside neutron stars: Glitches ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A M Srivastava

    2017-10-09

    Oct 9, 2017 ... in large extra dimension models can be strongly con- strained by neutron star cooling. After production, these gravitons can be trapped in neutron star gravitational potential, and subsequent decaying of these gravitons to γ-rays can be detected. This has been used to constrain the number/size of extra ...

  3. Constraining decaying dark matter with neutron stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ángeles Pérez-García

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The amount of decaying dark matter, accumulated in the central regions in neutron stars together with the energy deposition rate from decays, may set a limit on the neutron star survival rate against transitions to more compact objects provided nuclear matter is not the ultimate stable state of matter and that dark matter indeed is unstable. More generally, this limit sets constraints on the dark matter particle decay time, τχ. We find that in the range of uncertainties intrinsic to such a scenario, masses (mχ/TeV≳9×10−4 or (mχ/TeV≳5×10−2 and lifetimes τχ≲1055 s and τχ≲1053 s can be excluded in the bosonic or fermionic decay cases, respectively, in an optimistic estimate, while more conservatively, it decreases τχ by a factor ≳1020. We discuss the validity under which these results may improve with other current constraints.

  4. Observational constraints on neutron star masses and radii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman Miller, M. [University of Maryland, Department of Astronomy and Joint Space-Science Institute, College Park, MD (United States); Lamb, Frederick K. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Center for Theoretical Astrophysics and Department of Physics, Urbana, IL (United States); University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Department of Astronomy, Urbana, IL (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Precise and reliable measurements of the masses and radii of neutron stars with a variety of masses would provide valuable guidance for improving models of the properties of cold matter with densities above the saturation density of nuclear matter. Several different approaches for measuring the masses and radii of neutron stars have been tried or proposed, including analyzing the X-ray fluxes and spectra of the emission from neutron stars in quiescent low-mass X-ray binary systems and thermonuclear burst sources; fitting the energy-dependent X-ray waveforms of rotation-powered millisecond pulsars, burst oscillations with millisecond periods, and accretion-powered millisecond pulsars; and modeling the gravitational radiation waveforms of coalescing double neutron star and neutron star - black hole binary systems. We describe the strengths and weaknesses of these approaches, most of which currently have substantial systematic errors, and discuss the prospects for decreasing the systematic errors in each method. (orig.)

  5. NSMAXG: A new magnetic neutron star spectral model in XSPEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wynn C. G.

    2014-08-01

    The excellent sensitivity of X-ray telescopes, such as Chandra and XMM-Newton, is ideal for the study of cooling neutron stars, which can emit at these energies. In order to exploit the wealth of information contained in the high quality data, a thorough knowledge of the radiative properties of neutron star atmospheres is necessary. A key factor affecting photon emission is magnetic fields, and neutron stars are known to have strong surface magnetic fields. Here I briefly describe our latest work on constructing magnetic (B >= 1010 G) atmosphere models of neutron stars and the NSMAXG implementation of these models in XSPEC. Our results allow for more robust extractions of neutron star parameters from observations.

  6. Neutron stars structure in the context of massive gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendi, S. H.; Bordbar, G. H.; Eslam Panah, B.; Panahiyan, S.

    2017-07-01

    Motivated by the recent interests in spin-2 massive gravitons, we study the structure of neutron star in the context of massive gravity. The modifications of TOV equation in the presence of massive gravity are explored in 4 and higher dimensions. Next, by considering the modern equation of state for the neutron star matter (which is extracted by the lowest order constrained variational (LOCV) method with the AV18 potential), different physical properties of the neutron star (such as Le Chatelier's principle, stability and energy conditions) are investigated. It is shown that consideration of the massive gravity has specific contributions into the structure of neutron star and introduces new prescriptions for the massive astrophysical objects. The mass-radius relation is examined and the effects of massive gravity on the Schwarzschild radius, average density, compactness, gravitational redshift and dynamical stability are studied. Finally, a relation between mass and radius of neutron star versus the Planck mass is extracted.

  7. 1S0 proton and neutron superfluidity in β-stable neutron star matter

    OpenAIRE

    Zuo, W.; Li, Z. H.; Lu, G. C.; Li, J. Q.; Scheid, W.; Lombardo, U.; Schulze, H.-J; Shen, C. W.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the effect of a microscopic three-body force on the proton and neutron superfluidity in the $^1S_0$ channel in $\\beta$-stable neutron star matter. It is found that the three-body force has only a small effect on the neutron $^1S_0$ pairing gap, but it suppresses strongly the proton $^1S_0$ superfluidity in $\\beta$-stable neutron star matter.

  8. Limits on Self-Interacting Dark Matter from Neutron Stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouvaris, C.

    2012-01-01

    We impose new severe constraints on the self-interactions of fermionic asymmetric dark matter based on observations of nearby old neutron stars. Weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) self-interactions mediated by Yukawa-type interactions can lower significantly the number of WIMPs necessary...... for gravitational collapse of the WIMP population accumulated in a neutron star. Even nearby neutron stars located at regions of low dark matter density can accrete a sufficient number of WIMPs that can potentially collapse, form a mini black hole, and destroy the host star. Based on this, we derive constraints...

  9. SUPERNOVAE, NEUTRON STARS, AND TWO KINDS OF NEUTRINO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, H.Y.

    1962-08-15

    The role of neutrinos in the core of a star that has undergone a supernova explosion is discussed. The existence of neutron stars, the Schwarzchild singularity in general relativity, and the meaning of conservation of baryons in the neighborhood of a Schwarzchild singularity are also considered. The problem of detection of neutron stars is discussed. It is concluded that neutron stars are the most plausible alternative for the remnant of the core of a supernova. The neutrino emission processes are divided into two groups: the neutrino associated with the meson (mu) and the production of electron neutrinos. (C.E.S.)

  10. From hadrons to quarks in neutron stars: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baym, Gordon; Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Takatsuka, Tatsuyuki

    2018-02-09

    In recent years our understanding of neutron stars has advanced remarkably, thanks to research converging from many directions. The importance of understanding neutron star behavior and structure has been underlined by the recent direct detection of gravitational radiation from merging neutron stars. The clean identification of several heavy neutron stars, of order two solar masses, challenges our current understanding of how dense matter can be sufficiently stiff to support such a mass against gravitational collapse. Programs underway to determine simultaneously the mass and radius of neutron stars will continue to constrain and inform theories of neutron star interiors. At the same time, an emerging understanding in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) of how nuclear matter can evolve into deconfined quark matter at high baryon densities is leading to advances in understanding the equation of state of the matter under the extreme conditions in neutron star interiors. We review here the equation of state of matter in neutron stars from the solid crust through the liquid nuclear matter interior to the quark regime at higher densities. We focus in detail on the question of how quark matter appears in neutron stars, and how it affects the equation of state. After discussing the crust and liquid nuclear matter in the core we briefly review aspects of microscopic quark physics relevant to neutron stars, and quark models of dense matter based on the Nambu- Jona-Lasinio framework, in which gluonic processes are replaced by effective quark interactions. We turn then to describing equations of state useful for interpretation of both electromagnetic and gravitational observations, reviewing the emerging picture of hadron-quark continuity in which hadronic matter turns relatively smoothly, with at most only a weak first order transition, into quark matter with increasing density... © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  11. Superfluid heat conduction and the cooling of magnetized neutron stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Deborah N; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Pons, José A; Reddy, Sanjay; Sharma, Rishi

    2009-03-06

    We report on a new mechanism for heat conduction in the neutron star crust. We find that collective modes of superfluid neutron matter, called superfluid phonons, can influence heat conduction in magnetized neutron stars. They can dominate the heat conduction transverse to the magnetic field when the magnetic field B> approximately 10(13) G. At a density of rho approximately 10(12)-10(14) g/cm3, the conductivity due to superfluid phonons is significantly larger than that due to lattice phonons and is comparable to electron conductivity when the temperature approximately 10(8) K. This new mode of heat conduction can limit the surface anisotropy in highly magnetized neutron stars. Cooling curves of magnetized neutron stars with and without superfluid heat conduction could show observationally discernible differences.

  12. Neutron Star Discovered Where a Black Hole Was Expected

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    A very massive star collapsed to form a neutron star and not a black hole as expected, according to new results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This discovery shows that nature has a harder time making black holes than previously thought. Scientists found this neutron star -- a dense whirling ball of neutrons about 12 miles in diameter -- in an extremely young star cluster. Astronomers were able to use well-determined properties of other stars in the cluster to deduce that the progenitor of this neutron star was at least 40 times the mass of the Sun. ESO Optical Image of Westerlund 1 ESO Optical Image of Westerlund 1 "Our discovery shows that some of the most massive stars do not collapse to form black holes as predicted, but instead form neutron stars," said Michael Muno, a UCLA postdoctoral Hubble Fellow and lead author of a paper to be published in The Astrophysical Journal Letters. When very massive stars make neutron stars and not black holes, they will have a greater influence on the composition of future generations of stars. When the star collapses to form the neutron star, more than 95% of its mass, much of which is metal-rich material from its core, is returned to the space around it. "This means that enormous amounts of heavy elements are put back into circulation and can form other stars and planets," said J. Simon Clark of the Open University in the United Kingdom. Animation: Dissolve from Optical to X-ray Image of Westerlund 1 Animation: Dissolve from Optical to X-ray Image of Westerlund 1 Astronomers do not completely understand how massive a star must be to form a black hole rather than a neutron star. The most reliable method for estimating the mass of the progenitor star is to show that the neutron star or black hole is a member of a cluster of stars, all of which are close to the same age. Because more massive stars evolve faster than less massive ones, the mass of a star can be estimated from if its evolutionary stage is known. Neutron

  13. Physical Environment of Accreting Neutron Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron stars (NSs powered by accretion, which are known as accretion-powered NSs, always are located in binary systems and manifest themselves as X-ray sources. Physical processes taking place during the accretion of material from their companions form a challenging and appealing topic, because of the strong magnetic field of NSs. In this paper, we review the physical process of accretion onto magnetized NS in X-ray binary systems. We, firstly, give an introduction to accretion-powered NSs and review the accretion mechanism in X-ray binaries. This review is mostly focused on accretion-induced evolution of NSs, which includes scenario of NSs both in high-mass binaries and in low-mass systems.

  14. Measuring the basic parameters of neutron stars using model atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suleimanov, V.F. [Universitaet Tuebingen, Institut fuer Astronomie und Astrophysik, Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, Tuebingen (Germany); Kazan Federal University, Kazan (Russian Federation); Poutanen, J. [University of Turku, Tuorla Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Piikkioe (Finland); KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Nordita, Stockholm (Sweden); Klochkov, D.; Werner, K. [Universitaet Tuebingen, Institut fuer Astronomie und Astrophysik, Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    Model spectra of neutron star atmospheres are nowadays widely used to fit the observed thermal X-ray spectra of neutron stars. This fitting is the key element in the method of the neutron star radius determination. Here, we present the basic assumptions used for the neutron star atmosphere modeling as well as the main qualitative features of the stellar atmospheres leading to the deviations of the emergent model spectrum from blackbody. We describe the properties of two of our model atmosphere grids: i) pure carbon atmospheres for relatively cool neutron stars (1-4MK) and ii) hot atmospheres with Compton scattering taken into account. The results obtained by applying these grids to model the X-ray spectra of the central compact object in supernova remnant HESS 1731-347, and two X-ray bursting neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries, 4U 1724-307 and 4U 1608-52, are presented. Possible systematic uncertainties associated with the obtained neutron star radii are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Constraining the Mass & Radius of Neutron Stars in Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, A. W.; Heinke, C. O.; Bogdanov, S.; Li, C.; Ho, W. C. G.; Bahramian, A.; Han, S.

    2018-01-01

    We analyze observations of eight quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries in globular clusters and combine them to determine the neutron star mass-radius curve and the equation of state of dense matter. We determine the effect that several uncertainties may have on our results, including uncertainties in the distance, the atmosphere composition, the neutron star maximum mass, the neutron star mass distribution, the possible presence of a hotspot on the neutron star surface, and the prior choice for the equation of state of dense matter. The distance uncertainty is implemented in a new Gaussian blurring method which can be directly applied to the probability distribution over mass and radius. We find that the radius of a 1.4 solar mass neutron star is most likely from 10 to 14 km and that tighter constraints are only possible with stronger assumptions about the nature of the neutron stars, the systematics of the observations, or the nature of dense matter. Strong phase transitions in the equation of state are preferred, and in this case, the radius is likely smaller than 12 km. However, radii larger than 12 km are preferred if the neutron stars have uneven temperature distributions.

  16. Breaking strain of neutron star crust and gravitational waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, C J; Kadau, Kai

    2009-05-15

    Mountains on rapidly rotating neutron stars efficiently radiate gravitational waves. The maximum possible size of these mountains depends on the breaking strain of the neutron star crust. With multimillion ion molecular dynamics simulations of Coulomb solids representing the crust, we show that the breaking strain of pure single crystals is very large and that impurities, defects, and grain boundaries only modestly reduce the breaking strain to around 0.1. Because of the collective behavior of the ions during failure found in our simulations, the neutron star crust is likely very strong and can support mountains large enough so that their gravitational wave radiation could limit the spin periods of some stars and might be detectable in large-scale interferometers. Furthermore, our microscopic modeling of neutron star crust material can help analyze mechanisms relevant in magnetar giant flares and microflares.

  17. I-Love-Q: unexpected universal relations for neutron stars and quark stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolás

    2013-07-26

    Neutron stars and quark stars are not only characterized by their mass and radius but also by how fast they spin, through their moment of inertia, and how much they can be deformed, through their Love number and quadrupole moment. These depend sensitively on the star's internal structure and thus on unknown nuclear physics. We find universal relations between the moment of inertia, the Love number, and the quadrupole moment that are independent of the neutron and quark star's internal structure. These can be used to learn about neutron star deformability through observations of the moment of inertia, break degeneracies in gravitational wave detection to measure spin in binary inspirals, distinguish neutron stars from quark stars, and test general relativity in a nuclear structure-independent fashion.

  18. Superfluid densities in neutron-star matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borumand, M.; Joynt, R.; Kluzniak, W. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)]|[Department of Technical Physics, Helsinki University of Technology, 02150-Espoo, Finland Copernicus Astronomical Center, 00-716 Warszawa (Poland)

    1996-11-01

    The superfluid densities in a mixture of neutron and proton superfluids are discussed within Fermi-liquid theory. There are the usual diagonal densities {rho}{sub {ital nn}} and {rho}{sub {ital pp}} but also off-diagonal densities {rho}{sub {ital np}} and {rho}{sub {ital pn}} which represent coupling between the two species. We express these quantities solely in terms of the Fermi momenta and the Landau parameter {ital f}{sub 1}{sup {ital pn}} in a way that explicitly satisfies the Galilean invariance constraints {rho}{sub {ital pp}}+{rho}{sub {ital pn}}={ital m}{sub {ital pn}}{sub {ital p}} and {rho}{sub {ital nn}}+{rho}{sub {ital pn}}={ital m}{sub {ital nn}}{sub {ital n}}. The results are of astrophysical interest, e.g., in a discussion of the damping of gravitational instability in rapidly rotating neutron stars or of post-glitch relaxation of pulsars. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  19. Cooling of young neutron stars in GRB associated to supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negreiros, R.; Ruffini, R.; Bianco, C. L.; Rueda, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    Context. The traditional study of neutron star cooling has been generally applied to quite old objects such as the Crab Pulsar (957 years) or the central compact object in Cassiopeia A (330 years) with an observed surface temperature ~106 K. However, recent observations of the late (t = 108-109 s) emission of the supernovae (SNe) associated to GRBs (GRB-SN) show a distinctive emission in the X-ray regime consistent with temperatures ~107-108 K. Similar features have been also observed in two Type Ic SNe SN 2002ap and SN 1994I that are not associated to GRBs. Aims: We advance the possibility that the late X-ray emission observed in GRB-SN and in isolated SN is associated to a hot neutron star just formed in the SN event, here defined as a neo-neutron star. Methods: We discuss the thermal evolution of neo-neutron stars in the age regime that spans from ~1 min (just after the proto-neutron star phase) all the way up to ages atmosphere for young neutron stars. In this way we match the neo-neutron star luminosity to the observed late X-ray emission of the GRB-SN events: URCA-1 in GRB980425-SN1998bw, URCA-2 in GRB030329-SN2003dh, and URCA-3 in GRB031203-SN2003lw. Results: We identify the major role played by the neutrino emissivity in the thermal evolution of neo-neutron stars. By calibrating our additional heating source at early times to ~1012-1015 erg/g/s, we find a striking agreement of the luminosity obtained from the cooling of a neo-neutron stars with the prolonged (t = 108-109 s) X-ray emission observed in GRB associated with SN. It is therefore appropriate a revision of the boundary conditions usually used in the thermal cooling theory of neutron stars, to match the proper conditions of the atmosphere at young ages. The traditional thermal processes taking place in the crust might be enhanced by the extreme high-temperature conditions of a neo-neutron star. Additional heating processes that are still not studied within this context, such as e+e- pair creation by

  20. Isolated Neutron Stars: From the Surface to the Interior

    CERN Document Server

    Zane, Silvia; Page, Dany

    2007-01-01

    This book collects the contributions presented at the conference Isolated Neutron Stars: From the Surface to the Interior, held in London in April 2006. Forty years after the discovery of radio pulsars it presents an up-to-date description of the new vision of isolated neutron stars that has emerged in recent years with the advance of multi-wavelength observations. The great variety of isolated neutron stars, from pulsars to magnetars, some of them discovered very recently and many of them not detectable in radio wavelengths, is amply covered by descriptions of recent observational results and presentations of the latest theoretical interpretation of these data.

  1. Neutron Stars and Thermonuclear X-ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sudip

    2007-01-01

    Studies of thermonuclear X-ray bursts can be very useful to constrain the spin rate, mass and radius of a neutron star approaching EOS model of high density cold matter in the neutron star cores. +k Extensive observation and analysis of the data from the rising portions of the bursts - modeling of burst oscillations and thermonuclear flame spreading. +k Theoretical study of thermonuclear flame spreading on the rapidly spinning neutron stars should be done considering all the main physical effects (including magnetic field, nuclear energy generation, Coriolis effect, strong gravity, etc.).

  2. Understanding Neutron Stars using Thermonuclear X-ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, S.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of thermonuclear X-ray bursts can be very useful to constrain the spin rate, mass and radius of a neutron star = EOS model of high density cold matter in the neutron star cores. Extensive observation and analysis of the data from the rising portions of the bursts = modeling of burst oscillations and thermonuclear flame spreading. Theoretical study of thermonuclear flame spreading on the rapidly spinning neutron stars should be done considering all the main physical effects (including magnetic field, nuclear energy generation, Coriolis effect, strong gravity, etc.).

  3. Does mass accretion lead to field decay in neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibazaki, N.; Murakami, T.; Shaham, Jacob; Nomoto, K.

    1989-01-01

    The recent discovery of cyclotron lines from gamma-ray bursts indicates that the strong magnetic fields of isolated neutron stars might not decay. The possible inverse correlation between the strength of the magnetic field and the mass accreted by the neutron star suggests that mass accretion itself may lead to the decay of the magnetic field. The spin and magnetic field evolution of the neutron star was calculated under the hypothesis of the accretion-induced field decay. It is shown that the calculated results are consistent with the observations of binary and millisecond radio pulsars.

  4. Fundamental vibrational mode in a highly inhomogeneous star

    OpenAIRE

    Bastrukov, S. I.; Chang, H. -K.; Wu, E. -H.; Molodtsova, I. V.

    2008-01-01

    The eigenfrequency problem of fundamental vibrational mode in a highly inhomogeneous star, modeled by self-gravitating mass of viscous liquid with singular density at the center, is considered in juxtaposition with that for Kelvin fundamental mode in the liquid star model with uniform density. Particular attention is given to the difference between spectral equations for the frequency and lifetime of f-mode in the singular and homogeneous star models. The newly obtained results are discussed ...

  5. Formation of Double Neutron Star Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauris, T. M.; Kramer, M.; Freire, P. C. C.; Wex, N.; Janka, H.-T.; Langer, N.; Podsiadlowski, Ph.; Bozzo, E.; Chaty, S.; Kruckow, M. U.; van den Heuvel, E. P. J.; Antoniadis, J.; Breton, R. P.; Champion, D. J.

    2017-09-01

    Double neutron star (DNS) systems represent extreme physical objects and the endpoint of an exotic journey of stellar evolution and binary interactions. Large numbers of DNS systems and their mergers are anticipated to be discovered using the Square Kilometre Array searching for radio pulsars, and the high-frequency gravitational wave detectors (LIGO/VIRGO), respectively. Here we discuss all key properties of DNS systems, as well as selection effects, and combine the latest observational data with new theoretical progress on various physical processes with the aim of advancing our knowledge on their formation. We examine key interactions of their progenitor systems and evaluate their accretion history during the high-mass X-ray binary stage, the common envelope phase, and the subsequent Case BB mass transfer, and argue that the first-formed NSs have accreted at most ∼ 0.02 {M}ȯ . We investigate DNS masses, spins, and velocities, and in particular correlations between spin period, orbital period, and eccentricity. Numerous Monte Carlo simulations of the second supernova (SN) events are performed to extrapolate pre-SN stellar properties and probe the explosions. All known close-orbit DNS systems are consistent with ultra-stripped exploding stars. Although their resulting NS kicks are often small, we demonstrate a large spread in kick magnitudes that may, in general, depend on the past interaction history of the exploding star and thus correlate with the NS mass. We analyze and discuss NS kick directions based on our SN simulations. Finally, we discuss the terminal evolution of close-orbit DNS systems until they merge and possibly produce a short γ-ray burst.

  6. Rotating neutron stars with exotic cores: masses, radii, stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haensel, P.; Bejger, M.; Fortin, M.; Zdunik, L. [Polish Academy of Sciences, N. Copernicus Astronomical Center, Warszawa (Poland)

    2016-03-15

    A set of theoretical mass-radius relations for rigidly rotating neutron stars with exotic cores, obtained in various theories of dense matter, is reviewed. Two basic observational constraints are used: the largest measured rotation frequency (716Hz) and the maximum measured mass (2M {sub CircleDot}). The present status of measuring the radii of neutron stars is described. The theory of rigidly rotating stars in general relativity is reviewed and limitations of the slow rotation approximation are pointed out. Mass-radius relations for rotating neutron stars with hyperon and quark cores are illustrated using several models. Problems related to the non-uniqueness of the crust-core matching are mentioned. Limits on rigid rotation resulting from the mass-shedding instability and the instability with respect to the axisymmetric perturbations are summarized. The problem of instabilities and of the back-bending phenomenon are discussed in detail. Metastability and instability of a neutron star core in the case of a first-order phase transition, both between pure phases, and into a mixed-phase state, are reviewed. The case of two disjoint families (branches) of rotating neutron stars is discussed and generic features of neutron-star families and of core-quakes triggered by the instabilities are considered. (orig.)

  7. Phase transitions in nucleonic matter and neutron-star cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodel, V A; Clark, J W; Takano, M; Zverev, M V

    2004-10-08

    A new scenario for neutron-star cooling is suggested by the correspondence between pion condensation, induced by critical spin-isospin fluctuations, and the metal-insulator phase transition in a 2D electron gas. Above the threshold density for pion condensation, the neutron single-particle spectrum acquires an insulating gap that quenches neutron contributions to neutrino production. In the liquid phase just below the transition, the fluctuations play dual roles by (i) creating a multisheeted neutron Fermi surface that extends to low momenta and activates the normally forbidden direct Urca cooling mechanism, and (ii) amplifying the nodeless P-wave neutron superfluid gap while suppressing S-wave pairing. Lighter stars without a pion-condensed core undergo slow cooling, whereas enhanced cooling occurs in heavier stars via direct Urca emission from a thin shell of the interior.

  8. MHD Stability of Polar Caps of Accreting Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, C.; Brown, E. F.; Rosner, R.

    2000-12-01

    We assess the stability of magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor type modes driven by the overpressure of magnetically confined accreted matter on the surface of a neutron star. We employ the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy principle to analyze the stability of short-wavelength (ballooning) modes subject to line-tying in the neutron star crust. Research supported by ASCI/Alliances Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes at the University of Chicago.

  9. Many-body theory of nuclear and neutron star matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandharipande, V.R.; Akmal, A.; Ravenhall, D.G. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1998-06-01

    We present results obtained for nuclei, nuclear and neutron star matter, and neutron star structure obtained with the recent Argonne v{sub 18} two- nucleon and Urbana IX three-nucleon interactions including relativistic boost corrections. These interactions predict that matter will undergo a transition to a spin layered phase with neutral pion condensation. We also consider the possibility of a transition to quark matter. (orig.)

  10. Inner crust of neutron stars with finite range interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Elias

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The microscopic structure of the inner crust of neutron stars is generally studied in the framework of local energy density functionals (EDF. Here, we discuss other possible frameworks, either based on non-relativistic EDF which are fully non-local, or covariant EDF of the relativistic mean field (RMF type. These other approaches must be more widely used in the context of neutron stars in order to gain confidence in predicting general trends.

  11. Neutron Star Formation and Evolution - Singles, Binaries and Triples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauris, Thomas

    I will review recent progress, and highlight unsolved puzzles, related to the formation and evolution of neutron stars. Examples include birth events of neutron stars (electron capture vs iron core-collapse SNe and AIC), torque decay of isolated pulsars, recycling of millisecond pulsars and the nature of their companions. Finally, I will discuss the triple pulsar and the new emerging class of millisecond pulsars in highly eccentric orbits.

  12. ON THE MASS DISTRIBUTION AND BIRTH MASSES OF NEUTRON STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezel, Feryal; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Santos Villarreal, Antonio [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Narayan, Ramesh [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138,USA (United States)

    2012-09-20

    We investigate the distribution of neutron star masses in different populations of binaries, employing Bayesian statistical techniques. In particular, we explore the differences in neutron star masses between sources that have experienced distinct evolutionary paths and accretion episodes. We find that the distribution of neutron star masses in non-recycled eclipsing high-mass binaries as well as of slow pulsars, which are all believed to be near their birth masses, has a mean of 1.28 M{sub Sun} and a dispersion of 0.24 M{sub Sun }. These values are consistent with expectations for neutron star formation in core-collapse supernovae. On the other hand, double neutron stars, which are also believed to be near their birth masses, have a much narrower mass distribution, peaking at 1.33 M{sub Sun }, but with a dispersion of only 0.05 M{sub Sun }. Such a small dispersion cannot easily be understood and perhaps points to a particular and rare formation channel. The mass distribution of neutron stars that have been recycled has a mean of 1.48 M{sub Sun} and a dispersion of 0.2 M{sub Sun }, consistent with the expectation that they have experienced extended mass accretion episodes. The fact that only a very small fraction of recycled neutron stars in the inferred distribution have masses that exceed {approx}2 M{sub Sun} suggests that only a few of these neutron stars cross the mass threshold to form low-mass black holes.

  13. Instability windows and evolution of rapidly rotating neutron stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusakov, Mikhail E; Chugunov, Andrey I; Kantor, Elena M

    2014-04-18

    We consider an instability of rapidly rotating neutron stars in low-mass x-ray binaries (LMXBs) with respect to excitation of r modes (which are analogous to Earth's Rossby waves controlled by the Coriolis force). We argue that finite temperature effects in the superfluid core of a neutron star lead to a resonance coupling and enhanced damping (and hence stability) of oscillation modes at certain stellar temperatures. Using a simple phenomenological model we demonstrate that neutron stars with high spin frequency may spend a substantial amount of time at these "resonance" temperatures. This finding allows us to explain puzzling observations of hot rapidly rotating neutron stars in LMXBs and to predict a new class of hot, nonaccreting, rapidly rotating neutron stars, some of which may have already been observed and tentatively identified as quiescent LMXB candidates. We also impose a new theoretical limit on the neutron star spin frequency, which can explain the cutoff spin frequency ∼730  Hz, following from the statistical analysis of accreting millisecond x-ray pulsars. In addition to explaining the observations, our model provides a new tool to constrain superdense matter properties by comparing measured and theoretically predicted resonance temperatures.

  14. Flux-Vortex Pinning and Neutron Star Evolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Ali Alpar

    2017-09-12

    Sep 12, 2017 ... neutron star magnetic dipole moment during binary evolution leading to low mass X-ray binaries and eventually ... Both groups made the bold infer- ..... neutron and proton masses. For electron scattering from the flux line these quan- tities are 0 and the London radius for the proton superfluid, giving ...

  15. The vibrational spectrum of solid ferrocene by inelastic neutron scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemner, E.; De Schepper, I.M.; Kearley, G.J.; Jayasooriya, U.A.

    2000-01-01

    We calculate the spectrum of internal vibrations of a single ferrocene Fe(C5H5)2 molecule using ab initio density functional theory (without free parameters) and compare this with inelastic neutron scattering data on ferrocene in the solid state at 28 K. Due to the good agreement, we can assign each

  16. Measuring neutron-star properties via gravitational waves from neutron-star mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauswein, A; Janka, H-T

    2012-01-06

    We demonstrate by a large set of merger simulations for symmetric binary neutron stars (NSs) that there is a tight correlation between the frequency peak of the postmerger gravitational-wave (GW) emission and the physical properties of the nuclear equation of state (EoS), e.g., expressed by the radius of the maximum-mass Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkhoff configuration. Therefore, a single measurement of the peak frequency of the postmerger GW signal will constrain the NS EoS significantly. For optimistic merger-rate estimates a corresponding detection with Advanced LIGO is expected to happen within an operation time of roughly a year.

  17. Resonant shattering of neutron star crusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, David; Read, Jocelyn S; Hinderer, Tanja; Piro, Anthony L; Bondarescu, Ruxandra

    2012-01-06

    The resonant excitation of neutron star (NS) modes by tides is investigated as a source of short gamma-ray burst (SGRB) precursors. We find that the driving of a crust-core interface mode can lead to shattering of the NS crust, liberating ∼10{46}-10{47}  erg of energy seconds before the merger of a NS-NS or NS-black-hole binary. Such properties are consistent with Swift/BAT detections of SGRB precursors, and we use the timing of the observed precursors to place weak constraints on the crust equation of state. We describe how a larger sample of precursor detections could be used alongside coincident gravitational wave detections of the inspiral by Advanced LIGO class detectors to probe the NS structure. These two types of observations nicely complement one another, since the former constrains the equation of state and structure near the crust-core boundary, while the latter is more sensitive to the core equation of state.

  18. Electromagnetic Counterparts of Neutron Star Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Brian

    2011-09-01

    The most promising astrophysical sources of gravitational waves (GWs) for ground-based interferometers such as Advanced LIGO are the inspiral and merger of binary neutron star (NS) and black hole systems. Maximizing the benefits of a GW detection will require identifying a coincident electromagnetic (EM) counterpart. One possible source of bright EM emission is a gamma-ray burst (GRB), powered by accretion following the merger. However, for typical viewers outside the opening angle of the GRB jet, prompt emission may be difficult to detect. Another source of isotropic EM emission from NS mergers is a supernova-like optical transient (`kilo-nova'), powered by the radioactive decay of heavy elements synthesized in the ejecta . I will present the first calculations of the optical transients from NS mergers that self consistently determine the radioactive heating using a nuclear reaction network and which determine the resulting light curve with a Monte Carlo radiation transfer calculation. I will compare the predicted brightness and duration of the kilo-nova to the expected off-axis (`orphan') afterglow emission, in order to assess the optimal EM follow-up strategy following a future GW detection.

  19. NASA'S Chandra Finds Superfluid in Neutron Star's Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered the first direct evidence for a superfluid, a bizarre, friction-free state of matter, at the core of a neutron star. Superfluids created in laboratories on Earth exhibit remarkable properties, such as the ability to climb upward and escape airtight containers. The finding has important implications for understanding nuclear interactions in matter at the highest known densities. Neutron stars contain the densest known matter that is directly observable. One teaspoon of neutron star material weighs six billion tons. The pressure in the star's core is so high that most of the charged particles, electrons and protons, merge resulting in a star composed mostly of uncharged particles called neutrons. Two independent research teams studied the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A, or Cas A for short, the remains of a massive star 11,000 light years away that would have appeared to explode about 330 years ago as observed from Earth. Chandra data found a rapid decline in the temperature of the ultra-dense neutron star that remained after the supernova, showing that it had cooled by about four percent over a 10-year period. "This drop in temperature, although it sounds small, was really dramatic and surprising to see," said Dany Page of the National Autonomous University in Mexico, leader of a team with a paper published in the February 25, 2011 issue of the journal Physical Review Letters. "This means that something unusual is happening within this neutron star." Superfluids containing charged particles are also superconductors, meaning they act as perfect electrical conductors and never lose energy. The new results strongly suggest that the remaining protons in the star's core are in a superfluid state and, because they carry a charge, also form a superconductor. "The rapid cooling in Cas A's neutron star, seen with Chandra, is the first direct evidence that the cores of these neutron stars are, in fact, made of superfluid and

  20. A Hot Water Bottle for Aging Neutron Stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alford, Mark; Jotwani, Pooja; Kouvaris, Christoforos

    2004-01-01

    The gapless color-flavor locked (gCFL) phase is the second-densest phase of matter in the QCD phase diagram, making it a plausible constituent of the core of neutron stars. We show that even a relatively small region of gCFL matter in a star will dominate both the heat capacity C_V and the heat...

  1. Focused study of thermonuclear bursts on neutron stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chenevez, Jérôme

    2009-01-01

    Simbol-X and NuSTAR. A positive detection would thus probe the nuclear burning as well as the gravitational redshift from the neutron star. Moreover, likely observations of atomic X-ray spectral components reflected from the inner accretion disk have been reported. The high spectral resolution...

  2. Free precession of neutron stars: Role of possible vortex pinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaham, J.

    1977-05-15

    Vortex pinning affects neutron stellar free precession by modifying its frequency and geometry, in a gyroscopic effect. For neutron stars with low oblateness, the free precession frequency is given by ..omega../sub p/=psi..cap omega.., where psi is the ratio of moments of inertia of the pinned superfluid to the rigid component of the rest of the star, and ..cap omega.. is half the superfluid vorticity. This poses a severe difficulty on any interpretation of the 35/sup d/ cycle in Her X-1 in terms of neutron stellar wobble, if vortex pinning exists.

  3. Early Results from NICER Observations of Accreting Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Deepto; Ozel, Feryal; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Gendreau, Keith C.; Bult, Peter; Cackett, Ed; Chenevez, Jerome; Fabian, Andy; Guillot, Sebastien; Guver, Tolga; Homan, Jeroen; Keek, Laurens; Lamb, Frederick; Ludlam, Renee; Mahmoodifar, Simin; Markwardt, Craig B.; Miller, Jon M.; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Wolff, Michael T.

    2018-01-01

    The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) offers significant new capabilities for the study of accreting neuton stars relative to previous X-ray missions including large effective area, low background, and greatly improved low-energy response. The NICER Burst and Accretion Working Group has designed a 2 Ms observation program to study a number of phenomena in accreting neutron stars including type-I X-ray bursts, superbursts, accretion-powered pulsations, quasi-periodic oscillations, and accretion disk reflection spectra. We present some early results from the first six months of the NICER mission.

  4. HUBBLE SEES A NEUTRON STAR ALONE IN SPACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    his is the first direct look, in visible light, at a lone neutron star, as seen by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. The Hubble results show the star is very hot (1.2 million degrees Fahrenheit at the surface), and can be no larger than 16.8 miles (28 kilometers) across. These results prove that the object must be a neutron star, because no other known type of object can be this hot, small, and dim (below 25th magnitude). The first clue that there was a neutron star at this location came in 1992, when the ROSAT (the Roentgen Satellite) found a bright X-ray source without any optical counterpart in optical sky surveys. Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 was used in October 1996 to undertake a sensitive search for the optical object, and found a stellar pinpoint of light within only 2 arc seconds (1/900th the diameter of the Moon) of the X-ray position. Astronomers haven't directly measured the neutron star's distance, but fortunately the neutron star lies in front of a molecular cloud known to be about 400 light-years away in the southern constellation Corona Australis. Credit: Fred Walter (State University of New York at Stony Brook), and NASA

  5. Astronomers Discover Most Massive Neutron Star Yet Known

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Green Bank Telescope (GBT) have discovered the most massive neutron star yet found, a discovery with strong and wide-ranging impacts across several fields of physics and astrophysics. "This neutron star is twice as massive as our Sun. This is surprising, and that much mass means that several theoretical models for the internal composition of neutron stars now are ruled out," said Paul Demorest, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "This mass measurement also has implications for our understanding of all matter at extremely high densities and many details of nuclear physics," he added. Neutron stars are the superdense "corpses" of massive stars that have exploded as supernovae. With all their mass packed into a sphere the size of a small city, their protons and electrons are crushed together into neutrons. A neutron star can be several times more dense than an atomic nucleus, and a thimbleful of neutron-star material would weigh more than 500 million tons. This tremendous density makes neutron stars an ideal natural "laboratory" for studying the most dense and exotic states of matter known to physics. The scientists used an effect of Albert Einstein's theory of General Relativity to measure the mass of the neutron star and its orbiting companion, a white dwarf star. The neutron star is a pulsar, emitting lighthouse-like beams of radio waves that sweep through space as it rotates. This pulsar, called PSR J1614-2230, spins 317 times per second, and the companion completes an orbit in just under nine days. The pair, some 3,000 light-years distant, are in an orbit seen almost exactly edge-on from Earth. That orientation was the key to making the mass measurement. As the orbit carries the white dwarf directly in front of the pulsar, the radio waves from the pulsar that reach Earth must travel very close to the white dwarf. This close passage causes them to be delayed in their arrival by the distortion of

  6. Neutron-Star Radius from a Population of Binary Neutron Star Mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Sukanta; Chakravarti, Kabir; Rezzolla, Luciano; Sathyaprakash, B S; Takami, Kentaro

    2018-01-19

    We show how gravitational-wave observations with advanced detectors of tens to several tens of neutron-star binaries can measure the neutron-star radius with an accuracy of several to a few percent, for mass and spatial distributions that are realistic, and with none of the sources located within 100 Mpc. We achieve such an accuracy by combining measurements of the total mass from the inspiral phase with those of the compactness from the postmerger oscillation frequencies. For estimating the measurement errors of these frequencies, we utilize analytical fits to postmerger numerical relativity waveforms in the time domain, obtained here for the first time, for four nuclear-physics equations of state and a couple of values for the mass. We further exploit quasiuniversal relations to derive errors in compactness from those frequencies. Measuring the average radius to well within 10% is possible for a sample of 100 binaries distributed uniformly in volume between 100 and 300 Mpc, so long as the equation of state is not too soft or the binaries are not too heavy. We also give error estimates for the Einstein Telescope.

  7. Improved Universality in the Neutron Star Three-Hair Relations

    CERN Document Server

    Majumder, Barun; Yunes, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    No-hair like relations between the multipole moments of the exterior gravitational field of neutron stars have recently been found to be approximately independent of the star's internal structure. This approximate, equation-of-state universality arises after one adimensionalizes the multipole moments appropriately, which then begs the question of whether there are better ways to adimensionalize the moments to obtain stronger universality. We here investigate this question in detail by considering slowly-rotating neutron stars both in the non-relativistic limit and in full General Relativity. We find that there exist normalizations that lead to stronger equation-of-state universality in the relations among the moment of inertia and the quadrupole, octopole and hexadecapole moments of neutron stars. We determine the optimal normalization that minimizes the equation-of-state dependence in these relations. The results found here may have applications in the modeling of X-ray pulses and atomic line profiles from m...

  8. 2-dimensional Helium Detonations on the Surface of Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingale, M.; Timmes, F. X.; Fryxell, B.; Lamb, D. Q.; Olson, K.; Ricker, P.; Calder, A. C.; Dursi, L. J.; Rosner, R.; Truran, J. W.

    We present two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of helium detonations on the surfaces of neutron stars performed with the FLASH Code -- a multidimensional, adaptive hydrodynamics code developed at the Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes at the University of Chicago. These calculations show the evolution of the detonation as it breaks through the atmosphere of the neutron star and propagates across the surface. The calculation shows a series of surface waves propagating behind the detonation, and the bouncing of the atmosphere as the detonation evolves. The sensitivity of the results to spatial resolution and initial conditions are explored. The event is followed as the detonation travels 2 km across the surface of the neutron star. The detonation velocity implies a timescale of a few milliseconds to propagate around the star. The relevance of such a model to observed X-ray bursts is discussed.

  9. Limits on self-interacting dark matter from neutron stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvaris, Chris

    2012-05-11

    We impose new severe constraints on the self-interactions of fermionic asymmetric dark matter based on observations of nearby old neutron stars. Weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) self-interactions mediated by Yukawa-type interactions can lower significantly the number of WIMPs necessary for gravitational collapse of the WIMP population accumulated in a neutron star. Even nearby neutron stars located at regions of low dark matter density can accrete a sufficient number of WIMPs that can potentially collapse, form a mini black hole, and destroy the host star. Based on this, we derive constraints on the WIMP self-interactions which in some cases are by several orders of magnitude stricter than the ones from the bullet cluster.

  10. Fast radio bursts: the last sign of supramassive neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcke, Heino; Rezzolla, Luciano

    2014-02-01

    Context. Several fast radio bursts have been discovered recently, showing a bright, highly dispersed millisecond radio pulse. The pulses do not repeat and are not associated with a known pulsar or gamma-ray burst. The high dispersion suggests sources at cosmological distances, hence implying an extremely high radio luminosity, far larger than the power of single pulses from a pulsar. Aims: We suggest that a fast radio burst represents the final signal of a supramassive rotating neutron star that collapses to a black hole due to magnetic braking. The neutron star is initially above the critical mass for non-rotating models and is supported by rapid rotation. As magnetic braking constantly reduces the spin, the neutron star will suddenly collapse to a black hole several thousand to million years after its birth. Methods: We discuss several formation scenarios for supramassive neutron stars and estimate the possible observational signatures making use of the results of recent numerical general-relativistic calculations. Results: While the collapse will hide the stellar surface behind an event horizon, the magnetic-field lines will snap violently. This can turn an almost ordinary pulsar into a bright radio "blitzar": accelerated electrons from the travelling magnetic shock dissipate a significant fraction of the magnetosphere and produce a massive radio burst that is observable out to z > 0.7. Only a few per cent of the neutron stars need to be supramassive in order to explain the observed rate. Conclusions: We suggest the intriguing possibility that fast radio bursts might trace the solitary and almost silent formation of stellar mass black holes at high redshifts. These bursts could be an electromagnetic complement to gravitational-wave emission and reveal a new formation and evolutionary channel for black holes and neutron stars that are not seen as gamma-ray bursts. If supramassive neutron stars are formed at birth and not by accretion, radio observations of these

  11. Dispersion and decay of collective modes in neutron star cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobyakov, D. N.; Pethick, C. J.; Reddy, S.; Schwenk, A.

    2017-08-01

    We calculate the frequencies of collective modes of neutrons, protons, and electrons in the outer core of neutron stars. The neutrons and protons are treated in a hydrodynamic approximation and the electrons are regarded as collisionless. The coupling of the nucleons to the electrons leads to Landau damping of the collective modes and to significant dispersion of the low-lying modes. We investigate the sensitivity of the mode frequencies to the strength of entrainment between neutrons and protons, which is not well characterized. The contribution of collective modes to the thermal conductivity is evaluated.

  12. Hydrodynamic evolution of neutron star merger remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Men-Quan; Zhang, Jie

    2017-11-01

    Based on the special relativistic hydrodynamic equations and updated cooling function, we investigate the long-term evolution of neutron stars merger (NSM) remnants by a one-dimensional hydrodynamic code. Three NSM models from one soft equation of state, SFHo, and two stiff equations of state, DD2 and TM1, are used to compare their influences on the hydrodynamic evolution of remnants. We present the luminosity, mass and radius of remnants, as well as the velocity, temperature and density of shocks. For a typical interstellar medium (ISM) density with solar metallicity, we find that the NSM remnant from the SFHo model makes much more changes to ISM in terms of velocity, density and temperature distributions, compared with the case of DD2 and TM1 models. The maximal luminosity of the NSM remnant from the SFHo model is 3.4 × 1038 erg s-1, which is several times larger than that from DD2 and TM1 models. The NSM remnant from the SFHo model can maintain high luminosity (>1038 erg s-1) for 2.29 × 104 yr. Furthermore, the density and temperature of remnants at the maximal luminosity are not sensitive to the power of the original remnant. For the ISM with the solar metallicity and nH = 1 cm- 3, the density of the first shock ˜10-23 g cm-3 and the temperature ˜3 × 105 K in the maximal luminosity phase; The temperature of the first shock decreases and there is a thin `dense' shell with density ˜10-21 g cm-3 after the maximal luminosity. These characteristics may be helpful for future observations of NSM remnants.

  13. R modes and neutron star recycling scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugunov, A. I.; Gusakov, M. E.; Kantor, E. M.

    2017-06-01

    To put new constraints on the r-mode instability window, we analyse the formation of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) within the recycling scenario, making use of three sets of observations: (a) X-ray observations of neutron stars (NSs) in low-mass X-ray binaries; (b) timing of MSPs and (c) X-ray and UV observations of MSPs. As shown in previous works, r-mode dissipation by shear viscosity is not sufficient to explain observational set (a), and enhanced r-mode dissipation at the redshifted internal temperatures T ∞ ˜ 108 K is required to stabilize the observed NSs. Here, we argue that models with enhanced bulk viscosity can hardly lead to a self-consistent explanation of observational set (a) due to strong neutrino emission, which is typical for these models (unrealistically powerful energy source is required to keep NSs at the observed temperatures.). We also demonstrate that the observational set (b), combined with the theory of internal heating and NS cooling, provides evidence of enhanced r-mode dissipation at low temperatures, T ∞ ˜ 2 × 107 K. Observational set (c) allows us to set an upper limit on the internal temperatures of MSPs, T ∞ Recycling scenario can produce MSPs at these temperatures only if r-mode instability is suppressed in the whole MSP spin frequency range (ν ≲ 750 Hz) at temperatures 2 × 107 ≲ T ∞ ≲ 3 × 107 K, providing thus a new constraint on the r-mode instability window. These observational constraints are analysed in more details in application to the resonance uplift scenario of Gusakov et al.

  14. The Fate of Neutron Star Binary Mergers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piro, Anthony L. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Giacomazzo, Bruno [Physics Department, University of Trento, via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Perna, Rosalba, E-mail: piro@carnegiescience.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Following merger, a neutron star (NS) binary can produce roughly one of three different outcomes: (1) a stable NS, (2) a black hole (BH), or (3) a supramassive, rotationally supported NS, which then collapses to a BH following angular momentum losses. Which of these fates occur and in what proportion has important implications for the electromagnetic transient associated with the mergers and the expected gravitational wave (GW) signatures, which in turn depend on the high density equation of state (EOS). Here we combine relativistic calculations of NS masses using realistic EOSs with Monte Carlo population synthesis based on the mass distribution of NS binaries in our Galaxy to predict the distribution of fates expected. For many EOSs, a significant fraction of the remnants are NSs or supramassive NSs. This lends support to scenarios in which a quickly spinning, highly magnetized NS may be powering an electromagnetic transient. This also indicates that it will be important for future GW observatories to focus on high frequencies to study the post-merger GW emission. Even in cases where individual GW events are too low in signal to noise to study the post merger signature in detail, the statistics of how many mergers produce NSs versus BHs can be compared with our work to constrain the EOS. To match short gamma-ray-burst (SGRB) X-ray afterglow statistics, we find that the stiffest EOSs are ruled out. Furthermore, many popular EOSs require a significant fraction of ∼60%–70% of SGRBs to be from NS–BH mergers rather than just binary NSs.

  15. Searching for gravitational waves from neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrisy, Ashikuzzaman

    In this dissertation we discuss gravitational waves (GWs) and their neutron star (NS) sources. We begin with a general discussion of the motivation for searching for GWs and the indirect experimental evidence of their existence. Then we discuss the various mechanisms through which NS can emit GWs, paying special attention the r-mode oscillations. Finally we end with discussion of GW detection. In Chapter 2 we describe research into the frequencies of r-mode oscillations. Knowing these frequencies can be useful for guiding and interpreting gravitational wave and electromagnetic observations. The frequencies of slowly rotating, barotropic, and non-magnetic Newtonian stars are well known, but subject to various corrections. After making simple estimates of the relative strengths of these corrections we conclude that relativistic corrections are the most important. For this reason we extend the formalism of K. H. Lockitch, J. L. Friedman, and N. Andersson [Phys. Rev. D 68, 124010 (2003)], who consider relativistic polytropes, to the case of realistic equations of state. This formulation results in perturbation equations which are solved using a spectral method. We find that for realistic equations of state the r-mode frequency ranges from 1.39--1.57 times the spin frequency of the star when the relativistic compactness parameter (M/R) is varied over the astrophysically motivated interval 0.110--0.310. Following a successful r-mode detection our results can help constrain the high density equation of state. In Chapter 3 we present a technical introduction to the data analysis tools used in GW searches. Starting from the plane-wave solutions derived in Chapter 1 we develop the F-statistic used in the matched filtering technique. This technique relies on coherently integrating the GW detector's data stream with a theoretically modeled wave signal. The statistic is used to test the null hypothesis that the data contains no signal. In this chapter we also discuss how to

  16. SPINDOWN OF ISOLATED NEUTRON STARS: GRAVITATIONAL WAVES OR MAGNETIC BRAKING?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staff, Jan E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Jaikumar, Prashanth; Chan, Vincent [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University Long Beach, 1250 Bellflower Boulevard, Long Beach, CA 90840 (United States); Ouyed, Rachid [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada)

    2012-05-20

    We study the spindown of isolated neutron stars from initially rapid rotation rates, driven by two factors: (1) gravitational wave emission due to r-modes and (2) magnetic braking. In the context of isolated neutron stars, we present the first study including self-consistently the magnetic damping of r-modes in the spin evolution. We track the spin evolution employing the RNS code, which accounts for the rotating structure of neutron stars for various equations of state. We find that, despite the strong damping due to the magnetic field, r-modes alter the braking rate from pure magnetic braking for B {<=} 10{sup 13} G. For realistic values of the saturation amplitude {alpha}{sub sat}, the r-mode can also decrease the time to reach the threshold central density for quark deconfinement. Within a phenomenological model, we assess the gravitational waveform that would result from r-mode-driven spindown of a magnetized neutron star. To contrast with the persistent signal during the spindown phase, we also present a preliminary estimate of the transient gravitational wave signal from an explosive quark-hadron phase transition, which can be a signal for the deconfinement of quarks inside neutron stars.

  17. Magnetohydrodynamic instability of polar caps on accreting neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, C.; Brown, E. F.; Rosner, R.

    2001-10-01

    We analyze equilibria and stability of the magnetically confined accreted matter in the polar cap on the surface of a neutron star. We find the equilibria by solving (both analytically and numerically) the Grad-Shafranov-like equation for the degenerate plasma in the neutron star ``ocean'' above the neutron star crust. Subsequently we employ the energy principle to analyze the stability of these equilibria to short-wavelength ballooning modes. We find that for strong magnetic fields (> 10^12 G) line-tying to the neutron star crust stabilizes these modes until the overpressure in the polar cap at the top of the neutron star crust exceeds the magnetic pressure by a factor ~ 8(a/h), where a and h are, respectively, the lateral extent of the polar cap and the density scale height. The most unstable modes are localized within a density scale height above the crust. We calculate the amount of mass that can be accumulated at the polar cap before the onset of instability. We also investigate the effect of incomplete degeneracy and nonuniform composition on stability.

  18. An accurate metric for the spacetime around neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Pappas, George

    2016-01-01

    The problem of having an accurate description of the spacetime around neutron stars is of great astrophysical interest. For astrophysical applications, one needs to have a metric that captures all the properties of the spacetime around a neutron star. Furthermore, an accurate appropriately parameterised metric, i.e., a metric that is given in terms of parameters that are directly related to the physical structure of the neutron star, could be used to solve the inverse problem, which is to infer the properties of the structure of a neutron star from astrophysical observations. In this work we present such an approximate stationary and axisymmetric metric for the exterior of neutron stars, which is constructed using the Ernst formalism and is parameterised by the relativistic multipole moments of the central object. This metric is given in terms of an expansion on the Weyl-Papapetrou coordinates with the multipole moments as free parameters and is shown to be extremely accurate in capturing the physical propert...

  19. A debris disk around an isolated young neutron star.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongxiang; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Kaplan, David L

    2006-04-06

    Pulsars are rotating, magnetized neutron stars that are born in supernova explosions following the collapse of the cores of massive stars. If some of the explosion ejecta fails to escape, it may fall back onto the neutron star or it may possess sufficient angular momentum to form a disk. Such 'fallback' is both a general prediction of current supernova models and, if the material pushes the neutron star over its stability limit, a possible mode of black hole formation. Fallback disks could dramatically affect the early evolution of pulsars, yet there are few observational constraints on whether significant fallback occurs or even the actual existence of such disks. Here we report the discovery of mid-infrared emission from a cool disk around an isolated young X-ray pulsar. The disk does not power the pulsar's X-ray emission but is passively illuminated by these X-rays. The estimated mass of the disk is of the order of 10 Earth masses, and its lifetime (> or = 10(6) years) significantly exceeds the spin-down age of the pulsar, supporting a supernova fallback origin. The disk resembles protoplanetary disks seen around ordinary young stars, suggesting the possibility of planet formation around young neutron stars.

  20. RESONANT SWITCH MODEL OF HF QPOS AND EQUATIONS OF STATE OF NEUTRON STARS AND QUARK STARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenek Stuchlík

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The mass and spin estimates of the 4U 1636−53 neutron star obtained by the Resonant Switch (RS model of high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (HF QPOs are tested by a large variety of equations of state (EoS governing the structure of neutron stars. Neutron star models are constructed under the Hartle–Thorne theory of slowly rotating neutron stars calculated using the observationally given rotational frequency frot = 580 Hz (or alternatively frot = 290 Hz of the neutron star at 4U 1636−53. It is demonstrated that only two variants of the RS model are compatible with the parameters obtained by modelling neutron stars for the rotational frequency frot = 580 Hz. The variant giving the best fit with parameters M ~ 2.20Mʘ and a ~ 0.27 agrees with high precision with the prediction of one of the Skyrme EoS [1]. The variant giving the second best fit with parameters M ~ 2.12Mʘ and a ~ 0.20 agrees with lower precision with the prediction of the Gandolfi EoS [2].

  1. Accreting Millisecond Pulsars: Neutron Star Masses and Radii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod

    2004-01-01

    High amplitude X-ray brightness oscillations during thermonuclear X-ray bursts were discovered with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) in early 1996. Spectral and timing evidence strongly supports the conclusion that these oscillations are caused by rotational modulation of the burst emission and that they reveal the spin frequency of neutron stars in low mass X-ray binaries. The recent discovery of X-ray burst oscillations from two accreting millisecond pulsars has confirmed this basic picture and provided a new route to measuring neutron star properties and constraining the dense matter equation of state. I will briefly summarize the current observational understanding of accreting millisecond pulsars, and describe recent attempts to determine the mass and radius of the neutron star in XTE J1814-338.

  2. Ballooning Instability in Polar Caps of Accreting Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, C.; Brown, Edward F.; Rosner, R.

    2001-06-01

    We assess the stability of Kruskal-Schwarzschild (magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor) type modes for accreted matter on the surface of a neutron star confined by a strong (>~1012 G) magnetic field. Employing the energy principle to analyze the stability of short-wavelength ballooning modes, we find that line-tying to the neutron star crust stabilizes these modes until the overpressure at the top of the neutron star crust exceeds the magnetic pressure by a factor ~8(a/h), where a and h are, respectively, the lateral extent of the accretion region and the density scale height. The most unstable modes are localized within a density scale height above the crust. We calculate the amount of mass that can be accumulated at the polar cap before the onset of instability.

  3. f-Mode instability in relativistic neutron stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertig, E; Glampedakis, K; Kokkotas, K D; Zink, B

    2011-09-02

    We present the first calculation of the basic properties of the f-mode instability in rapidly rotating relativistic neutron stars, adopting the Cowling approximation. By accounting for dissipation in neutron star matter, i.e., shear or bulk viscosity and superfluid mutual friction, we calculate the associated instability window. For our specific stellar model, a relativistic polytrope, we obtain a minimum gravitational growth time scale (for the dominant ℓ=m=4 mode) of the order of 10(3)-10(4)  s near the Kepler frequency Ω(K) while the instability is active above ∼0.92  Ω(K) and for temperatures ∼(10(9)-2×10(10))  K, characteristic of newborn neutron stars.

  4. Thermonuclear Burning as a Probe of Neutron Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod

    2008-01-01

    Thermonuclear fusion is a fundamental process taking place in the matter transferred onto neutron stars in accreting binary systems. The heat deposited by nuclear reactions becomes readily visible in the X-ray band when the burning is either unstable or marginally stable, and results in the rich phenomenology of X-ray bursts, superbursts, and mHz quasiperiodic oscillations. Fast X-ray timing observations with NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) over the past decade have revealed a wealth of new phenomena associated with thermonuclear burning on neutron stars, including the discovery of nuclear powered pulsations during X-ray bursts and superbursts. I will briefly review our current observational and theoretical understanding of these new phenomena, with an emphasis on recent findings, and discuss what they are telling us about the structure of neutron stars.

  5. Effects of hyperons in binary neutron star mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Kiuchi, Kenta; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Shibata, Masaru

    2011-11-18

    Numerical simulations for the merger of binary neutron stars are performed in full general relativity incorporating both nucleonic and hyperonic finite-temperature equations of state (EOS) and neutrino cooling. It is found that even for the hyperonic EOS, a hypermassive neutron star is first formed after the merger for the typical total mass ≈2.7M(⊙), and subsequently collapses to a black hole (BH). It is shown that hyperons play a substantial role in the postmerger dynamics, torus formation around the BH, and emission of gravitational waves (GWs). In particular, the existence of hyperons is imprinted in GWs. Therefore, GW observations will provide a potential opportunity to explore the composition of neutron star matter.

  6. An accurate metric for the spacetime around rotating neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, George

    2017-04-01

    The problem of having an accurate description of the spacetime around rotating neutron stars is of great astrophysical interest. For astrophysical applications, one needs to have a metric that captures all the properties of the spacetime around a rotating neutron star. Furthermore, an accurate appropriately parametrized metric, I.e. a metric that is given in terms of parameters that are directly related to the physical structure of the neutron star, could be used to solve the inverse problem, which is to infer the properties of the structure of a neutron star from astrophysical observations. In this work, we present such an approximate stationary and axisymmetric metric for the exterior of rotating neutron stars, which is constructed using the Ernst formalism and is parametrized by the relativistic multipole moments of the central object. This metric is given in terms of an expansion on the Weyl-Papapetrou coordinates with the multipole moments as free parameters and is shown to be extremely accurate in capturing the physical properties of a neutron star spacetime as they are calculated numerically in general relativity. Because the metric is given in terms of an expansion, the expressions are much simpler and easier to implement, in contrast to previous approaches. For the parametrization of the metric in general relativity, the recently discovered universal 3-hair relations are used to produce a three-parameter metric. Finally, a straightforward extension of this metric is given for scalar-tensor theories with a massless scalar field, which also admit a formulation in terms of an Ernst potential.

  7. THE FATE OF THE COMPACT REMNANT IN NEUTRON STAR MERGERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryer, Chris L. [Department of Physics, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Belczynski, Krzysztoff [Astronomical Observatory, University of Warsaw, Al Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warsaw (Poland); Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Rosswog, Stephan [The Oskar klein Center, Department of Astronomy, AlbaNova, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Shen, Gang [Institute for Nuclear Theory, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Steiner, Andrew W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2015-10-10

    Neutron star (binary neutron star and neutron star–black hole) mergers are believed to produce short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). They are also believed to be the dominant source of gravitational waves to be detected by the advanced LIGO and advanced VIRGO and the dominant source of the heavy r-process elements in the universe. Whether or not these mergers produce short-duration GRBs depends sensitively on the fate of the core of the remnant (whether, and how quickly, it forms a black hole). In this paper, we combine the results of Newtonian merger calculations and equation of state studies to determine the fate of the cores of neutron star mergers. Using population studies, we can determine the distribution of these fates to compare to observations. We find that black hole cores form quickly only for equations of state that predict maximum non-rotating neutron star masses below 2.3–2.4 solar masses. If quick black hole formation is essential in producing GRBs, LIGO/Virgo observed rates compared to GRB rates could be used to constrain the equation of state for dense nuclear matter.

  8. Neutron Star Dense Matter Equation of State Constraints with NICER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, Slavko; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Guillot, Sebastien; Kust Harding, Alice; Ho, Wynn C. G.; Lamb, Frederick K.; Mahmoodifar, Simin; Miller, M. Coleman; Morsink, Sharon; Ozel, Feryal; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Ray, Paul S.; Riley, Tom; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Watts, Anna; Wolff, Michael Thomas; Gendreau, Keith

    2017-08-01

    One of the principal goals of the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) is to place constraints on the dense matter equation of state through sensitive X-ray observations of neutron stars. The NICER mission will focus on measuring the masses and radii of several relatively bright, thermally-emitting, rotation-powered millisecond pulsars, by fitting models that incorporate all relevant relativistic effects and atmospheric radiation transfer processes to their periodic soft X-ray modulations. Here, we provide an overview of the targets NICER will observe and tthe technique and models that have been developed by the NICER team to estimate the masses and radii of these pulsars.

  9. Masses, Radii, and Equation of State of Neutron Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Ozel, Feryal; Freire, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    We summarize our current knowledge of neutron star masses and radii. Recent instrumentation and computational advances have resulted in a rapid increase in the discovery rate and precise timing of radio pulsars in binaries in the last few years, leading to a large number of mass measurements. These discoveries show that the neutron star mass distribution is much wider than previously thought, with 3 known pulsars now firmly in the 1.9-2.0 Msun mass range. For radii, large, high quality datase...

  10. Producing ultrastrong magnetic fields in neutron star mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, D J; Rosswog, S

    2006-05-05

    We report an extremely rapid mechanism for magnetic field amplification during the merger of a binary neutron star system. This has implications for the production of the short class of gamma-ray bursts, which recent observations suggest may originate in such mergers. In detailed magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the merger process, the fields are amplified by Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities beyond magnetar field strength and may therefore represent the strongest magnetic fields in the universe. The amplification occurs in the shear layer that forms between the neutron stars and on a time scale of only 1 millisecond, that is, long before the remnant can collapse into a black hole.

  11. Diagnostics of disk-magnetosphere interaction in neutron star binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Pranab; Lamb, Frederick K.

    1992-01-01

    The interaction between the magnetospheres of accreting neutron stars and accretion disks plays at key role in determining the properties of many accretion-powered neutron star X-ray sources and the recycled binary and millisecond rotation-powered pulsars. Here we show that the behavior of the horizontal branch quasi-periodic intensity oscillations in low mass X-ray binaries and the correlation between the magnetic fields and periods of binary and millisecond pulsars are sensitive probes of the state of the inner disk.

  12. Rapid cooling of the neutron star in Cassiopeia A triggered by neutron superfluidity in dense matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Dany; Prakash, Madappa; Lattimer, James M; Steiner, Andrew W

    2011-02-25

    We propose that the observed cooling of the neutron star in Cassiopeia A is due to enhanced neutrino emission from the recent onset of the breaking and formation of neutron Cooper pairs in the (3)P(2) channel. We find that the critical temperature for this superfluid transition is ≃0.5×10(9) K. The observed rapidity of the cooling implies that protons were already in a superconducting state with a larger critical temperature. This is the first direct evidence that superfluidity and superconductivity occur at supranuclear densities within neutron stars. Our prediction that this cooling will continue for several decades at the present rate can be tested by continuous monitoring of this neutron star. © 2011 American Physical Society

  13. Initial data for binary neutron stars with arbitrary spins

    CERN Document Server

    Tichy, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    In general neutron stars in binaries are spinning. Due to the existence of millisecond pulsars we know that these spins can be substantial. We argue that spins with periods on the order a few dozen milliseconds could influence the late inspiral and merger dynamics. Thus numerical simulations of the last few orbits and the merger should start from initial conditions that allow for arbitrary spins. We discuss quasi-equilibrium approximations one can make in the construction of binary neutron star initial data with spins. Using these approximations we are able to derive two new matter equations. As in the case of irrotational neutron star binaries one of these equations is algebraic and the other elliptic. If these new matter equations are solved together with the equations for the metric variables following the Wilson-Mathews or conformal thin sandwich approach one can construct neutron star initial data. The spin of each star is described by a rotational velocity that can be chosen freely so that one can creat...

  14. Role of isospin physics in supernova matter and neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bharat K.; Pal, Subrata

    2010-11-01

    We investigate the liquid-gas phase transition of hot protoneutron stars shortly after their birth following supernova explosion and the composition and structure of hyperon-rich (proto)neutron stars within a relativistic mean-field model where the nuclear symmetry energy was constrained from the measured neutron skin thickness of finite nuclei. Light clusters are abundantly formed with increasing temperature well inside the neutrino-sphere for a uniform supernova matter. Liquid-gas phase transition is found to suppress the cluster yield within the coexistence phase as well as decrease considerably the neutron-proton asymmetry over a wide density range. We find symmetry energy has a modest effect on the boundaries and the critical temperature for the liquid-gas phase transition, and the composition depends more sensitively on the number of trapped neutrinos and temperature of the protoneutron star. The influence of hyperons in the dense interior of stars makes the overall equation of state soft. However, neutrino trapping distinctly delays the appearance of hyperons because of an abundance of electrons. We also find that a softer symmetry energy further makes the onset of hyperon less favorable. The resulting structures of the (proto)neutron stars with hyperons and with liquid-gas phase transition are discussed.

  15. Strangeness in nuclei and neutron stars: a challenging puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonardoni Diego

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of neutron stars properties is strictly connected to the employed nuclear interactions. The appearance of hyperons in the inner core of the star is strongly dependent on the details of the underlying hypernuclear force. We summarize our recent quantum Monte Carlo results on the development of realistic two- and threebody hyperon-nucleon interactions based on the available experimental data for light- and medium-heavy hypernuclei.

  16. A note on the ambipolar diffusion in superfluid neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantor, E. M.; Gusakov, M. E.

    2018-01-01

    We address the problem of magnetic field dissipation in the neutron star cores, focusing on the role of neutron superfluidity. Contrary to the results in the literature, we show that in the finite-temperature superfluid matter composed of neutrons, protons and electrons, magnetic field dissipates exclusively due to Ohmic losses and non-equilibrium beta-processes, and only an admixture of muons restores (to some extent) the role of particle relative motion for the field dissipation. The reason for this discrepancy is discussed.

  17. Extreme neutron stars from Extended Theories of Gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astashenok, Artyom V. [I. Kant Baltic Federal University, Institute of Physics and Technology, Nevskogo st. 14, Kaliningrad, 236041 (Russian Federation); Capozziello, Salvatore [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Via Cinthia, 9, Napoli, I-80126 Italy (Italy); Odintsov, Sergei D., E-mail: artyom.art@gmail.com, E-mail: capozziello@na.infn.it, E-mail: odintsov@ieec.uab.es [Instituciò Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-01-01

    We discuss neutron stars with strong magnetic mean fields in the framework of Extended Theories of Gravity. In particular, we take into account models derived from f(R) and f(G) extensions of General Relativity where functions of the Ricci curvature invariant R and the Gauss-Bonnet invariant G are respectively considered. Dense matter in magnetic mean field, generated by magnetic properties of particles, is described by assuming a model with three meson fields and baryons octet. As result, the considerable increasing of maximal mass of neutron stars can be achieved by cubic corrections in f(R) gravity. In principle, massive stars with M > 4M{sub ☉} can be obtained. On the other hand, stable stars with high strangeness fraction (with central densities ρ{sub c} ∼ 1.5–2.0 GeV/fm{sup 3}) are possible considering quadratic corrections of f(G) gravity. The magnetic field strength in the star center is of order 6–8 × 10{sup 18} G. In general, we can say that other branches of massive neutron stars are possible considering the extra pressure contributions coming from gravity extensions. Such a feature can constitute both a probe for alternative theories and a way out to address anomalous self-gravitating compact systems.

  18. Two-component Superfluid Hydrodynamics of Neutron Star Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobyakov, D. N.; Pethick, C. J.

    2017-02-01

    We consider the hydrodynamics of the outer core of a neutron star under conditions when both neutrons and protons are superfluid. Starting from the equation of motion for the phases of the wave functions of the condensates of neutron pairs and proton pairs, we derive the generalization of the Euler equation for a one-component fluid. These equations are supplemented by the conditions for conservation of neutron number and proton number. Of particular interest is the effect of entrainment, the fact that the current of one nucleon species depends on the momenta per nucleon of both condensates. We find that the nonlinear terms in the Euler-like equation contain contributions that have not always been taken into account in previous applications of superfluid hydrodynamics. We apply the formalism to determine the frequency of oscillations about a state with stationary condensates and states with a spatially uniform counterflow of neutrons and protons. The velocities of the coupled sound-like modes of neutrons and protons are calculated from properties of uniform neutron star matter evaluated on the basis of chiral effective field theory. We also derive the condition for the two-stream instability to occur.

  19. Fast-neutron scattering from vibrational palladium nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Guenther, P.T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Neutron total cross sections of elemental palladium are measured from {approx}0.6--4.5 MeV. These results, combined with others previously reported from this laboratory, provide a detailed knowledge of the neutron total cross sections of palladium from {approx}0.1--20 MeV. Differential neutron elastic-scattering cross sections are measured from {approx}1.5--10 MeV in sufficient energy and angle detail to well define the energy-average behavior. Concurrently, neutron inelastic-scattering cross sections are measured from {approx}1.5--8 MeV. Inelastically-scattered neutron groups are observed corresponding to excitations of: 306 {+-} 14, 411 {+-} 47, {approx}494, 791 {+-} 20, 924 {+-} 20, 1,156 {+-} 24, 1,358 {+-} 35, 1,554 {+-} 47 and 1,706 {+-} 59 keV, with additional tentative groups at 1,938 and 2,059 keV. Particular attention is given to the inelastic excitation of the 2{sup +} yrast states of the even isotopes. This broad data base is examined in the context of optical-statistical and coupled-channels models. The resulting model parameters are consistent with systematic trends in this vibrational mass region previously noted at this laboratory, and provide a suitable vehicle for many applications.

  20. Dark matter, neutron stars, and strange quark matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Garcia, M Angeles; Silk, Joseph; Stone, Jirina R

    2010-10-01

    We show that self-annihilating weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter accreted onto neutron stars may provide a mechanism to seed compact objects with long-lived lumps of strange quark matter, or strangelets, for WIMP masses above a few GeV. This effect may trigger a conversion of most of the star into a strange star. We use an energy estimate for the long-lived strangelet based on the Fermi-gas model combined with the MIT bag model to set a new limit on the possible values of the WIMP mass that can be especially relevant for subdominant species of massive neutralinos.

  1. Flux-Vortex Pinning and Neutron Star Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpar, M. Ali

    2017-09-01

    G. Srinivasan et al. (1990) proposed a simple and elegant explanation for the reduction of the neutron star magnetic dipole moment during binary evolution leading to low mass X-ray binaries and eventually to millisecond pulsars: Quantized vortex lines in the neutron star core superfluid will pin against the quantized flux lines of the proton superconductor. As the neutron star spins down in the wind accretion phase of binary evolution, outward motion of vortex lines will reduce the dipole magnetic moment in proportion to the rotation rate. The presence of a toroidal array of flux lines makes this mechanism inevitable and independent of the angle between the rotation and magnetic axes. The incompressibility of the flux-line array (Abrikosov lattice) determines the epoch when the mechanism will be effective throughout the neutron star. Flux vortex pinning will not be effective during the initial young radio pulsar phase. It will, however, be effective and reduce the dipole moment in proportion with the rotation rate during the epoch of spindown by wind accretion as proposed by Srinivasan et al. The mechanism operates also in the presence of vortex creep.

  2. Neutron stars as probes of extreme energy density matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-05-07

    May 7, 2015 ... Neutron stars have long been regarded as extraterrestrial laboratories from which we can learn about extreme energy density matter at low temperatures. In this article, some of the recent advances made in astrophysical observations and related theory are highlighted. Although the focus is on the much ...

  3. Can dark matter explain the braking index of neutron stars?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouvaris, C.; Perez-Garcia, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    We explore a new mechanism of slowing down the rotation of neutron stars via accretion of millicharged dark matter. We find that this mechanism yields pulsar braking indices that can be substantially smaller than the standard n similar to 3 of the magnetic dipole radiation model for millicharged...... dark matter particles that are not excluded by existing experimental constraints thus accommodating existing observations....

  4. Relativistic outflow from two thermonuclear shell flashes on neutron stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    in 't Zand, J.J.M.; Keek, L.; Cavecchi, Y.

    2014-01-01

    We study the exceptionally short (32-43 ms) precursors of two intermediate-duration thermonuclear X-ray bursts observed with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer from the neutron stars in 4U 0614+09 and 2S 0918-549. They exhibit photon fluxes that surpass those at the Eddington limit later in the burst

  5. Gravitational Waves and the Maximum Spin Frequency of Neutron Stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patruno, A.; Haskell, B.; D'Angelo, C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we re-examine the idea that gravitational waves are required as a braking mechanism to explain the observed maximum spin frequency of neutron stars. We show that for millisecond X-ray pulsars, the existence of spin equilibrium as set by the disk/magnetosphere interaction is sufficient

  6. Multi-messenger Observations of a Binary Neutron Star Merger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Olaf; van den Berg, Adriaan

    2017-01-01

    On 2017 August 17 a binary neutron star coalescence candidate (later designated GW170817) with merger time 12:41:04 UTC was observed through gravitational waves by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors. The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor independently detected a gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A)

  7. Plasmoid impacts on neutron stars and highest energy cosmic rays

    OpenAIRE

    Litwin, C.; Rosner, R.

    2001-01-01

    Particle acceleration by electrostatic polarization fields that arise in plasmas streaming across magnetic fields is discussed as a possible acceleration mechanism of highest-energy cosmic rays. Specifically, plasmoids arising in planetoid impacts onto neutron star magnetospheres are considered. We find that such impacts at plausible rates may account for the observed flux and energy spectrum of the highest energy cosmic rays.

  8. Gravity Defied From Potato Asteroids to Magnetised Neutron Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    since the dawn of human intelligence. Yet, it's only in the ..... and neutron stars, the observed value of the field is completely insignificant compared to the theoretical maximum and hence. RESONANCE | May 2017. 483. Page 10. GENERAL ARTICLE. Table 2. The observed and theoretical maximum values of the magnetic ...

  9. The Neutron star Interior Composition ExploreR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzoumanian, Zaven; Gendreau, K.; NICER Team

    2012-01-01

    The Neutron star Interior Composition ExploreR (NICER) will be a NASA Explorer Mission of Opportunity, currently in a Phase A study, dedicated to the study of neutron stars, the only places in the Universe where all four fundamental forces of Nature are simultaneously important. Answering the long-standing astrophysics question "How big is a neutron star?," NICER will confront nuclear physics theory with unique observational constraints, exploring the exotic states of matter within neutron stars and revealing their interior and surface compositions through rotation-resolved X-ray spectroscopy. Absolute time-referenced data will allow NICER to probe the extreme physical environments of the most powerful cosmic particle accelerators known. Finally, NICER will definitively measure the stabilities of pulsars as clocks, with implications for gravitational-wave detection, a pulsar-based timescale, and autonomous spacecraft navigation. NICER will fly on the International Space Station while Fermi is in orbit and post-RXTE, enabling the discovery of new high-energy pulsars and providing continuity in X-ray timing astrophysics.

  10. Multi-messenger Observations of a Binary Neutron Star Merger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.

    2017-01-01

    On 2017 August 17 a binary neutron star coalescence candidate (later designated GW170817) with merger time 12:41:04 UTC was observed through gravitational waves by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors. The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor independently detected a gamma-ray burst (GRB 17081...

  11. Magneto–Thermal Evolution of Neutron Stars with Emphasis to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U. Geppert

    2017-09-12

    Sep 12, 2017 ... ties by building up enormous magnetic stresses in the crystallized crust (Perna & Pons 2011; Lyutikov 2015;. Gourgouliatoset al.2015). It provides also by its ..... of neutron stars relies on the fact that electric charges are carriers of both thermal and elec- tric currents, it depends crucially on the maintenance ...

  12. Radial oscillations of neutron stars in strong magnetic fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The eigen frequencies of radial pulsations of neutron stars are calculated in a strong magnetic field. At low densities we use the magnetic BPS equation of state (EOS) similar to that obtained by Lai and Shapiro while at high densities the EOS obtained from the relativistic nuclear mean field theory is taken and ...

  13. A New Look at Distances and Velocities of Neutron Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We take a fresh look at the determination of distances and velocities of neutron stars. The conversion of a parallax measurement into a distance, or distance probability distribution, has led to a debate quite similar to the one involving Cepheids, centering on the question whether priors can be used when discussing a single ...

  14. Multi-messenger Observations of a Binary Neutron Star Merger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.

    2017-01-01

    ) with a time delay of with respect to the merger time. From the gravitational-wave signal, the source was initially localized to a sky region of 31 deg2 at a luminosity distance of Mpc and with component masses consistent with neutron stars. The component masses were later measured to be in the range 0.86 to 2...

  15. Radial oscillations of neutron stars in strong magnetic fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The eigen frequencies of radial pulsations of neutron stars are calculated in a strong magnetic field. At low densities we use the magnetic BPS equation of state (EOS) similar to that obtained by Lai and Shapiro while at high densities the EOS obtained from the relativistic nuclear mean field theory is taken and extended to ...

  16. Thermalization time in a model of neutron star

    OpenAIRE

    Ducomet, B.; Nečasová, Š. (Šárka)

    2011-01-01

    We consider an initial boundary value problem for the equation describing heat conduction in a spherical model of neutron star considered by Lattimer et al. We estimate the asymptotic decay of the solution, which provides a plausible estimate for a "thermalization time" for the system.

  17. The Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER): design and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gendreau, Keith C.; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Adkins, Phillip W.

    2016-01-01

    During 2014 and 2015, NASA's Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) mission proceeded successfully through Phase C, Design and Development. An X-ray (0.2-12 keV) astrophysics payload destined for the International Space Station, NICER is manifested for launch in early 2017 on the Comm...

  18. Neutron stars as probes of extreme energy density matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-05-07

    May 7, 2015 ... sar measurements (see [16,17] for summaries). Measured masses of the neutron stars with 1-σ errors can be found in the compilation of Lattimer, who maintains contempo- rary table, figure and references in http://www.stellarcollapse.org. Recent discoveries of the 1.97 ± 0.04M⊙ pulsar in PSR J1614−2230 ...

  19. The LOFT perspective on neutron star thermonuclear bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in ’t Zand, J.J.M.; Altamirano, D.; Ballantyne, D. R.

    This is a White Paper in support of the mission concept of the Large Observatory for X-ray Timing (LOFT), proposed as a medium-sized ESA mission. We discuss the potential of LOFT for the study of thermonuclear X-ray bursts on accreting neutron stars. For a summary, we refer to the paper....

  20. Coherence effects and neutrino pair bremsstrahlung in neutron stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedrakian, A; Dieperink, A

    1999-01-01

    We calculate the rate of energy radiation by bremsstrahlung of neutrino pairs by baryons in neutron stars employing a transport model where neutrinos couple to baryons with spectral width. The: coherence effects, which are included by computing the self energies with fully dressed propagators, lead

  1. Evolution of the magnetic field in neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusakov, M. E.; Kantor, E. M.; Ofengeim, D. D.

    2017-11-01

    We propose a general method to self-consistently study the quasistationary evolution of the magnetic field in the cores of neutron stars. The traditional approach to this problem is critically revised. Our results are illustrated by calculation of the typical timescales for the magnetic field dissipation as functions of temperature and the magnetic field strength.

  2. Focused study of thermonuclear bursts on neutron stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chenevez, Jérôme

    detection would thus probe the nuclear burning as well as the gravitational redshift from the neutron star. Moreover, likely observations of atomic X-ray spectral components reflected from the inner accretion disk have been reported. The high spectral resolution capabilities of Simbol X may therefore make...

  3. NICER observations of highly magnetized neutron stars: Initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoto, Teruaki; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Gendreau, Keith C.; Nynka, Melania; Kaspi, Victoria; Harding, Alice; Guver, Tolga; Lewandowska, Natalia; Majid, Walid; Ho, Wynn C. G.; NICER Team

    2018-01-01

    The Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) was launched on June 3, 2017, and attached to the International Space Station. The large effective area of NICER in soft X-rays makes it a powerful tool not only for its primary science objective (diagnostics of the nuclear equation state) but also for studying neutron stars of various classes. As one of the NICER science working groups, the Magnetars and Magnetospheres (M&M) team coordinates monitoring and target of opportunity (ToO) observations of magnetized neutron stars, including magnetars, high-B pulsars, X-ray dim isolated neutron stars, and young rotation-powered pulsars. The M&M working group has performed simultaneous X-ray and radio observations of the Crab and Vela pulsars, ToO observations of the active anomalous X-ray pulsar 4U 0142+61, and a monitoring campaign for the transient magnetar SGR 0501+4516. Here we summarize the current status and initial results of the M&M group.

  4. Searching for gravitational waves from rotating neutron stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Rotating neutron stars are one of the important sources of gravitational waves (GW) for the ground based as well as space based detectors. Since the waves are emitted continuously, the source is termed as a continuous gravitational wave (CGW) source. The expected weakness of the signal requires long ...

  5. Nuclear equation of state and the structure of neutron stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieperink, AEL; Van Neck, D; Dewulf, Y; Rodin, [No Value; Blaschke, D; Dedrakian, D

    2006-01-01

    The hadronic equation of state for a neutron star is discussed with a particular emphasis on the symmetry energy. The results of several microscopic approaches are compared and also a new calculation in terms of the self-consistent Green function method is presented. In addition possible constraints

  6. Neutron Star Mergers and Nucleosynthesis of Heavy Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielemann, F., -K.; Eichler, M.; Panov, I. V.; Wehmeyer, B.

    2017-11-01

    The existence of neutron star mergers has been supported since the discovery of the binary pulsar and the observation of its orbital energy loss, consistent with General Relativity. They are considered nucleosynthesis sites of the rapid neutron-capture process (r-process), which is responsible for creating approximately half of all heavy elements beyond Fe and is the only source of elements beyond Pb and Bi. Detailed nucleosynthesis calculations based on the decompression of neutron star matter are consistent with solar r-process abundances of heavy nuclei. Neutron star mergers have also been identified with short-duration {\\gamma}-ray bursts via their IR afterglow. The high neutron densities in ejected matter permit a violent r-process, leading to fission cycling of the heaviest nuclei in regions far from (nuclear) stability. Uncertainties in several nuclear properties affect the abundance distributions. The modeling of astrophysical events also depends on the hydrodynamic treatment, the occurrence of a neutrino wind after the merger and before the possible emergence of a black hole, and the properties of black hole accretion disks. We discuss the effect of nuclear and modeling uncertainties and conclude that binary compact mergers are probably a (or the) dominant site of the production of r-process nuclei in our Galaxy.

  7. Gamma-ray bursts generated from phase transition of neutron stars to quark stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xiao-Yu; Huang, Yong-Feng; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2017-02-01

    The evolution of compact stars is believed to be able to produce various violent phenomena in our universe. In this paper, we discuss the possibility that gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) might result from the phase transition of a neutron star to a quark star and calculate the energy released from the conversion. In our study, we utilize the relativistic mean field (RMF) theory to describe the hadronic phase of neutron stars, while an improved quasi-particle model is adopted to describe the quark phase of quark stars. With quark matter equation-of-state (EOS) more reliable than models used before, it is found that the energy released is of the order of 1052 erg, which confirms the validity of the phase transition model.

  8. Further stable neutron star models from f(R) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astashenok, Artyom V. [I. Kant Baltic Federal University, Institute of Physics and Technology, Nevskogo st. 14, Kaliningrad, 236041 (Russian Federation); Capozziello, Salvatore [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Via Cinthia, 9, Napoli, I–80126 (Italy); Odintsov, Sergei D., E-mail: artyom.art@gmail.com, E-mail: capozziello@na.infn.it, E-mail: odintsov@ieec.uab.es [Instituciò Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-12-01

    Neutron star models in perturbative f(R) gravity are considered with realistic equations of state. In particular, we consider the FPS, SLy and other equations of state and a case of piecewise equation of state for stars with quark cores. The mass-radius relations for f(R) = R+R(e{sup −R/R{sub 0}}−1) model and for R{sup 2} models with logarithmic and cubic corrections are obtained. In the case of R{sup 2} gravity with cubic corrections, we obtain that at high central densities (ρ > 10ρ{sub ns}, where ρ{sub ns} = 2.7 × 10{sup 14} g/cm{sup 3} is the nuclear saturation density), stable star configurations exist. The minimal radius of such stars is close to 9 km with maximal mass ∼ 1.9M{sub ⊙} (SLy equation). A similar situation takes place for AP4 and BSK20 EoS. Such an effect can give rise to more compact stars than in General Relativity. If observationally identified, such objects could constitute a formidable signature for modified gravity at astrophysical level. Another interesting result can be achieved in modified gravity with only a cubic correction. For some EoS, the upper limit of neutron star mass increases and therefore these EoS can describe realistic star configurations (although, in General Relativity, these EoS are excluded by observational constraints)

  9. Lambda-nuclear interactions and hyperon puzzle in neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haidenbauer, J. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut fuer Kernphysik and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Meissner, U.G. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut fuer Kernphysik and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Kaiser, N.; Weise, W. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department, Garching (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    Brueckner theory is used to investigate the in-medium properties of a Λ-hyperon in nuclear and neutron matter, based on hyperon-nucleon interactions derived within SU(3) chiral effective field theory (EFT). It is shown that the resulting Λ single-particle potential U{sub Λ}(p{sub Λ} = 0, ρ) becomes strongly repulsive for densities ρ of two-to-three times that of normal nuclear matter. Adding a density-dependent effective ΛN-interaction constructed from chiral ΛNN three-body forces increases the repulsion further. Consequences of these findings for neutron stars are discussed. It is argued that for hyperon-nuclear interactions with properties such as those deduced from the SU(3) EFT potentials, the onset for hyperon formation in the core of neutron stars could be shifted to much higher density which, in turn, could pave the way for resolving the so-called hyperon puzzle. (orig.)

  10. Rotational properties of hypermassive neutron stars from binary mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanauske, Matthias; Takami, Kentaro; Bovard, Luke; Rezzolla, Luciano; Font, José A.; Galeazzi, Filippo; Stöcker, Horst

    2017-08-01

    Determining the differential-rotation law of compact stellar objects produced in binary neutron stars mergers or core-collapse supernovae is an old problem in relativistic astrophysics. Addressing this problem is important because it impacts directly on the maximum mass these objects can attain and, hence, on the threshold to black-hole formation under realistic conditions. Using the results from a large number of numerical simulations in full general relativity of binary neutron star mergers described with various equations of state and masses, we study the rotational properties of the resulting hypermassive neutron stars. We find that the angular-velocity distribution shows only a modest dependence on the equation of state, thus exhibiting the traits of "quasiuniversality" found in other aspects of compact stars, both isolated and in binary systems. The distributions are characterized by an almost uniformly rotating core and a "disk." Such a configuration is significantly different from the j -constant differential-rotation law that is commonly adopted in equilibrium models of differentially rotating stars. Furthermore, the rest-mass contained in such a disk can be quite large, ranging from ≃0.03 M⊙ in the case of high-mass binaries with stiff equations of state, up to ≃0.2 M⊙ for low-mass binaries with soft equations of state. We comment on the astrophysical implications of our findings and on the long-term evolutionary scenarios that can be conjectured on the basis of our simulations.

  11. Magnetorotational instability in neutron star mergers: impact of neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilet, Jérôme; Bauswein, Andreas; Just, Oliver; Janka, Hans-Thomas

    2017-10-01

    The merger of two neutron stars may give birth to a long-lived hypermassive neutron star. If it harbours a strong magnetic field of magnetar strength, its spin-down could explain several features of short gamma-ray burst afterglows. The magnetorotational instability (MRI) has been proposed as a mechanism to amplify the magnetic field to the required strength. Previous studies have, however, neglected neutrinos that may have an important impact on the MRI by inducing a viscosity and drag. We investigate the impact of these neutrinos effects on the linear growth of the MRI by applying a local stability analysis to snapshots of a neutron star merger simulation. We find that neutrinos have a significant impact inside the hypermassive neutron star, but have at most a marginal effect in the torus surrounding it. Inside the hypermassive neutron star, the MRI grows in different regimes depending on the radius and on the initial magnetic-field strength. For magnetic fields weaker than 1013-1014 G, the growth rate of the MRI is significantly reduced due to the presence of neutrinos. We conclude that neutrinos should be taken into account when studying the growth of the MRI from realistic initial magnetic fields. Current numerical simulations, which neglect neutrino viscosity, are only consistent, i.e. in the adopted ideal regime, if they start from artificially strong initial magnetic fields above ∼1014 G. One should be careful when extrapolating these results to lower initial magnetic fields, where the MRI growth is strongly affected by neutrino viscosity or drag.

  12. Prompt merger collapse and the maximum mass of neutron stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauswein, A; Baumgarte, T W; Janka, H-T

    2013-09-27

    We perform hydrodynamical simulations of neutron-star mergers for a large sample of temperature-dependent nuclear equations of state and determine the threshold mass above which the merger remnant promptly collapses to form a black hole. We find that, depending on the equation of state, the threshold mass is larger than the maximum mass of a nonrotating star in isolation by between 30 and 70 percent. Our simulations also show that the ratio between the threshold mass and maximum mass is tightly correlated with the compactness of the nonrotating maximum-mass configuration. We speculate on how this relation can be used to derive constraints on neutron-star properties from future observations.

  13. Soft equations of state for neutron-star matter ruled out by EXO 0748 - 676.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, F

    2006-06-29

    The interiors of neutron stars contain matter at very high densities, in a state that differs greatly from those found in the early Universe or achieved in terrestrial experiments. Matter in these conditions can only be probed through astrophysical observations that measure the mass and radius of neutron stars with sufficient precision. Here I report a determination of the mass and radius of the neutron star EXO 0748 - 676 that appears to rule out all the soft equations of state of neutron-star matter. If this object is typical, then condensates and unconfined quarks do not exist in the centres of neutron stars.

  14. Ancient Guest Stars as harbingers of neutron star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-Ru

    The well-known AD 1006, 1054, 1572, and 1604 were described as "Guest Stars" by Chinese, Japanese and Korean. In most cases, it might thus be possible to expect a Guest Star to be a term for supernova or nova. There are a lot of records concerning ancient Guest Stars in Chinese historical books. Two catalogues were compiled by Xi (1955) and Xi and Bo (1965, 1966) that listed 90 probable novae or supernovae observed between 1400 BC and AD 1700. Clark and Stephenson (1977), Ho (1962) and Kanda (1935) collected more or less similar records. Among all the historical records more than 80% are from China. The discussion presented in this paper is based on them.

  15. Evolution of Neutron Star Magnetic Fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The neutrons are expected to form a 3P superfluid and the protons a 1S superconductor (Sauls 1989). ... crust are expected to form a lattice; the electrons are free and highly degenerate, resulting in metal-like .... Of late, some attempts have been made to model the feedback of the expelled and accumulated flux at the crust ...

  16. Stability of interlinked neutron vortex and proton flux tube arrays in a neutron star: equilibrium configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, L. V.; Melatos, A.

    2017-12-01

    Three-dimensional, Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) simulations are presented of the interaction between neutron superfluid vortices and proton superconductor flux tubes in a rotating, harmonic trap, representing an idealized model of the outer core of a neutron star. Low-energy states of the neutron condensate are calculated by evolving the GPE in imaginary time in the presence of a prescribed, static, rectilinear flux tube array. The calculations are carried out as a function of the angle between the global magnetic and rotation axes, and the amplitude and sign of the current-current and density couplings between the neutron and proton condensates. It is found that the system is frustrated by the competition between vortex-vortex repulsion and vortex-flux-tube attraction (pinning), leading to the formation of vortex tangles and 'glassy' behaviour characterized by multiple metastable states spaced closely in energy. The dimensionless parameters in the simulations are ordered as one expects in a neutron star, but the dynamic range is many orders of magnitude smaller than in reality, so caution must be exercised when assessing the astrophysical implications. Nevertheless, the results suggest that tangled vorticity may be endemic in neutron star outer cores.

  17. Relativistic calculations of coalescing binary neutron stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have designed and tested a new relativistic Lagrangian hydrodynamics code, which treats gravity in the conformally flat approximation to general relativity. We have tested the resulting code extensively, finding that it performs well for calculations of equilibrium single-star models, collapsing relativistic dust clouds, and ...

  18. Neutron-rich nuclei and neutron stars: a new accurately calibrated interaction for the study of neutron-rich matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd-Rutel, B G; Piekarewicz, J

    2005-09-16

    An accurately calibrated relativistic parametrization is introduced to compute the ground state properties of finite nuclei, their linear response, and the structure of neutron stars. While similar in spirit to the successful NL3 parameter set, it produces an equation of state that is considerably softer--both for symmetric nuclear matter and for the symmetry energy. This softening appears to be required for an accurate description of several collective modes having different neutron-to-proton ratios. Among the predictions of this model are a symmetric nuclear-matter incompressibility of K=230 MeV and a neutron skin thickness in 208 Pb of Rn-Rp=0.21 fm. The impact of such a softening on various neutron-star properties is also examined.

  19. Magnetic field effects on the crust structure of neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzon, B.; Negreiros, R.; Schramm, S.

    2017-12-01

    We study the effects of high magnetic fields on the structure and on the geometry of the crust in neutron stars. We find that the crust geometry is substantially modified by the magnetic field inside the star. We build stationary and axis-symmetric magnetized stellar models by using well-known equations of state to describe the neutron star crust, namely, the Skyrme model for the inner crust and the Baym-Pethick-Sutherland equation of state for the outer crust. We show that the magnetic field has a dual role, contributing to the crust deformation via the electromagnetic interaction (manifested in this case as the Lorentz force) and by contributing to curvature due to the energy stored in it. We also study a direct consequence of the crust deformation due to the magnetic field: the thermal relaxation time. This quantity, which is of great importance to the thermal evolution of neutron stars, is sensitive to the crust properties, and, as such, we show that it may be strongly affected by the magnetic field.

  20. On the Progenitor of Binary Neutron Star Merger GW170817

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Afrough, M.; Agarwal, B.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Amato, A.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Angelova, S. V.; Antier, S.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Atallah, D. V.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; AultONeal, K.; Austin, C.; Avila-Alvarez, A.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Bae, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Banagiri, S.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barkett, K.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Bawaj, M.; Bayley, J. C.; Bazzan, M.; Bécsy, B.; Beer, C.; Bejger, M.; Belahcene, I.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Bero, J. J.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Billman, C. R.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Biscoveanu, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackman, J.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bode, N.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bohe, A.; Bondu, F.; Bonilla, E.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bossie, K.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. D.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Canepa, M.; Canizares, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, H.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Carney, M. F.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerdá-Durán, P.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chase, E.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chatterjee, D.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H.-P.; Chia, H.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Chmiel, T.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, A. J. K.; Chua, S.; Chung, A. K. W.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Ciolfi, R.; Cirelli, C. E.; Cirone, A.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Clearwater, P.; Cleva, F.; Cocchieri, C.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Cohen, D.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L. R.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conti, L.; Cooper, S. J.; Corban, P.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordero-Carrión, I.; Corley, K. R.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Covas, P. B.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cullen, T. J.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Dálya, G.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dasgupta, A.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davis, D.; Daw, E. J.; Day, B.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Demos, N.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; De Pietri, R.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; De Rossi, C.; DeSalvo, R.; de Varona, O.; Devenson, J.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Renzo, F.; Doctor, Z.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dorrington, I.; Douglas, R.; Dovale Álvarez, M.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Dreissigacker, C.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dupej, P.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Eisenstein, R. A.; Essick, R. C.; Estevez, D.; Etienne, Z. B.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Fauchon-Jones, E. J.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fee, C.; Fehrmann, H.; Feicht, J.; Fejer, M. M.; Fernandez-Galiana, A.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finstad, D.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fishbach, M.; Fisher, R. P.; Fitz-Axen, M.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Font, J. A.; Forsyth, P. W. F.; Forsyth, S. S.; Fournier, J.-D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fries, E. M.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H.; Gadre, B. U.; Gaebel, S. M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Ganija, M. R.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garcia-Quiros, C.; Garufi, F.; Gateley, B.; Gaudio, S.; Gaur, G.; Gayathri, V.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, D.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghonge, S.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glover, L.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gomes, S.; Goncharov, B.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Gretarsson, E. M.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Gruning, P.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Halim, O.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hamilton, E. Z.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hannuksela, O. A.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hinderer, T.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holgado, A. M.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Horst, C.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hreibi, A.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Inta, R.; Intini, G.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Junker, J.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kamai, B.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katolik, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kawabe, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kemball, A. J.; Kennedy, R.; Kent, C.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J. C.; Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Kim, W. S.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kimball, C.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinley-Hanlon, M.; Kirchhoff, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Knowles, T. D.; Koch, P.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Krämer, C.; Kringel, V.; Królak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, S.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Kwang, S.; Lackey, B. D.; Lai, K. H.; Landry, M.; Lang, R. N.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lanza, R. K.; Larson, S. L.; Lartaux-Vollard, A.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, H. W.; Lee, K.; Lehmann, J.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Li, T. G. F.; Linker, S. D.; Littenberg, T. B.; Liu, J.; Lo, R. K. L.; Lockerbie, N. A.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lousto, C. O.; Lovelace, G.; Lück, H.; Lumaca, D.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macas, R.; Macfoy, S.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña Hernandez, I.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magaña Zertuche, L.; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markakis, C.; Markosyan, A. S.; Markowitz, A.; Maros, E.; Marquina, A.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D. V.; Mason, K.; Massera, E.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matas, A.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McCuller, L.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McNeill, L.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Mehmet, M.; Meidam, J.; Mejuto-Villa, E.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Milovich-Goff, M. C.; Minazzoli, O.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moffa, D.; Moggi, A.; Mogushi, K.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Muñiz, E. A.; Muratore, M.; Murray, P. G.; Napier, K.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Neilson, J.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Nery, M.; Neunzert, A.; Nevin, L.; Newport, J. M.; Newton, G.; Ng, K. K. Y.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nichols, D.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Noack, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; North, C.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; O'Dea, G. D.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Okada, M. A.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; Ormiston, R.; Ortega, L. F.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ossokine, S.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pace, A. E.; Page, J.; Page, M. A.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, Howard; Pan, Huang-Wei; Pang, B.; Pang, P. T. H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Parida, A.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patil, M.; Patricelli, B.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perez, C. J.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pirello, M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Porter, E. K.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Pratt, J. W. W.; Pratten, G.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rajbhandari, B.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramirez, K. E.; Ramos-Buades, A.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Read, J.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ren, W.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Ricker, P. M.; Rieger, S.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romel, C. L.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Ross, M. P.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Rutins, G.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L. M.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sanchez, L. E.; Sanchis-Gual, N.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Scheel, M.; Scheuer, J.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schulte, B. W.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwalbe, S. G.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Seidel, E.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shah, A. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaner, M. B.; Shao, L.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Somala, S.; Son, E. J.; Sonnenberg, J. A.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, A. P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staats, K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stevenson, S. P.; Stone, R.; Stops, D. J.; Strain, K. A.; Stratta, G.; Strigin, S. E.; Strunk, A.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Suresh, J.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Tait, S. C.; Talbot, C.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Taracchini, A.; Tasson, J. D.; Taylor, J. A.; Taylor, R.; Tewari, S. V.; Theeg, T.; Thies, F.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres-Forné, A.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trinastic, J.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tsang, K. W.; Tse, M.; Tso, R.; Tsukada, L.; Tsuna, D.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ueno, K.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Varma, V.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Venugopalan, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Viets, A. D.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walet, R.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. Z.; Wang, W. H.; Wang, Y. F.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Watchi, J.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wessel, E. K.; Weßels, P.; Westerweck, J.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Whittle, C.; Wilken, D.; Williams, D.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Wofford, J.; Wong, K. W. K.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wysocki, D. M.; Xiao, S.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, L.; Yap, M. J.; Yazback, M.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M.; Zadrożny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zelenova, T.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Y.-H.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, S. J.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; (LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2017-12-01

    On 2017 August 17 the merger of two compact objects with masses consistent with two neutron stars was discovered through gravitational-wave (GW170817), gamma-ray (GRB 170817A), and optical (SSS17a/AT 2017gfo) observations. The optical source was associated with the early-type galaxy NGC 4993 at a distance of just ˜40 Mpc, consistent with the gravitational-wave measurement, and the merger was localized to be at a projected distance of ˜2 kpc away from the galaxy’s center. We use this minimal set of facts and the mass posteriors of the two neutron stars to derive the first constraints on the progenitor of GW170817 at the time of the second supernova (SN). We generate simulated progenitor populations and follow the three-dimensional kinematic evolution from binary neutron star (BNS) birth to the merger time, accounting for pre-SN galactic motion, for considerably different input distributions of the progenitor mass, pre-SN semimajor axis, and SN-kick velocity. Though not considerably tight, we find these constraints to be comparable to those for Galactic BNS progenitors. The derived constraints are very strongly influenced by the requirement of keeping the binary bound after the second SN and having the merger occur relatively close to the center of the galaxy. These constraints are insensitive to the galaxy’s star formation history, provided the stellar populations are older than 1 Gyr.

  1. The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope, Exploding Stars, Neutron Stars, and Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Since August, 2008, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been scanning the sky, producing a full-sky image every three hours. These cosmic gamma-rays come from extreme astrophysical phenomena, many related to exploding stars (supernovae) or what these explosions leave behind: supernova remnants, neutron stars, and black holes. This talk uses sample Fermi results, plus simple demonstrations, to illustrate the exotic properties of these endpoints of stellar evolution.

  2. A Statistical Study on Double Neutron Star Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-yan; Zhang, Cheng-min; Wang, De-hua; Pan, Yuan-yue; Zhou, Zhu-wen

    2017-10-01

    By statistically analyzing the masses of twelve double neutron star (DNS) systems, it is concluded that the weighted mean value of DNS masses is (1.339±0.042) M⊙, where the weighted mean masses of the primary and companion stars are respectively (1.439±0.036) M⊙ and (1.239±0.020) M⊙. The mean value of the masses of primary stars is higher than that of companion stars, which indicates that the primary star may increase its mass by accretion, or the mass of its progenitor star is higher. Therefore, the physical process of supernova explosion through which the high-mass stars become NSs can be investigated hereby. Also it is found that the total masses of the DNSs span a narrow range of 2.5∼2.8 M⊙, implying that the companion stars might impact on the mass formation of DNSs. Moreover, the mass ratios of the DNSs (primaries to companions) approximate 1 (slightly larger than 1), indicating that the masses of the progenitors of primary stars are approximately equal to the masses of the progenitors of companion stars. By analyzing the distribution of the 12 DNSs in the surface magnetic field strength versus spin period (B-Ps) diagram, it is found that the surface magnetic field strength in the primary stars of the DNSs is ∼ 1010 Gs, and the spin period is ∼ 50 ms; while the two pulsars, i.e. PSR J1906+0746 and PSR J0737-3039B, are located in the region of normal pulsars in the B-Ps diagram, their surface magnetic field strength is ∼ 1012 Gs, suggesting that they might not be accelerated through accretion.

  3. Magnetic fields in mixed neutron-star-plus-wormhole systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aringazin, Ascar [Institute for Basic Research, Eurasian National University, 5, Munaitpasov Street, Astana, 010008 (Kazakhstan); Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir; Folomeev, Vladimir; Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta, E-mail: aringazin@gmail.com, E-mail: v.dzhunushaliev@gmail.com, E-mail: vfolomeev@mail.ru, E-mail: b.kleihaus@uni-oldenburg.de, E-mail: jutta.kunz@uni-oldenburg.de [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, 114-118, Ammerländer Heerstraße, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    We consider mixed configurations consisting of a wormhole filled by a strongly magnetized isotropic or anisotropic neutron fluid. The nontrivial topology of the spacetime is allowed by the presence of exotic matter. By comparing these configurations with ordinary magnetized neutron stars, we clarify the question of how the presence of the nontrivial topology influences the magnetic field distribution inside the fluid. In the case of an anisotropic fluid, we find new solutions describing configurations, where the maximum of the fluid density is shifted from the center. A linear stability analysis shows that these mixed configurations are unstable.

  4. GRB 130603B: No Compelling Evidence for Neutron Star Merger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomo Dado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The near infrared (NIR flare/rebrightening in the afterglow of the short hard gamma ray burst (SHB 130603B measured with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST and an alleged late-time X-ray excess were interpreted as possible evidence of a neutron star merger origin of SHBs. However, the X-ray afterglow that was measured with the Swift XRT and Newton XMM has the canonical behaviour of a synchrotron afterglow produced by a highly relativistic jet. The H-band flux observed with HST 9.41 days after burst is that expected from the measured late-time X-ray afterglow. The late-time flare/rebrightening of the NIR-optical afterglow of SHB 130603B could have been produced also by jet collision with an interstellar density bump. Moreover, SHB plus a kilonova can be produced also by the collapse of a compact star (neutron star, strange star, or quark star to a more compact object due to cooling, loss of angular momentum, or mass accretion.

  5. Neutron stars: Cosmic laboratories for matter under extreme conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bombaci Ignazio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The true nature and the internal constitution of the compact stars known as neutron stars (NSs is one of the most fascinating enigma in modern astrophysics. We discuss some of the present models for the internal structure of NSs and the connection with the properties of ultra dense hadronic matter. In particular, we discuss the role of strangeness on the equation of state and the implications of the measurement of 2 solar mass NSs in PSR J1614-2230 and PSR J0348+0432.

  6. Scalarization of neutron stars with realistic equations of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaha Motahar, Zahra; Blázquez-Salcedo, Jose Luis; Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta

    2017-09-01

    We consider the effect of scalarization on static and slowly rotating neutron stars for a wide variety of realistic equations of state, including pure nuclear matter, nuclear matter with hyperons, hybrid nuclear and quark matter, and pure quark matter. We analyze the onset of scalarization, presenting a universal relation for the critical coupling parameter versus compactness. We find that the onset and the magnitude of the scalarization are strongly correlated with the value of the gravitational potential (the metric component gt t) at the center of the star. We also consider the moment-of-inertia-compactness relations and confirm universality for the nuclear matter, hyperon and hybrid equations of state.

  7. Thermal states of neutron stars with a consistent model of interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, M.; Taranto, G.; Burgio, G. F.; Haensel, P.; Schulze, H.-J.; Zdunik, J. L.

    2018-01-01

    We model the thermal states of both isolated neutron stars and accreting neutron stars in X-ray transients in quiescence and confront them with observations. We use an equation of state calculated using realistic two-body and three-body nucleon interactions, and superfluid nucleon gaps obtained using the same microscopic approach in the BCS approximation. Consistency with low-luminous accreting neutron stars is obtained, as the direct Urca process is operating in neutron stars with mass larger than 1.1M⊙ for the employed equation of state. In addition, proton superfluidity and sufficiently weak neutron superfluidity, obtained using a scaling factor for the gaps, are necessary to explain the cooling of middle-aged neutron stars and to obtain a realistic distribution of neutron star masses.

  8. Vibrationally excited water emission at 658 GHz from evolved stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudry, A.; Humphreys, E. M. L.; Herpin, F.; Torstensson, K.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Richards, A. M. S.; Gray, M. D.; De Breuck, C.; Olberg, M.

    2018-01-01

    Context. Several rotational transitions of ortho- and para-water have been identified toward evolved stars in the ground vibrational state as well as in the first excited state of the bending mode (v2 = 1 in (0, 1, 0) state). In the latter vibrational state of water, the 658 GHz J = 11,0-10,1 rotational transition is often strong and seems to be widespread in late-type stars. Aims: Our main goals are to better characterize the nature of the 658 GHz emission, compare the velocity extent of the 658 GHz emission with SiO maser emission to help locate the water layers and, more generally, investigate the physical conditions prevailing in the excited water layers of evolved stars. Another goal is to identify new 658 GHz emission sources and contribute in showing that this emission is widespread in evolved stars. Methods: We have used the J = 11,0-10,1 rotational transition of water in the (0, 1, 0) vibrational state nearly 2400 K above the ground-state to trace some of the physical conditions of evolved stars. Eleven evolved stars were extracted from our mini-catalog of existing and potential 658 GHz sources for observations with the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) telescope equipped with the SEPIA Band 9 receiver. The 13CO J = 6-5 line at 661 GHz was placed in the same receiver sideband for simultaneous observation with the 658 GHz line of water. We have compared the ratio of these two lines to the same ratio derived from HIFI earlier observations to check for potential time variability in the 658 GHz line. We have compared the 658 GHz line properties with our H2O radiative transfer models in stars and we have compared the velocity ranges of the 658 GHz and SiO J = 2-1, v = 1 maser lines. Results: Eleven stars have been extracted from our catalog of known or potential 658 GHz evolved stars. All of them show 658 GHz emission with a peak flux density in the range ≈50-70 Jy (RU Hya and RT Eri) to ≈2000-3000 Jy (VY CMa and W Hya). Five Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB

  9. Higgs shifts from electron-positron annihilations near neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegner, Gary A. [Dartmouth College, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hanover, NH (United States); Onofrio, Roberto [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ' Galileo Galilei' , Padova (Italy); ITAMP, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-07-15

    We discuss the potential for using neutron stars to determine bounds on the Higgs-Kretschmann coupling by looking at peculiar shifts in gamma-ray spectroscopic features. In particular, we reanalyze multiple lines observed in GRB781119 detected by two gamma-ray spectrometers, and derive an upper bound on the Higgs-Kretschmann coupling that is much more constraining than the one recently obtained from white dwarfs. This calls for targeted analyses of spectra of gamma-ray bursts from more recent observatories, dedicated searches for differential shifts on electron-positron and proton-antiproton annihilation spectra in proximity of compact sources, and signals of electron and proton cyclotron lines from the same neutron star. (orig.)

  10. Collapse of magnetized hypermassive neutron stars in general relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duez, Matthew D; Liu, Yuk Tung; Shapiro, Stuart L; Shibata, Masaru; Stephens, Branson C

    2006-01-27

    Hypermassive neutron stars (HMNSs)--equilibrium configurations supported against collapse by rapid differential rotation--are possible transient remnants of binary neutron-star mergers. Using newly developed codes for magnetohydrodynamic simulations in dynamical spacetimes, we are able to track the evolution of a magnetized HMNS in full general relativity for the first time. We find that secular angular momentum transport due to magnetic braking and the magnetorotational instability results in the collapse of an HMNS to a rotating black hole, accompanied by a gravitational wave burst. The nascent black hole is surrounded by a hot, massive torus undergoing quasistationary accretion and a collimated magnetic field. This scenario suggests that HMNS collapse is a possible candidate for the central engine of short gamma-ray bursts.

  11. Investigations of Pointwise Ignition of Helium Deflagrations on Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingale, M.; Woosley, S. E.; Cumming, A.; Calder, A.; Dursi, L. J.; Fryxell, B.; Olson, K.; Ricker, P.; Rosner, R.; Timmes, F. X.

    We look at the spreading of localized temperature perturbations in the accreted fuel layer of a non-rotating neutron star. The pressure at the base of the accreted fuel layer is large and the material is only partially degenerate. Any temperature perturbations and resulting pressure gradients will lead to enormous accelerations (both laterally and vertically) of the material in the fuel layer. If the burning of this fuel cannot proceed more rapidly than the spreading of this perturbation, then localized burning cannot take place, and it is likely that the ignition would have to proceed simultaneously throughout the envelope. We present some multidimensional simulations of the spreading of temperature perturbations in a helium atmosphere on a neutron star.

  12. Neutron stars in screened modified gravity: Chameleon versus dilaton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brax, Philippe; Davis, Anne-Christine; Jha, Rahul

    2017-04-01

    We consider the scalar field profile around relativistic compact objects such as neutron stars for a range of modified gravity models with screening mechanisms of the chameleon and Damour-Polyakov types. We focus primarily on inverse power law chameleons and the environmentally dependent dilaton as examples of both mechanisms. We discuss the modified Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation and then implement a relaxation algorithm to solve for the scalar profiles numerically. We find that chameleons and dilatons behave in a similar manner and that there is a large degeneracy between the modified gravity parameters and the neutron star equation of state. This is exemplified by the modifications to the mass-radius relationship for a variety of model parameters.

  13. Binary neutron stars: Equilibrium models beyond spatial conformal flatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uryū, Kōji; Limousin, François; Friedman, John L; Gourgoulhon, Eric; Shibata, Masaru

    2006-10-27

    Equilibria of binary neutron stars in close circular orbits are computed numerically in a waveless formulation: the full Einstein-relativistic-Euler system is solved on an initial hypersurface to obtain an asymptotically flat form of the 4-metric and an extrinsic curvature whose time derivative vanishes in a comoving frame. Two independent numerical codes are developed, and solution sequences that model inspiraling binary neutron stars during the final several orbits are successfully computed. The binding energy of the system near its final orbit deviates from earlier results of third post-Newtonian and of spatially conformally flat calculations. The new solutions may serve as initial data for merger simulations and as members of quasiequilibrium sequences to generate gravitational-wave templates, and may improve estimates of the gravitational-wave cutoff frequency set by the last inspiral orbit.

  14. Systematic parameter errors in inspiraling neutron star binaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favata, Marc

    2014-03-14

    The coalescence of two neutron stars is an important gravitational wave source for LIGO and other detectors. Numerous studies have considered the precision with which binary parameters (masses, spins, Love numbers) can be measured. Here I consider the accuracy with which these parameters can be determined in the presence of systematic errors due to waveform approximations. These approximations include truncation of the post-Newtonian (PN) series and neglect of neutron star (NS) spin, tidal deformation, or orbital eccentricity. All of these effects can yield systematic errors that exceed statistical errors for plausible parameter values. In particular, neglecting spin, eccentricity, or high-order PN terms causes a significant bias in the NS Love number. Tidal effects will not be measurable with PN inspiral waveforms if these systematic errors are not controlled.

  15. Electromagnetic and gravitational outputs from binary-neutron-star coalescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palenzuela, Carlos; Lehner, Luis; Ponce, Marcelo; Liebling, Steven L; Anderson, Matthew; Neilsen, David; Motl, Patrick

    2013-08-09

    The late stage of an inspiraling neutron-star binary gives rise to strong gravitational wave emission due to its highly dynamic, strong gravity. Moreover, interactions between the stellar magnetospheres can produce considerable electromagnetic radiation. We study this scenario using fully general relativistic, resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We show that these interactions extract kinetic energy from the system, dissipate heat, and power radiative Poynting flux, as well as develop current sheets. Our results indicate that this power can (i) outshine pulsars in binaries, (ii) display a distinctive angular- and time-dependent pattern, and (iii) radiate within large opening angles. These properties suggest that some binary neutron-star mergers are ideal candidates for multimessenger astronomy.

  16. Neutron star dynamics under time-dependent external torques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gügercinoǧlu, Erbil; Alpar, M. Ali

    2017-11-01

    The two-component model describes neutron star dynamics incorporating the response of the superfluid interior. Conventional solutions and applications involve constant external torques, as appropriate for radio pulsars on dynamical time-scales. We present the general solution of two-component dynamics under arbitrary time-dependent external torques, with internal torques that are linear in the rotation rates, or with the extremely non-linear internal torques due to vortex creep. The two-component model incorporating the response of linear or non-linear internal torques can now be applied not only to radio pulsars but also to magnetars and to neutron stars in binary systems, with strong observed variability and noise in the spin-down or spin-up rates. Our results allow the extraction of the time-dependent external torques from the observed spin-down (or spin-up) time series, \\dot{Ω }(t). Applications are discussed.

  17. Vortex Pinning and Dynamics in the Neutron Star Crust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlazłowski, Gabriel; Sekizawa, Kazuyuki; Magierski, Piotr; Bulgac, Aurel; Forbes, Michael McNeil

    2016-12-02

    The nature of the interaction between superfluid vortices and the neutron star crust, conjectured by Anderson and Itoh in 1975 to be at the heart vortex creep and the cause of glitches, has been a long-standing question in astrophysics. Using a qualitatively new approach, we follow the dynamics as superfluid vortices move in response to the presence of "nuclei" (nuclear defects in the crust). The resulting motion is perpendicular to the force, similar to the motion of a spinning top when pushed. We show that nuclei repel vortices in the neutron star crust, and characterize the force per unit length of the vortex line as a function of the vortex element to the nucleus separation.

  18. Modeling the Complete Gravitational Wave Spectrum of Neutron Star Mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Dietrich, Tim; Nagar, Alessandro

    2015-08-28

    In the context of neutron star mergers, we study the gravitational wave spectrum of the merger remnant using numerical relativity simulations. Postmerger spectra are characterized by a main peak frequency f2 related to the particular structure and dynamics of the remnant hot hypermassive neutron star. We show that f(2) is correlated with the tidal coupling constant κ(2)^T that characterizes the binary tidal interactions during the late-inspiral merger. The relation f(2)(κ(2)^T) depends very weakly on the binary total mass, mass ratio, equation of state, and thermal effects. This observation opens up the possibility of developing a model of the gravitational spectrum of every merger unifying the late-inspiral and postmerger descriptions.

  19. UPPER LIMITS ON THE RATES OF BINARY NEUTRON STAR AND NEUTRON STAR-BLACK HOLE MERGERS FROM ADVANCED LIGO'S FIRST OBSERVING RUN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, E.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.T.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, E.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, M.J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, A.L.S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bond, T.C; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderon Bustillo, J.; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, D. S.; Chen, Y; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Qian; Chua, S. E.; Chung, E.S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, E.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, E.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -E; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, A.C.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, A.L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dasgupta, A.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; Debra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.A.; Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M.G.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, T. M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.M.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Fenyvesi, E.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M; Fournier, J. -D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garunfi, E.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Geng, P.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.P.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; Gonzalez, R.G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Buffoni-Hall, R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.L.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, P.J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.A.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, D.H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jian, L.; Jimenez-Forteza, E.; Johnson, W.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.H.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kefelian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.E.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan., S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kusunchoo, N.; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, Namjun; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzar, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Luck, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Zertuche, L. Magana; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, E.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, E.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moore, J.C.; Moraru, D.; Gutierrez Moreno, M.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, S.D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P.G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton-Howes, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Deill, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M. B.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, E.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.S; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passahieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Proxhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Purrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, E. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, D.M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rudiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.A.; Sachdev, P.S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O. E. S.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schonbecx, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, M.S.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltevi, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Singer, A; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, N.D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, J.R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.D.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Toxmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Toyra, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.G.; van den Brand, J. E. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heuningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, E.; Vicere, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, MT; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.M.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J.L.; Wu, D.S.; Wu, G.; Yablong, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the non-detection of gravitational waves from the merger of binary-neutron star systems and neutron star-black hole systems during the first observing run of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO). In particular, we searched for gravitational-wave

  20. Plasmoid Impacts on Neutron Stars and Highest Energy Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, C.; Rosner, R.

    2001-05-01

    Particle acceleration by electrostatic polarization fields that arise in plasmas streaming across magnetic fields is discussed as a possible acceleration mechanism of highest energy \\(>~1020 eV\\) cosmic rays. Specifically, plasmoids arising in planetoid impacts onto neutron star magnetospheres are considered. We find that such impacts at plausible rates may account for the observed flux and energy spectrum of the highest energy cosmic rays.

  1. Tidal Love numbers of a slowly spinning neutron star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Paolo; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Ferrari, Valeria

    2015-12-01

    By extending our recent framework to describe the tidal deformations of a spinning compact object, we compute for the first time the tidal Love numbers of a spinning neutron star to linear order in the angular momentum. The spin of the object introduces couplings between electric and magnetic distortions, and new classes of spin-induced ("rotational") tidal Love numbers emerge. We focus on stationary tidal fields, which induce axisymmetric perturbations. We present the perturbation equations for both electric-led and magnetic-led rotational Love numbers for generic multipoles and explicitly solve them for various tabulated equations of state and for a tidal field with an electric (even parity) and magnetic (odd parity) component with ℓ=2 , 3, 4. For a binary system close to the merger, various components of the tidal field become relevant. In this case we find that an octupolar magnetic tidal field can significantly modify the mass quadrupole moment of a neutron star. Preliminary estimates, assuming a spin parameter χ ≈0.05 , show modifications ≳10 % relative to the static case, at an orbital distance of five stellar radii. Furthermore, the rotational Love numbers as functions of the moment of inertia are much more sensitive to the equation of state than in the static case, where approximate universal relations at the percent level exist. For a neutron-star binary approaching the merger, we estimate that the approximate universality of the induced mass quadrupole moment deteriorates from 1% in the static case to roughly 6% when χ ≈0.05 . Our results suggest that spin-tidal couplings can introduce important corrections to the gravitational waveforms of spinning neutron-star binaries approaching the merger.

  2. Fast radio bursts: the last sign of supramassive neutron stars

    OpenAIRE

    Falcke, H.; Rezzolla, L.

    2014-01-01

    Several fast radio bursts have been discovered recently, showing a bright, highly dispersed millisecond radio pulse. The pulses do not repeat and are not associated with a known pulsar or gamma-ray burst. The high dispersion suggests sources at cosmological distances, hence implying an extremely high radio luminosity, far larger than the power of single pulses from a pulsar. We suggest that a fast radio burst represents the final signal of a supramassive rotating neutron star that collapses t...

  3. Disruption of light He companions in accreting neutron star binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruderman, M. A.; Shaham, J.

    1985-01-01

    An old neutron star, being spun up to become a radio pulsar by accretion from a very low-mass He secondary, will ultimately tidally disrupt the secondary before the latter's mass reaches 0.004 solar mass. Even if angular momentum loss from the binary is carried away only by gravitational radiation, the formation of an isolated rapidly spinning pulsar in this way will take less than 10 to the 10th yr.

  4. Nuclear superfluidity and cooling time of neutron-star crust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monrozeau, C.; Margueron, J. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Universite Paris Sud, F-91406 Orsay CEDEX (France); Sandulescu, N. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Universite Paris Sud, F-91406 Orsay CEDEX (France); Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, RO-76900 Bucharest (Romania)

    2007-03-15

    We analyse the effect of neutron superfluidity on the cooling time of inner crust matter in neutron stars, in the case of a rapid cooling of the core. The specific heat of the inner crust, which determines the thermal response of the crust, is calculated in the framework of HFB approach at finite temperature. The calculations are performed with two paring forces chosen to simulate the pairing properties of uniform neutron matter corresponding respectively to Gogny-BCS approximation and to many-body techniques including polarisation effects. Using a simple model for the heat transport across the inner crust, it is shown that the two pairing forces give very different values for the cooling time. (authors)

  5. Taking the measure of neutron stars with NICER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodifar, Simin

    2018-01-01

    The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) is NASA's new X-ray timing instrument onboard the ISS that was launched in June 2017. With a large effective area, low background, very precise absolute timing and great low energy response, NICER has been doing a fantastic job in observing many interesting phenomena related to neutron stars and black holes. One of the main goals of the NICER mission is to constrain the equation of state of ultra-dense matter by measuring the masses and radii of several rotation-powered millisecond pulsars. This is being done by fitting pulse waveform models that incorporate all relevant relativistic effects and atmospheric radiation transfer processes to the periodic soft X-ray modulations produced by the rotation of hot spots located near the magnetic polar caps of these pulsars. Some of the other interesting topics that are being studied with NICER includes phenomena related to Type I X-ray bursts, which are thermonuclear flashes observed from the surfaces of accreting neutron stars in Low Mass X-ray Binaries, such as photospheric radius expansion and burst oscillations. NICER's large effective area and excellent low energy response enable new, detailed studies of these bursts in the soft X-ray band. In this talk I will present some of the early results from the first seven months of the NICERmission and will report on the progress being made by the NICER team in measuring the masses and radii of pulsars.

  6. Masses, Radii, and the Equation of State of Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özel, Feryal; Freire, Paulo

    2016-09-01

    We summarize our current knowledge of neutron-star masses and radii. Recent instrumentation and computational advances have resulted in a rapid increase in the discovery rate and precise timing of radio pulsars in binaries in the past few years, leading to a large number of mass measurements. These discoveries show that the neutron-star mass distribution is much wider than previously thought, with three known pulsars now firmly in the 1.9-2.0-M⊙ mass range. For radii, large, high-quality data sets from X-ray satellites as well as significant progress in theoretical modeling led to considerable progress in the measurements, placing them in the 10-11.5-km range and shrinking their uncertainties, owing to a better understanding of the sources of systematic errors. The combination of the massive-neutron-star discoveries, the tighter radius measurements, and improved laboratory constraints of the properties of dense matter has already made a substantial impact on our understanding of the composition and bulk properties of cold nuclear matter at densities higher than that of the atomic nucleus, a major unsolved problem in modern physics.

  7. Neutron-Star Merger Detected By Many Eyes and Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-10-01

    Where were you on Thursday, 17 August 2017? I was in Idaho, getting ready for Monday mornings solar eclipse. What I didnt know was that, at the time, around 70 teams around the world were mobilizing to point their ground- and space-based telescopes at a single patch of sky suspected to host the first gravitational-wave-detected merger of two neutron stars.Sudden Leaps for ScienceThe masses for black holes detected through electromagnetic observations (purple), black holes measured by gravitational-wave observations (blue), neutron stars measured with electromagnetic observations (yellow), and the neutron stars that merged in GW170817 (orange). [LIGO-Virgo/Frank Elavsky/NorthwesternUniversity]The process of science is long and arduous, generally occurring at a slow plod as theorists make predictions, and observations are then used to chip away at these theories, gradually confirming or disproving them. It is rare that science progresses forward in a giant leap, with years upon years of theories confirmed in one fell swoop.14 September 2015 marked the day of one such leap, as the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detected gravitational waves for the first time simultaneously verifying that black holes exist, that black-hole binaries exist, and that they can merge on observable timescales, emitting signals that directly confirm the predictions of general relativity.As it turns out, 17 August 2017 was another such day. On this day, LIGO observed a gravitational-wave signal unlike its previous black-hole detections. Instead, this was a signal consistent with the merger of two neutron stars.Artists illustrations of the stellar-merger model for short gamma-ray bursts. In the model, 1) two neutron stars inspiral, 2) they merge and produce a gamma-ray burst, 3) a small fraction of their mass is flung out and radiates as a kilonova, 4) a massive neutron star or black hole with a disk remains after the event. [NASA, ESA, and A. Feild (STScI)]What We

  8. Distinguishing boson stars from black holes and neutron stars from tidal interactions in inspiraling binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennett, Noah; Hinderer, Tanja; Steinhoff, Jan; Buonanno, Alessandra; Ossokine, Serguei

    2017-07-01

    Binary systems containing boson stars—self-gravitating configurations of a complex scalar field—can potentially mimic black holes or neutron stars as gravitational-wave sources. We investigate the extent to which tidal effects in the gravitational-wave signal can be used to discriminate between these standard sources and boson stars. We consider spherically symmetric boson stars within two classes of scalar self-interactions: an effective-field-theoretically motivated quartic potential and a solitonic potential constructed to produce very compact stars. We compute the tidal deformability parameter characterizing the dominant tidal imprint in the gravitational-wave signals for a large span of the parameter space of each boson star model, covering the entire space in the quartic case, and an extensive portion of interest in the solitonic case. We find that the tidal deformability for boson stars with a quartic self-interaction is bounded below by Λmin≈280 and for those with a solitonic interaction by Λmin≈1.3 . We summarize our results as ready-to-use fits for practical applications. Employing a Fisher matrix analysis, we estimate the precision with which Advanced LIGO and third-generation detectors can measure these tidal parameters using the inspiral portion of the signal. We discuss a novel strategy to improve the distinguishability between black holes/neutrons stars and boson stars by combining tidal deformability measurements of each compact object in a binary system, thereby eliminating the scaling ambiguities in each boson star model. Our analysis shows that current-generation detectors can potentially distinguish boson stars with quartic potentials from black holes, as well as from neutron-star binaries if they have either a large total mass or a large (asymmetric) mass ratio. Discriminating solitonic boson stars from black holes using only tidal effects during the inspiral will be difficult with Advanced LIGO, but third-generation detectors should

  9. Superfluid Density of Neutrons in the Inner Crust of Neutron Stars: New Life for Pulsar Glitch Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Gentaro; Pethick, C J

    2017-08-11

    Calculations of the effects of band structure on the neutron superfluid density in the crust of neutron stars made under the assumption that the effects of pairing are small [N. Chamel, Phys. Rev. C 85, 035801 (2012)PRVCAN0556-2813] lead to moments of inertia of superfluid neutrons so small that the crust alone is insufficient to account for the magnitude of neutron star glitches. Inspired by earlier work on ultracold atomic gases in an optical lattice, we investigate fermions with attractive interactions in a periodic lattice in the mean-field approximation. The effects of band structure are suppressed when the pairing gap is of order or greater than the strength of the lattice potential. By applying the results to the inner crust of neutron stars, we conclude that the reduction of the neutron superfluid density is considerably less than previously estimated and, consequently, it is premature to rule out models of glitches based on neutron superfluidity in the crust.

  10. GALACTIC CENTER MINISPIRAL: INTERACTION MODES OF NEUTRON STARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Zajacek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Streams of gas and dust in the inner parsec of the Galactic center form a distinct feature known as the Minispiral, which has been studied in radio waveband as well as in the infrared wavebands. A large fraction of the Minispiral gas is ionized by radiation of OB stars present in the Nuclear Star Cluster (NSC. Based on the inferred mass in the innermost parsec ( ~106 solar masses, over ~103–104 neutron stars should move in the sphere of gravitational influence of the SMBH. We estimate that a fraction of them propagate through the denser, ionized medium concentrated mainly along the three arms of the Minispiral. Based on the properties of the gaseous medium, we discuss different interaction regimes of magnetised neutron stars passing through this region. Moreover, we sketch expected observational effects of these regimes. The simulation results may be applied to other galactic nuclei hosting NSC, where the expected distribution of the interaction regimes is different across different galaxy types.

  11. Slowly-rotating neutron stars in massive bigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, A.; Yunes, N.

    2018-02-01

    We study slowly-rotating neutron stars in ghost-free massive bigravity. This theory modifies general relativity by introducing a second, auxiliary but dynamical tensor field that couples to matter through the physical metric tensor through non-linear interactions. We expand the field equations to linear order in slow rotation and numerically construct solutions in the interior and exterior of the star with a set of realistic equations of state. We calculate the physical mass function with respect to observer radius and find that, unlike in general relativity, this function does not remain constant outside the star; rather, it asymptotes to a constant a distance away from the surface, whose magnitude is controlled by the ratio of gravitational constants. The Vainshtein-like radius at which the physical and auxiliary mass functions asymptote to a constant is controlled by the graviton mass scaling parameter, and outside this radius, bigravity modifications are suppressed. We also calculate the frame-dragging metric function and find that bigravity modifications are typically small in the entire range of coupling parameters explored. We finally calculate both the mass-radius and the moment of inertia-mass relations for a wide range of coupling parameters and find that both the graviton mass scaling parameter and the ratio of the gravitational constants introduce large modifications to both. These results could be used to place future constraints on bigravity with electromagnetic and gravitational-wave observations of isolated and binary neutron stars.

  12. Neutron reactions in accreting neutron stars: a new pathway to efficient crust heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjib S; Kawano, Toshihiko; Möller, Peter

    2008-12-05

    In our calculation of neutron star crust heating we include several key new model features. In earlier work electron capture (EC) only allowed neutron emission from the daughter ground state; here we calculate, in a deformed quasi-random-phase approximation (QRPA) model, EC decay rates to all states in the daughter that are allowed by Gamow-Teller selection rules and energetics. The subsequent branching ratios between the 1n,...,xn channels and the competing gamma decay are calculated in a Hauser-Feshbach model. In our multicomponent plasma model a single (EC, xn) reaction step can produce several neutron-deficient nuclei, each of which can further decay by (EC, xn). Hence, the neutron emission occurs more continuously with increasing depth as compared to that in a one-component plasma model.

  13. Magnetized neutron-star mergers and gravitational-wave signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Matthew; Hirschmann, Eric W; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L; Motl, Patrick M; Neilsen, David; Palenzuela, Carlos; Tohline, Joel E

    2008-05-16

    We investigate the influence of magnetic fields upon the dynamics of, and resulting gravitational waves from, a binary neutron-star merger in full general relativity coupled to ideal magnetohydrodynamics. We consider two merger scenarios: one where the stars have aligned poloidal magnetic fields and one without. Both mergers result in a strongly differentially rotating object. In comparison to the nonmagnetized scenario, the aligned magnetic fields delay the full merger of the stars. During and after merger we observe phenomena driven by the magnetic field, including Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities in shear layers, winding of the field lines, and transition from poloidal to toroidal magnetic fields. These effects not only mediate the production of electromagnetic radiation, but also can have a strong influence on the gravitational waves. Thus, there are promising prospects for studying such systems with both types of waves.

  14. Superfluid phases of triplet pairing and rapid cooling of the neutron star in Cassiopeia A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev B. Leinson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In a simple model it is demonstrated that the neutron star surface temperature evolution is sensitive to the phase state of the triplet superfluid condensate. A multicomponent triplet pairing of superfluid neutrons in the core of a neutron star with participation of several magnetic quantum numbers leads to neutrino energy losses exceeding the losses from the unicomponent pairing. A phase transition of the neutron condensate into the multicomponent state triggers more rapid cooling of superfluid core in neutron stars. This makes it possible to simulate an anomalously rapid cooling of neutron stars within the minimal cooling paradigm without employing any exotic scenarios suggested earlier for rapid cooling of isolated neutron star in Cassiopeia A.

  15. A Christmas comet falling onto a neutron star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, S.

    The Sun and the planets are the main, but not the only, bodies of the Solar System. There are thousands of asteroids and several tens of comets, many of which are still unknown. They are the remnants of the planetesimals that formed at the origin of our Solar System, and they are rocky objects of different dimensions and irregular shape. Sometimes these minor bodies fall onto the Sun or onto planets, like Jupiter. Less dramatic events occur when the infalling bodies do not directly impact onto the target but are tidally disrupted. The tidal disruption of solar mass stars around supermassive black holes has been extensively studied analytically and numerically. In these events the star, as it approaches the black hole, develops into an elongated banana-shaped structure, the most tightly bound debris being at the closer end to the compact object. After completing an (few) eccentric orbit(s), these bound debris fall onto the black hole, emitting energy. Orbital precession may lead to the crossing of the debris orbits producing an accretion disk. Observationally, these events will give rise to luminous events with different temporal decays in different energy bands. Tidal break-up events occur also in planetary systems around normal stars but these events are too faint to be detected. Things change when the star is a compact object. Indeed planets have been discovered around radio pulsars, making likely the existence also of orbiting minor bodies. The direct impact of minor bodies onto neutron stars has been studied in the past and it has been envisaged as a possible (local) explanation for Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs), producing short-duration (˜ seconds) events. To explain the peculiarities of GRB 101225A (Christmas burst) we propose that it resulted from the tidal disruption event of a minor body around a neutron star in our Galaxy.

  16. A neutron star with a carbon atmosphere in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wynn C G; Heinke, Craig O

    2009-11-05

    The surface of hot neutron stars is covered by a thin atmosphere. If there is accretion after neutron-star formation, the atmosphere could be composed of light elements (H or He); if no accretion takes place or if thermonuclear reactions occur after accretion, heavy elements (for example, Fe) are expected. Despite detailed searches, observations have been unable to confirm the atmospheric composition of isolated neutron stars. Here we report an analysis of archival observations of the compact X-ray source in the centre of the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant. We show that a carbon atmosphere neutron star (with low magnetic field) produces a good fit to the spectrum. Our emission model, in contrast with others, implies an emission size consistent with theoretical predictions for the radius of neutron stars. This result suggests that there is nuclear burning in the surface layers and also identifies the compact source as a very young ( approximately 330-year-old) neutron star.

  17. Matter effects on LIGO/Virgo searches for gravitational waves from merging neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Torrey; Harry, Ian; Read, Jocelyn; Flynn, Eric

    2017-12-01

    Gravitational waves from merging neutron stars are expected to be observed in the next five years. We explore the potential impact of matter effects on gravitational waves from merging double neutron-star binaries. If neutron star binaries exist with chirp masses less than roughly one solar mass and typical neutron-star radii are larger than roughly 14 km, or if neutron-star radii are larger than 15-16 km for the chirp masses of galactic neutron-star binaries, then matter will have a significant impact on the effectiveness of a point-particle-based search at Advanced LIGO design sensitivity (roughly 5% additional loss of signals). In a configuration typical of LIGO’s first observing run, extreme matter effects lead to up to 10% potential loss in the most extreme cases.

  18. Quark phases in neutron stars and a "third family" of compact stars as a signature for phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Schertler, K; Schaffner-Bielich, J; Thoma, M H

    2000-01-01

    The appearance of quark phases in the dense interior of neutron stars provides one possibility to soften the equation of state (EOS) of neutron star matter at high densities. This softening leads to more compact equilibrium configurations of neutron stars compared to pure hadronic stars of the same mass. We investigate the question to which amount the compactness of a neutron star can be attributed to the presence of a quark phase. For this purpose we employ several hadronic EOS in the framework of the relativistic mean-field (RMF) model and an extended MIT bag model to describe the quark phase. We find that - almost independent of the model parameters - the radius of a pure hadronic neutron star gets typically reduced by 20-30% if a pure quark phase in the center of the star does exist. For some EOS we furthermore find the possibility of a "third family" of compact stars which may exist besides the two known families of white dwarfs and neutron stars. We show how an experimental proof of the existence of a t...

  19. Measuring neutron star tidal deformability with Advanced LIGO: A Bayesian analysis of neutron star-black hole binary observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prayush; Pürrer, Michael; Pfeiffer, Harald P.

    2017-02-01

    The pioneering discovery of gravitational waves (GWs) by Advanced LIGO has ushered us into an era of observational GW astrophysics. Compact binaries remain the primary target sources for GW observation, of which neutron star-black hole (NSBH) binaries form an important subset. GWs from NSBH sources carry signatures of (a) the tidal distortion of the neutron star by its companion black hole during inspiral, and (b) its potential tidal disruption near merger. In this paper, we present a Bayesian study of the measurability of neutron star tidal deformability ΛNS∝(R /M )NS5 using observation(s) of inspiral-merger GW signals from disruptive NSBH coalescences, taking into account the crucial effect of black hole spins. First, we find that if nontidal templates are used to estimate source parameters for an NSBH signal, the bias introduced in the estimation of nontidal physical parameters will only be significant for loud signals with signal-to-noise ratios greater than ≃30 . For similarly loud signals, we also find that we can begin to put interesting constraints on ΛNS (factor of 1-2) with individual observations. Next, we study how a population of realistic NSBH detections will improve our measurement of neutron star tidal deformability. For an astrophysically likely population of disruptive NSBH coalescences, we find that 20-35 events are sufficient to constrain ΛNS within ±25 %- 50 % , depending on the neutron star equation of state. For these calculations we assume that LIGO will detect black holes with masses within the astrophysical mass gap. In case the mass gap remains preserved in NSBHs detected by LIGO, we estimate that approximately 25% additional detections will furnish comparable ΛNS measurement accuracy. In both cases, we find that it is the loudest 5-10 events that provide most of the tidal information, and not the combination of tens of low-SNR events, thereby facilitating targeted numerical-GR follow-ups of NSBHs. We find these results

  20. Dark matter effect on realistic equation of state in neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panotopoulos, Grigorios; Lopes, Ilídio

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we apply relativistic mean-field theory in neutron stars assuming that fermionic dark matter is trapped inside the star and interacts directly with neutrons by exchanging standard model Higgs bosons. For realistic values of the parameters of the model, we compute numerically the equation of state, and we compare it to the standard one. Furthermore, the mass-to-radius relation for both equations of state (pure neutron matter as well as admixed DM-neutron star) is shown, and the highest star mass for both cases is reported.

  1. Neutron Star Equation of State Constraints from X-ray Observations of Recycled Millisecond Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, Slavko

    2014-08-01

    The surface thermal radiation from neutron stars can serve as a powerful probe of the extremely dense matter in their centers. For "recycled" millisecond pulsars in particular, realistic modeling of the rotation-induced thermal X-ray pulsations offers a promising approach toward constraining the elusive neutron star equation of state. In this talk, I will summarize existing observational studies of millisecond pulsars with XMM-Newton and Chandra and the exciting prospect of high-precision constraints on the neutron star mass-radius relation using the Neutron Star Interior Composition ExploreR (NICER).

  2. Neutrino emissivity in the quark-hadron mixed phase of neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinella, William M. [Computational Science Research Center San Diego State University, San Diego, CA (United States); San Diego State University, Department of Physics, San Diego, CA (United States); Weber, Fridolin [San Diego State University, Department of Physics, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California San Diego, Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, La Jolla, CA (United States); Contrera, Gustavo A. [CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); CONICET - Dept. de Fisica, UNLP, IFLP, La Plata (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Grupo de Gravitacion, Astrofisica y Cosmologia, Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, La Plata (Argentina); Orsaria, Milva G. [CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Grupo de Gravitacion, Astrofisica y Cosmologia, Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, La Plata (Argentina)

    2016-03-15

    Numerous theoretical studies using various equation of state models have shown that quark matter may exist at the extreme densities in the cores of high-mass neutron stars. It has also been shown that a phase transition from hadronic matter to quark matter would result in an extended mixed phase region that would segregate phases by net charge to minimize the total energy of the phase, leading to the formation of a crystalline lattice. The existence of quark matter in the core of a neutron star may have significant consequences for its thermal evolution, which for thousands of years is facilitated primarily by neutrino emission. In this work we investigate the effect a crystalline quark-hadron mixed phase can have on the neutrino emissivity from the core. To this end we calculate the equation of state using the relativistic mean-field approximation to model hadronic matter and a nonlocal extension of the three-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model for quark matter. Next we determine the extent of the quark-hadron mixed phase and its crystalline structure using the Glendenning construction, allowing for the formation of spherical blob, rod, and slab rare phase geometries. Finally we calculate the neutrino emissivity due to electron-lattice interactions utilizing the formalism developed for the analogous process in neutron star crusts. We find that the contribution to the neutrino emissivity due to the presence of a crystalline quark-hadron mixed phase is substantial compared to other mechanisms at fairly low temperatures (vibrations are insignificant compared to static-lattice contributions. (orig.)

  3. Distinguishing newly born strange stars from neutron stars with g-mode oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei-Jie; Wei, Hai-Qing; Liu, Yu-Xin

    2008-10-31

    The gravity-mode (g-mode) eigenfrequencies of newly born strange quark stars (SQSs) and neutron stars (NSs) are studied. It is found that the eigenfrequencies in SQSs are much lower than those in NSs by almost 1 order of magnitude, since the components of a SQS are all extremely relativistic particles while nucleons in a NS are nonrelativistic. We therefore propose that newly born SQSs can be distinguished from the NSs by detecting the eigenfrequencies of the g-mode pulsations of supernovae cores through gravitational radiation by LIGO-class detectors.

  4. Constraints on neutron star crusts from oscillations in giant flares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Andrew W; Watts, Anna L

    2009-10-30

    We show that the fundamental seismic shear mode, observed as a quasiperiodic oscillation in giant flares emitted by highly magnetized neutron stars, is particularly sensitive to the nuclear physics of the crust. The identification of an oscillation at approximately 30 Hz as the fundamental crustal shear mode requires a nuclear symmetry energy that depends very weakly on density near saturation. If the nuclear symmetry energy varies more strongly with density, then lower frequency oscillations, previously identified as torsional Alfvén modes of the fluid core, could instead be associated with the crust. If this is the case, then future observations of giant flares should detect oscillations at around 18 Hz. An accurate measurement of the neutron-skin thickness of lead will also constrain the frequencies predicted by the model.

  5. Magnetic Field Decay Makes Neutron Stars Look Older Than They Are

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Xie, Y.

    2011-12-01

    It is commonly accepted that a neutron star is produced, when a massive star exhausts its nuclear fuel and ends its life in a core-collapse supernova explosion. This scenario is confirmed by the detection of pulsars, which are believed to be rapidly spinning neutron stars, in the central regions of many supernova remnants. Neutron stars and their associated supernova remnants should therefore have the same ages. As expected, the age of the Crab Pulsar, the first to be connected with a supernova remnant (the Crab Nebula), can be inferred from its current spin period and its derivative and indeed has about the same age of the supernova remnant, that was produced from a historically recorded supernova explosion in 1054. However most neutron stars appear to be much older than the ages of their associated supernova remnants, a puzzle not yet understood. Another puzzle is that so far no convincing evidence has been found in favor of magnetic field decay in neutron stars, that is predicted in most models of neutron stars. Here we show convincing evidence of magnetic field decay in some young neutron stars, and that the magnetic field decay can alter their spinning behaviors significantly such that these neutron stars appear much older than they really are.

  6. Neutron star properties derived from relativistic mean field

    CERN Document Server

    Beták, E; Urbanec, M

    2010-01-01

    The equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter given by the parameterized form of the relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock mean field with vector cross interaction is applied to construct spherically symmetric neutron star models. The masses and radii of the models are given as functions of the central energy density and compared with astrophysical data. The calculated radii appear to be confined to a narrow band between 12 and 13 km, nearly independent of the calculated masses. Our models are in agreement with known data and the ones with vector cross interaction cope well with the recent limitations imposed by the double pulsar J0737-3039.

  7. Neutron stars, ungravity, and the I-Love-Q relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariji, Hodjat; Bertolami, Orfeu

    2017-10-01

    We study neutron stars (NSs) in an ungravity (UG) inspired model. We examine the UG effects on the static properties of the selected NSs, in different mass and radius regimes, i.e., ultralow, moderate, and ultrahigh mass NSs, using a polytropic equation of state approach. Based on the observational data, we obtain bounds on the characteristic length and scaling dimension of the UG model. Furthermore, we obtain dynamic properties, such as inertial moment (I), Love number (Love), and quadrupole moment (Q) of a slowly rotating NS in the presence of the exterior gravity and ungravity fields. The UG model is also examined with respect to the I-Love-Q universal relation.

  8. Reactions on the surface and inside of neutron stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehm K. E.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements from orbiting X-ray satellites during the last decades have provided us with a wealth of information about nuclear reactions thought to occur in the extreme, highdensity environment of neutron stars. With radioactive ion beams from first-generation facilities we have begun to study some of these processes in the laboratory. In this contribution I report on experiments performed with radioactive beams from the ATLAS accelerator at Argonne. I will discuss the nuclear physics of X-ray bursts and super-bursts, the production of in-flight radioactive beams, as well as novel detectors which are used in these experiments.

  9. Prospects for gravitational-wave observations of neutron-star tidal disruption in neutron-star-black-hole binaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallisneri, M

    2000-04-17

    For an inspiraling neutron-star-black-hole (NS-BH) binary, we estimate the gravity-wave frequency f(td) at the onset of NS tidal disruption. We model the NS as a tidally distorted, homogeneous, Newtonian ellipsoid on a circular, equatorial geodesic around a Kerr BH. We find that f(td) depends strongly on the NS radius R, and estimate that LIGO-II (ca. 2006-2008) might measure R to 15% precision at 140 Mpc ( approximately 1 event/yr under current estimates). This suggests that LIGO-II might extract valuable information about the NS equation of state from tidal-disruption waves.

  10. Limits on thermal variations in a dozen quiescent neutron stars over a decade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bahramian, A.; Heinke, C.O.; Degenaar, N.; Chomiuk, L.; Wijnands, R.; Strader, J.; Ho, W.C.G.; Pooley, D.

    2015-01-01

    n quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries (qLMXBs) containing neutron stars, the origin of the thermal X-ray component may be either release of heat from the core of the neutron star, or continuing low-level accretion. In general, heat from the core should be stable on time-scales <104 yr, while

  11. Disc-jet coupling in low-luminosity accreting neutron stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tudor, V.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Patruno, A.; D'Angelo, C. R.; Jonker, P. G.; Russell, D. M.; Russell, T. D.; Bernardini, F.; Lewis, F.; Deller, A.T.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Migliari, S.; Plotkin, R. M.; Soria, R.; Wijnands, R.

    2017-01-01

    In outburst, neutron star X-ray binaries produce less powerful jets than black holes at a given X-ray luminosity. This has made them more difficult to study as they fade towards quiescence. To explore whether neutron stars power jets at low accretion rates (LX ≲ 1036 erg s-1), we investigate the

  12. On the effect of pion condensates on the spectrum of neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolevatov, S. S.; Andrianov, A. A. [V. A. Fock Department of Theoretical Physics, Saint-Petersburg State University, 198504 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Espriu, D. [Departament d’Estructura i Constituents de la Matèria and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2016-01-22

    There is no precise theory describing the structure of neutron stars. However, inside such objects the baryon density is very high and a pion condensation may occur. These condensates, if they exist, might give a significant effect on a spectrum of neutron stars. We investigate this influence with a help of simplified model to give qualitative picture of the effect.

  13. Constraining the neutron star equation of state using XMM-Newton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, P.G.; Kaastra, J.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070911134; Méndez, M.; in 't Zand, J.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    We have identified three possible ways in which future XMM-Newton observations can provide significant constraints on the equation of state of neutron stars. First, using a long observation of the neutron star X-ray transient Cen X-4 in quiescence one can use the RGS spectrum to constrain the

  14. Constraining the neutron star equation of state using XMM-Newton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaastra, J.; Mendez, M.; In 't Zand, J. J. M.; Jonker, P.G.

    We have identified three possible ways in which future XMM-Newton observations can provide significant constraints on the equation of state of neutron stars. First, using a long observation of the neutron star X-ray transient Cen X-4 in quiescence one can use the RGS spectrum to constrain the

  15. A two-solar-mass neutron star measured using Shapiro delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demorest, P.B.; Pennucci, T.; Ransom, S.M.; Roberts, M.S.E.; Hessels, J.W.T.

    2010-01-01

    Neutron stars are composed of the densest form of matter known to exist in our Universe, the composition and properties of which are still theoretically uncertain. Measurements of the masses or radii of these objects can strongly constrain the neutron star matter equation of state and rule out

  16. Instability of quark matter core in a compact newborn neutron star ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Instability of quark matter core in a compact newborn neutron star with moderately strong magnetic field. SUTAPA GHOSH and SOMENATH CHAKRABARTY. Department of Physics, University of Kalyani, Kalyani 741 235, India. Abstract. It is explicitly shown that if phase transition occurs at the core of a newborn neutron star.

  17. Long tails on thermonuclear X-ray bursts from neutron stars : a signature of inward heating?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zand, J. J. M. in't; Keek, L.; Cumming, A.; Heger, A.; Homan, J.; Mendez, M.

    We report the discovery of one-hour long tails on the few- minutes long X- ray bursts from the " clocked burster" GS 1826- 24. We propose that the tails are due to enduring thermal radiation from the neutron star envelope. The enduring emission can be explained by cooling of deeper neutron star

  18. Relativistic Disc Line: A Tool to Constrain Neutron Star Equation of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Relativistic iron Kα spectral emission line from the inner disc of a neutron star Low-Mass X-ray Binary (LMXB) was first detected in 2007. This discovery opened up new ways to probe strong gravity and dense matter. The past decade has seen detections of such a line from many neutron star LMXBs, and confirmation of this ...

  19. Constraints on the Moment of Inertia of a Proto Neutron Star from the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The influence of the hyperon coupling constants on the moment of inertia of a proto neutron star has been investigated within the framework of relativistic mean field theory for the baryon octet {, , , -, 0, +, Ξ-, Ξ0} system. It is found that for a proto neutron star, the mass, the moment of inertia and their own maximum ...

  20. The Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER): design and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendreau, Keith C.; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Adkins, Phillip W.; Albert, Cheryl L.; Anders, John F.; Aylward, Andrew T.; Baker, Charles L.; Balsamo, Erin R.; Bamford, William A.; Benegalrao, Suyog S.; Berry, Daniel L.; Bhalwani, Shiraz; Black, J. Kevin; Blaurock, Carl; Bronke, Ginger M.; Brown, Gary L.; Budinoff, Jason G.; Cantwell, Jeffrey D.; Cazeau, Thoniel; Chen, Philip T.; Clement, Thomas G.; Colangelo, Andrew T.; Coleman, Jerry S.; Coopersmith, Jonathan D.; Dehaven, William E.; Doty, John P.; Egan, Mark D.; Enoto, Teruaki; Fan, Terry W.; Ferro, Deneen M.; Foster, Richard; Galassi, Nicholas M.; Gallo, Luis D.; Green, Chris M.; Grosh, Dave; Ha, Kong Q.; Hasouneh, Monther A.; Heefner, Kristofer B.; Hestnes, Phyllis; Hoge, Lisa J.; Jacobs, Tawanda M.; Jørgensen, John L.; Kaiser, Michael A.; Kellogg, James W.; Kenyon, Steven J.; Koenecke, Richard G.; Kozon, Robert P.; LaMarr, Beverly; Lambertson, Mike D.; Larson, Anne M.; Lentine, Steven; Lewis, Jesse H.; Lilly, Michael G.; Liu, Kuochia Alice; Malonis, Andrew; Manthripragada, Sridhar S.; Markwardt, Craig B.; Matonak, Bryan D.; Mcginnis, Isaac E.; Miller, Roger L.; Mitchell, Alissa L.; Mitchell, Jason W.; Mohammed, Jelila S.; Monroe, Charles A.; Montt de Garcia, Kristina M.; Mulé, Peter D.; Nagao, Louis T.; Ngo, Son N.; Norris, Eric D.; Norwood, Dwight A.; Novotka, Joseph; Okajima, Takashi; Olsen, Lawrence G.; Onyeachu, Chimaobi O.; Orosco, Henry Y.; Peterson, Jacqualine R.; Pevear, Kristina N.; Pham, Karen K.; Pollard, Sue E.; Pope, John S.; Powers, Daniel F.; Powers, Charles E.; Price, Samuel R.; Prigozhin, Gregory Y.; Ramirez, Julian B.; Reid, Winston J.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Rogstad, Eric M.; Rosecrans, Glenn P.; Rowe, John N.; Sager, Jennifer A.; Sanders, Claude A.; Savadkin, Bruce; Saylor, Maxine R.; Schaeffer, Alexander F.; Schweiss, Nancy S.; Semper, Sean R.; Serlemitsos, Peter J.; Shackelford, Larry V.; Soong, Yang; Struebel, Jonathan; Vezie, Michael L.; Villasenor, Joel S.; Winternitz, Luke B.; Wofford, George I.; Wright, Michael R.; Yang, Mike Y.; Yu, Wayne H.

    2016-07-01

    During 2014 and 2015, NASA's Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) mission proceeded success- fully through Phase C, Design and Development. An X-ray (0.2-12 keV) astrophysics payload destined for the International Space Station, NICER is manifested for launch in early 2017 on the Commercial Resupply Services SpaceX-11 flight. Its scientific objectives are to investigate the internal structure, dynamics, and energetics of neutron stars, the densest objects in the universe. During Phase C, flight components including optics, detectors, the optical bench, pointing actuators, electronics, and others were subjected to environmental testing and integrated to form the flight payload. A custom-built facility was used to co-align and integrate the X-ray "con- centrator" optics and silicon-drift detectors. Ground calibration provided robust performance measures of the optical (at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center) and detector (at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology) subsystems, while comprehensive functional tests prior to payload-level environmental testing met all instrument performance requirements. We describe here the implementation of NICER's major subsystems, summarize their performance and calibration, and outline the component-level testing that was successfully applied.

  1. Nuclear fusion and carbon flashes on neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taam, R. E.; Picklum, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    This paper reports on detailed calculations of the thermal evolution of the carbon-burning shells in the envelopes of accreting neutron stars for mass-accretion rates of 1 hundred-billionth to 2 billionths of a solar mass per yr and neutron-star masses of 0.56 and 1.41 solar masses. The work of Hansen and Van Horn (1975) is extended to higher densities, and a more detailed treatment of nuclear processing in the hydrogen- and helium-burning regions is included. Results of steady-state calculations are presented, and results of time-dependent computations are examined for accretion rates of 3 ten-billionths and 1 billionth of solar mass per yr. It is found that two evolutionary sequences lead to carbon flashes and that the carbon abundance at the base of the helium shell is a strong function of accretion rate. Upper limits are placed on the accretion rates at which carbon flashes will be important.

  2. Unexpected Windy Weather Around a Highly Magnetized Neutron Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, George A.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Kargaltsev, Oleg; Gill, Ramandeep; Granot, Jonathan; Watts, Anna; Gelfand, Joseph; Baring, Matthew G.; Kust Harding, Alice; Pavlov, George G.; van der Horst, Alexander; Huppenkothen, Daniela; Gögüs, Ersin; Lin, Lin; Roberts, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Magnetars and rotation-powered pulsars (RPPs) historically represented two distinct subclasses of neutron stars. Magnetars are slowly-rotating (~2-12 s), isolated neutron stars (NSs) with super-strong magnetic fields, B~10^13-10^15 G. RPPs, on the other hand, are rapidly-rotating (~0.01-0.3~s), isolated NSs with surface dipole magnetic field in the range ~10^11-10^13 G. Most pulsars possess a large rotational energy loss rate that powers a relativistic magnetized particle wind, often seen as a pulsar wind nebula (PWN; the Crab PWN being the most famous). There has not yet been convincing evidence for a wind nebula around magnetars, most likely due to their low rotational energy loss rate. Here, we report the study of new deep X-ray observations of the peculiar extended emission around the magnetar Swift J1834.9-0846. Our new results strongly support a wind nebula as the nature of the extended emission, thus, establishing Swift J1834.9-0846 as the first magnetar to possess a surrounding nebula. This implies that wind nebulae are no longer exclusive to RPPs and, along with recent discoveries in the field, further narrow the gaps between these two sub-populations of isolated NSs. The physical properties of this wind nebula, however, show peculiarities, especially its high radiative efficiency of about 10%, only shared with two other known very young RPPs, the Crab and its twin.

  3. Gravitational waves from color-magnetic "mountains" in neutron stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glampedakis, K; Jones, D I; Samuelsson, L

    2012-08-24

    Neutron stars may harbor the true ground state of matter in the form of strange quark matter. If present, this type of matter is expected to be a color superconductor, a consequence of quark pairing with respect to the color and flavor degrees of freedom. The stellar magnetic field threading the quark core becomes a color-magnetic admixture and, in the event that superconductivity is of type II, leads to the formation of color-magnetic vortices. In this Letter, we show that the volume-averaged color-magnetic vortex tension force should naturally lead to a significant degree of nonaxisymmetry in systems such as radio pulsars. We show that gravitational radiation from such color-magnetic "mountains" in young pulsars, such as the Crab and Vela, could be observable by the future Einstein Telescope, thus, becoming a probe of paired quark matter in neutron stars. The detectability threshold can be pushed up toward the sensitivity level of Advanced LIGO if we invoke an interior magnetic field about a factor ten stronger than the surface polar field.

  4. The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER): Design and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendreau, Keith C.; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Adkins, Phillip W.; Albert, Cheryl L.; Anders, John F.; Aylward, Andrew T.; Baker, Charles L.; Balsamo, Erin R.; Bamford, William A.; Benegalrao, Suyog S.; hide

    2016-01-01

    During 2014 and 2015, NASA's Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) mission proceeded successfully through Phase C, Design and Development. An X-ray (0.2{12 keV) astrophysics payload destined for the International Space Station, NICER is manifested for launch in early 2017 on the Commercial Resupply Services SpaceX-11 flight. Its scientific objectives are to investigate the internal structure, dynamics, and energetics of neutron stars, the densest objects in the universe. During Phase C, flight components including optics, detectors, the optical bench, pointing actuators, electronics, and others were subjected to environmental testing and integrated to form the flight payload. A custom-built facility was used to co-align and integrate the X-ray \\concentrator" optics and silicon-drift detectors. Ground calibration provided robust performance measures of the optical (at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center) and detector (at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology) subsystems, while comprehensive functional tests prior to payload-level environmental testing met all instrument performance requirements. We describe here the implementation of NICER's major subsystems, summarize their performance and calibration, and outline the component-level testing that was successfully applied.

  5. Charged ρ Meson Condensate in Neutron Stars within RMF Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin A. Maslov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the equation of state (EoS of cold and dense baryonic matter is essential for the description of properties of neutron stars (NSs. With an increase of the density, new baryon species can appear in NS matter, as well as various meson condensates. In previous works, we developed relativistic mean-field (RMF models with hyperons and Δ -isobars, which passed the majority of known experimental constraints, including the existence of a 2 M ⊙ neutron star. In this contribution, we present results of the inclusion of ρ − -meson condensation into these models. We have shown that, in one class of the models (so-called KVOR-based models, in which the additional stiffening procedure is introduced in the isoscalar sector, the condensation gives only a small contribution to the EoS. In another class of the models (MKVOR-based models with additional stiffening in isovector sector, the condensation can lead to a first-order phase transition and a substantial decrease of the NS mass. Nevertheless, in all resulting models, the condensation does not spoil the description of the experimental constraints.

  6. The neutron star interior composition explorer (NICER): mission definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzoumanian, Z.; Gendreau, K. C.; Baker, C. L.; Cazeau, T.; Hestnes, P.; Kellogg, J. W.; Kenyon, S. J.; Kozon, R. P.; Liu, K.-C.; Manthripragada, S. S.; Markwardt, C. B.; Mitchell, A. L.; Mitchell, J. W.; Monroe, C. A.; Okajima, T.; Pollard, S. E.; Powers, D. F.; Savadkin, B. J.; Winternitz, L. B.; Chen, P. T.; Wright, M. R.; Foster, R.; Prigozhin, G.; Remillard, R.; Doty, J.

    2014-07-01

    Over a 10-month period during 2013 and early 2014, development of the Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) mission [1] proceeded through Phase B, Mission Definition. An external attached payload on the International Space Station (ISS), NICER is scheduled to launch in 2016 for an 18-month baseline mission. Its prime scientific focus is an in-depth investigation of neutron stars—objects that compress up to two Solar masses into a volume the size of a city—accomplished through observations in 0.2-12 keV X-rays, the electromagnetic band into which the stars radiate significant fractions of their thermal, magnetic, and rotational energy stores. Additionally, NICER enables the Station Explorer for X-ray Timing and Navigation Technology (SEXTANT) demonstration of spacecraft navigation using pulsars as beacons. During Phase B, substantive refinements were made to the mission-level requirements, concept of operations, and payload and instrument design. Fabrication and testing of engineering-model components improved the fidelity of the anticipated scientific performance of NICER's X-ray Timing Instrument (XTI), as well as of the payload's pointing system, which enables tracking of science targets from the ISS platform. We briefly summarize advances in the mission's formulation that, together with strong programmatic performance in project management, culminated in NICER's confirmation by NASA into Phase C, Design and Development, in March 2014.

  7. Searching for X-ray Pulsations from Neutron Stars Using NICER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Paul S.; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Bogdanov, Slavko; Bult, Peter; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Guillot, Sebastien; Kust Harding, Alice; Ho, Wynn C. G.; Lamb, Frederick K.; Mahmoodifar, Simin; Miller, M. Coleman; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Wolff, Michael Thomas

    2017-08-01

    The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) presents an exciting new capability for discovering new modulation properties of X-ray emitting neutron stars, including large area, low background, extremely precise absolute time stamps, superb low-energy response and flexible scheduling. The Pulsation Searches and Multiwavelength Coordination working group has designed a 2.5 Ms observing program to search for pulsations and characterize the modulation properties of about 30 known or suspected neutron star sources across a number of source categories. A key early goal will be to search for pulsations from millisecond pulsars that might exhibit thermal pulsations from the surface suitable for pulse profile modeling to constrain the neutron star equation of state. In addition, we will search for pulsations from transitional millisecond pulsars, isolated neutron stars, LMXBs, accretion-powered millisecond pulsars, central compact objects and other sources. We will present our science plan and initial results from the first months of the NICER mission.

  8. Neutron stars including the effects of chaotic magnetic fields and anomalous magnetic moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fei; Wu, Chen; Ren, Zhong-Zhou

    2017-04-01

    The relativistic mean field (RMF) FSUGold model extended to include hyperons is employed to study the properties of neutron stars with strong magnetic fields. The chaotic magnetic field approximation is utilized. The effect of anomalous magnetic moments (AMMs) is also investigated. It is shown that the equation of state (EOS) of neutron star matter is stiffened by the presence of the magnetic field, which increases the maximum mass of a neutron star by around 6%. The AMMs only have a small influence on the EOS of neutron star matter, and increase the maximum mass of a neutron star by 0.02M sun. Neutral particles are spin polarized due to the presence of the AMMs. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11535004, 11375086, 11120101005, 11175085, 11235001), 973 National Major State Basic Research and Development of China (2013CB834400), and Science and Technology Development Fund of Macau (068/2011/A)

  9. Inferring the post-merger gravitational wave emission from binary neutron star coalescences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatziioannou, Katerina; Clark, James Alexander; Bauswein, Andreas; Millhouse, Margaret; Littenberg, Tyson B.; Cornish, Neil

    2017-12-01

    We present a robust method to characterize the gravitational wave emission from the remnant of a neutron star coalescence. Our approach makes only minimal assumptions about the morphology of the signal and provides a full posterior probability distribution of the underlying waveform. We apply our method on simulated data from a network of advanced ground-based detectors and demonstrate the gravitational wave signal reconstruction. We study the reconstruction quality for different binary configurations and equations of state for the colliding neutron stars. We show how our method can be used to constrain the yet-uncertain equation of state of neutron star matter. The constraints on the equation of state we derive are complementary to measurements of the tidal deformation of the colliding neutron stars during the late inspiral phase. In the case of nondetection of a post-merger signal following a binary neutron star inspiral, we show that we can place upper limits on the energy emitted.

  10. Prospects for neutron star equation of state constraints using "recycled" millisecond pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, Slavko

    2016-02-01

    "Recycled" millisecond pulsars are a variety of rapidly spinning neutron stars that typically show thermal X-ray radiation due to the heated surface of their magnetic polar caps. Detailed numerical modeling of the rotation-induced thermal X-ray pulsations observed from recycled millisecond pulsars, including all relevant relativistic and stellar atmospheric effects, has been identified as a promising approach towards an astrophysical determination of the true neutron star mass-radius relation, and by extension the state of cold matter at densities exceeding those of atomic nuclei. Herein, I review the basic model and methodology commonly used to extract information regarding neutron star structure from the pulsed X-ray radiation observed from millisecond pulsars. I also summarize the results of past X-ray observations of these objects and the prospects for precision neutron star mass-radius measurements with the upcoming Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) X-ray timing mission.

  11. Progenitor neutron stars of the lightest and heaviest millisecond pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, M.; Bejger, M.; Haensel, P.; Zdunik, J. L.

    2016-02-01

    Context. The recent mass measurements of two binary millisecond pulsars, PSR J1614-2230 and PSR J0751+1807 with a mass M = 1.97 ± 0.04 M⊙ and M = 1.26 ± 0.14 M⊙, respectively, indicate a wide range of masses for such objects and possibly also a broad spectrum of masses of neutron stars born in core-collapse supernovae. Aims: Starting from the zero-age main sequence binary stage, we aim at inferring the birth masses of PSR J1614-2230 and PSR J0751+1807 by taking the differences in the evolutionary stages preceding their formation into account. Methods: Using simulations for the evolution of binary stars, we reconstruct the evolutionary tracks leading to the formation of PSR J1614-2230 and PSR J0751+1807. We analyse in detail the spin evolution due to the accretion of matter from a disk in the intermediate-mass/low-mass X-ray binary. We consider two equations of state of dense matter, one for purely nucleonic matter and the other one including a high-density softening due to the appearance of hyperons. Stationary and axisymmetric stellar configurations in general relativity are used, together with a recent magnetic torque model and observationally-motivated laws for the decay of magnetic field. Results: The estimated birth mass of the neutron stars PSR J0751+1807 and PSR J1614-2230 could be as low as 1.0 M⊙ and as high as 1.9 M⊙, respectively. These values depend weakly on the equation of state and the assumed model for the magnetic field and its accretion-induced decay. Conclusions: The masses of progenitor neutron stars of recycled pulsars span a broad interval from 1.0 M⊙ to 1.9 M⊙. Including the effect of a slow Roche-lobe detachment phase, which could be relevant for PSR J0751+1807, would make the lower mass limit even lower. A realistic theory for core-collapse supernovæ should account for this wide range of mass.

  12. Analysis of the Conformally Flat Approximation for Binary Neutron Star Initial Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Saeng Suh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatially conformally flat approximation (CFA is a viable method to deduce initial conditions for the subsequent evolution of binary neutron stars employing the full Einstein equations. Here we analyze the viability of the CFA for the general relativistic hydrodynamic initial conditions of binary neutron stars. We illustrate the stability of the conformally flat condition on the hydrodynamics by numerically evolving ~100 quasicircular orbits. We illustrate the use of this approximation for orbiting neutron stars in the quasicircular orbit approximation to demonstrate the equation of state dependence of these initial conditions and how they might affect the emergent gravitational wave frequency as the stars approach the innermost stable circular orbit.

  13. Supersoft symmetry energy encountering non-Newtonian gravity in neutron stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, De-Hua; Li, Bao-An; Chen, Lie-Wen

    2009-11-20

    Considering the non-Newtonian gravity proposed in grand unification theories, we show that the stability and observed global properties of neutron stars cannot rule out the supersoft nuclear symmetry energies at suprasaturation densities. The degree of possible violation of the inverse-square law of gravity in neutron stars is estimated using an equation of state of neutron-rich nuclear matter consistent with the available terrestrial laboratory data.

  14. Search for Dark Matter Effects on Gravitational Signals from Neutron Star Mergers arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Hütsi, Gert; Kannike, Kristjan; Marzola, Luca; Raidal, Martti; Vaskonen, Ville

    Motivated by the recent detection of the gravitational wave signal emitted by a binary neutron star merger, we analyse the possible impact of dark matter on such signals. We show that dark matter cores in merging neutron stars may yield an observable supplementary peak in the gravitational wave power spectral density following the merger, which could be distinguished from the features produced by the neutron components.

  15. Neutron Star Structure in the Presence of Conformally Coupled Scalar Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Joseph; Bose, Benjamin; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2014-01-01

    Neutron star models are studied in the context of scalar-tensor theories of gravity in the presence of a conformally coupled scalar field, using two different numerical equations of state (EoS) representing different degrees of stiffness. In both cases we obtain a complete solution by matching the interior numerical solution of the coupled Einstein-scalar field hydrostatic equations, with an exact metric on the surface of the star. These are then used to find the effect of the scalar field and its coupling to geometry, on the neutron star structure, particularly the maximum neutron star mass and radius. We show that in the presence of a conformally coupled scalar field, neutron stars are less dense and have smaller masses and radii than their counterparts in the minimally coupled case, and the effect increases with the magnitude of the scalar field at the center of the star.

  16. Rapid Cooling Of The Neutron Star In The Quiescent Super-Eddington Transient XTE J1701-462

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fridriksson, Joel K.; Homan, J.; Wijnands, R.; Mendez, M.; Cackett, E. M.; Altamirano, D.; Belloni, T. M.; Brown, E. F.; Degenaar, N.; Lewin, W. H. G.

    2010-01-01

    In the past decade the observing of cooling neutron star transients after long-duration (year or longer) outbursts has entered as a new approach to constraining the properties of matter inside neutron stars. We present Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of the super-Eddington neutron star transient

  17. Rapid Cooling of the Neutron Star in the Quiescent Super-Eddington Transient XTE J1701--462

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fridriksson, Joel K.; Homan, Jeroen; Wijnands, Rudy; Méndez, Mariano; Cackett, Edward M.; Altamirano, Diego; Belloni, Tomaso M.; Brown, Edward F.; Degenaar, Nathalie; Lewin, Walter H. G.

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade the observing of cooling neutron star transients after long-duration (year or longer) outbursts has entered as a new approach to constraining the properties of matter inside neutron stars. We present Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of the super-Eddington neutron star transient

  18. On the shear instability in relativistic neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corvino, Giovanni; Rezzolla, Luciano; Giacomazzo, Bruno [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Golm (Germany); Bernuzzi, Sebastiano [Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Jena, 07743 Jena (Germany); De Pietri, Roberto, E-mail: Giovanni.Corvino@roma1.infn.i [Physics Department, Parma University and INFN, Parma (Italy)

    2010-06-07

    We present new results on instabilities in rapidly and differentially rotating neutron stars. We model the stars in full general relativity and describe the stellar matter adopting a cold realistic equation of state based on the unified SLy prescription (Douchin and Haensel 2001 Astron. Astrophys. 380 151-67). We provide evidence that rapidly and differentially rotating stars that are below the expected threshold for the dynamical bar-mode instability, {beta}{sub c} {identical_to} T/|W| {approx_equal} 0.25, do nevertheless develop a shear instability on a dynamical timescale and for a wide range of values of {beta}. This class of instability, which has so far been found only for small values of {beta} and with very small growth rates, is therefore more generic than previously found and potentially more effective in producing strong sources of gravitational waves. Overall, our findings support the phenomenological predictions made by Watts et al (2005 Astrophys. J. 618 L37) on the nature of the low-T/|W| instability as the manifestation of a shear instability in a region where the latter is possible only for small values of {beta}. Furthermore, our results provide additional insight on shear instabilities and on the necessary conditions for their development.

  19. The CoCoNuT code: from neutron star oscillations to supernova explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdá-Durán, P.; Gabler, M.; Müller, E.; Font, J. A.; Stergioulas, N.; Obergaulinger, M.; Aloy, M. A.; DeBrye, N.; Cordero-Carrión, I.; Ibáñez, J. M.

    2013-05-01

    CoCoNuT is a numerical code, that evolves the General relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics equations coupled to the Einstein equations in the CFC approximation. Its main purpose is to simulate astrophysical scenarios in which strong gravity is important such as the collapse of massive stars and the evolution of neutron stars. I review recent results of the numerical code regarding neutron star oscillations and core collapse supernova and its observational consequences.

  20. Growth of black holes in the interior of rotating neutron stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouvaris, C.; Tinyakov, P.

    2014-01-01

    Mini-black holes made of dark matter that can potentially form in the interior of neutron stars always have been thought to grow by accreting the matter of the core of the star via a spherical Bondi accretion. However, neutron stars have sometimes significant angular velocities that can...... in principle stall the spherical accretion and potentially change the conclusions derived about the time it takes for black holes to destroy a star. We study the effect of the star rotation on the growth of such black holes and the evolution of the black hole spin. Assuming no mechanisms of angular momentum...

  1. Multi-messenger Observations of a Binary Neutron Star Merger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Afrough, M.; Agarwal, B.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Amato, A.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Angelova, S. V.; Antier, S.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Atallah, D. V.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; AultONeal, K.; Austin, C.; Avila-Alvarez, A.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Bae, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Banagiri, S.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barkett, K.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Bawaj, M.; Bayley, J. C.; Bazzan, M.; Bécsy, B.; Beer, C.; Bejger, M.; Belahcene, I.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Bero, J. J.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Billman, C. R.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Biscoveanu, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackman, J.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bode, N.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bohe, A.; Bondu, F.; Bonilla, E.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bossie, K.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Canepa, M.; Canizares, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, H.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Carney, M. F.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerdá-Durán, P.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chase, E.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chatterjee, D.; Chatziioannou, K.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H.-P.; Chia, H.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Chmiel, T.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, A. J. K.; Chua, S.; Chung, A. K. W.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Ciolfi, R.; Cirelli, C. E.; Cirone, A.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Clearwater, P.; Cleva, F.; Cocchieri, C.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Cohen, D.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L. R.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conti, L.; Cooper, S. J.; Corban, P.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordero-Carrión, I.; Corley, K. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Covas, P. B.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cullen, T. J.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Dálya, G.; Danilishin, S. L.; D’Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dasgupta, A.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davis, D.; Daw, E. J.; Day, B.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Demos, N.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; De Pietri, R.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; De Rossi, C.; DeSalvo, R.; de Varona, O.; Devenson, J.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Renzo, F.; Doctor, Z.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dorrington, I.; Douglas, R.; Dovale Álvarez, M.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Dreissigacker, C.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dupej, P.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Eisenstein, R. A.; Essick, R. C.; Estevez, D.; Etienne, Z. B.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Fauchon-Jones, E. J.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fee, C.; Fehrmann, H.; Feicht, J.; Fejer, M. M.; Fernandez-Galiana, A.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finstad, D.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fishbach, M.; Fisher, R. P.; Fitz-Axen, M.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Font, J. A.; Forsyth, P. W. F.; Forsyth, S. S.; Fournier, J.-D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fries, E. M.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H.; Gadre, B. U.; Gaebel, S. M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Ganija, M. R.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garcia-Quiros, C.; Garufi, F.; Gateley, B.; Gaudio, S.; Gaur, G.; Gayathri, V.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, D.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghonge, S.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glover, L.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gomes, S.; Goncharov, B.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Gretarsson, E. M.; Griswold, B.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Gruning, P.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Halim, O.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hamilton, E. Z.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hannuksela, O. A.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hinderer, T.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Horst, C.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hreibi, A.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Inta, R.; Intini, G.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Junker, J.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kamai, B.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katolik, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kawabe, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kemball, A. J.; Kennedy, R.; Kent, C.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J. C.; Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Kim, W. S.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinley-Hanlon, M.; Kirchhoff, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Knowles, T. D.; Koch, P.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Krämer, C.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, S.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Kwang, S.; Lackey, B. D.; Lai, K. H.; Landry, M.; Lang, R. N.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lanza, R. K.; Larson, S. L.; Lartaux-Vollard, A.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, H. W.; Lee, K.; Lehmann, J.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Li, T. G. F.; Linker, S. D.; Littenberg, T. B.; Liu, J.; Lo, R. K. L.; Lockerbie, N. A.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lousto, C. O.; Lovelace, G.; Lück, H.; Lumaca, D.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macas, R.; Macfoy, S.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña Hernandez, I.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magaña Zertuche, L.; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markakis, C.; Markosyan, A. S.; Markowitz, A.; Maros, E.; Marquina, A.; Marsh, P.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D. V.; Mason, K.; Massera, E.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matas, A.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McCuller, L.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McNeill, L.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Mehmet, M.; Meidam, J.; Mejuto-Villa, E.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Milovich-Goff, M. C.; Minazzoli, O.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moffa, D.; Moggi, A.; Mogushi, K.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Muñiz, E. A.; Muratore, M.; Murray, P. G.; Napier, K.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Neilson, J.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Nery, M.; Neunzert, A.; Nevin, L.; Newport, J. M.; Newton, G.; Ng, K. K. Y.; Nguyen, P.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nichols, D.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Noack, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; North, C.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; O’Dea, G. D.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Okada, M. A.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O’Reilly, B.; Ormiston, R.; Ortega, L. F.; O’Shaughnessy, R.; Ossokine, S.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pace, A. E.; Page, J.; Page, M. A.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, Howard; Pan, Huang-Wei; Pang, B.; Pang, P. T. H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. 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L.; Lenc, E.; Lynch, C.; Murphy, T.; Sadler, E. M.; Australia Telescope Compact Array, ATCA:; Hotan, A.; James, C. W.; Oslowski, S.; Raja, W.; Shannon, R. M.; Whiting, M.; Australian SKA Pathfinder, ASKAP:; Arcavi, I.; Howell, D. A.; McCully, C.; Hosseinzadeh, G.; Hiramatsu, D.; Poznanski, D.; Barnes, J.; Zaltzman, M.; Vasylyev, S.; Maoz, D.; Las Cumbres Observatory Group; Cooke, J.; Bailes, M.; Wolf, C.; Deller, A. T.; Lidman, C.; Wang, L.; Gendre, B.; Andreoni, I.; Ackley, K.; Pritchard, T. A.; Bessell, M. S.; Chang, S.-W.; Möller, A.; Onken, C. A.; Scalzo, R. A.; Ridden-Harper, R.; Sharp, R. G.; Tucker, B. E.; Farrell, T. J.; Elmer, E.; Johnston, S.; Venkatraman Krishnan, V.; Keane, E. F.; Green, J. A.; Jameson, A.; Hu, L.; Ma, B.; Sun, T.; Wu, X.; Wang, X.; Shang, Z.; Hu, Y.; Ashley, M. C. B.; Yuan, X.; Li, X.; Tao, C.; Zhu, Z.; Zhang, H.; Suntzeff, N. B.; Zhou, J.; Yang, J.; Orange, B.; Morris, D.; Cucchiara, A.; Giblin, T.; Klotz, A.; Staff, J.; Thierry, P.; Schmidt, B. 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P.; Rebolo, R.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Tlatov, A. G.; Ishmuhametova, Yu. V.; MASTER Collaboration; Abe, F.; Aoki, K.; Aoki, W.; Asakura, Y.; Baar, S.; Barway, S.; Bond, I. A.; Doi, M.; Finet, F.; Fujiyoshi, T.; Furusawa, H.; Honda, S.; Itoh, R.; Kanda, N.; Kawabata, K. S.; Kawabata, M.; Kim, J. H.; Koshida, S.; Kuroda, D.; Lee, C.-H.; Liu, W.; Matsubayashi, K.; Miyazaki, S.; Morihana, K.; Morokuma, T.; Motohara, K.; Murata, K. L.; Nagai, H.; Nagashima, H.; Nagayama, T.; Nakaoka, T.; Nakata, F.; Ohsawa, R.; Ohshima, T.; Ohta, K.; Okita, H.; Saito, T.; Saito, Y.; Sako, S.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Sumi, T.; Tajitsu, A.; Takahashi, J.; Takayama, M.; Tamura, Y.; Tanaka, I.; Tanaka, M.; Terai, T.; Tominaga, N.; Tristram, P. J.; Uemura, M.; Utsumi, Y.; Yamaguchi, M. S.; Yasuda, N.; Yoshida, M.; Zenko, T.; J-GEM; Adams, S. M.; Anupama, G. C.; Bally, J.; Barway, S.; Bellm, E.; Blagorodnova, N.; Cannella, C.; Chandra, P.; Chatterjee, D.; Clarke, T. E.; Cobb, B. E.; Cook, D. 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M.; Crisp, H.; Macpherson, D.; Andreoni, I.; Laugier, R.; Noysena, K.; Klotz, A.; Gendre, B.; Thierry, P.; Turpin, D.; Consortium, TZAC; Im, M.; Choi, C.; Kim, J.; Yoon, Y.; Lim, G.; Lee, S.-K.; Lee, C.-U.; Kim, S.-L.; Ko, S.-W.; Joe, J.; Kwon, M.-K.; Kim, P.-J.; Lim, S.-K.; Choi, J.-S.; KU Collaboration; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Malesani, D.; Xu, D.; Optical Telescope, Nordic; Smartt, S. J.; Jerkstrand, A.; Kankare, E.; Sim, S. A.; Fraser, M.; Inserra, C.; Maguire, K.; Leloudas, G.; Magee, M.; Shingles, L. J.; Smith, K. W.; Young, D. R.; Kotak, R.; Gal-Yam, A.; Lyman, J. D.; Homan, D. S.; Agliozzo, C.; Anderson, J. P.; Angus, C. R.; Ashall, C.; Barbarino, C.; Bauer, F. E.; Berton, M.; Botticella, M. T.; Bulla, M.; Cannizzaro, G.; Cartier, R.; Cikota, A.; Clark, P.; De Cia, A.; Della Valle, M.; Dennefeld, M.; Dessart, L.; Dimitriadis, G.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Firth, R. E.; Flörs, A.; Frohmaier, C.; Galbany, L.; González-Gaitán, S.; Gromadzki, M.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Hamanowicz, A.; Harmanen, J.; Heintz, K. E.; Hernandez, M.-S.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Hook, I. M.; Izzo, L.; James, P. A.; Jonker, P. G.; Kerzendorf, W. E.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Kromer, M.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Lawrence, A.; Manulis, I.; Mattila, S.; McBrien, O.; Müller, A.; Nordin, J.; O’Neill, D.; Onori, F.; Palmerio, J. T.; Pastorello, A.; Patat, F.; Pignata, G.; Podsiadlowski, P.; Razza, A.; Reynolds, T.; Roy, R.; Ruiter, A. J.; Rybicki, K. A.; Salmon, L.; Pumo, M. L.; Prentice, S. J.; Seitenzahl, I. R.; Smith, M.; Sollerman, J.; Sullivan, M.; Szegedi, H.; Taddia, F.; Taubenberger, S.; Terreran, G.; Van Soelen, B.; Vos, J.; Walton, N. A.; Wright, D. E.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Yaron, O.; pre="(">ePESSTO,

    2017-10-01

    On 2017 August 17 a binary neutron star coalescence candidate (later designated GW170817) with merger time 12:41:04 UTC was observed through gravitational waves by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors. The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor independently detected a gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A) with a time delay of ∼ 1.7 {{s}} with respect to the merger time. From the gravitational-wave signal, the source was initially localized to a sky region of 31 deg2 at a luminosity distance of {40}-8+8 Mpc and with component masses consistent with neutron stars. The component masses were later measured to be in the range 0.86 to 2.26 {M}ȯ . An extensive observing campaign was launched across the electromagnetic spectrum leading to the discovery of a bright optical transient (SSS17a, now with the IAU identification of AT 2017gfo) in NGC 4993 (at ∼ 40 {{Mpc}}) less than 11 hours after the merger by the One-Meter, Two Hemisphere (1M2H) team using the 1 m Swope Telescope. The optical transient was independently detected by multiple teams within an hour. Subsequent observations targeted the object and its environment. Early ultraviolet observations revealed a blue transient that faded within 48 hours. Optical and infrared observations showed a redward evolution over ∼10 days. Following early non-detections, X-ray and radio emission were discovered at the transient’s position ∼ 9 and ∼ 16 days, respectively, after the merger. Both the X-ray and radio emission likely arise from a physical process that is distinct from the one that generates the UV/optical/near-infrared emission. No ultra-high-energy gamma-rays and no neutrino candidates consistent with the source were found in follow-up searches. These observations support the hypothesis that GW170817 was produced by the merger of two neutron stars in NGC 4993 followed by a short gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A) and a kilonova/macronova powered by the radioactive decay of r-process nuclei synthesized in the ejecta

  2. The long-term rotation dynamics of neutron stars with differentially rotating unmagnetized core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsukov, D. P.; Goglichidze, O. A.; Tsygan, A. I.

    2014-10-01

    We consider the pulsar long-term rotation dynamics taking into account the non-rigidity of neutron star rotation. We restrict our attention to the models with two essential assumptions: (1) crust-core interaction occurs via the viscosity (magnetic coupling is not important); (2) neutron star shape is symmetrical over the magnetic axis. The neutron star core is described by linearized quasi-stationary Newtonian hydrodynamical equations in one-fluid and two-fluid (neutron superfluidity) approximations. It is shown that in this case the pulsar inclination angle evolves to 0° or 90° very quickly. Since such fast evolution seems to contradict the observation data, either neutron stars are triaxial or the magnetic field plays the leading role in crust-core coupling.

  3. Coalescence of Black Hole-Neutron Star Binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Shibata

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We review the current status of general relativistic studies for the coalescence of black hole-neutron star (BH-NS binaries. First, procedures for a solution of BH-NS binaries in quasi-equilibrium circular orbits and the numerical results, such as quasi-equilibrium sequence and mass-shedding limit, of the high-precision computation, are summarized. Then, the current status of numerical-relativity simulations for the merger of BH-NS binaries is described. We summarize our understanding for the merger and/or tidal disruption processes, the criterion for tidal disruption, the properties of the remnant formed after the tidal disruption, gravitational waveform, and gravitational-wave spectrum.

  4. Numerical simulation of binary black hole and neutron star mergers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastaun, W.; Rezzolla, L. [Albert Einstein Institut, Potsdam-Golm (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    One of the last predictions of general relativity that still awaits direct observational confirmation is the existence of gravitational waves. Those fluctuations of the geometry of space and time are expected to travel with the speed of light and are emitted by any accelerating mass. Only the most violent events in the universe, such as mergers of two black holes or neutron stars, produce gravitational waves strong enough to be measured. Even those waves are extremely weak when arriving at Earth, and their detection is a formidable technological challenge. In recent years sufficiently sensitive detectors became operational, such as GEO600, Virgo, and LIGO. They are expected to observe around 40 events per year. To interpret the observational data, theoretical modeling of the sources is a necessity, and requires numerical simulations of the equations of general relativity and relativistic hydrodynamics. Such computations can only be carried out on large scale supercomputers, given that many scenarios need to be simulated, each of which typically occupies hundreds of CPU cores for a week. Our main goal is to predict the gravitational wave signal from the merger of two compact objects. Comparison with future observations will provide important insights into the fundamental forces of nature in regimes that are impossible to recreate in laboratory experiments. The waveforms from binary black hole mergers would allow one to test the correctness of general relativity in previously inaccessible regimes. The signal from binary neutron star mergers will provide input for nuclear physics, because the signal depends strongly on the unknown properties of matter at the ultra high densities inside neutron stars, which cannot be observed in any other astrophysical scenario. Besides mergers, we also want to improve the theoretical models of close encounters between black holes. A gravitational wave detector with even higher sensitivity, the Einstein Telescope, is already in the

  5. Hot Neutron Stars with Hadron-Quark Crossover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Kota; Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Takatsuka, Tatsuyuki

    2016-12-01

    The effects of the hadron-quark crossover on the bulk properties of cold and hot neutron stars (NSs) are studied. We suggested a new phenomenological equation of state (EOS), which interpolates the two phases at around 3 times the nuclear matter density (ρ0), and found that the cold NSs with the gravitational mass larger than 2M⊙ can be sustained. This is in sharp contrast to the case of the first-order hadron-quark transition where the quark matter inevitably leads to soft EOS. The interpolated EOS is also generalized to the supernova matter at finite temperature to describe the hot NSs at birth. The hadron-quark crossover is found to decrease the central temperature of the hot NSs under isentropic condition due to the color degrees of freedom.

  6. Revisiting Field Burial by Accretion onto Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Dipanjan

    2017-09-01

    The surface magnetic field strength of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) is found to be about 4 orders of magnitude lower than that of garden variety radio pulsars (with a spin of {˜ }0.5-5 s and B{˜ }10^{12} G). The exact mechanism of the apparent reduction of field strength in MSPs is still a subject of debate. One of the proposed mechanisms is burial of the surface magnetic field under matter accreted from a companion. In this article we review the recent work on magnetic confinement of accreted matter on neutron stars poles. We present the solutions of the magneto-static equations with a more accurate equation of state of the magnetically confined plasma and discuss its implications for the field burial mechanism.

  7. Coalescence of Black Hole-Neutron Star Binaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Masaru; Taniguchi, Keisuke

    2011-01-01

    We review the current status of general relativistic studies for the coalescence of black hole-neutron star (BH-NS) binaries. First, procedures for a solution of BH-NS binaries in quasi-equilibrium circular orbits and the numerical results, such as quasi-equilibrium sequence and mass-shedding limit, of the high-precision computation, are summarized. Then, the current status of numerical-relativity simulations for the merger of BH-NS binaries is described. We summarize our understanding for the merger and/or tidal disruption processes, the criterion for tidal disruption, the properties of the remnant formed after the tidal disruption, gravitational waveform, and gravitational-wave spectrum.

  8. A radio counterpart to a neutron star merger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinan, G; Corsi, A; Mooley, K P; Hotokezaka, K; Nakar, E; Kasliwal, M M; Kaplan, D L; Frail, D A; Myers, S T; Murphy, T; De, K; Dobie, D; Allison, J R; Bannister, K W; Bhalerao, V; Chandra, P; Clarke, T E; Giacintucci, S; Ho, A Y Q; Horesh, A; Kassim, N E; Kulkarni, S R; Lenc, E; Lockman, F J; Lynch, C; Nichols, D; Nissanke, S; Palliyaguru, N; Peters, W M; Piran, T; Rana, J; Sadler, E M; Singer, L P

    2017-10-16

    Gravitational waves have been detected from a binary neutron star merger event, GW170817. The detection of electromagnetic radiation from the same source has shown that the merger occurred in the outskirts of the galaxy NGC 4993, at a distance of 40 megaparsecs from Earth. We report the detection of a counterpart radio source that appears 16 days after the event, allowing us to diagnose the energetics and environment of the merger. The observed radio emission can be explained by either a collimated ultra-relativistic jet viewed off-axis, or a cocoon of mildly relativistic ejecta. Within 100 days of the merger, the radio light curves will distinguish between these models and very long baseline interferometry will have the capability to directly measure the angular velocity and geometry of the debris. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Pulsar H(alpha) Bowshocks probe Neutron Star Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Roger W.

    2014-08-01

    We propose a KOALA/AAOmega study of southern pulsar bow shocks. These rare, Balmer-dominated, non-radiative shocks provide an ideal laboratory to study the interaction of the relativistic pulsar wind with the ISM. We will cover H(alpha) at high spectral resolution to measure the kinematics of the upstream ISM and the post-shock flow, while the blue channel measures the Balmer decrement and probes for a faint cooling component. These data, with MHD models, allow us to extract the 3D flow geometry and the orientation and asymmetry of the pulsar wind. These data can also measure the pulsar spindown power, thus estimating the neutron star moment of inertia and effecting a fundamental test of dense matter physics.

  10. Binary neutron star mergers: a review of Einstein's richest laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiotti, Luca; Rezzolla, Luciano

    2017-09-01

    In a single process, the merger of binary neutron star systems combines extreme gravity, the copious emission of gravitational waves, complex microphysics and electromagnetic processes, which can lead to astrophysical signatures observable at the largest redshifts. We review here the recent progress in understanding what could be considered Einstein's richest laboratory, highlighting in particular the numerous significant advances of the last decade. Although special attention is paid to the status of models, techniques and results for fully general-relativistic dynamical simulations, a review is also offered on the initial data and advanced simulations with approximate treatments of gravity. Finally, we review the considerable amount of work carried out on the post-merger phase, including black-hole formation, torus accretion onto the merged compact object, the connection with gamma-ray burst engines, ejected material, and its nucleosynthesis.

  11. Pseudo Nambu-Goldstone modes in neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojo, Toru

    2017-06-01

    If quarks and gluons are either gapped or confined in neutron stars (NSs), the most relevant light modes are Nambu-Goldstone (NG) modes. We study NG modes within a schematic quark model whose parameters at high density are constrained by the two-solar mass constraint. Our model has the color-flavor-locked phase at high density, with the effective couplings as strong as in hadron physics. We find that strong coupling effects make NG modes more massive than in weak coupling predictions, and would erase several phenomena caused by the stressed pairings in mismatched Fermi surfaces. For instance, we found that charged kaons, which are dominated by diquark and anti-diquark components, are not light enough to condense at strong coupling. Implications for gravitational wave signals for NS-NS mergers are also briefly discussed.

  12. Pseudo Nambu–Goldstone modes in neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojo, Toru, E-mail: torujj@mail.ccnu.edu.cn

    2017-06-10

    If quarks and gluons are either gapped or confined in neutron stars (NSs), the most relevant light modes are Nambu–Goldstone (NG) modes. We study NG modes within a schematic quark model whose parameters at high density are constrained by the two-solar mass constraint. Our model has the color-flavor-locked phase at high density, with the effective couplings as strong as in hadron physics. We find that strong coupling effects make NG modes more massive than in weak coupling predictions, and would erase several phenomena caused by the stressed pairings in mismatched Fermi surfaces. For instance, we found that charged kaons, which are dominated by diquark and anti-diquark components, are not light enough to condense at strong coupling. Implications for gravitational wave signals for NS–NS mergers are also briefly discussed.

  13. Neutrino Energetics of Black Hole--Neutron Star Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, M. Brett

    2013-04-01

    We present simulations of black hole--neutron star mergers solving the coupled Einstein-hydrodynamics equations, including radiative cooling and chemical evolution. To this end we have added a leakage approximation to the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC). The nuclear matter is modeled by the Lattimer & Swesty equation of state. This first in a set of binary configurations uses a low mass ratio (q=4) and high spin (a=0.9). Our choice of parameters is astrophysically optimistic and provides an approximate upper bound on radiation energetics due to the large (initial mass ˜0.15 M), long-lived (>150 ms) disk. We examine the energy of neutrino radiation, the dynamics of the remnant disk, and the characteristics of the tidally ejected fluid.

  14. Neutron Star Physics in the Square Kilometre Array Era: An Indian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konar, Sushan; Bagchi, Manjari; Bandyopadhyay, Debades; Banik, Sarmistha; Bhattacharya, Dipankar; Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Gangadhara, R. T.; Gopakumar, A.; Gupta, Yashwant; Joshi, B. C.; Maan, Yogesh; Maitra, Chandreyee; Mukherjee, Dipanjan; Pai, Archana; Paul, Biswajit; Ray, Alak K.; Sutaria, Firoza K.

    2016-12-01

    It is an exceptionally opportune time for astrophysics when a number of next-generation mega-instruments are poised to observe the Universe across the entire electromagnetic spectrum with unprecedented data quality. The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) is undoubtedly one of the major components of this scenario. In particular, the SKA is expected to discover tens of thousands of new neutron stars giving a major fillip to a wide range of scientific investigations. India has a sizeable community of scientists working on different aspects of neutron star physics with immediate access to both the uGMRT (an SKA pathfinder) and the recently launched X-ray observatory Astrosat. The current interests of the community largely centre around studies of (a) the generation of neutron stars and the SNe connection, (b) the neutron star population and evolutionary pathways, (c) the evolution of neutron stars in binaries and the magnetic fields, (d) the neutron star equation of state, (e) the radio pulsar emission mechanism, and (f) the radio pulsars as probes of gravitational physics. Most of these studies are the main goals of the SKA first phase, which is likely to be operational in the next four years. This article summarizes the science goals of the Indian neutron star community in the SKA era, with significant focus on coordinated efforts among the SKA and other existing/upcoming instruments.

  15. Fully self-consistent thermal evolution studies of rotating neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negreiros, Rodrigo; Schramm, Stefan; Weber, Fridolin

    2017-07-01

    In this work we study the thermal evolution of rotating, axis-symmetric neutron stars, which are subjected to structural and compositional changes during spin-down. Our aim is to go beyond standard thermal evolution calculations where neutron stars are considered spherically-symmetric and with a static, "frozen-in" composition. Building on previous work, we carry out fully self-consistent thermal evolution calculations where the neutron star has an axis-symmetric, time-dependent structure. Such an approach allows us to consider, during the thermal evolution, changes of the star's geometry as well as its microscopic particle population. As a proof-of-concept, we study the thermal evolution of a neutron star subjected to magnetic braking spin-down. We show that the spin-evolution, combined with the accompanying structural and compositional changes lead to a substantially distinct thermal evolution scenario.

  16. Pinned vorticity in rotating superfluids, with application to neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pines, D.; Shaham, J. (Illinois Univ., Urbana (USA). Dept. of Physics); Alpar, M.A.; Anderson, P.W.

    1981-06-01

    The dynamic consequences of the existence of pinned vorticity in a rotating superfluid are studied by means of a simple model: the behavior of a rotating cylinder which contains a uniform region of either weakly or strongly pinned vorticity and which is being spun up or spun down by an external torque. It is shown that in the case of strong pinning, spin down can lead to periodic jumps (glitches) in the rotation frequency of the cylinder, followed by quasi-oscillatory relaxation, while in the case of weak pinning no glitches occur unless the cylinder is shaken so violently that vortices unpin. We conclude that the giant glitches and post-glitch behavior observed in the Vela pulsar may be explained by the sudden release of some 10% of the strongly pinned vortices in the neutron crust every few years as a result of pulsar spin down. We further suggest that the post-glitch behavior observed in the Crab pulsar can be explained if the macroglitches represent vorticity jumps induced by small starquakes in the weakly pinned vortex region expected in the crust of a young neutron star, and that the differences in ''glitch'' behavior of the Crab, Vela, and older pulsars may be explained on evolutionary grounds.

  17. Neutron Star Matter EOS in RMF with Multi-Body Couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Akira; Tsubakihara, Kohsuke; Harada, Toru

    We investigate the multi-body coupling effects on the neutron star matter equation of state (EOS). By tuning the multi-body coupling constants in the relativistic mean field (RMF) models, microscopic EOSs are well fitted, and smaller neutron star radii R ˜ 12 km are obtained. When the repulsive potential for Λ at high density is assumed to have density dependence similar to that for nucleons, it is possible to support 2M ⊙ neutron stars by hyperonic EOSs, which do not contradict hypernuclear data.

  18. Interplay of antikaons with hyperons in nuclei and in neutron stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muto Takumi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Possible coexistence of antikaons and hyperons in nuclei and in neutron stars is investigated based on the same interaction model within the relativistic mean-field theory. It is shown that the ground state of multi-strangeness nuclei is given by multi-hypernuclei without bound K− mesons. In neutron stars, on the other hand, kaon condensation appears in hyperon-mixed matter for a moderate K− potential depth, but it leads to significant softening of the equation of state. Some repulsive effect at high density should be taken into account so as to be consistent with recent observations of massive neutron stars.

  19. Modified TOV in gravity’s rainbow: properties of neutron stars and dynamical stability conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendi, S.H. [Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz University,Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM),P.O. Box 55134-441, Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bordbar, G.H. [Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz University,Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center for Excellence in Astronomy and Astrophysics (CEAA-RIAAM)-Maragha,P.O. Box 55134-441, Maragha 55177-36698 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Panah, B. Eslam [Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz University,Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Panahiyan, S. [Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz University,Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Physics Department, Shahid Beheshti University,Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-09-09

    In this paper, we consider a spherical symmetric metric to extract the hydrostatic equilibrium equation of stars in (3+1)-dimensional gravity’s rainbow in the presence of cosmological constant. Then, we generalize the hydrostatic equilibrium equation to d-dimensions and obtain the hydrostatic equilibrium equation for this gravity. Also, we obtain the maximum mass of neutron star using the modern equations of state of neutron star matter derived from the microscopic calculations. It is notable that, in this paper, we consider the effects of rainbow functions on the diagrams related to the mass-central mass density (M-ρ{sub c}) relation and also the mass-radius (M-R) relation of neutron star. We also study the effects of rainbow functions on the other properties of neutron star such as the Schwarzschild radius, average density, strength of gravity and gravitational redshift. Then, we apply the cosmological constant to this theory to obtain the diagrams of M-ρ{sub c} (or M-R) and other properties of these stars. Next, we investigate the dynamical stability condition for these stars in gravity’s rainbow and show that these stars have dynamical stability. We also obtain a relation between mass of neutron stars and Planck mass. In addition, we compare obtained results of this theory with the observational data.

  20. Production of unstable heavy neutrinos in proto-neutron stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Albertus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the production of a class of heavy sterile neutrinos νh in proto-neutron stars. The neutrinos, of mass around 50 MeV, have a negligible mixing with the active species but relatively large dimension-5 electromagnetic couplings. In particular, a magnetic dipole moment μ≈10−6 GeV−1 implies that they are thermally produced through e+e−→ν¯hνh in the early phase of the core collapse, whereas a heavy–light transition moment μtr≈10−8 GeV−1 allows their decay νh→νiγ with a lifetime around 10−3 s. This type of electromagnetic couplings has been recently proposed to explain the excess of electron-like events in baseline experiments. We show that the production and decay of these heavy neutrinos would transport energy from the central regions of the star to distances d≈400 km, providing a very efficient mechanism to enhance the supernova shock front and heat the material behind it.

  1. Can SGRs/AXPs Originate from Neutron Star Binaries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Jing Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft gamma repeaters (SGRs and anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs are two groups of enigmatic objects, which have been extensively investigated in past few decades. Based on the ample information about their timing behaviors, spectra, and variability properties, it was proposed that SGRs/AXPs are isolated neutron stars (NSs with extremely strong magnetic fields, the so-called magnetars. Nonetheless, some alternative models are probably equally convincing such as those proposing that they are accreting NSs with a fall-back disk or rotation-powered magnetized and massive white dwarfs. The nature and nurture of SGRs/AXPs remain controversial. In this paper, we propose that SGRs/AXPs can, alternatively, originate from normal NSs in binary systems, which resorts to the reexplosion of normal NS induced by instant contraction of the massive star envelope in a Thorne-Żytkow object (TZO. The spin-period clustering is due to either the brake of a slowly rotating envelope or the frictional drag during the common-envelope phase.

  2. The High-Energy Polarization-Limiting Radius of Neutron Star Magnetospheres 1, Slowly Rotating Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Heyl, J S; Lloyd, D; CERN. Geneva; Heyl, Jeremy S.; Shaviv, Nir J.; Lloyd, Don

    2003-01-01

    In the presence of strong magnetic fields, the vacuum becomes a birefringent medium. We show that this QED effect decouples the polarization modes of photons leaving the NS surface. Both the total intensity and the intensity in each of the two modes is preserved along a ray's path through the neutron-star magnetosphere. We analyze the consequences that this effect has on aligning the observed polarization vectors across the image of the stellar surface to generate large net polarizations. Counter to previous predictions, we show that the thermal radiation of NSs should be highly polarized even in the optical. When detected, this polarization will be the first demonstration of vacuum birefringence. It could be used as a tool to prove the high magnetic field nature of AXPs and it could also be used to constrain physical NS parameters, such as $R/M$, to which the net polarization is sensitive.

  3. Einstein@Home Finds a Double Neutron Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-12-01

    Have you been contributing your computer idle time to the Einstein@Home project? If so, youre partly responsible for the programs recent discovery of a new double-neutron-star system that will be key to learning about general relativity and stellar evolution.The 305-m Arecibo Radio Telescope, built into the landscape at Arecibo, Puerto Rico. [NOAO/AURA/NSF/H. Schweiker/WIYN]The Hunt for PulsarsObserving binary systems containing two neutron stars and in particular, measuring the timing of the pulses when one or both companions is a pulsar can provide highly useful tests of general relativity and binary stellar evolution. Unfortunately, these systems are quite rare: of 2500 known radio pulsars, only 14 of them are in double-neutron-starbinaries.To find more systems like these, we perform large-scale, untargeted radio-pulsar surveys like the ongoing Pulsar-ALFA survey conducted with the enormous 305-m radio telescope at Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico. But combing through these data for the signature of a highly accelerated pulsar (the acceleration is a clue that its in a compact binary) is very computationally expensive.PSR J1913+1102s L-band pulse profile, created by phase-aligning and summing all observations. [Adapted from Lazarus et al. 2016]To combat this problem, the Einstein@Home project was developed. Einstein@Home allows anyone to volunteer their personal computers idle time to help run the analysis of survey data in the search for pulsars. In a recent publication led by Patrick Lazarus (Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy), the Einstein@Home team announced the discovery of the pulsar PSR J1913+1102 a member of what seems to be a brand new double-neutron-starsystem.An Intriguing DiscoveryLazarus and collaborators followed up on the discovery to obtain timing measurements of the pulsar, which they found to have a spin period of 27.3 ms. They measured PSR J1913+1102 to be in a 4.95-hr, nearly circular (e 0.09) binary orbit with a massive companion

  4. Signatures of hypermassive neutron star lifetimes on r-process nucleosynthesis in the disc ejecta from neutron star mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippuner, Jonas; Fernández, Rodrigo; Roberts, Luke F.; Foucart, Francois; Kasen, Daniel; Metzger, Brian D.; Ott, Christian D.

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements in the winds ejected by accretion discs formed in neutron star mergers. We compute the element formation in disc outflows from hypermassive neutron star (HMNS) remnants of variable lifetime, including the effect of angular momentum transport in the disc evolution. We employ long-term axisymmetric hydrodynamic disc simulations to model the ejecta, and compute r-process nucleosynthesis with tracer particles using a nuclear reaction network containing ˜8000 species. We find that the previously known strong correlation between HMNS lifetime, ejected mass and average electron fraction in the outflow is directly related to the amount of neutrino irradiation on the disc, which dominates mass ejection at early times in the form of a neutrino-driven wind. Production of lanthanides and actinides saturates at short HMNS lifetimes (≲10 ms), with additional ejecta contributing to a blue optical kilonova component for longer-lived HMNSs. We find good agreement between the abundances from the disc outflow alone and the solar r-process distribution only for short HMNS lifetimes (≲10 ms). For longer lifetimes, the rare-earth and third r-process peaks are significantly underproduced compared to the solar pattern, requiring additional contributions from the dynamical ejecta. The nucleosynthesis signature from a spinning black hole (BH) can only overlap with that from an HMNS of moderate lifetime (≲60 ms). Finally, we show that angular momentum transport not only contributes with a late-time outflow component, but that it also enhances the neutrino-driven component by moving material to shallower regions of the gravitational potential, in addition to providing additional heating.

  5. A Search for Black Holes and Neutron Stars in the Kepler Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Jerome; Short, Donald; Welsh, William; Windmiller, Gur; Dabney, David

    2018-01-01

    Black holes and neutron stars represent the final evolutionary stages of the most massive stars. In addition to their use as probes into the evolution of massive stars, black holes and neutron stars are ideal laboratories to test General Relativity in the strong field limit. The number of neutron stars and black holes in the Milky Way is not precisely known, but there are an estimated one billion neutron stars in the galaxy based on the observed numbers of radio pulsars. The number of black holes is about 100 million, based on the behavior of the Initial Mass Function at high stellar masses.All of the known steller-mass black holes (and a fair number of neutron stars) are in ``X-ray binaries'' that were discovered because of their luminous X-ray emission. The requirement to be in an X-ray-emitting binary places a strong observational bias on the discovery of stellar-mass black holes. Thus the 21 known black hole binaries represent only the very uppermost tip of the population iceberg.We have conducted an optical survey using Kepler data designed to uncover black holes and neutron stars in both ``quiescent'' X-ray binaries and ``pre-contact'' X-ray binaries. We discuss how the search was conducted, including how potentially interesting light curves were classified and the how variability types were identified. Although we did not find any convincing candidate neutron star or black hole systems, we did find a few noteworthy binary systems, including two binaries that contain low-mass stars with unusually low albedos.

  6. Relativistic Disc Line: A Tool to Constrain Neutron Star Equation of State Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sudip

    2017-09-01

    Relativistic iron Kα spectral emission line from the inner disc of a neutron star Low-Mass X-ray Binary (LMXB) was first detected in 2007. This discovery opened up new ways to probe strong gravity and dense matter. The past decade has seen detections of such a line from many neutron star LMXBs, and confirmation of this line from the same source with several X-ray satellites. These have firmly established the new field of relativistic disc line from neutron star systems in only a decade or so. Fitting the shape of such a line with an appropriate general relativistic model provides the accretion disc inner edge radius to the stellar mass ratio. In this review, we briefly discuss how an accurate measurement of this ratio with a future larger area X-ray instrument can be used to constrain neutron star equation of state models.

  7. Surface emission from neutron stars and implications for the physics of their interiors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Feryal

    2013-01-01

    Neutron stars are associated with diverse physical phenomena that take place in conditions characterized by ultrahigh densities as well as intense gravitational, magnetic and radiation fields. Understanding the properties and interactions of matter in these regimes remains one of the challenges in compact object astrophysics. Photons emitted from the surfaces of neutron stars provide direct probes of their structure, composition and magnetic fields. In this review, I discuss in detail the physics that governs the properties of emission from the surfaces of neutron stars and their various observational manifestations. I present the constraints on neutron star radii, core and crust composition, and magnetic field strength and topology obtained from studies of their broadband spectra, evolution of thermal luminosity, and the profiles of pulsations that originate on their surfaces.

  8. Spontaneous scalarization with an extremely massive field and heavy neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisaki, Soichiro; Suyama, Teruaki

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the internal structure and the mass-radius relation of neutron stars in a recently proposed scalar-tensor theory dubbed asymmetron in which a massive scalar field undergoes spontaneous scalarization inside neutron stars. We focus on the case where the Compton wavelength is shorter than 10 km, which has not been investigated in the literature. By solving the modified Einstein equations, either purely numerically or by partially using a semianalytic method, we find that not only the weakening of gravity by spontaneous scalarization but also the scalar force affect the internal structure significantly in the massive case. We also find that the maximum mass of neutron stars is larger for certain parameter sets than that in general relativity and reaches 2 M⊙ even if the effect of strange hadrons is taken into account. There is even a range of parameters where the maximum mass of neutron stars largely exceeds the threshold that violates the causality bound in general relativity.

  9. Gravitational radiation and gamma-ray bursts from accreting neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosquera Cuesta, H.J.; Araujo, J.C.N. de; Aguiar, O.D. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Astrofisica]. E-mail: herman@das.inpe.br; jcarlos@das.inpe.br; odylio@das.inpe.br; Horvath, J.E. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. Astronomico e Geofisico]. E-mail: foton@orion.iagusp.usp.br

    2000-07-01

    It is well known that hydrodynamic instabilities can be induced in rapidly rotating low magnetic field neutron stars, which accrete mass from a companion in both high and low mass X-ray binaries. (author)

  10. Measurement of Neutron Star Radii with X-ray Binaries and Recycled Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, Slavko

    2014-03-01

    Detailed modeling of the observed surface X-ray radiation from neutron stars can in principle reveal their interior structure, thereby constraining the state of matter at the most extreme densities. This talk will provide a summary of on-going observational efforts with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and XMM-Newton towards this end, with a focus on two particular varieties of neutron stars - thermally-emitting quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries and ``recycled'' millisecond pulsars. An overview of future prospects for measuring the elusive neutron star equation of state using forthcoming X-ray missions such as the Neutron Star Interior Composition ExploreR (NICER) and Athena+ will also be presented.

  11. Measuring Neutron Star Mass and Radius with Three Mass-Radius Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, C. M.; Yin, H. X.; Kojima, Y.; Chang, H. K.; Xu, R. X.; Li, X. D.; Zhang, B.; Kiziltan, B.

    2006-01-01

    We propose to determine the mass and the radius of a neutron star (NS) using three measurable mass-radius relationships, namely the ``apparent'' radius inferred from neutron star thermal emission, the gravitational redshift inferred from the absorption lines, as well as the averaged stellar mass density inferred from the orbital Keplerian frequency derived from the kilohertz quasi periodic oscillation (kHz QPO) data. We apply the method to constrain the NS mass and the radius of the X-ray sou...

  12. Exploring tidal effects of coalescing binary neutron stars in numerical relativity II: Longterm simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Hotokezaka, Kenta; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Okawa, Hirotada; Shibata, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    We perform new longterm (15-16 orbits) simulations of coalescing binary neutron stars in numerical relativity using an updated Einstein's equation solver, employing low-eccentricity initial data, and modeling the neutron stars by a piecewise polytropic equation of state. A convergence study shows that our new results converge more rapidly than the third order and using the determined convergence order, we construct an extrapolated waveform for which the estimated total phase error should be l...

  13. Lower limit on radius as a function of mass for neutron stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendenning, N K

    2000-08-07

    A model-independent limit on neutron star radius as a function of mass based only on well-accepted principles is derived. We discuss our limit in connection with a recent interpretation of x-ray pulsations from SAX J1808.4-3658 as indicating a strange-star candidate, and show that this object can also be a normal neutron star, though one whose central core has very high density. The most plausible high-density phase of hadronic matter, which is also expected to be very compressible, is quark matter. So an alternative to the strange star interpretation of SAX J1808.4-3658 is that it is a hybrid neutron star.

  14. Systematic Analysis of the Effects of Mode Conversion on Thermal Radiation from Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatabe, Akihiro; Yamada, Shoichi

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we systematically calculate the polarization in soft X-rays emitted from magnetized neutron stars, which are expected to be observed by next-generation X-ray satellites. Magnetars are one of the targets for these observations. This is because thermal radiation is normally observed in the soft X-ray band, and it is thought to be linearly polarized because of different opacities for two polarization modes of photons in the magnetized atmosphere of neutron stars and the dielectric properties of the vacuum in strong magnetic fields. In their study, Taverna et al. illustrated how strong magnetic fields influence the behavior of the polarization observables for radiation propagating in vacuo without addressing a precise, physical emission model. In this paper, we pay attention to the conversion of photon polarization modes that can occur in the presence of an atmospheric layer above the neutron star surface, computing the polarization angle and fraction and systematically changing the magnetic field strength, radii of the emission region, temperature, mass, and radii of the neutron stars. We confirmed that if plasma is present, the effects of mode conversion cannot be neglected when the magnetic field is relatively weak, B∼ {10}13 {{G}}. Our results indicate that strongly magnetized (B≳ {10}14 {{G}}) neutron stars are suitable to detect polarizations, but not-so-strongly magnetized (B∼ {10}13 {{G}}) neutron stars will be the ones to confirm the mode conversion.

  15. The influence of antikaon condensations on nucleon 1S0 superfluidity in neutron star matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Huang, Xiu Lin; Zhang, Xiao Jun; Yu, Zi; Fan, Cun Bo; Ding, Wen Bo; Liu, Cheng Zhi

    2018-03-01

    The properties of neutron and proton 1S0 superfluidity are studied within the relativistic mean field and the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theories by taking the effects of K- and \\bar{K}0 condensations into account in neutron star matter without the hyperon degrees of freedom. It is found that antikaon condensations change the Fermi momenta, the effective masses and the single particle energies of nucleons in neutron star matter. These changes lead to a strong suppression of the neutron 1S0 superfluidity and an obvious enhancement of the proton 1S0 superfluidity in neutron star matter, respectively. In particular, the neutron and proton 1S0 pairing gaps are gradually shrinking with the optical potential of antikaons from -80 to -130 MeV. And antikaon condensations have little influence on the neutron 1S0 superfluid range, however, they have been markedly downsized the proton 1S0 superfluid range as the deepening of the optical potential of antikaons in neutron star matter. We also found that the nucleon 1S0 superfluidity and K- condensations within the scope of above optical potential of antikaons can occur in the core of PSR J1614-2230 and PSR J0348+0432 at the same time. Whereas \\bar{K}0 condensations only occur in the two pulsars when the range of optical potential of antikaons is from -100 to -130 MeV.

  16. Symmetry energy and composition of the outer crust of neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantina, A. F.; Chamel, N.; Pearson, J. M.; Goriely, S.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we study the role of the symmetry energy on the composition of the outer crust of a neutron star. Although some correlations can be observed at the neutron-drip transition, the composition of the outer crust is mainly sensitive to the details of the nuclear structure far from the valley of stability rather than to the symmetry energy only.

  17. Shape of Nuclei in the Crust of Neutron Star : Nuclear Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Masa-aki, HASHIMOTO; Hironori, SEKI; Masami, YAMADA; Department of Physics and Applied Physics, Waseda University; Science and Engineering Research Laboratory, Waseda University

    1984-01-01

    The stable nuclear shape in very dense matter composed of protons, neutrons and electrons is investigated. It is shown that, as the density of the matter increases from 10^ to 10^ g cm^, the stable nuclear shape is likely to change successively from sphere to cylinder, board, cylindrical hole and spherical hole before uniform neutron-star matter is formed.

  18. Demonstrating the likely neutron star nature of five M31 globular cluster sources with Swift-NuSTAR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maccarone, Thomas J.; Yukita, Mihoko; Hornschemeier, Ann

    2016-01-01

    for which neutron stars are in hard states. We show that these two sources are likely to be Z-sources (i.e. low magnetic field neutron stars accreting near their Eddington limits), or perhaps bright atoll sources (low magnetic field neutron stars which are just a bit fainter than this level) on the basis...... are also likely to be bright neutron star X-ray binaries, rather than black hole X-ray binaries. We discuss why it should already have been realized that it was unlikely that these objects were black holes on the basis of their being persistent sources, and we re-examine past work which suggested......We present the results of a joint Swift-NuSTAR spectroscopy campaign on M31. We focus on the five brightest globular cluster X-ray sources in our fields. Two of these had previously been argued to be black hole candidates on the basis of apparent hard-state spectra at luminosities above those...

  19. Strongly magnetized strange baryonic matter in neutron star

    CERN Document Server

    Miyazaki, K

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the strongly magnetized strange baryonic matter in a relativistic mean-field theory. We first take into account the hidden strange mesons and the field-dependent meson-baryon coupling constants. In low-density region the strongly magnetized neutron star (NS) matter is nearly iso-symmetric. The equation of state (EOS) therefore becomes softer than that of the normal NS matter. Because the magnetic field increases the threshold densities of \\Lambda and \\Xi^-, the EOS becomes stiffer in high-density region. However, the magnetic field has little effect on the effective masses of \\Lambda and \\Sigma. Taking into account the anomalous magnetic moments (AMMs) of baryons, the EOS becomes much stiffer although the threshold densities of \\Sigma^+, \\Sigma^0 and \\Xi^0 decrease largely. The density dependence of the effective mass of \\Xi precisely reflects the EOS while the effective masses of \\Lambda and \\Sigma are strongly influenced by the AMMs of nucleons th! rough the scalar mean-field.

  20. Discovery of a Highly Relativistic Double Neutron Star Binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Shami; Stovall, Kevin; PALFA Collaboration, Paul Demorest, Nihan Pol

    2018-01-01

    We report the discovery of a double neutron star (DNS) binary system, PSR J1946+2052, in Arecibo L-Band Feed Array Pulsar Survey (PALFA) observations. PSR J1946+2052 is a 17-ms pulsar in a 1.88-hour, eccentric (e = 0.06) orbit with a 1.2 solar mass companion. We have localized the pulsar to a precision of 0.09 arcseconds using a new phase binning mode at the Jansky Very Large Array. The improved position has enabled a measurement of the pulsar spin period derivative of 9E-19 s/s; the low inferred magnetic field strength at the surface of 4E+9 Gauss indicates that the pulsar has been recycled. Among all known DNS systems, PSR J1946+2052 has the shortest orbital period, and currently radiates ~13% of a solar luminosity in gravitational wave power. Its estimated time to merger is only 45.5 MYr, the shortest known, and at that time it will display the largest spin effects of any such system discovered to date. We have also measured the advance of periastron passage for this system, 25.6 +/- 0.3 degrees per year, resulting in a total system mass measurement of 2.50 +/- 0.04 solar masses.

  1. Comparing Neutron Star Kicks to Supernova Remnant Asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland-Ashford, Tyler; Lopez, Laura A. [The Ohio State University Department of Astronomy, 140 W 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43201 (United States); Auchettl, Katie [The Ohio State University Center for Cosmology and Astro-particle Physics, 191 West Woodruff Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Temim, Tea [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico, E-mail: holland-ashford.1@osu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2017-07-20

    Supernova explosions are inherently asymmetric and can accelerate new-born neutron stars (NSs) to hundreds of km s{sup −1}. Two prevailing theories to explain NS kicks are ejecta asymmetries (e.g., conservation of momentum between NS and ejecta) and anisotropic neutrino emission. Observations of supernova remnants (SNRs) can give us insights into the mechanism that generates these NS kicks. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between NS kick velocities and the X-ray morphologies of 18 SNRs observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Röntgen Satellite ( ROSAT ). We measure SNR asymmetries using the power-ratio method (a multipole expansion technique), focusing on the dipole, quadrupole, and octupole power ratios. Our results show no correlation between the magnitude of the power ratios and NS kick velocities, but we find that for Cas A and G292.0+1.8, whose emission traces the ejecta distribution, their NSs are preferentially moving opposite to the bulk of the X-ray emission. In addition, we find a similar result for PKS 1209–51, CTB 109, and Puppis A; however, their emission is dominated by circumstellar/interstellar material, so their asymmetries may not reflect their ejecta distributions. Our results are consistent with the theory that NS kicks are a consequence of ejecta asymmetries as opposed to anisotropic neutrino emission. In the future, additional observations to measure NS proper motions within ejecta-dominated SNRs are necessary to robustly constrain the NS kick mechanism.

  2. Mass transfer in white dwarf-neutron star binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrick, Alexey; Davies, Melvyn B.; Church, Ross P.

    2017-05-01

    We perform hydrodynamic simulations of mass transfer in binaries that contain a white dwarf and a neutron star (WD-NS binaries), and measure the specific angular momentum of material lost from the binary in disc winds. By incorporating our results within a long-term evolution model, we measure the long-term stability of mass transfer in these binaries. We find that only binaries containing helium white dwarfs (WDs) with masses less than a critical mass of MWD, crit = 0.2 M⊙ undergo stable mass transfer and evolve into ultracompact X-ray binaries. Systems with higher mass WDs experience unstable mass transfer, which leads to tidal disruption of the WD. Our low critical mass compared to the standard jet-only model of mass-loss arises from the efficient removal of angular momentum in the mechanical disc winds, which develop at highly super-Eddington mass-transfer rates. We find that the eccentricities expected for WD-NS binaries when they come into contact do not affect the loss of angular momentum, and can only affect the long-term evolution if they change on shorter time-scales than the mass-transfer rate. Our results are broadly consistent with the observed numbers of both ultracompact X-ray binaries and radio pulsars with WD companions. The observed calcium-rich gap transients are consistent with the merger rate of unstable systems with higher mass WDs.

  3. Effective action model of dynamically scalarizing binary neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennett, Noah; Shao, Lijing; Steinhoff, Jan

    2017-10-01

    Gravitational waves can be used to test general relativity (GR) in the highly dynamical strong-field regime. Scalar-tensor theories of gravity are natural alternatives to GR that can manifest nonperturbative phenomena in neutron stars (NSs). One such phenomenon, known as dynamical scalarization, occurs in coalescing binary NS systems. Ground-based gravitational-wave detectors may be sensitive to this effect, and thus could potentially further constrain scalar-tensor theories. This type of analysis requires waveform models of dynamically scalarizing systems; in this work we devise an analytic model of dynamical scalarization using an effective action approach. For the first time, we compute the Newtonian-order Hamiltonian describing the dynamics of a dynamically scalarizing binary in a self-consistent manner. Despite only working to leading order, the model accurately predicts the frequency at which dynamical scalarization occurs. In conjunction with Landau theory, our model allows one to definitively establish dynamical scalarization as a second-order phase transition. We also connect dynamical scalarization to the related phenomena of spontaneous scalarization and induced scalarization; these phenomena are naturally encompassed into our effective action approach.

  4. Hydrodynamics of rapidly rotating superfluid neutron stars with mutual friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passamonti, A.; Andersson, N.

    2011-05-01

    We study the hydrodynamics of superfluid neutron stars, focusing on the nature of the oscillation spectrum, the effect of mutual friction force on the oscillations and the spin-up phase of pulsar glitches. We linearize the dynamical equations of a Newtonian two-fluid model for rapidly rotating backgrounds. In the axisymmetric equilibrium configurations, the two-fluid components corotate and are in β-equilibrium. We use analytical equations of state that generate stratified and non-stratified stellar models, which enable us to study the coupling between the dynamical degrees of freedom of the system. By means of time-evolutions of the linearized dynamical equations, we determine the spectrum of axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric oscillation modes, accounting for the contribution of the gravitational potential perturbations, that is, without adopting the Cowling approximation. We study the mutual friction damping of the superfluid oscillations and consider the effects of the non-dissipative part of the mutual friction force on the mode frequencies. We also provide technical details and relevant tests for the hydrodynamical model of pulsar glitches discussed by Sidery, Passamonti & Andersson. In particular, we describe the method used to generate the initial data that mimic the pre-glitch state and derive the equations that are used to extract the gravitational-wave signal.

  5. Gravitational waves and mass ejecta from binary neutron star mergers: Effect of the stars' rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, Tim; Ujevic, Maximiliano; Tichy, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    We present new (3+1) dimensional numerical relativity simulations of the binary neutron star (BNS) mergers that take into account the NS spins. We consider different spin configurations, aligned or antialigned to the orbital angular momentum, for equal and unequal mass BNS and for two equations of state. All the simulations employ quasiequilibrium circular initial data in the constant rotational velocity approach, i.e. they are consistent with Einstein equations and in hydrodynamical equilibrium. We study the NS rotation effect on the energetics, the gravitational waves (GWs) and on the possible electromagnetic (EM) emission associated to dynamical mass ejecta. For dimensionless spin magnitudes of $\\chi\\sim0.1$ we find that spin-orbit interactions and also spin-induced-quadrupole deformations affect the late-inspiral-merger dynamics. The latter is, however, dominated by finite-size effects. Spin (tidal) effects contribute to GW phase differences up to 5 (20) radians accumulated during the last eight orbits to...

  6. Constraining gravity with hadron physics: neutron stars, modified gravity and gravitational waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llanes-Estrada Felipe J.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The finding of Gravitational Waves (GW by the aLIGO scientific and VIRGO collaborations opens opportunities to better test and understand strong interactions, both nuclear-hadronic and gravitational. Assuming General Relativity holds, one can constrain hadron physics at a neutron star. But precise knowledge of the Equation of State and transport properties in hadron matter can also be used to constrain the theory of gravity itself. I review a couple of these opportunities in the context of modified f (R gravity, the maximum mass of neutron stars, and progress in the Equation of State of neutron matter from the chiral effective field theory of QCD.

  7. Probing the nuclear equation of state by heavy-ion reactions and neutron star properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, P.K.; Cassing, W.; Thoma, M.H. [Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik, Univ. Giessen (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    We discuss the nuclear equation of state (EOS) using a non-linear relativistic transport model. From the baryon flow for Ni + Ni as well as Au + Au systems we find that the strength of the vector potential has to be reduced at high density or at high relative momenta to describe the experimental flow data at 1-2 A GeV. We use the same dynamical model to calculate the nuclear EOS and then employ this EOS to neutron star structure calculations. We consider the core of the neutron star to be composed of neutrons with an admixture of protons, electrons, muons, sigmas and lambdas at zero temperature. We find that the nuclear equation of state is softer at high densities and hence the maximum mass and the radius of the neutron star are in the observable range of M {proportional_to} 1.7 M{sub s}un and R = 8 km, respectively. (orig.)

  8. Plumbing neutron stars to new depths with the binding energy of the exotic nuclide 82Zn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R N; Beck, D; Blaum, K; Böhm, Ch; Borgmann, Ch; Breitenfeldt, M; Chamel, N; Goriely, S; Herfurth, F; Kowalska, M; Kreim, S; Lunney, D; Manea, V; Minaya Ramirez, E; Naimi, S; Neidherr, D; Rosenbusch, M; Schweikhard, L; Stanja, J; Wienholtz, F; Zuber, K

    2013-01-25

    Modeling the composition of neutron-star crusts depends strongly on binding energies of neutron-rich nuclides near the N = 50 and N = 82 shell closures. Using a recent development of time-of-flight mass spectrometry for on-line purification of radioactive ion beams to access more exotic species, we have determined for the first time the mass of (82)Zn with the ISOLTRAP setup at the ISOLDE-CERN facility. With a robust neutron-star model based on nuclear energy-density-functional theory, we solve the general relativistic Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations and calculate the neutron-star crust composition based on the new experimental mass. The composition profile is not only altered but now constrained by experimental data deeper into the crust than before.

  9. High space velocities of single radio pulsars versus low orbital eccentricities and masses of double neutron stars: Evidence for two different neutron star formation mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, E.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Radio pulsars tend to be high-velocity objects, which implies that the majority of them received a velocity kick of several hundreds of km s(-1) at birth. However, six of the eight known double neutron stars in the galactic disk have quite low orbital eccentricities (0.085-0.27), indicating - taking

  10. Nuclear-powered millisecond pulsars and the maximum spin frequency of neutron stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Deepto; Morgan, Edward H; Muno, Michael P; Galloway, Duncan K; Wijnands, Rudy; Van Der Klis, Michiel; Markwardt, Craig B

    2003-07-03

    Millisecond pulsars are neutron stars that are thought to have been spun-up by mass accretion from a stellar companion. It is not known whether there is a natural brake for this process, or if it continues until the centrifugal breakup limit is reached at submillisecond periods. Many neutron stars that are accreting mass from a companion star exhibit thermonuclear X-ray bursts that last tens of seconds, caused by unstable nuclear burning on their surfaces. Millisecond-period brightness oscillations during bursts from ten neutron stars (as distinct from other rapid X-ray variability that is also observed) are thought to measure the stellar spin, but direct proof of a rotational origin has been lacking. Here we report the detection of burst oscillations at the known spin frequency of an accreting millisecond pulsar, and we show that these oscillations always have the same rotational phase. This firmly establishes burst oscillations as nuclear-powered pulsations tracing the spin of accreting neutron stars, corroborating earlier evidence. The distribution of spin frequencies of the 11 nuclear-powered pulsars cuts off well below the breakup frequency for most neutron-star models, supporting theoretical predictions that gravitational radiation losses can limit accretion torques in spinning up millisecond pulsars.

  11. Gravitationally redshifted absorption lines in the X-ray burst spectra of a neutron star.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottam, J; Paerels, F; Mendez, M

    2002-11-07

    The fundamental properties of neutron stars provide a direct test of the equation of state of cold nuclear matter, a relationship between pressure and density that is determined by the physics of the strong interactions between the particles that constitute the star. The most straightforward method of determining these properties is by measuring the gravitational redshift of spectral lines produced in the neutron star photosphere. The equation of state implies a mass-radius relation, while a measurement of the gravitational redshift at the surface of a neutron star provides a direct constraint on the mass-to-radius ratio. Here we report the discovery of significant absorption lines in the spectra of 28 bursts of the low-mass X-ray binary EXO0748-676. We identify the most significant features with the Fe XXVI and XXV n = 2-3 and O VIII n = 1-2 transitions, all with a redshift of z = 0.35, identical within small uncertainties for the respective transitions. For an astrophysically plausible range of masses (M approximately 1.3-2.0 solar masses; refs 2-5), this value is completely consistent with models of neutron stars composed of normal nuclear matter, while it excludes some models in which the neutron stars are made of more exotic matter.

  12. Neutron Stars and Black Holes New clues from Chandra and XMM-Newton

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit

    2002-01-01

    Neutron stars and black holes, the most compact astrophysical objects, have become observable in many different ways during the last few decades. We will first review the phenomenology and properties of neutron stars and black holes (stellar and supermassive) as derived from multiwavelength observatories. Recently much progress has been made by means of the new powerful X-ray observatories Chandra and XMM-Newton which provide a substantial increase in sensitivity as well as spectral and angular resolution compared with previous satellites like ROSAT and ASCA. We shall discuss in more detail two recent topics: (1) The attempts to use X-ray spectroscopy for measuring the radii of neutron stars which depend on the equation of state at supranuclear densities. Have quark stars been detected? (2) The diagnostics of the strong gravity regions around supermassive black holes using X-ray spectroscopy.

  13. Demonstrating the Likely Neutron Star Nature of Five M31 Globular Cluster Sources with Swift-NuSTAR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccarone, Thomas J.; Yukita, Mihoko; Hornschemeier, Ann; Lehmer, Bret D.; Antoniou, Vallia; Ptak, Andrew; Wik, Daniel R.; Zezas, Andreas; Boyd, Padi; Kennea, Jamie; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a joint Swift-NuSTAR spectroscopy campaign on M31. We focus on the five brightest globular cluster X-ray sources in our fields. Two of these had previously been argued to be black hole candidates on the basis of apparent hard-state spectra at luminosities above those for which neutron stars are in hard states. We show that these two sources are likely to be Z-sources (i.e. low magnetic field neutron stars accreting near their Eddington limits), or perhaps bright atoll sources (low magnetic field neutron stars which are just a bit fainter than this level) on the basis of simultaneous Swift and NuSTAR spectra which cover a broader range of energies. These new observations reveal spectral curvature above 6-8 keV that would be hard to detect without the broader energy coverage the NuSTAR data provide relative to Chandra and XMM-Newton. We show that the other three sources are also likely to be bright neutron star X-ray binaries, rather than black hole X-ray binaries. We discuss why it should already have been realized that it was unlikely that these objects were black holes on the basis of their being persistent sources, and we re-examine past work which suggested that tidal capture products would be persistently bright X-ray emitters. We discuss how this problem is likely due to neglecting disc winds in older work that predict which systems will be persistent and which will be transient.

  14. A strongly heated neutron star in the transient z source MAXI J0556-332

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homan, Jeroen; Remillard, Ronald A. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue 37-582D, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Fridriksson, Joel K.; Wijnands, Rudy [Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Cackett, Edward M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, 666 W. Hancock St., Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Degenaar, Nathalie [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Linares, Manuel [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, c/ Vía Láctea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Lin, Dacheng, E-mail: jeroen@space.mit.edu [Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States)

    2014-11-10

    We present Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Swift observations of the quiescent neutron star in the transient low-mass X-ray binary MAXI J0556-332. Observations of the source made during outburst (with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer) reveal tracks in its X-ray color-color and hardness-intensity diagrams that closely resemble those of the neutron-star Z sources, suggesting that MAXI J0556-332 had near- or super-Eddington luminosities for a large part of its ∼16 month outburst. A comparison of these diagrams with those of other Z sources suggests a source distance of 46 ± 15 kpc. Fits to the quiescent spectra of MAXI J0556-332 with a neutron-star atmosphere model (with or without a power-law component) result in distance estimates of 45 ± 3 kpc, for a neutron-star radius of 10 km and a mass of 1.4 M {sub ☉}. The spectra show the effective surface temperature of the neutron star decreasing monotonically over the first ∼500 days of quiescence, except for two observations that were likely affected by enhanced low-level accretion. The temperatures we obtain for the fits that include a power law (kT{sub eff}{sup ∞} = 184-308 eV) are much higher than those seen for any other neutron star heated by accretion, while the inferred cooling (e-folding) timescale (∼200 days) is similar to other sources. Fits without a power law yield higher temperatures (kT{sub eff}{sup ∞} = 190-336 eV) and a shorter e-folding time (∼160 days). Our results suggest that the heating of the neutron-star crust in MAXI J0556-332 was considerably more efficient than for other systems, possibly indicating additional or more efficient shallow heat sources in its crust.

  15. Expansion of Magnetic Neutron Stars in an Energy (in)Dependent Spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslam Panah, B.; Bordbar, G. H.; Hendi, S. H.; Ruffini, R.; Rezaei, Z.; Moradi, R.

    2017-10-01

    Regarding the strong magnetic field of neutron stars and the high-energy regime scenario that is based on the high-curvature region near the compact objects, one is motivated to study magnetic neutron stars in an energy-dependent spacetime. In this paper, we show that such a strong magnetic field and energy dependency of spacetime have considerable effects on the properties of neutron stars. We examine the variations of maximum mass and related radius, Schwarzschild radius, average density, gravitational redshift, Kretschmann scalar, and Buchdahl theorem due to the magnetic field and energy dependency of the metric. First, it will be shown that the maximum mass and radius of neutron stars are increasing functions of the magnetic field, while average density, redshift, strength of gravity, and Kretschmann scalar are decreasing functions of it. These results are due to a repulsive-like force behavior for the magnetic field. Next, the effects of gravity’s rainbow will be studied, and it will be shown that by increasing the rainbow function, the neutron stars could enjoy an expansion in their structures. Then, we obtain a new relation for the upper mass limit of a static spherical neutron star with uniform density in gravity’s rainbow (Buchdahl limit) in which such an upper limit is modified as {M}{eff}< \\tfrac{4{c}2R}{9G}. In addition, stability and energy conditions for the equation of state of neutron star matter are investigated, and a comparison with empirical results is done. It is notable that the numerical study in this paper is conducted by using the lowest-order constrained variational approach in the presence of a magnetic field employing AV 18 potential.

  16. 363. WE-Heraeus seminar on neutron stars and pulsars - 40 years after the discovery. Posters and contributed talks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, W.; Huang, H.H. (eds.)

    2007-07-01

    The following topics were dealt with: X-ray observation of pulsars, gamma-ray observation of pulsars, radio observations of pulsars, theory of neutron stars and pulsars, AXPs, SGRs, and strange stars, gravitayional waves, analysis tools with software. (HSI)

  17. The Environment of the Binary Neutron Star Merger GW170817

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levan, A. J.; Lyman, J. D.; Tanvir, N. R.; Hjorth, J.; Mandel, I.; Stanway, E. R.; Steeghs, D.; Fruchter, A. S.; Troja, E.; Schrøder, S. L.; Wiersema, K.; Bruun, S. H.; Cano, Z.; Cenko, S. B.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Evans, P.; Fairhurst, S.; Fox, O. D.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Gompertz, B.; Greiner, J.; Im, M.; Izzo, L.; Jakobsson, P.; Kangas, T.; Khandrika, H. G.; Lien, A. Y.; Malesani, D.; O'Brien, P.; Osborne, J. P.; Palazzi, E.; Pian, E.; Perley, D. A.; Rosswog, S.; Ryan, R. E.; Schulze, S.; Sutton, P.; Thöne, C. C.; Watson, D. J.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.

    2017-10-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and Chandra imaging, combined with Very Large Telescope MUSE integral field spectroscopy of the counterpart and host galaxy of the first binary neutron star merger detected via gravitational-wave emission by LIGO and Virgo, GW170817. The host galaxy, NGC 4993, is an S0 galaxy at z = 0.009783. There is evidence for large, face-on spiral shells in continuum imaging, and edge-on spiral features visible in nebular emission lines. This suggests that NGC 4993 has undergone a relatively recent (≲ 1 Gyr) “dry” merger. This merger may provide the fuel for a weak active nucleus seen in Chandra imaging. At the location of the counterpart, HST imaging implies there is no globular or young stellar cluster, with a limit of a few thousand solar masses for any young system. The population in the vicinity is predominantly old with ≲1% of any light arising from a population with ages < 500 {Myr}. Both the host galaxy properties and those of the transient location are consistent with the distributions seen for short-duration gamma-ray bursts, although the source position lies well within the effective radius ({r}e˜ 3 kpc), providing an r e -normalized offset that is closer than ˜ 90 % of short GRBs. For the long delay time implied by the stellar population, this suggests that the kick velocity was significantly less than the galaxy escape velocity. We do not see any narrow host galaxy interstellar medium features within the counterpart spectrum, implying low extinction, and that the binary may lie in front of the bulk of the host galaxy.

  18. Mergers of magnetized neutron stars with spinning black holes: disruption, accretion, and fallback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Sarvnipun; Anderson, Matthew; Besselman, Michael; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L; Motl, Patrick M; Neilsen, David

    2010-09-10

    We investigate the merger of a neutron star in orbit about a spinning black hole in full general relativity with a mass ratio of 5:1, allowing the star to have an initial magnetization of 10(12)  G. We present the resulting gravitational waveform and analyze the fallback accretion as the star is disrupted. We see no significant dynamical effects in the simulations or changes in the gravitational waveform resulting from the initial magnetization. We find that only a negligible amount of matter becomes unbound; 99% of the neutron star material has a fallback time of 10 seconds or shorter to reach the region of the central engine and that 99.99% of the star will interact with the central disk and black hole within 3 hours.

  19. Connecting neutron star observations to three-body forces in neutron matter and to the nuclear symmetry energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, A W; Gandolfi, S

    2012-02-24

    Using a phenomenological form of the equation of state of neutron matter near the saturation density which has been previously demonstrated to be a good characterization of quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we show that currently available neutron star mass and radius measurements provide a significant constraint on the equation of state of neutron matter. At higher densities we model the equation of state by using polytropes and a quark matter model. We show that observations offer an important constraint on the strength of the three-body force in neutron matter, and thus some theoretical models of the three-body force may be ruled out by currently available astrophysical data. In addition, we obtain an estimate of the symmetry energy of nuclear matter and its slope that can be directly compared to the experiment and other theoretical calculations.

  20. The Equation of State for the Nucleonic and Hyperonic Core of Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolos, Laura; Centelles, Mario; Ramos, Angels

    2017-12-01

    We re-examine the equation of state for the nucleonic and hyperonic inner core of neutron stars that satisfies the 2M⊙ observations as well as the recent determinations of stellar radii below 13 km, while fulfilling the saturation properties of nuclear matter and finite nuclei together with the constraints on the high-density nuclear pressure coming from heavy-ion collisions. The recent nucleonic FSU2R and hyperonic FSU2H models are updated in order to improve the behaviour of pure neutron matter at subsaturation densities. The corresponding nuclear matter properties at saturation, the symmetry energy, and its slope turn out to be compatible with recent experimental and theoretical determinations. We obtain the mass, radius, and composition of neutron stars for the two updated models and study the impact on these properties of the uncertainties in the hyperon-nucleon couplings estimated from hypernuclear data. We find that the onset of appearance of each hyperon strongly depends on the hyperon-nuclear uncertainties, whereas the maximum masses for neutron stars differ by at most 0.1M⊙, although a larger deviation should be expected tied to the lack of knowledge of the hyperon potentials at the high densities present in the centre of 2M⊙ stars. For easier use, we provide tables with the results from the FSU2R and FSU2H models for the equation of state and the neutron star mass-radius relation.

  1. Asymmetric nuclear matter and neutron star properties within the extended Brueckner theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassaneen, Khaled S.A. [Sohag University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Sohag (Egypt); Taif University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Taif (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-01-15

    Microscopically, the equation of state (EOS) and other properties of asymmetric nuclear matter at zero temperature have been investigated extensively by adopting the non-relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) and the extended BHF approaches by using the self-consistent Green's function approach or by including a phenomenological three-body force. Once three-body forces are introduced, the phenomenological saturation point is reproduced and the theory is applied to the study of neutron star properties. We can calculate the total mass and radius for neutron stars using various equations of state at high densities in β-equilibrium without hyperons. A comparison with other microscopic predictions based on non-relativistic and density-dependent relativistic mean-field calculations has been done. It is found that relativistic EOS yields however larger mass and radius for neutron star than predictions based on non-relativistic approaches. Also the three-body force plays a crucial role to deduce the theoretical value of the maximum mass of neutron stars in agreement with recent measurements of the neutron star mass. (orig.)

  2. Gravitational waves from rotating neutron stars and evaluation of fast chirp transform techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Strohmayer, T E

    2002-01-01

    X-ray observations suggest that neutron stars in low mass x-ray binaries (LMXB) are rotating with frequencies in the range 300-600 Hz. These spin rates are significantly less than the break-up rates for essentially all realistic neutron star equations of state, suggesting that some process may limit the spin frequencies of accreting neutron stars to this range. If the accretion-induced spin up torque is in equilibrium with gravitational radiation losses, these objects could be interesting sources of gravitational waves. I present a brief summary of current measurements of neutron star spins in LMXBs based on the observations of high-Q oscillations during thermonuclear bursts (so-called 'burst oscillations'). Further measurements of neutron star spins will be important in exploring the gravitational radiation hypothesis in more detail. To this end, I also present a study of fast chirp transform (FCT) techniques as described by Jenet and Prince (Prince T A and Jenet F A 2000 Phys. Rev. D 62 122001) in the conte...

  3. Evidence for a Broad Relativistic Iron Line from the Neutron Star LMXB Ser X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Strohmayer, Tod E.

    2007-01-01

    We report on an analysis of XMM-Newton data from the neutron star low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) Serpens X-1 (Ser X-1). Spectral analysis of EPIC PN data indicates that the previously known broad iron Ka emission line in this source has a significantly skewed structure with a moderately extended red wing. The asymmetric shape of the line is well described with the laor and diskline models in XSPEC, which strongly supports an inner accretion disk origin of the line. To our knowledge this is the first strong evidence for a relativistic line in a neutron star LMXB. This finding suggests that the broad lines seen in other neutron star LMXBs likely originate from the inner disk as well. Detailed study of such lines opens up a new way to probe neutron star parameters and their strong gravitational fields. The laor model describes the line from Ser X-1 somewhat better than diskline, and suggests that the inner accretion disk radius is less than 6GM/c(exp 2). This is consistent with the weak magnetic fields of LMXBs, and may point towards a high compactness and rapid spin of the neutron star. Finally, the inferred source inclination angle in the approximate range 50-60 deg is consistent with the lack of dipping from Ser X-1.

  4. Neutron star radii, universal relations, and the role of prior distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, A.W. [University of Tennessee, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Physics Division, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lattimer, J.M. [Stony Brook University, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Brown, E.F. [Michigan State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, East Lansing, MI (United States); Michigan State University, The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics-Center for the Evolution of the Elements, East Lansing, MI (United States); Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2016-02-15

    We investigate constraints on neutron star structure arising from the assumptions that neutron stars have crusts, that recent calculations of pure neutron matter limit the equation of state of neutron star matter near the nuclear saturation density, that the high-density equation of state is limited by causality and the largest high-accuracy neutron star mass measurement, and that general relativity is the correct theory of gravity. We explore the role of prior assumptions by considering two classes of equation of state models. In a first, the intermediate- and high-density behavior of the equation of state is parameterized by piecewise polytropes. In the second class, the high-density behavior of the equation of state is parameterized by piecewise continuous line segments. The smallest density at which high-density matter appears is varied in order to allow for strong phase transitions above the nuclear saturation density. We critically examine correlations among the pressure of matter, radii, maximum masses, the binding energy, the moment of inertia, and the tidal deformability, paying special attention to the sensitivity of these correlations to prior assumptions about the equation of state. It is possible to constrain the radii of 1.4M {sub CircleDot} neutron stars to be larger than 10 km, even without consideration of additional astrophysical observations, for example, those from photospheric radius expansion bursts or quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries. We are able to improve the accuracy of known correlations between the moment of inertia and compactness as well as the binding energy and compactness. We also demonstrate the existence of a correlation between the neutron star binding energy and the moment of inertia. (orig.)

  5. Gravity Defied From Potato Asteroids to Magnetised Neutron Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A star burns its nuclear fuel and balances gravitation by the pressure of the heated gas, during its active lifetime. Af- ter the exhaustion of the nuclear fuel, a low mass star finds peace as a 'white dwarf', where the pressure support against gravitation is provided by Fermi-degenerate electrons. How- ever, for massive stars, the ...

  6. The Structure and Signals of Neutron Stars, from Birth to Death

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This conference aims at bringing together people working in astrophysics of neutron stars, both on the theoretical and observational aspects. The following topics will be discussed : - Equation of state of dense matter, including hyperon, kaon and quark degrees of freedom - Neutrino emission and cooling of compact stars - Superconductivity-superfluidity - Constraints from EM observations - Transients - Gravitational wave emission - Models for Supernovae and for Gamma Ray Bursts - Magnetars. This conference is supported in part by the European network CompStar (MPNS COST Action MP1304 - Exploring fundamental physics with compact stars)

  7. Double core evolution. 7: The infall of a neutron star through the envelope of its massive star companion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terman, James L.; Taam, Ronald E.; Hernquist, Lars

    1995-01-01

    Binary systems with properties similar to those of high-mass X-ray binaries are evolved through the common envelope phase. Three-dimensional simulations show that the timescale of the infall phase of the neutron star depends upon the evolutionary state of its massive companion. We find that tidal torques more effectively accelerate common envelope evolution for companions in their late core helium-burning stage and that the infall phase is rapid (approximately several initial orbital periods). For less evolved companions the decay of the orbit is longer; however, once the neutron star is deeply embedded within the companion's envelope the timescale for orbital decay decreases rapidly. As the neutron star encounters the high-density region surrounding the helium core of its massive companion, the rate of energy loss from the orbit increases dramatically leading to either partial or nearly total envelope ejection. The outcome of the common envelope phase depends upon the structure of the evolved companion. In particular, it is found that the entire common envelope can be ejected by the interaction of the neutron star with a red supergiant companion in binaries with orbital periods similar to those of long-period Be X-ray binaries. For orbital periods greater than or approximately equal to 0.8-2 yr (for companions of mass 12-24 solar mass) it is likely that a binary will survive the common envelope phase. For these systems, the structure of the progenitor star is characterized by a steep density gradient above the helium core, and the common envelope phase ends with a spin up of the envelope to within 50%-60% of corotation and with a slow mass outflow. The efficiency of mass ejection is found to be approximately 30%-40%. For less evolved companions, there is insufficient energy in the orbit to unbind the common envelope and only a fraction of it is ejected. Since the timescale for orbital decay is always shorter than the mass-loss timescale from the common envelope

  8. Measuring the neutron star compactness and binding energy with supernova neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo Rosso, Andrea; Vissani, Francesco; Volpe, Maria Cristina

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the precision with which a neutron star gravitational binding energy can be measured through the supernova neutrino signal, without assuming any prior such as the energy equipartition hypothesis, mean energies hierarchy or constraints on the pinching parameters that characterize the neutrino spectra. We consider water Cherenkov detectors and prove that combining inverse beta decay with elastic scattering on electrons is sufficient to reach 11% precision on the neutron star gravitational binding energy already with Super-Kamiokande. The inclusion of neutral current events on oxygen in the analysis does not improve the precision significantly, due to theoretical uncertainties. We examine the possible impact on the conclusion of further theoretical input and of higher statistics. We discuss the implications of our findings on the properties of the newly formed neutron star, in particular concerning the assessment of the compactness or mass-radius relation.

  9. Towards an Empirical Unified Crust-Core Description of Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Debarati; Gulminelli, Francesca

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the properties of the crust and the core as well as its interface is essential for accurate astrophysical modelling of phenomena such as glitches, X-ray bursts or oscillations in neutron stars. To study the crust-core properties, it is crucial to develop a unified and consistent scheme to describe both the clusterised matter in the crust and homogeneous matter in the core. The low density regime in the neutron star crust is accessible to terrestrial nuclear experiments. In order to develop a consistent description of the crust and the core of neutron stars within the same formalism, we use a density functional scheme, with the model coefficients in homogeneous matter related directly to empirical nuclear observables. In this work, we extend this scheme to non-homogeneous matter to describe nuclei in the crust. We then test this scheme against nuclear observables.

  10. From Accretion to Explosion and Beyond: Transforming White Dwarfs to Neutron Stars and Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, Rosanne; Harris, R.

    2010-03-01

    White dwarfs accreting at high rates can grow in mass, exhibiting episodes of supersoft-source activity. Some can achieve the Chandrasekhar mass and will either become Type Ia supernovae or else will collapse, becoming neutron stars. We consider white dwarfs with giant donors, computing the rates of both supernovae and collapses. For the collapses, we follow each system to the end of accretion. Some of these systems will appear as ultraluminous x-ray sources and some will go on to become low-mass black holes. This scenario should be fairly common in young stellar populations and links a wide range of astrophysical phenomena. Indeed, it is a veritable cornucopia for the high-energy astrophysicist, offering accreting white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes, Type Ia supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, supersoft sources, ultraluminous sources, and neutron star and black hole binaries in globular clusters.

  11. A perturbative approach to neutron stars in f(T, T)-gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, Mark; Said, Jackson Levi [University of Malta, Department of Physics, Msida (Malta); University of Malta, Institute of Space Sciences and Astronomy, Msida (Malta)

    2017-05-15

    We derive a Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation in neutron star systems within the modified f(T, T)-gravity class of models using a perturbative approach. In our approach f(T, T)-gravity is considered to be a static spherically symmetric space-time. In this instance the metric is built from a more fundamental vierbein which can be used to relate inertial and global coordinates. A linear function f = T(r) + T(r) + χh(T, T) + O(χ{sup 2}) is taken as the Lagrangian density for the gravitational action. Finally we impose the polytropic equation of state of neutron star upon the derived equations in order to derive the mass profile and mass-central density relations of the neutron star in f(T, T)-gravity. (orig.)

  12. Does the Collapse of a Supramassive Neutron Star Leave a Debris Disk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalit, Ben; Metzger, Brian D; Beloborodov, Andrei M

    2015-10-23

    One possible channel for black hole formation is the collapse of a rigidly rotating massive neutron star as it loses its angular momentum or gains excessive mass through accretion. It was proposed that part of the neutron star may form a debris disk around the black hole. Such short-lived massive disks could be the sources of powerful jets emitting cosmological gamma-ray bursts. Whether the collapse creates a disk depends on the equation of state of the neutron star. We survey a wide range of equations of states allowed by observations and find that disk formation is unfeasible. We conclude that this channel of black hole formation is incapable of producing powerful jets, and discuss implications for models of gamma-ray bursts.

  13. Free precession in quasi-periodic oscillators. [In accreting neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaham, J.

    1986-11-01

    The recent discoveries of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) brought about a surge of theoretical work concerned with the disk-magnetosphere boundary in accreting neutron stars. Much of the detailed theoretical discussion deals with the beat-frequency model (BFM). The beat frequency (BF) spectrum resulting from applying the BFM to the most general freely rotating neutron star, i.e., a freely precessing neutron star whose angular momentum vector is, in addition, not perpendicular to the disk, is considered. It is found that in the course of free precession, the BF spectrum usually changes, with the various QPO lines changing in intensity. This allows, in principle, phenomena of frequency changing not due to changes in luminosity such as those observed in Cyg X-2 and, perhaps, in other QPOs. Such mode changes may, in turn, reflect the nature of the disk-magnetosphere coupling in QPOs. 37 references.

  14. Compact Objects in Astrophysics White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars and Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Camenzind, Max

    2007-01-01

    Compact objects are an important class of astronomical objects in current research. Supermassive black holes play an important role in the understanding of the formation of galaxies in the early Universe. Old white dwarfs are nowadays used to calibrate the age of the Universe. Mergers of neutron stars and black holes are the sources of intense gravitational waves which will be measured in the next ten years by gravitational wave detectors. Camenzind's Compact Objects in Astrophysics gives a comprehensive introduction and up-to-date overview about the physical processes behind these objects, covering the field from the beginning to most recent results, including all relevant observations. After a presentation of the taxonomy of compact objects, the basic principles of general relativity are given. The author then discusses in detail the physics and observations of white dwarfs and neutron stars (including the most recent equations of state for neutron star matter), the gravitational field of rapidly rotating c...

  15. Entrainment in Superfluid Neutron-Star Crusts: Hydrodynamic Description and Microscopic Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamel, N.

    2017-12-01

    In spite of the absence of viscous drag, the neutron superfluid permeating the inner crust of a neutron star cannot flow freely and is entrained by the nuclear lattice similarly to laboratory superfluid atomic gases in optical lattices. The role of entrainment on the neutron superfluid dynamics is reviewed. For this purpose, a minimal hydrodynamical model of superfluidity in neutron-star crusts is presented. This model relies on a fully 4-dimensionally covariant action principle. The equivalence of this formulation with the more traditional approach is demonstrated. In addition, the different treatments of entrainment in terms of dynamical effective masses or superfluid density are clarified. The nuclear energy density functional theory employed for the calculations of all the necessary microscopic inputs is also reviewed, focusing on superfluid properties. In particular, the microscopic origin of entrainment and the different methods to estimate its importance are discussed.

  16. The Quiescent Neutron Star and Hierarchical Triple: 4U 2129+47

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Michael; Wilms, Joern; Kühnel, Matthias; Chakrabarty, Deepto

    2017-08-01

    After a period of active accretion, neutron stars can enter a phase where their X-ray emission is dominated by thermal emission from their surface. The rate of cooling of this emission can yield insight into neutron star structure. Furthermore, emission models may help determine the neutron star radius. A number of questions arise when modeling such X-ray spectra as observed by Chandra or XMM-Newton. Is there ongoing, low level active accretion that is contributing to the observed soft X-ray emission? In a number of cases, a hard X-ray tail is also observed. What is the origin of this hard tail? The quiescent neutron star system 4U 2129+47 presents a unique opportunity to study these questions. This system is viewed nearly edge on, as evidenced by a periodic, total eclipse that lasts 1585 seconds out of the 5.24 hour orbit. As we are viewing this system edge on, both observed neutral column variations and an observed hard X-ray tail in year 2000 Chandra observations indicated ongoing active accretion. Subsequent XMM and Chandra observations over the next 15 years showed that both the neutral column variability and the hard X-ray tail vanished. Thus, these later observations may represent a true quiescent, cooling neutron star state. We assess the evidence for cooling in the 4U 2129+47 system. Furthermore, we use the timing of the X-ray eclipses to discuss evidence for a third body in the system, and derive likely orbital periods. Finally, we discuss how future X-ray missions, e.g., Athena and Lynx, could place more stringent limits on neutron star cooling and the presence of a hard tail (i.e., active accretion) in this system.

  17. Spectrum of shear modes in the neutron-star crust: Estimating the nuclear-physics uncertainties

    OpenAIRE

    Tews, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    I construct a model of the inner crust of neutron stars using interactions from chiral effective field theory (EFT) in order to calculate its equation of state (EOS), shear properties, and the spectrum of crustal shear modes. I systematically study uncertainties associated with the nuclear physics input, the crust composition, and neutron entrainment, and estimate their impact on crustal shear properties and the shear-mode spectrum. I find that the uncertainties originate mainly in two source...

  18. The distance and internal composition of the neutron star in EXO 0748-676 with XMM-Newton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Guobao; Mendez, Mariano; Jonker, Peter; Hiemstra, Beike

    Recently, the neutron star X-ray binary EXO 0748-676 underwent a transition to quiescence. We analysed an XMM-Newton observation of this source in quiescence, where we fitted the spectrum with two different neutron star atmosphere models. From the fits we constrained the allowed parameter space in

  19. The cooling, mass and radius of the neutron star in EXO 0748-676 in quiescence with XMM-Newton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Zheng; Méndez, Mariano; Díaz-Trigo, María; Costantini, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    We analyse four XMM-Newton observations of the neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary EXO 0748-676 in quiescence. We fit the spectra with an absorbed neutron-star atmosphere model, without the need for a high-energy (power-law) component; with a 95 per cent confidence the power law contributes less than

  20. Strong neutrino cooling by cycles of electron capture and β- decay in neutron star crusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, H; Gupta, S; Möller, P; Beard, M; Brown, E F; Deibel, A T; Gasques, L R; Hix, W R; Keek, L; Lau, R; Steiner, A W; Wiescher, M

    2014-01-02

    The temperature in the crust of an accreting neutron star, which comprises its outermost kilometre, is set by heating from nuclear reactions at large densities, neutrino cooling and heat transport from the interior. The heated crust has been thought to affect observable phenomena at shallower depths, such as thermonuclear bursts in the accreted envelope. Here we report that cycles of electron capture and its inverse, β(-) decay, involving neutron-rich nuclei at a typical depth of about 150 metres, cool the outer neutron star crust by emitting neutrinos while also thermally decoupling the surface layers from the deeper crust. This 'Urca' mechanism has been studied in the context of white dwarfs and type Ia supernovae, but hitherto was not considered in neutron stars, because previous models computed the crust reactions using a zero-temperature approximation and assumed that only a single nuclear species was present at any given depth. The thermal decoupling means that X-ray bursts and other surface phenomena are largely independent of the strength of deep crustal heating. The unexpectedly short recurrence times, of the order of years, observed for very energetic thermonuclear superbursts are therefore not an indicator of a hot crust, but may point instead to an unknown local heating mechanism near the neutron star surface.

  1. Constraints on neutron star radii based on chiral effective field theory interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebeler, K; Lattimer, J M; Pethick, C J; Schwenk, A

    2010-10-15

    We show that microscopic calculations based on chiral effective field theory interactions constrain the properties of neutron-rich matter below nuclear densities to a much higher degree than is reflected in commonly used equations of state. Combined with observed neutron star masses, our results lead to a radius R=9.7-13.9  km for a 1.4M⊙ star, where the theoretical range is due, in about equal amounts, to uncertainties in many-body forces and to the extrapolation to high densities.

  2. Magnetization of neutron star matter and implications in physics of soft gamma repeaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondratyev, V.N. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-01-01

    The magnetization of neutron star matter is considered within the thermodynamic formalism. The quantization effects are demonstrated to result in sharp abrupt magnetic field dependence of nuclide magnetic moments. Accounting for inter-nuclide magnetic coupling we show that such anomalies give rise to erratic jumps in magnetotransport of neutron star crusts. The properties of such a noise are favorably compared with burst statistics of Soft Gamma Repeaters. PACS: 97.60.Jd, 21.10.Dr, 26.60.+c, 95.30.Ky. (author)

  3. Spontaneous superfluid unpinning and the inhomogeneous distribution of vortex lines in neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, K.S.; Pines, D.; Alpar, M. A.; Shaham, J.

    1988-07-01

    The equation of motion of the pinned superfluid which couples to the crust of neutron stars via thermal vortex creep is studied. Spontaneous unpinning at locations characterized by a very inhomogeneous distribution of vortex lines is examined as a possible mechanism for the initiation of glitches. It is suggested that structural inhomogeneities in the crust of neutron stars may be responsible for frequent microglitches which lead to pulsar timing noise. A generalization of the model shows promise for explaining the origin of the giant glitches in pulsars. 21 references.

  4. Spontaneous superfluid unpinning and the inhomogeneous distribution of vortex lines in neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K. S.; Pines, D.; Alpar, M. A.; Shaham, J.

    1988-01-01

    The equation of motion of the pinned superfluid which couples to the crust of neutron stars via thermal vortex creep is studied. Spontaneous unpinning at locations characterized by a very inhomogeneous distribution of vortex lines is examined as a possible mechanism for the initiation of glitches. It is suggested that structural inhomogeneities in the crust of neutron stars may be responsible for frequent microglitches which lead to pulsar timing noise. A generalization of the model shows promise for explaining the origin of the giant glitches in pulsars.

  5. Nuclear structure for the crust of neutron stars and exotic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goegelein, Peter

    2007-07-01

    In this work the Skyrme Hartree-Fock and Relativistic Hartree--Fock approaches have been considered to describe the structure of nuclear systems ranging from finite nuclei, structures in the crust of neutron stars to homogeneous matter. Effects of pairing correlations and finite temperature are also taken into account. The numerical procedure in the cubic box is described for the Skyrme Hartree-Fock as well as the relativistic Hartree-Fock approach. And finally, results for the crust of neutron stars and exotic nuclei are presented and discussed. (orig.)

  6. Neutron Star masses from the Field Correlator Method Equation of State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zappalà D.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the hadron-quark phase transition in neutron stars by confronting the hadronic Equation of State (EoS obtained according to the microscopic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock many body theory, with the quark matter EoS derived within the Field Correlator Method. In particular, the latter EoS is only parametrized in terms of the gluon condensate and the large distance quark-antiquark potential, so that the comparison of the results of this analysis with the most recent measurements of heavy neutron star masses provides some physical constraints on these two parameters.

  7. Comparison of photon-photon and photon-magnetic field pair production rates. [in neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, M. L.; Harding, A. K.

    1983-01-01

    Neutron stars were proposed as the site of gamma-ray burst activity and the copious supply of MeV photons admits the possibility of electron-positron pair production. If the neutron star magnetic field is sufficiently intense (10 to the 12th power G), both photon-photon (2 gamma) and photon-magnetic field (gamma) pair production should be important mechanisms. Rates for the two processes were calculated using a Maxwellian distribution for the photons. The ratio of 1 gamma to 2 gamma pair production rates was obtained as a function of photon temperature and magnetic field strength.

  8. Decoupling of Superfluid and Normal Oscillation Modes in Rotating Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantor, E. M.; Gusakov, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    It was shown in Gusakov & Kantor (2011) that equations governing oscillations of superfluid neutron stars can be split into two systems of weakly coupled equations, one describing the superfluid modes and another one, the normal modes. Here we demonstrate that similar decoupling of modes also occurs in rotating NSs. To this aim we formulated the relativistic hydrodynamics of superfluid mixtures allowing for vortices. Our results indicate, in particular, that emission of gravitational waves from superfluid oscillation modes is suppressed in comparison to that from normal modes. The proposed approach allows one to drastically simplify modeling of oscillations of superfluid rotating neutron stars.

  9. Rearrangement of the Fermi Surface of Dense Neutron Matter and the Direct Urca Cooling of Neutron Stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskresensky; Khodel; Zverev; Clark

    2000-04-20

    It is proposed that a rearrangement of single-particle degrees of freedom may occur in a portion of the quantum-fluid interior of a neutron star. Such a rearrangement is associated with the pronounced softening of the spin-isospin collective mode which, under increasing density, leads to pion condensation. Arguments and estimates based on fundamental relations of many-body theory show that one realization of this phenomenon could produce very rapid cooling of the star via a direct nucleon Urca process displaying a T5 dependence on temperature.

  10. 20070607 NATO Advanced Study Institute on the Electromagnetic Spectrum of Neutron Stars Marmaris, Turkey 07 - 18 Jun 2004 2004 marmaris20040607 TR 20040618

    CERN Document Server

    Baykal, Altan; Inam, Sitki C; Grebenev, Sergei

    2005-01-01

    Neutron stars hold a central place in astrophysics, not only because they are made up of the most extreme states of the condensed matter, but also because they are, along with white dwarfs and black holes, one of the stable configurations that stars reach at the end of stellar evolution. Neutron stars posses the highest rotation rates and strongest magnetic fields among all stars. They radiate prolifically, in high energy electromagnetic radiation and in the radio band. This book is devoted to the selected lectures presented in the 6th NATO-ASI series entitled "The Electromagnetic Spectrum of Neutron Stars" in Marmaris, Turkey, on 7-18 June 2004. This ASI is devoted to the spectral properties of neutron stars. Spectral observations of neutron stars help us to understand the magnetospheric emission processes of isolated radio pulsars and the emission processes of accreting neutron stars. This volume includes spectral information from the neutron stars in broadest sense, namely neutrino and gravitational radiat...

  11. High-density QCD phase transitions inside neutron stars: Glitches and gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, A. M.; Bagchi, P.; Das, A.; Layek, B.

    2017-10-01

    We discuss physics of exotic high baryon density QCD phases which are believed to exist in the core of a neutron star. This can provide a laboratory for exploring exotic physics such as axion emission, KK graviton production etc. Much of the physics of these high-density phases is model-dependent and not very well understood, especially the densities expected to occur inside neutron stars. We follow a different approach and use primarily universal aspects of the physics of different high-density phases and associated phase transitions. We study effects of density fluctuations during transitions with and without topological defect production and study the effect on pulsar timings due to changing moment of inertia of the star. We also discuss gravitational wave production due to rapidly changing quadrupole moment of the star due to these fluctuations.

  12. A two-solar-mass neutron star measured using Shapiro delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demorest, P B; Pennucci, T; Ransom, S M; Roberts, M S E; Hessels, J W T

    2010-10-28

    Neutron stars are composed of the densest form of matter known to exist in our Universe, the composition and properties of which are still theoretically uncertain. Measurements of the masses or radii of these objects can strongly constrain the neutron star matter equation of state and rule out theoretical models of their composition. The observed range of neutron star masses, however, has hitherto been too narrow to rule out many predictions of 'exotic' non-nucleonic components. The Shapiro delay is a general-relativistic increase in light travel time through the curved space-time near a massive body. For highly inclined (nearly edge-on) binary millisecond radio pulsar systems, this effect allows us to infer the masses of both the neutron star and its binary companion to high precision. Here we present radio timing observations of the binary millisecond pulsar J1614-2230 that show a strong Shapiro delay signature. We calculate the pulsar mass to be (1.97 ± 0.04)M(⊙), which rules out almost all currently proposed hyperon or boson condensate equations of state (M(⊙), solar mass). Quark matter can support a star this massive only if the quarks are strongly interacting and are therefore not 'free' quarks.

  13. Effects of Neutron-Star Dynamic Tides on Gravitational Waveforms within the Effective-One-Body Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinderer, Tanja; Taracchini, Andrea; Foucart, Francois; Buonanno, Alessandra; Steinhoff, Jan; Duez, Matthew; Kidder, Lawrence E; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A; Szilagyi, Bela; Hotokezaka, Kenta; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Shibata, Masaru; Carpenter, Cory W

    2016-05-06

    Extracting the unique information on ultradense nuclear matter from the gravitational waves emitted by merging neutron-star binaries requires robust theoretical models of the signal. We develop a novel effective-one-body waveform model that includes, for the first time, dynamic (instead of only adiabatic) tides of the neutron star as well as the merger signal for neutron-star-black-hole binaries. We demonstrate the importance of the dynamic tides by comparing our model against new numerical-relativity simulations of nonspinning neutron-star-black-hole binaries spanning more than 24 gravitational-wave cycles, and to other existing numerical simulations for double neutron-star systems. Furthermore, we derive an effective description that makes explicit the dependence of matter effects on two key parameters: tidal deformability and fundamental oscillation frequency.

  14. Effectively universal behavior of rotating neutron stars in general relativity makes them even simpler than their Newtonian counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, George; Apostolatos, Theocharis A

    2014-03-28

    Recently, it was shown that slowly rotating neutron stars exhibit an interesting correlation between their moment of inertia I, their quadrupole moment Q, and their tidal deformation Love number λ (the I-Love-Q relations), independently of the equation of state of the compact object. In the present Letter a similar, more general, universality is shown to hold true for all rotating neutron stars within general relativity; the first four multipole moments of the neutron star are related in a way independent of the nuclear matter equation of state we assume. By exploiting this relation, we can describe quite accurately the geometry around a neutron star with fewer parameters, even if we don't know precisely the equation of state. Furthermore, this universal behavior displayed by neutron stars could promote them to a more promising class of candidates (next to black holes) for testing theories of gravity.

  15. Prospects for neutron star equation of state constraints using ''recycled'' millisecond pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanov, Slavko [Columbia University, Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-02-15

    ''Recycled'' millisecond pulsars are a variety of rapidly spinning neutron stars that typically show thermal X-ray radiation due to the heated surface of their magnetic polar caps. Detailed numerical modeling of the rotation-induced thermal X-ray pulsations observed from recycled millisecond pulsars, including all relevant relativistic and stellar atmospheric effects, has been identified as a promising approach towards an astrophysical determination of the true neutron star mass-radius relation, and by extension the state of cold matter at densities exceeding those of atomic nuclei. Herein, I review the basic model and methodology commonly used to extract information regarding neutron star structure from the pulsed X-ray radiation observed from millisecond pulsars. I also summarize the results of past X-ray observations of these objects and the prospects for precision neutron star mass-radius measurements with the upcoming Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) X-ray timing mission. (orig.)

  16. Dark matter seeding and the kinematics and rotation of neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Garcia, M. Angeles, E-mail: mperezga@usal.es [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental and IUFFyM, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced s/n, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Silk, Joseph, E-mail: j.silk1@physics.ox.ac.uk [Institut d' Astrophysique, UPMC, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, Paris 75014 (France); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Homewood Campus, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Beecroft Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-01

    Self-annihilation of dark matter accreted from the galactic halo in the inner regions of neutron stars may significantly affect their kinematical properties, namely velocity kicks and rotation patterns. We find that if a stable long-lived single or multiple strangelet off-center seed forms leading to an asymmetric ejection of matter and radiation, there is a significant modification in linear and angular momentum observables of the star.

  17. Universality of the acceleration due to gravity on the surface of a rapidly rotating neutron star

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlGendy, Mohammad; Morsink, Sharon M. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada)

    2014-08-20

    On the surface of a rapidly rotating neutron star, the effective centrifugal force decreases the effective acceleration due to gravity (as measured in the rotating frame) at the equator while increasing the acceleration at the poles due to the centrifugal flattening of the star into an oblate spheroid. We compute the effective gravitational acceleration for relativistic rapidly rotating neutron stars and show that for a star with mass M, equatorial radius R{sub e} , and angular velocity Ω, the deviations of the effective acceleration due to gravity from the nonrotating case take on a universal form that depends only on the compactness ratio M/R{sub e} , the dimensionless square of the angular velocity Ω{sup 2}R{sub e}{sup 3}/GM, and the latitude on the star's surface. This dependence is universal, in that it has very little dependence on the neutron star's equation of state. The effective gravity is expanded in the slow-rotation limit to show the dependence on the effective centrifugal force, oblate shape of the star, and the quadrupole moment of the gravitational field. In addition, an empirical fit and simple formula for the effective gravity is found. We find that the increase in the acceleration due to gravity at the poles is of the same order of magnitude as the decrease in the effective acceleration due to gravity at the equator for all realistic value of mass, radius, and spin. For neutron stars that spin with frequencies near 600 Hz, the difference between the effective gravity at the poles and the equator is about 20%.

  18. Nucleosynthesis in neutron star mergers. Insights from astrophysical conditions and nuclear physics input

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Dirk [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Arcones, Almudena [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Half of the elements heavier than iron are created by the rapid neutron capture process (r-process). Neutron star mergers present the most promising astrophysical site for the r-process, being both an explosive and extremely neutron-rich scenario. We investigate the nucleosynthesis of matter ejected in different channels. Furthermore, we study the impact of nuclear masses on the yields. Using masses obtained with six Skyrme energy density functionals, we determine systematic uncertainty bands for r-process abundances and discuss how details of the underlying microphysics can lead to abundance peaks and troughs.

  19. The rotation of discs around neutron stars: dependence on the Hall diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghei, Kazem; Salehi, Fatemeh

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we study the dynamics of a geometrically thin, steady and axisymmetric accretion disc surrounding a rotating and magnetized star. The magnetic field lines of star penetrate inside the accretion disc and are twisted due to the differential rotation between the magnetized star and the disc. We apply the Hall diffusion effect in the accreting plasma, because of the Hall diffusion plays an important role in both fully ionized plasma and weakly ionized medium. In the current research, we show that the Hall diffusion is also an important mechanism in accreting plasma around neutron stars. For the typical system parameter values associated with the accreting X-ray binary pulsar, the angular velocity of the inner regions of disc departs outstandingly from Keplerian angular velocity, due to coupling between the magnetic field of neutron star and the rotating plasma of disc. We found that the Hall diffusion is very important in inner disc and increases the coupling between the magnetic field of neutron star and accreting plasma. On the other word, the rotational velocity of inner disc significantly decreases in the presence of the Hall diffusion. Moreover, the solutions imply that the fastness parameter decreases and the angular velocity transition zone becomes broad for the accreting plasma including the Hall diffusion.

  20. Gravity Defied From Potato Asteroids to Magnetised Neutron Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    During its active lifetime, a star burns its nuclear fuel, andgravitation is held off by the pressure of the heated gas. Gravityshould take over once this fuel is exhausted unless someother agency saves the star from such a fate. Low mass starsfind peace as 'white dwarfs' when the electrons settle intoa Fermi degenerate phase ...

  1. Constraints on Thermal X-Ray Radiation from SAX J1808.4-3658 and Implications for Neutron Star Neutrino Emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinke, C.O.; Jonker, P.G.; Wijnands, R.; Taam, R.E.

    2007-01-01

    Thermal X-ray radiation from neutron star soft X-ray transients in quiescence provides the strongest constraints on the cooling rates of neutron stars and thus on the interior composition and properties of matter in the cores of neutron stars. We analyze new (2006) and archival (2001) XMM-Newton

  2. Constraints on the symmetry energy from observational probes of the neutron star crust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, William G.; Hooker, Joshua; Gearheart, Michael; Fattoyev, Farrukh J.; Li, Bao-An [Texas A and M University-Commerce, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Commerce (United States); Murphy, Kyleah [Texas A and M University-Commerce, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Commerce (United States); Umpqua Community College, Roseburg, Oregon (United States); Wen, De-Hua [Texas A and M University-Commerce, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Commerce (United States); South China University of Technology, Department of Physics, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-02-15

    A number of observed phenomena associated with individual neutron star systems or neutron star populations find explanations in models in which the neutron star crust plays an important role. We review recent work examining the sensitivity to the slope of the symmetry energy L of such models, and constraints extracted on L from confronting them with observations. We focus on six sets of observations and proposed explanations: (i) The cooling rate of the neutron star in Cassiopeia A, confronting cooling models which include enhanced cooling in the nuclear pasta regions of the inner crust; (ii) the upper limit of the observed periods of young X-ray pulsars, confronting models of magnetic field decay in the crust caused by the high resistivity of the nuclear pasta layer; (iii) glitches from the Vela pulsar, confronting the paradigm that they arise due to a sudden recoupling of the crustal neutron superfluid to the crustal lattice after a period during which they were decoupled due to vortex pinning; (iv) the frequencies of quasi-periodic oscillations in the X-ray tail of light curves from giant flares from soft gamma-ray repeaters, confronting models of torsional crust oscillations; (v) the upper limit on the frequency to which millisecond pulsars can be spun-up due to accretion from a binary companion, confronting models of the r-mode instability arising above a threshold frequency determined in part by the viscous dissipation timescale at the crust-core boundary; and (vi) the observations of precursor electromagnetic flares a few seconds before short gamma-ray bursts, confronting a model of crust shattering caused by resonant excitation of a crustal oscillation mode by the tidal gravitational field of a companion neutron star just before merger. (orig.)

  3. Equation of state of dense nuclear matter and neutron star structure from nuclear chiral interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombaci, Ignazio; Logoteta, Domenico

    2018-02-01

    Aims: We report a new microscopic equation of state (EOS) of dense symmetric nuclear matter, pure neutron matter, and asymmetric and β-stable nuclear matter at zero temperature using recent realistic two-body and three-body nuclear interactions derived in the framework of chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) and including the Δ(1232) isobar intermediate state. This EOS is provided in tabular form and in parametrized form ready for use in numerical general relativity simulations of binary neutron star merging. Here we use our new EOS for β-stable nuclear matter to compute various structural properties of non-rotating neutron stars. Methods: The EOS is derived using the Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone quantum many-body theory in the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation. Neutron star properties are next computed solving numerically the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov structure equations. Results: Our EOS models are able to reproduce the empirical saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter, the symmetry energy Esym, and its slope parameter L at the empirical saturation density n0. In addition, our EOS models are compatible with experimental data from collisions between heavy nuclei at energies ranging from a few tens of MeV up to several hundreds of MeV per nucleon. These experiments provide a selective test for constraining the nuclear EOS up to 4n0. Our EOS models are consistent with present measured neutron star masses and particularly with the mass M = 2.01 ± 0.04 M⊙ of the neutron stars in PSR J0348+0432.

  4. Exploring properties of high-density matter through remnants of neutron-star mergers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauswein, Andreas [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physics, Thessaloniki (Greece); Heidelberger Institut fuer Theoretische Studien, Heidelberg (Germany); Stergioulas, Nikolaos [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physics, Thessaloniki (Greece); Janka, Hans-Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Garching (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Remnants of neutron-star mergers are essentially massive, hot, differentially rotating neutron stars, which are initially strongly oscillating. As such they represent a unique probe for high-density matter because the oscillations are detectable via gravitational-wave measurements and are strongly dependent on the equation of state. The impact of the equation of state for instance is apparent in the frequency of the dominant oscillation mode of the remnant. For a fixed total binary mass a tight relation between the dominant postmerger oscillation frequency and the radii of nonrotating neutron stars exists. Inferring observationally the dominant postmerger frequency thus determines neutron star radii with high accuracy of the order of a few hundred meters. By considering symmetric and asymmetric binaries of the same chirp mass, we show that the knowledge of the binary mass ratio is not critical for this kind of radius measurements. We perform simulations which show that initial intrinsic neutron star rotation is unlikely to affect this method of constraining the high-density equation of state. We also summarize different possibilities about how the postmerger gravitational-wave emission can be employed to deduce the maximum mass of nonrotating neutron stars. We clarify the nature of the three most prominent features of the postmerger gravitational-wave spectrum and argue that the merger remnant can be considered to be a single, isolated, self-gravitating object that can be described by concepts of asteroseismology. We sketch how the consideration of the strength of secondary gravitational-wave peaks leads to a classification scheme of the gravitational-wave emission and postmerger dynamics. The understanding of the different mechanisms shaping the gravitational-wave signal yields a physically motivated analytic model of the gravitational-wave emission, which may form the basis for template-based gravitational-wave data analysis. We explore the observational

  5. Fullerene-containing polymeric stars in bulk and solution by neutron spin-echo

    CERN Document Server

    Lebedev, V T; Toeroek, G; Cser, L; Bershtein, V A; Zgonnik, V N; Melenevskaya, E Y; Vinogradova, L V

    2002-01-01

    Stars with C sub 6 sub 0 fullerene core and poly (styrene) (PS) arms have been studied in benzene and in the bulk by neutron spin echo (NSE). Behaviours of stars (six arms, each with a mass M=5.10 sup 3) at momentum transfer q=0.2-0.6 nm sup - sup 1 in the time range t=0.01-20 ns at temperatures T=20-60 C were compared with dynamics of free PS chains. Displaying depressed molecular mobility, the stars did not obey the usual dynamic Zimm or Rouse model. The fullerene polymer interaction at a specific molecular architecture results in oscillating dynamics. (orig.)

  6. New temperature dependent hyperonic equation of state: Application to rotating neutron star models and I -Q relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Miguel; Oertel, Micaela; Hempel, Matthias; Novak, Jérôme

    2017-10-01

    In this work we present a newly constructed equation of state (EoS), applicable to stellar core collapse and neutron star mergers including the entire baryon octet. Our EoS is compatible with the main constraints from nuclear physics and, in particular, with a maximum mass for cold β -equilibrated neutron stars of 2 M⊙ in agreement with recent observations. As an application of our new EoS, we compute numerical stationary models for rapidly (rigidly) rotating hot neutron stars. We consider maximum masses of hot stars, such as protoneutron stars or hypermassive neutron stars in the postmerger phase of binary neutron star coalescence. The universality of I -Q relations at nonzero temperature for fast rotating models, comparing a purely nuclear EoS with its counterparts containing Λ hyperons or the entire baryon octet, respectively, is discussed, too. We find that the I -Q universality is broken in our models when thermal effects become important, independent on the presence of entropy gradients. Thus, the use of I -Q relations for the analysis of protoneutron stars or merger remnant data, including gravitational wave signals from the last stages of binary neutron star mergers, should be regarded with care.

  7. Spectral and timing properties of neutron-star low-mass X-ray binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis I analyzed the neutron-star low-mass X-ray binaries using data from several X-ray telescopes. I found that the relations of fluxes of different radiation components in 4U 1636-53 is more complicated than what the simple reflction model predicts. This may be due to either changes in

  8. Isolated and Binary Neutron Stars in Dynamical Chern-Simons Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolas; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2013-01-01

    We study isolated and binary neutron stars in dynamical Chern-Simons gravity. This theory modifies the Einstein-Hilbert action through the introduction of a dynamical scalar field coupled to the Pontryagin density. We here treat this theory as an effective model, working to leading order in the Chern-Simons coupling. We first construct isolated neutron star solutions in the slow-rotation expansion to quadratic order in spin. We find that isolated neutron stars acquire a scalar dipole charge that corrects its spin angular momentum to linear order in spin and corrects its mass and quadrupole moment to quadratic order in spin, as measured by an observer at spatial infinity. We then consider neutron stars binaries that are widely separated and solve for their orbital evolution in this modified theory. We find that the evolution of post-Keplerian parameters is modified, with the rate of periastron advance being the dominant correction at first post-Newtonian order. We conclude by applying these results to observed...

  9. A new outburst of the recurrent neutron star transient SAX J1747.0-2853

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, S.; Chenevez, J.; Kuulkers, E.; Natalucci, L.; Fiocchi, M.T.; Tarana, A.; Shaw, S.; Beckmann, V.; Courvoisier, T.J.L.; Domingo, A.; Ebisawa, K.; Kretschmar, P.J.P.; Markwardt, C.; Oosterbroek, T.; Paizis, A.; Risquez, D.; Sanchez-Fernandez, C.; Wijnands, R.

    2007-01-01

    The recurrent transient neutron star system SAX J1747.0-2853 has in the past shown various outbursts with about 60 days duration. Recent observations with INTEGRAL reveal that SAX J1747.0-2853 shows increased activity which may mark the beginning of a new outburst. During the INTEGRAL Galactic Bulge

  10. An Algorithm for the Simulation of the Magnetized Neutron Star Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorian, H.; Ayriyan, A.; Chubarian, E.; Piloyan, A.; Rafayelyan, M.

    2016-02-01

    A model and algorithm for the cooling of the magnetized neutron stars are presented. The cooling evolution described by a system of parabolic partial differential equations with non-linear coeffcients is solved using the Alternating Direction Implicit method. A difference scheme and the preliminary results of simulations are presented.

  11. Sub-radian-accuracy gravitational waveforms of coalescing binary neutron stars in numerical relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, Kenta; Kawaguchi, Kyohei; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Shibata, Masaru; Taniguchi, Keisuke

    2017-10-01

    Extending our previous studies, we perform high-resolution simulations of inspiraling binary neutron stars in numerical relativity. We thoroughly carry through a convergence study in our currently available computational resources with the smallest grid spacing of ≈63 - 86 meter for the neutron-star radius 10.9-13.7 km. The estimated total error in the gravitational-wave phase is of order 0.1 rad for the total phase of ≳210 rad in the last ˜15 - 16 inspiral orbits. We then compare the waveforms (without resolution extrapolation) with those calculated by the latest effective-one-body formalism (tidal SEOBv2 model referred to as TEOB model). We find that for any of our models of binary neutron stars, the waveforms calculated by the TEOB formalism agree with the numerical-relativity waveforms up to ≈3 ms before the peak of the gravitational-wave amplitude is reached: For this late inspiral stage, the total phase error is ≲0.1 rad . Although the gravitational waveforms have an inspiral-type feature for the last ˜3 ms , this stage cannot be well reproduced by the current TEOB formalism, in particular, for neutron stars with large tidal deformability (i.e., lager radius). The reason for this is described.

  12. Neutron Star Physics in the Square Kilometre Array Era: An Indian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Most of these studies are the main goals of the SKA first phase, which is likely to be operational in the next four years. This article summarizes the science goals of the Indian neutron star community in the SKA era, with significant focus on coordinated efforts among the SKA and other existing/upcoming instruments.

  13. Spectral features in isolated neutron stars induced by inhomogeneous surface temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viganò, D.; Perna, R.; Rea, N.; Pons, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The thermal X-ray spectra of several isolated neutron stars display deviations from a pure blackbody. The accurate physical interpretation of these spectral features bears profound implications for our understanding of the atmospheric composition, magnetic field strength and topology, and equation

  14. Multipolar electromagnetic fields around neutron stars: general-relativistic vacuum solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pétri, J.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic fields inside and around neutron stars are at the heart of pulsar magnetospheric activity. Strong magnetic fields are responsible for quantum effects, an essential ingredient to produce leptonic pairs and the subsequent broad-band radiation. The variety of electromagnetic field topologies could lead to the observed diversity of neutron star classes. Thus, it is important to include multipolar components to a presumably dominant dipolar magnetic field. Exact analytical solutions for these multipoles in Newtonian gravity have been computed in recent literature. However, flat space-time is not adequate to describe physics in the immediate surroundings of neutron stars. We generalize the multipole expressions to the strong gravity regime by using a slowly rotating metric approximation such as the one expected around neutron stars. Approximate formulae for the electromagnetic field including frame dragging are computed from which we estimate the Poynting flux and the braking index. Corrections to leading order in compactness and spin parameter are presented. As far as spin-down luminosity is concerned, it is shown that frame dragging remains irrelevant. For high-order multipoles starting from the quadrupole, the electric part can radiate more efficiently than the magnetic part. Both analytical and numerical tools are employed.

  15. An Algorithm for the Simulation of the Magnetized Neutron Star Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorian H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A model and algorithm for the cooling of the magnetized neutron stars are presented. The cooling evolution described by a system of parabolic partial differential equations with non-linear coeffcients is solved using the Alternating Direction Implicit method. A difference scheme and the preliminary results of simulations are presented.

  16. Neutron star cooling and the rp process in thermonuclear X-ray bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zand, J. J. M. in 't; Visser, M. E. B.; Galloway, D.K.

    2017-01-01

    When the upper layer of an accreting neutron star experiences a thermonuclearrunaway of helium and hydrogen, it exhibits an X-ray burst of a few keV with acool-down phase of typically 1~minute. When there is a surplus of hydrogen,hydrogen fusion is expected to simmer during that same minute due...

  17. Illuminating gravitational waves: A concordant picture of photons from a neutron star merger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasliwal, M M; Nakar, E; Singer, L P; Kaplan, D L; Cook, D O; Van Sistine, A; Lau, R M; Fremling, C; Gottlieb, O; Jencson, J E; Adams, S M; Feindt, U; Hotokezaka, K; Ghosh, S; Perley, D A; Yu, P-C; Piran, T; Allison, J R; Anupama, G C; Balasubramanian, A; Bannister, K W; Bally, J; Barnes, J; Barway, S; Bellm, E; Bhalerao, V; Bhattacharya, D; Blagorodnova, N; Bloom, J S; Brady, P R; Cannella, C; Chatterjee, D; Cenko, S B; Cobb, B E; Copperwheat, C; Corsi, A; De, K; Dobie, D; Emery, S W K; Evans, P A; Fox, O D; Frail, D A; Frohmaier, C; Goobar, A; Hallinan, G; Harrison, F; Helou, G; Hinderer, T; Ho, A Y Q; Horesh, A; Ip, W-H; Itoh, R; Kasen, D; Kim, H; Kuin, N P M; Kupfer, T; Lynch, C; Madsen, K; Mazzali, P A; Miller, A A; Mooley, K; Murphy, T; Ngeow, C-C; Nichols, D; Nissanke, S; Nugent, P; Ofek, E O; Qi, H; Quimby, R M; Rosswog, S; Rusu, F; Sadler, E M; Schmidt, P; Sollerman, J; Steele, I; Williamson, A R; Xu, Y; Yan, L; Yatsu, Y; Zhang, C; Zhao, W

    2017-12-22

    Merging neutron stars offer an excellent laboratory for simultaneously studying strong-field gravity and matter in extreme environments. We establish the physical association of an electromagnetic counterpart (EM170817) with gravitational waves (GW170817) detected from merging neutron stars. By synthesizing a panchromatic data set, we demonstrate that merging neutron stars are a long-sought production site forging heavy elements by r-process nucleosynthesis. The weak gamma rays seen in EM170817 are dissimilar to classical short gamma-ray bursts with ultrarelativistic jets. Instead, we suggest that breakout of a wide-angle, mildly relativistic cocoon engulfing the jet explains the low-luminosity gamma rays, the high-luminosity ultraviolet-optical-infrared, and the delayed radio and x-ray emission. We posit that all neutron star mergers may lead to a wide-angle cocoon breakout, sometimes accompanied by a successful jet and sometimes by a choked jet. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Dark Kinetic Heating of Neutron Stars and an Infrared Window on WIMPs, SIMPs, and Pure Higgsinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryakhtar, Masha; Bramante, Joseph; Li, Shirley Weishi; Linden, Tim; Raj, Nirmal

    2017-09-29

    We identify a largely model-independent signature of dark matter (DM) interactions with nucleons and electrons. DM in the local galactic halo, gravitationally accelerated to over half the speed of light, scatters against and deposits kinetic energy into neutron stars, heating them to infrared blackbody temperatures. The resulting radiation could potentially be detected by the James Webb Space Telescope, the Thirty Meter Telescope, or the European Extremely Large Telescope. This mechanism also produces optical emission from neutron stars in the galactic bulge, and x-ray emission near the galactic center because dark matter is denser in these regions. For GeV-PeV mass dark matter, dark kinetic heating would initially unmask any spin-independent or spin-dependent dark matter-nucleon cross sections exceeding 2×10^{-45}  cm^{2}, with improved sensitivity after more telescope exposure. For lighter-than-GeV dark matter, cross-section sensitivity scales inversely with dark matter mass because of Pauli blocking; for heavier-than-PeV dark matter, it scales linearly with mass as a result of needing multiple scatters for capture. Future observations of dark sector-warmed neutron stars could determine whether dark matter annihilates in or only kinetically heats neutron stars. Because inelastic interstate transitions of up to a few GeV would occur in relativistic scattering against nucleons, elusive inelastic dark matter like pure Higgsinos can also be discovered.

  19. Probing the gravitational field around neutron stars with Fe lines and kHz QPOs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendez, Mariano

    2010-01-01

    Broad Fe lines have been detected in 10 neutron-star LMXBs. In two sources the Fe line and kHz QPOs give consistent values for the inner radius of the accretion disc, but measurements were not simultaneous. Using XMM-Newton/RXTE and Chandra/RXTE simultaneously, we have recently shown that in the

  20. Dark Kinetic Heating of Neutron Stars and an Infrared Window on WIMPs, SIMPs, and Pure Higgsinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryakhtar, Masha; Bramante, Joseph; Li, Shirley Weishi; Linden, Tim; Raj, Nirmal

    2017-09-01

    We identify a largely model-independent signature of dark matter (DM) interactions with nucleons and electrons. DM in the local galactic halo, gravitationally accelerated to over half the speed of light, scatters against and deposits kinetic energy into neutron stars, heating them to infrared blackbody temperatures. The resulting radiation could potentially be detected by the James Webb Space Telescope, the Thirty Meter Telescope, or the European Extremely Large Telescope. This mechanism also produces optical emission from neutron stars in the galactic bulge, and x-ray emission near the galactic center because dark matter is denser in these regions. For GeV-PeV mass dark matter, dark kinetic heating would initially unmask any spin-independent or spin-dependent dark matter-nucleon cross sections exceeding 2 ×10-45 cm2, with improved sensitivity after more telescope exposure. For lighter-than-GeV dark matter, cross-section sensitivity scales inversely with dark matter mass because of Pauli blocking; for heavier-than-PeV dark matter, it scales linearly with mass as a result of needing multiple scatters for capture. Future observations of dark sector-warmed neutron stars could determine whether dark matter annihilates in or only kinetically heats neutron stars. Because inelastic interstate transitions of up to a few GeV would occur in relativistic scattering against nucleons, elusive inelastic dark matter like pure Higgsinos can also be discovered.

  1. Relativistic MHD modeling of magnetized neutron stars, pulsar winds, and their nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Zanna, L.; Pili, A. G.; Olmi, B.; Bucciantini, N.; Amato, E.

    2018-01-01

    Neutron stars are among the most fascinating astrophysical sources, being characterized by strong gravity, densities about the nuclear one or even above, and huge magnetic fields. Their observational signatures can be extremely diverse across the electromagnetic spectrum, ranging from the periodic and low-frequency signals of radio pulsars, up to the abrupt high-energy gamma-ray flares of magnetars, where energies of ∼ {10}46 {erg} are released in a few seconds. Fast-rotating and highly magnetized neutron stars are expected to launch powerful relativistic winds, whose interaction with the supernova remnants gives rise to the non-thermal emission of pulsar wind nebulae, which are known cosmic accelerators of electrons and positrons up to PeV energies. In the extreme cases of proto-magnetars (magnetic fields of ∼ {10}15 G and millisecond periods), a similar mechanism is likely to provide a viable engine for the still mysterious gamma-ray bursts. The key ingredient in all these spectacular manifestations of neutron stars is the presence of strong magnetic fields in their constituent plasma. Here we will present recent updates of a couple of state-of-the-art numerical investigations by the high-energy astrophysics group in Arcetri: a comprehensive modeling of the steady-state axisymmetric structure of rotating magnetized neutron stars in general relativity, and dynamical 3D MHD simulations of relativistic pulsar winds and their associated nebulae.

  2. Rheology of neutron stars. Vortex-line pinning in the crust superfluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, P.W. (Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (USA); Princeton Univ., NJ (USA)); Alpar, M.A. (Bogazici Univ., Istanbul (Turkey); Princeton Univ., NJ (USA)); Pines, D. (Illinois Univ., Urbana (USA)); Shaham, J. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel). Racah Inst. of Physics)

    1982-02-01

    After a discussion of the general physics of neutron stars, a brief discussion is given of the 'glitch' phenomenon and its relation to superfluidity, and finally a rather detailed study of the physics of vortex-line pinning in the crust lattice.

  3. Evidence against field decay proportional to accreted mass in neutron stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1997-01-01

    A specific class of pulsar recycling model, in which magnetic field decrease is a function only of the amount of mass accreted on to the neutron star, is examined in detail. It is shown that no model in this class is consistent with all available data on X-ray binaries and recycled pulsars. Only if

  4. Application of the density dependent hadron field theory to neutron star matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, F.; Keil, C. M.; Lenske, H.

    2001-01-01

    Published in: Phys. Rev., C 64 (2001) 025804 citations recorded in [Science Citation Index] Abstract: The density dependent hadron field (DDRH) theory, previously applied to isospin nuclei and hypernuclei is used to describe $beta$-stable matter and neutron stars under consideration of the complete

  5. Supernova remnant energetics and magnetars: no evidence in favour of millisecond proto-neutron stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/182880559; Kuiper, L.

    2006-01-01

    It is generally accepted that anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) and soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) are magnetars, i.e. neutron stars with extremely high surface magnetic fields (B > 1014 G). The origin of these high magnetic fields is uncertain, but a popular hypothesis is that magnetars are born with

  6. Detectable radio flares following gravitational waves from mergers of binary neutron stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakar, Ehud; Piran, Tsvi

    2011-09-28

    Mergers of neutron-star/neutron-star binaries are strong sources of gravitational waves. They can also launch subrelativistic and mildly relativistic outflows and are often assumed to be the sources of short γ-ray bursts. An electromagnetic signature that persisted for weeks to months after the event would strengthen any future claim of a detection of gravitational waves. Here we present results of calculations showing that the interaction of mildly relativistic outflows with the surrounding medium produces radio flares with peak emission at 1.4 gigahertz that persist at detectable (submillijansky) levels for weeks, out to a redshift of 0.1. Slower subrelativistic outflows produce flares detectable for years at 150 megahertz, as well as at 1.4 gigahertz, from slightly shorter distances. The radio transient RT 19870422 (ref. 11) has the properties predicted by our model, and its most probable origin is the merger of a compact neutron-star/neutron-star binary. The lack of radio detections usually associated with short γ-ray bursts does not constrain the radio transients that we discuss here (from mildly relativistic and subrelativistic outflows) because short γ-ray burst redshifts are typically >0.1 and the appropriate timescales (longer than weeks) have not been sampled.

  7. Comparison of methods for the detection of gravitational waves from unknown neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, S.; Pitkin, M.; Oliver, M.; D'Antonio, S.; Dergachev, V.; Królak, A.; Astone, P.; Bejger, M.; Di Giovanni, M.; Dorosh, O.; Frasca, S.; Leaci, P.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Miller, A.; Palomba, C.; Papa, M. A.; Piccinni, O. J.; Riles, K.; Sauter, O.; Sintes, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Rapidly rotating neutron stars are promising sources of continuous gravitational wave radiation for the LIGO and Virgo interferometers. The majority of neutron stars in our galaxy have not been identified with electromagnetic observations. All-sky searches for isolated neutron stars offer the potential to detect gravitational waves from these unidentified sources. The parameter space of these blind all-sky searches, which also cover a large range of frequencies and frequency derivatives, presents a significant computational challenge. Different methods have been designed to perform these searches within acceptable computational limits. Here we describe the first benchmark in a project to compare the search methods currently available for the detection of unknown isolated neutron stars. The five methods compared here are individually referred to as the PowerFlux, sky Hough, frequency Hough, Einstein@Home, and time domain F -statistic methods. We employ a mock data challenge to compare the ability of each search method to recover signals simulated assuming a standard signal model. We find similar performance among the four quick-look search methods, while the more computationally intensive search method, Einstein@Home, achieves up to a factor of two higher sensitivity. We find that the absence of a second derivative frequency in the search parameter space does not degrade search sensitivity for signals with physically plausible second derivative frequencies. We also report on the parameter estimation accuracy of each search method, and the stability of the sensitivity in frequency and frequency derivative and in the presence of detector noise.

  8. The Emergence of a Lanthanide-rich Kilonova Following the Merger of Two Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanvir, N. R.; Levan, A. J.; González-Fernández, C.; Korobkin, O.; Mandel, I.; Rosswog, S.; Hjorth, J.; D'Avanzo, P.; Fruchter, A. S.; Fryer, C. L.; Kangas, T.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Rosetti, S.; Steeghs, D.; Wollaeger, R. T.; Cano, Z.; Copperwheat, C. M.; Covino, S.; D'Elia, V.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Evans, P. A.; Even, W. P.; Fairhurst, S.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Fontes, C. J.; Fujii, Y. I.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Gompertz, B. P.; Greiner, J.; Hodosan, G.; Irwin, M. J.; Jakobsson, P.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Kann, D. A.; Lyman, J. D.; Malesani, D.; McMahon, R. G.; Melandri, A.; O'Brien, P. T.; Osborne, J. P.; Palazzi, E.; Perley, D. A.; Pian, E.; Piranomonte, S.; Rabus, M.; Rol, E.; Rowlinson, A.; Schulze, S.; Sutton, P.; Thöne, C. C.; Ulaczyk, K.; Watson, D.; Wiersema, K.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.

    2017-10-01

    We report the discovery and monitoring of the near-infrared counterpart (AT2017gfo) of a binary neutron-star merger event detected as a gravitational wave source by Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO)/Virgo (GW170817) and as a short gamma-ray burst by Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Integral SPI-ACS (GRB 170817A). The evolution of the transient light is consistent with predictions for the behavior of a “kilonova/macronova” powered by the radioactive decay of massive neutron-rich nuclides created via r-process nucleosynthesis in the neutron-star ejecta. In particular, evidence for this scenario is found from broad features seen in Hubble Space Telescope infrared spectroscopy, similar to those predicted for lanthanide-dominated ejecta, and the much slower evolution in the near-infrared {K}{{s}}-band compared to the optical. This indicates that the late-time light is dominated by high-opacity lanthanide-rich ejecta, suggesting nucleosynthesis to the third r-process peak (atomic masses A≈ 195). This discovery confirms that neutron-star mergers produce kilo-/macronovae and that they are at least a major—if not the dominant—site of rapid neutron capture nucleosynthesis in the universe.

  9. Effective interactions of hyperons and mass-radius relation of neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yeunhwan; Lee, Chang-Hwan; Oh, Yongseok

    2018-01-01

    We examine the role of hyperons in a neutron star based on the relativistic mean field approach. For nuclear matter below 1.5 times the normal nuclear density we constrain the model parameters by using the symmetric nuclear matter properties and theoretical investigations for neutron matter in the literature. We then extend the model to higher densities by including hyperons and isoscalar vector mesons that contain strangeness degree of freedom. We confirm that the ϕ meson induces a Λ repulsive force and hardens the equation of state. The hardening arising from the ϕ meson compensates the softening from the existence of hyperons. The flavor SU(3) and spin-flavor SU(6) relations are examined as well. We found that the coupling constants fitted by neutron matter properties could yield high enough maximum mass of a neutron star and the obtained results satisfy both the mass and radius constraints. The onset of the hyperon direct Urca process in neutron stars is also investigated using our parametrization.

  10. A neutron-star-driven X-ray flash associated with supernova SN 2006aj.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzali, Paolo A; Deng, Jinsong; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Sauer, Daniel N; Pian, Elena; Tominaga, Nozomu; Tanaka, Masaomi; Maeda, Keiichi; Filippenko, Alexei V

    2006-08-31

    Supernovae connected with long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are hyper-energetic explosions resulting from the collapse of very massive stars ( approximately 40 M\\circ, where M\\circ is the mass of the Sun) stripped of their outer hydrogen and helium envelopes. A very massive progenitor, collapsing to a black hole, was thought to be a requirement for the launch of a GRB. Here we report the results of modelling the spectra and light curve of SN 2006aj (ref. 9), which demonstrate that the supernova had a much smaller explosion energy and ejected much less mass than the other GRB-supernovae, suggesting that it was produced by a star whose initial mass was only approximately 20 M\\circ. A star of this mass is expected to form a neutron star rather than a black hole when its core collapses. The smaller explosion energy of SN 2006aj is matched by the weakness and softness of GRB 060218 (an X-ray flash), and the weakness of the radio flux of the supernova. Our results indicate that the supernova-GRB connection extends to a much broader range of stellar masses than previously thought, possibly involving different physical mechanisms: a 'collapsar' (ref. 8) for the more massive stars collapsing to a black hole, and magnetic activity of the nascent neutron star for the less massive stars.

  11. X-ray studies of neutron stars and their magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAKISHIMA, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing results obtained over the past quarter century mainly with Japanese X-ray astronomy satellites, a review is given to some aspects of neutron stars (NSs), with a particular emphasis on the magnetic fields (MFs) of mass-accreting NSs and magnetars. Measurements of electron cyclotron resonance features in binary X-ray pulsars, using the Ginga and Suzaku observatories, clarified that their surface MFs are concentrated in a narrow range of (1–7) × 108 T. Extensive studies of magnetars with Suzaku reinforced their nature as neutron stars with truly strong MFs, and revealed several important clues to their formation, evolution, and physical states. Taking all these results into account, a discussion is made on the origin and evolution of these strong MFs. One possible scenario is that the MF of NSs is a manifestation of some fundamental physics, e.g., neutron spin alignment or chirality violation, and the MF makes transitions from strong to weak states. PMID:27169348

  12. X-ray studies of neutron stars and their magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makishima, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing results obtained over the past quarter century mainly with Japanese X-ray astronomy satellites, a review is given to some aspects of neutron stars (NSs), with a particular emphasis on the magnetic fields (MFs) of mass-accreting NSs and magnetars. Measurements of electron cyclotron resonance features in binary X-ray pulsars, using the Ginga and Suzaku observatories, clarified that their surface MFs are concentrated in a narrow range of (1-7) × 10(8) T. Extensive studies of magnetars with Suzaku reinforced their nature as neutron stars with truly strong MFs, and revealed several important clues to their formation, evolution, and physical states. Taking all these results into account, a discussion is made on the origin and evolution of these strong MFs. One possible scenario is that the MF of NSs is a manifestation of some fundamental physics, e.g., neutron spin alignment or chirality violation, and the MF makes transitions from strong to weak states.

  13. The Helium r-Process and Neutron-Capture Element Abundances in Low Metallicity Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truran, J. W.; Cowan, J. J.

    2000-05-01

    There is increasingly strong observational evidence that the r-process isotopes identified in solar system matter are in fact the products of two distinct classes of r-process nucleosynthesis events. Spectroscopic observations of extremely metal deficient halo field stars and globular cluster stars provide confirmation of the occurrence of a robust r-process mechanism for the production of the main r-process component, at mass numbers A ≳ 130-140. This main component is variously argued to have its origin in regions outside the neutronized core, in magnetic jets from the collapsing core, or in neutron star-neutron star mergers. The stellar abundance data available to date suggests, however, that the bulk of the r-process nuclei in the mass region A post shock conditions insures that this process is not as robust as that responsible for the main r-process component A ≳ 130-140. We discuss the implications of our numerical results for the interpretation both of the abundances in metal poor stars and of the anomalous r-process-like isotopic abundances observed in meteoritic silicon carbide grains (Pellin et al. 2000). This research was funded in part by NSF grant AST-9618332 to JJC and by the ASCI/Alliances Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes at the University of Chicago under DOE contract B341495 (JWT).

  14. The r-process nucleosynthesis during the decompression of neutron star crust material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goriely, S. [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, CP-226, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Bauswein, A. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece and Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Postfach 1317, 85741 Garching (Germany); Janka, H.-T. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Postfach 1317, 85741 Garching (Germany); Sida, J.-L.; Lemaître, J.-F.; Panebianco, S. [C.E.A. Saclay, Irfu/Service de Physique Nucléaire, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dubray, N.; Hilaire, S. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

    2014-05-02

    About half of the nuclei heavier than iron observed in nature are produced by the so-called rapid neutron capture process, or r-process, of nucleosynthesis. The identification of the astrophysics site and the specific conditions in which the r-process takes place remains, however, one of the still-unsolved mysteries of modern astrophysics. Another underlying difficulty associated with our understanding of the r-process concerns the uncertainties in the predictions of nuclear properties for the few thousands exotic neutron-rich nuclei involved, for which essentially no experimental data exist. The present paper emphasizes some important future challenges faced by nuclear physics in this problem, particularly in the determination of the nuclear structure properties of exotic neutron-rich nuclei as well as their radiative neutron capture rates and their fission probabilities. These quantities are particularly relevant to determine the composition of the matter resulting from the r-process. Both the astrophysics and the nuclear physics difficulties are critically reviewed with special attention paid to the r-process taking place during the decompression of neutron star matter following the merging of two neutron stars.

  15. Disc-jet coupling in low-luminosity accreting neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, V.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Patruno, A.; D'Angelo, C. R.; Jonker, P. G.; Russell, D. M.; Russell, T. D.; Bernardini, F.; Lewis, F.; Deller, A. T.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Migliari, S.; Plotkin, R. M.; Soria, R.; Wijnands, R.

    2017-09-01

    In outburst, neutron star X-ray binaries produce less powerful jets than black holes at a given X-ray luminosity. This has made them more difficult to study as they fade towards quiescence. To explore whether neutron stars power jets at low accretion rates (LX ≲ 1036 erg s-1), we investigate the radio and X-ray properties of three accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars (IGR J17511-3057, SAX J1808.4-3658 and IGR J00291+5934) during their outbursts in 2015, and of the non-pulsing neutron star Cen X-4 in quiescence (2015) and in outburst (1979). We did not detect the radio counterpart of IGR J17511-3057 in outburst or of Cen X-4 in quiescence, but did detect IGR J00291+5934 and SAX J1808.4-3658, showing that at least some neutron stars launch jets at low accretion rates. While the radio and X-ray emission in IGR J00291+5934 seem to be tightly correlated, the relationship in SAX J1808.4-3658 is more complicated. We find that SAX J1808.4-3658 produces jets during the reflaring tail, and we explore a toy model to ascertain whether the radio emission could be attributed to the onset of a strong propeller. The lack of a universal radio/X-ray correlation, with different behaviours in different neutron star systems (with various radio/X-ray correlations; some being radio faint and others not), points at distinct disc-jet interactions in individual sources, while always being fainter in the radio band than black holes at the same X-ray luminosity.

  16. GW170817: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Neutron Star Inspiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Afrough, M.; Agarwal, B.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Amato, A.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Angelova, S. V.; Antier, S.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Atallah, D. V.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; AultONeal, K.; Austin, C.; Avila-Alvarez, A.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Bae, S.; Bailes, M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Banagiri, S.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barkett, K.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Bawaj, M.; Bayley, J. C.; Bazzan, M.; Bécsy, B.; Beer, C.; Bejger, M.; Belahcene, I.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Bernuzzi, S.; Bero, J. J.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Billman, C. R.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Biscoveanu, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackman, J.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bode, N.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bohe, A.; Bondu, F.; Bonilla, E.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bossie, K.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Canepa, M.; Canizares, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, H.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Carney, M. F.; Carullo, G.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerdá-Durán, P.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chase, E.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chatterjee, D.; Chatziioannou, K.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H.-P.; Chia, H.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Chmiel, T.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, A. J. K.; Chua, S.; Chung, A. K. W.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Ciolfi, R.; Cirelli, C. E.; Cirone, A.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Clearwater, P.; Cleva, F.; Cocchieri, C.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Cohen, D.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L. R.; Constancio, M.; Conti, L.; Cooper, S. J.; Corban, P.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordero-Carrión, I.; Corley, K. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Covas, P. B.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cullen, T. J.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Dálya, G.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dasgupta, A.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davis, D.; Daw, E. J.; Day, B.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Demos, N.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; De Pietri, R.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; De Rossi, C.; DeSalvo, R.; de Varona, O.; Devenson, J.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Dietrich, T.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Renzo, F.; Doctor, Z.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dorrington, I.; Douglas, R.; Dovale Álvarez, M.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Dreissigacker, C.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dudi, R.; Dupej, P.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Eisenstein, R. A.; Essick, R. C.; Estevez, D.; Etienne, Z. B.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Fauchon-Jones, E. J.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fee, C.; Fehrmann, H.; Feicht, J.; Fejer, M. M.; Fernandez-Galiana, A.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finstad, D.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fishbach, M.; Fisher, R. P.; Fitz-Axen, M.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Font, J. A.; Forsyth, P. W. F.; Forsyth, S. S.; Fournier, J.-D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fries, E. M.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H.; Gadre, B. U.; Gaebel, S. M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Ganija, M. R.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garcia-Quiros, C.; Garufi, F.; Gateley, B.; Gaudio, S.; Gaur, G.; Gayathri, V.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, D.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghonge, S.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glover, L.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gomes, S.; Goncharov, B.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Gretarsson, E. M.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Gruning, P.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Halim, O.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hamilton, E. Z.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hannuksela, O. A.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hinderer, T.; Ho, W. C. G.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Horst, C.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hreibi, A.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Inta, R.; Intini, G.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Johnson-McDaniel, N. K.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Junker, J.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kamai, B.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Kastaun, W.; Katolik, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kawabe, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kemball, A. J.; Kennedy, R.; Kent, C.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J. C.; Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Kim, W. S.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinley-Hanlon, M.; Kirchhoff, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Knowles, T. D.; Koch, P.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Krämer, C.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, S.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Kwang, S.; Lackey, B. D.; Lai, K. H.; Landry, M.; Lang, R. N.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lanza, R. K.; Larson, S. L.; Lartaux-Vollard, A.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, H. W.; Lee, K.; Lehmann, J.; Lenon, A.; Leon, E.; Leonardi, M.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Li, T. G. F.; Linker, S. D.; Littenberg, T. B.; Liu, J.; Liu, X.; Lo, R. K. L.; Lockerbie, N. A.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lousto, C. O.; Lovelace, G.; Lück, H.; Lumaca, D.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macas, R.; Macfoy, S.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña Hernandez, I.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magaña Zertuche, L.; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markakis, C.; Markosyan, A. S.; Markowitz, A.; Maros, E.; Marquina, A.; Marsh, P.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Massera, E.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matas, A.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McCuller, L.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McNeill, L.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Mehmet, M.; Meidam, J.; Mejuto-Villa, E.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Milovich-Goff, M. C.; Minazzoli, O.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moffa, D.; Moggi, A.; Mogushi, K.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Molina, I.; Montani, M.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morisaki, S.; Morriss, S. R.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Muñiz, E. A.; Muratore, M.; Murray, P. G.; Nagar, A.; Napier, K.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Neilson, J.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Nery, M.; Neunzert, A.; Nevin, L.; Newport, J. M.; Newton, G.; Ng, K. K. Y.; Nguyen, P.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nichols, D.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Noack, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; North, C.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; O'Dea, G. D.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Okada, M. A.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; Ormiston, R.; Ortega, L. F.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ossokine, S.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pace, A. E.; Page, J.; Page, M. A.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, Howard; Pan, Huang-Wei; Pang, B.; Pang, P. T. H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Parida, A.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patil, M.; Patricelli, B.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perez, C. J.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pirello, M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Porter, E. K.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Pratt, J. W. W.; Pratten, G.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rajbhandari, B.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramirez, K. E.; Ramos-Buades, A.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Read, J.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ren, W.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Ricker, P. M.; Rieger, S.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romel, C. L.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Ross, M. P.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Rutins, G.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L. M.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sanchez, L. E.; Sanchis-Gual, N.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Scheel, M.; Scheuer, J.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schulte, B. W.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwalbe, S. G.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Seidel, E.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shah, A. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaner, M. B.; Shao, L.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Somala, S.; Son, E. J.; Sonnenberg, J. A.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, A. P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staats, K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stevenson, S. P.; Stone, R.; Stops, D. J.; Strain, K. A.; Stratta, G.; Strigin, S. E.; Strunk, A.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Suresh, J.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Tait, S. C.; Talbot, C.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Taracchini, A.; Tasson, J. D.; Taylor, J. A.; Taylor, R.; Tewari, S. V.; Theeg, T.; Thies, F.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. 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H.; Wang, Y. F.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Watchi, J.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wessel, E. K.; Weßels, P.; Westerweck, J.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; Whiting, B. F.; Whittle, C.; Wilken, D.; Williams, D.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Wofford, J.; Wong, K. W. K.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wysocki, D. M.; Xiao, S.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, L.; Yap, M. J.; Yazback, M.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M.; ZadroŻny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zelenova, T.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Y.-H.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, S. J.; Zhu, X. J.; Zimmerman, A. B.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    On August 17, 2017 at 12∶41:04 UTC the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo gravitational-wave detectors made their first observation of a binary neutron star inspiral. The signal, GW170817, was detected with a combined signal-to-noise ratio of 32.4 and a false-alarm-rate estimate of less than one per 8.0 ×104 years . We infer the component masses of the binary to be between 0.86 and 2.26 M⊙ , in agreement with masses of known neutron stars. Restricting the component spins to the range inferred in binary neutron stars, we find the component masses to be in the range 1.17 - 1.60 M⊙ , with the total mass of the system 2.7 4-0.01+0.04M⊙ . The source was localized within a sky region of 28 deg2 (90% probability) and had a luminosity distance of 4 0-14+8 Mpc , the closest and most precisely localized gravitational-wave signal yet. The association with the γ -ray burst GRB 170817A, detected by Fermi-GBM 1.7 s after the coalescence, corroborates the hypothesis of a neutron star merger and provides the first direct evidence of a link between these mergers and short γ -ray bursts. Subsequent identification of transient counterparts across the electromagnetic spectrum in the same location further supports the interpretation of this event as a neutron star merger. This unprecedented joint gravitational and electromagnetic observation provides insight into astrophysics, dense matter, gravitation, and cosmology.

  17. GW170817: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Neutron Star Inspiral.

    Science.gov (United States)

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Tápai, M; Taracchini, A; Tasson, J D; Taylor, J A; Taylor, R; Tewari, S V; Theeg, T; Thies, F; Thomas, E G; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Tiwari, S; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Toland, K; Tonelli, M; Tornasi, Z; Torres-Forné, A; Torrie, C I; Töyrä, D; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Trinastic, J; Tringali, M C; Trozzo, L; Tsang, K W; Tse, M; Tso, R; Tsukada, L; Tsuna, D; Tuyenbayev, D; Ueno, K; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Usman, S A; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; Vallisneri, M; van Bakel, N; van Beuzekom, M; van den Brand, J F J; Van Den Broeck, C; Vander-Hyde, D C; van der Schaaf, L; van Heijningen, J V; van Veggel, A A; Vardaro, M; Varma, V; Vass, S; Vasúth, M; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Venugopalan, G; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Viets, A D; Vinciguerra, S; Vine, D J; Vinet, J-Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A R; Wade, L E; Wade, M; Walet, R; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Walsh, S; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J Z; Wang, W H; Wang, Y F; Ward, R L; Warner, J; Was, M; Watchi, J; Weaver, B; Wei, L-W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Wen, L; Wessel, E K; Weßels, P; Westerweck, J; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; Whiting, B F; Whittle, C; Wilken, D; Williams, D; Williams, R D; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M H; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Woehler, J; Wofford, J; Wong, K W K; Worden, J; Wright, J L; Wu, D S; Wysocki, D M; Xiao, S; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yang, L; Yap, M J; Yazback, M; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zanolin, M; Zelenova, T; Zendri, J-P; Zevin, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, T; Zhang, Y-H; Zhao, C; Zhou, M; Zhou, Z; Zhu, S J; Zhu, X J; Zimmerman, A B; Zucker, M E; Zweizig, J

    2017-10-20

    On August 17, 2017 at 12∶41:04 UTC the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo gravitational-wave detectors made their first observation of a binary neutron star inspiral. The signal, GW170817, was detected with a combined signal-to-noise ratio of 32.4 and a false-alarm-rate estimate of less than one per 8.0×10^{4}  years. We infer the component masses of the binary to be between 0.86 and 2.26  M_{⊙}, in agreement with masses of known neutron stars. Restricting the component spins to the range inferred in binary neutron stars, we find the component masses to be in the range 1.17-1.60  M_{⊙}, with the total mass of the system 2.74_{-0.01}^{+0.04}M_{⊙}. The source was localized within a sky region of 28  deg^{2} (90% probability) and had a luminosity distance of 40_{-14}^{+8}  Mpc, the closest and most precisely localized gravitational-wave signal yet. The association with the γ-ray burst GRB 170817A, detected by Fermi-GBM 1.7 s after the coalescence, corroborates the hypothesis of a neutron star merger and provides the first direct evidence of a link between these mergers and short γ-ray bursts. Subsequent identification of transient counterparts across the electromagnetic spectrum in the same location further supports the interpretation of this event as a neutron star merger. This unprecedented joint gravitational and electromagnetic observation provides insight into astrophysics, dense matter, gravitation, and cosmology.

  18. Black Hole-Neutron Star Mergers as Central Engines of Gamma-Ray Bursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janka; Eberl; Ruffert; Fryer

    1999-12-10

    Hydrodynamic simulations of the merger of stellar mass black hole-neutron star binaries are compared with mergers of binary neutron stars. The simulations are Newtonian but take into account the emission and back-reaction of gravitational waves. The use of a physical nuclear equation of state allows us to include the effects of neutrino emission. For low neutron star-to-black hole mass ratios, the neutron star transfers mass to the black hole during a few cycles of orbital decay and subsequent widening before finally being disrupted, whereas for ratios near unity the neutron star is destroyed during its first approach. A gas mass between approximately 0.3 and approximately 0.7 M middle dot in circle is left in an accretion torus around the black hole and radiates neutrinos at a luminosity of several times 1053 ergs s-1 during an estimated accretion timescale of about 0.1 s. The emitted neutrinos and antineutrinos annihilate into e+/- pairs with efficiencies of 1%-3% and rates of up to approximately 2x1052 ergs s-1, thus depositing an energy Enunu&d1; less, similar1051 ergs above the poles of the black hole in a region that contains less than 10-5 M middle dot in circle of baryonic matter. This could allow for relativistic expansion with Lorentz factors around 100 and is sufficient to explain apparent burst luminosities Lgamma approximately Enunu&d1;&solm0;&parl0;fOmegatgamma&parr0; up to several times 1053 ergs s-1 for burst durations tgamma approximately 0.1-1 s, if the gamma emission is collimated in two moderately focused jets in a fraction fOmega=2deltaOmega&solm0;&parl0;4pi&parr0; approximately 1&solm0;100-(1/10) of the sky.

  19. Cosmological inference using only gravitational wave observations of binary neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pozzo, Walter; Li, Tjonnie G. F.; Messenger, Chris

    2017-02-01

    Gravitational waves emitted during the coalescence of binary neutron star systems are self-calibrating signals. As such, they can provide a direct measurement of the luminosity distance to a source without the need for a cross-calibrated cosmic distance-scale ladder. In general, however, the corresponding redshift measurement needs to be obtained via electromagnetic observations since it is totally degenerate with the total mass of the system. Nevertheless, Fisher matrix studies have shown that, if information about the equation of state of the neutron stars is available, it is possible to extract redshift information from the gravitational wave signal alone. Therefore, measuring the cosmological parameters in pure gravitational-wave fashion is possible. Furthermore, the huge number of sources potentially observable by the Einstein Telescope has led to speculations that the gravitational wave measurement is potentially competitive with traditional methods. The Einstein Telescope is a conceptual study for a third generation gravitational wave detector which is designed to yield 1 03- 1 07 detections of binary neutron star systems per year. This study presents the first Bayesian investigation of the accuracy with which the cosmological parameters can be measured using information coming only from the gravitational wave observations of binary neutron star systems by the Einstein Telescope. We find, by direct simulation of 1 03 detections of binary neutron stars, that, within our simplifying assumptions, H0 , Ωm , ΩΛ , w0 and w1 can be measured at the 95% level with an accuracy of ˜8 % , 65%, 39%, 80% and 90%, respectively. We also find, by extrapolation, that a measurement accuracy comparable with current measurements by Planck is possible if the number of gravitational wave events observed is O (1 06 - 7) . We conclude that, while not competitive with electromagnetic missions in terms of significant digits, gravitational waves alone are capable of providing a

  20. Three dimensional simulation of the magnetic stress in a neutron star crust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, T S; Hollerbach, R

    2015-05-15

    We present the first fully self-consistent three dimensional model of a neutron star's magnetic field, generated by electric currents in the star's crust via the Hall effect. We find that the global-scale field converges to a dipolar Hall-attractor state, as seen in recent axisymmetric models, but that small-scale features in the magnetic field survive even on much longer time scales. These small-scale features propagate toward the dipole equator, where the crustal electric currents organize themselves into a strong equatorial jet. By calculating the distribution of magnetic stresses in the crust, we predict that neutron stars with fields stronger than 10^{14} G can still be subject to starquakes more than 10^{5} yr after their formation.

  1. Thermal conductivity and phase separation of the crust of accreting neutron stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, C J; Caballero, O L; Berry, D K

    2009-02-01

    Recently, crust cooling times have been measured for neutron stars after extended outbursts. These observations are very sensitive to the thermal conductivity kappa of the crust and strongly suggest that kappa is large. We perform molecular dynamics simulations of the structure of the crust of an accreting neutron star using a complex composition that includes many impurities. The composition comes from simulations of rapid proton capture nucleosynthesis followed by electron captures. We find that the thermal conductivity is reduced by impurity scattering. In addition, we find phase separation. Some impurities with low atomic number Z are concentrated in a subregion of the simulation volume. For our composition, the solid crust must separate into regions of different compositions. This could lead to an asymmetric star with a quadrupole deformation. Observations of crust cooling can constrain impurity concentrations.

  2. Gamma-ray emission from pulsars: testing neutron and strange star models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, G.; Lee, K.; Xu, R.; Wang, H.

    A multiple acceleration model for Gamma-ray emission is investigated here. The general observational features of gamma-ray as well as radio emission can be reproduced in this model. The detail radiative mechanisms of Gamma-ray and radio emission from pulsars are given at first, then comparison with other models is discussed briefly, and some observational tests are presented finally. It is emphasized that this model can be tested observationally (e.g., from the drifting sub-pulse observations). An important thing to notice that high bounding energy of the `neutron star' surface is necessary in this model, both negative and positive particles can not flow freely out from the stellar surface. This character may hints that, the so called `neutron stars' actually are `strange stars'.

  3. Using r-process enhanced galaxies to estimate the neutron star merger rate at high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roederer, Ian

    2018-01-01

    The rapid neutron-capture process, or r-process, is one of the fundamental ways that stars produce heavy elements. I describe a new approach that uses the existence of r-process enhanced galaxies, like the recently discovered ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Reticulum II, to derive a rate for neutron star mergers at high redshift. This method relies on three assertions. First, several lines of reasoning point to neutron star mergers as a rare yet prolific producer of r-process elements, and one merger event is capable of enriching most of the stars in a low-mass dwarf galaxy. Second, the Local Group is cosmologically representative of the halo mass function at the mass scales of low-luminosity dwarf galaxies, and the volume that their progenitors spanned at high redshifts can be estimated from simulations. Third, many of these dwarf galaxies are extremely old, and the metals found in their stars today date from the earliest times at high redshift. These galaxies occupy a quantifiable volume of the Universe, from which the frequency of r-process enhanced galaxies can be estimated. This frequency may be interpreted as lower limit to the neutron star merger rate at a redshift (z ~ 5-10) that is much higher than is accessible to gravitational wave observatories. I will present a proof of concept demonstration using medium-resolution multi-object spectroscopy from the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) to recover the known r-process galaxy Reticulum II, and I will discuss future plans to apply this method to other Local Group dwarf galaxies.

  4. Effective interaction: From nuclear reactions to neutron stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Theoretically obtained values of symmetric nuclear matter incompressibility, isobaric incompress- ibility, symmetry ... the symmetry properties of EoS due to differing neutron and proton numbers remain more elusive to date ...... with central density for static and rotating NSs at Keplerian limit and also maximum frequencies ...

  5. Simulating neutron star mergers as r-process sources in ultrafaint dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarzadeh, Mohammadtaher; Scannapieco, Evan

    2017-10-01

    To explain the high observed abundances of r-process elements in local ultrafaint dwarf (UFD) galaxies, we perform cosmological zoom simulations that include r-process production from neutron star mergers (NSMs). We model star formation stochastically and simulate two different haloes with total masses ≈108 M⊙ at z = 6. We find that the final distribution of [Eu/H] versus [Fe/H] is relatively insensitive to the energy by which the r-process material is ejected into the interstellar medium, but strongly sensitive to the environment in which the NSM event occurs. In one halo, the NSM event takes place at the centre of the stellar distribution, leading to high levels of r-process enrichment such as seen in a local UFD, Reticulum II (Ret II). In a second halo, the NSM event takes place outside of the densest part of the galaxy, leading to a more extended r-process distribution. The subsequent star formation occurs in an interstellar medium with shallow levels of r-process enrichment that results in stars with low levels of [Eu/H] compared to Ret II stars even when the maximum possible r-process mass is assumed to be ejected. This suggests that the natal kicks of neutron stars may also play an important role in determining the r-process abundances in UFD galaxies, a topic that warrants further theoretical investigation.

  6. Formation of the Double Neutron Star System PSR J1930-1852

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yong; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2016-01-01

    The spin period (185 ms) and period derivative (1.8× {10}-17 {{s}} {{{s}}}-1) of the recently discovered double neutron star (DNS) system PSR J1930-1852 indicate that the pulsar was mildly recycled through the process of Roche-lobe overflow. This system has the longest orbital period (45 days) of the known DNS systems, and can be formed from a helium star-NS binary if the initial mass of the helium star was ≲ 4.0{M}⊙ ; otherwise, the helium star would never fill its Roche-lobe. At the moment of the supernova explosion, the mass of the helium star was ≲ 3.0{M}⊙ . We find that the probability distribution of the velocity kick imparted to the new-born neutron star has a maximum at about 30 {km} {{{s}}}-1 (and a tail up to 260 {km} {{{s}}}-1), indicating that this NS probably received a low kick velocity at birth.

  7. Relativistic effects in superluminal jets and neutron star winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, M.A.; Ellis, G.F.R.; Lanza, A. (International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy) Chicago Univ., IL (USA) Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Trieste (Italy) Cape Town Univ., Rondebosch (South Africa) International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy))

    1990-10-01

    A complete solution is given for the problem of radial motion of a test particle through the combined gravitational and radiation field of a spherical star. The star is assumed to radiate isotropically from each point of its surface. The radiative force acting on the particle is assumed not to depend on the frequency of radiation. There is no feedback from the particle motion to the background radiation field. All the effects of special and general relativity are included with no approximation. 29 refs.

  8. The influence of the enhanced vector meson sector on the properties of the matter of neutron stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarek, Ilona; Manka, Ryszard; Pienkos, Monika

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the model of a neutron star with non-zero strangeness constructed within the framework of the nonlinear realization of the chiral SU(3)L x SU(3)R symmetry. The emphasis is put on the physical properties of the matter of a neutron star as well as on its internal structure. The obtained solution is particularly aimed at the problem of the construction of a theoretical model of a neutron star matter with hyperons that will give high value of the maximum mass.

  9. Time-of-flight mass measurements for nuclear processes in neutron star crusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estradé, A; Matoš, M; Schatz, H; Amthor, A M; Bazin, D; Beard, M; Becerril, A; Brown, E F; Cyburt, R; Elliot, T; Gade, A; Galaviz, D; George, S; Gupta, S S; Hix, W R; Lau, R; Lorusso, G; Möller, P; Pereira, J; Portillo, M; Rogers, A M; Shapira, D; Smith, E; Stolz, A; Wallace, M; Wiescher, M

    2011-10-21

    We present results from time-of-flight nuclear mass measurements at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory that are relevant for neutron star crust models. The masses of 16 neutron-rich nuclei in the scandium-nickel range were determined simultaneously, with the masses of (61)V, (63)Cr, (66)Mn, and (74)Ni measured for the first time with mass excesses of -30.510(890) MeV, -35.280(650) MeV, -36.900(790) MeV, and -49.210(990) MeV, respectively. With these results the locations of the dominant electron capture heat sources in the outer crust of accreting neutron stars that exhibit super bursts are now experimentally constrained. We find the experimental Q value for the (66)Fe→(66)Mn electron capture to be 2.1 MeV (2.6σ) smaller than predicted, resulting in the transition occurring significantly closer to the neutron star surface. © 2011 American Physical Society

  10. Gravity Defied From Potato Asteroids to Magnetised Neutron Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    actually begins with Jupiter (among other such wonderful con- cepts that we'd encounter in the next installments of this series), and to D Narasimha for introducing me to the physics of stars one exciting summer, thirty years ago. I would also like to express my deep gratitude to the Resonance team for their patience and per-.

  11. High-density QCD phase transitions inside neutron stars: Glitches ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-10-09

    Oct 9, 2017 ... ... of different high-density phases and associated phase transitions. We study effectsof density fluctuations during transitions with and without topological defect production and study the effect on pulsar timings due to changing moment of inertia of the star. We also discuss gravitational wave production due ...

  12. Voids in static neutron stars via a second solution of the Einstein field equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiess, Thomas E.

    2017-07-01

    We show that voids can exist inside neutron stars modeled as static spherically symmetric perfect fluid masses, enabled by a second massless solution of the Einstein Field Equations that produces pressure and that is physically permissible in the interior. The boundary between this interior massless solution and hadronic matter is analogous to a phase transition, in effect truncating the equation of state at a critical pressure. We exhibit the interior massless solution and apply it to a Tolman VII neutron star with a physical equation of state, and show that applicable boundary conditions are satisfied. As a result of numerical modeling, we show that void volumes corresponding to internal densities greater than ˜5 times the surface density are physically plausible and energetically favorable but only perturb the stellar mass, external radius, interior redshifts, and moments of inertia, making such observables not very definitive signatures. We conclude that cold neutron stars may contain these interior voids, as intriguing metric solutions of the Einstein Field Equations in classical general relativity, but the size and influence of such voids on observables can be larger for denser more compact objects (e.g., strange quark stars or black holes).

  13. Effects of temperature on the structure of neutron stars at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liang-gui; Lu, Jun-Li; Wang, Li

    2018-01-01

    In Newtonian physics, higher temperature leads to higher thermal pressure, which provides stronger support against the gravitational contraction of stars. However, in the temperature range of tens of MeV involved in the evolution of a proto-neutron star or a higher massive neutron star, the effects of temperature are richer. We showed that, for a high temperature neutron star (HTNS) constructed with a realistic equation of state (EOS), the HTNS may expand or contract during cooling, the central density may increase or decrease, the quasi-normal mode oscillation frequencies may increase or decrease, and in particular, (i) independent of the EOS, for a HTNS of a given mass, there exists a maximum temperature T_{max} that it could ever attend at birth (with the value of T_{max} different for different EOS), and (ii) for the Hempel EOS and the Shen EOS, there is a range of mass that the HTNS may gravitationally collapse after a period of radiative cooling; however, for the Lattimer-Swesty EOS and Banik EOS, no delayed collapse is possible. Our study, which describes the cooling of HTNSs with simple quasi-stationary TOV sequences, provides an understanding of the effects of the thermal energy/pressure at high temperature, and a demonstration that different EOSs can lead to qualitatively different evolution paths.

  14. Equation of State Dependence of Nonlinear Mode-tide Coupling in Coalescing Binary Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yixiao; Zhang, Fan

    2017-11-01

    Recently, an instability due to the nonlinear coupling of p-modes to g-modes in tidally deformed neutron stars in coalescing binaries has been studied in some detail. The result is significant because it could influence the inspiral and leave an imprint on the gravitational wave signal that depends on the neutron star equation of state (EOS). Because of its potential importance, the details of the instability should be further elucidated and its sensitivity to the EOS should be investigated. To this end, we carry out a numerical analysis with six representative EOSs for both static and non-static tides. We confirm that the absence of the p-g instability under static tides, as well as its return under non-static tides, is generic across EOSs, and further reveal a new contribution to it that becomes important for moderately high-order p-g pairs (previous studies concentrated on very high order modes), whose associated coupling strength can vary by factors of ∼10–100 depending on the EOS. We find that, for stars with stiffer EOSs and smaller buoyancy frequencies, the instability onsets earlier in the inspiral and the unstable modes grow faster. These results suggest that the instability’s impact on the gravitational wave signal might be sensitive to the neutron star EOS. To fully assess this prospect, future studies will need to investigate its saturation as a function of the EOS and the binary parameters.

  15. Innermost stable circular orbits and epicyclic frequencies around a magnetized neutron star

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés F. Gutiérrez-Ruiz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A full-relativistic approach is used to compute the radius of the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO, the Keplerian, frame-dragging, precession and oscillation frequencies of the radial and vertical motions of neutral test particles orbiting the equatorial plane of a magnetized neutron star. The space-time around the star is modelled by the six parametric solution derived by Pachón et al. (2012 It is shown that the inclusion of an intense magnetic field, such as the one of a neutron star, have non-negligible effects on the above physical quantities, and therefore, its inclusion is necessary in order to obtain a more accurate and realistic description of physical processes, such as the dynamics of accretion disks, occurring in the neighbourhood of this kind of objects. The results discussed here also suggest that the consideration of strong magnetic fields may introduce non-negligible corrections in, e.g., the relativistic precession model and therefore on the predictions made on the mass of neutron stars.

  16. Constraining the equation of state of neutron stars from binary mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takami, Kentaro; Rezzolla, Luciano; Baiotti, Luca

    2014-08-29

    Determining the equation of state of matter at nuclear density and hence the structure of neutron stars has been a riddle for decades. We show how the imminent detection of gravitational waves from merging neutron star binaries can be used to solve this riddle. Using a large number of accurate numerical-relativity simulations of binaries with nuclear equations of state, we find that the postmerger emission is characterized by two distinct and robust spectral features. While the high-frequency peak has already been associated with the oscillations of the hypermassive neutron star produced by the merger and depends on the equation of state, a new correlation emerges between the low-frequency peak, related to the merger process, and the total compactness of the stars in the binary. More importantly, such a correlation is essentially universal, thus providing a powerful tool to set tight constraints on the equation of state. If the mass of the binary is known from the inspiral signal, the combined use of the two frequency peaks sets four simultaneous constraints to be satisfied. Ideally, even a single detection would be sufficient to select one equation of state over the others. We test our approach with simulated data and verify it works well for all the equations of state considered.

  17. Cold Uniform Matter and Neutron Stars in the Quark-Meson-Coupling Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.R. Stone; P.A.M. Guichon; H.H. Matevosyan; A.W. Thomas

    2007-08-01

    A new density dependent effective baryon-baryon interaction has been recently derived from the quark-meson-coupling (QMC) model, offering impressive results in application to finite nuclei and dense baryon matter. This self-consistent, relativistic quark-level approach is used to construct the Equation of State (EoS) and to calculate key properties of high density matter and cold, slowly rotating neutron stars. The results include predictions for the maximum mass of neutron star models, together with the corresponding radius and central density, as well the properties of neutron stars with mass of order 1.4 M{sub {circle_dot}}. The cooling mechanism allowed by the QMC EoS is explored and the parameters relevant to slow rotation, namely the moment of inertia and the period of rotation investigated. The results of the calculation, which are found to be in good agreement with available observational data, are compared with the predictions of more traditional EoS, based on the A18+{delta}v+UIX* and modified Reid soft core potentials, the Skyrme SkM* interaction and two relativistic mean field (RMF) models for a hybrid stars including quark matter. The QMC EoS provides cold neutron star models with maximum mass 1.9-2.1 M{sub {circle_dot}}, with central density less than 6 times nuclear saturation density (n{sub 0} = 0.16 fm{sup -3}) and offers a consistent description of the stellar mass up to this density limit. In contrast with other models, QMC predicts no hyperon contribution at densities lower than 3n{sub 0}, for matter in {beta}-equilibrium. At higher densities, {Xi}{sup -,0} and {Lambda} hyperons are present. The absence of lighter {Sigma}{sup {+-},0} hyperons is understood as a consequence of antisymmetrization, together with the implementation of the color hyperfine interaction in the response of the quark bag to the nuclear scalar field.

  18. A Physical Model of Pulsars as Gravitational Shielding and Oscillating Neutron Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang T. X.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pulsars are thought to be fast rotating neutron stars, synchronously emitting periodic Dirac-delta-shape radio-frequency pulses and Lorentzian-shape oscillating X-rays. The acceleration of charged particles along the magnetic field lines of neutron stars above the magnetic poles that deviate from the rotating axis initiates coherent beams of ra- dio emissions, which are viewed as pulses of radiation whenever the magnetic poles sweep the viewers. However, the conventional lighthouse model of pulsars is only con- ceptual. The mechanism through which particles are accelerated to produce coherent beams is still not fully understood. The process for periodically oscillating X-rays to emit from hot spots at the inner edge of accretion disks remains a mystery. In addition, a lack of reflecting X-rays of the pulsar by the Crab Nebula in the OFF phase does not support the lighthouse model as expected. In this study, we develop a physical model of pulsars to quantitatively interpret the emission characteristics of pulsars, in accor- dance with the author’s well-developed five-dimensional fully covariant Kaluza-Klein gravitational shielding theory and the physics of thermal and accelerating charged par- ticle radiation. The results obtained from this study indicate that, with the significant gravitational shielding by scalar field, a neutron star nonlinearly oscillates and produces synchronous periodically Dirac-delta-shape radio-frequency pulses (emitted by the os- cillating or accelerating charged particles as well as periodically Lorentzian-shape os- cillating X-rays (as the thermal radiation of neutron stars whose temperature varies due to the oscillation. This physical model of pulsars broadens our understanding of neu- tron stars and develops an innovative mechanism to model the emissions of pulsars.

  19. Gravitational Waves from F-modes Excited by the Inspiral of Highly Eccentric Neutron Star Binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chirenti, Cecilia [Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição, UFABC, 09210-170 Santo André-SP (Brazil); Gold, Roman [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Miller, M. Coleman [Department of Astronomy and Joint Space-Science Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    As gravitational wave instrumentation becomes more sensitive, it is interesting to speculate about subtle effects that could be analyzed using upcoming generations of detectors. One such effect that has great potential for revealing the properties of very dense matter is fluid oscillations of neutron stars. These have been found in numerical simulations of the hypermassive remnants of double neutron star mergers and of highly eccentric neutron star orbits. Here we focus on the latter and sketch out some ideas for the production, gravitational-wave detection, and analysis of neutron star oscillations. These events will be rare (perhaps up to several tens per year could be detected using third-generation detectors such as the Einstein Telescope or the Cosmic Explorer), but they would have unique diagnostic power for the analysis of cold, catalyzed, dense matter. Furthermore, these systems are unusual in that analysis of the tidally excited f-modes of the stars could yield simultaneous measurements of their masses, moments of inertia, and tidal Love numbers, using the frequency, damping time, and amplitude of the modes. They would thus present a nearly unique opportunity to test the I-Love-Q relation observationally. The analysis of such events will require significant further work in nuclear physics and general relativistic nonlinear mode coupling, and thus we discuss further directions that will need to be pursued. For example, we note that for nearly grazing encounters, numerical simulations show that the energy delivered to the f-modes may be up to two orders of magnitude greater than predicted in the linear theory.

  20. General Relativistic Radiation MHD Simulations of Supercritical Accretion onto a Magnetized Neutron Star: Modeling of Ultraluminous X-Ray Pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Hiroyuki R. [Center for Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Ohsuga, Ken, E-mail: takahashi@cfca.jp, E-mail: ken.ohsuga@nao.ac.jp [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2017-08-10

    By performing 2.5-dimensional general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we demonstrate supercritical accretion onto a non-rotating, magnetized neutron star, where the magnetic field strength of dipole fields is 10{sup 10} G on the star surface. We found the supercritical accretion flow consists of two parts: the accretion columns and the truncated accretion disk. The supercritical accretion disk, which appears far from the neutron star, is truncated at around ≃3 R {sub *} ( R {sub *} = 10{sup 6} cm is the neutron star radius), where the magnetic pressure via the dipole magnetic fields balances with the radiation pressure of the disks. The angular momentum of the disk around the truncation radius is effectively transported inward through magnetic torque by dipole fields, inducing the spin up of a neutron star. The evaluated spin-up rate, ∼−10{sup −11} s s{sup −1}, is consistent with the recent observations of the ultraluminous X-ray pulsars. Within the truncation radius, the gas falls onto a neutron star along the dipole fields, which results in a formation of accretion columns onto the northern and southern hemispheres. The net accretion rate and the luminosity of the column are ≃66 L {sub Edd}/ c {sup 2} and ≲10 L {sub Edd}, where L {sub Edd} is the Eddington luminosity and c is the light speed. Our simulations support a hypothesis whereby the ultraluminous X-ray pulsars are powered by the supercritical accretion onto the magnetized neutron stars.