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Sample records for vibrating mesh nebulizer

  1. In Vitro Comparison of a Vibrating Mesh Nebulizer Operating in Inspiratory Synchronized and Continuous Nebulization Modes During Noninvasive Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michotte, Jean-Bernard; Staderini, Enrico; Le Pennec, Deborah; Dugernier, Jonathan; Rusu, Rares; Roeseler, Jean; Vecellio, Laurent; Liistro, Giuseppe; Reychler, Grégory

    2016-08-01

    Backround: Coupling nebulization with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has been shown to be effective in patients with respiratory diseases. However, a breath-synchronized nebulization option that could potentially improve drug delivery by limiting drug loss during exhalation is currently not available on bilevel ventilators. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare aerosol delivery of amikacin with a vibrating mesh nebulizer coupled to a single-limb circuit bilevel ventilator, using conventional continuous (Conti-Neb) and experimental inspiratory synchronized (Inspi-Neb) nebulization modes. Using an adult lung bench model of NIV, we tested a vibrating mesh device coupled with a bilevel ventilator in both nebulization modes. Inspi-Neb delivered aerosol only during the whole inspiratory phase, whereas Conti-Neb delivered aerosol continuously. The nebulizer was charged with amikacin solution (250 mg/3 mL) and placed at two different positions: between the lung and exhalation port and between the ventilator and exhalation port. Inhaled, expiratory wasted and circuit lost doses were assessed by residual gravimetric method. Particle size distribution of aerosol delivered at the outlet of the ventilator circuit during both nebulization modes was measured by laser diffraction method. Regardless of the nebulizer position, Inspi-Neb produced higher inhaled dose (p lung and exhalation port (48.7% ± 0.3% of the nominal dose). During simulated NIV with a single-limb circuit bilevel ventilator, the use of inspiratory synchronized vibrating mesh nebulization improves respirable dose and reduces drug loss of amikacin compared with continuous vibrating mesh nebulization.

  2. Omron NE U22: Comparison between vibrating mesh and jet nebulizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaria, Shibu; Smaldone, Gerald C

    2010-06-01

    To overcome the limitations of conventional jet nebulizers, vibrating mesh technology has been commercialized. The present article is designed to address clinically relevant issues for routine aerosol therapy for a vibrating mesh nebulizer, the Omron NE U22, compared to traditional jet nebulizers. Inhaled mass (IM), residual activity, particle distribution, including mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) and run time, were determined for radiolabeled albuterol (2.5 mg/3 mL). Omron NE U22, Pari LC Plus, and Sidestream nebulizers were tested. The Omron was tested in two positions, tilted and horizontal. Finally robustness of the Omron NE U22 was determined by repeating treatment 60 times. All Omron experiments were performed using continuous operation. IM for Omron and Pari were similar (20% of nebulizer charge) and greater than the Sidestream (10%). MMADs were similar for all devices but variability was much greater for Omron in the horizontal position. Run time in the tilted position was three times longer when compared to the horizontal (p = 0.02). IM and MMAD were unchanged after Omron robustness testing. Position was an important factor for the mesh device affecting run time and variability in particle distribution. Using a common commercial formulation and continuous operation, drug delivery was similar to an efficient jet nebulizer. The Omron mesh tolerated repeated use with the albuterol formulation.

  3. Aerosol delivery of recombinant human DNase I: in vitro comparison of a vibrating-mesh nebulizer with a jet nebulizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeremy C; Waldrep, J Clifford; Guo, Jennifer; Dhand, Rajiv

    2008-12-01

    Inhaled recombinant human DNase I (rhDNase) improves clearance of visco-elastic secretions in patients with cystic fibrosis. Because of their portability, newer-generation vibrating-mesh nebulizers offer greater convenience for the patient, but their efficiency in delivering rhDNase has not been determined. We compared a newer-generation vibrating-mesh nebulizer (Omron MicroAir) to a Pari LC+ with the Pari ProNeb Ultra compressor (a commonly employed rhDNase administration system). With the Next Generation Pharmaceutical Impactor, we determined aerosol particle distribution. We also measured mass output efficiency, nebulization time, and mass of rhDNase that deposited on a filter during simulated breathing. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) and geometric standard deviation (GSD) of aerosol from the MicroAir (MMAD 4.3 microm, GSD 2.8 microm) was equivalent to that from the Pari LC+ (MMAD 4.2 microm, GSD 2.7 microm). During simulated breathing the MicroAir had a higher total mass output efficiency (88%) than the Pari LC+ (68%) (P < .001), and total nebulization time was shorter with the MicroAir (6.1 min vs 7.2 min, P = .03). When nebulized to dryness, the mass of rhDNase delivered to the filter was comparable with the MicroAir (1.30 +/- 0.4 mg) and Pari LC+ (1.21 +/- 0.05 mg). The MicroAir could be employed as a portable nebulizer for rhDNase therapy in patients with cystic fibrosis.

  4. Influence of inspiratory flow pattern and nebulizer position on aerosol delivery with a vibrating-mesh nebulizer during invasive mechanical ventilation: an in vitro analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugernier, Jonathan; Wittebole, Xavier; Roeseler, Jean; Michotte, Jean-Bernard; Sottiaux, Thierry; Dugernier, Thierry; Laterre, Pierre-François; Reychler, Gregory

    2015-06-01

    Aerosol delivery during invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) depends on nebulizer type, placement of the nebulizer and ventilator settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of two inspiratory flow patterns on amikacin delivery with a vibrating-mesh nebulizer placed at different positions on an adult lung model of IMV equipped with a proximal flow sensor (PFS). IMV was simulated using a ventilator connected to a lung model through an 8-mm inner-diameter endotracheal tube. The impact of a decelerating and a constant flow pattern on aerosol delivery was evaluated in volume-controlled mode (tidal volume 500 mL, 20 breaths/min, inspiratory time of 1 sec, bias flow of 10 L/min). An amikacin solution (250 mg/3 mL) was nebulized with Aeroneb Solo(®) placed at five positions on the ventilator circuit equipped with a PFS: connected to the endotracheal tube (A), to the Y-piece (B), placed at 15 cm (C) and 45 cm upstream of the Y-piece (D), and placed at 15 cm of the inspiratory outlet of the ventilator (E). The four last positions were also tested without PFS. Deposited doses of amikacin were measured using the gravimetric residual method. Amikacin delivery was significantly reduced with a decelerating inspiratory flow pattern compared to a constant flow (p<0.05). With a constant inspiratory flow pattern, connecting the nebulizer to the endotracheal tube enabled similar deposited doses than these obtained when connecting the nebulizer close to the ventilator. The PFS reduced deposited doses only when the nebulizer was connected to the Y-piece with both flow patterns or placed at 15 cm of the Y-piece with a constant inspiratory flow (p<0.01). Using similar tidal volume and inspiratory time, a constant flow pattern (30 L/min) delivers a higher amount of amikacin through an endotracheal tube compared to a decelerating inspiratory flow pattern (peak inspiratory flow around 60 L/min). The optimal nebulizer position depends on the

  5. Comparison of the Bronchodilative Effects of Salbutamol Delivered via Three Mesh Nebulizers in Children with Bronchial Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumitake Kurosaka

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: Overall, all 3 mesh nebulizers were useful devices in treating bronchial asthma, although some differences in lung function improvement were evident. The limitation of this study is that subjects did not include patients with severe asthma attacks.

  6. The effects of suspension particle size on the performance of air-jet, ultrasonic and vibrating-mesh nebulisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najlah, Mohammad; Parveen, Ishrat; Alhnan, Mohamed Albed; Ahmed, Waqar; Faheem, Ahmed; Phoenix, David A; Taylor, Kevin M G; Elhissi, Abdelbary

    2014-01-30

    Using latex microspheres as model suspensions, the influence of suspension particle size (1, 4.5 and 10 μm) on the properties of aerosols produced using Pari LC Sprint (air-jet), Polygreen (ultrasonic), Aeroneb Pro (actively vibrating-mesh) and Omron MicroAir NE-U22 (passively vibrating-mesh) nebulisers was investigated. The performance of the Pari nebuliser was independent of latex spheres particle size. For both Polygreen and Aeroneb Pro nebulizers, total aerosol output increased when the size of latex spheres increased, with highest fine particle fraction (FPF) values being recorded. However, following nebulisation of 1 or 4.5 μm suspensions with the Polygreen device, no particles were detected in the aerosols deposited in a two-stage impinger, suggesting that the aerosols generated from this device consisted mainly of the continuous phase while the dispersed microspheres were excluded and remained in the nebuliser. The Omron nebuliser efficiently nebulised the 1 μm latex spheres, with high output rate and no particle aggregation. However, this device functioned inefficiently when delivering 4.5 or 10 μm suspensions, which was attributed to the mild vibrations of its mesh and/or the blockage of the mesh apertures by the microspheres. The Aeroneb Pro fragmented latex spheres into smaller particles, but uncontrolled aggregation occurred upon nebulisation. This study has shown that the design of the nebuliser influenced the aerosol properties using latex spheres as model suspensions. Moreover, for the recently marketed mesh nebulisers, the performance of the Aeroneb Pro device was less dependent on particle size of the suspension compared with the Omron MicroAir nebuliser. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. On the correlation of output rate and aerodynamic characteristics in vibrating-mesh-based aqueous aerosol delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz; Oesterheld, Nina; Knuedeler, Marie-Christine; Seeger, Werner; Schmehl, Thomas

    2014-01-30

    Aerosolization of aqueous formulations is of special interest for inhalative drug delivery, where an adequate nebulizer performance represents a prerequisite for improving pulmonary therapy. The present study investigated the interplay of output rate and aerodynamic characteristics of different excipient-based formulations and its impact on the atomization process by vibrating-mesh technology (i.e. eFlow(®)rapid). Output rate and aerodynamic characteristics were manipulated by both dynamic viscosity and conductivity of the applied formulation. Supplementation with sucrose and sodium chloride caused a decline (down to ∼0.2 g/min) and elevation (up to ∼1.0 g/min) of the nebulizer output rate, respectively. However, both excipients were capable of decreasing the aerodynamic diameter of produced aerosol droplets from >7.0 μm to values of ≤5.0 μm. Thus, the correlation of output rate and aerodynamic characteristics resulted in linear fits of opposite slopes (R(2)>0.85). Finally, the overall number of delivered aerosol droplets per time was almost constant for sucrose (≤1×10(8) droplets/s), while for sodium chloride a concentration-dependent increase was observed (up to ∼3×10(8) droplets/s). Overall, the current findings illustrated the influence of formulation parameters on the aerosolization process performed by vibrating-mesh technology. Moreover, concentration and charge distribution of aerosol populations supposedly modify the final characteristics of the delivered aerosols. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Heat Moisture Exchanger on Aerosol Drug Delivery and Airway Resistance in Simulated Ventilator-Dependent Adults Using Jet and Mesh Nebulizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ari, Arzu; Dang, Truong; Al Enazi, Fahad H; Alqahtani, Mohammed M; Alkhathami, Abdulrahman; Qoutah, Rowaida; Almamary, Ahmad S; Fink, James B

    2017-08-22

    Placement of a heat moisture exchanger (HME) between aerosol generator and patient has been associated with greatly reduced drug delivery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of filtered and nonfiltered HMEs placed between nebulizer and patient on aerosol deposition and airway resistance (Raw) in simulated ventilator-dependent adults. An in vitro lung model was developed to simulate a mechanically ventilated adult (Vt 500 mL, RR 15/min, and PEEP 5 cmH2O, using two inspiratory flow rates 40 and 50 L/min) using an intubated adult manikin with an endotracheal tube (8 mmID). The bronchi of the manikin were connected to a Y-adapter through a collecting filter (Respirgard II) attached to a test lung through a heated humidifier (37°C producing 100% relative humidity) to simulate exhaled humidity. For treatment conditions, a nonfiltered HME (ThermoFlo™ 6070; ARC Medical) and filtered HMEs (ThermoFlo™ Filter; ARC Medical and PALL Ultipor; Pall Medical) were placed between the ventilator circuit at the endotracheal tube and allowed to acclimate to the exhaled heat and humidity for 30 minutes before aerosol administration. Airway resistance (cmH2O/L/s) was taken at 0, 10, 20, and 30 minutes after HME placement and after each of four aerosol treatments. Albuterol sulfate (2.5 mg/3 mL) was administered with jet (Misty Max 10; Airlife) and mesh (Aerogen Solo; Aerogen) nebulizers positioned in the inspiratory limb proximal to the Y-adapter. Control consisted of nebulization with no HME. Drug was eluted from filter at the end of the trachea and measured using spectrophotometry (276 nm). Greater than 60% of the control dose was delivered through the ThermoFlo. No significant difference was found between the first four treatments given by the jet (p = 0.825) and the mesh (p = 0.753) nebulizers. There is a small increase in Raw between pre- and post-four treatments with the jet (p = 0.001) and mesh (p = 0.015) nebulizers. Aerosol

  9. Feed-forward control of gear mesh vibration using piezoelectric actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Gerald T.; Kascak, Albert F.; Palazzolo, Alan; Manchala, Daniel; Thomas, Erwin

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a novel means for suppressing gear mesh-related vibrations. The key components in this approach are piezoelectric actuators and a high-frequency, analog feed-forward controller. Test results are presented and show up to a 70-percent reduction in gear mesh acceleration and vibration control up to 4500 Hz. The principle of the approach is explained by an analysis of a harmonically excited, general linear vibratory system.

  10. Nebulization of active pharmaceutical ingredients with the eFlow(®) rapid: impact of formulation variables on aerodynamic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz; Prüfer, Nadine; Oesterheld, Nina; Seeger, Werner; Schmehl, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Nebulization of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) solutions is a well-established means to achieve pulmonary drug deposition. The current study identified the impact of formulation variables on the aerosolization performance of the eFlow(®) rapid with special respect to optimized lung application. API formulations (including excipient-supplemented samples) were investigated for physicochemical properties, then nebulized using vibrating-mesh technology. The generated aerosol clouds were analyzed by laser diffraction. Aerosol deposition characteristics in the human respiratory tract were estimated using an algebraic model. Remarkable effects on aerosolization performance [i.e., mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD)] of API solutions were obtained when the sample conductivity (by API concentration and type, sodium chloride addition) and dynamic viscosity (by application of sucrose and poly(ethylene glycol) 200) were elevated. A similar influence was observed for a decline in surface tension (by ethanol addition). Thus, a defined adjustment of formulation parameters allowed for a decrease of the MMAD from ∼ 8.0 μm to values as small as ∼ 3.5 μm. Consequently, the pattern and efficiency of aerosol deposition in the human respiratory tract were improved. In conclusion, identification of physicochemical variables and their way of influencing vibrating-mesh nebulization has been provided to deliver a platform for tailoring aerosol characteristics and thus, advancing pulmonary therapy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  11. A Nonlinear Dynamic Model and Free Vibration Analysis of Deployable Mesh Reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, H.; Yang, B.; Thomson, M.; Fang, H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic model of deployable mesh reflectors, in which geometric and material nonlinearities of such a space structure are fully described. Then, by linearization around an equilibrium configuration of the reflector structure, a linearized model is obtained. With this linearized model, the natural frequencies and mode shapes of a reflector can be computed. The nonlinear dynamic model of deployable mesh reflectors is verified by using commercial finite element software in numerical simulation. As shall be seen, the proposed nonlinear model is useful for shape (surface) control of deployable mesh reflectors under thermal loads.

  12. Aerosol delivery during spontaneous breathing with different types of nebulizers- in vitro/ex vivo models evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui-Ling; Fang, Tien-Pei; Cho, Hui-Sun; Wan, Gwo-Hwa; Hsieh, Meng-Jer; Fink, James B

    2018-02-01

    Nebulizers for spontaneous breathing have been evaluated through different study designs. There are limitations in simulated bench models related to patient and nebulizer factors. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation of inhaled drug mass between in vitro and ex vivo studies by testing aerosol deposition of various types of nebulizers. Ten healthy subjects were recruited to receive aerosol therapy with five nebulizers in random order: 1) a jet nebulizer (JN); 2) a breath-enhanced nebulizer (BEN); 3) a manually triggered nebulizer (MTN), 4) a breath-actuated nebulizer (BAN), and 5) a vibrating mesh nebulizer (VMN) with valved-adapter. A unit dose of salbutamol containing 5 mg in 2.5 mL was placed into the nebulizer and administered for 10 min. For the ex vivo study, minute ventilation of healthy subjects was recorded for 1 min. For the in vitro study a breathing simulator was utilized with adult breathing patterns. Aerosolized drug from the nebulizers and the accessory tubes was captured using inspiratory and expiratory collecting filters. Captured drug was eluted, measured and expressed as inhaled and exhaled mass using spectrophotometry at a wavelength of 276 nm. 10 healthy subjects were recruited, aged 20.8 ± 0.7 years old, with a mean height of 166.2 ± 9.2 cm and weight of 64.7 ± 12.4 kg. There was no significant difference in the inhaled drug dose between the JN and BEN (15.0 ± 1.94% and 17.74 ± 2.65%, respectively, p = .763), yet the inhaled doses were lower than the other three nebulizers (p vitro model, the JN delivered a lower inhaled dose (11.6 ± 1.6, p vitro study than the ex vivo model (44.0 ± 0.9% and 35.5 ± 6.3% respectively, p = .003), whereas the JN in the ex vivo model resulted in a greater inhaled drug dose (15.0 ± 1.9% for ex vivo vs 11.6 ± 1.6% for in vitro, p = .008). These in vitro/ex vivo model comparisons of nebulizers performance indicated that

  13. Nebulized coenzyme Q10nanosuspensions: A versatile approach for pulmonary antioxidant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Irene; Sonvico, Fabio; McConville, Jason T; Rossi, Francesca; Fröhlich, Eleonore; Zellnitz, Sarah; Rossi, Alessandra; Del Favero, Elena; Bettini, Ruggero; Buttini, Francesca

    2018-02-15

    Coenzyme Q 10 (CoQ 10 ) is an antioxidant substance indicated as a dietary supplement which has been proposed as adjuvant in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders and cancer for its protective and immunostimulating activities. The aim of this work was the production by high-pressure homogenization, characterization and stability investigation of three different CoQ 10 nanosuspensions designed to be administered to the lungs by nebulization. Three surfactants, i.e. lecithin, PEG32 stearate and vitamin-E TPGS, were selected to stabilize CoQ 10 formulations. Preparations were identified as nanosuspensions (particle size in the range 35-60nm): the smallest particles were obtained with vitamin-E TPGS and denoted a core-shell structure. The CoQ 10 delivered from a commercial air-jet nebulizer was in all the cases around 30% of the loaded dose. The nanosuspension containing PEG32 stearate presented the highest respirable fraction (70.6%) and smallest MMAD (3.02μm). Stability tests showed that the most stable formulation, after 90days, was the one containing vitamin-E TPGS, followed by the CoQ 10 -lecithin formulation. Interestingly, those formulations were demonstrated to be suitable also for nebulizers using other mechanisms of aerosol production such as ultrasound and vibrating mesh nebulizers. Studies focused on in vitro cellular toxicity of the formulations and their single components using A549 human lung cells showed no obvious cytotoxicity for the formulations containing lecithin and PEG 32 stearate. Vitamin-E TPGS alone was shown to be able to damage the plasma membrane, nevertheless, cell damage was decreased when vitamin-E TPGS was present in the formulation with CoQ 10 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Modelling low Reynolds number vortex-induced vibration problems with a fixed mesh fluid-solid interaction formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Cornejo, Felipe A.; Cruchaga, Marcela A.; Celentano, Diego J.

    2017-11-01

    The present work reports a fluid-rigid solid interaction formulation described within the framework of a fixed-mesh technique. The numerical analysis is focussed on the study of a vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of a circular cylinder at low Reynolds number. The proposed numerical scheme encompasses the fluid dynamics computation in an Eulerian domain where the body is embedded using a collection of markers to describe its shape, and the rigid solid's motion is obtained with the well-known Newton's law. The body's velocity is imposed on the fluid domain through a penalty technique on the embedded fluid-solid interface. The fluid tractions acting on the solid are computed from the fluid dynamic solution of the flow around the body. The resulting forces are considered to solve the solid motion. The numerical code is validated by contrasting the obtained results with those reported in the literature using different approaches for simulating the flow past a fixed circular cylinder as a benchmark problem. Moreover, a mesh convergence analysis is also done providing a satisfactory response. In particular, a VIV problem is analyzed, emphasizing the description of the synchronization phenomenon.

  15. Nebulizing poractant alfa versus conventional instillation: Ultrastructural appearance and preservation of surface activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minocchieri, Stefan; Knoch, Stephan; Schoel, W Michael; Ochs, Matthias; Nelle, Mathias

    2014-04-01

    Nebulized surfactant therapy has been proposed as an alternative method of surfactant administration. The use of a perforated vibrating membrane nebulizer provides a variety of advantages over conventional nebulizers. We investigated the molecular structure and integrity of poractant alfa pre- and post-nebulization. Curosurf® was nebulized using an Investigational eFlow® Nebulizer System. Non-nebulized surfactant ("NN"), recollected surfactant droplets from nebulization through an endotracheal tube ("NT") and nebulization of surfactant directly onto a surface ("ND") were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Biophysical characteristics were assessed by the Langmuir-Wilhelmy balance and the Captive Bubble Surfactometer. Volume densities of lamellar body-like forms (LBL) and multi-lamellar forms (ML) were high for "NN" and "NT" samples (38.8% vs. 47.7% for LBL and 58.2% vs. 47.8% for ML). In the "ND" sample, we found virtually no LBL's, ML's (72.6%) as well as uni-lamellar forms (16.4%) and a new structure, the "garland-like" forms (9.4%). Surface tension for "NN" and "NT" was 23.33 ± 0.29 and 25.77 ± 1.12 mN/m, respectively. Dynamic compression-expansion cycling minimum surface tensions were between 0.91 and 1.77 mN/m. The similarity of surfactant characteristics of nebulized surfactant via a tube and the non-nebulized surfactant suggests that vibrating membrane nebulizers are suitable for surfactant nebulization. Alterations in surfactant morphology and characteristics after nebulization were transient. A new structural subtype of surfactant was identified. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Impact of acoustic airflow on intrasinus drug deposition: New insights into the vibrating mode and the optimal acoustic frequency to enhance the delivery of nebulized antibiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Lara; Merhie, Amira El; Navarro, Laurent; Prévôt, Nathalie; Durand, Marc; Pourchez, Jérémie

    2015-10-15

    We investigated the impact of vibrating acoustic airflow, the high frequency (f≥100 Hz) and the low frequency (f≤45 Hz) sound waves, on the enhancement of intrasinus drug deposition. (81m)Kr-gas ventilation study was performed in a plastinated human cast with and without the addition of vibrating acoustic airflow. Similarly, intrasinus drug deposition in a nasal replica using gentamicin as a marker was studied with and without the superposition of different modes of acoustic airflow. Ventilation experiments demonstrate that no sinus ventilation was observed without acoustic airflow although sinus ventilation occurred whatever the modes of acoustic airflow applied. Intrasinus drug deposition experiments showed that the high frequency acoustic airflow led to 4-fold increase in gentamicin deposition into the left maxillary sinus and to 2-fold deposition increase into the right maxillary sinus. Besides, the low frequency acoustic airflow demonstrated a significant increase of 4-fold and 2-fold in the right and left maxillary sinuses, respectively. We demonstrated the benefit of different modes of vibrating acoustic airflow for maxillary sinus ventilation and intrasinus drug deposition. The degree of gentamicin deposition varies as a function of frequency of the vibrating acoustic airflow and the geometry of the ostia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Nebulizer use - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used to treat asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and other conditions where inhaled medicines are indicated. Nebulizers deliver a stream of medicated air to the lungs over a period of time. Review Date 4/21/2015 Updated by: Neil K. ...

  18. Nebulizer delivery of micafungin aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Barbara D; Winkler, Thomas P; Shi, Shuai; Ashley, Elizabeth S Dodds; Hickey, Anthony J

    2011-01-01

    To determine the optimal nebulization system for aerosolizing micafungin and to further assess the physiochemical properties of aerosolized micafungin. In vitro experiment. University research center. NEBULIZERS: Pari LC Star, Hudson Updraft, Small Volume Nebulizer, and Aeroclipse II. Using a commercially available cascade impactor, the four nebulizers were tested for their ability to deliver micafungin to the lungs. Mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) and fine particle fraction (FPF) percent less than 3.3 μm (FPF(3.3)) and less than 5.8 μm (FPF(5.8)) were determined during two sampling periods for each of three trials of all nebulizers. The mean ± standard error of the mean MMAD for the nebulizers ranged from 1.93 ± 0.09 to 2.49 ± 0.25 μm; FPF(3.3) and FPF(5.8) were approximately 50% and 90%, respectively, for all nebulizers. Although all nebulizers appeared acceptable to deliver micafungin to the lungs, the Pari LC Star had the smallest MMAD and highest FPF(3.3) and FPF(5.8). These properties of the Pari LC Star should result in greater delivery of the aerosol to the lungs. Additional research on pulmonary delivery and clinical tolerability is warranted.

  19. [Good clinical practice in nebulization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautzenberg, B; Fauroux, B; Bonfils, P; Diot, P; Faurisson, F

    1998-01-01

    A meeting on nebulization held in April 1997 defined good clinical practices. Guidelines that were proposed pertained to the following: pneumatic and ultrasonic nebulizers; delivering circuit, occluded or not, the choice of the tip being done according to the disease to treat and to the drugs to be delivered; various functions, depending on the type of nebulizer; the particle size, as it will indicate which disease may be treated: between 2 and 6 microns for bronchi, between 0.5 et 3 microns for lung, > 5 microns for ear, nose and throat diseases; compatibility between the type of nebulizer and drugs. Ten drugs are currently registered in France. Nebulization has multiple clinical indications, such as asthma, cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, acute laryngitis, and in infants, acute bronchiolitis. The prescription must be detailed, and the physician should make sure that the medical staff put it into application.

  20. The choice of boundary conditions and mesh for scaffolding FEM model on the basis of natural vibrations measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyniak, Patrycja; Błazik-Borowa, Ewa; Szer, Jacek; Lipecki, Tomasz; Szer, Iwona

    2018-01-01

    Scaffolding is a specific construction with high susceptibility to low frequency vibrations. The numerical model of scaffolding presented in this paper contains real imperfections received from geodetic measurements of real construction. Boundary conditions were verified on the basis of measured free vibrations. A simulation of a man walking on penultimate working level as a dynamic load variable in time was made for verified model. The paper presents procedure for a choice of selected parameters of the scaffolding FEM model. The main aim of analysis is the best projection of the real construction and correct modeling of worker walking on the scaffolding. Different boundary conditions are considered, because of their impact on construction vibrations. Natural vibrations obtained from FEM calculations are compared with free vibrations measured during in-situ tests. Structure accelerations caused by walking human are then considered in this paper. Methodology of creating numerical models of scaffoldings and analysis of dynamic effects during human walking are starting points for further considerations about dynamic loads acting on such structures and effects of these loads to construction and workers, whose workplaces are situated on the scaffolding.

  1. COPD -- how to use a nebulizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000699.htm COPD - how to use a nebulizer To use the ... page, please enable JavaScript. A nebulizer turns your COPD medicine into a mist. It is easier to ...

  2. Nebulized opioids to treat dyspnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, S

    1999-01-01

    Breathlessness secondary to cancer and nonmalignant disease is very distressing and exhausting to patients and families. Patient quality of life and functionality can be greatly improved with effective management. The pathophysiology and treatment of dyspnea are where the science of pain management was 20 years ago. While the optimal therapy for dyspnea would be to treat the underlying cause, this is frequently not possible. Research results evaluating dosages and effectiveness of nebulized morphine are conflicting. Some researchers have reported dramatic benefit to patients in relieving the symptoms of dyspnea, increasing exercise endurance, and improving function. Other studies have reported no significant differences between nebulized morphine and saline with or without oxygen. Studies that administer single predetermined doses that are not titrated to relief in patients that do not have end-stage lung or cardiac disease may report false-negative results. Other factors such as the placebo effect of saline and oxygen, if not controlled, may cause false-positive results. The dramatic positive benefits documented warrant further investigation on the appropriate patient selection criteria and therapeutic potential. Clearly, large scale randomized trials on opioid nebulized treatments for patients with severe dyspnea need to be published to reach a clear consensus outlining efficacy and administration parameters. Until that time, we must rely on anecdotal reports for treatment options. Such reports of the effectiveness of nebulized morphine as an alternative to hospital or hospice admission are encouraging for patients and family members managing severe dyspnea in the home.

  3. Modelling of in-vitro and in-vivo performance of aerosol emitted from different vibrating mesh nebulisers in non-invasive ventilation circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabea, Hoda; Ali, Ahmed M A; Salah Eldin, Randa; Abdelrahman, Maha M; Said, Amira S A; Abdelrahim, Mohamed E

    2017-01-15

    Substituting nebulisers by another in non-invasive ventilation circuit (NIV) involves many process variables which must be adjusted to ensure patient optimum therapy. However, there is a doubt when nebulisers use the same technology. Data mining technology based on artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms were used here to model in-vitro inhalation process and predict bioavailability from inhaled doses delivered by three different vibrating mesh nebulisers (VMNs) in NIV. Modelling of data indicated that in-vitro performance of VMNs was dependent mainly on fine particle fraction, mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD), total emitted dose (TED) and to lesser extent on nebuliser type. Ex-vivo model indicated that amount of salbutamol collected on facemask filter was directly affected by TED. In-vivo model showed that amount of salbutamol deposited into the lung (0.5hQ) and amount absorbed systemically (24hQ) were dependent directly on MMAD and TED. Female patients showed higher 24hQ values than males. Nebuliser type affected TED, 0.5hQ but not 24hQ values. Results indicate suitability of VMNs in achieving appropriate in-vitro inhalation performance model. The results also, indicate that the three VMNs are comparable and can be interchanged with no fear of any additional toxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nebulized magnesium sulphate versus nebulized salbutamol in acute bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Abdelnabi

    2012-07-01

    Conclusion: The use of MgSO4 by nebulization in patients with acute asthma attacks results in improvement of clinical condition, increase in peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR, reduction in heart rate (HR, reduction in respiratory rate (RR and improvement in oxygen saturation (SO2. The increase in PEFR (bronchodilatory effect was significantly less than that achieved in patients receiving the usual treatment with Short acting β2 agonists, e.g. salbutamol, when either agents were used alone.

  5. Electrostatic charge characteristics of jet nebulized aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Philip Chi Lip; Trietsch, Sebastiaan J; Kumon, Michiko; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2010-06-01

    Liquid droplets can be spontaneously charged in the absence of applied electric fields by spraying. It has been shown by computational simulation that charges may influence particle deposition in the airways. The electrostatic properties of jet nebulized aerosols and their potential effects on lung deposition have hardly been studied. A modified electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) was employed to characterize the aerosol charges generated from jet nebulized commercial products. The charge and size measurements were conducted at 50% RH and 22 degrees C with a modified ELPI. Ventolin, Bricanyl, and Atrovent were nebulized using PARI LC Plus jet nebulizers coupled to a DeVilbiss Pulmo-Aide compressor. The aerosols were sampled in 30-sec durations. The drug deposits on the impactor stages were assayed chemically using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The charges of nebulized deionized water, isotonic saline, and the three commercial products diluted with saline were also measured to analyze the contributions of the major nebule ingredients on charging. No mass assays were performed on these runs. All three commercial nebules generated net negative charges. The magnitude of the charges reduced over the period of nebulization. Ventolin and Bricanyl yielded similar charge profiles. Highly variable charges were produced from deionized water. On the other hand, nebulized saline reproducibly generated net positive charges. Diluted commercial nebules showed charge polarity inversion. The charge profiles of diluted salbutamol and terbutaline solutions resembled those of saline, while the charges from diluted ipratropium solutions fluctuated near neutrality. The charge profiles were shown to be influenced by the concentration and physicochemical properties of the drugs, as well as the history of nebulization. The drugs may have unique isoelectric concentrations in saline at which the nebulized droplets would carry near-zero charges. According to results from

  6. Aerosol Therapy: Nebulizer vs Metered Dose Inhaler

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Newhouse, M; Dolovich, M

    1987-01-01

    ... aerosol generation using metered-dose inhalers. Previously, aerosol delivery by means of intermittent positive pressure breathing devices attached to nebulizers enjoyed unwarranted popularity for decades, only to be abandoned when convincing evidence became available that they were no better than nebulizers alone for administering bronchodilato...

  7. Contamination of nebulizers with environmental allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, Mary E; Butz, Arlene; Mudd, Kim; Hamilton, Robert G

    2005-11-01

    A previous article described cockroach allergen in the nebulizer reservoir of an asthmatic patient who experienced a life-threatening exacerbation after nebulizer use. To determine whether indoor allergens can be measured in home nebulizers. As part of a large study examining nebulizer use in underserved asthmatic children, visiting nurses replaced nebulizer sets in patients' homes. Twenty used sets were randomly selected for analysis, without linkage to clinical or home environmental data. Nebulizer reservoirs and negative controls (buffer and albuterol) were extracted overnight with 2 mL of buffer. For positive controls, nebulizer sets were placed in homes with cats and dogs, and other reservoirs were intentionally contaminated with cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1), cockroach (Bla g 1 and Bla g 2), and mouse (Mus m 1) skin test solutions. Extracts were tested for allergens in a masked manner using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of 17 reservoirs with adequate specimens for allergen detection, 5 (29%) had measurable levels for at least 1 of 5 allergens tested. One reservoir had measurable Can f 1, 2 had Bla g, 3 had Mus m 1, and none had Fel d 1 allergen. Two of 3 homes with cats where nebulizer setups were placed had measurable Fel d 1 in the reservoir, and 1 of 2 homes with dogs had measurable Can f 1. Reservoirs kept in sealed plastic bags had no detectable allergen. Indoor allergens can be found in the nebulizer equipment of children with asthma, with the potential for adverse consequences. Storing nebulizer sets in sealed plastic bags may prevent contamination.

  8. Comparison of numerical simulations to experiments for atomization in a jet nebulizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelong, Nicolas; Vecellio, Laurent; Sommer de Gélicourt, Yann; Tanguy, Christian; Diot, Patrice; Junqua-Moullet, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The development of jet nebulizers for medical purposes is an important challenge of aerosol therapy. The performance of a nebulizer is characterized by its output rate of droplets with a diameter under 5 µm. However the optimization of this parameter through experiments has reached a plateau. The purpose of this study is to design a numerical model simulating the nebulization process and to compare it with experimental data. Such a model could provide a better understanding of the atomization process and the parameters influencing the nebulizer output. A model based on the Updraft nebulizer (Hudson) was designed with ANSYS Workbench. Boundary conditions were set with experimental data then transient 3D calculations were run on a 4 µm mesh with ANSYS Fluent. Two air flow rate (2 L/min and 8 L/min, limits of the operating range) were considered to account for different turbulence regimes. Numerical and experimental results were compared according to phenomenology and droplet size. The behavior of the liquid was compared to images acquired through shadowgraphy with a CCD Camera. Three experimental methods, laser diffractometry, phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) and shadowgraphy were used to characterize the droplet size distributions. Camera images showed similar patterns as numerical results. Droplet sizes obtained numerically are overestimated in relation to PDA and diffractometry, which only consider spherical droplets. However, at both flow rates, size distributions extracted from numerical image processing were similar to distributions obtained from shadowgraphy image processing. The simulation then provides a good understanding and prediction of the phenomena involved in the fragmentation of droplets over 10 µm. The laws of dynamics apply to droplets down to 1 µm, so we can assume the continuity of the distribution and extrapolate the results for droplets between 1 and 10 µm. So, this model could help predicting nebulizer output with defined geometrical and

  9. Comparison of numerical simulations to experiments for atomization in a jet nebulizer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Lelong

    Full Text Available The development of jet nebulizers for medical purposes is an important challenge of aerosol therapy. The performance of a nebulizer is characterized by its output rate of droplets with a diameter under 5 µm. However the optimization of this parameter through experiments has reached a plateau. The purpose of this study is to design a numerical model simulating the nebulization process and to compare it with experimental data. Such a model could provide a better understanding of the atomization process and the parameters influencing the nebulizer output. A model based on the Updraft nebulizer (Hudson was designed with ANSYS Workbench. Boundary conditions were set with experimental data then transient 3D calculations were run on a 4 µm mesh with ANSYS Fluent. Two air flow rate (2 L/min and 8 L/min, limits of the operating range were considered to account for different turbulence regimes. Numerical and experimental results were compared according to phenomenology and droplet size. The behavior of the liquid was compared to images acquired through shadowgraphy with a CCD Camera. Three experimental methods, laser diffractometry, phase Doppler anemometry (PDA and shadowgraphy were used to characterize the droplet size distributions. Camera images showed similar patterns as numerical results. Droplet sizes obtained numerically are overestimated in relation to PDA and diffractometry, which only consider spherical droplets. However, at both flow rates, size distributions extracted from numerical image processing were similar to distributions obtained from shadowgraphy image processing. The simulation then provides a good understanding and prediction of the phenomena involved in the fragmentation of droplets over 10 µm. The laws of dynamics apply to droplets down to 1 µm, so we can assume the continuity of the distribution and extrapolate the results for droplets between 1 and 10 µm. So, this model could help predicting nebulizer output with defined

  10. Nebulized hypertonic saline via positive expiratory pressure versus via jet nebulizer in patients with severe cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Oisin J

    2011-06-01

    Nebulized hypertonic saline is a highly effective therapy for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), yet 10% of patients are intolerant of hypertonic saline administered via jet nebulizer. Positive expiratory pressure (PEP) nebulizers splint open the airways and offers a more controlled rate of nebulization.

  11. Characteristics of nebulizers for microwave-induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry. I. Pneumatic nebulizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Krzysztof; Karmasz, Dorota; Starski, Leszek; Ramsza, Andrzej; Waszkiewicz, Andrzej

    1997-10-01

    Frit and microcapillary array nebulizers were designed and evaluated as low-flow introduction devices of liquid samples to the low-power microwave-induced plasma. Zirconia ceramics were examined as a new frit material. A critical evaluation has been carried out of the nebulization stages, such as the formation of the primary aerosol, separation of large droplets in the spray chamber and aerosol transport to the plasma torch; changes in the design of the nebulizers studied were introduced on this basis. The characteristics of nebulizers were supplemented by spectroscopic measurements of the measured signal stability, detection limits for selected elements and wash-out times.

  12. Nebulized epinephrine for young children with bronchiolitis

    OpenAIRE

    Sakulchit, Teeranai; Goldman, Ran D.

    2016-01-01

    Question Every winter I see infants with flulike symptoms and wheezing. I frequently diagnose them with bronchiolitis based on their presenting symptoms. Would it be prudent to send those infants to the nearest emergency department for treatment with nebulized epinephrine?

  13. Variability in delivered dose and respirable delivered dose from nebulizers: are current regulatory testing guidelines sufficient to produce meaningful information?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatley RHM

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ross HM Hatley, Sarah M Byrne Respironics Respiratory Drug Delivery (UK Ltd, a business of Philips Electronics UK Limited, Chichester, UK Background: To improve convenience to patients, there have been advances in the operation of nebulizers, resulting in fast treatment times and less drug lost to the environment. However, limited attention has been paid to the effects of these developments on the delivered dose (DD and respirable delivered dose (RDD. Published pharmacopoeia and ISO testing guidelines for adult-use testing utilize a single breathing pattern, which may not be sufficient to enable effective comparisons between the devices.Materials and methods: The DD of 5 mg of salbutamol sulfate into adult breathing patterns with inhalation:exhalation (I:E ratios between 1:1 and 1:4 was determined. Droplet size was determined by laser diffraction and RDD calculated. Nine different nebulizer brands with different modes of operation (conventional, venturi, breath-enhanced, mesh, and breath-activated were tested.Results: Between the non-breath-activated nebulizers, a 2.5-fold difference in DD (~750–1,900 µg salbutamol was found; with RDD, there was a more than fourfold difference (~210–980 µg. With increasing time spent on exhalation, there were progressive reductions in DD and RDD, with the RDD at an I:E ratio of 1:4 being as little as 40% of the dose with the 1:1 I:E ratio. The DD and RDD from the breath-activated mesh nebulizer were independent of the I:E ratio, and for the breath-activated jet nebulizer, there was less than 20% change in RDD between the I:E ratios of 1:1 and 1:4.Conclusion: Comparing nebulizers using the I:E ratio recommended in the guidelines does not predict relative performance between the devices at other ratios. There was significant variance in DD or RDD between different brands of non-breath-activated nebulizer. In future, consideration should be given to revision of the test protocols included in the guidelines

  14. Nebulized epinephrine for croup in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornson, Candice; Russell, Kelly; Vandermeer, Ben; Klassen, Terry P; Johnson, David W

    2013-10-10

    Croup is a common childhood illness characterized by barky cough, stridor, hoarseness and respiratory distress. Children with severe croup are at risk for intubation. Nebulized epinephrine may prevent intubation. To assess the efficacy (measured by croup scores, rate of intubation and health care utilization such as rate of hospitalization) and safety (frequency and severity of side effects) of nebulized epinephrine versus placebo in children with croup, evaluated in an emergency department (ED) or hospital setting. We searched CENTRAL 2013, Issue 6, MEDLINE (1966 to June week 3, 2013), EMBASE (1980 to July 2013), Web of Science (1974 to July 2013), CINAHL (1982 to July 2013) and Scopus (1996 to July 2013). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs of children with croup evaluated in an ED or admitted to hospital. Comparisons were: nebulized epinephrine versus placebo, racemic nebulized epinephrine versus L-epinephrine (an isomer) and nebulized epinephrine delivered by intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB) versus nebulized epinephrine without IPPB. Primary outcome was change in croup score post-treatment. Secondary outcomes were rate and duration of intubation and hospitalization, croup return visit, parental anxiety and side effects. Two authors independently identified potentially relevant studies by title and abstract (when available) and examined relevant studies using a priori inclusion criteria, followed by methodological quality assessment. One author extracted data while the second checked accuracy. We use the standard methodological procedures expected by the Cochrane Collaboration. Eight studies (225 participants) were included. In general, children included in the studies were young (average age less than two years in the majority of included studies). Severity of croup was described as moderate to severe in all included studies. Six studies took place in the inpatient setting, one in the ED and one setting was not specified. Six of the

  15. Subcutaneous epinephrine vs nebulized salbutamol in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A; Madan, A

    2001-12-01

    This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of the subcutaneous epinephrine with nebulized salbutamol. Fifty asthmatic children in the age range of 6-14 years were divided into two equal groups. Group I children were given subcutaneous epinephrine and Group II were nebulized with salbutamol. Patients were observed at 15, 20, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 minute intervals. Both the groups had comparable mean increase in peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR %) (Group I 27.7 +/- 0.7; Group II 28.8 +/- 0.06, p >0.05). In Group I there was significant increase in systolic blood pressure, 30 minutes after the start of treatment, however it settled on its own by 60 minutes. Both the groups had satisfactory improvement in clinical parameters which continued upto 4 hours after start of treatment. Subcutaneous epinephrine can be safely used if nebulizers are not available.

  16. Nebulized epinephrine for young children with bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakulchit, Teeranai; Goldman, Ran D

    2016-12-01

    Every winter I see infants with flulike symptoms and wheezing. I frequently diagnose them with bronchiolitis based on their presenting symptoms. Would it be prudent to send those infants to the nearest emergency department for treatment with nebulized epinephrine? Nebulized epinephrine should not be routinely used in infants with bronchiolitis. It is an option to consider in those with severe symptoms. If it is given and there are no signs of improvement, further doses are discouraged. Ongoing studies of epinephrine combined with other agents (eg, hypertonic saline, oral dexamethasone) are needed to confirm their benefit. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  17. Immunological and physical properties of allergen solutions. Effects of nebulization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølund, L; Poulsen, L K; Heinig, J H

    1991-01-01

    that one or more proteins in the extracts may associate with albumin. No significant difference in output was observed between the nebulizers. The particle size distribution curves for each diluent (saline, AD) were identical for the Wright nebulizer with 99% of the dry particles distributed within 0......Lyophilised birch pollen allergen extracts, reconstituted with different diluents (H2O, saline, Albumin diluent (AD] were investigated to determine whether the allergen activity and quality of the extracts deteriorated by nebulization with different nebulizers (Pari, Wright, and Sandoz). Allergen...... the nebulization chamber after 2 min nebulization. To elucidate whether the extract proteins had been bound by albumin, samples were submitted to CIE with rabbit anti-human albumin in an intermediate gel. By this procedure one precipitate was transformed to a precipitate in the intermediate gel, indicating...

  18. Feedback mechanism for smart nozzles and nebulizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaser, Akbar [Potomac, MD; Jorabchi, Kaveh [Arlington, VA; Kahen, Kaveh [Kleinburg, CA

    2009-01-27

    Nozzles and nebulizers able to produce aerosol with optimum and reproducible quality based on feedback information obtained using laser imaging techniques. Two laser-based imaging techniques based on particle image velocimetry (PTV) and optical patternation map and contrast size and velocity distributions for indirect and direct pneumatic nebulizations in plasma spectrometry. Two pulses from thin laser sheet with known time difference illuminate droplets flow field. Charge coupled device (CCL)) captures scattering of laser light from droplets, providing two instantaneous particle images. Pointwise cross-correlation of corresponding images yields two-dimensional velocity map of aerosol velocity field. For droplet size distribution studies, solution is doped with fluorescent dye and both laser induced florescence (LIF) and Mie scattering images are captured simultaneously by two CCDs with the same field of view. Ratio of LIF/Mie images provides relative droplet size information, then scaled by point calibration method via phase Doppler particle analyzer.

  19. Use of Nebulized Heparin, Nebulized N-Acetylcysteine, and Nebulized Epoprostenol in a Patient With Smoke Inhalational Injury and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Kevin M; Ditch, Kristen L; Hills, Luanne

    2017-12-01

    Smoke inhalation injury (SIJ) is associated with an increase in morbidity and mortality in patients with burns. SIJ causes airway damage, inflammation, and bronchial obstruction, resulting in decreased oxygenation and perfusion status in these patients. Retrospective studies have compared the use of nebulized heparin (NH) plus nebulized N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and albuterol in patients with SIJ to those who received standard ventilator support with bronchodilator therapy. These studies are associated with a decrease in mortality when NH and nebulized NAC are administered to patients with SIJ. Approximately 20% of patients who develop SIJ will also develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Epoprostenol, a selective pulmonary vasodilator, has been utilized in the treatment of ARDS with mixed results for improving gas exchange. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of the concomitant administration of NH, nebulized NAC, and nebulized epoprostenol following SIJ in a burn patient with ARDS.

  20. Postoperative reparalysis after rocuronium following nebulized epinephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, G A; Gerry, T; White, P

    1997-03-01

    We report a case of postoperative reparalysis in the recovery room, following nebulized epinephrine. The patient was pharmacologically reversed with edrophonium after paralysis with rocuronium. A 12-yr-old girl developed postoperative reparalysis following the intraoperative administration of rocuronium. A total of 0.92 mg.kg-1 rocuronium was administered. After surgery, pharmacological reversal was achieved with 20 mg edrophonium with 0.15 mg atropine sulfate iv 35 min after the last administration of rocuronium. Muscular relaxation was monitored using an ulnar peripheral nerve stimulator (PNS). After reversal, a full train-of-four and sustained tetanus at 50 Hz were present. In the recovery room, following nebulized epinephrine, the patient became apneic. The patient was paralyzed and an ulnar PNS demonstrated only one faint twitch. The paralysis was reversed with 1.5 mg neostigmine with 0.3 mg glycopyrrolate. Postoperative reparalysis following rocuronium may be a cause of postoperative respiratory distress. The definitive diagnosis is made using PNS and observing the response to pharmacological reversal. Nebulized epinephrine may have a previously undescribed role in the development of postoperative reparalysis.

  1. Spherical geodesic mesh generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fung, Jimmy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kenamond, Mark Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Burton, Donald E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Shashkov, Mikhail Jurievich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-27

    In ALE simulations with moving meshes, mesh topology has a direct influence on feature representation and code robustness. In three-dimensional simulations, modeling spherical volumes and features is particularly challenging for a hydrodynamics code. Calculations on traditional spherical meshes (such as spin meshes) often lead to errors and symmetry breaking. Although the underlying differencing scheme may be modified to rectify this, the differencing scheme may not be accessible. This work documents the use of spherical geodesic meshes to mitigate solution-mesh coupling. These meshes are generated notionally by connecting geodesic surface meshes to produce triangular-prismatic volume meshes. This mesh topology is fundamentally different from traditional mesh topologies and displays superior qualities such as topological symmetry. This work describes the geodesic mesh topology as well as motivating demonstrations with the FLAG hydrocode.

  2. Nebulization and selective deposition of LTD4 in human lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Poulsen, L; Søndergaard, I

    1987-01-01

    .4. Nebulization of tritiated LTD4 in this phosphate buffer did not cause any appreciable deterioration of the leukotriene, as demonstrated by an unchanged ratio between radioactivity and LTD4 concentration in the test solution before and after nebulization as well as in the condensed aerosol. The aerosol...

  3. Pharmacokinetics of nebulized terbinafine in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Lee C; Cox, Sherry K; Souza, Marcy J

    2012-09-01

    Aspergillosis is one of the most difficult diseases to treat successfully in avian species. Terbinafine hydrochloride offers numerous potential benefits over traditionally used antifungals for treatment of this disease. Adding nebulized antifungals to treatment strategies is thought to improve clinical outcomes in lung diseases. To determine plasma concentrations of terbinafine after nebulization, 6 adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots were randomly divided into 2 groups of 3. Each bird was nebulized for 15 minutes with 1 of 2 terbinafine solutions, one made with a crushed tablet and the second with raw drug powder. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at multiple time points up to 720 minutes after completing nebulization. Plasma and nebulization solutions were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The terbinafine concentration of the solution made with a crushed tablet (0.87 +/- 0.05 mg/mL) was significantly lower than was that made with raw powder (1.02 +/- 0.09 mg/mL). Plasma concentrations of terbinafine did not differ significantly between birds in the 2 groups. Plasma terbinafine concentrations in birds were maintained above in vitro minimum inhibitory concentrations for approximately 1 hour in birds nebulized with the crushed tablet solution and 4 hours in birds nebulized with the raw powder solution. Higher concentrations of solution, longer nebulization periods, or more frequent administration are likely needed to reach therapeutic plasma concentrations of terbinafine for clinically relevant periods in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

  4. Nebulized Fentanyl in Acute Pain: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Joshua P; Thompson, Dennis F

    2016-10-01

    To provide a systematic review of the current role of nebulized fentanyl in acute pain and potentially other conditions. A MEDLINE literature search inclusive of the dates 1946 to May 2016 was performed using the following search terms: fentanyl and administration, inhaled Excerpta Medica was searched from 1980 to May 2016 using the following search terms: exp fentanyl/inhalation drug administration Additionally, Web of Science was searched using the terms fentanyl and pain inclusive of 1945 to May 2016. We utilized the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to select English language, human primary literature, review articles, and supporting data assessing the efficacy of nebulized fentanyl in acute pain. Seven clinical trials have demonstrated no difference in efficacy between nebulized fentanyl and intravenous (IV) opioids. Few adverse effects were reported; however, the trials were of short duration. Nebulized fentanyl appeared to be a rapid-acting analgesic that does not require IV access. Evidence suggests that nebulized fentanyl is as effective as IV opioids in the treatment of acute pain, with relatively few adverse effects. However, questions remain about the extemporaneous preparation of fentanyl nebulized solution, the variability in nebulization devices, and ensuring consistent drug delivery to distal airways in the clinical setting. The abuse potential of nebulized fentanyl should also be considered. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Nebulized Magnesium Sulfate in Acute Bronchiolitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modaresi, Mohammad Reza; Faghihinia, Jamal; Kelishadi, Roya; Reisi, Mohsen; Mirlohi, Shahrokh; Pajhang, Farhad; Sadeghian, Majid

    2015-09-01

    To assess the efficacy of nebulized magnesium sulfate as a bronchodilator in infants hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis. This three-center double masked randomized clinical trial comprised 120 children with moderate to severe bronchiolitis. They were randomly assigned into two groups: the first group was treated with nebulized magnesium sulfate (40 mg/kg) and nebulized epinephrine (0.1 ml/kg) and the second group (control) was treated with nebulized epinephrine (0.1 ml/kg). The primary outcome was the length of hospital stay. The use of oxygen, temperature, oxygen saturation (SPO2), pulse rate (PR), respiratory rate (RR) and respiratory distress assessment instrument (RDAI) score were measured in the beginning of the study and during hospitalization. The mean (SD) age of 120 infants was 5.1(± 2.6) mo and 60% were boys. The length of hospital stay was not different between the two groups (P > 0.01). Use of oxygen supplementation, SPO2 and vital signs were similar in the two groups. Improvement in RDAI score was significantly better in infants treated with nebulized magnesium sulfate than in the other group (P 0.01). Thus, in infants with acute bronchiolitis, the effect of nebulized magnesium sulfate is comparable to nebulized epinephrine. However nebulized magnesium sulfate can improve the clinical score so it may have additive effect to reduce symptoms during hospitalization.

  6. Nebulized epinephrine does not help bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Shamita; Stevermer, James J

    2003-11-01

    Nebulized epinephrine does not improve clinical status or reduce the length of the hospital stay in infants aged bronchiolitis. It also does not reduce clinical scores during or shortly after medication administration. In this study, infants requiring oxygen and intravenous fluids-presumably the sickest infants in the study-required longer hospital stays if they received epinephrine. A wheezing infant may be presenting with a first episode of asthma, so a trial of bronchodilators would seem reasonable; however, it appears that the primary intervention for bronchiolitis is supportive treatment, with supplemental oxygen, intravenous fluids, and ventilatory support when needed.

  7. VARIABLE MESH STIFFNESS OF SPUR GEAR TEETH USING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    primary source of parametric vibration excitation in geared systems, by virtue of large magnitude change in stiffness that occurs during gear engagement. A gear mesh kinematic simulation. WIll be developeJ 1(1 simulate the meshing actIOn 01 two spur gears,. Recently, greatcr elliphasis has been played on the creation of ...

  8. Safety of Nebulized Epinephrine in Smoke Inhalation Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foncerrada, Guillermo; Lima, Francisco; Clayton, Robert P; Mlcak, Ronald P; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Herndon, David N; Suman, Oscar E

    This pilot study was conducted to profile safety of nebulized racemic epinephrine when used as a therapy for smoke inhalation injury in severely burned children. We enrolled 16 patients who were 7 to 19 years of age ([mean ± SD], 12 ± 4 years) with burns covering more than 30% of the TBSA (55 ± 17%) and smoke inhalation injury, as diagnosed by bronchoscopy at burn center admission. Patients were randomized to receive either standard of care (n = 8), which consisted of nebulized acetylcysteine, nebulized heparin, and nebulized albuterol, or to receive standard of care plus nebulized epinephrine (n = 8). Primary endpoints were death, chest pain, and adverse changes in cardiopulmonary hemodynamics (arrhythmia, arterial blood pressure, electrocardiographic [ST segment] changes, and peak inspiratory pressure). Additional endpoints included total days on ventilator, pulmonary function, and physiological cardiopulmonary measurements at intensive care unit discharge. No adverse events were observed during or after the nebulization of epinephrine, and no deaths were reported that were attributable to the administration of nebulized epinephrine. The groups did not significantly differ with regard to age, sex, burn size, days on ventilator, pulmonary function, or cardiopulmonary fitness. Results of this pilot trial indicate epinephrine to be safe when administered to pediatric burn patients with smoke inhalation injury. Current data warrant future efficacy studies with a greater number of patients.

  9. Novel adaptation of the demodulation technology for gear damage detection to variable amplitudes of mesh harmonics

    OpenAIRE

    Combet, Francois; Gelman, Leonid

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a novel adaptive demodulation technique including a new diagnostic feature is proposed for gear diagnosis in conditions of variable amplitudes of the mesh harmonics. This vibration technique employs the time synchronous average (TSA) of vibration signals. The new adaptive diagnostic feature is defined as the ratio of the sum of the sideband components of the envelope spectrum of a mesh harmonic to the measured power of the mesh harmonic. The proposed adaptation of the technique...

  10. Comparison of Nebulized Epinephrine to Albuterol in Bronchiolitis

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Paul; Caldwell, John; McQuillan, Kemedy K; Friese, Steven; Robbins, Dale; Rothenberg, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To compare the effect of nebulized racemic epinephrine to nebulized racemic albuterol on successful discharge from the emergency department (ED). Methods Children up to their 18th month of life presenting to two teaching hospital EDs with a clinical diagnosis of bronchiolitis who were ill enough to warrant treatment but did not need immediate intubation were eligible for this double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT). Patients received either three doses of racemic albuterol o...

  11. Nebulized antibiotics in mechanically ventilated patients: roadmap and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulakou, G; Siakallis, G; Tsiodras, S; Arfaras-Melainis, A; Dimopoulos, G

    2017-03-01

    Nebulized antibiotics use has become common practice in the therapeutics of pneumonia in cystic fibrosis patients. There is an increasing interest in their use for respiratory infections in mechanically ventilated (MV) patients in order to a) overcome pharmacokinetic issues in the lung compartment with traditional systemic antibiotic use and b) prevent the emergence of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. Areas covered: The beneficial effects of antibiotic nebulization in MV patients e.g. increasing efficacy, reduced toxicity and prevention of resistance are described. Physicochemical parameters of optimal lung deposition, characteristics of currently available nebulizers, practical aspects of the procedure, including drug preparation and adjustments of ventilator and circuit parameter are presented. Antibiotics used in nebulized route, along with efficacy in various clinical indications and safety issues are reviewed. Expert commentary: The safety of nebulization of antibiotics has been proven in numerous studies; efficacy as adjunctive treatment to intravenous regimens or as monotherapy has been demonstrated in ventilator-associated pneumonia or ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis due to MDR or susceptible pathogens. However, due to the heterogeneity of studies, multiple meta-analyses fail to demonstrate a clear effect. Clarification of indications, standardization of technique and implementation of clinical practice guidelines, based on new large-scale trials will lead to the optimal use of nebulized antibiotics.

  12. Hernia Surgical Mesh Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Procedures Implants and Prosthetics Hernia Surgical Mesh Implants Hernia Surgical Mesh Implants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... between patients and their surgeons. What is a Hernia? A hernia occurs when an organ, intestine or ...

  13. Impact of constant and breath-synchronized nebulization on inhaled mass of nebulized budesonide in infants and children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikander, K; Bisgaard, H

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the output of a breath-synchronized jet nebulizer to a conventional constant output nebulizer over a fixed period of time in terms of inhaled mass of budesonide, i.e., the amount of budesonide deposited on a filter interposed between the nebulizer...... the nebulizer as an aerosol, the inhaled mass ranged from 34.6-48.6%. Thus, 51.4-65.4% of the total output was deposited on the expiratory filter. With 5 min of breath-synchronized nebulization, the mean inhaled mass ranged from 10.5-14.9% of the nominal dose. For the youngest patients less than 3-4 years...... of age, it was approximately 80-90% of the total output. For the older patients the inhaled mass was approximately 95% of the total output, i.e., only small amounts of budesonide were deposited on the expiratory filter. For both modes of nebulization the between-subject variation in inhaled mass...

  14. Biopharmaceutical Characterization of Nebulized Antimicrobial Agents in Rats: 2. Colistin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontijo, Aline Vidal Lacerda; Grégoire, Nicolas; Lamarche, Isabelle; Gobin, Patrice; Marchand, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of colistin following intrapulmonary administration of colistin sulfate in rats. Colistin was infused or delivered in nebulized form at a dose of 0.35 mg/kg of body weight in rats, and plasma drug concentrations were measured for 4 h after administration. Bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) were also conducted at 0.5, 2, and 4 h after intravenous (i.v.) administration and administration via nebulized drug to estimate epithelial lining fluid (ELF) drug concentrations. Unbound colistin plasma concentrations at distribution equilibrium (2 h postdosing) were almost identical after i.v. infusion and nebulized drug inhalation. ELF drug concentrations were undetectable in BAL samples after i.v. administration, but they were about 1,800 times higher than unbound plasma drug levels at 2 h and 4 h after administration of the nebulized drug. Simultaneous pharmacokinetic modeling of plasma and ELF drug concentrations was performed with a model characterized by a fixed physiological volume of ELF (VELF), a passive diffusion clearance (QELF) between plasma and ELF, and a nonlinear influx transfer from ELF to the central compartment, which was assessed by reducing the nebulized dose of colistin by 10-fold (0.035 mg kg−1). The km was estimated to be 133 μg ml−1, and the Vmax, in-to-Km ratio was equal to 2.5 × 10−3 liter h−1 kg−1, which was 37 times higher than the QELF (6.7 × 10−5 liter h−1 kg−1). This study showed that with the higher ELF drug concentrations after administration via nebulized aerosol than after intravenous administration, for antibiotics with low permeability such as colistin, nebulization offers a real potential over intravenous administration for the treatment of pulmonary infections. PMID:24798284

  15. Comparison of nebulized epinephrine to albuterol in bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Paul; Caldwell, John; McQuillan, Kemedy K; Friese, Steven; Robbins, Dale; Rothenberg, Stephen J

    2008-04-01

    To compare the effect of nebulized racemic epinephrine to nebulized racemic albuterol on successful discharge from the emergency department (ED). Children up to their 18th month of life presenting to two teaching hospital EDs with a clinical diagnosis of bronchiolitis who were ill enough to warrant treatment but did not need immediate intubation were eligible for this double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT). Patients received either three doses of racemic albuterol or one dose of racemic epinephrine plus two saline nebulizers. Disposition was decided 2 hours after the first nebulizer. Successful discharge was defined as not requiring additional bronchodilators in the ED after study drug administration and not subsequently admitted within 72 hours. Adjusted relative risks (aRR) were estimated using the modified Poisson regression with successful discharge as the dependent variable and study drug and severity of illness as exposures. Secondary analysis was performed for patients aged less than 12 months and first presentation. The authors analyzed 703 patients; 352 patients were given albuterol and 351 epinephrine. A total of 173 in the albuterol group and 160 in the epinephrine group were successfully discharged (crude RR = 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.92 to 1.26). When adjusted for severity of illness, patients who received albuterol were significantly more likely than patients receiving epinephrine to be successfully discharged (aRR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.36). This was also true among those with first presentation and in those less than 12 months of age. In children up to the 18th month of life, ED treatment of bronchiolitis with nebulized racemic albuterol led to more successful discharges than nebulized epinephrine.

  16. Delaunay mesh generation

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Siu-Wing; Shewchuk, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Written by authors at the forefront of modern algorithms research, Delaunay Mesh Generation demonstrates the power and versatility of Delaunay meshers in tackling complex geometric domains ranging from polyhedra with internal boundaries to piecewise smooth surfaces. Covering both volume and surface meshes, the authors fully explain how and why these meshing algorithms work.The book is one of the first to integrate a vast amount of cutting-edge material on Delaunay triangulations. It begins with introducing the problem of mesh generation and describing algorithms for constructing Delaunay trian

  17. Management of Croup in the Emergency Department: The Role of Multidose Nebulized Epinephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwell, Taylor; Hollingsworth, Amanda; Thompson, Tonya; Abramo, Thomas; Huckabee, Mary; Chang, Di; Crawley, Leroy; Robbins, James M

    2017-09-25

    Croup occasionally requires medical intervention for respiratory distress. Mainstays of treatment are corticosteroids and nebulized epinephrine. Diagnosis and assessment of severity remain clinical. Safety of discharge from an emergency department (ED) after treatment with corticosteroids and 1 nebulized epinephrine has been established. No evidence exists regarding risk associated with discharge after multidose nebulized epinephrine. Many patients requiring multidose nebulized epinephrine are reflexively admitted. The purpose of this study was to provide a descriptive analysis of the current management of croup, specifically patients requiring multidose nebulized epinephrine. The Pediatric Health Information System was used to extract information on patients diagnosed with croup age 0 to 11 years, evaluated in pediatric EDs from 2004 to 2014, who received corticosteroids and at least 1 nebulized epinephrine. We retrospectively assessed patients requiring multidose nebulized epinephrine, evaluating risk of return for additional care associated with discharges and reviewing admissions for markers of disease severity. A total of 95,403 patients were identified. Those requiring corticosteroids and multidose nebulized epinephrine (N = 8084) were less likely to return for further care if discharged from the ED (5.4% return single dose, 0.8% return multidose: P nebulized epinephrine are managed differently than those requiring multidose nebulized epinephrine. There is likely a role for multidose nebulized epinephrine in the outpatient management of croup. A prospective study is needed.

  18. An Adaptive Mesh Algorithm: Mapping the Mesh Variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scannapieco, Anthony J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-25

    Both thermodynamic and kinematic variables must be mapped. The kinematic variables are defined on a separate kinematic mesh; it is the duel mesh to the thermodynamic mesh. The map of the kinematic variables is done by calculating the contributions of kinematic variables on the old thermodynamic mesh, mapping the kinematic variable contributions onto the new thermodynamic mesh and then synthesizing the mapped kinematic variables on the new kinematic mesh. In this document the map of the thermodynamic variables will be described.

  19. Characterization of heparin aerosols generated in jet and ultrasonic nebulizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendstrup, K.E.; Newhouse, M.T.; Pedersen, Ole Finn

    1999-01-01

    with increasing concentration and flow rate, and particle size decreased from 3.64 to 2.01 /un (mass median diameter [MMD]). The percentage of particles less than 3 ptm ranged from 41% to 74%. For the ultrasonic nebulizer, maximum output per minute was achieved at a concentration of 7000 IU/mL; this maximum...

  20. Efficacy of nebulized furosemide in children with moderate attack of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacy of nebulized furosemide in children with moderate attack of asthma. M Alshehri, T Almegamesi, A Alfrayh. Abstract. No Abstract. West African Journal of Medicine Vol. 24(3) 2005: 246-251. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  1. Nebulized milrinone use in a pulmonary hypertensive crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Mitchell S; Feldman, Jeremy P

    2007-12-01

    Significant advances have been achieved over the past few decades regarding comprehension of the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The development of new agents and use of existing drug therapies have targeted the underlying abnormalities and pathways leading to progression of PAH. Milrinone, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, remains a therapeutic option. Unfortunately, intravenous administration of the drug in patients with PAH may be limited by systemic hypotension, especially in those already receiving prostanoid treatment. We describe a 42-year-old woman with acute decompensated idiopathic PAH who was given nebulized milrinone as a novel adjunctive therapy. She was acutely treated with intravenous treprostinil 2 ng/kg/minute and inhaled nitric oxide 20 ppm. However, increasing the treprostinil infusion rate or adding other therapies such as intravenous milrinone for acute symptomatic relief was limited by her hemodynamic instability, which required treatment with dobutamine, vasopressin, and epinephrine. Nebulized milrinone was added as salvage therapy for her acute PAH crisis. After 8 days of therapy, the patient's PAH symptoms improved without compromising her mean arterial pressure and heart rate. Nebulized milrinone in addition to inhaled nitric oxide and low-dose intravenous treprostinil may have played a major role in the acute management of her PAH crisis. Further studies are needed to assess the role of nebulized milrinone in patients with PAH.

  2. Randomized controlled trial of nebulized adrenaline in acute bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariprakash, Suriyanarayanapillai; Alexander, John; Carroll, Will; Ramesh, Pavanasam; Randell, Tabitha; Turnbull, Frances; Lenney, Warren

    2003-04-01

    Use of both l-epinephrine and racemic epinephrine (adrenaline) has improved clinical symptoms and composite respiratory scores in acute bronchiolitis. The objective of this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study was to assess whether there was sufficient improvement in clinical state to reduce hospital admissions. Seventy-five infants aged 1 month to 1 year with a clinical diagnosis of acute bronchiolitis were treated with either 2 ml of 1:1000 nebulized adrenaline or 2 ml of nebulized normal saline administered after baseline assessment and 30 min later. Clinical respiratory parameters were recorded at 15-min intervals for a period of 2 h following the baseline assessment. Admission to hospital was the primary end-point and changes in respiratory parameters were secondary end-points. Fifty percent (19/38) of infants treated with adrenaline were discharged home compared with 38 percent (14/37) of those treated with saline. This 12 percent reduction in rate of admission is not statistically significant (95% CI of difference: -10% to 35%). There was no difference between treated and placebo groups in respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, heart rate or a composite respiratory distress score at 30, 60 or 120 min post-treatment. In this study, nebulized epinephrine did not confer a significant advantage over nebulized saline in the emergency room treatment of acute bronchiolitis.

  3. SLURRY NEBULIZATION ICP-OES FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    SLURRY NEBULIZATION ICP-OES FOR THE DETERMINATION OF Cu, Fe, Mg,. Mn AND Zn IN BOVINE LIVER. Ntebogeng S. Mokgalaka1*, Taddese Wondimu2 and Robert I. McCrindle1. 1Tshwane University of Technology, Department of Chemistry, Arcadia Campus, P.O. Box. 56208, Arcadia 0007, South Africa.

  4. Characterization of sprays for thermo-stabilized pneumatic nebulizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochowiak, M; Doligalski, M; Broniarz-Press, L; Matuszak, M; Gościniak, A

    2016-03-31

    The research presents the nebulizer spray chamber temperature controller responsible for controlling temperature of aerosol produced as a result of nebulizing process. The motivation to make an attempt to improve modern pneumatic devices was the shortage of this kind of apparatuses on the market allowing the production of thermos aerosol. A designed temperature controlling system for pneumatic nebulizers aims at increasing and stabilizing temperature of produced aerosols and increasing aerosol therapy safety. The system is intended for producing aerosol in the process of pneumatic nebulization with the temperature similar to that of the human body. Experiments that were carried out confirmed good performance of the device. It was proved that with the increase of temperature the amount of big droplets fall and the entire spectrum of the droplet diameter moves towards smaller droplet diameter values. Reduction of liquid viscosity related to the increase of temperature leads to the reduction of droplet diameter and, as a result, the reduction of the Sauter mean diameter value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Nebulized hypertonic saline solution for acute bronchiolitis in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linjie; Mendoza-Sassi, Raúl A; Wainwright, Claire; Klassen, Terry P

    2008-10-08

    Airway edema and mucus plugging are the predominant pathological features in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis. Nebulized hypertonic saline solution may reduce these pathological changes and decrease airway obstruction. To assess the effects of nebulized hypertonic saline solution in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2007, issue 4), which contains the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group Specialized Register; OLDMEDLINE (1951 to 1965); MEDLINE (1966 to November 2007); EMBASE (1974 to November 2007); and LILACS (November 2007). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs using nebulized hypertonic saline alone or in conjunction with bronchodilators as an active intervention in infants up to 24 months of age with acute bronchiolitis. Two review authors (ZL, MRA) independently performed data extraction and study quality assessment. We pooled the data from individual trials using the Cochrane statistical package Review Manager (RevMan). We included four trials involving 254 infants with acute viral bronchiolitis (189 inpatients and 65 outpatients) in this review. Patients treated with nebulized 3% saline had a significantly shorter mean length of hospital stay compared to those treated with nebulized 0.9% saline (mean difference (MD) -0.94 days, 95% CI -1.48 to -0.40, P = 0.0006). The 3% saline group also had a significantly lower post-inhalation clinical score than the 0.9% saline group in the first three days of treatment (day 1: MD -0.75, 95% CI -1.38 to -0.12, P = 0.02; day 2: MD -1.18, 95% CI -1.97 to -0.39, P = 0.003; day 3: MD -1.28, 95% CI -2.57 to 0.00, P = 0.05). The effect of nebulized hypertonic saline in improving clinical score was greater among outpatients than inpatients. No adverse events related to 3% saline inhalation were reported. Current evidence suggests nebulized 3% saline may significantly reduce the length of hospital stay

  6. Optimization of nebulized delivery of linezolid, daptomycin, and vancomycin aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarogoulidis P

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Paul Zarogoulidis,1 Ioannis Kioumis,1 Sofia Lampaki,1 John Organtzis,1 Konstantinos Porpodis,1 Dionysios Spyratos,1 Georgia Pitsiou,1 Dimitris Petridis,2 Athanasia Pataka,1 Haidong Huang,3 Qiang Li,3 Lonny Yarmus,4 Wolfgang Hohenforst-Schmidt,5 Nikolaos Pezirkianidis,6 Konstantinos Zarogoulidis1 1Pulmonary Department-Oncology Unit, “G Papanikolaou” General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 2Department of Food Technology, School of Food Technology and Nutrition, Alexander Technological Educational Institute, Thessaloniki, Greece; 3Department of Respiratory Diseases, Shanghai Hospital, II Military University Hospital, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 4Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 5II Medical Department, “Coburg” Regional Hospital, Coburg, Germany; 6Surgery Department, Private Cabinet, Serres, Greece Background: At this time, several antibiotics have been investigated as possibilities for aerosol administration, but local therapy has been found to be more efficient in several diseases. Materials and methods: The drugs linezolid (Zyvox, vancomycin (Voncon, and daptomycin (Cubicin were tested with three jet nebulizers with seven different residual cups and different loadings. Moreover, three ultrasound nebulizers were again tested with these drugs, with different loadings and mouthpiece attachments. Results: When drugs are combined with particular cup designs, they significantly lower the droplet size to 1.60 and 1.80 µm, which represents the best combination of Zyvox and cup G and Cubicin and cup D, respectively. Cup design D is suggested as the most effective cup for lowering the droplet size (2.30 µm when considering a higher loading level (8 mL. Conclusion: Modification of current drugs from dry powder to solution is possible, and the residual cup design plays the most important role in droplet size production when the

  7. Nebulized Hypertonic Saline for Acute Bronchiolitis: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linjie; Mendoza-Sassi, Raúl A; Klassen, Terry P; Wainwright, Claire

    2015-10-01

    The mainstay of treatment for acute bronchiolitis remains supportive care. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of nebulized hypertonic saline (HS) in infants with acute bronchiolitis. Data sources included PubMed and the Virtual Health Library of the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information up to May 2015. Studies selected were randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing nebulized HS with 0.9% saline or standard treatment. We included 24 trials involving 3209 patients, 1706 of whom received HS. Hospitalized patients treated with nebulized HS had a significantly shorter length of stay compared with those receiving 0.9% saline or standard care (15 trials involving 1956 patients; mean difference [MD] -0.45 days, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.82 to -0.08). The HS group also had a significantly lower posttreatment clinical score in the first 3 days of admission (5 trials involving 404 inpatients; day 1: MD -0.99, 95% CI -1.48 to -0.50; day 2: MD -1.45, 95% CI -2.06 to -0.85; day 3: MD -1.44, 95% CI -1.78 to -1.11). Nebulized HS reduced the risk of hospitalization by 20% compared with 0.9% saline among outpatients (7 trials involving 951 patients; risk ratio 0.80, 95% CI 0.67-0.96). No significant adverse events related to HS inhalation were reported. The quality of evidence is moderate due to inconsistency in results between trials and study limitations (risk of bias). Nebulized HS is a safe and potentially effective treatment of infants with acute bronchiolitis. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Novel adaptation of the demodulation technology for gear damage detection to variable amplitudes of mesh harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combet, F.; Gelman, L.

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, a novel adaptive demodulation technique including a new diagnostic feature is proposed for gear diagnosis in conditions of variable amplitudes of the mesh harmonics. This vibration technique employs the time synchronous average (TSA) of vibration signals. The new adaptive diagnostic feature is defined as the ratio of the sum of the sideband components of the envelope spectrum of a mesh harmonic to the measured power of the mesh harmonic. The proposed adaptation of the technique is justified theoretically and experimentally by the high level of the positive covariance between amplitudes of the mesh harmonics and the sidebands in conditions of variable amplitudes of the mesh harmonics. It is shown that the adaptive demodulation technique preserves effectiveness of local fault detection of gears operating in conditions of variable mesh amplitudes.

  9. Wireless mesh networks

    CERN Document Server

    Held, Gilbert

    2005-01-01

    Wireless mesh networking is a new technology that has the potential to revolutionize how we access the Internet and communicate with co-workers and friends. Wireless Mesh Networks examines the concept and explores its advantages over existing technologies. This book explores existing and future applications, and examines how some of the networking protocols operate.The text offers a detailed analysis of the significant problems affecting wireless mesh networking, including network scale issues, security, and radio frequency interference, and suggests actual and potential solutions for each pro

  10. A prospective, comparative trial of standard and breath-actuated nebulizer: efficacy, safety, and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunthari, Vichaya; Bruinsma, Rikki S; Lee, Augustine S; Johnson, Margaret M

    2012-08-01

    Nebulized drug delivery is a cornerstone of therapy for obstructive lung disease, but the ideal nebulizer design is uncertain. The breath-actuated nebulizer (BAN) may be superior to conventional nebulizers. This study compared the BAN to standard nebulizer with regard to efficacy, safety, and patient and respiratory therapist (RT) satisfaction. Adults admitted to the hospital and for whom nebulizer therapy was prescribed were enrolled. Subjects were randomly assigned to either AeroEclipse II or standard nebulizer and were surveyed at the completion of each treatment. BAN delivered albuterol 2.5 mg or albuterol 2.5 mg plus ipratropium 0.25 mg. Standard nebulizer delivered albuterol 2.5 mg or albuterol plus ipratropium 0.5 mg. An RT assessed each subject's heart rate, respiratory rate, and peak expiratory flow rate prior to and following treatment. Treatment time and adverse events were recorded. Each RT was asked to assess his/her satisfaction with each of the nebulizers. Twenty-eight subjects were studied. The mean age was 69 years. Fifty-four percent of the subjects indicated that overall the BAN was superior to conventional nebulizer therapy; 68% indicated that duration was preferable with the BAN. RTs were more satisfied with the BAN, based on overall performance, treatment duration, and ease of use. There were no significant differences in heart rate, peak expiratory flow rate, or respiratory rate before or after nebulization therapy with either device. The duration of treatment was significantly lower with the BAN (4.1 min vs 9.9 min, P compared with standard nebulizer. Pre- and post-treatment vital signs did not differ between groups, but use of the BAN was associated with a shorter duration and a lower occurrence of adverse events. Taken together, these data support the use of the BAN for nebulized medication delivery.

  11. Nebulized racemic epinephrine for extubation of newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, M W; Davis, P G

    2002-01-01

    Following a period of mechanical ventilation, post-extubation upper airway obstruction can occur in newborn infants, especially after prolonged, traumatic or multiple intubations. The subsequent increase in upper airway resistance may lead to respiratory insufficiency and failure of extubation. The vasoconstrictive properties of epinephrine, and its proven efficacy in the treatment of croup in infants, has led to the routine use of inhaled nebulized epinephrine immediately post-extubation in some neonatal units. It is also recommended for neonates with post-extubation tracheal obstruction and stridor in neonatal and respiratory textbooks and reviews. The primary objective was to assess whether nebulized epinephrine administered immediately after extubation in neonates weaned from IPPV decreases the need for subsequent additional respiratory support. Searches were of: MEDLINE from 1966 to September 2000; CINAHL from 1982 to September 2000; Current Contents from 1994 to September 2000; and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2000). These searches were updated to September 2001 for this review update. Previous searches up to March 1999 included the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials, expert informants and journal hand searching mainly in the English language, previous reviews including cross references, abstracts, and conference and symposia proceedings. All randomised and quasi-randomised control trials in which nebulized epinephrine was compared with placebo immediately post-extubation in newborn infants who have been weaned from IPPV and extubated, with regard to clinically important outcomes (i.e. need for additional respiratory support, increase in oxygen requirement, respiratory distress, stridor or the occurrence of side effects). No studies met our criteria for inclusion in this review. No studies were identified which looked at the effect of inhaled nebulized epinephrine on clinically important outcomes in infants being

  12. Geometrically Consistent Mesh Modification

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, A.

    2010-01-01

    A new paradigm of adaptivity is to execute refinement, coarsening, and smoothing of meshes on manifolds with incomplete information about their geometry and yet preserve position and curvature accuracy. We refer to this collectively as geometrically consistent (GC) mesh modification. We discuss the concept of discrete GC, show the failure of naive approaches, and propose and analyze a simple algorithm that is GC and accuracy preserving. © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  13. Comparison of nebulized epinephrine and terbutaline in patients with acute severe asthma: a controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adoun, Michèle; Frat, Jean-Pierre; Doré, Pierre; Rouffineau, Jean; Godet, Cendrine; Robert, René

    2004-06-01

    To compare the efficacy and tolerability of nebulized adrenaline and terbutaline in acute severe asthma. Prospective pilot randomized double-blind cross-over trial. Emergency department of a university hospital. Thirty-eight patients admitted with severe acute asthma. Each patient received adrenaline (3 mg) and terbutaline (5 mg) nebulizations over 20 min in randomized order. Additional treatment comprised methylprednisolone, intravenous hydration, and oxygen. The efficacy and tolerability of the two drugs were evaluated at the end of each nebulization as well as potential synergistic effects. Eighteen patients received adrenaline first, and 20 received terbutaline first. Peak expiratory flow (PEF) improved significantly in both groups after the first nebulization (from 157 L/min +/- 111 L/min to 199 L/min +/- 134 L/min with adrenaline, P nebulization. No adverse effects were observed. Adrenaline nebulization was as effective and as well tolerated as terbutaline in acute severe asthma. No synergistic effect between terbutaline and adrenaline was observed.

  14. Chemical reaction interface mass spectrometry with high efficiency nebulization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorabchi, Kaveh; Kahen, Kaveh; Lecchi, Paolo; Montaser, Akbar

    2005-08-15

    A high efficiency nebulizer (HEN) coupled to a heated spray chamber and a membrane desolvator is used for liquid sample introduction in chemical reaction interface mass spectrometry (CRIMS). Compared to the conventional thermospray nebulizer operated at solvent flow rate of 1 mL/min, the HEN provides small droplets at lower flow rates (10-100 microL/min), improving the desolvation and analyte transport efficiency. As a result, the sensitivity for carbon detection by CRIMS is improved by a factor of 4. The new arrangement offers an easy-to-use and robust interface, facilitating the availability of a variety of liquid chromatographic techniques to the CRIMS. Separation and detection of labeled peptides in a mixture of unlabeled biopolymers is illustrated at a solvent flow rate of 45 microL/min as an example of new possibilities offered by the improved liquid introduction interface.

  15. Nebulized hypertonic saline without adjunctive bronchodilators for children with bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Shawn; Hill, Vanessa; Martinez, Marissa

    2010-09-01

    The goal was to determine an adverse event rate for nebulized hypertonic saline solution administered without adjunctive bronchodilators for infants with bronchiolitis. This was a retrospective cohort study of the use of nebulized 3% saline for childrenbronchiolitis at a single academic medical center. The medical records of study participants were analyzed for the use of nebulized 3% saline solution and any documented adverse events related to this therapy. Other clinical outcomes evaluated included respiratory distress scores, timing of the use of bronchodilators in relation to 3% saline solution, transfer to a higher level of care, and readmission within 72 hours after discharge. A total of 444 total doses of 3% saline solution were administered, with 377 doses (85%) being administered without adjunctive bronchodilators. Four adverse events occurred with these 377 doses, for a 1.0% adverse event rate (95% confidence interval: 0.3%-2.8%). Adverse events were generally mild. One episode of bronchospasm was documented, for a rate of 0.3% (95% confidence interval: saline solution without adjunctive bronchodilators for inpatients with bronchiolitis had a low rate of adverse events in our center. Additional clinical trials of 3% saline solution in bronchiolitis should evaluate its effectiveness in the absence of adjunctive bronchodilators.

  16. Documentation for MeshKit - Reactor Geometry (&mesh) Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Rajeev [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mahadevan, Vijay [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This report gives documentation for using MeshKit’s Reactor Geometry (and mesh) Generator (RGG) GUI and also briefly documents other algorithms and tools available in MeshKit. RGG is a program designed to aid in modeling and meshing of complex/large hexagonal and rectilinear reactor cores. RGG uses Argonne’s SIGMA interfaces, Qt and VTK to produce an intuitive user interface. By integrating a 3D view of the reactor with the meshing tools and combining them into one user interface, RGG streamlines the task of preparing a simulation mesh and enables real-time feedback that reduces accidental scripting mistakes that could waste hours of meshing. RGG interfaces with MeshKit tools to consolidate the meshing process, meaning that going from model to mesh is as easy as a button click. This report is designed to explain RGG v 2.0 interface and provide users with the knowledge and skills to pilot RGG successfully. Brief documentation of MeshKit source code, tools and other algorithms available are also presented for developers to extend and add new algorithms to MeshKit. RGG tools work in serial and parallel and have been used to model complex reactor core models consisting of conical pins, load pads, several thousands of axially varying material properties of instrumentation pins and other interstices meshes.

  17. Nebulizer performance: AFLM study. Association Française de Lutte contre la Mucoviscidose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faurisson, F; Dessanges, J F; Grimfeld, A; Beaulieu, R; Kitzis, M D; Peytavin, G; Lefebvre, J P; Farinotti, R; Sautegeau, A

    1995-01-01

    This study was conducted by the AFLM order to determine the performance characteristics of 12 commercially available nebulizers (6 ultrasonic and 6 jet) used in the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF). The nebulizers were connected to a circuit which simulated the ventilation of a CF child and CF adult, and were tested using three drug solutions: tobramycin (T), colistin (C), and amiloride (A). Nebulizer performance was evaluated according to the volume of drug solution delivered in 10 min during the simulated inspiratory phase (VI), drug granulometry (G%), drug concentration modification in the nebulizer reservoir (delta C), and percentage of efficiently aerosolized drug EA%). The ultrasonic devices delivered a significantly higher VI than the jet nebulizers (p < 0.0001) for all three study drug. Ventilation rate did not influence VI. Regarding granulometry, higher percentages of T and A were found to be contained in droplets ranging from 0.5 to 5.0 micron following ultrasonic nebulization. Drug concentration modifications were independent of the nebulizer used but were influenced by drug type; overconcentrations of T and A were observed (delta C = +10.5 +/- 18.6 and +13.4 +/- 8.9%, respectively). On average, the ultrasonic devices achieved a higher EA% than the jet nebulizers (17.3 +/- 6.7 and 9.7 +/- 9.6%, respectively). This study highlights the significant variability in performance of different nebulizer types and empahsizes the importance of accurately testing nebulizers prior to clinical use so that the most efficacious nebulizer/drug combinations may be prescribed.

  18. Nebulized anticoagulants for acute lung injury - a systematic review of preclinical and clinical investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuinman, Pieter R; Dixon, Barry; Levi, Marcel; Juffermans, Nicole P; Schultz, Marcus J

    2012-12-12

    Data from interventional trials of systemic anticoagulation for sepsis inconsistently suggest beneficial effects in case of acute lung injury (ALI). Severe systemic bleeding due to anticoagulation may have offset the possible positive effects. Nebulization of anticoagulants may allow for improved local biological availability and as such may improve efficacy in the lungs and lower the risk of systemic bleeding complications. We performed a systematic review of preclinical studies and clinical trials investigating the efficacy and safety of nebulized anticoagulants in the setting of lung injury in animals and ALI in humans. The efficacy of nebulized activated protein C, antithrombin, heparin and danaparoid has been tested in diverse animal models of direct (for example, pneumonia-, intra-pulmonary lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-, and smoke inhalation-induced lung injury) and indirect lung injury (for example, intravenous LPS- and trauma-induced lung injury). Nebulized anticoagulants were found to have the potential to attenuate pulmonary coagulopathy and frequently also inflammation. Notably, nebulized danaparoid and heparin but not activated protein C and antithrombin, were found to have an effect on systemic coagulation. Clinical trials of nebulized anticoagulants are very limited. Nebulized heparin was found to improve survival of patients with smoke inhalation-induced ALI. In a trial of critically ill patients who needed mechanical ventilation for longer than two days, nebulized heparin was associated with a higher number of ventilator-free days. In line with results from preclinical studies, nebulization of heparin was found to have an effect on systemic coagulation, but without causing systemic bleedings. Local anticoagulant therapy through nebulization of anticoagulants attenuates pulmonary coagulopathy and frequently also inflammation in preclinical studies of lung injury. Recent human trials suggest nebulized heparin for ALI to be beneficial and safe, but data

  19. Effect of nebulized colistin sulphate and colistin sulphomethate on lung function in patients with cystic fibrosis : A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, E.M.; Le Brun, P.P.H.; Touw, D.J.; Frijlink, H.W.; Heijerman, H.G.M.

    Background: Pulmonary administration of colistin is one of the antimicrobial treatments used in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients chronically infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Dry powder inhalation of colistin may be an attractive alternative to nebulization of colistin. However, nebulized colistin

  20. MeshLab: 3D triangular meshes processing and editing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cignoni, P.; Callieri, M.; Corsini, M.; Dellepiane, M.; Ganovelli, F.; Ranzuglia, G.

    2017-09-01

    MeshLab processes and edits 3D triangular meshes. It includes tools for editing, cleaning, healing, inspecting, rendering, texturing and converting meshes, and offers features for processing raw data produced by 3D digitization tools and devices and for preparing models for 3D printing.

  1. Advanced numerical methods in mesh generation and mesh adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipnikov, Konstantine [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Danilov, A [MOSCOW, RUSSIA; Vassilevski, Y [MOSCOW, RUSSIA; Agonzal, A [UNIV OF LYON

    2010-01-01

    Numerical solution of partial differential equations requires appropriate meshes, efficient solvers and robust and reliable error estimates. Generation of high-quality meshes for complex engineering models is a non-trivial task. This task is made more difficult when the mesh has to be adapted to a problem solution. This article is focused on a synergistic approach to the mesh generation and mesh adaptation, where best properties of various mesh generation methods are combined to build efficiently simplicial meshes. First, the advancing front technique (AFT) is combined with the incremental Delaunay triangulation (DT) to build an initial mesh. Second, the metric-based mesh adaptation (MBA) method is employed to improve quality of the generated mesh and/or to adapt it to a problem solution. We demonstrate with numerical experiments that combination of all three methods is required for robust meshing of complex engineering models. The key to successful mesh generation is the high-quality of the triangles in the initial front. We use a black-box technique to improve surface meshes exported from an unattainable CAD system. The initial surface mesh is refined into a shape-regular triangulation which approximates the boundary with the same accuracy as the CAD mesh. The DT method adds robustness to the AFT. The resulting mesh is topologically correct but may contain a few slivers. The MBA uses seven local operations to modify the mesh topology. It improves significantly the mesh quality. The MBA method is also used to adapt the mesh to a problem solution to minimize computational resources required for solving the problem. The MBA has a solid theoretical background. In the first two experiments, we consider the convection-diffusion and elasticity problems. We demonstrate the optimal reduction rate of the discretization error on a sequence of adaptive strongly anisotropic meshes. The key element of the MBA method is construction of a tensor metric from hierarchical edge

  2. Surfactant nebulization versus instillation during high frequency ventilation in surfactant-deficient rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Peter H.; Heikamp, A; Bambang Oetomo, Sidarto

    1998-01-01

    Surfactant nebulization improves lung function at low alveolar doses of surfactant. However, efficiency of nebulization is low, and lung deposition seems to depend on lung aeration. High frequency ventilation (HFV) has been shown to improve lung aeration. We hypothesize that the combination of HFV

  3. History of aerosol therapy: liquid nebulization to MDIs to DPIs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Paula J

    2005-09-01

    Inhaled therapies have been used since ancient times and may have had their origins with the smoking of datura preparations in India 4,000 years ago. In the late 18th and in the 19th century, earthenware inhalers were popular for the inhalation of air drawn through infusions of plants and other ingredients. Atomizers and nebulizers were developed in the mid-1800s in France and were thought to be an outgrowth of the perfume industry as well as a response to the fashion of inhaling thermal waters at spas. Around the turn of the 20th century, combustible powders and cigarettes containing stramonium were popular for asthma and other lung complaints. Following the discovery of the utility of epinephrine for treating asthma, hand-bulb nebulizers were developed, as well as early compressor nebulizers. The marketing of the first pressurized metered-dose inhaler for epinephrine and isoproterenol, by Riker Laboratories in 1956, was a milestone in the development of inhaled drugs. There have been remarkable advances in the technology of devices and formulations for inhaled drugs in the past 50 years. These have been influenced greatly by scientific developments in several areas: theoretical modeling and indirect measures of lung deposition, particle sizing techniques and in vitro deposition studies, scintigraphic deposition studies, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and the 1987 Montreal Protocol, which banned chlorofluorocarbon propellants. We are now in an era of rapid technologic progress in inhaled drug delivery and applications of aerosol science, with the use of the aerosolized route for drugs for systemic therapy and for gene replacement therapy, use of aerosolized antimicrobials and immunosuppressants, and interest in specific targeting of inhaled drugs.

  4. Baby bottle steam sterilizers disinfect home nebulizers inoculated with bacterial respiratory pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towle, Dana; Callan, Deborah A; Farrel, Patricia A; Egan, Marie E; Murray, Thomas S

    2013-09-01

    Contaminated nebulizers are a potential source of bacterial infection but no single method is universally accepted for disinfection. We hypothesized that baby-bottle steam sterilizers effectively disinfect home nebulizers. Home nebulizers were inoculated with the common CF respiratory pathogens methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Burkholderia cepacia, Haemophilus influenzae, mucoid and non mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The nebulizers were swabbed for bacterial growth, treated with either the AVENT (Philips), the NUK Quick & Ready (Gerber) or DRY-POD (Camera Baby) baby bottle steam sterilizer and reswabbed for bacterial growth. All steam sterilizers were effective at disinfecting all home nebulizers. Viable bacteria were not recovered from any inoculated site after steam treatment, under any conditions tested. Steam treatment is an effective disinfection method. Additional studies are needed to confirm whether these results are applicable to the clinical setting. Copyright © 2012 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Magnetic core-shell nanoparticles for drug delivery by nebulization

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Verma, Navin Kumar

    2013-01-23

    AbstractBackgroundAerosolized therapeutics hold great potential for effective treatment of various diseases including lung cancer. In this context, there is an urgent need to develop novel nanocarriers suitable for drug delivery by nebulization. To address this need, we synthesized and characterized a biocompatible drug delivery vehicle following surface coating of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with a polymer poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). The polymeric shell of these engineered nanoparticles was loaded with a potential anti-cancer drug quercetin and their suitability for targeting lung cancer cells via nebulization was evaluated.ResultsAverage particle size of the developed MNPs and PLGA-MNPs as measured by electron microscopy was 9.6 and 53.2 nm, whereas their hydrodynamic swelling as determined using dynamic light scattering was 54.3 nm and 293.4 nm respectively. Utilizing a series of standardized biological tests incorporating a cell-based automated image acquisition and analysis procedure in combination with real-time impedance sensing, we confirmed that the developed MNP-based nanocarrier system was biocompatible, as no cytotoxicity was observed when up to 100 mug\\/ml PLGA-MNP was applied to the cultured human lung epithelial cells. Moreover, the PLGA-MNP preparation was well-tolerated in vivo in mice when applied intranasally as measured by glutathione and IL-6 secretion assays after 1, 4, or 7 days post-treatment. To imitate aerosol formation for drug delivery to the lungs, we applied quercitin loaded PLGA-MNPs to the human lung carcinoma cell line A549 following a single round of nebulization. The drug-loaded PLGA-MNPs significantly reduced the number of viable A549 cells, which was comparable when applied either by nebulization or by direct pipetting.ConclusionWe have developed a magnetic core-shell nanoparticle-based nanocarrier system and evaluated the feasibility of its drug delivery capability via aerosol administration. This study has

  6. New Form of Hypertonic Solution for Nebulization Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga I. Simonova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucolytic, expectorative and antitussive drugs are traditionally used in acute or chronic respiratory episodes affected by acute respiratory infections. Today, preference is given to drugs in a form of solutions for nebulization therapy. The article presents data on the new dosage form of 7% inhalation hypertonic solution in combination with hyaluronic acid used in mucostasis therapy for chronic respiratory diseases. The information on the properties and the favorable effect of hyaluronic acid is provided. We discuss the evidence base of inhalation of the hypertonic solution in combination with hyaluronic acid in cystic fibrosis.

  7. A retrospective analysis of nebulized versus intravenous fentanyl for renal colic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamoglu, Melih; Aygun, Ali; Bekar, Omer; Erdem, Erkan; Cicek, Mustafa; Tatli, Ozgur; Karaca, Yunus; Sahin, Aynur; Turkmen, Suha; Turedi, Suleyman

    2017-05-01

    To assess the effectiveness of nebulized fentanyl used for analgesia in renal colic. This research was planned as a randomized, blinded study in which prospectively collected data were analyzed retrospectively to compare nebulized and intravenous (iv) fentanyl therapies. Patients with renal colic with 'moderate' or worse pain on a four-point verbal pain score (VPS) or with pain of 20mm or above on a 100-mm visual analogue score (VAS) at time of presentation were randomized into iv fentanyl (n=62) or nebulized fentanyl (n=53) study groups. Decreases in VAS and VPS scores at 15 and 30min compared to baseline, rescue analgesia requirements and side-effects between the groups were compared. Both iv fentanyl and nebulized fentanyl provided effective analgesia in renal colic patients at the end of 30min. However, iv fentanyl provided more rapid and more effective analgesia than nebulized fentanyl. Patients receiving iv fentanyl had lower rescue analgesia requirements than those receiving nebulized fentanyl (37.1% vs 54.7%), although the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.058). In addition, side-effects were more common in the iv fentanyl group compared to the nebulized fentanyl group (22.1% vs 9.4%), although the difference was also not significant (p=0.058). Nebulized fentanyl provides effective analgesia in patients with renal colic. However, iv fentanyl exhibits more rapid and more powerful analgesic effects than nebulized fentanyl. Nonetheless, due to its ease of use and few potential risks and side-effects the nebulized form can be used as an alternative in renal colic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 50 CFR 300.110 - Mesh size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... direction perpendicular to the plane of the net. (iii) The gauge may be inserted into the mesh opening... the resistance of the mesh. (3) Selection of meshes to be measured. (i) Meshes to be measured will...

  9. Topical airway anesthesia for awake fiberoptic intubation: Comparison between airway nerve blocks and nebulized lignocaine by ultrasonic nebulizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Overview: Awake fiberoptic bronchoscope (FOB guided intubation is the gold standard of airway management in patients with cervical spine injury. It is essential to sufficiently anesthetize the upper airway before the performance of awake FOB guided intubation in order to ensure patient comfort and cooperation. This randomized controlled study was performed to compare two methods of airway anesthesia, namely ultrasonic nebulization of local anesthetic and performance of airway blocks. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 adult patients with cervical spine injury were randomly allocated into two groups. Group L received airway anesthesia through ultrasonic nebulization of 10 ml of 4% lignocaine and Group NB received airway blocks (bilateral superior laryngeal and transtracheal recurrent laryngeal each with 2 ml of 2% lignocaine and viscous lignocaine gargles. FOB guided orotracheal intubation was then performed. Hemodynamic variables at baseline and during the procedure, patient recall, vocal cord visibility, ease of intubation, coughing/gagging episodes, and signs of lignocaine toxicity were noted. Results: The observations did not reveal any significant differences in demographics or hemodynamic parameters at any time during the study. However, the time taken for intubation was significantly lower in Group NB as compared with the Group L. Group L had an increased number of coughing/gagging episodes as compared with Group NB. Vocal cord visibility and ease of intubation were better in patients who received airway blocks and hence the amount of supplemental lignocaine used was less in this group. Overall patient comfort was better in Group NB with fewer incidences of unpleasant recalls as compared with Group L. Conclusion: Upper airway blocks provide better quality of anesthesia than lignocaine nebulization as assessed by patient recall of procedure, coughing/gagging episodes, ease of intubation, vocal cord visibility, and time taken to intubate.

  10. Parallel Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diachin, L; Hornung, R; Plassmann, P; WIssink, A

    2005-03-04

    As large-scale, parallel computers have become more widely available and numerical models and algorithms have advanced, the range of physical phenomena that can be simulated has expanded dramatically. Many important science and engineering problems exhibit solutions with localized behavior where highly-detailed salient features or large gradients appear in certain regions which are separated by much larger regions where the solution is smooth. Examples include chemically-reacting flows with radiative heat transfer, high Reynolds number flows interacting with solid objects, and combustion problems where the flame front is essentially a two-dimensional sheet occupying a small part of a three-dimensional domain. Modeling such problems numerically requires approximating the governing partial differential equations on a discrete domain, or grid. Grid spacing is an important factor in determining the accuracy and cost of a computation. A fine grid may be needed to resolve key local features while a much coarser grid may suffice elsewhere. Employing a fine grid everywhere may be inefficient at best and, at worst, may make an adequately resolved simulation impractical. Moreover, the location and resolution of fine grid required for an accurate solution is a dynamic property of a problem's transient features and may not be known a priori. Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is a technique that can be used with both structured and unstructured meshes to adjust local grid spacing dynamically to capture solution features with an appropriate degree of resolution. Thus, computational resources can be focused where and when they are needed most to efficiently achieve an accurate solution without incurring the cost of a globally-fine grid. Figure 1.1 shows two example computations using AMR; on the left is a structured mesh calculation of a impulsively-sheared contact surface and on the right is the fuselage and volume discretization of an RAH-66 Comanche helicopter [35]. Note the

  11. A Novel Acoustomicrofluidic Nebulization Technique Yielding New Crystallization Morphologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Heba; Lee, Lillian; Darmanin, Connie; Yeo, Leslie Y

    2017-12-04

    A novel acoustic microfluidic nebulization platform is demonstrated, which, due to its unique ability to access intermediate evaporation rate regimes-significantly faster than that in slow solvent evaporation but considerably below that achieved in spray drying, is capable of producing novel crystal morphologies that have yet to be reported in both model inorganic and organic systems. In addition, the potential for simultaneously encapsulating single crystals within a biodegradable polymeric coating in a single simultaneous step together with the crystallization process as the solvent evaporates during nebulization is briefly shown. The platform not only has the potential to be highly scalable by employing a large number of these low-cost miniature devices in parallel to achieve industrially relevant particle production rates, but could also be advantageous over conventional spray drying in terms of energy utilization, given the tremendous efficiency associated with the high-frequency ultrasonic microdevice as well as its ambient temperature operation. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Subcutaneous epinephrine vs. nebulized metaproterenol in acute asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elenbaas, R M; Frost, G L; Robinson, W A; Collier, R E; McNabney, W K; Ryan, J L; Singsank, M J

    1985-01-01

    The efficacy and side effects of subcutaneous epinephrine (E) and aerosolized metaproterenol (M) were compared in acute asthma. Adults randomly received E 0.3 mg sub-Q q20min (max 0.9 mg; n = 20) or M 15 mg in 3.0 ml NaCl 0.9% nebulized over 10 minutes (n = 20) in a double-blind fashion. Vital signs and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were measured every ten minutes for one hour. The two groups were comparable in age, weight, baseline theophylline concentration, PEFR, heart rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. PEFR improved in both groups within ten minutes (p less than 0.01; analysis of variance). There was no difference in PEFR between the groups over the one-hour observation period following treatment. Heart rate decreased following treatment in M patients (p less than 0.05), but remained unchanged in E patients. Systolic blood pressure rose slightly in E patients (p less than 0.01), but remained unchanged in M patients. Subcutaneous E and nebulized M are equally effective as initial therapy in acute asthma.

  13. Mesh Algorithms for PDE with Sieve I: Mesh Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew G. Knepley

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new programming framework, called Sieve, to support parallel numerical partial differential equation(s (PDE algorithms operating over distributed meshes. We have also developed a reference implementation of Sieve in C++ as a library of generic algorithms operating on distributed containers conforming to the Sieve interface. Sieve makes instances of the incidence relation, or arrows, the conceptual first-class objects represented in the containers. Further, generic algorithms acting on this arrow container are systematically used to provide natural geometric operations on the topology and also, through duality, on the data. Finally, coverings and duality are used to encode not only individual meshes, but all types of hierarchies underlying PDE data structures, including multigrid and mesh partitions. In order to demonstrate the usefulness of the framework, we show how the mesh partition data can be represented and manipulated using the same fundamental mechanisms used to represent meshes. We present the complete description of an algorithm to encode a mesh partition and then distribute a mesh, which is independent of the mesh dimension, element shape, or embedding. Moreover, data associated with the mesh can be similarly distributed with exactly the same algorithm. The use of a high level of abstraction within the Sieve leads to several benefits in terms of code reuse, simplicity, and extensibility. We discuss these benefits and compare our approach to other existing mesh libraries.

  14. Costs and effectiveness of spacer versus nebulizer in young children with moderate and severe acute asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leversha, A M; Campanella, S G; Aickin, R P; Asher, M I

    2000-04-01

    To compare the costs and effectiveness of albuterol by metered dose inhaler (MDI) and spacer versus nebulizer in young children with moderate and severe acute asthma. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in an emergency department at a children's hospital. The participants were children 1 to 4 years of age with moderate to severe acute asthma. Patients assigned to the spacer group received albuterol (600 microg) by MDI by spacer (AeroChamber) followed by placebo by nebulizer (n = 30). The nebulizer group received placebo MDI by spacer followed by 2.5 mg albuterol by nebulizer (n = 30). Treatments were repeated at 20-minute intervals until the patient was judged to need no further doses of bronchodilator, or a total of 6 treatments. Clinical score, heart rate, respiratory rate, auscultatory findings, and oxygen saturation were recorded at baseline, after each treatment, and 60 minutes after the last treatment. Baseline characteristics and asthma severity were similar for the treatment groups. The spacer was as effective as the nebulizer for clinical score, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation but produced a greater reduction in wheezing (P =.03). Heart rate increased to a greater degree in the nebulizer group (11.0/min vs 0.17/min for spacer, P vs 60% in the nebulizer group, P =.04, adjusted for sex). No differences were seen in rates of tremor or hyperactivity. The mean cost of each emergency department presentation was NZ$825 for the spacer group and NZ$1282 for the nebulizer group (P =.03); 86% of children and 85% of parents preferred the spacer. The MDI and spacer combination was a cost-effective alternative to a nebulizer in the delivery of albuterol to young children with moderate and severe acute asthma.

  15. Investigation of Factors Affecting Aerodynamic Performance of Nebulized Nanoemulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Hosein; Abbasi, Shayan; Amini, Mohammad Ali; Amani, Amir

    2016-01-01

    This work aimed to prepare a nanoemulsion preparation containing budesonide and assess its aerodynamic behavior in comparison with suspension of budesonide. In-vitro aerodynamic performance of the corresponding micellar solution (ie. nanoemulsion preparation without oil) was investigated too. Nanoemulsions of almond oil containing budesonide, as a hydrophobic model drug molecule, were prepared and optimized. Then, the effect of variation of surfactant/co-surfactant concentration on the aerodynamic properties of the nebulized aerosol was studied. The results indicated that the most physically stable formulation makes the smallest aerodynamic size. The concentration of co-surfactant was also shown to be critical in determination of aerodynamic size. Furthermore, the optimized sample, with 3% w/w almond oil, 20% w/w Tween 80+Span 80 and 2% w/w ethanol showed a smaller MMAD in comparison with the commercially available suspension and the micellar solution. PMID:28243265

  16. Investigation of Factors Affecting Aerodynamic Performance of Nebulized Nanoemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Hosein; Abbasi, Shayan; Amini, Mohammad Ali; Amani, Amir

    2016-01-01

    This work aimed to prepare a nanoemulsion preparation containing budesonide and assess its aerodynamic behavior in comparison with suspension of budesonide. In-vitro aerodynamic performance of the corresponding micellar solution (ie. nanoemulsion preparation without oil) was investigated too. Nanoemulsions of almond oil containing budesonide, as a hydrophobic model drug molecule, were prepared and optimized. Then, the effect of variation of surfactant/co-surfactant concentration on the aerodynamic properties of the nebulized aerosol was studied. The results indicated that the most physically stable formulation makes the smallest aerodynamic size. The concentration of co-surfactant was also shown to be critical in determination of aerodynamic size. Furthermore, the optimized sample, with 3% w/w almond oil, 20% w/w Tween 80+Span 80 and 2% w/w ethanol showed a smaller MMAD in comparison with the commercially available suspension and the micellar solution.

  17. An Adaptive Mesh Algorithm: Mesh Structure and Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scannapieco, Anthony J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-21

    The purpose of Adaptive Mesh Refinement is to minimize spatial errors over the computational space not to minimize the number of computational elements. The additional result of the technique is that it may reduce the number of computational elements needed to retain a given level of spatial accuracy. Adaptive mesh refinement is a computational technique used to dynamically select, over a region of space, a set of computational elements designed to minimize spatial error in the computational model of a physical process. The fundamental idea is to increase the mesh resolution in regions where the physical variables are represented by a broad spectrum of modes in k-space, hence increasing the effective global spectral coverage of those physical variables. In addition, the selection of the spatially distributed elements is done dynamically by cyclically adjusting the mesh to follow the spectral evolution of the system. Over the years three types of AMR schemes have evolved; block, patch and locally refined AMR. In block and patch AMR logical blocks of various grid sizes are overlaid to span the physical space of interest, whereas in locally refined AMR no logical blocks are employed but locally nested mesh levels are used to span the physical space. The distinction between block and patch AMR is that in block AMR the original blocks refine and coarsen entirely in time, whereas in patch AMR the patches change location and zone size with time. The type of AMR described herein is a locally refi ned AMR. In the algorithm described, at any point in physical space only one zone exists at whatever level of mesh that is appropriate for that physical location. The dynamic creation of a locally refi ned computational mesh is made practical by a judicious selection of mesh rules. With these rules the mesh is evolved via a mesh potential designed to concentrate the nest mesh in regions where the physics is modally dense, and coarsen zones in regions where the physics is modally

  18. Surface meshing with curvature convergence

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huibin

    2014-06-01

    Surface meshing plays a fundamental role in graphics and visualization. Many geometric processing tasks involve solving geometric PDEs on meshes. The numerical stability, convergence rates and approximation errors are largely determined by the mesh qualities. In practice, Delaunay refinement algorithms offer satisfactory solutions to high quality mesh generations. The theoretical proofs for volume based and surface based Delaunay refinement algorithms have been established, but those for conformal parameterization based ones remain wide open. This work focuses on the curvature measure convergence for the conformal parameterization based Delaunay refinement algorithms. Given a metric surface, the proposed approach triangulates its conformal uniformization domain by the planar Delaunay refinement algorithms, and produces a high quality mesh. We give explicit estimates for the Hausdorff distance, the normal deviation, and the differences in curvature measures between the surface and the mesh. In contrast to the conventional results based on volumetric Delaunay refinement, our stronger estimates are independent of the mesh structure and directly guarantee the convergence of curvature measures. Meanwhile, our result on Gaussian curvature measure is intrinsic to the Riemannian metric and independent of the embedding. In practice, our meshing algorithm is much easier to implement and much more efficient. The experimental results verified our theoretical results and demonstrated the efficiency of the meshing algorithm. © 2014 IEEE.

  19. Terbutaline nebulization and epinephrine injection in treating acute asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y Z; Hsieh, K H; Chang, L F; Chu, C Y

    1996-05-01

    Ninety children with acute asthma, equally divided into two study groups, were studied to compare the efficacy and safety of nebulized terbutaline with injected epinephrine in the treatment of acute exacerbation. The terbutaline group received 2 ml (5,0 mg) terbutaline solution diluted with 2 ml 0.9% saline for inhalation over 10 minutes; the epinephrine group received 0.01 ml/kg of 1:1000 epinephrine (maximum 0,3 ml) through subcutaneous injection at deltoid area. Spirometry, pulse oximetry, and clinical severity scoring system were evaluated at baseline and again 15 minutes after treatment. The baseline data of the two groups were not significantly different. The clinical severity score and spirometry of both groups were significantly improved after treatment. Compared with the terbutaline group, the epinephrine group had better mean oxygen saturation (SaO2; p epinephrine treatment was more effective in the improvement of FEV1, FEF25-75%, and oxygen saturation (SaO2) (p = 0.011, 0.012, and 0.006, respectively). A Significantly higher rate of adverse effects occurred in patients given epinephrine (47% vs 11%, p = 0.0002); these included pallor, tremor, dizziness, headache, palpitation, soreness of legs, numbness of extremities, cold sweating, general weakness and nausea. Considering the general trend to noninvasive therapy in children and the more frequent adverse effects after epinephrine injection, such nebulized beta-2 agonists as terbutaline appear preferable for initial therapy of acute asthma if oxygen is supplemented to prevent possible hypoxemia. However, parenteral epinephrine still is worth trying, particularly in any severe, life-threatening attack.

  20. Influence of nebulizer design and aerosol impact bead on analytical sensitivities of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes, Eduardo; Bosque, Jesus [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Chemistry, University of Alicante, P.O. Box 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Mermet, Jean Michel [Spectroscopy Forever, 01390 Tramoyes (France); Todoli, Jose Luis, E-mail: jose.todoli@ua.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Chemistry, University of Alicante, P.O. Box 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    The characteristics of the aerosols generated by pneumatic concentric nebulizers as well as sensitivities were studied in ICP-MS with a total of 26 nebulizers: 17 of the A-type, 6 of the C-type, and 3 of the K-type. Although of the same design, discrepancies in sensitivity were observed among the A1-30 type nebulizers. Free delivery rate, relation between the median of the volume drop size distribution, D{sub 50}, and the capillary i.d., effect of the nebulizer gas exit cross sectional area on D{sub 50}, energy transfer efficiency from the gas to the liquid stream and spatial homogeneity within the aerosol cones were studied. For a given nebulizer design, the gas exit cross-sectional area has shown to critically influence the aerosol characteristics. The aerosol generation mechanism has been explored and it has been concluded that, for A-type nebulizers the nebulization is more efficient than for C and K-type ones. The spray chamber design has also a marked effect on the results according to the particular nebulizer used. It has been observed that sample capillary was not perfectly centered with regard to the gas exit bore for several nebulizers. In order to minimize the problems associated with this bad alignment (i.e., different sensitivity depending on the nebulizer), spray chambers equipped with impact beads may be used, but to the detriment of the sensitivity.

  1. Jet and ultrasonic nebulization of single chain urokinase plasminogen activator (scu-PA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Anna-Marie; Bendstrup, E; Jensen, J.I.

    2000-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that the deposition of intra-alveolar fibrin may play a central role in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Our aim was to study whether the indigenous fibrinolytic agent (urokinase) normally present in the alveoli can be administered...... locally by nebulization in a recombinant zymogen form as single chain urokinase plasminogen activator (scu-PA). We aimed to characterize the particle size distribution, drug output, and enzymatic activity of scu-PA after nebulization with a Ventstream jet nebulizer (Medic-Aid, Bognor Regis, UK) and a Syst......'AM DP-100 ultrasonic nebulizer (Pulmolink, Kent, UK). The particle size distribution was measured with a laser diffraction method and the drug output was determined by collection on filters. The amount of protein on the filters was determined with the Lowry method, and the enzymatic activity after...

  2. Nebulized Lidocaine to Attenuate the Cardiovascular Response to Direct Laryngoscopy and Tracheal Intubation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bock, Judith

    1996-01-01

    This study described the use of 120 mg nebulized lidocaine to attenuate the cardiovascular response to direct laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation in ASA I and ASA II patients undergoing various surgical procedures...

  3. Life-threatening cardiac arrhythmia after a single dose of nebulized epinephrine in pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toaimah, Fatihi Hassan; Al-Ansari, Khalid

    2011-12-01

    Cardiac adverse effects are not commonly reported complications of nebulized epinephrine therapy. We present a case of critical cardiac arrhythmia developed at the Pediatric Emergency Department in an otherwise healthy infant after receiving 3 mg of L-epinephrine (1:1000) nebulization over a 90 min period for a diagnosis of bronchiolitis. Unstable ventricular tachycardia was found after the nebulization therapy that required chemical cardioversion. Frequent premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) were found initially following the cardiac insult that was controlled with oral amiodarone, and disappeared during follow-up. Although epinephrine inhalation is generally safe, adverse life-threatening events could be unpredictable and may evolve even after a single dose of nebulized epinephrine.

  4. Nebulized anticoagulants for acute lung injury - a systematic review of preclinical and clinical investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinman, Pieter R.; Dixon, Barry; Levi, Marcel; Juffermans, Nicole P.; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2012-01-01

    Data from interventional trials of systemic anticoagulation for sepsis inconsistently suggest beneficial effects in case of acute lung injury (ALI). Severe systemic bleeding due to anticoagulation may have offset the possible positive effects. Nebulization of anticoagulants may allow for improved

  5. [Nebulized hypertonic saline and acute viral bronchiolitis in infants: current aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvaget, E; David, M; Bresson, V; Retornaz, K; Bosdure, E; Dubus, J-C

    2012-06-01

    Acute viral bronchiolitis affects infants, is frequent, and can be severe. Its treatment is only based on symptoms. Hypertonic saline (HS) may act favorably in this situation by fighting virus-induced dehydration of the airway liquid surface. Because of an osmotic action, HS attracts the water from the epithelial cells and improves mucociliary clearance. Five double-blind placebo-controlled studies concerning hospitalized infants with acute viral bronchiolitis showed that repeated nebulizations of 3% HS induce a 20% improvement in the clinical severity score and reduced the hospital length of stay by 24h. Tolerance is excellent. On the other hand, a few questions remain unresolved: what is the optimal salt concentration? What is the recommended nebulizer? What is the best frequency for nebulizer use? Can nebulized HS be used at home? What are the results with systematic physiotherapy when HS is used? Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of the Maxair Autohaler to wet nebulizer in patients with acute asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, R; Sellers, J; Greene, S; Flaster, E; Colice, G

    1998-09-01

    Patients with acute asthma often have difficulty using a conventional metered-dose inhaler. The Maxair Autohaler (3M Pharmaceuticals; St. Paul, MN) is a hand-held breath-actuated device developed to help patients coordinate drug administration. The study objective is to compare the efficacy of the Autohaler with inhaled beta-agonist administered by wet nebulizer in treating acute asthma exacerbations. Parallel, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Emergency department (ED) of a university-affiliated hospital. Patients aged 18 to 55 years presenting to the ED with acute asthma and an FEV1 40 to 70% on hospital arrival. Patients were given either six puffs of the Maxair Autohaler (1,200 microg pirbuterol) plus saline solution by nebulizer (active Autohaler group) or six puffs placebo by Autohaler plus 2,500 microg albuterol via nebulizer (active nebulizer group). Treatment was repeated at 30 and 60 min, with clinical evaluation performed before each treatment and again at 120 min. At 120 min, the protocol was completed. Twenty-four patients were enrolled, with 5 excluded because of protocol violations. Baseline FEV1 percent predicted values for the active Autohaler group were 53% vs 51% for the active nebulizer group (p=not significant [NS]). At time 120 min, values were 66% for Autohaler and 64% for nebulizer (p=NS). The average time to administer Autohaler was 2.9 min, vs 9.1 min for nebulizer. No patient was excluded because of the inability to use the Autohaler device adequately. In patients with moderate asthma exacerbations, similar improvements in pulmonary function are obtained when beta-agonists are given by either the Maxair Autohaler or a wet nebulizer device.

  7. A FUNDAMENTAL STUDY OF NEBULIZATION IN THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC SINUSITIS

    OpenAIRE

    和久田, 幸之助

    1996-01-01

    The clinical use of various aerosol production apparatus for chronic sinusitis was examined. The results are summarized as follows. 1) In aerosol inhalation therapy for chrohic sinusitis the most essential point is that the natural ostia are sufficiently open. 2) Nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses are part of a single organ. Therefore the jet nebulizer and the ultrasonic nebulizer for nasal cavity were also useful for paranasal sinuses when the middle meatus lesions were reversible. 3) The ...

  8. Epinephrine Improves the Efficacy of Nebulized Hypertonic Saline in Moderate Bronchiolitis: A Randomised Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Flores-González, J.; Matamala-Morillo, Miguel A; Patricia Rodríguez-Campoy; Juan J Pérez-Guerrero; Belén Serrano-Moyano; Paloma Comino-Vazquez; Encarnación Palma-Zambrano; Rocio Bulo-Concellón; Vanessa Santos-Sánchez; Lechuga-Sancho, Alfonso M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims There is no evidence that the epinephrine-3% hypertonic saline combination is more effective than 3% hypertonic saline alone for treating infants hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis. We evaluated the efficacy of nebulized epinephrine in 3% hypertonic saline. Patients and Methods We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 208 infants hospitalized with acute moderate bronchiolitis. Infants were randomly assigned to receive nebulized 3% hy...

  9. Computerized acoustic assessment of treatment efficacy of nebulized epinephrine and albuterol in RSV bronchiolitis

    OpenAIRE

    Talmon Gil; Tov Naveh; Shoval Shay; Elias Nael; Beck Raphael; Godfrey Simon; Bentur Lea

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Aim We evaluated the use of computerized quantification of wheezing and crackles compared to a clinical score in assessing the effect of inhaled albuterol or inhaled epinephrine in infants with RSV bronchiolitis. Methods Computerized lung sounds analysis with quantification of wheezing and crackles and a clinical score were used during a double blind, randomized, controlled nebulized treatment pilot study. Infants were randomized to receive a single dose of 1 mgr nebulized l-epinephr...

  10. Efficacy of nebulized epinephrine versus salbutamol in hospitalized infants with bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, P; Araníbar, H; Castro, E; Sánchez, I

    2001-04-01

    We enrolled 30 infants (median age 3 months, range 1-12 months), hospitalized for bronchiolitis in a randomized double-blind trial, to examine the efficacy and safety of nebulized epinephrine compared to salbutamol. Once admitted, patients were treated with either nebulized 0.5 mg of an 0.1% epinephrine solution (0.5 mL in 3.5 mL normal saline (NS)) or 2.5 mg nebulized salbutamol (0.5 mL in 3.5 mL NS). They were evaluated daily before and after nebulization until discharge. The outcome measures used were: baseline clinical score (based on respiratory rate, subcostal retraction, presence of wheezing, and O2 requirement), change in clinical O2 score after nebulization, duration of O2 therapy, and duration of hospitalization. A significant improvement in the clinical score was noted on the first day of hospitalization in subjects receiving epinephrine (P = 0.025); that change was not seen in those on salbutamol (P = 0.6). Nebulized epinephrine decreased the baseline clinical score faster than salbutamol (P = 0.02), though on the fourth study day there was no significant difference between the two scores. On the fourth and fifth days of study there were more patients hospitalized in the salbutamol group than in the epinephrine group (P = 0.03 vs. P = 0.025). No adverse effects were associated with nebulized therapy. We conclude that nebulized epinephrine is a more effective agent than salbutamol in the initial treatment of bronchiolitis and is equally safe. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Lactic acidosis and diastolic hypotension after intermittent albuterol nebulization in a pediatric patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tehila A. Saadia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of 13-year-old female with intermittent asthma who developed lactic acidosis and diastolic hypotension after receiving intermittent albuterol nebulizer treatment. She presented to the emergency department (ED with sudden onset of shortness of breath and chest pain. She received two albuterol nebulizer treatments at home without symptomatic relief. She was treated in the ED with intermittent albuterol nebulization for a total of 22.5 mg over the next 5 hours. A decrease in diastolic blood pressure from 60 mmHg to 40 mmHg was noted after the treatment. Blood lactate level was 5.9 mmol/L. She recovered from it and was discharged to home but she had recurrence of shortness of breath and presented to the ED two days later. She was treated with albuterol nebulization for a total of 17.5 mg over the next two and half hours and developed diastolic hypotension again, as low as 30 mm Hg. After discontinuation of albuterol nebulization, her BP normalized. Cardiopulmonary and metabolic side effects of continuous albuterol therapy have been reported in the recent medical literature. Our patient, however, developed these adverse effects on intermittent albuterol nebulizer treatment. It is important for the pediatrician to recognize the adverse effects of β2-agonist therapy to avoid carrying out extensive workup for hypotension and hyperlactatemia prolonging hospital stay.

  12. Quadrilateral finite element mesh coarsening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staten, Matthew L; Dewey, Mark W; Benzley, Steven E

    2012-10-16

    Techniques for coarsening a quadrilateral mesh are described. These techniques include identifying a coarsening region within the quadrilateral mesh to be coarsened. Quadrilateral elements along a path through the coarsening region are removed. Node pairs along opposite sides of the path are identified. The node pairs along the path are then merged to collapse the path.

  13. Vibrating membrane devices deliver aerosols more efficient than standard devices: a study in a neonatal upper airway model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemersma, Sybrich; Minocchieri, Stefan; van Lingen, Richard A; Nelle, Mathias; Devadason, Sunalene G

    2013-10-01

    Aerosol therapy in preterm infants is challenging, as a very small proportion of the drug deposits in the lungs. Our aim was to compare efficiency of standard devices with newer, more efficient aerosol delivery devices. Using salbutamol as a drug marker, we studied two prototypes of the investigational eFlow(®) nebulizer for babies (PARI Pharma GmbH), a jet nebulizer (Intersurgical(®) Cirrus(®)), and a pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI; GSK) with a detergent-coated holding chamber (AeroChamber(®) MV) in the premature infant nose throat-model (PrINT-model) of a 32-week preterm infant (1,750 g). A filter or an impactor was placed below the infant model's "trachea" to capture the drug dose or particle size, respectively, that would have been deposited in the lung. Lung dose (percentage of nominal dose) was 1.5%, 6.8%, and 18.0-20.6% for the jet nebulizer, pMDI-holding chamber, and investigational eFlow nebulizers, respectively (pmodel significantly lowered lung dose (pmodel and device residue (pmodel for infant aerosol inhalation, we confirmed low lung dose using jet nebulizers and pMDI-holding chambers, whereas newer, more specialized vibrating membrane devices, designed specifically for use in preterm infants, deliver up to 20 times more drug to the infant's lung.

  14. Mesh surfaces for reflector applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Frank

    1989-01-01

    The topics of mesh reflectors, methods of analysis, measurements, problems of current interest, and future research, are those which should be addressed in assessing the current state of metallic mesh technology for spaceborne reflector antennas. The study of the properties of the conducting mesh material is discussed. To calculate the radiation patterns of antennas with conducting mesh reflectors, the electromagnetic properties of the mesh material must be integrated into an appropriate reflector antenna computer code. Such a code would take into account such factors as the curvature of the reflector surface, the radiation pattern(s) of the feed(s), etc. Many organizations have developed their own codes for these calculations. An excellent example of such a code is the one developed by Rahmat-Samii and Lee.

  15. Efficacy and cost comparisons of bronchodilatator administration between metered dose inhalers with disposable spacers and nebulizers for acute asthma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuper, Sunil; Chandra, Alpana; Ahmed, Aziz; Bista, Sabin; Moghekar, Ajit; Verma, Rajesh; Chong, Cynthia; Shim, Chang; Cohen, Hillel; Choksi, Sonia

    2011-03-01

    Despite demonstration of equivalent efficacy of beta agonist delivery using a metered dose inhaler (MDI) with spacer vs. nebulizer in asthma patients, use of a nebulizer remains standard practice. We hypothesize that beta agonist delivery with a MDI/disposable spacer combination is an effective and low-cost alternative to nebulizer delivery for acute asthma in an inner-city population. This study was a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial with 60 acute asthma adult patients in two inner-city emergency departments. Subjects (n = 60) received albuterol with either a MDI/spacer combination or nebulizer. The spacer group (n = 29) received albuterol by MDI/spacer followed by placebo nebulization. The nebulizer group (n = 29) received placebo by MDI/spacer followed by albuterol nebulization. Peak flows, symptom scores, and need for rescue bronchodilatator were monitored. Median values were compared with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Patients in the two randomized groups had similar baseline characteristics. The severity of asthma exacerbation, median peak flows, and symptom scores were not significantly different between the two groups. The median (interquartile range) improvement in peak flow was 120 (75-180) L/min vs. 120 (80-155) L/min in the spacer and nebulizer groups, respectively (p = 0.56). The median improvement in the symptom score was 7 (5-9) vs. 7 (4-9) in the spacer and nebulizer groups, respectively (p = 0.78). The median cost of treatment per patient was $10.11 ($10.03-$10.28) vs. $18.26 ($9.88-$22.45) in the spacer and nebulizer groups, respectively (p nebulizer to MDI/spacer beta agonist delivery for emergency management of acute asthma in the inner-city adult population. MDI/spacer may be a more economical alternative to nebulizer delivery. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Pharmacokinetics of nebulized and oral procaterol in asthmatic and non-asthmatic subjects in relation to doping analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Nanna; Backer, Vibeke; Rzeppa, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate pharmacokinetics of procaterol in asthmatics and non-asthmatics after nebulized and oral administration in relation to doping. Ten asthmatic and ten non-asthmatic subjects underwent two pharmacokinetic trials. At first trial, 4 μg procaterol was...... after nebulized administration. For doping control purposes, our observations indicate that it is possible to differentiate therapeutic nebulized administration of procaterol from proh ib ited use of oral procaterol....

  17. Monitoring vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiryaki, B. [Hacettepe University (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2003-12-01

    The paper examines the prediction and optimisation of machine vibrations in longwall shearers. Underground studies were carried out at the Middle Anatolian Lignite Mine, between 1993 and 1997. Several shearer drums with different pick lacing arrangements were designed and tested on double-ended ranging longwall shearers employed at the mine. A computer program called the Vibration Analysis Program (VAP) was developed for analysing machine vibrations in longwall shearers. Shearer drums that were tested underground, as well as some provided by leading manufacturers, were analyzed using these programs. The results of the experiments and computer analyses are given in the article. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Which Nebulizer Position Should Be Avoided? An Extended Study of Aerosol Delivery and Ventilator Performance during Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yun; Dai, Bing; Hu, Chun-Xiang; Su, Jia; Tan, Wei; Zhao, Hong-Wen; Kang, Jian

    2017-12-06

    Research on the effect of nebulizer location on aerosol delivery during noninvasive ventilation has reached inconsistent conclusions. To investigate the effects of nebulizer position on aerosol delivery efficiency and ventilator performance during noninvasive ventilation. The Active Servo Lung 5000 respiratory simulation system (ASL5000) was used to simulate a COPD patient. The noninvasive ventilator was set to the spontaneous breathing mode. Six nebulizer positions, 2 exhalation valve types (single-arch exhalation port and whisper swivel), 4 combinations of inspiratory and expiratory pressure, and 2 respiratory rates were used. Significant differences between nebulizer positions existed in aerosol delivery (p ventilator outlet. When the nebulizer was located between the exhalation valve and the simulated lung, increased inspiratory pressure increased and increased expiratory pressure decreased delivery efficiency (both p ventilator, no obvious trend was observed. Compared to baseline, nebulization lowered the air leakage volume displayed on the ventilator. There were no differences in ventilator performance between different nebulizer positions. The closer the nebulizer was to the exhalation valves or ventilator, the lower the aerosol delivery efficiency. Nebulizer position had little clinically significant effect on ventilator performance. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Nebulized hypertonic saline for bronchiolitis: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Susan; Baker, Chris; Lang, Michael E; Schrager, Sheree M; Liley, Fasha F; Papa, Carmel; Mira, Valerie; Balkian, Ara; Mason, Wilbert H

    2014-07-01

    Bronchiolitis is one of the most common and costly respiratory diseases in infants and young children. Previous studies have shown a potential benefit of nebulized hypertonic saline; however, its effect in the emergency department (ED) setting is unclear. To compare the effect of nebulized 3% hypertonic saline vs 0.9% normal saline on admission rate and length of stay in infants with bronchiolitis. We conducted a double-blind, randomized clinical trial during 3 consecutive bronchiolitis seasons from March 1, 2008, through April 30, 2011. We recruited a convenience sample of patients younger than 24 months with a primary diagnosis of viral bronchiolitis presenting to the ED of 2 urban free-standing tertiary children's hospitals. We excluded patients who were premature (gestational age, saline [HS group]) or 0.9% sodium chloride (normal saline [NS group]) inhaled as many as 3 times in the ED. Those admitted received the assigned medication every 8 hours until discharge. All treatment solutions were premedicated with albuterol sulfate. Hospital admission rate, length of stay for admitted patients, and Respiratory Distress Assessment Instrument score. A total of 197 patients were enrolled in the NS group and 211 in the HS group. Admission rate in the 3% HS group was 28.9% compared with 42.6% in the NS group (adjusted odds ratio from logistic regression, 0.49 [95% CI, 0.28-0.86]). Mean (SD) length of stay for hospitalized patients was 3.92 (5.24) days for the NS group and 3.16 (2.11) days for the HS group (P = .24). The Respiratory Distress Assessment Instrument score decreased after treatment in both groups; however, we found no significant difference between groups (P = .35). Hypertonic saline given to children with bronchiolitis in the ED decreases hospital admissions. We can detect no significant difference in Respiratory Distress Assessment Instrument score or length of stay between the HS and NS groups. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00619918.

  20. Streaming Compression of Hexahedral Meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isenburg, M; Courbet, C

    2010-02-03

    We describe a method for streaming compression of hexahedral meshes. Given an interleaved stream of vertices and hexahedral our coder incrementally compresses the mesh in the presented order. Our coder is extremely memory efficient when the input stream documents when vertices are referenced for the last time (i.e. when it contains topological finalization tags). Our coder then continuously releases and reuses data structures that no longer contribute to compressing the remainder of the stream. This means in practice that our coder has only a small fraction of the whole mesh in memory at any time. We can therefore compress very large meshes - even meshes that do not file in memory. Compared to traditional, non-streaming approaches that load the entire mesh and globally reorder it during compression, our algorithm trades a less compact compressed representation for significant gains in speed, memory, and I/O efficiency. For example, on the 456k hexahedra 'blade' mesh, our coder is twice as fast and uses 88 times less memory (only 3.1 MB) with the compressed file increasing about 3% in size. We also present the first scheme for predictive compression of properties associated with hexahedral cells.

  1. Mesh Adaptation and Shape Optimization on Unstructured Meshes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR CRM proposes to implement the entropy adjoint method for solution adaptive mesh refinement into the Loci/CHEM unstructured flow solver. The scheme will...

  2. The efficacy of nebulized salbutamol, hypertonic saline and salbutamol/hypertonic saline combination in moderate bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipek, Ilke Ozahı; Yalcin, Emek Uyur; Sezer, Rabia Gonul; Bozaykut, Abdulkadir

    2011-12-01

    The mainstay of treatment in bronchiolitis includes oxygenation, aspiration of secretions from the respiratory tract and maintenance of hydration. The first choice medical agent in clinical practice is nebulized bronchodilators, although their place in treatment is controversial. We investigated the therapeutic benefit of nebulized hypertonic (3%) saline (HS), by comparing four different nebulized regimens in the treatment of bronchiolitis in the emergency department. A total of 120 infants were included in this randomized, double-blind, prospective study. Infants were grouped according to the nebulized treatment they received: group 1 - salbutamol + normal saline (NS), group 2 - salbutamol + HS, group 3 - HS, group 4 - NS. Heart beat, Clinical Bronchiolitis Severity Score (CBSS) and oxygen saturation of the patients were determined before and after the nebulizations and at 48-72 h after admission by the designated study physician. Post-treatment mean CBSS were significantly lower than pre-treatment scores in all groups (p = 0.0001) with no significant difference within groups. Improvement percentages for CBSSs were significantly higher in infants without a history of atopy treated with HS and NS (p = 0.023, p = 0.0001, respectively). The CBSSs of all the infants improved after three doses of nebulized therapy regardless of the treatment regimens. The combination of salbutamol with hypertonic saline did not lead to an additive effect in the improvement of CBSSs compared to the standard salbutamol + NS combination. Atopic children benefited from salbutamol/NS combination whereas non-atopic children improved with HS and NS nebulizations based on improvement percentages of CBSS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of direct injection nebulizer and desolvating microconcentric nebulizer for analysis of chlorine-, bromine- and iodine-containing compounds by reversed phase HPLC with ICP-MS detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B.P.; Gammelgaard, Bente; Hansen, S.H.

    2003-01-01

    the direct injection nebulizer at flow rates of 25 and 50 mul min(-1), the influence of 0-50% methanol and 0-25% acetonitrile on the sensitivity was studied. For chlorine and bromine, the relative sensitivity decreased with increasing amounts of organic solvent. For iodine, the relative sensitivity reached...

  4. Nanowire mesh solar fuels generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peidong; Chan, Candace; Sun, Jianwei; Liu, Bin

    2016-05-24

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to a nanowire mesh solar fuels generator. In one aspect, a nanowire mesh solar fuels generator includes (1) a photoanode configured to perform water oxidation and (2) a photocathode configured to perform water reduction. The photocathode is in electrical contact with the photoanode. The photoanode may include a high surface area network of photoanode nanowires. The photocathode may include a high surface area network of photocathode nanowires. In some embodiments, the nanowire mesh solar fuels generator may include an ion conductive polymer infiltrating the photoanode and the photocathode in the region where the photocathode is in electrical contact with the photoanode.

  5. Vibrational Diver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Victor; Ivanova, Alevtina; Schipitsyn, Vitalii; Stambouli, Moncef

    2014-10-01

    The paper is concerned with dynamics of light solid in cavity with liquid subjected to rotational vibration in the external force field. New vibrational phenomenon - diving of a light cylinder to the cavity bottom is found. The experimental investigation of a horizontal annulus with a partition has shown that under vibration a light body situated in the upper part of the layer is displaced in a threshold manner some distance away from the boundary. In this case the body executes symmetric tangential oscillations. An increase of the vibration intensity leads to a tangential displacement of the body near the external boundary. This displacement is caused by the tangential component of the vibrational lift force, which appears as soon as the oscillations lose symmetry. In this case the trajectory of the body oscillatory motion has the form of a loop. The tangential lift force makes stable the position of the body on the inclined section of the layer and even in its lower part. A theoretical interpretation has been proposed, which explains stabilization of a quasi-equilibrium state of a light body near the cavity bottom in the framework of vibrational hydromechanics.

  6. Hospital readmissions following initiation of nebulized arformoterol tartrate or nebulized short-acting beta-agonists among inpatients treated for COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollu, Vamsi; Ernst, Frank R; Karafilidis, John; Rajagopalan, Krithika; Robinson, Scott B; Braman, Sidney S

    2013-01-01

    Background Inpatient admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represent a significant economic burden, accounting for over half of direct medical costs. Reducing 30-day readmissions could save health care resources while improving patient care. Recently, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act authorized reduced Medicare payments to hospitals with excess readmissions for acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and pneumonia. Starting in October 2014, hospitals will also be penalized for excess COPD readmissions. This retrospective database study investigated whether use of arformoterol, a nebulized long-acting beta agonist, during an inpatient admission, had different 30-day all-cause readmission rates compared with treatment using nebulized short-acting beta agonists (SABAs, albuterol, or levalbuterol). Methods A US nationally representative hospital database was used to study adults aged ≥40 years, discharged between January, 2006 and March, 2010, and with a diagnosis of COPD. Patients receiving arformoterol on ≥80% of days following treatment initiation were compared with patients receiving a nebulized SABA during hospitalization. Arformoterol and nebulized SABA patients were matched (1:2) for age, sex, severity of inpatient admission, and primary/secondary COPD diagnosis. Logistic regression compared the odds of readmission while adjusting for age, sex, race, admission type, severity, primary/secondary diagnosis, other respiratory medication use, respiratory therapy use, oxygen use, hospital size, and teaching status. Results This retrospective study compared 812 arformoterol patients and 1,651 nebulized SABA patients who were discharged from their initial COPD hospital admission. An intensive care unit stay was more common among arformoterol patients (32.1% versus 18.4%, P<0.001), suggesting more severe symptoms during the initial admission. The observed readmission rate was significantly lower for arformoterol patients than

  7. Hospital readmissions following initiation of nebulized arformoterol tartrate or nebulized short-acting beta-agonists among inpatients treated for COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bollu V

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vamsi Bollu,1 Frank R Ernst,2 John Karafilidis,1 Krithika Rajagopalan,1 Scott B Robinson,2 Sidney S Braman31Sunovion Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Marlborough, MA, 2Premier healthcare alliance, Charlotte, NC, 3The Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USABackground: Inpatient admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD represent a significant economic burden, accounting for over half of direct medical costs. Reducing 30-day readmissions could save health care resources while improving patient care. Recently, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act authorized reduced Medicare payments to hospitals with excess readmissions for acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and pneumonia. Starting in October 2014, hospitals will also be penalized for excess COPD readmissions. This retrospective database study investigated whether use of arformoterol, a nebulized long-acting beta agonist, during an inpatient admission, had different 30-day all-cause readmission rates compared with treatment using nebulized short-acting beta agonists (SABAs, albuterol, or levalbuterol.Methods: A US nationally representative hospital database was used to study adults aged ≥40 years, discharged between January, 2006 and March, 2010, and with a diagnosis of COPD. Patients receiving arformoterol on ≥80% of days following treatment initiation were compared with patients receiving a nebulized SABA during hospitalization. Arformoterol and nebulized SABA patients were matched (1:2 for age, sex, severity of inpatient admission, and primary/secondary COPD diagnosis. Logistic regression compared the odds of readmission while adjusting for age, sex, race, admission type, severity, primary/secondary diagnosis, other respiratory medication use, respiratory therapy use, oxygen use, hospital size, and teaching status.Results: This retrospective study compared 812 arformoterol patients and 1,651 nebulized SABA patients who were discharged from their

  8. Integrated liquid chromatography-heated nebulizer microchip for mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, Markus; Saarela, Ville; Pól, Jaroslav; Kolari, Kai; Kotiaho, Tapio; Franssila, Sami; Kostiainen, Risto

    2010-03-10

    A new integrated microchip for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is presented. The chip is made from bonded silicon and glass wafers with structures for a packed LC column channel, a micropillar frit, a channel for optional optical detection, and a heated vaporizer section etched in silicon and platinum heater elements on the glass cover. LC eluent is vaporized and mixed with nebulizer gas in the vaporizer section and the vapor is sprayed out from the chip. Nonpolar and polar analytes can be efficiently ionized in the gas phase by atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) as demonstrated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). This is not achievable with present LC-MS chips, since they are based on electrospray ionization, which is not able to ionize nonpolar compounds efficiently. The preliminary quantitative performance of the new chip was evaluated in terms of limit of detection (down to 5 ng mL(-1)), linearity (r>0.999), and repeatability of signal response (RSD=2.6-4.0%) and retention time (RSD=0.3-0.5%) using APPI for ionization and PAHs as standard compounds. Determination of fluorescent compounds is demonstrated by using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) for detection in the optical detection channel before the vaporizer section. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Treatment of smoke-induced pulmonary injury with nebulized dimethylsulfoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, R; Traber, L D; Herndon, D N; Neuhaus, G D; Traber, D L

    1988-08-01

    Inhalation injury was produced in sheep that were chronically prepared for study. The injury was induced by insufflating them with smoke from burning cotton cloth. One group of animals was treated with the oxygen-free radical scavenger dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and heparin. Another group received heparin treatment alone, and a third was untreated. The drugs were nebulized into the tracheostomy at 4-hr intervals beginning 1 hr after injury. Following the inhalation injury, lung lymph flow and extravascular lung water measured by thermal-dye dilution technique were both increased. These elevations were associated with minor increases in pulmonary artery pressure, and, thus, since the lymph to plasma protein ratio was unchanged, this increased extravascular fluid formation was probably the result of an elevated microvascular permeability. These changes were associated with a reduction in alpha 2 macroglobulin antiprotease activity. The treated groups showed much smaller responses to the inhalation insult. This was especially true in the animals that received the DMSO. These findings support the concept that oxygen free radicals are responsible for the pulmonary edema associated with inhalation injury.

  10. Surface acoustic wave nebulization facilitating lipid mass spectrometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sung Hwan; Huang, Yue; Edgar, J Scott; Ting, Ying S; Heron, Scott R; Kao, Yuchieh; Li, Yanyan; Masselon, Christophe D; Ernst, Robert K; Goodlett, David R

    2012-08-07

    Surface acoustic wave nebulization (SAWN) is a novel method to transfer nonvolatile analytes directly from the aqueous phase to the gas phase for mass spectrometric analysis. The lower ion energetics of SAWN and its planar nature make it appealing for analytically challenging lipid samples. This challenge is a result of their amphipathic nature, labile nature, and tendency to form aggregates, which readily precipitate clogging capillaries used for electrospray ionization (ESI). Here, we report the use of SAWN to characterize the complex glycolipid, lipid A, which serves as the membrane anchor component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and has a pronounced tendency to clog nano-ESI capillaries. We also show that unlike ESI SAWN is capable of ionizing labile phospholipids without fragmentation. Lastly, we compare the ease of use of SAWN to the more conventional infusion-based ESI methods and demonstrate the ability to generate higher order tandem mass spectral data of lipid A for automated structure assignment using our previously reported hierarchical tandem mass spectrometry (HiTMS) algorithm. The ease of generating SAWN-MS(n) data combined with HiTMS interpretation offers the potential for high throughput lipid A structure analysis.

  11. Characterization of aerosols containing Legionella generated upon nebulization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegra, Séverine; Leclerc, Lara; Massard, Pierre André; Girardot, Françoise; Riffard, Serge; Pourchez, Jérémie

    2016-09-01

    Legionella pneumophila is, by far, the species most frequently associated with Legionnaires’ disease (LD). Human infection occurs almost exclusively by aerosol inhalation which places the bacteria in juxtaposition with alveolar macrophages. LD risk management is based on controlling water quality by applying standardized procedures. However, to gain a better understanding of the real risk of exposure, there is a need (i) to investigate under which conditions Legionella may be aerosolized and (ii) to quantify bacterial deposition into the respiratory tract upon nebulization. In this study, we used an original experimental set-up that enables the generation of aerosol particles containing L. pneumophila under various conditions. Using flow cytometry in combination with qPCR and culture, we determined (i) the size of the aerosols and (ii) the concentration of viable Legionella forms that may reach the thoracic region. We determined that the 0.26-2.5 μm aerosol size range represents 7% of initial bacterial suspension. Among the viable forms, 0.7% of initial viable bacterial suspension may reach the pulmonary alveoli. In conclusion, these deposition profiles can be used to standardize the size of inoculum injected in any type of respiratory tract model to obtain new insights into the dose response for LD.

  12. The efficacy of nebulized magnesium sulfate alone and in combination with salbutamol in acute asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarhan HA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hatem A Sarhan,1 Omar H EL-Garhy,1 Mohamed A Ali,2 Nouran A Youssef1 1Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, 2Department of Chest Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Minia University, Minia, Egypt Objective: Evaluation of the efficacy of nebulized magnesium sulfate (MgSO4 alone and in combination with salbutamol in acute asthma.Methods: A double-blind randomized controlled study was conducted in Chest and Emergency Departments. Thirty patients of acute attack of bronchial asthma were randomized into three groups: MgSO4 nebulization (group A, salbutamol nebulization (group B, and their combination (group C. All patients were monitored before and after nebulization (each 20 minutes for peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR, respiratory rate (RR, heart rate (HR, blood pressure, pulsus paradoxus, oxygen saturation, clinical examination, and Fischl index.Results: A highly significant improvement in PEFR, PEFR percentage, and Fischl index and significant decrease in RR and HR was observed in all groups. A similar improvement in PEFR was observed in group A and group B (P=0.389. The difference in peak expiratory flow (PEF improvement was insignificant between group B and group C (P=0.101, while there was a significant differ­ence between group A and group C (P=0.014 in favor of group C.Conclusion: Nebulized MgSO4 alone or combined with salbutamol has a clinically significant bronchodilator effect in acute asthma and leads to clinical improvement, increase in PEFR, reduction in HR, and reduction in RR. The response to nebulized MgSO4 alone (PEFR improvement 54±35.6 L/min, P=0.001 is comparable (P=0.389 to that of nebulized salbutamol (PEFR improvement 67.0±41.9 L/min, P=0.001 and is significantly less than (P=0.014 that of nebulized combination (PEFR improvement 92.0±26.9 L/min, P=0.000. Keywords: nebulized magnesium sulfate, salbutamol, acute asthma, peak expiratory flow rate, Fischl index

  13. Aerodynamic characteristics of nebulized terbutaline sulphate using the Next Generation Impactor (NGI) and CEN method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahim, Mohamed E; Chrystyn, Henry

    2009-03-01

    Characterization of the aerosolized dose emitted from a nebulized system can be determined using CEN (prEN13544-1) methodology and more recently with a Next Generation Impactor (NGI), but evaporative effects can influence the results. We have investigated these characteristics using different flows and cooling with the NGI and compared the results to the standard CEN method using two different nebulizer systems. The NGI was operated using flows of 15 and 30 L min(-1) at room (ROOM) temperature and immediately after cooling at 5 degrees C for 90 min (COLD). Two nebulizer systems, the Sidestream jet nebulizer (SIDE) and the Aeroneb Pro (AERO), were used to nebulize terbutaline sulphate respiratory solution. The CEN method was also used to provide the aerodynamic characteristics of the aerosolized dose from these two nebulizer systems. The mean (SD) mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) using 15COLD, 15ROOM, 30COLD, 30ROOM, and CEN for AERO was 5.0(0.1), 4.1(0.3), 4.4(0.2), 2.0(0.3), and 3.0(1.1) microm, respectively, and 4.2(0.4), 2.6(0.4), 3.5(0.1), 1.7(0.1), and 3.2(0.3) microm for SIDE. The fine particle fraction (FPF), using the NGI, followed the expected trend associated with the corresponding MMAD values, ranging from 48.1 to 70.5% from AERO and 57.3 to 87.8% for SIDE. The mean FPF for AERO and SIDE using the CEN methodology was 72.5 and 63.6%. Overall there was a highly significant difference (p MMAD of both nebulizer systems. All methods revealed a significant difference between AERO and SIDE except CEN. Both nebulizer systems were prone to evaporation effects during in vitro testing. Cooling and using a slow flow minimizes evaporation effects with the NGI and should be adopted as the recommended compendial method. The CEN method provides different values to those of the NGI operating conditions and could not differentiate between the two nebulizers.

  14. Unstructured mesh methods for CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peraire, J.; Morgan, K.; Peiro, J.

    1990-01-01

    Mesh generation methods for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) are outlined. Geometric modeling is discussed. An advancing front method is described. Flow past a two engine Falcon aeroplane is studied. An algorithm and associated data structure called the alternating digital tree, which efficiently solves the geometric searching problem is described. The computation of an initial approximation to the steady state solution of a given poblem is described. Mesh generation for transient flows is described.

  15. GENERATION OF IRREGULAR HEXAGONAL MESHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasov Aleksandr Nikolaevich

    2012-07-01

    Decomposition is performed in a constructive way and, as option, it involves meshless representation. Further, this mapping method is used to generate the calculation mesh. In this paper, the authors analyze different cases of mapping onto simply connected and bi-connected canonical domains. They represent forward and backward mapping techniques. Their potential application for generation of nonuniform meshes within the framework of the asymptotic homogenization theory is also performed to assess and project effective characteristics of heterogeneous materials (composites.

  16. Enabling practical surface acoustic wave nebulizer drug delivery via amplitude modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapaksa, Anushi; Qi, Aisha; Yeo, Leslie Y; Coppel, Ross; Friend, James R

    2014-06-07

    A practical, commercially viable microfluidic device relies upon the miniaturization and integration of all its components--including pumps, circuitry, and power supply--onto a chip-based platform. Surface acoustic waves (SAW) have become popular in microfluidic manipulation, in solving the problems of microfluidic manipulation, but practical applications employing SAW still require more power than available via a battery. Introducing amplitude modulation at 0.5-40 kHz in SAW nebulization, which requires the highest energy input levels of all known SAW microfluidic processes, halves the power required to 1.5 W even while including the power in the sidebands, suitable for small lithium ion batteries, and maintains the nebulization rate, size, and size distributions vital to drug inhalation therapeutics. This simple yet effective means to enable an integrated SAW microfluidics device for nebulization exploits the relatively slow hydrodynamics and is furthermore shown to deliver shear-sensitive biomolecules--plasmid DNA and antibodies as exemplars of future pulmonary gene and vaccination therapies--undamaged in the nebulized mist. Altogether, the approach demonstrates a means to offer truly micro-scale microfluidics devices in a handheld, battery powered SAW nebulization device.

  17. The efficacy of nebulized salbutamol, magnesium sulfate, and salbutamol/magnesium sulfate combination in moderate bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, Mehmet; Ozturk, Mehmet Adnan; Poyrazoğlu, Hakan; Elmas, Tuba; Ekinci, Duygu; Tubas, Filiz; Kurt, Tuba; Goktas, Mehmet Akif

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare the effect of nebulized magnesium sulfate to nebulized salbutamol and salbutamol/magnesium sulfate on successful discharge from the emergency department. A total of 56 infants were included in this double-blinded, prospective study. Infants were grouped according to the nebulized treatment they received: group 1-salbutamol/normal saline, group 2-magnesium sulfate and normal saline, and group 3-salbutamol plus magnesium sulfate. Heart beat, bronchiolitis, clinical severity scores (CSS), and oxygen saturation of the patients were determined before and after nebulization (0, 1, 4 h). The patients were monitored for adverse reactions. Post-treatment mean CSS results were significantly lower than pre-treatment scores in all groups at 4 h with no significant difference within groups. CSS scores were lower in the salbutamol/magnesium sulfate group when compared with the magnesium sulfate and salbutamol groups (3.4 (2.4-4.3), 4.7 (3.8-5.7), 4.0 (3.2-4.3)). CSS were significantly lower than those from the magnesium sulfate group. Nebulized magnesium sulfate plus salbutamol may have additive effects for improving the short-term CSS.

  18. A comparison of nebulized budesonide, and intramuscular, and oral dexamethasone for treatment of croup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinkaya, Feyzullah; Tüfekçi, Bilge Sertel; Kutluk, Günsel

    2004-04-01

    Croup or acute laryngotracheobronchitis is the most common cause of the upper airway obstruction. Cool mist, nebulized racemic epinephrine and steroids are commonly used for therapy. Although steroid treatment can be applied orally, in nebulized form, or parenterally, no study has compared these three regimens yet. In this study, the efficacy of nebulized budesonide, and oral and intramuscular dexamethasone are compared for treatment of croup. Sixty children aged 6-36 months were randomly allocated into four groups. The first three study groups (15 children in each) took nebulized budesonide, oral dexamethasone and intramuscular dexamethasone, respectively, in addition to salbutamol and other supportive measures and these were compared with the placebo group. All patients were evaluated with "Westley Croup Score" on admission to pediatric emergency department (0h) and at 24, 48 and 72h. At the end of the study, the croup scores of all steroid treatment groups were significantly lower than the placebo group, but there was no statistical difference among them. Nebulized budesonide, oral and parenteral dexamethasone have the same effectiveness for treatment of croup and the choice depends on conditions of the patient and the physician.

  19. Heparin nebulization attenuates acute lung injury in sepsis following smoke inhalation in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kazunori; McGuire, Roy; Cox, Robert A; Jodoin, Jeffrey M; Bjertnaes, Lars J; Katahira, Jiro; Traber, Lillian D; Schmalstieg, Frank C; Hawkins, Hal K; Herndon, David N; Traber, Daniel L

    2002-09-01

    Pseudomonas pneumonia is a common complication of smoke inhalation injury. Airway casts formed from clotted mucous occur frequently in this condition. A recent report shows that intravenous heparin improves oxygenation and reduces lung damage in a sheep model of smoke inhalation. We hypothesized that nebulized heparin could be an effective means of reducing cast formation. Female sheep (n = 19) were surgically prepared for a study of acute lung injury (ALI). After a tracheotomy, 48 breaths of cotton smoke (heparin-nebulized group (n = 5; animals received aerosolized heparin [10,000 I.U.] 1 h after the bacterial instillation and subsequently every 4 h thereafter), an intravenous heparin group (n = 5,300 U/kg/23 h, infusion was started 1 h after the injury), a saline-nebulization group (n = 5; animals received inhaled nebulized saline), and a sham injury group (n = 4, treated in the same fashion, but no injury). The animals were sacrificed after 24 h of mechanical ventilation, and lung samples were harvested. Sheep exposed to lung injury presented with typical hyperdynamic cardiovascular changes and a corresponding drop in PaO2. These changes were significantly attenuated in the heparin groups. Histological changes consisting of cellular infiltrates, lung edema, congestion, and cast formation were reduced by heparin. These data suggest that nebulized inhaled heparin is a beneficial therapy for sepsis-induced ALI.

  20. Image-driven mesh optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstrom, P; Turk, G

    2001-01-05

    We describe a method of improving the appearance of a low vertex count mesh in a manner that is guided by rendered images of the original, detailed mesh. This approach is motivated by the fact that greedy simplification methods often yield meshes that are poorer than what can be represented with a given number of vertices. Our approach relies on edge swaps and vertex teleports to alter the mesh connectivity, and uses the downhill simplex method to simultaneously improve vertex positions and surface attributes. Note that this is not a simplification method--the vertex count remains the same throughout the optimization. At all stages of the optimization the changes are guided by a metric that measures the differences between rendered versions of the original model and the low vertex count mesh. This method creates meshes that are geometrically faithful to the original model. Moreover, the method takes into account more subtle aspects of a model such as surface shading or whether cracks are visible between two interpenetrating parts of the model.

  1. User Manual for the PROTEUS Mesh Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Micheal A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Shemon, Emily R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report describes the various mesh tools that are provided with the PROTEUS code giving both descriptions of the input and output. In many cases the examples are provided with a regression test of the mesh tools. The most important mesh tools for any user to consider using are the MT_MeshToMesh.x and the MT_RadialLattice.x codes. The former allows the conversion between most mesh types handled by PROTEUS while the second allows the merging of multiple (assembly) meshes into a radial structured grid. Note that the mesh generation process is recursive in nature and that each input specific for a given mesh tool (such as .axial or .merge) can be used as “mesh” input for any of the mesh tools discussed in this manual.

  2. Measurement of elemental speciation by liquid chromatography -- inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS) with the direct injection nebulizer (DIN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shum, Sam [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    This thesis is divided into 4 parts: elemental speciation, speciation of mercury and lead compounds by microbore column LC-ICP-MS with direct injection nebulization, spatially resolved measurements of size and velocity distributions of aerosol droplets from a direct injection nebulizer, and elemental speciation by anion exchange and size exclusion chromatography with detection by ICP-MS with direct injection nebulization.

  3. Nebulized versus Standard Local Application of Lidocaine during Flexible Bronchoscopy: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, Michael; Cornelissen, Christian Gabriel; Reddemann, Manuel Armin; Müller, Annegret; Hübel, Christian; Müller, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Endobronchial administration of local anesthetics such as lidocaine is often used for cough suppression during bronchoscopy. To achieve a better distribution of lidocaine in the tracheobronchial tree, spray catheters have been developed, allowing nebulization of the local anesthetic solution. However, there are little data on the efficacy and safety of this approach, or on the consumption of sedative drugs and lidocaine during nebulized administration. To investigate the tolerability of nebulized lidocaine compared to conventional lidocaine administration via syringe through the working channel of the bronchoscope in patients undergoing bronchoscopy. Consumption of sedative drugs and lidocaine was also compared between the two lidocaine administration approaches. Patients requiring bronchoscopy with endobronchial or transbronchial biopsy were randomly assigned to receive topical lidocaine either via syringe or via nebulizer. Endpoints were consumption of lidocaine and sedative drugs, as well as patient tolerance and safety. Thirty patients were included, 15 in each group. Patients in the nebulizer group required lower doses of endobronchial lidocaine (184.7 ± 67.98 vs. 250.7 ± 21.65 mg, p = 0.0045) and intravenous fentanyl (0.033 ± 0.041 vs. 0.067 ± 0.045 mg, p = 0.0236) than those in the syringe group; midazolam or propofol dosages did not differ between the two groups. In addition, there were no between-group differences in patient tolerance or safety (all p > 0.05). Endobronchial administration of lidocaine during bronchoscopy via nebulizer was found to be well tolerated and safe and was associated with reduced lidocaine and fentanyl dosages compared to administration via syringe. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Effectiveness of oral or nebulized dexamethasone for children with mild croup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, J W; Gonzalez-del-Rey, J A; DiGiulio, G A; McAneney, C M; Olson, J J; Ruddy, R M

    2001-12-01

    To assess the efficacy of oral dexamethasone or nebulized dexamethasone sodium phosphate in children with mild croup. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 264 children between 6 months and 6 years of age with symptoms of croup for fewer than 48 hours. Patients were excluded if they received racemic epinephrine or corticosteroid treatment. Other exclusion criteria included corticosteroid treatment during the 14 days prior to enrollment or complicating medical condition. Subjects randomly received oral dexamethasone (0.6 mg/kg), nebulized dexamethasone sodium phosphate (160 microg), or placebo. Telephone follow-up was obtained on days 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7. The primary outcome measure was treatment failure, defined as receiving corticosteroid or racemic epinephrine treatment during the 7 days after enrollment in the study. Secondary outcome measures included seeking additional care and the parental assessments of the patients' condition obtained during follow-up (worse, same, better, or gone). Eighty-five patients received oral dexamethasone, 91 received nebulized dexamethasone, and 88 received placebo. There were 3 treatment failures in the oral dexamethasone-treated group, 12 in the nebulized dexamethasone-treated group, and 10 in the placebo-treated group (P =.05). Ten children in the oral dexamethasone-treated group sought additional care compared with 27 and 29 in the nebulized dexamethasone-treated and placebo-treated groups, respectively (P =.002). Parents of children in the oral dexamethasone-treated group reported greater improvement on day 1 (Pnebulized dexamethasone-treated and placebo-treated groups. Children with mild croup who receive oral dexamethasone treatment are less likely to seek subsequent medical care and demonstrate more rapid symptom resolution compared with children who receive nebulized dexamethasone or placebo treatment.

  5. Nebulized heparin for patients under mechanical ventilation: an individual patient data meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glas, Gerie J; Serpa Neto, Ary; Horn, Janneke; Cochran, Amalia; Dixon, Barry; Elamin, Elamin M; Faraklas, Iris; Dissanaike, Sharmila; Miller, Andrew C; Schultz, Marcus J

    2016-12-01

    Pulmonary coagulopathy is a characteristic feature of lung injury including ventilator-induced lung injury. The aim of this individual patient data meta-analysis is to assess the effects of nebulized anticoagulants on outcome of ventilated intensive care unit (ICU) patients. A systematic search of PubMed (1966-2014), Scopus, EMBASE, and Web of Science was conducted to identify relevant publications. Studies evaluating nebulization of anticoagulants in ventilated patients were screened for inclusion, and corresponding authors of included studies were contacted to provide individual patient data. The primary endpoint was the number of ventilator-free days and alive at day 28. Secondary endpoints included hospital mortality, ICU- and hospital-free days at day 28, and lung injury scores at day seven. We constructed a propensity score-matched cohort for comparisons between patients treated with nebulized anticoagulants and controls. Data from five studies (one randomized controlled trial, one open label study, and three studies using historical controls) were included in the meta-analysis, compassing 286 patients. In all studies unfractionated heparin was used as anticoagulant. The number of ventilator-free days and alive at day 28 was higher in patients treated with nebulized heparin compared to patients in the control group (14 [IQR 0-23] vs. 6 [IQR 0-22]), though the difference did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.459). The number of ICU-free days and alive at day 28 was significantly higher, and the lung injury scores at day seven were significantly lower in patients treated with nebulized heparin. In the propensity score-matched analysis, there were no differences in any of the endpoints. This individual patient data meta-analysis provides no convincing evidence for benefit of heparin nebulization in intubated and ventilated ICU patients. The small patient numbers and methodological shortcomings of included studies underline the need for high

  6. Performance evaluation of nebulizers based on aerodynamic droplet diameter characterization using the Direct Laminar Incidence (DLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Martins Pereira de Araújo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Optical microscope images can be useful to evaluate nebulizers considering the size of droplets produced by these devices. From this perspective, the proposed method was compared to the classic concept of Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter (MMAD for the ideal droplet size between 0.5-5.5 µm. Methods We tested a sample of five home nebulizers sold on the Brazilian market. A high-speed camera coupled to a microscope obtained images of the droplets during the nebulization process, which allowed us to characterize the diameter of the aero-dispersed droplets. The Count Median Aerodynamic Diameter (CMAD was used as measurement parameter. Results The images obtained during the nebulization process with the five different nebulizers provided data to determine the frequency distribution of the aero-dispersed droplet population. Successive images were obtained in the range of 2.0s to evaluate the dynamic behavior of the droplets. The generated data also allowed the elaboration of histograms emphasizing the ideal diameter range of droplets between 0.5 and 5.5 μm. Conclusion The Direct Laminar Incidence (DLI model using digital image processing technique allowed the characterization of respirable particles. This model proposes the creation of a range of optimum absorption of the droplets by the respiratory tract. Although there is a technical limitation in the direct acquisition of images due to the depth of focus, presenting an error of 9.3%, the described method provides consistent results when compared to other droplets characterization techniques. Thus, the authors believe that Direct Laminar Incidence (DLI is a viable method to assess the performance of nebulizers despite the requirement of adjustments and possible improvements required to minimize measurement errors.

  7. Numerical simulation of deformation of dynamic mesh in the human vocal tract model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Řidký Václav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulation of the acoustic signal generation in the human vocal tract is a very complex problem. The computational mesh is not static; it is deformed due to vibration of vocal folds. Movement of vocal folds is in this case prescribed as function of translation and rotation. A new boundary condition for the 2DOF motion of the vocal folds was implemented in OpenFOAM, an open-source software package based on finite volume method Work is focused on the dynamic mesh and deformation of structured meshes in the computation a package OpenFOAM. These methods are compared with focus onquality of the mesh (non-orthogonality, aspect ratio and skewness.

  8. Numerical simulation of deformation of dynamic mesh in the human vocal tract model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Řidký, Václav; Šidlof, Petr

    2015-05-01

    Numerical simulation of the acoustic signal generation in the human vocal tract is a very complex problem. The computational mesh is not static; it is deformed due to vibration of vocal folds. Movement of vocal folds is in this case prescribed as function of translation and rotation. A new boundary condition for the 2DOF motion of the vocal folds was implemented in OpenFOAM, an open-source software package based on finite volume method Work is focused on the dynamic mesh and deformation of structured meshes in the computation a package OpenFOAM. These methods are compared with focus onquality of the mesh (non-orthogonality, aspect ratio and skewness).

  9. Interfacing capillary electrophoresis with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry by direct injection nebulization for selenium speciation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendahl, Lars; Gammelgaard, Bente; Jons, O.

    2001-01-01

    A demountable direct injection high efficiency nebulizer operating at low sample uptake rates was developed and used for coupling of capillary electrophoresis (CE) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). When the nebulizer was used for continuous sample introduction, detection...... for speciation of aqueous selenium standards. The interface was operated in the self-aspirating mode with a sheath liquid uptake of 10 muL min(-1). The CE-ICP-MS system resulted in baseline separation of selenate, selenite, selenocystine and selenomethionine within a total analysis time of 5.4 min. Detection...

  10. Outcomes Following the Use of Nebulized Heparin for Inhalation Injury (HIHI Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, Allyson M; Harris, Serena A; Whitten, Jessica A; Fritschle-Hilliard, Andrew C; Foster, David R; Sood, Rajiv; Walroth, Todd A

    Inhalation injury (IHI) causes significant morbidity and mortality in burn victims due to both local and systemic effects. Nebulized heparin promotes improvement in lung function and decreased mortality in IHI by reducing the inflammatory response and fibrin cast formation. The study objective was to determine if nebulized heparin 10,000 units improves lung function and decreases mechanical ventilation duration, mortality, and hospitalization length in IHI with minimal systemic adverse events. This retrospective, case-control study evaluated efficacy and safety of nebulized heparin administered to mechanically ventilated adults admitted within 48 hr of confirmed IHI. Nebulized heparin 10,000 units was administered Q4H for 7 days, or until extubation if sooner, alternating with albuterol and a mucolytic. Patients were matched on a case-by-case basis based on percent TBSA burn and age to patients from a historical group with IHI before heparin protocol implementation. The primary outcome was duration of mechanical ventilation. Secondary outcomes included lung injury score, ventilator-free days during the first 28 days, 28-day mortality, hospitalization length, ventilator-associated pneumonia incidence, bronchoscopy incidence, and bleeding events. Data were collected in 72 patients, 36 of which received nebulized heparin and 36 historical controls. Two patients from the heparin group and three patients from the control group died/were discharged while on the ventilator. Data were analyzed separately with 1) all subjects included and 2) with subjects who died/were discharged on the ventilator excluded. In the latter comparison, patients receiving nebulized heparin demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in median (interquartile range) duration of initial mechanical ventilation compared with controls [7.0 (4.0, 13.5) vs. 14.5 (5.3, 22.3) days; P = .044]. Patients in the heparin group had a significantly increased number of median (interquartile range

  11. Connectivity editing for quadrilateral meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chihan

    2011-12-01

    We propose new connectivity editing operations for quadrilateral meshes with the unique ability to explicitly control the location, orientation, type, and number of the irregular vertices (valence not equal to four) in the mesh while preserving sharp edges. We provide theoretical analysis on what editing operations are possible and impossible and introduce three fundamental operations to move and re-orient a pair of irregular vertices. We argue that our editing operations are fundamental, because they only change the quad mesh in the smallest possible region and involve the fewest irregular vertices (i.e., two). The irregular vertex movement operations are supplemented by operations for the splitting, merging, canceling, and aligning of irregular vertices. We explain how the proposed high-level operations are realized through graph-level editing operations such as quad collapses, edge flips, and edge splits. The utility of these mesh editing operations are demonstrated by improving the connectivity of quad meshes generated from state-of-art quadrangulation techniques.

  12. Cache-oblivious mesh layouts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sung-Eui [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Lindstrom, Peter [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pascucci, Valerio [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Manocha, Dinesh [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2005-07-01

    We present a novel method for computing cache-oblivious layouts of large meshes that improve the performance of interactive visualization and geometric processing algorithms. Given that the mesh is accessed in a reasonably coherent manner, we assume no particular data access patterns or cache parameters of the memory hierarchy involved in the computation. Furthermore, our formulation extends directly to computing layouts of multi-resolution and bounding volume hierarchies of large meshes. We develop a simple and practical cache-oblivious metric for estimating cache misses. Computing a coherent mesh layout is reduced to a combinatorial optimization problem. We designed and implemented an out-of-core multilevel minimization algorithm and tested its performance on unstructured meshes composed of tens to hundreds of millions of triangles. Our layouts can significantly reduce the number of cache misses. We have observed 2-20 times speedups in view-dependent rendering, collision detection, and isocontour extraction without any modification of the algorithms or runtime applications.

  13. Connectivity editing for quadrilateral meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chihan

    2011-12-12

    We propose new connectivity editing operations for quadrilateral meshes with the unique ability to explicitly control the location, orientation, type, and number of the irregular vertices (valence not equal to four) in the mesh while preserving sharp edges. We provide theoretical analysis on what editing operations are possible and impossible and introduce three fundamental operations to move and re-orient a pair of irregular vertices. We argue that our editing operations are fundamental, because they only change the quad mesh in the smallest possible region and involve the fewest irregular vertices (i.e., two). The irregular vertex movement operations are supplemented by operations for the splitting, merging, canceling, and aligning of irregular vertices. We explain how the proposed highlevel operations are realized through graph-level editing operations such as quad collapses, edge flips, and edge splits. The utility of these mesh editing operations are demonstrated by improving the connectivity of quad meshes generated from state-of-art quadrangulation techniques. © 2011 ACM.

  14. Vibrating minds

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Ed Witten is one of the leading scientists in the field of string theory, the theory that describes elementary particles as vibrating strings. This week he leaves CERN after having spent a few months here on sabbatical. His wish is that the LHC will unveil supersymmetry.

  15. Comparison of an ultrasonic nebulizer with a cross-flow nebulizer for selenium speciation by ion-chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Jons, O.

    2000-01-01

    species, trimethylselenonium ion (TMSe), selenomethionine (SeMet), selenite and selenate, were studied. Using the CFN, there was no difference in sensitivity of the four selenium species and the species responded similarly to all changes. In the USN, sensitivity increased between 14 and 21 times....... The USN was found inapplicable for normal sample uptake as memory effects were severe and low blank values, therefore, difficult to obtain. Thus, this nebulizer could only be used for transient signals. When coupling the nebulizers to an anion-exchange chromatographic system, peak widths...... of the chromatographic signals were comparable. The sensitivity with the USN was 10 times larger than with the CFN. Detection limits, however, were not decreased correspondingly. Detection limits calculated on the basis of Se-82 were between 0.15 and 0.24 mu g l(-1) Se with the USN, while they were between 0.43 and 1...

  16. The effect of nebulized epinephrine on respiratory mechanics and gas exchange in bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numa, A H; Williams, G D; Dakin, C J

    2001-07-01

    Nebulized epinephrine has been advocated as a treatment for airway obstruction in infants with bronchiolitis; however, its effect on respiratory mechanics and gas exchange has been poorly documented to date. We performed a preinterventional and postinterventional study with primary outcome measures of mechanics (measured by single-breath occlusion passive deflation) and oxygenation and ventilation indices in order to measure the effects of nebulized epinephrine in infants requiring mechanical ventilation for RSV-positive bronchiolitis. A two-compartment model was used to describe respiratory mechanics in patients with nonlinear flow-volume curves. Nebulized epinephrine (0.5 mg/kg) was administered to 15 patients (median age, 0.19 yr; weight, 4.4 kg). Resistance decreased significantly in slow and fast compartments in 87 and 70% of patients, respectively. Median resistance in the slow compartment decreased from 0.427 to 0.198 cm H2O/ml/s (p = 0.0015) and in the fast compartment from 0.167 to 0.116 cm H2O/ ml/s (p = 0.018). Compliance, oxygenation index, and ventilation index were not significantly changed after administration of epinephrine. We conclude that nebulized epinephrine substantially improves respiratory system resistance but not oxygenation or ventilation indices. This may be because of the effects of epinephrine on oxygen consumption or ventilation-perfusion matching.

  17. Preclinical evaluation of epinephrine nebulization to reduce airway hyperemia and improve oxygenation after smoke inhalation injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Matthias; Hamahata, Atsumori; Traber, Daniel L; Cox, Robert A; Kulp, Gabriela A; Nakano, Yoshimitsu; Traber, Lillian D; Herndon, David N; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei

    2011-04-01

    Acute lung injury secondary to smoke inhalation is a major source of morbidity and mortality in burn patients. We tested the hypothesis that nebulized epinephrine would ameliorate pulmonary dysfunction secondary to acute lung injury by reducing airway hyperemia and edema formation and mediating bronchodilatation in an established, large animal model of inhalation injury. Prospective, controlled, randomized trial. University research laboratory. Twenty-four chronically instrumented, adult, female sheep. Following baseline measurements, the animals were allocated to a sham-injured group (n = 5), an injured and saline-treated group (n = 6), or an injured group treated with 4 mg of nebulized epinephrine every 4 hrs (n = 6). Inhalation injury was induced by 48 breaths of cotton smoke. The dose of epinephrine was derived from dose finding experiments (n = 7 sheep). The injury induced significant increases in airway blood flows, bronchial wet/dry weight ratio, airway obstruction scores, ventilatory pressures, and lung malondialdehyde content, and contributed to severe pulmonary dysfunction as evidenced by a significant decline in Pao₂/Fio₂ ratio and increase in pulmonary shunt fraction. Nebulization of epinephrine significantly reduced tracheal and main bronchial blood flows, ventilatory pressures, and lung malondialdehyde content. The treatment was further associated with significant improvements of Pao₂/FIO₂ ratio and pulmonary shunting. Nebulization of epinephrine reduces airway blood flow and attenuates pulmonary dysfunction in sheep subjected to severe smoke inhalation injury. Future studies will have to improve the understanding of the underlying pathomechanisms and identify the optimal dosing for the treatment of patients with this injury.

  18. Comparison of nebulized terbutaline and subcutaneous epinephrine in the treatment of acute asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uden, D L; Goetz, D R; Kohen, D P; Fifield, G C

    1985-03-01

    Nineteen children who presented for treatment of acute asthma symptoms were studied. They were randomized to receive either subcutaneous epinephrine 0.01 mg/kg (0.3 mg maximum) or nebulized terbutaline 1 mg in 2 mL normal saline. The drugs were administered using the double-blind method. Each patient received either subcutaneous epinephrine with concurrent nebulized normal saline or nebulized terbutaline with a concurrent subcutaneous injection of normal saline. Depending on the patient's clinical status, up to three doses of the same drug and placebo were administered. Pulmonary functions (FEV1, FVC, FEF25-75), heart rate, respiratory rate, and pulmonary index were obtained before treatment, at 20 minutes, and at one hour after the final treatment. Except for the baseline respiratory rate, the mean number of treatments, pulmonary index, heart rate, and respiratory rate (at 20 minutes and one hour) were not statistically different. Pulmonary functions were not significantly different at any time. The one-hour post-treatment pulmonary functions (percentage of predicted normal) for terbutaline and epinephrine were FEV1, 49.2 +/- 18.4% and 49.4 +/- 16.9%; FVC, 72.7 +/- 23.4% and 62.7 +/- 21.6%; and FEF25-75, 31.8 +/- 18.6% and 39.0 +/- 12.2%, respectively. The data presented support our hypothesis that terbutaline by nebulization is at least as effective as epinephrine in the management of children with similar degrees of pulmonary obstruction.

  19. Does a Nebulized Heparin/N-acetylcysteine Protocol Improve Outcomes in Adult Smoke Inhalation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie S. Kashefi, MS

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: The implementation of a heparin/N-acetylcysteine/albuterol protocol did not reduce mortality or duration of mechanical ventilation in this cohort of adults with inhalation injury and resulted in a significant increase in pneumonia rates. Larger prospective studies are necessary, with close attention paid to minimizing the infection risk incurred from frequent administration of nebulized medications.

  20. Assessing a system to capture stray aerosol during inhalation of nebulized liposomal cisplatin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittgen, Bart P. H.; Kunst, Peter W. A.; Perkins, Walter R.; Lee, Jin K.; Postmus, Pieter E.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of using a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter air cleaning system, a demistifier, to reduce the potential risk of fugitive aerosol contact in health care personnel working with patients inhaling nebulized liposomal encapsulated SLIT

  1. Efficacy of nebulized furosemide in children with moderate attack of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacy of nebulized furosemide in children with moderate attack of asthma. Alshehri, T. .... all been shown to be capable of causing increased microvascular ... rate (PEER), respiratory rate, heart rate, and room air oxygen saturation (SaOZ) by ...

  2. The effect of epinephrine by nebulization on measures of airway obstruction in patients with acute severe croup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argent, A C; Hatherill, M; Newth, C J L; Klein, M

    2008-01-01

    To demonstrate that tests of pulmonary function applicable to sick infants and small children with acute severe viral croup would provide clear, objective evidence of responsiveness to therapy with nebulized epinephrine. Oesophageal pressure changes and airflows at the mouth were measured in 17 patients with acute severe croup, before and after nebulization with epinephrine. In 12 of the 17 patients there was a significant improvement in respiratory mechanics following epinephrine nebulization. Six of the 12 patients who responded to adrenaline also received 0.9% saline by nebulization, without improvement. No measures derived from combined flow and volume data showed any statistically significant change following epinephrine nebulization. Measures combining flow and pressure data, specifically inspiratory airway resistance, expiratory airway resistance, work of breathing, rate of work of breathing and volume for effort, showed changes of 26%, 33%, 16%, 16% and 46% respectively. The most statistically significant measures were pressure-rate product, pressure-time integral, oesophageal pressure alone and expiratory resistance. These changes persisted for at least 10 min after inhalation although there was some evidence of decline in pharmacologic effect at that time. Nebulized epinephrine results in a short-lived improvement in some but not all patients with croup. This reduction in respiratory effort occurs secondary to a decline in inspiratory and expiratory airway resistance. Oesophageal pressures measured via a feeding tube are satisfactory for quantification of the acute response and may be a useful continuous monitoring device. Flow measurements are unhelpful, and continuous administration of nebulized epinephrine should be investigated.

  3. Hybrid Mesh for Nasal Airflow Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Zubair

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of the numerical result is closely related to mesh density as well as its distribution. Mesh plays a very significant role in the outcome of numerical simulation. Many nasal airflow studies have employed unstructured mesh and more recently hybrid mesh scheme has been utilized considering the complexity of anatomical architecture. The objective of this study is to compare the results of hybrid mesh with unstructured mesh and study its effect on the flow parameters inside the nasal cavity. A three-dimensional nasal cavity model is reconstructed based on computed tomographic images of a healthy Malaysian adult nose. Navier-Stokes equation for steady airflow is solved numerically to examine inspiratory nasal flow. The pressure drop obtained using the unstructured computational grid is about 22.6 Pa for a flow rate of 20 L/min, whereas the hybrid mesh resulted in 17.8 Pa for the same flow rate. The maximum velocity obtained at the nasal valve using unstructured grid is 4.18 m/s and that with hybrid mesh is around 4.76 m/s. Hybrid mesh reported lower grid convergence index (GCI than the unstructured mesh. Significant differences between unstructured mesh and hybrid mesh are determined highlighting the usefulness of hybrid mesh for nasal airflow studies.

  4. Comparative study of budesonide as a nebulized suspension vs pressurized metered-dose inhaler in adult asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisgaard, H; Nikander, K; Munch, E

    1998-01-01

    The study objective was to compare the effect of budesonide administered as a nebulized suspension as compared to a spray with a spacer in adult asthmatics. In a double-blind, double-dummy crossover study, 26 adult patients with moderately severe unstable asthma were randomized to three 4-week treatment periods with budesonide 0.8 mg b.i.d. administered by a pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) with spacer (Nebuhaler) and budesonide 1 mg and 4 mg b.i.d. administered by a Pari Inhalier Boy jet nebulizer. The nebulizer was activated only during inspiration. The total mass output was similar from the two devices but their fraction of small particles differed by a factor of 2 in favour of pMDI. Effect was evaluated from daily home measurements of peak expiratory flow (PEF), need of beta 2-agonist and symptom scores. Plasma cortisol and budesonide levels were measured in a subgroup of 10 patients. A consistent trend showed the nebulizer treatment to be at least as efficient as the pMDI plus spacer treatment. In actual fact, the apparent order of effect was: 4 mg nebulized suspension treatment > or = 1 mg nebulized suspension treatment > or = 0.8 mg pMDI with spacer treatment. Plasma budesonide and plasma cortisol also exhibited dose-related levels independent of device. The adverse effects reported appeared to be related to the dose rather than delivery device. Accordingly, the effect was related to total mass output, rather than to the small particle fraction of the budesonide aerosol. These results attest to the efficiency of jet-nebulized budesonide suspension, and indicate nebulized budesonide to be equipotent to standard budesonide therapy delivered by pMDI with Nebuhaler, provided nebulization is synchronized with inspiration and no loss of aerosol occurs during expiration.

  5. Mesh Sutured Repairs of Abdominal Wall Defects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lanier, Steven T; Dumanian, Gregory A; Jordan, Sumanas W; Miller, Kyle R; Ali, Nada A; Stock, Stuart R

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND:A new closure technique is introduced, which uses strips of macroporous polypropylene mesh as a suture for closure of abdominal wall defects due to failures of standard sutures and difficulties with planar meshes...

  6. Nebulized magnesium for moderate and severe pediatric asthma: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alansari, Khalid; Ahmed, Wessam; Davidson, Bruce L; Alamri, Mohamed; Zakaria, Ibrahim; Alrifaai, Mahomud

    2015-12-01

    Intravenous magnesium sulfate, a rescue therapy added to bronchodilator and systemic steroid therapy for moderate and severe asthma, is uncommonly administered. We hypothesized that nebulized magnesium would confer benefit without undue risk. Patients aged 2 to 14 y with moderate and severe asthma (PRAM severity score ≥ 4) admitted to infirmary/observation unit care were randomized double-blind on admission to receive 800 mg nebulized magnesium or normal saline placebo after all received intensive therapy with combined nebulized albuterol-ipratropium and intravenous methylprednisolone. Time to medical readiness for discharge was the primary outcome; sample size was chosen to detect a 15% absolute improvement. Improvement over time in PRAM severity score and other secondary outcomes were compared for the overall group and severe asthma subset. One hundred and ninety-one magnesium sulfates and 174 placebo patients met criteria for analysis. The groups were similar with mean baseline PRAM scores >7. Blinded active therapy significantly increased blood magnesium level 2 hr post-treatment completion compared to placebo, 0.85 vs 0.82 mmol/L, P = 0.001. There were no important adverse effects. Accelerated failure time analysis showed a non-significantly shortened time to medical readiness for discharge of 14% favoring the magnesium sulfate group, OR = 1.14, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.40, P = 0.20. Mean times until readiness for discharge were 14.7 hr [SD 9.7] versus 15.6 hr [SD 11.3] for the investigational and placebo groups, respectively, P = 0.41. Adding nebulized magnesium to combined nebulized bronchodilator and systemic steroid therapy failed to significantly shorten time to discharge of pediatric patients with moderate or severe asthma. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. [Comparative study of the performance and ergonomics of nebulizers in cystic fibrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faurisson, F; Dessanges, J F; Grimfeld, A; Beaulieu, R; Kitzis, M D; Peytavin, G; Lefevre, J P; Farinotti, R; Sautegeau, A

    1996-01-01

    This study had, as its aim, to test twelve nebulizers (6 jet, 6 ultrasonic) which are used in the treatment of cystic fibrosis. Devices were connected to a respirator in order to mimic the ventilation of a child and of an adult suffering from cystis fibrosis. Three medications: tobramycine, colistine and amiloride were nebulised. The volume of the recommended solution varied between 1.5 and 13 ml according to the manufacturer. During a session of ten minutes the ultrasonic nebulizer delivered an inhaled volume which was significantly greater than the jet (2.72 +/- 0.98 ml vs 1.22 +/- 0.59 ml, p < 0.0001) for the three drugs. Regarding granulometry, the fraction of particles between 0.5 and 5 microns, was higher with ultrasonic than with pneumatic nebulizer for tobramycine (67.1 +/- 10.7 vs 55.5 +/- 11.5%, p < 0.001) and amiloride (66.4 +/- 9.2% vs 58.1 +/- 15%, p < 0.05%). The variation of concentration due to nebulisation were independent of the type of apparatus but influenced by the drug since concentration was increased for tobramycine (+10.5 +/- 18.6%) and amiloride (+13.4 +/- 8/9%). In summary the effective fraction resulting from the inhalable fraction, from granulometry and from changes in concentration was significantly greater for ultrasonic than for jet nebrulizer (17.3 +/- 6.7% vs 9.7 +/- 9.6%, p < 0.001). This study underlines the great variability of the performance of aerosols generators and therefore the need for an accurate evaluation of nebulizer performances in order to prescribe the best nebulizer/drug association in clinical practice.

  8. Nebulized fentanyl vs intravenous morphine for ED patients with acute limb pain: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Shervin; Shiralizadeh, Said; Talebian, Mohammad-Taghi; Bagheri-Hariri, Shahram; Arbab, Mona; Basirghafouri, Hamed; Saeedi, Morteza; Sedaghat, Mojtaba; Mirzababai, Habibolla

    2014-09-01

    Intravenous morphine has been used as a common method of pain control in emergency care. Nebulized fentanyl is also an effective temporary substitute. This study was designed to compare the effectiveness of nebulized fentanyl with intravenous (IV) morphine on management of acute limb pain. This was a placebo-controlled, double-blind randomized clinical trial. Ninety emergency department patients with moderate to severe pain aged 15 to 50 years were blocked randomized and enrolled in this study. Forty-seven patients in the experimental group received nebulized fentanyl (4 μg/kg) and IV normal saline as placebo, and the remaining 43 patients in the control group received IV morphine (0.1 mg/kg) and nebulized normal saline as placebo. All participants' pain scores were assessed by Numerical Rating Scale before and after intervention at 5-, 10-, 15-, 30-, 45-, and 60-minute intervals. Patients' vital sign and possible adverse effects were recorded respectively. Finally, all participants were assessed for their satisfaction. The mean initial pain score in the experimental group was 8.7 and 8.4 in the control group (P = .1). Pain relief in both groups after 5 and 10 minutes were similar (P = .72). Although the pain relief was significantly greater with fentanyl at 15 minutes, this difference is not clinically significant. Pain management in both groups was successful and was more than 3 scores reduction in Numerical Rating Scale. Patient satisfaction in both groups was similar. No adverse effects were reported in the experimental group. This study suggests that nebulized fentanyl is a rapid, safe, and effective method for temporary control of acute limb pain in emergency department patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Vibration Based Sun Gear Damage Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Adrian; LaBerge, Kelsen; Lewicki, David; Pines, Darryll

    2013-01-01

    Seeded fault experiments were conducted on the planetary stage of an OH-58C helicopter transmission. Two vibration based methods are discussed that isolate the dynamics of the sun gear from that of the planet gears, bearings, input spiral bevel stage, and other components in and around the gearbox. Three damaged sun gears: two spalled and one cracked, serve as the focus of this current work. A non-sequential vibration separation algorithm was developed and the resulting signals analyzed. The second method uses only the time synchronously averaged data but takes advantage of the signal/source mapping required for vibration separation. Both algorithms were successful in identifying the spall damage. Sun gear damage was confirmed by the presence of sun mesh groups. The sun tooth crack condition was inconclusive.

  10. 6th International Meshing Roundtable '97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.

    1997-09-01

    The goal of the 6th International Meshing Roundtable is to bring together researchers and developers from industry, academia, and government labs in a stimulating, open environment for the exchange of technical information related to the meshing process. In the pas~ the Roundtable has enjoyed significant participation born each of these groups from a wide variety of countries. The Roundtable will consist of technical presentations from contributed papers and abstracts, two invited speakers, and two invited panels of experts discussing topics related to the development and use of automatic mesh generation tools. In addition, this year we will feature a "Bring Your Best Mesh" competition and poster session to encourage discussion and participation from a wide variety of mesh generation tool users. The schedule and evening social events are designed to provide numerous opportunities for informal dialog. A proceedings will be published by Sandia National Laboratories and distributed at the Roundtable. In addition, papers of exceptionally high quaIity will be submitted to a special issue of the International Journal of Computational Geometry and Applications. Papers and one page abstracts were sought that present original results on the meshing process. Potential topics include but are got limited to: Unstructured triangular and tetrahedral mesh generation Unstructured quadrilateral and hexahedral mesh generation Automated blocking and structured mesh generation Mixed element meshing Surface mesh generation Geometry decomposition and clean-up techniques Geometry modification techniques related to meshing Adaptive mesh refinement and mesh quality control Mesh visualization Special purpose meshing algorithms for particular applications Theoretical or novel ideas with practical potential Technical presentations from industrial researchers.

  11. Vibration Analysis of a Split Path Gearbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Timothy L.; Rashidi, Majid

    1995-01-01

    Split path gearboxes can be attractive alternatives to the common planetary designs for rotorcraft, but because they have seen little use, they are relatively high risk designs. To help reduce the risk of fielding a rotorcraft with a split path gearbox, the vibration and dynamic characteristics of such a gearbox were studied. A mathematical model was developed by using the Lagrangian method, and it was applied to study the effect of three design variables on the natural frequencies and vibration energy of the gearbox. The first design variable, shaft angle, had little influence on the natural frequencies. The second variable, mesh phasing, had a strong effect on the levels of vibration energy, with phase angles of 0 deg and 180 deg producing low vibration levels. The third design variable, the stiffness of the shafts connecting the spur gears to the helical pinions, strongly influenced the natural frequencies of some of the vibration modes, including two of the dominant modes. We found that, to achieve the lowest level of vibration energy, the natural frequencies of these two dominant modes should be less than those of the main excitation sources.

  12. User Manual for the PROTEUS Mesh Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Micheal A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Shemon, Emily R [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-19

    PROTEUS is built around a finite element representation of the geometry for visualization. In addition, the PROTEUS-SN solver was built to solve the even-parity transport equation on a finite element mesh provided as input. Similarly, PROTEUS-MOC and PROTEUS-NEMO were built to apply the method of characteristics on unstructured finite element meshes. Given the complexity of real world problems, experience has shown that using commercial mesh generator to create rather simple input geometries is overly complex and slow. As a consequence, significant effort has been put into place to create multiple codes that help assist in the mesh generation and manipulation. There are three input means to create a mesh in PROTEUS: UFMESH, GRID, and NEMESH. At present, the UFMESH is a simple way to generate two-dimensional Cartesian and hexagonal fuel assembly geometries. The UFmesh input allows for simple assembly mesh generation while the GRID input allows the generation of Cartesian, hexagonal, and regular triangular structured grid geometry options. The NEMESH is a way for the user to create their own mesh or convert another mesh file format into a PROTEUS input format. Given that one has an input mesh format acceptable for PROTEUS, we have constructed several tools which allow further mesh and geometry construction (i.e. mesh extrusion and merging). This report describes the various mesh tools that are provided with the PROTEUS code giving both descriptions of the input and output. In many cases the examples are provided with a regression test of the mesh tools. The most important mesh tools for any user to consider using are the MT_MeshToMesh.x and the MT_RadialLattice.x codes. The former allows the conversion between most mesh types handled by PROTEUS while the second allows the merging of multiple (assembly) meshes into a radial structured grid. Note that the mesh generation process is recursive in nature and that each input specific for a given mesh tool (such as .axial

  13. Urban vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Ann; Knudsen, L.; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2012-01-01

      lab   studies   in   that   we   found   a   decreased   detection   rate   in   busy   environments.   Here   we   test   with   a   much   larger   sample   and   age   range,   and   contribute   with   the   first   vibration  sensitivity  testing  outside  the  lab  in  an  urban   public...

  14. Mesh materials and hernia repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elango, Santhini; Perumalsamy, Sakthivel; Ramachandran, Krishnakumar; Vadodaria, Ketankumar

    2017-01-01

    Hernia incidence has been observed since ancient time. Advancement in the medical textile industry came up with the variety of mesh materials to repair hernia, but none of them are without complications including recurrence of hernia. Therefore individuals once developed with the hernia could not lead a healthy and comfortable life. This drawn attention of surgeons, patients, researchers and industry to know the exact mechanism behind its development, complications and recurrence. Recent investigations highlighted the role of genetic factors and connective tissue disorders being the reason for the development of hernia apart from the abnormal pressure that is known to develop during other disease conditions. This review discusses different mesh materials, their advantages and disadvantages and their biological response after its implantation. PMID:28840830

  15. Modal simulation of gearbox vibration with experimental correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Fred K.; Ruan, Yeefeng F.; Zakrajsek, James J.; Oswald, Fred B.

    1992-01-01

    A newly developed global dynamic model was used to simulate the dynamics of a gear noise rig at NASA Lewis Research Center. Experimental results from the test rig were used to verify the analytical model. In this global dynamic model, the number of degrees of freedom of the system are reduced by transforming the system equations of motion into modal coordinates. The vibration of the individual gear-shaft system are coupled through the gear mesh forces. A three-dimensional, axial-lateral coupled, bearing model was used to couple the casing structural vibration to the gear-rotor dynamics. The coupled system of modal equations is solved to predict the resulting vibration at several locations on the test rig. Experimental vibration data was compared to the predicitions of the global dynamic model. There is excellent agreement between the vibration results from analysis and experiment.

  16. Inhalation of nebulized perfluorochemical enhances recombinant adenovirus and adeno-associated virus-mediated gene expression in lung epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Travis; Bonneau, Laura; Howard, Alan; Blanchard, James; Borda, Juan; Weiner, Daniel J; Wang, Lili; Gao, Guang Ping; Kolls, Jay K; Bohm, Rudolf; Liggitt, Denny; Weiss, Daniel J

    2012-04-01

    Use of perfluorochemical liquids during intratracheal vector administration enhances recombinant adenovirus and adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated lung epithelial gene expression. We hypothesized that inhalation of nebulized perfluorochemical vapor would also enhance epithelial gene expression after subsequent intratracheal vector administration. Freely breathing adult C57BL/6 mice were exposed for selected times to nebulized perflubron or sterile saline in a sealed Plexiglas chamber. Recombinant adenoviral vector was administered by transtracheal puncture at selected times afterward and mice were killed 3 days after vector administration to assess transgene expression. Mice tolerated the nebulized perflubron without obvious ill effects. Vector administration 6 hr after nebulized perflubron exposure resulted in an average 540% increase in gene expression in airway and alveolar epithelium, compared with that with vector alone or saline plus vector control (pliquid perflubron, safely enhances lung gene expression.

  17. A preliminary study of painless and effective transdermal botulinum toxin A delivery by jet nebulization for treatment of primary hyperhidrosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iannitti, Tommaso; Palmieri, Beniamino; Aspiro, Anna; Di Cerbo, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    ...™-3, a medical device used for transdermal delivery of drugs by jet nebulization, could be used to deliver lidocaine prior to the standard multiple BTX-A injections or deliver lidocaine together...

  18. Nebulized heparin is associated with fewer days of mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dixon, Barry; Schultz, Marcus J.; Smith, Roger; Fink, James B.; Santamaria, John D.; Campbell, Duncan J.

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged mechanical ventilation has the potential to aggravate or initiate pulmonary inflammation and cause lung damage through fibrin deposition. Heparin may reduce pulmonary inflammation and fibrin deposition. We therefore assessed whether nebulized heparin improved lung function in patients

  19. Translating MeSH concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soualmia, Lina F; Letord, Catherine; Merabti, Tayeb; Griffon, Nicolas; Manel, Jacques; Darmoni, Stéfan J

    2013-01-01

    The concept-oriented structure of the MeSH® thesaurus is not yet in common use. Nevertheless, it has been shown that a concept-based querying of PubMed may be of interest. To take full advantage of the concept-oriented structure of MeSH in the information retrieval tool associated with the CISMeF catalogue, it was necessary to translate such concepts into French.

  20. Adaptive mesh generation for image registration and segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogtmann, Mads; Larsen, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of generating quality tetrahedral meshes for image registration. From an initial coarse mesh the approach matches the mesh to the image volume by combining red-green subdivision and mesh evolution through mesh-to-image matching regularized with a mesh quality...

  1. Inhalation of Nebulized Perfluorochemical Enhances Recombinant Adenovirus and Adeno-Associated Virus-Mediated Gene Expression in Lung Epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Beckett, Travis; Bonneau, Laura; Howard, Alan; Blanchard, James; Borda, Juan; Weiner, Daniel J.; Wang, Lili; Gao, Guang Ping; Kolls, Jay K.; Bohm, Rudolf; Liggitt, Denny; Weiss, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Use of perfluorochemical liquids during intratracheal vector administration enhances recombinant adenovirus and adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated lung epithelial gene expression. We hypothesized that inhalation of nebulized perfluorochemical vapor would also enhance epithelial gene expression after subsequent intratracheal vector administration. Freely breathing adult C57BL/6 mice were exposed for selected times to nebulized perflubron or sterile saline in a sealed Plexiglas chamber. Reco...

  2. Comparison of the efficiency of the nebulization of salbutamol, epinephrine and normal saline on treatment of bronchiolitis

    OpenAIRE

    Rakotomalala Rivo Lova Herilanto; Lovaniaina Ravelomanana; Andriatahirintsoa Emilson J. P. R.; Tsifiregna Rosa Lalao; Ravelomanana Noeline

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bronchiolitis is a frequent cause of hospitalization. Despite the frequency of this pathology, there is not a single, widely practiced evidence-driven treatment especially using of nebulization. Present purpose was to compare which is efficient: nebulized salbutamol, epinephrine or normal saline. Methods: We have preceded to a prospective study from January 1st 2011 to March 31st 2012 including children between 29 days old and 2 years old. Results: We have included 90 patie...

  3. Comparision Of The Efficacy Of Nebulized L-Epinephrine, Salbutamoland Normal Saline In Acute Bronchiolitis: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    H. Mussavi; M. Karamiyar; S. Salari Lak; J. Khashabi

    2005-01-01

    Background:Acute bronchiolitis is the most common form of lower respiratory tract infection in infancy.There are numerous contradictory reports regarding the efficacy of nebulized bronchodilators in the management of infants with acute bronchiolitis. This study was designed to compare the efficacy of nebulized epinephrine with salbutamol for treatment of the disease.Methods:In a randomized clinical trial, 72 infants with moderately severe bronchiolitis were enrolled in three equal groups. Thr...

  4. Computerized Assessment of Wheezing in Children With Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis Before and After Hypertonic Saline Nebulization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Tina E; Kamps, Arvid Wa; Sjoerdsma, Machtelt H; Vermeulen, Stephanie; Veeger, Nic Jgm; Bont, Louis J

    2015-09-01

    Studies suggest an effect of nebulized hypertonic saline solution on air-flow limitation in subjects with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis, but results are based on subjective scores of clinical severity and are not clear. In this observational study, we used a noninvasive computerized tool to quantify wheezing before and after nebulization with hypertonic saline in children admitted for RSV infection. Twenty-seven children (≤ 24 months old) admitted to the pediatric ward of the Medical Center Leeuwarden with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed RSV bronchiolitis were included. Subjects were simultaneously assessed both clinically and by computerized acoustic monitoring before and 15 min after treatment with nebulized hypertonic saline solution. Clinical assessment, defined by the Respiratory Distress Assessment Instrument score, did not change after nebulization (n = 27, 5.0 vs 4.7, P = .17). Computerized acoustic monitoring showed no improvement in wheezing (n = 27, 3.4% vs 2.0%, P = .05) or inspiration/expiration ratio (0.85 vs 0.85, P = .93) after nebulization. Hypertonic saline nebulization does not improve air flow, as assessed by both clinical and computerized acoustic scores, in children admitted for RSV. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  5. Nebulized anticoagulants in lung injury in critically ill patients-an updated systematic review of preclinical and clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juschten, Jenny; Tuinman, Pieter R; Juffermans, Nicole P; Dixon, Barry; Levi, Marcel; Schultz, Marcus J

    2017-11-01

    Pneumonia, inhalation trauma and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), typical causes of lung injury in critically ill patients, are all three characterized by dysregulated inflammation and coagulation in the lungs. Nebulized anticoagulants are thought to have beneficial effects as they could attenuate pulmonary coagulopathy and maybe even affect pulmonary inflammation. A systematic search of the medical literature was performed using terms referring to aspects of the condition ('pneumonia', 'inhalation trauma' and 'ARDS'), the intervention ('nebulized', 'vaporized', and 'aerosolized') and anticoagulants limited to agents that are commercially available and frequently given or tested in critically ill patients ['heparin', 'danaparoid', 'activated protein C' (APC), 'antithrombin' (AT) and 'tissue factor pathway inhibitor' (TFPI)]. The systematic search identified 16 articles reporting on preclinical studies and 11 articles reporting on human trials. All nebulized anticoagulants attenuate pulmonary coagulopathy in preclinical studies using various models for lung injury, but the effects on inflammation are less consistent. Nebulized heparin, danaparoid and TFPI, but not APC and AT also reduced systemic coagulation. Nebulized heparin in lung injury patients shows contradictory results, and there is concern over systemic side effects of this strategy. Future studies need to focus on the way to nebulize anticoagulants, as well as on efficient but safe dosages, and other side effects.

  6. Theory of vibration protection

    CERN Document Server

    Karnovsky, Igor A

    2016-01-01

    This text is an advancement of the theory of vibration protection of mechanical systems with lumped and distributed parameters. The book offers various concepts and methods of solving vibration protection problems, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different methods, and the fields of their effective applications. Fundamental approaches of vibration protection, which are considered in this book, are the passive, parametric and optimal active vibration protection. The passive vibration protection is based on vibration isolation, vibration damping and dynamic absorbers. Parametric vibration protection theory is based on the Shchipanov-Luzin invariance principle. Optimal active vibration protection theory is based on the Pontryagin principle and the Krein moment method. The book also contains special topics such as suppression of vibrations at the source of their occurrence and the harmful influence of vibrations on humans. Numerous examples, which illustrate the theoretical ideas of each chapter, ar...

  7. Synthetic Versus Biological Mesh-Related Erosion After Laparoscopic Ventral Mesh Rectopexy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, Andrea; Quaresima, Silvia; Smolarek, Sebastian; Shalaby, Mostafa; Missori, Giulia; Sileri, Pierpaolo

    2017-04-01

    This review reports the incidence of mesh-related erosion after ventral mesh rectopexy to determine whether any difference exists in the erosion rate between synthetic and biological mesh. A systematic search of the MEDLINE and the Ovid databases was conducted to identify suitable articles published between 2004 and 2015. The search strategy capture terms were laparoscopic ventral mesh rectopexy, laparoscopic anterior rectopexy, robotic ventral rectopexy, and robotic anterior rectopexy. Eight studies (3,956 patients) were included in this review. Of those patients, 3,517 patients underwent laparoscopic ventral rectopexy (LVR) using synthetic mesh and 439 using biological mesh. Sixty-six erosions were observed with synthetic mesh (26 rectal, 32 vaginal, 8 recto-vaginal fistulae) and one (perineal erosion) with biological mesh. The synthetic and the biological mesh-related erosion rates were 1.87% and 0.22%, respectively. The time between rectopexy and diagnosis of mesh erosion ranged from 1.7 to 124 months. No mesh-related mortalities were reported. The incidence of mesh-related erosion after LVR is low and is more common after the placement of synthetic mesh. The use of biological mesh for LVR seems to be a safer option; however, large, multicenter, randomized, control trials with long follow-ups are required if a definitive answer is to be obtained.

  8. Production of amorphous nanoparticles by supersonic spray-drying with a microfluidic nebulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstad, Esther; Gopinadhan, Manesh; Holtze, Christian; Osuji, Chinedum O.; Brenner, Michael P.; Spaepen, Frans; Weitz, David A.

    2015-08-01

    Amorphous nanoparticles (a-NPs) have physicochemical properties distinctly different from those of the corresponding bulk crystals; for example, their solubility is much higher. However, many materials have a high propensity to crystallize and are difficult to formulate in an amorphous structure without stabilizers. We fabricated a microfluidic nebulator that can produce amorphous NPs from a wide range of materials, even including pure table salt (NaCl). By using supersonic air flow, the nebulator produces drops that are so small that they dry before crystal nuclei can form. The small size of the resulting spray-dried a-NPs limits the probability of crystal nucleation in any given particle during storage. The kinetic stability of the a-NPs—on the order of months—is advantageous for hydrophobic drug molecules.

  9. A case of esophageal candidiasis in an adolescent who had frequently received budesonide nebulizing therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hae Ryong; Kwon, Yong Hoon; Kim, Yong Joo

    2013-09-01

    Corticosteroid (budesonide) nebulizer therapy is commonly performed. Its side effects have been considered as being safe or ignorable. The authors present a case of esophageal candidiasis in a healthy female adolescent who was treated with budesonide nebulizer therapy a few times for a cough during the previous winter season. This child presented with dysphagia and epigastric pain for 1 month. Esophageal endoscopy showed a whitish creamy pseudomembrane and erosions on the esophageal mucosa. Pathologic findings showed numerous candidal hyphae. She did not show any evidence of immunodeficiency, clinically and historically. The esophageal lesion did not resolve naturally. The esophageal lesion completely improved with the antifungal therapy for 2 weeks; the symptoms disappeared, and the patient returned to normal health. It is important that frequent esophageal exposure to topical corticosteroids application can cause unexpected side effects.

  10. Nebulized racemic epinephrine by IPPB for the treatment of croup: a double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westley, C R; Cotton, E K; Brooks, J G

    1978-05-01

    Racemic epinephrine has been advocated for the treatment of croup, but controlled studies have not proved it more effective than saline. Twenty patients (aged 4 months to 5 years) hospitalized with acute croup and persistent inspiratory stridor at rest were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: saline or racemic epinephrine, both nebulized and delivered by intermittent positive pressure breathing. Clinical scores were significantly improved (P less than .01) at ten and 30 minutes following the treatment with racemic epinephrine but not at 120 minutes. Racemic epinephrine was significantly more effective than saline at 10 (P less than .01) and 30 minutes (P less than .05) but not at 120 minutes after the treatment. We conclude that nebulized racemic epinephrine is effective treatment for the acute signs of croup.

  11. Comparison of nebulized terbutaline (TERB) and subcutaneous epinephrine (EPI) in the treatment of acute asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkelman, D G; Vanderpool, G E; Carroll, M S; Lotner, G Z; Spangler, D L

    1983-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare nebulized terbutaline 5 mg vs. subcutaneous epinephrine (1/1000, 0.3 cc) in the treatment of acute exacerbations of asthma in adult patients. Patients with a known diagnosis of asthma, who presented to the investigators in acute respiratory distress, without any previous adrenergic agents for six hours, were the subjects for this study. There were 33 patients enrolled in the study between 16 and 64 years of age. The results indicate both treatment groups gave significant increases in pulmonary function at all times when compared to baseline (p less than 0.001). Nebulized terbutaline and subcutaneous epinephrine appeared equally effective in the treatment of acute exacerbations of asthma, without significant differences in bronchodilator effectiveness or side effects.

  12. Metered-dose inhalers with spacers vs nebulizers for pediatric asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, K J; Cunningham, S J; Crain, E F

    1995-02-01

    To determine whether the administration of beta-agonists by metered-dose inhaler (MDI) with a spacer device is as effective as the administration of beta-agonists by nebulizer for the treatment of acute asthma exacerbations in children. Randomized trial with two arms. Urban pediatric emergency department (ED) in Bronx, NY. Convenience sample of 152 children 2 years and older with a history of at least two episodes of wheezing presenting to the ED with an acute asthma exacerbation. Patients were randomly assigned to receive standard doses of a beta-agonist (albuterol) by an MDI with spacer or by a nebulizer. Dosing intervals and the use of other medications were determined by the treating physician. Baseline characteristics and asthma history were recorded. Asthma severity score, peak expiratory flow rate in children 5 years or older, and oxygen saturation were determined at presentation and before admission or discharge. The groups did not differ in age, sex, ethnicity, age of onset of asthma, or asthma severity score at presentation. There were no significant differences between the groups in outcomes, including mean changes in respiratory rate, asthma severity score, and peak expiratory flow rate, oxygen saturation, number of treatments given, administration of steroids in the ED, and admission rate. Patients given MDIs with spacers required shorter treatment times in the ED (66 minutes vs 103 minutes, P vs 20%, P nebulizer group had a significantly greater mean percent increase in heart rate from baseline to final disposition (15% vs 5%, P nebulizers for the treatment of children with acute asthma exacerbations in the ED.

  13. Ultrasonic nebulization extraction/low pressure photoionization mass spectrometry for direct analysis of chemicals in matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengyuan; Zhu, Yanan; Zhou, Zhongyue; Yang, Jiuzhong; Qi, Fei; Pan, Yang

    2015-09-03

    A novel ultrasonic nebulization extraction/low-pressure photoionization (UNE-LPPI) system has been designed and employed for the rapid mass spectrometric analysis of chemicals in matrices. An ultrasonic nebulizer was used to extract the chemicals in solid sample and nebulize the solvent in the nebulization cell. Aerosols formed by ultrasonic were evaporated by passing through a transferring tube, and desolvated chemicals were ionized by the emitted light (10.6 eV) from a Krypton discharge lamp at low pressure (∼68 Pa). First, a series of semi/non-volatile compounds with different polarities, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), amino acids, dipeptides, drugs, nucleic acids, alkaloids, and steroids were used to test the system. Then, the quantification capability of UNE-LPPI was checked with: 1) pure chemicals, such as 9,10-phenanthrenequinone and 1,4-naphthoquinone dissolved in solvent; 2) soil powder spiked with different amounts of phenanthrene and pyrene. For pure chemicals, the correlation coefficient (R(2)) for the standard curve of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone in the range of 3 ng-20 μg mL(-1) was 0.9922, and the measured limits of detection (LOD) was 1 ng ml(-1). In the case of soil powder, linear relationships for phenanthrene and pyrene from 10 to 400 ng mg(-1) were obtained with correlation coefficients of 0.9889 and 0.9893, respectively. At last, the feasibility of UNE-LPPI for the detection of chemicals in real matrices such as tablets and biological tissues (tea, Citrus aurantium peel and sage (Salvia officinalis) leaf) were successfully demonstrated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Does a Nebulized Heparin/N-acetylcysteine Protocol Improve Outcomes in Adult Smoke Inhalation?

    OpenAIRE

    Natalie S. Kashefi, MS; Jonathan I. Nathan, MD, MBA; Sharmila Dissanaike, MD, FACS

    2014-01-01

    Background: Smoke inhalation is a major source of morbidity and mortality. Heparin and N-acetylcysteine treatment has potential efficacy in inhalation injury. We investigated the impact of a heparin/N-acetylcysteine/albuterol nebulization protocol in adult patients with inhalation injury. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of adult inhalation injury patients, admitted to a regional burn center between January 2011 and July 2012, who underwent a protocol of alternating treatments of...

  15. Nebulized anticoagulants for acute lung injury - a systematic review of preclinical and clinical investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Tuinman, Pieter R; Dixon, Barry; Levi, Marcel; Juffermans, Nicole P; Schultz, Marcus J

    2012-01-01

    Background Data from interventional trials of systemic anticoagulation for sepsis inconsistently suggest beneficial effects in case of acute lung injury (ALI). Severe systemic bleeding due to anticoagulation may have offset the possible positive effects. Nebulization of anticoagulants may allow for improved local biological availability and as such may improve efficacy in the lungs and lower the risk of systemic bleeding complications. Method We performed a systematic review of preclinical st...

  16. Nebulization of the acidified sodium nitrite formulation attenuates acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surber Mark W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Generalized hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV occurring during exposure to hypoxia is a detrimental process resulting in an increase in lung vascular resistance. Nebulization of sodium nitrite has been shown to inhibit HPV. The aim of this project was to investigate and compare the effects of nebulization of nitrite and different formulations of acidified sodium nitrite on acute HPV. Methods Ex vivo isolated rabbit lungs perfused with erythrocytes in Krebs-Henseleit buffer (adjusted to 10% hematocrit and in vivo anesthetized catheterized rabbits were challenged with periods of hypoxic ventilation alternating with periods of normoxic ventilation. After baseline hypoxic challenges, vehicle, sodium nitrite or acidified sodium nitrite was delivered via nebulization. In the ex vivo model, pulmonary arterial pressure and nitric oxide concentrations in exhaled gas were monitored. Nitrite and nitrite/nitrate were measured in samples of perfusion buffer. Pulmonary arterial pressure, systemic arterial pressure, cardiac output and blood gases were monitored in the in vivo model. Results In the ex vivo model, nitrite nebulization attenuated HPV and increased nitric oxide concentrations in exhaled gas and nitrite concentrations in the perfusate. The acidified forms of sodium nitrite induced higher levels of nitric oxide in exhaled gas and had longer vasodilating effects compared to nitrite alone. All nitrite formulations increased concentrations of circulating nitrite to the same degree. In the in vivo model, inhaled nitrite inhibited HPV, while pulmonary arterial pressure, cardiac output and blood gases were not affected. All nitrite formulations had similar potency to inhibit HPV. The tested concentration of appeared tolerable. Conclusion Nitrite alone and in acidified forms effectively and similarly attenuates HPV. However, acidified nitrite formulations induce a more pronounced increase in nitric oxide exhalation.

  17. Simulation of external flows using a hybrid particle mesh vortex method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spietz, Henrik; Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Walther, Jens Honore

    The long-term goal of this project is to develop and apply state-of-the-art simulation software to enable accurate prediction of fluid structure interaction, specifically vortex-induced-vibration and flutter of long-span suspension bridges to avoid error-prone structural designs. In the following...... a hybrid particle mesh vortex method is applied for the simulation of uniform flow past stationary solid obstacles of arbitrary shapes....

  18. Laparoscopic appendicectomy for suspected mesh-induced appendicitis after laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal polypropylene mesh inguinal herniorraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennings Jason

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic inguinal herniorraphy via a transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP approach using Polypropylene Mesh (Mesh and staples is an accepted technique. Mesh induces a localised inflammatory response that may extend to, and involve, adjacent abdominal and pelvic viscera such as the appendix. We present an interesting case of suspected Mesh-induced appendicitis treated successfully with laparoscopic appendicectomy, without Mesh removal, in an elderly gentleman who presented with symptoms and signs of acute appendicitis 18 months after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. Possible mechanisms for Mesh-induced appendicitis are briefly discussed.

  19. Epinephrine Improves the Efficacy of Nebulized Hypertonic Saline in Moderate Bronchiolitis: A Randomised Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comino-Vazquez, Paloma; Palma-Zambrano, Encarnación; Bulo-Concellón, Rocio; Santos-Sánchez, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims There is no evidence that the epinephrine-3% hypertonic saline combination is more effective than 3% hypertonic saline alone for treating infants hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis. We evaluated the efficacy of nebulized epinephrine in 3% hypertonic saline. Patients and Methods We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 208 infants hospitalized with acute moderate bronchiolitis. Infants were randomly assigned to receive nebulized 3% hypertonic saline with either 3 mL of epinephrine or 3 mL of placebo, administered every four hours. The primary outcome measure was the length of hospital stay. Results A total of 185 infants were analyzed: 94 in the epinephrine plus 3% hypertonic saline group and 91 in the placebo plus 3% hypertonic saline group. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Length of hospital stay was significantly reduced in the epinephrine group as compared with the placebo group (3.94 ±1.88 days vs. 4.82 ±2.30 days, P = 0.011). Disease severity also decreased significantly earlier in the epinephrine group (P = 0.029 and P = 0.036 on days 3 and 5, respectively). Conclusions In our setting, nebulized epinephrine in 3% hypertonic saline significantly shortens hospital stay in hospitalized infants with acute moderate bronchiolitis compared to 3% hypertonic saline alone, and improves the clinical scores of severity from the third day of treatment, but not before. Trial Registration EudraCT 2009-016042-57 PMID:26575036

  20. [Heliox-driven bronchodilator nebulization in the treatment of infants with bronchiolitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias Fernández, C; Huidobro Fernández, B; Míguez Navarro, C; Guerrero Soler, M; Vázquez López, P; Marañón Pardillo, R

    2009-01-01

    Heliox is a helium-oxygen mixture which improves laminar flow and decreases airway resistance and the work of breathing. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of salbutamol or epinephrine nebulization driven by heliox in infants with moderate-to-severe bronchiolitis. This prospective, observational, interventional, controlled and randomized study included ninety-six children who came to our pediatric emergency department with first episode of moderate-to-severe bronchiolitis. The patients were randomized to receive salbutamol or epinephrine nebulized with either oxygen (control group) or heliox (70% helium and 30% oxygen) as the driving gas. Heart rate, respiratory rate, pulse oximetry oxygen saturation and clinical score were measured before and after the treatment period. We also reported hospitalization rates and the number of patients who returned to the emergency department in the following seventy two hours. There were no significant differences between both groups. The only statistically significant difference was that, in the heliox group, patients with severe bronchiolitis needed a lower number of nebulizations than infants in the control group. According to our study, heliox-driven salbutamol or epinephrine is not an effective therapy in patients with acute bronchiolitis.

  1. Nebulized gadolinium-based nanoparticles: a theranostic approach for lung tumor imaging and radiosensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufort, Sandrine; Bianchi, Andrea; Henry, Maxime; Lux, François; Le Duc, Géraldine; Josserand, Véronique; Louis, Cédric; Perriat, Pascal; Crémillieux, Yannick; Tillement, Olivier; Coll, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-14

    Lung cancer is the most common and most fatal cancer worldwide. Thus, improving early diagnosis and therapy is necessary. Previously, gadolinium-based ultra-small rigid platforms (USRPs) were developed to serve as multimodal imaging probes and as radiosensitizing agents. In addition, it was demonstrated that USRPs can be detected in the lungs using ultrashort echo-time magnetic resonance imaging (UTE-MRI) and fluorescence imaging after intrapulmonary administration in healthy animals. The goal of the present study is to evaluate their theranostic properties in mice with bioluminescent orthotopic lung cancer, after intrapulmonary nebulization or conventional intravenous administration. It is found that lung tumors can be detected non-invasively using fluorescence tomography or UTE-MRI after nebulization of USRPs, and this is confirmed by histological analysis of the lung sections. The deposition of USRPs around the tumor nodules is sufficient to generate a radiosensitizing effect when the mice are subjected to a single dose of 10 Gy conventional radiation one day after inhalation (mean survival time of 112 days versus 77 days for irradiated mice without USRPs treatment). No apparent systemic toxicity or induction of inflammation is observed. These results demonstrate the theranostic properties of USRPs for the multimodal detection of lung tumors and improved radiotherapy after nebulization. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Computerized acoustic assessment of treatment efficacy of nebulized epinephrine and albuterol in RSV bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Raphael; Elias, Nael; Shoval, Shay; Tov, Naveh; Talmon, Gil; Godfrey, Simon; Bentur, Lea

    2007-06-02

    We evaluated the use of computerized quantification of wheezing and crackles compared to a clinical score in assessing the effect of inhaled albuterol or inhaled epinephrine in infants with RSV bronchiolitis. Computerized lung sounds analysis with quantification of wheezing and crackles and a clinical score were used during a double blind, randomized, controlled nebulized treatment pilot study. Infants were randomized to receive a single dose of 1 mgr nebulized l-epinephrine or 2.5 mgr nebulized albuterol. Computerized quantification of wheezing and crackles (PulmoTrack) and a clinical score were performed prior to, 10 minutes post and 30 minutes post treatment. Results were analyzed with Student's t-test for independent samples, Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon test. 15 children received albuterol, 12 received epinephrine. The groups were identical at baseline. Satisfactory lung sounds recording and analysis was achieved in all subjects. There was no significant change in objective quantification of wheezes and crackles or in the total clinical scores either within the groups or between the groups. There was also no difference in oxygen saturation and respiratory distress. Computerized lung sound analysis is feasible in young infants with RSV bronchiolitis and provides a non-invasive, quantitative measure of wheezing and crackles in these infants.

  3. EPINEPHRINE HAND NEBULIZER IN ASTHMA—Technique of Use, Clinical Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targow, A. M.

    1950-01-01

    It behooves the physician seeking relief for asthmatic patients not to be casual about the epinephrine hand nebulizer and the manner in which it is used. Patients who claim to get no relief from the nebulizer should be asked to demonstrate their technique. If the nebulizer produces a hardly visible mist, it should be discarded. For many patients, the goal in spraying by hand must be the production of more or less continuous and voluminous aerosol, regardless of the phase of respiration, in order to effect relief. If the respiratory pattern has not deviated too far from normal in rate and depth, inhalations may be carried out in courses or cycles of about a half-minute duration and spaced a few minutes apart. If the respiratory pattern is abnormal during the act of spraying, it must be corrected. Inhaled epinephrine aerosols as constituted today appear to be somewhat irritating to the mouth, throat, and upper portion of the pulmonary tract of some persons, but it has not been convincingly demonstrated that serious and permanent damage to the lower respiratory tract of humans can occur from long-continued use of inhaled epinephrine. PMID:15414450

  4. [Efficacy and safety of nebulized L-epinephrine associated with dexamethasone in postintubation laringitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, I C; Fernandes, J C; Cordeiro, A; Hsin, S H; Bousso, A; Ejzenberg, B; Okay, Y

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of the use of nebulized L-epinephrine associated with dexamethasone in postintubation laryngitis. METHODS: We carried out a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study with two cohorts of patients with postintubation laryngitis graded 3 to 6 by Downes-Raphaelly score during two years. Our population was divided into two groups: A and B; both groups received intravenous dexamethasone and two doses of nebulized saline; however, only group B received L-epinephrine. The efficacy was assessed by Downes-Raphaelly score. The side effects of L-epinephrine were evaluated according to the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmia, increased blood pressure, and average heart rate of group B in comparison to group A. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients were included in group A (average score = 4.8) and 19 in group B (average score = 5.2). During treatment, 3 patients in group A presented a score of 8 and were reintubated. This group also showed higher mean clinical scores than group B during the first two hours of the protocol; these results were not statistically significant. No side effects were observed due to epinephrine. The gas blood measurements were adequate in both groups, but better in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: We did not observe increased efficacy for the treatment of postintubation laryngitis when nebulized L-epinephrine was used simultaneously with intravenous dexamethasone. Some indicators, however, did present a favorable trend when combined therapy was used and should be submitted to further evaluation.

  5. Computerized acoustic assessment of treatment efficacy of nebulized epinephrine and albuterol in RSV bronchiolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talmon Gil

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim We evaluated the use of computerized quantification of wheezing and crackles compared to a clinical score in assessing the effect of inhaled albuterol or inhaled epinephrine in infants with RSV bronchiolitis. Methods Computerized lung sounds analysis with quantification of wheezing and crackles and a clinical score were used during a double blind, randomized, controlled nebulized treatment pilot study. Infants were randomized to receive a single dose of 1 mgr nebulized l-epinephrine or 2.5 mgr nebulized albuterol. Computerized quantification of wheezing and crackles (PulmoTrack® and a clinical score were performed prior to, 10 minutes post and 30 minutes post treatment. Results were analyzed with Student's t-test for independent samples, Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon test. Results 15 children received albuterol, 12 received epinephrine. The groups were identical at baseline. Satisfactory lung sounds recording and analysis was achieved in all subjects. There was no significant change in objective quantification of wheezes and crackles or in the total clinical scores either within the groups or between the groups. There was also no difference in oxygen saturation and respiratory distress. Conclusion Computerized lung sound analysis is feasible in young infants with RSV bronchiolitis and provides a non-invasive, quantitative measure of wheezing and crackles in these infants. Trial registration number: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00361452

  6. Epinephrine Improves the Efficacy of Nebulized Hypertonic Saline in Moderate Bronchiolitis: A Randomised Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-González, J Carlos; Matamala-Morillo, Miguel A; Rodríguez-Campoy, Patricia; Pérez-Guerrero, Juan J; Serrano-Moyano, Belén; Comino-Vazquez, Paloma; Palma-Zambrano, Encarnación; Bulo-Concellón, Rocio; Santos-Sánchez, Vanessa; Lechuga-Sancho, Alfonso M

    2015-01-01

    There is no evidence that the epinephrine-3% hypertonic saline combination is more effective than 3% hypertonic saline alone for treating infants hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis. We evaluated the efficacy of nebulized epinephrine in 3% hypertonic saline. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 208 infants hospitalized with acute moderate bronchiolitis. Infants were randomly assigned to receive nebulized 3% hypertonic saline with either 3 mL of epinephrine or 3 mL of placebo, administered every four hours. The primary outcome measure was the length of hospital stay. A total of 185 infants were analyzed: 94 in the epinephrine plus 3% hypertonic saline group and 91 in the placebo plus 3% hypertonic saline group. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Length of hospital stay was significantly reduced in the epinephrine group as compared with the placebo group (3.94 ±1.88 days vs. 4.82 ±2.30 days, P = 0.011). Disease severity also decreased significantly earlier in the epinephrine group (P = 0.029 and P = 0.036 on days 3 and 5, respectively). In our setting, nebulized epinephrine in 3% hypertonic saline significantly shortens hospital stay in hospitalized infants with acute moderate bronchiolitis compared to 3% hypertonic saline alone, and improves the clinical scores of severity from the third day of treatment, but not before. EudraCT 2009-016042-57.

  7. Nebulized hypertonic saline in the treatment of viral bronchiolitis in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzik, Brian A; Al-Qadhi, Samim A; Kent, Steven; Flavin, Michael P; Hopman, Wilma; Hotte, Simon; Gander, Sarah

    2007-09-01

    To investigate the use of nebulized 3% hypertonic saline (HS) for treating viral bronchiolitis in moderately ill hospitalized infants by a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, controlled, multicenter trial. A total of 96 infants (mean age, 4.7 months; range, 0.3 to 18 months) admitted to the hospital for treatment of viral bronchiolitis were recruited from 3 regional pediatric centers over 3 bronchiolitis seasons (December 2003 to May 2006). Patients were randomized to receive, in a double-blind fashion, repeated doses of nebulized 3% HS (treatment group) or 0.9% normal saline (NS; control group), in addition to routine therapy ordered by the attending physician. The principal outcome measure was hospital length of stay (LOS). On an intention-to-treat basis, the infants in the HS group had a clinically relevant 26% reduction in LOS to 2.6 +/- 1.9 days, compared with 3.5 +/- 2.9 days in the NS group (P = .05). The treatment was well tolerated, with no adverse effects attributable to the use of HS. The use of nebulized 3% HS is a safe, inexpensive, and effective treatment for infants hospitalized with moderately severe viral bronchiolitis.

  8. Epinephrine Improves the Efficacy of Nebulized Hypertonic Saline in Moderate Bronchiolitis: A Randomised Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Carlos Flores-González

    Full Text Available There is no evidence that the epinephrine-3% hypertonic saline combination is more effective than 3% hypertonic saline alone for treating infants hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis. We evaluated the efficacy of nebulized epinephrine in 3% hypertonic saline.We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 208 infants hospitalized with acute moderate bronchiolitis. Infants were randomly assigned to receive nebulized 3% hypertonic saline with either 3 mL of epinephrine or 3 mL of placebo, administered every four hours. The primary outcome measure was the length of hospital stay.A total of 185 infants were analyzed: 94 in the epinephrine plus 3% hypertonic saline group and 91 in the placebo plus 3% hypertonic saline group. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Length of hospital stay was significantly reduced in the epinephrine group as compared with the placebo group (3.94 ±1.88 days vs. 4.82 ±2.30 days, P = 0.011. Disease severity also decreased significantly earlier in the epinephrine group (P = 0.029 and P = 0.036 on days 3 and 5, respectively.In our setting, nebulized epinephrine in 3% hypertonic saline significantly shortens hospital stay in hospitalized infants with acute moderate bronchiolitis compared to 3% hypertonic saline alone, and improves the clinical scores of severity from the third day of treatment, but not before.EudraCT 2009-016042-57.

  9. Effect of combined dexamethasone therapy with nebulized r-epinephrine or salbutamol in infants with bronchiolitis: A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bawazeer, Manal; Aljeraisy, Majed; Albanyan, Esam; Abdullah, Alanazi; Al Thaqa, Wesam; Alenazi, Jaber; Al Otaibi, Zaam; Al Ghaihab, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of combining oral dexamethasone with either nebulized racemic epinephrine or salbutamol compared to bronchodilators alone for the treatment of infants with bronchiolitis...

  10. Bluetooth Low Energy Mesh Networks: A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroudi, Seyed Mahdi; Gomez, Carles

    2017-06-22

    Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) has gained significant momentum. However, the original design of BLE focused on star topology networking, which limits network coverage range and precludes end-to-end path diversity. In contrast, other competing technologies overcome such constraints by supporting the mesh network topology. For these reasons, academia, industry, and standards development organizations have been designing solutions to enable BLE mesh networks. Nevertheless, the literature lacks a consolidated view on this emerging area. This paper comprehensively surveys state of the art BLE mesh networking. We first provide a taxonomy of BLE mesh network solutions. We then review the solutions, describing the variety of approaches that leverage existing BLE functionality to enable BLE mesh networks. We identify crucial aspects of BLE mesh network solutions and discuss their advantages and drawbacks. Finally, we highlight currently open issues.

  11. Unstructured Polyhedral Mesh Thermal Radiation Diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, T.S.; Zika, M.R.; Madsen, N.K.

    2000-07-27

    Unstructured mesh particle transport and diffusion methods are gaining wider acceptance as mesh generation, scientific visualization and linear solvers improve. This paper describes an algorithm that is currently being used in the KULL code at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to solve the radiative transfer equations. The algorithm employs a point-centered diffusion discretization on arbitrary polyhedral meshes in 3D. We present the results of a few test problems to illustrate the capabilities of the radiation diffusion module.

  12. Steps Towards Automated Robust RANS Meshing

    OpenAIRE

    Tomac, Maximilian; Eller, David

    2013-01-01

    The creation of high-quality discretizations for use in viscous flow simulations remains a challenging task. Even with modern software tools and substantial human effort, the application of state-of-the-art mesh generation algorithms in the presence of geometric features such as concave corners may still result in inadequate local mesh configurations, which can severely affect the resolution of important flow features. To address such issues, mesh generation tools for hybrid unstructured grid...

  13. Dynamics of aerosol size during inhalation: hygroscopic growth of commercial nebulizer formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddrell, Allen E; Davies, James F; Miles, Rachael E H; Reid, Jonathan P; Dailey, Lea Ann; Murnane, Darragh

    2014-03-10

    The size of aerosol particles prior to, and during, inhalation influences the site of deposition within the lung. As such, a detailed understanding of the hygroscopic growth of an aerosol during inhalation is necessary to accurately model the deposited dose. In the first part of this study, it is demonstrated that the aerosol produced by a nebulizer, depending on the airflows rates, may experience a (predictable) wide range of relative humidity prior to inhalation and undergo dramatic changes in both size and solute concentration. A series of sensitive single aerosol analysis techniques are then used to make measurements of the relative humidity dependent thermodynamic equilibrium properties of aerosol generated from four common nebulizer formulations. Measurements are also reported of the kinetics of mass transport during the evaporation or condensation of water from the aerosol. Combined, these measurements allow accurate prediction of the temporal response of the aerosol size prior to and during inhalation. Specifically, we compare aerosol composed of pure saline (150 mM sodium chloride solution in ultrapure water) with two commercially available nebulizer products containing relatively low compound doses: Breath®, consisting of a simple salbutamol sulfate solution (5 mg/2.5 mL; 1.7 mM) in saline, and Flixotide® Nebules, consisting of a more complex stabilized fluticasone propionate suspension (0.25 mg/mL; 0.5 mM in saline. A mimic of the commercial product Tobi© (60 mg/mL tobramycin and 2.25 mg/mL NaCl, pH 5.5-6.5) is also studied, which was prepared in house. In all cases, the presence of the pharmaceutical was shown to have a profound effect on the magnitude, and in some cases the rate, of the mass flux of water to and from the aerosol as compared to saline. These findings provide physical chemical evidence supporting observations from human inhalation studies, and suggest that using the growth dynamics of a pure saline aerosol in a lung inhalation model

  14. Advantages and pitfalls of combining intravenous antithrombin with nebulized heparin and tissue plasminogen activator in acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehberg, Sebastian; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Sousse, Linda E; Jonkam, Collette; Cox, Robert A; Prough, Donald S; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary coagulopathy has become an important therapeutic target in adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We hypothesized that combining intravenous recombinant human antithrombin (rhAT), nebulized heparin, and nebulized tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) more effectively improves pulmonary gas exchange compared with a single rhAT infusion, while maintaining the anti-inflammatory properties of rhAT in ARDS. Therefore, the present prospective, randomized experiment was conducted using an established ovine model. Following burn and smoke inhalation injury (40% of total body surface area, third-degree flame burn, and 4 × 12 breaths of cold cotton smoke), 18 chronically instrumented sheep were randomly assigned to receive intravenous saline plus saline nebulization (control), intravenous rhAT (6 IU/kg/h) started 1 hour after injury plus saline nebulization (AT i.v.) or intravenous rhAT combined with nebulized heparin (10,000 IU every 4 hours, started 2 hours after injury), and nebulized TPA (2 mg every 4 hours, started 4 hours after injury) (triple therapy, n = 6 each). All animals were mechanically ventilated and fluid resuscitated according to standard protocols during the 48-hour study period. Both treatment approaches attenuated ARDS compared with control animals. Notably, triple therapy was associated with an improved PaO2/FiO2 ratio (p = 0.007), attenuated pulmonary obstruction (p = 0.02) and shunting (p = 0.025), as well as reduced ventilatory pressures (p heparin and nebulized TPA more effectively restores pulmonary gas exchange, but the anti-inflammatory effects of sole rhAT are abolished with the triple therapy. Interferences between the different anticoagulants may represent a potential explanation for these findings.

  15. Conformal refinement of unstructured quadrilateral meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garmella, Rao [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We present a multilevel adaptive refinement technique for unstructured quadrilateral meshes in which the mesh is kept conformal at all times. This means that the refined mesh, like the original, is formed of only quadrilateral elements that intersect strictly along edges or at vertices, i.e., vertices of one quadrilateral element do not lie in an edge of another quadrilateral. Elements are refined using templates based on 1:3 refinement of edges. We demonstrate that by careful design of the refinement and coarsening strategy, we can maintain high quality elements in the refined mesh. We demonstrate the method on a number of examples with dynamically changing refinement regions.

  16. Converting skeletal structures to quad dominant meshes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Misztal, Marek Krzysztof; Welnicka, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    We propose the Skeleton to Quad-dominant polygonal Mesh algorithm (SQM), which converts skeletal structures to meshes composed entirely of polar and annular regions. Both types of regions have a regular structure where all faces are quads except for a single ring of triangles at the center of each...... polar region. The algorithm produces high quality meshes which contain irregular vertices only at the poles or where several regions join. It is trivial to produce a stripe parametrization for the output meshes which also lend themselves well to polar subdivision. After an initial description of SQM, we...

  17. Automatic tetrahedral mesh generation for impact computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, E. I.; Shabalin, I. I.; Shabalin, T. I.

    2017-10-01

    Explicit time integration schemes for dynamic processes simulation in solids put strong demands on the meshes. A technique for mesh generation in complicated three-dimensional bodies is developed. It consists of immersion of the body in a domain with a high quality mesh. Then the knots lying outside of the body are removed and the knot distribution near the boundary is regularized by the bubble packing method. Local transformations of tetrahedra groups allow to improve mesh quality. Parallel execution of the algorithm is discussed.

  18. Transrectal Mesh Erosion Requiring Bowel Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Marta Maria; Slim, Karem; Rabischong, Benoît; Bourdel, Nicolas; Canis, Michel; Botchorishvili, Revaz

    To report a case of a transrectal mesh erosion as complication of laparoscopic promontofixation with mesh repair, necessitating bowel resection and subsequent surgical interventions. Sacrocolpopexy has become a standard procedure for vaginal vault prolapse [1], and the laparoscopic approach has gained popularity owing to more rapid recovery and less morbidity [2,3]. Mesh erosion is a well-known complication of surgical treatment for prolapse as reported in several negative evaluations, including a report from the US Food and Drug Administration in 2011 [4]. Mesh complications are more common after surgeries via the vaginal approach [5]; nonetheless, the incidence of vaginal mesh erosion after laparoscopic procedures is as high as 9% [6]. The incidence of transrectal mesh exposure after laparoscopic ventral rectopexy is roughly 1% [7]. The diagnosis may be delayed because of its rarity and variable presentation. In addition, polyester meshes, such as the mesh used in this case, carry a higher risk of exposure [8]. A 57-year-old woman experiencing genital prolapse, with the cervix classified as +3 according to the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification system, underwent laparoscopic standard sacrocolpopexy using polyester mesh. Subtotal hysterectomy and bilateral adnexectomy were performed concomitantly. A 3-year follow-up consultation demonstrated no signs or symptoms of erosion of any type. At 7 years after the surgery, however, the patient presented with rectal discharge, diagnosed as infectious rectocolitis with the isolation of Clostridium difficile. She underwent a total of 5 repair surgeries in a period of 4 months, including transrectal resection of exposed mesh, laparoscopic ablation of mesh with digestive resection, exploratory laparoscopy with abscess drainage, and exploratory laparoscopy with ablation of residual mesh and transverse colostomy. She recovered well after the last intervention, exhibiting no signs of vaginal or rectal fistula and no recurrence

  19. Meshes optimized for discrete exterior calculus (DEC).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousley, Sarah C. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Deakin, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Knupp, Patrick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mitchell, Scott A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-12-01

    We study the optimization of an energy function used by the meshing community to measure and improve mesh quality. This energy is non-traditional because it is dependent on both the primal triangulation and its dual Voronoi (power) diagram. The energy is a measure of the mesh's quality for usage in Discrete Exterior Calculus (DEC), a method for numerically solving PDEs. In DEC, the PDE domain is triangulated and this mesh is used to obtain discrete approximations of the continuous operators in the PDE. The energy of a mesh gives an upper bound on the error of the discrete diagonal approximation of the Hodge star operator. In practice, one begins with an initial mesh and then makes adjustments to produce a mesh of lower energy. However, we have discovered several shortcomings in directly optimizing this energy, e.g. its non-convexity, and we show that the search for an optimized mesh may lead to mesh inversion (malformed triangles). We propose a new energy function to address some of these issues.

  20. Laparoscopic removal of intravesical mesh following pelvic organ prolapse mesh surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Christopher; Feiner, Benjamin

    2011-12-01

    With the increasing popularity of mesh in prolapse surgery, complications such as intravesical mesh will arise more frequently. In three cases intravesical mesh was identified in the trigone of the bladder following laparoscopic mesh hysteropexy, open sacral colpopexy, and transvaginal mesh repair and presented 9 months to 7 years later with a variety of symptoms including recurrent urinary tract infections, suprapubic pain, and constant urinary leakage. Each underwent uncomplicated laparoscopic transvesical removal of intravesical mesh. Intravesical mesh can present years following index prolapse surgery and can develop despite the bladder integrity being documented as being intact at the initial surgery. The laparoscopic approach to the removal of intravesical mesh is feasible, minimally invasive, and a precise approach to this challenging complication.

  1. Tensile Behaviour of Welded Wire Mesh and Hexagonal Metal Mesh for Ferrocement Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanawade, A. G.; Modhera, C. D.

    2017-08-01

    Tension tests were conducted on welded mesh and hexagonal Metal mesh. Welded Mesh is available in the market in different sizes. The two types are analysed viz. Ø 2.3 mm and Ø 2.7 mm welded mesh, having opening size 31.75 mm × 31.75 mm and 25.4 mm × 25.4 mm respectively. Tensile strength test was performed on samples of welded mesh in three different orientations namely 0°, 30° and 45° degrees with the loading axis and hexagonal Metal mesh of Ø 0.7 mm, having opening 19.05 × 19.05 mm. Experimental tests were conducted on samples of these meshes. The objective of this study was to investigate the behaviour of the welded mesh and hexagonal Metal mesh. The result shows that the tension load carrying capacity of welded mesh of Ø 2.7 mm of 0° orientation is good as compared to Ø2.3 mm mesh and ductility of hexagonal Metal mesh is good in behaviour.

  2. Unstructured mesh based elastic wave modelling on GPU: a double-mesh grid method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Zhang, Jianfeng; Gao, Hongwei

    2017-11-01

    We present an unstructured mesh based numerical technique for modelling elastic wave propagation in heterogeneous media with complex geometrical settings. The scheme is developed by adapting the so-called grid method with a double-mesh implementation. The double-mesh is generated by subdividing each triangular grid of the first-level mesh into a group of congruent smaller grids with equally dividing each edge of the triangle. The resulting double-mesh grid method incorporates the advantages of structured- and unstructured-mesh schemes. The irregular, unstructured first-level mesh, which is generated by centroidal Voronoi tessellation based on Delaunay triangulation with a velocity-dependent density function, can accurately describe the surface topography and interfaces, and the size of the grid cells can vary according to local velocities. Congruent smaller grids within each grid cell of the first-level mesh greatly reduce the memory requirement of geometrical coefficients compared to a whole irregular, unstructured mesh. Applying the double-mesh approach can also alleviate the discontinuity of memory accessing mainly caused by adoption of fully unstructured mesh. As a result, the GPU implementation of the proposed scheme can obtain a high speedup rate. Numerical examples demonstrate the good behaviour of the double-mesh elastic grid method.

  3. Comparision Of The Efficacy Of Nebulized L-Epinephrine, Salbutamoland Normal Saline In Acute Bronchiolitis: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mussavi

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Background:Acute bronchiolitis is the most common form of lower respiratory tract infection in infancy.There are numerous contradictory reports regarding the efficacy of nebulized bronchodilators in the management of infants with acute bronchiolitis. This study was designed to compare the efficacy of nebulized epinephrine with salbutamol for treatment of the disease.Methods:In a randomized clinical trial, 72 infants with moderately severe bronchiolitis were enrolled in three equal groups. Three doses of epinephrine, salbutamol, and normal saline as a placebo nebulized with oxygen were given at 20 minute intervals. Oxygen saturation, respiratory rate and distress were recorded before intervention and I0 minutes after each dose of the drugs. Results: At the end of the study, pre- and post-treatment mean oxygen saturation values, clinical scores and respiratory rates showed significant differences between the epinephrine and salbutamol groups in comparison with the placebo group. The results were more significant in the epinephrine group than other groups. After the treatment course 66%, 50%, and 25% of patients in epinephrine, salbutamol, and placebo groups respectively showed significant improvement at a degree that they could be sent home. No serious side effects were observed.Conclusion: Both nebulized epinephrine and salbutamol improved oxygenation and decreased respiratory distress better than normal saline. L-epinephrim was more effective in relieving respiratory distress and improving oxygen saturation as well as the need for hospitalization than nebulized salbutamol.

  4. Characterization of and correction for memory effects produced by pneumatic nebulizers in inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobb, D.E.; Jenke, D.R.

    1983-07-01

    Memory effect or sample carry over characteristics of five pneumatic nebulizers routinely used for sample introduction into plasma emission spectrometers are studied. It is observed that the primary source of the memory noted for the nebulizers studies is the dissipation rate of the fog produced by the nebulizer during introduction of the previous sample or samples. Contributions to memory from the aspiration tube, salt deposition at the nebulizer tip, and a chromatographic effect at the torch tip are minimal. In terms of operational stability, detection capability, tolerance for particulates, and low memory, a concentric nebulizer with a Pt:Ir needle, Teflon nose cone, and an extended spray director is superior to the others tested. Even under the most optimum conditions, the washout time required to reduce sample emission to 0.1% of its maximum intensity varies from 2 to 4 min, thereby greatly increasing per sample analysis time. The memory effect phenomena can be accurately modeled by a hyperbolic curve and can, therefore, be easily corrected for in routine analysis. The memory correction value, which is subtracted from a sample;s net emission intensity, is calculated from the product of an empirically defined correction constant and the emission intensity of previously run samples divided by the washout time. Examples of the utilization of the correction are shown.

  5. The efficacy of nebulized racemic epinephrine in children with acute asthma: a randomized, double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plint, A C; Osmond, M H; Klassen, T P

    2000-10-01

    Recent work in bronchiolitis has demonstrated a significant clinical improvement in children treated with epinephrine over nebulized salbutamol. The objective of this study was to determine whether nebulized epinephrine, as compared with nebulized salbutamol, causes a greater clinical improvement in children with acute asthma. Children, aged 1 to 17 years, with acute asthma presenting to the emergency department (ED) were eligible. In this double-blind study, patients were randomly allocated to receive either salbutamol or racemic epinephrine by nebulization at 0, 20, and 40 minutes. All patients received oral steroids. The primary outcome measure was a change in pulmonary index score (PIS). One hundred twenty patients were randomized. The groups were comparable in terms of age, gender, asthma severity, previous treatments, and use of inhaled steroids. There was no significant difference between treatments in the change in PIS, length of stay, admission to hospital, or relapse rate. The epinephrine-treated group had significantly more minor side effects (such as excess or brownish nasal discharge). There is no significant clinical benefit of nebulized epinephrine over salbutamol in children 1-17 years old with mild to moderate acute asthma. Salbutamol remains the treatment of choice in children with known asthma.

  6. Nebulized anticoagulants in lung injury in critically ill patients—an updated systematic review of preclinical and clinical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juschten, Jenny; Tuinman, Pieter R.; Juffermans, Nicole P.; Dixon, Barry; Levi, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Pneumonia, inhalation trauma and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), typical causes of lung injury in critically ill patients, are all three characterized by dysregulated inflammation and coagulation in the lungs. Nebulized anticoagulants are thought to have beneficial effects as they could attenuate pulmonary coagulopathy and maybe even affect pulmonary inflammation. A systematic search of the medical literature was performed using terms referring to aspects of the condition (‘pneumonia’, ‘inhalation trauma’ and ‘ARDS’), the intervention (‘nebulized’, ‘vaporized’, and ‘aerosolized’) and anticoagulants limited to agents that are commercially available and frequently given or tested in critically ill patients [‘heparin’, ‘danaparoid’, ‘activated protein C’ (APC), ‘antithrombin’ (AT) and ‘tissue factor pathway inhibitor’ (TFPI)]. The systematic search identified 16 articles reporting on preclinical studies and 11 articles reporting on human trials. All nebulized anticoagulants attenuate pulmonary coagulopathy in preclinical studies using various models for lung injury, but the effects on inflammation are less consistent. Nebulized heparin, danaparoid and TFPI, but not APC and AT also reduced systemic coagulation. Nebulized heparin in lung injury patients shows contradictory results, and there is concern over systemic side effects of this strategy. Future studies need to focus on the way to nebulize anticoagulants, as well as on efficient but safe dosages, and other side effects. PMID:29264361

  7. A randomized, controlled trial of nebulized 5% hypertonic saline and mixed 5% hypertonic saline with epinephrine in bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsa, Faten; Abdelkafi, Sana; Bel Haj, Imen; Hamouda, Samia; Brini, Ines; Zouari, Bechir; Boussetta, Khadija

    2014-11-01

    Bronchiolitis is a public health problem in the word and in Tunisia. Nebulized hypertonic saline seems to have some benefits in bronchiolitis. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of nebulized 5% hypertonic saline alone or mixed with epinephrine in bronchiolitis as measured by improvement in clinical score, oxygen saturation or reduction in duration of hospitalization. This prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized clinical trial was performed at Children's Hospital of Tunis from February 2012 to Mars 2012. A total of 94 patients less than 12 months of age with diagnosis of moderately severe bronchiolitis were enrolled and assigned to receive 5% nebulized hypertonic saline, mixed 5% hypertonic saline with standard epinephrine 0,1% or normal saline (placebo) at admission and every 4 hours during hospitalization. There were no significant difference between nebulized 5% hypertonic saline, mixed 5% hypertonic saline with epinephrine or normal saline at baseline, T30 min, T60 min, and T120 min after start study in Wang severity score, oxygen saturation in room air, rate respiratory and heart rate. There was no difference in duration of hospitalization. Nebulized 5% hypertonic saline or mixed 5% hypertonic saline with epinephrine are safety but does not appear effective in treating moderately ill infants with the first acute bronchiolitis.

  8. Adaptive mesh refinement in titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colella, Phillip; Wen, Tong

    2005-01-21

    In this paper, we evaluate Titanium's usability as a high-level parallel programming language through a case study, where we implement a subset of Chombo's functionality in Titanium. Chombo is a software package applying the Adaptive Mesh Refinement methodology to numerical Partial Differential Equations at the production level. In Chombo, the library approach is used to parallel programming (C++ and Fortran, with MPI), whereas Titanium is a Java dialect designed for high-performance scientific computing. The performance of our implementation is studied and compared with that of Chombo in solving Poisson's equation based on two grid configurations from a real application. Also provided are the counts of lines of code from both sides.

  9. Scalable L-infinite coding of meshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munteanu, Adrian; Cernea, Dan C; Alecu, Alin; Cornelis, Jan; Schelkens, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The paper investigates the novel concept of local-error control in mesh geometry encoding. In contrast to traditional mesh-coding systems that use the mean-square error as target distortion metric, this paper proposes a new L-infinite mesh-coding approach, for which the target distortion metric is the L-infinite distortion. In this context, a novel wavelet-based L-infinite-constrained coding approach for meshes is proposed, which ensures that the maximum error between the vertex positions in the original and decoded meshes is lower than a given upper bound. Furthermore, the proposed system achieves scalability in L-infinite sense, that is, any decoding of the input stream will correspond to a perfectly predictable L-infinite distortion upper bound. An instantiation of the proposed L-infinite-coding approach is demonstrated for MESHGRID, which is a scalable 3D object encoding system, part of MPEG-4 AFX. In this context, the advantages of scalable L-infinite coding over L-2-oriented coding are experimentally demonstrated. One concludes that the proposed L-infinite mesh-coding approach guarantees an upper bound on the local error in the decoded mesh, it enables a fast real-time implementation of the rate allocation, and it preserves all the scalability features and animation capabilities of the employed scalable mesh codec.

  10. Stretchable Mesh for Cavity Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A stretchable mesh material extends across the opening of a cavity of the landing gear of an aircraft when the landing gear is in the deployed position. The mesh material alters the flow of air across the opening of the landing gear cavity and significantly reduces the amount of noise produced by the wheel well at low-to-mid frequencies.

  11. 7th International Meshing Roundtable '98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, T.J.

    1998-10-01

    The goal of the 7th International Meshing Roundtable is to bring together researchers and developers from industry, academia, and government labs in a stimulating, open environment for the exchange of technical information related to the meshing process. In the past, the Roundtable has enjoyed significant participation from each of these groups from a wide variety of countries.

  12. Mesh Sutured Repairs of Abdominal Wall Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Steven T.; Jordan, Sumanas W.; Miller, Kyle R.; Ali, Nada A.; Stock, Stuart R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: A new closure technique is introduced, which uses strips of macroporous polypropylene mesh as a suture for closure of abdominal wall defects due to failures of standard sutures and difficulties with planar meshes. Methods: Strips of macroporous polypropylene mesh of 2 cm width were passed through the abdominal wall and tied as simple interrupted sutures. The surgical technique and surgical outcomes are presented. Results: One hundred and seven patients underwent a mesh sutured abdominal wall closure. Seventy-six patients had preoperative hernias, and the mean hernia width by CT scan for those with scans was 9.1 cm. Forty-nine surgical fields were clean-contaminated, contaminated, or dirty. Five patients had infections within the first 30 days. Only one knot was removed as an office procedure. Mean follow-up at 234 days revealed 4 recurrent hernias. Conclusions: Mesh sutured repairs reliably appose tissue under tension using concepts of force distribution and resistance to suture pull-through. The technique reduces the amount of foreign material required in comparison to sheet meshes, and avoids the shortcomings of monofilament sutures. Mesh sutured closures seem to be tolerant of bacterial contamination with low hernia recurrence rates and have replaced our routine use of mesh sheets and bioprosthetic grafts. PMID:27757361

  13. Laparoscopic Pelvic Floor Repair Using Polypropylene Mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Shien Weng

    2008-09-01

    Conclusion: Laparoscopic pelvic floor repair using a single piece of polypropylene mesh combined with uterosacral ligament suspension appears to be a feasible procedure for the treatment of advanced vaginal vault prolapse and enterocele. Fewer mesh erosions and postoperative pain syndromes were seen in patients who had no previous pelvic floor reconstructive surgery.

  14. Absorbable Meshes in Inguinal Hernia Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öberg, Stina; Andresen, Kristoffer; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Absorbable meshes used in inguinal hernia repair are believed to result in less chronic pain than permanent meshes, but concerns remain whether absorbable meshes result in an increased risk of recurrence. The aim of this study was to present an overview of the advantages and limitations...... of fully absorbable meshes for the repair of inguinal hernias, focusing mainly on postoperative pain and recurrence. METHODS: This systematic review with meta-analyses is based on searches in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and Psychinfo. Included study designs were case series, cohort studies, randomized...... controlled trials (RCTs), and non-RCTs. Studies had to include adult patients undergoing an inguinal hernia repair with a fully absorbable mesh. RESULTS: The meta-analyses showed no difference in recurrence rates (median 18 months follow-up) and chronic pain rates (1 year follow-up) between absorbable...

  15. Investigation of Gearbox Vibration Transmission Paths on Gear Condition Indicator Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Islam, AKM Anwarul; Feldman, Jason; Larsen, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Helicopter health monitoring systems use vibration signatures generated from damaged components to identify transmission faults. For damaged gears, these signatures relate to changes in dynamics due to the meshing of the damaged tooth. These signatures, referred to as condition indicators (CI), can perform differently when measured on different systems, such as a component test rig, or a full-scale transmission test stand, or an aircraft. These differences can result from dissimilarities in systems design and environment under dynamic operating conditions. The static structure can also filter the response between the vibration source and the accelerometer, when the accelerometer is installed on the housing. To assess the utility of static vibration transfer paths for predicting gear CI performance, measurements were taken on the NASA Glenn Spiral Bevel Gear Fatigue Test Rig. The vibration measurements were taken to determine the effect of torque, accelerometer location and gearbox design on accelerometer response. Measurements were taken at the housing and compared while impacting the gear set near mesh. These impacts were made at gear mesh to simulate gear meshing dynamics. Data measured on a helicopter gearbox installed in a static fixture were also compared to the test rig. The behavior of the structure under static conditions was also compared to CI values calculated under dynamic conditions. Results indicate that static vibration transfer path measurements can provide some insight into spiral bevel gear CI performance by identifying structural characteristics unique to each system that can affect specific CI response.

  16. Design and evaluation of a continuous flow, integrated nebulizer-hydride generator for flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Murillo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of the performance of a continuous flow hydride generator-nebulizer for flame atomic absorption spectrometry was carried out. Optimization of nebulizer gas flow rate, sample acid concentration, sample and tetrahydroborate uptake rates and reductant concentration, on the As and Se absorbance signals was carried out. A hydrogen-argon flame was used. An improvement of the analytical sensitivity relative to the conventional bead nebulizer used in flame AA was obtained (2 (As and 4.8 (Se µg L-1. Detection limits (3σb of 1 (As and 1.3 (Se µg L-1 were obtained. Accuracy of the method was checked by analyzing an oyster tissue reference material.

  17. Nebulized racemic epinephrine used in the treatment of severe asthmatic exacerbation: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Kristopher; Rowe, Brian H

    2007-07-01

    Acute asthma is a common emergency department (ED) problem that is typically treated with bronchodilators and anti-inflammatories. Nebulized selective, short-acting beta-agonists, such as salbutamol, are the bronchodilators of choice in most Canadian EDs. Other important treatments in moderate-to-severe cases include systemic corticosteroids and in severe cases may include the addition of ipratropium bromide and magnesium sulfate. Despite aggressive management, some patients do not respond adequately to nebulized salbutamol. Treatment options in these patients are limited to interventions such as parenteral epinephrine, and non-invasive and mechanical ventilation (or both). Both parenteral epinephrine and mechanical ventilation have associated risks, so alternative treatments with a lower risk profile would be useful for the treatment of life-threatening asthma. The following case report describes a patient in whom nebulized racemic epinephrine was used successfully to treat severe acute asthma following failure of standard first-line therapies.

  18. Evaluation of disturbing effect of mesh holes in wide-acceptance-angle electrostatic mesh lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hmatsuda@ms.naist.jp [Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST), 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Tóth, László [University of Debrecen, H-4032 Debrecen, Egyetemtér 1 (Hungary); Matsui, Fumihiko; Daimon, Hiroshi [Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST), 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • A practical method to evaluate the disturbing effect of mesh holes in electrostatic mesh lenses is described. • The method evaluates the image blur due to a mesh hole using the Davisson–Calbick formula. • The method considers the discrepancy in focal length in tangential and saggital planes. • The method can be applied to wide-acceptance-angle electrostatic mesh lenses. • The mesh-hole effect of a wide-acceptance-angle electrostatic lens considerably decreases with increasing the emission angle. - Abstract: A curved mesh electrode introduced into an electrostatic lens enables spherical aberration correction over a wide acceptance angle. This technique has great advantages in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and related techniques, allowing considerable increase in photoelectron intensity and efficient measurement of photoelectron angular distribution. However, the use of meshes severely limits spatial resolution, as the image produced through each mesh hole is blurred by the lens action of the hole. This feature is studied in detail in this paper, in order to determine the best possible resolution that can be attained in electrostatic mesh lenses with wide acceptance angles. A simple way to evaluate the mesh-hole effect is to use the Davisson–Calbick formula, which expresses the focal length of a single-aperture lens. To make this approach more feasible, we take into account the influence of the angle of incidence to a mesh hole. We characterize the image blur due to each mesh hole in two orthogonal directions, considering the discrepancy in focal length in tangential and sagittal planes. After the demonstration of the validity of our approach in a simple example, the mesh-hole effect of a wide-acceptance-angle electrostatic mesh lens is evaluated.

  19. Automatic Mesh Generation of Hybrid Mesh on Valves in Multiple Positions in Feedline Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Douglass H.; Ito, Yasushi; Dorothy, Fredric W.; Shih, Alan M.; Peugeot, John

    2010-01-01

    Fluid flow simulations through a valve often require evaluation of the valve in multiple opening positions. A mesh has to be generated for the valve for each position and compounding. The problem is the fact that the valve is typically part of a larger feedline system. In this paper, we propose to develop a system to create meshes for feedline systems with parametrically controlled valve openings. Herein we outline two approaches to generate the meshes for a valve in a feedline system at multiple positions. There are two issues that must be addressed. The first is the creation of the mesh on the valve for multiple positions. The second is the generation of the mesh for the total feedline system including the valve. For generation of the mesh on the valve, we will describe the use of topology matching and mesh generation parameter transfer. For generation of the total feedline system, we will describe two solutions that we have implemented. In both cases the valve is treated as a component in the feedline system. In the first method the geometry of the valve in the feedline system is replaced with a valve at a different opening position. Geometry is created to connect the valve to the feedline system. Then topology for the valve is created and the portion of the topology for the valve is topology matched to the standard valve in a different position. The mesh generation parameters are transferred and then the volume mesh for the whole feedline system is generated. The second method enables the user to generate the volume mesh on the valve in multiple open positions external to the feedline system, to insert it into the volume mesh of the feedline system, and to reduce the amount of computer time required for mesh generation because only two small volume meshes connecting the valve to the feedline mesh need to be updated.

  20. Nebulized cyclosporine in the rat: assessment of regional lung and extrapulmonary deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blot, F; Faurisson, F; Bernard, N; Sellam, S; Friard, S; Tavakoli, R; Carbon, C; Stern, M; Bisson, A; Pocidalo, J J; Caubarrere, I

    1999-07-27

    Nebulized cyclosporine (CsA) has been shown to limit lung allograft rejection as well as intramuscular (IM) CsA, with limited blood diffusion. The present study determined the pharmacokinetic parameters of nebulized CsA, by the assessment of regional lung deposition and extrapulmonary diffusion of CsA. CsA was given either by IM injection (10 mg/kg) or by aerosol (at 10 and 25 mg/kg doses); 70 rats were killed at 25 and 50 min, and at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, or 48 hr after CsA administration. CsA levels were measured in the whole lung, in central and peripheral parts of the lung, in whole blood, kidney, and heart. The areas under the concentration time curves (AUCs) were determined. In blood, kidney, and heart, CsA levels were significantly higher for IM than for aerosol administrations at 10 and 25 mg/kg doses. In the whole lung, the AUC was greater for the aerosol route at 25 mg/kg doses (588 ng x hr/mg) than for the low-dose (200 ng x hr/mg) or IM administration (200 ng x hr/mg). The central to peripheral index of CsA (ratio of AUC central/peripheral part of the lung) was not significantly different for both aerosol administrations (0.63 and 0.69, respectively) and for the IM route (0.81). Nebulized CsA allows better pulmonary concentration than IM administration, with equivalent central and peripheral deposition whatever the mode of administration, and results in lower levels in blood, kidney, and heart.

  1. Does a Nebulized Heparin/N-acetylcysteine Protocol Improve Outcomes in Adult Smoke Inhalation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashefi, Natalie S; Nathan, Jonathan I; Dissanaike, Sharmila

    2014-06-01

    Smoke inhalation is a major source of morbidity and mortality. Heparin and N-acetylcysteine treatment has potential efficacy in inhalation injury. We investigated the impact of a heparin/N-acetylcysteine/albuterol nebulization protocol in adult patients with inhalation injury. A retrospective review was performed of adult inhalation injury patients, admitted to a regional burn center between January 2011 and July 2012, who underwent a protocol of alternating treatments of heparin and N-acetylcysteine/albuterol nebulization every 4 hours. The study cohort was matched 1:1 by age, sex, and burn size to a control cohort admitted within 5 years before protocol implementation. The study (n = 20) and control cohorts (n = 20) were well matched, with nearly identical age (50 vs 49 years), sex distribution (70% male), burn size (total body surface area, 22% vs 21%), and inhalation injury, except grade I injuries (79% vs 47%, P = 0.01). The protocol did not change mortality (30% vs 25%, P = 0.72) or duration of mechanical ventilation (8.5 vs 8.8 days, P = 0.9). There was no difference in development of sepsis (40% vs 33%, P = 0.7) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (15% vs 10%, P = 1); however, those who received the protocol were more likely to develop pneumonia (45% vs 11%, P = 0.03). The implementation of a heparin/N-acetylcysteine/albuterol protocol did not reduce mortality or duration of mechanical ventilation in this cohort of adults with inhalation injury and resulted in a significant increase in pneumonia rates. Larger prospective studies are necessary, with close attention paid to minimizing the infection risk incurred from frequent administration of nebulized medications.

  2. Nebulized formoterol: a review of clinical efficacy and safety in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Gross

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Nicholas J Gross1, James F Donohue21Hines VA Hospital, Stritch Loyola School of Medicine, Hines, IL, USA; 2University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USAAbstract: A nebulized formulation of formoterol, Perforomist®, 20 μg/2 ml, has been available since 2007 for the maintenance treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. We review the safety and efficacy data obtained during its development. In a dose-finding study, formoterol inhalation solution (FFIS was similar to the formoterol originator, Foradil® 12 μg DPI (FA in patients with COPD. In a 12-week efficacy study, FFIS manifested a rapid onset of action and FEV1 peak, AUC0–12, and trough levels similar to FA. No loss of efficacy, tachyphylaxis, was observed over 12 weeks of regular administration. In placebo-controlled studies in COPD patients receiving maintenance tiotropium, the addition of FFIS significantly augmented bronchodilation over the 6-week treatment duration, signifying that nebulized formoterol can further improve lung function in patients who are receiving tiotropium without an observed increase in adverse reactions. The safety profile of FFIS during 12-week and 1-year studies revealed adverse events that were similar to those of placebo and FA. Cardiac rhythm studies, including frequent ECGs and Holter monitoring, did not indicate any increase in rate or rhythm disturbances greater than placebo or FA. We conclude that maintenance use of Perforomist® is appropriate for patients with COPD who require or prefer a nebulizer for management of their disease.Keywords: long-acting bronchodilator, β-agonist, chronic bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema, Perforomist®, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  3. Nebulized hypertonic saline for bronchiolitis in the emergency department: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florin, Todd A; Shaw, Kathy N; Kittick, Marlena; Yakscoe, Stephen; Zorc, Joseph J

    2014-07-01

    Acute bronchiolitis is the most frequent lower respiratory tract infection in infants, yet there are no effective therapies available. Current evidence is unclear about the role of hypertonic saline (HS) for the acute treatment of bronchiolitis. To determine whether nebulized 3% HS compared with normal saline (NS) improves respiratory distress in infants with bronchiolitis not responding to standard treatments in the emergency department. A randomized clinical trial with blinding of investigators, health care providers, and parents was conducted at a single urban pediatric ED. The participants included children aged 2 to less than 24 months with their first episode of bronchiolitis and a Respiratory Distress Assessment Instrument score of 4 to 15 after nasal suctioning and a trial of nebulized albuterol. Patients were randomized to receive either nebulized 3% HS (HS group) or NS (NS group). The primary outcome was change in respiratory distress at 1 hour after the intervention, as measured by the Respiratory Assessment Change Score (a decrease indicates improvement). Secondary outcomes included vital signs, oxygen saturation, hospitalization, physician clinical impression, parental assessment, and adverse events. The 31 patients enrolled in each treatment arm had similar baseline demographic and clinical characteristics. At 1 hour after the intervention, the HS group demonstrated significantly less improvement in the median Respiratory Assessment Change Score compared with the NS group (HS, -1 [interquartile range, -5 to 1] vs. NS, -5 [interquartile range, -6 to -2]; P = .01). There were no significant differences in heart rate, oxygen saturation, hospitalization rate, or other outcomes. There were no adverse events. Infants with bronchiolitis and persistent respiratory distress after standard treatment in the emergency department had less improvement after receiving 3% HS compared with those who received NS. Based on these results and the existing evidence

  4. A randomized trial of nebulized epinephrine vs albuterol in the emergency department treatment of bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mull, Colette C; Scarfone, Richard J; Ferri, Lara R; Carlin, Teresa; Salvaggio, Christy; Bechtel, Kirsten A; Trephan, Mary Ann Hanes; Rissman, Raquel L; Gracely, Edward J

    2004-02-01

    To determine if nebulized epinephrine is more efficacious than nebulized albuterol in the emergency department (ED) treatment of moderately ill infants with bronchiolitis. Sixty-six patients between 0 and 12 months of age with new-onset wheezing, an antecedent upper respiratory tract infection, and a clinical score (Respiratory Distress Assessment Instrument) of 8 to 15 were randomized in a double-blind fashion to receive either 0.9 mg/kg of nebulized 2.25% racemic epinephrine (n = 34) or 0.15 mg/kg of nebulized 0.5% albuterol sulfate (n = 32) at 0, 30, and 60 minutes. Primary outcome measures were clinical score and respiratory rate. Secondary outcome measures were room air oxygen saturation, elapsed time to meeting clinical criteria for ED discharge, hospitalization rate, and proportion of patients relapsed within 72 hours of ED discharge (relapse rate). Both treatment groups experienced a similar pattern of change in mean clinical score, respiratory rate, and room air saturation over time. There were no significant differences between the groups by these same measures at any time. The median time at which infants were well enough for ED discharge was 90 minutes in the epinephrine-treated group vs 120 minutes in the albuterol-treated group (P =.01). Sixteen infants (47.1%) in the epinephrine-treated group were hospitalized compared with 12 infants (37.5%) in the albuterol-treated group (relative risk, 1.25; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-2.22). Relapse rate was 18.8% (3/16) in the epinephrine-treated group and 42.1% (8/19) in the albuterol-treated group (relative risk, 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.14-1.41). Adverse effects occurred infrequently. Although the patients treated with epinephrine were judged well enough for ED discharge significantly earlier than the patients treated with albuterol, epinephrine was not found to be more efficacious than albuterol in treating moderately ill infants with bronchiolitis.

  5. Additive effects of dexamethasone in nebulized salbutamol or L-epinephrine treated infants with acute bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyucu, Semanur; Unal, Selma; Kuyucu, Necdet; Yilgor, Esat

    2004-10-01

    Although it is the most common lower respiratory infection of infancy, the optimal treatment for acute bronchiolitis is still controversial. The aim of this study was to compare the early and late effects of nebulized L-epinephrine (EPI) and intramuscular dexamethasone (DEX) combination therapy with nebulized salbutamol (SAL) and dexamethasone combination and bronchodilators alone in outpatients with acute bronchiolitis. A total of 69 infants aged 2-21 months who were admitted to the Pediatrics Department of the Faculty of Medicine, Mersin University, with acute bronchiolitis were included in a randomized, placebo-controlled, prospective trial study. Patients were assigned to receive either nebulized L-epinephrine (3 mg) or salbutamol (0.15 mg/kg) and 15 min later, either dexamethasone 0.6 mg/kg or placebo (PLA), intramuscularly, in a double-blind randomized fashion. The study groups were: epinephrine + dexamethasone group (group 1, n=23), salbutamol + dexamethasone group (group 2, n=23), epinephrine + placebo group (group 3, n=11), and salbutamol + placebo group (group 4, n=12). The outcome measures were heart rate, respiratory rate and Respiratory Distress Assessment Instrument (RDAI) score determined at 30, 60, 90 and 120 min, 24 h, and 5 days after the first therapy. Patients were then followed-up during the subsequent 2 months for the prevalance of respiratory complaints regarding bronchial hyperreactivity. There were no significant differences between the outcome variables of the four groups within the first 120 min and at 24 hours, or between the rates of requirement of a second dose of the same bronchodilator. However, fifth day RDAI score values of both DEX groups were significantly lower than that of SAL + PLA group (P=0.000 and P=0.01, respectively). The fifth day score value of group 1 was also significantly better than that value of EPI + PLA group but not different from group 2. A single dose of intramuscular dexamethasone added to nebulized L

  6. Formation law and criterion of nebulous macroscopic segregation in ZL205A alloy castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yusheng

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of macroscopic segregation in ZL205A alloy castings bears a super resemblance to the appearance of shrinkage porosity, and the chemical composition of the segregation is Al2Cu whose microstructure is in the form of dentrite or skeleton crystal. According to the characteristic of nebulous segregation, the formation process could be divided into two steps by the eutectic temperature of Al2Cu. Then a criterion for each of the two steps is brought forward on the basis of the shrinkage porosity criterion of low pressure casting.

  7. Parallel path nebulizer: Critical parameters for use with microseparation techniques combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanes, Enrique G. [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Food Composition Laboratory, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States)]. E-mail: enrigy@yahoo.com; Miller-Ihli, Nancy J. [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Food Composition Laboratory, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States)]. E-mail: miller-ihli@msn.com

    2005-04-30

    Four different, low flow parallel path Mira Mist CE nebulizers were evaluated and compared in support of an ongoing project related to the use of microseparation techniques interfaced to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the quantification of cobalamin species (Vitamin B12). For the characterization of the different Mira Mist CE nebulizers, the nebulizer orientation as well as the effect of methanol on analytical response was the focus of the study. The position of the gas outlet on the nebulizer which consistently provided the maximum signal was when it was rotated to the 11 o'clock position when the nebulizer is viewed end-on. With this orientation the increased signal may be explained by the fact that the cone angle of the aerosol is such that the largest percentage of the aerosol is directed to the center of the spray chamber and consequently into the plasma. To characterize the nebulizer's performance, the signal response of a multielement solution containing elements with a variety of ionization potentials was used. The selection of elements with varying ionization energies and degrees of ionization was essential for a better understanding of observed increases in signal enhancement when methanol was used. Two different phenomena contribute to signal enhancement when using methanol: the first is improved transport efficiency and the second is the 'carbon enhancement effect'. The net result was that as much as a 30-fold increase in signal was observed for As and Mg when using a make-up solution of 20% methanol at a 15 {mu}L/min flow rate which is equivalent to a net volume of 3 {mu}L/min of pure methanol.

  8. Short term efficacy of nebulized beclomethasone in mild-to-moderate wheezing episodes in pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papi, Alberto; Nicolini, Gabriele; Boner, Attilio L; Baraldi, Eugenio; Cutrera, Renato; Fabbri, Leonardo M; Rossi, Giovanni A

    2011-08-22

    Few data are available on the usefulness of short term treatment with low-medium dose of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in pre-school children with wheezing exacerbations. To compare the efficacy of one week treatment with 400 μg b.i.d. nebulized beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP), plus nebulized 2500 μg prn salbutamol (BDP group), versus nebulized b.i.d. placebo, plus nebulized prn 2500 μg salbutamol (placebo group), a post-hoc analysis was performed on data obtained in 166 pre-school children with multiple-trigger wheezing, recruited during an acute wheezing episode. The percentage of symptom-free days (SFDs) was significantly higher in the BDP group (54.7%) than in the placebo group (40.5%; p = 0.012), with a 35% relative difference. Day-by-day analysis showed that the percentage of SFDs was already higher in the BDP group after 2 days (7.4%), the difference reaching statistical significance at day 6 (12.3%; p = 0.035). Cough score was also reduced in the BDP group (0.11) as compared with the placebo group (0.39; p = 0.048), the difference reaching statistical significance after 5 days of treatment (0.18 and 0.47 respectively; p = 0.047). The mean number of nebulizations per day of prn salbutamol was lower in the BDP group as compared to the placebo group (0.26 and 0.34, respectively), but the difference was not significant (p = 0.366). There were no differences in positive effects of BDP treatment between children with and without risk factors for asthma. A 1-week treatment with nebulized BDP and prn salbutamol is effective in increasing SFDs and improving cough in children with wheezing, providing a clinical rationale for the short term use of ICS in episodic wheeze exacerbations in pre-school children.

  9. A randomized controlled experimental study comparing chitosan coated polypropylene mesh and Proceed™ mesh for abdominal wall defect closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.T. Jayanth

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Chitosan coated polypropylene mesh was found to have similar efficacy to Proceed™ mesh. Chitosan coated polypropylene mesh, can act as an anti adhesive barrier when used in the repair of incisional hernias and abdominal wall defects.

  10. Tunable Passive Vibration Suppressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boechler, Nicholas (Inventor); Dillon, Robert Peter (Inventor); Daraio, Chiara (Inventor); Davis, Gregory L. (Inventor); Shapiro, Andrew A. (Inventor); Borgonia, John Paul C. (Inventor); Kahn, Daniel Louis (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An apparatus and method for vibration suppression using a granular particle chain. The granular particle chain is statically compressed and the end particles of the chain are attached to a payload and vibration source. The properties of the granular particles along with the amount of static compression are chosen to provide desired filtering of vibrations.

  11. Vibrations and Eigenvalues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We make music by causing strings, membranes, or air columns to vibrate. Engineers design safe structures by control- ling vibrations. I will describe to you a very simple vibrating system and the mathematics needed to analyse it. The ideas were born in the work of Joseph-Louis Lagrange (1736–1813), and I begin by quot-.

  12. Quadratically consistent projection from particles to mesh

    CERN Document Server

    Duque, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The advantage of particle Lagrangian methods in computational fluid dynamics is that advection is accurately modeled. However, this complicates the calculation of space derivatives. If a mesh is employed, it must be updated at each time step. On the other hand, fixed mesh, Eulerian, formulations benefit from the mesh being defined at the beginning of the simulation, but feature non-linear advection terms. It therefore seems natural to combine the two approaches, using a fixed mesh to perform calculations related to space derivatives, and using the particles to advect the information with time. The idea of combining Lagrangian particles and a fixed mesh goes back to Particle-in-Cell methods, and is here considered within the context of the finite element method (FEM) for the fixed mesh, and the particle FEM (pFEM) for the particles. Our results, in agreement with recent works, show that interpolation ("projection") errors, especially from particles to mesh, are the culprits of slow convergence of the method if...

  13. Fog water collection effectiveness: Mesh intercomparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Daniel; Torregrosa, Alicia; Weiss-Penzias, Peter; Zhang, Bong June; Sorensen, Deckard; Cohen, Robert; McKinley, Gareth; Kleingartner, Justin; Oliphant, Andrew; Bowman, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    To explore fog water harvesting potential in California, we conducted long-term measurements involving three types of mesh using standard fog collectors (SFC). Volumetric fog water measurements from SFCs and wind data were collected and recorded in 15-minute intervals over three summertime fog seasons (2014–2016) at four California sites. SFCs were deployed with: standard 1.00 m2 double-layer 35% shade coefficient Raschel; stainless steel mesh coated with the MIT-14 hydrophobic formulation; and FogHa-Tin, a German manufactured, 3-dimensional spacer fabric deployed in two orientations. Analysis of 3419 volumetric samples from all sites showed strong relationships between mesh efficiency and wind speed. Raschel mesh collected 160% more fog water than FogHa-Tin at wind speeds less than 1 m s–1 and 45% less for wind speeds greater than 5 m s–1. MIT-14 coated stainless-steel mesh collected more fog water than Raschel mesh at all wind speeds. At low wind speeds of water when the warp of the weave was oriented vertically, per manufacturer specification, than when the warp of the weave was oriented horizontally. Time series measurements of three distinct mesh across similar wind regimes revealed inconsistent lags in fog water collection and inconsistent performance. Since such differences occurred under similar wind-speed regimes, we conclude that other factors play important roles in mesh performance, including in-situ fog event and aerosol dynamics that affect droplet-size spectra and droplet-to-mesh surface interactions.

  14. Mesh optimization for microbial fuel cell cathodes constructed around stainless steel mesh current collectors

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2011-02-01

    Mesh current collectors made of stainless steel (SS) can be integrated into microbial fuel cell (MFC) cathodes constructed of a reactive carbon black and Pt catalyst mixture and a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) diffusion layer. It is shown here that the mesh properties of these cathodes can significantly affect performance. Cathodes made from the coarsest mesh (30-mesh) achieved the highest maximum power of 1616 ± 25 mW m-2 (normalized to cathode projected surface area; 47.1 ± 0.7 W m-3 based on liquid volume), while the finest mesh (120-mesh) had the lowest power density (599 ± 57 mW m-2). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that charge transfer and diffusion resistances decreased with increasing mesh opening size. In MFC tests, the cathode performance was primarily limited by reaction kinetics, and not mass transfer. Oxygen permeability increased with mesh opening size, accounting for the decreased diffusion resistance. At higher current densities, diffusion became a limiting factor, especially for fine mesh with low oxygen transfer coefficients. These results demonstrate the critical nature of the mesh size used for constructing MFC cathodes. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Dynamics of Multistage Gear Transmission with Effects of Gearbox Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, F. K.; Tu, Y. K.; Zakrajsek, J. J.; Townsend, Dennis P.

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive approach is presented in analyzing the dynamic behavior of multistage gear transmission systems with the effects of gearbox induced vibrations and mass imbalances of the rotor. The modal method, with undamped frequencies and planar mode shapes, is used to reduce the degrees of freedom of the gear system for time-transient dynamic analysis. Both the lateral and torsional vibration modes of each rotor-bearing-gear stage as well as the interstage vibrational characteristics are coupled together through localized gear mesh tooth interactions. In addition, gearbox vibrations are also coupled to the rotor-bearing-gear system dynamics through bearing support forces between the rotor and the gearbox. Transient and steady state dynamics of lateral and torsional vibrations of the geared system are examined in both time and frequency domains to develop interpretations of the overall modal dynamic characteristics under various operating conditions. A typical three-stage geared system is used as an example. Effects of mass imbalance and gearbox vibrations on the system dynamic behavior are presented in terms of modal excitation functions for both lateral and torsional vibrations. Operational characteristics and conclusions are drawn from the results presented.

  16. Engagement of Metal Debris into Gear Mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    handschuh, Robert F.; Krantz, Timothy L.

    2010-01-01

    A series of bench-top experiments was conducted to determine the effects of metallic debris being dragged through meshing gear teeth. A test rig that is typically used to conduct contact fatigue experiments was used for these tests. Several sizes of drill material, shim stock and pieces of gear teeth were introduced and then driven through the meshing region. The level of torque required to drive the "chip" through the gear mesh was measured. From the data gathered, chip size sufficient to jam the mechanism can be determined.

  17. Effect of Aerosol Devices and Administration Techniques on Drug Delivery in a Simulated Spontaneously Breathing Pediatric Tracheostomy Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhamad, Bshayer R; Fink, James B; Harwood, Robert J; Sheard, Meryl M; Ari, Arzu

    2015-07-01

    This study was conducted to compare the efficiency of jet nebulizers, vibrating mesh nebulizers, and pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDI) during assisted and unassisted administration techniques using a simulated spontaneously breathing pediatric model with a tracheostomy tube (TT). An in vitro breathing model consisting of an uncuffed TT (4.5-mm inner diameter) was attached to a collecting filter (Respirgard) connected to a dual-chamber test lung and a ventilator (Hamilton Medical) to simulate breathing parameters of a 2-y-old child (breathing frequency, 25 breaths/min; tidal volume, 150 mL; inspiratory time, 0.8 s; peak inspiratory flow, 20 L/min). Albuterol sulfate was administered using a jet nebulizer (MicroMist, 2.5 mg/3 mL), vibrating mesh nebulizer (Aeroneb Solo, 2.5 mg/3 mL), and pMDI (ProAir HFA, 432 μg). Each device was tested 5 times with an unassisted technique (direct administration of aerosols with simulated spontaneous breathing) and with an assisted technique (using a manual resuscitation bag in conjunction with an aerosol device and synchronized with inspiration). Drug collected on the filter was analyzed by spectrophotometry. With the unassisted technique, the pMDI had the highest inhaled mass percent (IM%, 47.15 ± 7.82%), followed by the vibrating mesh nebulizer (19.77 ± 2.99%) and the jet nebulizer (5.88 ± 0.77%, P = .002). IM was greater with the vibrating mesh nebulizer (0.49 ± .07 mg) than with the pMDI (0.20 ± 0.03 mg) and the jet nebulizer (0.15 ± 0.01 mg, P = .007). The trend of lower deposition with the assisted versus unassisted technique was not significant for the jet nebulizer (P = .46), vibrating mesh nebulizer (P = .19), and pMDI (P = .64). In this in vitro pediatric breathing model with a TT, the pMDI delivered the highest IM%, whereas the vibrating mesh nebulizer delivered the highest IM. The jet nebulizer was the least efficient device. Delivery efficiency was similar with unassisted and assisted administration

  18. Nebulized hypertonic saline decreases IL-8 in sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reeves, Emer P

    2012-02-01

    RATIONALE: Inflammation within the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung is mediated by inflammatory chemokines, such as IL-8. IL-8 is protected from proteolytic degradation in the airways by binding to glycosaminoglycans, while remaining active. Evidence that increased hypertonicity of airway secretions induced by hypertonic saline treatment alters levels of IL-8 is lacking. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the antiinflammatory effect of hypertonic saline (HTS) treatment within the CF lung by focusing on IL-8. METHODS: Degradation of IL-8 in CF lung secretions after treatment with glycosaminoglycan lyases and HTS was analyzed by Western blot analysis and ELISA. The ex vivo chemotactic activity of purified neutrophils in response to CF airway secretions was evaluated post nebulization of HTS (7% saline). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In vivo CF bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) IL-8 levels were significantly higher than the control group (P < 0.05). Digesting glycosaminoglycans in CF BALF displaced IL-8 from glycosaminoglycan matrices, rendering the chemokine susceptible to proteolytic cleavage. High sodium concentrations also liberate IL-8 in CF BALF in vitro, and in vivo in CF sputum from patients receiving aerosolized HTS, resulting in degradation of IL-8 and decreased neutrophil chemotactic efficiency. CONCLUSIONS: Glycosaminoglycans possess the ability to influence the chemokine profile of the CF lung by binding and stabilizing IL-8, which promotes neutrophil chemotaxis and activation. Nebulized hypertonic saline treatment disrupts the interaction between glycosaminoglycans and IL-8, rendering IL-8 susceptible to proteolytic degradation with subsequent decrease in neutrophil chemotaxis, thereby facilitating resolution of inflammation.

  19. Covalent layer-by-layer grafting (LBLG) functionalized superhydrophobic stainless steel mesh for oil/water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bin; Zhang, Hongjie; Sun, Yongli; Zhang, Luhong; Xu, Lidong; Hao, Li; Yang, Huawei

    2017-06-01

    A superhydrophobic and superoleophilic stainless steel (SS) mesh for oil/water separation has been developed by using a novel, facile and inexpensive covalent layer-by-layer grafting (LBLG) method. Hierarchical micro/nanostructure surface was formed through grafting the (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (SCA), polyethylenimine (PEI) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) onto the mesh in sequence, accompanied with SiO2 nanoparticles subtly and firmly anchored in multilayers. Superhydrophobic characteristic was realized by self-assembly grafting of hydrophobic groups onto the surface. The as-prepared mesh exhibits excellent superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 159°. Moreover, with a low sliding angle of 4°, it shows the ;lotus effect; for self-cleaning. As for application evaluation, the as-prepared mesh can be used for large-scale separation of oil/water mixtures with a relatively high separation efficiency after 30 times reuse (99.88% for n-octane/water mixture) and a high intrusion pressure (3.58 kPa). More importantly, the mesh exhibited excellent stability in the case of vibration situation, long-term storage as well as saline corrosion conditions, and the compatible pH range was determined to be 1-13. In summary, this work provides a brand new method of modifying SS mesh in a covalent LBLG way, and makes it possible to introduce various functionalized groups onto the surface.

  20. Vibration analysis of cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaru, Takayuki; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Shintomi, Takakazu; Yamamoto, Akira; Koyama, Tomohiro; Li, Rui

    2004-05-01

    The vibrations of Gifford-McMahon (GM) and pulse-tube (PT) cryocoolers were measured and analyzed. The vibrations of the cold-stage and cold-head were measured separately to investigate their vibration mechanisms. The measurements were performed while maintaining the thermal conditions of the cryocoolers at a steady state. We found that the vibration of the cold-head for the 4 K PT cryocooler was two orders of magnitude smaller than that of the 4 K GM cryocooler. On the other hand, the vibration of the cold-stages for both cryocoolers was of the same order of magnitude. From a spectral analysis of the vibrations and a simulation, we concluded that the vibration of the cold-stage is caused by an elastic deformation of the pulse tubes (or cylinders) due to the pressure oscillation of the working gas.

  1. Vibration analysis of cryocoolers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaru, Takayuki; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Shintomi, Takakazu; Yamamoto, Akira [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Koyama, Tomohiro; Rui Li [Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-05-01

    The vibrations of Gifford-McMahon (GM) and pulse-tube (PT) cryocoolers were measured and analyzed. The vibrations of the cold-stage and cold-head were measured separately to investigate their vibration mechanisms. The measurements were performed while maintaining the thermal conditions of the cryocoolers at a steady state. We found that the vibration of the cold-head for the 4 K PT cryocooler was two orders of magnitude smaller than that of the 4 K GM cryocooler. On the other hand, the vibration of the cold-stages for both cryocoolers was of the same order of magnitude. From a spectral analysis of the vibrations and a simulation, we concluded that the vibration of the cold-stage is caused by an elastic deformation of the pulse tubes (or cylinders) due to the pressure oscillation of the working gas. (Author)

  2. Vibration of hydraulic machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yulin; Liu, Shuhong; Dou, Hua-Shu; Qian, Zhongdong

    2013-01-01

    Vibration of Hydraulic Machinery deals with the vibration problem which has significant influence on the safety and reliable operation of hydraulic machinery. It provides new achievements and the latest developments in these areas, even in the basic areas of this subject. The present book covers the fundamentals of mechanical vibration and rotordynamics as well as their main numerical models and analysis methods for the vibration prediction. The mechanical and hydraulic excitations to the vibration are analyzed, and the pressure fluctuations induced by the unsteady turbulent flow is predicted in order to obtain the unsteady loads. This book also discusses the loads, constraint conditions and the elastic and damping characters of the mechanical system, the structure dynamic analysis, the rotor dynamic analysis and the system instability of hydraulic machines, including the illustration of monitoring system for the instability and the vibration in hydraulic units. All the problems are necessary for vibration pr...

  3. Guidelines for numerical vibration and acoustic analysis of disc brake squeal using simple models of brake systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberst, S.; Lai, J. C. S.; Marburg, S.

    2013-04-01

    Brake squeal has become of increasing concern to the automotive industry but guidelines on how to confidently predict squeal propensity are yet to be established. While it is standard practice to use the complex eigenvalue analysis to predict unstable vibration modes, there have been few attempts to calculate their acoustic radiation. Here guidelines are developed for numerical vibration and acoustic analysis of brake squeal using models of simplified brake systems with friction contact by considering (1) the selection of appropriate elements, contact and mesh; (2) the extraction of surface velocities via forced response; and (3) the calculation of the acoustic response itself. Results indicate that quadratic tetrahedral elements offer the best option for meshing more realistic geometry. A mesh has to be sufficiently fine especially in the contact region to predict mesh-independent unstable vibration modes. Regarding the vibration response, only the direct, steady-state method with a pressurised pad and finite sliding formulation (allowing contact separation) should be used. Comparison of different numerical methods suggest that a obroadband fast multi-pole boundary element method with the Burton-Miller formulation would efficiently solve the acoustic radiation of a full brake system. Results also suggest that a pad lift-off can amplify the acoustic radiation similar to a horn effect. A horn effect is also observed for chamfered pads which are used in practice to reduce the number and strength of unstable vibration modes. These results highlight the importance of optimising the pad shape to reduce acoustic radiation of unstable vibration modes.

  4. Nebulized cyclosporine for prevention of acute pulmonary allograft rejection in the rat: pharmacokinetic and histologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blot, F; Tavakoli, R; Sellam, S; Epardeau, B; Faurisson, F; Bernard, N; Becquemin, M H; Frachon, I; Stern, M; Pocidalo, J J

    1995-01-01

    With regard to limiting the systemic effects of cyclosporine A and obtaining better control of acute pulmonary allograft rejection, local immunosuppressive therapy with aerosolized cyclosporine A seems of interest. Given the in situ immunologic mechanisms of acute rejection, as well as the anatomic structure of the lung, this therapy is feasible as previously described by others. The aim of our study is to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of nebulized cyclosporine A and the best modalities of administration. In a pharmacokinetic study, the cyclosporine A was given either by intramuscular injection (10 mg/kg) or by aerosol at 10 and 25 mg/kg doses; 70 rats were killed at 25 and 50 minutes and 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, or 48 hours after cyclosporine A administration. Cyclosporine A levels were measured in whole blood and in the lung. The areas under the concentration time curves were determined. Twenty-four lung transplantations were then performed. The rats were killed on postoperative day 9. Acute rejection was scored on a scale of 0 to 4, and cyclosporine A trough levels were measured in the lung and in the blood. With a jet nebulizer, the mass median aerodynamic diameter was 2.5 microns, with a standard geometric deviation of 2.3. In blood, the area under the concentration curve was greater for intramuscular (80.6 ng.hr/ml) than for aerosol administrations at 10 (15.1 ng.hr/ml) and 25 mg/kg (41.0 ng.hr/ml) doses. In the lungs, the area under the concentration curve was greater for the aerosol route at 25 mg/kg doses (588 ng.hr/mg) than for the low-dose (200 ng.hr/mg) or intramuscular administration (200 ng.hr/mg). The lung targeting index of cyclosporine A (ratio area under the concentration curve-lungs/area under the concentration curve-blood) was greater for both aerosol administrations than for the intramuscular route. In the study of the prevention of acute rejection, rats without immunosuppression (n = 6), rats receiving daily doses of cyclosporine A

  5. Mesh Processing in Medical Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The following topics are dealt with: mesh processing; medical image analysis; interactive freeform modeling; statistical shape analysis; clinical CT images; statistical surface recovery; automated segmentation; cerebral aneurysms; and real-time particle-based representation....

  6. Obtuse triangle suppression in anisotropic meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Feng

    2011-12-01

    Anisotropic triangle meshes are used for efficient approximation of surfaces and flow data in finite element analysis, and in these applications it is desirable to have as few obtuse triangles as possible to reduce the discretization error. We present a variational approach to suppressing obtuse triangles in anisotropic meshes. Specifically, we introduce a hexagonal Minkowski metric, which is sensitive to triangle orientation, to give a new formulation of the centroidal Voronoi tessellation (CVT) method. Furthermore, we prove several relevant properties of the CVT method with the newly introduced metric. Experiments show that our algorithm produces anisotropic meshes with much fewer obtuse triangles than using existing methods while maintaining mesh anisotropy. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Metal Mesh Filters for Terahertz Receivers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The technical objective of this SBIR program is to develop and demonstrate metal mesh filters for use in NASA's low noise receivers for terahertz astronomy and...

  8. Pectus excavatum repair using Prolene polypropylene mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasihashemi, Seyed Ziaeddin; Ramouz, Ali

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to assess the clinical outcomes of our surgical technique for repair of pectus excavatum using Prolene polypropylene mesh. Among 29 patients with pectus excavatum, the major complaint was cosmetic dissatisfaction, and the main symptom was exercise dyspnea in 15 patients. The Haller index used to assess pectus excavatum severity; it was significant in 22 patients. In all patients, a 2-layer sheet of Prolene polypropylene mesh was placed behind the sternum. No serious complication was observed postoperatively, and all patients were satisfied with the cosmetic result. Mitral valve prolapse improved in all cases after 3 months. Spirometry revealed improved pulmonary function after surgery. With due attention to the advantages of Prolene polypropylene mesh, such as remaining permanently in place, adapting to various stresses encountered in the body, resisting degradation by tissue enzymes, and trimming without unraveling, we concluded that this mesh is suitable for use as posterior sternal support in pectus excavatum patients. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. LR: Compact connectivity representation for triangle meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurung, T; Luffel, M; Lindstrom, P; Rossignac, J

    2011-01-28

    We propose LR (Laced Ring) - a simple data structure for representing the connectivity of manifold triangle meshes. LR provides the option to store on average either 1.08 references per triangle or 26.2 bits per triangle. Its construction, from an input mesh that supports constant-time adjacency queries, has linear space and time complexity, and involves ordering most vertices along a nearly-Hamiltonian cycle. LR is best suited for applications that process meshes with fixed connectivity, as any changes to the connectivity require the data structure to be rebuilt. We provide an implementation of the set of standard random-access, constant-time operators for traversing a mesh, and show that LR often saves both space and traversal time over competing representations.

  10. Shape space exploration of constrained meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yongliang

    2011-12-12

    We present a general computational framework to locally characterize any shape space of meshes implicitly prescribed by a collection of non-linear constraints. We computationally access such manifolds, typically of high dimension and co-dimension, through first and second order approximants, namely tangent spaces and quadratically parameterized osculant surfaces. Exploration and navigation of desirable subspaces of the shape space with regard to application specific quality measures are enabled using approximants that are intrinsic to the underlying manifold and directly computable in the parameter space of the osculant surface. We demonstrate our framework on shape spaces of planar quad (PQ) meshes, where each mesh face is constrained to be (nearly) planar, and circular meshes, where each face has a circumcircle. We evaluate our framework for navigation and design exploration on a variety of inputs, while keeping context specific properties such as fairness, proximity to a reference surface, etc. © 2011 ACM.

  11. Assignment of fields from particles to mesh

    CERN Document Server

    Duque, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In Computational Fluid Dynamics there have been many attempts to combine the power of a fixed mesh on which to carry out spatial calculations with that of a set of particles that moves following the velocity field. These ideas indeed go back to Particle-in-Cell methods, proposed about 60 years ago. Of course, some procedure is needed to transfer field information between particles and mesh. There are many possible choices for this "assignment", or "projection". Several requirements may guide this choice. Two well-known ones are conservativity and stability, which apply to volume integrals of the fields. An additional one is here considered: preservation of information. This means that mesh interpolation, followed by mesh assignment, should leave the field values invariant. The resulting methods are termed "mass" assignments due to their strong similarities with the Finite Element Method. We test several procedures, including the well-known FLIP, on three scenarios: simple 1D convection, 2D convection of Zales...

  12. Shape space exploration of constrained meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yongliang

    2011-01-01

    We present a general computational framework to locally characterize any shape space of meshes implicitly prescribed by a collection of non-linear constraints. We computationally access such manifolds, typically of high dimension and co-dimension, through first and second order approximants, namely tangent spaces and quadratically parameterized osculant surfaces. Exploration and navigation of desirable subspaces of the shape space with regard to application specific quality measures are enabled using approximants that are intrinsic to the underlying manifold and directly computable in the parameter space of the osculant surface. We demonstrate our framework on shape spaces of planar quad (PQ) meshes, where each mesh face is constrained to be (nearly) planar, and circular meshes, where each face has a circumcircle. We evaluate our framework for navigation and design exploration on a variety of inputs, while keeping context specific properties such as fairness, proximity to a reference surface, etc.

  13. Quadrilateral/hexahedral finite element mesh coarsening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staten, Matthew L; Dewey, Mark W; Scott, Michael A; Benzley, Steven E

    2012-10-16

    A technique for coarsening a finite element mesh ("FEM") is described. This technique includes identifying a coarsening region within the FEM to be coarsened. Perimeter chords running along perimeter boundaries of the coarsening region are identified. The perimeter chords are redirected to create an adaptive chord separating the coarsening region from a remainder of the FEM. The adaptive chord runs through mesh elements residing along the perimeter boundaries of the coarsening region. The adaptive chord is then extracted to coarsen the FEM.

  14. MHD simulations on an unstructured mesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, H.R. [New York Univ., NY (United States); Park, W.; Belova, E.; Fu, G.Y. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Longcope, D.W. [Univ. of Montana, Missoula, MT (United States); Sugiyama, L.E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Two reasons for using an unstructured computational mesh are adaptivity, and alignment with arbitrarily shaped boundaries. Two codes which use finite element discretization on an unstructured mesh are described. FEM3D solves 2D and 3D RMHD using an adaptive grid. MH3D++, which incorporates methods of FEM3D into the MH3D generalized MHD code, can be used with shaped boundaries, which might be 3D.

  15. Mesh geometry impact on Micromegas performance with an Exchangeable Mesh prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuger, F., E-mail: fabian.kuger@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Julius-Maximilians-Universität, Würzburg (Germany); Bianco, M.; Iengo, P. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Sekhniaidze, G. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Universita e INFN, Napoli (Italy); Veenhof, R. [Uludağ University, Bursa (Turkey); Wotschack, J. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2016-07-11

    The reconstruction precision of gaseous detectors is limited by losses of primary electrons during signal formation. In addition to common gas related losses, like attachment, Micromegas suffer from electron absorption during its transition through the micro mesh. This study aims for a deepened understanding of electron losses and their dependency on the mesh geometry. It combines experimental results obtained with a novel designed Exchangeable Mesh Micromegas (ExMe) and advanced microscopic-tracking simulations (ANSYS and Garfield++) of electron drift and mesh transition.

  16. Robust moving mesh algorithms for hybrid stretched meshes: Application to moving boundaries problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Jonathan; Soulaïmani, Azzeddine; Luke, Edward; Ben Haj Ali, Amine

    2016-12-01

    A robust Mesh-Mover Algorithm (MMA) approach is designed to adapt meshes of moving boundaries problems. A new methodology is developed from the best combination of well-known algorithms in order to preserve the quality of initial meshes. In most situations, MMAs distribute mesh deformation while preserving a good mesh quality. However, invalid meshes are generated when the motion is complex and/or involves multiple bodies. After studying a few MMA limitations, we propose the following approach: use the Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) function to produce the displacement field, then apply the Geometric Element Transformation Method (GETMe) smoothing algorithms to improve the resulting mesh quality, and use an untangler to revert negative elements. The proposed approach has been proven efficient to adapt meshes for various realistic aerodynamic motions: a symmetric wing that has suffered large tip bending and twisting and the high-lift components of a swept wing that has moved to different flight stages. Finally, the fluid flow problem has been solved on meshes that have moved and they have produced results close to experimental ones. However, for situations where moving boundaries are too close to each other, more improvements need to be made or other approaches should be taken, such as an overset grid method.

  17. The finite element method in making up meshes in ANSYS Meshing for CFD models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віктор Іванович Троханяк

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Method of finite elements (FEM is used in calculating tasks of hydrodynamics and heat transfer tasks. The essence of the method consists in the approximate solution of a variational task. To formulate this task a functional concept is used. The type of a functional is different for different tasks and is selected through a special choice. Currently FEM is widely used in calculating the strength and in solving tasks of heat transfer in solids. However, it can be applied in calculating the flow of liquids and gases. There are also methods that combine elements of the finite volumes and finite elements methods. The combination of these methods make it possible to use a wide range of computational meshes ( tetragonal meshes, pyramidal meshes, prismatic meshes, polyhedral meshes what is necessary for solving tasks with complex geometry. This approach is used by CFD packages Ansys CFX, Ansys Fluent, Star-CD, Star-CCM +, Comsol and others. The method and the analysis of 2D mesh were carried out, using a method of final elements in ANSYS Meshing for heat exchangers with an inline arrangement of tubes in banks and with their curvilinear arrangement in compact banks of tubes of a new design. Particular features were considered and the algorithm of making up a mesh was developed for tasks of hydraulic and gas dynamics and thermal mass transfer. The most optimum and qualitative meshes for CFD models were chosen

  18. Unstructured Mesh Movement and Viscous Mesh Generation for CFD-Based Design Optimization Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovations proposed are twofold: 1) a robust unstructured mesh movement method able to handle isotropic (Euler), anisotropic (viscous), mixed element (hybrid)...

  19. Automatic Scheme Selection for Toolkit Hex Meshing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TAUTGES,TIMOTHY J.; WHITE,DAVID R.

    1999-09-27

    Current hexahedral mesh generation techniques rely on a set of meshing tools, which when combined with geometry decomposition leads to an adequate mesh generation process. Of these tools, sweeping tends to be the workhorse algorithm, accounting for at least 50% of most meshing applications. Constraints which must be met for a volume to be sweepable are derived, and it is proven that these constraints are necessary but not sufficient conditions for sweepability. This paper also describes a new algorithm for detecting extruded or sweepable geometries. This algorithm, based on these constraints, uses topological and local geometric information, and is more robust than feature recognition-based algorithms. A method for computing sweep dependencies in volume assemblies is also given. The auto sweep detect and sweep grouping algorithms have been used to reduce interactive user time required to generate all-hexahedral meshes by filtering out non-sweepable volumes needing further decomposition and by allowing concurrent meshing of independent sweep groups. Parts of the auto sweep detect algorithm have also been used to identify independent sweep paths, for use in volume-based interval assignment.

  20. Mesh-type acoustic vector sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalalutdinov, M. K.; Photiadis, D. M.; Szymczak, W. G.; McMahon, J. W.; Bucaro, J. A.; Houston, B. H.

    2017-07-01

    Motivated by the predictions of a theoretical model developed to describe the acoustic flow force exerted on closely spaced nano-fibers in a viscous medium, we have demonstrated a novel concept for a particle velocity-based directional acoustic sensor. The central element of the concept exploits the acoustically induced normal displacement of a fine mesh as a measure of the collinear projection of the particle velocity in the sound wave. The key observations are (i) the acoustically induced flow force on an individual fiber within the mesh is nearly independent of the fiber diameter and (ii) the mesh-flow interaction can be well-described theoretically by a nearest neighbor coupling approximation. Scaling arguments based on these two observations indicate that the refinement of the mesh down to the nanoscale leads to significant improvements in performance. The combination of the two dimensional nature of the mesh together with the nanoscale dimensions provides a dramatic gain in the total length of fiber exposed to the flow, leading to a sensitivity enhancement by orders of magnitude. We describe the fabrication of a prototype mesh sensor equipped with optical readout. Preliminary measurements carried out over a considerable bandwidth together with the results of numerical simulations are in good agreement with the theory, thus providing a proof of concept.

  1. [Implants for genital prolapse : Contra mesh surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, C

    2017-12-01

    Alloplastic transvaginal meshes have become very popular in the surgery of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) as did alloplastic suburethral slings in female stress incontinence surgery, but without adequate supporting data. The simplicity of the mesh procedure facilitates its propagation with acceptance of higher revision and complication rates. Since attending physicians do more and more prolapse surgeries without practicing or teaching alternative techniques, expertise in these alternatives, which might be very useful in cases of recurrence, persistence or complications, is permanently lost. It is doubtful that proper and detailed information about alternatives, risks, and benefits of transvaginal alloplastic meshes is provided to every single prolapse patient according to the recommendations of the German POP guidelines, since the number of implanted meshes exceeds the number of properly indicated mesh candidates by far. Although there is no dissent internationally about the available mesh data, thousands of lawsuits in the USA, insolvency of companies due to claims for compensation and unambiguous warnings from foreign urological societies leave German urogynecologists still unimpressed. The existing literature in pelvic organ prolapse exclusively focusses on POP stage and improvement of that stage with surgical therapy. Instead, typical prolapse symptoms should trigger therapy and improvement of these symptoms should be the utmost treatment goal. It is strongly recommended for liability reasons to obtain specific written informed consent.

  2. Detecting gear tooth fracture in a high contact ratio face gear mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrajsek, James J.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.; Decker, Harry J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarized the results of a study in which three different vibration diagnostic methods were used to detect gear tooth fracture in a high contact ratio face gear mesh. The NASA spiral bevel gear fatigue test rig was used to produce unseeded fault, natural failures of four face gear specimens. During the fatigue tests, which were run to determine load capacity and primary failure mechanisms for face gears, vibration signals were monitored and recorded for gear diagnostic purposes. Gear tooth bending fatigue and surface pitting were the primary failure modes found in the tests. The damage ranged from partial tooth fracture on a single tooth in one test to heavy wear, severe pitting, and complete tooth fracture of several teeth on another test. Three gear fault detection techniques, FM4, NA4*, and NB4, were applied to the experimental data. These methods use the signal average in both the time and frequency domain. Method NA4* was able to conclusively detect the gear tooth fractures in three out of the four fatigue tests, along with gear tooth surface pitting and heavy wear. For multiple tooth fractures, all of the methods gave a clear indication of the damage. It was also found that due to the high contact ratio of the face gear mesh, single tooth fractures did not significantly affect the vibration signal, making this type of failure difficult to detect.

  3. Incremental approach for radial basis functions mesh deformation with greedy algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, Mohamed M.; Koomullil, Roy P.; Shehata, Ahmed S.

    2017-07-01

    Mesh Deformation is an important element of any fluid-structure interaction simulation. In this article, a new methodology is presented for the deformation of volume meshes using incremental radial basis function (RBF) based interpolation. A greedy algorithm is used to select a small subset of the surface nodes iteratively. Two incremental approaches are introduced to solve the RBF system of equations: 1) block matrix inversion based approach and 2) modified LU decomposition approach. The use of incremental approach decreased the computational complexity of solving the system of equations within each greedy algorithm's iteration from O (n3) to O (n2). Results are presented from an accuracy study using specified deformations on a 2D surface. Mesh deformations for bending and twisting of a 3D rectangular supercritical wing have been demonstrated. Outcomes showed the incremental approaches reduce the CPU time up to 67% as compared to a traditional RBF matrix solver. Finally, the proposed mesh deformation approach was integrated within a fluid-structure interaction solver for investigating a flow induced cantilever beam vibration.

  4. Safety and Tolerability of Nebulized Amoxicillin-Clavulanic Acid in Patients with COPD (STONAC 1 and STONAC 2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijdam, L.C.; Assink, M.D.M.; Kuijvenhoven, J.C.; de Saegher, M.E.A.; van der Valk, P.D.L.P.M.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Brusse-Keizer, M.G.J.; Movig, K.L.L.

    2016-01-01

    The safety and tolerability of nebulized amoxicillin clavulanic acid were determined in patients with stable COPD and during severe exacerbations of COPD. Nine stable COPD patients received doses ranging from 50:10 mg up to 300:60 mg amoxicillin clavulanic acid and eight patients hospitalised for a

  5. Nebulized Epinephrine Limits Pulmonary Vascular Hyperpermeability to Water and Protein in Ovine With Burn and Smoke Inhalation Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Ernesto; Fujiwara, Osamu; Lima-Lopez, Francisco; Suman, Oscar E; Mlcak, Ronald P; Hawkins, Hal K; Cox, Robert A; Herndon, David N; Prough, Donald S; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei

    2016-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that nebulized epinephrine ameliorates pulmonary dysfunction by dual action-bronchodilation (β2-adrenergic receptor agonism) and attenuation of airway hyperemia (α1-adrenergic receptor agonism) with minimal systemic effects. Randomized, controlled, prospective, and large animal translational studies. University large animal ICU. Twelve chronically instrumented sheep. The animals were exposed to 40% total body surface area third degree skin flame burn and 48 breaths of cooled cotton smoke inhalation under deep anesthesia and analgesia. The animals were then placed on a mechanical ventilator, fluid resuscitated, and monitored for 48 hours in a conscious state. After the injury, sheep were randomized into two groups: 1) epinephrine, nebulized with 4 mg of epinephrine every 4 hours starting 1 hour post injury, n = 6; or 2) saline, nebulized with saline in the same manner, n = 6. Treatment with epinephrine had a significant reduction of the pulmonary transvascular fluid flux to water (p epinephrine also reduced the systemic accumulation of body fluids (p epinephrine treatment. No considerable systemic effects were observed with epinephrine treatment. Nebulized epinephrine should be considered for use in future clinical studies of patients with burns and smoke inhalation injury.

  6. Nebulized Heparin With N-Acetylcysteine and Albuterol Reduces Duration of Mechanical Ventilation in Patients With Inhalation Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Kaitlin A; Weigartz, Katie; Lintner, Alicia; Scalese, Michael J; Kahn, Steven A

    2017-01-01

    Nebulized heparin has been proposed to improve pulmonary function in patients with inhalation injuries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of nebulized heparin with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and albuterol on the duration of mechanical ventilation in burn patients. This is a retrospective study evaluating mechanically ventilated adult patients admitted to a regional burn center with inhalation injury. Outcomes were compared between patients who were prescribed a combination of nebulized heparin with NAC and albuterol versus similar patients who did not. A total of 48 patients met inclusion criteria (heparin n = 22; nonheparin n = 26). Patients in the nonheparin group had higher percentage of total body surface area (TBSA) burned (29.00 [5.75-51.88] vs 5.25 [0.50-13.25] %TBSA; P = .009), longer duration of mechanical ventilation (6.50 [2.75-17.00] vs 3.00 [1.00-8.25] days; P = .022), and longer intensive care unit length of stay (LOS) (3.00 [3.00-28.75] vs 5.50 days [2.00-11.25]; P = .033). Upon regression, use of heparin was the only variable associated with reducing the duration of mechanical ventilation ( P = .039). Nebulized heparin in combination with NAC and albuterol was associated with a significant reduction in the duration of mechanical ventilation.

  7. Nebulized anticoagulants in lung injury in critically ill patients-an updated systematic review of preclinical and clinical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juschten, Jenny; Tuinman, Pieter R.; Juffermans, Nicole P.; Dixon, Barry; Levi, Marcel; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2017-01-01

    Pneumonia, inhalation trauma and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), typical causes of lung injury in critically ill patients, are all three characterized by dysregulated inflammation and coagulation in the lungs. Nebulized anticoagulants are thought to have beneficial effects as they could

  8. Additional considerations for trace element analysis of environmental matrices using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry with ultrasonic nebulization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenig, M.; Baeten, H. [Cerva, Tervuren (Belgium); Docekalova, H. [Brno Univ. Technical, Faculty of Chemistry (Czech Republic)

    2000-06-01

    This work compares efficiencies of pneumatic and ultrasonic nebulizers and discusses drawbacks observed in trace element analyses of environmental matrices using ICP-AES with ultrasonic nebulization. The interference observed is mainly due to variable calcium content in samples; in most cases the excessive plasma loading by Ca'is responsible for signal suppression of analyte elements. Such matrix effect may be managed to a certain extent using a classical internal standardisation that is discussed in details. Under well defined conditions, the ICP-AES-USN analysis of most trace elements leads to accurate results for matrices usually studied. However, due to chemical reactions occurring in the condensation stage of the ultrasonic nebulizer and subsequent analyte losses to the waste, the ICP-AES-USN analysis of copper and particularly of boron has to be avoided because it leads unavoidably to erroneous results. This drawback cannot be resolved by usual means of correction but may be overcome by using conventional pneumatic nebulizers. (authors)

  9. A COMPARISON OF A BODYWEIGHT DOSE VERSUS A FIXED-DOSE OF NEBULIZED SALBUTAMOL IN ACUTE ASTHMA IN CHILDREN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OBERKLAID, F; MELLIS, CM; LESOUEF, PN; GEELHOED, GC; MACCARRONE, AL

    1993-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of salbutamol as a fixed dose Ventolin Nebule (2.5 mg) and as variable dose respirator solution (0.1 mg/kg bodyweight). Design: Multicentre, randomised, double-blind, parallel group comparison. Setting: The Emergency Departments of the Royal Children's Hospital,

  10. Active vibration control of a single-stage spur gearbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogruer, C. U.; Pirsoltan, Abbas K.

    2017-02-01

    The dynamic transmission error between driving and driven gears of a gear mechanism with torsional mode is induced by periodic time-varying mesh stiffness. In this study, to minimize the adverse effect of this time-varying mesh stiffness, a nonlinear controller which adjusts the torque acting on the driving gear is proposed. The basic approach is to modulate the input torque such that it compensates the periodic change in mesh stiffness. It is assumed that gears are assembled with high precision and gearbox is analyzed by a finite element software to calculate the mesh stiffness curve. Thus, change in the mesh stiffness, which is inherently nonlinear, can be predicted and canceled by a feed-forward loop. Then, remaining linear dynamics is controlled by pole placement techniques. Under these premises, it is claimed that any acceleration and velocity profile of the input shaft can be tracked accurately. Thereby, dynamic transmission error is kept to a minimum possible value and a spur gearbox, which does not emit much noise and vibration, is designed.

  11. Does nebulized lidocaine reduce the pain and distress of nasogastric tube insertion in young children? A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babl, Franz E; Goldfinch, Christopher; Mandrawa, Christine; Crellin, Dianne; O'Sullivan, Ronan; Donath, Susan

    2009-06-01

    Nasogastric tube insertion is a common procedure in children that is very painful and distressing. Although nebulized lidocaine has been shown to be effective in reducing the pain and discomfort of nasogastric tube insertion in adults, there have been no similar studies in children. We set out to investigate the role of nebulized lidocaine in reducing pain and distress of nasogastric tube insertion in young children. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of nebulized 2% lidocaine at 4 mg/kg versus saline placebo during nasogastric tube insertion at a tertiary urban pediatric emergency department. Patients were eligible if they were aged from 1 to 5 years with no comorbid disease and a clinical indication for a nasogastric tube. Nebulization occurred for 5 minutes, 5 minutes before nasogastric tube insertion. Video recordings before, during, and after the procedure were rated using the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, and Consolability (FLACC) pain and distress assessment tool (primary outcome measure) and pain and distress visual analog scale scores (secondary outcome measures). Difficulty of insertion and adverse events were also assessed. Eighteen participants were nebulized with 2% lidocaine and 18 participants with normal saline. Nebulization was found to be highly distressing. FLACC scores during nasogastric tube insertion were very high in both groups. There was a trend in the post-nasogastric tube insertion period toward lower FLACC scores in the lidocaine group. Visual analog scale scores for this postinsertion period were significantly lower in the lidocaine arm for pain and distress. There were no significant differences between groups in terms of difficulty of insertion and the number of minor adverse events. The study was terminated early because of the distress and treatment delay associated with nebulization. Nasogastric tube insertion results in very high FLACC scores irrespective of lidocaine use. Nebulized lidocaine cannot be

  12. Influence of the Mesh Geometry Evolution on Gearbox Dynamics during Its Maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dąbrowski Z.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Toothed gears constitute the necessary elements of power transmission systems. They are applied as stationary devices in drive systems of road vehicles, ships and crafts as well as airplanes and helicopters. One of the problems related to the toothed gears usage is the determination of their technical state or its evolutions. Assuming that the gear slippage velocity is attributed to vibrations and noises generated by cooperating toothed wheels, the application of a simple cooperation model of rolled wheels of skew teeth is proposed for the analysis of the mesh evolution influence on the gear dynamics. In addition, an example of utilising an ordinary coherence function for investigating evolutionary mesh changes related to the effects impossible to be described by means of the simple kinematic model is presented.

  13. Compound faults detection in gearbox via meshing resonance and spectral kurtosis methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianyang; Chu, Fulei; Han, Qinkai; Kong, Yun

    2017-03-01

    Kurtosis-based impulsive component identification is one of the most effective algorithms in detecting localized faults in both gearboxes and rolling bearings. However, if localized faults exist in both gear tooth and rolling bearing simultaneously it is difficult to tell the differences between the two types of defects. As such, this study proposes a new method to solve the problem by using the meshing resonance and spectral kurtosis (SK) algorithms together. In specific, the raw signal is first decomposed into different frequency bands and levels, and then the corresponding Kurtogram and MRgram are calculated via the fault SK analysis and the meshing index. Furthermore, the resonance frequency bands induced by localized faults of the gear tooth and rolling bearing are separately identified by comparing the Kurtogram and the MRgram. Finally, the compound faults are respectively detected using envelope analysis. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been validated via both simulated and experimental gearboxes vibration signals with compound faults.

  14. Influence of the Mesh Geometry Evolution on Gearbox Dynamics during Its Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, Z.; Dziurdź, J.; Klekot, G.

    2017-12-01

    Toothed gears constitute the necessary elements of power transmission systems. They are applied as stationary devices in drive systems of road vehicles, ships and crafts as well as airplanes and helicopters. One of the problems related to the toothed gears usage is the determination of their technical state or its evolutions. Assuming that the gear slippage velocity is attributed to vibrations and noises generated by cooperating toothed wheels, the application of a simple cooperation model of rolled wheels of skew teeth is proposed for the analysis of the mesh evolution influence on the gear dynamics. In addition, an example of utilising an ordinary coherence function for investigating evolutionary mesh changes related to the effects impossible to be described by means of the simple kinematic model is presented.

  15. Promoting adherence to nebulized therapy in cystic fibrosis: poster development and a qualitative exploration of adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stephen Jones,1 Nathan Babiker,2 Emma Gardner,2,3 Jane Royle,2 Rachael Curley,3,4 Zhe Hui Hoo,3,4 Martin J Wildman3,4 1Psychology Department, University of Sheffield, 2Psychological Services, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, 3Adult Cystic Fibrosis Unit, Northern General Hospital, 4School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF health care professionals recognize the need to motivate people with CF to adhere to nebulizer treatments, yet little is known about how best to achieve this. We aimed to produce motivational posters to support nebulizer adherence by using social marketing involving people with CF in the development of those posters. Methods: The Sheffield CF multidisciplinary team produced preliminary ideas that were elaborated upon with semi-structured interviews among people with CF to explore barriers and facilitators to the use of nebulized therapy. Initial themes and poster designs were refined using an online focus group to finalize the poster designs. Results: People with CF preferred aspirational posters describing what could be achieved through adherence in contrast to posters that highlighted the adverse consequences of nonadherence. A total of 14 posters were produced through this process. Conclusion: People with CF can be engaged to develop promotional material to support adherence, providing a unique perspective differing from that of the CF multidisciplinary team. Further research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of these posters to support nebulizer adherence. Keywords: behavior change, social marketing, patient participation, nebulizers, medication adherence

  16. Albuterol delivery in a neonatal ventilated lung model: Nebulization versus chlorofluorocarbon- and hydrofluoroalkane-pressurized metered dose inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, R A; Kenney, J K; Keenan, J; Salyer, J W; Ballard, J; Ward, R M

    2001-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare albuterol delivery in a neonatal ventilated lung model, using three delivery methods: 1) jet nebulizer; 2) chlorofluorocarbon-pressurized metered dose inhaler (CFC-MDI) actuated into an ACE(R) spacer; and 3) hydrofluoroalkane-pressurized MDI (HFA-MDI) actuated into an ACE(R) spacer. The bench model consisted of a mechanically ventilated infant test lung with ventilator settings to simulate a very low birth weight neonate with moderate lung disease. Albuterol solution (0.5%) was nebulized at the humidifier and temperature port, 125 cm and 30 cm from the Y-piece, respectively. Albuterol metered dose inhalers (MDIs) were actuated into an ACE(R) spacer that was tested in two positions: 1) inline between the endotracheal (ET) tube and the Y-piece; and 2) attached to the ET tube and administered by manual ventilation. Albuterol was collected on a filter at the distal end of the ET tube and was quantitatively analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Albuterol delivery by CFC-MDI (position 1, 4.8 +/- 1.0%, vs. position 2, 3.8 +/- 1.6%, P > 0.05) and HFA-MDI (position 1, 5.7 +/- 1.6%, vs. position 2, 5.5 +/- 2.4%, P > 0.05) were significantly greater than delivery by nebulization at 30 cm (0.16 +/- 0.07%) and 125 cm (0.15 +/- 0.03%) from the Y-piece (P nebulizing 2.5-3.7 mg of albuterol solution. We conclude that albuterol administered by MDI and ACE(R) spacer resulted in more efficient delivery than by nebulization in this mechanically ventilated neonatal lung model. There was no significant difference in drug delivery between CFC-MDI and HFA-MDI; nor did the placement of the spacer significantly affect drug delivery. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Scintigraphic Assessment of Deposition of Radiolabeled Fluticasone Delivered from a Nebulizer and Metered Dose Inhaler in 10 Healthy Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, K E; Tyrrell, D; Yang, M; Abraham, L A; Anderson, G A; Mansfield, C S

    2017-09-29

    Aerosolized medications are increasingly being used to treat respiratory diseases in dogs. No previous studies assessing respiratory tract deposition of radiolabeled aerosols have been performed in conscious dogs. Assess respiratory tract deposition of radiolabeled, inhalant corticosteroid (fluticasone propionate labeled with (99m) Tc) delivered from a nebulizer and metered dose inhaler (MDI) to healthy dogs. Ten healthy Foxhounds. Prospective, randomized, cross-over pilot study. Initial inhalation method (nebulizer or MDI) was randomly assigned. Treatments were crossed over after a 7-day washout period. Treatments initially were performed using sedation. Dogs were imaged using 2-dimensional planar scintigraphy, with respiratory tract deposition quantified by manual region-of-interest analysis. Deposition calculated as percentage of delivered dose. Six of 10 dogs were randomly selected and reassessed without sedation. Inhalation method had significant effect on respiratory tract deposition (P = 0.027). Higher deposition was achieved by nebulization with mean deposition of 4.2% (standard deviation [SD], 1.4%; range, 1.9-6.1%); whereas MDI treatment achieved a mean of 2.3% (SD, 1.4%; range, 0.2-4.2%). Nebulization achieved higher respiratory tract deposition than MDI in 7 of 10 dogs. No statistical difference (P = 0.68) was found between mean respiratory tract deposition achieved in dogs when unsedated (3.8%; SD, 1.5%) or sedated (3.6%; SD, 1.7%). Study confirms respiratory tract deposition of inhalant medications delivered from a nebulizer and MDI in healthy dogs, breathing tidally with and without sedation. Respiratory tract deposition in these dogs was low compared to reported deposition in adult humans, but similar to reported deposition in children. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  18. Randomized clinical trial of self-gripping mesh versus sutured mesh for Lichtenstein hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, L N; Sommer, Thorbjørn; Assaadzadeh, S

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many patients develop discomfort after open repair of a groin hernia. It was hypothesized that suture fixation of the mesh is a cause of these symptoms. METHODS: This patient- and assessor-blinded randomized multicentre clinical trial compared a self-gripping mesh (Parietene Progrip......(®) ) and sutured mesh for open primary repair of uncomplicated inguinal hernia by the Lichtenstein technique. Patients were assessed before surgery, on the day of operation, and at 1 and 12 months after surgery. The primary endpoint was moderate or severe symptoms after 12 months, including a combination...... of chronic pain, numbness and discomfort. RESULTS: The intention-to-treat population comprised 163 patients with self-gripping mesh and 171 with sutured mesh. The 12-month prevalence of moderate or severe symptoms was 17·4 and 20·2 per cent respectively (P = 0·573). There were no significant differences...

  19. The analysis of typical profile clearances formation in meshing rotors of the screw compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafin, T. N.; Yakupov, R. R.; Khamidullin, M. S.; Khisameev, I. G.; Alyaev, V. A.; Paranina, O. Yu.

    2017-08-01

    The improvement of screw compressor energetic characteristics is related to their working process enhancement. In many ways, it depends on the gas leakage between working chambers through the gaps. One of the main gaps in the screw compressor is the rotor profile clearances. They also generally determine the smoothness of meshing, partially influencing vibration levels. The rotor profile clearances occur due to the reduction of the real rotor profile in relation to the theoretical profile. It is done to compensate negative factors such as a rotor thermal deformation, manufacturing errors, etc. Their deep analysis may help to improve the real rotor profiling method and increase the screw compressor energetic characteristics.

  20. Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of Thin Films Using Nebulizer Spray Pyrolysis Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mariappan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available thin films have been deposited on glass substrates at substrate temperature 400°C through nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis shows that the films structure is changed from hexagonal to tetragonal. The high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM studies reveal that the substrate is well covered with a number of grains indicating compact morphology with an average grain size 50–79 nm. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX reveals the average ratio of the atomic percentage. Optical transmittance study shows the presence of direct transition. Band gap energy decreases from 3.33 to 2.87 eV with respect to the rise of Sn content. The electrical resistivity of the thin films was found to be 106 Ω-m.

  1. Efficacy of nebulized L-epinephrine for treatment of croup: a randomized, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghbali, Aziz; Sabbagh, Ali; Bagheri, Bahador; Taherahmadi, Hassan; Kahbazi, Manijeh

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effect of L-epinephrine plus dexamethasone vs. dexamethasone for treatment of croup in children. A randomized, double-blind clinical trial was implemented on 174 patients with croup, aged from 6 months to 6 years, and admitted to the Amir Kabir Pediatric Hospital (Arak, Iran). After randomized allocation, patients were administered dexamethasone, and then, they received either saline or L-epinephrine. Westley croup scores, heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure were recorded every half an hour for a total of 120 min. There was a significant difference in mean of croup scores between two groups (P nebulized L-epinephrine compared to patients who received placebo. © 2015 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  2. Emergency room management of acute bronchiolitis: a randomized trial of nebulized epinephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simşek-Kiper, Pelin Ozlem; Kiper, Nural; Hasçelik, Gülşen; Dolgun, Anil; Yalçin, Ebru; Doğru-Ersöz, Deniz; Ozçelik, Uğur

    2011-01-01

    Acute bronchiolitis is a common, potentially life-threatening condition with few therapeutic options. In the present randomized study, we compared the clinical efficacies of nebulized epinephrine and salbutamol in the emergency room management of acute bronchiolitis. Primary outcome measures were improvement in mean respiratory rate, mean oxygen saturation value and severity score. Secondary outcome measures were length of hospital stay, hospitalization and relapse rates. A total of 75 patients were analyzed (36 epinephrine, 39 salbutamol). Both groups experienced a similar pattern of clinical improvement. Hospitalization rates were 8.3% for epinephrine and 5.1% for salbutamol (p > 0.05), whereas relapse rates were 80% for epinephrine and 20% for salbutamol groups (p epinephrine in terms of clinical improvement, but salbutamol can be a drug of choice due to its lower relapse and hospitalization rates compared to epinephrine.

  3. Nebulized hypertonic saline/salbutamol solution treatment in hospitalized children with mild to moderate bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhengxiu; Liu, Enmei; Luo, Jian; Li, Subi; Zeng, Fengqiong; Yang, Xiqiang; Fu, Zhou

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of nebulized 3% hypertonic saline solution and salbutamol in the treatment of mild to moderate bronchiolitis. In a randomized controlled trial, 93 infants with mild to moderate bronchiolitis were divided into two groups. The infants received inhalation of 2.5 mg (0.5 mL) salbutamol dissolved in either 4.0 mL normal (0.9%) saline (control group, n= 43) or 4.0 mL hypertonic (3%) saline (treatment group, n= 50). The therapy was repeated three times daily until discharge. Cough, wheezing, pulmonary physical signs, and the length of hospital stay were recorded. Wheezing remission time was 3.8 + or - 1.1 days in the control group and 2.7 + or - 0.9 days in the treatment group (P saline solution and salbutamol is a safe and effective therapy for patients with mild to moderate bronchiolitis.

  4. Light weight meshes in incisional hernia repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schumpelick Volker

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Incisional hernias remain one of the most common surgical complications with a long-term incidence of 10-20%. Increasing evidence of impaired wound healing in these patients supports routine use of an open prefascial, retromuscular mesh repair. Basic pathophysiologic principles dictate that for a successful long-term outcome and prevention of recurrence, a wide overlap underneath healthy tissue is required. Particularly in the neighborhood of osseous structures, only retromuscular placement allows sufficient subduction of the mesh by healthy tissue of at least 5 cm in all directions. Preparation must take into account the special anatomic features of the abdominal wall, especially in the area of the Linea alba and Linea semilunaris. Polypropylene is the material widely used for open mesh repair. New developments have led to low-weight, large-pore polypropylene prostheses, which are adjusted to the physiological requirements of the abdominal wall and permit proper tissue integration. These meshes provide the possibility of forming a scar net instead of a stiff scar plate and therefore help to avoid former known mesh complications.

  5. An empirical method to cluster objective nebulizer adherence data among adults with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoo, Zhe H; Campbell, Michael J; Curley, Rachael; Wildman, Martin J

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of using preventative inhaled treatments in cystic fibrosis is to improve health outcomes. Therefore, understanding the relationship between adherence to treatment and health outcome is crucial. Temporal variability, as well as absolute magnitude of adherence affects health outcomes, and there is likely to be a threshold effect in the relationship between adherence and outcomes. We therefore propose a pragmatic algorithm-based clustering method of objective nebulizer adherence data to better understand this relationship, and potentially, to guide clinical decisions. This clustering method consists of three related steps. The first step is to split adherence data for the previous 12 months into four 3-monthly sections. The second step is to calculate mean adherence for each section and to score the section based on mean adherence. The third step is to aggregate the individual scores to determine the final cluster ("cluster 1" = very low adherence; "cluster 2" = low adherence; "cluster 3" = moderate adherence; "cluster 4" = high adherence), and taking into account adherence trend as represented by sequential individual scores. The individual scores should be displayed along with the final cluster for clinicians to fully understand the adherence data. We present three cases to illustrate the use of the proposed clustering method. This pragmatic clustering method can deal with adherence data of variable duration (ie, can be used even if 12 months' worth of data are unavailable) and can cluster adherence data in real time. Empirical support for some of the clustering parameters is not yet available, but the suggested classifications provide a structure to investigate parameters in future prospective datasets in which there are accurate measurements of nebulizer adherence and health outcomes.

  6. A simple tool for monitoring nebulized amikacin treatments based on a single urine assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faurisson, F; Delatour, F; Jelazko, P

    2001-01-01

    Aerosolized aminoglycosides have demonstrated their efficacy in the treatment of P. aeruginosa pneumonia in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. There is wide interpatient variability in the deposited and systemic drug doses that depend on both the nebulization and inhalation conditions and result in a risk of inefficacy or toxicity. We have developed a tool to provide a simple method for individual dose monitoring by estimating the total quantity of amikacin excreted, which corresponds to the dose absorbed systemically. It is based on a single urine assay. Thirty-seven urinary pharmacokinetic time courses in healthy volunteers (groups A and B) or in CF patients (groups C and D) were used. The rules for extrapolating the total dose excreted on the basis of 6-, 8-, 10-, and 12-h urine samples, were determined from group A. The accuracy of these rules was then tested in the other three groups. The total amount excreted was poorly predictable, with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 36 and 30% in the healthy volunteers, and of 48 and 82% in the CF group, whereas the CV of the estimated amount, based on 8- to 12-h samples, was only 10-15% in the healthy volunteers and 4-8% in the CF patients. Collecting a single sample over an 8- to 12-h period requires overnight sampling. The very low circadian variations in renal function, ranging from -2% to +5%, demonstrated the absence of any significant bias resulting from overnight sampling. A single urine assay can therefore be proposed as a simple, noninvasive, low cost, and reliable method for the clinical monitoring of nebulized amikacin in CF patients. Further studies are needed before this method can be extended to aerosol treatments with other aminoglycosides.

  7. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of nebulized epinephrine in infants with acute bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Claire; Altamirano, Luis; Cheney, Marise; Cheney, Joyce; Barber, Scott; Price, Darrell; Moloney, Sue; Kimberley, Ann; Woolfield, Nick; Cadzow, Susan; Fiumara, Frank; Wilson, Peter; Mego, Steve; VandeVelde, Dianne; Sanders, Sharon; O'Rourke, Peter; Francis, Paul

    2003-07-03

    The treatment of infants with bronchiolitis is largely supportive. The role of bronchodilators is controversial. Most studies of the use of bronchodilators have enrolled small numbers of subjects and have examined only short-term outcomes, such as clinical scores. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial comparing nebulized single-isomer epinephrine with placebo in 194 infants admitted to four hospitals in Queens-land, Australia, with a clinical diagnosis of bronchiolitis. Three 4-ml doses of 1 percent nebulized epinephrine or three 4-ml doses of normal saline were administered at four-hour intervals after hospital admission. Observations were made at admission and just before, 30 minutes after, and 60 minutes after each dose. The primary outcome measures were the length of the hospital stay and the time until the infant was ready for discharge. The secondary outcome measures were the degree of change in the respiratory rate, the heart rate, and the respiratory-effort score and the time that supplemental oxygen was required. There were no significant overall differences between the groups in the length of the hospital stay (P=0.16) or the time until the infant was ready for discharge (P=0.86). Among infants who required supplemental oxygen and intravenous fluids, the time until the infant was ready for discharge was significantly longer in the epinephrine group than in the placebo group (P=0.02). The need for supplemental oxygen at admission had the greatest influence on the score for severity of illness and strongly predicted the length of the hospital stay and the time until the infant was ready for discharge (Pepinephrine (P=0.02 to Pnebulized epinephrine did not significantly reduce the length of the hospital stay or the time until the infant was ready for discharge among infants admitted to the hospital with bronchiolitis. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society

  8. Study of nebulization delivery of aerosolized fluorescent microspheres to the avian respiratory tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, Lisa A; Stephens, Kimberly; Teague, Stephen V; Pinkerton, Kent E; Raabe, Otto G

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the delivery of an aerosol of monodisperse microspheres to the respiratory tract of birds following aerosol exposure. Adult domestic pigeons (Columbia livia domestica, n = 5 birds per timed treatment) were exposed to an aerosol of fluorescent 1.0 microm diameter carboxylate microspheres for 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 hr. During the aerosolization period, the birds were free-standing in a plexiglass treatment chamber and the aerosol was delivered using a commercial nebulizer. Immediately following aerosol exposure, the birds were euthanatized and the carcasses were intravenously infused with a modified paraformaldehyde/gluteraldehyde fixative. Evaluation of microsphere distribution was performed using a stereoscopic microscope with an epifluorescent module. The results from this study revealed that the amount of aerosolized particles delivered using a commercial nebulizer was proportional to exposure periods. Aerosol exposure periods of 0.5 hr or 1 hr did not result in a readily observable distribution of 1.0 microm fluorescent microspheres to the cranial thoracic, caudal thoracic, or abdominal air sac membranes. This was partly attributed to the relatively low concentration of the individual monodisperse microspheres in the aerosolized suspension. The 2- and 4-hr exposure periods resulted in readily observable deposition of the 1.0 mirom fluorescent microspheres in the cranial thoracic, caudal thoracic, or abdominal air sac membranes, with the 4-hr exposure period resulting in the greatest number of particles on the membrane surfaces. For each of the exposure periods, there was individual animal variation regarding the distribution and relative number of spheres deposited. This study demonstrates the widespread deposition of particles that had an aerodynamic equivalent diameter of approximately 1 microm and provides a better understanding of particle deposition efficiency within the respiratory system following aerosol exposure in birds.

  9. Experimental Study on Vibration Reduction Characteristics of Gear Shafts Based on ISFD Installation Position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaihua Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel type of integral squeeze film damper (ISFD is proposed to reduce and isolate vibration excitations of the gear system through bearing to the foundation. Four ISFD designs were tested experimentally with an open first-grade spur gear system. Vibration reduction characteristics were experimentally studied at different speeds for cases where ISFD elastic damping supports were simultaneously installed on the driving and driven shafts, installed on the driven shaft, or only installed on the driving shaft. Experimental results show that the ISFD elastic damping support can effectively reduce shock vibration of the gear system. Additionally, resonant modulation in gear shafts caused by meshing impact was significantly reduced. Different vibration amplitudes of gear shafts with ISFD installed only on driven or driving shafts were compared. Results indicated that vibration reduction is better when ISFD is only installed on the driven shaft than on the driving shaft.

  10. Open preperitoneal groin hernia repair with mesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Kristoffer; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For the repair of inguinal hernias, several surgical methods have been presented where the purpose is to place a mesh in the preperitoneal plane through an open access. The aim of this systematic review was to describe preperitoneal repairs with emphasis on the technique. DATA SOURCES......: A systematic review was conducted and reported according to the PRISMA statement. PubMed, Cochrane library and Embase were searched systematically. Studies were included if they provided clinical data with more than 30 days follow up following repair of an inguinal hernia with an open preperitoneal mesh......-analysis. Open preperitoneal techniques with placement of a mesh through an open approach seem promising compared with the standard anterior techniques. This systematic review provides an overview of these techniques together with a description of surgical methods and clinical outcomes....

  11. Open preperitoneal groin hernia repair with mesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Kristoffer; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Background For the repair of inguinal hernias, several surgical methods have been presented where the purpose is to place a mesh in the preperitoneal plane through an open access. The aim of this systematic review was to describe preperitoneal repairs with emphasis on the technique. Data sources...... A systematic review was conducted and reported according to the PRISMA statement. PubMed, Cochrane library and Embase were searched systematically. Studies were included if they provided clinical data with more than 30 days follow up following repair of an inguinal hernia with an open preperitoneal mesh......-analysis. Open preperitoneal techniques with placement of a mesh through an open approach seem promising compared with the standard anterior techniques. This systematic review provides an overview of these techniques together with a description of surgical methods and clinical outcomes....

  12. Connectivity editing for quad-dominant meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chihan

    2013-08-01

    We propose a connectivity editing framework for quad-dominant meshes. In our framework, the user can edit the mesh connectivity to control the location, type, and number of irregular vertices (with more or fewer than four neighbors) and irregular faces (non-quads). We provide a theoretical analysis of the problem, discuss what edits are possible and impossible, and describe how to implement an editing framework that realizes all possible editing operations. In the results, we show example edits and illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of different strategies for quad-dominant mesh design. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. NASA Lewis Meshed VSAT Workshop meeting summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William

    1993-11-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's Space Electronics Division (SED) hosted a workshop to address specific topics related to future meshed very small-aperture terminal (VSAT) satellite communications networks. The ideas generated by this workshop will help to identify potential markets and focus technology development within the commercial satellite communications industry and NASA. The workshop resulted in recommendations concerning these principal points of interest: the window of opportunity for a meshed VSAT system; system availability; ground terminal antenna sizes; recommended multifrequency for time division multiple access (TDMA) uplink; a packet switch design concept for narrowband; and fault tolerance design concepts. This report presents a summary of group presentations and discussion associated with the technological, economic, and operational issues of meshed VSAT architectures that utilize processing satellites.

  14. Calculation of coherent synchrotron radiation using mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Agoh

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available We develop a new method to simulate coherent synchrotron radiation numerically. It is based on the mesh calculation of the electromagnetic field in the frequency domain. We make an approximation in the Maxwell equation which allows a mesh size much larger than the relevant wavelength so that the computing time is tolerable. Using the equation, we can perform a mesh calculation of coherent synchrotron radiation in transient states with shielding effects by the vacuum chamber. The simulation results obtained by this method are compared with analytic solutions. Though, for the comparison with theories, we adopt simplifications such as longitudinal Gaussian distribution, zero-width transverse distribution, horizontal uniform bend, and a vacuum chamber with rectangular cross section, the method is applicable to general cases.

  15. Mesh control information of windmill designed by Solidwork program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyana, T.; Sebayang, D.; Rafsanjani, A. M. D.; Adani, J. H. D.; Muhyiddin, Y. S.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the mesh control information imposed on the windmill already designed. The accuracy of Simulation results is influenced by the quality of the created mesh. However, compared to the quality of the mesh is made, the simulation time running will be done software also increases. The smaller the size of the elements created when making the mesh, the better the mesh quality will be generated. When adjusting the mesh size, there is a slider that acts as the density regulator of the element. SolidWorks Simulation also has Mesh Control facility. Features that can adjust mesh density only in the desired part. The best results of mesh control obtained for both static and thermal simulation have ratio 1.5.

  16. Model Indepedent Vibration Control

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Jing

    2010-01-01

    A NMIFC system is proposed for broadband vibration control. It has two important features. Feature F1 is that the NMIFC is stable without introducing any invasive effects, such as probing signals or controller perturbations, into the vibration system; feature F2 is

  17. Vibration Theory, Vol. 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    The present textbook has been written based on previous lecture notes for a course on stochastic vibration theory that is being given on the 9th semester at Aalborg University for M. Sc. students in structural engineering. The present 4th edition of this textbook on linear stochastic vibration...

  18. Vibration Theory, Vol. 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    The present textbook has been written based on previous lecture notes for a course on stochastic vibration theory that is being given on the 9th semester at Aalborg University for M. Sc. students in structural engineering. The present 2nd edition of this textbook on linear stochastic vibration...

  19. Hydroelastic Vibrations of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Folsø, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    A formula for the necessary hull girder bending stiffness required to avoid serious springing vibrations is derived. The expression takes into account the zero crossing period of the waves, the ship speed and main dimensions. For whipping vibrations the probability of exceedance for the combined...

  20. Gearbox vibration diagnostic analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Gearbox Vibration Diagnostic Analyzer installed in the NASA Lewis Research Center's 500 HP Helicopter Transmission Test Stand to monitor gearbox testing. The vibration of the gearbox is analyzed using diagnostic algorithms to calculate a parameter indicating damaged components.

  1. Mechanical vibration and shock analysis, sinusoidal vibration

    CERN Document Server

    Lalanne, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Everything engineers need to know about mechanical vibration and shock...in one authoritative reference work! This fully updated and revised 3rd edition addresses the entire field of mechanical vibration and shock as one of the most important types of load and stress applied to structures, machines and components in the real world. Examples include everything from the regular and predictable loads applied to turbines, motors or helicopters by the spinning of their constituent parts to the ability of buildings to withstand damage from wind loads or explosions, and the need for cars to m

  2. Short term efficacy of nebulized beclomethasone in mild-to-moderate wheezing episodes in pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cutrera Renato

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few data are available on the usefulness of short term treatment with low-medium dose of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS in pre-school children with wheezing exacerbations. Methods To compare the efficacy of one week treatment with 400 μg b.i.d. nebulized beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP, plus nebulized 2500 μg prn salbutamol (BDP group, versus nebulized b.i.d. placebo, plus nebulized prn 2500 μg salbutamol (placebo group, a post-hoc analysis was performed on data obtained in 166 pre-school children with multiple-trigger wheezing, recruited during an acute wheezing episode. Results The percentage of symptom-free days (SFDs was significantly higher in the BDP group (54.7% than in the placebo group (40.5%; p = 0.012, with a 35% relative difference. Day-by-day analysis showed that the percentage of SFDs was already higher in the BDP group after 2 days (7.4%, the difference reaching statistical significance at day 6 (12.3%; p = 0.035. Cough score was also reduced in the BDP group (0.11 as compared with the placebo group (0.39; p = 0.048, the difference reaching statistical significance after 5 days of treatment (0.18 and 0.47 respectively; p = 0.047. The mean number of nebulizations per day of prn salbutamol was lower in the BDP group as compared to the placebo group (0.26 and 0.34, respectively, but the difference was not significant (p = 0.366. There were no differences in positive effects of BDP treatment between children with and without risk factors for asthma. Conclusions A 1-week treatment with nebulized BDP and prn salbutamol is effective in increasing SFDs and improving cough in children with wheezing, providing a clinical rationale for the short term use of ICS in episodic wheeze exacerbations in pre-school children. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00497523

  3. Unstructured Adaptive Meshes: Bad for Your Memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Rupak; Feng, Hui-Yu; VanderWijngaart, Rob

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation explores the need for a NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) parallel benchmark for problems with irregular dynamical memory access. This benchmark is important and necessary because: 1) Problems with localized error source benefit from adaptive nonuniform meshes; 2) Certain machines perform poorly on such problems; 3) Parallel implementation may provide further performance improvement but is difficult. Some examples of problems which use irregular dynamical memory access include: 1) Heat transfer problem; 2) Heat source term; 3) Spectral element method; 4) Base functions; 5) Elemental discrete equations; 6) Global discrete equations. Nonconforming Mesh and Mortar Element Method are covered in greater detail in this presentation.

  4. Adaptive mesh refinement for storm surge

    KAUST Repository

    Mandli, Kyle T.

    2014-03-01

    An approach to utilizing adaptive mesh refinement algorithms for storm surge modeling is proposed. Currently numerical models exist that can resolve the details of coastal regions but are often too costly to be run in an ensemble forecasting framework without significant computing resources. The application of adaptive mesh refinement algorithms substantially lowers the computational cost of a storm surge model run while retaining much of the desired coastal resolution. The approach presented is implemented in the GeoClaw framework and compared to ADCIRC for Hurricane Ike along with observed tide gauge data and the computational cost of each model run. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Vibrations of rotating machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Osami; Kanki, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masao; Keogh, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    This book opens with an explanation of the vibrations of a single degree-of-freedom (dof) system for all beginners. Subsequently, vibration analysis of multi-dof systems is explained by modal analysis. Mode synthesis modeling is then introduced for system reduction, which aids understanding in a simplified manner of how complicated rotors behave. Rotor balancing techniques are offered for rigid and flexible rotors through several examples. Consideration of gyroscopic influences on the rotordynamics is then provided and vibration evaluation of a rotor-bearing system is emphasized in terms of forward and backward whirl rotor motions through eigenvalue (natural frequency and damping ratio) analysis. In addition to these rotordynamics concerning rotating shaft vibration measured in a stationary reference frame, blade vibrations are analyzed with Coriolis forces expressed in a rotating reference frame. Other phenomena that may be assessed in stationary and rotating reference frames include stability characteristic...

  6. Cache-mesh, a Dynamics Data Structure for Performance Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuan T.; Dahl, Vedrana Andersen; Bærentzen, J. Andreas

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes the cache-mesh, a dynamic mesh data structure in 3D that allows modifications of stored topological relations effortlessly. The cache-mesh can adapt to arbitrary problems and provide fast retrieval to the most-referred-to topological relations. This adaptation requires trivial...... of the cache-mesh, and the extra work for caching is also trivial. Though it appears that it takes effort for initial implementation, building the cache-mesh is comparable to a traditional mesh in terms of implementation....

  7. Local vibrations and lift performance of low Reynolds number airfoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TariqAmin Khan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved based on the finite volume method and dynamic mesh technique is used to carry out partial fluid structure interaction. The local flexible structure (hereinafter termed as flexible structure vibrates in a single mode located on the upper surface of the airfoil. The Influence of vibration frequency and amplitude are examined and the corresponding fluid flow characteristics are investigated which add complexity to the inherent problem in unsteady flow. The study is conducted for flow over NACA0012 airfoil at 600≤Re≤3000 at a low angle of attack. Vibration of flexible structure induces a secondary vortex which modifies the pressure distribution and lift performance of the airfoil. At some moderate vibration amplitude, frequency synchronization or lock-in phenomenon occurs when the vibration frequency is close to the characteristic frequency of rigid airfoil. Evolution and shedding of vortices corresponding to the deformation of flexible structure depends on the Reynolds number. In the case of Re≤1000, the deformation of flexible structure is considered in-phase with the vortex shedding i.e., increasing maximum lift is linked with the positive deformation of flexible structure. At Re=1500 a phase shift of about 1/π exists while they are out-of-phase at Re>1500. Moreover, the oscillation amplitude of lift coefficient increases with increasing vibration amplitude for Re≤1500 while it decreases with increasing vibration amplitude for Re>1500. As a result of frequency lock-in, the average lift coefficient is increased with increasing vibration amplitude for all investigated Reynolds numbers (Re. The maximum increase in the average lift coefficient is 19.72% within the range of investigated parameters.

  8. Performance of the hybrid wireless mesh protocol for wireless mesh networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boye, Magnus; Staalhagen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Wireless mesh networks offer a new way of providing end-user access and deploying network infrastructure. Though mesh networks offer a price competitive solution to wired networks, they also come with a set of new challenges such as optimal path selection, channel utilization, and load balancing....... These challenges must first be overcome before satisfactory network stability and throughput can be achieved. This paper studies the performance of the Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol, the proposed routing protocol for the upcoming IEEE 802.11s standard. HWMP supports two modes of path selection: reactive...

  9. Prolene (mesh) bulbourethral sling in male incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Rakesh Kapoor; Kamal Jeet Singh; Amit Suri; Pratipal Singh; Anil Mandhani

    2007-01-01

    Objective : We present our preliminary results of bulbar urethral sling (single bolster) in treatment of postprostatectomy urinary incontinence (PPUI). Materials and Methods: From May 2003 to June 2005, six patients with postprostatectomy urinary incontinence (transurethral resection of prostate in five patients and after open prostatectomy in one patient) underwent prolene mesh bulbar urethral sling surgery. Preoperative evaluation included physical examination, neurological assessment, str...

  10. Markov random fields on triangle meshes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vedrana; Aanæs, Henrik; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel anisotropic smoothing scheme based on Markov Random Fields (MRF). Our scheme is formulated as two coupled processes. A vertex process is used to smooth the mesh by displacing the vertices according to a MRF smoothness prior, while an independent edge process label...

  11. Markov Random Fields on Triangle Meshes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vedrana; Aanæs, Henrik; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel anisotropic smoothing scheme based on Markov Random Fields (MRF). Our scheme is formulated as two coupled processes. A vertex process is used to smooth the mesh by displacing the vertices according to a MRF smoothness prior, while an independent edge process label...

  12. Mid term outcome of robotic mesh sacrocolpopexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsante, Michael; Murray, Sunshine; Dillon, Benjamin; Zimmern, Philippe

    2013-02-01

    Use of robotic mesh sacrocolpopexy (RMS) has increased for management of pelvic organ prolapse (POP). We present our experience with mid term follow up. A retrospective chart review of consecutive patients who had RMS was performed. Patients underwent history and physical exam including POP-Q classification. In cases of bladder involvement a standing voiding cystourethrogram and urodynamics with vaginal pack reduction of the prolapse were done. Indication for RMS was patient preference, BMI vault prolapse. Three patients had secondary POP procedures. One patient developed a mesh erosion requiring surgical repair. Functional outcome improvement was noted with score reduction for QoL of 4.1 to 1.3 (p < 0.001), UDI-6 of 27.3 to 16.1 (p = 0.002), and IIQ-7 of 18.3 to 3.9 (p = 0.031). RMS performed reliably to correct symptomatic POP. The use of absorbable sutures to secure the mesh to the vaginal walls resulted in satisfactory anatomic outcomes and did not increase the risk of mesh erosion.

  13. Polypropylene mesh: evidence for lack of carcinogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moalli, Pamela; Brown, Bryan; Reitman, Maureen T. F.

    2016-01-01

    Tumors related to the implantation of surgical grade polypropylene in humans have never been reported. In this commentary we present a balanced review of the information on what is known regarding the host response to polypropylene and provide data as to why the potential for carcinogenicity of polypropylene mesh is exceedingly small. PMID:24614956

  14. Drag reduction properties of superhydrophobic mesh pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraldi, Nicasio R.; Dodd, Linzi E.; Xu, Ben B.; Wells, Gary G.; Wood, David; Newton, Michael I.; McHale, Glen

    2017-09-01

    Even with the recent extensive study into superhydrophobic surfaces, the fabrication of such surfaces on the inside walls of a pipe remains challenging. In this work we report a convenient bi-layered pipe design using a thin superhydrophobic metallic mesh formed into a tube, supported inside another pipe. A flow system was constructed to test the fabricated bi-layer pipeline, which allowed for different constant flow rates of water to be passed through the pipe, whilst the differential pressure was measured, from which the drag coefficient (ƒ) and Reynolds numbers (Re) were calculated. Expected values of ƒ were found for smooth glass pipes for the Reynolds number (Re) range 750-10 000, in both the laminar and part of the turbulent regimes. Flow through plain meshes without the superhydrophobic coating were also measured over a similar range (750  pipe of the same diameter. This demonstrates that a superhydrophobic mesh can support a plastron and provide a drag reduction compared to a plain mesh, however, the plastron is progressively destroyed with use and in particular at higher flow rates.

  15. [Implants for genital prolapse : Pro mesh surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neymeyer, J; Moldovan, D-E; Kornienko, K; Miller, K; Weichert, A

    2017-12-01

    There has been an overall increase in pelvic organ prolapse due to demographic changes (increased life expectancy). Increasing sociocultural demands of women require treatments that are more effective with methods that are more successful. In the treatment of pelvic floor insufficiency and uterovaginal prolapse, pelvic floor reconstructions with mesh implants have proven to be superior to conventional methods such as the classic colporrhaphy, reconstructions with biomaterial, and native tissue repair in appropriately selected patients and when applying exact operation techniques, especially because of good long-term results and low recurrence rates. When making a systematic therapy plan, one should adhere to certain steps, for example, a pelvic floor reconstruction should be undertaken before performing the corrective procedure for incontinence. The approach, if vaginal, laparoscopic, or abdominal should be chosen wisely, taking into consideration the required space of action, in such a way that none or only minimal collateral damage related to the operation occurs. The use of instrumental suturing techniques and operation robots are advantageous in the case of difficult approaches and limited anatomical spaces. In principle, the surgeon who implants meshes should be able to explant them! The surgical concept of mesh-related interventions in the pelvis must meet established rules. "Implant as little mesh as possible and only as much suitable (!) mesh as absolutely necessary!" In the case of apical direct fixations, a therapeutically relevant target variable is the elevation angle of vagina (EAV). Established anatomical fixation points are preferable. A safe distance between implants and vulnerable tissue is to be maintained. Mesh-based prolapse repairs are indicated in recurrences, in primary situations, in combined defects of the anterior compartment, in central defects of multimorbid and elderly patients, and above all, when organ preservation is wanted

  16. Helium/oxygen-driven albuterol nebulization in the management of children with status asthmaticus: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Michael T; Jacobs, Brian R; Monaco, Marie A; Brilli, Richard J; Wells, Dan; Conway, Edward M; Pettinichi, Scott; Wheeler, Derek S

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the effect of heliox-powered albuterol therapy on hospital length of stay and clinical status in children with moderate to severe status asthmaticus. Prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Twenty-five-bed pediatric intensive care unit at an academic children's medical center. Forty-two children (2-21 yrs of age) with moderate to severe status asthmaticus. Patients were randomized to receive either heliox-powered nebulized albuterol or air/oxygen-powered nebulized albuterol (placebo) until they were transitioned to albuterol delivered by a metered dose inhaler. Clinical asthma scores were recorded on enrollment and every 4 hrs thereafter. Patients in the heliox group (n = 22) and the control group (n = 20) had similar ages (mean +/- sem: 88 +/- 9.9 vs. 98 +/- 11.1 months, respectively; p = .51), time to study enrollment (618 +/- 70.4 vs. 597 +/- 84.1 mins, respectively; p = .72), and clinical asthma scores at study entry (5.9 +/- 0.2 vs. 5.7 +/- 0.3, respectively; p = .72). There were no significant differences between groups in time to eligibility to hospital discharge (66.2 +/- 8.7 vs. 63.4 +/- 8.6 hrs, respectively; p = .61), time to clinical asthma score vs. 21.2 +/- 5.3 hrs, respectively; p = .27), or time to eligibility for intensive care unit discharge (34.4 +/- 6.8 vs. 33.3 +/- 8.2 hrs, respectively; p = .64). There were no significant differences in adverse events between groups. Despite the previously demonstrated effects of heliox on improved aerosol particle delivery into the distal airways, heliox-powered nebulized albuterol therapy for children admitted to the hospital with moderate to severe status asthmaticus does not shorten hospital length of stay or hasten rates of clinical improvement when compared with air/oxygen-powered nebulized albuterol.

  17. Comparison of Initial Response of Nebulized Salbutamol and Adrenaline in Infants and young Children Admitted with Acute Bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, S; Thapa, P; Rao, K S; Bk, G

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute bronchiolitis is common cause of hospitalization in infants and young children. There are widespread variations in the diagnosis and management. Despite the use of bronchodilators for decades, there is lack of consensus for the benefit of one above another. Objective To compare initial response of nebulized adrenaline and salbutamol. Method Children aged two months to two years admitted with acute bronchiolitis in the department of Paediatrics of Manipal teaching hospital, Pokhara, Nepal, from 1st March 2014 to 28th February 2015 were enrolled. Patients fulfilling inclusion criteria received either adrenaline or salbutamol nebulization. Data were collected in a predesigned proforma. Respiratory distress assessment instrument (RDAI) scores were considered primary outcome measure and respiratory rate at 48 hours, duration of hospital stay, requirement of supplemental oxygen and intravenous fluid were considered secondary outcome measure. Result A total of 40 patients were enrolled in each study group. Mean RDAI scores at admission was in 9.75 with (CI- 9.01, 10.49) in adrenaline and 9.77 (CI- 9.05, 10.50) in salbutamol group. There was gradual decline in mean RDAI scores in both the groups over 48 hours to 4.15 (CI- 3.57,4.73) and 4.13 (CI- 3.69,4.56) in adrenaline and salbutamol group respectively. Hospital stay was 5.32 days in adrenaline and 5.68 days in salbutamol group. Patients nebulized with adrenaline required oxygen for 33.30 hours compared with 36.45 hours in salbutamol. Intravenous fluid duration was also less in adrenaline group compared to salbutamol group (33.15 vs 37.80 hours). Conclusion Patients of acute bronchiolitis nebulized with either salbutamol or adrenaline experienced similar decline in RDAI scores in the first 48 hours. Duration of supplementary oxygen and intravenous fluid was less in adrenaline group compared with salbutamol group.

  18. Analytical and Experimental Vibration Analysis of a Faulty Gear System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, F. K.; Braun, M. J.; Polyshchuk, V.; Zakrajsek, J. J.; Townsend, D. P.; Handschuh, R. F.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive analytical procedure was developed for predicting faults in gear transmission systems under normal operating conditions. A gear tooth fault model is developed to simulate the effects of pitting and wear on the vibration signal under normal operating conditions. The model uses changes in the gear mesh stiffness to simulate the effects of gear tooth faults. The overall dynamics of the gear transmission system is evaluated by coupling the dynamics of each individual gear-rotor system through gear mesh forces generated between each gear-rotor system and the bearing forces generated between the rotor and the gearbox structure. The predicted results were compared with experimental results obtained from a spiral bevel gear fatigue test rig at NASA Lewis Research Center. The Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD) was used to give a comprehensive comparison of the predicted and experimental results. The WVD method applied to the experimental results were also compared to other fault detection techniques to verify the WVD's ability to detect the pitting damage, and to determine its relative performance. Overall results show good correlation between the experimental vibration data of the damaged test gear and the predicted vibration from the model with simulated gear tooth pitting damage. Results also verified that the WVD method can successfully detect and locate gear tooth wear and pitting damage.

  19. Structural Stability and Vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiggers, Sine Leergaard; Pedersen, Pauli

    This book offers an integrated introduction to the topic of stability and vibration. Strikingly, it describes stability as a function of boundary conditions and eigenfrequency as a function of both boundary conditions and column force. Based on a post graduate course held by the author at the Uni......This book offers an integrated introduction to the topic of stability and vibration. Strikingly, it describes stability as a function of boundary conditions and eigenfrequency as a function of both boundary conditions and column force. Based on a post graduate course held by the author...... and their derivation, thus stimulating them to write interactive and dynamic programs to analyze instability and vibrational modes....

  20. Jali - Unstructured Mesh Infrastructure for Multi-Physics Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-13

    Jali is a parallel unstructured mesh infrastructure library designed for use by multi-physics simulations. It supports 2D and 3D arbitrary polyhedral meshes distributed over hundreds to thousands of nodes. Jali can read write Exodus II meshes along with fields and sets on the mesh and support for other formats is partially implemented or is (https://github.com/MeshToolkit/MSTK), an open source general purpose unstructured mesh infrastructure library from Los Alamos National Laboratory. While it has been made to work with other mesh frameworks such as MOAB and STKmesh in the past, support for maintaining the interface to these frameworks has been suspended for now. Jali supports distributed as well as on-node parallelism. Support of on-node parallelism is through direct use of the the mesh in multi-threaded constructs or through the use of "tiles" which are submeshes or sub-partitions of a partition destined for a compute node.

  1. CUBIT mesh generation environment. Volume 1: Users manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blacker, T.D.; Bohnhoff, W.J.; Edwards, T.L. [and others

    1994-05-01

    The CUBIT mesh generation environment is a two- and three-dimensional finite element mesh generation tool which is being developed to pursue the goal of robust and unattended mesh generation--effectively automating the generation of quadrilateral and hexahedral elements. It is a solid-modeler based preprocessor that meshes volume and surface solid models for finite element analysis. A combination of techniques including paving, mapping, sweeping, and various other algorithms being developed are available for discretizing the geometry into a finite element mesh. CUBIT also features boundary layer meshing specifically designed for fluid flow problems. Boundary conditions can be applied to the mesh through the geometry and appropriate files for analysis generated. CUBIT is specifically designed to reduce the time required to create all-quadrilateral and all-hexahedral meshes. This manual is designed to serve as a reference and guide to creating finite element models in the CUBIT environment.

  2. Missed opportunities to transition from nebulizers to inhalers during hospitalization for acute asthma: A multicenter observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Valerie G; Hasegawa, Kohei; Heidt, Jonathan; Bittner, Jane C; Camargo, Carlos A

    2017-11-01

    Hospitalizations for acute asthma are thought to be highly preventable through the use of efficacious medications, though many patients have poor metered-dose inhaler (MDI) techniques, thus lessening these medications' real-world effectiveness. Teaching MDI techniques during hospitalization may therefore lead to improved outcomes. However, MDIs may be underutilized to deliver short-acting β-agonists (SABAs) in the inpatient setting, despite equivalent efficacy to nebulizer delivery. We sought to characterize delivery methods of SABAs among hospitalized patients with acute asthma to understand if there are missed opportunities for self-management education. In this secondary analysis of a cross-sectional 25-center chart review study of children and adults (ages 2-54 years) hospitalized for acute asthma across 18 states (2012-2013), we studied SABA therapy delivery methods during hospitalization and receipt of action plans and follow-up visits. Unadjusted associations were analyzed using chi-square, Fisher's exact, or Kruskal-Wallis tests. Of 987 patients, 44% received only nebulizer-SABA (children 32% vs. adults 53%; p vs. adults 47%; p nebulizer- vs. MDI-SABA were significantly less likely to receive individualized action plans (p vs. 78%, p vs. 59%, p < 0.001) at discharge. Opportunities exist to increase the delivery of MDI-SABA during hospitalization, particularly for adult inpatients with asthma. Further studies are needed to determine if increased use of MDI-delivered therapies improves patient education and outcomes.

  3. EFFECT OF NEBULIZED COLISTIN ON THE VENTILATOR CIRCUIT: A PROSPECTIVE PILOT CASE-CONTROL STUDY FROM A SINGLE CANCER CENTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyad M Ghonimat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nebulized colistin (NC is used for the treatment of pneumonia due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. In this one-year case-control study, our objective was to evaluate the effect of NC on the ventilator circuit (VC components. The case group consisted of 25 mechanically-ventilated patients who received NC, while the control group was 25 mechanically-ventilated patients who did not receive NC. Respiratory therapists inspected the VC every 4 hrs and whenever a ventilator alarm was reported. The VC component was changed if the alarm did not subside after necessary measures were performed. Patients from both groups were treated at the adult ICU in King Hussein Cancer Center (KHCC. In the case group, 22(88% patients required changing at least one of the circuit components (flow sensor, exhalation membrane, or nebulizer kit. The median number of changes (range per patient of the flow sensor, exhalation membrane, and nebulizer kit were: 2(1-3, 2(1-6, and 1(1-2, respectively. Large amounts of white crystals, which resembled the colistin powder, were reported on the replaced VC components. The flow sensor was changed in 2 control patients, but white crystals were absent. Crystals obtained from one case subject were confirmed to be colistin by chromatographic mass spectroscopy. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of crystal formation on the efficacy of NC and clinical outcomes.

  4. Optimization of a procedure used to measure aerosol characteristics of nebulized solutions using a cooled next generation impactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlinski, Ariel; Hayden, Janet B

    2010-12-01

    Cooling the Next Generation Impactor (NGI) is recommended to minimize evaporation due to heat transfer from impactor to aerosols when evaluating nebulized solutions. This methodology increases testing time for serial testing procedures. We hypothesize that after an initial prolonged cooling time, experiments could be repeated after shorter recooling times without sacrificing accuracy. Three units of continuous output (HUDSON) and breath enhanced (PARI LC Plus) nebulizers were operated (6 L/min) with albuterol solution (2.5 mg/3 mL) into a cooled (4°C) NGI (internal and external filters) calibrated at 15 L/min. Mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD), geometric standard deviation (GSD), % particles MMAD, GSD, P% 0.05). Percentage of variation from first measurement ranged from: -3.9 to +2.1% (PARI) and -4.1 to +2.9% (HUDSON) for MMAD; -5.6 to +2.6% (PARI) and -4.9 to +1.9% (HUDSON) for GSD; 0 to +4.6% (PARI) and -3.7% to +5.7% (HUDSON) for P%<5; and -2.4 to +5.2% (PARI) and -1.8 to +4.9% (HUDSON) for P%1-3. Aerosol characteristics of nebulized solutions determined by NGI are not affected by performing two repeat measurements after recooling the impactor for either 30 or 60 min after an initial 90-min time.

  5. Hypertonic (3%) saline vs 0.93% saline nebulization for acute viral bronchiolitis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhagwan S; Gupta, Mukesh K; Rafik, Shaikh P

    2013-08-01

    To compare the length of hospital stay (primary) and improvement in clinical severity scores (secondary) among children with bronchiolitis nebulized with 3 % hypertonic saline or 0.9% saline. Randomized double blind controlled trial. Tertiary care teaching hospital. Hospitalized children (1-24 months) with acute bronchiolitis of moderate severity. Nebulization of 4 ml of 3% hypertonic saline or 4 mL of 0.9% saline, along with 2.5 mg salbutamol, at 4-hourly intervals till the patient was ready for discharge. Baseline characteristics were similar in two groups. Median clinical severity score at admission was 6 (IQR-1) in both the groups. Clinical severity scores monitored afterwards 12-hourly till discharge (132 h) did not show statistically significant differences in 3% and 0.9% saline groups. Mean length of hospital stay (time to reach predefined clinical severity scoresaline group and 63.51 ± 21.27 h in 0.9% saline group (P=0.878). No adverse events were reported by the parents, caregivers or treating medical attendants in both groups. Nebulized 3 % saline is not superior to 0.9% saline in infants with clinically diagnosed acute bronchiolitis.

  6. A randomized trial of nebulized 3% hypertonic saline with epinephrine in the treatment of acute bronchiolitis in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Simran; Ali, Samina; McConnell, Don W; Vandermeer, Ben; Klassen, Terry P

    2009-11-01

    To determine whether nebulized 3% hypertonic saline with epinephrine is more effective than nebulized 0.9% saline with epinephrine in the treatment of bronchiolitis in the emergency department. Randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Single-center urban pediatric emergency department. Infants younger than 12 months with mild to moderate bronchiolitis. Patients were randomized to receive nebulized racemic epinephrine in either hypertonic or normal saline. The primary outcome measure was the change in respiratory distress, as measured by the Respiratory Assessment Change Score (RACS) from baseline to 120 minutes. The change in oxygen saturation was also determined. Secondary outcome measures included the rates of hospital admission and return to the emergency department. Forty-six patients were enrolled and evaluated. The 2 study groups had similar baseline characteristics. The RACS from baseline to 120 minutes demonstrated no improvement in respiratory distress in the hypertonic saline group compared with the normal saline control group. The change in oxygen saturation in the hypertonic saline group was not significant when compared with the control group. Rates of admission and return to the emergency department were not different between the 2 groups. In the treatment of acute bronchiolitis, hypertonic saline and epinephrine did not improve clinical outcome any more than normal saline and epinephrine in the emergency setting. This differs from previously published results of outpatient and inpatient populations and merits further evaluation. isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN66632312.

  7. A randomized, controlled trial of nebulized terbutaline for the first acute bronchiolitis in infants less than 12-months-old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsa, Faten; Ben Rhouma, Anis; Ghaffari, Hadhami; Boussetta, Khadija; Zouari, Bechir; Brini, Ines; Karboul, Lotfi; Souid, Mahbouba; Bousnina, Souad

    2009-03-01

    Despite the common clinical practice, the available evidence on the efficacy of bronchodilators therapy for bronchiolitis is conflicting. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of nebulized terbutaline in bronchiolitis as measured by improvement in clinical score, oxygen saturation or reduction in duration of hospitalization. This prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized clinical trial was performed at Children's Hospital of Tunis from December 2004 to April 2006. A total of 35 patients less than 12 months of age with diagnosis of moderately severe bronchiolitis were enrolled and assigned to receive nebulized terbutaline or normal saline placebo at admission (T0), at 30 minutes after admission (T30) and every four hours during a study period. Outcome measurements included: Respiratory Distress Assessment Instrument (RDAI) score, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, heart rate and the duration of hospitalization. There were no significant difference between terbutaline and placebo at baseline, T30 min, T60 min, and T120 min after start study in RDAI score, oxygen saturation in room air, rate respiratory and heart rate. There was no difference in duration of hospitalization. Nebulized terbutaline therapy does not appear effective in treating moderately ill infants with the first acute bronchiolitis.

  8. Vibration Analysis and the Accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Have you ever put your hand on an electric motor or motor-driven electric appliance and felt it vibrate? Ever wonder why it vibrates? What is there about the operation of the motor, or the object to which it is attached, that causes the vibrations? Is there anything "regular" about the vibrations, or are they the result of random causes? In this…

  9. On Reducing Delay in Mesh-Based P2P Streaming: A Mesh-Push Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Xue, Kaiping; Hong, Peilin

    The peer-assisted streaming paradigm has been widely employed to distribute live video data on the internet recently. In general, the mesh-based pull approach is more robust and efficient than the tree-based push approach. However, pull protocol brings about longer streaming delay, which is caused by the handshaking process of advertising buffer map message, sending request message and scheduling of the data block. In this paper, we propose a new approach, mesh-push, to address this issue. Different from the traditional pull approach, mesh-push implements block scheduling algorithm at sender side, where the block transmission is initiated by the sender rather than by the receiver. We first formulate the optimal upload bandwidth utilization problem, then present the mesh-push approach, in which a token protocol is designed to avoid block redundancy; a min-cost flow model is employed to derive the optimal scheduling for the push peer; and a push peer selection algorithm is introduced to reduce control overhead. Finally, we evaluate mesh-push through simulation, the results of which show mesh-push outperforms the pull scheduling in streaming delay, and achieves comparable delivery ratio at the same time.

  10. The clinical efficacy of nebulized racemic epinephrine and albuterol in acute bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijonen, T; Korppi, M; Pitkäkangas, S; Tenhola, S; Remes, K

    1995-06-01

    To investigate whether nebulized racemic epinephrine or albuterol improves respiratory distress in infants with acute bronchiolitis. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. A university hospital providing primary hospital care for all pediatric patients in a defined area. One hundred consecutive infants younger than 24 months treated in the hospital for acute bronchiolitis. The patients received two inhalations at 30-minute intervals: racemic epinephrine followed by physiologic saline (REP group; n = 24), albuterol followed by physiologic saline (AP group; n = 27), physiologic saline followed by racemic epinephrine (PRE group; n = 24), and physiologic saline followed by albuterol (PA group; n = 25). All patients received intramuscular epinephrine 60 minutes after the beginning of the study. Oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, and two clinical scores were used: one based on wheezing and retractions (Respiratory Distress Assessment Instrument) and the other based on changes in wheezing, retractions, and respiratory rate (Respiratory Assessment Change Score). During the study, there were no significant differences among the four groups in clinical scores, oxygen saturations, and respiratory rates. Mean Respiratory Distress Assessment Instrument scores improved significantly within the REP, PRE, and AP groups 15 minutes after the first inhalation. In only the REP group, which received racemic epinephrine, the confidence limits did not overlap. A comparison of paired data of each patient revealed that the difference in Respiratory Assessment Change Score was significant between racemic epinephrine and physiologic saline, but not between albuterol and physiologic saline. Intramuscular epinephrine significantly improved Respiratory Distress Assessment Index scores in those groups treated earlier with racemic epinephrine (REP and PRE groups). No significant adverse effects were seen in any group or at any phase of the study. Elimination of hypoxia by

  11. Effect of nebulized 3% hypertonic saline in the treatment of acute viral bronchiolitis in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisoo Hatami

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bronchiolitis is the most common viral respiratory infections in children under 2 years. No effective Short-term or long-term treatment for bronchiolitis has been approved yet. Treatment is still supportive with oxygen, fluid and mechanical ventilation as necessary. Several studies have shown that 3% hypertonic saline improve immediate and longterm cleaning of small airways in these patients. This study aimed to compare the effects of 3% hypertonic saline with 0.9% saline in 2-24 month children with bronchiolitis. Materials and Methods: In a non-randomized clinical trial, 60 children aged 2 to 24 months with diagnosis of acute viral bronchiolitis were enrolled. Thirty children recieved 3% hypertonic saline with nebulizer as the treatment group and 30 children treated with nebulized normal saline 0.9% as the control group. In entrance, oxygen saturation (by pulse oximetry, respiratory rate, pulse rate and severity of disease were measured using a combination score (sum of Clinical Score (YALE Observation Scale and RDAI (Respiratory Distress Assessment Index . The primary outcomes change in clinical score and hospitalization rate, and secondary outcomes were duration of hospitalization, need to oxygen therapy and recovery time from wheezing and cough. Results: Two groups were not different in terms of baseline variables, except age (8.9±4.9 months in the hypertonic saline group and 6.4 ± 4.6 months in normal saline group P=0.046. After the intervention, the difference in clinical severity between the hypertonic saline group (10.9±5.6 and normal saline (10.4±5.7 was not significant (adjusted for age P=0.77. The hospitalization rate was not significantly different in the two groups (60% vs 63.3%. Length of hospital stay, the need for oxygen therapy, number of days requiring intravenous fluid therapy and recovery time from cough and wheezing were not significantly different between two groups. Conclusion: It seems, 3% hypertonic

  12. Assessment of Gear Damage Monitoring Techniques Using Vibration Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wilson Q.; Ismail, Fathy; Farid Golnaraghi, M.

    2001-09-01

    Each gear damage monitoring technique has its merits and limitations. This paper experimentally investigates the sensitivity and robustness of the currently well-accepted techniques: phase and amplitude demodulation, beta kurtosis and wavelet transform. Four gear test cases were used: healthy gears, cracked, filed and chipped gears. The vibration signal was measured on the gearbox housing and processed, online, under three filtering conditions: general signal average, overall residual and dominant meshing frequency residual. Test results show that beta kurtosis is a very reliable time-domain diagnostic technique. Phase modulation is very sensitive to gear imperfections, but other information should be used to confirm its diagnostic results. Continuous wavelet transform provides a good visual inspection especially when residual signals are used. The diagnosis based only on dominant meshing frequency residual, however, should not be used independently for gear health condition monitoring, it may give false alarms.

  13. Vibrations and Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    About this textbook An ideal text for students that ties together classical and modern topics of advanced vibration analysis in an interesting and lucid manner. It provides students with a background in elementary vibrations with the tools necessary for understanding and analyzing more complex...... dynamical phenomena that can be encountered in engineering and scientific practice. It progresses steadily from linear vibration theory over various levels of nonlinearity to bifurcation analysis, global dynamics and chaotic vibrations. It trains the student to analyze simple models, recognize nonlinear...... phenomena and work with advanced tools such as perturbation analysis and bifurcation analysis. Explaining theory in terms of relevant examples from real systems, this book is user-friendly and meets the increasing interest in non-linear dynamics in mechanical/structural engineering and applied mathematics...

  14. Cryo-mesh: a simple alternative cryopreservation protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funnekotter, B; Bunn, E; Mancera, R L

    The continued development of new cryopreservation protocols has improved post-cryogenic success rates for a wide variety of plant species. Methods like the cryo-plate have proven beneficial in simplifying the cryopreservation procedure. This study assessed the practicality of a stainless steel mesh strip (cryo-mesh) for cryopreserving shoot tips from Anigozanthos viridis. Shoot tips of A. viridis (Kangaroo Paw) were precultured on 0.4 M sucrose medium for 48 h. Precultured shoot tips were coated in a 2% alginate solution and placed onto the cryo-mesh (a 25 x 7 mm, 0.4 mm aperture, 0.224 mm diameter wire stainless steel mesh strip). The alginate was set for 20 min in a loading solution containing 100 mM CaCl2, anchoring the shoot tips to the cryo-mesh. The cryo-mesh was then transferred to PVS2 on ice for 20, 30 or 40 min prior to plunging the cryo-mesh into liquid nitrogen. The cryo-mesh protocol was compared to the droplet-vitrification protocol. A maximum of 83% post-cryogenic regeneration was achieved with the cryo-mesh when exposed to PVS2 for 30 min. No significant difference in post-cryogenic regeneration was observed between the cryo-mesh and droplet-vitrification protocols. Anigozanthos viridis shoot tips were successfully cryopreserved utilising the new cryo-mesh. The cryo-mesh thus provides a simple and successful alternative for cryopreservation.

  15. Surgical Management of Pelvic floor Prolapse in women using Mesh

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAH

    mesh. Methods: A retrospective review of patients who had pelvic floor repair using polypropylene mesh(PPM) and intra-vaginal sling(IVS), between January 2003 and July ... Conclusion: Polypropylene mesh (Prolene) is a simple effective method of treatment of pelvic floor .... erosion with sacrocolpopexy and concurrent.

  16. Aerosol Route to Administer Teicoplanin in Mechanical Ventilation: In Vitro Study, Lung Deposition and Pharmacokinetic Analyses in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillon, Antoine; Mercier, Emmanuelle; Lanotte, Philippe; Haguenoer, Eve; Darrouzain, François; Barc, Céline; Sarradin, Pierre; Si-Tahar, Mustapha; Heuzé-Vourc'h, Nathalie; Diot, Patrice; Vecellio, Laurent

    2015-08-01

    Glycopeptides given intravenously achieve low airway concentrations. Nebulization of teicoplanin may be an efficient way of delivering a high concentration of this antibiotic to the lung. This multistep study assessed the feasibility of teicoplanin nebulization during mechanical ventilation by evaluating: the stability of its antibiotic effect; epithelial tolerance; lung deposition and systemic absorption in ventilated pigs. Nebulized and non-nebulized teicoplanin activity was tested on Staphylococcus aureus cultures. The cytotoxic effect of teicoplanin on human respiratory epithelial cells was assessed by measuring lactate dehydrogenase activity released, cell viability, and transepithelial electrical resistance. Volume median diameter of particles of nebulized teicoplanin was measured by laser diffraction during mechanical ventilation. The deposited mass of teicoplanin nebulized with a vibrating mesh nebulizer in ventilated piglets was assessed by scintigraphy. Blood pharmacokinetics of teicoplanin administered either intravenously or by nebulization was compared. No decrease of antibiotic activity was observed after nebulization. In vitro cytotoxicity of teicoplanin was only observed with 1000 times the dose recommended for intravenous administration. Volume median diameter of particles was 2.5±0.1 μm. Of the initial nebulizer charge of teicoplanin, 24±7% was present in the lungs of ventilated pigs after the nebulization. Amount absorbed in blood was low (3.4%±0.9%) after nebulization, and blood stream elimination half-life value was 25.4 h. Teicoplanin was administered efficiently by nebulization during mechanical ventilation, without any effect on its pharmacological properties or any cytotoxicity. The pharmacokinetic parameters are promising in view of its time-dependent killing process. All the results of our multi-step study highlighted the potential of teicoplanin to be nebulized during mechanical ventilation.

  17. Nebulized C1-Esterase Inhibitor does not Reduce Pulmonary Complement Activation in Rats with Severe Streptococcus Pneumoniae Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Friso; Lagrand, Wim; Glas, Gerie J; Beurskens, Charlotte J P; van Mierlo, Gerard; Wouters, Diana; Zeerleder, Sacha; Roelofs, Joris J T H; Juffermans, Nicole P; Horn, Janneke; Schultz, Marcus J

    2016-12-01

    Complement activation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of pneumonia. We hypothesized that inhibition of the complement system in the lungs by repeated treatment with nebulized plasma-derived human C1-esterase inhibitor reduces pulmonary complement activation and subsequently attenuates lung injury and lung inflammation. This was investigated in a rat model of severe Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia. Rats were intra-tracheally challenged with S. pneumoniae to induce pneumonia. Nebulized C1-esterase inhibitor or saline (control animals) was repeatedly administered to rats, 30 min before induction of pneumonia and every 6 h thereafter. Rats were sacrificed 20 or 40 h after inoculation with bacteria. Brochoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue were obtained for measuring levels of complement activation (C4b/c), lung injury and inflammation. Induction of pneumonia was associated with pulmonary complement activation (C4b/c at 20 h 1.24 % [0.56-2.59] and at 40 h 2.08 % [0.98-5.12], compared to 0.50 % [0.07-0.59] and 0.03 % [0.03-0.03] in the healthy control animals). The functional fraction of C1-INH was detectable in BALF, but no effect was found on pulmonary complement activation (C4b/c at 20 h 0.73 % [0.16-1.93] and at 40 h 2.38 % [0.54-4.19]). Twenty hours after inoculation, nebulized C1-esterase inhibitor treatment reduced total histology score, but this effect was no longer seen at 40 h. Nebulized C1-esterase inhibitor did not affect other markers of lung injury or lung inflammation. In this negative experimental animal study, severe S. pneumoniae pneumonia in rats is associated with pulmonary complement activation. Repeated treatment with nebulized C1-esterase inhibitor, although successfully delivered to the lungs, does not affect pulmonary complement activation, lung inflammation or lung injury.

  18. Prosthetic Mesh Repair for Incarcerated Inguinal Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihad Tatar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incarcerated inguinal hernia is a commonly encountered urgent surgical condition, and tension-free repair is a well-established method for the treatment of noncomplicated cases. However, due to the risk of prosthetic material-related infections, the use of mesh in the repair of strangulated or incarcerated hernia has often been subject to debate. Recent studies have demonstrated that biomaterials represent suitable materials for performing urgent hernia repair. Certain studies recommend mesh repair only for cases where no bowel resection is required; other studies, however, recommend mesh repair for patients requiring bowel resection as well. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of different surgical techniques performed for strangulated hernia, and to evaluate the effect of mesh use on postoperative complications. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: This retrospective study was performed with 151 patients who had been admitted to our hospital’s emergency department to undergo surgery for a diagnosis of incarcerated inguinal hernia. The patients were divided into two groups based on the applied surgical technique. Group 1 consisted of 112 patients treated with mesh-based repair techniques, while Group 2 consisted of 39 patients treated with tissue repair techniques. Patients in Group 1 were further divided into two sub-groups: one consisting of patients undergoing bowel resection (Group 3, and the other consisting of patients not undergoing bowel resection (Group 4. Results: In Group 1, it was observed that eight (7.14% of the patients had wound infections, while two (1.78% had hematomas, four (3.57% had seromas, and one (0.89% had relapse. In Group 2, one (2.56% of the patients had a wound infection, while three (7.69% had hematomas, one (2.56% had seroma, and none had relapses. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to wound infection

  19. Nebulizers vs metered-dose inhalers with spacers for bronchodilator therapy to treat wheezing in children aged 2 to 24 months in a pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Annette; Chou, Katherine J; Silver, Ellen Johnson; Crain, Ellen F

    2003-01-01

    To determine if administration of albuterol by a metered-dose inhaler with a spacer device is as efficacious as administration of albuterol by nebulizer to treat wheezing in children aged 2 years and younger. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Pediatric emergency department. From a convenience sample of wheezing children aged 2 to 24 months, 85 patients were enrolled in the nebulizer group and 83 in the spacer group. The nebulizer group received a placebo metered-dose inhaler with a spacer followed by nebulized albuterol. The spacer group received albuterol by a metered-dose inhaler with a spacer followed by nebulized isotonic sodium chloride solution. Treatments were given every 20 minutes by a single investigator blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome was admission rate. Pulmonary Index score and oxygen saturation were measured initially and 10 minutes after each treatment. The nebulizer group had a significantly higher mean (SD) initial Pulmonary Index score compared with the spacer group (7.6 [2.5] vs 6.6 [2.0]; P =.002). With the initial Pulmonary Index score controlled, children in the spacer group were admitted less (5% vs 20%; P =.05). Analyses also revealed an interaction between group and initial Pulmonary Index score; lower admission rates in the spacer group were found primarily in children having a more severe asthma exacerbation. Our data suggest that metered-dose inhalers with spacers may be as efficacious as nebulizers for the emergency department treatment of wheezing in children aged 2 years or younger.

  20. Isogeometric Shape Optimization of Vibrating Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Dang Manh; Evgrafov, Anton; Gersborg, Allan Roulund

    2011-01-01

    We consider a model problem of isogeometric shape optimization of vibrating membranes whose shapes are allowed to vary freely. The main obstacle we face is the need for robust and inexpensive extension of a B-spline parametrization from the boundary of a domain onto its interior, a task which has...... perform a number of numerical experiments with our isogeometric shape optimization algorithm and present smooth, optimized membrane shapes. Our conclusion is that isogeometric analysis fits well with shape optimization.......We consider a model problem of isogeometric shape optimization of vibrating membranes whose shapes are allowed to vary freely. The main obstacle we face is the need for robust and inexpensive extension of a B-spline parametrization from the boundary of a domain onto its interior, a task which has...... to be performed in every optimization iteration. We experiment with two numerical methods (one is based on the idea of constructing a quasi-conformal mapping, whereas the other is based on a spring-based mesh model) for carrying out this task, which turn out to work sufficiently well in the present situation. We...

  1. Different Nebulized Budesonide Dosing Regimens in a Mouse Model of Chronic Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Uysal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of different inhaled steroid regimens on the lungs and their potential side effects on the bone tissues in chronic asthma model. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five specific pathogen-free BALB/c mice were divided into five groups. The mice in all of the study groups except the control group were sensitized with chicken egg albumin. After sensitization, the mice in group 2 were treated with saline modeling twice daily, the mice in group 3 were treated with 250 mcg of nebulized budesonide twice daily, the mice in group 4 were treated with 500 mcg of budesonide once daily, and the mice in group 5 were treated with 1000 mcg of budesonide every other day for the last 14 days of the challenge period. After challenge, the mice were sacrificed and lung and tibia samples were histologically examined. Results: Pulmonary parameters, including subepithelial smooth muscle thickness, goblet cell count, mast cell count and epithelial thickness, were the lowest in group 5 compared to other groups (p0.01. Conclusion: The beneficial effect on lung tissue was highest in the treatment group receiving budesonide every other day (group 5 and no further measureable side effects on bone mineralization were observed in this group compared with the other treatment groups. Every-other-day treatment application seems to be the most effective regimen in chronic asthma model.

  2. Synthesis of kerosene based nanocarbons by a nebulized spray pyrolysis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widjaja, Ongky, E-mail: wijayaongky@yahoo.co.id; Arie, Arenst Andreas, E-mail: arenst@unpar.ac.id [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Parahyangan Catholic University, Ciumbuleuit 94 Bandung 40141 (Indonesia); Halim, Martin; Lee, Joong Kee [Energy Storage Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbok-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-19

    In this work, kerosene oil based nanocarbons were synthesized by a nebulized spray pyrolysis method. This method was conducted at temperature of 700°C under a nitrogen inert atmospheric condition. Activated carbon and ferrocene were used as substrate and catalyst, respectively. Initially, ferrocene was dissolved in the oil with fixed concentration of 0.02 g/ml. The pyrolysis reaction was carried out by varying the operating time of 15, 30 and 45 minutes. The main aim of this work was to investigate the effect of varying the operation time on the morphology and structural characteristics of as-prepared carbon products. The morphology and structural characteristics of synthesized nanocarbons were examined by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Raman Spectroscopy, respectively. SEM and TEM observations showed that nano carbons were formed as agglomerated carbon nanospheres (CNSs) and graphene for all variation of operating time. Furthermore, it was observed that the size of agglomerated CNSs was proportional with the operating time from 15 to 45 minutes. Raman analysis showed that the ratio between graphite like and disorder carbon structure (I{sub G}/I{sub D})of carbon samples increased from operating time of 15 to 30 minutes, however the ratio decreased from 30 minutes to 45 minutes.

  3. The cost-effective use of nebulized racemic epinephrine in the treatment of croup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, L P; Friedland, L R

    1998-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that discharging to home an emergency department (ED) patient with croup if the patient is clinically stable 3 to 4 hours after being treated with nebulized racemic epinephrine (NRE) is safe and cost-effective. The objective of this study was to determine if EDs in our geographic area are using NRE cost-effectively in the management of croup. A survey was mailed to the ED medical directors of 23 hospitals in Ohio, Kentucky, and Indiana within a 150-mile radius of our teaching/referral children's hospital. All the hospitals surveyed were community hospitals with EDs and in-patient pediatric units. The survey presented a 2-year-old with a croup-like illness and stridor at rest whom they have just treated with NRE and dexamethasone. The medical directors were asked what their disposition would be once the NRE therapy has been completed: automatically admit, transfer, discharge immediately, or observe for 3 to 4 hours and if stable at that time discharge to home with follow-up. Seven (30%) indicated they would automatically admit, compared with 16 (70%) who indicated they would observe for 3 to 4 hours (P = .06). This article discusses potential reasons that 30% of the ED medical directors in our geographic area would automatically admit these patients rather than observe for signs of improvement that could lead to safe discharge and resultant cost savings.

  4. Evaluation of a Nanodispersion Formulation Prepared through Microfluidic Reactors for Pulmonary Delivery of Budesonide Using Nebulizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hany SM; York, Peter; Amani, Amir; Blagden, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the aerosolization behavior of a nanodispersion of budesonide, prepared using microfluidic reactors. The size and morphology of budesonide nanoparticles were characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Processing/formulation parameters for formation of the nanoparticles were studied to determine their effects on the particle size. Results showed a narrow distribution for budesonide nanodispersion with spherical and smooth surfaced particles. To investigate the in-vitro aerosolization performance of the nanodispersion, the preparation was compared with a commercially available budesonide microsuspension using the Comité Européen Normalization (CEN) methodology. Aerosolization results showed that the fine particle fraction (FPF) generated from the budesonide nanodispersion was significantly higher than that of the marketed budesonide (ie. mean (SD) 56.88 (3.37)% vs. 38.04 (7.82)%, respectively). Additionally, mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of nano-budesonide dispersion was significantly smaller than the microsuspension (ie. mean (SD) 3.91 (0.49) vs. 6.22 (1.09) μm, respectively), with nebulization time of nano-budesonide dispersion significantly shorter than the marketed budesonide microsuspension (ie. 12.3 (0.37) vs. 14.85 (0.36) min, respectively). The produced nanodispersion was found to be stable over a period of 10 days if stored at 4 °C. PMID:25276179

  5. Nebulized 5% or 3% hypertonic or 0.9% saline for treating acute bronchiolitis in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ansari, Khalid; Sakran, Mahmoud; Davidson, Bruce L; El Sayyed, Rafah; Mahjoub, Hella; Ibrahim, Khalid

    2010-10-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of 5%, 3%, and 0.9% saline solution for treating acute bronchiolitis in the prehospital setting. This was a double-blind trial including consecutive infants aged saline with epinephrine every 4 hours. The primary efficacy outcome was bronchiolitis severity score improvement at 48 hours (chi2 analysis). Scores and oxygen saturation immediately before and after each treatment were recorded to assess safety. A total of 187 previously healthy infants (median age, 3.1 months) diagnosed with bronchiolitis were enrolled. Positivity for respiratory syncytial virus was similar in the 3 treatment groups (mean, 56%). At 48 hours, the mean severity score for the 5% saline group was 3.69+/-1.09, and that for the 0.9% saline group was 4.12+/-1.11 (P=.04; difference, 0.43, 95% confidence interval for the difference, 0.02-0.88). The mean severity score for the 3% saline group was intermediate at 4.00+/-1.22. Revisit rates after discharge were similar in the 3 treatment groups. No adverse reactions or other safety concerns were identified. Nebulization with 5% hypertonic saline is safe, can be widely generalizable, and may be superior to current treatment for early outpatient treatment of bronchiolitis. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nebulized 3% hypertonic saline solution treatment in ambulatory children with viral bronchiolitis decreases symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrell, E Michael; Tal, Guy; Witzling, Michaela; Someck, Eli; Houri, Sion; Cohen, Herman A; Mandelberg, Avigdor

    2002-12-01

    To determine the utility of inhaled hypertonic saline solution to treat ambulatory infants with viral bronchiolitis. Randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Sixty-five ambulatory infants (mean +/- SD age, 12.5 +/- 6 months) with viral bronchiolitis received either of the following: inhalation of 0.5 mL (5 mg) terbutaline added to 2 mL of 0.9% saline solution as a wet nebulized aerosol (control; group 1; n = 32) or 0.5 mL (5 mg) terbutaline added to 2 mL of 3% saline solution administered in the same manner as above (treatment; group 2; n = 33). This therapy was repeated three times every day for 5 days. The clinical severity (CS) scores at baseline on the first day of treatment were 6.4 +/- 1.8 in group 1 and 6.6 +/- 1.5 in group 2 (not significant). After the first day, the CS score was significantly lower (better) in group 2 as compared to group 1 on each of the treatment days (p hypertonic saline solution-treated patients (group 2) as compared to the 0.9% saline solution-treated patients (group 1) [p = 0.01; Fig 1 ]. We conclude that in nonasthmatic, nonseverely ill ambulatory infants with viral bronchiolitis, aerosolized 3% saline solution plus 5 mg terbutaline is effective in decreasing symptoms as compared to 0.9% saline solution plus 5 mg terbutaline.

  7. Laparoscopic Total Extraperitoneal (TEP) Inguinal Hernia Repair Using 3-dimensional Mesh Without Mesh Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyazicioglu, Tolga; Yalti, Tunc; Kabaoglu, Burcak

    2017-08-01

    Approximately one fifth of patients suffer from inguinal pain after laparoscopic total extraperitoneal (TEP) inguinal hernia repair. There is existing literature suggesting that the staples used to fix the mesh can cause postoperative inguinal pain. In this study, we describe our experience with laparoscopic TEP inguinal hernia surgery using 3-dimensional mesh without mesh fixation, in our institution. A total of 300 patients who had undergone laparoscopic TEP inguinal hernia repair with 3-dimensional mesh in VKV American Hospital, Istanbul from November 2006 to November 2015 were studied retrospectively. Using the hospital's electronic archive, we studied patients' selected parameters, which are demographic features (age, sex), body mass index, hernia locations and types, duration of operations, preoperative and postoperative complications, duration of hospital stays, cost of surgery, need for analgesics, time elapsed until returning to daily activities and work. A total of 300 patients underwent laparoscopic TEP hernia repair of 437 inguinal hernias from November 2006 to November 2015. Of the 185 patients, 140 were symptomatic. Mean duration of follow-up was 48 months (range, 6 to 104 mo). The mean duration of surgery was 55 minutes for bilateral hernia repair, and 38 minutes for unilateral hernia repair. The mean duration of hospital stay was 0.9 day. There was no conversion to open surgery. In none of the cases the mesh was fixated with either staples or fibrin glue. Six patients (2%) developed seroma that were treated conservatively. One patient had inguinal hernia recurrence. One patient had preperitoneal hematoma. One patient operated due to indirect right-sided hernia developed right-sided hydrocele. One patient had wound dehiscence at the umbilical port entry site. Chronic pain developed postoperatively in 1 patient. Ileus developed in 1 patient. Laparoscopic TEP inguinal repair with 3-dimensional mesh without mesh fixation can be performed as safe as

  8. Variational mesh segmentation via quadric surface fitting

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming

    2012-11-01

    We present a new variational method for mesh segmentation by fitting quadric surfaces. Each component of the resulting segmentation is represented by a general quadric surface (including plane as a special case). A novel energy function is defined to evaluate the quality of the segmentation, which combines both L2 and L2 ,1 metrics from a triangle to a quadric surface. The Lloyd iteration is used to minimize the energy function, which repeatedly interleaves between mesh partition and quadric surface fitting. We also integrate feature-based and simplification-based techniques in the segmentation framework, which greatly improve the performance. The advantages of our algorithm are demonstrated by comparing with the state-of-the-art methods. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Adaptive upscaling with the dual mesh method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerillot, D.; Verdiere, S.

    1997-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that upscaling should be calculated during the flow simulation instead of trying to enhance the a priori upscaling methods. Hence, counter-examples are given to motivate our approach, the so-called Dual Mesh Method. The main steps of this numerical algorithm are recalled. Applications illustrate the necessity to consider different average relative permeability values depending on the direction in space. Moreover, these values could be different for the same average saturation. This proves that an a priori upscaling cannot be the answer even in homogeneous cases because of the {open_quotes}dynamical heterogeneity{close_quotes} created by the saturation profile. Other examples show the efficiency of the Dual Mesh Method applied to heterogeneous medium and to an actual field case in South America.

  10. Meshed split skin graft for extensive vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas C

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available A 30 year old female presented with generalized stable vitiligo involving large areas of the body. Since large areas were to be treated it was decided to do meshed split skin graft. A phototoxic blister over recipient site was induced by applying 8 MOP solution followed by exposure to UVA. The split skin graft was harvested from donor area by Padgett dermatome which was meshed by an ampligreffe to increase the size of the graft by 4 times. Significant pigmentation of the depigmented skin was seen after 5 months. This procedure helps to cover large recipient areas, when pigmented donor skin is limited with minimal risk of scarring. Phototoxic blister enables easy separation of epidermis thus saving time required for dermabrasion from recipient site.

  11. Solid Mesh Registration for Radiotherapy Treatment Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe, Karsten Østergaard; Sørensen, Thomas Sangild

    2010-01-01

    We present an algorithm for solid organ registration of pre-segmented data represented as tetrahedral meshes. Registration of the organ surface is driven by force terms based on a distance field representation of the source and reference shapes. Registration of internal morphology is achieved usi...... to complete. The proposed method has many potential uses in image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) which relies on registration to account for organ deformation between treatment sessions....

  12. On mesh rezoning algorithms for parallel platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaskacz, E.J.

    1995-07-01

    A mesh rezoning algorithm for finite element simulations in a parallel-distributed environment is described. The cornerstones of the algorithm are: the parallel computation of distortion norms on the element and subdomain level, the exchange of the individual subdomain norms to form a subdomain distortion vector, the classification of subdomains and the rezoning behavior prescribed within each subdomain as a response to its own classification and the classification of neighboring subdomains.

  13. Parallel local mesh refinement for Code Saturne

    OpenAIRE

    Tomas Karasek

    2014-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is one of the eld which can fully utilize the capacity of existing HPC systems. There are many cases either from basic or applied research which are so complex that their numerical simulation with requested accuracy requires very ne representation of the computational domain. To solve certain problems numerical models consisting of hundred billions of cells are necessary. There are several approaches to create such huge meshes. One of them is bas...

  14. Orthopaedic literature and MeSH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Stuart J; Schulman, Jacque-Lynne

    2010-10-01

    Since 1916 there has been a recognized demand for a method of classification of orthopaedic literature inclusive enough to permit the proper collection and retrieval of all literature on the subject. Today, MEDLINE, available through the PubMed interface, has become the de facto standard for organization and retrieval of medical literature. The Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), used to provide indexing and assist in searching, are partly responsible for this standard. Understanding how MeSH is built and maintained may lead the user to a better understanding of how to use MEDLINE, and what to expect from the indexing of an article. The purpose of this review is to provide an understanding of the organization of large quantities of indexed material, the indexing process and the considerations involved in developing an indexing vocabulary. WHERE ARE WE NOW?: Successful terminology development and use, a prerequisite for any sharing of information by electronic means, depends on both user (how the user is expected to use the system) and information (how the information is organized) models. MEDLINE has a simple user model and a simpler information model. The user is expected to determine what is relevant and which MeSH descriptors are appropriate. WHERE DO WE NEED TO GO?: While MEDLINE through PubMed is a success as viewed by the number of hits, further improvements will depend on better, faster indexing with a controlled terminology. Terminology development requires careful consideration of the nature of the subject, how users employ the terminology, the overall purpose of the terminology, and the framework of the systems in which it is used. HOW DO WE GET THERE?: For the future, understanding terminology development might enable the user to comprehend some of the issues involved in sharing of other information by electronic means. Further improvements in the availability and accessibility of medical literature will depend on continued maintenance and development of MeSH

  15. Collagen/Polypropylene composite mesh biocompatibility in abdominal wall reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukasiewicz, Aleksander; Skopinska-Wisniewska, Joanna; Marszalek, Andrzej; Molski, Stanislaw; Drewa, Tomasz

    2013-05-01

    Intraperitoneal placement of polypropylene mesh leads to extensive visceral adhesions and is contraindicated. Different coatings are used to improve polypropylene mesh properties. Collagen is a protein with unique biocompatibility and cell ingrowth enhancement potential. A novel acetic acid extracted collagen coating was developed to allow placement of polypropylene mesh in direct contact with viscera. The authors' aim was to evaluate the long-term influence of acetic acid extracted collagen coating on surgical aspects and biomechanical properties of polypropylene mesh implanted in direct contact with viscera, including complications, adhesions with viscera, strength of incorporation, and microscopic inflammatory reaction. Forty adult Wistar rats were divided into two groups: experimental (polypropylene mesh/acetic acid extracted collagen coating) and control (polypropylene mesh only). Astandardized procedure of mesh implantation was performed. Animals were killed 3 months after surgery and analyzed for complications, mesh area covered by adhesions, type of adhesions, strength of incorporation, and intensity of inflammatory response. The mean adhesion area was lower for polypropylene mesh/acetic acid extracted collagen coating (14.5 percent versus 69.9 percent, p polypropylene mesh are significantly reduced because of acetic acid extracted collagen coating. The collagen coating does not increase complications or induce alterations of polypropylene mesh incorporation.

  16. MeSH Now: automatic MeSH indexing at PubMed scale via learning to rank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yuqing; Lu, Zhiyong

    2017-04-17

    MeSH indexing is the task of assigning relevant MeSH terms based on a manual reading of scholarly publications by human indexers. The task is highly important for improving literature retrieval and many other scientific investigations in biomedical research. Unfortunately, given its manual nature, the process of MeSH indexing is both time-consuming (new articles are not immediately indexed until 2 or 3 months later) and costly (approximately ten dollars per article). In response, automatic indexing by computers has been previously proposed and attempted but remains challenging. In order to advance the state of the art in automatic MeSH indexing, a community-wide shared task called BioASQ was recently organized. We propose MeSH Now, an integrated approach that first uses multiple strategies to generate a combined list of candidate MeSH terms for a target article. Through a novel learning-to-rank framework, MeSH Now then ranks the list of candidate terms based on their relevance to the target article. Finally, MeSH Now selects the highest-ranked MeSH terms via a post-processing module. We assessed MeSH Now on two separate benchmarking datasets using traditional precision, recall and F 1 -score metrics. In both evaluations, MeSH Now consistently achieved over 0.60 in F-score, ranging from 0.610 to 0.612. Furthermore, additional experiments show that MeSH Now can be optimized by parallel computing in order to process MEDLINE documents on a large scale. We conclude that MeSH Now is a robust approach with state-of-the-art performance for automatic MeSH indexing and that MeSH Now is capable of processing PubMed scale documents within a reasonable time frame. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Lu/Demo/MeSHNow/ .

  17. A Triangle Mesh Standardization Method Based on Particle Swarm Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wuli; Duan, Liming; Bai, Yang; Wang, Haoyu; Shao, Hui; Zhong, Siyang

    2016-01-01

    To enhance the triangle quality of a reconstructed triangle mesh, a novel triangle mesh standardization method based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) is proposed. First, each vertex of the mesh and its first order vertices are fitted to a cubic curve surface by using least square method. Additionally, based on the condition that the local fitted surface is the searching region of PSO and the best average quality of the local triangles is the goal, the vertex position of the mesh is regulated. Finally, the threshold of the normal angle between the original vertex and regulated vertex is used to determine whether the vertex needs to be adjusted to preserve the detailed features of the mesh. Compared with existing methods, experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively improve the triangle quality of the mesh while preserving the geometric features and details of the original mesh.

  18. Data-Parallel Mesh Connected Components Labeling and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Cyrus; Childs, Hank; Gaither, Kelly

    2011-04-10

    We present a data-parallel algorithm for identifying and labeling the connected sub-meshes within a domain-decomposed 3D mesh. The identification task is challenging in a distributed-memory parallel setting because connectivity is transitive and the cells composing each sub-mesh may span many or all processors. Our algorithm employs a multi-stage application of the Union-find algorithm and a spatial partitioning scheme to efficiently merge information across processors and produce a global labeling of connected sub-meshes. Marking each vertex with its corresponding sub-mesh label allows us to isolate mesh features based on topology, enabling new analysis capabilities. We briefly discuss two specific applications of the algorithm and present results from a weak scaling study. We demonstrate the algorithm at concurrency levels up to 2197 cores and analyze meshes containing up to 68 billion cells.

  19. Oral, intestinal, and skin bacteria in ventral hernia mesh implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odd Langbach

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In ventral hernia surgery, mesh implants are used to reduce recurrence. Infection after mesh implantation can be a problem and rates around 6–10% have been reported. Bacterial colonization of mesh implants in patients without clinical signs of infection has not been thoroughly investigated. Molecular techniques have proven effective in demonstrating bacterial diversity in various environments and are able to identify bacteria on a gene-specific level. Objective: The purpose of this study was to detect bacterial biofilm in mesh implants, analyze its bacterial diversity, and look for possible resemblance with bacterial biofilm from the periodontal pocket. Methods: Thirty patients referred to our hospital for recurrence after former ventral hernia mesh repair, were examined for periodontitis in advance of new surgical hernia repair. Oral examination included periapical radiographs, periodontal probing, and subgingival plaque collection. A piece of mesh (1×1 cm from the abdominal wall was harvested during the new surgical hernia repair and analyzed for bacteria by PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. From patients with positive PCR mesh samples, subgingival plaque samples were analyzed with the same techniques. Results: A great variety of taxa were detected in 20 (66.7% mesh samples, including typical oral commensals and periodontopathogens, enterics, and skin bacteria. Mesh and periodontal bacteria were further analyzed for similarity in 16S rRNA gene sequences. In 17 sequences, the level of resemblance between mesh and subgingival bacterial colonization was 98–100% suggesting, but not proving, a transfer of oral bacteria to the mesh. Conclusion: The results show great bacterial diversity on mesh implants from the anterior abdominal wall including oral commensals and periodontopathogens. Mesh can be reached by bacteria in several ways including hematogenous spread from an oral site. However, other sites such as gut and skin may also

  20. HEPBURN - investigating the efficacy and safety of nebulized heparin versus placebo in burn patients with inhalation trauma: study protocol for a multi-center randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glas, Gerie J; Muller, Johannes; Binnekade, Jan M; Cleffken, Berry; Colpaert, Kirsten; Dixon, Barry; Juffermans, Nicole P; Knape, Paul; Levi, Marcel M; Loef, Bert G; Mackie, David P; Malbrain, Manu; Schultz, Marcus J; van der Sluijs, Koenraad F

    2014-03-25

    Pulmonary coagulopathy is a hallmark of lung injury following inhalation trauma. Locally applied heparin attenuates lung injury in animal models of smoke inhalation. Whether local treatment with heparin benefits patients with inhalation trauma is uncertain. The present trial aims at comparing a strategy using frequent nebulizations of heparin with standard care in intubated and ventilated burn patients with bronchoscopically confirmed inhalation trauma. The Randomized Controlled Trial Investigating the Efficacy and Safety of Nebulized HEParin versus Placebo in BURN Patients with Inhalation Trauma (HEPBURN) is an international multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-arm study. One hundred and sixteen intubated and ventilated burn patients with confirmed inhalation trauma are randomized to nebulizations of heparin (the nebulized heparin strategy) or nebulizations of normal saline (the control strategy) every four hours for 14 days or until extubation, whichever comes first. The primary endpoint is the number of ventilator-free days, defined as days alive and breathing without assistance during the first 28 days, if the period of unassisted breathing lasts for at least 24 consecutive hours. As far as the authors know, HEPBURN is the first randomized, placebo-controlled trial, powered to investigate whether local treatment with heparin shortens duration of ventilation of intubated and ventilated burn patients with inhalation trauma. NCT01773083 (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov), registered on 16 January 2013.Recruiting. Randomisation commenced on 1 January 2014.

  1. Nebulized hypertonic saline treatment reduces both rate and duration of hospitalization for acute bronchiolitis in infants: an updated meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Ju; Lee, Wen-Li; Wang, Chuang-Ming; Chou, Hsin-Hsu

    2014-12-01

    Nebulized hypertonic saline (HS) treatment reduced the length of hospitalization in infants with acute bronchiolitis in a previous meta-analysis. However, there was no reduction in the admission rate. We hypothesized that nebulized HS treatment might significantly decrease both the duration and the rate of hospitalization if more randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) without a language restriction. A meta-analysis was performed based on the efficacy of nebulized HS treatment in infants with acute bronchiolitis. We used weighted mean difference (WMD) and risk ratio as effect size metrics. Eleven studies were identified that enrolled 1070 infants. Nebulized HS treatment significantly decreased the duration and rate of hospitalization compared with nebulized normal saline (NS) [duration of hospitalization: WMD = -0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -1.38 to -0.54, p bronchiolitis infants post-treatment (Day 1: WMD = -0.77, 95% CI = -1.30 to -0.24, p = 0.005; Day 2: WMD = -0.85, 95% CI = -1.30 to -0.39, p bronchiolitis in infants. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Integration of Mesh Optimization with 3D All-Hex Mesh Generation, LDRD Subcase 3504340000, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KNUPP,PATRICK; MITCHELL,SCOTT A.

    1999-11-01

    In an attempt to automatically produce high-quality all-hex meshes, we investigated a mesh improvement strategy: given an initial poor-quality all-hex mesh, we iteratively changed the element connectivity, adding and deleting elements and nodes, and optimized the node positions. We found a set of hex reconnection primitives. We improved the optimization algorithms so they can untangle a negative-Jacobian mesh, even considering Jacobians on the boundary, and subsequently optimize the condition number of elements in an untangled mesh. However, even after applying both the primitives and optimization we were unable to produce high-quality meshes in certain regions. Our experiences suggest that many boundary configurations of quadrilaterals admit no hexahedral mesh with positive Jacobians, although we have no proof of this.

  3. A THREE-YEAR EXPERIENCE WITH ANTERIOR TRANSOBTURATOR MESH (ATOM AND POSTERIOR ISCHIORECTAL MESH (PIRM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijan Lužnik

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Use of alloplastic mesh implantates allow a new urogynecologycal surgical techniques achieve a marked improvement in pelvic organ static and pelvic floor function with minimally invasive needle transvaginal intervention like an anterior transobturator mesh (ATOM and a posterior ischiorectal mesh (PIRM procedures. Methods. In three years, between April 2006 and May 2009, we performed one hundred and eightyfour operative corrections of female pelvic organ prolapse (POP and pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD with mesh implantates. The eighty-three patients with surgical procedure TVT-O or Monarc as solo intervention indicated by stress urinary incontinence without POP, are not included in this number. In 97 % of mesh operations, Gynemesh 10 × 15 cm was used. For correction of anterior vaginal prolapse with ATOM procedure, Gynemesh was individually trimmed in mesh with 6 free arms for tension-free transobturator application and tension-free apical collar. IVS (Intravaginal sling 04 Tunneller (Tyco needle system was used for transobturator application of 6 arms through 4 dermal incisions (2 on right and 2 on left. Minimal anterior median colpotomy was made in two separate parts. For correction of posterior vaginal prolapse with PIRM procedure Gynemesh was trimmed in mesh with 4 free arms and tension-free collar. Two ischiorectal long arms for tension-free application through fossa ischiorectale – right and left, and two short arms for perineal body also on both sides. IVS 02 Tunneller (Tyco needle system was used for tension-free application of 4 arms through 4 dermal incisions (2 on right and 2 on left in PIRM. Results. All 184 procedures were performed relatively safely. In 9 cases of ATOM we had perforation of bladder, in 5 by application of anterior needle, in 3 by application of posterior needle and in one case with pincette when collar was inserted in lateral vesico – vaginal space. In 2 cases of PIRM we had perforation of rectum

  4. Vibrational spectroscopy of resveratrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billes, Ferenc; Mohammed-Ziegler, Ildikó; Mikosch, Hans; Tyihák, Ernő

    2007-11-01

    In this article the authors deal with the experimental and theoretical interpretation of the vibrational spectra of trans-resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy- trans-stilbene) of diverse beneficial biological activity. Infrared and Raman spectra of the compound were recorded; density functional calculations were carried out resulting in the optimized geometry and several properties of the molecule. Based on the calculated force constants, a normal coordinate analysis yielded the character of the vibrational modes and the assignment of the measured spectral bands.

  5. Bumblebee vibration activated foraging

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Dan Kuan-Nien

    2009-01-01

    The ability use vibrational signals to activate nestmate foraging is found in the highly social bees, stingless bees and honey bees, and has been hypothesized to exist in the closely related, primitively eusocial bumble bees. We provide the first strong and direct evidence that this is correct. Inside the nest, bumble bee foragers produce brief bursts of vibration (foraging activation pulses) at 594.5 Hz for 63±26 ms (velocityRMS=0.46±0.02mm/s, forceRMS=0.8±0.2 mN. Production of these vibrati...

  6. Man-Induced Vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Hansen, Lars Pilegaard

    1994-01-01

    concerned with spectator-induced vertical vibrations on grandstands. The idea is to use impulse response analysis and base the load description on the load impulse. If the method is feasable, it could be used in connection with the formulation of requirements in building codes. During the last two decades...... work has been done on the measurement of the exact load functions and related reponse analysis. A recent work using a spectral description has been performed by Per-Erik Erikson and includes a good literature survey. Bachmann and Ammann give a good overview of vibrations caused by human activity. Other...

  7. Vibrations and waves

    CERN Document Server

    Kaliski, S

    2013-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive overview of wave phenomena in different media with interacting mechanical, electromagnetic and other fields. Equations describing wave propagation in linear and non-linear elastic media are followed by equations of rheological models, models with internal rotational degrees of freedom and non-local interactions. Equations for coupled fields: thermal, elastic, electromagnetic, piezoelectric, and magneto-spin with adequate boundary conditions are also included. Together with its companion volume Vibrations and Waves. Part A: Vibrations this work provides a wealth

  8. Modal analysis of multistage gear systems coupled with gearbox vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, F. K.; Ruan, Y. F.; Tu, Y. K.; Zakrajsek, J. J.; Townsend, D. P.

    1991-01-01

    An analytical procedure to simulate vibrations in gear transmission systems is presented. This procedure couples the dynamics of the rotor-bearing gear system with the vibration in the gear box structure. The model synthesis method is used in solving the overall dynamics of the system, and a variable time-stepping integration scheme is used in evaluating the global transient vibration of the system. Locally each gear stage is modeled as a multimass rotor-bearing system using a discrete model. The modal characteristics are calculated using the matrix-transfer technique. The gearbox structure is represented by a finite element models, and modal parameters are solved by using NASTRAN. The rotor-gear stages are coupled through nonlinear compliance in the gear mesh while the gearbox structure is coupled through the bearing supports of the rotor system. Transient and steady state vibrations of the coupled system are examined in both time and frequency domains. A typical three-geared system is used as an example for demonstration of the developed procedure.

  9. CFD simulation of aerosol delivery to a human lung via surface acoustic wave nebulization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Morteza; Pourmehran, Oveis; Gorji-Bandpy, Mofid; Inthavong, Kiao; Yeo, Leslie; Tu, Jiyuan

    2017-12-01

    Administration of drug in the form of particles through inhalation is generally preferable in the treatment of respiratory disorders. Conventional inhalation therapy devices such as inhalers and nebulizers, nevertheless, suffer from low delivery efficiencies, wherein only a small fraction of the inhaled drug reaches the lower respiratory tract. This is primarily because these devices are not able to produce a sufficiently fine drug mist that has aerodynamic diameters on the order of a few microns. This study employs computational fluid dynamics to investigate the transport and deposition of the drug particles produced by a new aerosolization technique driven by surface acoustic waves (SAWs) into an in silico lung model geometrically reconstructed using computed tomography scanning. The particles generated by the SAW are released in different locations in a spacer chamber attached to a lung model extending from the mouth to the 6th generation of the lung bronchial tree. An Eulerian approach is used to solve the Navier-Stokes equations that govern the airflow within the respiratory tract, and a Lagrangian approach is adopted to track the particles, which are assumed to be spherical and inert. Due to the complexity of the lung geometry, the airflow patterns vary as it penetrates deeper into the lung. High inertia particles tend to deposit at locations where the geometry experiences a significant reduction in cross section. Our findings, nevertheless, show that the injection location can influence the delivery efficiency: Injection points close to the spacer centerline result in deeper penetration into the lung. Additionally, we found that the ratio of drug particles entering the right lung is significantly higher than the left lung, independent of the injection location. This is in good agreement with this fact that the most of airflow enters to the right lobes.

  10. Subcutaneous epinephrine versus nebulized terbutaline in the emergency treatment of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancorbo, S; Fifield, G; Davies, S; Fraser, G; Helmink, R; Heissler, J

    1983-01-01

    The efficacy of aerosolized terbutaline compared with subcutaneous epinephrine in the treatment of acute asthma was studied. The study population consisted of 30 men and women, 17 to 35 years old, who were diagnosed at a hospital emergency department as having acute asthmatic attacks. Heart rate, blood pressure, and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were measured on admission and 5, 15, and 30 minutes after initial drug treatment. One group received an initial dose of epinephrine hydrochloride (1:1000) 0.3 ml subcutaneously and a second, identical dose 15 minutes later. The other group received terbutaline sulfate 1 mg (for patients weighing less than or equal to 40 kg) or 2 mg (for patients weighing greater than 40 kg) by nebulizer over a five-minute period. Treatment was considered successful in patients whose PEFR was both greater than 60 liters/min and more than 16% greater than the individual's baseline PEFR. Improvements in the PEFR and in the ratio of the measured PEFR to the expected PEFR were compared for the two test groups. Five minutes after the initial drug administration, the mean improvement in PEFR was significantly greater in the terbutaline group (40% improvement) than in the epinephrine group (17% improvement). At 15 and 30 minutes, there were no significant differences in mean improvement in PEFR, but a trend favoring epinephrine was observed. The numbers of patients showing greater than or equal to 16% improvement in PEFR over baseline were not significantly different between the two groups. For patients in both drug groups with initial PEFR less than 60 liters/min, PEFR did not exceed 100 liters/min after treatment. No significant effect on heart rate was observed after administration of either drug. Aerosolized terbutaline is as effective as subcutaneous epinephrine in management of patients with acute bronchoconstricting episodes.

  11. Random Vibration and Dynamic Analysis of a Planetary Gear Train in a Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature failure of gearboxes is a big challenge facing the wind power industry. It highly depends on fully understanding the embedded dynamics to solve this problem. To this end, this paper investigates the random vibration and dynamics of planetary gear trains (PGTs in wind turbines under the excitation of wind turbulence. The turbulence is represented by the Von Karmon spectrum and implemented by passing white noise through a 2nd-order shaping filter. Then, extra equations are formed and added to the original governing equations of motion. With this augmented equation set, a recursive numerical algorithm based on stochastic Newmark scheme is applied to solve for the statistics of the responses starting from initial conditions. After simulation, the variances of the vibration responses and the dynamic meshing forces at gear meshes are obtained.

  12. Nebulized hypertonic-saline vs epinephrine for bronchiolitis; proof of concept study of cumulative sum (CUSUM) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Neeraj; Puliyel, Ashish; Manchanda, Ayush; Puliyel, Jacob

    2012-07-01

    To apply cumulative sum (CUSUM) to monitor a drug trial of nebulized hypertonic-saline in bronchiolitis. To test if monitoring with CUSUM control lines is practical and useful as a prompt to stop the drug trial early, if the study drug performs significantly worse than the comparator drug. Prospective, open label, controlled trial using standard therapy (epinephrine) and study drug (hypertonic-saline) sequentially in two groups of patients. Hospital offering tertiary-level pediatric care. Children, 2 months to 2 years, with first episode of bronchiolitis, excluding those with cardiac disease, immunodeficiency and critical illness at presentation. Nebulized epinephrine in first half of the bronchiolitis season (n = 35) and hypertonic saline subsequently (n = 29). Continuous monitoring of response to hypertonic-saline using CUSUM control charts developed with epinephrine-response data. Clinical score, tachycardia and total duration of hospital stay. In the epinephrine group, the maximum CUSUM was +2.25 (SD 1.34) and minimum CUSUM was -2.26 (SD 1.34). CUSUM score with hypertonic saline group stayed above the zero line throughout the study. There was no statistical difference in the post-treatment clinical score at 24 hours between the treatment groups {Mean (SD) 3.516 (2.816): 3.552 (2.686); 95% CI: -1.416 to 1.356}, heart rate {Mean (SD) 136 (44): 137(12); 95% CI: -17.849 to 15.849) or duration of hospital stay (Mean (SD) 96.029 (111.41): 82.914 (65.940); 95% CI: -33.888 to 60.128}. The software we developed allows for drawing of control lines to monitor study drug performance. Hypertonic saline performed as well or better than nebulized epinephrine in bronchiolitis.

  13. Salbutamol via metered-dose inhaler with spacer versus nebulization for acute treatment of pediatric asthma in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-Fernández, Javier; González-Balenciaga, María; Capapé-Zache, Susana; Vázquez-Ronco, Miguel A; Mintegi-Raso, Santiago

    2004-10-01

    To assess the effectiveness of salbutamol delivered via a metered-dose inhaler with spacer versus a nebulizer for acute asthma treatment in the pediatric emergency department. All consecutive children younger than 14 years old who required treatment of acute asthma exacerbation in the emergency department during May 2002 (prospective cohort, n = 321) and May 2001(retrospective cohort, n = 259) were included. Inhaled salbutamol was administered by metered-dose inhaler with a spacer (and a face mask in children younger than 2 years old) in the prospective cohort and by nebulizer in the retrospective cohort. There were no significant differences between the two cohorts in the mean (+/-SD) age (44.50 +/- 38.64 vs. 48.37 +/- 43.55 months) and asthma treatment, arterial oxygen saturation (96.34 +/- 2.12% vs. 96.19 +/- 6.32%), and heart rate (123.71 +/- 23.63 vs. 129.41 +/- 34.55 beats/min) before emergency department consultation. The number of doses of inhaled bronchodilators was also similar (1.42 +/- 1.01 vs. 1.45 +/- 0.98) as well as the number of children that required a stay in the observation unit, admission to the hospital, or returned for medical care. The overall mean length of stay in the emergency department was slightly shorter in the prospective cohort (82 +/- 48 vs. 89 +/- 52 minutes). The administration of bronchodilators using a metered-dose inhaler with spacer is an effective alternative to nebulizers for the treatment of children with acute asthma exacerbations in the emergency department.

  14. Protective effect of levodropropizine against cough induced by inhalation of nebulized distilled water in patients with obstructive lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariffi, F; Tranfa, C; Vatrella, A; Ponticiello, A

    1992-01-01

    Levodropropizine is a recently developed, peripherally active antitussive agent which is widely used in clinical practice. In order to obtain further information on the spectrum of activity of this compound in experimental clinical models, a double-blind controlled study was carried out to evaluate the potential effect of the drug against cough and bronchoconstriction induced by inhalation of an ultrasonically nebulized solution of distilled water in patients with obstructive lung disease. Twenty patients were randomly divided into two groups, which received levodropropizine (60 mg t.i.d.) or placebo respectively for 7 consecutive days. Parameters evaluated at baseline and on the last day of treatment included (i) results of respiratory function tests (FEV1, IVC, FVC, TIFF, PEF, MEF75, MEF50, MEF25) performed before the stimulation test with nebulized water; (ii) total number of coughs during a 2-hour period after the stimulation test; (iii) bronchial responsiveness, quantified by calculating the volume of nebulized water required to induce a 20% reduction of FEV1 below the basal level. At pretreatment, the tussive response was very similar in the two groups. A significant decrease in number of coughs (from 34.4 +/- 8.4 at baseline to 15.6 +/- 4.9 post-treatment, p less than 0.01) was observed after administration of levodropropizine, whereas placebo treatment produced no significant effect (number of coughs: 29.6 +/- 4.9 at baseline vs 24.8 +/- 9.6 post-treatment, N.S.). Bronchial responsiveness decreased significantly (compared to baseline) in both treatment groups, without any significant difference between drug and placebo. Respiratory function tests were not significantly affected by either treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Comparison of dry powder versus nebulized beta-agonist in patients with COPD who have suboptimal peak inspiratory flow rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Donald A; Waterman, Laurie A; Ward, Joseph; Gifford, Alex H

    2014-04-01

    A peak inspiratory flow rate (PIFR) of powder inhaler (DPI) may limit the ability of a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to achieve bronchodilation. The hypothesis was that lung function would be higher with a beta-agonist inhaled via nebulization compared with dry powder in patients with COPD who exhibit a PIFRresist of powder (50 μg) via Diskus. The primary outcome was the change in lung function from baseline at 2 hr as these two inhaled beta-agonists have the similar peak bronchodilator effect as measured by forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1). Twenty patients (15 females/5 males) with postalbuterol FEV1 of 0.83±0.31 L (38±12% predicted) and PIFRresist of 53±5 L/min completed the study. At 15 min, improvements in FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC), and IC were significantly higher with arformoterol than with salmeterol. At 2 hr, changes in FVC and IC, but not FEV1, were significantly higher with arformoterol. At visit 3, patient preference was similar for salmeterol Diskus (n=8) and arformoterol solution (n=7), whereas five patients reported no preference. At peak effect (2 hr), volume responses were greater with arfomoterol via nebulizer compared with dry powder salmeterol in patients with COPD who had a PIFRresist of <60 L/min. Bronchodilator therapy via nebulization should be considered in patients with COPD who have a suboptimal PIFRresist against a particular DPI.

  16. Evaluation of the Effect of Nebulized N-Acetylcysteine on Respiratory Secretions in Mechanically Ventilated Patients: Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Masoom Masoompour

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of our study was to evaluate an inexpensive and available method to reduce mucous impactions in mechanically ventilated patients. Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 40 mechanically ventilated patients aged 15-90 years. The patients were randomly allocated into two arms; 20 cases and 20 controls. The cases received N-acetylcysteine via their nebulizers, and the control group received normal saline three times a day for one day. We measured the density of respiratory secretion, plateau and peak airway pressures, and O2 saturation at baseline, 12 and 24 hours later. Results: Although the mean secretion density was significantly lower in the NAC group (F (1, 38=8.61, P=0.006, but a repeated measures ANOVA with a Greenhouse-Geisser correction determined that the effect of NAC on mean secretion density did not differ significantly between time points (F (1, 38=3.08, P=0.087. NAC increased O2 saturation significantly between time points (F (1.92, 73.1=4.6, P=0.014. The plateau airway pressures were relatively stable throughout the study in the normal saline and NAC groups (F (1.95, 37.1=0.67, P=0.513. The peak airway pressure did not change significantly during the study in the normal saline and NAC groups (F (1.52, 56.4=0.91, P=0.384. Conclusion: Considering the limitations of the study, nebulized NAC in mechanically ventilated patients was not effective more than normal saline nebulization in reducing the density of mucous plugs. The peak and plateau airway pressures were relatively stable throughout the study in both groups. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201104276312N1.

  17. A randomized trial of nebulized 3% hypertonic saline with salbutamol in the treatment of acute bronchiolitis in hospitalized infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Pedro; Mendes, Ana Luisa; Neto, Ana S

    2016-04-01

    Acute bronchiolitis is a common disorder of infants that often results in hospitalization. Apart from supportive care, no therapy has been shown to influence the course of the disease, except for a possible effect of nebulized hypertonic saline (HS). To determine whether this does have beneficial effects on length of stay in hospital or on severity scores, we undertook a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial in a pediatric department of a Portuguese hospital. Previously healthy infants, younger than 12 months, hospitalized with mild-to-moderate acute viral bronchiolitis were randomized to receive either nebulized 3% (hypertonic, HS) or 0.9% (normal, NS) saline during their entire hospital stay. Primary endpoints were: length of hospital stay and severity scores on each day of hospitalization. Need for supplemental oxygen, further add-on medications and adverse effects were also analyzed. Sixty-eight patients completed the study (HS: 33; NS: 35). The median length of hospital stay did not differ between groups: HS: 5.6 ± 2.3 days; NS: 5.4 ± 2.1 days (P = 0.747). We found no difference between groups in severity scores from day 1 to day 4. There were no differences in need for supplemental oxygen or add-on medications. Patients in HS group had significantly more cough (46% vs. 20%, P = 0.025) and rhinorrhoe (58% vs. 31%, P = 0.30). This study does not support the use of nebulized HS over NS in therapy of hospitalized children with mild-to-moderate acute viral bronchiolitis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Nebulized water cooling of the canopy affects leaf temperature, berry composition and wine quality of Sauvignon blanc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciello, Pericle; Mencarelli, Fabio; Palliotti, Alberto; Ceccantoni, Brunella; Thibon, Cécile; Darriet, Philippe; Pasquini, Massimiliano; Bellincontro, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    The present paper details a new technique based on spraying nebulized water on vine canopy to counteract the negative impact of the current wave of hot summers with temperatures above 30 °C, which usually determine negative effects on vine yield, grape composition and wine quality. The automatized spraying system was able to maintain air temperature at below 30 °C (the threshold temperature to start spraying) for all of August 2013, when in the canopy of uncooled vines the temperature was as high as 36 °C. The maintenance of temperature below 30 °C reduced leaf stress linked to high temperature and irradiance regimes as highlighted by the decrease of H2 O2 content and catalase activity in the leaves. A higher amount of total polyphenols and organic acids and lower sugars characterized the grapes of cooled vines. Wine from these grapes had a higher content of some volatile thiols like 3-sulfanylhexanol (3SH) and 3-sulfanylhexylacetate (3SHA), and lower content of 4-methyl-4-sulfanylpentan-2-one (4MSP). Under conditions of high temperature and irradiance regimes, water nebulization on the vine canopy can represent a valid solution to reduce and/or avoid oxidative stress and associated effects in the leaves, ensure a regular berry ripening and maintain high wine quality. The consumption of water during nebulization was acceptable, being 180 L ha(-1) min(-1) , which lasted an average of about 1 min to reduce the temperature below the threshold value of 30 °C. A total of 85-90 hL (from 0.8 to 0.9 mm) of water per hectare per day was required. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Deposition of albuterol aerosol generated by pneumatic nebulizer in the Sophia Anatomical Infant Nose-Throat (SAINT) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laube, Beth L; Sharpless, Gail; Shermer, Charles; Nasir, Omer; Sullivan, Vincent; Powell, Kenneth

    2010-08-01

    To quantify distribution of albuterol aerosol generated by a pneumatic nebulizer within the nose and lungs of a model of a 9-month-old child (SAINT) and aerosol loss to the environment, during simulated breathing at increasing tidal volumes (TVs). (99m)technetium-labeled albuterol aerosol was generated by an IPI nebulizer with face-mask. Deposition was quantified as a percentage of emitted dose using gamma scintigraphy. Lung deposition was similar for all TVs, averaging 7.17 +/- 0.01%, 9.34 +/- 0.01% and 9.41 +/- 0.02% at 50, 100 and 200 mL TV, respectively. In contrast, nose deposition increased significantly with TV, averaging 4.40 +/- 0.02%, 11.39 +/- 0.02% and 22.12 +/- 0.02% at 50 mL, 100 mL and 200 mL TV, respectively (all p < 0.0167). Aerosol loss to the environment was significantly lower at 200 mL TV (53.81 +/- 0.04%), compared to 50 mL (71.99 +/- 0.02%) (p < 0.0167). Our results suggest that nasal deposition of albuterol aerosol generated by a pneumatic nebulizer in 9-month-old infants may be significantly affected by changes in TV, ranging between 50 to 200 mL, whereas total lung deposition may not be affected. These results also predict that environmental losses would be highest when administering to a child breathing at 50 mL TV. These data should be useful to companies who are working to improve aerosol delivery systems to treat infants.

  20. Heterogeneous Dynamics of Coupled Vibrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cringus, Dan; Jansen, Thomas I. C.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Schoenlein, RW; Corkum, P; DeSilvestri, S; Nelson, KA; Riedle, E

    2009-01-01

    Frequency-dependent dynamics of coupled stretch vibrations of a water molecule are revealed by 2D IR correlation spectroscopy. These are caused by non-Gaussian fluctuations of the environment around the individual OH stretch vibrations.

  1. [Meta-Mesh: metagenomic data analysis system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaoquan; Song, Baoxing; Wang, Xuetao; Ma, Xinle; Xu, Jian; Ning, Kang

    2014-01-01

    With the current accumulation of metagenome data, it is possible to build an integrated platform for processing of rigorously selected metagenomic samples (also referred as "metagenomic communities" here) of interests. Any metagenomic samples could then be searched against this database to find the most similar sample(s). However, on one hand, current databases with a large number of metagenomic samples mostly serve as data repositories but not well annotated database, and only offer few functions for analysis. On the other hand, the few available methods to measure the similarity of metagenomic data could only compare a few pre-defined set of metagenome. It has long been intriguing scientists to effectively calculate similarities between microbial communities in a large repository, to examine how similar these samples are and to find the correlation of the meta-information of these samples. In this work we propose a novel system, Meta-Mesh, which includes a metagenomic database and its companion analysis platform that could systematically and efficiently analyze, compare and search similar metagenomic samples. In the database part, we have collected more than 7 000 high quality and well annotated metagenomic samples from the public domain and in-house facilities. The analysis platform supplies a list of online tools which could accept metagenomic samples, build taxonomical annotations, compare sample in multiple angle, and then search for similar samples against its database by a fast indexing strategy and scoring function. We also used case studies of "database search for identification" and "samples clustering based on similarity matrix" using human-associated habitat samples to demonstrate the performance of Meta-Mesh in metagenomic analysis. Therefore, Meta-Mesh would serve as a database and data analysis system to quickly parse and identify similar

  2. Humidity control of an incubator using the microcontroller-based active humidifier system employing an ultrasonic nebulizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güler, I; Burunkaya, M

    2002-01-01

    Relative humidity levels of an incubator were measured and controlled. An ultrasonic nebulizer system as an active humidifier was used to humidify the incubator environment. An integrated circuit-type humidity sensor was used to measure the humidity level of the incubator environment. Measurement and control processes were achieved by a PIC microcontroller. The high-performance and high-speed PIC provided the flexibility of the system. The developed system can be used effectively for the intensive care of newborns and/or premature babies. Since the humidifier generates an aerosol in ambient conditions, it is possible to provide the high relative humidity level for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes in medicine.

  3. Effect of Nebulized Hypertonic Saline Treatment in Emergency Departments on the Hospitalization Rate for Acute Bronchiolitis: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angoulvant, François; Bellêttre, Xavier; Milcent, Karen; Teglas, Jean-Paul; Claudet, Isabelle; Le Guen, Christèle Gras; de Pontual, Loïc; Minodier, Philippe; Dubos, François; Brouard, Jacques; Soussan-Banini, Valérie; Degas-Bussiere, Vanessa; Gatin, Amélie; Schweitzer, Cyril; Epaud, Ralph; Ryckewaert, Amélie; Cros, Pierrick; Marot, Yves; Flahaut, Philippe; Saunier, Pascal; Babe, Philippe; Patteau, Géraldine; Delebarre, Mathilde; Titomanlio, Luigi; Vrignaud, Bénédicte; Trieu, Thanh-Van; Tahir, Abdelilah; Regnard, Delphine; Micheau, Pascale; Charara, Oussama; Henry, Simon; Ploin, Dominique; Panjo, Henri; Vabret, Astrid; Bouyer, Jean; Gajdos, Vincent

    2017-08-07

    Acute bronchiolitis is the leading cause of hospitalization among infants. Previous studies, underpowered to examine hospital admission, have found a limited benefit of nebulized hypertonic saline (HS) treatment in the pediatric emergency department (ED). To examine whether HS nebulization treatment would decrease the hospital admission rate among infants with a first episode of acute bronchiolitis. The Efficacy of 3% Hypertonic Saline in Acute Viral Bronchiolitis (GUERANDE) study was a multicenter, double-blind randomized clinical trial on 2 parallel groups conducted during 2 bronchiolitis seasons (October through March) from October 15, 2012, through April 15, 2014, at 24 French pediatric EDs. Among the 2445 infants (6 weeks to 12 months of age) assessed for inclusion, 777 with a first episode of acute bronchiolitis with respiratory distress and no chronic medical condition were included. Two 20-minute nebulization treatments of 4 mL of HS, 3%, or 4 mL of normal saline (NS), 0.9%, given 20 minutes apart. Hospital admission rate in the 24 hours after enrollment. Of the 777 infants included in the study (median age, 3 months; interquartile range, 2-5 months; 468 [60.2%] male), 385 (49.5%) were randomized to the HS group and 387 (49.8%) to the NS group (5 patients did not receive treatment). By 24 hours, 185 of 385 infants (48.1%) in the HS group were admitted compared with 202 of 387 infants (52.2%) in the NS group. The risk difference for hospitalizations was not significant according to the mixed-effects regression model (adjusted risk difference, -3.2%; 95% CI, -8.7% to 2.2%; P = .25). The mean (SD) Respiratory Distress Assessment Instrument score improvement was greater in the HS group (-3.1 [3.2]) than in the NS group (-2.4 [3.3]) (adjusted difference, -0.7; 95% CI, -1.2 to -0.2; P = .006) and similarly for the Respiratory Assessment Change Score. Mild adverse events, such as worsening of cough, occurred more frequently among children in the HS group

  4. Nebulized 0.5, 2.5 and 5 ml L-epinephrine for post-extubation stridor in children: a prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Paulo Sérgio Lucas; Fonseca, Marcelo Cunio Machado; Iglesias, Simone Brasil Oliveira; Junior, Emílio Lopes; de Aguiar, Vânia Euzébio; de Carvalho, Werther Brunow

    2012-02-01

    Nebulized L-epinephrine has been recommended for the treatment of viral croup. However, the few studies assessing its effect on post-extubation stridor (PES) have shown conflicting results. We compared the efficacy and safety of nebulized L-epinephrine at three different doses for the treatment of PES. We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial including all consecutive children with a PES score of ≥4 (Westley score). The primary efficacy outcome was change in PES score at 40 min. A reduction of ≥2 points in stridor score was defined as clinically significant. A total of 96 patients were randomly assigned to receive one of three doses of nebulized L-epinephrine upon achieving a PES score of 4 or more following extubation. Stridor score and vital signs were recorded before treatment, and at 20, 40, 60 and 180 min after nebulization. Baseline characteristics were similar among all study groups. No significant difference was detected among the treatments based on change in Westley score by intent-to-treat analysis. In addition, the difference in the number of patients who clinically improved among the treatment groups was not significant (p = 0.54). Patients receiving 5 ml nebulized epinephrine had a significant increase of systolic and diastolic blood pressure at 40 and 180 min. Nebulized L-epinephrine at doses of 0.5, 2.5 and 5 ml demonstrated a lack of dose response in effect on PES and a modestly clinically significant increase in undesired side effects (heart rate and blood pressure) at higher doses.

  5. Attenuation of the hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation with fentanyl, lignocaine nebulization, and a combination of both: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhyuday; Seth, Anita; Prakash, Smita; Deganwa, Mangilal; Gogia, Anoop Raj

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to compare and evaluate the efficacy of intravenous (IV) fentanyl and lignocaine airway nebulization and a combination of both in attenuating the hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. Ninety-six patients of either sex aged between 18 and 65 years of age, belonging to the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) health status Classes I and II, undergoing elective surgery requiring general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation were included in the study. Patients were randomly divided into three groups. Group F received IV fentanyl 2 μg/kg, Group L received nebulization with 3 mg/kg of 4% lignocaine, and Group FL received both nebulization with 3 mg/kg of 4% lignocaine and IV fentanyl 2 μg/kg before intubation. Hemodynamic parameters were noted before and immediately after induction, 1 min after intubation, and every minute after intubation for 10 min. Hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and intubation was not completely abolished in any of the groups. Nebulized lignocaine was least effective in attenuating hemodynamic response to intubation, and hemodynamic parameters were significantly high after intubation as compared to other groups. Fentanyl alone or in combination with nebulized lignocaine was most effective, and Group F and Group FL were comparable. The maximum increase in mean blood pressure after intubation from baseline in Groups F, L, and FL was 7.4%, 14.6%, and 5.4%, respectively. In our study, IV fentanyl 2 μg/kg administered 5 min before induction was found to be the most effective in attenuating the hemodynamic response. There was no advantage to the use of nebulized lignocaine in attenuating the hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and intubation.

  6. MEDIT : An interactive Mesh visualization Software

    OpenAIRE

    Frey, Pascal

    2001-01-01

    This technical report describes the main features of MEDIT (This software wa registered with the APP under n° IDDN.FR.001.410023.00.R.P. 2001.000.10800 on january 25, 2001.), an interactive mesh visualization tool developped in the Gamma project at INRIA-Rocquencourt. Based on the graphic standard OpenGL, this software has been specifically designed to fulfill most of the common requirements of engineers and numericians, in the context of numerical simulations. This program is rather intuitiv...

  7. Unbiased sampling and meshing of isosurfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we present a new technique to generate unbiased samples on isosurfaces. An isosurface, F(x,y,z) = c , of a function, F , is implicitly defined by trilinear interpolation of background grid points. The key idea of our approach is that of treating the isosurface within a grid cell as a graph (height) function in one of the three coordinate axis directions, restricted to where the slope is not too high, and integrating / sampling from each of these three. We use this unbiased sampling algorithm for applications in Monte Carlo integration, Poisson-disk sampling, and isosurface meshing.

  8. Corset neophallic musculoplasty with a mesh endoprosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Mikhailichenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During thoracodorsal flap phalloplasty, recovered contractility of the muscular base of the neophallus may lead to its shortening that impedes introjection.To eliminate deformity and shortening of the neophallus, the authors propose the procedure of corset plasty of its muscle, which differs in that the alloplastic material – esfil mesh endoprosthesis, is used as a corset instead of fascia latum of the hip. The proposed procedure reduces surgical trauma, improves the functional characteristics of the neophallus, and accelerates sexual rehabilitation.

  9. Corset neophallic musculoplasty with a mesh endoprosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Mikhailichenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During thoracodorsal flap phalloplasty, recovered contractility of the muscular base of the neophallus may lead to its shortening that impedes introjection.To eliminate deformity and shortening of the neophallus, the authors propose the procedure of corset plasty of its muscle, which differs in that the alloplastic material – esfil mesh endoprosthesis, is used as a corset instead of fascia latum of the hip. The proposed procedure reduces surgical trauma, improves the functional characteristics of the neophallus, and accelerates sexual rehabilitation.

  10. Performance of FACTS equipment in Meshed systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerch, E.; Povh, D. [Siemens AG, Berlin (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Modern power electronic devices such as thyristors and GTOs have made it possible to design controllable network elements, which will play a considerable role in ensuring reliable economic operation of transmission systems as a result of their capability to rapidly change active and reactive power. A number of FACTS elements for high-speed active and reactive power control will be described. Control of power system fluctuations in meshed systems by modulation of active and reactive power will be demonstrated using a number of examples. (author) 7 refs., 11 figs.

  11. Composite Struts Would Damp Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgin, Benjamin P.

    1991-01-01

    New design of composite-material (fiber/matrix laminate) struts increases damping of longitudinal vibrations without decreasing longitudinal stiffness or increasing weight significantly. Plies with opposing chevron patterns of fibers convert longitudinal vibrational stresses into shear stresses in intermediate viscoelastic layer, which dissipate vibrational energy. Composite strut stronger than aluminum strut of same weight and stiffness.

  12. Ship Vibration Design Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    Frachtschiffen," Werft Reederie Hafen, 1925. 4-21 Noonan, E. F. "Vibration Considerations for 120,000 CM LNG Ships," NKF: Preliminary Report No. 7107, 25...Ship Response to Ice - A Second Season by C. Daley, J. W. St. John, R. Brown, J. Meyer , and I. Glen 1990 SSC-340 Ice Forces and Ship Response to Ice

  13. Compact Vibration Damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanco, Thomas G. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A vibration damper includes a rigid base with a mass coupled thereto for linear movement thereon. Springs coupled to the mass compress in response to the linear movement along either of two opposing directions. A converter coupled to the mass converts the linear movement to a corresponding rotational movement. A rotary damper coupled to the converter damps the rotational movement.

  14. Vibrations and Eigenvalues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The vibrating string problem is the source of much mathematicsand physics. This article describes Lagrange's formulationof a discretised version of the problem and its solution.This is also the first instance of an eigenvalue problem. Author Affiliations. Rajendra Bhatia1. Ashoka University, Rai, Haryana 131 029, India.

  15. Blade Vibration Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The Phase I project successfully demonstrated that an advanced noncontacting stress measurement system (NSMS) could improve classification of blade vibration response in terms of mistuning and closely spaced modes. The Phase II work confirmed the microwave sensor design process, modified the sensor so it is compatible as an upgrade to existing NSMS, and improved and finalized the NSMS software. The result will be stand-alone radar/tip timing radar signal conditioning for current conventional NSMS users (as an upgrade) and new users. The hybrid system will use frequency data and relative mode vibration levels from the radar sensor to provide substantially superior capabilities over current blade-vibration measurement technology. This frequency data, coupled with a reduced number of tip timing probes, will result in a system capable of detecting complex blade vibrations that would confound traditional NSMS systems. The hardware and software package was validated on a compressor rig at Mechanical Solutions, Inc. (MSI). Finally, the hybrid radar/tip timing NSMS software package and associated sensor hardware will be installed for use in the NASA Glenn spin pit test facility.

  16. Vibration Sensitive Keystroke Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopatka, M.; Peetz, M.-H.; van Erp, M.; Stehouwer, H.; van Zaanen, M.

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel method for performing non-invasive biometric analysis on habitual keystroke patterns using a vibration-based feature space. With the increasing availability of 3-D accelerometer chips in laptop computers, conventional methods using time vectors may be augmented using a distinct

  17. Rarefied gas flows through meshes and implications for atmospheric measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gumbel

    Full Text Available Meshes are commonly used as part of instruments for in situ atmospheric measurements. This study analyses the aerodynamic effect of meshes by means of wind tunnel experiments and numerical simulations. Based on the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method, a simple mesh parameterisation is described and applied to a number of representative flow conditions. For open meshes freely exposed to the flow, substantial compression effects are found both upstream and downstream of the mesh. Meshes attached to close instrument structures, on the other hand, cause only minor flow disturbances. In an accompanying paper, the approach developed here is applied to the quantitative analysis of rocket-borne density measurements in the middle atmosphere.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (instruments and techniques; middle atmosphere – composition and chemistry

  18. Fire performance of basalt FRP mesh reinforced HPC thin plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulin, Thomas; Hodicky, Kamil; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2013-01-01

    An experimental program was carried out to investigate the influence of basalt FRP (BFRP) reinforcing mesh on the fire behaviour of thin high performance concrete (HPC) plates applied to sandwich elements. Samples with BFRP mesh were compared to samples with no mesh, samples with steel mesh...... on a linear increase of the volume of melted epoxy and the outflow of moisture from the concrete matrix. It was concluded that the use of a BFRP mesh to reinforce HPC exposed to fire reduces the mechanical strength despite a beneficial effect related to spalling....... and samples displaying a full sandwich structure. Final results confirmed the bond loss between concrete and BFRP mesh with temperature. The available void where the epoxy burnt away allowed the concrete matrix to release pressure and limit pore stresses, delaying spalling. It also reduced the mechanical...

  19. Tetrahedral Mesh Improvement Using Multi-face Retriangulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misztal, Marek Krzysztof; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Anton, Francois

    2009-01-01

    the algorithm is completely general with regard to quality criterion, we target improvement of the dihedral angle. The central idea in our algorithm is the introduction of a new local operation called multi-face retriangulation (MFRT) which supplements other known local operations. Like in many previous papers......In this paper we propose a simple technique for tetrahedral mesh improvement without inserting Steiner vertices, concentrating mainly on boundary conforming meshes. The algorithm makes local changes to the mesh to remove tetrahedra which are poor according to some quality criterion. While...... on tetrahedral mesh improvement, our algorithm makes local changes to the mesh to reduce an energy measure which reflects the quality criterion. The addition of our new local operation allows us to advance the mesh to a lower energy state in cases where no other local change would lead to a reduction. We also...

  20. Moving mesh generation with a sequential approach for solving PDEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of physical and mesh equations suffers typically from long computation time due to highly nonlinear coupling between the two equations. Moreover, the extended system (physical and mesh equations) may be sensitive to the tuning parameters such as a temporal relaxation factor. It is therefore useful to design...... generation and solution interpolation). Convection terms, which appear in physical PDEs and a mesh equation, are discretized by a WENO (Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory) scheme under the consrvative form. This sequential approach is to keep the advantages of robustness and simplicity for the static......In moving mesh methods, physical PDEs and a mesh equation derived from equidistribution of an error metrics (so-called the monitor function) are simultaneously solved and meshes are dynamically concentrated on steep regions (Lim et al., 2001). However, the simultaneous solution procedure...

  1. Image-Based Geometric Modeling and Mesh Generation

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    As a new interdisciplinary research area, “image-based geometric modeling and mesh generation” integrates image processing, geometric modeling and mesh generation with finite element method (FEM) to solve problems in computational biomedicine, materials sciences and engineering. It is well known that FEM is currently well-developed and efficient, but mesh generation for complex geometries (e.g., the human body) still takes about 80% of the total analysis time and is the major obstacle to reduce the total computation time. It is mainly because none of the traditional approaches is sufficient to effectively construct finite element meshes for arbitrarily complicated domains, and generally a great deal of manual interaction is involved in mesh generation. This contributed volume, the first for such an interdisciplinary topic, collects the latest research by experts in this area. These papers cover a broad range of topics, including medical imaging, image alignment and segmentation, image-to-mesh conversion,...

  2. Comparative study of ppen mesh repair and Desarda's no-mesh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The first author has described a new technique of pure tissue hernia repair and published his results previously1,2. This article describes the results of a comparative study of this new technique and the open mesh repair done in a district level general hospital set up in India. Methods: This is a retrospective ...

  3. Dynamic Mesh Adaptation for Front Evolution Using Discontinuous Galerkin Based Weighted Condition Number Mesh Relaxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, Patrick T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Schofield, Samuel P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nourgaliev, Robert [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-06-21

    A new mesh smoothing method designed to cluster mesh cells near a dynamically evolving interface is presented. The method is based on weighted condition number mesh relaxation with the weight function being computed from a level set representation of the interface. The weight function is expressed as a Taylor series based discontinuous Galerkin projection, which makes the computation of the derivatives of the weight function needed during the condition number optimization process a trivial matter. For cases when a level set is not available, a fast method for generating a low-order level set from discrete cell-centered elds, such as a volume fraction or index function, is provided. Results show that the low-order level set works equally well for the weight function as the actual level set. Meshes generated for a number of interface geometries are presented, including cases with multiple level sets. Dynamic cases for moving interfaces are presented to demonstrate the method's potential usefulness to arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) methods.

  4. Gearbox Fault Features Extraction Using Vibration Measurements and Novel Adaptive Filtering Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghalib R. Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration signals measured from a gearbox are complex multicomponent signals, generated by tooth meshing, gear shaft rotation, gearbox resonance vibration signatures, and a substantial amount of noise. This paper presents a novel scheme for extracting gearbox fault features using adaptive filtering techniques for enhancing condition features, meshing frequency sidebands. A modified least mean square (LMS algorithm is examined and validated using only one accelerometer, instead of using two accelerometers in traditional arrangement, as the main signal and a desired signal is artificially generated from the measured shaft speed and gear meshing frequencies. The proposed scheme is applied to a signal simulated from gearbox frequencies with a numerous values of step size. Findings confirm that 10−5 step size invariably produces more accurate results and there has been a substantial improvement in signal clarity (better signal-to-noise ratio, which makes meshing frequency sidebands more discernible. The developed scheme is validated via a number of experiments carried out using two-stage helical gearbox for a healthy pair of gears and a pair suffering from a tooth breakage with severity fault 1 (25% tooth removal and fault 2 (50% tooth removal under loads (0%, and 80% of the total load. The experimental results show remarkable improvements and enhance gear condition features. This paper illustrates that the new approach offers a more effective way to detect early faults.

  5. Colovesical fistula secondary to hernia mesh migration: an unusual incident

    OpenAIRE

    Ramanathan, Sabarinathan; Krishnamoorthy, Veeraraghavan; Ratnakar, Kini; Thangavel, Pugazhendhi; Sundarraj, Raju

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We evaluated a 27-year old male with pneumaturia and fecaluria with a past history of right inguinal hernia repair. Though, cystoscopy and contrast enhanced computed tomography did not furnish any evidence to arrive at a diagnosis, interestingly, colonoscopy revealed a mesh in the sigmoid colon making apparent the diagnosis of colovesical fistula secondary to mesh migration. Later, surgical removal of the mesh from the sigmoid colon with rent closure of the fistulous opening was done...

  6. Evaluation of Composite Mesh for Ventral Hernia Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Byrd, Jim F.; Agee, Neal; Nguyen, Phuong H.; Heath, Jessica J.; Lau, Kwan N.; Mckillop, Iain H.; Sindram, David; Martinie, John B.; Iannitti, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Composite mesh prostheses incorporate the properties of multiple materials for ventral hernia repair. This study evaluated a polypropylene/ePTFE composite mesh with a novel internal polydioxanone (PDO) absorbable ring. Methods: Composite mesh was placed intraperitoneally in 16 pigs through an open laparotomy and explanted at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Intraabdominal adhesions were measured laparoscopically. Host tissue in-growth was assessed histologically and tensiometrically. Degr...

  7. THz metal mesh filters on electrically thick fused silica substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Otter, WJ; F. Hu; Hazell, JF; Lucyszyn, S

    2014-01-01

    ? 2014 IEEE.This paper shows simulated and measured results of ultra-low cost metal mesh filters on electrically thick substrates for millimeter-wave and THz bands. It provides a broad overview of metal mesh filters currently available and suggest why it is worth moving to an electrically thick substrate for ultra-low cost applications. We demonstrate scalable traditional metal mesh filters on 525 ?m thick fused silica substrates. In addition, trapped-mode excitation is exploited to improve o...

  8. Hexahedral mesh generation via the dual arrangement of surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, S.A.; Tautges, T.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Given a general three-dimensional geometry with a prescribed quadrilateral surface mesh, the authors consider the problem of constructing a hexahedral mesh of the geometry whose boundary is exactly the prescribed surface mesh. Due to the specialized topology of hexahedra, this problem is more difficult than the analogous one for tetrahedra. Folklore has maintained that a surface mesh must have a constrained structure in order for there to exist a compatible hexahedral mesh. However, they have proof that a surface mesh need only satisfy mild parity conditions, depending on the topology of the three-dimensional geometry, for there to exist a compatible hexahedral mesh. The proof is based on the realization that a hexahedral mesh is dual to an arrangement of surfaces, and the quadrilateral surface mesh is dual to the arrangement of curves bounding these surfaces. The proof is constructive and they are currently developing an algorithm called Whisker Weaving (WW) that mirrors the proof steps. Given the bounding curves, WW builds the topological structure of an arrangement of surfaces having those curves as its boundary. WW progresses in an advancing front manner. Certain local rules are applied to avoid structures that lead to poor mesh quality. Also, after the arrangement is constructed, additional surfaces are inserted to separate features, so e.g., no two hexahedra share more than one quadrilateral face. The algorithm has generated meshes for certain non-trivial problems, but is currently unreliable. The authors are exploring strategies for consistently selecting which portion of the surface arrangement to advance based on the existence proof. This should lead us to a robust algorithm for arbitrary geometries and surface meshes.

  9. Clinical predictors and risk factors for vaginal mesh extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrucharoen, Usah; Ramart, Patkawat; Choi, Judy; Kang, Diana; Kim, Ja-Hong; Raz, Shlomo

    2017-11-24

    Our study aims to enhance the accuracy of the clinical diagnosis in patients with vaginal mesh extrusion following transvaginal mesh placement for pelvic organ prolapse using significant clinical parameters and risk factors. All patients who underwent vaginal mesh removal were retrospectively reviewed from January 2000 to May 2014. Eligible patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of vaginal mesh extrusion. A total of 862 patients, 798 were included. 357 (44.7%) had evidence of vaginal mesh extrusion, and 441 (55.3%) had no evidence of vaginal mesh extrusion. The mean age of the vaginal mesh extrusion group was slightly higher than in the group without vaginal mesh extrusion (58.7 ± 11.2 vs. 56.4 ± 11.5, respectively; p = 0.002). From multivariate analysis, the significant clinical correlations for vaginal mesh extrusion were vaginal bleeding [60 (16.9) vs. 14 (3.2%), p vaginal discharge [45 (12.6) vs. 18 (4.1%), p = 0.001]. The risk factors were multiple mesh implantations [218 (67.06) vs. 175 (39.68%), p vaginal atrophy, both local and systemic hormonal use, smoking status, and hysterectomy status, were not significantly different, as well as the clinical symptoms including dyspareunia, vaginal infection, and symptomatic vaginal bulge. Vaginal bleeding, hispareunia, and vaginal discharge were the most significant clinical predictors for raising suspicion of vaginal mesh extrusion. Multiple mesh implantations were a significant risk factor for extrusion.

  10. Investigation of the correlation between noise and vibration characteristics and unsteady flow in a circulator pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Denghao; Ren, Yun; Mou, Jiegang; Gu, Yunqing [Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou (China)

    2017-05-15

    Circulator pumps have wide engineering applications but the acoustics, vibration and unsteady flow structures of the circulator pump are still not fully understood. We investigated the noise and vibration characteristics and unsteady flow structures in a circulator pump at different flow rates. Three-dimensional, unsteady RANS equations were solved on high-quality structured meshes with SST k-ω turbulence model numerically. Measurements were made in a semi-anechoic chamber to get an overview of noise and vibration level of a pump at different flow rates. The 1/3 octave-band filter technique was applied to obtain the explicit frequency spectra of sound, pressure fluctuations and vibration signals and their principal frequencies were identified successfully. The air-borne noise level of the designed condition is lower than that of the off-design conditions, and the highest sound pressure level is found at part-load condition. The acoustic emission from the pump is mainly caused by unsteady flow structures and pressure fluctuations. In addition, both the link between air- borne noise and pressure fluctuation, and the correlation between vibration and unsteady hydrodynamic forces, were quantitatively examined and verified. This work offers good data to understand noise and vibration characteristics of circulator pumps and the relationships among the noise, vibration and unsteady flow structures.

  11. [Prolapse surgery. With abdominal or vaginal meshes?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loertzer, H; Schneider, P; Thelen, P; Ringert, R H; Strauß, A

    2012-09-01

    In prolapse surgery several surgical techniques are available. The different open, laparoscopic and vaginal approaches are distinguished by distinct success and relapse rates and operation-specific complications. A safe and optimal therapeutic pelvic floor surgery should be based on the three support levels according to DeLancy and be individually adjusted for every patient. The vaginal approach may be used for all kinds of female genital prolapse and is a comparatively less invasive technique with a short time of convalescence. Apart from stress incontinence there is no need for synthetic meshes in primary approaches and excellent results with low complication and relapse rates can be achieved. An uncritical application of synthetic material is to be avoided in vaginal repair at all times. Abdominal surgical techniques, both open and laparoscopic, present their strengths in the therapeutic approach to level 1 defects or stress incontinence. They provide excellent functional and anatomical corrections and low relapse rates. Abdominally inserted meshes have lower complication rates than vaginal ones.

  12. Nonconforming finite element methods on quadrilateral meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Zhang, ShangYou

    2013-12-01

    It is well-known that it is comparatively difficult to design nonconforming finite elements on quadrilateral meshes by using Gauss-Legendre points on each edge of triangulations. One reason lies in that these degrees of freedom associated to these Gauss-Legendre points are not all linearly independent for usual expected polynomial spaces, which explains why only several lower order nonconforming quadrilateral finite elements can be found in literature. The present paper proposes two families of nonconforming finite elements of any odd order and one family of nonconforming finite elements of any even order on quadrilateral meshes. Degrees of freedom are given for these elements, which are proved to be well-defined for their corresponding shape function spaces in a unifying way. These elements generalize three lower order nonconforming finite elements on quadrilaterals to any order. In addition, these nonconforming finite element spaces are shown to be full spaces which is somehow not discussed for nonconforming finite elements in literature before.

  13. The Tera Multithreaded Architecture and Unstructured Meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhari, Shahid H.; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.

    1998-01-01

    The Tera Multithreaded Architecture (MTA) is a new parallel supercomputer currently being installed at San Diego Supercomputing Center (SDSC). This machine has an architecture quite different from contemporary parallel machines. The computational processor is a custom design and the machine uses hardware to support very fine grained multithreading. The main memory is shared, hardware randomized and flat. These features make the machine highly suited to the execution of unstructured mesh problems, which are difficult to parallelize on other architectures. We report the results of a study carried out during July-August 1998 to evaluate the execution of EUL3D, a code that solves the Euler equations on an unstructured mesh, on the 2 processor Tera MTA at SDSC. Our investigation shows that parallelization of an unstructured code is extremely easy on the Tera. We were able to get an existing parallel code (designed for a shared memory machine), running on the Tera by changing only the compiler directives. Furthermore, a serial version of this code was compiled to run in parallel on the Tera by judicious use of directives to invoke the "full/empty" tag bits of the machine to obtain synchronization. This version achieves 212 and 406 Mflop/s on one and two processors respectively, and requires no attention to partitioning or placement of data issues that would be of paramount importance in other parallel architectures.

  14. Mesh-based parallel code coupling interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, K.; Steckel, B. (eds.) [GMD - Forschungszentrum Informationstechnik GmbH, St. Augustin (DE). Inst. fuer Algorithmen und Wissenschaftliches Rechnen (SCAI)

    2001-04-01

    MpCCI (mesh-based parallel code coupling interface) is an interface for multidisciplinary simulations. It provides industrial end-users as well as commercial code-owners with the facility to combine different simulation tools in one environment. Thereby new solutions for multidisciplinary problems will be created. This opens new application dimensions for existent simulation tools. This Book of Abstracts gives a short overview about ongoing activities in industry and research - all presented at the 2{sup nd} MpCCI User Forum in February 2001 at GMD Sankt Augustin. (orig.) [German] MpCCI (mesh-based parallel code coupling interface) definiert eine Schnittstelle fuer multidisziplinaere Simulationsanwendungen. Sowohl industriellen Anwender als auch kommerziellen Softwarehersteller wird mit MpCCI die Moeglichkeit gegeben, Simulationswerkzeuge unterschiedlicher Disziplinen miteinander zu koppeln. Dadurch entstehen neue Loesungen fuer multidisziplinaere Problemstellungen und fuer etablierte Simulationswerkzeuge ergeben sich neue Anwendungsfelder. Dieses Book of Abstracts bietet einen Ueberblick ueber zur Zeit laufende Arbeiten in der Industrie und in der Forschung, praesentiert auf dem 2{sup nd} MpCCI User Forum im Februar 2001 an der GMD Sankt Augustin. (orig.)

  15. Finding Regions of Interest on Toroidal Meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kesheng; Sinha, Rishi R; Jones, Chad; Ethier, Stephane; Klasky, Scott; Ma, Kwan-Liu; Shoshani, Arie; Winslett, Marianne

    2011-02-09

    Fusion promises to provide clean and safe energy, and a considerable amount of research effort is underway to turn this aspiration intoreality. This work focuses on a building block for analyzing data produced from the simulation of microturbulence in magnetic confinementfusion devices: the task of efficiently extracting regions of interest. Like many other simulations where a large amount of data are produced,the careful study of ``interesting'' parts of the data is critical to gain understanding. In this paper, we present an efficient approach forfinding these regions of interest. Our approach takes full advantage of the underlying mesh structure in magnetic coordinates to produce acompact representation of the mesh points inside the regions and an efficient connected component labeling algorithm for constructingregions from points. This approach scales linearly with the surface area of the regions of interest instead of the volume as shown with bothcomputational complexity analysis and experimental measurements. Furthermore, this new approach is 100s of times faster than a recentlypublished method based on Cartesian coordinates.

  16. Open preperitoneal mesh repair of inguinal hernias using a mesh with nitinol memory frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrevoet, F; Vanlander, A; Bontinck, J; Troisi, R I

    2013-06-01

    To prospectively evaluate the use of a continuous Nitinol containing memory frame patch during a TIPP-technique in the open repair of inguinal and femoral hernias. Over a 3-year period all consecutive adult patients that needed treatment for an inguinal or femoral hernia were treated by the TIPP repair using the Rebound Shield mesh. Intra-operatively the type and size of the hernia were evaluated according to the EHS classification, as well as the size of the mesh used. Baseline characteristics for all patients were evaluated considering age, gender, BMI and American society of Anesthesiologists score. Standard X-ray was performed to evaluate mesh position. All patients were evaluated for post-operative pain using the visual analogue scale (VAS 0-10 scale). In total 289 groin hernias were operated using a nitinol containing patch in 235 patients. The mean operating time was 38 min for unilateral hernias and 59 min for bilateral hernias. The median follow-up is 21.2 months (14-33 months) during which three patients died, unrelated to the groin hernia repair. At the time of re-evaluation 12 patients (5.0 %) complained of chronic pain, with a VAS score higher than 3 after 3 months (range 3-10). Two of these patients already had severe pain pre-operatively. A total of 3 recurrences (2.9 %) were noted with strong correlation with X-ray findings. A nitinol memory frame containing mesh is a valuable tool to achieve complete deployment of a large pore mesh in a TIPP repair for inguinal hernias with acceptable morbidity and a low recurrence rate.

  17. Intraperitoneal mesh devices for small midline hernias: mesh behavior in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynvoet, E; Chiers, K; Van Overbeke, I; Troisi, R; Berrevoet, F

    2015-12-01

    Although clinical data on long-term efficacy are lacking, the use of self-expanding devices for intraperitoneal placement in the management of small midline hernias has been popularized. In the present experimental study, two different devices were investigated regarding tissue ingrowth, adhesion formation and solid mesh placement. Two devices of 4.3 cm diameter, one ePTFE-containing small pore polypropylene mesh (PP/ePTFE) and a multi-layered large-pore polypropylene patch with an oxidized cellulose anti-adhesive barrier (PP/ORC), both containing a self-deployment system, were placed intraperitoneally at the linea alba of 24 female pigs. A first laparoscopy was performed to evaluate mesh positioning against the abdominal wall. 1 (n = 6), 2 (n = 6), 4 (n = 6) and 12 weeks (n = 6) later, mesh appearance was inspected and adhesion formation was assessed. All meshes were excised for histological evaluation. Folding of the patch was more frequently observed at PP/ePTFE, yet no excessive cupping was noticed. Adhesions predominantly presented at short-term evaluation. Overall adhesion formation at all samples was significantly more extensive for PP/ORC (p = 0.048). Massive shrinkage was observed for PP/ORC: after a 12-week period 22% residual surface was preserved, compared to 83% for PP/ePTFE (p < 0.001). While at short-term inflammatory reaction was comparable, at long-term PP/ORC induced a significant more pronounced inflammatory and foreign body reaction. Although a strong deployment system provides adequate initial placement, shrinkage and excessive adhesion formation are much more prominent in the large-pore multi-layered restorbable devices compared to the ePTFE patch. This might influence long-term clinical outcome and caution seems warranted.

  18. Mesh-matrix analysis method for electromagnetic launchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, David G.

    1989-01-01

    The mesh-matrix method is a procedure for calculating the current distribution in the conductors of electromagnetic launchers with coil or flat-plate geometry. Once the current distribution is known the launcher performance can be calculated. The method divides the conductors into parallel current paths, or meshes, and finds the current in each mesh by matrix inversion. The author presents procedures for writing equations for the current and voltage relations for a few meshes to serve as a pattern for writing the computer code. An available subroutine package provides routines for field and flux coefficients and equation solution.

  19. Reconfigurable lattice mesh designs for programmable photonic processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Daniel; Gasulla, Ivana; Capmany, José; Soref, Richard A

    2016-05-30

    We propose and analyse two novel mesh design geometries for the implementation of tunable optical cores in programmable photonic processors. These geometries are the hexagonal and the triangular lattice. They are compared here to a previously proposed square mesh topology in terms of a series of figures of merit that account for metrics that are relevant to on-chip integration of the mesh. We find that that the hexagonal mesh is the most suitable option of the three considered for the implementation of the reconfigurable optical core in the programmable processor.

  20. Hexahedral finite element mesh coarsening using pillowing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staten, Matthew L [Pittsburgh, PA; Woodbury, Adam C [Provo, UT; Benzley, Steven E [Provo, UT; Shepherd, Jason F [Edgewood, NM

    2012-06-05

    A techniques for coarsening a hexahedral mesh is described. The technique includes identifying a coarsening region within a hexahedral mesh to be coarsened. A boundary sheet of hexahedral elements is inserted into the hexahedral mesh around the coarsening region. A column of hexahedral elements is identified within the boundary sheet. The column of hexahedral elements is collapsed to create an extraction sheet of hexahedral elements contained within the coarsening region. Then, the extraction sheet of hexahedral elements is extracted to coarsen the hexahedral mesh.

  1. The mesh controversy [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Cohn

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence are common conditions for which approximately 11% of women will undergo surgical intervention in their lifetime. The use of vaginal mesh for pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence rose rapidly in the early 2000s as over 100 mesh products were introduced into the clinical armamentarium with little regulatory oversight for their use. US Food and Drug Administration Public Health Notifications in 2008 and 2011, as well as reclassification of transvaginal mesh for prolapse to class III in early 2016, were a response to debilitating complications associated with transvaginal mesh placement in many women. The midurethral sling has not been subject to the same reclassification and continues to be endorsed as the “gold standard” for surgical management of stress urinary incontinence by subspecialty societies. However, litigators have not differentiated between mesh for prolapse and mesh for incontinence. As such, all mesh, including that placed for stress urinary incontinence, faces continued controversy amidst an uncertain future. In this article, we review the background of the mesh controversy, recent developments, and the anticipated role of mesh in surgery for prolapse and stress urinary incontinence going forward.

  2. Randomized trial to compare efficacy of polyester mosquito net mesh with polypropylene mesh in inguinal hernia surgery in northwestern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchit Jain

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: The results of the short-term follow-up clearly demonstrate that the incidence of postoperative complications from using polyester net mesh is well comparable with that of commercial polypropylene mesh. Using polyester mesh significantly reduces the cost of surgery and therefore it has a role in resource-limited settings. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2016; 5(4.000: 200-205

  3. MeSH Now: automatic MeSH indexing at PubMed scale via learning to rank

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Yuqing; Lu, Zhiyong

    2017-01-01

    Background MeSH indexing is the task of assigning relevant MeSH terms based on a manual reading of scholarly publications by human indexers. The task is highly important for improving literature retrieval and many other scientific investigations in biomedical research. Unfortunately, given its manual nature, the process of MeSH indexing is both time-consuming (new articles are not immediately indexed until 2 or 3?months later) and costly (approximately ten dollars per article). In response, a...

  4. Experimental human-like model to assess the part of viable Legionella reaching the thoracic region after nebulization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémie Pourchez

    Full Text Available The incidence of Legionnaires' disease (LD in European countries and the USA has been constantly increasing since 1998. Infection of humans occurs through aerosol inhalation. To bridge the existing gap between the concentration of Legionella in a water network and the deposition of bacteria within the thoracic region (assessment of the number of viable Legionella, we validated a model mimicking realistic exposure through the use of (i recent technology for aerosol generation and (ii a 3D replicate of the human upper respiratory tract. The model's sensitivity was determined by monitoring the deposition of (i aerosolized water and Tc99m radio-aerosol as controls, and (ii bioaerosols generated from both Escherichia coli and Legionella pneumophila sg 1 suspensions. The numbers of viable Legionella prior to and after nebulization were provided by culture, flow cytometry and qPCR. This study was designed to obtain more realistic data on aerosol inhalation (vs. animal experimentation and deposition at the thoracic region in the context of LD. Upon nebulization, 40% and 48% of the initial Legionella inoculum was made of cultivable and non-cultivable cells, respectively; 0.7% of both populations reached the filter holder mimicking the thoracic region in this setup. These results are in agreement with experimental data based on quantitative microbial risk assessment methods and bring new methods that may be useful for preventing LD.

  5. Animal Communications Through Seismic Vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Peggy (University of Tulsa)

    2001-05-02

    Substrate vibration has been important to animals as a channel of communication for millions of years, but our literature on vibration in this context of biologically relevant information is only decades old. The jaw mechanism of the earliest land vertebrates allowed them to perceive substrate vibrations as their heads lay on the ground long before airborne sounds could be heard. Although the exact mechanism of vibration production and the precise nature of the wave produced are not always understood, recent development of affordable instrumentation to detect and measure vibrations has allowed researchers to answer increasingly sophisticated questions about how animals send and receive vibration signals. We now know that vibration provides information used in predator defense, prey detection, recruitment to food, mate choice, intrasexual competition, and maternal/brood social interactions in a variety of insect orders, spiders, crabs, scorpions, chameleons, frogs, golden moles, mole rats, kangaroos rats, wallabies, elephants and bison.

  6. MeshVoro: A Three-Dimensional Voronoi Mesh Building Tool for the TOUGH Family of Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, C. M.; Boyle, K. L.; Reagan, M.; Johnson, J.; Rycroft, C.; Moridis, G. J.

    2013-09-30

    Few tools exist for creating and visualizing complex three-dimensional simulation meshes, and these have limitations that restrict their application to particular geometries and circumstances. Mesh generation needs to trend toward ever more general applications. To that end, we have developed MeshVoro, a tool that is based on the Voro (Rycroft 2009) library and is capable of generating complex threedimensional Voronoi tessellation-based (unstructured) meshes for the solution of problems of flow and transport in subsurface geologic media that are addressed by the TOUGH (Pruess et al. 1999) family of codes. MeshVoro, which includes built-in data visualization routines, is a particularly useful tool because it extends the applicability of the TOUGH family of codes by enabling the scientifically robust and relatively easy discretization of systems with challenging 3D geometries. We describe several applications of MeshVoro. We illustrate the ability of the tool to straightforwardly transform a complex geological grid into a simulation mesh that conforms to the specifications of the TOUGH family of codes. We demonstrate how MeshVoro can describe complex system geometries with a relatively small number of grid blocks, and we construct meshes for geometries that would have been practically intractable with a standard Cartesian grid approach. We also discuss the limitations and appropriate applications of this new technology.

  7. Vibration Attenuation of Plate Using Multiple Vibration Absorbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaman Izzuddin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Vibrations are undesired phenomenon and it can cause harm, distress and unsettling influence to the systems or structures, for example, aircraft, automobile, machinery and building. One of the approach to limit this vibration by introducing passive vibration absorber attached to the structure. In this paper, the adequacy of utilizing passive vibration absorbers are investigated. The vibration absorber system is designed to minimize the vibration of a thin plate fixed along edges. The plate’s vibration characteristics, such as, natural frequency and mode shape are determined using three techniques: theoretical equations, finite element (FE analysis and experiment. The results demonstrate that the first four natural frequencies of fixed-fixed ends plate are 48, 121, 193 and 242 Hz, and these results are corroborated well with theoretical, FE simulation and experiment. The experiment work is further carried out with attached single and multiple vibration absorbers onto plate by tuning the absorber’s frequency to match with the excitation frequency. The outcomes depict that multiple vibration absorbers are more viable in lessening the global structural vibration.

  8. Good vibrations. [Hydraulic turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, P.

    1994-07-01

    The latest developments in the Voith Turbine Control and Automation System (VTLS), which couples digital control technology to hydropower plant equipment, are described. Prominent among these is the vibration diagnostics module for hydraulic turbines. It provides machine-specific diagnostic logic for a vibration monitoring and analysis system. Of the two other VTLS modules described, the operation module optimizes the control of a power plant with three or more turbines by considering the individual properties of each in turn, recommending which should be run, and how, in order to partition the load for a required power output. The cavitation module is a diagnostic system which enables the limits of operation of the turbines to be extended to bands just outside those determined by cavitation calculations. (3 figures). (UK)

  9. Pickin’ up good vibrations

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    In preparation for the civil engineering work on the HL-LHC, vibration measurements were carried out at the LHC’s Point 1 last month. These measurements will help evaluate how civil engineering work could impact the beam, and will provide crucial details about the site’s geological make-up before construction begins.   A seismic truck at Point 1 generated wave-like vibrations measured by EN/MME. From carrying out R&D to produce state-of-the-art magnets to developing innovative, robust materials capable of withstanding beam impact, the HL-LHC is a multi-faceted project involving many groups and teams across CERN’s departments. It was in this framework that the project management mandated CERN's Mechanical and Materials Engineering (EN/MME) group to measure the propagation of vibrations around Point 1. Their question: can civil engineering work for the HL-LHC – the bulk of which is scheduled for LS2 – begin while the LHC is running? Alth...

  10. Vibrational stability of graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangfan Hu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical stability of graphene as temperature rises is analyzed based on three different self-consistent phonon (SCP models. Compared with three-dimensional (3-D materials, the critical temperature Ti at which instability occurs for graphene is much closer to its melting temperature Tm obtained from Monte Carlo simulation (Ti ≃ 2Tm, K. V. Zakharchenko, A. Fasolino, J. H. Los, and M. I. Katsnelson, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23, 202202. This suggests that thermal vibration plays a significant role in melting of graphene while melting for 3-D materials is often dominated by topologic defects. This peculiar property of graphene derives from its high structural anisotropy, which is characterized by the vibrational anisotropic coefficient (VAC, defined upon its Lindermann ratios in different directions. For any carbon based material with a graphene-like structure, the VAC value must be smaller than 5.4 to maintain its stability. It is also found that the high VAC value of graphene is responsible for its negative thermal expansion coefficient at low temperature range. We believe that the VAC can be regarded as a new criterion concerning the vibrational stability of any low-dimensional (low-D materials.

  11. Visualization of Scalar Adaptive Mesh Refinement Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VACET; Weber, Gunther; Weber, Gunther H.; Beckner, Vince E.; Childs, Hank; Ligocki, Terry J.; Miller, Mark C.; Van Straalen, Brian; Bethel, E. Wes

    2007-12-06

    Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) is a highly effective computation method for simulations that span a large range of spatiotemporal scales, such as astrophysical simulations, which must accommodate ranges from interstellar to sub-planetary. Most mainstream visualization tools still lack support for AMR grids as a first class data type and AMR code teams use custom built applications for AMR visualization. The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Science Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies (VACET) is currently working on extending VisIt, which is an open source visualization tool that accommodates AMR as a first-class data type. These efforts will bridge the gap between general-purpose visualization applications and highly specialized AMR visual analysis applications. Here, we give an overview of the state of the art in AMR scalar data visualization research.

  12. Transport Protocols for Wireless Mesh Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddie Law, K. L.

    Transmission control protocol (TCP) provides reliable connection-oriented services between any two end systems on the Internet. With TCP congestion control algorithm, multiple TCP connections can share network and link resources simultaneously. These TCP congestion control mechanisms have been operating effectively in wired networks. However, performance of TCP connections degrades rapidly in wireless and lossy networks. To sustain the throughput performance of TCP connections in wireless networks, design modifications may be required accordingly in the TCP flow control algorithm, and potentially, in association with other protocols in other layers for proper adaptations. In this chapter, we explain the limitations of the latest TCP congestion control algorithm, and then review some popular designs for TCP connections to operate effectively in wireless mesh network infrastructure.

  13. Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Characteristic Grids

    CERN Document Server

    Thornburg, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    I consider techniques for Berger-Oliger adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) when numerically solving partial differential equations with wave-like solutions, using characteristic (double-null) grids. Such AMR algorithms are naturally recursive, and the best-known past Berger-Oliger characteristic AMR algorithm, that of Pretorius & Lehner (J. Comp. Phys. 198 (2004), 10), recurses on individual "diamond" characteristic grid cells. This leads to the use of fine-grained memory management, with individual grid cells kept in 2-dimensional linked lists at each refinement level. This complicates the implementation and adds overhead in both space and time. Here I describe a Berger-Oliger characteristic AMR algorithm which instead recurses on null \\emph{slices}. This algorithm is very similar to the usual Cauchy Berger-Oliger algorithm, and uses relatively coarse-grained memory management, allowing entire null slices to be stored stored in contiguous arrays in memory. The algorithm is very efficient in both space and ti...

  14. Parallel-In-Time For Moving Meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falgout, R. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Manteuffel, T. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Southworth, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Schroder, J. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-02-04

    With steadily growing computational resources available, scientists must develop e ective ways to utilize the increased resources. High performance, highly parallel software has be- come a standard. However until recent years parallelism has focused primarily on the spatial domain. When solving a space-time partial di erential equation (PDE), this leads to a sequential bottleneck in the temporal dimension, particularly when taking a large number of time steps. The XBraid parallel-in-time library was developed as a practical way to add temporal parallelism to existing se- quential codes with only minor modi cations. In this work, a rezoning-type moving mesh is applied to a di usion problem and formulated in a parallel-in-time framework. Tests and scaling studies are run using XBraid and demonstrate excellent results for the simple model problem considered herein.

  15. Generating quality tetrahedral meshes from binary volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads Fogtmann; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    generation algorithm on four examples (torus, Stanford dragon, brain mask, and pig back) and report the dihedral angle, aspect ratio and radius-edge ratio. Even though, the algorithm incorporates none of the mentioned quality measures in the compression stage it receives a good score for all these measures......This paper presents two new quality measures for tetrahedra which are smooth and well-suited for gradient based optimization. Both measures are formulated as a distance from the regular tetrahedron and utilize the fact that the covariance of the vertices of a regular tetrahedron is isotropic. We...... use these measures to generate high quality meshes from signed distance maps. This paper also describes an approach for computing (smooth) signed distance maps from binary volumes as volumetric data in many cases originate from segmentation of objects from imaging techniques such as CT, MRI, etc...

  16. [Metered-dose inhaler with spacer vs nebulization for severe and potentially severe acute asthma treatment in the pediatric emergency department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannier, N; Timsit, S; Cojocaru, B; Leis, A; Wille, C; Garel, D; Bocquet, N; Chéron, G

    2006-03-01

    To compare treatment with beta 2 agonist delivered either by a spacer device or a nebulizer in children with severe or potentially severe acute asthma. In this randomized trial, children 4 to 15 years, cared for in the emergency department for severe or potentially severe acute asthma, received 6 times either nebulizations of salbutamol (0.15mg/kg) or puffs of a beta 2 agonist (salbutamol 50 microg/kg or terbutaline 125 microg/kg). The primary outcome was the hospitalization rate. Secondary outcomes included percentage improvement in Bishop score, in PEF, SaO(2), respiratory and heart rates, side effects, length of stay and relapses 10 and 30 days later. Groups did not differ for baseline data. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups (nebulizer N=40, spacer N=39) for baseline characteristics before emergency department consultation except for length of acute asthma in the spacer group. Clinical evolution after treatment, hospitalization rate, relapse were similar including the more severe subgroup. In the spacer group, tachycardia was less frequent (Pvs 108+/-13 min, Pmetered-dose inhaler with spacer is an effective alternative to nebulizers for the treatment of children with severe or potentially severe acute asthma in the emergency department. Time gained can be used for asthma education.

  17. Recurrence and Pain after Mesh Repair of Inguinal Hernias

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hernia System and Lichtenstein Method for Open. Inguinal Hernia Repair. J Clin Diagn Res. 2015;. 9(6): PC04-PC07. 3. Grant AM. Open Mesh Versus Non-Mesh Repair of Groin Hernia: Meta-Analysis of Randomised. Trials Based on Individual Patient Data. EU Hernia. Trialists Collaboration. Hernia. 2002; 6(3):130-6. 4.

  18. Sen migration af mesh til colon efter laparoskopisk hernieoperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Martin; Bisgaard, Thue

    2014-01-01

    Long-term complications after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair with mesh reinforcement are not well documented in the literature. We describe a case of a 63-year-old woman with repeated hernia operations due to a ventral hernia, which ultimately was complicated with mesh migration into the tran...... into the transverse colon....

  19. Late mesh migration into the colon after laparoscopic herniotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Martin; Bisgaard, Thue

    2014-01-01

    Long-term complications after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair with mesh reinforcement are not well documented in the literature. We describe a case of a 63-year-old woman with repeated hernia operations due to a ventral hernia, which ultimately was complicated with mesh migration into the tran...... into the transverse colon....

  20. Mesh may fit in as a termite barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford M. Kard

    1999-01-01

    Stainless steel mesh tests are currently being conducted in an effort to investigate alternatives or supplements to termiticides for control of subterranean termites. Some people are extra sensitive to insecticides or would prefer to use non-insecticidal means to control termites, and stainless steel mesh may provide one such alternative.

  1. The use of mesh implants in vaginal prolapse surgery: Position ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , or the use of full-length mid-urethral mesh for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (e.g. tension-free vaginal tape/transobturator sling tape). In January 2012, the FDA introduced mandatory postmarket surveillance of all mesh implanted ...

  2. Tangle-Free Finite Element Mesh Motion for Ablation Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droba, Justin

    2016-01-01

    In numerical simulations involving boundaries that evolve in time, the primary challenge is updating the computational mesh to reflect the physical changes in the domain. In particular, the fundamental objective for any such \\mesh motion" scheme is to maintain mesh quality and suppress unphysical geometric anamolies and artifacts. External to a physical process of interest, mesh motion is an added component that determines the specifics of how to move the mesh given certain limited information from the main system. This paper develops a set of boundary conditions designed to eliminate tangling and internal collision within the context of PDE-based mesh motion (linear elasticity). These boundary conditions are developed for two- and three-dimensional meshes. The paper presents detailed algorithms for commonly occuring topological scenarios and explains how to apply them appropriately. Notably, the techniques discussed herein make use of none of the specifics of any particular formulation of mesh motion and thus are more broadly applicable. The two-dimensional algorithms are validated by an extensive verification procedure. Finally, many examples of diverse geometries in both two- and three-dimensions are shown to showcase the capabilities of the tangle-free boundary conditions.

  3. Macrophage polarization in response to ECM coated polypropylene mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Matthew T; Dearth, Christopher L; Ranallo, Christian A; LoPresti, Samuel T; Carey, Lisa E; Daly, Kerry A; Brown, Bryan N; Badylak, Stephen F

    2014-08-01

    The host response to implanted biomaterials is a highly regulated process that influences device functionality and clinical outcome. Non-degradable biomaterials, such as knitted polypropylene mesh, frequently elicit a chronic foreign body reaction with resultant fibrosis. Previous studies have shown that an extracellular matrix (ECM) hydrogel coating of polypropylene mesh reduces the intensity of the foreign body reaction, though the mode of action is unknown. Macrophage participation plays a key role in the development of the foreign body reaction to biomaterials, and therefore the present study investigated macrophage polarization following mesh implantation. Spatiotemporal analysis of macrophage polarization was conducted in response to uncoated polypropylene mesh and mesh coated with hydrated and dry forms of ECM hydrogels derived from either dermis or urinary bladder. Pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages (CD86+/CD68+), alternatively activated M2 macrophages (CD206+/CD68+), and foreign body giant cells were quantified between 3 and 35 days. Uncoated polypropylene mesh elicited a dominant M1 response at the mesh fiber surface, which was decreased by each ECM coating type beginning at 7 days. The diminished M1 response was accompanied by a reduction in the number of foreign body giant cells at 14 and 35 days, though there was a minimal effect upon the number of M2 macrophages at any time. These results show that ECM coatings attenuate the M1 macrophage response and increase the M2/M1 ratio to polypropylene mesh in vivo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Large-Scale CFD Parallel Computing Dealing with Massive Mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Shang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to run CFD codes more efficiently on large scales, the parallel computing has to be employed. For example, in industrial scales, it usually uses tens of thousands of mesh cells to capture the details of complex geometries. How to distribute these mesh cells among the multiprocessors for obtaining a good parallel computing performance (HPC is really a challenge. Due to dealing with the massive mesh cells, it is difficult for the CFD codes without parallel optimizations to handle this kind of large-scale computing. Some of the open source mesh partitioning software packages, such as Metis, ParMetis, Scotch, PT-Scotch, and Zoltan, are able to deal with the distribution of large number of mesh cells. Therefore they were employed as the parallel optimization tools ported into Code_Saturne, an open source CFD code, for testing if they can solve the issue of dealing with massive mesh cells for CFD codes. Through the studies, it was found that the mesh partitioning optimization software packages can help CFD codes not only deal with massive mesh cells but also have a good HPC.

  5. Scalable Video Streaming in Wireless Mesh Networks for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Wang, Xinheng; Zhao, Liqiang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a video streaming system for education based on a wireless mesh network is proposed. A wireless mesh network is a self-organizing, self-managing and reliable intelligent network, which allows educators to deploy a network quickly. Video streaming plays an important role in this system for multimedia data transmission. This new…

  6. Surgical management of pelvic floor prolapse in women using mesh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate surgical handling, prolapse correction and complication rate of polypropylene mesh. Methods: A retrospective review of patients who had pelvic floor repair using polypropylene mesh(PPM) and intra-vaginal sling(IVS), between January 2003 and July 2005. All patients were followed-up for a period of ...

  7. Mesh Processing in Medical-Image Analysis-a Tutorial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levine, Joshua A.; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Zhang, Yongjie

    2012-01-01

    Medical-image analysis requires an understanding of sophisticated scanning modalities, constructing geometric models, building meshes to represent domains, and downstream biological applications. These four steps form an image-to-mesh pipeline. For research in this field to progress, the imaging...

  8. Volume Decomposition and Feature Recognition for Hexahedral Mesh Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GADH,RAJIT; LU,YONG; TAUTGES,TIMOTHY J.

    1999-09-27

    Considerable progress has been made on automatic hexahedral mesh generation in recent years. Several automatic meshing algorithms have proven to be very reliable on certain classes of geometry. While it is always worth pursuing general algorithms viable on more general geometry, a combination of the well-established algorithms is ready to take on classes of complicated geometry. By partitioning the entire geometry into meshable pieces matched with appropriate meshing algorithm the original geometry becomes meshable and may achieve better mesh quality. Each meshable portion is recognized as a meshing feature. This paper, which is a part of the feature based meshing methodology, presents the work on shape recognition and volume decomposition to automatically decompose a CAD model into meshable volumes. There are four phases in this approach: (1) Feature Determination to extinct decomposition features, (2) Cutting Surfaces Generation to form the ''tailored'' cutting surfaces, (3) Body Decomposition to get the imprinted volumes; and (4) Meshing Algorithm Assignment to match volumes decomposed with appropriate meshing algorithms. The feature determination procedure is based on the CLoop feature recognition algorithm that is extended to be more general. Results are demonstrated over several parts with complicated topology and geometry.

  9. Vaginal Approaches Using Synthetic Mesh to Treat Pelvic Organ Prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jei Won; Chae, Hee Dong

    2016-02-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a very common condition in elderly women. In women with POP, a sacrocolpopexy or a vaginal hysterectomy with anterior and posterior colporrhaphy has long been considered as the gold standard of treatment. However, in recent decades, the tendency to use a vaginal approach with mesh for POP surgery has been increasing. A vaginal approach using mesh has many advantages, such as its being less invasive than an abdominal approach and easier to do than a laparoscopic approach and its having a lower recurrence rate than a traditional approach. However, the advantages of a vaginal approach with mesh for POP surgery must be weighed against the disadvantages. Specific complications that have been reported when using mesh in POP procedures are mesh erosion, dyspareunia, hematomas, urinary incontinence and so on, and evidence supporting the use of transvaginal surgery with mesh is still lacking. Hence, surgeons should understand the details of the surgical pelvic anatomy, the various surgical techniques for POP surgery, including using mesh, and the possible side effects of using mesh.

  10. The application of TINA in the MESH project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sinderen, Marten J.; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Pires, L.F.; Plagemann, Thomas; Goebel, Vera

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of TINA concepts, architectures and related design paradigms in the MESH project. MESH adopted TINA as a means to facilitate the design and implementation of a flexible platform for developing and providing interactive multimedia services. This paper reports on

  11. Moving Mesh for the Numerical Solution of Partial Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVEIRA, F. S.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present moving meshes for the numeric resolution of partial differential equations. We describe some important concepts on this topic and point to existing body of work for the solution of partial differential equations using the methods of finite volumes and finite elements, both with moving meshes.

  12. Staged Closure of Giant Omphalocele using Synthetic Mesh

    OpenAIRE

    Lalit Parida; Kamalesh Pal; Hussah Al Buainain; Hossam Elshafei

    2014-01-01

    Giant omphalocele is difficult to manage and is associated with a poor outcome. A male newborn presented to our hospital with a giant omphalocele. We performed a staged closure of giant omphalocele using synthetic mesh to construct a silo and then mesh abdominoplasty in the neonatal period that led to a successful outcome within a reasonable period of hospital stay.

  13. Randomized controlled trial of salbutamol aerosol therapy via metered dose inhaler-spacer vs. jet nebulizer in young children with wheezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deerojanawong, J; Manuyakorn, W; Prapphal, N; Harnruthakorn, C; Sritippayawan, S; Samransamruajkit, R

    2005-05-01

    The jet nebulizer is a common device used for administering aerosol medication in young children. However, compared to a metered dose inhaler-spacer (MDI-spacer), it takes more time and personnel. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of salbutamol aerosol therapy given via these two devices in young wheezing children. A prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed in children up to 5 years old who had acute wheezing and were admitted to the Department of Pediatrics, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. The first group received 2 puffs of placebo via MDI-spacer, followed by 0.15 mg/kg salbutamol respiratory solution via jet nebulizer. The second group received 2 puffs (100 microg/puff) of salbutamol via MDI-spacer, followed by placebo via jet nebulizer. Clinical scores and tidal breathing pulmonary function test were evaluated before and after treatment. Pulmonary function parameters included those derived from flow volume loops (volume to peak tidal expiratory flow over total expiratory volume, V(PTEF)/V(E); time to peak tidal expiratory flow over total expiratory time, T(PTEF)/T(E); and ratio of tidal expiratory flow at 25% remaining expiration to peak expiratory flow, 25/PF), compliance (Crs), and resistance (Rrs) of the respiratory system. The efficacy of both methods was compared by using analysis of covariance. Forty-seven wheezing children were studied (24 received salbutamol via MDI-spacer, and 23 received it via jet nebulizer). There was no statistical difference between the two groups regarding clinical scores and all pulmonary function parameters. However, heart rate was significantly increased after treatment in the jet nebulizer group when compared to those in the MDI-spacer group (P = 0.004). In conclusion, the efficacy of salbutamol aerosol therapy via MDI-spacer compared to jet nebulizer in young wheezing children was not different in terms of clinical score and

  14. Nebulized Hypertonic Saline Treatment Reduces Both Rate and Duration of Hospitalization for Acute Bronchiolitis in Infants: An Updated Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ju Chen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nebulized hypertonic saline (HS treatment reduced the length of hospitalization in infants with acute bronchiolitis in a previous meta-analysis. However, there was no reduction in the admission rate. We hypothesized that nebulized HS treatment might significantly decrease both the duration and the rate of hospitalization if more randomized controlled trials (RCTs were included. We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL without a language restriction. A meta-analysis was performed based on the efficacy of nebulized HS treatment in infants with acute bronchiolitis. We used weighted mean difference (WMD and risk ratio as effect size metrics. Eleven studies were identified that enrolled 1070 infants. Nebulized HS treatment significantly decreased the duration and rate of hospitalization compared with nebulized normal saline (NS [duration of hospitalization: WMD = −0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI = −1.38 to −0.54, p < 0.001; rate of hospitalization: risk ratio = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.37–0.93, p = 0.02]. Furthermore, nebulized HS treatment had a beneficial effect in reducing the clinical severity (CS score of acute bronchiolitis infants post-treatment (Day 1: WMD = −0.77, 95% CI = −1.30 to −0.24, p = 0.005; Day 2: WMD = −0.85, 95% CI = −1.30 to −0.39, p < 0.001; Day 3: WMD = −1.14, 95% CI = −1.69 to −0.58, p < 0.001. There was no decrease in the rate of readmission (risk ratio = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.68–1.73, p = 0.74. Nebulized HS treatment significantly decreased both the rate and the duration of hospitalization. Due to the efficacy and cost-effectiveness, HS should be considered for the treatment of acute bronchiolitis in infants.

  15. A Density Control Based Adaptive Hexahedral Mesh Generation Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangwei Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A density control based adaptive hexahedral mesh generation algorithm for three dimensional models is presented in this paper. The first step of this algorithm is to identify the characteristic boundary of the solid model which needs to be meshed. Secondly, the refinement fields are constructed and modified according to the conformal refinement templates, and used as a metric to generate an initial grid structure. Thirdly, a jagged core mesh is generated by removing all the elements in the exterior of the solid model. Fourthly, all of the surface nodes of the jagged core mesh are matching to the surfaces of the model through a node projection process. Finally, the mesh quality such as topology and shape is improved by using corresponding optimization techniques.

  16. Feature-preserving surface mesh smoothing via suboptimal Delaunay triangulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhanheng; Yu, Zeyun; Holst, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A method of triangular surface mesh smoothing is presented to improve angle quality by extending the original optimal Delaunay triangulation (ODT) to surface meshes. The mesh quality is improved by solving a quadratic optimization problem that minimizes the approximated interpolation error between a parabolic function and its piecewise linear interpolation defined on the mesh. A suboptimal problem is derived to guarantee a unique, analytic solution that is significantly faster with little loss in accuracy as compared to the optimal one. In addition to the quality-improving capability, the proposed method has been adapted to remove noise while faithfully preserving sharp features such as edges and corners of a mesh. Numerous experiments are included to demonstrate the performance of the method.

  17. Comparison and combination of several MeSH indexing approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepes, Antonio Jose Jimeno; Mork, James G; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Aronson, Alan R

    2013-01-01

    MeSH indexing of MEDLINE is becoming a more difficult task for the group of highly qualified indexing staff at the US National Library of Medicine, due to the large yearly growth of MEDLINE and the increasing size of MeSH. Since 2002, this task has been assisted by the Medical Text Indexer or MTI program. We extend previous machine learning analysis by adding a more diverse set of MeSH headings targeting examples where MTI has been shown to perform poorly. Machine learning algorithms exceed MTI's performance on MeSH headings that are used very frequently and headings for which the indexing frequency is very low. We find that when we combine the MTI suggestions and the prediction of the learning algorithms, the performance improves compared to any single method for most of the evaluated MeSH headings.

  18. Use of mesh in laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller-Stich, Beat P.; Kenngott, Hannes G.; Gondan, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    potential benefits of LMAH. All data regarding LMAH were used to estimate risk of mesh-associated complications. Risk-benefit analysis was performed using a Markov Monte Carlo decision-analytic model. Results. Meta-analysis of 3 RCTs and 9 OCSs including 915 patients revealed a significantly lower......Introduction. Mesh augmentation seems to reduce recurrences following laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair (LPHR). However, there is an uncertain risk of mesh-associated complications. Risk-benefit analysis might solve the dilemma. Materials and Methods. A systematic literature search...... of LMAH data yielded a mesh-associated complication rate of 1.9% (41/2121; 95% CI, 1.3% to 2.5%) for those series reporting at least one mesh-associated complication. The Markov Monte Carlo decision-analytic model revealed a procedure-related mortality rate of 1.6% for LMAH and 1.8% for LH. Conclusions...

  19. Challenges in Second-Generation Wireless Mesh Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pescapé Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless mesh networks have the potential to provide ubiquitous high-speed Internet access at low costs. The good news is that initial deployments of WiFi meshes show the feasibility of providing ubiquitous Internet connectivity. However, their performance is far below the necessary and achievable limit. Moreover, users' subscription in the existing meshes is dismal even though the technical challenges to get connectivity are low. This paper provides an overview of the current status of mesh networks' deployment, and highlights the technical, economical, and social challenges that need to be addressed in the next years. As a proof-of-principle study, we discuss the above-mentioned challenges with reference to three real networks: (i MagNets, an operator-driven planned two-tier mesh network; (ii Berlin Freifunk network as a pure community-driven single-tier network; (iii Weimar Freifunk network, also a community-driven but two-tier network.

  20. Tangle-Free Finite Element Mesh Motion for Ablation Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droba, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Mesh motion is the process by which a computational domain is updated in time to reflect physical changes in the material the domain represents. Such a technique is needed in the study of the thermal response of ablative materials, which erode when strong heating is applied to the boundary. Traditionally, the thermal solver is coupled with a linear elastic or biharmonic system whose sole purpose is to update mesh node locations in response to altering boundary heating. Simple mesh motion algorithms rely on boundary surface normals. In such schemes, evolution in time will eventually cause the mesh to intersect and "tangle" with itself, causing failure. Furthermore, such schemes are greatly limited in the problems geometries on which they will be successful. This paper presents a comprehensive and sophisticated scheme that tailors the directions of motion based on context. By choosing directions for each node smartly, the inevitable tangle can be completely avoided and mesh motion on complex geometries can be modeled accurately.

  1. Study of open inguinal hernia repair by mosquito net mesh versus polypropylene mesh

    OpenAIRE

    Anil Darokar; Kishor Bele; Rajiv Mulmule; Rizwanuddin Qazi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Inguinal hernia is one of the commonest medical problems and treatment with Lichtenstein repair using polypropylene mesh is considered as gold standard. In developing countries, cost of the prosthesis is a significant factor in health care delivery. Methods: A clinical trial of 73 patients of inguinal hernia operated by Lichtenstein tension free technique from 1st January 2013 to 31st December 2014 was undertaken to evaluate the safety, complications and recurrence rate using ...

  2. Developing metal coated mesh filters for mid-infrared astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sako, Shigeyuki; Miyata, Takashi; Kamizuka, Takafumi; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Asano, Kentaro; Uchiyama, Mizuho; Onaka, Takashi; Sakon, Itsuki; Wada, Takehiko

    2012-09-01

    A metal mesh filter is appropriate to a band-pass filter for astronomy in the long mid-infrared between 25 and 40 μm, where most of optical materials are opaque. The mesh filter does not require transparent dielectric materials unlike interference filters because the transmission characteristics bare determined by surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) resonances excited on a metal surface with a periodic structure. In this study, we have developed the mesh filters optimized to atmospheric windows at 31.8 and 37.5 μm accessible from the Chajnantor site of 5,640 m altitude. First, mesh filters made of a gold film of 2 μm thickness have been fabricated. Four identical film-type filters are stacked incoherently to suppress leakages at stop-bands. The transmissions of the stacked filters have been measured to be 0.8 at the peaks and below 1 x 10-3 at the stop-bands at 4 K. The ground-based mid-infrared camera MAX38 has been equipped with the stacked filters and successfully obtained diffraction-limited stellar images at the Chajnantor site. The film-type mesh filter does not have sufficient mechanical strength for a larger aperture and for use in space. We have developed mesh filters with higher strength by applying the membrane technology for x-ray optics. The membrane-type mesh filter is made of SiC and coated with a thin gold layer. The optical performance of the mesh filter is independent of internal materials in principle because the SPP resonances are excited only on the metal surface. The fabricated membrane-type mesh filter has been confirmed to provide comparable optical performance to the film-type mesh filter.

  3. Robust, multidimensional mesh motion based on Monge-Kantorovich equidistribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delzanno, G L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Finn, J M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Mesh-motion (r-refinement) grid adaptivity schemes are attractive due to their potential to minimize the numerical error for a prescribed number of degrees of freedom. However, a key roadblock to a widespread deployment of the technique has been the formulation of robust, reliable mesh motion governing principles, which (1) guarantee a solution in multiple dimensions (2D and 3D), (2) avoid grid tangling (or folding of the mesh, whereby edges of a grid cell cross somewhere in the domain), and (3) can be solved effectively and efficiently. In this study, we formulate such a mesh-motion governing principle, based on volume equidistribution via Monge-Kantorovich optimization (MK). In earlier publications [1, 2], the advantages of this approach in regards to these points have been demonstrated for the time-independent case. In this study, demonstrate that Monge-Kantorovich equidistribution can in fact be used effectively in a time stepping context, and delivers an elegant solution to the otherwise pervasive problem of grid tangling in mesh motion approaches, without resorting to ad-hoc time-dependent terms (as in moving-mesh PDEs, or MMPDEs [3, 4]). We explore two distinct r-refinement implementations of MK: direct, where the current mesh relates to an initial, unchanging mesh, and sequential, where the current mesh is related to the previous one in time. We demonstrate that the direct approach is superior in regards to mesh distortion and robustness. The properties of the approach are illustrated with a paradigmatic hyperbolic PDE, the advection of a passive scalar. Imposed velocity flow fields or varying vorticity levels and flow shears are considered.

  4. Resorbable biosynthetic mesh for crural reinforcement during hiatal hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicuben, Evan T; Worrell, Stephanie G; DeMeester, Steven R

    2014-10-01

    The use of mesh to reinforce crural closure during hiatal hernia repair is controversial. Although some studies suggest that using synthetic mesh can reduce recurrence, synthetic mesh can erode into the esophagus and in our opinion should be avoided. Studies with absorbable or biologic mesh have not proven to be of benefit for recurrence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of hiatal hernia repair with modern resorbable biosynthetic mesh in combination with adjunct tension reduction techniques. We retrospectively analyzed all patients who had crural reinforcement during repair of a sliding or paraesophageal hiatal hernia with Gore BioA resorbable mesh. Objective follow-up was by videoesophagram and/or esophagogastroduodenoscopy. There were 114 patients. The majority of operations (72%) were laparoscopic primary repairs with all patients receiving a fundoplication. The crura were closed primarily in all patients and reinforced with a BioA mesh patch. Excessive tension prompted a crural relaxing incision in four per cent and a Collis gastroplasty in 39 per cent of patients. Perioperative morbidity was minor and unrelated to the mesh. Median objective follow-up was one year, but 18 patients have objective follow-up at two or more years. A recurrent hernia was found in one patient (0.9%) three years after repair. The use of crural relaxing incisions and Collis gastroplasty in combination with crural reinforcement with resorbable biosynthetic mesh is associated with a low early hernia recurrence rate and no mesh-related complications. Long-term follow-up will define the role of these techniques for hiatal hernia repair.

  5. Does nebulized epinephrine improve the efficacy of hypertonic saline solution in the treatment of hospitalized moderate acute bronchiolitis? A double blind, randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-González, Jose Carlos; Dominguez-Coronel, Maria Teresa; Matamala Morillo, Miguel Angel; Aragón Ramírez, Miriam; García Ortega, Rosa María; Dávila Corrales, Francisco Javier; García Palacios, Maria Victoria; Perez Guerrero, Juan Jesus; García García, Laura; Lechuga Sancho, Alfonso María

    2016-04-01

    Nebulized 3% hypertonic saline solution (HSS 3%) has proven to reduce hospital stay in infants with acute bronchiolitis, as compared with nebulized physiological saline solutions. There are no studies assessing the effectiveness of nebulized epinephrine in patients treated with HSS 3%. The aim of this study was to compare the length of stay (LOS) in hospitalized patients treated with HSS 3% with placebo vs. HSS 3% with epinephrine. Secondarily we aimed to assess the effectiveness and safety of both treatments. We performed a prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study, including infants hospitalized for moderate acute bronchiolitis. Both groups received standard life support and were randomly treated with nebulized HSS 3% (7 mL) with either placebo 3 mL or epinephrine 3 mL. Nebulizations were initially administered every four hours and this interval was modified according to the patient's response. Sixty-four infants were included, 32 patients in each group. No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups (P=0.948) in length of stay, disease severity, SatO2, respiratory rate or heart rate. On the third day of hospitalization, severity and respiratory rate in the HSS 3%+E presented a non statistically significant trend to an earlier improvement, (P=0.063 and P=0.096 repectively). No adverse events occurred. Four patients (two from each group) required transfer to the pediatric intensive care unit. With a third of the final estimated sample, we find a trend to an earlier clinical recovery in the epinephrine group, even though no statistical significant differences in LOS were found. The study needs to be continued until the total sample is recruited.

  6. VIBRATION ISOLATION SYSTEM PROBABILITY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov Vladimir Alexandrovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the probability analysis for a vibration isolation system of high-precision equipment, which is extremely sensitive to low-frequency oscillations even of submicron amplitude. The external sources of low-frequency vibrations may include the natural city background or internal low-frequency sources inside buildings (pedestrian activity, HVAC. Taking Gauss distribution into account, the author estimates the probability of the relative displacement of the isolated mass being still lower than the vibration criteria. This problem is being solved in the three dimensional space, evolved by the system parameters, including damping and natural frequency. According to this probability distribution, the chance of exceeding the vibration criteria for a vibration isolation system is evaluated. Optimal system parameters - damping and natural frequency - are being developed, thus the possibility of exceeding vibration criteria VC-E and VC-D is assumed to be less than 0.04.

  7. Random vibrations theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Wirsching, Paul H; Ortiz, Keith

    1995-01-01

    Random Vibrations: Theory and Practice covers the theory and analysis of mechanical and structural systems undergoing random oscillations due to any number of phenomena— from engine noise, turbulent flow, and acoustic noise to wind, ocean waves, earthquakes, and rough pavement. For systems operating in such environments, a random vibration analysis is essential to the safety and reliability of the system. By far the most comprehensive text available on random vibrations, Random Vibrations: Theory and Practice is designed for readers who are new to the subject as well as those who are familiar with the fundamentals and wish to study a particular topic or use the text as an authoritative reference. It is divided into three major sections: fundamental background, random vibration development and applications to design, and random signal analysis. Introductory chapters cover topics in probability, statistics, and random processes that prepare the reader for the development of the theory of random vibrations a...

  8. Treatment of acute severe asthma with inhaled albuterol delivered via jet nebulizer, metered dose inhaler with spacer, or dry powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, A C; Schottlender, J; Lombardi, D; Molfino, N A

    1997-07-01

    Despite the increasing use of dry powder formulations in the ambulatory setting, there is a paucity of information on the efficacy of this therapeutic modality to treat acute severe asthma. In addition, studies that compared wet nebulization vs metered dose inhalers formulated with chlorofluorocarbon (CFCMDI) attached to holding chambers have yielded discrepant results. Thus, it is unclear which of the three delivery systems would elicit a superior bronchodilator response, particularly in patients with life-threatening asthma. In a prospective, randomized open design, we studied the response to inhaled albuterol (salbutamol) in 27 adult asthmatics presenting to the emergency department (ED) with an FEV1 nebulizer (Puritan-Bennett Raindrop; Lawrenceville, Ga) impelled with oxygen (O2) at 8 L/min; group B, baseline FEV1 of 0.6 (0.15) L, received albuterol, 400 microg, via a CFCMDI attached to a 145-mL valved aerosol holding chamber (Aerochamber; Trudell Medical; London, ON); and group C, baseline FEV1 of 0.6 (0.17) L, received albuterol powder, 400 microg, by another means (Rotahaler; Glaxo; Research Triangle Park, NC). All groups received the respective treatments on arrival in the ED, every 30 min during the first 2 h, and then hourly until the sixth hour. Clinical parameters and FEV1 were recorded on ED admission and 15 min after each dose of albuterol. At the time of ED admission, all patients also received continuous O2 and one dose of I.V. steroids (dexamethasone, 8 mg). The total dose of inhaled albuterol administered during the 6-h treatment was 45 mg of nebulized solution in group A and 3,600 microg of albuterol aerosol and dry powder in groups B and C, respectively. No significant differences were found in the population demographics, baseline FEV1, and arterial blood gas values on air. FEV1 improved significantly in all patients after the 6 h of treatment. The 6-h area under the curve FEV1 improved similarly with the three delivery methods despite

  9. Chaotic vortex induced vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, J.; Sheridan, J. [Fluids Laboratory for Aeronautical and Industrial Research (FLAIR), Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Leontini, J. S. [Department of Mechanical and Product Design Engineering, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Lo Jacono, D. [Institut de Mécanique des Fluides de Toulouse (IMFT), CNRS, UPS and Université de Toulouse, 31400 Toulouse (France)

    2014-12-15

    This study investigates the nature of the dynamic response of an elastically mounted cylinder immersed in a free stream. A novel method is utilized, where the motion of the body during a free vibration experiment is accurately recorded, and then a second experiment is conducted where the cylinder is externally forced to follow this recorded trajectory. Generally, the flow response during both experiments is identical. However, particular regimes exist where the flow response is significantly different. This is taken as evidence of chaos in these regimes.

  10. Lattice Vibrations in Chlorobenzenes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reynolds, P. A.; Kjems, Jørgen; White, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    Lattice vibrational dispersion curves for the ``intermolecular'' modes in the triclinic, one molecule per unit cell β phase of p‐C6D4Cl2 and p‐C6H4Cl2 have been obtained by inelastic neutron scattering. The deuterated sample was investigated at 295 and at 90°K and a linear extrapolation to 0°K...... was applied in order to correct for anharmonic effects. Calculations based on the atom‐atom model for van der Waals' interaction and on general potential parameters for the aromatic compounds agree reasonably well with the experimental observations. There is no substantial improvement in fit obtained either...

  11. Evaluation of composite mesh for ventral hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Jim F; Agee, Neal; Nguyen, Phuong H; Heath, Jessica J; Lau, Kwan N; McKillop, Iain H; Sindram, David; Martinie, John B; Iannitti, David A

    2011-01-01

    Composite mesh prostheses incorporate the properties of multiple materials for ventral hernia repair. This study evaluated a polypropylene/ePTFE composite mesh with a novel internal polydioxanone (PDO) absorbable ring. Composite mesh was placed intraperitoneally in 16 pigs through an open laparotomy and explanted at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Intraabdominal adhesions were measured laparoscopically. Host tissue in-growth was assessed histologically and tensiometrically. Degradation of the internal PDO ring component was also measured tensiometrically. Appropriate statistical tests were used, and P ≤.05 indicated significance. No adhesions were formed in 50% of the grafts explanted at 8 weeks and 25% of grafts explanted at 12 weeks. There were significantly more vascular structures at 8 weeks, 73.5 ± 28, compared with 2 weeks, 6.75 ± 2 (P ≤.01). The T-peel force at the mesh-host tissue interface was not significantly different among time points. The absorbable PDO ring underwent complete degradation by 12 weeks. This composite mesh was associated with minimal intraabdominal adhesions, progressive in-growth of host tissues, and complete degradation of a novel internal PDO ring that aided mesh positioning. This composite hernia mesh showed a favorable performance in a porcine model of open ventral hernia repair.

  12. Design Investigation on Applicable Mesh Structures for Medical Stent Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Shoji; He, Jianmei

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, utilization of medical stents is one of effective treatments for stenosis and occlusion occurring in a living body’s lumen indispensable for maintenance of human life such as superficial femoral artery (SFA) occlusion. However, there are concerns about the occurrence of fatigue fractures caused by stress concentrations, neointimal hyperplasia and the like due to the shape structure and the manufacturing method in the conventional stents, and a stent having high strength and high flexibility is required. Therefore, in this research, applicable mesh structures for medical stents based on the design concepts of high strength, high flexibility are interested to solve various problem of conventional stent. According to the shape and dimensions of SFA occlusion therapy stent and indwelling delivery catheter, shape design of the meshed stent are performed using 3-dimensional CAD software Solid Works first. Then analytical examination on storage characteristics and compression characteristics of such mesh structure applied stent models were carried out through finite element analysis software ANSYS Workbench. Meshed stent models with higher strength and higher flexibility with integral molding are investigated analytically. It was found that the storage characteristics and compression characteristics of meshed stent modles are highly dependent on the basic mesh shapes with same surface void ratio. Trade-off relationship between flexibility and storage characteristics is found exited, it is required to provide appropriate curvatures during basic mesh shape design.

  13. Selective laser vaporization of polypropylene sutures and mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, David; Rosenbury, Sarah B.; Kennelly, Michael J.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2012-02-01

    Complications from polypropylene mesh after surgery for female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) may require tedious surgical revision and removal of mesh materials with risk of damage to healthy adjacent tissue. This study explores selective laser vaporization of polypropylene suture/mesh materials commonly used in SUI. A compact, 7 Watt, 647-nm, red diode laser was operated with a radiant exposure of 81 J/cm2, pulse duration of 100 ms, and 1.0-mm-diameter laser spot. The 647-nm wavelength was selected because its absorption by water, hemoglobin, and other major tissue chromophores is low, while polypropylene absorption is high. Laser vaporization of ~200-μm-diameter polypropylene suture/mesh strands, in contact with fresh urinary tissue samples, ex vivo, was performed. Non-contact temperature mapping of the suture/mesh samples with a thermal camera was also conducted. Photoselective vaporization of polypropylene suture and mesh using a single laser pulse was achieved with peak temperatures of 180 and 232 °C, respectively. In control (safety) studies, direct laser irradiation of tissue alone resulted in only a 1 °C temperature increase. Selective laser vaporization of polypropylene suture/mesh materials is feasible without significant thermal damage to tissue. This technique may be useful for SUI procedures requiring surgical revision.

  14. Reaction rates for reaction-diffusion kinetics on unstructured meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellander, Stefan; Petzold, Linda

    2017-02-01

    The reaction-diffusion master equation is a stochastic model often utilized in the study of biochemical reaction networks in living cells. It is applied when the spatial distribution of molecules is important to the dynamics of the system. A viable approach to resolve the complex geometry of cells accurately is to discretize space with an unstructured mesh. Diffusion is modeled as discrete jumps between nodes on the mesh, and the diffusion jump rates can be obtained through a discretization of the diffusion equation on the mesh. Reactions can occur when molecules occupy the same voxel. In this paper, we develop a method for computing accurate reaction rates between molecules occupying the same voxel in an unstructured mesh. For large voxels, these rates are known to be well approximated by the reaction rates derived by Collins and Kimball, but as the mesh is refined, no analytical expression for the rates exists. We reduce the problem of computing accurate reaction rates to a pure preprocessing step, depending only on the mesh and not on the model parameters, and we devise an efficient numerical scheme to estimate them to high accuracy. We show in several numerical examples that as we refine the mesh, the results obtained with the reaction-diffusion master equation approach those of a more fine-grained Smoluchowski particle-tracking model.

  15. Prosthetic bioabsorbable mesh for hiatal hernia repair during sleeve gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy has become a valuable primary bariatric operation. It has an acceptable complication profile and amount of weight loss. However, one of the most distressing complications to the patient is reflux postoperatively. There is thought to be a relationship between a hiatal hernia and postoperative reflux. There is disagreement on how to address a hiatal hernia intraoperatively, and the use of mesh is controversial. Our objectives were to examine the use of a prosthetic bioabsorbable mesh for repair of a large hiatal hernia during a sleeve gastrectomy and to examine the incidence of reflux and mesh-related complications in the near term. This is a case series of patients with hiatal hernia undergoing a primary sleeve gastrectomy. None of the patients had a previous hiatal hernia repair. Three patients with large hiatal hernias diagnosed preoperatively or intraoperatively were included. The hiatus of the diaphragm was repaired with a posterior crural closure, and a piece of prosthetic bioabsorbable mesh was placed posteriorly to reinforce the repair. There were 3 patients. The mean follow-up period was 12 months. There were no mesh-related complications. One of the patients needed to resume proton pump inhibitors to control reflux. The use of a prosthetic bioabsorbable mesh to repair a hiatal hernia simultaneously with a sleeve gastrectomy is safe. There were no mesh-related complications at 1 year.

  16. Reaction rates for reaction-diffusion kinetics on unstructured meshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellander, Stefan; Petzold, Linda

    2017-02-14

    The reaction-diffusion master equation is a stochastic model often utilized in the study of biochemical reaction networks in living cells. It is applied when the spatial distribution of molecules is important to the dynamics of the system. A viable approach to resolve the complex geometry of cells accurately is to discretize space with an unstructured mesh. Diffusion is modeled as discrete jumps between nodes on the mesh, and the diffusion jump rates can be obtained through a discretization of the diffusion equation on the mesh. Reactions can occur when molecules occupy the same voxel. In this paper, we develop a method for computing accurate reaction rates between molecules occupying the same voxel in an unstructured mesh. For large voxels, these rates are known to be well approximated by the reaction rates derived by Collins and Kimball, but as the mesh is refined, no analytical expression for the rates exists. We reduce the problem of computing accurate reaction rates to a pure preprocessing step, depending only on the mesh and not on the model parameters, and we devise an efficient numerical scheme to estimate them to high accuracy. We show in several numerical examples that as we refine the mesh, the results obtained with the reaction-diffusion master equation approach those of a more fine-grained Smoluchowski particle-tracking model.

  17. Add-on treatment with nebulized hypertonic saline in a child with plastic bronchitis after the Glenn procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Lis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic bronchitis (PB, although a rare cause of airway obstruction, has mortality rates up to 50% in children after Fontan-type cardiac surgery. We present the case of an 18-month-old female patient with PB following pneumonia. At 6 months of age, the patient underwent the Glenn procedure due to functionally univentricular heart. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed complete blockage of the left bronchus by mucoid casts. Pharmacotherapy consisted of glucocorticosteroids, azithromycin, and enalapril maleate. The child also received nebulized 3% NaCl solution, which proved to be beneficial. In children submitted to Fontan-type procedures, physicians must be alert for PB, which can be triggered by respiratory tract infection.

  18. Screen-printed digital microfluidics combined with surface acoustic wave nebulization for hydrogen-deuterium exchange measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monkkonen, Lucas; Edgar, J Scott; Winters, Daniel; Heron, Scott R; Mackay, C Logan; Masselon, Christophe D; Stokes, Adam A; Langridge-Smith, Patrick R R; Goodlett, David R

    2016-03-25

    An inexpensive digital microfluidic (DMF) chip was fabricated by screen-printing electrodes on a sheet of polyimide. This device was manually integrated with surface acoustic wave nebulization (SAWN) MS to conduct hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) of peptides. The HDX experiment was performed by DMF mixing of one aqueous droplet of angiotensin II with a second containing various concentrations of D2O. Subsequently, the degree of HDX was measured immediately by SAWN-MS. As expected for a small peptide, the isotopically resolved mass spectrum for angiotensin revealed that maximum deuterium exchange was achieved using 50% D2O. Additionally, using SAWN-MS alone, the global HDX kinetics of ubiquitin were found to be similar to published NMR data and back exchange rates for the uncooled apparatus using high inlet capillary temperatures was less than 6%. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Quantum dynamics of vibrational excitations and vibrational charge ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quantum dynamics of vibrational excitations and vibrational charge transfer processes in H+ + O2 collisions at collision energy 23 eV ... The Fritz Haber Research Centre and The Department of Physical Chemisry, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel 91904; Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of ...

  20. Transcolonic ventral wall hernia mesh fixation in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, D G; Ryou, M; Pai, R D; Tavakkolizadeh, A; Rattner, D W; Thompson, C C

    2007-10-01

    A natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) approach to ventral wall hernia repair may represent a potentially less invasive alternative to current transabdominal surgical techniques. We aimed to investigate the feasibility of using transcolonic NOTES to deliver hernia repair mesh into the peritoneal cavity, as well as the ability to manipulate composite mesh and secure it to the abdominal wall. Five pigs weighing 20 to 25 kg were used in this feasibility study involving two acute and three survival experiments. A prototype mesh delivery system was used to transfer 1.5 - 2-cm x 2.5 - 3-cm pieces of composite hernia mesh into the peritoneal cavity. Neodymium magnets on a prototype control arm were used to help position the mesh by magnetically engaging previously placed endoscopic clips. Transfascial fixation of the mesh with 3-0 monofilament sutures was achieved using a 19-gauge hollow needle, pusher wire, and a suture tag system. Composite hernia mesh was successfully transferred and secured in 5/5 attempts. All three survival animals thrived for 14 days prior to elective sacrifice. At necropsy, the mesh sites were found to be well peritonealized without adhesions. Suture placement through the posterior fascia was confirmed in 10/12 sutures. Of these, four sutures were within the abdominal musculature, and two sutures were through the anterior fascia (transfascial). Transcolonic delivery, transcutaneous magnetic manipulation, and fixation of composite hernia mesh are technically feasible in a porcine model with animal survival. An effective suturing method that allows consistent anchoring through the anterior fascia would be preferred and may require the development of novel devices.